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Bulletin No. 13.75

Occupational
Outlook
Handbook
1963-64 EDITION

Career Information
for Use in Guidance
UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
\Y. \\ i]lard \\ irtz.

Secretary

BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS
E w an Clague, Commissioner




/

Pointers on Using the Handbook

To find out what is in this book and how it is arranged,

Guide to the Handbook, page 3.

see

see:
Table of Contents, page XI.
Alphabetical Index, page 775.
Edge Index. This index is designed to speed up the process of locating
listings in the Handbook. Simple instructions on how to use the Edge Index
are included on the yellow page in the center of the book.
For a general view of work and jobs in the United States, read the chapter on
Choosing a Career—The Economic Framework, page 10.
Forecasts of the future are precarious! In interpreting the statements on the outlook
in each occupation, keep in mind the points made on page 4.
The job picture is constantly changing. To find out how you can keep your informa­
tion up to date, see the chapter on Where To Go for More Information or
Assistance, page 6.
You may need local information too. This book gives facts about each occupation for
the United States as a whole. For suggestions on where to get information
for your own locality, see page 8.

To locate an occupation or industry in this book,




O C C U P A T IO N A L O U T L O O K

HANDBOOK

EM P LO Y M EN T IN FO R M A T IO N O N M A JO R O C C U P A T IO N S
FO R USE IN G U ID A N C E




1963-64 Edition

A Revised Edition of the
HANDBOOK is published
every 2 years

Bulletin No. 1375
UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
W. Willard Wirtz, Secretary
BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS
Ewan Clague, Commissioner

For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office
Washington, D.C. 20402 - Price $4.75

?/erv

(Revision of Bulletin 1300)




This volume was prepared by the Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S.
Department of Labor, with the cooperation of the following offices
of the Department—
Office of Manpower, Automation, and Training
Seymour L. Wolfbein, Director
Bureau of Employment Security
Robert C. Goodwin, Administrator
Women’s Bureau
Esther Peterson, Director
Bureau of Apprenticeship and Training
Edward E. Goshen, Director
Bureau of Labor Standards
Arthur W. Motley, Director

and the—
U.S. Department of Agriculture
U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare

Foreword

This new and revised edition of the Department of Labor’s Occupational
Outlook Handbook provides current information on nearly 700 kinds of jobs.
For those planning their careers or seeking their first jobs, this Handbook is a
reliable guide to the qualifications and conditions governing a vast range
of American employment.
This book makes several direct points. The most important is that the*
young jobseeker today will find—regardless of occupational choice—that
opportunities for employment and advancement are directly related to the
quality and the kind of skill he or she possesses. The technological change
that has reduced the number of production jobs by nearly 700,000 between 1957
and 1962 has also lifted entrance requirements and upgraded qualifications
needed across the entire economic range. A high school diploma, once a stand­
ard of competence in employment, has become a minimum requirement. The
difference in potential earnings over a lifetime between a high school graduate
and nongraduate has been estimated at $50,000. But more important to the
individual, the trained and skilled employee is also the person with a rewarding
and fulfilling job.
In its sum, this Handbook also suggests that the pattern of working life
has undergone a fundamental change in recent years. A man’s career started
tomorrow will probably cover a series of different jobs, each requiring the
acquisition of a different or a new skill, before his eventual retirement.
Even within the same occupations, there is hardly one that will not demand
of those who practice it continued periods of education and training to keep
pace with change.
In its scope and range, the list of occupations in this volume reflects the
achievement of America’s past. Perhaps in no other nation have so many
choices been open to so many millions of individuals. But one may find
here as well the aspirations of the future in the complex and highly specific
occupations for space and scientific development. Whether we fully realize
those aspirations will depend upon the decisions that our young people make.
We hope that this guide assists them—as it has others in the past—in that most
basic decision of all, the selection of a satisfying and rewarding career.
W. W illard W irtz , Secretary of Labor




Prefatory Note

This sixth edition of the Occupational Outlook Handbook is designed to provide the
occupational information young people need to help them in career planning. It presents
a reappraisal of the employment outlook in the occupations and industries discussed in
the fifth edition of the Handbook, together with the most recent information available
in early 1963 on earnings, training requirements, and other related topics. In addition,
the occupational coverage of the Handbook has been significantly expanded. This
edition includes a new chapter on counseling which includes employment outlook state­
ments on three specialized areas: School, vocational, and rehabilitation counseling.
Other occupations that have been added are cashiers, floor covering installers, gasoline
service station attendants, hospital administrators, industrial designers, landscape archi­
tects, oceanographers, shipping and receiving clerks, surveyors, technical writers, and
urban planners.
This Handbook reflects the results of more than two decades of research by the
Occupational Outlook Service, which was established in the Bureau of Labor Statistics
by the Congress in 1940. The first edition of the Handbook was published in 1949, with
subsequent editions in 1951, 1957, 1959, and 1961. Provision has been made by the
Congress for the maintenance of the Occupational Outlook Handbook on a regular basis.
Two related publications are also published regularly by the Occupational Outlook
Service—a periodical, the Occupational Outlook Quarterly, which provides a continuous
flow of current information between editions of the Handbook; and the Occupational
Outlook Report Series, a set of reprints of the Handbook statements on different fields
of work.
The Bureau of Labor Statistics wishes to acknowledge with gratitude the cooperation
received in connection with the preparation of the Handbook from hundreds of officials
in industry, labor organizations, trade associations, professional societies, government
agencies, educational institutions, and other organizations. Without their help the
quality of the Handbook could not be maintained.
E w a n C l a g u e , Commissioner oj Labor Statistics




Letter From the American Personnel and Guidance Association

It seems appropriate that during this 50th anniversary year of vocational guidance
the new Occupational Outlook Handbook should be published with an unprecedented
number of employment outlook statements—nearly 700. The great number of occupa­
tions and industries covered illustrates the need for vocational guidance. The Ameri­
can economy has become so complex and rapidly changing that neither our youth nor
their elders can be expected to be sufficiently well informed on the basis of their own
experiences and observations to insure wisdom of vocational selection. The Handbook
is invaluable in collating a significant amount of vocational information in a single
volume and in reflecting new areas of employment as well as those which are expanding
or declining.
It pleases me especially to note that this edition of the Handbook introduces a
new chapter on the field of counseling covering three specialized areas—school, voca­
tional, and rehabilitation. Certainly all these counselors as well as teachers and the
many others who work with youth should have their own copy of this book. And I
urge all guidance personnel to make sure they have available the most recent edition
of the Handbook. Indeed, it is possible for some occupations to become obsolete or
changed in character between editions of the Handbook. I am told, for example, that
one of the new occupations, that of programer, which appeared for the first time in
the 1959 edition of the Handbook carries* with it the seed of change. While growing
in employment now, new technological developments suggest that the computer may
soon become, in part, its own programer, and the character of the occupation may
change significantly.
On behalf of the American Personnel and Guidance Association, I would like to
take this opportunity to congratulate the Bureau of Labor Statistics and its Occupa­
tional Outlook Handbook staff for maintaining comprehensive coverage and a high qual­
ity of research for the Occupational Outlook Handbook and its companion periodical,
the Occupational Outlook Quarterly.
W il l is E. D u g a n , President
American Personnel and Guidance Association




Letter From the Veterans Administration

The Veterans Administration has been actively engaged in the counseling, training,
and rehabilitation of veterans since Congress established its vocational rehabilitation
and education programs over 20 years ago. The Occupational Outlook Handbook was
created to satisfy the need for current and reliable occupational information for use in
these Veterans Administration counseling and training activities. It has developed
over the years into a basic resource of the whole counseling field and is used equally
effectively in counseling not only veterans but also schoolchildren and other youth, the
nonveteran handicapped, the unemployed, and those who would like to make a voca­
tional change. All of these groups require sound occupational information. They need
an accurate picture of each kind of work under consideration, the different entrance
requirements, preparation needed, advancement possibilities, information on employ­
ment outlook, and authoritative estimates of probable earnings. These needs are
expertly satisfied by the Occupational Outlook Handbook.
The Veterans Administration commends this Handbook to all counselors as a major
source of occupational information. It is with real respect for its qualities that this
agency has supported its development and encourages its continuation and extensive use.
J. S. G l e a s o n , J r .
Administrator of Veterans Affairs
Letter From the Department of Defense

The Occupational Outlook Handbook is of considerable value in preparing members
of the Armed Forces for their return to civil life. Many of those who are serving only
limited periods of time in the Armed Forces, as well as those persons who are completing
lengthy periods of service and who are planning to enter the civilian labor force upon
their retirement, seek advice and assistance in planning their future civilian careers.
Such advice and assistance is needed not only near the termination of their military
service but also at those times when servicemen are making decisions with respect to
their participation in off-duty education programs which are available to them through­
out their military careers. The Occupational Outlook Handbook is a primary source of
information for these purposes. It is on the basis of our experience with this valuable
publication that we are most eager to commend it to all who are concerned with career
planning.




L. K a t z e n b a c h , J r.
Deputy Assistant Secretary of
Defense for Education

E dw ard

Letter From the Bureau of Employment Security

The Bureau of Employment Security again welcomes a new edition of the Occupa­
tional Outlook Handbook—the sixth and the most comprehensive yet issued. This
Handbook has long been a necessary tool in carrying out the counseling functions of the
Employment Service and will be in even greater use as its programs continue to expand.
A copy of the Handbook is available for reference in each of the 1,900 local employment
service offices.
In 1962, nearly 10/2 million job seekers came to the local employment service offices
and a record 7 million placements in nonagricultural jobs were made, a postwar high.
Many who come to the Public Employment Service for help in finding a job need counsel­
ing and more than 2 million counseling interviews were conducted last year. One of
the difficulties faced by most people in choosing a vocation is insufficient exposure to
the variety of opportunities open to them. If left alone, they measure themselves only
against the kind of work done by others with whom they come in close contact, and they
may choose their job without consideration of other possibilities. An orderly and
comprehensive comparison of one field with another is desirable, and the Occupational
Outlook Handbook makes this possible with a minimum of effort for the counselor.
R o b e r t C. G o o d w in , Administrator
Bureau of Employment Security
Letter From Vocational Rehabilitation Administration

The Occupational Outlook Handbook has proved to be an invaluable reference in the
90 State vocational rehabilitation agencies. In the rehabilitation process, where the
ultimate goal is suitable employment for the handicapped, the counselor needs facts
on training end other job requirements and on employment opportunities in a wide
variety of occupations. With the continuing growth of rehabilitation counseling, there
will be an increasing need for up-to-date vocational information of high quality. The
Bureau of Labor Statistics is to be congratulated for providing such information through
its editions of the Handbook.
M a r y E. S w it z e r , Commissioner
Vocational Rehabilitation Administration
Department of Health, Education, and Welfare




Contributors

This Handbook was prepared in the Bureau of
Labor Statistics, Division of Manpower and Oc­
cupational Outlook, Sol Swerdloff, Chief, under
the general direction of Harold Goldstein, Assist­
ant Commissioner for Manpower and Employ­
ment Statistics. Mary Corre, counseling specialist,
served as advisory consultant.
The general planning of the Handbook was
done under the direction of Cora E. Taylor, Chief
of the Branch of Occupational Outlook and Spe­
cialized Personnel, who also provided general
supervision over the research program on pro­
fessional, technical, clerical, sales, service, and
related occupations. The research and preparation
of the chapters on these fields of work were carried
on under the direct supervision of Morton Levine,
Jane H. Palmer, and Howard V. Stambler.
Bernard Yabroff, Chief of the Branch of
Skilled Manpower and Industrial Employment
Studies, provided general supervision over the
research program on skilled trades and other
manual occupations and major industries and
their occupations. The research and preparation
of the chapters on these fields of work were car­
ried on under the direct supervision of Allan F.
Salt and Joseph F. Fulton.
Members of the Division staff who contributed
sections were: Stella P. Manor, Maxine G. Stew­
art, Eose K. Wiener, Norman P. Brand, Eussell
B. Flanders, Jr., Annie Lefkowitz, Sheldon H.
VIII




Luskin, Helen O. Nicol, Dorothy M. Orr, Jose­
phine C. Stein, Morris Cobern, Clare S. Frisby,
William J. Kelley, Irving P. Phillips, David P.
Lafayette, Frank H. Montgomery, Neal H. Eosenthal, Joe L. Eussell, Max L. Carey, Joseph J.
Eooney, and Paul M. Eyscavage.
Catherine F. Delano was in charge of assem­
bling and editing photographs and charts as well
as supervising the checking of the manuscripts.
Delores F. Booker, Maxine J. Mitchell, Olive B.
Clay, Louise B. Crader, and Jean F. Whetzel pro­
vided research assistance, helped check manu­
scripts for accuracy, and assisted in other ways.
Gladys B. Wash prepared the manuscripts for
the printer and coordinated the various processes
of preparation and publication.
The chapter on Agricultural Occupations was
prepared in the Farm Economics Division, Eco­
nomic Eesearch Service, U.S. Department of Ag­
riculture, under the direction of Wylie D. Goodsell and Earle E. Gavette.
The graphic work in the Handbook was done
under the supervision of Alice L. Wells, Chief,
Branch of Graphic Presentation, Bureau of Labor
Statistics, by Sylvia B. DeMeritt, Eobert E.
Lembcke, Carole F. White, Lionel F. White, and
Charles F. Wood. Eobert Cummings and Eichard
L. Townsend prepared the illustrations for the
charts.

Photograph Credits

The Bureau of Labor Statistics wishes to
acknowledge with gratitude the cooperation of
the following organizations which either con­
tributed photographs for the Handbook or made
their facilities available for Labor Department
photographers: Acacia Mutual Life Insurance
Co.; Addressograph-Multigraph Corp.; Air Line
Dispatchers Association; Air Deduction Sales
Co.; American Airlines, Inc.; American Associa­
tion of Oil Well Drilling Contractors; American
Dental Association; American Dietetic Associa­
tion ; American Electroplaters Society; American
Forest Products Industries; American Institute
of Planners; American Iron and Steel Institute;
American Marketing Association; American Oc­
cupational Therapy Association; American Opti­
cal Company; American Optometric Association;
American Physical Therapy Association; Ameri­
can Podiatry Association ; American Society of
Landscape Architects; American Security and
Trust Co.; American Telephone and Telegraph
Co.; Applied Physics Laboratory; Argonne Na­
tional Laboratory; Armstrong Cork Co.; Associa­
ted General Contractors of America, Inc.; At­
lantic Coast Line; Beech Aircraft Corp.; Blue
Bird Cab Co.; Bricklayers, Masons and Plasterers
International Union of America ; Brotherhood of
Painters, Decorators, and Paperhangers of
America; Brotherhood of Railway Trainmen;
Brotherhood of Railway and Steamship Clerks,
Freight Handlers, Express and Station Em­
ployes; Brown and Sharpe Manufacturing Co.;
Bulova Watch Co.; Caterpillar Tractor Co.;
Celanese Corporation of America; Chamberlain
Vocational High School; Chrysler Corp.; Cin­
cinnati Milling Machine Co.; Cities Service
Co.; Clissold Publishing Co.; Congoleum-Nairn,
Inc.; Columbia Broadcasting Co.; Cummins En­
gine Co., Inc.; D.C. Transit System, Inc.; Drop
Forging Association; E. I. Dupont deNemours and
Co.; Famous Artists Schools; Harold J. Flicknoe; Harris Intertype; General Motors Corp.;
Government Employees Insurance Co.; Higger’s




Drugs, Inc.; Hotel and Restaurant Employees and
Bartenders International Union; Hughes Engi­
neering and Manufacturing Co., Inc.; Interna­
tional Association of Electrotypers and Stereotypers; International Association of Heat and
Frost Insulators and Asbestos Workers; Interna­
tional Association of Machinists; International
Brotherhood of Electrical Workers; International
Business Machines Corp.; International Ladies’
Garment Workers’ Union; Henry J. Kaufman and
Associates; International Union of Operating
Engineers; Kimberly Clark Corp.; Litton Indus­
tries; The Madison; Malleable Founders’ Society;
McDonnell Aircraft Corp.; Metropolitan Opera
Association, Inc.; Milk Industry Foundation;
Jack Morton Productions, Inc.; National Associa­
tion of Dental Laboratories; National Association
of Home Builders; National Association of Real
Estate Boards; National Broadcasting Co.; Na­
tional Cash Register Co.; National Restaurant As­
sociation; New York Central System; New York
Employing Printers Association; The New York
Times; Nordberg Manufacturing Co.; North
American Aviation, Inc.; Ohio State School of
Cosmetology; Otis Elevator Co.; Penton Publish­
ing Co., Inc.; Pharmaceutical Manufacturers’ As­
sociation; Pittsburgh Corning Corp.; Potomac
Electric Power Co.; Public Library of D.C.;
Radio Corporation of America; Retail Clerks In­
ternational Association; Santa Fe Railway;
Sheffield Corp.; Sidwell Friends School; Sloan’s
House of Carpets, Inc.; Standard Brands, Inc.;
Standard Oil Co.; Super Service Station Maga­
zine; Textile Machine Works; Traffic World
Magazine; Trailways Bus System; Trane Co.;
Union Bag-Camp Paper Corp.; United States
Steel Corp.; Washington National Ballet Founda­
tion, Inc.; The Washington Post; Westinghouse
Electric Corp.; Williamette Iron and Steel Co.;
and Yale and Towne Manufacturing Co.
Some photographs were supplied by various
Federal Government agencies as shown by the
credit lines accompanying the pictures.
IX

Note

A great many trade associations, professional societies, unions, and other
organizations in industry are in a position to supply valuable information
to counselors or young people seeking information about careers. For the
convenience of users of this Handbook, the reports on separate occupations
or industries list some of the organizations or other sources which may be
able to provide further information. Although these references were assem­
bled with care, the Bureau of Labor Statistics has no authority or facilities
for investigating organizations. Also, since the Bureau has no way of knowing
in advance what information or publications each organization may send in
answer to a request, the Bureau cannot evaluate the accuracy of such informa­
tion. The listing of an organization, therefore, does not in any way constitute
an endorsement or recommendation by the Bureau or the U.S. Department of
Labor, either of the organization and its activities or of the information it may
supply. Such information as each organization may issue is, of course, sent
out on its own responsibility.
The occupational statements in this Handbook are not intended, and should
not be used, as standards for the determination of wages, hours, jurisdictional
matters, appropriate bargaining units, or formal job evaluation systems. These
descriptive statements are presented in a general, composite form and, there­
fore, cannot be expected to apply exactly to specific jobs in a particular in­
dustry, establishment, or locality.




x

Contents

USING THE HANDBOOK IN GUIDANCE_____________________________
GUIDE TO THE HANDBOOK_________________________________________
How the handbook is organized______________________________________________________
Some important facts about the occupational reports__________________________________

Page

1
3
3
4

WHERE TO GO FOR MORE INFORMATION OR ASSISTANCE_______

6

CHOOSING A CAREER—THE ECONOMIC FRAMEWORK_____________

10

Keeping up to date on the occupational outlook_______________________________________
Services to jobseekers at public employment offices____________________________________

The population and the people who work_____________________________________________
The kinds of jobs there will be_______________________________________________________
The outlook for occupational change__________________________________________________
Implications of the outlook for education and training_________________________________

6
7

11
14
20
25

PROFESSIONAL, ADMINISTRATIVE, AND RELATED OCCUPATIONS. _ 27
Teaching___________________________________________________________________________
Kindergarten and elementary school teachers_____________________________________
Secondary school teachers_______________________________________________________
College and university teachers___________________________________________________
Counseling_________________________________________________________________________
School counselors_______________________________________________________________
Rehabilitation counselors________________________________________________________
Vocational counselors___________________________________________________________
Health service occupations___________________________________________________________
Registered professional nurses____________________________________________________
Physicians______________________________________________________________________
Pharmacists____________________________________________________________________
Dentists_______________________________________________________________________
Medical X-ray technicians_______________________________________________________
Medical technologists___________________________________________________________
Chiropractors___________________________________________________________________
Dietitians______________________________________________________________________
Dental laboratory technicians____________________________________________________
Veterinarians___________________________________________________________________
Optometrists___________________________________________________________________
Osteopathic physicians__________________________________________________________
Hospital administrators_________________________________________________________
Dental hygienists_______________________________________________________________
Physical therapists______________________________________________________________
Podiatrists_____________________________________________________________________
Occupational therapists_________________________________________________________
Medical record librarians________________________________________________________
Engineering________________________________________________________________________
Aeronautical engineers__________________________________________________________
Agricultural engineers___________________________________________________________
Ceramic engineers______________________________________________________________
Chemical engineers_____________________________„_______________________________
Civil engineers__________________________________________________________________
Electrical engineers_____________________________________________________________
Industrial engineers_____________________________________________________________
Mechanical engineers___________________________________________________________
Metallurgical engineers__________________________________________________________
Mining engineers_______________________________________________________________




XI

32
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39
43
43
46
49
52
53
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59
62
65
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107

XII

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

Physical sciences____________________________________________________________________
Chemists_______________________________________________________________________
Physicists______________________________________________________________________
Astronomers____________________________________________________________________
Earth sciences______________________________________________________________________
Geologists______________________________________________________________________
Geophysicists____________________________________
Meteorologists_____________________________
Oceanographers_______________________
Biological sciences__________________________________
Mathematics and related fields_______________________________________________________
Mathematicians________________________________________________________________
Statisticians_________________________
Actuaries_______________________________________________________________________
Technician occupations______________________________________________________________
Engineering and science technicians______________________________________________
Draftsmen___________________________________________________ „________________
Surveyors_________________________________
Social sciences__________________________
Anthropologists_________________________________________________________________
Economists______________
Historians______________________________________________________________________
Political scientists_______________________________________________________________
Sociologists_________
The clergy_________________________________________________________________________
Protestant clergymen___________________________________________________________
Roman Catholic priests_________________________________________________________
Rabbis_________________________________________________________________________
Business administration and related professions_______________________________________
Accountants____________________________________________________________________
Advertising workers_____________________________________________________________
Industrial traffic managers_______________________________________________________
Marketing research workers_____________________________________________________
Personnel workers______________________________________________________________
Public relations workers_________________________________________________________
Purchasing agents______________________________________________________________
The performing arts_________________________________________________________________
Musicians and music teachers_______________________________________________ - ___
Singers and singing teachers_____________________________________________________
Actors and actresses____________________________________________________________
Dancers___________________________________________________________________
Other professional and related occupations____________________________________________
Architects______________________________________________________________________
Commercial artists___________________________________________
Foresters______________________________________________________________________
Geographers__________________________________
Home economists_______________________________________________________________
Industrial designers_____________________________________________________________
Interior designers and decorators_________________________________________________
Landscape architects____________________________________________________________
Lawyers_______________________________________________________________________
Librarians______________________________________________________________________
Newspaper reporters____________________________________________________________
Photographers__________________________________________________________________
Programers_____________________________________________________________________
Psychologists___________________________________________________________________
Social workers__________________________________________________________________
Technical writers_______________________________________________________________
Urban planners_________________________________________________________________




Page

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261
263

XIII

CONTENTS
Page

CLERICAL AND SALES OCCUPATIONS________________________________ 267

Clerical and related occupations_______________________________________________________ 267
Stenographers and secretaries______________________________________________________ 269
Typists__________________________________________________________________________ 272
Bookkeeping workers_____________________________________________________________ 274
Cashiers_________________________________________________________________________ 275
Office machine operators__________________________________________________________ 278
Electronic computer operating personnel__________________________________________ 282
Shipping and receiving clerks______________________________________________________ 285
Sales occupations_____________________________________________________________________ 287
Salesmen and saleswomen in retail stores___________________________________
Salesmen in wholesale trade_____________________________________________________ 291
Manufacturers’ salesmen__________________________________________________________ 294
Life insurance agents_____________________________________________________________ 296
Property and casualty insurance agents and brokers_________________________________ 299
Real estate salesmen and brokers__________________________________________________ 301

SERVICE OCCUPATIONS_____________________________________________ 304
Protective service occupations_________________________________________________________
FBI agents______________________________________________________________________
Firemen_________________________________________________________________________
Policemen and policewomen_______________________________________________________
Other service occupations_____________________________________________________________
Barbers_________________________________________________________________________
Beauty operators_________________________________________________________________
Licensed practical nurses__________________________________________________________

306
306
308
311
315
315
317
320

SKILLED TRADES AND OTHER MANUAL OCCUPATIONS___________ 323

Skilled workers________________ ,2___________________________________________________ 324
Other manual workers________________________________________________________________ 326
Building trades_______________________________________________________________________ 329
Carpenters______________________________________________________________________ 335
Painters and paperhangers________________________________________________________ 338
Plumbers and pipefitters__________________________________________________________ 341
Bricklayers___________________________________________________________________
344
Operating engineers (construction machinery operators)_____________________________ 346
Electricians (construction)_______________________________________________________ 349
Structural-, ornamental-, and reinforcing-iron (rodmen) workers______________________ 352
Plasterers________________________________________________________________________ 355
Roofers__________________________________________________________________________ 358
Cement masons (cement and concrete finishers)_____________________________________ 360
Floor covering installers___________________________________________________________ 362
Sheet-metal workers______________________________________________________________ 365
Asbestos and insulating workers___________________________________________________ 368
Lathers__________________________________________________________________________ 369
Marble setters, tile setters, and terrazzo workers____________________________________ 371
Glaziers________________________________________________________________________ 373
Elevator constructors_____________________________________________________________ 375
Stonemasons_____________________________________________________________________ 377
Construction laborers and hod carriers.____________________________________________ 378
Printing (graphic arts) occupations____________________________________________________ 381
Composing room occupations______________________________________________________ 386
Photoengravers__________________________________________________________________ 389
Electrotypers and stereotypers____________________________________________________ 391
Printing pressmen and assistants__________________________________________________ 393
Lithographic occupations_________________________________________________________ 395
Bookbinders and related workers__________________________________________________ 397




288

XIV

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

Mechanics and repairmen___________________________________________________________
Air-conditioning and refrigeration mechanics___________________________________.__
Appliance servicemen____________________________________________________________
Automobile mechanics__________________________________________________________
Business machine servicemen____________________________________________________
Diesel mechanics_______________________________________________________________
Industrial machinery repairmen__________________________________________________
Instrument repairmen___________________________________________________________
Maintenance electricians________________________________________________________
Millwrights____________________________________________________________________
Television and radio servicemen_________________________________________________
Watch repairmen_______________________________________________________________
Machining occupations______________________________________________________________
All-round machinists____________________________________________________________
Machine tool operators__________________________________________________________
Tool and die makers____________________________________________________________
Instrument makers (mechanical)_________________________________________________
Setup men (machine tools)______________________________________________________
Layout men____________________________________________________________________
Forge shop occupations_____________________________________________________________
Driving occupations________________________________________________________________
Over-the-road truckdrivers______________________________________________________
Local truckdrivers______________________________________________________________
Routemen______________________________________________________________________
Intercity busdrivers____________________________________________________________
Local transit busdrivers_________________________________________________________
Taxi drivers________________ „__________________________________________________
Some factory occupations not requiring specialized training---------------------------------------Assemblers_____________________________________________________________________
Inspectors______________________________________________________________________
Power truck operators__________________________________________________________
Production painters_____________________________________________________________
Stationary firemen (boiler)______________________________________________________
Other trades and manual occupations_________________________________________________
Blacksmiths____________________________________________________________________
Boilermaking occupations_______________________________________________________
Dispensing opticians and optical laboratory mechanics_____________________________
Electroplaters__________________________________________________________________
Gasoline service station attendants_______________________________________________
Jewelers and jewelry repairmen__________________________________________________
Stationary engineers____________________________________________________________
Welders and oxygen and arc cutters-----------------------------------------------------------------------

Pa&e

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405
408
414
417
418
421
424
426
420
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437
439
441
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445
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460
463
466
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472
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476
478
479
482
482
484
486
490
492
495
498
501

SOME MAJOR INDUSTRIES AND THEIR OCCUPATIONS____________ 505
Aircraft, missile, and spacecraft manufacturing________________________________________
Apparel industry___________________________________________________________________
Atomic energy field_________________________________________________________________
Baking industry______________________________________________________________________
Banking___________________________________________________________________________
Bank clerks and related workers___________________________________________________
Tellers__________________________________________________________________________
Bank officers___________________________________________________________________
Civil aviation________________________________________________________________________
Pilots and copilots____________________________________________._________________
Flight engineers__________________________________________________________________
Stewardesses_____________________________________________________________________
Airplane mechanics_______________________________________________________________
Airline dispatchers_______________________________________________________________
Air traffic controllers_____________________________________________________________
Ground radio operators and teletypists_____________________________________________
Traffic agents and clerks__________________________________________________________




505
515
524
538
545
548
550
551
553
556
560
562
564
566
568
570
571

XV

CONTENTS

Electric light and power industry____________________________________________________
Powerplant occupations_________________________________________________________
Transmission and distributionoccupations------------------------------------------------------------Customer service occupations____________________________________________________
Electronics manufacturing___________________________________________________________
Foundries___________________________________________________
Molders_______________________________________________________________________
Coremakers____________________________________________________________________
Patternmakers_________________________________________________________________
Hotels________________________________
Bellmen and bell captains---------------------Front office clerks______________________________________________________________
Housekeepers and assistants_____________________________________________________
Managers and assistants--------------------------------Industrial chemical industry-----------------------------------------Insurance business------------------------------------------------Iron and steel industry______________________________________________________________
Motor vehicle manufacturing________________________________________________________
Petroleum production and refining___________________________________________________
Petroleum production occupations_______________________________________________
Petroleum refining occupations__________________________________________________
Pulp, paper, and paper products industry_____________________________________________
Radio and television broadcasting____________________________________________________
Radio and television announcers_________________________________________________
Broadcast technicians___________________________________________________________
Railroads__________________________________________________________________________
Locomotive engineers___________________________________________________________
Locomotive firemen (helpers)____________________________________________________
Conductors____________________________________________________________________
Brakemen_____________________________________________________________________
Telegraphers, telephoners, andtowermen__________________________________________
Station agents____________________________‘------------------------------------------------------Clerks_________________________________________________________________________
Shop trades____________________________________________________________________
Signal department workers______________________________________________________
Track workers_________________________________________________________________
Bridge and building workers_____________________________________________________
Restaurants________________________________________________________________________
Waiters and waitresses____ _____________________________________________________
Cooks and chefs________________________________________________________________
Managers and assistants________________________________________________________
Telephone industry_________________________________________________________________
Telephone operators____________________________________________________________
Linemen and cable splicers____ *______________________________
Telephone and PBX installersand repairmen--------------------------------------------------------Central office craftsmen_________________________________________________________
Central office equipment installers_______________________________________________

OCCUPATIONS IN AGRICULTURE

Opportunities on farms______________________________________________________________
Opportunities on specific types of farms______________________________________________
Occupations related to agriculture_____________________________
Agricultural extension service workers----- -------Soil scientists__________________________________________________________________
Soil conservationists------------------------------Other professional workers______________________________________________________
Farm service jobs______________________________________________________________




Page

574
578
581
584
587
598
502
504
506
608
611
613
614
616
618
625
630
641
651
652
658
662
670
677
679
683
688
690
692
693
695
696
697
698
700
702
703
705
708
709
711
714
718
720
722
724
726

728
729
732
738
738
739
741
742
745

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

XVI

OCCUPATIONS IN GOVERNMENT___________________________________

Civilian employment________________________________________________________________
Federal Government____________________________________________________________
State and local governments_____________________________________________________
Post office occupations__________________________________________________________
Mail carriers_______________________________________________________________
Postal clerks_______________________________________________________________
Armed Forces______________________________________________________________________

Page

746

748
748
755
758
762
765
769

TECHNICAL APPENDIX______________________________________________ 772
INDEX TO OCCUPATIONS AND INDUSTRIES_______________________ 775




O C C U P A T IO N A L O U T L O O K

HANDBOOK

Using the Handbook in G uidance Services
The Occupational Outlook Handbook, now in
its sixth edition, lias become an invaluable tool in
school guidance and placement programs. Over
the years, as both the Handbook and guidance
services have matured, they have become mutually
dependent on each other.
In the guidance field, the Handbook is used by
several groups. At the college level, the counselor
educator explains its contents to counselor train­
ees to help them understand specific job patterns,
characteristics of related occupations, and trends
affecting the nature and number of jobs. More im­
portant, the counselor educator teaches the future
counselors to use this reference in everyday guid­
ance activities.
At the secondary school level, the teacher of
occupations finds this volume organized and writ­
ten in such readable language that his students
can use it as a reference book in understanding
different kinds and levels of work, and in discover­
ing information about careers of personal interest.
However, at both secondary and collegiate lev­
els, the Handbook is most valued by the counselor
on the job, and the student who seeks help in
choosing a career. The counselor utilizes all avail­
able facts about the youth sitting across the desk,
.and about the jobs that might be suitable for him.
J. A. Stratton, president of the Massachusetts
Institute of Technology, said, over 4 years ago,
that half of all we knew in science had been
learned in the past 10 years, and that our scien­
tific knowledge would double in the next 5 years
and continue to multiply at an ever-increasing
rate. How true his predictions have been to date!
Consequently, most occupations which are affected
by scientific knowledge—and what job is not?—
692-408 O—63-----2



will be subject to change. As work patterns move
with the times, worker functions, too, will shift.
Since many occupations which will be impor­
tant a decade hence have not yet evolved, a stu­
dent with some years of preparation before him
may be encouraged to elect a broad program of
courses and perhaps identify a general area of in­
terest such as science, social studies, or art. Spe­
cialization may be delayed until a later date. The
further he goes in school, the more time he will
have to select his major field. The more familiar he
is with areas of work as described in the Hand­
book, the better prepared he will be to plan his
own future as he goes along.
Most of the career information in the Hand­
book follows a uniform outline: Nature of Work;
Where Employed; Training and Other Qualifica­
tions; Employment Outlook; Earnings and
Working Conditions; and Where To Go for More
Information. The comprehensive coverage in­
cludes basic information from which the counselor
can deduce values that contribute to job satisfac­
tion. Planning for the future requires interpreta­
tion of economic facts, anticipation of the effect
of science and invention on various vocational
fields, and estimates of changing occupational em­
phasis. Few counselors possess this information
and the ability to correlate it for use in the guid­
ance program. The Handbook does part of the
job and also enables the counselor to assist the
student in considering vocational goals or areas
which will utilize his strongest potentials—intelli­
gence, special talents, personality, interests, and
values.
School counselors all over the country use the
Handbook as one of their essential tools. It is
1

2

among the few volumes they keep on their desks
for constant reference. One counselor-trainer re­
ports that she always cautions her counselors-intraining: “Don’t rely on your memories for facts
about occupations. Consult the Handbook.” Surely
the counselor who fails to avail himself of this
and other materials published by the Occupational
Outlook Service lacks some of the most authentic
and current data about occupations.
The Occupational Outlook Handbook is fre­
quently used by counselors in conferring with
students who have completed a vocational interest
test and find certain occupational areas indicated
by test results. The use of the reference makes it
easy to refer a pupil to a number of occupations
related to his vocational goals. For many coun­
selors, this book is their first reference, and from
this as a start they encourage the use of other
materials.
The various descriptions of occupations in­
cluded in the Handbook are also available as re­
prints. Counselors may place these under specific
occupational headings in their reference file and
make them available to individual students who
express interest in particular occupations.
Counselors use the Handbook and related ma­
terials not only with students but also in helping
parents to counsel their children. Here the re­
prints are especially valuable, as they may be
borrowed easily for home reading.




OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

The Handbook should broaden each student’s
background of occupational information and
understanding of the important factors influenc­
ing occupations, thus helping him to develop de­
sirable and satisfying plans for the future. Care­
ful study of it by counselors, parents, and pupils
should help them to realize the many ways in
which occupations are changing, growing, and
declining. Such realization will emphasize the
need for flexible planning for the choice of a
major interest area as well as related occupations
to which these interests and abilities may lead.
Guidance services are permissive in nature and
should always be available in career planning. A
student matures and jobs evolve, making the coun­
selor function, in the present, one of effecting a
compatible union of worker and work at some
time in the future. Intelligent use of this book
can give a counselor the assurance that after he
understands what the counselee brings to his po­
tential vocation, he can suggest the various areas
of work which will meet these qualifications. A
wise counselor and the Handbook make a good
team.
F r a n k L. S ievers , Director
Guidance and Counseling Programs Branch
and
D o lph C a m p , Acting Chief
Occupational and Career Guidance Section
Office of Education, U.S. Department
of Healthy Education, and Welfare

G uide to the Handbook
This book answers many questions young people
ask when they are interested in choosing an occu­
pation. It gives information on occupations—on
the employment outlook in each field, the nature

of the work, training and other qualifications
needed for entry, lines of advancement, where
jobs are located, and earnings and working con­
ditions.

How the Handbook Is Organized
Introductory Chapters

The Handbook starts with three introductory
chapters designed to help counselors and students
make effective use of the book and to give them
a general view of the world of work.
This chapter, the Guide to the Handbook, de­
scribes the contents and organization of the book.
It tells how the information was assembled and
discusses a number of points which need to be
borne in mind in interpreting the statements.
The second introductory chapter gives sugges­
tions regarding supplementary sources of occupa­
tional information and tells how readers can keep
up to date on developments affecting the employ­
ment outlook in different occupations. It also con­
tains a brief description of the counseling, place­
ment, and other services available to jobseekers at
local offices of State employment services affiliated
with the U.S. Employment Service. The final in­
troductory chapter describes some of the most
important trends in population and employment,
both past and prospective, and provides a back­
ground for interpreting the reports on particular
occupations.
Occupational Reports

The reports on different fields of wrork make up
the main body of the book. They are arranged in




chapters dealing with groups of related occupa­
tions. These chapters are grouped, in turn, into
seven major divisions of the book: Professional,
administrative, and related occupations; clerical
and sales occupations; service occupations; skilled
trades and other manual occupations; some major
industries and their occupations; occupations in
agriculture; and occupations in government.
Indexes and Appendix

To help readers locate information on the occu­
pations in which they are interested, a list of the
occupational reports is included in the table of
contents at the front of the book. The index at the
back of the book lists occupations and industries
alphabetically. An edge index has also been intro­
duced to facilitate locating reports. (See yellow
page insert.)
The technical appendix contains a discussion
of the sources and methods used in analyzing the
occupational outlook in different fields of work. It
is designed for readers wishing more information
on this subject than is included in the present
chapter. The appendix also contains an explana­
tion of the D.O.T. numbers given in the occupa­
tional reports, to indicate where each occupation
fits into the classification system of the Dictionary
of Occupational Titles.
3

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

4

Some Important Facts About the Occupational Reports
Occupations Covered

The nearly 700 occupations discussed include
those of greatest interest to young people. Most of
the large ones requiring long periods of education
or training are discussed, as are a number of small
but rapidly growing fields and other occupations
of special interest. Altogether, the occupations
covered account for about 90 percent of all work­
ers in professional and related and in sales occu­
pations; nearly as high a proportion in skilled
occupations; over half in clerical and in service
occupations (outside private households); and
smaller proportions in administrative and semi­
skilled occupations. The main types of farming
are also discussed.
General information on many fields of work
not covered in the occupational reports is con­
tained in the introductions to the major divisions
of the book. These introductions are also designed
to aid the reader in interpreting the reports on
individual occupations.
Sources of Information

Information on employment trends and outlook
and the many related topics discussed in the occu­
pational reports was drawn from a great variety
of sources. It is based in part on extensive field
investigation carried out by the Bureau of Labor
Statistics professional staff; interviews with hun­
dreds of persons in industry, unions, trade asso­
ciations, and public agencies provided a wealth of
up-to-date information. In addition, the Bureau’s
other research programs supplied data on employ­
ment in different industries, productivity and
technological developments, wages and working
conditions, trade union agreements, industrial
hazards, and a number of other topics. Other
agencies of the Federal Government—among
them, the Bureau of Apprenticeship and Training
and Bureau of Employment Security in the De­
partment of Labor; the Bureau of the Census of
the Department of Commerce; the Office of Edu­
cation of the Department of Health, Education,
and Welfare; the Civil Service Commission; the
Interstate Commerce Commission; the Civil Aero­
nautics Administration; and the Federal Commu­



nications Commission—provided additional data
regarding the nature of the work in various occu­
pations, training and licensing requirements,
wages, and employment trends. Many other public
and private organizations—including State li­
censing boards, educational institutions, business
firms, professional societies, trade associations,
and trade unions—also made available published
and unpublished data and supplied much helpful
information through interviews.
After the information from these many sources
was brought together and analyzed, conclusions
were reached as to prospective employment trends
in the occupations. In addition, estimates were
made of the numbers of job openings which will
be created by retirements and deaths. The supply
of new workers likely to be available in particular
fields was also analyzed, by studying statistics on
high school and college enrollments and gradua­
tions and data on the numbers of apprentices in
skilled trades.
Preliminary drafts of the occupational reports
were reviewed by officials of leading companies,
trade associations, trade unions, and professional
societies, and by other experts. The information
and conclusions presented in each report thus re­
flect the knowledge and judgment not only of the
Bureau of Labor Statistics staff but also of lead­
ers in the field discussed, although the Bureau, of
course, takes full responsibility for all statements
made.
Points To Bear in Mind in Using the Reports

In using the information which this book con­
tains about employment prospects, it is important
to keep in mind that all conclusions about the
economic future necessarily rest on certain as­
sumptions. Among the assumptions stated on
page 10, which underlie the statements on employ­
ment outlook in this Handbook, are that high
employment levels will be maintained and no
cataclysmic events will occur. A catastrophe such
as a war or a severe and prolonged economic de­
pression would, of course, create an entirely differ­
ent employment situation from that likely to
develop under the assumed conditions. But young

GUIDE TO THE HANDBOOK

people would find it impossible to build their life­
time plans in expectation of such unpredictable
catastrophes, though, on the basis of historical
experience, they must be prepared to weather
economic ups and downs during their working
lives.
To avoid constant repetition, the assumptions
are seldom mentioned in the reports on the many
fields of work where the impact of a general de­
cline in business or a change in the scale of mobili­
zation would probably be about the same as in
the economy as a whole. On the other hand, in
the statements on occupations where employment
tends to be either unusually stable or especially
subject to ups and downs, these facts are indi­
cated. Even in the latter occupations, howT
ever,
long-term trends in employment are more im­
portant than short-run fluctuations in appraising
the outlook in connection with an individual’s
choice of a lifetime career.
The picture of employment opportunities given
in this book applies to the country as a whole
unless otherwise indicated. People who want sup­
plementary information on job opportunities in
their communities should consult local sources of
information, as suggested in the next chapter.




5

The information presented on earnings and
working conditions, as on other subjects, repre­
sents the most recent available when the Hand­
book was prepared early in 1963. Much of the
information came from Bureau of Labor Statis­
tics surveys, but many other sources were also
utilized. For this reason, the earnings data pre­
sented in the various occupational reports often
refer to different periods of time, cover varying
geographic areas, and represent different kinds of
statistical measures. Comparisons between the
earnings data for different occupations should,
therefore, be made with great caution.
Finally, it should be borne in mind that infor­
mation on occupations and the employment op­
portunities they offer is only part of that needed
in a career decision, which means matching a
person and an occupation. The other part relates,
of course, to the aptitudes and interests of the
potential worker himself. People can obtain help
in assessing their own abilities and interests and
in selecting the occupation for which they are
best suited from vocational counselors in schools
and colleges, State employment service offices,
Veterans Administration regional offices and guid­
ance centers, and many community agencies.

W here To G o for M ore Information or A ssistance
Persons using this Handbook may want more
detail on the occupations discussed in the occupa­
tional reports, or information on fields of work
which are not covered in this publication.
Suggestions as to sources of additional informa­
tion on the occupations discussed are given in most
of the occupational reports. In addition, several
types of publications of the U.S. Department of
Labor, including periodicals described on pages
790-792, provide further information on topics
such as earnings, hours of wT and working con­
ork,
ditions. Other sources likely to be helpful include
the following:

music, printing, and shorthand can often give
information about occupations related to the sub­
jects they teach.

Public Libraries

Business Establishments

These libraries usually have many books, pam­
phlets, and magazine articles giving information
about different occupations. They may also have
several books and current indexes which list the
great numbers of publications on occupations, and
the librarians may be of assistance in finding the
best ones on a particular field of work.
Schools

School libraries and guidance offices often have
the same kinds of reading materials on occupa­
tions. In addition, school counselors and teachers
usually know of any local occupational informa­
tion wffiich has been assembled through special
surveys made by schools or other community
agencies. Teachers of special subjects such as

State Employment Services

Counselors in local public employment offices
are in a particularly good position to supply in­
formation about job opportunities, hiring stand­
ards, and wages in their localities. (The services
available through the public employment offices
are described in the concluding section of this
chapter.)
Employers and personnel officers can usually
supply information about the nature of the work
performed by employees in their industry or busi­
ness and the qualifications needed for various jobs,
as well as other facts about employment condi­
tions and opportunities. The names of local firms
in a particular industry can be found in the classi­
fied sections of telephone directories or can be ob­
tained from local chambers of commerce.
Trade Unions, Employers9 Associations,
and Professional Societies

Frequently, these organizations have local
branches, with officials who can supply informa­
tion relating to the occupations with wffiich they
are concerned.

Keeping Up To Date on the Occupational Outlook

This edition of the Handbook, like all previous
editions, incorporates the most recent occupational
information available when the book was prepared
for publication early in 1963.
6



The Bureau of Labor Statistics also issues a
periodical, the Occupational Outlook Quarterly,
to keep readers up to date between editions of the
Handbook, on developments affecting employment

WHERE TO GO FOR MORE INFORMATION

opportunities and on the findings of new occupa­
tional outlook research. In addition, the Bureau
issues at irregular intervals occupational outlook
bulletins which give much more detailed informa­
tion on various fields of work than can be in­
cluded either in the Handbook or in the Occupa­
tional Outlook Quarterly. Further information
about these publications, and directions for order­
ing them, will be found on page 790.

7

The Bureau will be glad to place the name of
any user of this Handbook on its mailing lists to
receive announcements of new publications and re­
leases summarizing the results of new studies.
Anyone wishing to receive such materials should
send the request, with his address, to the Bureau
of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor,
Washington, D.C., 20210.

Services to Jobseekers at Public Employment Offices

Many of the readers of this Handbook want
assistance in choosing a suitable type of work and
in finding the right job. The reader who wants
professional assistance from trained employment
counselors should know about the services of his
local public employment office.
The U.S. Employment Service and affiliated
State employment services form a nationwide
organization which plays an important part in our
economy. Through 1,900 local offices in cities and
towns throughout the United States, this employ­
ment service finds jobs for workers and workers
for jobs.
Although the employment service is a FederalState system, each employment office is basically
a local community organization. It is concerned
with facilitating suitable and stable employment
for the community’s working population and with
adequately meeting the manpower needs of em­
ployers. The local office tries to do more than
merely refer a worker to a job—it tries to match
the worker and job so that the requirements of
each are satisfied. To do this, the public employ­
ment office has developed a number of services that
are available to all jobseekers. Many of these
are particularly important to young men and
women entering the world of work for the first
time.
Counseling Services

Employment service counseling assists young
people who are starting their careers, as well as
experienced workers who wish or need to change
their occupation, in choosing and adjusting to a
suitable field of work.



The major purposes of employment counseling
are to help people gain insight into their actual
and potential abilities, their interests, and their
personal traits; to understand the nature of occu­
pations; and to make the best use of their capaci­
ties and preferences in the light of available job
opportunities.
In the employment service, the counselor has
a great store of resources, including testing fa­
cilities and labor market and occupational infor­
mation.
Testing. Most local offices provide testing services,
including the General Aptitude Test Battery
which measures basic abilities for many and
varied broad fields of work and for about 850
specific jobs within these fields. These tests help
the applicant appraise his abilities. They may re­
veal aptitudes the jobseeker did not know he had.
Labor Market Information. The State employ­
ment office counselor has information about jobs
in the community. He knows what kinds of jobs
prevail in local industry, which jobs are more
plentiful, what the hiring requirements and the
opportunities for promotion are, and what the
jobs pay. In many labor market areas, the coun­
selor has information about future occupational
opportunities, based on area skill surveys which
usually cover employers’ forecasts of their longrange requirements. He may also have detailed
occupational guides covering specific jobs in the
community. Since his office is a part of the nation­
wide employment service, the counselor also has
information regarding employment opportunities
in other areas throughout the country.

8

Occupational Information. The employment serv­
ice office has occupational information which helps
the job applicant decide whether he is suited to a
particular kind of work. The Dictionary of Occu­
pational Titles, Job Descriptions, Estimates of
Worker Traits for 1^,000 Jobs, and other compila­
tions describe the work performed in various occu­
pations and the training required, lines of ad­
vancement, physical demands, and working con­
ditions for most occupations. Recent publications
of the type on file in the employment offices in­
clude: Occupations in Electronic Data-Process­
ing Systems, Technical Occupations in Research,
Design, and Development Considered as Directly
Supporting to Engineers and Physical Scientists,
and Selected Occupations Concerned with Atomic
Energy.
Cooperative Arrangements With Other Com­
munity Groups. Local employment office counse­
lors work closely with other public and private
agencies and organizations which provide special
services that the jobseeker may need in order to
become better prepared for employment. These
groups include educational, training, vocational
rehabilitation, and health and welfare agencies.
Placement Services

The primary objectives of the placement serv­
ice in the local employment office are to fill em­
ployers’ job openings with occupationally quali­
fied workers and to locate for workers employ­
ment which is suited to their skills, knowledge,
and abilities. The employment office placement
service is designed to eliminate the waste of “hitor-miss” job hunting.
The public employment offices provide jobseek­
ers not only with assistance in finding employment
but also with information on the basic elements
for getting and holding a job. The employment
service personnel explain what to look for in a
job; what the sources are for job leads; how to
plan for job hunting; how to prepare for an inter­
view with an employer; what information and
papers to have ready; and what the proper atti­
tude and dress should be.
Local Openings. State employment office person­
nel maintain regular contacts with local employ­
ers and know their hiring needs and their jobs.



OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

Placement interviewers receive requests from em­
ployers for all kinds of workers. Through the
local office, therefore, the job applicant has ac­
cess to a variety of job vacancies with many em­
ployers, just as the employer has access to many
applicants. When no suitable job exists for an in­
dividual worker, the employment .service may
attempt to solicit an opening for him from likely
employers.
Jobs Throughout the Country. The job clearance
system of the nationwide network of State em­
ployment offices offers the applicant an oppor­
tunity to apply for jobs outside his area, else­
where in the State and the Nation, and even in
foreign countries. Each State employment service
prepares frequent inventories of hard-to-fill jobs
which are distributed to all other State employ­
ment services. This makes it possible for them to
refer local workers to out-of-area jobs for which
they qualify. In addition, a national network of
highly specialized professional placement offices
has been established with the State employment
service to speed the matching of jobs and appli­
cants in professional fields.
Placement Aids. As in counseling, the informa­
tion on local job opportunities for industries, occu­
pations, and areas, and on occupational require­
ments which is available in the employment of­
fices contributes greatly to getting the right job
for the worker and the right worker for the job.
Also available to the jobseeker are aptitude and
proficiency tests which help determine whether an
applicant is qualified to perform satisfactorily on
specific jobs.
Services to Special Worker Groups

The employment service has developed tech­
niques and procedures for particular applicant
groups who may encounter special problems in
their search for suitable jobs.
For young people, special services include coun­
seling graduating students and school dropouts,
and intensive efforts to promote employment op­
portunities. In many cities, employment service
offices have cooperative arrangements with high
schools to provide counseling, testing, occupa­
tional information, and placement services to sen­

WHERE TO GO FOR MORE INFORMATION

iors prior to their graduation, as well as to those
who leave school earlier. More than 10,500 high
schools had such arrangements in the school year
1961-62.
The State employment offices have long main­
tained an active program for helping applicants
with vocational handicaps. The emphasis is on
what these people can do wT their abilities rather
ith
than on what they cannot do because of a disa­
bility.
Special services for veterans are provided by
the employment service. In each local office, there
is a veterans’ representative who is fully informed
regarding veterans’ rights and benefits and who
carries on job promotion for veterans. In addition,
he assists veterans in making use of the usual
counseling, placement, and other services provided
by local office staff.
The employment service also has developed
techniques to deal with job problems of middleaged and older workers. Special attention is given




9

to assist them to make realistic job choices and to
overcome problems related to getting and holding
a job. Employers have been encouraged to remove
age restrictions on hiring and to hire only accord­
ing to the qualifications of the individual.
Similar attention is also given to job problems
of members of minority groups and others facing
special difficulties in obtaining suitable employ­
ment.
How To Locate the Local Employment Office

The addresses and telephone numbers of local
offices of State employment services affiliated with
the U.S. Employment Service may be found in
local telephone directories. Jobseekers, employ­
ers, schools, and public and private agencies aid­
ing clients to find employment are invited to
utilize the services of the public employment
offices in their communities and to avail themselves
of the job information maintained in these offices.

Choosing A Career— The Economic Framework
In considering the choice of one’s life work,
economic developments—past, present, and future
—become of vital importance as a background
against which to evaluate individual interests and
abilities. Counselors, teachers, parents, and others
who assist young people in making their voca­
tional choices need to understand the factors
which will affect future employment opportuni­
ties and careers. Young people themselves may
want to gain a greater understanding of the forces
at work which are likely to shape their work lives.
This chapter of the Handbook is, therefore, ad­
dressed to them as well as to those who may coun­
sel them. It describes past trends and anticipated
changes in those aspects of our economy which
strongly influence employment opportunities—
changes in population, work force, industries, and
occupations. It also discusses the implications of
these developments for education and training in
relation to occupational choice.
Of course, some aspects of the future are easier
to predict than others. For example, the number
of people who will be 18 years old in 1975 can be
estimated with a very high degree of accuracy, be­
cause these are the individuals counted as 3-yearolds in the Census of 1960. Their number in 1975
will be affected only by the number who die before
then, and this can be estimated quite accurately
from past experience. On the other hand, fore­
casting employment of automobile assemblers in
1975 is extremely difficult since their employment
depends not only upon population growth—which
affects both the supply of workers and the demand
for automobiles—but also on changes in buyers’
preferences (toward European or American
makes, for instance, or toward “compact” or “econ­
omy” models); changes in production methods
which may use fewer workers or different kinds
of workers in the future; changes in the level of
overall economic activity, employment, and per­
sonal income; and other developments outside of
the automobile industry that are almost impos­
10



sible to foresee. Nevertheless, reasonable estimates
of employment based on the best information
available are much better than sheer speculation.
And the longer the training period required to
prepare for the occupation, and the greater the
expense, the more important is an awareness of
the possible future employment picture.
Although no one can accurately forecast all
the developments of the future, it is possible to
project trends and to estimate, at least in broad
terms, future levels of employment in many in­
dustries and occupations. To do this, however,
requires not only basic factual data, but certain
given conditions or assumptions, as well. The pic­
ture of future employment as reflected in this
Handbook is based on four fundamental as­
sumptions :
(1) That a higher rate of economic growth will
be achieved and that high general levels of em­
ployment will be realized over the long run, even
though there may be temporary recessions;
(2) that there will be no major war but that,
at the same time, the defense program, including
maintenance of the Armed Forces, will continue
at about the current level;
(3) that scientific and technological advances
will continue; and
(4) that there will be no abrupt change in work
patterns and trends of the population, or in the
fundamental economic structure of the United
States.
Starting with these assumptions and making
use of detailed information collected from a great
variety of sources, this Handbook attempts to
provide answers to some questions of major im­
portance to students as they make educational and
vocational plans.
Some of these questions are: What kinds of jobs
will there be? What industries will provide which
kinds of jobs? What fields of work look especially
promising? What competition will one face from
other workers?

CHOOSING A CAREER----THE ECONOMIC FRAMEWORK

Of particular importance also is an understand­
ing of the dynamic changes going on in our econ­
omy. New ways of making things, new products,
and new patterns of living are continually caus­
ing changes in the kinds of jobs available to work­
ers. This process of change calls for a broad
foundation of training and education, so that, if
a shift in plans becomes necessary, a transition
from one occupation or field of work to another
may be made more easily.

11

To throw light on the changing character of oc­
cupational life and to provide background for an
understanding of the trends and outlook in par­
ticular occupations, the next few sections will
review the growth and changing composition of
the Nation’s population as a whole and of that
portion of the population that makes up the work
force. The discussion will also tell something
about the major trends in employment in broad
industry and occupation groups.

The Population and the People W ho Work
The Population

Work and jobs exist because there is a popu­
lation to be served. The larger the population,
the more needs there are to be met, hence more
jobs. The changing age composition and other
characteristics of the population will also affect
to some extent the kinds of goods and services
that will be needed, which in turn will influence
the kinds of jobs that will develop.
The basic fact about our population is its enor­
mous growth since the beginning of our life as an
independent Nation. The first census, in 1790,
counted 4 million people (only half the population
of New York City today) occupying 889,000
square miles of territory. During the first 150
years of our history, from 1790 to 1940, the popu­
lation grew to 132 million people, occupying 3
million square miles.
The growth in population was particularly
rapid in the several decades preceding World
War I, when there was a combination of a high
birth rate, large-scale immigration principally
from European countries, and a sharp reduction
in death rates. After World War I, the rate of
population increase slackened for two principal
reasons—the birth rate declined and our immi­
gration laws were so changed that the flow of peo­
ple coming to the United States as immigrants
virtually stopped. During the depression years of
the 1930’s, there was an especially sharp decrease
in marriages and therefore in births because of
widespread unemployment, low incomes, and lim­
ited job opportunities. The low birth rates of the
depression years are reflected clearly in the age
distribution of the working population today, and
will continue to result in a shortage of experi­



enced, middle-aged workers right through this
decade.
Since most of the young people using this
book were born after 1940, this discussion of popu­
lation changes will concentrate on what has hap­
pened since the beginning of World War II. Chart
1 shows recent and anticipated population
changes.
CHART 1
POPULATION WILL REACH 226 MILLION IN 1975 —
25 PERCENT MORE THAN IN 1960....
M illio n s
250

225

-

200

-

175

-

150

-

125

-

100

P ro je cte d

-

-

75

50

-

25

-

0L
Source: Data fo r 1940-60. U S. Bureau of the Census-.
p ro je ctio ns: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

12

During the war years, but particularly after
1945, when young veterans began to return home,
the birth rate rose spectacularly. In 1947, 3.8 mil­
lion births were recorded, compared with fewer
than 2.5 million a year during the late 1930’s. Since
that time, the rate has remained high, with the
number of births passing the 4 million mark in
1954 and continuing to rise until 1961, then de­
clining slightly in 1962. The 1960 Census counted
180 million people, almost 50 million more than
20 years earlier; by 1975, the population is ex­
pected to reach a total of 226 million, or an in­
crease of 45 million in only 15 years.
The presence of so many young people in the
population has changed its age distribution con­
siderably since 1940. For example, people under
14 then equaled 23 percent of the total popula­
tion, but by 1960 this age group had risen to
almost 30 percent. It will drop only a little (to
28 percent) between 1960 and 1970 and remain
at about that level through 1975 (table 1). The
population declines have been in the age groups
which are the primary suppliers of experienced
workers. In 1940, the broad age group from 25 to
44 was 30 percent of the total population; by 1960,
it had dropped to 26 percent and by 1970, it will
have dropped still further to 23 percent, almost
the exact reverse of the changes that took place
in the young group, over the same period of time.
After 1970, of course, as today’s flood of young
people grow older, the proportion of those age

25-44 in the total population will begin to rise
again.

T able 1. P ercent D istr ibu tio n of P o pulatio n , by
A ge , 1940-75
Age,
Total population_____
Under 14 years-----------------14-19 years_______________
20-24 years_______________
25-34 years----------------------35-44 years_______________
45-54 years_______________
55-64 years----------------------65 years and over__________

1940 1950 1960 1965 1970 1975
100.0
23.1
11.2
8.9
16.2
13.9
11.8
8.1
6.8

100.0
25.4
8.5
7.7
15.8
14.2
11.5
8.8
8.1

100.0
29.5
9.0
6.1
12.7
13.4
11.4
8.7
9.2

100.0
28.8
10.6
7.0
11.5
12.6
11.4
8.8
9.4

100.0
28.0
11.0
8.2
12.0
11.1
11.3
9.0
9.6

100.0
27.7
10.9
8.4
13.7
10.0
10.6
9.0
9.8

So u r c e : U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census, Current
Population Reports, Series P-25, No. 98, and Series P-25, No. 187.

Of most immediate significance to young peo­
ple now making their occupational plans is the
number who will be reaching age 18 during the



CHART 2
NUMBER OF PERSONS REACHING AGE 18 WILL BE
MUCH HIGHER EACH YEAR AFTER 1964....
Millions of persons 18 years old

present decade. To look back for a moment, in
1955, young people 18 years old totaled only 2.2
million. In 1960, they totaled 2.6 million, but, by
the mid-1960’s, a spectacular rise will occur and
bring the number to 3.8 million in 1965. These
are the post-World War II babies growing up,
and their numbers are a measure of the competi­
tion for college education or other advanced train­
ing and for jobs that every 18-year-old will have
to face. After a slight decline, the number of
18-year-olds will again rise to reach 4.1 million in
1975. (See chart 2.)
For the majority of young people, age 18 is a
crucial turning point. It is the age at which most
of them graduate from high school, if they do not
drop out before, and either go on to further edu­
cation or training or start to work on a full-time
basis. Some may decide on full-time work and
part-time school or on full-time school and parttime work. Many girls will decide to marry.
Whatever the specific decision, it will be, for most
young people, as vital a one as they will ever make.

CHOOSING A CAREER— THE ECONOMIC FRAMEWORK
The People Who Work

Statisticians often use terms whose meanings
are not obvious and need to be explained. One of
these terms, which is used frequently in the Hand­
book, is “labor force.” This group of people is
only a part of the total population. First, no one
under 14 years of age is counted in this group be­
cause child labor and school attendance laws gen­
erally make it illegal for children under this age
to hold regular jobs. Among persons 14 and over,
only two groups are counted as being in the labor
force: (1) Persons who work, either as full-time or
part-time employees (including those in the
Armed Forces) or as self-employed; and (2) per­
sons who are unemployed and actively looking
for work.
From 1960 to 1975, the labor force will grow
even faster than the population as a whole, mainly
because of the large number of young people
reaching working age. From 73 million in 1960
the labor force is expected to grow, by 1975, to 93
million, an increase of 20 million or 27 percent. At
the same time, the population will grow about 25
percent. This 20 million is, of course, only the net
increase over this period. The total number of new
workers entering the labor force will far exceed
this figure. Those under 25, alone, will equal 42
million in the 15-year period. The difference be­
tween the total entering or reentering and the net
growth of the labor force represents persons ab­
sorbed into the labor force as replacements for
those workers who, during the same 15 years, will
have died, retired, or left for other reasons, such
as disability or, among women, for marriage or
to take care of children.
Thus, the first notable characteristic of the
work force during the next 10 to 15 years will be
the presence of much larger numbers of young
people than in the past, despite the fact that
higher proportions of youth are remaining in
school longer. Second will be the continuing im­
portance of women workers. Young people under
25 will account for almost half of the net increase
of 12.5 million in the labor force between 1960 and
1970. Their proportion in the labor force will rise
from less than 19 to more than 23 percent. From
1970 to 1975, workers from 25 through 34 years
of age will account for the greatest increase. How­
ever, over the 15-year period from 1960 to 1975,
young people under 25 and adult women over 25



13

will, together, account for two-thirds of the net
increase in the labor force. Young girls just
finishing school and planning for their future
should therefore realize the implications of the
increasing proportion of women over 25 years of
age in the United States who will be in the work
force. The proportion is declining only in the
18-19 age group and this results primarily from
increasing college enrollment. (See chart 3.)
Based on studies by the Bureau of Labor
Statistics, most girls can expect the following
life pattern as they move from school to middle
and old age. Most unmarried girls will go to work
at age 17 or 18 (unless they go to college). Within
3 or 4 years, most of these girls will marry. Some
of them will then stop working for pay in order
to get a new home organized, but a majority will
continue to work, either to help put a husband
through school, to supplement a husband’s income,
or to permit purchase of a home, a car, or laborsaving equipment. Then, when the first baby
arrives, the vast majority of young mothers give
up their jobs and remain out of the labor market
until their youngest child is old enough to go to
school. It is true that as many as 1 in 5 women
with preschool-age children do continue to work,
usually because of economic necessity, but the
general pattern is that the age group 25-34 sup­
plies the lowest proportion of women workers.
CHART 3
PROPORTION OF W O M EN W HO W O RK CO NTINUES TO RISE

Percent of women in labor force

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK;

14

When the youngest child no longer needs con­
stant care, the trek of mothers back to paid em­
ployment begins. This usually happens when the
women are approaching their middle thirties,
after they have been nonwage earners for about
8 to 10 years. Once back, the tendency is for them
to remain in the labor force, perhaps not con­
tinuously, but certainly for a substantial propor­
tion of their years to age 65. By 1975, nearly half
of all women between 35 and 65 will probably be
either working or looking for work. Unless things
change radically and unexpectedly in the years
ahead, the highest participation rate will be
among women age 45 to 54. (See chart 3.)

These comments have concentrated on the life
pattern of married women because these women
will be in the vast majority. But for the girl who
remains single—and 1 in 10 does—the length of
her working life will be little different from that
of a man. Since most single women must support
themselves, and often parents or other relatives,
they must continue to hold a job. The awork-life
expectancy,” as it is often referred to, looks like
this for women: For single women, 40 years at
work; for childless married women, about 30
years; and for married women with children, some­
what less. Girls, then, may well give serious
thought to the kind of work they want to do and
can do best.

The Kinds of Jobs There W ill Be

What can young people anticipate about the
kinds of jobs that will be available? In what in­
dustries will the jobs be found? Just as the .size
of our work force has changed sharply over the
years, so has the size and character of major in­
dustries, and these changes greatly affect employ­
ment opportunities and occupational choice. Some
industries which flourished at the turn of the
century are all but gone; others unknown 50 years
ago are now among the largest employers. Two
dramatic examples of the new industries are air­
craft and chemicals. But even these are now old,
compared with those in the spacecraft and missile
fields and in the production and servicing of
electronic equipment. There is little doubt that
there are industries and occupations which are so
small now as to be hardly noticeable but which
will, one day, become major fields of employment.
Changes in Important Industries

Most people, when thinking about what they
want to do for a living, think in terms of a specific
occupation such as secretary, airplane mechanic,
clerk, doctor, machinist, truckdriver, or carpenter,
rather than in terms of industrial activities such
as manufacturing, retail trade, or construction.
This being the case, it might seem more logical to
discuss the trends in major groups of occupa­
tions first rather than trends in major industries.
Although it is true that the occupation is of pri­



mary interest, the same occupation often exists
in so many different industries that the individual
can better visualize the broader opportunities if
he first finds out something about industry trends.
Knowing these trends, he can then decide not only
on the occupation to train for, but what industries
offer the best possibilities for using that occupa­
tional training.
Farming

The terms “technology” and “mechanization”
bring to mind images of great auto assembly
plants or oil refineries or an army of robots doing
man’s work. Actually, however, the greatest tech­
nological revolution in the United States has taken
place on the farm. A hundred years ago, more than
half of the Nation’s workers were engaged in agri­
culture. Today, only 1 worker in 12 makes his liv­
ing from farming, either as a farm owner or as a
laborer. The implications of this fact are enor­
mous. In 1870, the average farmer could supply
food for only about 6 people; today, 1 farmer can
meet the food needs of 27 people.
We can readily see why this has been possible.
Today’s farmer has machinery which enables him
to put into use much greater acreage than a man
could handle in 1870. This has contributed to the
great growth in size of individual farms. More­
over, the replacement of horses and mules by trac-

CHOOSING A CAREER— THE ECONOMIC FRAMEWORK

tors and trucks in both the city and on the farm
has freed millions of acres for the production of
food for human beings instead of for livestock.
The use of scientific methods, chemicals, fertiliz­
ers, better seeds, and improved cattle and hogs has
also greatly increased farm productivity.
As a result of these many changes, farm em­
ployment has continued to decline to the present.
Chart 4 shows this decline since 1930. From 10.3
million farm workers, the number has dropped by
about one-half to 5.2 million in 1962. By 1975, the
total will have dropped still further, to about
4 million, less than 4.5 percent of the labor force.
In view of this continuing decline and the com­
petition from large farms, the young man who
has been dreaming of making a living by operat­
ing his own small family acreage may want to con­
sider training for something else. Many scientific
and professional occupations and specialized serv­
ices associated with agriculture are developing
rapidly and offer greater economic promise than
farming on a small scale.
CHART 4
MORE WORKERS IN BUSINESS AND INDUSTRY —
FEWER ON FARMS....
Millions of workers

Source: Data to r 1930-1 962. U.S. Bureau ot the Census.
p rojections: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.




15

CHART 5
EMPLOYMENT IN EIGHT MAJOR INDUSTRY GROUPS, 1962....

Millions of wo rkers

M anufacturing
Trade
G overnm ent
Service and
Miscellaneous
Transportation and
Public Utilities
C onstruction
Finance, insurance,
and real estate
M ining

Nonfarm Industries

Most workers are employed in industries other
than farming; in fact, more than 90 percent now
earn their living in one of the following ma­
jor types of activity: Mining, manufacturing,
construction, transportation and public utilities,
trade, finance, service, and government. These
are broad designations referred to as “industry
groups7’ by the Bureau of Labor Statistics and
other Government agencies that collect and pub­
lish information on employment. (See chart 5.)
Each of these groups includes a variety of indi­
vidual industries, and in each industry there are
many different kinds of jobs. One should not think
of “trade,77 for example, only in terms of clerks
selling things over the counter, or of “manufac­
turing” as offering only jobs on an assembly line,
or of “service” as being mainly waiting on tables
in a restaurant or pressing a suit in a dry cleaning
shop.
The number and kind of jobs in any specific
industry wfill depend on whether the industry is
growing or declining, and wT kind of processes
hat
and machines it uses to carry out its work. Actu­

16

ally, a young person making his work choice will
be most interested in whether employment in an
industry is increasing or decreasing, and whether
or not workers are available to perform the tasks
in that particular industry.
We can get some idea of how the eight major
industry groups have been changing in the past
40 years by looking at some figures which the
Bureau of Labor Statistics has been collecting di­
rectly from employers over that period. First, the
total number of employees in all eight groups has
practically doubled, and in 1962 averaged more
than 55 million. But the same amount of growth
did not occur in each of the eight groups. Employ­
ment in transportation and public utilities, for
example, hardly grew at all, despite the tremen­
dous jump in air and bus travel. There are now
only half as many jobs in mining as there were 40
years ago. On the other hand, the service indus­
tries, government employment, construction, and
wholesale and retail trade grew very rapidly. Em­
ployment in government is now more than three
times what it was in the early twenties and in the
services almost three times what it was 40 years
earlier. In both construction and wholesale and
retail trade, employment has more than doubled.
Employment in manufacturing, while continuing
to expand, grew more slowly, increasing little
more than 1% times since 1922. A closer look at
some aspects of each broad industry group will
help to show what each has to offer in terms of
employment prospects.
Although manufacturing as a whole has not
grown at as fast a rate as some others, it still em­
ploys many more people than any of the other
seven industry groups. In 1962, about 16% million
people earned their living in the multitude of oc­
cupations found in this very diversified segment
of the economy. “Operative” jobs, the biggest
group in manufacturing, provide work for 2 out
of every 5 manufacturing employees and include
three or four main types of semiskilled workers:
(1) Those who operate machines or equipment
used in manufacturing;
(2) those who assemble various parts to make
a single final product such as a radio or television
set;
(3) those who inspect and test the product to
see that it is made properly and will work satis­
factorily ;



OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

(4) those who serve as helpers to more skilled
workers—such as the stationary fireman who
helps the skilled stationary engineer run and re­
pair the steam boilers in a plant.
There are many other kinds of jobs in manufac­
turing besides operatives—machinists, engineers,
stenographers, production managers, tool and die
makers, traveling salesmen, and unskilled laborers,
to name a few.
The number of people employed in the different
branches of manufacturing is shown in chart 6.
The industries making durable goods (things that
last a long time), such as machinery, refrigerators,
and automobiles, employed a total of almost 9%
million people in 1962. The nondurable-goods
manufacturers, who process food, make clothing,
print newspapers, and produce many other things
that are used up quickly, employed almost 7% mil­
lion people. Employment in the durable-goods
branch was highest in those industries producing
machinery and transportation equipment (autos,
aircraft, ships, and railway cars) and electrical
equipment and supplies, and was lowest in indus­
tries making such specialized items as instruments
and ordnance (guns, ammunition, etc.). Employ­
ment in the nondurable-goods branch was highest
in food and clothing, and the fewest workers were
employed in making cigarettes and other tobacco
products.
The second largest industry group in 1962 was
retail and icholesale trade, employing about HV2
million people, almost three-fourths of them in
the retail branch. Although various kinds of sales
jobs make up the largest group of these employees,
the industry also has jobs for large numbers of
clerical workers, truckdrivers, delivery men, ele­
vator operators, porters, packagers, and often
repair services of various kinds. Wholesale and
retail trade has been a “growth” industry—its
present employment being more than double its
number 40 years earlier. One of its significant fea­
tures is the fact that it employs high proportions
of women in both full-time and part-time jobs,
principally in retail sales work, and is one of the
principal “absorbers” of middle-aged and older
women who are reentering the labor force.
In 1962, government was the third largest em­
ployer, with more than 9 million workers. Threefourths of these workers were State and local
employees, such as teachers, policemen, firemen,

CHOOSING A CAREER— THE ECONOMIC FRAMEWORK

CHART 6
EMPLOYMENT IN MAJOR BRANCHES OF MANUFACTURING,
1962....

DURABLE GOODS

0

0.5

M illio n s o f w age ^and salary w orkers
1.0

1.5

2.0

Transportation
equipm ent
E lectrical equipment
M achinery
Prim ary m etal
industries
Fabricated m etal
products
Lumber and
wood products
Stone, clay, and glass
products
Furniture and fixtures
Instruments and
related products
O rdnance and
accessories
M iscellaneous
NONDURABLE GOODS
Food and kindred
products
A pparel and
related products
Printing and publishing
Textile mill products
Chemicals and
allied products
Paper and
allied products
Rubber and
plastic products
Leather and
leather products
Petroleum and
related products
Tobacco manufactures

sanitation workers, and welfare workers. As the
population continues to rise, the need for more
and more of such workers will increase and will
continue the long-range upward trend. The 6.8
million people who were working for State and
local governments in 1962 were three times the
number so employed 40 years earlier. Federal em­
ployment, which rises to higher levels in times of
war, has been stabilized at close to 2 million since
the end of the Korean conflict. As in other indus692— 0—63------3
408



17

tries, there is considerable turnover in the Federal
service and the government often finds it neces­
sary to put on special recruitment programs for
young professional and clerical workers.
In 1962, the service industries stood fourth
among employers, providing jobs for more than
7% million people. These millions were employed
in such diverse places as auto and other kinds of
repair shops, laundries, dry cleaning establish­
ments, hotels, barber shops, theaters, movie pro­
duction, advertising firms, and a host of others.
The service industry group has also been one of
the fastest growing and is now almost three times
its size 40 years ago. This reflects a very important
fact about our way of life—that as we grow
and prosper, higher and higher proportions of
people will be engaged, not in manufacturing, but
in performing the multitude of services that make
life more pleasant and easier for people generally.
The remaining 4 of the 8 major industry groups
employed far fewer people in 1962, about 10 mil­
lion all together. The largest of the four was
transportation (trains, buses, trucks, airplanes,
ships), communications, and public utilities (tele­
phone, telegraph, gas, and electric light and power)
with a total of almost 4 million workers. Despite
the many new activities in this general area and all
the new inventions involved, this group is one of
the slowest growing in overall employment, with
the number now employed virtually the same as
40 years ago. This reflects the great decline in rail­
road employment, owing to mechanization, com­
petition from other forms of public transporta­
tion and the increased use of private automobiles,
and the increasing mechanization in many other
branches of the industry group.
Employment in the finance, insurance, and real
estate group reached 2.8 million in 1962, more than
2Vs times the number 40 years ago. This group of
industries, although not one of the largest, is
growing rapidly. Some of its growth has a direct
relation to the building of newT homes, and the
phenomenal increase since the depression of the
1930’s in installment buying and credit facilities
has contributed to its expansion. Most of the jobs
are white-collar ones, and almost half of the em­
ployees are women.
The contract construction industry includes the
building of such structures as homes, factories,
schools, public buildings, office buildings, apart-

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK,

18

ment houses, roads, bridges, and dams. In the past
40 years, employment in this industry has more
than doubled, reflecting again the rapid growth
of the Nation’s population and industries. In 1962,
this industry employed 2.7 million people (almost
all of them men), half of them skilled craftsmen.
Employment in construction fluctuates greatly,
from one season to another and also from year to
year, reacting to business activity generally. When
business conditions are good, people buy new
homes and companies invest in new plants; when
business is slack, businessmen and private citizens
both tend to put off this kind of spending. Every
year, when the weather turns bad, outdoor work
declines. Sometimes, as during a war, resources of
material and skills go into construction of camps,
defense plants, and ships, and private building
may almost cease. This happened during World
War II, but after 1947, the accumulated, unsatis­
fied civilian demand boosted construction employ­
ment by about 50 percent over the next 10 years.
Maximum employment in any single year of the
past decade, however, occurred in 1956 when it
reached almost 3 million.
Other than agriculture, mining is the one indus­
try group where a decline in jobs has persisted
over many years. Employment was 647,000 in
1962, only about half of what it was 40 years ago.
Mechanization of coal mining and competition
from other sources of fuel and power have com­
bined to reduce employment significantly in this
industry group. The silent, abandoned coal mines
that scar so much of West Virginia, Illinois,
Kentucky, and western Pennsylvania are mute
evidence of rapid decline in this industry whose
deep pits once produced the fuel that fed the
furnaces of American industry.

forecasts based on the best available information
and on the assumption that the national goal of
full employment can be realized. If this is the case,
the total number of wage and salary workers in
nonagricultural industries is expected to reach
74.2 million by 1975—an increase of 37 percent
over 1960.
What then are the prospects for employment
growth in the eight broad industry groups over
this 15-year period? (See chart 7.) As individual
incomes rise and the population spends more and
more on all kinds of services, the service industries
are expected to grow faster than any of the other
groups, probably increasing their employment by
61 percent, to 11.9 million workers.
Construction activity is also expected to grow
very rapidly as the rising population and new
families demand more homes and.apartments, and
as government funds are used to spur the construc­
tion of schools, hospitals, and roads. If national
goals for economic growth and overall employ­
ment are reached, construction employment may
reach 4.4 million by 1975, an increase of 52 percent
over 1960.
CHART 7
PROJECTED PERCENT CHANGE IN EMPLOYMENT BY MAJOR
INDUSTRY GROUPS, 1960 -75
Percent change

-30

-20

0______ 10

-10

Services and miscellaneo

Construction

Government

Finance, insurance, and
real estate

The Industrial Forecast

The preceding paragraphs tell where American
industry stood in 1962. They describe what has
happened over a period of years and illustrate the
point that changes occur at varying speeds and
often in different directions. What is perhaps more
important for those about to choose a career, how­
ever, is “What can be expected to happen next?”
What industries will employ the expected increase
of 20 million workers over the 15-year period from
1960 to 1975? This is where projections come in—



Trade

Manufacturing

Transportation and
public utilities

Mining

20_____ 30

40 _____ 50_____ 60

1---------------1--------------1--------------1--------------1-------------- T

No change

Ag riculture

CHOOSING A CAREER— THE ECONOMIC FRAMEWORK

Government employment is expected to con­
tinue its rapid rise, chiefly in State and local units
providing services such as education, health, wel­
fare, sanitation, and police and fire protection. By
1975, the total may reach nearly 13 million, an
increase of 51 percent in 15 years. Not much
change is anticipated in Federal employment,
however, which has remained at about the same
level for the past decade.
Another small but rapidly growing industry
group is finance, insurance, and real estate. Its
growth reflects mainly the needs of our increas­
ing city population and industrial activity. The
number of workers may rise by 14 percent from
1960 to 1975, reaching almost 4 million. Banking,
a part of this group, will grow especially fast,
partly as a result of an increasing variety of fi­
nancial activities and services, and by 1975 may
account for two-fifths of the workers in this
group.
The growth of population and rising incomes
are expected to account for a substantial increase
in tvholesale and retail trade. This industry group
employs more people than any other except manu­
facturing. Over the 1960-75 period, the number
may increase by more than one-third, reaching
beyond 151/2 million.
Manufacturing employment is expected to in­
crease more slowly than employment in nonagricultural industries as a whole. As it is the largest
group, by 1975 it may number well over 20 million
workers, or about one-fifth more than in 1960.
Some of its branches, however, will grow much
faster than others. Durable goods industries will
probably continue to grow much faster than non­
durable goods, as they have since World War II.
This is partly because of government spending on
missiles, spacecraft, and electronic products and
partly also because of the growing utilization of
automation and other equipment involved in ad­
vanced technology. Chemicals, printing, and
paper are expected to grow faster than the other
nondurable goods industries.
Employment in transportation, communica­
tions, and public utilities as a group is expected to
grow rather slowly to about 4^2 million in 1975,
only a half-million (13 percent) more than in 1960.
But individual industries in the group will grow
rapidly, while others are expected to decline. For
example, the railroad industry is expected to con­



19

tinue to decline, though at a somewhat slower rate
than in the past, while air transportation and
trucking are expected to grow at a rapid rate.
Continuing technological advances in communica­
tions and public utilities as well as railroads will
strongly influence employment in this industry
group.
No growth is expected in the mining industry
group as a whole, which has been declining, but
employment is expected to remain at about the
1960 level, to 1975. The factors affecting employ­
ment in mining have already been mentioned in
the discussion of past trends.
Finally, agricultural employment is expected to
decline substantially, releasing thousands of
workers to be absorbed elsewhere. Nevertheless,
the professional and technical jobs connected with
agriculture, such as those of agricultural research
specialist, soil scientist, and soil conservationist,
will actually grow.
Before leaving the subject of industry growth
and change, one more factor should be mentioned,
i.e., that the changes discussed above will not be
spread evenly over all areas of the country.
Although nonfarm employment, between 1947 and
1962, increased in all States expect Rhode Island
and West Virginia, the rate of growth has been
quite different in various parts of the country.
(See chart 8.) Nationally, employment grew 27
percent between 1947 and 1962, but in California,
the Rocky Mountain States, the Southwest, and
CHART 8
EMPLOYMENT IS INCREASING MOST RAPIDLY IN
WESTERN AND SOUTHERN STATES....

{ ' 1 Under 27 percent
ftSSNM 27 and under 50 percent
50 percent and over

National average increase for 15-year period:
27 percent excluding Alaska and Hawaii.

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK,

20

Florida, employment growth doubled or more
than doubled the rise in the national average. Air­
craft and spacecraft, missiles, electronics, and
tourism account for much of this growth. Non­
farm employment in many primarily agricultural
States of the central plains and Southeast has been
growing at a rate above the national average,
but not as fast as in the West and Southwest. On
the other hand, in New England, the Middle
Atlantic, and East North Central States, nonfarm
employment has increased less than the national
average.
In spite of these shifts, the geographic con­
centration of industry and commerce remains sub­
stantially in the areas where it was at the end of
World War II. Even though in two of the fastest

growing areas, the Pacific and Mountain States,
manufacturing jobs have increased greatly since
1947, more than half of all manufacturing jobs are
still found in the New England, Middle Atlantic,
and East North Central States. These three
regions also still provide half the jobs in trade,
finance, service, and transportation, and more
than 2 out of 5 of those in construction and gov­
ernment. Only in the extractive industries has the
concentration of employment definitely shifted—
from the coal-producing areas of the Middle
Atlantic to the petroleum- and gas-producing
States of Texas, Louisiana, and Oklahoma. This
reflects not so much the migration of an industry,
however, as a shift in sources of fuel and power.

The Outlook for Occupational Change

Changes in industries, which are the suppliers
of jobs, have been accompanied by changes in the
nature of occupations and the numbers of people
employed in them. These changes have been going
on for many decades in every major occupational
group. Some groups of occupations have been
growing rapidly, others declining, and still others
rising or falling from one decade to the next with­
out consistent pattern. The professional and other
white-collar occupations have grown fastest over
the past 50 years; farm owmers and farm labor­
ers have declined most rapidly. Some groups—
the skilled, semiskilled, and service workers—
have fluctuated, with net gains of about 20 per­
cent or slightly more over the half century.
Chart 9 shows the changing proportions of each
of these groups in the experienced work force,
since 1910.
Probably the most significant overall change
in the Nation’s occupational structure has been the
shift toward white-collar jobs. While this shift
has been apparent since the beginning of the
century, it has been accelerated in recent years.
In 1956, for the first time in the Nation’s history,
white-collar workers (professional, managerial,
office, and sales workers) outnumbered blue-collar
or manual workers (craftsmen, operatives, and
laborers). (See chart 10.) In the 15 years since
1947, white-collar occupations increased by 9.7
million, totaling almost 30 million in 1962. This



increase represented most of the total growth dur­
ing the period. In contrast, blue-collar occupa­
tions in 1962 numbered less than a million more
than they did in 1947. Among the reasons for this
shift is the rapid growth of many service-produc­
ing industries—including government services, as
well as financial and other business and profes­
sional services wdiich employ large numbers of
white-collar workers—and the relatively slow
growth of goods-producing industries, including
manufacturing and mining, which employ larger
proportions of blue-collar workers.
Chart 11 shows the proportions of white-collar,
blue-collar, and service workers in each major
industry group in 1962. Much of the overall
growth in the white-collar group reflects the
Nation’s technological advancement, the shift
from a predominantly agricultural economy to a
predominantly industrial economy, the growing
needs of a growing population for educational and
medical services, the increasing size and com­
plexity of business organizations, and the accele­
rating tendency in all types of enterprises for
more research and more recordkeeping.
Chart 12 projects the changes that are expected
to take place between 1960 and 1975 in the major
nonfarm occupational groups if the assumed con­
ditions stated previously prevail. In developing
these projections, many things were taken into
account: the expected increase in the size of the

CHOOSING A CAREER— THE ECONOMIC FRAMEWORK

21

C HART 9

PROPORTION OF EXPERIENCED LABOR FORCE IN EACH OCCUPATIONAL
GROUP,

1910-60.....

P ro fessio nal, c le r ic a l, and s a le s occupations have shown consistent growth
Percent
Clerical workers

Sales workers

Farm and unskilled occupations have lost ground
Percent
Laborers, except farm

O thers have shown less consistent trend
Percent




Service workers

m

Proprietors, managers,
and officials

m.
1910 ’20 ’30 ’40 ’50 ’60

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

22

CHART 10
EMPLOYMENT HAS SHIFTED TOWARD WHITE-COLLAR
OCCUPATIONS..........
M illio ns of persons

labor force, the changing demands of the popula­
tion for various goods and services, the changing
occupational requirements of each industry, and
continuing changes in technology, as well as the
industrial developments discussed in the preced­
ing section.
Chart 12 also shows which occupations will
grow faster than the expected average increase of
31 percent for all employment. The vertical line
at the 31-percent point permits a quick grasp of
the relationship of one occupational group to
another. All the growing occupations except the
operators and kindred workers will exceed the
average increase. In contrast with this, the num­
ber of laborers (excluding farm and mine) is not
expected to increase at all, and the numbers of
farmers, farm managers, foremen, and farm­
workers will continue to decline.

workers. While the group as a whole may increase
by about 45 percent from 1960 to 1975, the pro­
fessional and technical occupations may increase
by as much as 65 percent. This would raise the
number of workers in this latter group to more
than 12 million. Some professions will grow much
faster than others. For example, engineers and
scientists may roughly double their numbers by
1975, in meeting the needs of a growing economy
and rapid advances in electronics, jet aircraft,
guided missiles, chemicals, health-related research,
and communications. Technicians, who assist
these specialists, are increasing in number at least
as fast as engineers and scientists. Together, these
workers are developing the newest type of eco­
nomic activity in the country, aptly named “the
industry of discovery”—the pursuit of new inven­
tions, new techniques, new materials, and new
weapons. These developments, plus an ever in­
creasing demand for school and college teachers,
and medical and other health specialists will re­
sult in a rate of growth in the professional group
more than twice that of the labor force as a whole.
Today’s numerically largest white-collar oc­
cupation, the clerical workers (close to 10 milCHART 11
PROPORTION OF W HITE-COLLAR, BLUE-COLLAR, AND
SERVICE W ORKERS IN SEVEN MAJOR INDUSTRY
GROUPS, 1 9 6 2 .....

80

Percent

100

ALL NONAGRICULTURAL
INDUSTRIES
Finance, insurance, and
real estate
W holesale and retail
trade
Services (including
educational, m edical,
and other)
T ransportation, com muni cation,and other
pu blic utilities
M anufacturing
Forestry, fishing,
and mining

White-Collar Jobs

Rapid growth is expected in the white-collar
group, especially among professional and technical




W hite-co lla r
workers

B lue-collar
w orkers

M

Service
w orkers

CHOOSING A CAREER— THE ECONOMIC FRAMEWORK

CHART 12
PROJECTED PERCENT CHANGE IN EMPLOYMENT OF
WORKERS IN MAJOR OCCUPATIONAL GROUPS, 1960-75. ..
-30

-20

Percent change

-10

0

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

Professional, technical,
and kindred workers
Managers, officials, and
proprietors, except farm
Clerical and kindred
workers
Sales workers
Craftsmen, formen, and
kindred workers
Operatives and
kindred workers
Service workers
Laborers, except

> change

.

I
I

Farmers and farm managers,
laborers, and foremenl

lion), have grown at a faster rate than any
other except the professional group. Relatively
rapid growth is expected during the next 10 to 15
years, increasing the number to 14 million by 1975,
or 45 percent more than in 1960. Between 1950
and 1960, the number of clerical workers grew
over 30 percent; a further increase of about the
same magnitude is expected during the decade of
the 60’s despite the introduction of laborsaving
electronic computers and other office machines and
more efficient management methods. The supply
of typists, stenographers, secretaries, and other
office workers never seems to catch up with the
demand. Girls graduating from high school with
skills in these “commercial arts” almost certainly
will find jobs waiting for them. The more complex
a society becomes, the greater its need for records
and communications, not only to keep modern
business operating, but to provide the expanded
tax and other reports required by government.
Moreover, use of highspeed office and business
machines will create some new jobs requiring
more skill than many of the clerical tasks with
which we are now so familiar.
The third largest group of white-collar workers
is the proprietor-managerial group, consisting
mainly of owners of small enterprises and salaried



23

officials in both private businesses and government
agencies. This group in 1962 numbered more than
7 million. The proportion of these workers in
the total labor force, however, is relatively static,
despite their increase in numbers. The noticeable
replacement of small groceries, general stores, and
hand laundries, often run as a family business, by
supermarkets and big chains is cutting into the
number of proprietors. On the other hand, sal­
aried managerial positions, with their demand for
better education and training, are increasing
rapidly. Even though the proprietor-managerial
group as a whole is not showing the same growth
as some other white-collar occupations, its num­
bers are expected to increase as fast as the total la­
bor force, and to reach almost 9y2 million by 1975.
Among the white-collar occupations, the small­
est numerically (about 4y2 million) is the sales
group, but it is expected to rise to nearly 6 million,
or by about 34 percent between 1960 and 1975—
slightly faster than the labor force as a whole.
Except for some specialized sales personnel, this
is the white-collar group that requires less exten­
sive training. One of its great advantages is that
it can and does absorb considerable numbers of
older women, many of them on a part-time basis.
Although such mechanical devices as vending
machines, and the increasing availability of selfservice in groceries and variety stores will prob­
ably act as brakes in the growth of retail sales
employment, nevertheless, as the population grows
and personal incomes rise, substantial increases
are expected.
Blue-Collar Jobs

The most highly trained workers in this group,
and the highest earners as well, are craftsmen
and foremen sometimes referred to, in more gen­
eral terms, as “skilled workers.” These workers
will continue to have a more favorable employ­
ment outlook than the less skilled operatives and
unskilled laborers. Examples of skilled workers
are carpenters, plumbers, electricians, and all the
other skilled building trades workers who make
possible not only our convenient and efficient
homes and offices, but also our roads, bridges,
harbors, and airfields. Then there are the skilled
metalworkers (such as machinists, tool and die
makers, and molders) who read the blueprints,

24

and prepare models, dies, and tools from which
production machines and instruments are made.
Before the factory operative can turn out his
product on his machine, the machine itself must
be manufactured; the construction of this machine
from engineering designs is the responsibility of
the skilled metalworking craftsman. Another
important group are the mechanics and repair­
men, who keep automobiles and factory machinery
in running order, fix radios and television sets,
maintain airplanes in safe flying condition, and
do all manner of other repair work that helps our
machine-based society to run smoothly. Included
also among the skilled workers are the foremen,
who direct the work of others, and in many cases
also do skilled work themselves. All together, this
group totaled about million workers in 1960
and is expected to grow to more than 11 million
by 1975.
Different industries employ quite different pro­
portions of craftsmen. Manufacturing employs
a greater number than any other industry *(3.2
million). In construction, however, these skilled
workers are a much higher proportion of em­
ployees than in any other industry group—1 out
of every 2, compared wflth 1 in 5 in manufacturing
and in transportation, and fewer than 1 in 10 in
other industries. The young man who prepares
himself, through apprenticeship or otherwise, for
one of the skilled occupations can therefore antici­
pate pretty well where his greatest job op­
portunities are apt to be. Another point to re­
member is that certain occupations within the
skilled worker group have grown and will grow
faster than others, as is true of so many other
aspects of the economy. Mechanics and repair­
men, building trades craftsmen, skilled metal
workers, and foremen will probably account for
most of the growth in this group.
Next to the skilled workers in importance,
within the blue-collar group, are the operatives,
chiefly semiskilled workers. The most numerous
of all major occupational groups (about 12
million in 1962), they hold jobs in almost every
major industry. In 1960, they were 18 percent of
the employed work force. This wT a drop, how­
as
ever, from 20 percent in 1950, and indicates
the direction of change for such workers. Pros­
pects for 1970 are that the group will probably
increase in numbers to something over 14 mil­



OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

lion, but its relative position in the labor force
will drop still further and it will not share the
growth rate either of the skilled worker or of
some white-collar groups. Changing technology
which, in the early part of the century, created so
many new jobs through mechanization of manu­
facturing processes and thereby the development
of giant mass-production industries, shows signs,
in the future, of braking the growth of semiskilled
jobs, at least in manufacturing. Newly found
ways of getting machines to do the work of men,
popularly known as “automation,” permit larger
output without a corresponding increase in semi­
skilled machine operators. The automobile indus­
try is a prime example of this recent kind of
change. On the other hand, the increasing use of
trucks, buses, and motor vehicles, for both human
and freight transport, will continue to create a
demand for truck and bus drivers, who are also
classified with operatives.
The third main group among blue-collar work­
ers are the laborers, who follow^ such vocations as
deckhand, street cleaner, ditch digger, and
carnival roustabout. The least skilled of all work­
ers, they do the hardest physical work, except
perhaps farm laborers, and usually are the lowest
paid. Over the past half century their place in
the labor force has dropped from 12y2 percent to
less than 6 percent in 1960. In numbers, the need
for unskilled workers will remain about the same
during the decade, but their proportion in the
labor force will continue to drop—to less than 4%
percent by 1975. Even in some of these hard, labo­
rious tasks, growing mechanization will displace
much of the physical labor that was once so
crucial to industrial production.
The growing occupational group of “service
workers” offers a great variety of job opportuni­
ties ranging from some quite unskilled jobs to
those requiring specialized education and training.
For example, janitors are included here, but
also waiters, cooks, barbers, laundry workers,
beauticians, policemen, firemen, practical nurses,
and FBI agents. Over many decades up to the
end of World War II, this group rose only
slightly as a proportion of the entire labor force,
but since then it has sprinted ahead of labor force
growth as a whole. The increased demand for
services of all kinds reflects not only the needs of

CHOOSING A CAREER— THE ECONOMIC FRAMEWORK;

a growing population but of the greater con­
centration of people in urban areas, an increas­
ing number of women who go out to w^ork and
hence need these services, and generally rising
income levels. By 1975, we can expect a numerical
growth of service workers to about 12% million,
half again as many as in 1960. This increase would
place them on a par numerically and proportion­
ately with professional workers.
Growth of this group, nevertheless, will not
escape some of the slowing down effects of mech­
anization and new kinds of equipment. For ex­
ample, barbers and beauticians are feeling the ef­
fects of widespread use of electric razors and
home permanent-wave kits, and certain groups
of household workers, such as laundresses, are
being supplanted by commercial laundry services
and housewives who use coin-operated laundry
equipment or their own electric washing machines,
dryers, and ironers. On the other hand, many
occupations in this group will groAv substantially

25

—the policemen and firemen who guard our
safety, the hospital attendants and practical
nurses who guard our health, and others whose
basic function can not be supplanted by machines.
These are the occupations which also require more
training than many of the service occupations that
are declining.
To sum up, the principal occupational changes
expected in the 15 years between 1960 and 1975
will be:
(1) A continuing rapid growth in white-collar
occupations, especially in the professional and
technical occupations;
(2) among blue-collar workers, about average
growth in skilled occupations, a slower-than-average growth in semiskilled occupations, and no
change in employment in unskilled occupations;
(3) a somewhat faster-than-average growth
among service workers; and
(4) a further decline in the number of farmers
and farm laborers.

Implications of the Outlook for Education and Training

It is clear that multitudes of opportunities
will open up for jobseekers during the years
ahead. The ability of young people to embrace
these opportunities, however, will depend to an
important extent on their education and train­
ing. The job world of the future obviously calls
for people who have a marketable skill. The
day of the “I can do anything,-’ applicant is
definitely past. In these days of increasing com­
plexity of jobs and of professional specialization,
no one, whether young or old, will be able to offer
such versatility in the job market.
Since the fastest growing occupations also call
for the most education or specialized training, it
becomes obvious that a young worker’s chances
for a steady, well-paying job in many areas of
our economy will be substantially less if he does
not have at least a high school education. For
many “growth” jobs, especially in the professions,
he must have considerably more.
The need for educational upgrading of the
work force will not be confined to the professions
alone. The burgeoning field of technician jobs
also increasingly calls for special preparation
beyond the high school. And, as newT automated
,



equipment is introduced on a wider scale in offices,
banks, insurance companies, and government
operations, the skill requirements for clerical and
other office jobs wfill rise also. The demand of
employers for better trained personnel to oper­
ate complicated and expensive machinery is al­
ready apparent.
Just how fast industrial processing will yield
to an emerging pushbutton era is difficult to
predict, but gains in production in many manufac­
turing industries without equivalent gains in em­
ployment suggest that the effects of automation
on production jobs may be great.
In some segments of the sales field, too, new
developments in machine design, use of new
materials, and the complexity of equipment are
making it necessary for demonstrators to have
greater understanding of technical matters; and
repairmen must become familiar with ever more
complicated machines.
The rising educational level of the younger
population is a partial response to these develop­
ing labor market requirements. In 1962, twothirds of the population 18 years of age had com­
pleted high school, compared with only about 1

26

in 15 in 1900. College enrollments are also rising
rapidly. For example, of 1.9 million high school
graduates in 1962, half were enrolled in college in
the fall immediately following completion of high
school. Additional thousands were enrolled in
special training courses such as nursing, ap­
prenticeships of various kinds, and others.
Estimates covering the 25-year period, between
1950 and 1975, give an even sharper indication
of the continuing rise in the numbers of high
school and college graduates. By 1975, high
school enrollment will be more than double the
Gbo million of 1950 and college enrollment will be
almost four times the 2.2 million of 1950.
With so much competition from young people
with higher levels of education, the boy or girl
who does not get good preparation for work,
either by completing high school or college or
by some other effective means, will find the going




OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

rougher and rougher in the years ahead. Labor
Department studies indicate the possibility of 7y2
million school dropouts during the 1960’s, of whom
2y2 million will not have completed even the 8th
grade. These young people will find jobs harder
and harder to get because employers prefer the
worker who has “stayed the course” through high
school. At the same time, the unskilled jobs that
once absorbed many untrained people will be a
narrowing field of employment.
Young people who have acquired a skill or a
good basic education will have a better chance at
interesting work, good wages, steady employment,
and greater satisfaction with life in general. Get­
ting as much education and training as one's abil­
ity and circumstances permit should, therefore, be
high on the list of things to be done by today’s
youth.

Professional, Administrative, and Related
Occupations
Professional and administrative occupations
have many attractions for young people consider­
ing the choice of a career. These occupations offer
opportunities for interesting and responsible work
and lead to relatively high earnings. As a rule,
however, they can be entered only after long
periods of specialized education or other prepara­
tion, since a broad knowledge of one’s field and
judgment of a high order are outstanding require­
ments for success in these types of work.
Approximately one-fourth of all workers in
1962 were in professional, administrative, and
related occupations. These occupations—employ­
ing about 15% million people—accounted for
about half of all white-collar employment.
Professional occupations are of two main types.
The largest group of professions—including those
of engineer, architect, physician, lawyer, and
teacher—requires formal education in well-or­
ganized fields of knowledge. The other group—
including occupations such as editor and actor—
does not require as much specialized, theoretical
knowledge, but demands a great deal of broad
background knowledge or creative talent and skill
acquired chiefly through experience. Generally,
the professions require either college graduation
—often with an advanced degree—or experience
of such kind and amount as to provide a compa­
rable background. Licenses are required for prac­
tice in many professions—medicine, dentistry, and
pharmacy, for example—wuth licensing author­
ities determining the minimum qualifications
which members must have. Professional societies
also set up membership standards, vdiich tend to
define their respective fields. In many areas of
work, hovT there is no clear-cut line between
ever,
professional and other classes of workers.
It is not easy to prepare for and enter pro­
fessional vrork. For most professions, one must
complete a long period of education and train­
ing. Often, applicants are not accepted for pro­



fessional training unless their school grades are
high, and employers generally give preference
in hiring to graduates wLose grades in profes­
sional school put them high in their class.
Closely related to the professions—and some­
times overlapping them—is a wide variety of
technical occupations. People in these occupations
vrork wT engineers, scientists, mathematicians,
ith
physicians, and other professional personnel.
Their job titles include, for example, those of
draftsman, engineering aid, programer, and
electronics, laboratory, or X-ray technician. Em­
ployment in these technical occupations usually
requires a combination of basic scientific know l­
edge and specialized education or training in
some particular aspect of technology or science.
Such training may be obtained in technical
institutes, junior colleges, and other schools, or
through equivalent on-the-job training. Many of
the duties of technicians may be performed also
by beginning professional workers. However,
because of their more limited educational back­
ground, technicians generally find it much more
difficult to advance to high-level positions than
do professional workers.
The major professional, technical, and related
occupations are shown in chart 13.
People in administrative and related occupa­
tions run the Nation’s businesses and manage
a wude variety of other organizations, both pri­
vate and governmental. The problems they deal
with are as varied as the affairs they manage.
They may have to decide, for example, whether
and how to manufacture a new model of auto­
mobile, furnish a hotel lobby, advertise a store,
or build a highway. Whether their organizations
are small or large, employing only a few people or
many thousands, the decisions administrators
reach and their effectiveness in getting these
decisions carried out contribute greatly to the suc­
cess or failure of the enterprise.
27

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

28

C H A R T 13
ABOUT 4 OUT OF EVERY 10 PROFESSIONAL WORKERS
ARE TEACHERS OR ENGINEERS
Employment in selected professional, technical, and kindred occupations

100

200

300

400

500

600

700

800

Thousands of workers, 1962^
900
1,000
1/100 1,200

Teachers, elementary
school
Engineers
Teachers, secondary
school
Engineering and
science technicians
Nurses
Accountants

3

Clergymen
Draftsmen
Physicians
Lawyers
Teachers, college

These occupations showed the greatest employment
increase between 1950 and 1960

Social workers

Percent increase

Chemists

40
_I_ —1
,
20

Pharmacists
Biological scientists

Personnel workers

80 100
_J______ !

Physicists

Musicians and
music teachers
Personnel workers

60
_ j __

> ■„^
■

Engineers
Draftsmen

Dentists

Social scientists

Singers and singing
teachers

Biological scientists

Librarians

\ NX■ \
V

VX V

\\\

3

Librarians

Photographers

Teachers,
elementary school

Social scientists

Nurses
Mathematicians

Teachers, college
Teachers,
secondary school

Physicists
Counselors

:

v V. \ \ \ \ \ \ x x-;
^ v x ^ XNNS \ \ '

□

Architects

,1

" V I V S V v:A \




Source: U.S. Bureau of the Census.
1/Estimated.

PROFESSIONAL, ADMINISTRATIVE, AND RELATED OCCUPATIONS

About 6.3 million men and 1.1 million women,
not counting farm owners or farm managers, were
managers, officials, or proprietors in 1962. Of
these nearly 7.5 million people, managers and
officials in salaried positions accounted for
slightly more than half.
The largest group of proprietors—about half
of the total number—are owners of stores, restau­
rants, gasoline service stations, or other kinds of
retail establishments. In addition, large numbers
manage their own factories or construction busi­
nesses.
Executives and other managerial personnel in
business firms form the largest group of salaried
managers and officials. In addition, several hun­
dred thousand people in this category are officials
of Federal, State, and local government agencies
and nonprofit organizations of many kinds; and
there is a very large number of other workers—
purchasing agents, credit men, and many others—
in specialized jobs closely related to administra­
tive and managerial work. Also grouped with
administrative workers in the occupational statis­
tics are persons in a variety of official and man­
agerial positions—for example, members of Con­
gress, ship captains, railroad conductors, trade
union officials, and building managers and super­
intendents—whose functions and background are
quite different from those of most administrative
personnel and who are, therefore, not covered by
the rest of the information presented in this part
of the Handbook. (Some of these occupations are
discussed elsewhere in the Handbook, however;
see index for page numbers.)
Employment Trends

Employment in professional, technical, and
related occupations has risen rapidly over the
years. From less than half a million in 1870, the
number of these workers has grown to about 8
million in 1962. (See chart 14.) Moreover, while
the professions accounted for only about 4 percent
of all workers at the turn of the century, by 1962
they represented 12 percent. During the 1950
decade, the rate of growth in the professions was
more than twice that for clerical workers, the
second fastest growing occupational group. More­
over, thus far in the 1960?s the professional, tech­
nical, and related worker group continues to
exceed in growth all other occupational groups.



29

C H A R T 14
GROWTH OF PROFESSIONAL, TECHNICAL,
AND KINDRED OCCUPATIONS....
Millions

Data prior to 1950 are decennial census figures
and are not strictly comparable to later years.

A major reason for the increase in the total
number of workers in professional and related oc­
cupations has been the development of new pro­
fessional fields. The scientific, engineering, mathe­
matics, and closely related professions have had a
spectacular growth over the years. Other major
professions, which have developed wholly or
largely during the present century include social
work, accounting, and personnel work. Growth
has been especially rapid since 1950 among phys­
icists, personnel workers, engineers, draftsmen,
social scientists, librarians, and biological scien­
tists. (See chart 13.) Even more recent has been
the growth among mathematicians, programers,
other data-processing specialists, and electronics
technicians. Some of this growth has accompanied
the expansion in scientific and engineering profes­
sions. As scientific and technical work has become
more highly organized, particularly in the labora­
tories and engineering departments of large firms
and in government agencies, more technical as­
sistance has been provided for the professional
workers. Similarly, large numbers of technicians
and assistants work in the health fields, thereby
freeing the professional personnel for work requir­
ing more training.

30

Between 1960 and 1970, employment in the pro­
fessional and technical group is expected to rise
by 43 percent—about twice the rate for total em­
ployment. However, there will naturally continue
to be differences in the rate of growth among the
professions, as is indicated in the statements on
most of the major professions in the chapters that
follow.
The number of people in administrative and
managerial positions in the United States is grow­
ing, although by no means as fast as the number of
professional w7orkers. In 1910, only 1 out of every
15 workers in the country was in an administra­
tive or related job. By 1962, the proportion had
risen to about 1 out of every 10 workers. Employ­
ment in this field as a whole is expected to continue
increasing moderately. By 1970, the total number
of people in administrative and related positions
may be about 8% million, over a fifth more than
in 1960.
Most of this increase in employment will be
in salaried positions. Growth in the number of
self-employed proprietors will be relatively slow
in the years ahead, because of the trend towrard
the formation of larger businesses. In the retail
field, for example, supermarkets and other types
of large stores are replacing the small general
store, the separate meat market, and the corner
grocery store. On the other hand, the number
of managers and salaried officials in larger busi­
ness organizations and government agencies is
mounting rapidly.
Educational Trends

In addition to the many professional occupa­
tions for which college graduation has long been
an entry requirement, demand for college gradu­
ates is increasing at the entry level in many other
professional, administrative, and related occupa­
tions. Graduates are sought for many positions
which either did not exist a few decades ago or
which were formerly filled by employees selected
primarily on the basis of their experience and
personal characteristics. This emphasis on a col­
lege education will probably be reinforced in the
years ahead—in view of the growing complexity
of modern industry and technology, which is con­
stantly increasing the amount of technical knowl


OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

CHART 15
NUMBER O F B A C H E L O R ’S D E G R EE S GRANTED-

Thousands of degrees

Source: U.S. Department of Health, Education, and W elfare, Office of Education.

edge required for effective performance in many
professional and administrative jobs.
The growth in the professional, administrative,
and related occupations has been accompanied by
a great increase in the numbers of young men and
women graduating from college—who are, of
course, the chief source of professionally trained
workers. The proportion of young people com­
pleting college (represented as a percent of all
persons 22 years of age) rose from 2 percent
in 1920 to 8 percent in 1940, and to nearly 18V2
percent in 1962, as shown in the inset in chart 15.
(The high level reached in 1950 is artificial, re­
flecting the large number of veterans who went to
college under the veterans’ education program
and who, in many cases, would have completed
college earlier if it had not been for the war.)
The recent rapid increase in the proportion
of young people graduating from college (chart
15) reflects a number of basic social trends.
Family incomes are higher, and more people
can afford to put off going to work and to pay
the costs of education. More families want a

PROFESSIONAL, ADMINISTRATIVE, AND RELATED OCCUPATIONS

college education for their children. Scholarships
and loans are available for more students; parttime work opportunities are also available, par­
ticularly in times of labor shortages. Finally,
a college education is becoming necessary for an
increasing proportion of jobs, and in many profes­
sions the amount of education needed is increas­
ing. Since these factors will probably continue
to be influential in the future, the proportion of
young people who are graduated from college is
expected to go on increasing for many years.
The college-age population is also growing. The
number of people age 18 to 21 will rise by 5
million during the 1960’s. These factors, consid­
ered together, point to a great increase in college
graduations, assuming that the Nation’s colleges
and universities can build the classrooms, labo­
ratories, dormitories, and other facilities and hire
the faculty members needed to provide for the
greatly increased numbers of students. It is likely
that the number of bachelor’s degrees awarded
annually will be about 80 percent greater by 1970
than in 1961. Projections prepared by the U.S.
Office of Education indicate an increase from the
401,656 bachelor’s degrees granted in 1961 to
537,000 in 1965, and 731,000 in 1970.
The number of students taking graduate train­
ing has also risen very rapidly during past
decades, and will probably continue to mount in
the years ahead. A master’s degree is usually
earned through 1 or 2 years of study beyond the
bachelor’s degree. To earn the Ph. D. degree
usually requires 3 years or more beyond the
bachelor’s degree. As a rule, graduate study is
concentrated in the major subject field of the stu­
dent’s interest, whereas undergraduate study is
broader in content.
Chart 16 shows the vast increase in graduate
degrees awarded since 1920 in all fields taken
together. The numbers of master’s and doctor’s
degrees granted reached unprecedented heights
in the early 1950’s, following the record number
of bachelor’s degrees granted a few years before.
After a slight decline in the mid-1950’s, master’s
degrees rose to about 79,000 in 1961 and are ex­
pected to exceed 100,000 in 1965, if past trends




31

C H A R T 16
N UM BER O F M A S T ER ’S A N D D O C T O R ’S D E G R E E S
G R A N T E D ......

1890

1900

1910

1920

1930

1940

1950

1960

1970

Source-. U.S. D e partm ent of Health. Education,and Welfare,Office of Education.

continue. The number of doctorates awarded
(10,575 in 1961) may reach 13,200 by 1965. Ac­
cording to projections made by the U.S. Office of
Education, the number of master’s degrees con­
ferred may come close to 150,000 and doctorates
may exceed 18,000 in 1970.
These projections obviously imply a great in­
crease in the supply of personnel which will be
available for professional employment. Since the
demand for personnel is also expected to show
continued growth, there is promise of expanding
employment opportunities for the increasing num­
bers of college graduates. The anticipated in­
creases in college-trained personnel raise the pos­
sibility, however, of increasing competition dur­
ing the late 1960’s for the better professional
positions in at least some fields of work, as indi­
cated in the statements on the various fields in
following chapters.

T E A C H IN G

Of all the professions, teaching is the largest.
About 2 million men and women in the United
States are full-time teachers, and thousands of
others teach part time. Many scientists, physicians,
accountants, and members of other professions
teach one or more classes in colleges and univer­
sities. Similarly, large numbers of craftsmen
teach part time in vocational schools. Also, many
other people instruct in adult education and rec­
reation programs.
No other profession offers so many employment
opportunities for women; slightly more than 1
million women are teachers, more than twice the
number employed in nursing—the second largest
field of professional employment for women.
Women teachers far outnumber men in kinder­
garten and elementary schools. Men, however,
hold slightly more than half the teaching posi­
tions in secondary (junior and senior high)
schools, and men hold about four-fifths of all
college and university teaching positions.
The number of teachers needed by the Nation’s
schools depends chiefly, of course, on the number
of students enrolled. In the fall of 1962, about 51
million people—more than one-fourth of the coun­
try’s total population—were enrolled in the
Nation’s schools and colleges. The extremely high
birth rates of the past two decades largely account
for this record enrollment. For example, the high
birth rates of the 1940’s brought unprecedented
increases in elementary school enrollments in the
early 1950’s. By the mid-1950’s, these children
were beginning to enter the high schools, and
toward the end of the decade the colleges were
beginning to feel their impact. Furthermore, the
proportion of young people of high school and
college age who are attending school is higher
than ever before. A continuation of both popula­
tion growth and increased high school and college
attendance is expected to produce an impressive
rate of increase in high school enrollments by
1970 and an even more rapid increase in college
32




enrollments. (See chart 17.) The proportion of
young children of elementary school age enrolled
in these schools is not expected to change apprecia­
bly during the coming decade; nevertheless, a
sizable increase in the number of children so en­
rolled is expected. Total enrollments in all schools
and colleges combined, according to U.S. Office of
CHART 17
ENROLLMENTS WILL TOTAL NEARLY
60 MILLION BY 1970

Millions of Students
60

1950

1955

1960

1965

1970

Source: U.S. Department of Health, Educatior,
and Welfare, Office of Education.

TEACHING

33

Education estimates, may increase to more than
60 million by 1970.
To staff the new classrooms that must be pro­
vided for the rising numbers of students, the Na­
tion’s teaching staff will need to be about one-fifth
larger by 1970. In addition, a still greater number
will be required to replace teachers who leave the
profession. (See chart 18.) Many new teachers will
also be needed in both elementary and secondary
schools, to reduce the ratio between pupils and
teachers. Moreover, additional teachers must be
trained so as to replace teachers who do not meet
the minimum standards for certification. This
school staffing problem has been one factor that
has brought about an increasing interest in tech­
nological developments and other changes in edu­
cational methods. Educational television, for ex­
ample, is already in use on an experimental basis,
and its extension may enable many teachers to

handle larger classes efficiently in some subject
areas. Teaching machines designed to present in­
formation mechanically and to test student re­
sponses to the material covered are being con­
sidered, where appropriate, for use as a teaching
aid. Language laboratories where tape recordings
are used in foreign language instruction are being
set up in many secondary schools and colleges.
Other adjustments, including lengthening the
school year and providing teachers with clerical
assistance, may also affect the demand for teach­
ers. Although opinions differ concerning the ef­
fect of these innovations, it seems likely that, for
the next few years at least, their chief effect may
be to improve the quality of education.
The outlook for teachers at each educational
level—in elementary and secondary schools, and
also in colleges and universities—is discussed in
the following statements.

Kindergarten and Elementary School Teachers

(D.O.T. 0-30.02 and .11)

Nature of Work

Elementary school teaching is the largest field
of professional employment for women and is also
a growing field for men. In 1962, 1.2 million kin­
dergarten and elementary teachers were employed
in elementary schools. This total included about
900,000 classroom teachers and several thousand
principals and supervisors in public schools, and
more than 200,000 teachers in parochial and other
private schools.
Kindergarten teachers provide a program of
education for yqung children. Most frequently
they divide the schoolday between two groups,
teaching two classes a day. Some, however, may
work with one group all day. The kindergarten
program provides children with experiences in
play, music, artwork, stories, and poetry; it also
introduces them to science, ‘ numbers, language,
and social studies. After school hours, kindergar­
ten teachers may plan the next day’s work, study
and prepare the children’s school records, confer
with parents or professional personnel concern­
ing individual children, participate in teachers’ inservice activities, and locate and become familiar
with teaching resources.
692-408 O—63----- 4



Elementary school teachers usually work with
one group of pupils during the entire schoolday,
teaching several subjects and supervising various
activities such as lunch and play periods. In some
school systems, however, teachers in the upper
elementary grades may teach several groups of
children in one or two subjects. Many school sys-

Elementary school teaching is the largest field of professional
employment for women

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

34

C H A R T 18
GREATEST DEMAND FOR TEACHERS WILL CONTINUE TO BE IN ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS
(Annual Recruitment Need For Teachers)

Thousands

Thousands

---------------- ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS-------------------

160

160
140

120
100
-

-

-

80
60
40
20

J 0

120
100
80
60
40
20

0
* No net increase in teaching positions expected in country as a whole.

COLLEGES AND UNIVERSITIES----------------------------------

40
-\

1961




1962

1963 1964

1965

1966

1967

1968

1969

1970

20

0

Source: U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, Office of Education;
and U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics*

TEACHING

terns also employ special teachers to give instruc­
tion and to assist classroom teachers in subjects
such as art, music, physical education, industrial
arts, foreign languages, and homemaking. Teach­
ers in schools with only a few students, largely in
rural areas, may be required to teach all subjects
in several grades.
Although the time spent in the classroom is
usually less than the average working day in many
other occupations, the elementary school teacher
must spend additional time each day planning
work, preparing instructional materials, develop­
ing tests, checking papers, making out reports,
and keeping records. Conferences with parents,
meetings with school supervisors, and other pro­
fessional activities also frequently occur after
classroom hours. According to a recent survey,
the average workweek of elementary school teach­
ers is about 48 hours including* time spent in outof-class instructional and other duties.
Where Employed

Elementary school teachers are employed in all
cities, towns, villages, and in rural areas. As a
result of reorganization of school districts, many
teachers are employed in consolidated schools in
small towns. Only about 20,000 teach in 1-room
schools. Kindergarten teachers, however, are em­
ployed primarily in the large city school systems.
Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement

All States require every teacher in the public
schools to hold a certificate. Several States have
this same requirement for teachers in parochial
and other private elementary schools.
In 1963, 44 States and the District of Columbia
issued regular teaching certificates only to persons
with at least 4 years of approved college prepara­
tion, and the other 6 States required at least 2
years. Some school systems have higher educa­
tional requirements than those for State certifica­
tion.
In nearly all States, certificates are issued by
State departments of education on the basis of
transcripts of credits and recommendations from
approved colleges and universities. Certificates
may be issued to teachers from other States if the



35

prescribed programs have been completed at ac­
credited colleges or if the teachers meet the aca­
demic and personal requirements of the State to
which they are applying. Under certain condi­
tions, usually related to a shortage of qualified
teachers, most States will issue emergency or
temporary certificates to^partially prepared teach­
ers. However, these teachers must have their cer­
tificates renewed every year until all requirements
for regular certificates have been met.
All States and many individual school systems
have certain additional requirements for public
school teaching. They may, for example, require a
health certificate, evidence of citizenship, or an
oath of allegiance. The prospective teacher should
find out about the specific requirements of the
area in which he plans to wT by writing to the
ork
State department of education or to the super­
intendent of the local school system.
Most institutions of higher education offer
teacher preparation. In a 4-year teacher-prepara­
tion curriculum, the prospective elementary school
teachers spend roughly one-fourth of the time in
professional courses learning about children, the
place of the school in the community, and ma­
terials and methods of instruction—including
student teaching in an actual school situation; the
remainder of their time is devoted to studying
liberal arts subjects. Some study of the process of
learning and human behavior is usually included.
Beginning teachers will find opportunities for
advancement through annual salary increases in
the same school system; by transferring to a sys­
tem with a higher salary schedule which recog­
nizes experience gained in another school system;
by appointment to a supervisory, administrative,
or specialized position; or by obtaining additional
preparation.
Among the most important personal qualifica­
tions for elementary school teaching are a love
and enjoyment of children. Teachers must be pa­
tient and self-disciplined, and have high stand­
ards of personal conduct. A broad knowledge and
appreciation of the arts, sciences, history, and
literature are also valuable. Civic, social, and
recreational activities of teachers may be influ­
enced, and are sometimes restricted, by the cus­
toms and attitudes of their community.

36
Employment Outlook

Many thousands of openings for elementary
school teachers will occur each year in the middle
and late 1960’s. Enrollments in kindergarten and
grades 1 through 8 will continue to rise during
this period, but at a slower rate than in the pre­
ceding decade. As a result, the demand for teach­
ers to staff newT kindergarten and elementary
school classrooms is expected to level off towards
the end of this decade. Nevertheless, it is esti­
mator that an average of about 20,000 new teachers
will be needed annually to take care of the increase
in enrollments and, in addition, an average of
about 100,000 annually will be required as replace­
ments. Each year, many teachers will reach retire­
ment age and a much larger number of young
women will withdraw from the teaching profes­
sion because of marriage or for other reasons.
Altogether, the number of additional elemen­
tary and kindergarten teachers needed will be, on
the average, about 120,000 each year during the
remainder of the 1960 decade, unless replacement
rates are reduced considerably. This figure does
not provide for the additional teachers needed to
lower the pupil-teacher ratios, to replace persons
not meeting regular requirements, to extend kin­
dergarten facilities to all areas, or to provide for
other improvements. On the other hand, class­
room innovations and technological developments
may affect the number of teachers needed.
The number of students preparing for elemen­
tary school positions each year is likely to con­
tinue to fall short of the demand for new teach­
ers. For example, in 1962, only 54,000 prepared
for such teaching positions, whereas more than
twice that number were needed. At the same time
about 56,000 public elementary school teachers
who did not meet the minimum requirements for
certification were employed. Some expansion in
the supply of qualified teachers is expected to re­
sult from the increasing college population and
the offering of special incentives such as those
provided by the National Defense Education Act
of 1958 under which financial aid is available to
selected students with superior academic back­
grounds who are planning to become elementary
or secondary school teachers. As in the past dec­
ade, the deficiency in the supply of elementary



OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

school teachers will probably continue to be met
by issuing short-term emergency certificates to
teachers not meeting regular requirements, by in­
creasing the size of classes, by the reentry of
former teachers into the profession, and by at­
tracting qualified personnel from other fields of
work. Shortages will tend to be greatest where
teachers’ salaries are lowest or where better pay­
ing employment opportunities are available in
other fields.
Earnings and Working Conditions

The average salary for classroom teachers in
public elementary schools, according to National
Education Association estimates, was $5,560 in
1962-63. In three States (Alaska, California, and
New York), teachers’ salaries averaged $6,700 or
more; in five States (Alabama, Arkansas, Missis­
sippi, North Dakota, and South Dakota), less than
$4,000.
Teachers’ salaries are usually lowest in rural
schools and highest in large city systems, where
educational and experience requirements are
likely to be highest.
Teachers generally enjoy a dignified and re­
spected position in their communities. Their em­
ployment is steady, and usually not affected by
changes in business conditions. Tenure provisions
protect teachers from arbitrary dismissal. Pen­
sion and sick leave plans are common, and a grow­
ing number of school systems grant other types of
leave with pay.
Since most schools are in session only 9 months
a year, teachers often work at other jobs or take
courses for professional growth during the sum­
mer. Some school systems, however, are extend­
ing the teachers’ working year to 12 months with
a 1-month vacation in the summer. These systems
require the teacher to teach in summer sessions or
attend workshops during the time beyond the
regular school year.
Where To Go for More Information

Information on schools and certification re­
quirements in a particular State is available from
the State department of education at the State
capital.

TEACHING

37

General information on teaching may be ob­
tained from:
U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare,
Office of Education, Washington, D.C., 20202.

American Federation of Teachers,
716 North Rush St., Chicago, 111., 60611.
National Commission on Teacher Education and
Professional Standards,
National Education Association,
1201 16th St. NW, Washington, D.C., 20036.

Secondary School Teachers

(D.O.T. 0-31.01 and .10)

Nature of Work

Secondary school teachers—those employed in
junior and senior high schools—usually specialize
in a particular subject. They teach several classes
every day either in their main subject, in related
subjects, or both. The most frequent combinations
are English and history or other social science
subjects; mathematics and general science; and
chemistry and biology or general science. Teachers
in fields such as home economics, agriculture, com­
mercial subjects, driver education, music, art, and
industrial arts less frequently ponduct classes in
other subjects.

survey the average workweek of secondary school
teachers is about 46 hours including time spent in
out-of-class instructional and other duties. Main­
taining good relations with parents, the commu­
nity, and fellow teachers is an important aspect
of their jobs.
About 700,000 teachers, principals, and super­
visors were employed in the Nation’s public and
private secondary schools in 1962-63. Slightly
more than half the classroom teachers in public
secondary schools were men. Men far outnumber
women in supervisory and administrative posi­
tions in both public and private schools.
Where Employed

Courtesy of U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare

The number of grades in secondary schools de­
pends on how the local school system is organized.
Many secondary school teachers are employed
in 6-year combined junior-senior high schools
(grades 7-12); another large group of teachers
are in separate junior high schools of either two
or three grades (7-8 or 7-9); and the remainder
teach in 4-year high schools (grades 9-12) and
in senior high schools (grades 10-12).
Despite increasing urbanization, about half of
all secondary school teachers are still employed
in rural areas or in cities of less than 30,000 popu­
lation.

Recording equipment is used by high school teacher of foreign
languages

Besides giving classroom instruction from 20
to 30 hours each week, secondary school teachers
develop and plan teaching materials, develop and
correct tests, keep records, make out reports, con­
sult with parents, supervise study halls, and per­
form other duties. Many supervise student activi­
ties, such as clubs and social affairs—sometimes
after regular schools hours. According to a recent



Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement

In every State, a certificate is required for pub­
lic secondary school teaching. To qualify for this
certificate, the prospective teacher must have a
bachelor’s degree. Nearly all States also require at
least the equivalent of one-half year of education
courses, including practice teaching, plus special­
ized courses in one or more subjects commonly
taught in secondary schools.

38

Ten States require a fifth year of study or a
master’s degree within a specified period following
the teacher’s beginning employment. Many school
systems, especially in large cities, have require­
ments beyond those needed for State certification.
Some systems require additional educational prep­
aration, successful teaching experience, or special
personal qualifications.
College students preparing for secondary school
teaching usually devote about one-third of the
4-year course to their major, which may be in a
single subject or a group of related subjects. About
one-sixth of the time is spent in education courses
—learning about children, the place of the school
in the community, and materials and methods of
instruction—including student teaching in an ac­
tual school situation. The remaining time is de­
voted to general or liberal education. Satisfactory
teacher-preparation curriculums are offered by
universities with schools of education, by colleges
with strong education departments and adequate
practice-teaching facilities, and by teachers’ col­
leges.
Although certification requirements vary among
the States, the person who is well prepared for
secondary school teaching in one State usually has
little trouble meeting requirements in another
State. A well-qualified teacher can ordinarily ob­
tain temporary certification in a State while he
prepares to meet any additional requirements.
Qualified secondary school teachers may ad­
vance to positions as supervisors, assistant prin­
cipals, principals, superintendents, or other ad­
ministrative officers as openings occur. At least
1 year of professional education beyond the bache­
lor’s degree, plus several years of successful class­
room teaching are required for most supervisory
and administrative positions. Often a Ph. D. de­
gree is required for appointment as superintend­
ent. A few experienced teachers are assigned to the
positions of part- or full-time guidance counselors,
teachers who instruct in the pupils’ homes, or in­
structors of handicapped or other special groups.
Usually additional preparation, and sometimes
special certificates, are required for these assign­
ments.
Probably the most important personal qualifi­
cations for secondary school teaching are an ap­
preciation and understanding of adolescent chil­
dren. Patience and self-discipline are desirable



OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

traits as also are high standards of personal con­
duct. In addition to a special enthusiasm for the
subjects they teach, a broad knowledge and ap­
preciation of the arts, sciences, history, and litera­
ture are also desirable. Civic, social, and recrea­
tional activities of teachers may be influenced, and
sometimes restricted, by the customs and attitudes
of their community.
Employment Outlook

A growing number of secondary school teachers
will be needed during the middle and late 1960’s,
when enrollments will expand rapidly as a result
of the high birth rates following World War II.
The great increase in population reaching high
school age, combined with the trend for a growing
proportion of young people to enter and graduate
from high school, will result in an estimated av­
erage annual demand for about 25,000 additional
teachers. Furthermore, throughout this same
period, vacancies created by turnover will be more
than double the number of new positions. Alto­
gether, the projections indicate that more than
80,000 new secondary school teachers must be
recruited each year during the remainder of the
1960’s. (See chart 17.) Classroom innovations
and technological developments, however, may
affect the number of teachers needed.
The supply of persons available to fill teaching
positions each year is difficult to estimate. Al­
though most of the new teachers are drawn di­
rectly from college graduating classes, some posi­
tions are filled by former teachers (many of whom
dropped out to care for their young children), by
persons not meeting certification requirements,
and by fully qualified persons who have been in
other types of employment. Not all qualified new
graduates seek teaching positions. For example,
in June 1961, about 77,000 college graduates met
certification requirements for secondary school
teaching; of these, however, only about two-thirds
were teaching in the following academic year. The
rest were employed in positions other than teach­
ing, engaged in graduate study, were in the mili­
tary service, had become homemakers, or were
otherwise lost to the teaching field. Similarly, a
large proportion of the 88,000 potential teachers
graduated in 1962 was not available for teaching
positions. Should this situation persist, well-quali­

TEACHING

39

fied candidates seeking to enter secondary school
teaching will find employment opportunities in
most geographic areas and in most Subject fields.
About 27,000 public school secondary level teach­
ers who did not meet the minimum certification
requirements were employed in 1962.
Employment opportunities for secondary school
teachers are expected to continue to be best in
science, mathematics, foreign languages, industrial
arts, and other subject fields for which the demand
in private industry and government is also great.
When economic conditions are unfavorable, com­
petition for teaching positions increases. At such
a time, certification requirements are often raised.
Earnings and Working Conditions

The average annual salary for all classroom
teachers in public secondary schools was about
$5,995 in 1962-63, according to estimates by the
National Education Association. In Alaska, Cali­
fornia, and New York, average salaries exceeded
$7,000; the average was less than $4,000 in two
States, Arkansas and Mississippi.
Junior high school teachers frequently receive
somewhat lower salaries than high school teachers
in the same school system; however, the trend is
toward equalizing salaries of teachers with the
same educational preparation, regardless of grade
taught or sex. Teachers of vocational education,
physical education, and other special subjects of­
ten receive higher salaries for their work than do
other teachers in the same school. Under salary
schedules in effect in most school systems, teachers
in all subject fields get regular salary increases
as they gain experience and additional education.
Teachers’ salaries are usually lower in towns
and small cities than in larger cities, but higher

educational and experience requirements are likely
to prevail in large city school systems. On the av­
erage, salaries of principals in the largest cities,
where administrative responsibilities are great,
are much higher than in towns and small cities.
Salaries of superintendents are $25,000 or more
in many large cities.
Teachers often add to their incomes by teaching
in summer school, working as camp and recrea­
tional counselors, or doing other work. Many
teachers, however, use their vacations to work
toward advanced degrees or to take specialized
courses. Some teachers supplement their incomes
during the regular school year. They may teach
in adult or other evening classes, work part time
in business or industry, or write for publication.
Some form of retirement, often under Govern­
ment programs, is provided most teachers. Nearly
all school systems have some provision for sick
leave and an increasing number grant other types
of leave with pay.
Where To Go for More Information

Information on schools and certification re­
quirements in a particular State is available from
the State department of education at the State
capital.
General information on teaching may be ob­
tained from:
U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare,
Office of Education, Washington, D.C., 20202.
American Federation of Teachers,
716 North R ush St., Chicago, 111., 60611.

National Commission on Teacher Education and
Professional Standards,
National Education Association,
1201 16th St. N.W., Washington, D.C., 20036.

College and University Teachers
(D.O.T. 0-11.50)

Nature of Work

About 350,000 faculty members are employed
in the Nation’s 2,000 colleges and universities.
However, it is estimated that in 1963 only about
200,000 were engaged in full-time teaching. Close
to 100,000 were teaching part-time in medicine,
law, business administration, and other profes­



sional fields. Other faculty members were em­
ployed in administration, full-time research, or
other educational activities. Men predominated in
most college teaching fields and held about 95 per­
cent or more of the positions in engineering, the
physical sciences, agriculture, law, and philoso­
phy. Only about one-fifth of all college and uni­

40

versity teachers were women; however, the ma­
jority of teachers in the fields of nursing, home
economics, and library science were women.
College and university teachers instruct stu­
dents in specific subjects. More than half of all
faculty members teach courses in social science,
fine arts, English, physical science, education, or
engineering. In many 4-year institutions, the usual
teaching load is from 12 to 15 hours a week. As­
sociate professors and full professors—who also
serve as advisors to graduate students—may spend
only 6 or 8 hours a week in actual classroom work.
Besides teaching classes, college teachers spend
considerable time preparing tests and other ma­
terials for classroom use, checking and grading
students’ work, and keeping up to date with devel­
opments in their specialties. Many faculty mem­
bers carry on research projects, write for publica­
tion, aid in college administration, or lecture to
civic and professional groups. Some professors
act as consultants to business, industrial, scientific,
or government organizations.
Where Employed

About half of all faculty members are employed
by universities. About 25 percent are in liberal arts
colleges. Between 5 and 10 percent are employed
by teachers’ colleges, and roughly the same pro­
portion are on the faculties of community (jun­
ior) colleges. The rest (5 percent or less) are in
technological, theological, and other professional
schools.
Some States have many more colleges and uni­
versities than others, partly as a result of differ­
ences in population size. About half of all college
and university teachers are employed in these
eight States, in each of which college enrollments
exceed 100,000: New York, California, Pennsyl­
vania, Illinois, Massachusetts, Texas, Ohio, and
Michigan.
Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement

To qualify for most beginning positions, ap­
plicants must have at least the master’s degree,
and for many they must have completed all re­
quirements for the doctorate except the disserta­
tion. The doctor’s degree is often, but not always,
required for promotion or appointment to posi­
tions above the rank of instructor. The doctorate



OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

is particularly important for teaching positions
in the biological sciences, physical sciences, psy­
chology, social sciences, philosophy, and religion;
it is least likely to be a requirement in the fields of
business and commerce, engineering, fine arts,
health and physical education, and home econom­
ics. A number of States that maintain public
junior colleges require State certification for
teaching in these 2-year schools. To obtain such a
certificate, a teacher must have completed the
master’s degree and certain courses in education.
To enter college teaching, specialization in some
subject field is necessary. In addition, undergrad­
uate courses in the humanities, social sciences, and
natural sciences, and the mastery of at least one
foreign language are also an important part of
the college teacher’s educational background. In­
tensive instruction in the selected field of speciali­
zation is given in graduate school. During gradu­
ate work, outstanding students may be employed
as part-time assistants to aid in teaching under­
graduates. Such work affords valuable experience
for the prospective teacher. Some colleges offer
other means, such as informal seminars or meet­
ings, by which the graduate students can develop
teaching competence. A good many beginning col­
lege teachers—especially those in education de­
partments—have had some experience in high
school or other types of teaching.
Most 4-year colleges and universities recognize
four academic ranks: Instructor, assistant pro­
fessor, associate professor, and full professor. Few
institutions grant tenure (full status as a member
of the staff on a continuing basis) or give advance­
ment to instructors with less than 3 years of serv­
ice. Advancement to assistant and associate pro­
fessorship is generally restricted to candidates
with extensive graduate training or teaching ex­
perience. A doctor’s degree and many years of
teaching experience—from 10 to 20 years—is usu­
ally required to become a full professor. A recent
private survey indicates that among the teaching
faculty about one-quarter each are professors and
associate professors, about 30 percent are assistant
professors and close to 20 percent are instructors.
Outstanding achievement, generally through re­
search or publications, often hastens advancement.
Teachers of some subjects, such as engineering,
law, mathematics, medicine, and natural sciences,

TEACHING

are sometimes appointed at higher ranks than
other teachers with comparable experience and
education.
Employment Outlook

Openings for new entrants to college teaching
will be numerous throughout the 1960’s and will
increase greatly during the latter part of the dec­
ade. Opportunities will be best for those with
doctoral degrees and for those who have com­
pleted all requirements for the doctorate except
the dissertation. Nevertheless, there will be many
employment opportunities for new entrants with
the master’s degree, particularly in junior colleges.
A great increase in college enrollment is in pros­
pect. The number of young people in the 18- to
21-year age group will rise by more than 2 million
between 1965 and 1970. At the same time, it is
likely that the extension of college education to a
higher proportion of young people will continue—
owing to rising family income, greater demand
for college-trained personnel, and the increasing
number and proportion of the population who
finish high school and are, therefore, eligible to
enroll in college. The anticipated increase in the
number of community colleges and schools offer­
ing evening classes will also tend to make it pos­
sible for more young people to attend college. If
the proportion of young people attending college
continues to increase moderately and facilities are
available, college enrollments are expected to in­
crease from about 41/2 million at present to nearly
7 million by 1970.
To handle this increase in enrollments, thou­
sands of additional full-time teachers will be
needed annually for the rest of the 1960’s. Besides
the new teachers needed to take care of expanding
enrollments, even larger numbers are likely to be
required annually to replace persons who will re­
tire, die, or otherwise leave the profession. The
number leaving teaching each year to enter other
types of employment will depend primarily on the
level of business activity and on conditions in the
academic profession itself. Between 1963 and 1970,
an estimated 200,000 new teachers will be needed
to take care of enrollment increases and replace­
ment needs. Teaching innovations and technolog­
ical developments also may affect the number of
college teachers needed. Some educational leaders
today advocate larger classes, and more independ­



41

ent work on the part of students, to help solve the
teaching shortage.
The supply of new college teachers is comprised
largely of students receiving graduate degrees.
The U.S. Office of Education estimates that the
number of doctorates conferred during the rest of
the 1960 decade will average about 15,000 a year,
the number of master’s degrees, close to 115,000
annually. It is difficult, however, to predict the
proportion of graduates who will enter teaching.
In 1961, when the demand'was for at least 25,000
new teachers, about 90,000 persons received gradu­
ate degrees; nevertheless, shortages of qualified
teaching personnel were reported in several fields,
particularly in the physical sciences, engineering,
mathematics, and in some social science fields.
Some increase in the supply of college teachers
is anticipated because of Federal legislation en­
acted in 1958, which will make more fellowships
available to graduate students interested in college
teaching as a career. Nevertheless, it is likely that
the number of well-qualified persons available for
teaching positions will continue to be insuffi­
cient to meet the demand in many subject fields
throughout the 1960’s. (See index for page num­
bers of separate statements on each profession.)
Earnings and Working Conditions

According to the TLS. Office of Education,
teachers in 4-year colleges and universities had
an average salary of $7,680 for 9 months’ work
in 1961-62; instructors averaged $5,580; assistant
professors, $6,750; associate professors, $7,980;
and professors, $10,320. Average salaries of teach­
ers tend to be lowest in junior colleges and teach­
ers’ colleges. The Office of Education also reported
average salaries (9-10 months’ basis) for teaching
faculty of all ranks and for full professors in pub­
lic and private institutions in 1961-62 as follows:
Type of institution
Universities___________
Liberal arts colleges------Teachers colleges---- ----Junior colleges-------------

All ranks
Full professors
Public
Public Private
Private
$11,240
$8,300 $11,990
$8,620
10,360
8,410
7,710
6,640
9,010
7,220 .
6,420
7,210 5,180

Faculty members who teach the year round re­
ceive higher salaries than those employed for the
academic year only. Teachers in professional
schools (medicine, dentistry, etc.) and graduate
schools generally receive higher salaries than
teachers in other colleges.

42

Some faculty members have professional income
in addition to their regular salaries. The chief
source of supplementary income is additional
teaching (often in summer sessions) which is not
a part of the teachers’ regular duties. Consulting
work may be a major source of extra income,
particularly for teachers of engineering and physi­
cal sciences; research grants providing additional
income to faculty members are now common, espe­
cially in many large, well-known universities;
and fees for lecturing and royalties on publica­
tions are other possible sources of income. Op­
portunities for such additional income usually
increase as the faculty member gains recognition.
For the majority of colleges teachers, however,
the additional income may be small.
Retirement plans differ considerably among in­
stitutions, but an increasing number are partici­
pating in the Government social security program,
often as an accompaniment to plans of their own.
The greatest number of institutions have set 65
years as the retirement age, though nearly as many
stipulate 70.
Many colleges and universities provide benefits
such as: Sabbatical leaves of absence—typically,
1 year’s leave with half salary or a half year’s
leave at full salary after 6 or 7 years of employ­




OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

ment in the same college; other types of leave for
advanced study; life, sickness, and accident insur­
ance ; reduced tuition charges or cash-tuition
grants for children of faculty members; housing
allowances; travel funds for attending profes­
sional meetings; and other benefits.
Where To Go for More Information

Information on college teaching as a career is
available from:
U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare,
Office of Education, Washington, D.C., 20202.
American Association of University Professors,
1785 Massachusetts Ave. NW., Washington, D.C.,
20036.
American Council on Education,
1785 Massachusetts Ave. NW., Washington, DC.,
20036.
National Education Association,
1201 16th St. NW., Washington, D.C., 20036.

Professional societies in the various subject
fields will generally provide information on teach­
ing requirements and employment opportunities
in their particular fields. Names and addresses of
societies are given in the statements on specific
professions. (See index for page number.)

C O U N S ELIN G

Counseling is a large, rather loosely defined,
field of work and one that overlaps some other
professional fields. The objective of all counseling,
in its broadest sense, is to help others understand
themselves and to improve their capacity to live
and work more effectively. But it is difficult to
distinguish clearly among counselors either by the
setting in which the counseling is conducted or
the kind of counseling offered—personal, educa­
tional, or vocational. Nonetheless, despite differing
emphases, counselors are concerned with the well­
being of the, whole person in their evaluation of
an individual’s particular problem, and similari­
ties among counselors are more numerous than the
dissimilarities. For example, people who counsel
professionally need to have understanding, toler­
ance, the ability to accept others as they are, and
a concern for people combined with a capacity
for remaining objective. The training and other
qualifications required are also similar among
counselors.
This chapter deals in detail only with three
areas of counseling that are generally recognized
as separate specialties in the field: School counsel­
ing, vocational counseling, and rehabilitation
counseling.
School counselors are the largest group engaged
in counseling. They are concerned with educa­
tional and vocational goals as well as with the
day-to-day adjustment of pupils to their school
environment. Rehabilitation counselors work with
the physically or mentally disabled. Although this
counseling is, in large part, vocationally oriented,
it also involves personal counseling particularly

as it relates to the handicapping nature of the
person’s disability. Vocational counselors are con­
cerned primarily with vocational goals, job place­
ment, and work adjustment. They may work
with the young, the old, the able-bodied, and the
disabled. Employment outlook statements on
these counseling specialities are> contained in this
chapter.
As already mentioned, some people who are
identified with other professional occupations also
provide counseling services. The most closely
related occupation in this category is that of
counseling psychologist. Since it is part of the
field of applied psychology, this specialty is de­
scribed in the statement on psychologists in this
Handbook. Similarly, a great many social workers
provide counseling services to families and indi­
viduals, but their work is discussed in the state­
ment on social workers. Several other groups of
professional workers who also do some counseling
but whose primary training is in another field
(such as teaching, health service, law, or religion)
are covered elsewhere in this Handbook. (See
index for page numbers.)
Student personnel workers and other staff mem­
bers of colleges and universities make up another
large group concerned with providing counseling
services. This chapter does not deal with these
workers, nor does it include personnel workers in
government and industry who may perform some
counseling but whose primary concern is with the
efficient use of manpower in their organizations.
(See index for page number of statement on per­
sonnel workers.)

School Counselors

(D.O.T. 0-36.40)
Nature of Work

School counselors help pupils make and carry
out plans for their education and work. They also




assist students in understanding and adjusting to
their school and social environment, Besides work­
ing directly with pupils, counselors consult with
43

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

44

classroom teachers, school administrators, and
parents to further the development of individual
children and the objectives of the general educa­
tional program. In addition, counselors may lead
discussion groups on topics related to improving
students’ performance in school. Many counsel
only part time, and may also teach classes in oc­
cupations, social studies, or other subjects.
Counselors interview students to obtain relevant
information that will help these young people un­
derstand their own interests and abilities. Addi­
tional information about each student may be ob­
tained from tests, administered by a specialist in
testing or by the counselor, and from school and
medical records. These data are analyzed and
interpreted by the counselor who then works with
the student to plan an appropriate course of
action.

i WORK?

student’s plans, counselors maintain files or
libraries of occupational, college, and other in­
formation, arrange for showing of educational
and vocational films, schedule appointments with
college admissions officers, conduct “career day”
programs, or arrange trips to factories, business
firms, and colleges. A sizable number of counselors
make followup studies of recent graduates and
dropouts and cooperate in surveys of local job
opportunities. They may also conduct or cooperate
in research concerning the effectiveness of the
educational program.
The methods used in counseling elementary
school children necessarily differ in many respects
from those used with older students. Special tests
and play activity are among the additional tech­
niques used with children in the lower grades. Ele­
mentary school counselors often serve more than
one school.
As with classroom teachers, many full-time
counselors perform a variety of other duties, such
as supervising school clubs or other extra-class
activities (often after regular school hours). In
some schools, counselors do their own recordkeep­
ing and other paperwork; however, most large
schools provide clerical assistance.
Where Employed

Courtesy of U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare
High school counselor discusses college requirements

Counselors in junior and senior high schools
assist students in selecting courses which fit in
with their career or college plans. They make in­
formation available on colleges and college ad­
mission requirements. They may also aid students
in selecting other types of post-high school train­
ing and in finding part-time work while in school
or full-time employment after leaving school. To
aid students and their parents in developing the



Approximately 36,000 persons performed some
counseling functions in the public secondary
schools during the 1961-62 school year, according
to the U.S. Office of Education. Nearly 16,000
persons were full-time counselors; another 10,000
spent at least half (but not full) time in counsel­
ing activities; and the remainder worked less than
half time as counselors. In addition, several thou­
sand secondary school teachers had 1 hour each
week free for counseling. Although no precise in­
formation is available, it is estimated that about
500 counselors work in elementary schools.
The majority of counselors are in large schools.
An increasing number of school districts, however,
are providing guidance services to their small
schools by assigning several schools to a counselor.
About one-third of all high school counselors
and two-thirds of the elementary school counselors
are women.

COUNSELING
Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement

As a rule, school counselors must meet the re­
quirements for a State teaching certificate. (See
statements for Kindergarten and Elementary
School Teachers and for Secondary School Teach­
ers.) In addition, all but five States (as of mid1962) issue certificates for school counseling only
to applicants who meet certain minimum qualifi­
cations concerning training and experience in the
counseling and guidance field. For certification,
all of these States require some graduate level
work in the guidance field, and over half stipulate
a master’s degree or its equivalent in counselor
education. Experience requirements for such cer­
tification range from 1 to 5 years in teaching; in
many States at least 1 year of work experience
outside the teaching field is also required. A pri­
vate survey of high school counselors conducted
in early 1960 indicated that of the counselors
spending at least half their time in counseling
activities, 43 percent were certified at that time.
Undergraduate college students interested in be­
coming school counselors usually take the regular
program of teacher education, preferably with
additional courses in psychology and sociology.
After graduating from college, they may acquire
the needed teaching or other experience, either
before or while studying for their advanced de­
grees. In some school systems, teachers who have
completed half of the courses required for the
master’s degree may counsel under supervision
while taking additional courses. The subjects of
the required graduate level courses usually include
lectures on the counseling process, understanding
the individual, educational and occupational op­
portunities, and testing and measurement. Some
knowledge of statistics is also necessary for inter­
preting tests. Counselor education programs at the
graduate level are available in more than 200
colleges and universities, most frequently in the
departments of education or psychology. To ob­
tain a master’s degree, a student must complete
1 to 2 years of graduate study. Supervised practice
in guidance is provided in an increasing number
of training programs.
Advancement for school counselors is most
frequently related to supervisory or other ad­
ministrative positions within the school system.
For those with a Ph. D. degree, advancement may



45

be to college teaching positions in the guidance
field.
Employment Outlook

Employment opportunities for well-trained
school counselors are expected to be excellent
throughout the 1960’s. A persistent shortage of
qualified counseling personnel has existed in all
States for many years, according to the U.S. Office
of Education, and this situation is likely to con­
tinue for at least several years. The recent tend­
ency among the States to increase minimum en­
trance requirements for counselors, particularly
as they relate to graduate level training, has
tended to intensify, at least temporarily, the exist­
ing shortage of qualified workers.
Many hundreds of new counselors will be re­
quired each year to replace those leaving the pro­
fession. According to recent data from the U.S.
Office of Education, about 10 percent of all counse­
lors leave the field annually because of family re­
sponsibilities, retirement, promotion to adminis­
trative jobs, or for other reasons. In addition,
counseling services will have to be expanded con­
siderably each year during the decade just to keep
pace with the growth in school enrollments. Thus,
a substantial need for new counselors will exist
without allowing for any further strengthening of
counseling services. The average ratio of counse­
lors to students in the country as a whole is still
well below generally accepted standards—despite
the financial aid which the Federal Government
has provided to States for school counseling pro­
grams under the National Defense Education Act
of 1958, as amended.
Over the long run, the demand for counseling
services will remain strong. Vocational counseling
will be needed by the great number of young stu­
dents who will be preparing to enter the labor
force for the first time, on a permanent basis, dur­
ing the late 1960’s. These students will need in­
formation such as that on rising educational re­
quirements for entry jobs, the job changes effected
by automation and other technology, and on where
employment is to be found. Public concern over
the employment problems of school dropouts is
placing increasing pressure on the school counse­
lors to help prepare these students for employ­
ment before they leave school. Also contributing

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

46

to the increased demand for counseling services
is the growing public awareness of the value of
guidance services in helping students with per­
sonal and social problems which, in turn, may
help reduce the number of school dropouts. In
addition, there is increasing recognition of the
need to identify and counsel talented children at
an early age, so they may develop with maximum
benefit both to themselves and to the Nation.
In addition to limitations in the supply of quali­
fied counselors, the extent of guidance services in
different localities will continue to be related to
the wealth of the community and to the priority
which school administrators and the community
assign to guidance services in school planning.
Although communities may favor the expansion
of counseling services, the necessary money may
not be made available because of competing needs
for funds. In recent years, however, budget alloca­
tions for counseling activities have been increas­
ing, and this trend is expected to continue, leading
to a growing demand for counselors in most parts
of the country.
Earnings and Working Conditions

A private survey of counselors found that the
average annual salaries of most counselors in 1962
were within the range of $6,000 to $7,000. Many
school counselors have annual earnings higher
than those of classroom teachers with comparable
educational preparation and experience. (See
statements on Kindergarten and Elementary

School Teachers and Secondary School Teachers.)
Some of these counselors have extra earnings be­
cause they work 1 or 2 months longer each year
than the classroom teachers. However, some school
systems pay counselors an additional amount un­
related to months worked.
In most school systems, counselors receive regu­
lar salary increases as their counseling experience
increases and as they obtain additional education.
Some counselors supplement their income by parttime employment in consulting or other work with
private or public counseling centers, government
agencies, or private industry. Those with superior
qualifications may have opportunities for summer
employment, especially as teachers in counselor­
training institutes.
Where To Go for More Information

Information on colleges and universities offer­
ing training in guidance and counseling, as well as
on the certification requirements of each State,
may be obtained from the State department of
education at the State capital and from the U.S.
Department of Health, Education, and Welfare,
Office of Education, Guidance and Counseling
Programs Branch, Washington, D.C., 20202.
Additional information on this field of work
may be obtained from;
American Personnel and Guidance Association,
1605 New Hampshire Ave. NW., Washington, D.C.,
20009.

Rehabilitation Counselors
(D.O.T. 0-36.40)

Nature of Work

The rehabilitation counselor interviews each
physically or mentally disabled person to obtain
as much information as possible about him, his
emotional problems, and the nature of his disabil­
ity. During the early interviews, the counselor
attempts to establish free and easy communication
to ensure a relationship of mutual trust and con­
fidence. Information developed in the interviews
is used with other medical, psychological, and
social data to help the handicapped person in
evaluating himself in relation to the kind of work



that is suitable to his physical and mental capacity,
interests, and talents. A plan of rehabilitation
may then be worked out jointly by the counselor,
the handicapped person, and those providing
medical treatment and other special services. The
counselor holds regular interviews with the dis­
abled person to discuss the program, check on the
progress made, and help resolve problems. When
employment becomes appropriate the counselor
assists in finding a suitable job and often makes
followup visits to be sure that the placement is
satisfactory.

COUNSELING

47

An increasing number of counselors specialize
in a particular area of rehabilitation; for example,
some work almost exclusively with the blind, some
with alcoholics, and others with the mentally ill
or retarded. Additional specialities are expected to
develop as services for other types of difficult cases
are included in rehabilitation programs.

Where Employed

Every State provides a public rehabilitation
program that is financed cooperatively with Fed­
eral and State funds. In 1962, about three-fourths
of the estimated 3,000 full-time rehabilitation
counselors worked in these State and local re­
habilitation agencies. In addition, more than 350,
most of whom were counseling psychologists,
worked for the Federal Government in the Veter­
ans Administration. The remainder were em­
ployed by hospitals, labor unions, insurance com­
panies, special schools, rehabilitation centers, shel­
tered workshops, and by other public and private
agencies that conduct rehabilitation programs and
job placement for the disabled.
An estimated 10 to 15 percent of all rehabilita­
tion counselors are women.
Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement

Courtesy of National Institutes of Health
Rehabilitation counselor checks a handicapped worker’s job
adjustment

The time spent in the direct counseling of each
individual depends upon the person and the na­
ture of his disability as well as the counselor’s
workload. Some rehabilitation counselors may
have the responsibility for as'many as 200 persons
in various stages of rehabilitation; on the other
hand, those with less experience, or specialized
counselors working with the severely handi­
capped, may handle relatively few cases. In addi­
tion to working directly with the handicapped
person, the counselor must also maintain close con­
tact with other professional people working with
handicapped persons, members of their families,
other agencies and civic groups, and private em­
ployers and business groups who hire the handi­
capped. The counselor is often responsible for
related activities, such as employer education and
community publicity for the rehabilitation pro­
gram.



A general requirement for entry into this occu­
pation is graduation from a college or university
with course credits in counseling, psychology, and
related fields. At present, however, there are no
uniform requirements as to the specific kind and
amount of education needed to qualify for work
in this field. Some employers prefer to hire people
with a master’s degree who have majored in voca­
tional or rehabilitation counseling; others find
the master’s degree with a major in a related dis­
cipline—social science, psychology, education, or
social work—satisfies their needs; a few require
the Ph. D. degree, with a major in counseling psy­
chology. Work experience in related fields, such as
vocational counseling and placement, social work,
psychology, education, and other types of counsel­
ing, is also given considerable weight by some em­
ployers, especially when considering applicants
with only the bachelor’s degree.
It usually takes from iy 2 to 2 years to complete
the master’s degree in the fields of study preferred
for rehabilitation counseling. The curriculum for
the master’s degree in rehabilitation counseling
may include a basic foundation in psychology and
such courses as Medical Aspects of Rehabilitation,
Cultural and Psycho-Social Aspects of Disability,
Survey of Therapeutic Care and Rehabilitation,
Legislative Aspects of Rehabilitation, Counseling
Techniques, Occupational and Educational In­

48

formation, Community Resources, and Placement
and Follow-Up.
To earn the Ph. D. degree in rehabilitation
counseling or in counseling psychology may re­
quire 4 to 6 years of graduate study. For the
doctorate, intensive training in psychology, other
social sciences, and the biological sciences as well
as research methodology is required.
In 1962, 32 colleges and universities offered fi­
nancial assistance to a limited number of graduate
students specializing in rehabilitation counseling
through training grants provided by the U.S.
Department of Health, Education, and Welfare,
Vocational Rehabilitation Administration. In
these graduate programs an internship (super­
vised work in a rehabilitation setting) is required.
About three-fourths of State rehabilitation
agencies require applicants to comply with State
civil service and merit system rules, and this pro­
portion is steadily increasing. In most cases these
regulations require the applicants to take a written
competitive examination, which is sometimes sup­
plemented by an individual interview and evalua­
tion by a board of examiners. A few States require
counselors to be residents of the State in which
they work.
Counselors with little experience are usually
assigned the least difficult cases; experienced and
highly trained counselors are assigned persons
with the extreme or multiple disabilities that rep­
resent difficult rehabilitation problems. After ob­
taining considerable experience, rehabilitation
counselors may be advanced to supervisory posi­
tions or to top administrative jobs.
Among the personal qualifications needed for
success in this field are an understanding of human
behavior, patience, and a capacity for working
with people in solving their problems.
Employment Outlook

Employment opportunities' for well-qualified
rehabilitation counselors are expected to remain
excellent throughout the 1960 decade. The short­
age of counselors that has been evident since
World War II seems likely to persist for a number
of years. Persons with graduate work in rehabili­
tation counseling or in a related field will have the
best opportunities for employment. Opportunities
will also be available to applicants with a bache­



OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

lor’s degree and some related work experience, but
employers are placing increasing emphasis on the
master’s degree as the minimum education stand­
ard for the profession.
The present supply of rehabilitation counselors
is inadequate to meet the counseling needs of the
mentally and physically handicapped. Most of the
disabled war veterans have been rehabilitated,
but the number of other people needing rehabili­
tation counseling is nevertheless increasing. It is
estimated by the Vocational Rehabilitation Ad­
ministration that at least 2 million persons in the
Nation need rehabilitation counseling now; and
that an average of about 600 new counselors
will be needed annually during the rest of the
1960 decade to staff new and expanding programs
and to replace counselors who leave the profession.
This annual demand exceeds considerably the
number presently being trained and entering the
field. Over the next few years, the supply of
rehabilitation counselors will probably be aug­
mented to some extent by people from related
fields, but the most closely related disciplines (psy­
chology, social work, and education) are those in
which the demand for graduates also generally
exceeds the supply.
Among the factors contributing substantially
to the long-run demand for the services of reha­
bilitation counselors will be: population growth,
with related increases in the number of handi­
capped to be served; the extension of vocational
rehabilitation to the more difficult and chronic
disabilities; and the anticipated increases in
public and private funds allocated to these serv­
ices, because of the increasing support for social
welfare in general, and because of the growing
awareness that expenditures for rehabilitation are
often returned as savings on appropriations for
programs involving health and custodial care,
public assistance, and other types of welfare.
Earnings and Working Conditions

In mid-1962, the beginning average (median)
salary paid rehabilitation counselors employed in
State agencies was $5,400 according to the U.S.
Department of Health, Education, and Welfare,
and the average salary of experienced counselors
was $6,660. Counselors with a doctorate in psy­

COUNSELING

49

chology working with the disabled in the Veter­
ans Administration were hired in early 1963 at
annual salaries ranging generally from $8,045 to
$11,150, depending on the applicant’s experience
and other qualifications.
Counselors may spend only part of their time
counseling in their offices and the remainder in
the field working with prospective employers,
training agencies, and the disabled person’s
family. For the field work it is often necessary
to be able to drive a car.
Generally, rehabilitation counselors work a 40hour week or less with little overtime work re­
quired; however, they often attend community
and civic meetings in the evenings. They are
usually covered by sick and annual leave benefits,
and pension and health plans.

Where To Go for More Information

Additional information on rehabilitation coun­
seling as a career may be obtained from:
American Personnel and Guidance Association,
1605 New Hampshire Ave. NW., Washington, D.C.,
20009.
American Psychological Association, Inc.,
Division of Counseling Psychology,
304 East 45th St., New York, N.Y., 10017.
National Rehabilitation Association,
1025 Vermont Ave. NW., Washington, D.C., 20005.

A list of colleges and universities that have re­
ceived grants to provide rehabilitation traineeships on a graduate level is available from:
U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare,
Vocational Rehabilitation Administration, Washing­
ton, D.C., 20201.

Vocational Counselors

(D.O.T. 0-36.40)

Nature of Work

Vocational counselors (including employment
counselors) help people develop and accept an
adequate career goal that will bring personal satis­
faction. They assist clients by planning with them
on how to prepare for, enter, and progress in
their work. The extent of the counseling assistance
available, however, differs among agencies pro­
viding such service. In State employment service
offices, for example, counseling most commonly
relates to short-run employment goals and in­
volves a limited amount of counseling. In private
agencies, on the other hand, the focus, typically,
is on longrun vocational goals with more extensive
analysis and counseling.
Counselors interview the person seeking their
counsel to obtain vocationally significant informa­
tion about his personal traits, interests, training,
work experience, and work attitudes. During or
after such sessions, counselors record the appli­
cant’s responses to their questions as well as their
own general observations about the interview.
They may assist the individual in filling out
questionnaires concerning his personal history and
background, which are then reviewed together.
Additional data on the person’s general intelli­
gence, aptitudes and abilities, physical capacities,
692-408 O— 6i

-5




knowledge, skills, interests, and values are also
obtained from tests and personal inventories
which may be administered or recorded by the
counselor or a specialist in testing. Further in­
formation may be assembled by the counselor or
by the client from sources such as former em­
ployers, schools, and health or other agencies.
In subsequent interviews, and to the extent that
time permits, counselors assist the applicant in
evaluating and understanding his own work po­
tential and provide him the information he needs

Vocational counselor seeks information from client about his
interests, training, and work experience

50

in making plans appropriate to his talents and
interests. Job requirements and employment op­
portunities or training facilities are discussed. An
employment plan is jointly developed by the coun­
selor and his client, and a training or work pro­
gram may be developed. In some agencies a voca­
tional plan may be worked out in a staff con­
ference—which may be attended by supervisors,
the psychologist, the testing specialist, and a labor
market or occupational analyst.
In many cases, counselors help find a suitable
job by suggesting possible employment sources
and appropriate w^ays of applying for w^ork. They
may also contact prospective employers on be­
half of applicants. After job placement has been
completed, counselors may follow up to see if help
with work adjustment is needed.
Counselors may also devote some time to de­
veloping job contacts in the community through
conferences with employers. Often they conduct
group meetings on employment opportunities.
Where Employed

The great majority of counselors—1,000 full
time and 2,000 part time—are employed in State
employment service offices where the main focus
is on employment counseling. The next largest
number—probably about 500—work for various
private or community agencies offering vocational
counseling, primarily in the larger cities. In
addition, some work in institutions such as pris­
ons, mental hospitals, and training schools for
delinquent youths. The Federal Government em­
ploys a limited number of vocational counselors,
chiefly in the Bureau of Indian Affairs and the
Veterans Administration. Some people trained in
vocational counseling are engaged in research or
graduate teaching in the vocational guidance field.
About half of all vocational counselors are women.
Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement

The generally accepted minimum educational
requirement for employment counselors in State
employment service offices is a bachelor’s degree,
preferably with a major in one of the social
sciences, with some course work in counseling and
psychology. Private and community agencies have
not agreed upon minimum entrance requirements,
but most of them prefer, and many require, a



OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

master’s degree in vocational counseling or in a
related field such as psychology, personnel ad­
ministration, education, or public administration.
Most private agencies prefer to have at least one
staff member with a Ph. D. in counseling or a re­
lated field. For those lacking an advanced degree,
employers usually emphasize experience in closely
related work such as rehabilitation counseling, em­
ployment interviewing, school or college counsel­
ing, or teaching.
The public employment service offices in each
State provide in-service training programs for
their new counselors or trainees; their experienced
counselors are often given some additional outservice training in counseling at nearby colleges
and universities or, in some cases, at summer in­
stitutes. Private and community agencies also
often provide in-service training opportunities.
The professional educational curriculum for
employment counselors generally includes, at the
undergraduate level, a basic foundation in psy­
chology with some emphasis on sociology. At the
graduate level, requirements usually include
courses such as Techniques of Appraisal and
Counseling for Vocational Adjustment, Group
Guidance Methods, Counseling Followup Tech­
niques, Psychological Tests in Vocational Coun­
seling, Educational Psychology, Psychology of
Occupations, Industrial Psychology, Job Analysis
and Theories of Occupational Choice, and some
course work in research methods and statistics.
Counselor education programs at the graduate
level are available in more than 200 colleges and
universities, most frequently in the department
of education or psychology. To obtain a master’s
degree, students must complete 1 to 2 years of
graduate study which often includes supervised
practice in counseling.
An increasing number of States require counse­
lors in their public employment offices to meet
State civil service or merit system requirements
that include certain minimum educational and ex­
perience standards. They may also require a
written or oral examination, or both.
Counselors who demonstrate that they are well
qualified may, after considerable experience, ad­
vance to supervisory or administrative positions
in their own or other organizations; some may be­
come directors of agencies or of other counseling
services, or area supervisors of guidance; some be­

COUNSELING

came consultants; and others, with the doctorate,
may obtain teaching appointments as professors
in the guidance field.

51

upon community or private funds which may be
limited because of competing demands.
Earnings and Working Conditions

Employment Outlook

Vocational counselors with a master’s degree
and those with recognized related experience in
the field will have excellent employment oppor­
tunities in both public and private agencies for
the rest of the 1960 decade. In addition, college
graduates with only a bachelor’s degree who are
interested in trainee positions as employment
counselors will find many opportunities in State
and local employment service offices.
The demand for well-qualified vocational coun­
selors is expected to be strong for some time to
come, owing in part to new Federal legislation
(the Manpower Development and Training Act
and the Trade Expansion Act, both passed in
1962) that provides for counseling in connection
with the occupational training or retraining of
large numbers of unemployed workers. In addi­
tion to the expanding counseling activities result­
ing from these programs, a sharp increase is ex­
pected in the number of young workers entering
the labor force for the first time during the late
1960’s. These young people will need guidance to
prepare them adequately for employment in a
fast-changing job world. Furthermore, vocational
counseling is being recognized increasingly as a
valuable tool in combating many social problems;
for example, it aids in restoring persons receiving
public assistance to independence, in keeping
young people in school, and in identifying desira­
ble employment goals for school dropouts. In ad­
dition to counselors needed for expanding pro­
grams, many are needed each year to replace work­
ers who retire, die, or leave the profession for
other reasons.
In the future, as in the past, the chief limita­
tion on the expansion of both public and com­
munity vocational counseling services will be the
availability of funds. Counseling in public em­
ployment agencies is dependent on the allocation
of Federal and State moneys for these services;
counseling in the community agencies is dependent




The annual average (median) salary for begin­
ning employment counselors in the State employ­
ment service offices was $4,760 in mid-1962; for
experienced employment counselors, the average
salary was $5,915. Scattered reports from a few
voluntary agencies in large cities indicate that
trainees for vocational counseling positions were
being hired at about $5,500 a year; annual salaries
reported for experienced counselors ranged up to
$8,500. In early 1963, trainees in Federal agencies
generally started at $5,540 a year; experienced
counselors were hired at salaries ranging between
$6,675 and $8,045 depending on their qualifications
and experience.
Most counselors work 40 hours a week or less
and have various benefits, including vacations,
sick leave, pension plans, and insurance coverage.
Counselors employed in community agencies may
often work overtime.
Where To Go for More Information

General information on employment or voca­
tional counseling may be obtained from :
American Personnel and Guidance Association, Inc.,
1605 New Hampshire Ave. NW., Washington, D.C.,
20009.
U.S Department of Health, Education, and Welfare,
Office of Education, Guidance and Counseling Pro­
grams Branch, Washington, D.C., 20202.

Information on entrance requirements for posi­
tions in the public employment service offices may
be obtained from the State civil service or merit
system office in each State capital or from local
employment offices.
A list of about 160 private agencies offering
vocational counseling services that meet certain
professional criteria set forth by the American
Board on Counseling Services, Inc., is provided in
the “Directory of Approved. Counseling Agencies,
1963-64,” available from the American Personnel
and Guidance Association, Inc., at $2 a copy.

H E A L T H SER V IC E O C C U P A T IO N S

Nearly everyone knows something about the
professional services provided by doctors, dentists,
and pharmacists. Many people also have some
first-hand knowledge of the duties of nurses, at­
tendants, and other workers who take care of pa­
tients in hospitals. Less well known, but likewise
of great importance to the public health, are the
large number of people employed behind the
scenes in other health service occupations such as
laboratory or X-ray technician. Altogether, more
than 2 million people were employed in the health
field in 1962. Employment in this field has in­
creased by more than 40 percent since 1950—
nearly three times the increase for all employed
persons.
Nurses, physicians, pharmacists, and dentists
make up the largest of the professional health
occupations; in 1962, the numbers in these occu­
pations ranged from about 100,000 dentists to
550,000 registered professional nurses. Other pro­
fessional health occupations with sizable employ­
ment are dietitian, veterinarian, optometrist,
chiropractor, osteopathic physician, and hospital
administrator. Other health service workers in­
clude technicians of various types, such as medical
technologists, medical X-ray technicians, dental
hygienists, and dental laboratory technicians.
Large numbers—nearly three-quarters of a mil­
lion—work as practical nurses and auxiliary nurs­
ing workers, including orderlies, nursing aids,
hospital attendants, and psychiatric assistants.
Workers in the health field are employed in
many kinds of places including hospitals, clin­
ics, laboratories, pharmacies, nursing homes, in­
dustrial plants, private offices, and patients’
homes. Those employed in health-related occupa­
tions are concentrated in the more heavily popu­
lated and prosperous sections of the Nation and
in big cities, but some are in every village and
town.
52




Many women are employed in the health field.
Nursing, the largest of the major health service
occupations, is second only to teaching as a field
of professional employment for women. Other
health service occupations in which women pre­
dominate are practical nurse, medical X-ray
technician, medical technologist, dietitian, physi­
cal therapist, occupational therapist, dental hy­
gienist, and medical record librarian. On the other
hand, the majority of dentists, optometrists, phy­
sicians, veterinarians, and pharmacists are men.
The educational and other requirements for
work in the health field are as diverse as the health
occupations themselves. For example, professional
health workers—physicians, dentists, pharmacists,
and others—must complete a number of years of
preprofessional and professional college educa­
tion and pass a State licensing examination. On
the other hand, some health service occupations
can be entered with little specialized training.
A continued rapid expansion of employment in
the health field is expected during the middle and
late 1960’s, although the rate of growth will differ
considerably among the various health service
occupations. In general, the factors which have
contributed to an increase in the demand for
health care in the recent past will probably con­
tinue to operate. Among these factors are the
country’s expanding and aging population, the
rising health consciousness of the general public,
the extension of hospitalization and medical in­
surance plans, the rapid expansion of expenditures
for medical research, and the continued provision
of health care for veterans and members of the
Armed Forces and their families. In addition,
many new workers will be needed each year to
replace those who retire, die, or—particularly in
the case of women—leave the field for other
reasons. Thus, there will be many opportunities
for employment in the health field over the rest of
the decade and in the longer run.

HEALTH SERVICE OCCUPATIONS

53

Registered Professional Nurses

(D.O.T. 0-33.)

Nature of Work

Registered professional nurses provide nursing
services to patients, either by giving direct care or
through supervising allied nursing personnel.
They administer medications and treatments pre­
scribed by physicians; observe, evaluate, and re­
cord symptoms, reactions, and progress of pa­
tients; assist in patient education and rehabilita­
tion ; improve the physical and emotional environ­
ment of patients; instruct auxiliary personnel or
students; and perform other duties concerned
with the care of the sick and injured, prevention
of illness, and promotion of good health.

Student nurse sets practical experience in caring for a patient

The largest group of professional nurses are
hospital nurses who care for patients in hospitals
or related institutions. Most of these are general
duty nurses, who perform skilled bedside nursing
such as caring for a patient after an operation,
assisting with blood transfusions and intravenous
feedings, and giving medications. They also often
supervise auxiliary nursing workers. Some hospi­
tal nurses serve primarily in the operating room,
assisting surgeons with operations. Others limit



their work to certain types of patients such as
children or the mentally ill; still others are en­
gaged primarily in administrative work in
hospitals.
Private duty nurses are employed directly by
patients or their families to give individual nurs­
ing care, usually to one patient, when constant at­
tention is needed. Sometimes, in a hospital, one
private duty nurse may take care of a few pa­
tients who require special nursing care but not
full-time attention.
Office nurses are employed mainly by physicians
in private practice or in clinics, and occasionally
by dentists, to assist in the care of patients. Some­
times, they perform routine laboratory and office
work.
Public health nurses work for health agencies
and visiting nurse associations, caring for pa­
tients in clinics or visiting them in their homes.
Their duties may include giving first aid treat­
ment or periodic nursing care as prescribed by a
physician, demonstrating diet plans to groups
of patients, and arranging for immunizations.
These nurses may work with community leaders,
teachers, parents, and physicians in planning or
conducting community health education pro­
grams. Some public health nurses work in schools,
although not all school nurses are public health
nurses.
Occupational health or industrial nurses pro­
vide nursing care to employees in industry and
government, and are responsible for promoting
employee health. They may work alone (with a
doctor on call), or they may be part of a health
service staff in a large organization. According to
a doctor’s instructions, they treat minor injuries
and illnesses occurring at the place of employment,
provide continued nursing care when needed, ar­
range for further medical care if necessary, and
offer health counseling. They may also assist with
health examinations and inoculations, keep and
analyze health records of employees, and help de­
velop programs to prevent or control diseases and
accidents.
Nurse educators teach students the principles
and skills of nursing, both in the classroom and at

54

the bedside. They may also conduct refresher and
in-service courses for nurses.
Nurses also engage in numerous other activities
such as research, editing nursing journals or text­
books, and serving on the staffs of nursing or­
ganizations.
Where Employed

Two-thirds of the estimated 550,000 profes­
sional nurses employed in 1962 were hospital
nurses. Approximately 22,000 were employed by
the Federal Government, mainly by the Veterans
Administration and the Public Health Service,
and about 8,500 were serving as commissioned
officers in the Armed Forces. Nearly 70,000 were
private duty nurses who cared for patients in hos­
pitals and private homes; about 40,000 were office
nurses; public health nurses in government agen­
cies, visiting nurse associations, and clinics num­
bered 35,000; nurse educators accounted for
20,000; and occupational health *nurses, 17,000.
Most of the remainder were staff members of
professional nurse organizations or were em­
ployed by research organizations.
Approximately one-fifth of all nurses employed
in 1962 worked on a part-time basis. Less than 3
percent of all employed professional nurses are
men.
Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement

A license is required to practice professional
nursing in all States and the District of Columbia.
To obtain a license, a nurse must have graduated
from a school approved by the State board of
nursing and pass a State board examination. A
nurse may be registered in more than one State,
either by examination or endorsement of a license
issued by another State.
Graduation from high school is required for ad­
mission to all schools of nursing. Many schools
accept only graduates in the upper third or half
of their class. Demonstrated competence in science
and mathematics may also be required. Young
people considering a nursing career should have
an interest in people and a desire to care for the
sick and injured. Other personal qualifications
needed are dependability, good judgment, pa­
tience, and good physical and mental health.



OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

Three types of educational programs—diploma,
baccalaureate degree, and associate degree—offer
the basic preparation required for professional
nursing. Diploma programs are conducted by
hospital schools and usually require 3 years of
training; bachelor’s degree programs usually re­
quire 4 years of study in a college or university,
although a few require 5 years; associate degree
programs in junior and community colleges last
approximately 2 years. In late 1962, there were
1,126 programs of these 3 types in the United
States. Nearly 80 percent were diploma; 15 per­
cent, baccalaureate degree; and the rest, associate
degree programs.
All professional nursing programs include class­
room instruction and supervised nursing prac­
tice. Students generally begin their program by
studying such subjects as anatomy, physiology,
microbiology, nutrition, psychology, and basic
nursing care. Subsequently, they are given instruc­
tion and supervised experience in the care of
patients with different types of illnesses, in hospi­
tals and health facilities. Students in colleges and
some other schools are also assigned to public
health agencies and learn how to care for patients
in clinics and in the patients’ homes. General edu­
cation is combined with nursing education in bac­
calaureate and associate degree programs and in
some diploma programs.
Hospital nursing usually begins with general
duty work, from which nurses with experience
may be advanced to progressively more respon­
sible supervisory positions, such as head nurse,
supervisor, assistant director, and director of nurs­
ing service. A bachelor’s or master’s degree, how­
ever, is customarily required for supervisory and
administrative positions, as well as for positions in
nursing education and public health nursing. Al­
though some public health agencies hire nurses
who do not have degrees in public health nursing,
their advancement in these agencies is usually
limited.
Employment Outlook

Registered professional nurses are expected to
have excellent employment opportunities through­
out the remainder of the 1960’s. The outlook is
especially favorable for nurses with graduate
training to fill positions as administrators, teach­
ers, clinical specialists, and public health nurses.

HEALTH SERVICE OCCUPATIONS

Shortages have been reported in the nursing
profession for many years and are likely to persist
even though the number of professional nurses
in relation to population is rising. Although the
number of active professional nurses per 100,000
people rose from 249 in 1950 to 297 in 1962, the
demand in 1962 exceeded the supply in many parts
of the country. The supply is primarily deter­
mined by the number of girls graduating from
high school who enter and complete nurses’ train­
ing. At present, not enough students are entering
the field to meet growth and replacement needs;
however, this situation is likely to improve some­
what as a result of the substantial increase in the
number of high school graduates, beginning with
the school year 1964-65. The supply of nurses will
also continue to come partly from reentry—at
least on a part-time basis—of inactive nurses, who
represent a very high proportion of all registered
professional nurses.
Among the principal factors which will con­
tinue to contribute to the rising demand for
nurses, over the long run, are population growth
and the increased proportions of very young and
old people in the population. Other factors in­
clude: Improved economic status of the popula­
tion ; widespread membership in hospital and
medical insurance plans; expansion of medical
services as a result of new medical techniques and
drugs; and increased interest in preventive medi­
cine and rehabilitation of the handicapped. Re­
placement needs are high—many professional
nurses leave active nursing each year, primarily
because of marriage and family responsibilities.
Thus, in addition to the many nurses required to
fill new positions, at least 25,000 will be needed
annually throughout the remainder of the 1960’s
as replacements.
Earnings and Working Conditions

Information on the earnings of professional
nurses is scattered and refers to different time
periods. The most recent information available
is summarized below.
The average annual salary of general duty
nurses in non-Federal general hospitals was $3,900
in early 1963, according to the National League
for Nursing. Head nurses and supervisors usually
earned more.



55

Fees for private duty nurses generally were be­
tween $15 and $20 for a basic 8-hour day in 1961,
according to the American Nurses’ Association
(ANA). Office nurses were earning $4,320 a year,
on the average, when surveyed by the ANA in
1962. Average salaries of public health nurses
employed by local government agencies in 1962
were $4,902, as indicated by a National League
for Nursing study. Industrial nurses earned aver­
age weekly salaries ranging from $75 in Green­
ville, S.C., and $100 in Toledo, Ohio, to $118.50 in
the Beaumont—Port Arthur, Tex., area, according
to a survey by the Bureau of Labor Statistics in
late 1961 and early 1962. Average salaries of in­
dustrial nurses in about half the 61 areas for which
earnings data on nurses were reported ranged be­
tween $95 and $105 a week.
Nurse educators and administrators had an
average (median) salary of $5,150 in schools of
professional nursing when surveyed by the ANA
in 1960.
The Veterans Administration offered inexperi­
enced nurses with diploma and associate degrees
an annual salary of $5,035, and baccalaureate
graduates, $5,820 in early 1963. In other Federal
Government agencies, the entrance rate for nurses
was $4,565 for graduates of 3-year training pro­
grams or for graduates of 2-year schools who had
1 year of experience or additional nursing educa­
tion. The beginning salary in early 1963 for nurse
officers (second lieutenants and ensigns) in mili­
tary services was $4,265, including allowances.
Those with bachelor’s degrees who were commis­
sioned in the U.S. Public Health Service received
salary and allowances totaling $4,828 a year.
Virtually all nurses receive extra pay for work
on evening or night shifts and at least 2 weeks
of paid vacation after 1 year of service. Most
hospital nurses receive from 5 to 13 paid holidays
a year and also some type of health and retirement
benefits.
Where To Go for More Information

Information on approved schools of nursing,
nursing careers, Future Nurses Clubs, and scholar­
ships may be obtained from:
National League for Nursing, Committee on Careers,
10 Columbus Circle, New York, N.Y., 10019.

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

56

Information on salaries, working conditions,
and employment opportunities may be obtained
from:
American Nurses’ Association,
10 Columbus Circle, New York, N.Y., 10019.

Information about employment opportunities
in the Veterans Administration is available from:
Department of Medicine and Surgery,
Veterans Administration, Washington, D.C., 20420.

Physicians

(D.O.T. 0-26.10)
Nature of Work

Physicians diagnose diseases and treat people
who are ill or in poor health. In addition, they are
concerned with the prevention of disease and with
the rehabilitation of people who are injured or ill.
Physicians generally examine and treat patients
in their own offices and in hospitals, but they also
visit patients at home when necessary. Some phy­
sicians combine the practice of medicine with re­
search or teaching in medical schools. Others hold
full-time research or teaching positions or perform
administrative work in hospitals, professional as­
sociations, and other organizations. A few are
primarily engaged in writing and editing medical
books and magazines.
About one-third of the physicians engaged in
private practice are general practitioners—often
referred to as “family doctors” ; the others are
specialists in 1 of the 32 fields recognized by the

medical profession. In recent years, there has been
a marked trend toward specialization. Among the
largest specialities are internal medicine, surgery,
obstetrics and gynecology (childbirth and wo­
men’s diseases), psychiatry (mental disorders),
pediatrics (medical care of children), radiology
(use of X-ray and other radioactive sources),
ophthalmology (the eye and its diseases), and
pathology (diagnosing changes in body tissues).
Where Employed

About 250,000 physicians were professionally
active in the United States in mid-1962. The great
majority—over 175,000—were engaged in private
practice. About 34,000 were interns or residents
in hospitals, and another 10,000 held regular posi­
tions on hospital staffs. More than 20,000 physi­
cians were serving as commissioned officers in the
Armed Forces or were employed in Federal Gov­
ernment agencies, chiefly in the hospitals and
clinics of the Veterans Administration and the
Public Health Service. The remainder were em­
ployed in private industry, State and local health
departments, medical schools, research founda­
tions, and professional organizations.
In 1962, nearly 40 percent of all physicians were
in the five most populous States: New York, Cali­
fornia, Pennsylvania, Illinois, and Ohio. In gen­
eral, the Northeastern States have the highest
ratio of physicians to population and the South­
ern States, the lowest. General practitioners are
much more widely distributed geographically
than specialists, who tend to be concentrated in
the larger cities.
Training and Other Qualifications

Courtesy of National Institutes of Health
Surgery is one of the largest medical specialties




A license to practice medicine is required in all
States and the District of Columbia. To qualify
for a license, a candidate must graduate from an

HEALTH SERVICE OCCUPATIONS

approved medical school, pass a licensing exam­
ination, and—in 32 States and the District of
Columbia—serve a 1-year hospital internship. As
of 1962, 18 States permitted a physician to be
licensed immediately after graduation from medi­
cal school, but even in these States an internship
is always necessary for acceptance by the profes­
sion. Twenty-two States and the District of Co­
lumbia require candidates to pass an examination
in the basic sciences to become eligible for the
medical licensing examination.
Licensing examinations are given by State
boards. The National Board of Medical Examin­
ers also gives an examination which is accepted by
43 States and the District of Columbia as a substi­
tute for State examinations. Although physicians
licensed in one State can usually obtain a license
to practice in another without further examina­
tion, some States limit this reciprocity.
In early 1963, there were 86 schools in the
United States in which students could begin the
study of medicine. Eighty-two awarded the de­
gree of doctor of medicine (M.D.) to those com­
pleting the 4-year course; 3 offered 2-year courses
in the basic sciences to students who could then
transfer to regular medical schools for the last
2 years of study. The remaining school (set up as
a 4-year institution) had not yet graduated its
first class and was, therefore, only provisionally
approved. Because the number of people apply­
ing to medical schools exceeds the beginning en­
rollment capacity, preference is given to the most
highly qualified applicants.
Most medical schools require applicants to have
completed at least 3 years of college education for
admission, and a few require 4 years. The great
majority of students entering medical schools
have completed 4 years of college. A few medical
schools allow^ selected students with exceptional
qualifications to begin their professional study
after completion of 2 or 3 years of college. These
students are usually awarded a bachelor’s degree
while in medical school.
Premedical study must include courses in Eng­
lish, physics, biology, and inorganic and organic
chemistry in an accredited college. Students are
also encouraged to acquire a broad general educa­
tion by taking courses in the humanities, mathe­
matics, and the social sciences. Other factors con­
sidered by medical schools in selecting students



57

include the individual’s college record; the stand­
ing of the college where his premedical work was
taken; and his scores on the Medical College Ad­
mission Test, which is taken by almost all appli­
cants. Consideration is also given to the appli­
cant’s character, personality, and leadership
qualities, as shown by personal interviews, letters
of recommendation, and extracurricular activities
in college. In addition, many State-supported
medical schools give preference to residents of
their particular States and, sometimes, nearby
States.
The first 2 years of medical training are spent
in laboratories and classrooms, learning basic
medical sciences, such as anatomy, biochemistry,
physiology, pharmacology, microbiology, and
pathology. During the last 2 years, students spend
most of their time in hospitals and clinics under
the supervision of experienced physicians and
learn to take case histories, perform examinations,
and recognize diseases.
New physicians are increasingly taking train­
ing beyond the 1-year hospital internship. Those
who plan to be general practitioners often spend
an additional year as interns or residents in a
hospital. To become recognized as specialists,
physicians must pass specialty board examina­
tions. To qualify for these examinations, they
must spend from 2 to 4 years—depending on the
specialty-—in advanced hospital training as resi­
dents, followed by 2 or more years of practice in
the specialty. Doctors interested in teaching and
research may take graduate work leading to the
master’s or Ph. D. degree in a field such as bio­
chemistry or microbiology.
A growing number (in 1962, about 1,500 U.S.
citizens and 8,500 of foreign citizenship) who re­
ceived their medical training abroad wT serving
ere
as interns and residents in this country. To be
appointed to approved internships or residencies
in U.S. hospitals, however, graduates of foreign
medical schools (citizens of foreign countries as
well as U.S. citizens) must pass the American
Medical Qualification Examination given by the
Educational Council for Foreign Medical Gradu­
ates.
Among the personal qualifications needed for
success in this profession are a strong desire to
become a physician, above-average intelligence,
and an interest in science. In addition, prospective

58

physicians should possess good judgment, be able
to make decisions in emergencies, and have emo­
tional stability. Although some aspects of
physicians’ practice may appear to be glamorous
or dramatic, much of their work involves dealing
with human tragedy.
The majority of newly qualified physicians
open their own offices. New graduates entering
the Armed Forces are usually commissioned as
first lieutenants or lieutenants (j.g.). Physicians
who have completed their internships and enter on
active duty serve as captains in the Army and
Air Force and as lieutenants in the Navy. Gradu­
ates of accredited medical schools are eligible for
Federal Civil Service positions and for commis­
sions in the U.S. Public Health Service.
Employment Outlook

Excellent opportunities are anticipated for
physicians throughout the remainder of the
1960’s. The number of medical school graduates is
expected to increase moderately. Many medical
schools have recently expanded their facilities
and a few new schools are being planned. The
number of graduates will, therefore, rise from
about 7,200 in 1962 to an estimated 7,700 by 1970,
according to projections of the U.S. Public
Health Service. Moreover, graduates of foreign
medical schools—both U.S. citizens and others—
may continue to add to the supply. (In 1962, about
2.000 foreign-trained physicians were licensed in
the United States.) On the other hand, about
5.000 new doctors will be needed each year for the
remainder of the 1960’s to replace those who retire
or die. The remaining number will not be suf­
ficient to maintain the current ratio of physicians
to population in spite of expected increases in
medical school facilities and the establishment of
new schools.
A steady increase is expected in the demand for
physicians’ services, in both the near future and
the long run. The need for medical services will
be increased by the anticipated population growth
and change in the age composition of the popula­
tion, the rising health consciousness of the public,
and the trend toward higher standards of medi­
cal care. Extension of prepayment plans for medi­
cal care and hospitalization, continued Federal
Government provision of medical care for mem­
bers of the Armed Forces, their families, and



OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

veterans, and the continuing growth in the fields
of public health, rehabilitation, industrial medi­
cine, and mental health will also tend to bring
about a need for more doctors. In addition, ex­
panded medical research activities will require
more trained investigators; medical schools will
have openings for additional faculty members;
and the growing number of hospital training pro­
grams will require more interns and resident
physicians.
The rise in demand for physicians’ services will
be limited, to some extent, by advances in medical
science and more efficient use of medical person­
nel. The introduction of new drugs and medical
techniques, the more extensive use of assistants
trained in other health occupations, and the in­
creasing proportion of patients treated in hospi­
tals and physicians’ offices rather than at home
will probably enable individual physicians to
care for more patients. In addition, the growing
tendency of doctors to work in groups is expected
to result in a more effective use of the physician’s
time. Nevertheless, population expansion and the
general rise in use of medical services are ex­
pected to outweigh any lessening in demand for
physicians caused by other developments. For all
these reasons, the longrun outlook is very bright
for young people who have proper qualifications
and are able to gain admittance to medical school.
Women physicians, who represent about 6 per­
cent of the profession, will continue to find good
opportunities as general practitioners and as
specialists. In 1962, about 6 percent of all medical
school students were women. They were enrolled
in all schools, and one school accepted only
women.
Earnings and Working Conditions

New graduates serving as interns in 1962 had
an average (median) stipend, during this train­
ing period, of $191 a month in hospitals affiliated
with medical schools and $249 a month in other
hospitals. In many cases, interns also received
room, board, and other maintenance allowances.
The average stipend of residents during 1962 was
$248 a month in hospitals affiliated with medical
schools and $302 a month in nonaffiliated hospi­
tals. Many hospitals also provided full or partial
room, board, and maintenance allowances. During
the first year or two of independent practice,

HEALTH SERVICE OCCUPATIONS

59

physicians may earn little more than the mini­
mum needed to pay expenses but, as a rule, their
earnings rise rapidly as their practice develops.
Earnings of individual physicians depend on
factors such as the region of the country in which
they practice, income level of the patients, and
the physician’s skill and personality as well as
his length of experience. Physicians engaged in
private practice usually earn more than those in
salaried positions, and specialists usually earn
considerably more than general practitioners.
According to a survey by the U.S. Public Health
Service, the average (median) annual net income
of physicians in group practice was $22,607 in
1959; the net incomes among these physicians
ranged from $6,800 to $91,268. Those in the West
had the highest average net incomes and those in
the Northeast had the lowest.
Many physicians work long and irregular
hours. Most specialists work fewer hours each

week than general practitioners. As doctors grow
older, they tend to work shorter hours. Many,
however, continue in practice wT beyond 70
ell
years of age.
Where To Go for More Information

Persons wishing to practice in a given State
should find out about the requirements for li­
censure directly from the board of medical ex­
aminers of that State. Lists of approved medical
schools, as well as general information on pre­
medical education and medicine as a career, may
be obtained from:
Council on Medical Education and Hospitals,
American Medical Association,
535 North Dearborn St., Chicago, IU., 60610.
Association of American Medical Colleges,
2530 Ridge Ave., Evanston, 111., 60201.

Pharmacists

(D.O.T. 0-25.10)

Nature of Work

Pharmacists help to protect people’s health by
making drugs and medicines available and pro­
viding information on their use. They dispense
prescriptions ordered by physicians and other
medical practitioners and may also sell many
medicines which can be bought without prescrip­
tions. Pharmacists must understand the composi­
tion and effects of drugs and be able to test them
for purity and strength. Compounding—the ac­
tual mixing of ingredients to form powders, pills,
capsules, ointments, and solutions—is only a small
part of present-day pharmacists’ work, since
many drugs are now produced by manufacturers
in the form used by the patient.
Many pharmacists in retail drugstores or com­
munity pharmacies have sales and managerial as
well as professional duties. Besides dispensing
drugs, these pharmacists may hire and supervise
salesclerks and buy and sell other kinds of mer­
chandise. Some pharmacists, however, operate
prescription pharmacies which sell only drugs
and medical supplies. Pharmacists in hospitals
fill prescriptions and advise the medical staff on
the selection and effects of drugs; they may also



make sterile solutions, buy medical supplies, teach
in schools of nursing, and perform administrative
duties. Some pharmacists, employed as technical
sales representatives or “detail men,” by drug
manufacturers and wholesalers, inform doctors
and dentists about new drugs and sell medicines
to other pharmacists. Others teach in colleges,
perform research, supervise the manufacture of
pharmaceuticals, develop new drugs, write for
pharmaceutical journals, or do administrative
work.
Where Employed

About 103,000 of the 117,000 licensed pharma­
cists in early 1962 worked in retail pharmacies.
About half of these retail pharmacists owned
their drugstores, alone or as members of a part­
nership, and the others were salaried employees.
The remaining pharmacists were employed by
pharmaceutical manufacturers and wholesalers or
worked for hospitals. Approximately 850 were
civilian employees of the Federal Government,
working chiefly in hospitals and clinics of the
Veterans Administration and the U.S. Public

60

In compounding prescriptions, pharmacists must know about
new drugs

Health Service. In addition, some served as phar­
macists in the Armed Forces, taught in colleges
of pharmacy, or worked for other employers such
as State and local government agencies.
Nearly every town has at least one drugstore
with one or more pharmacists in attendance. Most
members of the profession, however, are employed
in or near cities and in those States which have
the greatest population.
Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement

A license to practice pharmacy is required in
all States and the District of Columbia. To obtain
a license, one must be a graduate of an accredited
pharmacy college, pass a State Board examina­
tion and, in most States, also have 1 year of prac­
tical experience under the supervision of a regis­



OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

tered pharmacist. In 12 States, part or all of this
experience must be acquired after graduation. All
States except California, Florida, Hawaii, and
New York grant a license without an examination
to properly qualified pharmacists already licensed
by another State.
In 1963, there were 76 pharmacy colleges in the
United States. Some of these were not filled to
capacity and qualified applicants could usually
expect to be accepted.
To graduate from a pharmacy college, one must
have at least 5 years of study beyond high school;
two schools require a longer period of education.
Some pharmacy colleges with a 5- or 6-year course
admit students directly from high school and
provide all the education necessary for gradua­
tion. Others provide 3 or 4 years of professional
instruction and require all entrants to have com­
pleted their prepharmacy education in an ac­
credited college or university. Prepharmacy edu­
cation usually emphasizes mathematics and basic
sciences, such as chemistry and biology, but also
includes courses in the humanities and social
sciences.
The bachelor’s degree awarded upon gradua­
tion from a pharmacy college is sufficient educa­
tional qualification for most positions in the pro­
fession. However, the master’s or doctor’s degree
in pharmacy or a related field—such as pharma­
ceutical chemistry, pharmacology (the study of
the effects of drugs on the body), pharmacognosy
(the study of the drugs derived from plant or
animal sources), or pharmacy administration—
is usually required for research work or college
teaching. Graduate study is also considered de­
sirable for pharmacists planning to work in hos­
pitals. Those interested in becoming hospital
pharmacists can sometimes secure 1- or 2-year
internships which combine graduate study and
practical experience in a hospital pharmacy.
Prospective pharmacy students should have a
good high school background in mathematics and
science. In addition, orderliness and a liking for
detail are desirable qualities for young people
entering the profession. For those planning to
become retail pharmacists, the ability to deal wfith
people and manage a business is of special im­
portance.
Pharmacists often begin as employees in retail
pharmacies. After obtaining some experience and

HEALTH SERVICE OCCUPATIONS

the necessary funds, they may open their own
pharmacies or buy established drugstores. A
pharmacist who gains experience in a chain drug­
store may advance to store manager and, later, to
a higher executive position within the company.
Hospital pharmacists with the necessary training
and experience may be advanced to chief pharma­
cist or other administrative positions!
Employment Outlook

Most new pharmacy graduates are expected
to be able to find employment readily through the
middle and late 1960’s. From 3,000 to 4,000 open­
ings will arise each year as pharmacists retire,
die, or transfer out of the profession. These open­
ings, together with the anticipated gradual
increase in new position for pharmacists, are ex­
pected to provide enough employment opportuni­
ties to absorb each year’s graduates. In 1963, em­
ployers in some localities w^ere having difficulty in
meeting their needs for pharinacists, and not
enough people with graduate degrees in pharmacy
and related fields were available for college teach­
ing and laboratory research positions.
In the long run, a moderate increase in employ­
ment of pharmacists is expected. New drugstores
will be added, particularly in residential areas or
suburban shopping centers; the country’s expand­
ing population—especially the growing number
of old people and children—and the rising stand­
ard of medical care point to an ever-increasing
demand for pharmacists’ services. The trend to­
ward larger drugstores, however, will enable
pharmacists to spend more of their time in pro­
fessional activities, thus lessening the overall de­
mand for retail pharmacists. Nevertheless, be­
cause of the trend toward shorter working hours,
many drugstores will hire additional pharmacists.
Continued expansion in pharmaceutical manu­
facturing and research is expected to provide
more opportunities for pharmacists not only in
production and research but also in distribution
and sales positions. Employment in hospitals will
probably rise with the construction of additional
facilities and the more extensive use of pharma­
cists for hospital wrork. In both the pharmaceuti­
cal industry and hospitals, the demand will be
greatest for pharmacists with graduate education.
Thus, many factors point toward continuous



61

growth in this profession. It should be borne in
mind, however, that employment of pharmacists
is closely related to the prosperity of the retail
drug industry which, in turn, depends to a large
degree on the general level of economic activity.
Women, who represent about 7 percent of all
pharmacists, will continue to find their best op­
portunities in hospital pharmacies, prescription
pharmacies, and in laboratory work, although
some are employed in all branches of the profes­
sion. Women students are accepted by all colleges
of pharmacy and in 1962 constituted about 13
percent of undergraduate enrollments.
Earnings and Working Conditions

Beginning pharmacists employed in drugstores
earned between $125 and $175 a week in 1962, ac­
cording to reports from cities in various parts of
the country. Pharmacists who owned and oper­
ated drugstores generally made more than this;
however, their earnings, and also to a lesser ex­
tent those of salaried pharmacists, are greatly
affected by the length of their workweek, the size
and geographic location of the store, and many
other factors. Beginning pharmacists employed
in hospitals generally earned from $4,500 to
$6,500 a year, and those in drug manufacturing
firms between $5,700 and $6,900 annually. The
entrance salary for newly graduated pharmacists
in the Federal Civil Service was $5,540 in early
1963; however, pharmacists with a year of ex­
perience could start at $6,675.
According to a survey made by the U.S. Public
Health Service, the average (median) annual
earnings of all full-time pharmacists w7ere $8,310
in 1961; for self-employed pharmacists, average
net earnings were $9,930, and for salaried phar­
macists, $7,800. Among salaried pharmacists,
those wrho worked in retail chain stores had the
highest average annual earnings—about $8,600;
for those employed in independent drugstores,
the average was about $7,600, and for those in
hospital or clinic pharmacies, it wT about $7,100.
as
Ketail pharmacists generally work more than
the standard 40-hour week. Drugstores are often
open in the evenings and on weekends and all
States require a registered pharmacist to be in
attendance during store hours. Despite the gen­
eral trend toward shorter hours, 48 hours is still

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

62

the basic week for many salaried retail pharma­
cists, and some work 50 hours a week or more.
Self-employed pharmacists often work more
hours than those in salaried positions. In 1961,
according to the U.S. Public Health Service, al­
most half of all self-employed pharmacists
worked 60 hours a week or more. Those who teach
or work for industry, government agencies, or
hospitals have shorter workweeks. Salaried phar­
macists frequently receive paid vacations, health
insurance, and other fringe benefits.
Where To Go for More Information

General information on pharmacy as a career
may be obtained from:

American Pharmaceutical Association,
2215 Constitution Ave. NW., Washington, D.C., 20037.

Information about retail pharmacies may be
obtained from:
National Association of Retail Druggists,
1 East Wacker Dr., Chicago, 111., 60601.

A list of accredited colleges may be obtained
from:
American Council on Pharmaceutical Education,
77 West Washington St., Chicago, 111., 60602.

Current requirements for licensure in a particu­
lar State may be obtained from the Board of
Pharmacy of that State. Information on college
entrance requirements, curriculums, and scholar­
ships is available from the dean of any college of
pharmacy.

Dentists

(D.O.T. 0-13.10)
Nature of Work

Dentists look for and fill cavities in the teeth,
straighten teeth, take X-rays of the mouth, and
treat gum diseases. Dentists also extract teeth and
substitute artificial dentures especially designed
for the individual patient. In addition, they clean
teeth and examine the mouth for diseases that
may affect a patient’s general health. They spend
most of their time with patients, but devote some
time to laboratory work—making dentures, in­
lays, and other dental appliances. Many dentists,
however—particularly in large cities—send most
of their laboratory work to commercial firms.
Some dentists employ dental hygienists to clean
patients’ teeth. They also employ other assistants
who perform office work and assist the dentist in
his “chairside” duties.
Most dentists are general practitioners who pro­
vide many types of dental care; only about 4 per­
cent are recognized as specialists. Approximately
half of these specialists are orthodontists, who
straighten teeth. The next larger number, oral
surgeons, perform operations in the mouth and
jaws. The remainder specialize in periodontology
(treating the tissues that support the teeth), prosthodontics (making artificial teeth or dentures),
pedodontics (dentistry for children), oral pathol­



ogy (diseases of the mouth), and public health
dentistry.
A few dentists—about 3 percent of the total
number—are primarily employed in work that
does not involve “chairside” practice, such as
teaching and research. Many dentists in private
practice, however, do this work on a part-time
basis.
Where Employed

About 95,000 dentists wT at work in the
ere
United States in mid-1962. Nine out of every 10
were in private practice. Of the remainder, nearly
6,000 served as commissioned officers in the Armed
Forces; about 1,200 had other types of Federal
Government positions—chiefly in the hospitals
and clinics of the Veterans Administration and
the Public Health Service; and about 1,500 held
full-time positions in schools, hospitals, or State
and local health agencies. Women dentists repre­
sented only about 2 percent of the profession.
Dentists tend to be concentrated in large cities
and in certain States. In 1961, about a third of
the dentists were in the 4 most populous States
(New York, California, Pennsylvania, and Illi­
nois) , whereas 20 States had less than 10 percent.
The region including Delaware, the District of

HEALTH SERVICE OCCUPATIONS

Dentist checks a young patient's teeth

Columbia, Maryland, New Jersey, New York,
Pennsylvania, and West Virginia had the highest
ratio of dentists to population, with 1 dentist for
every 1,442 persons in 1961. The Far West had
the second highest ratio and New England, the
third. At the other extreme was the Southeast
with an average of only 1 dentist for every 2,796
residents in 1961.
Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement

A license to practice dentistry is required in
all States and the District of Columbia. To
qualify for a license, a candidate must be a gradu­
ate of an approved dental school and pass a State
Board examination. In early 1963, 38 States and
the District of Columbia recognized the examina­
tion given by the National Board of Dental Ex­
aminers as a substitute for the written part of
the State Board examinations. One State, Dela­




63

ware, also requires new graduates to serve 1 year
of hospital internship. Most State licenses permit
dentists to engage in both general and specialized
practice. In 10 States, however, a dentist cannot
call himself a “specialist” unless he has been li­
censed as such after passing a special State ex­
amination. Few States permit dentists licensed in
other States to practice in their jurisdictions with­
out further examination.
Two years of predental college work followed by
4 years of professional training in a dental school
are the minimum educational requirements for the
profession; 7 of the 47 dental schools in operation
in the United States in early 1963 required 3 years
of predental study. Predental education must in­
clude at least a half-year course in organic chemis­
try and full-year courses in English, biology,
physics, and inorganic chemistry.
In dental college, the first 2 years are usually de­
voted to classroom instruction and laboratory
work in basic sciences such as anatomy, bacteri­
ology, and pharmacology. The last 2 years are
spent chiefly in the school’s dental clinic, treating
patients. The degree of Doctor of Dental Surgery
(D.D.S.) is awarded by most dental colleges; the
degree of Doctor of Dental Medicine (D.M.D. or
D.D.M.) is conferred by a few schools.
Keen competition exists for admittance to den­
tal schools. In selecting students, these schools
give considerable weight to college grades and
amount of college education; about 80 percent of
the students enrolled in 1961 had at least 3 years
of college education and nearly half had bache­
lor’s degrees. In addition, all dental schools par­
ticipate in a nationwide dental aptitude testing
program, and scores earned on these tests are con­
sidered along with information gathered about
the applicant through recommendations and in­
terviews. Many State-supported dental schools
also give preference to residents of their particu­
lar States.
Dentists interested in research or teaching
often take graduate work in one of the basic sci­
ences. To become recognized as a certified special­
ist, a dentist must pass specialty board examina­
tions. To qualify for these examinations, he needs
2 or 3 years of graduate education and several
years of specialized experience. Graduate train­
ing may be obtained at most schools of dentistry
or by serving an internship or residency at 1 of

64

the 233 approved hospitals that offer these pro­
grams.
The profession of dentistry requires both
manual skills and a high level of intelligence.
Dentists should have good visual memory, excel­
lent judgment of space and shape, delicacy of
touch, and a high degree of manual dexterity, as
well as scientific ability. A liking for people and
a good business sense are helpful in achieving
success in private practice.
The majority of newly qualified dentists open
their own offices or purchase established prac­
tices. Some start in practice with dentists who are
already established, to gain experience and to save
the money required to equip an office; others may
enter residency or internship training programs
in approved hospitals. Dentists entering the
Armed Forces are commissioned as captains in
the Army and Air Force and as lieutenants in the
Navy, and may progress to higher ranks. Gradu­
ates of recognized dental schools are eligible for
Federal Civil Service positions and for commis­
sions in the U.S. Public Health Service.
Employment Outlook

The demand for dental services is likely to in­
crease faster than the supply of new dentists dur­
ing the remainder of the 1960’s. The number of
dentists graduated each year is expected to in­
crease only slightly—from about 3,300 in 1961 to
an average of 3,500 per year in the second half of
the 1960 decade—and about three-fourths of each
year’s graduating class will be needed to replace
dentists who retire or die. Thus, unless the in­
crease in dental school facilities is greater than
was contemplated in early 1963, it appears that
it will be impossible to retain the present ratio of
dentists to population.
The demand for dental services is expected to
increase steadily over the long run, because of the
growth in population, the growing awareness of
the importance of regular dental care, and the
development of new payment arrangements which
make it easier for people of moderate means to
obtain dental service. Expanded dental research
activities will require more trained personnel;
dental public health programs will need qualified
administrators; and dental colleges will need ad­
ditional faculty members. A number of dentists
will continue to serve in the Armed Forces. Al­



OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

though better dental hygiene and fluoridation of
community water supplies may prevent some
tooth and gum disorders, such measures—by pre­
serving teeth that might otherwise be extracted
—may tend to increase rather than decrease the
demand for dental care over the long run.
Individual dentists will be able to care for
more patients, as a result of the use of new tech­
niques, equipment, and drugs, and more extensive
and effective use of dental hygienists, assistants,
and laboratory technicians. These developments,
however, will not completely offset the need for
more dentists.
Location is one of the major factors in deter­
mining success of dentists who open their own
offices. For example, people who are well educated
and well paid are most likely to visit dentists
regularly. Also, a practice can be developed most
quickly in small towns where new dentists can
easily become known and where there may be less
competition with established practitioners. Al­
though the income from practice in small towns
may rise rapidly at first, over the long run the
level of earnings may be lower than that in larger
communities.
Earnings and Working Conditions

During the first year or two of practice, den­
tists often earn little more than the minimum
needed to cover expenses, but their earnings usu­
ally rise rapidly as their practice develops. In
1961, average (median) income above expenses
for all self-employed dentists was about $14,750
a year, and $10,250 for all salaried dentists, ac­
cording to an American Dental Association sur­
vey. About 50 percent of all dentists had net earn­
ings between $9,950 and $19,949 annually; ap­
proximately 25 percent earned less than $9,950;
and 25 percent earned more than $19,949. Nearly
7 percent of all dentists reported net incomes of
$30,000 or more.
In 1961, the median net income of dentists un­
der the age of 30 was $8,890. The highest average
earnings were for dentists between the ages of
40 and 44, who reported a median net income of
$17,400. Practitioners in cities of 50,000 to 100,000
population earned more, on the average, than
those in either larger or smaller cities. Specialists
generally earned considerably more than general

HEALTH SERVICE OCCUPATIONS

65

practitioners, with orthodontists reporting the
highest incomes, on the average.
Most dental offices are open 5 days a week and
some dentists have evening hours. Dentists usu­
ally work between 40 and 50 hours a week, al­
though many spend more than 50 hours a week
in the office. Dentists often work fewer hours as
they grow older, since the hours of work are usu­
ally determined by the dentist himself. A con­
siderable number continue in part-time practice
well beyond the usual retirement age.

Where To Go for More Information

People wishing to practice in a given State
should find out about the requirements for li­
censure directly from the board of dental exam­
iners of that State. Lists of State boards and of
accredited dental schools, as well as information
on dentistry as a career, may be obtained from:
American Dental Association, Council on Dental
Education,
222 East Superior St., Chicago, 111., 60611.

Medical X-Ray Technicians

(D.O.T. 0-50.04)

Nature of Work

Medical X-ray technicians—also called medical
X-ray technologists—operate X-ray equipment
under the general direction of physicians, who
are usually radiologists (specialists in the use of
X-rays).
Most technicians perform diagnostic work, us­
ing X-ray equipment to take pictures of internal
parts of the body which the doctor wishes to ex­
amine. They may prepare a prescribed X-ray
“opaque,” such as barium salts, which the patient
swallows in order to shade various organs to pro­
vide proper visibility in the X-ray picture. To
prepare patients for X-ray, technicians position
them between the X-ray tube and the film and
cover body areas not to be exposed to the rays
with a protective lead plate. When necessary, they
set up or adjust devices to prevent the patient
from moving. After determining the proper volt­
age, current, and desired exposure time, the tech­
nician operates the controls to obtain the pictures
for interpretation by the physician.
Other technicians perform therapeutic X-ray
work. They regulate special X-ray equipment
used for treatment of diseases, such as certain
types of cancer. After placing the patient in the
proper position, these technicians operate the
equipment from an adjoining room. They may
also assist radiologists by preparing radium and
other radioactive materials. Some technicians
perform duties involved in both diagnostic and
therapeutic X-ray work.
Medical X-ray technicians keep equipment in
good working order by cleaning it and making
692-408 0—63-




6

minor repairs. Other duties may include process­
ing film and keeping records of services per­
formed for patients. Some X-ray technicians
operate other kinds of equipment such as that
used in diagnosing heart disease or brain damage.
Chief technicians in some hospitals, in addition
to their usual duties, instruct nurses, interns, and
students in X-ray techniques.
Where Employed

About one-fourth of the approximately 60,000
X-ray technicians employed in 1962 worked in
hospitals. Most of the remainder worked in medi­
cal laboratories, physicians’ and dentists’ offices
or clinics, Federal and State agencies, and for
school systems.
Most technicians work in or near large cities
where medical facilities and services are con­
centrated; however, some are employed in hospi­
tals and clinics in small towns or rural areas. A
few work as members of small mobile X-ray
teams, engaged mainly in tuberculosis detection.
Most X-ray technicians are women, although
the number of men in the field has increased dur­
ing recent years.
Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement

Training programs in X-ray technology are
conducted by hospitals or by medical schools af­
filiated with hospitals. In 1962, 715 schools of
X-ray technology were approved by the American
Medical Association (AMA). The program in
X-ray technology usually takes 24 months to

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

66

radiographic exposure, X-ray therapy, radiographic positioning, department administration,
and equipment operation and maintenance.
Technicians who have had at least 2 years’ ex­
perience under the direction of a radiologist
(which may include training time) may apply
for registration with the American Registry of
Radiologic Technologists. If they pass the exam­
ination, they may use the title, “Registered Tech­
nologist,” R.T. (ARRT). Registration is import­
ant for obtaining highly skilled and specialized
positions.
Technicians employed in large X-ray depart­
ments may advance to the job of chief X-ray tech­
nician and may also qualify as teachers of X-ray
techniques.
Good health and stamina are important qualifi­
cations in this field. Because of the possible ex­
posure to radiation, people with a tendency to­
ward anemia should avoid working with X-ray
equipment.
Employment Outlook

Courtesy of National Institutes of Health
X-ray technology is being used increasingly in diagnosis and
treatment of disease

complete. A few schools, however, offer longer
courses and, to students who also complete the
academic requirements, some award the bachelor’s
degree.
In addition to training programs in approved
hospital schools, some courses in X-ray technol­
ogy are offered by vocational or technical schools.
Training also may be obtained in the military
service, or through on-the-job experience under
the supervision of a radiologist.
All of the -approved schools require that appli­
cants be high school graduates, and a few require
1 or 2 years of college or graduation from a nurs­
ing school. High school courses in mathematics,
physics, chemistry, biology, and typing are con­
sidered desirable. Preference is generally given
to applicants between the ages of 18 and 30.
The program in X-ray technology usually in­
cludes courses in anatomy and physiology, nurs­
ing procedures, physics, radiation protection,
darkroom chemistry, medical ethics, principles of



Shortages of trained medical X-ray technicians
are likely to persist throughout the remainder of
the 1960’s unless the supply of these workers is
increased substantially. In early 1963, for exam­
ple, the American Society of X-Ray Technicians
reported that the demand for technicians was
much greater than the number of persons ex­
pected to graduate from approved courses in Xray technology. Many employers prefer to hire
only graduates of approved courses. Although
enrollments have risen in recent years, approved
schools were not filled to capacity in early 1963.
The increased use of X-ray equipment in the
diagnosis and treatment of disease and the con­
tinuing expansion of such programs are the lead­
ing factors pointing toward growth in this field.
In addition, more workers will be needed to help
administer radiotherapy, as new knowledge of the
medical benefits of radioactive material becomes
more widespread. Routine X-raying of large
groups will continue to be performed as part of
programs for disease prevention and control. For
example, many employers now demand chest Xrays of all employees, and most insurance com­
panies include a chest X-ray as part of the phys­
ical examination required for an insurance policy.

HEALTH SERVICE OCCUPATIONS

67

Replacement needs will probably remain high
in this occupation, since many of the large num­
ber of women in it will leave their jobs because
of marriage or family responsibilities. The short­
age of trained technicians who are available for
full-time work will make it necessary for em­
ployers to continue to hire part-time workers.
Earnings and Working Conditions

According to a private survey, about threefourths of the X-ray technicians employed by
State and local government hospitals in 1962
earned between $3,600 and $5,400 annually.
New graduates of AMA-approved schools of
X-ray technology, or X-ray technicians with 1
year of general and 1 year of specialized experi­
ence, were employed by the Federal Government
at an annual salary of $4,110 in early 1963; those
with no experience or specialized training, but

who have passed an aptitude test, received $3,560
per year.
Full-time technicians generally work 8 hours
a day, 40 hours a week, and may be “on call” for
some night or emergency duty. Most are covered
by the same vacation and sick leave provisions as
other workers in the organizations which employ
them.
Care must be taken to protect medical X-ray
technicians from the potential hazards of radia­
tion exposure. Precautionary measures include the
use of safety devices such as individual instru­
ments that measure radiation, lead aprons, rubber
gloves, and other shieldings.
Where To Go for More Information

The American Society of X-Ray Technicians,
537 South Main St., Fond du Lac, Wis., 54935.
The American Registry of Radiologic Technologists,
2600 Wayzata Blvd., Minneapolis, Minn., 55405.

Medical Technologists

(D.O.T. 0-50.01)
Nature of Work

Medical technologists perform laboratory tests
to aid physicians in detecting, diagnosing, and
treating diseases. They usually work under the
direction of a pathologist (a physician who spe­
cializes in diagnosing the causes and nature of
disease) or a scientist specializing in a clinical
science.
Among the tests which medical technologists
may make are blood counts, urinalyses, and skin
tests. Other body fluid and tissue samples are also
examined microscopically, cultured to determine
the presence of bacteria, fungus, or other organ­
isms, and analyzed for chemical content or reac­
tion. Technologists may also type and cross­
match blood samples, determine blood coagulation
time and sedimentation rates, measure basal me­
tabolism, and analyze water, food products, or
other materials for bacteria. Medical technologists
sometimes prepare slides from sample tissues and
body cells, as in cases of suspected cancer. Both
speed and accuracy are required in this prepara­
tion.
Technologists who work in small laboratories
often perform many types of tests. Those em­



ployed in large laboratories usually specialize in
making several kinds of related tests in areas
such as bacteriology, parasitology, biochemistry,

Courtesy of Veterans Administration
M edical technologist uses automatic analyzers to make
laboratory tests

68

blood banking, hematology (blood analysis), his­
tology (tissue preparation and examination), virology (the study of viruses), and cytology
(analysis of body cells).
Most medical technologists conduct tests in
connection with the examination and treatment
of patients; some do research on new drugs or on
the improvement of laboratory techniques, and
others teach or perform administrative duties.
The occupation of the medical technologist
should not be confused with that of the medical
technician or laboratory assistant. This statement
does not include these workers, who usually per­
form simple, routine tests and related work that
can be learned in a relatively short period.
Where Employed

It is roughly estimated that between 30,000 and
40,000 medical technologists were employed in
1962; most of them were women. In recent years,
however, the number of men in the field has been
growing. The great majority of medical technolo­
gists work in hospitals; most of the others are em­
ployed by laboratories, public health agencies, re­
search institutions, and pharmaceutical manu­
facturers.
The Federal Government is the largest single
employer of medical technologists. In 1962, over
800 were employed in hospitals and laboratories
of the Veterans Administration, U.S. Public
Health Service, and the Army, Navy, and Air
Force.
Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement

The completion of at least 3 years of college,
including courses in chemistry, the biological sci­
ences, and mathematics is required for entry into
most of the 757 schools of medical technology that
were approved by the American Medical Associa­
tion (AMA) in 1962. A few schools require candi­
dates for admission to have received the bache­
lor’s degree. Most approved courses in medical
technology last 12 months, although some schools
have courses that vary in duration from 15 to 18
months. Most of the approved schools are con­
nected with hospitals and are affiliated with col­
leges or universities. Usually the bachelor’s degree
is awarded upon completion of 3 years of college



OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

and the prescribed courses in medical technology,
including laboratory work. Several universities
also offer advanced degrees in medical technology
for those who plan to specialize in research or
teaching.
Graduates of AMA-approved schools who pass
an examination may qualify for listing with the
Registry of Medical Technologists of the Ameri­
can Society of Clinical Pathologists (ASCP).
Technologists registered with the ASCP are pre­
ferred by many employers, especially large hos­
pitals and research laboratories. In four States—
Alabama, California, Florida, and Hawaii—med­
ical technologists must also be licensed.
Promotion may be to supervisory positions in
certain areas of laboratory work or, after several
years’ experience, to the position of chief medi­
cal technologist in a large hospital. Graduate edu­
cation in one of the biological sciences or in chem­
istry may be required for advancement in research
laboratories.
Personal characteristics considered important
for medical laboratory work include accuracy,
patience, dependability, and the ability to work
under pressure. Manual dexterity and good eye­
sight (with or without glasses) are essential.
Employment Outlook

Employment opportunities for well-qualified
medical technologists are expected to remain ex­
cellent throughout the remainder of the 1960’s.
Many employers will seek new graduates with
bachelor’s degrees in medical technology to fill
entry positions in hospitals; a particularly strong
demand is anticipated for technologists with
graduate training in biochemistry, bacteriology,
immunology, and virology.
Over the long run, employment opportunities
for medical technologists are expected to expand
as a result of the increasing dependence of physi­
cians upon laboratory tests and because of the
construction of additional hospital and medical
facilities. Other factors pointing toward growth
in this field are the increasing complexity of lab­
oratory work and the development of new drugs
and techniques. Newly developed automatic ana­
lyzers are not expected to affect materially the
demand for highly qualified medical technolo­
gists.

HEALTH SERVICE OCCUPATIONS

69

Replacement needs are likely to continue high
because many workers in this field are young
women who may leave their jobs for marriage and
family responsibilities. Many opportunities for
part-time employment are likely to continue to be
available.
Earnings and Working Conditions

Average weekly salaries of women medical tech­
nologists employed by private and non-Federal
Government hospitals in 15 metropolitan areas in
1960 ranged from $69 in Philadelphia to $109 in
the Los Angeles-Long Beach area. Men usually
received slightly higher salaries. In general,
higher salaries were paid by government hospitals
than by private hospitals in the same areas.
Newly graduated medical technologists em­
ployed by the Federal Government in early 1963
received a salary of $4,565 a year. Most experi­
enced technologists in Federal Government agen­
cies earned annual salaries of between $5,540 and
$7,205, and a few earned about $10,000.
The average workweek of medical technologists
is 40 hours. They generally receive vacations and
sick leave benefits, and some are covered by re­
tirement plans.

The laboratories in which medical technologists
work are usually well-lighted and clean, although
unpleasant odors and specimens of many kinds
of diseased tissue are often present. Few hazards
exist in laboratories using proper methods of
sterilization and handling of specimens, materials,
and equipment. Unless technologists exercise care
while working, they may be cut by laboratory in­
struments and glassware or burned by chemicals.
Where To Go for More Information:

Information about employment opportunities,
as well as costs of and entrance requirements for
schools of medical technology approved by the
American Medical Association, may be obtained
from:
American Society of Medical Technologists,
Suite 25, Hermann Professional Bldg.,
Houston, Tex., 77025.
Registry of Medical Technologists of the American
Society of Clinical Pathologists,
P.O. Box 44, Muncie, Ind., 47344.

Information about employment opportunities
in Veterans Administration hospitals may be ob­
tained from the hospitals or the Department of
Medicine and Surgery, Veterans Administration,
Washington, D.C., 20421.

Chiropractors

(D.O.T. 0-39.90)

Nature of Work

Chiropractic is a system of treatment based on
the belief that the nervous system largely deter­
mines the state of health and that any interfer­
ence with this system impairs normal functions
and lowers the body’s resistance to disease. Chiro­
practors treat their patients primarily by specific
adjustment of parts of the body, especially the
spinal column. Many also use such supplementary
measures as diet, exercise, and rest, and water,
light, and heat therapy. Because of the emphasis
on the importance of the spine and its position,
most chiropractors use X-ray extensively to aid
in locating the source of patients’ difficulties.
Chiropractic as a system of healing does not in­
clude the use of drugs or surgery.



Where Employed

About 25,000 chiropractors were employed in
the United States in early 1963. The greatest num­
ber were engaged in independent private practice.
Some were employed by athletic organizations
and industrial firms; others taught or did research
work at chiropractic schools, or worked on the
staffs of chiropractic clinics or as salaried assist­
ants to established practitioners. About 40 percent
of all chiropractors were located in California,
New York, Texas, Missouri, and Ohio.
Training and Other Qualifications

Most States and the District of Columbia regu­
late the practice of chiropractic and grant licenses

70

to chiropractors who meet certain educational re­
quirements and pass a State board examination.
The type of practice permitted and the educa­
tional requirements for licensure vary considera­
bly from one State to another. As of early 1963,
four States—Louisiana, Massachusetts, Missis­
sippi, and New York—did not regulate the prac­
tice of chiropractic nor issue licenses to chiro­
practors.
Most States require 4 years of training in a
chiropractic school following high school gradua­
tion. Over one-third of the States also require l
or 2 years of preparatory college work before
chiropractic training. In a few States, less than
4 years of chiropractic education is sufficient to
qualify for a license. About half the States also
require that chiropractors pass a basic science ex­
amination. Chiropractors licensed in one State
may generally obtain a license in another State
without further examination.
Approximately two-thirds of the 16 chiroprac­
tic schools in the United States in 1962 restricted
their teaching to manipulation and spinal adjust­
ments. The others offered a broader curriculum in­
cluding such subjects as chiropractic physio­
therapy and nutrition. In most chiropractic
schools, the first 2 years of the 4-year curriculum
are devoted chiefly to classroom and laboratory
work in subjects such as anatomy, physiology, and
biochemistry. The last 2 years are spent in obtain­
ing practical experience in the schools’ clinics.
The degree of doctor of chiropractic (D.C.) is
awarded by all schools to students completing
chiropractic training.
Most newly licensed chiropractors open their
own offices or purchase an established practice.
Some start as assistants to other chiropractors in
order to acquire experience and funds. A consid­
erable financial investment is usually necessary to
open and equip an office. Among the personal
qualities considered desirable for a practitioner is
the ability to deal with people sympathetically.
The work does not call for unusual strength or
endurance, but does require considerable dexterity
with the hands.
Employment Outlook

The success of the new practitioner will depend
in large part on proper selection of a location for




OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

practice. Opportunities for beginning chiroprac­
tors will continue to be best in those parts of the
country where chiropractic is most fully accepted
as a method of treatment. Small towns or sub­
urban areas, where the young practitioner can
become known more quickly than in a big city,
offer the best prospects for developing a practice.
The wide variation in community acceptance
and in State laws is reflected in the concentration
of chiropractors in certain areas. The ratio of
chiropractors to population is highest in the West­
ern States.
Employment opportunities are expected to be
best for new entrants who are able to meet the
highest State licensing requirements, including
graduation from a 4-year course of 4,000 or more
hours. In view of the trend in many States toward
raising the educational requirements for chiro­
practic practice, thorough training will become in­
creasingly important.
Women are expected to continue to find good
opportunities, since some women and children pre­
fer to go to women chiropractors for treatment. In
1960, about 10 percent of the chiropractors in
practice were women. All chiropractic schools ac­
cept women as students.
Earnings and Working Conditions

In chiropractic, as in other types of independent
practice, earnings are relatively low at the begin­
ning but rise after the first few years. Though in­
comes of chiropractors vary widely, the average
income above expenses was $12,000 a year in early
1963, according to the limited data available.
Where To Go for More Information

Information on State licensing requirements
may be obtained from the State board of licensing
in the capital of the State in which the individual
plans to practice.
General information on chiropractic as a career
may be obtained from:
International Chiropractors Association,
741 Brady St., Davenport, Iowa, 52800.
National Chiropractic Association,
National Bldg., Webster City, Iowa, 50595.

HEALTH SERVICE OCCUPATIONS

71

Dietitians

(D.O.T. 0-39.93)
Nature of Work

Dietitians plan and supervise the preparation
and serving of appetizing and nutritious meals
to help people maintain or recover good health.
Their work usually includes planning general
menus and modified diets that meet nutritional
requirements for medical treatment, supervising
the personnel who prepare and serve the meals,
managing purchases and accounts, and providing
guidance toward good eating habits. Administra­
tive dietitians form the largest group in this oc­
cupation; the remainder are therapeutic dieti­
tians, teachers, or research workers.
Administrative dietitians apply the principles
of nutrition to large-scale meal planning and
preparation such as that done in restaurants, and
in schools, hospitals, and other institutions. They
supervise the preparation of meals; select, train,
and direct food-service supervisors and workers;
arrange for the buying of food, equipment, and
supplies; enforce sanitary and safety regulations;
and prepare records and reports. Dietitians who
are directors of a dietary department also formu­
late departmental policy, coordinate dietary serv­
ice with the activities of other departments, and
are responsible for the development and manage­
ment of the dietary department budget, which in
large organizations may amount to millions of
dollars annually.
Therapeutic dietitians plan special meals for
patients who have been placed on modified diets,
by taking into consideration the nutritional value
of foods, including vitamin and mineral content.
They also supervise the serving of meals, discuss
food likes and dislikes with patients, and note
their intake of food. Other duties of therapeutic
dietitians include conferring with doctors regard­
ing patients’ diets, instructing patients and their
families on the requirements and importance of
their diets, and suggesting ways to help them stay
on these diets after leaving the hospital. In a small
hospital, one person may serve as both the ad­
ministrative and therapeutic dietitian.
Some dietitians, particularly those in hospitals
affiliated with medical centers, teach subjects such



as dietetics, foods and nutrition, diet therapy,
menu planning, budgeting, and institution man­
agement to dietetic, medical, dental, and nursing
students. They may also supervise dietetic interns
and provide dietary instruction to individuals or
groups of patients. Other dietitians conduct
studies or surveys of food and nutrition and take
part in research projects, such as those concerned
with the nutritional needs of the aging, persons
with chronic diseases, or space travelers. A few
dietitians act as consultants to public health
agencies and food manufacturers.
Where Employed

Of the approximately 26,000 dietitians em­
ployed in 1962, about half worked in hospitals, in­
cluding about 1,200 who were employed by the
Veterans Administration and the U.S. Public
Health Service. A sizable number were employed
by colleges, universities, and public school systems
as teachers or as dietitians in food-service pro­
grams. Most of the remainder worked for public
health agencies as consultants, in public restau­
rants or cafeterias, and in large companies that
operate food-service programs for their em­
ployees. About 300 dietitians were commissioned
officers in the Armed Forces.
Most of the workers in this occupation are
women. In 1960, only about 7 percent of all dieti­
tians were men.

Therapeutic dietitian discusses food preferences with young
patients

72
Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement

The minimum educational requirement for
dietitians is a bachelor’s degree with a major in
foods and nutrition or institution management.
This education can be obtained in the home eco­
nomics departments of about 500 colleges and uni­
versities. Undergraduate work should include
courses in foods and nutrition, institution man­
agement, chemistry, bacteriology, and physiology,
and such related courses as mathematics, psy­
chology, sociology, and economics.
To qualify for professional recognition, The
American Dietetic Association recommends the
completion of a 1-year dietetic internship program
approved by the Association or, in lieu of this, 3
years of experience with 1 year of this experience
under the supervision of a dietitian who is a mem­
ber of the Association. Many employers prefer to
hire dietitians who have completed an internship.
An important phase of the intern’s education is
on-the-job experience; the remainder is spent in
the classroom and on special projects. In 1962, 59
internship programs were approved by the Ameri­
can Dietetic Association; 50 of these were con­
ducted in hospitals, 8 in business firms or colleges
and universities, and 1 in a food clinic.
Experienced dietitians may be advanced to as­
sistant director or director of a dietary depart­
ment in a large hospital. Graduate education is
usually required for advancement to the higher
level positions in teaching and research. Those
interested in becoming public health nutritionists
must usually earn a graduate degree in this field.
Graduate study in institutional or business admin­
istration is valuable to those interested in adminis­
trative dietetics.
Qualifications considered essential for work in
this field are an interest in and an aptitude for
the sciences, particularly chemistry and mathe­
matics. Ability to organize and manage work pro­
grams and to work well with others is also import­
ant.
Employment Outlook

Opportunities for qualified dietitians are ex­
pected to continue to be excellent throughout
the remainder of the 1960’s. The number of people
completing dietetic internships in recent years has
been considerably less than the demand for dieti­



OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

tians. Because of the shortage, some hospitals and
other establishments employ college graduates
with suitable undergraduate education to assist
dietitians. Small hospitals and some other institu­
tions that cannot obtain full-time dietitians
employ them on a part-time basis.
Over the long run, new and expanding hospital
facilities and more widespread use of hospitals
and medical services by the increasing population
will intensify the need for dietitians in hospitals.
In addition, the expected expansion in community
health programs will increase the need for dieti­
tians and nutritionists to act as consultants. An
increasing number of dietitians will also be sought
to direct food services for schools, industrial
plants, and commercial eating places. Expansion
of food and nutrition research programs may also
contribute to the overall demand for dietitians. In
addition, since many women select this field be­
cause of their interest in food and homemaking
and then leave the profession for marriage and
family responsibilities, replacement needs will
probably continue to be high.
The number of men employed as dietitians has
been growing slowly but steadily. Men are likely
to find increasing employment opportunities,
especially as administrative dietitians in college
and university food services and in commercial
eating places.
Earnings and Working Conditions

In 1962, hospitals offered new graduates of ap­
proved internship programs annual salaries rang­
ing from $4,500 to $5,500, according to the Ameri­
can Dietetic Association. College and school food
services offered annual salaries ranging from
$4,500 to $6,000 for staff dietitians, and from
$5,000 to $12,000 or more for directors and super­
visors. Teachers in colleges and universities were
paid between $6,000 and $10,000 a year.
The entrance salary in the Federal Govern­
ment for those who had completed their intern­
ship was $5,540 a year in early 1963. New college
graduates usually started at $4,565 per year. Most
experienced dietitians employed by the Federal
Government earned between $5,540 and $8,700 per
year; a few earned over $12,000 annually. Dieti­
tians who entered the Armed Forces with the rank
of second lieutenant or ensign received an annual
starting salary of $4,265, including allowances, in

HEALTH SERVICE OCCUPATIONS

73

early 1963. Those who make the service a career
can advance to higher ranks.
Nearly half the dietitians employed by State
and local governments in 1962 earned between
$4,800 and $6,000 a year, according to a private
survey; one-fourth received salaries between
$3,600 and $4,800, and the rest earned more than
$6,000.
Most dietitians work a regular 40-hour week;
however, dietitians in hospitals may sometimes
have to work weekends, and those in restaurants
have somewhat irregular hours. Some hospitals
provide room, laundry service, and meals in addi­
tion to salary. Paid vacations, holidays, and

health and retirement benefits are usually
received.
Where To Go for More Information

Information on approved colleges and dietetic
internship programs, scholarships, and employ­
ment opportunities may be obtained from:
The American Dietetic Association,
620 North Michigan Ave., Chicago, m., 606ll.

The U.S. Civil Service Commission, Washing­
ton, D.C., 20415, has information on the require­
ments for dietetic interns and dietitians in Fed­
eral Government hospitals.

Dental Laboratory Technicians

(D.O.T. 0-50.06)
Nature of Work

Making artificial dentures—teeth, crowns,
bridges, or other dental and orthodontal appli­
ances—used to be done chiefly by dentists. Now
dental laboratory technicians do much of this
highly skilled work. These technicians do not deal
directly with patients but receive prescriptions
from dentists, which are often accompanied by im­
pressions of patients’ mouths. Since no two pa­
tients have exactly the same dental problems,
technicians must do varied work in carrying out
dentists’ prescriptions.
A first step in making many kinds of appliances
is forming models in hard plaster (dental stone)
from the impressions taken by dentists. Techni­
cians may also make metal castings for dentures;
polish and finish dentures; construct metal or
porcelain crowns or inlays for partially destroyed
teeth; make gold and other metal bridges; and
make appliances to correct such abnormalities as
cleft palates. In performing this work, dental
laboratory technicians use small handtools, elec­
tric lathes and drills, high-heat furnaces, and
other kinds of specialized laboratory equipment.
Some dental laboratory technicians are “gen­
eralists” who do all types of dental laboratory
work. Others specialize in such areas as making
crowns and bridges, arranging artificial teeth on
dental appliances so that they function properly
and look natural, processing plastic materials,
working with ceramics (porcelain), or making



castings of gold or other metal alloys used in
dentistry. The level of the work done ranges from
semi-skilled to highly skilled, depending upon
the qualifications of the individual technician and
the requirements of the job. Technicians with
limited training and experience ordinarily per­
form relatively simple jobs—for example, mixing
and pouring plaster into casts and molds. Wellqualified dental laboratory technicians are as­
signed to the more difficult laboratory processes
and may work with expensive metals.

Dental laboratory technician uses a small handtool to work on
artificial teeth

74
Where Employed

It is estimated that roughly 25,000 dental labora­
tory technicians were employed in early 1963.
Most of them worked in commercial laboratories,
either as employees or as owners of the business.
Commercial laboratories, which handle orders
from any dentist, are typically small businesses; in
mid-1959 (the latest year for which this informa­
tion is available), more than one-fourth of all
laboratories were 1-man shops and less than 15
percent had 10 workers or more. Between 1,000
and 2,000 laboratory technicians worked for indi­
vidual dentists. Others worked in -hospitals that
provided dental services. Most of the remainder—
about 650—were employed by the Federal Govern­
ment, chiefly in the Veterans Administration and
in the Department of the Army. Women, who ac­
count for less than 10 percent of all dental labora­
tory technicians, worked mainly in large com­
mercial laboratories.
Dental laboratory technicians, like the dentists
who use their services, are located mainly in big
cities and in the States with the largest popula­
tions. More than half of all dental laboratory
technicians are in cities of over 50,000 population.
Moreover, they are concentrated in New York,
California, Illinois, and Pennsylvania.
Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement

The most common means of entering this occu­
pation is to secure a trainee position and learn
the craft on the job—usually in a commercial labo­
ratory or a hospital offering dental services. Typi­
cally, an on-the-job training program lasts 3 or 4
years, depending on such factors as the student’s
previous experience and training, his ability to
master the techniques, and the number of special­
ized areas to be learned. Courses in dental labora­
tory work are offered in some public vocational
high schools and junior colleges. In addition, a few
private schools offer 1- to 2-year courses in dental
laboratory technology. But regardless of the stu­
dent’s educational background, actual work ex­
perience is always considered necessary by em­
ployers to qualify as a full-fledged technician.
The National Association of Dential Labora­
tories and the American Dental Association
sponsor a certification program for dental labora­
tory technicians who can meet certain training and



OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

other requirements. In early 1963, four schools
had been accredited by the American Dental As­
sociation to provide high school graduates (or
those with equivalent education) with the 2 years
of training required under this program. Some
scholarships are available in the accredited
schools. The first year of training consists of
formal classroom instruction in medical law and
ethics, chemistry, ceramics, metallurgy, and other
related subjects. During the second year, the stu­
dent must complete 12 months of supervised
practical experience in the school or a dental
laboratory. He may receive some pay for work
performed during this period. After completion
of the 2-year training program, 3 years of experi­
ence in a dental office or a laboratory are required
before the dental laboratory technician is eligible
to take the examination for certification in one
or more of five areas—generalist, full denture
fabrication, partial denture fabrication, ceramic
technique, and crown and bridge fabrication.
Among the personal qualifications which em­
ployers look for in selecting trainees are a high
degree of manual dexterity, good color percep­
tion, patience, and a liking for detailed work.
Preference may also be given young people who
have completed high school courses in art, cera­
mics and pottery, sculpturing, blueprint reading,
plastics, metalworking, and physiology.
Employment Outlook

Job opportunities for the well-qualified, all­
round craftsmen and for specialists in ceramics,
gold, and other metalwork are expected to be very
good throughout the 1960’s. Job opportunities for
trainees will also arise each year. As in the recent
past, the demand for dental laboratory technicians
will probably stem largely from the need to re­
place technicians who transfer to other fields of
work, retire, or die. Most opportunities for sala­
ried employment, for both experienced and inex­
perienced dental laboratory technicians, will be
with large commercial laboratories and in the
Federal Government. Some experienced techni­
cians will find favorable opportunities for estab­
lishing their own laboratories. A technician whose
work has become known to several dentists in a
community will have the best prospect of building
a successful business.

HEALTH SERVICE OCCUPATIONS

75

A moderate increase in employment of dental
laboratory technicians is anticipated over the
long run. The anticipated growth in population,
rising income, the growing public awareness of
the importance of preventive dentistry, the mount­
ing number of people in the older age groups
and, with it, the number of people requiring
artificial dentures, all point toward the need for
more dental laboratory technicians. Moreover, the
number of dentists is not expected to keep pace
with population growth, and it is likely that den­
tists will send more and more of their laboratory
work to commercial firms, to free themselves in­
creasingly for “chairside” practice, research, and
other professional activities.
In the future, certification may become impor­
tant for obtaining employment as a dental labora­
tory technician, since many employers are likely
to regard the certificate as the best readily avail­
able evidence of the technician’s competence.
Earnings and Working Conditions

Inexperienced dental laboratory technicians em­
ployed in commercial laboratories in early 1963
typically earned between $50 and $65 a week, ac­
cording to the National Association of Dental
Laboratories. Experienced technicians in com­
mercial laboratories generally earned between $80
and $150 a week, depending on their skill level
and experience. Technicians who work with cera­
mics or gold and other metals received the highest
salaries. Foremen and managers in large dental
laboratories may earn $200 or more per week. In
general, earnings of self-employed technicians are
higher than those of salaried workers.

Trainees employed in the Federal Government
started at about $75 a week in early 1963. The ma­
jority of experienced dental laboratory technicians
employed in the Federal Government earned be­
tween $106 and $153 a week.
Salaried technicians usually work the standard
40-hour week, but self-employed technicians fre­
quently work longer hours. Many technicians in
commercial laboratories receive paid holidays and
vacations, and some are also provided paid sick
leave, bonuses, and other fringe benefits. Techni­
cians employed by the Federal Government have
the same benefits as other government workers.
The work of dental laboratory technicians is
not strenuous and most jobs can be done by handi­
capped workers provided they have use of their
hands and fingers.
Where To Go for More Information

Information about the training and other re­
quirements for certification, as well as a list of
approved schools, is available from:
American Dental Association, Council on Dental
Education,
222 East Superior St., Chicago, 111., 60611.

Information on career opportunities in com­
mercial laboratories may be obtained from:
National Association of Dental Laboratories, Inc.,
201 Mills Bldg., Washington, D.C., 20006.

Information about employment in dental labo­
ratories in veterans’ hospitals may be obtained
from local veterans’ hospitals and offices through­
out the country.

Veterinarians

(D.O.T. 0-34.10)

Nature of Work

Veterinarians (doctors of veterinary medicine)
treat sick and injured animals. They also give ad­
vice regarding the care and breeding of animals
and help to prevent the outbreak and spread of
diseases among them, by physical examinations,
tests, and vaccinations. Because many animal di­
seases can be transmitted to people, this work is
important to the public health.



About 40 percent of all veterinarians are general
practitioners who take care of both large and small
animals. Of those who are specialists, the greatest
number treat small animals, often operating hospi­
tals with boarding facilities for dogs and cats.
Others specialize in the treatment of certain kinds
of animals, such as prize livestock, poultry, or
thoroughbred horses. Many veterinarians inspect
meat, poultry, and other foods as a part of the

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

76

Federal and State public health programs. A small
number teach in colleges or do public health or
other research related to animal diseases, drugs,
and foods.
Since animals cannot describe how they feel,
veterinarians must diagnose diseases and injuries
on the basis of appearance and behavior, and by
taking temperatures and making tests. When
necessary, veterinarians operate on animals and
prescribe and administer drugs, medicines, biologicals, serums, and vaccines. They use X-ray
machines, hypodermic needles, syringes, and other
medical equipment especially adapted for use
with animals. They may treat animals on the farm
—sometimes in open fields—or in veterinary clin­
ics or hospitals.
Where Employed

About 21,000 veterinarians—fewer than 5 per­
cent of whom were women—were at work in the
United States in 1962. Of these, more than twothirds were in private practice. The second largest
number worked for the Federal Government—
chiefly in the U.S. Department of Agriculture,
which employed about 2,200 veterinarians; a
few worked for the U.S. Public Health Service.
More than 800 were commissioned officers in the
Veterinary Corps of the Army and the Air Force.
In addition, a substantial number worked for
State and local government agencies and a few

Courtesy of U.S. Department of Agriculture
Veterinarians use special equipment to examine dairy cow




worked for international health agencies. Some
were also employed by schools of veterinary medi­
cine, agricultural colleges, large livestock farms,
animal food companies, and pharmaceutical com­
panies that manufacture drugs for animals.
In 1962, more than one-third of all veterinarians
in the United States were in six States—Cali­
fornia, with about 2,000, and New York, Illinois,
Iowa, Texas, and Ohio, each with over 1,000. Vet­
erinarians in rural areas chiefly treat large ani­
mals; those in small towns usually engage in gen­
eral practice; those in cities and suburban areas
frequently limit their practice to pets.
Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement

To practice veterinary medicine in any State
or the District of Columbia, one must have a
license. An applicant for a license is required to
be a graduate of an approved veterinary school
and to pass a State Board examination. A few
States also require some practical experience un­
der the supervision of a licensed veterinarian. A
limited number issue licenses without examination
to veterinarians who have been licensed in another
State.
For positions in public health or other re­
search or college teaching, the master’s or Ph. D.
degree in a field such as pathology, public health,
or bacteriology may be required, in addition to the
degree of Doctor of Veterinary Medicine
(D.V.M.), awarded upon graduation from vet­
erinary school.
Two years of preveterinary college work fol­
lowed by 4 years of professional study in a school
of veterinary medicine are the minimum require­
ments for the D.V.M. It may take 3 years, how­
ever, to complete the preveterinary curriculum,
which emphasizes chemistry and other science
courses. The veterinary school training includes
considerable practical experience in treatment of
animals, as well as laboratory work in anatomy,
biochemistry, and other scientific and medical
fields.
There were 18 colleges of veterinary medicine
in the United States in 1963. Each year many
more young people apply for admission than
can be accepted. Some of the qualifications con­
sidered in selecting students are a good scholastic
record, amount and character of preveterinary

HEALTH SERVICE OCCUPATIONS

training (in 1962, about one-fifth of the students
selected had a bachelor’s degree), a farm back­
ground, good health, and a liking for animals.
Since veterinary colleges are largely State sup­
ported, residents of the State in which the school
is located are almost always given preference. In
the South and West, regional educational plans
have been developed that permit cooperating
States without veterinary schools to send a few
students to designated regional schools. In other
areas, schools may informally decide to accept a
certain number of students from other States, of­
ten giving priority to applicants from nearby
States without veterinary schools. The number of
women admitted to schools of veterinary medicine
is relatively small.
Some veterinarians begin as assistants to, or
partners of, established practitioners. Many estab­
lish their own practice and start with a modest
financial investment in such essentials as drugs, in­
struments, and a car. To open an animal hospital
or purchase an established practice requires a
substantial investment. Neyly qualified veterinar­
ians who enter the Army or Air Force are com­
missioned as first lieutenants. New graduates of
accredited veterinary schools can also qualify for
Federal civil service positions as meat and poultry
inspectors, disease-control workers, and research
assistants. In addition, the U.S. Department of
Agriculture offers students who have completed
their junior year in schools of veterinary medicine
opportunities to serve as trainees during the sum­
mer months.
Employment Outlook

Graduates of schools of veterinary medicine will
probably continue to have good employment op­
portunities throughout the remainder of the
1960’s. The supply of graduates is not expected to
meet the total demand for veterinarians in pri­
vate practice, government service, and colleges
and universities. Many of the opportunities to
enter private practice or salaried employment will
arise from the need to replace veterinarians lost to
the profession through retirement or death. Be­
cause many veterinarians are in the older age
groups, it is anticipated that these replacement
needs will continue to absorb almost half of the
nearly 900 veterinarians who will graduate each
year from existing schools.



77

A gradual expansion in employment of vet­
erinarians can be expected in the long run. More
veterinarians will be needed to care for the in­
creased number of animals required to feed the
country’s expanding population. The trend toward
suburban living is expected to bring about a large
growth in the pet population and thus create a
greater demand for small pet animal specialists.
Emphasis on scientific methods of raising and
breeding livestock and poultry will continue to in­
crease, and veterinary research will expand fur­
ther. In addition, public health and disease-control
programs are expected to grow. Developing pro­
grams in international public health will also offer
some employment opportunities.
The need for replacements and the anticipated
growth in demand for veterinary services, when
related to the limited number of veterinarians who
can be trained each year by existing schools, point
toward continued favorable opportunities for vet­
erinarians in the long run. However, the demand
for veterinary service for large animals is closely
related to economic conditions. Since the market
value of a farm animal largely determines how
much its owner will spend on its care, any major
economic recession would greatly affect incomes
and employment opportunities in this type of
practice.
Earnings and Working Conditions

Veterinarians beginning their own practice can
generally cover their expenses the first year and
may often add to their earnings by working part
time for government agencies. As they gain ex­
perience, their incomes usually increase substan­
tially; however, income of the veterinarian in
private practice depends largely on his location
with respect to the availability of other veterinary
services, and the attitude of potential clients to­
ward the use of professional care for animals. Ac­
cording to a survey of a sample of the membership
of the American Veterinary Medical Association,
the average net income of reporting veterinarians
was $13,255 in 1960. Forty-five percent reported
net incomes between $8,000 and $14,000; 17 per­
cent earned less than $8,000; and 38 percent, $14,000 or more. About 1 out of 7 of the reporting
veterinarians had net incomes of $20,000 or more.

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

78

Newly graduated veterinarians had an annual
starting salary of $7,350 in the Federal Govern­
ment in early 1963. Summer trainees in the U.S.
Department of Agriculture were paid $107 per
week actually employed (representing a rate of
$5,540 per year). Veterinarians commissioned as
first lieutenants in the Army and Air Force re­
ceived pay and allowances totaling approximately
$6,300 per year.
Veterinarians are sometimes exposed to danger
of physical injury, disease, and infection. Those
in private practice are likely to have long and
irregular working hours; those in rural areas may
have to spend much time traveling to and from
distant farms and may have to work outside in
all kinds of weather. Veterinarians can continue
working well beyond the normal retirement age

because of the many opportunities for part-time
employment or practice.
Where To Go for More Information*

Additional information on the earnings of vet­
erinarians and on veterinary medicine as a career,
as well as a list of schools providing training, may
be obtained from:
American Veterinary Medical Association,
600 South Michigan Ave., Chicago, 111., 60605.

Information on opportunities for veterinarians
in the U.S. Department of Agriculture is available
from:
Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of
Agriculture, Washington, D.C., 20250.

Optometrists

(D.O.T. 0-39.92)

Nature of Work

Optometrists examine eyes and perform other
services to safeguard and improve vision. They
use special instruments and tests to find and
measure defects in vision and, when needed, pre­
scribe eyeglasses, contact lenses (invisible lenses),
and eye exercises or other treatment that does not
require drugs or surgery. Most optometrists sup­
ply their patients with the eyeglasses prescribed,
though some do only minor repair work, such as
straightening frames or replacing nose pieces on
glasses. A few optometrists specialize in work such
as fitting persons who are nearly blind with tele­
scopic spectacles, studying the relationship of vi­
sion to highway safety, and analyzing lighting
and other conditions that affect the efficiency of
workers in industry or business. A few are en­
gaged primarily in teaching, research, or a com­
bination of the two.
Optometrists should not be confused with oph­
thalmologists, oculists, or dispensing opticians.
Ophthalmologists and oculists are physicians who
specialize in the medical and surgical care of the
eyes and may prescribe drugs or other treatment,
as well as lenses. Dispensing opticians (see index)
fit and adjust eyeglasses according to prescrip­
tions written by ophthalmologists or optometrists;
they do not examine eyes or prescribe treatment.



Where Employed

Most of the 17,000 optometrists employed in
1962 were in private practice. However, some were
salaried employees, working as assistants to estab­
lished practitioners or for health clinics, hospitals,
optical instrument manufacturers, or government
agencies. A few taught in colleges of optometry
or served as optometrists in the Armed Forces.
Optometrists are located chiefly in large cities
and industrial areas, where many people are en­
gaged in office work or other occupations which
tend to create or emphasize vision problems. About
40 percent are in five States—California, New
York, Illinois, Pennsylvania, and Ohio. Many
small towns and rural areas, especially in the
South, have no optometrists.
Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement

A license is required to practice optometry in all
States and the District of Columbia. Applicants
for licenses must be graduates of an accredited
school of optometry and pass a State board ex­
amination. In some States, only graduates of cer­
tain schools of optometry are admitted to these
examinations. A student planning to become an
optometrist should, therefore, choose a school ap­
proved by the Board of Optometry in the State

HEALTH SERVICE OCCUPATIONS

79

lated field is usually required for teaching and
research work.
A prospective optometrist should have a liking
for mathematical and scientific work, the ability
to use delicate precision instruments, mechanical
aptitude, and good vision. In addition, to become
a successful practitioner, he must be able to deal
with people tactfully.
The majority of optometrists start either by
setting up a new practice or by purchasing an
established one. Some begin as assistants to estab­
lished practitioners, and young graduates are fre­
quently advised to do this in order to acquire
experience and the funds necessary to equip an
office.
Employment Outlook

Optometrist works with special instruments to improve patient's
visual coordination

where he expects to practice. There were 10 schools
of optometry in the country in 1963. Applicants
with the necessary qualifications have an excellent
chance of being admitted to one of these schools.
At least 5 years of college are needed to become
an optometrist. The usual requirement is 2 years
of preoptometry education in an approved college,
followed by 3 years of training in an optometry
school. However, completion of a 4-year course
is required by some optometry schools after the
2 years of preoptometry study which are a pre­
requisite for admission. Preoptometry courses in­
clude mathematics, physics, biology, and chemis­
try, as well as English and other liberal arts
courses. Students in schools of optometry have
both classroom and laboratory work, as well as
an opportunity to gain professional experience
in the clinic run by the school. Most schools award
the degree of Doctor of Optometry (O.D.), but
some confer bachelor’s degrees in science or op­
tometry instead. Optometrists who wish to special­
ize often take additional training. A master’s or
Ph. D. degree in physiological optics or in a re­



Employment opportunities for new optome­
try graduates are expected to remain favorable
throughout the 1960’s. During this period, the
number of new graduates is likely to be consid­
erably less than the number of experienced op­
tometrists who retire or stop practicing for other
reasons. As in the past, opportunities to set up a
new practice will generally be best in small towns
and in residential areas of cities, where the new
optometrist can easily become known and where
competition is not as keen as in large business
centers. Communities, especially in the South, that
have no optometric services available will also
offer opportunities for new graduates. A good of­
fice location is of major importance for a success­
ful practice. The optometrist should consider the
number of optometrists and medical eye specialists
in the vicinity, in relation to size, occupations, age,
and income level of the population in the area.
Over the long run, the demand for eye-care
services will continue to grow. The importance
of good vision to efficiency at work and in school
is becoming more widely recognized; eye strain
has been increased by many aspects of modem
living; and the use of eyeglasses has come to be
generally accepted. The volume of eye-care serv­
ices needed will also be increased by the antici­
pated growth in population, especially by the
expected sharp rise in the number of older people
—the group most likely to need glasses—and be­
cause of the growing number of people employed
in white-collar occupations. Although the ex­

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK,

80

panded demand will be met in part by medical
doctors who are eye specialists, optometrists will
continue to supply a substantial proportion of all
eye-care services.
Women optometrists, who constitute about 5
percent of the profession, have many opportuni­
ties to work as salaried assistants in the field of
visual training. Those in private practice have
been particularly successful in work with children.

large cities. However, some successful practition­
ers in big cities have very high incomes. Although
optometrists in salaried positions may at first earn
more than those who go into practice for them­
selves, the situation is likely to be reversed after
a few years of experience.
Working hours in this profession are usually
regular. Since the work is not strenuous, optome­
trists can often continue to practice after the nor­
mal retirement age.

Earnings and Working Conditions

In optometry, as in some of the other health
fields, a low income must be expected during the
first few years of practice. As a practice becomes
established, earnings usually rise significantly. In
1962, over half the optometrists had annual net
incomes between $7,000 and $20,000, according to
the American Optometric Association.
Newly graduated optometrists employed by
clinics or other optometrists earned an average
weekly salary of $160 in early 1963, according to
the limited data available. Experienced optome­
trists generally received $200 or more a week.
Optometrists practicing in towns and small
cities have higher average earnings than those in

Where To Go for More Information!

Additional information on optometry as a ca­
reer is available from:
American Optometric Association,
4030 Chouteau Ave., St. Louis, Mo., 63110.

Information on required preoptometry courses
may be obtained by writing to the optometry
school in which the prospective student wishes
to enroll. The Board of Optometry in the capital
of the State in which the student plans to practice
will provide a list of optometry schools approved
by that State.

Osteopathic Physicians

(D.O.T. 0-39.96)

Nature of Work

Where Employed

Osteopathic physicians emphasize manual ma­
nipulation in treating patients, and in most States
also use surgery, drugs, and all other accepted
methods of medical care. Most are “family doc­
tors” who engage in general practice. These physi­
cians usually see patients in their offices, make
house calls, and treat patients in osteopathic and
some city and county hospitals. A few doctors of
osteopathy are engaged primarily in research,
teaching, or writing and editing scientific books
and journals. A growing number specialize in 1 of
the following 12 fields: Internal medicine, neu­
rology and psychiatry, ophthalmology and oto­
rhinolaryngology, pediatrics, anesthesiology,
physical medicine and rehabilitation, dermatology, obstetrics and gynecology, pathology, proc­
tology, radiology, and surgery.

Nearly all of the 12,000 osteopathic physicians
professionally active in the United States in early
1963 were in private practice. (This does not in­
clude about 1,500 osteopathic physicians in Cali­
fornia who, since 1962, have been classified as
medical doctors.) Less than 5 percent of all osteo­
pathic physicians held full-time salaried positions,
mainly in osteopathic hospitals and colleges. A
few osteopathic physicians are employed by pri­
vate industry or government agencies.
Osteopathic physicians are located chiefly in
those States which have osteopathic hospital fa­
cilities. In 1962, about half of all osteopathic phy­
sicians were in the following five States: Michi­
gan, Pennsylvania, and Missouri, each with more
than 1,000; Ohio, with more than 900; and Texas,
with more than 700. Twenty-one States and the




HEALTH SERVICE OCCUPATIONS

District of Columbia each had fewer than 50
osteopathic physicians. Over half of all general
practitioners are located in towns and cities with
under 25,000 population; the specialists, however,
practice mainly in big cities.
Training and Other Qualifications

A license to practice as an osteopathic physician
is required in all States. As of 1963, licensed osteo­
pathic physicians were qualified to engage in all
types of medical and surgical practice in threefourths of the States and the District of Columbia.
The remaining States, however, limit in varying
degrees the use of drugs or the type of surgery
that may be performed.
To obtain a license, a candidate must be a gradu­
ate of an approved school of osteopathy and pass
a State board examination. In 21 States and the
District of Columbia, the candidate must pass an
examination in the basic sciences before he is eligi­
ble to take the professional examination; some
States also require a period of internship after
graduation from osteopathic school. All States ex­
cept Florida and Rhode Island will usually grant
licenses, without further examination, to properly
qualified osteopathic physicians already licensed
by another State.
Three years of preosteopathic college work fol­
lowed by 4 years of professional study in an osteo­
pathic college are the minimum requirements for
the degree of doctor of osteopathy (D.O.) Pre­
osteopathic education must include a specified
number of credits in chemistry, physics, biology,
and English. During the first 2 years of profes­
sional training, emphasis is placed on basic sci­
ences such as anatomy, physiology, and pathology
and on the principles of osteopathy; the last 2
years are largely devoted to work with patients
in hospitals and clinics.
After graduation, almost all doctors of osteop­
athy serve a 12-month internship at 1 of the 85
osteopathic hospitals which the American Osteo­
pathic Association has approved for intern train­
ing. Those who wish to become specialists must
have at least 3 years of additional training fol­
lowed by 2 years of supervised practice in the
specialty.
Every year, more young people apply for ad­
mission to the five approved schools of osteopathy
692-408 0—63------7



81

than can be accepted. In selecting students, con­
sideration is given to grades received in preprofes­
sional education, scores on medical aptitude tests,
and the amount of preosteopathic college work
completed (in 1962, about 70 percent of the stu­
dents had bachelor’s degrees). Also of great im­
portance in the desire to serve as an osteopathic
physician rather than as a doctor trained in other
schools of medicine. Considerable weight is also
given to a favorable recommendation by an osteo­
pathic physician familiar with the applicant’s
background.
Newly qualified doctors of osteopathy usually
establish their own practice. A few work as assist­
ants to experienced physicians or become asso­
ciated with osteopathic hospitals. In view of the
variation in State laws regulating the practice of
osteopathy, the osteopathic physician should care­
fully study the professional and legal require­
ments of the State in which he plans to practice.
The availability of osteopathic hospitals and clini­
cal facilities should also be taken into account
when choosing a location.
Employment Outlook

Opportunities for osteopathic physicians will
remain excellent through the rest of the 1960’s in
those parts of the country where osteopathy is a
commonly accepted form of medical care. Greatest
demand will probably continue to be in Pennsyl­
vania and a number of Midwestern States; fur­
ther growth in employment opportunities is also
anticipated in the Southwest and Northwest. Pros­
pects for beginning a successful practice are likely
to be best in rural areas, small towns, and city
suburbs, where the young doctor of osteopathy
can become known more easily than in the centers
of large cities.
In the long run, opportunities for osteopathic
physicians will probably continue to be good.
There is likelihood of greater public acceptance
of osteopathy, liberalization of certain State li­
censing laws, and the establishment of additional
osteopathic hospitals. In addition, the demand for
all kinds of medical care—including the services
of osteopathic physicians—will continue to grow
as a result of the increase in population, govern­
ment provisions of medical services for veterans
and members of the Armed Forces, the develop-

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

82

ment of prepayment plans for medical care and
hospitalization, and the underlying trend toward
higher standards of health care. At the same time,
growth in the number of osteopathic physicians
in the country will be slow, unless training facili­
ties are expanded. Approximately 360 doctors of
osteopathy were graduated in 1962 but most of
these are needed to replace those who retire and
die.
Women osteopathic physicians will find good
opportunities not only in private practice but also
on faculties of osteopathic colleges and on the
staffs of hospitals and clinics. Approximately 7
percent of all osteopathic physicians are women.
Women students, however, represented only about
2 percent of the total enrollment in osteopathic
colleges in 1962, although men and women are
equally eligible for admission.
Earnings and Working Condifions

In osteopathy, as in many of the other health
professions, incomes usually rise markedly after
the first years of practice. Earnings of individual

practitioners are determined mainly by such fac­
tors as ability, experience, the income level of the
community served, and geographic location. Ac­
cording to the most recent survey made by the
American Osteopathic Association (1960), the av­
erage income above business expenses of general
practitioners was $15,400 a year, and of special­
ists, $23,100 a year.
Many osteopathic physicians work more than
50 and 60 hours a week. Those in general practice
work longer and more irregular hours than
specialists.
Where To Go for More Information

Persons wishing to practice in a given State
should find out about the requirements for licen­
sure directly from the board of examiners of that
State. A list of State boards, as well as general
information on osteopathy as a career, may be
obtained from:
American Osteopathic Association,
212 East Ohio St., Chicago, 111., 60611.

Hospital Administrators

(D.O.T. 0-99.84)

Nature of Work

Hospital administrators hold the top-level ex­
ecutive jobs in a hospital. They have responsibil­
ity for directing the housekeeping and other
administrative activities of hospitals and coordi­
nating them with the medical services. General
guidance for their work comes from a governing
board with which they work closely in the devel­
opment of plans and policies.
The day-to-day work of administrators involves
keeping track of all the many and varied activities
of the hospital, generally with the aid of a staff.
They work closely with the doctors and nurses
in charge of the medical and nursing services
and make available to them the necessary person­
nel, equipment, and auxiliary services. Adminis­
trators are responsible for other management
functions such as those concerned with hiring and
training personnel; handling the budget, includ­
ing setting the fee schedule to be charged patients




and establishing the accounting procedures for
billing them; planning current and future space
needs; adopting measures to insure the proper
maintenance of buildings and equipment; pur­
chasing supplies and equipment; and providing
for laundry, mail, telephone, information, and
other services for the patients and staff. Many of
these duties, particularly in a large hospital, are
delegated to assistants or department heads, de­
pending on the size and nature of the hospital
organization.
Following the direction of the governing board,
the administrators may carry out large projects
concerned with expanding or developing the hos­
pital’s services. For example, they may organize
fund-raising campaigns or plan new research pro­
grams.
Administrators meet regularly with their staff
to discuss progress, make plans, and solve prob­
lems concerning the functioning of the hospital.

HEALTH SERVICE OCCUPATIONS

83

Hospitals are located in communities of all sizes
and in rural areas. In small hospitals, typically
located in rural or suburban areas, the adminis­
trator generally handles all management func­
tions. In large hospitals, they are assisted by
specialists who have been trained in hospital ad­
ministration.
Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement

The background needed to qualify for this work
depends, to a large extent, on the qualifications
established by individual employers. Most hospital
boards and other employers prefer persons with
a graduate degree in hospital administration. A
few require that their administrators be qualified
physicians or registered professional nurses.
Others look for people who have formal training
in law or business administration and also exten­
sive experience in the health field. At least one
Hospital administrator makes sure attendants are properly
trained to operate a sterilizer
State (Minnesota) requires all administrators of
hospitals licensed in the State to be registered with
to register, applicants
In cooperation with the medical staff and depart­ the State Board of Health; years of experience or
must have a minimum of 2
ment heads, they may also develop and maintain 1 year
teaching programs for nurses, interns, and other tion. of formal training in hospital administra­
hospital staff members. They may address com­
In 1962, master’s
munity gatherings, organize community health tration wasaoffered in degree in hospital adminis­
17
campaigns, represent their hospitals at meetings, These programs usually colleges and universities.
involve a year of grad­
or participate in study groups.
uate work followed by a year of administrative
residency in a selected hospital. The graduate
training may include such courses as Introduction
Where Employed
Organ­
In 1961, an estimated 7,000 administrators were to Medical Care Administration, Hospitalto Data
ization and Management,
employed in hospitals; about two-thirds of them Processing, The Hospital inIntroduction
the
worked in nonprofit or private hospitals, and the counting and Budgeting Control,Community, Ac­
Personnel Man­
remainder worked in Federal, State, and local agement, and Advanced Administrative Manage­
government hospitals. Of those employed by the ment. The residency involves an orientation to all
Federal Government, the largest numbers were in of the hospital’s activities under the supervision
Veterans Administration hospitals; most of the of the administrator or his assistant. In 1962, three
remainder were employed in Army, Navy, Air universities offered a curriculum leading to a
Force, and Public Health Service hospitals. In Ph. D. degree in this field. The American College
addition to the administrators, about 5,000 people of Hospital Administrators provides financial
were working as assistants to hospital adminis­ loans to a limited number of students for graduate
trators. It is estimated that one-third of all the work in hospital administration. The U.S. Public
people in the field of hospital administration are Health Service also offers awards for graduate
women; many are members of religious orders. work in this field.
Some women administrators are registered pro­
Some persons gain experience that may qualify
fessional nurses.
them for advancement to the administrator’s job




OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

84

by working in one of the specialized administra­
tive areas, such as personnel, records, budget and
finance, or data processing. With this experience
or graduate work, they may be promoted to de­
partment head, assistant to the administrator, and
eventually to administrator.
Personal qualifications needed for success in this
field include good health and vitality as well as an
interest in helping the sick. Skills in working with
people, organizing and directing large-scale activ­
ities, and public speaking are important assets.
Administrators of specialized hospitals (such as
orthopedic or mental hospitals) are most fre­
quently physicians whose medical specialty is the
same as that of the hospital; hospitals that are
run by religious groups usually seek administra­
tors of the same faith.
Employment Outlook

New hospital administration graduates are ex­
pected to have good opportunities to enter the field
during the remainder of the 1960 decade. Most of
the opportunities for beginners will result from
vacancies on administrative staffs. The position of
hospital administrator, especially in a large hos­
pital, represents a career goal, and these positions
are likely to continue to be filled by promotion
from within or by transfers from smaller hospi­
tals. Some positions, including that of the
administrator, are likely to continue to be filled by
physicians and nurses; however, trained adminis­
trative specialists will be preferred for most
positions. The great expansion in hospital services
in recent years has contributed to the demand for
specialists to handle the related increase in admin­
istrative-management functions.
As more and larger hospitals are built to take
care of the increasing population, and as services
are expanded, more staff positions are likely to be
created. These positions will provide additional
employment and promotional opportunities, es­
pecially for graduates of schools of hospital ad­
ministration. Such graduates will also find in­
creasing employment opportunities outside of
hospitals in hospitalization and health insurance
programs and other related areas.




Earnings and Working Conditions

Salaries of hospital administrators depend on
factors such as the type of hospital, the size of its
administrative staff and budget, and the policy of
the governing board. New graduates in hospital
administration received beginning annual salaries
in 1962 of between $6,000 and $8,000, on the aver­
age, and administrators with several years of ex­
perience generally earned $15,000 or more a year,
according to the limited data available. New grad­
uates employed in Veterans Administration hos­
pitals started at about $6,700 a year in late 1962.
VA hospital administrators, most of wdiom are
physicians, earned over $16,000 a year.
Commissioned officers in the Armed Forces and
in the U.S. Public Health Service working in the
field of hospital administration hold ranks rang­
ing from second lieutenant to colonel. In late 1962,
the corresponding pay and allowances for these
ranks ranged from about $4,300 to $14,000. Com­
manding officers of large hospitals of the Armed
Forces are physicians, and they may hold higher
ranks.
Hospital administrators often work long hours.
Since hospitals operate on a round-the-clock basis,
the administrator may be called upon to settle
emergency problems at any time of the day or
night. Many administrators receive free meals
and, sometimes, housing and laundry service.
Fringe benefits usually include paid vacations and
holidays, sick leave, and pension and insurance
coverage.
Where To Go for More Information.

Additional information about hospital admin­
istration and a list of colleges and universities
offering such training may be obtained from:
American College of Hospital Administrators,
840 North Lake Shore Dr., Chicago, 111., 60611.

Information on awards available from the U.S.
Public Health Service for graduate training in
hospital administration may be obtained from
that agency’s Division of Community Services,
Training Resources Branch, Washington, D.C.,
20202.

HEALTH SERVICE OCCUPATIONS

85

Dental Hygienists

(D.O.T. 0-50.07)

Nature of Work

Dental hygienists, working under the super­
vision of dentists, clean teeth by removing stains
and calcium deposits, polish teeth, and massage
gums. While performing this work (oral prophy­
laxis), they chart conditions of decay and disease
for diagnosis by the dentist. Some dental hygien­
ists apply a fluoride solution to children’s teeth
to aid in preventing decay. They may also provide
dental health education, including the techniques
of mouth care and proper diet.
Dental hygienists who work in private dental
offices may, in addition, take and develop X-rays,
mix filling compounds, prepare solutions, sterilize
instruments, and act as chairside assistants to the
dentist. They may also make appointments and
keep records. Those employed by school systems
promote dental health by examining children’s
teeth, assisting dentists in determining dental
treatment needed, and reporting their findings to
parents. They also perform oral prophylaxes and
give instruction on correct care and brushing of
teeth. Some help to develop classroom projects or
assembly programs on oral health. Dental hy­
gienists employed by health agencies work on
dental health projects or perform clincial duties.
A few assist in research projects. Those with ad­
vanced training may teach in schools of dental
hygiene.

Courtesy of U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare
Dental hygienists often work with children




Where Employed

Approximately 10,000 dental hygienists were
in practice in the United States in 1962; almost
all were women. The majority were employed
in private dental offices; about one-fourth
worked for public health agencies or school sys­
tems; a few worked in industrial plants, clinics,
hospitals, and dental hygiene schools, and as civil­
ian employees of the Armed Forces.
Although the majority of hygienists worked in
the eastern section of the country, the number
employed in other areas has been growing in the
past decade.
Training and Other Qualifications

Dental hygienists must pass an examination and
be licensed by the State in which they wish to
practice. In all States except Alabama and Geor­
gia, eligibility for the licensure examination is
limited to graduates of accredited dental hygiene
schools. In early 1963, candidates who passed the
examination given by the National Board of Den­
tal Examiners were eligible for certification in 32
States without taking a State examination. Upon
being licensed, a hygienist becomes a Registered
Dental Hygienist (R.D.H.). To practice in a dif­
ferent State, a licensed dental hygienist usually
must take another examination.
In 1962, 43 schools of dental hygiene in the
United States were accredited or provisionally
accredited by the American Dental Association.
Most of these schools provide a 2-year dental
hygiene certification course. A few have 4-year
programs leading to the bachelor’s degree, and
some offer both programs. Most of the schools
admit only women.
For dental hygienists interested in practicing
in a private dental office, completion of the 2-year
program is usually sufficient. Those who wish to
work in public health or school-health programs,
or in research or teaching, generally take the
4-year program.
The minimum requirement for admission to a
school of dental hygiene is graduation from high
school. Several schools which offer the bachelor’s
degree admit students to the dental hygiene pro­

86

gram only after they have completed 2 years of
college. The majority of schools also require that
applicants take aptitude tests conducted by the
American Dental Hygienists’ Association.
The curriculum at a school of dental hygiene
consists of courses in the basic sciences, dental
sciences, and liberal arts. These schools offer class­
room instruction, laboratory work, and clinical
experience. Classroom work includes subjects such
as anatomy, chemistry, histology, pathology,
pharmacology, and English. The ability to work
well with people, and patience as well as manual
dexterity and attentiveness to detail are essential
for work in this field.
Employment Outlook

The current shortage of qualified dental hygien­
ists is expected to continue during the 1960 decade.
In 1962, the American Dental Hygienists’ Asso­
ciation reported twice as many job openings as
qualified applicants, despite the sharp rise in the
number of graduates from schools of dental hy­
giene in recent years.
Over the long run, the demand for hygienists
will continue to grow as a result of the expanding
population with higher income and educational
levels. Growing interest in dental care programs
for children will lead to more employment op­
portunities in school systems. Increased participa­
tion in dental prepayment' plans and more group
practice among dentists may also result in new
jobs for dental hygienists. In addition, a great
number of job openings will be created by young
women who leave their jobs for marriage and
family responsibilities.
Mature women who wish to return to the field
and those who desire part-time positions can ex­
pect to find good opportunities for employment.

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

survey made in 1960. Hygienists employed in
large metropolitan centers earned between $100
and $125 a week in 1960, according to limited
data available. Dental hygienists employed in re­
search, administrative, supervisory, or teaching
positions often earned higher salaries. Those
working in private dental offices are most often
salaried employees, though some are paid a com­
mission for work performed or a combination of
salary and commission.
The annual beginning salary for a dental hy­
gienist employed by the Federal Government was
either $4,110 or $4,565 in early 1963, depending
on education and experience. Most of those in the
Federal Government earned between $4,565 and
$6,005 per year.
Dental hygienists employed full time in private
offices usually work between 35 and 40 hours a
week. They may work on Saturdays or during
evening hours. Some hygienists work for two or
more dentists. Many hygienists work part time
in private dental offices.
Working conditions are usually pleasant. Most
hygienists are employed in clean, well-lighted
offices, but may have to stand for long periods of
time. The hygienist generally provides her own
uniforms. Regular medical checkups and strict
adherence to established procedures for using
X-ray equipment and for disinfection are impor­
tant health protections for persons in this occupa­
tion.
A paid vacation of 2 or 3 weeks is common
among hygienists who work full time in dental
offices. Dental hygienists employed by school sys­
tems, health agencies, and the Federal or State
governments have the same hours, vacation, sick
leave, and retirement benefits as other workers in
these organizations.
Where To Go for More Information.

Earnings and Working Conditions

Earnings of dental hygienists are affected by
the type of employer, education and experience
of the individual hygienist, and the part of the
country in which the job is located.
More than four-fifths of all dental hygienists
employed full time had annual incomes of be­
tween $2,000 and $8,000, according to a private



Information about approved schools and the
educational requirements needed to enter the field
may be obtained from:
American Dental Hygienists’ Association,
100 East Ohio St., Chicago, 111., 60611.

Information concerning licensing requirements
can be obtained from the State Board of Dental
Examiners in each State.

HEALTH SERVICE OCCUPATIONS

87

Physical Therapists

(D.O.T. 0-39.935)

Nature of Work

Physical therapists (formerly called physio­
therapists) help persons with muscle, nerve, joint,
or bone diseases or injuries to overcome their
disabilities. Following physicians’ instructions,
they treat a variety of disorders through physical
exercise, the use of mechanical apparatus, and
applications of massage, heat, light, water, or
electricity. Most of their patients are accident
victims, crippled children, and disabled older
persons.
To obtain information needed in developing a
treatment program, physical therapists perform
muscle and nerve tests. They also keep records of
their patients’ progress during treatments and at­
tend conferences at which the progress of patients
is discussed. In many instances, they help disabled
persons to accept their physical handicaps and
learn how to live with their limitations. Thera­
pists teach patients how to perform exercises and
to use and care for braces, crutches, and artificial
limbs. They may also show members of patients’
families how to continue treatments at home.
Physical therapists are members of a rehabilita­
tion team which is directed by a physician and
may include a nurse, clinical social worker, oc­
cupational therapist, psychologist, vocational
counselor, and other specialists. Although quali­
fied physical therapists may treat all types of pa­
tients, some specialize in working with children,
amputees, paraplegics, or victims of poliomyelitis,
cerebral palsy, arthritis, or muscular dystrophy.
They may instruct physical therapy students, as
well as students of related professions and other
health workers.
Where Employed

An estimated 9,000 qualified physical therapists
were employed in 1962; about 80 percent were
women. In recent years, the number of men enter­
ing this occupation has been growing.
The majority of physical therapists work in
hospitals. About half of this group are employed
by private hospitals, approximately one-fourth in
State or local government hospitals, and most of
the remainder—about 700—in Federal Govern


M an y physical therapists specialize in working with children

ment hospitals operated primarily by the Veterans
Administration and the U.S. Public Health Serv­
ice. Nearly 300 are commissioned officers in the
Armed Forces. Most hospitals employing physical
therapists are general hospitals, but some special­
ize in the care of pediatric, orthopedic, psychi­
atric, or chronically ill patients. In 1961, approx­
imately one-half of the nearly 7,000 hospitals
listed by the American Hospital Association had
physical therapy facilities.
Approximately one-fourth of all physical thera­
pists are employed by rehabilitation or treatment
centers, schools or societies for crippled children,
and public health agencies. Most of these organi­
zations provide treatment for patients with
chronic diseases, and some have home visiting
programs.
Some therapists work in physicians’ offices or
clinics, teach in schools of physical therapy, or

88

perform research. A few serve as consultants in
government and voluntary agencies.
Training and Other Qualifications

Professional education for physical therapists
in the United States may be obtained in 41 schools
of physical therapy (including the Army Medical
Service School) which have been approved by
the American Medical Association and the Ameri­
can Physical Therapy Association. The majority
of approved schools are part of large universities;
the others are operated by hospitals, which usually
have university affiliations.
Graduation from an approved school of physical
therapy is necessary for licensing in some States.
In 1962, 39 States and the District of Columbia
required licensing or registration of physical
therapists. Membership in the American Physical
Therapy Association and registration with the
American Registry of Physical Therapists also
require graduation from an approved school.
About half of the approved schools offer 4-year
programs in physical therapy leading to a bache­
lor’s degree. Some approved schools provide 1- to
2-year undergraduate programs to students who
have completed required courses in the biological,
physical, and social sciences and through which
students may earn either a degree or a certificate
in physical therapy. Other schools accept those
who already have a bachelor’s degree, including
the required courses, and give a 12- to 24-month
course leading to the certificate. Many schools of­
fer both degree and certificate programs.
The curriculum of approved schools includes
anatomy, physiology, pathology, clinical medicine,
and psycnology, as well as courses in electro­
therapy, heat therapy, hydrotherapy, massage,
and exercise. In addition to classroom instruction,
students are assigned to a hospital or treatment
center for supervised clinical experience in the
care of patients.
Several universities offer the master’s degree in
physical therapy. A graduate degree, combined
with clinical experience, increases the opportuni­
ties for advancement to positions of responsibility
in teaching, research, and administration, as well
as in the treatment area of physical therapy.



OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

Since an important part of a therapist’s job is
to help patients and their families understand
the treatments and prepare them emotionally for
the changes that occur, therapists must have pa­
tience, resourcefulness, and a sympathetic attitude
toward people. Their work also requires good
verbal expression, and the ability to plan their
work and to schedule treatments so as to insure
maximum use of time. In addition, physical thera­
pists should have manual dexterity and physical
stamina. For those wishing to determine whether
they have the personal qualities needed for this
occupation, summer or part-time work as a volun­
teer in the physical therapy department of a hos­
pital or clinic may prove helpful.
Employment Outlook

Employment opportunities for physical thera­
pists are expected to remain excellent throughout
the remainder of the 1960’s. The demand for quali­
fied physical therapists is likely to continue to
exceed the supply unless the number of graduates
from approved programs rises sharply. In recent
years, schools of physical therapy have not been
filled to capacity.
In the long run, more new positions will be
available as rehabilitation centers are enlarged
and new ones are built to meet the demands cre­
ated by the increasing number of disabled people
who require physical therapy and by the increas­
ing public interest in rehabilitating handicapped
persons. In addition, a sizable number of vacan­
cies will continue to arise each year because many
workers are young women who may leave the pro­
fession for marriage and family responsibilities.
Programs to aid crippled children and vocational
rehabilitation activities in which States are as­
sisted by Federal funds, and possible expansion
of public health services at the State and local
levels will further add to the demand for physical
therapists. More physicians are expected to recom­
mend physical therapy for patients as techniques
and equipment for treatment are improved.
Part-time positions will continue to be avail­
able in many communities. These positions are
particularly attractive to married women who
have physical therapy training and wish to re­
turn to work on a part-time basis.

HEALTH SERVICE OCCUPATIONS

89

Earnings and Working Conditions

Annual salaries of inexperienced physical thera­
pists averaged $5,250 in 1961, and those of experi­
enced therapists, $7,000, according to the Ameri­
can Physical Therapy Association. Salaries of co­
ordinators, directors, and administrators were
generally higher.
In early 1963, newly graduated therapists em­
ployed by the Federal Government received an­
nual starting salaries of $5,035; those who were
exceptionally well qualified, however, were of­
fered $5,540. At the same time, an entrance salary

of $4,265, including allowances, was paid to physi­
cal therapists commissioned in the Armed Forces
as second lieutenants or ensigns and to junior
assistants in the U.S. Public Health Service.
Most physical therapists work 40 hours a week.
Almost all receive 2 or more weeks’ vacation
and the majority receive sick leave and other
fringe benefits.
Where To Go for More Information

American Physical Therapy Association,
1790 Broadway, New York, N.Y., 10019.

Podiatrists

(D.O.T. 0-39.901)
Nature of Work

Podiatrists (sometimes called chiropodists) di­
agnose and treat diseases and deformities of the
feet. They perform foot surgery, use drugs and
physical therapy, prescribe proper shoes, and fit
corrective devices. To help in diagnoses, they also
take X-rays of the feet and utilize blood and
other tests. Among the conditions podiatrists treat
are corns, bunions, calluses, ingrown toenails, skin
and nail diseases, deformed toes, and arch condi­
tions. They refer patients to medical doctors
whenever they observe symptoms in the feet and
legs that may be evidence of diseases—such as
arthritis or heart or kidney trouble—which also
affect other parts of the body.
As a rule, podiatrists provide most types of
foot care. Some, however, treat particular ail­
ments, and others devote most of their practice
to children. A few act as consultants to shoe
manufacturers, and some do research or teach in
colleges of podiatry-chiropody.

Podiatrists practice mainly in large cities. More
than half are in five of the most heavily populated
States—New York, Pennsylvania, Illinois, Cali­
fornia, and Ohio. There are many small towns and
rural areas, especially in the South and the North­
west, where there are no podiatrists.
Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement

All States and the District of Columbia require
a license for the practice of podiatry. To qualify
for a license, an applicant must have been gradu­
ated from a college of podiatry, and must pass a
State board examination. In addition, three States
—Michigan, New Jersey, and Rhode Island—re­
quire applicants to have completed a 1-year intern-

Where Employed

Nearly all of the approximately 8,000 podia­
trists actively engaged in the profession in early
1963 were in private practice. The few who held
full-time salaried positions worked mainly in hos­
pitals or podiatry colleges, or for other podiatrists.
A few were employed by the Veterans Adminis­
tration; others were commissioned officers in the
Armed Forces. Women represented between 3 and
4 percent of the profession.



Podiatrist uses model of patient’s foot to explain proposed
treatment

90

ship in a hospital or clinic after graduation from
a podiatry college; the State of Oklahoma re­
quires those seeking a license to have completed
1-year of practice under the direct supervision of
an experienced podiatrist. Over half the States
grant licenses without further examination to
podiatrists already licensed by another State.
The five podiatry colleges in the United States
will admit only students who have already com­
pleted at least 2 years of college. This education
must include courses in English, chemistry, biol­
ogy or zoology, and, in some instances, also phys­
ics or mathematics.
The first 2 years of podiatry training are de­
voted chiefly to classroom instruction and labora­
tory work in such basic sciences as anatomy, bac­
teriology, chemistry, pathology, and physiology,
though in the second year students obtain some
limited experience in the school clinics. During the
final 2 years, students spend most of their time
obtaining clinical experience. The degree of Doc­
tor of Podiatry (Pod.D.), Doctor of Podiatric
Medicine (D.P.M.) or Doctor of Surgical Chirop­
ody (D.S.C.) is awarded upon graduation. Ad­
ditional education and experience are necessary
to qualify for membership in any one of the fol­
lowing specialty groups recognized by the Ameri­
can Podiatry Association: American College of
Foot Surgeons, American College of Foot Ortho­
pedists, American College of Foot Roentgenolo­
gists, American Society of Podiatric Dermatology,
and the American Association of Hospital
Podiatrists.
Among the personal qualifications considered
desirable for a career in this profession are scien­
tific aptitude, manual dexterity, and a good busi­
ness sense. The ability to get along well with
people is also important.
Most newly licensed podiatrists open their own
offices or purchase established practices. Some be­
gin by taking salaried positions in hospitals, or
with podiatrists already in practice, to gain ex­
perience and to save the money needed to equip
an office. Podiatrists entering the Armed Forces
are commissioned as second lieutenants or ensigns
and may progress to higher ranks if they make
the service a career.




OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK
Employment Outlook

The employment outlook for podiatrists is ex­
pected to be good for the rest of the 1960’s, espe­
cially in those parts of the country where the serv­
ices of podiatrists are widely used. New graduates
of colleges of podiatry should generally be able to
find favorable opportunities for establishing prac­
tices and some will also have opportunities for
salaried employment.
In recent years, the number of new graduates
has only slightly exceeded the number needed to
replace members of the profession who retire or
die. In 1963, the American Podiatry Association
reported that there were unmet needs for podia­
trists in some parts of the country.
In the long run, the demand for podiatrists’
services is likely to grow, along with the demand
for other health care. The rising population and
the growing proportion of older people are two
factors pointing in this direction; the American
Podiatry Association estimates that over half the
population, particularly people in the older age
groups, need podiatrists’ services. In addition, the
trend toward providing preventive foot care for
children is increasing. Additional podiatrists may
be needed to fill salaried positions in schools, fac­
tories, and with organizations that provide all
kinds of health services.
Location is one of the major factors in deter­
mining success of podiatrists opening their own
offices. A practice can be developed most quickly in
small cities and suburban areas, where the new
podiatrist can easily become known in the com­
munity and where there is less competition from
established practitioners.
Earnings and Working Conditions

In podiatry, as in many of the other professions,
incomes usually rise markedly after the first years
of practice. Earnings of individual podiatrists
are determined mainly by such factors as ability,
experience, the income level of the community
served, and location. In 1959—the most recent year
for which this information is available—the aver­
age income above expenses for self-employed po­
diatrists was $10,364, according to a survey by
the American Podiatry Association.

HEALTH SERVICE OCCUPATIONS

91

Podiatrists do not have a standard workweek
but set their hours to suit the needs of their
practice.
Where To Go for More Information.

Current information on the requirements for
licensure in a particular State may be obtained

from the State board of examiners in the State
capital. Information on entrance requirements,
curriculums, and scholarships is available from
the colleges of podiatry. Additional information
on podiatry as a career, as well as a list of colleges,
may be obtained from:
American Podiatry Association,
3301 16th St., NW., Washington, D.C., 20010.

Occupational Therapists

(D.O.T. 0-32.04)

Nature of Work

Occupational therapists, following physicians’
instructions, select and direct educational, voca­
tional, and recreational activities designed to meet
the specific needs of patients. They work as mem­
bers of a medical team whose purpose is to restore
maximum function to mentally or physically disa­
bled patients. In addition to physicians, the team
may include physical therapists, nurses, social
workers, and other specialists.
The rehabilitation goals set for the patient may
include regaining physical, mental, or emotional
stability; combating boredom during a long-term
illness; developing maximum self-sufficiency in
the routine of daily living (such as eating, dress­
ing, writing, and using a telephone); and, in the
latter stage of treatment, to perform jobs in a
practical work situation.
As part of the treatment program, occupational
therapists teach manual and creative arts such as
weaving, clay modeling, and leatherworking, as
well as business and industrial skills such as typ­
ing, operating some business machines, and using
power tools. Therapists may be required to de­
sign and make special equipment or splints to
aid some disabled patients in performing their
activities. Other duties may include supervision
of volunteer workers, student therapists, occupa­
tional therapy assistants, and auxiliary nursing
workers.
The largest group of occupational therapists
work with psychiatric patients; the next largest
number work with persons having physical disa­
bilities; a sizable number work with children, in­
cluding those with cerebral palsy; and most of the
remainder work with the mentally retarded or




elderly patients. The chief occupational therapist
in a hospital may teach medical and nursing stu­
dents the principles of occupational therapy.
Many occupational therapists have administrative
duties such as directing occupational therapy pro­
grams, coordinating patient activities, and acting
as consultants to local and State health depart­
ments and mental health authorities.

Occupational therapist helps young patient regain the use of
her hands

92
Where Employed

Most occupational therapists work in hospitals,
rehabilitation centers, homes for the aged, nursing
homes, school and out-patient clinics, and research
centers. Some are employed in special workshops,
sanitariums, camps for handicapped children, and
in State health departments. A few are employed
in home-visiting programs for patients unable to
attend clinics or workshops.
In 1962, about 6,700 occupational therapists
were registered with the American Occupational
Therapy Association. Of these, nearly 5,000
worked in hospitals, including about 600 in hos­
pitals operated by the Veterans Administration
and the U.S. Public Health Service. In addition,
about 130 were in the Armed Forces. The great
majority of occupational therapists are women;
in recent years, however, an increasing number of
men have been entering the field.
Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement

A general requirement for entry into the profes­
sion is graduation from a college or university
offering courses in occupational therapy approved
by the American Medical Association and the
American Occupational Therapy Association. In
1962, 30 colleges and universities in the United
States offered approved courses leading to a
bachelor’s degree with a major in occupational
therapy. Nearly all of these schools offer 4-year
programs to high school graduates, and the rest
offer 2-year programs to students who have com­
pleted 2 years of college. About half of the schools
also offer shorter programs to students with a
bachelor’s degree in another field; a certificate in
occupational therapy is granted upon completion
of these programs.
In addition to the required academic work,
which emphasizes the health sciences and the ap­
plication of occupational skills, a clinical practice
period—9 to 10 months of supervised practice in
hospitals or health agencies—is required to qualify
for professional registration. Some colleges permit
their students to take the clinical practice during
the summer or during part of their senior year
in college. The Armed Forces offer programs
whereby graduates of approved schools of occu­
pational therapy, who meet the requirements to



OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

become commissioned officers, may receive the clin­
ical part of their training while in the service.
Upon graduation and completion of the clinical
practice period, therapists are eligible to take the
examination given by the American Occupational
Therapy Association. Those who pass this exami­
nation may use the initials O.T.R. (Occupational
Therapist Registered). Many hospitals require
that their occupational therapists be registered.
Five universities offer a program leading to a
master’s degree in occupational therapy. A gradu­
ate degree is often required for teaching, research,
or administrative work.
Newly graduated occupational therapists usu­
ally begin as staff therapists and may qualify as
senior therapists after several years on the job.
Experienced therapists may become directors of
occupational therapy programs in large hospitals,
clinics, or workshops, or may become teachers.
Some positions are available as program coordi­
nators and as consultants with large institutions
and agencies.
Personal qualifications needed in this profession
include emotional stability, a sincere interest in
helping people, and a sympathetic but objective
approach to illness and disability. Manual dex­
terity, ingenuity, and imagination are also needed.
Employment Outlook

Opportunities for occupational therapists are
expected to be excellent during the middle and late
1960’s. A shortage of therapists existed in early
1963; the greatest demand was in and near metro­
politan areas where medical and health facilities
are generally located. Despite the increasing num­
ber of persons enrolled in occupational therapy
courses, classes were not filled to capacity in the
fall of 1962.
Over the long run, the demand for occupational
therapists is expected to increase, owing to the
growing public interest in the rehabilitation of
disabled persons and the success of occupational
therapy programs in helping to restore people to
health. There will be numerous opportunities for
work with psychiatric patients, children, and aged
persons, as well as with persons suffering from
cerebral palsy, poliomyelitis, tuberculosis, and
heart disease. In addition, many openings will
arise because of the need to replace the high pro­

HEALTH SERVICE OCCUPATIONS

93

portion of young women who leave the field for
marriage and family responsibilities.
Although hospitals and other employers prefer
to hire registered occupational therapists, their
shortage will probably create continuing good
employment opportunities for therapists who are
not registered but have some of the required train­
ing and skills. Opportunities for part-time em­
ployment should be excellent in many areas.
Earnings and Working Conditions

Staff occupational therapists were most fre­
quently paid annual salaries between $4,800 and
$5,500 in late 1962, and senior therapists had earn­
ings of $5,300 to $6,000, according to the American
Occupational Therapy Association. Directors of
occupational therapy programs received from

$5,800 to $8,000; a few consultants earned between
$6,800 and $11,000 a year.
In the Federal Government, the beginning an­
nual salary for an occupational therapist without
experience was $5,035 in early 1963. About onethird of all occupational therapists in the Federal
Government earned $6,675 or more a year; a few
in top positions earned between $10,000 and
$12,000.
Most occupational therapists work an 8-hour
day, 40-hour week, with some evening work re­
quired in a few organizations. Vacation leave usu­
ally ranges from 2 to 4 weeks a year, and many
positions offer health and retirement benefits.
Where To Go for More Information

American Occupational Therapy Association,
250 West 57th St., New York, N.Y., 10019.

Medical Record Librarians

(D.O.T. 0-23.25)

Nature of Work

Medical record librarians plan, prepare, main­
tain, and analyze records and reports on patients’
illnesses and treatments. They assist the medical
staff in research projects; develop auxiliary rec­
ords (such as indexes of physicians, diseases
treated, and operations performed); compile sta­
tistics, especially those pertaining to services given
patients; make summaries or “abstracts” of medi­
cal records; develop systems for preserving medi­
cal records; and direct the activities of the medical
record department.
The number and kind of duties medical record
librarians perform vary markedly, depending on
the size and type of institution in which they are
employed. In a large hospital, the chief medical
record librarian supervises a staff of other medical
record librarians, medical record technicians, and
clerical workers. She usually represents her de­
partment at hospital staff meetings and may
testify in court actions that involve medical rec­
ords. In small hospitals, she may be the only em­
ployee in the medical' record department, and may
perform clerical as well as professional duties.
The records maintained by the medical record
librarian contain medical and surgical informa­
tion on each patient, including history of the ill­



ness, physical examination findings, doctors’ or­
ders and progress notes, nurses’ notes, and reports
on X-rays and laboratory findings. These records
are used for research, insurance claims, legal ac­
tions, evaluation of treatment and medications,
and for training medical, nursing, and related per­
sonnel. Medical information found in hospital rec­
ords is also important in planning community
health programs.

Courtesy of Veterans Administration
Chief medical record librarian explains preparation of records
to interns

94

The occupation of medical record librarian
should not be confused with that of medical li­
brarian, whose work is chiefly confined to books,
periodicals, and other publications. (See state­
ment on Librarians.)
Where Employed

About 3,000 Registered Record Librarians
were employed in 1962, according to the
American Association of Medical Record Li­
brarians. In addition, over 22,000 other medical
record personnel were working in the field. Most
of these people were employed in hospitals; the
remainder worked in clinics, medical research
centers, medical departments of insurance com­
panies, industrial firms, and local and State health
departments. Of those who worked in hospitals,
about three-fourths were in general hospitals and
the rest were in specialized hospitals. Although
most medical record librarians are women, the
number of men in the occupation is growing.
Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement

The minimum requirement for registration as
a medical record librarian is 2 years of general
college work and 1 year of study in medical record
science. However, the trend is toward higher
educational requirements—a bachelor’s degree in
medical record science or a bachelor’s degree sup­
plemented by a 1-year course in medical record
science.
Twenty-seven schools were approved by the
American Medical Association for training medi­
cal record librarians in early 1963. Most of the
schools were affiliated with colleges. About half
of the schools admitted both men and women, and
the rest admitted only women. Enrollment in these
programs has been rising in recent years, but some
classes still are not filled to capacity.
Curriculums at these schools lead to a bachelor’s
degree or a certificate in medical record science.
In general, schools granting degrees require high
school graduation for admission. Schools granting
certificates upon completion of a 12-month course
usually require that applicants have 2 or more
years of college training or that they be registered
nurses. A few schools require an applicant to have
a college degree before entering the medical record
science program.




OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

Approved schools provide at least 50 weeks of
theoretical instruction and practical experience.
Included are courses in anatomy and physiology,
fundamentals of medical science, medical termi­
nology, medical record science, organization and
administration, legal aspects of medical records,
and ethics. Practical experience involves hospital
admitting and discharging procedures; standard
indexing and coding practices; compilation of
statistical reports; analysis of medical data from
clinical records; and knowledge of medical record
systems for the X-ray, pathology, outpatient, and
other hospital departments.
Graduates of approved schools in medical
record science are eligible to take the national
registration examination given by the American
Association of Medical Record Librarians. Upon
passing this examination, they receive professional
recognition as Registered Record Librarians.
Medical record librarians must be accurate,
meticulous, interested in detail, and willing to
persist in obtaining data. Because the information
is of a confidential nature, they must be especially
discreet in processing and releasing it. They
should be able to maintain accuracy despite pres­
sure, since the work is exacting and yet subject
to frequent interruption. Those in administra­
tive and supervisory positions must be able to
work effectively with other personnel, including
physicians, nurses, heads of other departments,
and the general public.
A medical record librarian may advance by be­
ing assigned to a supervisory or administrative
position. She may be promoted to chief of a single
department or become the coordinator of med­
ical record departments of several hospitals.
Employment Outlook

Opportunities for qualified medical record li­
brarians are expected to be excellent during the
rest of the 1960’s. For many years, shortages of
personnel have been reported, despite the increase
in newly trained persons. The shortage was so
great in early 1963 that many hospitals were un­
able to hire registered personnel, and the Ameri­
can Association of Medical Record Librarians esti­
mated that 3,000-4,000 more Registered Record
Librarians were needed. Because of this shortage,
many opportunities exist for high school gradu­

HEALTH SERVICE OCCUPATIONS

ates to become medical record technicians who as­
sist the librarians with record work requiring less
responsibility.
The increasing number of hospitals and the vol­
ume and complexity of hospital records will con­
tribute to a growing demand for medical record
librarians over the long run. The importance of
medical records will continue to grow rapidly,
owing partly to the increased demand for clinical
data to be used in research on diseases and on the
use of new drugs and other methods of treatment.
Special interest in the aged may necessitate re­
cording data on the conditions of persons in nurs­
ing homes and home care programs. More consul­
tants and group supervisors will also be needed to
help standardize records in areas where medical
record librarians are not available. Replacement
needs will probably remain high because many
young women leave the field for marriage and
family responsibilities.
Earnings and Working Conditions

Salaries of medical record librarians are influ­
enced by the location, size, and type of employing
agency, as well as by the nature of duties and
responsibility of the position held. Average weekly
salaries ranged from $80 to $112, according to a




95

survey of hospital employees in 15 metropolitan
areas in mid-1960.
The average salary for chief medical record li­
brarians (registered) in 1960 was estimated by
the American Association of Medical Record Li­
brarians to be $5,200 a year. Those with the bache­
lor’s degree in medical record science from an ap­
proved school earned, on the average, about $300
more a year than graduates of schools that did
not offer such degrees.
Newly graduated medical record librarians em­
ployed by the Federal Government started at
$4,565 a year in early 1963. Annual salaries of
experienced medical record librarians in the Fed­
eral Government generally ranged between $5,540
and $8,700; a few in top positions earned over
$11,000 a year.
Medical record librarians usually work a regu­
lar 40-hour week and receive paid holidays and
vacations. Working conditions are generally
pleasant.
Where To Go for More Information

Information about approved schools and em­
ployment opportunities may be obtained from:
The American Association of Medical Record
Librarians,
840 North Lake Shore Dr., Chicago, 111., 60611.

EN G IN EER IN G

Engineers contribute in countless ways to the
welfare, technological progress, and defense of
the Nation. They design and supervise the con­
struction of highways, dams, and power and com­
munications systems; design new industrial ma­
chinery and manufacturing processes; develop
new consumer products; and plan rockets and
spacecraft. They also conduct research aimed at
supplying the basic technological data needed for
the design and production of new or improved
products or manufacturing processes. Engineers
frequently provide technical and managerial lead­
ership in industry and government,
Although most engineers eventually specialize
in a specific branch of the profession, there is a
considerable body of basic knowledge and method­
ology which is common to most areas of engineer­
ing. Therefore, it is useful for young people con­
sidering engineering as a career to become familiar
with the general nature of engineering as well as
with the various branches or fields within it. This
chapter contains an overall discussion of engineer­
ing, followed by separate statements on the tra­
ditional branches of aeronautical, agricultural,
ceramic, chemical, civil, electrical, industrial, me­
chanical, metallurgical, and mining engineering.
Nature of Work

Engineers are concerned with determining the
most practical methods of converting the raw
materials and sources of power found in nature
into goods and services. They apply the basic
scientific principles discovered by scientists to the
solution of the practical problems involved in
creating a product or process at a reasonable cost
in time and money. For example, a physicist may
discover a new characteristic of electromagnetic
waves which makes possible the amplifying of
microwaves, but the engineer determines the prac­
tical applications of the discovery and how these
applications can be produced effectively and eco­
nomically. This emphasis on the practical applica­
tion of scientific principles, rather than on their
96



discovery, is one of the main factors which dis­
tinguishes the work of the engineer from that of
the scientist,
In designing or developing a new product, en­
gineers must take many factors into consideration.
In designing a space capsule, for example, they
must calculate just how much heat, radiation,
air pressure, and other forces the capsule must
withstand during its flight. Experiments must be
conducted which relate these factors to various
construction materials, as well as to the many pos­
sible capsule sizes, shapes, and weights. In addi­
tion, the engineer must take into account the
relative cost of the required materials and the cost
and time of the fabrication process. Similar fac­
tors must be considered by engineers who design
and develop a wide variety of products ranging
from transistor radios and washing machines to
electronic computers and industrial machinery.
Besides design and development, engineers en­
gage in many other activities. A large number are
in administrative and management positions, par­
ticularly in industries such as chemicals, elec­
tronics, aircraft, missiles, and spacecraft, where
engineering methods are of great importance.
Many plan and supervise factory and highway
construction, or supervise production in mines and
manufacturing plants. Others do inspection, qual­
ity control, analysis, or testing. Still others con­
duct research. Some engineers with considerable
experience work as independent consultants or for
consulting firms. Others are employed in sales
positions, where they must be able to discuss the
technical aspects of a product or assist in plan­
ning its installation or use. (See statement on
Manufacturers’ Salesmen.) A relatively small
group of engineers teach in colleges and universi­
ties or engineering schools.
Most engineers eventually specialize in one of
the many branches of the profession. More than
25 engineering specialties are recognized by the
profession or in engineering school curriculums.
Besides the major branches—10 of which are dis-

ENGINEERING,

97

Courtesy of U.S. Department of the Nary
Engineers design complex equipment used in thermonuclear
research

cussed separately in this chapter—there are many
subdivisions of these branches. Structural and
highway engineering, for example, are subdivi­
sions of civil engineering. Engineers may also be­
come specialists in the engineering problems of
one industry, or in a particular field of technology
such as propulsion or guidance systems. Neverthe­
less, the basic knowledge required for all areas of
engineering often makes it possible for engineers
to shift from one field of specialization to another,
particularly early in their careers.
Where Employed

Engineering is the second largest professional
occupation, exceeded in size only by teaching; for
men it is the largest profession. Approximately
925,000 engineers were employed in the United
States in mid-1962;
Manufacturing industries employ more than
one-half of all engineers—primarily in the air­
craft, missiles, and spacecraft, and electrical
equipment industries. Other manufacturing indus­
tries employing large numbers are machinery,
fabricated metal products, chemicals and allied
products, and primary metals. Sizable numbers,
approximately 225,000, are also employed by non­
manufacturing industries, primarily the construc­
tion and transportation industries, engineering
and architectural services (including consultants),
and public utilities (including electric light and
power and communication companies).
Federal, State, and local government agencies
employ another large group of engineers—ap­
692-408 0 — 63

-8




proximately 120,000 in 1962. Most of the 62,000
engineers employed by the Federal Government
in 1962 worked for the Department of Defense.
Other Federal agencies which employ significant
numbers are the Departments of the Interior,
Agriculture, and Commerce, and the National
Aeronautics and Space Administration. Most en­
gineers in State and local government service are
employed by highway and public works depart­
ments.
Educational institutions employed approxi­
mately 30,000 engineers in 1962, in research as well
as in teaching positions. A small number were
employed by nonprofit organizations.
Engineers are employed in every State, in small
cities as well as large, and in some rural areas.
The profession also offers opportunities for em­
ployment overseas. Some branches of engineering
are concentrated in particular industries, as in­
dicated in the statements on these branches later
in this chapter.
Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement

A bachelor’s degree in engineering is the gen­
erally accepted educational requirement for en­
trance into engineering positions. Well qualified
graduates with training in physics, one of the
other natural sciences, or in mathematics may
qualify for some beginning positions in engineer­
ing. Some persons are able to enter the field with­
out a degree, but only after long experience in a
related occupation—such as draftsman or en­
gineering technician—and some college-level
training.
Advanced training is being emphasized for an
increasing number of jobs. Graduate degrees are
desirable for many beginning teaching and re­
search positions and are helpful for advancement
in most types of work. Furthermore, training in
some engineering specialties, such as nuclear en­
gineering, is generally available only at the gradu­
ate level.
Education leading to a bachelor’s or higher de­
gree in engineering was offered in 1962 by 244 col­
leges, universities, and engineering schools. Al­
though admission requirements vary considerably,
engineering schools usually require a strong back­
ground in mathematics and the physical sciences,
and place great emphasis on the general quality of
an applicant’s high school work.

98

In the typical 4-year engineering curriculum,
the first 2 years are spent mainly in studying basic
science courses—mathematics, physics, and chem­
istry—and the humanities, social sciences, and
English. The last 2 years are devoted chiefly to en­
gineering and to advanced mathematics and
science courses, with some difference in courses
depending on the branch of engineering in which
the student is specializing.
Some engineering curriculums require more
than 4 years to complete. Approximately 25 in­
stitutions have 5-year programs leading to the
bachelor’s degree. In addition, about 55 engineer­
ing schools have arrangements with liberal arts
colleges whereby a student spends 3 years in the
college and 2 years in the engineering school and
receives a bachelor’s degree from each. This type
of program usually offers the student an oppor­
tunity for greater diversification in his studies.
Some institutions have 5- or 6-year cooperative
plans under which students spend alternate pe­
riods in engineering school and in employment in
industry or Government. Under most such plans,
classroom study is coordinated with practical in­
dustrial experience. In addition to the practical ex­
perience gained in this type of program, the stu­
dent is provided an opportunity to finance part of
his education.
Engineering graduates usually begin work as
trainees or as assistants to experienced engineers.
Many large companies have special training pro­
grams for their beginning engineers which are de­
signed to acquaint new graduates with specific
industrial practices. These programs are valuable
in determining the type of work for which the in­
dividual is best suited. As they gain experience,
engineers may move up to positions of greater re­
sponsibility. Those with proven ability are often
able to advance to high level technical, supervi­
sory, and administrative positions and may even­
tually be promoted to top executive posts.
All 50 States and the District of Columbia have
laws providing for licensing (or registration) of
engineers whose work may affect life, health, or
property. In 1962, about 265,000 engineers were
registered under these laws in the United States.
Generally, requirements for registration are grad­
uation from an accredited engineering curric­
ulum plus at least 4 years of experience and the
passing of a State examination. Examining boards



OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

may accept a longer period of experience as a sub­
stitute for a college degree.
Employment Outlook

The outlook is for continued rapid expansion
of the engineering profession throughout the re­
mainder of the 1960’s and over the longer run. En­
gineering has been one of the fastest growing pro­
fessions in the past 50 years, and there is every
indication that the demand for engineers will con­
tinue to grow.
The major factors which will tend to increase
the need for engineering personnel are: The fur­
ther growth of expenditures by both Government
and industry for research and development,
mostly in the realm of space and defense activi­
ties; and anticipated continued high levels of
Government spending for space programs and for
national defense, accentuated by the increasingly
large amount of engineering time necessary for
the development of modern weapons. The large
sums already spent for research and development,
in particular, have broadened existing areas of
employment and have opened up new ones, such as
those concerned with rocket propulsion, missile
and spacecraft guidance, tracking and communi­
cation systems, and nuclear energy. Other factors
which will tend to increase the demand for en­
gineers are growth of population and the conse­
quent demand for additional goods and services,
expansion of industry, the growing complexity
of industrial products and processes, and the in­
creasing automation of industry.
In addition to the engineers needed to fill new
positions, thousands more will have to be trained
to replace those who transfer to other occupations,
retire, or die. These losses to the profession—esti­
mated to be about 18,000 in 1962—are expected to
rise in the future.
Despite the anticipated growth in demand for
engineers, little or no increase in the annual num­
ber of bachelor’s degrees awarded in engineering
is expected during the middle and late 1960’s. In
1962, 34,735 graduates received bachelor’s degrees
in engineering. Classes of this size are expected to
fall short of meeting the demand for engineers
in the years ahead. Thus, employment prospects
for engineering graduates should continue to be
very favorable throughout the remainder of the

ENGINEERING

99

1960’s. For engineering graduates with ability and
thorough training, there is every reason to be­
lieve that employment opportunities will remain
very good for many years to come.
Women engineers, who represent less than 1 per­
cent of the profession, are also expected to have
favorable employment opportunities throughout
the rest of the decade. Furthermore, there are some
indications that employers are eliminating salary
and other employment differences between men
and women engineers of comparable education and
experience who are doing similar work.
The preceding analysis relates to the outlook
for the engineering profession as a wT The em­
hole.
ployment outlook in various branches of engineer­
ing is discussed in the statements on these branches
later in this chapter.
Earnings

Engineering graduates with the bachelor’s de­
gree and no experience had an average (median)
starting salary of $6,925 in private industry in
mid-1962, according to a survey made by the En­
gineering Manpower Commission. Graduates with
the master’s degree and no experience usually re­
ceived from $800 to $1,500 a year more than those
with only the bachelor’s degree. Salaries for
graduates with the doctor’s degree were generally
between $9,700 and $12,500 a year.
Salaries for beginning engineering graduates
with the bachelor’s degree vary by industry, as
may be seen in the following tabulation based on
the same survey.
I n d u s tr y

M e d ia n 1

Chemicals
$6, 850
Communications
6, 275
Construction.
6, 700
Consulting services
6, 300
Electrical machinery and electronics. 7, 175
Instruments
6, 975
Machinery (except electrical)
6, 775
Missiles, aircraft, and parts.
7, 275
Motor vehicles
6, 875
Petroleum
6, 725
Research and development activities. 7, 100
Utilities (electric and gas)
6, 750

U pper
d ecile 2

$7, 450
6, 825
7, 500
6, 925
7, 925
8, 500
7, 675
8, 975
7, 400
7, 350
8, 250
7, 350

L ow er
d ecile 3

$6, 525
6, 025
6, 000
5, 425
6, 575
6, 525
6, 125
6, 525
6, 450
6, 100
6, 375
6, 175

150 percent earned more and 50 percent earned less than amounts shown.
210 percent earned more than amounts shown.
3 90 percent earned more than amounts shown.

In the Federal Government service in early
1963, engineers with the bachelor’s degree and no
experience could start at $5,525 or $6,650 a year,



depending on their college records. Beginning en­
gineers with the bachelor’s degree and 1 or 2 years
of graduate work could start at $6,650 or $7,125.
Those with the Ph. D. degree could begin at $8,575
or $9,475.
In colleges and universities, the total profes­
sional income of beginning engineers with the
bachelor’s degree averaged about $5,425 a year;
with the master’s degree, $7,000 a year; and with
the Ph. D. degree, $8,950. (See also statement on
College and University Teachers.)
Most engineers can look forward to a marked
increase in earnings as they gain experience. Thus,
in industry in 1962, the average (median) salary
of engineers with 20 years of experience was
nearly twice that of beginning engineers. Only
10 percent of those with 20 years of experience
earned less than $9,700 a year, and about 10 per­
cent earned $18,000 or more. A small number in
top-level executive positions had much higher
earnings.
Where To Go for More Information.

General information on engineering careers—
including student selection and guidance, profes­
sional training and ethics, and salaries and other
economic aspects of engineering—may be obtained
from:
Engineers’ Council for Professional Development.
345 East 47th St., New York, N.Y., 10017.
Engineers Joint Council,
345 East 47th St., New York, N.Y., 10017.
National Society of Professional Engineers,

2029 K St. N W , W ashington, D.C., 20006.

Information on engineering schools and curriculums and on training and other qualifications
needed for entrance into the profession may also
be obtained from the Engineers’ Council for Pro­
fessional Development. Information on registra­
tion of engineers may be obtained from the Na­
tional Society of Professional Engineers.
The following organizations can furnish infor­
mation on the respective branches of engineering:
American Ceramic Society,
4055 North High St., Columbus, Ohio, 43214.
American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics,
Inc.,
2 East 64th St., New York, N.Y., 10021.
American Institute of Chemical Engineers,
345 East 47th St., New York, N.Y., 10017.

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

100

American Institute of Industrial Engineers,
345 East 47th St., New York, N.Y., 10017.
American Institute of Mining, Metallurgical and
Petroleum Engineers,
345 East 47th St., New York, N.Y., 10017.
American Society of Agricultural Engineers,
420 Main St., St. Joseph, Mich., 49085.
American Society of Civil Engineers,
345 East 47th St., New York, N.Y., 10017.
Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers,
345 East 47th St., New York, N.Y., 10017.
The American Society of Mechanical Engineers,
345 East 47th St., New York, N.Y., 10017.

The above list does not include all the many
engineering organizations; others are listed in

the following publications available in most li­
braries :
Engineering Societies Directory, published by
Engineers Joint Council
Scientific and Technical Societies of the United
States and Canada, published by the National
Academy of Sciences, National Research Council.

Some engineers are members of labor unions.
Information on engineering unions may be ob­
tained from:
The American Federation of Technical Engineers
(AFL-CIO),
900 F St., NW, Washington, D.C., 20004.

Aeronautical Engineers

(D.O.T. 0-19.03)

Nature of Work

Aeronautical engineers have played a vital role
in America’s space-age achievements. Engineers
in this branch work on missiles and spacecraft,
and on conventional aircraft. They are concerned
with all phases of missile and aircraft develop­
ment—from structures to propulsion systems and
from the initial planning to the final design, manu­
facture, and testing. Engineers working in the
missiles and spacecraft field may also be called
aerospace or astronautical engineers.
Aeronautical engineers usually specialize in a
particular area of work, such as structural design,
instrumentation, propulsion systems, materials,
reliability testing, or production methods. They
may also specialize in a particular type of aircraft,
such as conventional propeller-driven planes, jetpowered or nuclear-powered aircraft, or space­
craft or missiles.

Employment Outlook

The outlook is for continued expansion of em­
ployment in aeronautical engineering throughout
the remainder of the 1960’s and over the longer
run. Employment opportunities will increase
chiefly as a result of continued growth expected

Where Employed

More than 55,000 aeronautical engineers were
employed in mid-1962. Approximately four-fifths
of all aeronautical engineers are employed in the
aircraft, missile, and spacecraft industries. Some
work for Federal Government agencies, primarily
the Department of Defense and the National
x\.eronautics and Space Administration. Small
numbers work for commercial airlines, consulting
firms, and colleges and universities.




Courtesy of U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration
Aeronautical engineer uses low density wind tunnel in
aerodynamic studies at simulatea altitudes

ENGINEERING

101

in Government expenditures for missiles and
spacecraft.
Recent technological developments have shifted
the focus of aeronautical engineering from pro­
peller-driven and jet-powered aircraft to rocketpowered missiles and spacecraft. The radically
new and difficult problems created by space flight
and the ever-increasing complexity of aerospace
products are expected to continue to raise the de­
mand for aeronautical engineers. Research aimed

at developing new aircraft—such as vertical take­
off and landing and supersonic passenger planes—
and improving those now in use will probably
also require additional engineers. (See introduc­
tory section of this chapter for discussion on
training required, earnings, and where to go for
more information. See also chapter on Occupa­
tions in Aircraft, Missile, and Spacecraft Manu­
facturing. )

Agricultural Engineers

(D.O.T. 0-19.10)

Nature of Work

Agricultural engineers use basic engineering
principles and concepts to develop equipment and
methods to make farming easier, more produc­
tive, and more economical. They are concerned
primarily with the design of farm machinery,
equipment, and structures; the utilization of elec­
trical energy on farms; the conservation and
management of soil and water resources; and the
processing of agricultural products for market.
They usually specialize in a particular area of
work, such as research and development, design,
testing and application, production, sales, or
management.
Where Employed

The relatively small number of agricultural en­
gineers are employed primarily by private in­
dustry, especially manufacturers of heavy farm
equipment and specialized lines of field, barnyard,
and household equipment; electrical service com­
panies; and distributors of farm equipment and
supplies. Some work for engineering consultants

who supply technical or management services to
farmers; others are independent consultants.
The Federal Government employs some agri­
cultural engineers—chiefly in the Soil Conserva­
tion Service and Agricultural Research Service of
the Department of Agriculture. A few are em­
ployed by State and local governments and by col­
leges and universities.
Employment Outlook

Employment of agricultural engineers is ex­
pected to grow throughout the remainder of the
1960’s and over the longer run. Among the factors
which will contribute to a greater demand for
these engineers are the growing mechanization of
farm operations, increasing emphasis on conserva­
tion of resources, and the broadening use of agri­
cultural products and wastes as industrial raw ma­
terials. Additional engineers will also be needed
to work on problems characteristic of the modern
farm, such as the enormous energy and power re­
quirements. (See introductory section of this
chapter for discussion on training required, earn­
ings, and where to go for more information. See
also chapter on Occupations in Agriculture.)

Ceramic Engineers

(D.O.T. 0-15.11)
Nature of Work

Ceramic engineers are concerned with the proc­
essing and manufacture of clay, silicates, and
other nonmetallic minerals into a wide variety of
ceramic products, ranging from glassware, ce­



ment, and bricks to coatings for missile nose cones.
They may also design and supervise the construc­
tion of the plant and equipment used in the
manufacture of these products. Many ceramic
engineers are engaged in research and develop­

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

102

the 1960’s and over the longer run. Ceramic en­
gineering is a small field, however, and opportuni­
ties for new entrants in any one year will be small
compared with those in the large branches of
engineering.
Growth of programs related to nuclear energv,
electronics, and space exploration will provide
many of the opportunities for ceramic engineers.
Ceramic-coated metals which are corrosion-re­
sistant and capable of withstanding radiation and
extremely high temperatures are becoming in­
creasingly important in the development of nu­
clear reactors and space vehicles. Increasing use
Where Employed
of the more traditional ceramic products such as
Most of the estimated 5,000 to 10,000 ceramic whiteware and abrasives, both for consumer and
engineers are employed in manufacturing indus­ industrial use, will also require additional ceramic
tries—primarily in the stone, clay, and glass in­ engineers to improve these products and adapt
dustry. Others work in industries which produce them to new requirements. The growing use of
or use ceramic products such as the iron and steel, structural-clay and tile products in construction
electrical equipment, and chemicals industries. will also add to the opportunities for ceramic en­
Some are employed by educational institutions gineers. Furthermore, research aimed at develop­
and independent research organizations. A few ing new glass products—such as malleable glass
work for Federal Government agencies.
that can be worked like plastic, or glass timber to
be used in construction—probably will create ad­
ditional openings for ceramic engineers. (See in­
Employment Outlook
troductory section of this chapter for discussion
The outlook is for rapid growth in employment on training requirements, earnings, and where to
of ceramic engineers throughout the remainder of go for more information.)

ment work. Some are employed in administration,
management, production, and sales; others work
as consultants or teach in colleges and universities.
Ceramic engineers usually specialize in one or
more products—for example, products of refrac­
tories (fire- and heat-resistant materials, such as
firebrick); whiteware (such as porcelain and
china dinnerware or high voltage electrical in­
sulators) ; structural materials (such as brick, tile,
and terra cotta); protective and refractory coat­
ings for metals; glass; and abrasives.

Chemical Engineers

(D.O.T. 0-15.01)

Nature of Work

Chemical engineers are concerned primarily
with designing and operating the chemical plants
and equipment and developing the processes re­
quired to manufacture chemicals in large quanti­
ties. The manufacturing processes used are made
up of various combinations of operations such as
mixing, crushing, heat transfer, distillation, oxi­
dation, hydrogenation, and polymerization. The
chemical engineer determines the combination of
operations which will result in the most effective
manufacturing process.
The work in this branch of engineering is so
complex that chemical engineers frequently be­
come specialists in a particular type of opera­
tion, such as oxidation or polymerization, or in the



products of one industry, such as petroleum, plas­
tics, paper, or rubber. Chemical engineers may be
engaged in research and development, production,
plant operation, design, sales, management, ur
teaching.
Where Employed

Approximately four-fifths of the nearly 45,000
chemical engineers in the United States in 1962
were employed in manufacturing industries—pri­
marily in the chemicals and petroleum industries.
Some are employed by government agencies and
by colleges and universities. A smaller number
work for independent research institutes or en­
gineering consulting firms, or as independent con­
sulting engineers.

ENGINEERING

103

Employment Outlook

Chemical engineering is one of the youngest of
the major branches of engineering. The outlook is
for continued growth in this branch of engineer­
ing throughout the remainder of the 1960’s and
over the longer run.
The major factors which should continue to be
important to the growth of the chemical engineer­
ing profession are expansion of industry—the
chemicals industry in particular—and increases
in research and development activities, in which
about one-third of all chemical engineers are
employed. The increasing complexity of chemical
processes and the growing trend toward auto­
mation of these processes, especially in the chemi­
cals and petroleum industries, will require addi­
tional chemical engineers for work related to

designing, building, and maintaining the neces­
sary plants and equipment. Chemical engineers
wull also be needed in many relatively new areas of
work, such as the design and development of nu­
clear reactors for industrial use, and research
aimed at developing new and better solid and
liquid fuels for rockets. Furthermore, the develop­
ment of new chemicals for use in the manufacture
of consumer goods such as plastics, drugs, and
paints will probably create additional openings
for chemical engineers. (See introductory section
of this chapter for discussion on training required,
earnings, and where to go for more information.
See also statement on Chemists and chapter on
Occupations in the Industrial Chemical In­
dustry.)

Civil Engineers

(D.O.T. 0-16.01)
Nature of Work

Civil engineering is one of the oldest and larg­
est branches of engineering. In 1962, about 170,000
engineers were employed in this branch of the
profession.
Civil engineers design and supervise the con­
struction of roads, harbors, airfields, tunnels,
bridges, watersupply and sewage systems, build­
ings, and many other types of structures. Civil
engineering is so broad that many specialties have
developed within it—among them, structural,
highway, hydraulic, and sanitary engineering.
Many civil engineers are in supervisory or ad­
ministrative positions, ranging from that of site
supervisor of a construction gang or head of a
drafting department to top-level executive posts.
Others are engaged in design, planning, research,
inspection, and maintenance activities.

stitutions. Still others are employed in the iron
and steel industries and other major manufactur­
ing industries.
Civil engineers work in all parts of the country,
in every State and city—usually in or near the
major industrial and commercial centers. How­
ever, since these engineers are frequently called
upon to work at construction sites, they are some­
times stationed in remote areas of the United
States or in foreign countries. Furthermore, civil
engineers in some positions are often required to

Where Employed

The great majority of civil engineers are em­
ployed by Federal, State, and local government
agencies and the construction industry. Large
numbers are also employed by consulting engineer­
ing and architectural firms, or work as independ­
ent consulting engineers. Others are employed by
public utilities, railroads, and by educational in­



Courtesy oi Bureau of Reclamation
Civil engineers study model of a canyon in designing a bridge

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

104

move from place to place to work on different
projects.
Employment Outlook

Employment in civil engineering is expected to
grow, both in the near future and over the long
run. Growth in this field, hqwever, is not likely to
be as rapid as in electrical and mechanical en­
gineering, the other large branches of the profes­
sion. Growing needs for housing, industrial build­
ings, and highways created by an increasing
population and expanding economy will provide
expanding employment opportunities for civil
engineers. New programs in areas related to water
and sewage systems, flood control, air and water

pollution, and reclamation, as well as urban re­
development, will also probably require additional
civil engineers.
Large numbers of civil engineers will also be
needed each year to replace those leaving the field.
As a group, civil engineers are older than en­
gineers in other specialties and the proportion lost
to the profession each year by retirement or death
is therefore relatively high. The number of civil
engineers needed annually to fill such vacancies—
estimated to be 3,300 in 1962—will probably rise
slowly throughout this decade. (See introductory
section of this chapter for discussion on training
required, earnings, and where to go for more in­
formation.)

Electrical Engineers

(D.O.T. 0-17.01 and .02)

Nature of Work

Electrical engineering (including electronics
engineering) is the largest and one of the most
rapidly growing branches of the profession. In
1962, about 195,000 electrical engineers were em­
ployed in the United States.
Electrical engineers design, develop, and super­
vise the manufacture of electrical and electronic
equipment—including electric motors and genera­
tors; communications equipment; electronic ap­
paratus such as television, radar, computers, and
missile guidance systems; and electrical appli­
ances of all kinds. They also design and partici­
pate in the operation of facilities for generating
and distributing electric power.
Electrical engineers usually specialize in a
major area of work such as electronics, electrical
equipment manufacturing, communications, or
power. Many specialize in subdivisions of these
broad areas; for example, electronics engineers
may specialize in computers, or in missile guidance
and tracking systems.
A large number of electrical engineers are en­
gaged in research, development, and design activi­
ties. Another large group are employed in ad­
ministrative and management positions. Others
are employed in various manufacturing opera­
tions or in technical sales or teaching positions.



Where Employed

Electrical engineers are employed chiefly by
manufacturers of electrical and electronic equip­
ment, aircraft and missiles, business machines, and
professional and scientific equipment. Many are
employed by telephone and telegraph and electric
light and power companies. Sizable numbers are
employed by government agencies and by colleges
and universities. Others work for construction
firms, for engineering consultants, or as independ­
ent consulting engineers.

Courtesy of Bureau of Reclamation
Electrical ensineer uses A .C . network analyzer to study operating
conditions of a power system

ENGINEERING

105

Employment Outlook

The outlook is for continued rapid growth of
employment in this branch of the engineering pro­
fession throughout the remainder of the 1960’s
and over the longer run. Kequirements of the
military and space programs for new and im­
proved types of electronic and electrical equip­
ment are expected to continue to be a major factor
in increasing the demand for electrical engineers.
These needs, added to those of producers of con­
sumer goods, are expected to result in continued
rapid growth of the electrical and electronics
equipment industry. The electric utility and the
telephone and telegraph industries are also ex­
pected to grow. Newer areas of work such as those

concerned with nuclear energy, missiles and space­
craft, communication and weather satellites, elec­
tronic computers, and automation will probably
continue to require large numbers of electrical
engineers.
In addition to those needed to fill new positions,
many electrical engineers will be required to re­
place personnel lost to the profession because of
retirement or death. The number needed to fill
such vacancies, estimated to be about 2,500 in 1962,
will probably rise slowly throughout the 1960’s.
(See introductory section of this chapter for dis­
cussion on training required, earnings, and where
to go for more information. See also chapter on
Occupations in Electronics Manufacturing.)

Industrial Engineers

(D.O.T. 0-18.01)

Nature of Work

Industrial engineers are concerned primarily
with the effective utilization of machines, ma­
terials, and personnel. They often specialize in
planning plant layouts so that the production
process will be efficient, or in selecting and design­
ing the machines and equipment to be used in
manufacturing operations. They are also con­
cerned with the planning of automated manu­
facturing processes and the installation of indus­
trial equipment. Among their numerous other
specialties are time, motion, and incentive studies;
production methods and standards; cost control
and records; quality control; safety engineering;
systems engineering; and operations research.
Where Employed

More than two-thirds of the estimated 100,000
industrial engineers employed in 1962 were in
manufacturing industries. Some worked for in­
surance companies, construction and mining firms,
and utilities. Others were employed by retail or­
ganizations, mail order houses, and other large
business enterprises to improve the efficiency of
clerical and other operations. Still others worked



for government agencies, educational institutions,
and consulting engineering firms. A few were
independent consulting engineers.
Employment Outlook

The increasing complexity of industrial opera­
tions and the expansion of automated processes,
coupled with the continued growth of the Na­
tion’s industries, are among the factors expected
to increase the demand for industrial engineers
in the middle and late 1960’s and over the longer
run. Growing recognition of the importance of
scientific management and safety engineering in
reducing costs and increasing productivity is ex­
pected to stimulate further the demand for per­
sons in this branch.
Besides those needed to fill new positions, addi­
tional numbers of industrial engineers will be
required each year to replace those who retire or
die. The number needed to fill such vacancies,
estimated to be approximately 1,600 in 1962, will
probably rise slowly in the future. (See introduc­
tory section of this chapter for discussion on train­
ing required, earnings, and where to go for more
information.)

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

106

Mechanical Engineers

(D.O.T. 0-19.01, .05, .81, and .91)
Nature of Work

The field of mechanical engineering is exceeded
in size only by electrical engineering. In 1962,
more than 170,000 engineers were employed in this
branch of the profession.
Mechanical engineers are concerned with the
production, transmission, and use of power. They
design and develop machines which produce
power, such as internal combustion engines, steam
and gas turbines, jet and rocket engines, and nu­
clear reactors. They also design and develop a
great variety of machines which use power—
refrigerating and air-conditioning equipment,
elevators, machine tools, printing presses, steel
rolling mills, and many others. Large numbers of
mechanical engineers are engaged in research and
development, design, and administrative and
management activities. Others work in produc­
tion, operations, maintenance, and sales positions.
Many specialized areas of work have developed
within mechanical engineering. Among the spe­
cialties are those concerned with motor vehicles,
marine equipment, railroad equipment, rocket en­
gines, steam power, heating, ventilating and air
conditioning, hydraulics or fluid mechanics, in­
strumentation, ordnance, and machines for spe­
cialized industries, such as petroleum, rubber and
plastics, and construction.
Where Employed

Nearly three-quarters of all mechanical engi­
neers are employed in manufacturing industries

—mainly in the primary and fabricated metals,
machinery, transportation equipment, and elec­
trical equipment industries. However, nearly all
manufacturing and nonmanufacturing industries
employ some members of the profession. Many
are employed in government agencies, educational
institutions, and consulting engineering firms.
Some work as independent consulting engineers.
Employment Outlook

The outlook is for rapid growth in this branch
of engineering throughout the remainder of the
1960’s and over the longer run. Growth of in­
dustry, and the increasing technological com­
plexity and automation of industrial machinery
and processes will be major factors contributing
to greater employment. Expansion of research and
development activities in the industries which are
major employers of mechanical engineers will also
be a factor in their growth. Moreover, newer
areas of work, such as atomic energy, missile and
spacecraft development, and automation will
probably provide additional openings for large
numbers of mechanical engineers.
Besides those needed to fill new positions, large
numbers of mechanical engineers will be required
each year to replace those who retire or die. The
number needed to fill such vacancies was estimated
to be 2,600 in 1962; the annual replacement need
will probably rise slowly throughout the remain­
der of the 1960’s. (See introductory section of this
chapter for discussion on training required, earn­
ings, and where to go for more information.)

Metallurgical Engineers

(D.O.T. 0-14.10 and .20)
Nature of Work

Metallurgical engineers are concerned with the
processing of metals and their conversion into
useful products. These engineers usually work
in one of two main branches of metallurgy—ex­
tractive or physical. Extractive metallurgy deals
with the extraction of metals from their ores, and
with refining it to obtain pure metah Physical



metallurgy deals with the properties of metals
and their alloys, and with methods of converting
refined metals into useful final products.
Persons working in the field of metallurgy may
be referred to as either metallurgists or metallur­
gical engineers. However, metallurgists are gen­
erally engaged in such activities as research and
development or analysis and testing, whereas

ENGINEERING

107

metallurgical engineers are engaged mainly in
directing the extraction and processing of ores.
Where Employed

The metalworking industries—primarily the
iron and steel and nonferrous metals industries—
employ over one-half of the relatively small num­
ber of metallurgical engineers. Many metallurgi­
cal engineers work in the machinery, electrical
equipment, and aircraft, missile, and spacecraft
industries. Others are employed in the mining in­
dustry, and in government agencies, consulting
firms, independent research organizations, and
educational institutions.
Employment Outlook

Employment in this small branch of the pro­
fession is expected to grow rapidly, both in the

near future and over the long run. Increasing
numbers of metallurgical engineers will be needed
by the metalworking industries to work on prob­
lems involved in the adaptation of metals and
alloys to new needs. For example, the development
of such products as supersonic jet aircraft, mis­
siles, satellites, and spacecraft has brought about
a need for light-weight metals capable of with­
standing both extremely high and extremely low
temperatures. Metallurgical engineers will also be
needed to solve metallurgical problems connected
with the efficient use of nuclear energy. As the
supply of high-grade ores diminishes, more metal­
lurgical engineers will be needed to find ways of
processing low-grade ores now regarded as un­
profitable to mine. (See introductory section of
this chapter for discussion on training required,
earnings, and where to go for more information.
See also chapter on Occupations in the Iron and
Steel Industry.)

Mining Engineers

(D.O.T. 0-20.01 and .11)

Nature of Work

Mining engineers are responsible for the effi­
cient extraction of minerals from the earth. They
plan and supervise the construction of mine shafts
and tunnels, devise means of extracting minerals,
and plan the methods to be used in transporting
the minerals to the surface. They also direct
the operation of mines and are responsible for
mine safety. Some mining engineers work with
geologists and other specialists in searching for
ore-bearing rock or for deposits of petroleum, coal,
or other minerals.
Mining engineers frequently specialize in the
extraction of metals, coal, nonmetallic minerals,
or petroleum and natural gas. Petroleum engi­
neering, for example, has become so specialized
that it is, in some cases, considered a separate
branch of the engineering profession. Specializa­
tion of mining engineers may also extend to a
particular type of work, such as mine safety,
mine appraisal, or exploration.
Where Employed

Approximately three-quarters of the estimated
13,000 mining engineers were employed in the



mining and petroleum industries in 1962. Most of
the remainder worked for colleges and universi­
ties or government agencies, or as independent
consultants.
Mining engineers are usually employed at the
location of mineral deposits. They may work near
small communities or in out-of-the way places—
in mountains or deserts. However, those engaged
in research, teaching, management, or consulting,
are often located in large metropolitan areas.
Employment Outlook

In the middle and late 1960’s, the opportunities
for employment in mining engineering will proba­
bly be less favorable than in most other branches
of engineering. Exploration for most minerals has
declined in recent years and it is unlikely that
these activities will expand significantly in the
near future. Furthermore, since mining engineer­
ing is one of the smaller branches of the profes­
sion, opportunities for many engineers to fill new
positions and to replace those retiring or other­
wise leaving the field will be small compared with
such opportunities in the larger branches of engi­
neering.

108

In the long run, however, as easily mined de­
posits are exhausted and as needs for metals in­
crease with the expansion of industry, mining
engineers will be needed to devise ways of mining
poorer deposits and those which are difficult to
mine at a competitive cost. Additional areas of
employment for mining engineers will arise as the
development of new alloys and the discovery of
new uses for metals increase the demand for less




OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

widely used ores. In the petroleum industry, some
mining engineers will be needed to locate and
utilize new oil fields, both in the United States
and abroad. (See introductory section of this
chapter for discussion on training required, earn­
ings, and where to go for more information. See
also chapter on Petroleum Production and Refin­
ing Occupations.)

P H Y S IC A L SCIEN CES

The physical sciences deal with the basic laws for continued rapid growth over the remainder of
of the physical world. Many scientists in this the 1960’s. The single most important factor in
broad field conduct basic research designed to in­ this anticipated growth will be the likely increase
crease man’s knowledge of the properties of mat­ in research and development expenditures. Such
ter and energy. Others conduct applied research, expenditures, which nearly tripled in the 8-year
using the knowledge gained from basic research period ending in 1962, are expected to continue to
to develop new products and processes. For ex­ rise during the remainder of the decade. Missiles
ample, chemists in applied research use their and spacecraft, atomic energy, and electronics are
knowledge of the interactions of various chemicals but a few of the fields in which large increases in
to develop new fuels for rockets and missiles. employment opportunities for physical scientists
Physical scientists also teach in colleges and uni­ are anticipated. Other factors in the expected
versities and supervise research and development growth of employment are the increasing complex­
programs.
ity of industrial products and processes and sharp
The physical sciences are usually subdivided increases in science enrollments in colleges and
into four broad specialties—chemistry, physics, universities.
This chapter includes descriptions of three ma­
metallurgy, and astronomy. The largest of these
fields is chemistry, with 120,000 chemists employed jor physical science occupations—chemist, physi­
in mid-1962. Smaller numbers are in physics cist, and astronomer. Many other professions also
(35.000) , metallurgy (15,000), and astronomy require a good background in the physical sci­
( 1.000) .
ences. Among these are engineering and the earth
In recent years, employment in the physical science occupations described in separate chapters
sciences has grown rapidly, and the outlook is in this Handbook.
Chemists

(D.O.T. 0-07.02 through .85)
Nature of Work

The work done by chemists helps to provide
many products which make our lives healthier,
more productive, and more comfortable. They may
develop vaccines and medicines, new methods of
preserving food, and new and improved materials
and rocket fuels for use in the exploration of
space. As a result of their discoveries, entirely
new industries have been created, for example,
plastics, frozen foods, and synthetic textile fibers.
Chemists are concerned with the composition
and properties of substances and changes in their
composition; they search for new knowledge of
the chemistry of substances and for ways of using
this knowledge. To study and measure substances,




chemists use instruments such as balances, spectro­
graphs, radioactive isotope counters, titrimeters,
refractometers, and microbalances. They maintain
accurate records of the work performed and pre­
pare clear and concise reports showing the results
of the tests or experiments.
About one-half of all chemists are engaged in
research and development. Most research chemists
work on applied research projects aimed at creat­
ing new products or improving and finding new
uses for existing ones. Chemists in applied re­
search have helped to develop a vast range of
new products, including antibiotics and other won­
der drugs, plastics, foam rubber, detergents, in­
secticides, and fabrics made from synthetic fibers.
Many chemists work on basic research projects to
109

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

110

Courtesy of U.S. Department of the Navy
Chemists use protective equipment in metallurgy tests

extend scientific knowledge rather than to solve
immediate practical problems. However, many im­
portant practical applications have resulted from
basic research. For example, research on poly­
merization—how and why certain small molecules
unite to form giant molecules—resulted in the de­
velopment of synthetic rubber, nylon, and plastics.
Analysis and testing is another major activity
of many chemists, since various kinds of tests
must be made at practically every stage in the
manufacture of a product, from its initial develop­
ment to final production. Sizable numbers of
chemists are employed in activities such as college
teaching and administrative work. Smaller num­
bers are employed as sales representatives by
chemical companies and other manufacturers, usu­
ally when the product is such that the salesmen
must be able to discuss its technical aspects and
tell the customers how it can be used. Other chem­
ists are employed in supervision of production
processes, patent work, technical writing, ma­
terials purchasing, and marketing research. A
few work as independent consultants.
Chemists usually specialize in one or more
branches of chemistry, and sometimes in a sub­
division of one of these branches. Organic chem­
ists, the largest group, deal primarily with carbon
compounds, most of which are substances origi­
nally derived from animal and vegetable matter.
Inorganic chemists are chiefly concerned with
compounds of elements relatively free of carbon,
including most of the minerals and metals. Physi­



cal chemists study the quantitative relationships
between chemical and physical properties of both
organic and inorganic substances—for example,
how these substances are affected by electricity,
pressure, heat, and light. Analytical chemists de­
termine the exact chemical composition of sub­
stances and test them to determine their quality,
purity, and other characteristics. Biochemists are
concerned with chemical reactions occurring in
plants and animals, such as the effects of foods,
drugs, or chemicals on plant and animal tissues,
and with the influence of chemicals in life proc­
esses. Agricultural and food chemists are bio­
chemists who specialize in problems related to
food production and preservation.
Some chemists specialize in a particular indus­
try or product, such as petroleum, plastics, or
rubber. Such work often requires a knowledge of
more than one branch of chemistry. The specialist
in plastics, for example, may need a knowledge of
physical as well as organic chemistry. However,
all chemists must know the fundamentals of chem­
istry—the composition and properties of sub­
stances and how they can be changed.
Where Employed

Chemistry is by far the largest field of employ­
ment in the sciences. There were approximately
120,000 chemists in the United States in mid-1962;
about 5 percent were women. Chemists are em­
ployed in all States, and in small cities as well
as large.
Approximately three-fourths of all chemists
are employed by private industry. The major in­
dustrial employer of chemists is the chemicals in­
dustry, which employed more than two-fifths of all
chemists in private industry in mid-1962. Other
industries utilizing relatively large numbers of
chemists are petroleum, food, primary metals,
electrical equipment, aerospace, paper, and rub­
ber.
Many chemists are employed in colleges and
universities. Although most of these chemists
teach, some work full or part time in research and
development, often on projects for the Federal
Government. Sizable numbers of chemists are also
employed directly by government agencies, chiefly
by the U.S. Departments of Defense; Health,
Education, and Welfare; Agriculture; the In-

PHYSICAL SCIENCES

terior; and Commerce. A few work for research
institutes, foundations, and other nonprofit orga­
nizations.
Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement

A bachelor’s degree with a major in chemistry
is usually the minimum educational requirement
for young people seeking careers as chemists.
Graduate training is essential for many positions,
particularly in research and teaching.
Graduates with the bachelor’s degree usually
qualify for positions in analysis and testing,
quality control, technical service, and sales, or as
trainees for administrative or laboratory research
and development work. Most chemists with the
bachelor’s degree are employed by private in­
dustry and the government. In industry, employ­
ers often have special training programs for be­
ginning chemistry graduates. These programs are
designed to supplement college training with
specific industry techniques and to aid in deter­
mining the type of work for which the individual
is best suited. Some chemists with the bachelor’s
degree and above average grades are employed in
colleges and universities as research or teaching
assistants while working toward advanced de­
grees. Many new graduates go into high school
teaching positions; these are usually regarded as
teachers rather than as chemists.
Chemists with the master’s degree can often
qualify for applied research positions in govern­
ment or private industry. They can also qualify
for many teaching positions in colleges and uni­
versities.
The Ph. D. degree is generally required for
positions in basic research and for higher level
teaching positions in a college or university. It
may also be important for advancement to toplevel positions in other activities.
Many colleges and universities offer an under­
graduate major in chemistry. In the typical 4year chemistry curriculum, about two-fifths of the
work consists of chemistry courses. A few of the
courses usually taken by undergraduates in the
field of chemistry are quantitative and qualitative
analysis, inorganic, organic, and physical chemis­
try. Courses in mathematics (especially analytical
geometry and calculus), physics, biology, English,
and one foreign language are also required.




111

Advanced degrees in chemistry are awarded by
a large number of colleges and universities, many
of which offer financial assistance to above aver­
age undergraduates interested in further study.
In graduate school, the academic work of chemis­
try students consists heavily of courses in his
specialty or field of interest. Requirements for the
master’s or doctor’s degree usually include class­
room studies, laboratory research, library re­
search, and preparation of a thesis.
Personal qualifications needed for a career in
chemistry include an orderly mind, above average
intelligence, and an interest and facility in mathe­
matics. Since chemists usually work in teams, an
ability to communicate and work with others is
important.
Employment Outlook

Employment opportunities for well-trained
chemistry graduates are expected to be good
throughout the 1960’s, and the longrun outlook is
for continued expansion of the profession. As in
recent years, there will be a particular need for
chemists with advanced degrees for research and
teaching positions. For women chemists qualified
to do research and teaching, employment oppor­
tunities are also expected to be good.
One of the major factors which will tend to in­
crease employment of chemists is the anticipated
growth in expenditures for research and develop­
ment, in which about one-half of all chemists are
engaged. Total expenditures for research and de­
velopment have increased rapidly in* recent years
and are expected to continue to grow during the
next decade. Continued expansion of the indus­
tries employing the largest numbers of chemists
will also be an important factor increasing em­
ployment opportunities for these scientists. The
chemical industry, especially, is expected to ex­
pand rapidly in response to growing demands for
such products as drugs and pharmaceuticals, syn­
thetic fibers, detergents, fertilizers, plastics, and
high energy fuels for missiles and rockets.
The demand for chemists to fill college and
university teaching positions will also rise sub­
stantially, because of the large increases in college
enrollments expected during the late 1960’s. The
greatest demand will be for those with Ph. D. de­
grees, but there will be many positions for chem­

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

112

ists with the master’s degree. (See index for page
number of statement on College and University
Teachers.)
In addition to those needed to fill new positions,
many chemists will also be needed each year to
replace those who retire, die, or transfer to other
occupations. These losses to the profession were
estimated to be approximately 2,000 in 1962 and
may rise considerably during the late 1960’s.
Along with the expected growth in demand for
chemists, a steady increase is expected in the num­
ber of chemistry graduates, particularly at the
bachelor’s level. If chemistry graduates continue
to represent the same proportion of all college
graduates as in recent years, the number seeking
employment in the profession will rise rapidly
throughout the 1960’s. Thus, there may be com­
petition for the better paying entry positions in
chemistry, particularly among graduates with only
the bachelor’s degree. However, the rising de­
mand will continue to provide favorable opportu­
nities for chemists with ability and thorough
training for many years to come.
Earnings and Working Conditions

Inexperienced chemistry graduates with a
bachelor’s degree had an average (median) start­
ing salary of $6,300 a year in private industry in
1962, according to a survey conducted by the
American Chemical Society. Inexperienced gradu­
ates with the master’s degree averaged about
$7,400 a year and those with the Ph. D. degree,
about $10,200.
In academic institutions, the average (median)
annual starting salary for the few entrants with
the bachelor’s degree only and with no experience
was $4,500, according to the American Chemical
Society. The average salary for inexperienced
graduates with the master’s degree was about
$5,600, and for those with the Ph. D. degree,

$6,900. Many experienced chemists in educational
institutions supplement their regular salaries
with income from consulting, lecturing, and writ­
ing books and articles.
In Federal Government positions in early 1963,
the annual starting salary for inexperienced chem­
ists with the bachelor’s degree was either $5,525 or
$6,650, depending on the individual’s college rec­
ord. Beginning chemists with 1 full year of
graduate study could start at $6,650, and those
with 2 full years of graduate study at $7,125.
Chemists with the Ph. D. degree could start at
$8,575 or $9,475.
Most chemists can look forward to a marked
increase in earnings as they gain experience. Ac­
cording to preliminary data from the National
Science Foundation’s 1962 National Register of
Scientific and Technical Personnel, the average
(median) salary of chemists with 5 to 9 years of
experience was $9,000 a year and that of chemists
with 20 or more years of experience was about
$13,000, compared with $7,000 for chemists with
only 1 year of experience.
Chemists spend most of their time working in
modern, well-equipped, well-lighted laboratories,
offices, or classrooms. Chemists may be subjected
to minor hazards such as inhalation of fumes, con­
tacts with acids, and open flames. However, if
safety regulations are followed, health hazards
are negligible.
Where To Go for More Information*

American Chemical Society,
1155 16th St. NW., Washington, D.C., 20036.
Manufacturing Chemists’ Association, Inc.,
1825 Connecticut Ave. NW., Washington, D.C., 20009.

For additional sources of information, see also
statements on Chemical Engineers and Indus­
trial Chemical Industry. (Refer to index for
page numbers.)

Physicists

(D.O.T. 0-35.73)
Nature of Work

Physics, one of the most rapidly growing scien­
tific professions, is concerned with energy in all
its forms, with the structure of matter, and with



the relationship between matter and energy.
Physicists investigate and attempt to understand
the fundamental laws of nature and how these
laws may be formulated and put to use. Much of

PHYSICAL SCIENCES

the scientific progress in the past several decades
stems from discoveries made by physicists in such
critical fields as nuclear energy, cosmic rays, and
electronics.
Most physicists are engaged in research and
development. A sizable number conduct basic re­
search, designed to increase scientific knowledge
with only secondary regard to its practical appli­
cations. Some of these, called theoretical physi­
cists, seek to work out mathematical descriptions
of the relationships between physical phenomena.
Others, called experimental physicists, make care­
ful, systematic observations and perform experi­
ments to identify and measure the elements of
matter and energy and their interactions. For ex­
ample, they try to identify and measure the life­
time of tiny antiparticles of matter which may
exist within the core of the atom. Experimental
physicists use apparatus such as particle accelera­
tors, X-ray spectrometers, electron diffraction
cameras, microwave devices, and phase and elec­
tron microscopes. When their research requires
new kinds of instruments, they may design them.
The difference between theoretical and experi­
mental physicists is often merely one of emphasis.
Some scientists are skilled in both types of work.
A large number of physicists do applied re­
search. They use the knowledge gained from basic
research to solve practical problems and to create
new products for industry or for national defense.
For example, the work of physicists specializing
in solid-state physics led to the development of
transistors, now used in place of vacuum tubes
in many types of electronic equipment ranging
from hearing aids to guidance systems for missiles.
Many physicists teach in colleges and universi­
ties, often combining research with teaching. Some
are engaged in the management and administra­
tion of scientific activities, especially research and
development. Still others do work related to the
production of industrial products, including in­
spection and quality control. A few physicists do
technical writing or consulting work.
Most physicists specialize in one or more
branches of the science—mechanics, heat, optics,
acoustics, electricity and magnetism, electronics,
atomic and molecular physics, nuclear physics,
physics of fluids, solid-state physics, or classical
theoretical physics. In addition, new fields are
continually emerging; for example, cryogenics,
692-408 o — 63----- 9




113

Courtesy of U.S. Department of the Nary
Nuclear physicist uses power-driven manipulators to handle
irradiated research materials

plasma physics, and ultrasonics have developed in
recent years. Since all physics specialties rest on
the same fundamental principles, nearly all are
closely related and the physicist’s work may over­
lap a number of specialties.
Physicists often apply the theories and method­
ology of their science to problems originating in
other sciences, including geology, biology, chemis­
try, and astronomy. Some people have become
specialists in both physics and a related science.
Thus, a number of specialties have developed on
the borderline between physics and other fields—
geophysics, biophysics, physical chemistry, and
astrophysics. (Information on these occupations
is contained elsewhere in the Handbook. See index
for page numbers.) Furthermore, the practical
applications of physicists’ work has increasingly
merged with engineering.
Where Employed

Approximately 35,000 physicists were employed
in the United States in mid-1962. About 15,000

114

were employed by private industry. Nearly twothirds of this group are employed in the aero­
space and electrical equipment industries. Other
industries using relatively large numbers of phys­
icists include chemicals, professional and scientific
instruments, telecommunications and broadcast­
ing, petroleum, and machinery. A few physicists
are employed by independent laboratories and re­
search institutes.
Colleges and universities employed about 14,000
physicists in mid-1962. Although teaching is the
main activity of most physicists in colleges and
universities, a sizable number employed by such
institutions work full time in research, often on
projects conducted for Federal Government agen­
cies such as the Atomic Energy Commission and
the National Aeronautics and Space Administra­
tion.
Federal Government agencies also employ large
numbers of physicists—approximately 4,700 in
mid-1962. The agencies employing the most physi­
cists are the Department of Defense, the National
Aeronautics and Space Administration, and the
National Bureau of Standards. A few members of
the profession work for the Atomic Energy Com­
mission, the Department of the Interior, and the
Department of Agriculture.
Relatively few physicists are women—only
about 3 percent, according to the National Science
Foundation’s National Register of Scientific and
Technical Personnel.
Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement

A bachelor’s degree with a major in physics is
the minimum entrance requirement for young
people seeking careers as physicists, and graduate
training is highly desirable.
A doctor’s degree is required for high-level re­
search positions in academic institutions, industry,
and the Federal Government. It is also helpful
for promotion in many areas of work including
advancement in most colleges and universities.
Physicists with master’s degrees are able to
qualify for many research activities in private in­
dustry, educational institutions, and government;
some also obtain positions as instructors in colleges
and universities. Frequently, graduate students
working toward a doctor’s degree are assigned to
teach elementary college courses, conduct labora­



OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

tory sessions, or aid senior faculty members on
research projects.
Physicists with bachelor’s degrees can qualify
for a variety of jobs in applied research and de­
velopment work in private industry or the Federal
Government. Some become research assistants in
colleges and universities while working toward
advanced degrees. Some persons with only a bach­
elor’s degree in the science do not work as physi­
cists but go into nontechnical work or, sometimes,
into engineering positions.
Training leading to the bachelor’s degree in
physics was offered by approximately 740 col­
leges and universities in 1962. In addition, many
engineering schools offered a physics major as
part of the general engineering curriculum. A few
of the physics courses typically offered in an
undergraduate program are mechanics, electricity
and magnetism, optics, thermodynamics, and light
and atomic physics. In addition, courses in chemis­
try and mathematics are required.
Master’s degrees in physics were offered by ap­
proximately 200 colleges and universities in 1962,
and the Ph. D. was offered by approximately 100.
In graduate school, the student builds upon the
broad background in the fundamentals of physics
acquired in his undergraduate studies, placing
emphasis on his major field of interest.
Among the chief personal qualifications needed
for a career in physics are a creative imagination
and a highly inquisitive mind. Strong interest and
facility in mathematics are also essential.
Employment Outlook

Employment opportunities for physicists are
expected to be excellent throughout the remainder
of the 1960’s, and continued growth in the profes­
sion is anticipated over the long run. As in recent
years, there will probably be a particular demand
for physicists with Ph. D. degrees who are quali­
fied to teach advanced physics courses and do
high-level research and development work. Re­
search organizations, whether those of govern­
ment, universities, or industry, have had con­
siderable difficulty in filling their requirements for
physicists with advanced degrees, and their needs
for such physicists will probably continue to in­
crease.

PHYSICAL SCIENCES

115

Among the major factors which should continue
to make physics one of the most rapidly growing
science fields throughout the 1960’s is the con­
tinued increase in expenditures for research and
development by both industry and government.
Such expenditures, which nearly tripled in the
8-year period ending in 1962, are expected to con­
tinue to rise during the next decade. Moreover,
much of this increase will take place in those in­
dustries which employ large numbers of physi­
cists—particularly the electrical equipment, and
aircraft, missiles, and spacecraft industries.
Demand for physicists qualified to teach in col­
leges and universities is also expected to increase
substantially, both to provide for the much larger
enrollments of physics students expected in the
late 1960’s and to meet the growing need for ad­
vanced physics training in other science fields and
in engineering. During the early 1960’s, many col­
leges were unable to recruit sufficient numbers of
well qualified physics teachers, and this problem
may well become more acute during the next
decade. (See index for page number of statement
on College and University Teachers.)
Along with the anticipated rise in demand for
physicists, an increase is expected in the number
of physics graduates, especially at the bachelor’s
degree level. If physics graduates continue to
represent the same proportion of all college gradu­
ates as in recent years, the number seeking em­
ployment in the profession will rise rapidly dur­
ing the late 1960’s. Nevertheless, the demand for
physicists is expected to be greater than the num­
ber of new graduates available for employment.
Thus, for graduates with advanced degrees and
for well qualified graduates with the bachelor’s
degree, excellent employment opportunities are in
prospect in the profession throughout the rest of
the decade.

Earnings and Working Conditions

Starting salaries for physicists with bachelor's
degrees were usually between $5,800 and $6,700 a
year in private industry in 1962, according to the
limited information available. Physicists with
master’s degrees received starting salaries about
$500 to $1,000 higher than those with bachelor's
degrees. Annual salaries for new graduates whin
Ph. D. degrees ranged roughly from $7,500 to as
high as $15,000.
In the Federal Government service in early
1963, physicists with the bachelor’s degree and no
experience could start at either $5,525 or $6,650 a
year, depending on their college records. Begin
ning physicists who had completed all require­
ments for the master’s degree could start at $6,650
or $7,125. Physicists with the Ph. D. degree could
begin at $8,575 or $9,475.
Starting salaries for physicists with the Ph. I).
degree employed as college and university teachers
were about $7,000 to $8,000 a year in mid-1962.
(For further information, see statement on Col­
lege and University Teachers.) In addition to their
regular salaries, many physicists in educational
institutions obtain income from other sources, such
as consulting work and special research projects.
Most physicists can look forward to a marked
increase in earnings as they gain experience. Ac­
cording to the National Science Foundation's
1962 National Register of Scientific and Technical
Personnel, the average (median) salary of physi­
cists with 15 to 19 years’ experience was $14,000
a year, twice the average for physicists with 1
year’s experience.
Where To Go for More Information

American Institute of Physics,
335 Bast 45th St., New York, N.Y., 10017.

Astronomers

(D.O.T. 0-35.61)
Nature of Work

Astronomy, often considered the most theoreti­
cal of all sciences, has many practical applications.
Astronomical observations of the sun, moon, plan­
ets, and stars are the basis for sea and air naviga­
tion, the calendar, and the accurate measurement



of time. Astronomy provides both a proving
ground for theories of time and space and a
laboratory where matter may be observed under
the most extreme conditions of temperature and
density. Astronomy also helps fill in gaps m the
understanding of the physical world. For ex­

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

116

ample, astronomers who have studied the behavior
of atoms under stellar temperatures have made
valuable contributions to thermonuclear research
and to knowledge of the atom.
Astronomers study the universe and all its
celestial bodies. They collect and analyze data on
the sun, moon, planets, and stars and attempt to
determine sizes, shapes, brightnesses, and motions
of these bodies. They compute the positions of the
stars and planets; calculate the orbits of comets,
asteroids, and artificial satellites; and make statis­
tical studies of stars and galaxies. Astronomers
also study the size and shape of the earth and the
properties of its upper atmosphere.
In making their detailed observations of the
heavens, astronomers use complex photographic
techniques, light-measuring instruments, and
other optical devices. The telescope is the major
instrument used for observation, and specialized
devices for making particular types of observa­
tions are often attached to it. Among these devices
are the spectrometer, which produces a spectrum
and enables the wave lengths of radiant energy

Courtesy of U.S. Department of the Navy
Astronomer uses a 12-inch refracting telescope to measure
visually the position of stars




to be measured; the photometer, which measures
the intensity of light; and various other photo­
electric, photographic, and electronic instruments
and devices. Although most observations are made
by means of telescopes permanently mounted in
observatories, astronomers are increasingly gath­
ering information by means of spacecraft and
earth satellites containing various measuring de­
vices. In processing and analyzing the vast
amounts of data derived from their observations,
astronomers often make use of high-speed elec­
tronic computers.
Astronomers usually specialize in one of the
many branches of the science. In astrophysics, they
are concerned with the application of physical
laws to stellar atmospheres and interiors. Some
astronomers work in the field of celestial mechan­
ics., one of the oldest fields of astronomy and one
that has recently acquired new importance. Celes­
tial mechanics deals, in part, with the motions of
objects in the solar system, and hence has a par­
ticular application in the calculation of the orbits
of spacecraft and artificial earth satellites and
the paths of guided missiles. Radio astronomy is
the study, by means of radio telescopes of extra­
ordinary sensitivity, of the source and nature of
celestial radio waves. Among the other specialties
are astrometry (measurement of apparent posi­
tions of celestial bodies); photoelectric and photo­
graphic photometry (measurement of the inten­
sity of light); spectroscopy of astronomical sources
(wave length analyses of radiation from celestial
bodies); and statistical astronomy (statistical
study of large numbers of celestial objects, such as
stars, to determine their average properties).
More than 3 out of every 4 astronomers are en­
gaged in teaching, research, or a combination of
the two. In colleges and universities without
separate departments of astronomy or with small
enrollments in the subject, astronomers may teach
courses in mathematics or physics as well as
astronomy. Other members of the profession are
engaged in a variety of activities, including de­
velopment and design of astronomical instru­
ments, administration, technical writing, and con­
sulting.
Where Employed

Astronomy is one of the smallest of the science
fields; in mid-1962, the total number of astrono­

PHYSICAL SCIENCES

mers in the United States was estimated to be
approximately 1,000. More than half of all
astronomers are employed by colleges and uni­
versities. Many of these work in universityoperated observatories, where they usually devote
most of their time to research, working alone or
in cooperation with other astronomers.
The Federal Government provides employment
opportunities for approximately 150 astronomers.
Among the major Government agencies employ­
ing astronomers are the National Aeronautics
and Space Administration, which is responsible
for directing and implementing the Nation’s re­
search efforts in aeronautics and the exploration
of space; the U.S. Naval Observatory, which
determines the Nation’s official time, provides data
for air and sea navigation, and conducts research
in astrometry and stellar astronomy; the Naval
Research Laboratory, which does research in
radio astronomy and space astronomy; and the
Army Map Service, which utilizes astronomers
in measuring exact distances and in determining
the positions of points on the earth’s surface.
Government positions in astronomy are also found
at the Air Force Cambridge Research Center
(Bedford, Mass.), the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, the U.S. Coast and Geodetic
Survey, the National Bureau of Standards, and
other agencies.
A very small but growing number of astrono­
mers are employed in private industry, mostly by
firms in the aircraft, missile, and spacecraft field.
A few astronomers work for museums, planetariums, and other nonprofit organizations.
Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement

Young people seeking professional careers in
astronomy should obtain an advanced degree—
preferably the Ph. D. The doctorate is usually
required for high-level teaching and research posi­
tions and is important for other types of work. Al­
though the bachelor’s degree is adequate prepara­
tion for some entry jobs, promotional opportuni­
ties for astronomers without graduate training
are usually limited.
Undergraduate training leading to the bache­
lor’s degree in astronomy is offered by a relatively
small number of schools. In 1962, only about 35
colleges and universities offered such a degree. The
undergraduate work of the prospective astrono­



117

mer is weighted heavily with courses in physics
and mathematics (in addition to astronomy). A
reading knowledge of at least one foreign lan­
guage (German, French, or Russian) is required
in the undergraduate program, and training in
chemistry, statistics, and electronics is useful. A
few of the courses often taken by undergraduates
in the field of astronomy are optics, spectroscopy,
atomic physics, calculus, differential equations,
solar and stellar systems, introductory astro­
physics, and astronomical techniques and instru­
ments.
The prospective astronomer is not necessarily
handicapped if the college he has selected does not
offer a major in astronomy. Well-qualified stu­
dents with degrees in physics or mathematics are
usually able to qualify for positions in astronomy
or to pursue graduate work leading to the Ph. D.
degree in the science, since the undergraduate
work required is similar.
Training leading to the doctorate in astronomy
may be obtained in about 25 institutions located
in various sections of the country. The academic
work of the graduate student consists primarily
of advanced courses in astronomy, physics, and
mathematics. A few of the astronomy courses
typically offered in graduate schools are celestial
mechanics, galactic structure, radio astronomy,
stellar atmospheres and interiors, theoretical as­
trophysics, and binary and variable stars. A read­
ing knowledge of two foreign languages (Ger­
man, French, or Russian) is required. Some
schools require that graduate students spend sev­
eral months in residence at an observatory. In most
institutions, however, the program of work lead­
ing to the doctorate is flexible and allows the stu­
dent to take the courses which will be of most
value to him in his astronomical specialty or par­
ticular area of interest.
New graduates with bachelor’s or master’s de­
grees in astronomy usually begin as assistants in
observatories, planetaria, large departments of
astronomy in colleges and universities, Govern­
ment agencies, or industry. Some persons with
only the bachelor’s degree work as research assist­
ants while studying toward advanced degrees;
others, particularly those in Government employ­
ment, receive on-the-job training in the applica­
tion of astronomical principles to the problems at
hand. New graduates with the doctorate can

118

usually qualify for college teaching positions and
for research positions in educational institutions,
Government, and industry.
Among the personal qualifications needed by
prospective astronomers are a deep curiosity
about the nature of the physical world, precise and
logical thought processes, a strong interest and
facility in mathematics and physics, and a fertile
imagination. Astronomers should also be able to
express themselves clearly and simply, both in
writing and speaking, since their work often re­
quires them to communicate not only with other
astronomers and scientists, but with the public
as well.
Employment Outlook

Employment opportunities for astronomers
with the Ph. D. degree are expected to be excellent
throughout the remainder of the 1960’s. Welltrained persons with only bachelor’s or master’s
degrees in astronomy will also have good employ­
ment prospects, primarily as research and tech­
nical assistants. As in the past, however, the
higher level professional positions in astronomy
will be fil led mainly by persons with the doctorate.
The outlook is for rapid growth of this small
profession, both through the remainder of the
1960's and over the longer run. The advent of the
space age—the age of rockets, missiles, manmade
earth satellites, and space exploration—has height­
ened interest in astronomy and is opening up large
new fields for astronomers. These scientists will be
needed to aid in the development of guidance
systems and other instrumentation for missiles
and satellites and to help solve many of the practi­
cal problems connected with the flights of missiles
and spacecraft.
Increased research activities in astronomy by
educational institutions, government, and indus­
try are also expected to add to the demand for
astronomers. In recent years, the growth of Fed­
eral Government-sponsored research, in the form
of grants to educational institutions and observa­
tories (for astronomical research and for new
buildings, observatories, and equipment), has
opened many new positions for astronomers. In
all probability, government support for research
in this area will continue, and additional astrono­
mers will be needed to conduct further research,
especially on problems in exploration of space.



OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

The growing public interest in satellites and
space exploration has created a demand for a
greater amount of information on astronomy.
Furthermore, enrollments in astronomy courses
in colleges and universities are likely to increase,
not only as a result of this heightened public in­
terest but also because of the growing awareness
of the value of astronomical training in many
other scientific and engineering specialties. These
factors, coupled with the anticipated rapid in­
creases in college enrollments in the late 1960’s,
are expected to create many new openings for
teachers of the science.
Since astronomy is a small profession, the num­
ber of job openings in any one year will not be
large. On the other hand, the number of college
students receiving degrees in astronomy has so far
been small. Thus, the young men or women who
obtain the necessary training should have excel­
lent employment opportunities during the 1960’s.
The most favorable opportunities for women
astronomers—particularly those with the Ph. D.
—will be in research positions in Government
agencies and in the larger observatories. Women’s
colleges and other educational institutions are
also expected to offer some employment opportuni­
ties for women astronomers. In addition, some
openings for research assistants in observatories
or universities will probably arise for women with
bachelor’s or master’s degrees in astronomy.
Earnings and Working Conditions

In the Federal Government service, in early
1963, beginning astronomers with the Ph. D. de­
gree were eligible to enter at $8,575 or $9,475 a
year, depending on their college record. Astrono­
mers with the bachelor’s degree could start at
$5,525 or $6,650 a year; those with a bachelor’s
degree and some graduate study could begin at
$6,650 or $7,125. The provision for salary in­
creases, vacations, sick leave and other benefits
are the same as for other civil service employees.
(See chapter on Occupations in Government.)
Astronomers in educational institutions receive
roughly the same salary as other faculty members.
(See statement on College and University Teach­
ers.) Astronomers in educational institutions of­
ten add to their professional income by doing
consulting work or summer school teaching. A

PHYSICAL SCIENCES

few astronomers earn extra income from lectures
and from writing books and articles.
Some astronomers spend much time in nightwork, making visual photographic or photoelec­
tric observations. Others make observations only
4 or 5 nights each month and devote the remainder
of the time to studying and analyzing photo­
graphic plates, photoelectric tracings, and other
material during usual daytime working hours.
Observational work at a telescope involves ex­
posure to the outside air through the open dome
of the observatory, sometimes on cold winter




119

nights. In general, however, the physical require­
ments of astronomical work are not heavy and
can be met by a reasonably healthy person.
Where To Go for More Information

The American Astronomical Society,
Princeton University Observatory,
265 FitzRandolph Rd.t Princeton, N.J., 08540.
Board of U.S. Civil Service Examiners for Scientific
and Technical Personnel of the Potomac River
Naval Command,
Washington, D.C., 20415.

EA R TH SCIEN CES

The earth sciences are concerned with the his­
tory, composition, and characteristics of the earth,
its oceans, and its atmosphere. Most scientists in
this field are engaged in exploration for new
‘■ ources of oil and minerals. Some do basic research
designed to increase scientific knowledge with
little regard to its practical applications. Others
are concerned mainly with applied research, using
lhe knowledge gained from basic research to solve
practical problems. Meteorologists, for example,
apply their scientific knowledge of the atmosphere
to forecast weather for specific localities. Earth
scientists also teach in colleges and universities
and administer scientific programs and operations.
The earth sciences are relatively small fields of
scientific employment. In mid-1962, the number

of earth scientists at all levels of professional edu­
cation totaled about 27,000—only about 7 percent
of all natural scientists. The-largest earth science
occupation is geology, with 15,000 scientists em­
ployed in mid-1962. Smaller numbers are em­
ployed in geophysics (6,000),meteorology (3,000),
and oceanography (2,500).
Many earth scientists specialize in one particu­
lar branch of their broad occupational field. Geo­
physicists, for example, may be specialists in hy­
drology or seismology; oceanographers, in physi­
cal or biological oceanography. This chapter dis­
cusses the specialties and the employment outlook
for the four major earth science occupations—
geologist, geophysicist, meteorologist, and ocean­
ographer.

Geologists

(D.O.T. 0-35.63)
Nature of Work

Geology is the science of the earth. Geologists
study the earth’s history, structure, and composi­
tion as revealed by rock formations and by animal
and vegetable fossils. They search for fuels, miner­
als, and water supplies and study the physical
and chemical processes which bring about changes
in the earth’s structure and surface.
Most geologists spend a large amount of their
time in field exploration. They study rock cores
and cuttings from deep holes drilled into the
earth; collect and examine rocks, minerals, and
fossils found at or near the surface of the earth;
record data; and prepare geological maps. Geolo­
gists also spend considerable time in laboratories,
where they study geological specimens, analyze
geological materials under controlled temperature
and pressure, and do other research on geological
processes. In offices, they assemble and analyze
field and laboratory data, and prepare reports,
articles, maps, and other illustrations. Geologists
use a variety of instruments such as the X-ray
120




diffractometer, which determines the structure of
minerals, and the petrographic microscope, which
permits close study of how rocks have been formed
and modified by earth processes.
Some geologists administer research and ex­
ploration programs. Others teach in colleges and
universities, where they may also engage in and
administer research projects.
Geologists usually specialize in one branch of
the science. Economic geologists find and super­
vise the development of mineral and fuel re­
sources. Petroleum geologists, who make up a
large majority of all geologists, are economic
geologists specializing in the discovery and re­
covery of oil and natural gas. Engineering geolo­
gists apply geological knowledge to engineering
problems in the construction of roads, airfields,
tunnels, dams, harbors, and other structures.
Stratigraphers study the distribution and rela­
tive arrangement of sedimentary rock layers in
the earth’s crust; sedimentologists determine the
processes and products involved in the formation

EARTH SCIENCES

of sedimentary rocks; and 'paleontologists identify
and classify fossils found within the sediments.
Petrologists and petrographers study the arrange­
ment of minerals within rocks, to classify the
rocks and determine their origins. Mineralogists
are concerned with the classification and the physi­
cal and chemical properties of minerals which
compose rocks and mineral deposits. Geomorphologists analyze the form of the earth’s surface and
the processes—such as erosion and glaciation—
which change it.
Increasing numbers of geologists specialize in
new and rapidly growing fields that require a de­
tailed knowledge of both geology and one or more
other sciences. Among these specialists are geo­
chemists, who are concerned with the chemical
composition of and the changes in minerals and
rocks, and astro geologists, who apply geological
knowledge to interpretation of data on surface
conditions on the moon and the planets, as col­
lected by various means.
Where Employed

In 1962, there were approximately 15,000 geolo­
gists in the United States. About 3 out of every 4
worked for private industry. The petroleum and
natural gas industry employs most of these scien­
tists, chiefly in Texas, Louisiana, California, Okla­
homa, and Colorado; some, employed by American
companies, are assigned to work in foreign coun­
tries for varying periods of time. Geologists are
also employed by mining and construction com­
panies, by railroads and other public utilities, and
by manufacturing concerns, especially in the pri­
mary metals and stone and clay products indus­
tries. Others work for consulting firms or as in­
dependent consultants, providing services on a fee
or contract basis to companies interested in ex­
ploration for and extraction of minerals and fuels.
A number are employed by the Federal Gov­
ernment, mostly the U.S. Geological Survey.
Other Federal agencies employing geologists in­
clude the Army Corps of Engineers, the Soil Con­
servation Service, and the Bureau of Beclamation.
State agencies also employ geologists, some of
whom work on surveys conducted in cooperation
with the U.S. Geological Survey. Most govern­
ment positions are located in the United States,
though some Federal jobs are outside the United
States.



121

Some geologists are employed in colleges and
universities. A few work for nonprofit research
institutions and museums.
Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement

Young people seeking professional careers in
geology should obtain an advanced degree. The
master’s degree is required for beginning research
and teaching positions and for most positions in
exploration. For advancement in college teach­
ing as well as for high-level research and ad­
ministrative posts, the Ph. D. degree is required.
The bachelor’s degree is considered adequate
training for only a few entry jobs, primarily
closely supervised routine work in exploration or
preparation of geological maps.
Many colleges, universities, and institutes of
technology offer education in geology. In the
typical undergraduate curriculum, students de­
vote about a fourth of their time to geology
courses, including physical geology, historical
geology, mineralogy, and invertebrate paleon­
tology. About a third of the work is in related
natural sciences and in mathematics, and the re­
mainder in subjects such as English composition,
economics, and foreign languages. The academic
work of the graduate student seeking an advanced
degree in geology consists primarily of advanced
courses in geology, with major emphasis on the
student’s field of interest.
The student planning a career in geology should
have an aptitude not only for geology, but for
physics, chemistry, and mathematics as well. He
should be energetic, like outdoor activities, and
have the physical stamina to participate in geo­
logical fieldwork, which sometimes necessitates
camping out under somewhat primitive condi­
tions.
Employment Outlook

Employment opportunities for geologists with
the Ph. D. or the master’s degree are expected to
be favorable throughout the 1960’s. For those
with only the bachelor’s degree, including those
who rank high in their class, there will be keen
competition for the few available entry positions.
A number of new graduates with only the bache­
lor’s degree may find it necessary to enter semiprofessional positions, take training in teaching

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

122

Courtesy oi U.S. Department of the Interior
Geologists may do much of their work out of doors

methods and related subjects to qualify as science
teachers in secondary schools, or seek other work
outside the field of geology. However, should the
recent decline in the number of graduates receiv­
ing the bachelor’s degree in geology continue,
beginning geologists with this level of education
would have improved employment opportunities.
Private industry is expected to increase its em­
ployment of geologists moderately during the next
few years. Exploration for oil and most minerals
has declined in recent years and these activities are
unlikely to expand significantly during the 1960’s.
There will, however, be increasing opportunities
for geologists to help in solving engineering prob­
lems; work on programs related to water supplies
in many parts of the country; and do research on
the development of new devices and processes for
geological investigations.
In Federal agencies, demand for geologists is
also expected to grow moderately, primarily ow­
ing to expansion in the programs of the U.S.
Geological Survey. Employment of geologists in
colleges and universities will probably rise
slightly; the need will be primarily for those with
Ph. D. degrees who are capable of doing high-level
research. However, if the recent declining trend
in the number of students majoring in geology
should be reversed, an increased demand by edu­
cational institutions would result.
Replacement needs are expected to be the chief
source of openings during the remainder of the



1960’s. Several hundred new geologists will be
needed each year to replace those who are pro­
moted to managerial positions or who transfer to
other fields of work, retire, or die.
The longrun employment outlook in the pro­
fession is more favorable. As the world’s popula­
tion expands and nations become increasingly
industrialized, the demand for petroleum, min­
erals, and water supplies will increase, and there
will be a rising demand for geologists to locate
these resources. Geologists with advanced training
will be needed to devise new techniques for
exploring deeper within the earth’s crust and to
search underseas areas; to do more intensive re­
search and analysis of geological data; and to
work with petroleum engineers in developing more
efficient methods of finding and recovering
crude oil. It is likely that increasing space-age
activities will require some geologists to study
data concerning the surface conditions of planets.
Only a small number of women are professional
geologists, primarify because fieldwork positions
usually are considered unsuitable for them. Some
well-qualified women wfith advanced degrees will
be able to find positions as teachers in colleges and
universities, or to obtain laboratory or office posi­
tions in industry and government.
Earnings and Working Conditions

Annual starting salaries for new geology grad­
uates with bachelor’s degrees were typically be­
tween $5,500 and $6,000 in private industry in
1962, according to the limited information availa­
ble. New graduates with master’s degrees usually
started at between $6,500 and $7,000 a year. Start­
ing salaries for those with doctor’s degrees ranged
from $8,000 to $11,000, depending upon individual
qualifications.
In the Federal Government, new graduates with
bachelor’s degrees could begin at either $5,365 or
$6,465 a year in early 1963, depending on their
college records. Those with master’s degrees could
start at $6,465 or $6,675, and those with the Ph. D.
degree at $8,045 or $9,475.
In general, earnings of geologists are usu­
ally somewhat higher in industry and in gov­
ernment than in educational institutions. How­
ever, teachers often supplement their salaries by
research, consulting, or other work done during

EARTH SCIENCES

123

vacation periods. Extra allowances are generally
paid geologists for work outside the United States.
The work of geologists is often active and some­
times strenuous. Because much of their work is
out of doors, geologists may be exposed to all kinds
of weather. Many geologists travel a great deal
and may do fieldwork away from home for long

periods. Their hours of work are often uncertain
because their field activities are affected by
weather and travel.
Where To Go for More Information

American Geological Institute,
2101 Constitution Ave. NW., Washington, D.C., 20418.

Geophysicists

(D.O.T. 0-35.65)
Nature of Work

Geophysics is an overall term covering a num­
ber of sciences concerned with the composition and
physical aspects of the earth—its interior and
atmosphere, as well as the land and bodies of
water on its surface and underground. Geophysi­
cists make use of the principles and techniques of
physics, geology, mathematics, chemistry, and
engineering in studying the earth’s physical char­
acteristics, including magnetism, electrical effects,
gravity, radioactivity, seismology, and the earth’s
interior heat flow, and solar radiation. They use
many instruments, including highly complex pre­
cision ones such as the seismograph, which meas­
ures and records the transmission time of vibra­
tions through the earth; the magnetometer, which
measures variations in the earth’s magnetic field
and the different ways this field is affected by par­
ticular kinds of rocks; and the gravimeter, which
measures minute variations in gravitational at­
traction.
Exploration geophysicists , sometimes known as
prospecting geophysicists, are the largest group of
geophysical scientists. Most of these scientists
search for oil and mineral deposits, though some
are engaged in research, usually aimed at develop­
ing new or improved techniques and instruments
for prospecting. Hydrologists study the occur­
rence, circulation, distribution, and chemical and
physical properties of surface and underground
waters in the land areas of the earth. Some hy­
drologists are concerned with water supplies, irri­
gation, flood control, and soil erosion. Others
specialize in studies of glaciers and sedimentation
and in forecasting the flow of rivers. Seismologists
study the structure of the earth’s interior and the
vibrations of the earth caused by earthquakes or
manmade explosions. They may explore for oil



Courtesy of U.S. Coast and Geodetic Survey
Geophysicist uses seismology instruments in a cave to study
earth vibrations

and minerals, provide information for use in de­
signing bridges and buildings in earthquake re­
gions, or study the problems involved in detecting
underground nuclear explosions. Geodesists meas­
ure the size and shape of the earth, determine the
positions and elevations of points on or near the
earth’s surface, and measure the intensity and
direction of the force of gravity. They also help
track satellites orbiting in outer space. Geomagneticians are concerned with the variations in the
earth’s magnetic field, and with many aspects of
space science. Teetonophysicists study the struc­
ture of mountains and ocean basins, the proper­
ties of the materials forming the earth’s crust, and
the physical forces that cause movements and
changes in it.
Oceanographers and meteorologists, often clas­
sified as geophysical scientists, are discussed sepa­

124

rately, as is the closely related occupation of geolo­
gist.

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

ploration work, graduate education in geophysics
or in a related physical science is usually required.
A doctor’s degree with a major in geophysics or a
related science, including advanced courses in geo­
Where Employed
The number of geophysicists in the United physics, is generallyisrequired for teaching careers.
also frequently required
States (excluding oceanographers and meteorol­ The Ph. D. degree fundamental research and for
positions involving
for
ogists) was estimated to be approximately 6,000 advancement in most types of geophysical work.
in mid-1962. Private industry employs a ma­
The
in geophysics
be ob­
jority of all geophysicists, chiefly in the petroleum tained bachelor’s degreesmall number mayschools.
in only a very
of
industry. Some are employed by mining compa­
nies, exploration and consulting firms, and re­ These undergraduate programs provide training
geophysics,
search institutions. A few are in business for chiefly in exploration titles such asalthough the
curriculums may have
geophysical
themselves as consultants and provide services on technology or geophysical engineering. Some stu­
a fee or contract basis to companies and individ­
uals engaged in prospecting or other activities dents take undergraduate training at colleges of­
fering degree programs in engineering geology or
utilizing geophysical techniques.
petroleum geology.
Geophysicists in private industry are employed
Master’s and
mainly in the southwestern and western sections were granted byPh. D.a degrees in geophysics also
of the United States, where most of the country’s ties in 1962. Anonly few colleges and universi­
undergraduate major in geo­
large oil and natural gas fields and mineral de­ physics is not usually required for admission to
posits are located. Some geophysicists, employed these schools; a bachelor’s degree with a good
by American firms, are assigned to work in for­ background in geology, mathematics, physics, or
eign countries for varying periods of time.
Geophysicists are also employed by the Federal engineering, or a combination of these subjects is
In general, the graduate
Government—mainly by the Coast and Geodetic the usual requirement.the school in which he can
student should
Survey, the U.S. Geological Survey, the Army take advanced attend and carry out research
Map Service, and the Naval Oceanographic Of­ projects in the courses aspect of geophysical
fice. Colleges and universities, State governments, science in whichparticular
he is interested.
and nonprofit research institutions also employ
Beginning geophysicists with only the bache­
small numbers of geophysicists.
lor’s degree are usually given on-the-job train­
ing in the application of geophysical principles to
Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement
their employers’ projects. If a new employee’s
A bachelor’s degree with a major in geophysics college work did not include courses in geophys­
or in one of the geophysical specialities qualifies ics, he is taught geophysical methods and tech­
young persons for many beginning jobs in geo­ niques on the job.
physics. However, a bachelor’s degree in a related
Federal Government
also have train­
science or in engineering, and with courses in ing programs in which agenciesgeophysicists are
a few
geophysics, physics, geology, mathematics, chem­ sent each year to universities for graduate train­
istry, and engineering is also adequate preparation
for many beginning jobs, especially in geophysical ing. Some Federal Government agencies provide
exploration. For example, in the Federal Govern­ a few summer jobs for promising undergraduates
ment the minimum educational requirement for and make permanent positions available to them
beginning positions in geophysical exploration is after graduation.
The prospective geophj^sicist should have an ap­
a bachelor’s degree with at least 30 semester hours
in a combination of courses consisting of 12 hours titude and interest in mathematics and the physi­
in geology, 12 hours in physics, and the remaining cal sciences. He should be energetic and in excel­
lent health, since geophysicists often have to work
6 hours in geology, physics, or geophysics.
For geophysical specialties other than explora­ outdoors under somewhat rugged conditions. A
tion, and for the more desirable positions in ex­ willingness to travel is also important, since geo­




EARTH SCIENCES

physicists may be required to move from place
to place in the course of their employment.
Employment Outlook

Employment opportunities for the few new
graduates with degrees in geophysics are ex­
pected to be favorable throughout the 1960’s. Op­
portunities will be best for those with the master’s
or doctor’s degree. There should also be some op­
portunities in geophysical work for well-qualified
graduates with degrees in other sciences who have
some formal training in geophysics.
The demand for geophysicists is expected to
grow moderately during the decade. Federal Gov­
ernment agencies will most likely need some addi­
tional men and women geophysicists for new or
expanded geophysical programs. The petroleum
and mining industries may also need a few addi­
tional geophysicists for exploration work. How­
ever, exploration for oil and mineral deposits,
which has declined in the last few years, is not
expected to rise significantly in the next few years.
In colleges and universities, employment of teach­
ers of the geophysical sciences will probably in­
crease because of the anticipated rise in the num­
ber of students majoring in the geophysical sci­
ences. Some additional geophysicists will also be
needed to replace those who leave the profession,
retire, or die.
Although the number of job openings for geo­
physicists is not expected to be large in any one
year, the number of new graduates with degrees
in the science is also expected to be small. In 1962,
only 87 degrees in the geophysical sciences were
granted—26 bachelor’s, 44 master’s, and 17 doc­
tor’s degrees—according to the U.S. Office of
Education. As in past years, the number of gradu­
ates with degrees in geophysics will probably be
insufficient to meet employers’ needs, and welltrained persons with degrees in related sciences
and in engineering will probably continue to be
hired to fill geophysical positions.
Over the long run, further growth in the profes­
sion is expected. There will be increasing use of
petroleum and mineral products by a growing
population. As natural resources in the more easily
accessible locations become depleted, additional
exploration geophysicists will be needed by petro­
leum and mining companies to find sites of fuels



125

and minerals which are more concealed. In addi­
tion, the growing importance of basic research in
the geophysical sciences, as well as the continuing
need to develop new geophysical techniques and
instruments, will create a demand for personnel
with advanced training in hydrology, seismology,
geodesy, and other geophysical specialties. In
Federal Government agencies, additional geo­
physicists will probably be needed to study the
problems of the Nation’s water supplies; work on
flood control; do research in radioactivity and
cosmic and solar radiation; and explore the outer
atmosphere and space, using such vehicles as
sounding rockets and artificial satellites.
Opportunities for women have been and will
continue to be limited, mainly because of the
strenuous nature of much of the work. However,
a small number of well-qualified women will be
able to find positions in offices and laboratories or
as teachers in colleges and universities.
Earnings and Working Conditions

In the Federal Government in early 1963, new
graduates with bachelor’s degrees could enter most
types of geophysical work at either $5,525 or
$6,650 a year, depending on their college records.
Those who had completed all requirements for
the master’s degree could start at $6,650 or $7,125;
those with the Ph. D. degree could start at $8,575
or $9,475. Exploration geophysicists had some­
what lower starting salaries. Geophysicists sta­
tioned outside the United States are paid an addi­
tional amount. The provisions for salary increases,
vacations, sick leave, pensions, life and health
insurance, and other benefits are the same for geo­
physicists as for other civil service employees.
(See chapter on Occupations in Government.)
In private industry in 1962, new graduates with
bachelor’s degrees typically received starting sala­
ries between $5,500 and $6,000 a year, according to
limited information available. New graduates
with master’s degrees received between $6,500 and
$7,000; those with doctor’s degrees between $8,000
and $11,000, depending upon individual qualifica­
tions. In industry, as in Government, geophysical
scientists working outside the United States usu­
ally receive extra bonuses and allowances.
In general, starting salaries in educational in­
stitutions are lower than in private industry or

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

126

in the Federal Government. However, university
teachers may supplement their income by doing
consulting, writing, or research work.
The work of geophysicists is often active and
sometimes strenuous. Because much of their work
is done out of doors, they may be exposed to all
kinds of weather conditions. Geophysicists fre­
quently have to be away from home for long
periods of time. Their working hours are usually

irregular and are frequently determined by travel,
weather conditions, and the requirements of field
activities.
Where To Go for More Information

American Geophysical Union,
1515 Massachusetts Ave. NW., Washington, D.C.,
20005.
Society of Exploration Geophysicists,
Box 1536, Tulsa, Okla., 74101.

Meteorologists

(D.O.T. 0-35.68)
Nature of Work

Meteorology is the science of the atmosphere.
Its aim is understanding of the atmosphere—not
only its physical characteristics and movements,
but also its effects upon the earth and upon people.
Weather forecasting is the best known application
of the science and the type of work in which most
meteorologists are engaged. However, they may
do many other types of meteorological work.
Research is the major activity of a growing
number of meteorologists. These workers investi­
gate such subjects as atmospheric electricity, cloud
and precipitation mechanisms, hurricane dynam­
ics, and the best and quickest means of using the
vast amount of weather data collected from orbit­
ing weather satellites. They may also conduct re­
search on radioactive fallout, severe weather
phenomena, weather modification, weather condi­
tions affecting the behavior of forest fires, and
other problems. In both weather forecasting and
research, meteorologists make use of electronic
computing machines to process large amounts of
data.
Some meteorologists teach in universities or col­
leges, where they may also engage in research. In
colleges without separate departments of meteorology, they may teach subjects such as geography,
mathematics, physics, and geology, as well as
meteorology.
Meteorologists usually specialize in one branch
of the science. Weather forecasters, technically
known as synoptic meteorologists, are the largest
group of specialists. They interpret current
weather information (air pressure, temperature,
humidity, wind velocity) reported by observers



Courtesy of U.S. Weather Bureau
Meteorologist receives weather chart transmitted by a facsimile
network

in many parts of the world and make short- and
long-range forecasts for given regions. Climatolo­
gists analyze past records on wind, rainfall, sun­
shine, temperature, and other weather data for a
given area to determine the overall, general pat­
tern of weather which makes up the area’s climate.
Dynamic meteorologists investigate the physical
laws governing air currents. Physical meteorolo­
gists study the physical nature of the atmosphere,
including its chemical composition and electrical,
acoustical, and optical properties, the effect of the
atmosphere on the transmission of light, sound,
and radio waves, and the factors affecting the for­
mation of clouds, precipitation, and other weather
phenomena. Specialists in applied meteorology,

EARTH SCIENCES

sometimes called industrial meteorologists, are
concerned with the relationship between weather
and specific human activities, biological processes,
and agricultural and industrial operations. For
example, they make special forecasts for individ­
ual companies, attempt to induce rain or snow in
a given area, and wT on such problems as smoke
ork
control and air pollution.

127

Only a small number of women are meteorolo­
gists. Of these, some work as forecasters for the
Weather Bureau; a few are on active duty in the
Armed Forces; small numbers are employed by
colleges and universities, primarily in research
positions; and a very few work for commercial
airlines.
Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement

Where Employed

More than 3,000 civilian meteorologists were
employed in the United States in mid-19fe2. The
U.S. Weather Bureau, by far the largest employer
of meteorologists, employed approximately 1,900
of these scientists at 300 stations maintained by
the Bureau in all parts of the United States, the
polar regions, Puerto Kico, Wake Island, and
other sites in the Pacific area. A growing number
of meteorologists work for other Government
agencies, such as the Forest Service of the Depart­
ment of Agriculture, the Department of the In­
terior, the Federal Aviation Agency, and the
National Aeronautics and Space Administration.
The Armed Forces also employ civilian meteor­
ologists, chiefly in research work.
Aside from the Federal Government, the largest
fields of employment for meteorologists are com­
mercial airlines, educational institutions, and
weather consulting services. In mid-1962, the air­
lines employed about 300 meteorologists to fore­
cast the weather along the companies’ flight routes
and to brief pilots on weather conditions. Colleges
and universities employed another 300, princi­
pally in teaching and research. Private weather
consulting firms, which provide special weather
information for a fee, employed more than 150.
In addition, some were working for companies
that design and manufacture meteorological in­
struments, as well as for a number of large firms
in the aircraft, insurance, utilities, and other in­
dustries. A few worked for nonprofit organiza­
tions, presented radio and television weather pro­
grams, or worked as editors and librarians.
In addition to the meteorologists in civilian
employment, more than 3,000 members of the
Armed Forces were engaged in meteorological
work in 1962. Of these, approximately 2,800 were
on active duty in the Air Force. Meteorologists in
the Armed Forces usually make weather forecasts
that are needed to plan military operations.



A bachelor’s degree with a major in meteorology
is the usual minimum educational requirement
for beginning meteorologists in weather forecast­
ing. However, a bachelor’s degree in a related sci­
ence or in engineering is acceptable for many
positions, provided courses in meteorology are in­
cluded. For example, the Weather Bureau’s mini­
mum requirement for beginning positions is a
bachelor’s degree with at least 20 semester hours of
study in meteorology and with training in physics
and mathematics.
For research and teaching positions and for
many top-level positions in other activities, an
advanced degree in meteorology is highly desira­
ble, although persons with graduate degrees in
other sciences may also qualify if they have taken
advanced courses in meteorology, physics, mathe­
matics, and chemistry. The Ph. D. degree is usu­
ally essential for high-level teaching and research
positions.
Degrees in meteorology were awarded by about
25 colleges and universities in 1962. However,
many other institutions offered courses in meteor°l°gy.
Meteorological training is also given by the
Armed Forces. For example, each year the U.S.
Air Force selects over 250 new college graduates
who have received Air Force commissions and
sends them to civilian universities for a special
1-year program in meteorology. Graduates of this
program are then assigned to meteorological work.
The Armed Forces also send a number of military
meteorologists to universities or to military train­
ing centers for advanced training leading to the
master’s or doctor’s degree. Ex-servicemen with
military training and experience as meteorologists
are given preference for civilian positions with the
Armed Forces; they can also qualify for positions
with other employers of weather personnel.
The Weather Bureau has an in-service training
program in which scholarships are granted to

128

some of its meteorologists to enable them to take
advanced and specialized training. In addition,
college students preparing for careers in meteor­
ology may obtain summer jobs with the Weather
Bureau, where they may get permanent positions
after they receive their bachelor’s degrees.
Promotions in the Weather Bureau, as in other
Federal Government agencies, are given accord­
ing to Civil Service regulations. (See section on
Occupations in Government.) With the airlines,
the chances for advancement are somewhat
limited. However, after considerable w^ork experi­
ence, some meteorologists in the largest airline
companies may advance to the position of flight
dispatcher, or to various supervisory or adminis­
trative positions. A few well-trained meteorolo­
gists with a background in science, engineering,
and business administration may be able to estab­
lish their own weather consulting services.
Among the personal characteristics needed by
meteorologists are mathematical aptitude and an
interest in the physical sciences. For some jobs,
the ability to draw quickly and neatly is impor­
tant. Since most of the work is done in an office,
the physical requirements are not heavy and can
be met by any reasonably healthy person.
Employment Outlook

Employment opportunities for meteorologists
are expected to be very good throughout the 1960’s
and, over the long run, further expansion of the
profession is anticipated.
The age of supersonic aircraft, missiles, and
spacecraft has broadened considerably the scope
of meteorology and opened up new fields of mete­
orological activity. Opportunities will be particu­
larly good for meteorologists who can perform
research on the information obtained by missiles,
satellites, and spacecraft, and on methods of proc­
essing, analyzing, interpreting, and disseminating
the information quickly and accurately. Meteor­
ologists will also be in strong demand for work in
developing and improving weather instruments
for collecting and processing weather data. In
addition, there will be a continuing demand for
meteorologists to work on improving short- and
long-range forecasts which are indispensable for
spacecraft flights and which are becoming in­
creasingly valuable to government, industry, and
individuals. Replacement of meteorologists who



OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

retire or otherwise leave the profession will also
provide some opportunities.
The Weather Bureau anticipates that it will
seek both new graduates and experienced men and
women throughout the 1960’s to fill vacancies in
existing programs such as weather forecasting,
severe storm research, storm warnings, flood fore­
casting, and air pollution research. The Bureau
estimates that each year during this decade, it
will hire more than 150 meteorologists with bache­
lor’s or advanced degrees to fill new positions and
to replace workers who resign, retire, or die. The
Bureau also expects continuing increases in its
professional staff over the long run, primarily be­
cause of intensified research activities and expan­
sion in civilian aviation which will require new
airports and weather stations.
An increase is also expected in the number of
meteorologists employed by the airlines. As the
speed of aircraft and the number of flights in­
crease, more meteorologists will be needed to as­
sist in determining the routes and flight levels for
the safest and smoothest flights. Employment op­
portunities for meteorologists with other private
companies and research organizations and in
weather consulting services are also expected to
increase somewhat, as the value of weather in­
formation receives further recognition. The num­
ber of teaching positions for meteorologists in col­
leges and universities should also rise in the years
ahead, primarily because of increases in total col­
lege enrollments. Opportunities for civilian mete­
orologists in the Armed Forces are not expected
to increase significantly during the next decade.
However, there will probably be a growing need
for military meteorologists throughout the latter
1960’s, mostly to replace those reaching retire­
ment age.
Since meteorology is a relatively small profes­
sion, job openings will not be numerous in any
year. On the other hand, the number of new
graduates with degrees in meteorology probably
will continue to be small. In 1962, only 179
bachelor’s, 81 master’s, and 13 doctor’s degrees
were granted. Furthermore, graduates with ma­
jors in other fields and with some training in mete­
orology have not recently entered the profession
because of the opportunities in other scientific
fields. Military meteorologists who leave the
Armed Forces have usually left the profession al­

EARTH SCIENCES

129

together. Unless there is an unexpected change in
these conditions, new graduates should have fa­
vorable employment opportunities.
Earnings and Working Conditions

In early 1963, meteorologists with the bachelors
degree and no experience could start in the Fed­
eral Government service at $5,525 or $6,650 a year,
depending on their college records. Meteorologists
who had completed all requirements for the mas­
ter’s degree could start at $6,650 or $7,125; those
with the Ph. D. degree could begin at $8,575 or
$9,475. Workers stationed outside the United
States are paid an additional amount. The provi­
sions for salary increases, vacations, sick leave,
pensions, life and health insurance, and other
benefits are the same for meteorologists as for
other civil service employees. (See section on Oc­
cupations in Government.)
In mid-1962, airline meteorologists were receiv­
ing a starting salary of approximately $6,000 a
year, according to the Air Transport Association.

Meteorologists generally receive the same bene­
fits as other.airline employees. (See chapter on
Occupations in Civil Aviation.)
Jobs in weather stations, which are operated on
a 24-hour, 7-day week basis, often involve nightwork and rotating shifts. Most stations are at air­
ports or at places in or near cities; some are in
isolated and remote areas.
Where To Go for More Information

American Meteorological Society,
45 Beacon St., Boston, Mass., 02108.

The U.S. Weather Bureau, Washington, D.C.,
20235, will provide information on employment
opportunities with that agency and on its studenttrainee program.
Information on the Air Force meteorological
training programs may be obtained from the near­
est USAF recruiting office or by writing to Com­
mander, USAF Recruiting Service, WrightPatterson AFB, Ohio, 45899.

Oceanographers
(D .O .T. 0-35.65)

Nature of Work

The ocean, which covers more than two-thirds
of the earth’s surface, supplies food and minerals,
influences the climate, provides a medium of trans­
portation, and offers means of recreation. Ocean­
ographers are the scientists who study the ocean
in all its aspects—its characteristics, movements,
and plants and animals. The results of their stud­
ies not only extend basic scientific knowledge, but
also contribute to the development of practical
methods for use in such operations as charting
and forecasting currents, ice conditions, and ocean
waves; improving fisheries; and providing defense
against enemy attack.
Oceanographers plan extensive tests and obser­
vational programs and conduct detailed surveys
and experiments to obtain information about the
ocean. They collect and study data on such sub­
jects as the ocean’s chemical and physical composi­
tion, including its tides, currents, waves, tempera­
ture, density, and acoustical properties; its bottom
contours and composition; ice floes; and sea plants
692-408 0—63------10



and animals. They analyze the samples, specimens,
and data collected, often using electronic com­
puters. To present the results of their studies, they
compile special charts, tabulations, reports, and
manuals.
In developing and carrying out their tests and
observational programs, oceanographers make use
of the principles and techniques of physics, chem­
istry, geology, biology, meteorology, mathematics,
and related sciences. They use a variety of special
instruments and devices such as the magnetometer,
which measures the earth’s magnetic field; the
echo sounder, which measures distances to the sea
bottom by means of sound impulses; the heat flow
probe, which penetrates the ocean bottom and
measures flow of heat from the earth’s interior;
and special thermometers and bathythermographs
which measure water temperature at and below the
surface. Oceanographers use specially developed
cameras with lights and flash attachments to pho­
tograph marine organisms and the ocean bottom.
When their work requires new oceanographic in-

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

ministration of activities other than research, and
in technical writing, consulting, and other activi­
ties.
Most oceanographers spend at least part of their
time aboard oceanographic ships at sea; such voy­
ages may last from 3 weeks to several months. A
few oceanographers in survey positions spend
nearly all their time aboard ship. On the other
hand, a few oceanographers never go to sea, but
analyze data collected by other scientists or pur­
sue mathematical studies ashore.
Where Employed

Courtesy of U.S. Coast and Geodetic Survey
G eological dredges are used to collect ocean specimens for
examination

struments or analytical techniques, they usually
devise and test them.
Oceanographers are usually specialists in one
of the four main branches of the profession. Bio­
logical oceanographers (marine biologists) study
the ocean’s plant and animal life, which ranges
from microscopic plankton to giant squid and
whales. Physical oceanographers study the physi­
cal aspects of the ocean, such as its density, tem­
perature, and ability to transmit light and sound,
and the movements of the sea, such as waves, tides,
and currents, and the relationship between the sea
and the atmosphere. Geological oceanographers
(marine geologists) study the ocean bottom—its
topographic features, and the rocks and sediments
found there. Chemical oceanographers investigate
the chemical composition of the ocean waters and
bottom, which include at least traces of more than
half of the total number of known physical ele­
ments.
Nearly 3 out of every 4 oceanographers are en­
gaged primarily in performing or administering
research and development activities. A small but
growing number of oceanographers teach in col­
leges and universities; a few are engaged in ad­



Oceanography is one of the smallest of the
science fields; the total number of oceanographers
and closely related scientists in the United States
was estimated to be approximately 2,500 in mid1962. The largest number of oceanographers are
employed by colleges and universities and univer­
sity-operated oceanographic laboratories, where
they are usually engaged primarily in research.
The Federal Government also employs a sub­
stantial number of oceanographers, mainly in the
Bureau of Commercial Fisheries of the Depart­
ment of the Interior, the Naval Oceanographic
Office of the Department of the Navy, and the
Coast and Geodetic Survey of the Department of
Commerce. There are also a few positions in ocean­
ography in other parts of the Department of the
Navy, in the Weather Bureau, and other Govern­
ment agencies.
A small but growing number of oceanographers
are employed in private industry, mostly by con­
sulting or other firms which design and develop
instruments for oceanographic research. Some
oceanographers work for nonprofit laboratories
other than those operated by colleges and univer­
sities. A few work for fishery laboratories of State
and local governments.
Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement

The minimum educational requirement for be­
ginning positions in oceanography is the bache­
lor’s degree with a major in physics, chemistry,
biology, or some other science, and preferably with
some courses in oceanography. For professional
positions in research and teaching, and for ad­
vancement to high-level positions in most types

EARTH SCIENCES

of work, graduate training in oceanography or in
a related field is usually required.
Undergraduate training in oceanography was
offered by relatively few colleges and universities
in 1962, and only one institution offered the bache­
lor’s degree with a major in the subject. A prospec­
tive oceanographer is not unduly handicapped,
however, if he is unable to obtain undergraduate
training in oceanography, provided that while in
college he obtains a broad knowledge and under­
standing of the related sciences. Such training,
when coupled with a sincere interest in oceanog­
raphy, is usually adequate preparation for many
beginning positions in the field, or for entry into
graduate school.
Important undergraduate courses for the pro­
spective oceanographer include, in addition to
oceanography, mathematics, physics, chemistry,
geology, meteorology, biology, and zoology. In
general, the student should specialize in the par­
ticular science field which is closest to his area of
interest in oceanography. For example, those stu­
dents interested in physical oceanography should
major in physics or mathematics, whereas those
interested in chemical oceanography should obtain
a bachelor’s degree in chemistry.
Training leading to advanced degrees in ocean­
ography is offered by about a dozen colleges and
universities, and about 35 institutions offer ad­
vanced courses in the subject or in related fields,
such as marine biology or fisheries. The academic
work of the graduate student in oceanography
consists primarily of extensive training in ocean­
ography combined with further training in the
marine aspects of his selected area of marine
specialization—usually chemistry, geology, biology, or physics. A few of the oceanography
courses typically offered in graduate school con­
cern underwater acoustics, waves, and tides, ma­
rine vertebrates and invertebrates, marine ecology,
marine sediments, ocean circulation, and marine
hydrodynamics. Some institutions also require the
graduate student to spend part of his time aboard
ship—doing oceanographic research, acquiring
familiarity with the sea and the techniques used
to obtain oceanographic information, and learning
the basic elements of navigation and seamanship.

Beginning oceanographers with the bachelor’s
degree usually start as research or laboratory
assistants, or in routine positions involving data



131

collection, analysis, or computation. Most new
graduates are given on-the-job training in the
application of oceanographic principles to the
problems at hand. If a beginner has had no basic
courses in oceanography, he is often given these
courses as part of his on-the-job training.
Beginning oceanographers with advanced de­
grees can usually qualify for teaching and re­
search positions. Experienced oceanographers,
particularly those with the Ph. D. degree, may
advance to administrative positions, in which they
may supervise a research laboratory or lead spe­
cific oceanographic or survey research projects.

Among the qualities desirable in the prospective
oceanographer are an aptitude and interest in
mathematics and the sciences, a disciplined and
creative imagination, and a highly inquisitive
mind. Since the oceanographer’s work entails
dealing with scientists in many other fields, he
must be able to work effectively with people and
to express himself well. A liking for the sea and
for life aboard ship is also important.
Employment Outlook

Employment opportunities for oceanographers
are expected to be excellent throughout the 1960’s,
particularly for those with advanced degrees.
Well-trained persons with bachelor’s degrees in
related sciences and with some formal training in
oceanography should also have favorable oppor­
tunities, primarly as research assistants and in
routine analytical positions.
The outlook is for rapid growth of this small
profession, both during the 1960 decade and over
the long run. In recent years, the growing realiza­
tion of the importance of the oceans to the Na­
tion’s welfare and security has heightened inter­
est in oceanography and has opened up new fields
for specialists in the science. Oceanographers will
be needed for research in such areas as underwater
acoustics, surface and subsurface ocean currents,
and ocean floor topography, all of which are of
great importance in improving the Nation’s de­
fense against submarines and surface vessels and
in planning and conducting amphibious military
operations. There will also be a demand for
oceanographers to supply improved navigational
charts, sailing directions, and weather and iceberg
forecasts; to study the air-sea interaction in order
to improve weather forecasts; to solve problems

132

related to the mining of the sea and sea bottom, to
predict or control damage caused by tidal and
storm waves, and to prevent beach erosion. Addi­
tional oceanographers will be needed to make
studies of marine plants and animals for use in
improving methods for deriving food supplies
from the oceans, in developing and managing
fisheries, and in classifying marine animals and
plants.
The demand for oceanographers qualified to
teach in colleges and universities is also expected
to expand. Increased student interest in oceanog­
raphy will likely result in a rise in the number of
courses in oceanography, and this will create open­
ings for more teachers of the science. Replacement
of oceanographers who retire or otherwise leave
the profession will also provide some opportuni­
ties in Government and private industry, as well
as in colleges and universities.
Since oceanography is a relatively small pro­
fession, job openings will not be numerous in
any one year. On the other hand, the number of
new graduates with degrees in this science is
extremely small and is expected to remain so.
Thus, oceanography graduates should continue to
have excellent opportunities.
Opportunities for women have been and prob­
ably will continue to be limited because much of
oceanographic work is carried on at sea, where
living quarters for women are usually not avail­
able. However, some well-qualified women may be
able to find employment in shore laboratories and
in teaching.
Earnings and Working Conditions

In the Federal Government service in early
1963, most oceanographers with the bachelor’s de­




OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

gree and no experience could begin at $5,525 or
$6,650 a year, depending on their college records.
Beginning oceanographers who had completed all
requirements for the master’s degree could start at
$6,650 or $7,125; those with the Ph. D. degree
could begin at $8,575 or $9,475. Oceanographers in
biological and geological specialties had somewhat
lower starting salaries. The provisions for salary
increases, vacations, sick leave, pensions, life and
health insurance, and other benefits are the same
as for other Civil Service employees. (See chapter
on Occupations in Government.)
Beginning oceanographers in educational insti­
tutions have roughly the same salary as other be­
ginning faculty members. (See College and Uni­
versity Teachers. Consult index for page number.)
In addition to their regular salaries, many experi­
enced oceanographers in educational institutions
obtain income from consulting, lecturing, and
writing books and articles.
Oceanographers engaged in research requiring
seagoing voyages are frequently away from home
for weeks or months at a time, sometimes under
somewhat cramped living and working conditions.
Young people who like the sea, however, may find
this aspect of oceanographic work very satisfying.
Where To Go for More Information:

American Society of Limnology and Oceanography,
Sapelo Island Research Foundation,
Sapelo Island, Ga., 31327.
Board of U.S. Civil Service Examiners for Scientific
and Technical Personnel of the Potomac River
Naval Command, Washington, D.C., 20415.
Interagency Committee on Oceanography,
Room 1714, Bldg. T-3, 17th and Constitution Ave.
NW., Washington, D.C., 20360.

B IO L O G IC A L SCIEN CES

The biological sciences are concerned with the
world of living things—men and microbes, wild
and domestic animals, plants and insects, birds
and fish. Some scientists in this field conduct re­
search to expand our knowledge about living or­
ganisms ; others teach in colleges and universities.
Still others apply biological knowledge to the so­
lution of practical problems, such as the develop­
ment of new drugs and vaccines or new strains of
plants. Among professional workers in applied
fields are foresters, soil scientists, and soil conser­
vationists, whose work is discussed elsewhere in
this Handbook. (See index for page numbers.)
Nature of Work

Biological scientists, who may also be called life
scientists, study the structure of living organisms,
their life processes and evolutionary development,
and the relation between these organisms and their
environment. The number and variety of plants
and animals are so vast and the life processes so
varied and complex that biologists must, of neces­
sity, become specialists. Some biologists learn as
much as possible about a particular kind of animal
or plant. Others, interested in how an animal or
human body functions, study such things as the
nervous system, how food is digested, or how or­
ganisms are affected by disease. Some are inter­
ested in the evolution of living organisms, the
mechanism of heredity, or the ways environmental
factors, such as major changes in climate or radio­
activity, affect life processes. In general, biological
scientists specialize in one of the three broad areas
of the life sciences—biological, medical, or agri­
cultural science.
A substantial number of biological scientists are
engaged in research and development. Many con­
duct basic research, aimed at adding to our knowl­
edge of living organisms regardless of its immedi­
ate practical use. Nevertheless, the development of
insecticides, disease-resistant crops, and antibiotics
have all stemmed from basic research in the bio­
logical sciences.




Courtesy of Bureau of Reclamation
Biological scientists study effects of a herbicide on water weeds

Biological research may take many forms. A
botanist exploring the volcanic Alaskan valleys to
see what plants live in this strange environment
and a zoologist searching the jungles of the Ama­
zon valley for previously unknown kinds of ani­
mals are both doing research, as is an entomologist
working in a laboratory testing various chemical
insecticides for effectiveness and for possible haz­
ards to human and animal life.
Regardless of the type of research in which they
are engaged, biologists must be familiar with
fundamental biological research techniques and
with the use of microscopes and other laboratory
equipment. In the experimental research fields,
which include microbiology, physiology, genetics,
biochemistry, biophysics, and pharmacology, ad­
vanced techniques and tools drawn from chemistry
or physics are frequently used. Also, because of
the enormous number of variable factors involved
in biological research, a knowledge of mathemati­
cal and statistical procedures, as well as of the
operation of electronic computers, is often needed.
Teaching in colleges and universities is the ma­
jor function of a sizable number of biological sci133

134

entists. Many college teachers of biological sciences
combine independent research with their regular
teaching duties, and in some large institutions
spend the major portion of their time on research.
Some biological scientists are engaged in man­
agement and administrative work, primarily the
planning, supervision, and administration of pro­
grams of research or testing of foods, drugs, and
other products. Others act as liaison between the
Federal Government and the agricultural experi­
ment stations at State universities, and aid in the
planning, development, and evaluation of research
programs at these stations.
Relatively small numbers of biologists are en­
gaged in a variety of other types of work, such as
consulting, writing, testing, and inspection. A few
are employed in technical sales or field service
work for industrial firms; such work may include,
for example, teaching company salesmen and pros­
pective purchasers the value and proper use of
new chemicals.
Biological scientists may be classified into three
broad groups characterized by the type of organ­
ism with which they work: Botanists, who study
plants; zoologists, who are concerned with ani­
mals ; and microbiologists, who work with micro­
organisms. Some biological scientists whose work
cuts across more than one of these major group­
ings, as is frequently the case with college teachers,
may simply call themselves biologists.
Biological scientists may also be classified ac­
cording to their specialities—some of which are
wholly within one of the three major groupings,
and some of which cut across them. For example,
some biological scientists are classified according
to the specific type of organism studied, as in the
case of mycologists, who are botanists concerned
with the study of fungi; others are classified ac­
cording to the sort of approach used in studying
organisms, as in the case of geneticists, who may
be botanists, zoologists, or microbiologists study­
ing the mechanisms of the heredity of a particular
plant, animal, or micro-organism. A description
of the work of some biological scientists follows.
Botanists (D.O.T. 0-35.23) study plant life.
Some, known as plant taxonomists, specialize
in the identification and classification of plants.
Others are plant morphologists, primarily con­
cerned with the structure of plants and plant
cells; plant physiologists, whose primary interest



OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

is in the life processes of plants; or specialists in
still other phases of plant life.
Microbiologists (D.O.T. 0-35.33) investigate
bacteria, viruses, molds, and other organisms of
microscopic or submicroscopic size. They work
with test tubes, cultures, microscopes, and a vari­
ety of other specialized laboratory equipment.
The terms bacteriology and microbiology are
sometimes used interchangeably, but microbiology,
the broader term, is preferable when referring to
the study of all microscopic organisms. Some
microbiologists study medical problems, such as
the relationship between bacteria and infectious
disease. Others specialize in soil bacteriology (the
study of bacteria, molds, algae, protozoa, and
other micro-organisms in soils, and the relation of
such organisms to soil fertility), virology (the
study of viruses which may cause diseases in ani­
mals or plants), immunology (study of mecha­
nisms by which the body fights off infection), or
serology (the study of animal and plant fluids,
including blood serums). Still others specialize in
the study of the fermentations involved in the
manufacture of beer, wine, flax, tobacco, and
leather, or in the search for new or better antibi­
otics. Many specialize in the production and test­
ing of biological products or in the testing of food
products and water supplies.
Zoologists (D.O.T. 0-35.28) study animal life
—its origin, classification, behavior, life processes,
diseases, and parasites—and the ways in which
animals influence and are influenced by their en­
vironment. Zoologists who specialize in the study
of certain classes of animals usually use titles
which indicate the kind of animal studied; thus,
ornithologists study birds; herpetologists study
reptiles and amphibians; ichthyologists study
fishes; and mammalogists, mammals.
Agronomists (D.O.T. 0-35.01) are concerned
with the growing, breeding, and improving of
field crops, such as corn, wheat, tobacco, cotton,
and sugar. They develop new, hardier varieties of
crops and search for better methods of controlling
disease, pests, and weeds. Agronomists may spe­
cialize in the problems of a geographical region,
a particular crop, or a technical area such as crop
breeding or production methods.
Anatomists (D.O.T. 0-35.36) study the form
and structure of organisms and the structure and
organization of specialized organs. They may

BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES

study structures visible to the naked eye or of
microscopic size, or those of submicroscopic size,
visible only through the use of the electron micro­
scope. Many anatomists specialize in human anat­
omy ; others compare animal and plant species.
Biochemists (D.O.T. 0-07.02) use chemical
methods to study the composition of biological
materials and the molecular mechanism of biologi­
cal processes. They may conduct research on the
chemical reactions involved in the functioning of
living tissues and organs, or the relationships of
nutrients contained in food to plant and animal
nutrition, digestion, energy, metabolism, growth,
health, and disease. (Biochemistry is often consid­
ered a branch of chemistry and is also discussed in
the statement on Chemists. See index for page
number.)
Biophysicists (D.O.T. 0-35.49), who are trained
in both physics and biology, are concerned with
the physical properties and relationships of liv­
ing cells and organisms, and with the response of
living organisms to physical forces—including
heat, light, radiation, sound, and electricity. They
may use the electron microscope to make tissues
visible down to their smallest units, or they may
use nuclear reactors to study the effect of high
energy radiation on cells and tissues.
Embryologists study the development of an
organism from the fertilization of the egg until it
becomes a complete organism. They study the
physiological, biochemical, and genetic mecha­
nisms which control and direct the processes of de­
velopment and how this control is accomplished.
Entomologists (D.O.T. 0-35.30) study insects
and their effect on people, animals and plants.
Some entomologists specialize in identifying and
classifying the enormous number of different
kinds of insects. Many entomologists do research
on methods of controlling harmful insects which
carry disease and spoil food supplies. Others study
ways to utilize beneficial insects such as honey
bees.
Geneticists (D.O.T. 0-35.35) are concerned with
the nature and transmission of hereditary charac­
teristics. Geneticists engaged primarily in improv­
ing plant and animal breeds of economic impor­
tance—such as cereal and tobacco crops or dairy
cattle and poultry—may be classified as plant or
animal breeders, agronomists, or animal science
specialists. Theoretical geneticists search for the



135

fundamental laws of heredity and the mecha­
nisms which produce heritable traits in plants,
animals, or humans.
Horticulturists (D.O.T. 0-35.05) are concerned
with orchard and garden plants such as fruits,
nuts, vegetables, flowers and ornamental plants,
and nursery stocks. They develop new or improved
plant varieties and try to find better methods of
growing, harvesting, storing, and transporting
horticultural crops. Horticulturists usually spe­
cialize in either a specific plant or a particular
technical problem, such as plant breeding.
Husbandry specialists (animal) (D.O.T. 0-35
.13, .14, and .15) carry out investigations and ex­
periments on the breeding, feeding, management,
and diseases of farm livestock and other domestic
animals to improve the health and yield of these
animals.
Nutritionists study the processes through which
human beings and animals utilize food; the kinds
and quantities of food elements, such as the min­
erals, vitamins, fats, sugars, and proteins essential
to build and repair body tissues and maintain
health; and how these food elements are trans­
formed into body substances. Nutritionists also
analyze foods to determine their composition in
terms of essential ingredients or nutrients.
Pathologists study the causes and processes of
disease, degeneration, and abnormal functioning
in human or animal organisms. They may special­
ize in the study of the effects of diseases, parasites
and insect pests on organs and tissues; in his­
tology, which is the microscopic study of animal
and plant tissues; or in the structure or anatomy
of diseased organs. The term “pathologist’7is nor­
mally reserved for students of human pathology
(medical pathology). Specialists in animal path­
ology are usually veterinarians. (See statement on
Veterinarians.) Those who study plant diseases
may be called plant pathologists or phytopathol­
ogists; their work is discussed later under the
latter heading.
Pharmacologists (D.O.T. 0-35.34) are con­
cerned primarily with the effect of drugs on life
processes and with the discovery and develop­
ment of new or improved chemical compounds
which will have certain desired effects on orga­
nisms. They conduct tests on animals to determine
the physiological effects of drugs, gases, dusts,
poisons, and chemicals on tissues and organs, and

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

136

correlate their findings with clinical medical data
on the effects of such substances on human beings.
Physiologists (D.O.T. 0-35.13) study the func­
tioning of cells, tissues, and organisms and the
effects of environmental factors on life processes.
They may specialize in the study of the heart,
circulatory system, glands, nerves, or cellular ac­
tivities, or of the digestive, excretory, reproduc­
tive, or other systems. The knowledge gained in
such studies provides the basis for the work
of many other specialists, such as pathologists,
pharmacologists, or nutritionists.

Courtesy of Argonne National Laboratory
Physiologist uses rat in research on cell behavior

Phytopathologists (D.O.T. 0-35.26), also called
plant pathologists, specialize in the causes and
control of plant diseases produced by parasitic
organisms, viruses, chemicals, and other agents.
Some specialize in the pathology of a specific plant
or group of plants, such as forest trees, vegetable
crops, ornamental plants, and field crops. Others
work only with certain organisms or groups of
organisms affecting plants, such as fungi, viruses,
or bacteria.



Where Employed

About 100,000 persons were employed in mid1962 in the biological sciences and in the closely
related fields of medical and agricultural sciences.
The largest number of these—about half of the
total—are employed by colleges and universities.
Although higher institutions employ scientists in
almost all the biological specialties, they employ
particularly large numbers of biochemists, physi­
ologists, microbiologists, zoologists, and botanists.
State agricultural colleges and universities and
agricultural experiment stations operated by uni­
versities in cooperation with Federal and State
Governments employ sizable numbers of agrono­
mists, horticulturists, animal husbandry special­
ists, entomologists, and other agriculture-related
specialists.
The Federal Government employed about 25,000 biological scientists in mid-1962. The Depart­
ment of Agriculture, the principal Government
employer of these scientists, employs primarily en­
tomologists, agronomists, plant pathologists, plant
physiologists, and animal husbandry specialists.
The Interior Department employs nearly all the
fish and wildlife biologists in the Federal Govern­
ment. The Defense Department—principally the
Army—and the National Institutes of Health
employ many bacteriologists, physiologists, and
pharmacologists, as well as smaller numbers of
specialists in other branches of biology. State and
local governments also employ sizable numbers of
biologists—mostly fish and wildlife specialists,
microbiologists, and entomologists—for work in
conservation, detection and control of disease, and
plant breeding.
Some biological scientists—primarily microbi­
ologists, pharmacologists, and entomologists—
work for private industry. Among the major
industrial employers are firms manufacturing
pharmaceuticals and chemicals, seed processors,
dairy companies, and food manufacturers. A
small number of biological scientists work for
nonprofit organizations—mainly hospitals, clinics,
and privately financed research organizations or
foundations. A few are self-employed.
An estimated 10 percent of biological scientists
are women; the largest numbers specialize in
microbiology, biochemistry, botany, zoology, and
physiology.

BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES
Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement

Young people seeking professional careers in
the biological sciences should plan to obtain an
advanced degree—preferably a Ph. D.—in their
field of interest. The bachelor’s degree with a ma­
jor in one of the biological sciences is adequate
preparation for many beginning jobs, but promo­
tional opportunities for those without graduate
training may be limited to intermediate level
positions.
The Ph. D. degree is generally required for
higher level college teaching positions and for
independent research in experimental biology. It
is also necessary for an increasing number of other
positions involving the administration of research
programs.
Biologists with master’s degrees can qualify for
most entry positions in applied research and for
sortie types of positions in college teaching and
basic research.
New graduates with bachelor’s degrees can qual­
ify for positions involving inspection and testing,
production and operation work, technical sales
and service, and administrative duties in connec­
tion with the enforcement of government regula­
tions. They may also obtain positions as senior
technicians, particularly in the area of medical
biology. Those who graduate near the top of their
class may have opportunities to do research, al­
though mostly of a routine nature or under close
supervision. Some graduates with bachelor’s de­
grees take courses in education and choose a career
as a high school teacher of biology rather than
one as a biological scientist. (See statement on
Secondary School Teachers.)
Training leading to a bachelor’s degree with a
major in biology or in one of the biological or
agricultural specialties is offered by most colleges
and universities. Courses differ greatly from one
college to another and it is important that a stu­
dent find out which college program best fits his
interests and needs. In general, liberal arts col­
leges and universities emphasize training in the
basic biological sciences and in the medical aspects
of biological science. State universities and landgrant colleges offer special advantages to those
interested in agricultural sciences, because their
agricultural experiment stations provide many
opportunities for practical training and research
work.



137

Prospective biological scientists should obtain
the broadest undergraduate training possible in
all branches of biology and in related sciences,
particularly organic and inorganic chemistry,
physics, and mathematics. Courses in statistics
and biometrics are becoming increasingly essen­
tial. Important also are training and practice in
laboratory techniques, in the use of laboratory
equipment, and in fieldwork.
Advanced degrees in the biological sciences are
also conferred by a large number of colleges and
universities. Requirements for advanced degrees
usually include fieldwork and laboratory research,
as well as classroom studies, library research, and
preparation of a thesis.
Qualities needed by young persons planning a
career in the biological sciences include consider­
able interest in and curiosity about living things;
an aptitude for biology, chemistry, and mathe­
matics ; keen powers of observation; logical
thought processes; imagination; and patience. The
biological scientists must also be able to communi­
cate his findings simply and clearly, both in writ­
ing and speaking.
Employment Outlook

Employment opportunities for biological sci­
entists with graduate degrees are expected to be
very good throughout the rest of the 1960’s, and
continued growth in the profession is anticipated
over the long run. There will be particular need
for biological scientists with doctorates in bio­
physics, biochemistry, microbiology, physiology,
pathology, and pharmacology to do research on
problems important to medicine, and for scientists
with advanced degrees in microbiology, animal
and plant science, and entomology for research
positions in agriculture. Employment opportuni­
ties are also likely to be favorable for persons
with master’s degrees and for those with bache­
lor’s degrees who graduate near the top of their
class, particularly in the fields of entomology, fish
and wild life biology, and microbiology. There
will also be many opportunities for new graduates
with the bachelor’s degree to work as research
assistants or in technician jobs while continuing
their graduate education.
One of the major factors which will tend to in­
crease employment of biological scientists is the
anticipated growth in research and development

138

activities. Research in the biological and agricul­
tural sciences, which has increased greatly in re­
cent years, is likely to continue to grow because of
expanding programs conducted or sponsored by
the National Institutes of Health, Department of
Agriculture, National Science Foundation, and
Department of Defense. Moreover, in the years
ahead, especially rapid growth is anticipated in
such relatively new areas as space biology (study
of problems concerned with physical, chemical,
and biological stresses of space flight and survival
of men in space and on other planets) and radia­
tion biology (research on the effects of high en­
ergy radiation on the human body). Medical re­
search programs sponsored by voluntary health
agencies, including those promoting study of heart
disease, cancer, and tuberculosis, will also proba­
bly increase.
Industry is expected to increase its spending for
research and development. Furthermore, the more
stringent health standards established by Congress
and the Federal regulatory agencies are also ex­
pected to result in a need for additional biological
scientists to perform industrial research and test­
ing before new drugs, chemicals, and processing
methods may be used in medicine and agriculture.
Another factor which will tend to increase
employment of biological scientists will be the
substantially larger college and university enroll­
ments expected during the remainder of the 1960’s.
The resulting rise in demand for teachers will be
to a large extent for Ph. D.’s, but there will also
be many openings for qualified people holding
master’s degrees.
Earnings and Working Conditions

In the Federal Government, in early 1963, bi­
ological scientists with the bachelor’s degree could
begin at $4,565 or $5,540 a year, depending on
their college record. Beginning biological scien­
tists with the bachelor’s degree and some graduate




OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK ‘HANDBOOK

study could start at $5,540, $6,675, or $8,045; those
with the Ph. D. degree could begin at $8,045 or
$9,475. Pharmacologists had somewhat higher
starting salaries than other biological scientists.
Biological scientists with the Ph. D. degree em­
ployed as college and university teachers typi­
cally received starting salaries between $6,000 and
$8,000 a year in 1962, according to the limited in­
formation available. (For further information, see
statement on College and University Teachers.)
Biologists in educational institutions sometimes
supplement their regular salaries with income
from consulting work and special research proj­
ects.
In general, biological scientists in private in­
dustry tend to have higher salaries than those in
either colleges and universities or Government
employment. For example, the median annual sal­
ary of biological scientists was about 25 percent
greater in private industry than in either educa­
tional institutions or Federal Government employ­
ment, according to the National Science Founda­
tion’s 1962 Register.
Biologists can usually look forward to an in­
crease in salary as they gain experience. According
to the 1962 Register, the average (median) salary
of biologists with 20 years or more of experience
was $12,000 a year, roughly double the average
yearly salary of biologists with only 1 year of
experience.
Where To Go for More Information

American Institute of Biological Sciences,
2000 P St. NW., Washington, D.C., 20036.
Federation of American Societies for Experimental
Biology,
9650 Wisconsin Ave. NW., Washington, D.C., 20014.
Office of Personnel, U.S. Department of Agriculture,
Washington, D.C., 20250.
Employment Officer, U.S. Department of Health,
Education, and Welfare,
National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Md., 20014.

M A T H E M A T IC S A N D R ELA TED FIELD S

Mathematics is both a profession and a tool
essential for many kinds of work. Although
mathematics has always been of fundamental
importance in science and engineering, it is only
since electronic computers have become widely
available that its potentialities as a field of employ­
ment have been as fully realized as they are today.
Electronic computing equipment has opened up
broad new horizons for the application of mathe­
matics—not only in the natural sciences and en­
gineering, but also in connection with medicine,
social science research, and the solution of man­
agement and administration problems. As a re­
sult, employment opportunities for mathemati­
cally trained persons have expanded remarkably
in the past 15 years.

This chapter includes descriptions of the occu­
pation of mathematician and two closely related
occupations—statistician and actuary. For en­
trance into any of these fields, college training in
mathematics is required. For many types of work,
graduate education is necessary.
In addition to the professions covered in this
chapter, workers in many others use mathematics
extensively in performing their jobs. These include
engineers, chemists, physicists, astronomers, geo­
physicists, and oceanographers, whose work is
discussed elsewhere in the Handbook. Secondary
school teachers of mathematics are not covered in
this chapter but are included in the statement on
Secondary School Teachers.

Mathematicians

(D.O.T. 0-35.76)
Nature of Work

Mathematics is one of the oldest and most
basic fields of science. It is also one of the most
dynamic and rapidly growing professions. Mathe­
maticians today are engaged in a wide range of
activities, including research on the behavior of
the atom, calculating orbits of earth satellites, and
translating business and scientific problems into
mathematical terms for solutions by electronic
computers.
Mathematical work may be divided into two
broad classes: pure or theoretical mathematics;
and applied mathematics, which includes mathe­
matical computation. Theoretical mathematicians
are concerned with the development of mathemati­
cal principles and the discovery of relationships
among mathematical forms. They seek to increase
basic mathematical knowledge without necessarily
considering its use. Yet, this pure and abstract
mathematical knowledge has been instrumental in
many scientific and engineering achievements.
For example, a seemingly impractical non-Euclid­




ean geometry invented by Bernhard Riemann in
1854 became an integral part of the theory of
relativity developed by Albert Einstein more than
a half century later.
Mathematicians engaged in applied work de­
velop techniques and approaches to solve practical
problems in the physical, biological, and social
sciences. They analyze the various parts of a
problem and describe the existing relationships
in mathematical terms. Applied mathematicians
work on problems ranging from analysis of vibra­
tions and stability of rockets in outer space to
studies of the effects of new drugs on disease.
Applied and pure mathematics are not always
sharply separated in practice; many important
developments in theoretical mathematics have
arisen directly from practical problems. For ex­
ample, Isaac Newton developed differential calcu­
lus to describe and analyze the velocity and accel­
eration of moving objects—something which could
not be done satisfactorily by earlier systems of
mathematics.
139

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

140

three-fourths of the mathematicians employed in
private industry in 1962.
Colleges and universities employ about twofifths of all mathematicians; many of these work
full time on research projects in the university
laboratories. A substantial number are employed
by Government agencies, chiefly the Department
of Defense, the National Aeronautics and Space
Administration, and the Bureau of Standards of
the Department of Commerce. A few work for
nonprofit organizations.
Courtesy of National Bureau of Standards

Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement

A bachelor’s degree with a major in mathe­
matics is the minimum educational requirement
An important part of the work in applied
mathematics involves using mathematical knowl­ for entrance into this field. Graduate training is
edge and modern computing equipment (ranging required for many mathematical positions, partic­
from desk calculators to complex electronic com­ ularly in research and teaching, and for advance­
puters) to obtain numerical answers to specific ment in many areas of mathematical work.
Advanced degrees are required for an ever-inproblems. Some work in this area, such as devel­
creasing number of jobs in industry and Govern­
oping advanced techniques for solving complex
engineering problems, requires a very high level of ment—in research and many other areas of ap­
mathematical knowledge and skill. However, plied mathematics. The Ph. D. degree is necessary
much of this work, such as that of programers for for most high-level college and university teach­
digital computers, does not require the advanced ing positions and for the more advanced research
training and inventiveness of the mathematician. work, such as formulating mathematical theories
(See index for page number of statement on Pro­ to describe an engineering or scientific situation.
The bachelor’s degree is adequate preparation
gramers. For other occupations related to the
for many private industry and Federal Govern­
mathematics profession, see statements on Statisti­
ment positions, particularly those connected with
cians and Actuaries in this chapter.)
computer work. Some new graduates with the
The largest number of mathematicians are en­ bachelor’s degree assist senior mathematicians by
gaged in research to increase the knowledge of working out
basic mathematics or to solve practical problems. mathematical computations and solving minor
in applied research.
Many teach in colleges and universities, where Others work as problems teaching or research as­
graduate
they often combine teaching and research. Others sistants in colleges and universities while working
are engaged in the management and administra­ toward advanced degrees.
tion of scientific activities, and a few do consult­
For teaching and other work in applied mathe­
ing work.
matics, training in the field to which the mathe­
matics will be applied is important. For many
applied mathematicians, the fields of application
Where Employed
are physics and engineering; other fields include
Approximately 38,000 mathematicians were em­
ployed in the United States in mid-1962; about 10 business and industrial management, economics,
statistics, chemistry,
biology. Some college
percent were women. Nearly one half of all mathe­ graduates with majorsand these fields and a good
in
maticians are employed by private industry, pri­ background in mathematics can qualify as applied
marily in the aircraft, missiles, spacecraft, and mathematicians.
the electrical equipment industries. These, together
The recent development of high-speed electronic
with the machinery, fabricated metal products, computers has brought a growing need for mathe­
and chemical industries, accounted for more than maticians who are qualified to work with these
Mathematicians work differential equations for reactor research




MATHEMATICS AND BELATED FIELDS

machines. Training in numerical analysis and pro­
graming is especially desirable for this work. A
small but growing number of colleges and univer­
sities are offering such training.
Some personal qualifications needed by mathe­
maticians are: A keen logical mind, imagination,
intellectual curiosity, and the desire and ability to
analyze and solve new and difficult problems.
Mathematicians must also be able to express
mathematical ideas clearly and concisely for
scientists, engineers, and others who use mathe­
matics but are not mathematicians.
Employment Outlook

The outlook is for continued rapid growth in
employment of mathematicians throughout the
1960’s and over the long run. As in the early
1960’s, there will be a particular demand for
mathematicians with Ph. D. degrees—for re­
search, teaching, and many applied mathematics
positions. Women mathematicians who are quali­
fied for research and teaching should have good
employment opportunities.
A major factor which should continue to make
mathematics one of the most rapidly growing sci­
entific fields is the growth in research and develop­
ment, in which two-fifths of all mathematicians
are engaged. Since 1953-54, total expenditures
for research and development have nearly tripled,
to more than $15 billion in 1961-62, and they are
expected to continue to rise rapidly during the
1960’s. Much of the expected increase will take
place in industries which employ large numbers
of mathematicians, particularly the electrical
equipment and aircraft, missiles, and spacecraft
'industries.
The demand for mathematicians in research and
development is closely associated with the use of
high-speed electronic computers. These computers
have made it possible to solve a wide variety of
complex problems in the physical, biological, and
social sciences, and also have opened broad new
fields for mathematics in business management.
Using these computers, mathematicians can pro­
vide information to business managers and offi­
cials to help them solve problems in such areas as
production programing, operations research, prod­
uct distribution, sales promotion, advertising, and
inventory control.



141

The demand generated by these computers is
not only for mathematicians but also for people
who can apply mathematics to specific problems.
Part of this demand will be satisfied by including
more advanced mathematical training in the edu­
cation of engineers, physicists, biologists, and spe­
cialists in other fields. However, there will be a
growing need for applied mathematicians who
have a high degree of mathematical competence
and a broad knowledge of the field of application.
The demand for people to do mathematical com­
putation work will also expand.
Employment of mathematicians as college and
university teachers should also rise substantially
during the late 1960’s when enrollments are ex­
pected to grow rapidly. Not only will the number
of students majoring in mathematics increase, but
the number of mathematics courses taken by those
majoring in other fields will also rise. The great­
est demand in college teaching will be for mathe­
maticians with Ph. D. degrees. Colleges and
universities will continue to provide most of the
employment opportunities for specialists in theo­
retical mathematics.
Along with the anticipated rise in demand for
mathematicians, a significant increase is expected
in the number of graduates with degrees in mathe­
matics, particularly at the bachelor’s level. If
graduates in this field continue to increase as
rapidly as they have in recent years, the number
seeking employment in the profession will rise
sharply during the late 1960’s; by 1970, it may be
nearly three times the number at the beginning of
the 1960 decade. Thus, new graduates with only
the bachelor’s degree may face increasing competi­
tion for entry positions in mathematics in the late
1960’s. Nevertheless, graduates with advanced de­
grees and those with bachelor’s degrees who rank
high in their class should continue to have excel­
lent employment opportunities in the profession.
The training required of mathematics graduates
also serves as an excellent foundation for employ­
ment in many occupations, including high school
teaching and certain engineering, economics, and
statistics jobs.
Earnings and Working Conditions

Annual starting salaries in private industry for
mathematicians with bachelor’s degrees were
about $6,000 in 1962, according to the limited in­

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

142

formation available. New graduates with the mas­
ter’s degree received starting salaries about $500
to $1,000 a year higher. Yearly salaries for new
graduates with Ph. D. degrees, most of whom
usually have some experience, ranged from about
$9,000 to $16,000 in 1962.
In the Federal Government service in early
1963, mathematicians with the bachelor’s degree
and no experience could start at either $5,525 or
$6,650 a year, depending on their college records.
Beginning mathematicians who had completed all
requirements for the master’s degree could start
at $6,650 or $7,125; those with the Ph. D. degree
could begin at $8,575 or $9,475. The provisions for
salary increases, vacations, sick leave, pensions,
life and health insurance, and other benefits are
the same for mathematicians as for other civil
service employees. (See section on Occupations
in Government.)
In colleges and universities, starting salaries
for mathematicians with the Ph. D. degree who
were employed as teachers in 1962 ranged from

about $4,500 to $9,000 for 9 months of teaching.
(See index for page number of statement on Col­
lege and University Teachers.) Mathematicians
in educational institutions can sometimes supple­
ment their regular salaries with income from spe­
cial research projects, consulting work, and writ­
ing for publications.
Most mathematicians can look forward to an
increase in earnings as they gain experience. Ac­
cording to the National Science Foundation’s
1962 National Kegister of Scientific and Techni­
cal Personnel, the average (median) salary of
mathematicians with 20 or more years’ experience
was $13,000 a year, nearly twice that of mathema­
ticians with 1 year’s experience.
Where To Go for More Information

American Mathematical Society,
190 Hope St., Providence, R.I., 02906.
Mathematical Association of America,
University of Buffalo, Buffalo, N.Y., 14214.

Statisticians

(D.O.T. 0-36.51)
Nature of Work

The studies planned and conducted by statis­
ticians help natural and social scientists extend
their knowledge and provide government and
business officials with the statistical information
needed in making major decisions. Statisticians
use scientific methods to collect, analyze, and inter­
pret numerical data. Their prime objective is to
obtain sufficient information on the subject being
studied with a minimum expenditure of time and
money.
Statisticians specialize either in the application
of statistical methods to a subject-matter field or
in mathematical statistics. Applied statisticians
use statistical methods to collect and anaylze data
in a particular subject-matter field, such as eco­
nomics, agriculture, psychology, public health,
demography, physics, or engineering. They may
forecast population growth or economic condi­
tions, estimate crop yield, predict and evaluate
the results of a new marketing program, or help
engineers and scientists determine the best design
for a jet airplane.



Mathematical statisticians use mathematical
techniques to design and improve statistical
methods for obtaining and interpreting numerical
information. They are primarily theoreticians,
concerned with developing new statistical tools in
areas such as probability theory, experimental de­
sign, and regression analysis. Unlike applied stat­
isticians, they usually do not specialize in a sub­
ject-matter field. However, they frequently work
with applied statisticians in making statistical
studies.
Most statisticians are engaged in planning sur­
veys, designing experiments, or analyzing data.
Those who plan surveys choose the source from
which the data are to be collected, determine the
type and size of the sample to be studied, and
draw up the questionnaire or reporting form. They
may also prepare instructions for the workers who
will collect the data and for the statistical clerks
who will code and tabulate the returns. Statisti­
cians who design experiments prepare mathemati­
cal models which can be tested to confirm or con­
tradict a particular theory. Those who are engaged

MATHEMATICS AND RELATED FIELDS

in analytical work interpret data already col­
lected and summarize their findings in tables,
charts, and written reports. Some statisticians per­
form administrative functions in connection with
statistical research programs. Others teach in col­
leges and universities—often combining research
with teaching activities.

143

fare ; and Labor. Colleges and universities employ
some applied statisticians and are a major source
of employment for mathematical statisticians.
Some statisticians are employed by State and lo­
cal governments, and nonprofit organizations.
Others work for consulting firms or as independ­
ent statistical consultants.
Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement

Courtesy of U.S. Department of the Navy
Statisticians use complex data-recording systems in conducting
studies

Because statistics is a tool used in many differ­
ent fields, it is sometimes difficult to distinguish
people who are primarily statisticians from those
who are chiefly subject-matter specialists with
only a limited knowledge of statistics. For exam­
ple, an applied statistician who works with data
on economic conditions may have the title of
economist instead of statistician, or a mathemati­
cal statistician engaged in applying probability
theory to the development of new statistical
methods may be classified as a mathematician.
Where Employed

Approximately 21,000 professional workers
were employed as statisticians in 1962; nearly one
third were women. The largest number of statisti­
cians are employed by private industry, mostly
in market research, quality control, production
and sales forecasting, and administration of sta­
tistical programs. Federal Government agencies
also employ a sizable number of statisticians, pri­
marily in the Departments of Defense; Com­
merce; Agriculture; Health, Education, and Wel­



A bachelor’s degree with a major in statistics
or mathematics is the minimum educational re­
quirement for many beginning positions in applied
and mathematical statistics. For some beginning
positions in applied statistics, however, a bache­
lor’s degree, with a major in economics or some
other applied field and a minor in statistics, is
acceptable preparation. A master’s degree in sta­
tistics or mathematics is required for many en­
trance positions in mathematical statistics and
teaching, and is almost indispensable for promo­
tion to high-level positions in mathematical sta­
tistics. The Ph. D. degree is essential for ad­
vancement to top-level teaching positions and is
an asset in obtaining high-ranking administrative
positions and consulting work. Furthermore, for
advancement in analytical and survey work, there
is a trend toward requiring advanced academic
training in the subject-matter field as well as in
statistics.
Relatively few colleges and universities offer
training leading to a bachelor’s degree with a ma­
jor in statistics. However, most schools offer
either a degree in mathematics or a sufficient num­
ber of courses in statistics to qualify graduates
for beginning positions in statistics. Courses es­
sential for prospective statisticians include'college
algebra, plane trigonometry, analytical geometry,
differential and integral calculus, linear algebra,
and at least one course in statistical methods.
Other courses of importance to prospective stat­
isticians include sampling, correlation analysis,
design of experiments, probability theory, and
courses bearing on the use of computers. For
many quality control positions, training in en­
gineering and in the application of statistical
methods to manufacturing processes are desirable.
For many market research, business analysis, and
forecasting positions, courses in business adminis­
tration or a related field are helpful.

144

Graduate instruction in statistics was offered by
approximately 25 colleges and universities in
1962. A bachelor’s degree with a good background
in mathematics is the usual requirement for ad­
mission to these schools. In general, the student
interested in applied work should attend a school
in wdiich he can take advanced courses in statistics
and carry out research projects in the subjectmatter field in which he is interested.
Inexperienced statisticians with only the bache­
lor’s degree often spend much of their time in
clerical work or its supervision on their first jobs.
As they gain experience, statisticians usually
move up to positions of greater technical and often
supervisory responsibility. Those with exceptional
ability and interest may advance to high-level
supervisory or administrative positions.
Among the personal qualifications needed by
statisticians are a logical and inquiring mind, an
interest and facility in mathematics, and the
ability to translate practical problems into sta­
tistical terms. They should be able to express
themselves clearly and concisely in order to work
with scientists, business officials, and others who
must use statistics but are not statisticians.

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK,

Additional personnel will be needed not only in
research and development work, but also for ex­
panded programs in such fields as social security,
health, and education. Some statisticians will also
be needed to fill positions in continuing programs
which involve the collection and analysis of social
and economic data of many kinds.
Employment of st atisticians as college and uni­
versity teachers is also expected to rise through
the 1960’s, primarily as a result of the overall
increase in enrollments. Furthermore, it is antici­
pated that many colleges will offer additional
courses in statistics, as the importance of statisti­
cal training in government, business, academic,
and industrial research becomes even more widely
recognized.
In addition to the number needed to fill new
positions, several hundred statisticians will be re­
quired each year to replace members of the pro­
fession who retire, die, or transfer to other
occupations.
Well qualified women statisticians should have
favorable opportunities in all phases of statistical
work. Opportunities for advancement for women
statisticians will probably be best in teaching and
in research positions in the social sciences.

Employment Outlook

The outlook is for substantial growth in employ­
ment of statisticians, both in the next few years
and over the long run. Growing emphasis on
modern statistical methods in conducting research
and increasing use of electronic computers are
major factors in the growing demand for statisti­
cians in private industry, government, and colleges
and universities.
The largest expansion in employment is ex­
pected to occur in private industry. Persons who
have broad training in mathematics and statis­
tics, as well as a knowledge of engineering or the
physical sciences, will be needed for quality con­
trol work in manufacturing and for work with
scientists and engineers in research and develop­
ment activities, including space research. Business
firms are also expected to rely more and more on
statisticians in forecasting sales, analyzing busi­
ness conditions, modernizing their accounting pro­
cedures, and solving other management problems.
Employment of statisticians in Federal Govern­
ment agencies will probably increase moderately.



Earnings and Working Conditions

Starting salaries for new college graduates em­
ployed as applied statisticians in private industry
generally averaged between $5,000 and $5,500 a
year in 1962, according to the limited information
available. Starting salaries for mathematical stat­
isticians with the bachelor’s degree were usually
somewhat higher. Salaries for beginning statisti­
cians with the master’s degree averaged between
$600 and $1,200 a year more than those with only
the bachelor’s degree.
In the Federal Government service in early
1963, analytical and survey statisticians with the
bachelor’s degree and no experience could start at
either $4,565 or $5,540 a year, depending on their
college records. Beginning analytical and survey
statisticians who had completed all requirements
for the master’s degree could start at $5,540 or
$6,675. Those with the Ph. D. degree could begin
at $8,045 or $9,475. In the Federal Government,
mathematical statisticians had somewhat higher
starting salaries than analytical and survey
statisticians.

MATHEMATICS AND RELATED FIELDS

145

Statisticians employed by colleges and univer­
sities generally earn somewhat less than those em­
ployed by private industry and the Federal
Government. Some indication of the salary levels
of statisticians employed as teachers may be ob­
tained from the earnings data for college and
university teachers as a group. (See statement on
College and University Teachers.) In addition to

their regular salaries, statisticians in educational
institutions sometimes obtain income from outside
research projects, consulting work, and writing
for publications.
Where To Go for More Information

American Statistical Association,
810 18th St. NW., Washington, D.C., 20006.

Actuaries

(D.O.T. 0-36.55)
Nature of Work

surance program, such as social security (old-age,
survivors, and disability insurance) or life insur­
ance for veterans and members of the Armed
Forces. Actuaries in State government positions
are involved in the supervision and regulation of
insurance companies and State retirement or
pension systems, and may work on problems
connected with unemployment insurance or work­
men’s compensation. Consulting actuaries per­
form services, on a fee basis, for private com­
panies, unions, and government agencies. They
often set up employee pension and welfare plans
and periodically make actuarial valuations of
them.

Actuaries are mathematically trained workers
who are responsible for developing and keeping
insurance and pension plans on a sound financial
basis. Using mathematical methods and tech­
niques, they evaluate the probability of loss on
whatever is to be insured. They develop and ana­
lyze statistical tables on mortality (death) and
morbidity (sickness) rates. Actuaries are also con­
cerned with the frequency of injuries and with
personal and property losses from fire, burglary,
explosion, and other hazards, and with the result­
ing costs. Taking into consideration the estimates
of payments to policyholders as well as estimates
of their company’s future expenses and invest­
ment income, actuaries determine the premium Where Employed
rates for each particular type of insurance policy.
Approximately 2,000 actuaries were employed
They may also analyze company earnings and in the United States in 1962. About four-fifths of
prepare policy contract provisions.
all actuaries work in the life insurance field and
To perform their duties effectively, actuaries one-fifth in property and casualty insurance
must keep abreast of general business trends and (which includes workmen’s compensation, automo­
legislative, health, social, and other developments bile, accident and health, and fire insurance).
that may affect the soundness of insurance prac­
A large majority of all actuaries are employed
tices. Because of their broad knowledge of the in­ by private insurance companies. The size of an
surance field, actuaries frequently work on prob­ insurance company’s actuarial staff depends upon
lems arising in several different departments of the volume and nature of its insurance work.
their companies, such as the investment, under­ Large companies may employ as many as 50 to 100
writing, group insurance, and pension sales and
companies may have only
service departments. Those in executive positions actuaries, whereas small staffs or may rely entirely
1 or 2 actuaries on their
may help to determine general company policy on consulting firms or rating bureaus (associations
and may testify before public agencies on pro­ which supply actuarial data to member com­
posed legislation which would affect the insurance
business or on the justification for intended panies) .
Several hundred actuaries are employed by con­
changes in company premium rates or contract
sulting firms or are in business for themselves.
provisions.
Actuaries employed by the Federal Government The Federal Government employs about 60 per­
usually deal with a particular Government in­ sons in actuarial positions, primarily in the De692-408 0 — 63------11




146

partment of Health, Education, and Welfare and
the Veterans Administration. Some actuaries are
employed by State government agencies, property
and casualty insurance rating bureaus, and educa­
tional institutions. A few are employed by private
firms other than insurance companies to admin­
ister private pension and welfare plans.
Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement

A bachelor’s degree with a major in mathemat­
ics is usually required for entry into actuarial
work. Some new graduates with a major in such
fields as economics or business administration
and a minor in mathematics can qualify for be­
ginning actuarial positions. Although only a few
colleges and universities offer training specifically
designed for young people seeking actuarial ca­
reers, many institutions offer the necessary mathemathics courses, which include algebra, analytical
geometry, differential and integral calculus,
mathematical statistics, probability, and finite dif­
ferences. Other desirable courses include insurance
law, economics, investments, accounting and other
aspects of business administration, and English
composition and speech.
To gain full professional status, actuaries must
pass a series of examinations, which cover general
mathematics, specialized actuarial mathematics,
and all phases of the insurance business. The be­
ginning examinations cover general mathematics,
and it is desirable for the student to take these
examinations while still in college. Success in
passing these examinations helps the student de­
termine whether he has the ability to become an
actuary, and those who pass have better oppor­
tunities for employment and a higher starting sal­
ary. The more advanced examinations, usually
taken by those in junior actuarial positions, re­
quire extensive home study and experience in in­
surance work. It usually takes from 5 to 10 years
after entering for a beginning actuary to com­
plete an entire series.
The actuarial examinations for the life insur­
ance field are given'by the Society of Actuaries,
and those in property and casualty insurance by
the Casualty Actuarial Society. Associate mem­
bership is awarded after completion of part of the
examination series. The designation of “Fellow”
is conferred after successful completion of either



OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK,

all 10 examinations given by the Society of Actu­
aries or the 8 examinations of the Casualty
Actuarial Society.
Besides mathematical ability, applicants for be­
ginning actuarial positions are likely to be evalu­
ated also on personal characteristics, such as abil­
ity to deal with people, leadership qualities, and
interest in business problems. Preference is us­
ually given to applicants who have passed at least
tvro of the actuarial examinations, and to those
vT some actuarial experience. This experience
ith
is provided in many insurance companies which
hire and train college undergraduates during the
summer months.
A beginning actuary is usually rotated among
different jobs in the actuarial department to learn
the various actuarial operations and become ac­
quainted vT different phases of insurance work.
ith
At first, the trainee may make calculations or
tabulations for actuarial tables or for the annual
statement. Later, he may supervise actuarial
clerks and be concerned with correspondence and
reports.
Advancement to more responsible work as an
assistant and later as associate or chief actuary
depends largely upon on-the-job performance
and the number of actuarial examinations success­
fully completed. Some actuaries, because of their
broad knowledge of the insurance and related
fields, qualify for administrative positions in other
company activities, particularly in the underwrit­
ing, accounting, or investment departments. A sig­
nificant number of actuaries advance to top
executive positions.
Employment Outlook

Employment opportunities for actuaries are ex­
pected to be very good throughout the 1960’s and
over the long run. New graduates with the neces­
sary mathematical education who have passed
some examinations of either professional society
will be in particular demand.
Employment of actuaries is expected to in­
crease in both the life and casualty insurance
fields, primarily because of anticipated growth in
the number and type of insurance policies and
employee-benefit plans. (See chapter on Insurance
Occupations.) More actuaries will be needed to
solve the increasing number of problems arising
from continuously changing and increasingly com­

MATHEMATICS AND RELATED FIELDS

147

plex insurance and pension coverage. The rapidly
growing number of group life insurance plans and
health and pension plans will require additional
actuarial service. In the property and casualty in­
surance field, additional actuaries will be needed
to make studies which are used in determining
policy rate changes, and to justify these changes
before State regulatory agencies. There will be
continuing strong demand for actuaries capable of
working with the electronic computers in wide­
spread use by large insurance companies. Besides
actuaries needed to fill new positions, a few will
have to be trained to replace those who retire,
die, or transfer to other occupations.
Employment opportunities will probably con­
tinue to be good for the few women who seek
actuarial work. Advancement opportunities will
also be good for women actuaries who complete the
years of continuous training and study required
to pass the actuarial examinations to gain full
professional status.

cording to the limited information available.
Those who had passed some of the preliminary
actuarial examinations or who had gained some
experience in the summer programs offered by
insurance companies usually received considera­
bly higher starting salaries.
In the Federal Government service in early
1963, new graduates with the bachelor’s degree
entering actuarial work could start at either $5,525
or $6,650 a year, depending on their college rec­
ords. (See chapter on Occupations in Govern­
ment.)
Beginning actuaries can look forward to a
marked increase in earnings as they pass the ex­
aminations of either Society and gain professional
experience. Most Fellows of either the Society of
Actuaries or the Casualty Actuarial Society earn
over $12,000 a year. Many actuaries earn more
than $18,000 a year and some in executive posi­
tions in large insurance companies earn over
$25,000.

Earnings and Working Conditions

Where To Go for More Information

Annual starting salaries of new college gradu­
ates entering actuarial work in insurance com­
panies were generally about $5,500 in 1962, ac­




Society of Actuaries,
208 South LaSalle St., Chicago, 111., 60604.
Casualty Actuarial Society,
200 East 42d St., New York, N.Y., 10017.

T EC H N IC IA N O C C U P A T IO N S

Technicians make up one of the fastest grow­
ing occupational groups in the United States.
In recent years, the needs of the Nation’s
defense and space programs, added to those
of an expanding and increasingly technical econ­
omy, have greatly intensified the demand not
only for engineers and scientists but also for the
technical workers who assist them. This chapter

is concerned with these technicians who work with
engineers and scientists, and with draftsmen
and surveyors, also usually considered technicians.
Information on technical occupations in the health
field—including medical technologists, dental lab­
oratory technicians, medical X-ray technicians,
and dental hygienists—is presented elsewhere in
the Handbook. (See index for page numbers.)

Engineering and Science Technicians

(D.O.T. 0-50.20 through .99)
Nature of Work

The term “technician” has no generally ac­
cepted definition. It has been used by different
employers to refer to workers in a great variety
of jobs, with many different job titles and requir­
ing a wide range of education and training. In
some cases, it has been applied to employees doing
relatively routine work; in others, to persons per­
forming work requiring skills within a limited
sphere; and again to persons wT do complex
ho
w^ork of a highly technical nature as assistants to
engineers and scientists. The workers’ job titles
may be descriptive of their technical level (for
example, engineering technician, biological aid, or
junior engineer) or they may relate to the nature
of the work (for example, ceramic analyst, pro­
duction analyst, tool designer, or time-study
analyst). Some employers use the word “techni­
cian,” preceded by adjectives such as mechanical,
electrical, electronics, or chemical, descriptive of
areas of technology in wT personnel are em­
hich
ployed.
As used here, the term “technician” refers
to technical workers whose jobs require knowl­
edge and use of scientific and mathematical
theory and specialized education or training in
some aspect of technology or science, and who, as
a rule, work directly with scientists and engineers.
In general, the jobs are technical but more limited
148




than those of the engineer or scientist, and have
a greater practical orientation. Many of these
technician jobs require the ability to analyze and
solve engineering and science problems and pre­
pare formal reports on experiments, tests, or other
projects. Some require considerable aptitude in
mathematics; others, the ability to visualize ob­
jects and to make sketches and drawings. Design
jobs often require creative ability. Many techni­
cian jobs require some familiarity with one or
more of the skilled trades, although not the ability
to perform as a craftsman. Still others demand
extensive knowledge of industrial machinery,
tools, equipment, and processes. Some jobs held by
these technicians are supervisory and require both
technical knowledge and the ability to supervise
people. Nearly all technician jobs, however, re­
quire the ability to communicate clearly, both
orally and in writing.
In carrying out their assignments, engineering
and science technicians frequently use complex
electronic and mechanical instruments, experi­
mental laboratory apparatus, and drafting instru­
ments. Almost all of the technicians w7hose jobs
are described in this statement must be able to use
engineering handbooks and computing devices
such as the slide rule or calculating machine.
Technicians wrork in virtually every aspect of
engineering and scientific work. One of their larg­
est areas of employment is research, development,

TECHNICIAN OCCUPATIONS

and design work, in which they generally serve as
direct supporting personnel to engineers or scien­
tists. In the laboratory, they conduct experiments
or tests; set up, calibrate, and operate instru­
ments; and make calculations. They assist scien­
tists and engineers in developing experimental
equipment and models by making drawings and
sketches and, under the engineer’s direction, fre­
quently handle certain aspects of the design work.
Technicians also work in jobs related to pro­
duction, usually following a course laid out by
the engineer or scientists, but often without close
supervision. They may aid in the various phases
of production planning, such as working out
specifications for materials and methods of manu­
facture. Sometimes technicians devise tests to in­
sure quality control of products, or make time
and motion studies designed to improve produc­
tion flow and the efficiency of particular work
operations. They may also perform liaison work
between engineering and production or other
departments.
Technicians often do work that might other­
wise have to be done by engineers. They may ad­
vise on installation and maintenance problems,
serve as technical sales or field representatives of
manufacturers, or work as technical writers of
specifications and manuals. (See statement on
Technical Writers.)
The following sections describe a number of
areas of technology in which engineering and
science technicians are trained and employed.
Aeronautical Technology. Technicians special­
izing in this area of technology work with engi­
neers and scientists in many phases of the design
and production of aircraft, helicopters, rockets,
guided missiles and spacecraft, and of propulsion
systems, controls, and aircraft structures. Many of
these technicians aid engineers in preparing lay­
outs of aircraft and missile structures or equip­
ment installations by collecting information, mak­
ing calculations, and performing many other
tasks. They work on projects involving stress
analysis, aerodynamics, structural design, flight
test evaluation, weight control, or propulsion
problems. For example, under the direction of an
engineer, a technician might estimate weight fac­
tors, centers of gravity, and other items affecting
load capacity of an airplane or missile. Other
technicians working on engineering projects pre


149

Courtesy of U.S. Department of the Navy
Technician tests new heat-resistant coating for metals

pare or check drawings for technical accuracy,
practicability, and economy.
Technicians sometimes help estimate the cost
of the materials and labor needed to manufacture
aircraft and missiles. They may also be responsi­
ble for liaison between the engineers who do the
planning and development work and the workers
who convert the engineers’ ideas into finished
products. As an airplane or missile is built, the
liaison technician checks it for conformance with
specifications, keeps the engineer informed as to
progress, and investigates any production engi­
neering problems that arise. He sometimes rec­
ommends minor changes in the design, the ma­
terials used, or the method of fabrication, which
would expedite production of parts or assemblies.
Other aeronautical technicians are employed as
manufacturers’ field service representatives, serv­
ing as the link between their employers and the
military services, commercial airlines, and other
customers. Technicians with a flair for writing
and illustrative drafting often prepare instruc­
tion manuals, bulletins, catalogs, and other tech­
nical materials. (See statements on Aeronautical
Engineers and Airplane Mechanics, and chapter

150

on Occupations in Aircraft, Missile, and Space­
craft Manufacturing.)
Air-Conditioning, Heating, and Refrigeration
Technology. Technicians in this field often become
specialists in one area of work, such as refrigera­
tion, and sometimes in a particular type of ac­
tivity, such as research and development, or design
of layouts for heating, cooling, or refrigeration
systems.
In the manufacture of air-conditioning, heating,
and refrigeration equipment, technicians work in
research and engineering departments, usually as
aids to engineers and scientists. They may be as­
signed such jobs as devising methods for testing
equipment or analyzing production methods.
Technically trained personnel also assist in de­
signing the air-conditioning, heating, or refrigera­
tion systems for a particular office, store, or other
location, and in preparing instructions for their
installation. In designing the layout for an airconditioning or heating system, they must deter­
mine the cooling or heating requirements, decide
what kind of equipment would be best suited for
the job, and estimate costs. Technical sales work
for equipment manufacturers is still another area
of employment for technicians. In such work, they
must be able to supply contractors who design and
install systems with information on such technical
subjects as installation, maintenance, operating
costs, and expected performance of equipment.
(See also statement on Refrigeration and AirConditioning Mechanics.)
Chemical Technology. Technicians specializing
in this area work mainly with chemists and chemi­
cal engineers in the development, production, sale,
and utilization of chemical and related products
and equipment. They apply their knowledge of the
physical sciences and of apparatus and equipment
to laboratory research or such work as the control
of complicated chemical processes. The field of
chemistry is so broad that chemical technicians
often become specialists in the problems of a par­
ticular industry, such as food processing, or in a
particular activity, such as quality control.
Most chemical technicians work in research and
development, testing, or other laboratory work,
assisting chemists, other scientists, or engineers.
Those helping to conduct experiments may make
the computations and tabulate and analyze the
results. In testing work, technicians make chemi­



OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

cal tests of materials to determine wdiether the
materials meet specifications or whether particu­
lar substances are present and, if so, in what quan­
tities. They may, for example, analyze steel for
carbon, phosphorous, and sulfur content, or water
for the amount of silica, iron, and calcium present.
They also perform experiments to determine the
characteristics of substances such as the specific
gravity and ash content of oil. Technicians em­
ployed in research or testing laboratories often as­
semble and use such apparatus and instruments as
dilatometers (which measure the dilation of ex­
pansion of a substance), analytical balances, and
centrifuges.
Outside the laboratory, chemical technicians are
sometimes employed to supervise various opera­
tions in the production of chemical products and
as technical salesmen of chemicals and chemical
equipment. (See also statements on Chemists
and Chemical Engineers, and chapter on Occupa­
tions in the Industrial Chemical Industry.)
Civil Engineering Technology. Technicians
trained in this area assist civil engineers in per­
forming many of the tasks necessary in the plan­
ning and construction of highways, railroads,
bridges, viaducts, dams, and other structures. Dur­
ing the planning stage, technicians may help in
estimating costs, preparing specifications for ma­
terials, or participate in surveying, drafting, de­
tailing, or designing work. Once the actual con­
struction work has begun, they may assist the
contractor or superintendent in scheduling con­
struction activities or inspecting the work for
conformance with blueprints and specifications.
Many persons trained in civil engineering tech­
nology become estimators, who prepare estimates
of the costs, materials, and time necessary in the
construction or repair of various structures. Some
become highway inspectors, who may supervise
the clearing of rights-of-way and the preparation
of roads for surfacing, test the materials used, and
inspect construction works at various stages.
Others are draftsmen, surveyors, or specialists in
other well-established technician jobs. (See also
statements on Civil Engineers, Draftsmen, and
Surveyors.)
Electronics Technology. This field includes
radio, radar, sonar, telemetering, television, tele­
phony, and other forms of communication; in­
dustrial and medical measuring, recording, in­

TECHNICIAN OCCUPATIONS

dicating, and controlling devices; navigational
equipment; missile and spacecraft guidance and
control instruments; electronic computers; and
many other types of equipment using vacuum
tubes and semiconductor circuits. Because the
field is so broad, technicians generally become
specialists in one area—for example, communi­
cations—and often in a subdivision such as radio
or telephony. They may also specialize in some
aspect of industrial electronics—for example, in­
duction or dielectric heating, servomechanisms,
automation controls, or ultrasonics.
Technicians working with engineers and scien­
tists in the field of electronics need a strong back­
ground in electronics theory and mathematics to
enable them to handle complex technical work
above the level involved in routine operating and
repair jobs. (For additional information on serv­
ice and repair jobs in the electronics field, see
statement on Radio and Television Servicemen.)
These electronics technicians may, for example,
prepare or interpret layouts and other diagrams,
develop and test experimental electronic units, or
assist scientists and engineers in the design of
electronic circuits. Their work often calls for use
of engineering handbooks; oscilloscopes, signal
generators, ohmmeters, multitesters, and other in­
struments ; and computing devices, including
slide rules.
Electronics technicians employed in research
activities usually assist scientists or engineers in
designing, testing, and modifying experimental
electronic devices. They may devise practical solu­
tions to problems of design, select suitable ma­
terials, determine the best method of building a
piece of equipment, or test and evaluate the oper­
ating characteristics of the equipment after it is
built. They may sometimes be assigned to make
necessary modifications in experimental equip­
ment.
Electronics technicians working with engineers
in manufacturing operations may help in design­
ing and setting up different types of testing equip­
ment and devising quality control and other tests
for manufactured products. (See also chapters on
Occupations in Aircraft, Missile, and Spacecraft
Manufacturing, and in Electronics Manufacturing.)
Electronics technicians may also be employed
in special maintenance and repair jobs where a



151

high degree of technical knowledge is needed.
Electronics maintenance technicians employed by
the Federal Aviation Agency, for example, keep
radar and other electronic equipment in perfect
working order for effective air traffic control.
Persons with training and experience in electron­
ics may be employed also as broadcast technicians
in the engineering departments of radio and tele­
vision broadcasting stations to operate and main­
tain the electronic equipment in the studio and at
the transmitters. (For additional information on
broadcast technicians, see chapter on Occupations
in Radio and Television Broadcasting.)
Industrial Technology. Technicians trained in
this area are sometimes called industrial techni­
cians or production technicians. They assist in­
dustrial engineers on problems involving the effi­
cient use of personnel, materials, and machines in
the production of goods or services. Their work
includes preparing layout of machinery and
equipment, planning the flow of work, and mak­
ing statistical studies and analyses of production
costs to eliminate unnecessary expense. The indus­
trial technician may also assist the engineer by
conducting time-and-motion studies, which in­
volve timing and analyzing the movements work­
ers make.
In the course of their duties, many industrial
technicians acquire experience which enables them
to qualify for other jobs. For example, those ex­
pert in machinery and production methods may
move into the field of industrial safety. Others
who specialize in job analyses may become in­
volved later in the setting of job standards and
in the interviewing, testing, hiring, and training
of personnel. Still others may move into produc­
tion supervision. (See statements on Personnel
Workers and Industrial Engineers.)
Mechanical Technology. Mechanical technology
is a broad term sometimes used to cover a large
number of specialized fields, including automo­
tive technology, diesel technology, tool design,
machine design, and production technology.
Technicians trained in one of the above areas
of technology often assist engineers in design and
development work by making freehand sketches
and rough layouts of proposed machinery and
other equipment and parts. They help in determin­
ing whether a proposed product design change is
practical and how much it will cost to produce.

152

They may also be called upon to solve particular
design problems such as those involving toler­
ances, stress, strain, friction, and vibration.
Planning and carrying out tests on experi­
mental machines and equipment for performance,
durability, and efficiency is a large area of work
for technicians. As part of the testing procedure,
they record data, make computations, plot graphs,
analyze results, and write reports. They sometimes
make recommendations for changes in design to
meet performance requirements. Their jobs often
require the use of instruments, test equipment, and
gages such as dynamometers, as well as the ability
to prepare and interpret drawings.
Some workers with training in mechanical tech­
nology are employed in manufacturing depart­
ments to help develop plans for testing and in­
specting machines and equipment, or to work with
engineers in eliminating production problems.
Some obtain jobs as technical salesmen. (See state­
ments on Mechanical Engineers, Automobile
Mechanics, Manufacturers’ Salesmen, and Diesel
Mechanics.)
One of the better known specialties which may
be grouped under mechanical engineering tech­
nology is that of tool designer. The tool designer
designs tools and devices for the mass production
of manufactured articles. He originates and pre­
pares sketches of the designs for cutting tools, jigs,
dies, special fixtures, and other attachments used
in machine operations. He may also make detailed
drawings of these tools and fixtures, or supervise
others in making them. Besides developing new
tools, designers frequently redesign tools cur­
rently in use to improve their efficiency.
The tool designer must have a knowledge of
machine shop practice and of drafting, and a good
background in advanced algebra, geometry, and
trigonometry. He must also be familiar with the
characteristics of the materials of which tools and
fixtures are made. In addition, he needs a knowl­
edge of manufacturing procedures, and the ad­
vantages and disadvantages of various methods of
production, so that he can design tools which will
produce the article desired as efficiently and
cheaply as possible.
Machine drafting with some designing is an­
other major area of work often grouped under
mechanical technology. The work of technicians



OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

who are draftsmen is described elsewhere in this
chapter.
Other Areas of Technology. Many fields of
work besides those described above offer oppor­
tunities for technicians with appropriate training.
Those trained in metallurgical technology, for ex­
ample, work with metallurgists and metallurgical
engineers in processing metals, minerals, and ce­
ramics and converting them into finished prod-

Courtesy of National Aeronautics and Space Administration
Technician checks out spacecraft payload

ucts. Their jobs may include testing of metals and
alloys to determine their physical properties, or
working in research laboratories on such projects
as developing new ways of treating and using
metals and alloys. Technicians in the field of
mathematics assist mathematicians, engineers, and
scientists by doing computations involving the
use of algebra, logarithms, trigonometric func­
tions, and higher mathematics. Those working in
the field of biology assist biological scientists in
conducting tests and experiments to gain knowl­
edge about living organisms and to apply this
knowledge to the solution of practical problems,
such as the development of new drugs and vac­
cines or new varieties of plants. Those trained in

TECHNICIAN OCCUPATIONS

agricultural technology work with agricultural
scientists in improving farm products, the quality
of foods, and soil conditions. Still other fields of
work for technicians include cartography (map­
making), forestry technology, electrical technol­
ogy (power), gas turbine technology, optical tech­
nology, and petroleum technology.
As industry becomes increasingly mechanized,
new technical occupations continue to emerge. For
example, instrumentation technology, a new and
growing area of employment, has evolved from
the introduction of more and more automatic con­
trols and precision measuring devices in manu­
facturing operations. In industrial plants and lab­
oratories, instruments are used to record data, to
control and regulate the operation of machinery,
and to measure time, weight, temperature, speeds
of moving parts, mixtures, volume, flow, strain,
and pressure. Technicians—who may have either
specific training in instrumentation or training
chiefly in electronics, mechanics, or hydraulics—
work with the engineers and scientists who de­
velop these highly complex devices, and with
those who use them for research and development
work. (See also statement on Instrument Makers.)
Another new area of work for technicians,
which has resulted from recognition of the need
for a more scientific approach toward the reduc­
tion of industrial hazards is safety technology. In
the rapidly growing atomic energy field, in par­
ticular, technicians work with scientists and engi­
neers on problems of radiation safety, inspection,
and decontamination. (See chapter on Occupa­
tions in the Atomic Energy Field.)

153

gories ; chiefly as engineering aids and technicians,
electronic technicians, equipment specialists, cart­
ographic aids, meteorological technicians, physical
science technicians, soil conservation aids, forestry
technicians, and mathematics aids. Of these engi­
neering and science technicians, the largest num­
ber—nearly 30,000—worked for the Department
of Defense. Together, the Departments of Agri­
culture, Commerce, and the Interior employed
about 24,000 technicians, and the remainder were
scattered among a number of other Government
agencies.
State government agencies employed about
40,000 engineering and science technicians in 1962,
and local governments about 15,000. The remain­
der are employed by colleges and universities,
mostly in university-operated research institutes,
and by nonprofit organizations.
Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement

Young men and women who wish to prepare
for careers as engineering and science technicians
can obtain formal education for their work from
a number of sources including technical insti­
tutes, junior colleges and community colleges, ex­
tension divisions of universities, colleges offering
2-year technical programs, some large compre­
hensive high schools, technical high schools, and
vocational-technical high schools. Many engi­
neering and science students who have not com­
pleted all requirements for a bachelor’s degree, as
well as some other persons with post-high school
education in mathematics and science, are also
able to qualify for technician jobs, providing they
obtain some additional technical training and ex­
Where Employed
perience. Persons often become qualified for engi­
An estimated 535,000 engineering and science neering and science technician jobs through ontechnicians, not including draftsmen and survey­ the-job training and experience, plus formal
ors, were employed in 1962—about 12 percent were course work taken on a part-time basis either
women. Nearly 400,000 of these technicians (about through classroom or correspondence courses. In
three-fourths of the total) were employed by general, post-secondary school technical training
private industry. The industries employing the is required for high-level engineering and science
largest numbers of engineering and science tech­ technician jobs.
Engineering and science technicians usually be­
nicians are electrical equipment, machinery, chem­
gin work as trainees or in the more routine posi­
icals, and aircraft, missiles, and spacecraft.
The Federal Government also employs sizable tions under the direct and constant supervision of
numbers of engineering and science technicians. an experienced technician, scientist, or engineer.
In 1962, Federal agencies had approximately As they gain experience they are given more re­
70,000 employees in technician occupational cate­ sponsibility, often carrying out a particular as­




154

signment under only general supervision. Techni­
cians may move into supervisory positions. Those
with exceptional ability sometimes obtain addi­
tional formal training and are promoted to pro­
fessional engineering positions.
The entrance requirements of schools specializ­
ing in preparing students for technical jobs are
usually less rigid and standardized than those of
4-year colleges. For admittance to institutions of­
fering post-high school technical training, high
school graduation is usually required. Some
schools will admit students without a high school
diploma, however, if they are able to pass special
examinations and otherwise demonstrate their
ability to perform work above the high school
level. Since all the occupations considered in this
chapter require basic training in mathematics and
science, students interested in technical careers
should obtain as good a background as possible
in these subjects while in high school. A few
technical institutes have arrangements for help­
ing students make up deficiencies in these subjects.
Courses offered by schools specializing in posthigh school technical training are often of college
level. Included is instruction on laboratory tech­
niques as well as courses in science, mathematics,
and engineering, with subject matter related to
the practical problems students will meet on the
job. Students are taught the use of instruments
and are also given instructions in the use of
machinery and tools, more to give them a familiar­
ity with the equipment than to develop skills.
Because of the variety of educational institu­
tions where training may be obtained and the dif­
ferences in the kind and level of training offered,
persons seeking a technical education should use
more than ordinary care in selecting a school.
Information should be secured about accredita­
tion, professional recognition, the length of time
the school has been in operation, instructional fa­
cilities, faculty qualifications, acceptability of
credits, and the kinds of jobs obtained by the
school’s graduates.
Some of the types of educational institutions
and other sources where young people can obtain
training as technicians are:
Technical Institutes. Technical institutes offer
1, 2, or 3 years of education above the high school
level. Two years is the usual training period.
Technical institute programs are usually specially



OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK,

designed to place the graduate into some specific
job or cluster of jobs immediately upon gradua­
tion, and with a minimum of on-the-job training.
Their scope is more limited than that required to
prepare a person for a career as a professional
scientist or engineer. In general, the student re­
ceives intensive technical training but less theoret­
ical and general education than is provided by
4-year engineering and liberal arts colleges. Much
emphasis is placed on laboratory and practical
work in order to familiarize students with instru­
ments, equipment, and techniques used in indus­
try.
Some schools offer cooperative programs under
which a student spends part of his time in school
and part in employment related to the occupation
for wdiich he is preparing himself. It may take
more than 2 years to complete the curriculum at
a technical institute with a cooperative plan, but
this type of program gives students valuable work
experience, wT often outweighs the disadvan­
hich
tages of a longer training period. In addition,
students participating in cooperative programs
frequently earn enough to pay for at least a part
of their educational expenses, and are often able
to obtain higher starting salaries on their first
jobs.
Some technical institutes are operated as regu­
lar or extension divisions of colleges and univer­
sities. Others are separate institutions operated by
States or municipalities, privately endowed insti­
tutions, and proprietary schools.
Evening as well as day sessions are generally
available in most technical institutes. Almost half
of the students attending technical institutes in
1960 were enrolled part time in evening and spe­
cial classes. By attending evening classes, em­
ployed workers often become qualified for tech­
nician jobs.
Some technical institutes give associate degrees
which signify that the student has completed at
least 2 years of college-level work. If the pro­
spective student desires eventually to obtain a
bachelor’s degree from a 4-year college, he should
investigate in advance whether his technical insti­
tute credits are transferable to the college of his
choice.
Junior Colleges and Community Colleges. Many
junior and community colleges also prepare stu­
dents for technician occupations in industry and

TECHNICIAN OCCUPATIONS

government. Two years of post-high school educa­
tion is usually offered by such schools and it is
common practice for them to award the degree of
associate in arts or science upon completion of the
2-year program.
Not all junior colleges are equipped to give
technical training of the type described in this
report. Some junior colleges offer courses equiva­
lent to those given in the freshman and sophomore
years of 4-year colleges, in order that their gradu­
ates can go on into the junior year in a 4-year
college; others offer 2-year terminal programs of
the technical institute type. Many junior colleges
award associate degrees at the completion of 2
years’ college level work.
Junior college courses in technical fields are
often planned around the employment needs of
the industries in their locality. The training pro­
grams for prospective technicians therefore vary
and may include highly specialized preparation
in addition to general courses. Sometimes, the
courses are designed to meet the specifications of
one or two industries or even of a single plant.
Many junior colleges are important adult edu­
cation centers with extensive night school pro­
grams. Through appropriate part-time study at
selected junior colleges, as at technical institutes,
workers may prepare themselves for engineering
and science technician jobs.
Training in Industry. Some large corporations
conduct training programs to meet their need for
technically trained personnel. This type of train­
ing is primarily technical and rarely includes any
general studies. Instruction is given both through
formal classes and through training on the job.
Workers who are trained wholly on the job gen­
erally get less theoretical background than those
who receive formal instruction.
Other employers, aware of the need for tech­
nically trained workers but without training pro­
grams, often encourage their employees to attend
classes in local schools or to enroll in correspond­
ence courses. Some large corporations reimburse
their employees for tuition after they have com­
pleted courses satisfactorily. The workers are usu­
ally expected to take courses directly related to
their work assignment, and are sometimes allowed
to attend classes on the employer’s time.
Training for some occupations in the technician
category—tool designer and electronic technician,



155

for example—may be obtained through a formal
apprenticeship. In addition to on-the-job training,
supplementary education in mathematics and sci­
ence is provided. Persons interested in apprentice
training may obtain further information from
the local office of their State employment service,
their State apprenticeship agency, the U.S. Bu­
reau of Apprenticeship and Training, or directly
from employers, or the local labor union con­
cerned with the occupation they wish to learn.
Other Training. Although most engineering
and science technician jobs require post-high
school education or the equivalent in experience,
a few advanced technical and technical-vocational
high schools, principally in large cities, offer pro­
grams which qualify their graduates for some
technician entry jobs. Graduates of this type of
school, however, often need supplementary train­
ing before they can progress to higher level posi­
tions. In recent years, as a result of the stimulus
provided by title V III of the National Defense
Education Act of 1958, public schools of this type
have been putting a great deal of emphasis on
developing curriculums to qualify young people
for entry jobs in technician occupations. Many
technical high schools have high admission re­
quirements and offer more thorough and ad­
vanced courses in mathematics, science, drafting,
and laboratory work than are usually available in
academic high schools. They sometimes offer a
year of schooling beyond the 12th grade. Some
have evening courses. These courses may be or­
ganized as formal technical programs to prepare
technicians or may cover only a few subjects re­
lated to a particular area of work.
Correspondence schools are an additional source
of preparation for technicians. Success in such
courses depends greatly on the ability of the stu­
dent to study by himself. The persons deriving the
most benefit from such courses are those wdio wish
to learn more about their jobs or wT wish to ad­
ho
vance to a better job in the same field by increas­
ing their theoretical and mathematical knowledge.
Some correspondence school programs also offer
residence work in which the student receives lab­
oratory and other practical training.
In addition to the sources of training already
discussed, many thousands of technicians are
trained each year by the Armed Forces. The
Army, Navy, Air Force, Marine Corps, and Coast

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

156

Guard all train their own specialists. Some train­
ees are given intensive short courses; others re­
ceive extensive training of a year or more. Much
of the training is transferable from military to
civilian jobs and many of the technicians trained
by the military establishments utilize their train­
ing in civilian employment after they leave the
Armed Forces.
Employment Outlook

Employment opportunities for well-qualified
engineering and science technicians are expected
to be very good throughout the remainder of the
1960’s, and continued expansion of the field is
anticipated over the long run. In recent decades,
technicians have been one of the fastest growing
occupational groups, and there is every indication
of continued rapid growth. As the employment of
scientists and engineers continues to grow, in­
creasing numbers of technicians will be needed to
assist them. In addition, more than 10,000 tech­
nicians will be needed each year to replace those
who retire, die, or transfer to other occupations.
The demand for engineering and science tech­
nicians will be greatest in research, development,
design, and other work preceding the manufactur­
ing process. As products and the methods by
which they are manufactured become more com­
plex, increasing numbers of technicians will prob­
ably also be required to assist engineers in such
activities as production planning, maintaining li­
aison between production and engineering depart­
ments, and technical sales work.
Underlying the increase in demand for techni­
cians are the general expansion of American in­
dustry and the increasing complexity of modern
technology. The demands of the defense and space
programs will also result in a growing need for
workers in the technician category. In addition,
the trend toward automation of industrial proc­
esses and the growth of new areas of work, such
as that related to atomic energy, will probably
add to the demand for technical personnel.
Also of great importance to the expected growth
in the employment of engineering and science
technicians is the prospect of a continued high
level of government and private expenditures for
research and development in the years ahead. Ex­
penditures for research for defense and space pro­
grams in particular are expected to continue at a



high level. Furthermore, many companies are es­
tablishing new research programs and strengthen­
ing existing ones to meet the strong competition in
developing new consumer-oriented products and
processes.
Well qualified women technicians should con­
tinue to have favorable opportunities, chiefly in
drafting jobs, in chemical and other laboratory
work, and in computation and other work re­
quiring application of mathematics. Over the long
run, it is likely that more women will be trained
and find employment in these and other technician
occupations.
Earnings

In general, a technician’s earnings depend upon
his education, his technical specialty, and his work
experience. Other important factors which in­
fluence his earnings are the type of firm for which
he works, the kind of work he does, and the geo­
graphic location of his job.
Annual starting salaries for graduates of posthigh school technical schools w^ere typically be­
tween $3,700 and $5,700 a year in industry in
1962. Young persons entering engineering and
science technician jobs with less formal training
generally earned somewhat less.
In Federal Government agencies in early 1963,
beginning engineering and science technicians
were offered $3,820, $4,110, or $4,565, depending on
the type of job vacancy and the applicant’s school­
ing and other qualifications. Some Federal Gov­
ernment agencies hire high school graduates and
train them for technician jobs. Beginning salaries
for these jobs ranged from $3,560 to $3,820 a year,
depending on the individual’s high school courses
and experience.
Most technicians can look forward to an in­
crease in earnings as they gain experience. Studies
of their graduates conducted by a number of
technical schools in 1961 and 1962 showed most
earned over $6,500 a year after about 5 years of
experience.
Where To Go for More Information

General information on careers for engineering
and science technicians may be obtained from:
American Society for Engineering Education,
Technical Institute Division,
University of Illinois, Urbana, 111., 61801.

TECHNICIAN OCCUPATIONS

157

Engineers’ Council for Professional Development,
345 East 47th St., New York, N.Y., 10017.
National Council of Technical Schools,
1507 M St. NW, Washington, D.C., 20005.

Information on training opportunities may also
be obtained from the Engineers’ Council for Pro­
fessional Development, a nationally recognized
accrediting agency for engineering technology
programs; the National Council of Technical
Schools; and the U.S. Department of Health,
Education, and Welfare, Office of Education, Di­
vision of Higher Education and/or Division of

Vocational and Technical Education, Washington,
D.C., 20202.
State departments of education at each State
capital also have information about approved
technical institutes, junior colleges, and other edu­
cational institutions within the State offering posthigh school training for specific technical occupa­
tions. Other sources include:
The American Association of Junior Colleges,
1777 Massachusetts Ave. NW., Washington, D.C.,
20036.
National Home Study Council,
160118th St. NW., Washington, D.C., 20009.

Draftsmen

(D.O.T. 0-48.)

Nature of Work

In making a space capsule or an electric iron,
a nuclear submarine or a television set, a bridge
or a typewriter, manufacturing and construction
companies need detailed plans giving dimensions
and specifications for the entire object and each of
its parts. The workers who draw these plans are
draftsmen.
Draftsmen translate the ideas, rough sketches,
specifications, and calculations of engineers, archi­
tects, and designers into complete and accurate
working plans which are used by skilled crafts-

Courtesy of U.S. Department of the Interior
Draftsman completes a detailed drawing




men in making a product. Draftsmen may make
calculations concerning the strength, reliability,
and cost of materials, and check dimensions of
parts and their relationship to each other.
Through their drawings and specifications, they
describe exactly what materials and processes
skilled craftsmen are to use on a particular job.
In developing their drawings, draftsmen use such
instruments as compasses, dividers, protractors,
and triangles, as well as machines that combine
the functions of several devices. They may also
use engineering handbooks and tables to assist in
solving technical problems.
Draftsmen are often classified according to the
type of work they do or their level of responsi­
bility. Senior draftsmen use the preliminary in­
formation provided by engineers and architects to
prepare design “layouts” (drawings made to scale
of the object to be built). Detailers make drawings
of each part shown on the layout, giving dimen­
sions, material, and any other information neces­
sary to make the detailed drawing clear and com­
plete. Checkers carefully examine drawings for
errors in computing or in recording dimensions
and specifications. Tracers make corrections and
prepare drawings for reproduction by tracing
them on transparent cloth, paper, or plastic film.
Draftsmen may also specialize in a particular
field such as mechanical, electrical, electronic,
aeronautical, structural, and architectural draft­
ing.

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK*

158
Where Employed

An estimated 260,000 draftsmen were employed
in 1962; about 6 percent were women. The large
majority of draftsmen (approximately 230,000 in
1962) are employed in private industry, chiefly in
manufacturing. The manufacturing industries em­
ploying the largest numbers are machinery; elec­
trical equipment; fabricated metal products; ord­
nance ; and aircraft, missile, and spacecraft. Sub­
stantial numbers are also employed by engineer­
ing and architectural consulting firms, construc­
tion and transportation companies, and public
utilities.
A number of draftsmen (more than 25,000 in
1962) work for Federal, State, and local govern­
ments. Of those employed by the Federal Govern­
ment, the large majority work for the Depart­
ments of the Army, Navy, and Air Force. Drafts­
men employed by State and local governments
work chiefly for highway and public works de­
partments. A few thousand draftsmen are em­
ployed by colleges and universities and by non­
profit organizations.
Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement

Young persons interested in becoming drafts­
men can acquire the necessary training from tech­
nical institutes, junior and community colleges, ex­
tension divisions of universities, colleges offering
special 2-year programs, vocational and technical
high schools, and correspondence schools. Train­
ing may also be obtained through 3- or 4-year ap­
prenticeship programs or through on-the-job pro­
grams combined with part-time schooling.
The prospective draftsman’s training, whether
obtained in high school or post-high school draft­
ing programs, should include courses in mathe­
matics and physical sciences, as well as in mechani­
cal drawing and drafting. The study of shop prac­
tices and the learning of some shop skills are also
helpful, since many higher level drafting jobs re­
quire a knowledge of manufacturing or construc­
tion methods. Many technical schools offer courses
in structural design, strength of materials, and
physical metallurgy.
Young people with only high school drafting
training usually start out as tracers; those with
some formal post-high school technical training
can often qualify as junior draftsmen. As drafts­



men gain skill and experience, they may advance
to higher level positions as checkers, detailers,
senior draftsmen, or design draftsmen, or super­
visors of other draftsmen. Some may become in­
dependent designers. Furthermore, some drafts­
men who take additional technical training are
able to transfer to engineering positions.
Qualifications for success as a draftsman in­
clude the ability to visualize objects of two or
three dimensions and to do freehand drawing.
Draftsmen should also have good eyesight and
steady hands. Although artistic ability is not
generally required, it may be very helpful in some
specialized fields.
Employment Outlook

Employment opportunities for well-trained
draftsmen are expected to be favorable through­
out the remainder of the 1960’s, and the longer run
outlook is for continued growth in the occupa­
tion. Prospects wT be best for those with postill
high school drafting training. Well-qualified high
school graduates who receive only high school
drafting training, however, wfill also be in demand
for some types of jobs.
Employment of draftsmen is expected to rise as
a result of the increasingly complex design prob­
lems of modern products and processes. As the
engineering and scientific occupations grow, more
draftsmen will be needed as supporting personnel.
Moreover, the industries employing large num­
bers of draftsmen—in particular, the electrical
equipment and aerospace industries—are expected
to expand in the years ahead. On the other hand,
photoreproduction of drawings and expanding
use of newly developed electronic drafting equip­
ment are eliminating some routine tasks done by
draftsmen and will probably bring about a reduc­
tion in the need for tracers.
In addition to draftsmen needed to fill new posi­
tions, many will be required each year to replace
those who retire, die, or move into other fields of
work. Losses to the occupation from retirements
and deaths alone were estimated to be approxi­
mately 4,000 during 1962.
Earnings

In private industry, the usual beginning salary
for draftsmen wT between $300 and $350 a month
as

TECHNICIAN OCCUPATIONS

159

in 1962, according to the fragmentary data avail­
able. As they gain experience, draftsmen may
move up to higher level positions with a substan­
tial increase in earnings. For example, the earn­
ings of experienced senior draftsmen averaged
about $550 a month in early 1962.
In the Federal Civil Service in early 1963, the
entrance salary for high school graduates without
work experience who were employed in traineedraftsman positions was $300 a month. For those
with post-high school education or with some
experience in drafting, entrance salaries were

higher. The majority of experienced draftsmen
working for the Federal Government earned be­
tween $385 and $560 in early 1963.
Where To Go for More Information

American Institute for Design and Drafting,
18465 James Couzens, Detroit, Mich., 48235.
American Federation of Technical Engineers,
900 F St. NW, Washington, D.C., 20004.

See also section on Where To Go for More In­
formation in the statement on Technicians.

Surveyors

(D.O.T. 0-64.)
Nature of Work

Surveyors have an important part in the plan­
ning and construction of highways, airfields,
bridges, dams, and other structures. They pro­
vide necessary information on the measurements
and physical characteristics of the construction
site. They also locate land boundaries, assist in set­
ting land valuations, and collect information for
maps, charts, and plats.
The primary task of the surveyor is to deter­
mine the precise measurements and locations of
elevations, points, lines, and contours on or near
the earth’s surface, and the distances between
points. As a rule, the surveyor is directly respon­
sible for the performance and accuracy of the
survey. He plans the fieldwork, selects survey
reference points, and determines the precise loca­
tion of the natural and manmade features of the
Courtesy of Bureau of Reclamation
survey region. He keeps records of the distances,
directions, elevations, and other information dis­ Surveyors use plane table and transit to survey land surface
features
closed by the survey; makes mathematical calcula­
tions based on such information; verifies the ac­ theodolite, transit, level, altimeter, and telluromecuracy of the survey data; and prepares sketches, ter, at the points designated by the surveyor;
maps, and reports.
chainmen, who measure the distances between the
In making his detailed measurements, the sur­ points, using a metal tape or surveyor’s chain; and
veyor is assisted by a field party which he super­ rodmen, who use a level rod, stadia board, or
vises and directs. A typical field party is usually range pole to assist in measuring elevations, dis­
made up of from three to six members in addition tances, and directions between selected points.
to the surveyor (sometimes called the party
Surveyors often specialize in one particular type
chief). Included in the typical field party are of survey. Those doing highway surveys are con­
instrumentmeu, who set up, adjust, and operate cerned with establishing the points, grades, and
a number of surveying instruments, including the lines needed for highway locations. Those carry­



160

ing out land surveys locate boundaries of a par­
ticular tract of land, prepare maps, record plats
of the land, and formulate legal descriptions of
it for deeds, leases, and other documents. Survey­
ors engaged in geodetic surveys measure immense
areas of land, sea, or space, taking into account the
earth’s curvature and its geophysical characteris­
tics. Surveyors doing topographic surveys deter­
mine the elevations, depressions, and contours of
an area, and indicate the location of distinguish­
ing surface features such as farms, buildings,
forests, roads, and rivers. Surveyors working on
photogrammetric surveys apply special stereo­
scopic plotting techniques to photographs taken
from airplanes or ground stations in order to make
topographic maps, and to locate and make precise
measurements of the natural and manmade fea­
tures of an area. Surveyors also specialize in other
types of surveys, such as gravity, magnetic, hydrographic, mine, oil-well directional, pipeline, con­
struction, or railroad. Many surveyors have job
titles which identify their specialties, for example,
highway surveyor or topographic surveyor.
Where Employed

An estimated 40,000 surveyors, of whom fewer
than 4 percent were women, were employed in the
United States in 1962. They were located in all
parts of the country—in small towns as well as
in large cities.
About one-half of all surveyors work for Fed­
eral, State,- and local government agencies. Among
the Federal Government agencies utilizing these
workers are the U.S. Geological Survey and Bu­
reau of Land Management of the Department of
the Interior, U.S. Coast and Goedetic Survey and
Bureau of Public Roads of the Department of
Commerce, Corps of Engineers of the Department
of the Army, and Forest Service of the Depart­
ment of Agriculture. Surveyors in State and local
government agencies are employed mainly by
highway and sanitary engineering departments
and by urban planning and redevelopment agen­
cies.
A large number of surveyors work for con­
struction companies and for engineering and
architectural consulting firms. A sizable number
either work for or head surveying firms which
conduct surveys on a fee or contract basis. The



OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

remainder work in a variety of industries, includ­
ing crude petroleum and natural gas extraction,
transportation, and electric light, power, and gas
utilities.
Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement

The most common method of preparing for
work as a surveyor is through a combination of
courses in surveying and extensive on-the-job
training in survey techniques and in the use of
survey instruments. Colleges and universities hav­
ing civil engineering curriculums provide survey­
ing and related subjects as part of these curricu­
lums. A few other 4-year colleges, and some junior
colleges, technical institutes, and vocational
schools offer 1, 2, and 3-year programs in survey­
ing. In addition, extension courses in surveying
are offered by many of these institutions. In most
cases, the entrance requirement for surveying
courses is high school graduation, preferably in­
cluding courses in algebra, geometry, trigonome­
try, calculus, drafting, and mechanical drawing.
For the person seeking a professional career in
the more specialized and highly technical survey­
ing areas such as geodesy, topography, or photogrammetry, a bachelor’s degree in engineering or
the physical sciences, with emphasis on courses
in the specific branch of surveying, is required.
For advancement in the highly technical areas,
graduate study is desirable.
Young persons wfith some formal training in
surveying usually start as instrumentmen. As they
gain experience, they are usually given more re­
sponsibility and, after several years, may advance
to surveyor. Persons with a high school diploma
but without formal training or courses in sur­
veying may also enter the field, usually starting
as rodmen. Prior employment, during the sum­
mer or at other times, with a construction firm
or other employer engaged in surveying work is
usually considered by employers in selecting
young people for advancement. After several
years of on-the-job experience and some formal
courses in surveying, young persons may advance
successively through the positions of chainman
and instrumentman to that of surveyor or party
chief. In many instances, promotion to these
higher level positions is made on the basis of a
written examination, as well as on experience.

TECHNICIAN OCCUPATIONS

More than 40 States require licensure or regis­
tration of land surveyors responsible for locating
and describing land boundaries. In some States,
applicants for licenses are expected to know other
types of surveying in addition to land surveying.
Requirements for licensing vary among the States,
but in general include one of the following: Col­
lege graduation with 2 to 4 years’ experience, 6
years’ experience and passing of an examination,
or completion of 10 years’ experience. In mid1962, approximately 14,000 land surveyors were
registered. In addition, approximately 13,000 engi­
neers were registered to do land surveying, pri­
marily as part of their civil engineering duties;
however, these workers are considered engineers
rather than surveyors.
In addition to the necessary training and ex­
perience, qualifications for success as a surveyor
also include a strong liking for outdoor work.
Sound health and good eyesight are also essential
for most types of work. Since most surveyors must
supervise and direct the work of other technical
personnel, leadership qualities and the ability to
get along with others are important.
Employment Outlook

Employment opportunities for surveyors are
expected to be favorable throughout the 1960’s,
both in government and private industry. Pros­
pects will be best for people with college-level
training in surveying. Qualified high school and
college students will also continue to be sought
for summer employment as rodmen and chainmen.
Among the factors expected to contribute to
the favorable employment outlook in both the
short- and long-run is the increasing demand for
surveying services created by a growing popula­
tion and an expanding economy. The rapid growth
of urban areas and the enactment of new or re­
vised city zoning laws wull require additional sur­
veyors to locate boundary lines, and to lay out
streets, shopping centers, schools, and recreation
areas, as well as sites for electric, gas, water, and
sewage facilities. Construction or improvement of
the Nation’s roads and highways will require
many new surveyors. Additional surveying per­
sonnel will also be needed in the preparation of
topographic and other types of maps and charts,
primarily for Federal and State Government
692-408 0 —63------12




161

agencies. Furthermore, surveyors with college de­
grees in geodesy will be needed to help track mis­
siles and spacecraft, and to assist in other space
activities.
Although new devices which reduce the time
spent on surveys involving large stretches of land
and surveys requiring extreme accuracy will con­
tinue to be introduced, they are not likely to af­
fect employment opportunities significantly.
These devices will make it possible to carry out
certain types of surveys—such as those of rugged
mountain areas, swamps, and deserts—much more
accurately and economically than in the past.
However, the introduction of new instruments
may make it necessary for many surveyors to ob­
tain additional training.
Employment opportunities for women will con­
tinue to be limited, primarily because much of the
surveyor’s work is strenuous. A few openings will
be available for women with college degrees to
make survey-related computations, analyze data,
and prepare reports in offices.
Earnings and Working Conditions

In the Federal Government service, surveyors
employed as field party chiefs received a starting
salary of about $380 a month in early 1963. New
college graduates with bachelor’s degrees qualify­
ing for Federal Government positions as geod­
esists could begin at approximately $460 or $555,
depending on their college records. Graduates
with bachelor’s degrees qualified for positions in
topography and photogrammetry started at about
$380 or $460 a month. In private industry, accord­
ing to the fragmentary data available, the usual
beginning salary for surveyors w^as approximately
$400 a month. Beginning salaries for instrumentmen in government (other than Federal) and
industry were about $350 a month. Chainmen and
rodmen started at about $250 to $300.
Surveyors usually work an 8-hour day and
5-day week. However, they sometimes work longer
hours during the summer months, when weather
conditions are most suitable for surveying activi­
ties.
The work of surveyors is active and sometimes
strenuous. They may stand for long periods, and
may walk long distances or climb mountains with
heavy packs of instruments and equipment. Be­

162

cause most of their work is done out of doors, sur­
veyors may be exposed to all types of weather
conditions. Some duties, such as planning surveys,
making photogrammetric measurements, prepar­
ing reports and computations, and drawing maps,
are usually performed in an office.
Where To Go for More Information

General information on careers in surveying
may be obtained from:




OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

American Congress on Surveying and Mapping,
Woodward Bldg., Washington, D.C., 20005.

Information on the specialty of photogrammetry may be obtained from:
American Society of Photogrammetry,
44 Leesburg Pike, Falls Church, Va., 22040.

Further information on positions in the Federal
Government is given in the chapter on Occupa­
tions in Government. (See index for page refer­
ence.)

S O C IA L SCIEN CES

The social sciences are concerned with the whole
range of human society and its activities, from the
origin of man to the latest election returns. Social
scientists, however, generally specialize in one of
several major fields, in each of which human be­
havior is studied from a different point of view.
Anthropologists study primitive tribes, recon­
struct civilizations of the past and their history,
and are concerned with the cultures and languages
of all peoples. Economists analyze the factors
which help or hinder man in satisfying his ma­
terial needs. Historians describe and interpret the
events of the past. Political scientists are con­
cerned with the problems of government. Sociolo­
gists deal with the behavior and relationship of
groups such as the family, the community, and
minorities.
Besides these basic social science fields, there
are a number of closely related fields, some of
which are covered in separate statements in this
Handbook. (See statements on Geographers, Stat­
isticians, Psychologists, and Social Workers.)
Between 50,000 and 60,000 people were profes­
sionally employed in the basic social sciences in
1962, according to rough estimates based on infor­
mation from a variety of sources. About 10 per­
cent of the total were women. Because of overlap­
ping among the basic social science fields and also
with such related fields as business administra­
tion, foreign service work, and high school teach­
ing, it is extremely difficult to determine exactly
the size of each social science profession. Econ­
omists, however, make up the largest group and
anthropologists, the smallest.
The majority of all social scientists are em­
ployed by colleges and universities. The Federal
Government is the second largest employer, espe­
cially of political scientists and economists. Ex­
cept for economists, private industry employs
comparatively few persons in professional social
science positions, but there is a trend in a variety
of industries toward hiring increasing numbers of
college graduates who have majored in the social




sciences as trainees for administrative and execu­
tive positions. Research councils and other non­
profit organizations provide an important source
of employment for economists, political scientists,
and sociologists.
Employment Outlook

Employment in the social sciences has been in­
creasing and is expected to grow rapidly during
the remainder of the 1960’s, mainly because of the
anticipated rise in college teaching positions. The
reasons for this expected increase are discussed in
the statement on College and University Teachers.
(See index for page number.) A moderate rise in
employment is also expected in government as a
result of the growing reliance on social scientists
for administrative as well as research assistance.
Employment in government agencies is most af­
fected by changes in public policy. For example,
more economists will be needed to handle research
and administrative functions in connection with
new programs established by Congress aimed at
relieving unemployment. A moderate rise in em­
ployment in private industry and nonprofit or­
ganizations is also expected. In addition to person­
nel required for new positions, many hundreds of
social scientists will be needed each year to replace
those who leave the field because of retirement or
death, or for other reasons.
Social scientists with doctor’s degrees are likely
to have excellent employment opportunities dur­
ing the 1960’s, in both teaching and nonteaching
positions, barring a sharp rise in the proportion
of college graduates majoring in the social sci­
ences. For those with less formal training, the
employment situation will differ considerably
among the several social science fields. These dif­
ferences are discussed in the sections which follow7.
Earnings

Average salaries for social scientists employed
as instructors generally ranged from about $5,000
163

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK,

164

to $6,500 a year in a majority of colleges and uni­
versities in 1962, according to data from a variety
of sources. Generally, the positions paying sala­
ries near the top of this range required the Ph. D.
degree or some experience and completion of all
requirements for the Ph. D. degree except the
doctoral dissertation. Average salaries of profes­
sors were 60 to 75 percent higher than those of
instructors; in some very large universities, the
difference was very much greater. Economists
earned more, on the average, than other social
scientists. Early in 1962, average salaries of econ­
omists in 30 large colleges and universities ranged
from medians of $7,600 a year for assistant pro­
fessors to $13,000 for full professors.
In the Federal Government, the beginning sal­
ary early in 1963 for social scientists with a bache­
lor’s degree was $4,565 a year. Those with a
superior academic record or with a year of gradu­
ate training were eligible for positions at an an­
nual salary of $5,540. Starting salaries were
higher for candidates with additional graduate
training. The majority of experienced social scien­
tists in the Federal Government earned from
about $9,500 to $14,000 a year; many with admin­
istrative responsibilities earned considerably more.
In general, social scientists with the Ph. D. de­
gree earn substantially higher salaries than those
with the master’s degree. Women social scientists
usually earn substantially less than men of com­
parable age, experience, and level of education.
Many social scientists have some income in ad­
dition to their regular salaries. Summer teaching
is the principal source of such income in all fields,
but consulting work is an important source of

income for economists, political scientists, and
sociologists. Income from royalties is a more com­
mon source of supplementary earnings for his­
torians. Social scientists regularly employed by
colleges and universities are the group most likely
to have additional earnings.
Where To Go for More Information

Additional information on employment oppor­
tunities in the social sciences and related fields is
given in the following publications:
Anthropology As A Career, Smithsonian Institution,
Washington, D.C., 20560. Price 20 cents.
The Foreign Service Office, U.S. Department of State
Publication 7533, Washington, D.C., 20520. Free.
Overseas Assignments, Agency for International
Development, Washington, D.C., 20523. Free.

Information on the respective branches of social
science and on public administration may be ob­
tained from the following professional organiza­
tions :
American Anthropological Association,
1530 P St. NW., Washington, D.C., 20005.
American Economic Association,
Northwestern University, Evanston, HI., 60201.
American Historical Association,
400 A St. SE., Washington, D.C., 20003.
American Political Science Association,
1726 Massachusetts Ave. NW., Washington, D.O.,
20036.
American Sociological Association,
1755 Massachusetts Ave. NW., Washington, D.C.,
20036.
American Society for Public Administration,
6042 South Kimbark Ave., Chicago, 111., 60637.

Anthropologists

(D.O.T. 0-36.01)
Nature of Work

Anthropologists study primitive and civilized
man—his origin, physical characteristics, customs,
languages, traditions, material possessions, and
social and religious beliefs and practices. Al­
though the smallest group of the social scientists,
anthropologists cover the widest range of subject
matter.
Most anthropologists specialize in cultural an­
thropology—usually archeology or ethnology.



Archeologists excavate the places wT earlier
here
civilizations are buried in order to reconstruct the
history and customs of the people who once lived
there, by studying the remains of homes, tools,
clothing, ornaments, and other evidences of
human life and activity. For example, archeolo­
gists are digging in the Pacific Coast area between
northern Mexico and Ecuador to find evidences
of trade and migration in the pre-Christian Era.
Some archeologists are excavating ancient Mayan

SOCIAL SCIENCES

165

cities in Mexico and restoring temples. Others are
working in the river valley along the Rio Grande
to salvage remnants of Indian villages and sites
of early military forts and trading posts. Ethnolo­
gists may spend long periods living among primi­
tive tribes or in other communities, to learn their
ways of life at first hand. The ethnologist takes
detailed and comprehensive notes describing the

report writing are the major activities of a sub­
stantial number of anthropologists, including a
large proportion of those employed in govern­
ment and nonprofit organizations, as well as a
good many in the teaching field. Others specialize
in museum work, which generally combines man­
agement and administrative duties with field work
and research on anthropological collections. A few
are engaged primarily in consulting, nontechnical
writing, or other activities.
Where Employed

Courtesy of Smithsonian Institution
Anthropologists conduct research among W ai W ai Indians in
British G uiana

social customs, beliefs, and material possessions of
the people, usually learning their language in
the process. He may also make comparative studies
of the cultures and societies of various groups.
Some cultural anthropologists specialize in lin­
guistics, the scientific study of the sounds and
structures of languages and of the historical rela­
tionships among languages.
A few hundred people specialize as 'physical
anthropologists. These anthropologists apply in­
tensive training in human anatomy and biology
to the study of human evolution, and to the scien­
tific measurement of the physical differences
among the races and groups of mankind. Because
of their knowledge of body structure, physical an­
thropologists are occasionally employed as con­
sultants on such projects as the design of more
comfortable space suits and cockpits for astro­
nauts.
The principal function of anthropologists is
college teaching, which in some schools may in­
clude the teaching of sociology or, less often, ge­
ography, as well as anthropology. Research and



About 1,500 people were employed as anthro­
pologists in 1962. About a fifth of them were
women—a higher proportion than in any other
social science field. The great majority are em­
ployed in colleges and universities. The Federal
Government employed a considerable number,
mainly in museums, in Government-supervised
areas such as parks, and in technical aid programs.
The Government agencies which employed the
largest number of anthropologists were the Smith­
sonian Institution and the National Park Service.
Many other Government agencies, including the
Departments of Defense and of Health, Educa­
tion, and Welfare, employed some members of the
profession mainly as consultants. State and local
government agencies also employed some anthro­
pologists, usually for museum work on health re­
search. A few were employed ill private industry
and nonprofit organizations.
Training and Other Qualifications

Young people who are interested in careers in
anthropology should obtain Ph. D. degrees. Col­
lege graduates with bachelor’s degrees can obtain
only temporary positions and assistantships in
the graduate departments where they are working
for advanced degrees. A master’s degree, plus field
experience, is sufficient for many beginning pro­
fessional positions, but promotion to top posi­
tions is generally reserved for those with the
Ph. D. degree. In many colleges, and most uni­
versities, only anthropologists holding the Ph. D.
degree can obtain a permanent teaching appoint­
ment.
Some training in physical anthropology, arche­
ology, and ethnology is necessary for all anthro­

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK,

166

pologists. Courses in linguistics (the scientific
study of language) are also valuable and are re­
quired for certain areas of work. A knowledge of
mathematics is increasingly important since sta­
tistical methods and high speed computer tech­
nology are becoming more widely used in this
field. Undergraduate students may begin their
field training in archeology by arranging, through
their university department, to accompany expedi­
tions as laborers. They may advance to supervi­
sory positions in charge of the digging or collec­
tion of material and may finally take charge of a
portion of the work of the expedition. Beginning
ethnologists and linguists (as well as experienced
ones) usually do their fieldwork alone, without
direct supervision. Most anthropologists base their
doctoral dissertations on data collected through
field research; they are, therefore, experienced
fieldworkers by the time they obtain the Ph. D.
degree.
The choice of a graduate school is very impor­
tant, since the beginning anthropologist usually
gets his first job through the university from
which he receives his advanced degree. Students
interested in museum work should select a school
which can provide experience in an associated
museum having anthropological collections. Simi­
larly, those interested in archeology should choose
a university which offers opportunities for sum­
mer experience in archeological field work or
should plan to attend an archeological field school
elsewhere during their summer vacations.

Employment Outlook

Expanding employment opportunities for an­
thropologists are anticipated during the remain­
der of the 1960 decade. The number employed in
colleges and universities will probably rise sub­
stantially. Employment outside the teaching field
will also increase but at a much slower rate. Some
of the additional opportunities will be in museums
and archeological research programs. Others will
be in the field of mental and public health, in
other community survey work and in foreign af­
fairs. Hiring in other fields is likely to be limited
largely to the replacement of personnel retiring or
vacating their positions for other reasons.
Anthropologists holding the doctorate will have
very good employment opportunities throughout
the 1960’s. Since the number of new Ph. D.’s is
expected to remain below the demand during this
period, employment opportunities will also be
favorable for those w7ho have fulfilled all require­
ments for the Ph. D. degree except the disserta­
tion. Graduates wfith only the master’s degree,
howrever, are likely to face persistent competition
for professional positions in anthropology and
may enter related fields of work. A few who meet
certification requirements may qualify for high
school teaching positions. Others may find jobs in
public administration and in nonprofit organiza­
tions and civic groups, which prefer personnel
wfith social science training as a general back­
ground. (Information on Earnings and Where To
Go for More Information is given at the beginning
of this chapter.)

Economists

(D.O.T. 0-36.11)
Nature of Work

Economists study man’s activities devoted to
satisfying human wants. They are concerned with
the problems which arise in utilizing limited re­
sources of land, raw materials, manpower, and
manufactured products so as to meet, as wrell as
possible, people’s many unsatisfied wants. In this
connection, they may analyze the relation between
the supply of and demand for goods and services,
and the ways in which goods are exchanged, pro­
duced, distributed, and consumed. Some econo­



mists are concerned with such practical problems
as the control of inflation, the prevention of de­
pression, and the development of farm, wage, tax,
and tariff policies. Others develop theories to ex­
plain the causes of employment and unemploy­
ment or the ways in which international trade
influences vrorld economic conditions. Still others
are engaged in the collection and interpretation
of data on a wide variety of economic problems.
Economists are employed principally as teach­
ers in colleges and universities, as research work­
ers in government agencies and, to a lesser extent,

SOCIAL SCIENCES

in private industry and nonprofit research organi­
zations. Those employed as college teachers guide
students in learning the basic principles and meth­
ods of economics and also frequently engage in
writing, lecturing, or consulting activities. They
do much of the research on basic problems in eco­
nomic theory and formulate many of the new
theories and ideas which directly or indirectly in­
fluence economic thought in industry and govern­
ment.
Most economists in the Federal Government are
specialists in agricultural, business, labor, or fiscal
economics, or in international trade and develop­
ment. They may plan and carry out studies in­
volving the collection of basic data in these fields,
use these and other data to analyze the need for
changes in government policy, assess the economic
position of the Nation, write reports on their find­
ings, and sometimes present these reports before
policymaking bodies. In addition, many people
with training as economists are employed by the
Federal Government as statisticians, foreign af­
fairs specialists, intelligence specialists, and in
administrative and other positions where a back­
ground in economics is important.
Economists employed by large business firms,
including banks and other financial institutions do
research and, in many cases, also have some ad­
ministrative and consultative duties. They may
concentrate on problems relating to domestic busi­
ness conditions, markets and prices of company
products, government policies affecting business,
or international trade. Their main purpose is to
provide management with information to be used
in making decisions on problems such as the tim­
ing of new financing or the advisability of ex­
panding the company’s business by adding new
lines of merchandise or by opening branch plants
in new areas.
Where Employed

Economics is the largest of the basic social sci­
ence fields. About 20,000 people were employed
primarily as economists in 1962. Of this number,
about half were employed by colleges and uni­
versities; approximately a third worked for gov­
ernment agencies—chiefly Federal. A small but
growing number are employed by private indus­
try and some serve in private research agencies




167

and community organizations. A few are selfemployed, acting as consultants, mainly to busi­
ness firms.

Economist uses charts in explaining employment projections

Economists are to be found in nearly all cities
and university towns. The largest group, however,
are in the Washington, D.C., area where most of
those in the Federal Government are located. A
good many American economists are employed in
foreign countries, mainly by the U.S. Department
of State and the Agency for International De­
velopment.
Most economists in private industry are em­
ployed in the home offices of large corporations
which are located chiefly in big cities—above all,
New York City and Chicago. These two cities also
have the largest concentrations of economists in
nonprofit research organizations.
Training and Other Qualifications

All economists must have a thorough grounding
in economic theory, economic history, and meth­
ods of economic analysis, including statistics. An
increasing number of universities emphasize the
value of mathematical methods of economic analy­
sis and require candidates for graduate courses in
such methods to be well trained in mathematics,
including calculus.
A bachelor’s degree with a major in economics
is sufficient for many beginning research jobs in
government and private industry, although per­
sons employed in such jobs are not always re­

168

garded as professional economists. In the Federal
Government, candidates must have a minimum of
21 semester hours of economics and 3 hours of
statistics, accounting, or calculus for entrance
positions.
Since beginning jobs are ordinarily concerned
mainly with the collection and compilation of
data, a thorough knowledge of statistical proce­
dures as well as economics is usually required.
Industrial and business firms often hire young
people with the bachelor’s degree in economics as
management trainees and rotate them through
various departments to acquaint them with com­
pany activities. Whether or not the employee is
finally assigned a job which makes specific use of
his training in economics depends largely on the
needs of the company.
The master’s degree is generally required for
appointment as a college instructor, though gradu­
ate assistantships may be awarded to outstanding
students working toward their master’s degree. In
many large colleges and universities, completion
of all the requirements for the Ph. D. degree, ex­
cept the dissertation, is necessary for appointment
to the position of instructor. In government or pri­
vate industry, economists with the master’s de­
gree can usually qualify for more responsible re­
search positions than are open to those with only
the bachelor’s degree.
The Ph. D. degree is required for a professor­
ship in a high-ranking college or university and
is an asset in competing for other responsible posi­
tions in government, business, or private research
organizations.
Economists interested in overseas assignments
wull find broad training in other social sciences, as
wel as advanced training in economics, very help­
ful. For most positions with the U.S. Department
of State and the Agency for International Devel­
opment, considerable experience is also required.
The choice of a graduate school is very impor­
tant for people planning to become economists.
Students interested in research should select
schools which emphasize training in research
methods and statistics and provide good research
facilities, including opportunities for practical
experience. Those who wish to work in the field
of agricultural economics wT find exceptional
ill
opportunities for part-time research work at
State universities having agricultural experiment
stations. Professors and chairmen of economics



OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK,

departments do much of the placement of begin­
ning economists in teaching positions and in posi­
tions in industry and nonprofit research organiza­
tions.
Employment Outlook

Employment opportunities for well-qualified
economists will continue to increase rapidly dur­
ing the remainder of the 1960’s, especially in the
college teaching field. Colleges and universities
will need hundreds of new instructors annually to
handle rapidly increasing college enrollments and
to fill positions vacated because of retirements,
deaths, or transfers to other fields of work. In
other fields of employment, opportunities are
likely to increase more slowly. However, many
economists are likely to be required annually to
meet expansion and replacement needs in indus­
try, government, and nonprofit organizations.
Private industry is expected to employ a growing
number of economists, as businessmen become
more accustomed to relying on scientific methods
of analyzing business trends, forecasting sales, and
planning purchasing and production operations.
The growing interest in improving the quality of
“economics” instruction in the Nation’s high
schools may also contribute to the overall demand
for economists. Employment of economists in
State and Federal Government is likely to in­
crease somewhat to meet the needs of government
and industry for more extensive data collection
and analysis as a guide to policy planning.
Economists with the doctorate are expected to
have excellent opportunities for employment. The
number of new Ph. D.’s is likely to be considera­
bly less than the number of new college instruc­
tors needed during the 1960’s. As a result, employ­
ment opportunities for economists with a master’s
degree will also be very favorable, especially if
they have good training in statistics and mathe­
matics. Those with only a bachelor’s degree will
probably continue to find good opportunities for
employment in government agencies, provided
they have completed a substantial number of
courses in economics and statistics. In other areas
of employment, holders of the bachelor’s degree
will continue to face considerable competition for
employment as economists. (Information on Earn­
ings and Where To Go for More Information is
given at the beginning of this chapter.)

SOCIAL SCIENCES

169

Historians

(D.O.T. 0-36.91)
Nature of Work

Historians study the records of the past and
write books and articles describing and analyzing
past events, institutions, ideas, and people. They
may use their knowledge of the past to explain
current events. They may specialize in the history
of a specific country or region, or in a particular
period of time—ancient, medieval, or modern—or
in economic, cultural, military, or other phases of
history. More historians specialize in either
United States or modern European history than
in any other field. Some are experts in such areas
as the development of various types of transpor­
tation (trains, cars, aircraft); others in art, archi­
tecture, or other objects of historical interest. The
number of specialties is constantly growing. The
history of business and the relation between tech­
nological changes and other aspects of historical
development are among the newest fields.
Most historians are college teachers who also
do some research, writing, and lecturing. Some,
usually called archivists, specialize in identifying,
preserving, and making available documentary
materials of historical value. Others edit histori­
cal materials, prepare exhibits, write pamphlets
and handbooks, and give talks for museums, spe­
cial libraries, and historical societies. A few serve
as consultants to editors and publishers and pro­
ducers of materials for radio, television, and mo­
tion pictures. Historians employed in government

mainly do research and administrative work in
connection with research projects; they also pre­
pare studies, articles, and books.
Where Employed

An estimated 9,000 to 10,000 persons w^ere em­
ployed as historians in 1962. This estimate does
not include high school history teachers, who are
usually classified as teachers rather than as his­
torians although some have had considerable
training in history.
Approximately 80 percent of the historians
were employed in colleges and universities.
Slightly less than 10 percent were employed in
Federal Government agencies, principally the Na­



tional Archives and the Departments of Defense,
Interior, and State. Small but growing numbers
were employed by other government organiza­
tions (State, local, and international), nonprofit
foundations, research councils, special libraries,
State historical societies, museums, and by large
corporations.
Since history is taught in all institutions of
higher education, historians are found in all col­
lege communities. About half the historians in
the Federal Government, including three-fourths
of those working as archivists, are employed in
Washington, D.C. Historians in other types of
employment usually work in localities which have
museums or libraries with collections adequate for
historical research.
Training and Other Qualifications

Graduate education is usually necessary for
qualification as a historian. The master’s degree
in history is the minimum requirement for ap­
pointment to the position of college instructor,
but in many colleges and universities, the Ph. D.
degree is necessary for appointment. The doctor­
ate is essential for attaining high-level college
teaching, research, and administrative positions
in the field of history. Most historians in the Fed­
eral Government and in nonprofit organizations
have a Ph. D. degree or the equivalent in training
and experience.
Although a bachelor’s degree with a major in
history is sufficient training for some beginning
jobs in Federal, State, and local governments,
persons in such jobs may not be regarded as pro­
fessional historians. These beginning jobs are
likely to be concerned with the collection of and
preservation of historical data, so that a knowl­
edge of archival work is helpful. An undergradu­
ate major in history is considered helpful for jobs
in international relations and journalism.
Employment Outlook

Employment of historians is expected to con­
tinue to increase substantially during the 1960
decade, chiefly in college teaching. Hundreds of
new instructors will probably be needed annually

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK;

170

to teach new classes made necessary by expanding
enrollments, and to replace those who retire, die,
or leave for other types of work. The number of
positions for historians in archival work is also
expected to rise, though more slowly than the
number in college teaching. Only a slight rise is
foreseen in the number of historians in other
types of work.
Historians with doctorates are expected to have
very good employment opportunities throughout
the 1960 decade. Historians who have completed
all the requirements for the Ph. D. except the dis­
sertation are also expected to have favorable op­
portunities. However, those with no work beyond

the master’s degree will probably encounter con­
siderable competition for professional positions.
College graduates with only the bachelor’s degree
will find it difficult to obtain employment as pro­
fessional historians. On the other hand, history
majors who meet certification requirements will
find a good many openings in high school teach­
ing. Some will also be able to qualify as trainees
in administrative and management positions in
government agencies, nonprofit foundations, civic
organizations and, more rarely, in private indus­
try. (Information on Earnings and Where To Go
for More Information is given at the beginning of
this chapter.)

Political Scientists

(D.O.T. 0-36.96)
Nature of Work

Political science is the study of government—
what it is, what it does, and how and why. Politi­
cal scientists are interested in government at every
level—local, county, State, regional, national, and
international. Many political scientists specialize
in public administration, in American Govern­
ment, or in international relations. Smaller num­
bers specialize in such fields as public law, history
of political ideas, political parties, public opinion,
and area studies.
Political scientists are most frequently employed
as college teachers, sometimes teaching other social
sciences as well as political science. They may
combine research, consultation, or administrative
duties with their teaching. Some teach in foreign
universities where they prepare students for ca­
reers in public administration and assist in the
development of training programs for government
personnel. A good many political scientists are
engaged mainly in research. They may make sur­
veys of public opinion on political questions for
private research organizations. They may make
studies of proposed legislation for State or munici­
pal legislative reference bureaus or congressional
committees to determine whether the legislation is
well drafted and constitutional. They may analyze
the operations of government agencies or special­
ize in foreign affairs research, either for govern­
ment or nongovernment organizations. Still others
are engaged in administrative or managerial



duties in all fields of work. For example, they may
be employed as budget analysts, as personnel
directors or assistants, as city planners or man­
agers, as legislative aids to congressmen, and as
staff members of congressional committees.
Where Employed

Probably between 10,000 and 15,000 people were
employed as political scientists in 1962, largely
in colleges and universities or in government
agencies. Fewer than 10 percent work for other
types of employers such as municipal and other
research bureaus, civic and taxpayers associations,
and large business firms.
Political scientists are employed in nearly every
college in the United States, since courses in
political science or government are widely taught.
Most other political scientists are located in Wash­
ington, D.C., and in other large cities, or in State
capitals. A good many are employed in overseas
jobs, mainly by the U.S. Department of State,
the Agency for International Development, and
the U.S. Information Agency.
Training and Other Qualifications

Graduate training is generally required for pro­
fessional employment in political science. College
graduates with a master’s degree in public ad­
ministration can qualify for various administra­
tive and research positions in government and in

SOCIAL SCIENCES

nonprofit research and civic organizations. Over
80 colleges and universities offer graduate degrees
in public administration. The college programs
cover a wide range of subjects—for example, in­
ternational administration, city planning, munici­
pal administration, criminal investigation, and
social security administration. A majority of these
schools provide field training, and many offer in­
ternships which enable the student to obtain ex­
perience in government work. A good many uni­
versities award graduate degrees in international
relations, foreign service, and area studies, as well
as political science in general. A master’s degree
in any of these fields is very helpful in obtaining
a position in a Federal Government agency con­
cerned with foreign affairs. However, for some
Government jobs, such as those with the Agency
for International Development, only persons with
substantial experience (preferably in public ad­
ministration) are hired.
Completion of all requirements for the Ph. D.
degree, except the doctoral dissertation, is the
usual prerequisite for appointment as a college in­
structor. The Ph. D. degree is generally required
for advancement to the position of professor.
Some young people with only a bachelor’s de­
gree in political science qualify as trainees in
public relations or research work or in jobs, such
as budget analyst, personnel assistant, or investi­
gator in government or industry. However, they
must compete for these jobs with college gradu­
ates majoring in many other fields, particularly
those with majors in business administration, ac­
counting, economics, and other social science
specialties. A great many students with the bache­
lor’s degree in political science go on to study law;
many others obtain graduate training in public
administration, international relations, or other
specialized branches of political science.
Employment Outlook

Employment of political scientists is expected to
continue to increase rapidly during the 1960 dec­




171

ade. The largest increase will be in colleges and
universities. However, the number of political
scientists in administrative jobs in government
agencies will probably rise also because of a grow­
ing recognition of the value of specialized train­
ing. Government agencies concerned with foreign
affairs will continue to employ a good many politi­
cal scientists. A slow growth is anticipated in em­
ployment of political scientists in private industry.
No substantial change is foreseen in the number
of political scientists in other types of work.
Many more political scientists will be needed to
fill positions vacated because of retirements,
deaths, or transfers to other fields of work. Alto­
gether, colleges and universities may need 400 to
500 new political scientists annually during the
1960’s, both to fill new positions and to meet re­
placement needs. Government agencies will need
several hundred more each year.
Political scientists with the doctorate will find
very good opportunities in college teaching and
good chances for employment in other fields as
well. Those who have completed all the require­
ments for the doctorate except the dissertation
are also likely to find favorable opportunities in
college teaching. Employment opportunities for
others with the master’s degree will be more
limited, but many openings will be available to
them in Federal, State, and municipal government
agencies; research bureaus; political organiza­
tions; and civic and welfare agencies. For new
graduates with only the bachelor’s degree, op­
portunities for professional employment in the
political science field will probably continue to be
very limited. However, those planning to continue
their studies in law, foreign affairs, journalism,
and other related fields will find their political
science background very helpful. Some who meet
State certification requirements will enter high
school teaching. (Information on Earnings and
Where To Go for More Information is given at
the beginning of this chapter.)

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

172

Sociologists

(D.O.T. 0-36.31)

Nature of Work

Sociologists study the many groups which man
forms—families, tribes, communities, villages, and
States, and a great variety of social, religious,
professional, business, and other organizations
which have arisen out of living together. They
study the behavior and interaction of these groups,
trace their origin and growth, and analyze the in­
fluence of group activities on individual mem­
bers. Some sociologists are primarily concerned
with the characteristics of particular kinds of
social groups and institutions; others are more
interested in the ways in which individuals are
affected by groups to which they belong. Many
sociologists specialize in the study of social organi­
zation, social psychology, or rural sociology.
Others specialize in intergroup relations, family
problems, social effects of urban living, popula­
tion studies, or analyses of public opinion. Some
sociologists concentrate on research methodology
or the conduct of surveys. Growing numbers are
concerned with the application of sociological
knowledge and methods in the areas of penology
and correction, education, public relations in in­
dustry, and regional and community planning.
Some specialize in medical sociology—studying
the social factors which affect the fields of mental
or public health or the problems of hospital ad­
ministration. The topics in which sociologists spe­
cialize are too many and varied to be fully listed
here.
Most sociologists are college teachers, but, as
a rule, these teachers also do research work. In
addition, many sociologists are employed full time
in research by government agencies, research
bureaus connected with universities, welfare
agencies, other nonprofit organizations, and large
companies.
Sociological research may involve the collec­
tion of data (often through personal interviews),
the preparation of case studies, testing, the con­
duct of statistical surveys, and laboratory ex­
periments. Sociologists may study individuals,
families, or communities in an attempt to discover
the causes of social problems—such as crime, ju­
venile delinquency, alcoholism, poverty, and de­



pendency—the normal pattern of family relations,
or the different patterns of living in communities
of varying types and sizes. They may collect and
analyze data from official government sources to
show the trends in population, including changes
in age, sex, race, and other population character­
istics ; and also the extent of population movement
among rural, suburban, and urban areas and
among different geographic areas. Some so­
ciologists specialize in conducting surveys, either
those which add to basic sociological knowledge
or those in such applied fields as public opinion
research, marketing, and advertising research.
Still others are specialists in the use of mass
communication facilities, including radio, televi­
sion, newspapers, magazines, and circulars.
Sociologists are frequently administrators—
supervising research projects or the operation of
social agencies, including marriage and family
clinics. Some people with sociological training are
recreation workers, case workers, prison inmate
classification officers, or probation and parole
officers. Other sociologists act as consultants, ad­
vising on such diverse problems as the manage­
ment of hospitals for the mentally ill, the rehabili­
tation of juvenile delinquents, or the development
of effective advertising programs to promote
public interest in particular products.
Where Employed

It is roughly estimated that about 7,000 or 8,000
persons were professionally employed as sociolo­
gists in 1962. Numerous other persons were em­
ployed in positions requiring some training in this
field, including many in social, recreation, and
public health work.
Approximately three-fourths of the sociologists
—people in research and administrative positions,
as w^ell as teachers—are employed in colleges and
universities. About one-tenth are in Federal, State,
local, or international government agencies; the
remainder work in private industry, in welfare
or other nonprofit organizations, or are selfemployed.
Since sociology is taught in most institutions
of higher learning, sociologists may be found

SOCIAL SCIENCES

in nearly all college communities. They are most
heavily concentrated, however, in large colleges
and universities which offer graduate training in
sociology and opportunities for employment in
research. Medical sociologists are most often em­
ployed on the teaching or research staff of medical
colleges and graduate departments of public
health and preventive medicine. They also find
employment on hospital staffs and in State and
municipal health departments. Rural sociologists
most frequently work at State universities, be­
cause they are likely to have exceptional oppor­
tunities for research at the State agricultural ex­
periment stations attached to these universities.
Some specialists in rural sociology and community
development are employed in foreign countries, by
U.S. Government agencies, and private founda­
tions.
Training and Other Qualifications

At least a master’s degree with a major in so­
ciology is usually required for employment as a
sociologist. The Ph. D. degree is frequently re­
quired for employment in the better positions and
virtually always for the most responsible posi­
tions.
Young people with only a bachelor’s degree in
sociology are not considered qualified for profes­
sional employment as sociologists, although they
may be able to secure other jobs in this or related
fields. They may get jobs as interviewers or as re­
search assistants working under close supervision.
A good many are employed as case workers,
counselors, recreation workers, or administrative
assistants in public and private welfare agencies.
As a rule, however, welfare agencies prefer per­
sons with specific training in social work. So­
ciology majors with sufficient training in statistics
may obtain positions as beginning statisticians.
Those who meet local certification requirements
may enter high school teaching.
Sociologists with master’s degrees may qualify
for many administrative and research positions,
provided they are trained in research methods
and statistics. They may perform work requiring
responsibility for specific portions of a survey or
for the preparation of analyses and reports under
general supervision. As they gain experience,
they may advance to supervisory positions in both



173

public and private agencies. Sociologists with the
master’s degree may also qualify for some college
instructorships. Most colleges, however, will ap­
point as instructors only people with training
beyond the master’s level—frequently the comple­
tion of all requirements for the Ph. D. degree ex­
cept the doctoral dissertation. Outstanding gradu­
ate students can often get teaching or research assistantships which will provide both financial aid
and valuable experience.
The Ph. D. degree is essential for attaining a
professorship in most colleges or universities and
is commonly required for directors of major re­
search projects, important administrative posi­
tions, or consultants.
The choice of a graduate school is very impor­
tant for people planning to become sociologists.
Students interested in research should select
schools which emphasize training in research
methods and statistics and provides opportunities
to gain practical experience in research work.
Professors and chairmen of sociology departments
frequently aid in the placement of graduates.
Employment Outlook

Employment opportunities for sociologists are
expected to continue to increase substantially dur­
ing the remainder of the 1960’s. The majority of
new positions will be in college teaching. Expand­
ing college enrollments will account for most of
these new positions; however, some will result
from the growing trend toward including so­
ciology courses in the curriculums of other profes­
sions, such as medicine, law, and education. Per­
haps as many as 300 new sociology teachers will be
needed each year, on the average, to fill new posi­
tions and to replace college faculty members who
leave the profession. A moderate rise in the num­
ber of sociologists in nonteaching fields is also
anticipated.
Sociologists well trained in research methods
and advanced statistics will have the widest choice
of jobs. Employment opportunities are expected
to be better than average for research workers in
rural sociology, community development, popu­
lation analysis, public opinion research, and in
various branches of medical sociology. Employ­
ment opportunities will also increase markedly in

174

other applied fields, such as the study of juvenile
delinquency and education. A few openings are
anticipated in the new area of the sociology of
law.
The number of sociologists with the doctor’s
degree is expected to rise less rapidly than demand
during the remainder of the 1960’s. As a result,
employment opportunities for both Ph. D.’s and
those who have completed all requirements for the




OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

doctorate except the dissertation will probably
be very good during this period. Inexperienced
graduates with only the master’s degree—with the
exception of those specifically trained in research
methods—will probably continue to face consider­
able competition for positions as professional so­
ciologists. (Information on Earnings and Where
To Go for More Information is given at the begin­
ning of this chapter.)

TH E C L E R G Y

The choice of the ministry, priesthood, or rab­
binate as one’s lifework involves considerations
that do not influence to the same degree the selec­
tion of a career in most other occupations. When
young people decide to become clergymen, they
do so primarily because of their religious faith
and their desire to help others. Nevertheless, it
is important for them to know as much as possible
about the profession and how to prepare for it,
the kind of life it offers, and its needs for person­
nel. They should understand also that the civic,
social, and recreational activities of clergymen
are often influenced, and sometimes restricted, by
the customs and attitudes of their community.
The number of clergymen needed is broadly
related to the size and geographic distribution of
the Nation’s inhabitants and their participation
in organized religious groups. These factors affect
the number of churches and synagogues that are
established and, thus, the number of pulpits to be
filled. A sharp rise in church and synagogue mem­
bership has occurred since 1940. About 116 million
people were members of organized religious
groups in 1961—representing 63 percent of the
total population, whereas in 1940, slightly less
than half the population belonged to religious
groups. In addition to those who serve congrega­
tions, many clergymen teach in seminaries and
other educational institutions, serve as mission­
aries, and perform various other duties in meet­
ing their religious responsibilities.
Young people considering a career as a clergy­
man should seek the counsel of a religious leader
of their faith to aid them in evaluating their quali­
fications for the profession. Besides a desire to
serve the spiritual needs of others and to lead
them in religious activities, they will need a
broad background of knowledge and the ability
to speak and write clearly. Emotional stability is
necessary, since a clergyman must be able to help
others in times of stress. Furthermore, young
people should know that clergymen are expected
to be examples of high moral character.




The amount of income clergymen receive de­
pends, to a great extent, on the size and financial
status of the congregation they serve and usually
is highest in large cities or in prosperous suburban
areas. Earnings of clergymen, as of most other
professional groups, usually rise with increased
experience and responsibility. Most Protestant
churches and a number of Jewish congregations
provide their spiritual leaders with housing. Boman Catholic priests ordinarily live in the rectory
of a parish church or are provided lodgings by
the religious order to which they belong. Many
clergymen receive allowances for transportation
and other expenses necessary in their work.
Clergymen often receive gifts or fees for officiat­
ing at special ceremonies such as weddings and
funerals. In some cases, these gifts or fees are an
important source of additional income; however,
they are frequently donated to charity by the
clergymen. Some churches establish a uniform
fee for these services, which goes directly into the
church treasury.
More detailed information on the clergy in the
three largest faiths in the United States—Protes­
tant, Koman Catholic, and Jewish—is given in the
following statements which were prepared in co­
operation with leaders of these faiths. Information
on the clergy in other faiths may be obtained
directly from leaders of the respective groups.
Numerous other church-related occupations—
those of the missionary, teacher, director of youth
organizations, director of religious education,
editor of religious publications, music director,
church secretary, recreation leader, and many
others—offer interesting and satisfying careers.
In addition, opportunities to w^ork in connection
with religious activities are present in many
other occupations. Clergymen or educational di­
rectors of local churches or synagogues can pro­
vide information on the church-related occupa­
tions and other areas offering opportunities for
religious service.
175

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

176

Protestant Clergymen

(D.O.T. 0-08.)
Nature of Work

Protestant clergymen lead their congregations
in worship services and may administer the rites
of baptism, confirmation, and Holy Communion.
They prepare and deliver sermons and give other
talks, instruct people who are to be received into
membership of the church, perform marriages,
and conduct funerals. They counsel individuals
who seek guidance, visit the sick and shut-in, com­
fort those who are bereaved, and serve their church
members in many other ways. Protestant ministers
may also write articles for publication and engage
in interfaith, community, civic, educational, and
recreational activities sponsored by or related to
the interests of the church. A few clergymen teach
in seminaries, colleges, and universities.
The types of worship services which ministers
conduct differ among Protestant denominations
and also among congregations within a denomina­
tion; in some denominations, ministers follow a
traditional order of worship, whereas in others
they adapt the services to different occasions. Most
of these services include Bible reading, hymn sing­
ing, prayers, and a sermon. Bible reading by a
member of the congregation and individual testi­
monials may constitute a large part of the service
in some denominations.
Ministers serving small congregations generally
work on a close personal basis with their parish­
ioners. Those serving large congregations usu­
ally have greater administrative responsibilities
and spend considerable time working with com­
mittees, church officers, and staff, besides per­
forming their other duties. They may have one or
more associates or assistants who share specific
aspects of the ministry, such as a Minister of
Education who assists in educational programs
for different age groups.
Where Employed

In 1961, about 225,000 people were serving as
ministers of churches, composing over 225 Protes­
tant denominations or other groups. In addition,
thousands of ordained clergymen were in other
occupations—many closely related to the ministry.




The greatest number of clergymen are affiliated
with the four largest groups of churches—
Baptist, Methodist, Lutheran, and Presbyterian—
to which about 7 out of every 10 of the 64 million
Protestant church members belong. Most minis­
ters serve individual congregations; some are en­
gaged in missionary activities in the United
States and in foreign countries; others serve as
chaplains in the Armed Forces, in hospitals, and
in other institutions; still others teach in educa­
tional institutions, engage in other religious ed­
ucational work, or are employed in social welfare
and related agencies. Less than 5 percent of all
ministers are women; however, about 80 denomi­
nations ordain women. In addition, in some
denominations an increasing number of women
who have not been ordained are serving as
pastors’ assistants.
All cities and most towns have one or more
Protestant churches with a full-time minister. The
majority of ministers are located in cities and
towns. Many others live in less densely populated
areas where each may serve the religious needs of
two or more congregations in different communi­
ties. A larger proportion of Protestants than
members of other faiths live in rural areas.
Training and Other Qualifications

The educational preparation required for entry
into the ministry has a wider range than that for
most professions. Some religious groups have no
formal educational requirements, and others or­
dain persons who have received varying amounts
of training in liberal arts colleges, Bible colleges,
or Bible institutes. An increasingly large number
of denominations, however, require a 3-year course
of professional study in theology following college
graduation. After completion of such a course in
a theological school, the degree of bachelor of di­
vinity or sacred theology is awarded.
Eighty-one of the many theological institutions
in the Nation in early 1963 were accredited by
the American Association of Theological Schools.
Accredited institutions admit only students who
have received the bachelor’s degree^ or its equiva­

THE CLERGY,

lent, from an approved college. In addition, cer­
tain character and personality qualifications must
be met, and endorsement by the religious group
to which the applicant belongs is required. The
American Association of Theological Schools
recommends that preseminary studies be concen­
trated in the liberal arts. Although courses in
English, philosophy, and history are considered
especially important, the pretheological student
should take courses also in the natural and social
sciences, religion, and foreign languages. The
standard curriculum recommended for accredited
theological schools divides the course of studies
into four major fields: Biblical, historical, theo­
logical, and practical. There is a trend toward
adding more courses in psychology, pastoral coun­
seling, sociology, religious education, administra­
tion, and other studies of a practical nature. Many
accredited schools require that students gain ex­
perience in church work under the supervision
of a faculty member or experienced minister.
Some institutions offer the master of theology and
the doctor of theology degrees to students com­
pleting 1 or more years of additional study.
In general, each large denomination has its own
school or schools of theology which reflect its par­
ticular interests and needs; however, many of
these schools are open to students from various
denominations. Several interdenominational
schools associated with universities give both
undergraduate and graduate training covering a
wide range of theological points of view.
Among the personal qualifications which most
denominations seek in a candidate for the ministry
are a deep religious conviction, a sense of dedica­
tion to Christian service, a genuine concern for
and love of people, a wholesome personality and
high moral and ethical standards, and a vigorous
and creative mind. Because of the demands of the
ministry, good health is a valuable asset.
Persons who have met denominational quali­
fications for the ministry are usually ordained
following graduation from a seminary. In denomi­
nations which do not require seminary training,
clergymen are ordained at various appointed
times. Clergymen often begin their careers as
pastors of small congregations or as assistant
pastors in large churches. Protestant clergymen in
many of the larger denominations—especially
those groups which have a well-defined church
692-408 0—63------13




177

organization—often are requested to serve in
positions of great administrative and denomina­
tional responsibility.
Outlook

Shortages of Protestant ministers have persisted
for many years and are likely to continue through­
out the middle and late 1960’s. However, not all
Protestant denominations will have equal diffi­
culty in filling vacant pulpits. Some denomina­
tions will probably have a sufficient number of
people who are qualified to serve as ministers.
Generally, those denominations which require
many years of formal training to qualify for the
ministry are having the greatest difficulty in fill­
ing the needs of all their churches, and this situa­
tion is likely to persist. The number of students
graduated annually from Protestant theological
schools probably will not be sufficient to replace
the thousands of ministers who retire or die each
year, to meet the needs of newly established con­
gregations, and to supply assistant ministers
where needed.
Many congregations—mainly those in rural
areas—did not have a full-time ordained minister
in 1963. Some had to rely on the services of theo­
logical students or lay persons or shared the
services of a pastor with another congregation.
Many large congregations were unable to fill
openings for assistant ministers. In addition, or­
dained ministers were being sought for teaching
positions; to serve in foreign missions, in relief
work, and in religious educational activities; as
chaplains in the Armed Forces; and in universi­
ties, hospitals, penitentiaries, and other institu­
tions.
Over the long run, the total number of min­
isters needed by Protestant churches will probably
become larger as a result of the expected increase
in population and in the number of congregations.
The greatest expansion is anticipated in the sub­
urbs of large cities. The increasing opportunities
for ministers in fields such as television and
radio, youth and family relations work, the cam­
pus ministry, and religious activities including
chaplaincies in institutions and industry, also
point toward a need for additional clergymen.
Replacement of those removed from the ranks by
death, retirement, or other causes will also require

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK,

178

an ever-increasing number of newly trained min­
isters.
Where To Go for More Information

Young people who wish to enter the Protestant
ministry should seek the counsel of a minister or

church guidance worker. Additional information
on both the ministry and other church-related
occupations are also available from many denomi­
national offices. Information on admission require­
ments may be obtained directly from each theo­
logical school.

Roman Catholic Priests

(D.O.T. 0-08.)

Nature of Work

Roman Catholic priests attend the spiritual,
moral, and educational needs of the members of
their Church. Their duties include offering the
Sacrifice of the Mass; hearing confessions; ad­
ministering the Sacraments; visiting and comfort­
ing the sick; conducting funeral services and
consoling survivors; counseling those in need of
guidance; and assisting the poor. Priests give
religious instruction at Mass in the form of a
sermon. They have numerous other responsibili­
ties to assure that all laws of the Church are
fulfilled.
Priests spend long hours performing services
for the Church and the community. Their day
usually begins with morning meditation and Mass
and may end with an evening visit to the local
hospital or the hearing of confessions. In addi­
tion, each day priests spend several hours in
prayer and reading their breviaries. Many of
them serve on Church committees or in civic or­
ganizations and assist in community projects.
Various societies that carry on charitable and so­
cial programs also depend upon priests for direc­
tion.
Although all priests have the same powers ac­
quired through ordination by a bishop, they are
classified in two main categories—diocesan and
religious—by reason of their way of life and the
type of work to which they are assigned. Diocesan
priests (sometimes called secular priests) gen­
erally work as individuals in the parishes to which
they are assigned by the bishop of their diocese.
Religious priests are members of religious orders
—for example Jesuits, Dominicans, or Franciscans
—and generally work as members of a community
in specialized activities, such as teaching or mis­



sionary work, assigned to them by the superiors of
the orders to which they belong.
Both religious and secular priests hold teaching
and administrative posts in the Catholic semi­
naries, universities and colleges, and high schools.
Priests attached to religious orders staff a large
proportion of the institutions of higher education
and many high schools, whereas secular priests
are primarily concerned with the parochial schools
attached to parish churches and with diocesan
high schools. The members of religious orders do
most of the missionary work conducted by the
Catholic Church in this country and in the for­
eign field.
Where Employed

About 56,000 priests served 43 million Catholics
in the United States in 1962. There are priests in
nearly every city and town and in many rural
communities; however, the majority are in heav­
ily populated metropolitan areas, where most of
the Catholic population is located. Catholics are
concentrated in the Northeast and the Great
Lakes regions, with smaller concentrations in
California, Texas, and Louisiana. A large num­
ber of priests are located in communities near
Catholic educational and other institutions. Many
are stationed throughout the world as missionar­
ies. Others travel constantly on missions to local
parishes throughout the country. Some priests
serve as chaplains with the Armed Forces or in
hospitals or other institutions.
Training and Other Qualifications

The course of study for the priesthood takes at
least 8 years after graduation from high school.
Most students take this training in theological

THE CLERGY

seminaries—first, in a minor seminary (usually for
2 years), then in a major seminary which offers
6 years of advanced training. In 1962, about 46,000
students, known as seminarians were enrolled in
545 seminaries in the United States. High school
graduates with the desired scholastic background
—an academic course, including Latin—can com­
plete the minor seminary in 2 years and then ad­
vance to the major seminary. Elementary school
graduates may enter the minor seminary where
they complete their high school work before tak­
ing the 2 years of college level work. Courses in­
clude Christian doctrine, Latin, Greek, English,
at least one other modern language, rhetoric and
elocution, history, geography, bookkeeping,
mathematics, natural sciences, and Gregorian
chant.
At the major seminary, the first 2 years are de­
voted to the study of philosophy, scripture, church
history, and the natural sciences as related to reli­
gion. During the remaining 4 years, the course of
study includes sacred scripture; apologetics; dog­
matic, moral, and pastoral theology; homiletics;
church history; liturgy; and canon law. Diocesan
and religious priests attend different major semi­
naries, where slight variations in the training re­
flect the differences in the type of work expected
of them as priests. During the later years of his
seminary course, the candidate receives from his
bishop a succession of orders culminating in his
ordination to the priesthood.
Most postgraduate work in theology is taken
either at Catholic University of America (Wash­
ington, D.C.) or at the ecclesiastical universities in
Rome. Many priests also do graduate work at
other universities in fields unrelated to theology.
Priests are commanded by the law of the Catholic
Church to continue their studies, at least infor­
mally, after ordination.
Young men are never denied entry into semi­
naries because of lack of funds. In seminaries for
secular priests, the bishop may make arrangements
for loans to the students. Those in religious semi­
naries are often financed by contributions of
benefactors.
Among the qualities considered most desirable
in candidates for the Catholic priesthood are a
love of and concern for people, a deep religious




179

conviction, a desire to spread the Gospel of Christ,
at least average intellectual ability, capacity to
speak and write correctly, and more than average
skill in working with people. Candidates for the
priesthood must understand that priests are not
permitted to marry and are dedicated to a life of
chastity.
The first assignment of a newly ordained secu­
lar priest is usually that of assistant pastor or
curate. Newly ordained priests of religious orders
are assigned to the specialized duties for which
they are trained.
OuHook

A growing number of priests will be needed in
the years ahead to provide for the spiritual and
educational needs of the rising number of Catho­
lics in the Nation. Although the number of semi­
narians has increased steadily in recent years, the
number of ordained priests is not sufficient to fill
the needs of newly established parishes and ex­
panding colleges and other Catholic institutions,
and to replace priests who die. Priests usually
continue at their work longer than persons in
other professions, but the varied demands and long
hours create a need for young priests to assist
the older ones. Also, an increasing number of
priests have been serving in many diverse areas—
for example, in religious radio, newspaper, and
television work, labor-management mediation and
in foreign posts, particularly in countries with
a shortage of priests. Continued expansion of such
activities, in addition to the expected further
growth in Catholic population, will require a
steady increase in the number of priests, both in
the next few years and over the long run.
Where To Go for More Information

Young men interested in entering the priest­
hood should seek the guidance and counsel of their
parish priest. Additional information regarding
different religious orders and the secular priest­
hood, as well as a list of the various seminaries
which prepare students for the priesthood, may be
obtained from Diocesan Directors of Vocations,
or from the diocesan chancery office.

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK,

180

Rabbis

(D.O.T. 0-08.)
Nature of Work

Rabbis are the spiritual leaders of their con­
gregations and teachers and interpreters of Jewish
law and tradition. They conduct daily services
and hold special services on the Sabbath and on
holidays. Rabbis are customarily available at all
times for counsel to members of their congrega­
tions, other followers of Judaism, and the com­
munity at large. Many of the rabbis’ functions—
preparing and delivering sermons, performing
wedding ceremonies, visiting the sick, conducting
funeral services, comforting the bereaved, help­
ing the poor, supervising religious education pro­
grams, engaging in interfaith activities, assuming
community responsibilities, and counseling indi­
viduals—are similar to those performed by clergy­
men of other faiths. Rabbis may also write for
religious and lay publications, and teach in theo­
logical seminaries, colleges, and universities.
Rabbis serve congregations affiliated with 1 of
the 3 branches of American Judaism—Orthodox
(traditional), Conservative, or Reform (liberal).
Regardless of their particular point of view, all
Hebrew congregations preserve the substance of
Jewish religious worship. The congregations differ
in the extent to which they follow the traditional
form of worship—for example, in the wearing of
head coverings or in the use of Hebrew as the lan­
guage of prayer, or in the use of music. Because of
these differences, the format of the worship service
and therefore the ritual that the rabbis use may
vary even among congregations belonging to the
same branch of Judaism.
Where Employed

About 4,600 rabbis served the 5y2 million fol­
lowers of the Jewish faith in this country in 1962.
Most are Orthodox rabbis; the rest are about
equally divided between the Conservative and
Reform branches of Judaism. Most rabbis act as
the spiritual leaders of individual congregations;
some serve as chaplains in the Armed Forces, in
hospitals, and in other institutions; others teach
either full or part time in educational institutions;
and others are employed in social welfare agencies



and in religious education work for such organiza­
tions as the Hillel Foundation.
Although rabbis serve Jewish communities
throughout the Nation, they are concentrated in
those States wdiich have sizable Jewish popula­
tions, particularly, New York, California, Penn­
sylvania, New Jersey, Illinois, and Massachusetts.
Training and Ofher Qualifications

To become eligible for ordination as a rabbi,
a student must complete the prescribed course of
study at a Jewish theological seminary.
Entrance and training requirements depend
upon the branch of Judaism with which the
seminary is associated. The Hebrew Union College
-Jewish Institute of Religion (Reform) and The
Jewish Theological Seminary of America (Con­
servative) are the only seminaries that train
rabbis for their respective branches of Judaism.
Both schools require the completion of a 4-year
college course, as well as prior preparation in
Jewish studies, for admission to the rabbinic pro­
gram leading to ordination. Although 5 years are
normally required to complete the rabbinic course
at the Reform seminary, exceptionally well-pre­
pared students can shorten this period of study
to a minimum of 3 years. The course at the Con­
servative seminary can be completed in 4 years
if the student has a strong background in Jewish
studies; otherwise, the course may take as long
as 6 years.
About 15 seminaries train Orthodox rabbis.
These schools have programs of various lengths,
all leading to ordination. At one of the larger
Orthodox seminaries, well-qualified students who
are college graduates may complete the rabbinic
program in 3 years; however, students who are not
college graduates may spend a longer period at
this seminary and complete the requirements for
the bachelor’s degree at the same time they are
pursuing the rabbinic course. Most Orthodox semi­
naries, however, do not require a college degree
to qualify for ordination.
In general, the curriculums of Jewish theologi­
cal seminaries provide students with a comprehen­
sive grasp of all aspects of Jewish knowledge, in­

THE CLERGY

eluding the Bible and Talmud. Other courses
include Jewish history, theology, pastoral psy­
chology, and public speaking. The Reform semi­
nary places less emphasis on the study of Talmud
and offers a broad course of study that includes
such subjects as human relations and Jewish reli­
gious education. Some seminaries grant advanced
academic degrees in such fields as Biblical and
Talmudic research. All Jewish theological semi­
naries make scholarships and loans available to
students.
Newly ordained rabbis usually begin as leaders
of small congregations, as assistants to experienced
rabbis, or as chaplains in the Armed Forces. As a
rule, the pulpits of large and well-established
synagogues and temples are filled by experienced
rabbis.
The choice of a career as a rabbi should, of
course, be made on the basis of a fervent belief in
the religious teachings and practices of Judaism
and of a desire to serve the religious needs of
others. In addition to having high moral and
ethical values, the prospective rabbi should have
good judgment and be intelligent and able to
write and speak effectively.
Outlook

The number of rabbis in this country will prob­
ably not be sufficient to meet the needs of all
congregations and other organizations desiring
their services in the middle and late 1960’s. In
the early years of the decade, many congregations
—especially those located in States where there




181

are relatively few persons of the Jewish faith—
were unable to secure the spiritual leadership of a
full-time ordained rabbi and had to rely on the
services of senior theological students and lay
readers. Rabbis were also being sought to lead
the many new congregations which had been or­
ganized in and around New York, Chicago, Los
Angeles, Philadelphia, and Boston—where the
majority of the Jewish population is concentrated.
The recent increases in Jewish religious affilia­
tion and in the number of synagogues and temples
seem likely to continue. Furthermore, an increas­
ing demand for rabbis to work with social welfare
and other organizations connected with the Jewish
faith is anticipated.
Although the number of students graduating
annually from the Jewish theological seminaries
is expected to increase also, there will probably
not be enough new graduates to replace the rabbis
who retire or die, and to fill the openings which
will be created by the formation of new congrega­
tions. Immigration, once an important source of
supply of rabbis, is no longer significant. In fact,
graduates of American seminaries are now in de­
mand for Jewish congregations in other countries.
Where To Go for More Information

Young people who are interested in entering
the rabbinate should seek the guidance of a rabbi.
Additional information on how to prepare for
service in the rabbinate of a particular branch
of Judaism, including school admission require­
ments, may be obtained from each theological
school.

BUSINESS A D M IN IS T R A T IO N A N D R ELA T ED
P R O FESSIO N S

People employed in the field of business ad­
ministration are a large group and an extremely
important one. The success or failure of a business
enterprise probably depends more on how well its
managers do their job than it does on anything
else. Business managers are also one of the fastest
growing groups in the country. Between 1958 and
1962, the number of salaried management work­
ers increased more than three times as fast as the
number of workers in all nonagricultural occupa­
tions combined.
In 1962, there were about Sy2 million people in
salaried management positions with private firms.
In addition, many more thousands were employed
as supervisors, and as engineers and other pro­
fessional specialists whose work involved mana­
gerial responsibilities.
Many management workers are college gradu­
ates who have taken their major courses in the
field of business and commerce. In recent years the
graduates in this field have exceeded 50,000 an­
nually and have accounted for close to 15 percent
of all bachelor’s degrees awarded. This major field
is second only to teacher training in numbers of
degrees awarded, and exceeds those granted in
such large fields as engineering, law, and medicine.
Chart 19 shows the number of bachelor’s degrees
awarded in business and commerce since 1920.
Management workers do the same kinds of
things that the owner of a small business does
for himself to keep his business running, but on
a much bigger scale. The man who runs a small
television repair service, for example, may at­
tempt to attract new customers through advertise­
ments in local papers. The workers in charge of
advertising household appliances produced by a
large manufacturing company may use newspaper
advertisements also, but their firm’s advertisements
are likely to be bigger and more elaborate and pub182




CHART 19
BACHELORS DEGREES GRANTED IN
BUSINESS AND COMMERCE
Thousands of Degrees

Source: U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare,
Office of Education.

lished in newspapers throughout the country.
Their company’s products will probably be ad­
vertised also through radio, television, and other
channels. Similarly, the small businessman has, at
most, only a few employees to direct, whereas the
personnel workers in a large corporation must
consider the welfare and productiveness of thou­
sands of employees.
At the top of the management ladder are the
corporation presidents, vice presidents, and other
company officials. These people set company goals,
coordinate company activities, and make the ma­
jor decisions which establish company wide poli­
cies. In small companies, they may also carry
through with the plans which they develop, tak-

BU SIN ESS ADMINISTRATION AND RELATED PROFESSIONS

183

CHART 20
SAM PLE O R G A N IZ A T IO N CHART O F A LA RG E
M AN UFACTU RIN G C O M P A N Y ......
Controller
VICE PRESIDENT-,
FINANCE
N
T reasurer

VICE PRESIDENTPERSONNEL AND
INDUSTRIAL
RELATIONS

Personnel
Manager
Industrial
Relations
Manager
Production
Mdnager

Plant
Engineer
VICE PRESIDENTPRODUCTION
Purchasing
Manager

BOARD OF
DIRECTORS




Traffic
Manager

PRESIDENT

VICE PRESIDENT.
RESEARCH AND
DEVELOPMENT

Research
Manager

Systems and procedures
Auditing
Budget
Taxes
General accounting
Works accounting
Payroll
Employee selection,
placement, and training
Wage and salary
administration
Labor relations
Employee benefits

__J Production control
Quality control
Methods
Standards
Design
Plant layout
Raw materials
Machinery
Storekeeping
Surplus disposal
Routing
Rates
Transportation
Claims

- YJ Research and design

~ f \ Experimental operations
Product
Development
Manager
Sales
Manager

VICE PRESIDENT­
MARKETING
AND SALES

^Regional sales
--{District sales
[Plant sales

Market
Re search
Manager

[Consumer surveys
-"<Sales forecasting
•
New plant location

Advertising
Manager

VICE PRESIDENT.
PUBLIC
RELATIONS

Director of
Public Relations

VICE PRESIDENTLEGAL AFFAIRS

Chief Counsel

[Product advertising
J Space and time
I buying (newspapers,
magazines, radio,STV>
Public information
Stockholder relations
Community relations
Speech,editorial,
and publications
. services
Corporate legal affairs
Employee legal problems
Patents
Copyrights

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK;

184

ing direct charge of the work done in connection
with store displays, financial reports, employee
recreational activities, or other projects. In large
corporations, however, the plans and policies de­
veloped by officials at the top are more likely to
be carried out with the assistance of management
workers in subordinate positions—the middlelevel managers who direct the work of sales,
accounting, personnel, engineering, and other de­
partments. (See chart 20 illustrating how man­
agement functions might be organized within a
large company.) Companies with branch plants
and chain stores, have middle-level managers in
charge of these operations as well. Some compan­
ies also have many supervisory positions which
involve management responsibilities. Middle-level
managers, as well as supervisors in positions of
this kind, are responsible for keeping the units
under their direction operating at peak efficiency
and in accordance with the broad policies estab­
lished for the company as a whole.
At the bottom of the management ladder are the
beginners who are gaining experience which may
later qualify them for management positions.
Many are college graduates who have been re­
cruited because their ability, personality traits,
and training make them promising candidates for
managerial work. Such trainees are placed usually
in jobs where they have particularly good oppor­
tunities to become acquainted with the firm’s busi­
ness activities and policies. Some work as assist­
ants to people in management positions, while
others are given job assignments which are
changed periodically so that they may have an
opportunity to learn all phases of their employer’s
business operations. A limited number go through
formal executive trainee programs.
The number of companies with formal manage­
ment-trainee programs is still relatively small.
Most people enter administrative jobs only after

several years of work experience, often with the
same employer but in work unrelated to manage­
ment. This kind of experience gives the managerto-be an opportunity to acquire the knowledge of
business practices and problems he will need. It
also enables his employer to observe whether he
possesses the maturity, judgment, and leadership
qualities which are essential if he is to be effective
in planning and directing company activities.
Today, more and more employers are seeking to
develop the qualities which make for successful
management through company-sponsored training
programs open to carefully selected groups of
employees.
Increasing dependence on trained management
specialists plus the economic growth which is an­
ticipated point towards the likelihood that em­
ployment in this field of work will expand very
considerably during the middle and late 1960’s. In
addition, new management-related occupations,
such as hospital administrator and urban planner,
are developing which will absorb certain manage­
ment and planning functions formerly handled
by others. Openings for newcomers will arise
also because of the need to fill positions which
become vacant as management workers retire or
leave their jobs for other reasons. Altogether, the
number of management positions in private in­
dustry which will have to be filled can be expected
to reach 150,000 or more per year during the
period 1963-70. Most of them will be filled by
people who have already acquired a substantial
amount of experience in other phases of their em­
ployer’s operations or by outsiders with work ex­
perience related to the positions to be filled. Op­
portunities for many young people to start on the
road to a career in business management will be
provided, however, as the entry jobs farther down
on the ladder are vacated by people who move up
to better positions.

Accountants

(D.O.T. 0-01.)
Nafure of Work

Accounting is the second largest field of pro­
fessional employment for men. In 1962, approxi­
mately 450,000 accountants and auditors were
engaged in professional accounting work, includ­



ing more than 75,000 certified public accountants
(CPA’s) who had passed rigorous examinations
and met educational and experience requirements
prescribed by law in their State. Fewer than 10
percent of all accountants, and 2 percent of the
CPA’s, were women.

B U SIN ESS ADMINISTRATION AND RELATED PROFESSIONS

Accountants compile and analyze business rec­
ords and prepare financial reports, such as profit
and loss statements, balance sheets, cost studies,
and tax reports. The major fields of employment
are public, private, and government accounting.
Public accountants are independent practitioners
who work on a fee basis for any business enter­
prise or individual wishing to use their serv­
ices. Private accountants, often referred to as
industrial or management accountants, handle the
financial records of particular business firms for
which they work on a salary basis. Government
accountants work on the financial records of
government agencies or audit the records of
private business organizations and individuals
whose dealings are subject to government regula­
tion.
Accountants in any field of employment may
specialize in such areas as auditing, tax work,
cost accounting, budgeting and control, or sys­
tems and procedures. Public accountants are likely
to specialize in auditing—that is, in reviewing
financial records and reports and giving opinions
as to their reliability. They also advise clients on
tax matters and other financial and accounting
problems. Most private accountants do cost or
other management accounting. Sometimes they
specialize in tax work or in internal auditing—
that is, examining and appraising financial sys­
tems and management control procedures in their
companies. Many accountants in the Federal Gov­
ernment are employed as Internal Revenue agents,
investigators, and bank examiners, as well as in
regular accounting positions.
Where Employed

More than half of all accountants do private
accounting work for the business and industrial
firms where they are employed. Perhaps a third
are engaged in public accounting as proprietors,
partners, or employees of independent accounting
firms. About 10 percent work for Federal, State,
and local government agencies.
Accountants are employed wherever business,
industrial, or governmental organizations are
located. The majority, however, work in large
metropolitan centers where there is a particularly
heavy concentration of public accounting firms
and central offices of large business organizations.



185

Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement

Training in accounting can be obtained in uni­
versities, 4-year colleges, junior colleges, account­
ing and private business schools, and correspond­
ence schools. Graduates of all these institutions
are included in the ranks of successful account­
ants. However, a bachelor’s degree with a major in
accounting or a closely related field is always an
asset; for the better positions, especially in public
accounting, it may be required. Candidates with
a master’s degree in accounting, as well as college
training in other business and liberal arts subjects,
are preferred by some large public accounting
firms. For beginning accounting positions the
Federal Government requires 4 years of college
training (including 24 semester hours in account­
ing) or an equivalent combination of education
and experience. Some previous work experience
can be of great value also in qualifying for pri­
vate employment. A number of colleges offer stu­
dents an opportunity to get such experience
through internship programs conducted in co­
operation with public accounting or business
firms.
All States require that anyone practicing in the
State as a “certified public accountant” hold a
certificate issued by the State board of account­
ancy. Well over half the States also restrict the
title “public accountant” to those who are licensed
or registered. Requirements for licensing and
registration vary considerably from one State to
another, and information on these requirements
should be obtained directly from the board of
accountancy in the State where the student plans
to practice. Before the CPA certificate is issued,
at least 2 years of public accounting experience,
or its equivalent, is required in nearly all States.
The States of New York, New Jersey, Florida,
South Dakota, Connecticut, and Hawaii also re­
quire CPA candidates to be college graduates.
Similar requirements will become effective in six
more States during 1965, and in a number of addi­
tional States before the end of the decade. All
States use the CPA examination provided by the
American Institute of Certified Public Account­
ants. In recent years, more than 9 out of 10 suc­
cessful CPA candidates have been college gradu­
ates.
Inexperienced accountants usually begin with
fairly routine work. Junior public accountants

186

may be assigned to counting cash, verifying ad­
ditions, or performing other detailed work. They
usually advance to semi-senior positions in 2 or 3
years and to senior positions within another 2 or
3 years. In the larger firms, those successful in
dealing with top executives in industry may even­
tually become supervisors, managers, or partners
or transfer to executive positions in private ac­
counting. Many become independent practitioners.
Beginners in private accounting may start as
ledger or cost clerks, timekeepers, junior internal
auditors, or, occasionally, as trainees for technical
and executive positions. They may rise to chief
plant accountant, chief cost accountant, senior in­
ternal auditor, or manager of internal auditing,
depending on their specialty, and some become
controllers, treasurers, and even corporation presi­
dents. In the Federal Government, beginners are
hired as trainees and are usually promoted in a
year or so. Although advancement may be rapid
for able accountants, those with inadequate aca­
demic preparation are likely to be assigned to
routine jobs and find themselves handicapped in
obtaining promotion.
Accountants who want to get to the top in their
profession usually find it necessary to continue
their study of accountancy and related problems
—even though they may have already obtained
college degrees or CPA certificates. Even ex­
perienced accountants may spend many hours in
study and research, in order to keep abreast of
legal and business developments which affect their
work. For example, more and more accountants
are studying computer operation and programing
methods so as to adapt accounting procedures to
new methods of processing business data.
Employment Outlook

Employment opportunities for accountants,
which were excellent at the beginning of 1963, are
expected to continue to be very good for the re­
mainder of the 1960’s. As many as 10,000 ac­
countants may be needed annually during this
period to replace those who retire, die, or transfer
to other occupations. Provided there is no major
drop in the general level of business activity, at
least as many more will be needed each year to fill
new positions. Demand for college-trained ac­
countants will rise faster than demand for people



OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK;

without this broad background of training, be­
cause of the increasing complexity of business and
its accounting requirements. Graduates of private
business and accounting schools, however, should
also have good job prospects during this period.
Over the long run, accounting employment is
expected to expand rapidly because of several
factors, including the greater use of accounting
information in business management; complex
and changing tax systems; the growth in size and
number of business corporations which are re­
quired to provide financial reports to stockhold­
ers ; and the increasing use of accounting services
by small business organizations. Highly trained
accountants will be in even greater demand as con­
sultants to business managers in projects such as
planning new recordkeeping systems and account­
ing procedures for use with electronic data-processing equipment.
Increasing numbers of women will be engaged
in professional accounting, though most public
accounting firms will probably remain reluctant to
employ them—because of tradition and prefer­
ences expressed by individual clients, and because
some types of travel and factory assignments are
considered better suited to men than to women.
However, those women who rank high among
college graduates with accounting majors and who
secure the CPA certificate will, in time, un­
doubtedly break down these barriers.
Earnings and Working Conditions

Starting salaries for new college graduates
averaged about $6,000 a year late in 1962, accord­
ing to a private survey of over 100 large busi­
ness organizations actively recruiting college
seniors for accounting positions. Smaller firms,
especially the small CPA firms, generally pay
somewhat lower rates. Salaries of senior account­
ants with about 5 years’ experience are generally
about 50 percent higher than starting salaries;
salaries of those with 10 years’ experience are
likely to be about twice as high as the beginning
rate. Many certified public accountants who were
in supervisory positions or were self-employed
earned between $10,000 and $25,000 a year, accord­
ing to the American Institute of Certified Public
Accountants. A few who are partners in very
large public accounting firms may earn as much as

BU SIN ESS ADMINISTRATION AND RELATED PROFESSIONS

$100,000 a year. Chief accountants in other than
public accounting firms averaged between $10,000
and $15,000 a year. In major industrial corpora­
tions, chief internal auditors earned from $18,000
to $28,000 a year, according to the limited data
available. Those in managerial accounting posi­
tions, such as controllers and financial vice presi­
dents, earned much more.
In the Federal Civil Service, the entrance
salary for junior accountants and auditors was
$4,565 in early 1963. Some candidates with su­
perior academic records could qualify for a start­
ing salary of $5,540. Many experienced account­
ants in the Federal Government made between
$9,000 and $10,000 a year, and some, with ad­
ministrative responsibilities, earned $13,000 or
more in 1963.
Public accountants are likely to work especially
long hours under heavy pressure during the tax
season. They do most of their work in their clients’
offices, and sometimes do a considerable amount of
traveling in order to serve distant clients. A few
private and government accountants also do a
great deal of traveling and work irregular hours,
but the majority remain in one office and work be­

187

tween 35 and 40 hours a week, under the same
general conditions as their fellow office workers.
Where To Go for More Information

Information, particularly on CPA’s and on the
aptitude and achievement tests now given in many
high schools and colleges and by many public ac­
counting firms, may be obtained from:
American Institute of Certified Public Accountants,
666 Fifth Ave., New Fork, N.Y., 10019.

Further information on specialized fields of ac­
counting may be obtained from:
National Association of Accountants,
505 Park Ave., New York, N.Y., 10022.
Financial Executives Institute,
2 Park Ave., New York, N.Y., 10016.
The Institute of Internal Auditors, Inc.,
120 Wall St., New York, N.Y., 10005.

A leaflet describing accounting as a career may
be obtained free from:
The American Accounting Association, School of
Commerce,
University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wis., 53700.

Advertising Workers

(D.O.T. 0-81. and 0-06.94)
Nature of Work

Through advertisements published in news­
papers and magazines, broadcast on the radio,
shown on television, displayed on billboards, sent
through the mail, or even written in smoke in the
sky, businessmen try to reach potential customers
and persuade them to buy their products. Adver­
tising workers, who plan and prepare these ad­
vertisements and get them before the public, are
employed by many kinds of organizations. The
largest groups are employed by advertising agen­
cies, which prepare and handle advertising for
other firms on a commission or service fee basis.
The remainder work for manufacturing com­
panies, stores, and other organizations having
products and services to sell; for firms in the ad­
vertising media business, such as publishers,
broadcasters, and outdoor advertising and direct
mail organizations; and for printers, engravers,
art studies, product and package designers, or



other firms which provide services to advertisers
and advertising agencies.
In 1962, about 125,000 men and women were em­
ployed in professional or other positions requiring
considerable knowledge of advertising, according
to an estimate by the Advertising Federation of
America. This total includes executives responsi­
ble for planning and overall supervision; copy­
writers who write the text; artists who prepare
the illustrations; layout specialists who put copy
and illustrations into the most attractive arrange­
ment possible; administrative and technical work­
ers who see to the satisfactory reproduction of the
“ads” ; and salesmen who sell advertising space in
publications or time on radio or television pro­
grams. In a very small advertising organization,
one person may do all these things. Large or­
ganizations employ specialists for research, copywriting, and layout work, and sometimes have
staff members who specialize in writing copy for

188

particular kinds of products or for one type of
media such as radio, popular magazines, or direct
mail. The specialized occupations most commonly
found in advertising work are described next.
Advertising managers head the advertising de­
partments of manufacturing companies and other
advertisers and of newspapers and other media.
Since most businesses use the services of advertis­
ing agencies to handle all or part of their adver­
tising programs, the company’s advertising man­
ager works mostly on policy questions—for
example, the type of advertising, the size of the
advertising budget, and the agency to be em­
ployed. He then works with the agency in plan­
ning and carrying through the program. He may
also supervise the preparation of special sales
brochures, display cards, and other promotional
materials.
The advertising manager of a newspaper, radio
station, or other advertising medium is chiefly con­
cerned with selling advertising time or space; his
functions are similar to those of the sales manager
in other businesses.
Account executives are employed in advertising
agencies to handle relations between the agency
and its clients. An account executive studies the
client’s sales and advertising problems, develops a
plan to meet the client’s needs, and gets his ap­
proval of the proposed program. Account execu­
tives must be able to sell ideas and maintain good
relations with clients. They must know how to
write copy and use artwork, even though they
usually call on copywriters and artists to carry out
their ideas and suggestions.
Some advertising agencies have account super­
visors who oversee the work of the account execu­
tives. In others, account executives are directly
responsible to agency heads.
Advertising copywriters create the headlines,
slogans, and text that attract buyers. They collect
information about the products and the people
who might use them. They use their knowledge of
psychology and writing techniques to prepare
copy especially suited for readers or listeners and
for the type of advertising medium to be used.
Copywriters may specialize in copy that appeals
to housewives, businessmen, scientists, or engineers
—or even in copy which deals with specific prod­
ucts such as lipsticks or washing machines. In
advertising agencies, copywriters work closely



OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

Account executive and copywriter discuss advertising copy
with client

with account executives, though they may be under
the supervision of a copy chief.
Media directors (or space buyers and time buy­
ers) are employed by advertisers or advertising
agencies to determine where and when advertising
should be carried in order to reach the largest
group of prospective buyers at the least cost.
They must have a vast amount of information
about the cost of advertising in all media and the
relative size and type of the reading or listening
audience which can be reached in various parts of
the country by specific publications, broadcast­
ing stations, and other media.
Research directors and their assistants assemble
and analyze information needed for effective ad­
vertising programs. They study the possible uses
of the product, its advantages and disadvantages,
compared with competing products, and the best
ways of reaching potential purchasers. Such
workers may make special surveys of the buying
habits and motives of customers or may try out
sample advertisements to find the most convinc­
ing selling theme or most efficient media for car­
rying the advertising message. The research
director is an important executive in advertising
organizations. More information on this occupa­
tion is contained in the statement on Marketing
Research Workers. (See index for page number.)
Production managers and their assistants ar­
range to have the final copy and art work con­
verted into printed form. They deal with print­

BU SIN ESS ADMINISTRATION AND RELATED PROFESSIONS

ing, engraving, and other firms involved in the
reproduction of advertisements. The production
manager must have a thorough knowledge of
various printing processes, typography, photog­
raphy, paper, inks, and related technical materials
and processes.
Artists and layout men are part of a key creative
group in advertising work. They work closely with
advertising managers, copywriters, and other ad­
vertising personnel in planning advertisements.
More information about this group appears in the
separate statements on Commercial Artists and on
Photographers. (See index for page numbers.)
Where Employed

Perhaps a third of all advertising workers are
employed in advertising agencies; more than half
of these agency workers are employed in the New
York City and Chicago metropolitan areas. How­
ever, there are many independent agencies in other
cities, and many leading agencies operate branch
offices outside the major centers.
Large numbers of advertising workers em­
ployed by other types of employers—especially by
advertising service and media firms—are also
located in the New York and Chicago metropoli­
tan areas. However, many are found in smaller
cities throughout the country.
Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement

Most employers, in hiring advertising trainees,
prefer college graduates with liberal arts training
or majors in marketing, journalism, or business
administration. However, there is no typical edu­
cational background for success in advertising.
Some successful advertising people have had no
college training; others started in such varied oc­
cupations as engineer, teacher, chemist, artist, or
salesman.
Most advertising jobs require a flair for lan­
guage, both spoken and written. Since every as­
signment requires individual handling, a liking
for problem-solving is also very important. Ad­
vertising personnel should have a great interest
in people and things, to help them sell their ideas
to their superiors, to advertisers, and to the public.
They must be able to accept criticism and to gain
important points with tact.



189

Young people planning to enter the advertising
field should get experience in copywriting or other
work for their school publications and, if possible,
through summer jobs in selling, interviewing, or
other work connected with marketing research
services. Some large advertising organizations re­
cruit outstanding college graduates and train them
through programs which cover all aspects of ad­
vertising work. Most beginners, however, have to
locate their own jobs by applying directly to
possible employers. Young men sometimes begin
as mail clerks, or as messengers and runners who
pick up and deliver messages and proofs for de­
partments and agency clients. Some start as as­
sistants in research or production work or as space
or time salesmen. A few begin as junior copy­
writers. In most advertising organizations, women
begin as secretaries or, if they have the required
education, as research assistants. The best avenue
of entrance to advertising work for women is
through advertising departments in retail stores.
Employees with initiative, drive, and talent may
progress from beginning jobs to creative, research,
or managerial work. For management positions,
they should have experience in all phases of the
advertising business including some work with
advertising agencies, media, and advertisers.
Copywriters and account executives can usually
look forward to rapid advancement, if they dem­
onstrate exceptional ability in dealing with clients,
since the success of an advertising organization
depends on satisfied advertisers. Many of these
workers prefer to remain in their own specialties
and for them advancement can be to more respon­
sible work at increased pay. Some topflight copy­
writers and account executives set up their own
agencies.
Employment Outlook

Young people who are very well qualified by
experience and aptitude for advertising work will
find good employment opportunities for the re­
mainder of the 1960’s. Those who are only moder­
ately well qualified may find the advertising field
a hard one to enter and an even harder one in
wdiich to advance.
Employment in advertising is expected to in­
crease moderately during the remainder of the
1960 decade and over the long run because of
anticipated increases in the volume of advertising.
Among the factors that will contribute to the de­

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

190

mand for advertising workers are the overall
growth of industry, the development of new prod­
ucts and services, and the increase in competition
among producers of industrial and consumer
goods. The growth in self-service in retail stores
will also necessitate more advertising since, in the
absence of salespeople, firms will find it increas­
ingly important to advertise to attract customers
to their products. In addition to those needed to
fill new positions, several thousand advertising
workers will be needed each year to replace those
who transfer to other types of work, or who re­
tire, die, or leave the field for other reasons. The
greatest demand is likely to occur in advertising
agencies, since the present trend is for advertis­
ers to turn over more and more of their advertis­
ing work to agencies. The increase in employment
of advertising workers in firms outside the agency
field will probably be at a slower rate. As in the
past, openings will occur in many cities and
towns throughout the country, but are likely to
be most numerous in New York City.
Earnings and Working Conditions

Starting salaries for beginning advertising
workers ranged from $60 to $115 a week in 1962,
according to limited information available. The
higher salaries were most frequently paid in very
large firms recruiting outstanding college grad­
uates, and the lower salaries in stores and small
advertising agencies.
Salaries of workers above the trainee level are
also likely to be highest in the very large firms,
according to a private survey. In advertising
agencies doing a yearly business of $2 million or

less, the annual salaries of copywriters ranged
from $3,200 to $12,800 in early 1962; account
executives’ salaries ranged from $4,500 to $16,500
a year. In agencies doing an annual business of
$10 million or more, salaries ranged from $4,500
to $24,000 for copywriters and from $12,500 to
$25,000 for account executives. Salaries reported
for copy chiefs, account supervisors, and other top
executive personnel were usually, but not always,
substantially vhigher. According to another pri­
vate survey, earnings of advertising managers in
firms other than advertising agencies generally
ranged from $7,000 to $21,000 annually. The wide
spread in salaries reflects the great difference in
experience, function, talent, and degree of respon­
sibility among workers with the same job title.
Advertising workers frequently work under
great pressure. Working hours are extremely ir­
regular, because publication deadlines must be met
and last minute changes are not uncommon. Peo­
ple in creative jobs often work evenings and
weekends to finish important assignments.
At the same time, advertising offers a satisfying
career to people who enjoy variety, excitement,
and a constant challenge to their creative ability
and who can meet the competition. The copywriter
and the artist have the satisfaction of seeing their
work in print or hearing it over the radio, even
though they remain unknown to the public at
large.
Where To Go for More Information

Advertising Federation of America,
655 Madison Ave., New York, N.Y., 10021.
American Association of Advertising Agencies,
420 Lexington Ave., New York, N.Y., 10017.

Industrial Traffic M anagers

(D.O.T. 0-97.66)
Nature of Work

Traffic managers and their assistants arrange
for transportation of raw materials, equipment,
and finished products to and from industrial and
business firms. It is their job to see that raw ma­
terials purchased and finished products sold are
shipped in a way that will insure prompt and safe
delivery and at the same time keep costs as low as



possible. After taking into consideration the kind
and amount of goods to be shipped, the time when
delivery is needed, and other factors, they choose
the type of transportation—water, highway, rail,
air, or pipeline—the route, and finally the particu­
lar carrier, or transportation company, which
wT be best to use for each shipment. (Traffic
ould
managers employed by railroads, airlines, truck­

BUSIN ESS ADMINISTRATION AND RELATED PROFESSIONS

ing firms, and other transportation companies,
who are chiefly concerned with attracting business
to their firms, are not covered by this statement.)
The duties of industrial traffic managers and
their assistants range from routine tasks, such as
checking freight bills, to major planning and
policymaking matters, such as deciding whether
the company should buy and operate its own fleet
of trucks. Other duties include ascertaining the
freight classifications and rates which apply to
goods shipped, routing and tracing shipments, ar­
ranging with carriers for transportation services,
preparing bills of lading and other shipping docu­
ments, and handling claims for lost or damaged
goods. In addition, traffic managers are responsi­
ble for maintaining records not only of shipments
but also of freight rates, commodity classifications,
and applicable government regulations. Some­
times traffic managers are responsible for the
packaging of shipments and for their companies’
warehouse facilities and transportation equip­
ment.
In small companies, or in firms without separate
traffic departments, arrangements for transport­
ing incoming goods may be made by the purchas­
ing department—those for outgoing shipments,
by personnel in the sales department. Employees
who handle transportation arrangements in such
firms must have a broad knowledge of the trans­
portation field, but usually they do not have the
title “traffic manager.”
Since many aspects of transportation are sub­
ject to Federal, State, and local government regu­
lations, traffic managers and their assistants must
know about these and any other legal matters
which apply to their companies’ shipping opera­
tions. Some traffic managers represent their com­
panies before ratemaking and regulatory bodies—
such as the Interstate Commerce Commission,
State Commissions, and local traffic bureaus—to
request or oppose changes in rates, commodity
classifications, or types of service provided by car­
riers.
Where Employed

Altogether, about 15,000 persons held jobs as
industrial traffic managers in 1962. The majority
were employed by manufacturing firms, although



191

Industrial traffic managers often must arrange a combination of
transportation facilities to ship goods

some worked for stores and other types of estab­
lishments. A few traffic managers are in business
for themselves, acting as consultants on transpor­
tation problems for various clients. Most traffic
managers are men.
Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement

Although it is still possible for persons with a
high school education to qualify for traffic man­
ager positions on the basis of previous experience,
a college education is becoming increasingly im­
portant for those who want a career in this field.
For some kinds of work, college training may be
required. For example, in order to argue cases
before the U.S. Government’s Interstate Com­
merce Commission, a traffic manager must meet
certain “qualification standards” which generally
include at least 2 years of college training. In
selecting college graduates for trainee positions,
some employers prefer to hire graduates of schools
of business administration who have majored in
transportation; others prefer persons with degrees
in liberal arts who have had courses in transpor­
tation, management, economics, statistics, market­
ing, or commercial law.
The first jobs of new traffic department employ­
ees are often in shipping rooms, where they gain
experience in routing shipments and preparing
bills of lading and other shipping forms, or in
general traffic offices, where they may do clerical

192

work such as filing schedules of freight rates and
calculating freight charges. After gaining experi­
ence in various routine tasks, employees may be
advanced to more technical work such as analyz­
ing rates and transportation statistics. After fur­
ther experience, a competent worker may ad­
vance to a supervisory position, such as super­
visor of rates and routes. For the most competent,
promotion to assistant manager, and eventually to
manager, is possible.
Workers in traffic departments may prepare
themselves for advancement by participating in
company-sponsored training programs, by taking
courses in colleges, universities, and vocational
schools, or by attending seminars sponsored by
various private organizations. A mark of pro­
fessional status and recognition in traffic manage­
ment work is “certified” membership in the Amer­
ican Society of Traffic and Transportation, Inc.,
which can be acquired by successfully completing
the Society’s examinations and meeting certain
experience requirements.
Employment Outlook

A steady increase in employment in this occupa­
tion can be expected during the 1960’s. Some large
companies will probably follow the example al­
ready set by many corporations and reorganize
their shipping and receiving activities into sepa­
rate traffic departments with traffic managers in
charge. In other companies, newT transportation
jobs will probably be located in purchasing or
sales departments and thus have different job
titles.
Among the factors expected to contribute to
the longrun growth in this field are the increasing
emphasis in many industries on efficient manage­
ment of transportation activities and the trend
toward procuring raw materials and finished
products from more and more remote places and
distributing them to increasingly wider markets.
Since transportation costs are a major factor in
the price of many items, companies are becoming
increasingly concerned with economies in ship­
ping. Undoubtedly, there will be strong demand
for specialists who know how to classify products
so as to obtain the lowest possible freight rates,
choose the carriers which are best able to handle



OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

each shipment, and otherwise protect their com­
panies from excessive shipping expenses.
Although college training will probably be em­
phasized increasingly for entry jobs, experience
and demonstrated ability in the fields just indi­
cated will remain the most important factors in
qualifying for promotion, especially to high-level
traffic management positions.
Earnings and Working Conditions

Young men with college degrees who started
as business trainees in the traffic departments of
large industrial firms often received annual sala­
ries of about $5,500 in 1962, according to the
limited data available. Beginners with less school­
ing, however, usually received lower salaries.
Earnings of experienced traffic managers are
related generally to their companies’ sales volume
and transportation costs. The average (median)
salary of traffic managers in companies with trans­
portation costs totaling less than $500,000 annu­
ally was about $8,500 in 1960, according to the
limited information available. In companies where
transportation costs ranged between $4 million
and $10 million, the average was approximately
$15,000. In firms where these costs are still higher,
some traffic executives earned considerably more
than $20,000.
Traffic department employees usually work the
standard workweek of their companies—generally
from 35 to 40 hours. Those in particularly respon­
sible jobs may have to spend some time outside
regular working hours preparing reports, attend­
ing meetings, and traveling to hearings before
State and Federal regulatory agencies.
Where To Go for More Information)

Young people interested in careers in industrial
traffic management may consult with members of
local traffic and transportation associations or they
may write to:
The Associated Traffic Clubs of America,
4914 Bethesda Aye., Washington, D.C., 20014.

For information on the requirements for certi­
fication by the American Society of Traffic and
Transportation, Inc., write to:
American Society of Traffic and Transportation,
Inc.,
22 West Madison St., Chicago, 111., 60602.

BU SIN ESS ADMINISTRATION AND RELATED PROFESSIONS

193

Marketing Research Workers

(D.O.T. 0-36.11)
Nature of Work

Marketing research workers are factfinders for
businessmen. They seek out, analyze, and inter­
pret the many different kinds of information
which business executives need in order to make
effective plans, such as those concerned with ex­
panding operations, enlarging sales, improving
methods of distributing goods and services, and
increasing profits. Marketing researchers prepare
reports and recommendations to help manage­
ment make decisions on such widely differing
problems as forecasting sales; estimating the po­
tential demand for a new product; selecting a
brand name, package, or design; choosing a new
plant location; price setting, revising salaries and
commissions of salesmen; deciding whether to
move goods by rail, truck, or other methods of
transportation; and determining the kinds of ad­
vertising likely to attract the most business. In
investigating these and other problems, they con­
sider expected changes in population, income
levels, and consumer credit policies, or other sub­
jects pertinent to marketing policies.
Practically all marketing research starts with
the collection of facts from published materials,
from the firm’s own records, and from specialists
on the subject under investigation. Research work­
ers analyzing the fluctuations in a company’s sales,
for example, may first study sales records in a
number of different cities, to determine periodical
changes in sales volume. They may then compare
these changes with changes in population, income
levels, the size of the company’s sales force, and
the amounts spent by the company for advertising
in each city and, from these comparisons, discover
the reasons for changes in the volume of sales.
Other marketing research workers may study
changes in the quantity of company goods on
store shelves, or take inventories of products
stocked in warehouses, or make door-to-door sur­
veys to learn how many company products are
already used in households.
Marketing research is often concerned with the
personal opinions of the people who are using
company products or who might be likely to use
them in the future. For example, a survey in­
tended to help management decide on the design
692-408 O— 6i

-14




Marketing research workers plan a survey

and pricing of a new line of cooking utensils may
involve the use of a questionnaire to learn from
a limited number of housewives the price they
would be willing to pay and their preferences in
such things as the color and size of the utensil
and type of handle.
A survey of this kind is usually carried on under
the supervision of marketing research workers
who specialize in research on consumer goods—
that is, merchandise sold to the general public.
In planning the survey, the marketing research
worker may get help from a statistician in select­
ing a group (or “sample”) of individuals to be
interviewed, in order to be certain that the opin­
ions obtained from them will be representative of
the opinions held by the many other potential
customers. He may also consult a specialist in
“motivational research”—an expert in framing
questions that will produce reliable information
about the motives that lead people to make the
purchases they do. When the investigation gets
underway, the marketing research worker may
supervise a number of interviewers who call on
housewives to obtain answers to the questions. He
may also direct the work of the office employees
who tabulate and analyze the information col­
lected. His report summarizing the survey findings
may also include other information that company
officials need in making decisions about the new
line.

194

Marketing research surveys concerned with
products used by business and industrial firms
may be conducted somewhat differently from con­
sumer goods surveys. Because research on some
industrial products requires interviewers with a
technical knowledge of the product involved, the
interviews are often conducted by the marketing
research worker himself (or by several research
workers, if the survey is a particularly extensive
one). In his interviews, the marketing research
worker not only tries to get opinions about the
proposed product, but keeps on the lookout for
possible new ways of adapting it to industrial
needs. He must, therefore, be a specialist both in
marketing research and in the industrial uses of
the product involved.
Where Employed

An estimated 10,000 to 15,000 people were em­
ployed full time as marketing research workers
in 1962. This number included research assistants
and others in junior positions, wdio helped ex­
perienced analysts collect information and pre­
pare reports, as well as research supervisors and
directors. The majority of these workers were
men; positions held by women were, for the most
part, at the junior professional levels.
In addition to these marketing research work­
ers, a limited number of other professional em­
ployees (statisticians, economists, psychologists,
and sociologists) and several thousand clerical
workers (clerks who coded and tabulated survey
returns, typists, and others) were employed full
time in this field. Thousands of other workers,
many of them women, were employed on a parttime or temporary basis as survey interviewers.
The great majority of the interviewers and a large
proportion of the professional and clerical work­
ers were employed on large-scale research projects
dealing with consumer goods.
Among the principal employers of marketing
research workers are manufacturing companies
and independent advertising and marketing re­
search organizations which do this kind of work
for clients on a contract basis. Marketing research
workers are also employed by very large stores,
radio and television firms, and newspapers, and
some work for university research centers, govern­
ment agencies, and other organizations which pro­
vide information for businessmen. Marketing re­



OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

search organizations range in size from one-man
enterprises to large firms with hundreds of em­
ployees.
The largest number of marketing research
workers are in New York City, where many ma­
jor advertising and independent marketing re­
search organizations are located and where many
large manufacturers have their central offices. The
second largest concentration is in Chicago. How­
ever, marketing research workers are employed
in many other cities as well—wherever there are
central offices of large manufacturing and sales
organizations.
Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement

Many people go into marketing research after
having worked in other kinds of research jobs or
having been employed in work related to the field
of marketing. University teachers with experience
in teaching marketing research or statistics are
often chosen by employers to head new market­
ing research departments.
A college degree is usually required of people
hired as trainees in marketing research. Market­
ing, statistics, English composition, speech, psy­
chology, and economics are among the courses
considered most valuable as preparation for this
field of work. Candidates for some marketing
research positions need specialized training in
engineering or other technical subjects, or a sub­
stantial amount of sales experience and a thorough
knowledge of the company’s products. A knowl­
edge of electronic data-processing procedures is
becoming important because of the growdng use of
electronic computers in sales forecasting, distribu­
tion, cost analysis, and other aspects of marketing
research. Graduate training may be necessary
for some kinds of work—for example, motiva­
tional research or sampling and other statistical
work connected with large-scale surveys.
Trainees in marketing research usually start as
research assistants or junior analysts. At first,
they are likely to do a great deal of clerical work,
such as copying information from published
sources, editing and coding questionnaires, and
tabulating results of questionnaires returned in
surveys. They also learn how to conduct inter­
views and to write reports on survey findings.
After a few years of experience, assistants and
junior analysts may advance to higher level posi-

BU SINESS ADMINISTRATION AND RELATED PROFESSIONS

tions, with responsibility for specific marketing
research projects or to supervisory positions. An
exceptionally able individual may eventually be­
come marketing research director or vice president
in charge of marketing and sales.
Marketing research workers must have excep­
tional ability in recognizing and defining problems
and imagination and ingenuity in applying mar­
keting research techniques to their solution. Above
all, this work calls for the ability to analyze in­
formation and to write reports which will con­
vince management of the significance of the
information.
Employment Outlook

College graduates who are well trained in mar­
keting research methods and statistics are likely
to find very good job opportunities throughout
the rest of the 1960’s. Most of the openings ex­
pected to occur each year in this relatively small
field of work will result from the need to replace
people who retire, die, or leave the field for other
reasons. Competition for top jobs is expected to be
keen because of the growing supply of experienced
people in the field.
Over the long run, the demand for marketing
research services is expected to increase as the
constant stream of new products sharpens compe­
tition for customers. Business managers will find
it increasingly important to obtain the best in­
formation possible for appraising marketing situ­
ations and planning marketing policies. As mar­
keting research techniques improve and more
statistical data accumulate, company officials are
likely to turn to marketing research workers for
information and advice with increasing frequency.
It is anticipated, therefore, that existing market­
ing research organizations will expand and that,
many new marketing research departments and
new independent research firms will be set up.

195

Earnings and Working Conditions

Starting salaries for marketing research train­
ees ranged from about $375 to $450 a month in
1962, according to the limited data available.
People with master’s degrees in related fields usu­
ally started at higher salaries.
Earnings are substantially higher for experi­
enced marketing research workers who attain po­
sitions with considerable responsibility. For ex­
ample, in 1959, earnings of marketing research
directors averaged about $10,000 yearly in firms
with fewer than 1,000 employees and about $14,000
in firms with more than 1,000 employees. In a
few very large firms, their average earnings ex­
ceeded $25,000 a year. Women in marketing re­
search positions tend to earn less than men in com­
parable positions, and relatively few women
advance to the top jobs.
Marketing research workers usually work in
modern, centrally located offices. Some, especially
those employed by independent research firms, do
a considerable amount of traveling in connection
with their work. They frequently work under
pressure and for long hours to meet deadlines.
Nevertheless, marketing research offers an op­
portunity for interesting and varied work to the
individual who enjoys a challenging job.
Where To Go for More Information

Information about specialized types of market­
ing research is contained in a report entitled “Se­
lecting Marketing Research Services” wdiich may
be obtained from :
Small Business Administration,
Washington, D.C., 20416.

Additional information on marketing research
may be obtained from:
American Marketing Association,
27 East Monroe St., Chicago, 111., 60603.

Personnel Workers

(D.O.T. 0-39.81 through .88 and 0-68.70 through .78)
Nature of Work

Personnel workers are responsible for helping
their employers hire good workers and assign
them to work they can do effectively. Personnel
workers may develop recruiting and hiring pro


cedures, interview job applicants, and select and
recommend the ones they consider best qualified
for the openings to be filled. Some of these work­
ers keep personnel records and prepare reports
based on these records. In addition, they may

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

196

counsel employees, deal with disciplinary prob­
lems, classify jobs, plan wage and salary scales
for different positions, develop safety programs,
and conduct research in personnel methods. Em­
ployee training, the administration of retirement
and other employee benefit plans, and labor rela­
tions—including negotiating agreements with un­
ions—are also important aspects of their work.
(Personnel workers in schools are discussed in
the statement on School Counselors elsewhere in
this Handbook.)
Many personnel jobs require only limited con­
tact with people, whereas others involve frequent
contact with employees, union representatives, job
applicants, and other people in and outside the
company.
Business organizations with large personnel de­
partments employ personnel workers with many
different levels of responsibility. Usually, the de­
partment is headed by an executive with the title
of Personnel Director; other titles sometimes
used are Industrial Delations Director, Labor Re­
lations Director, or Employee Relations Director.
The director formulates policy, advises other com­
pany officials on personnel matters, and adminis­
ters his department. Within the department,
supervisors and various personnel specialists—in
labor relations, wage administration, training,
safety, job classification, and other aspects of the
personnel program—may be responsible for the
work of staff assistants and clerical employees.
Small business organizations employ relatively
few personnel workers. Sometimes one person may

be responsible for all the personnel activities and
may have other duties as well.
Personnel workers do much the same kind of
work in Federal, State, and local government
agencies as in large business firms, and the person­
nel departments in government agencies are or­
ganized in much the same way as in private firms.
Government personnel workers, however, spend
considerably more time in activities related to
classifying jobs than do personnel workers in
private industry. Also, it is more common in gov­
ernment for personnel staffs to include people who
devise, administer, and score the competitive ex­
aminations which are given to job applicants.
Where Employed

Personnel workers are employed in nearly all
kinds of business enterprises and government
agencies. The total number employed in early
1963 was estimated to be nearly 100,000. Well over
half of all personnel workers are employed by
private firms. The second largest number are em­
ployed by Federal, State, and local government
agencies. A third and considerably smaller group
of personnel workers are in business for them­
selves, often as management consultants or labor
relations experts. In addition, a number of profes­
sionally trained personnel workers are employed
in colleges and universities as teachers of person­
nel administration, labor relations, and similar
subjects.
Most personnel workers are employed in large
cities and in the highly industrialized sections of
the country. About two-thirds of all personnel
workers are men. Many women, however, are em­
ployed in personnel positions in organizations
which employ large numbers of workers—for ex­
ample, in department stores, telephone companies,
very large companies, and government agencies.
Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement

Personnel

director explains organization
members




chart to his staff

A college education is becoming increasingly
important for entrance into personnel work. In
many companies and government agencies, new
graduates are hired for junior personnel positions
and then provided in-service training through
programs to acquaint them with their employers’
operations, policies, and problems. Other compa­
nies prefer to fill their personnel positions by

BU SINESS ADMINISTRATION AND RELATED PROFESSIONS

transferring people who already have firsthand
knowledge of company operations—employees in
administrative, sales, and other types of positions.
A large number of the people now in personnel
work who are not college graduates entered the
field in this way.
College courses which provide good preparation
for personnel work include personnel manage­
ment, business administration, applied psychol­
ogy, statistics, labor economics, political science,
sociology, English, and public speaking. Many
employers in private industry prefer college
graduates with the specialized training provided
by a major in personnel administration, while
some prefer graduates with a general business ad­
ministration background. Other employers con­
sider a well-rounded liberal arts education the
most desirable preparation for personnel work.
Young people interested in personnel work in
government are often advised to major in public
administration, political science, or personnel ad­
ministration; however, those with other college
majors are also eligible for personnel positions in
government.
For some positions, more specialized training
may be necessary. Jobs involving testing or em­
ployee counseling often require a bachelor’s de­
gree with a major in psychology and sometimes
a graduate degree in this field. An engineering
degree may be desirable for work dealing with
time studies or safety standards, and a degree
with a major in industrial relations may be help­
ful for work involving labor relations. A back­
ground in accounting or law may be useful for
positions concerned with wages, or pension and
other employee benefit plans.
Some college graduates, when starting out in
personnel work, learn what they need to know
about their employer’s operations and specific per­
sonnel procedures by taking part in formal train­
ing programs. Others begin as assistants to ex­
perienced personnel workers and learn on the job.
After such initial training, they may be advanced
to higher level work with responsibility for inter­
viewing applicants, classifying jobs, and for other
aspects of the personnel program. Eventually,
after they have gained experience, those with ex­
ceptional ability may perhaps be promoted to
executive positions such as that of personnel di­
rector. Personnel workers sometimes advance also



197

by transferring to other organizations with larger
personnel programs or from a middle-rank posi­
tion in a big corporation to the top job in the
personnel department of a smaller one.
Personal qualities regarded as important for
success in personnel work include the ability to
speak and write effectively and more than aver­
age skill in working with people of all levels of
intelligence and experience. In addition, the pro­
spective personnel worker should be the kind of
person who can see the employee’s point of view
as well as the employer’s, and be able to give ad­
vice which is in the best interest of both. A liking
for detail, a high degree of persuasiveness, and
a pleasing personality are also important in this
field of work.
Employment Outlook

A moderate number of opportunities for college
graduates to enter personnel work is expected
during the rest of the 1960’s. However, competi­
tion for entry into professional positions is likely
to be keen in many parts of the country. In gen­
eral, employment prospects will probably be best
for college graduates with specialized training in
the field. Opportunities for young people to ad­
vance to personnel positions from production,
clerical, or subprofessional jobs will be limited.
Employment in personnel work is expected to
expand gradually over the long run. As employ­
ment rises in many fields of work, there will be a
need for more personnel workers to carry on re­
cruiting, recordkeeping, and related activities.
Moreover, many employers are coming to recog­
nize the importance of the “human factor” and
to depend more heavily on the services of trained
personnel workers to handle their employee rela­
tions. Employment in some specialized areas of
personnel work is particularly likely to rise.
Wider use will probably be made of psychological
tests; employee training programs are likely to
be expanded and adapted to new problems; the
need for labor relations experts to handle rela­
tionships with unions will probably continue to
increase. The growth of employee services, safety
programs, pension and other benefit plans, and
personnel research is also likely to continue. The
expected increase in demand for' trained workers
should extend throughout tihe personnel field, al­

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

198

though it is likely to be most rapid in some spe­
cialized areas.
Earnings and Working Conditions

Beginning salaries averaged about $5,500 in
1962 for men college graduates employed by large
companies, according to reports from college
placement directors. According to a national sur­
vey covering more than 1,800 job analysts, aver­
age annual salaries of job-analyst trainees em­
ployed in private industry were about $6,100 in
early 1962. Experienced job analysts who were
responsible for very difficult kinds of work earned
$9,700 a year, on the average. According to the
same survey which covered nearly 3,800 directors
of personnel, the average annual salary reported
for directors wdio worked in companies employing
between 250 and 750 workers wT $8,800; those
as
who worked in very large companies averaged
over $15,000 a year. Some top personnel and in­
dustrial relations executives in very large corpo­
rations earned considerably more.
In the Federal Government, inexperienced
graduates with bachelor’s degrees started at $4,565
a year in early 1963; those with exceptionally good
academic records, began at $5,540. The entrance
salary for graduates with master’s degrees was

usually $5,540 also, although for a few especially
well-qualified people in this group it was $6,675.
The salaries paid many Federal Government per­
sonnel workers with administrative responsibili­
ties and several years of experience in the field
were around $11,000 a year; some of these person­
nel workers, in charge of personnel for major de­
partments of the Federal Government, earned
$16,000 or more a year.
Employees in personnel offices generally work
35 to 40 hours a week. During a period of intensive
recruitment, or at the time of a strike or other
emergency, they may work much longer. As a rule,
personnel workers are paid for holidays and vaca­
tions and share in the same retirement plans and
other employee benefits as do all professional em­
ployees in the organizations where they work.
Where To Go for More Information

General information on personnel work as a
career may be obtained by writing to :
The American Society for Personnel Administration,
Kellogg Center, East Lansing, Mich., 48823.

Information about government careers in per­
sonnel work may be obtained from:
Public Personnel Association,
1313 East 60th St., Chicago, 111., 60637.

Public Relations Workers

(D.O.T. 0-06.97)

Nature of Work

Public relations workers are responsible for
developing and maintaining public opinion fa­
vorable to the organizations which use their
services. It is their job to be informed about the
attitudes and opinions of customers, employees,
and other groups which are important to the
interests of their employers. They use the results
of their investigations to help management build
favorable public opinion.
Public relations workers often provide informa­
tion about their employers’ business for publica­
tion in newspapers and magazines, for broadcast­
ing over radio and television, and for use by other
channels of communication. They plan the kind
of publicity which they believe will be most ef­
fective, contact the people who may be interested



in using it, and prepare and assemble the needed
material. Many news items in the daily papers,
human interest stories in popular magazines, and
pamphlets giving information about the company,
its services or industrial processes, and job op­
portunities have their start at public relations
workers’ desks. These workers may also play an
important part in arranging speaking engage­
ments for company officials, and sometimes write
speeches for them to deliver. Often they partici­
pate actively in community affairs, serving as their
employers’ representatives during safety cam­
paigns and other community projects; or they
may arrange plant tours for visiting businessmen,
school pupils, and other groups. Showing a film
at a school assembly, staging a beauty contest,
calling a press conference, and planning a conven­

BU SINESS ADMINISTRATION AND RELATED PROFESSIONS

tion may all be a part of a public relations work­
er’s job.
All public relations workers tailor their pro­
grams to their employers’ particular needs. In a
business firm, the public relations worker is usu­
ally concerned with his employer’s relationships
with employees, civic organizations, and other
community groups, as well as with such matters
as promoting sales and with legislation.
Some public relations workers—for example,
the press agent who handles publicity for an in­
dividual and the man who is in charge of a
limited public relations program for a university,
fraternal organization, or small business firm—
may handle all aspects of the work. They make
their own contacts with outsiders, do their own
planning and research, prepare their own ma­
terial for publication, and otherwise carry out
plans which have been decided on. Such public
relations workers may be top-level officials or
they may occupy positions farther down the man­
agement ladder. They may combine their public
relations duties with responsibility for advertis­
ing or other managerial work.
In large firms with extensive public relations
programs, staffs assigned to this work sometimes
number 100 or more, and several levels of mana­
gerial responsibility may be involved. Responsi­
bility for developing plans and policies may be
shared between a vice president or other top ex­
ecutive who is responsible for the final decisions
and the director (or manager) of a public rela­
tions department. In addition to the public rela­
tions department’s writers, research workers, and
other professional and clerical employees, there
may be specialists in different kinds of public rela­
tions work—in preparing material for publication
in the daily press, for example, or in writing re­
ports sent to stockholders.
Where Employed

In 1962, there were an estimated 50,000 public
relations workers in managerial and supervisory
positions and probably an equal number in nonsupervisory jobs. The number in jobs at the top
(directors) was probably no more than a few
thousand. Most public relations workers are men.
An increasing number of women are entering
public relations work, however, particularly in



199

department stores, hospitals, hotels, and restau­
rants.
The majority of public relations workers are
employed by manufacturing firms, stores, public
utilities, trade and professional associations, and
labor unions. Others are in consulting firms which
provide counsel and other kinds of public rela­
tions services to clients on a fee basis. In 1962,
there were about 1,500 public relations consulting
firms, as well as a number of advertising agencies
which offered public relations services; and there
were about 5,000 corporations which either used
the services of consulting firms or had public rela­
tions staffs of their own.
Employment in public relations work tends to
be concentrated in big cities where press services
and other communications facilities are readily
available and where large corporations and trade,
professional, and other associations have their
headquarters. More than half of the consulting
firms are either in New York City or in Los An­
geles, Chicago, and Washington, D.C.
Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement

A college education is generally regarded as the
best preparation for public relations work, al­
though employers differ in the specific type of
college background they require of applicants.
Some prefer graduates with majors in English,
journalism, or public relations; others prefer can­
didates with a background in science or some other
field related to the firm’s business activities.
Among the college subjects considered desirable
as preparation for a career in public relations are
journalism, economics and other social sciences,
business administration, psychology, public speak­
ing, literature, and physical sciences. Extracur­
ricular activities which may provide students with
some valuable experience include writing or other
work connected with school publications, partici­
pation in student government activities, and parttime or summer employment in selling, public
relations, or related fields of work.
Among the personal qualifications usually con­
sidered important for work in this field are
initiative, drive, the ability to express thoughts
clearly and simply—both in writing and orally
—and creativity. Fresh ideas are so important to
effective public relations work that some experts
in this field spend all of their time providing ideas

200

and planning programs but take no active part in
carrying out the programs. In selecting new em­
ployees, many employers prefer people who have
had some previous work experience, particularly
in journalism or some related field.
Some companies—particularly those with large
public relations programs for which they recruit
and hire young men with outstanding college
records as public relations trainees—have formal
training programs for new employees. In other
companies, new workers learn by working on the
job under the guidance of experienced staff mem­
bers. Beginners often start out maintaining files
of material about the company and its activities,
scanning newspapers and magazines for appropri­
ate articles to clip, and doing the research needed
in order to assemble information for speeches and
pamphlets. After gaining experience, they may be
given progressively more difficult assignments,
such as writing press releases, speeches, and ar­
ticles for publication. Promotion to supervisory
and managerial positions may come as the worker
demonstrates ability to handle more difficult and
creative assignments. The most skilled public
relations work—initiating and developing plans
and maintaining the outside contacts which are
so important in a successful program—is usually
in the hands of the director of the department
and his most experienced staff members. Some
experienced public relations workers eventually
open their own consulting firms, while others
move on to better positions with other employers.
Employment Outlook

Employment opportunities are expected to ex­
pand moderately in this field during the rest of
the 1960’s. In addition to the new jobs created, as
expanding business firms require the services of
more public relations specialists, other openings
will occur because of the need to replace workers
who retire or leave their positions for other
reasons.
Many of the positions which will have to be
filled during the coming years will call for ex­
perienced public relations workers. They are
likely to be filled mainly by people who have al­
ready done research, prepared material for publi­
cation, or handled other public relations assign­
ments. As workers with this kind of experience
are moved up to fill the public relations jobs that



OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

become available, however, they will leave job
vacancies farther down the line which will afford
newcomers a chance to start and ^ain experience
in the field. Jobs at the top are limited in number,
however, and competition for them is keen.
Earnings and Working Conditions

Most trainees in public relations work in 1962
received starting salaries of about $5,000 to $7,000
a year, according to the limited data available.
The highest starting salaries were paid chiefly to
beginners who were employed by consulting firms
in major cities and who were exceptionally wellqualified from the standpoint of educational back­
ground and previous work experience.
The salaries of experienced public relations
workers are generally highest in large companies,
where public relations programs are likely to be
more extensive than elsewhere. According to the
most recent information available (1959), the
average (median) salary for privately employed
public relations directors or managers was about
$19,000 a year in firms with an annual sales volume
of more than $200 million and about $12,000 in
those with a sales volume of less than $100 million.
Top officials such as vice presidents in charge of
public relations earned from $25,000 to $50,000 a
year or more. Many consulting firms employ fairly
large staffs of exerienced public relations spe­
cialists and often pay salaries which are some­
what higher than the salaries paid public rela­
tions workers in other business organizations. In
social welfare agencies and universities, salary
levels tend to be somewhat lower.
The workweek for public relations workers is
usually the same as for other officials in their
organizations—35 to 40 hours. Irregular hours and
overtime may often be necessary, however, to meet
deadlines, prepare or deliver speeches, attend
meetings and community functions, and make
trips out of town. Sometimes, because of the nature
of their regular assignments or because of special
events, they may be on call on a round-the-clock
basis with the workweek stretching to 6 or 7 days
instead of the usual 5.
Where To Go for More Information

Public Relations Society of America, Inc.,
375 Park Aye., New York, N.Y., 10022.

BU SIN ESS ADMINISTRATION AND RELATED PROFESSIONS

201

Purchasing Agents

(D.O.T. 0-91.60)

Nature of Work

Purchasing agents and their assistants buy the
raw materials, machinery, supplies, and services
required by companies and organizations to carry
on their operations. They are responsible for
obtaining items and services at the lowest cost
consistent with good quality and for seeing that
supplies are on hand when needed.
The head of the purchasing department is
usually called a purchasing agent, but he may
have the title of vice president—purchasing,
procurement or purchasing officer, director or
manager of purchasing, or buyer. (“Buyers” in
retail stores—people who select and purchase
merchandise for resale to individual customers—
are not included in this report.) In a large firm,
the head of the purchasing department directs the
work of a staff including assistant purchasing
agents and various types of clerical workers. Each
purchasing assistant may be assigned to a broad
area; one person may be responsible for buying
raw materials; another, factory machinery; and
another, office supplies. Others may specialize in
buying certain items—for example, steel, lumber,
cotton, or oil.

The purchasing agent receives order forms or
requisitions from the various departments of the
company. These requisitions list and describe
needed items and include such information as
required quantities and delivery dates. Since the
agent can usually purchase from many sources,
his main job is to select the seller who offers the
best value. To do this, the agent or his staff mem­
bers must consider many factors, such as the exact
specifications for the required items, price, qual­
ity, quantity discounts, transportation cost, and
delivery time. Much of the information is ob­
tained by comparing listings in catalogs and trade
journals and by telephoning various suppliers, but
the purchasing agent also meets with salesmen to
examine sample goods, watch demonstrations of
equipment, and discuss items to be purchased.
Sometimes, suppliers are invited to bid on large
orders, and the purchasing agent selects the lowest
bidder who meets requirements with respect to the
specifications set up for the goods and date of
delivery.
It is important for purchasing agents to develop
good working relations with their suppliers, in
order to get “rush” orders accepted, arrange for
favorable terms of payment, and receive other
considerations such as special packaging and
prompt adjustment service. They must also work
closely with personnel in various departments of
their own company. For example, they frequently
discuss product specifications with company
engineers or discuss shipment handling problems
with employees in the shipping and receiving,
storage, or traffic departments.
Where Employed

Purchasing agent discusses new product's design with other staff
members before buying parts




Well over half of the approximately 100,000
purchasing agents and closely related types of
buyers employed in 1960 were in manufacturing
industries. Large numbers were employed in gov­
ernment agencies-—Federal, State, and local—and
in wholesale and retail trade. Public utili­
ties, transportation companies, and institutions
(schools, colleges, universities, and hospitals),
each employed substantial numbers of purchasing

202

agents and assistants. Even the smallest in­
dustries employed some purchasing personnel.
Most purchasing agents work in firms that have
fewer than 10 employees in the purchasing depart­
ment. Some large firms, however, may have a
hundred or more specialized buyers. Probably
fewer than 10 percent of all purchasing agents
and closely related types of buyers are women.
Government agencies, hospitals, restaurants, and
textile firms are the principal employers of women
purchasing agents.
Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement

Although employers differ greatly in the
qualifications required for purchasing personnel,
it is evident that a college degree is becoming
increasingly important for promotion to a highlevel purchasing position. Many employers prefer
graduates of schools of business administration
or engineering who have had courses in account­
ing, economics, and purchasing. A few require
graduate training in business administration. On
the other hand, many firms give great weight to
experience with the company and select pur­
chasing workers from among their own personnel.
Regardless of previous training and experience,
the beginner in the purchasing field must spend
considerable time learning about his company’s
operations and purchasing procedures. Some
companies provide classroom-type instruction and
on-the-job training. The beginner may be assigned
to the storekeeper’s section to learn about opera­
tions such as keeping inventory records, filling
out forms to initiate purchases of additional stock,
or providing proper storage facilities. He may
then work with an experienced buyer to learn
about types of goods purchased, prices, and
sources of supply. Following the initial training
period, the trainee may become a junior buyer of
standard catalog items. After he gains experience
in the various aspects of purchasing and dem­
onstrates ability to exercise good judgment and
accept responsibility, he may be promoted to
assistant buyer or assistant purchasing agent, and
then to full-fledged purchasing agent. In large
companies, purchasing agents or heads of pur­
chasing departments may become vice presidents
with overall responsibility for purchasing, ware­
housing, traffic, and related functions.



OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK
Employment Outlook

Opportunities are expected to be good during
the rest of the 1960’s for well-qualified young
people to enter and advance in purchasing
occupations. Demand is expected to be strong for
graduates of schools of business administration,
who have had courses in purchasing. Demand is
also expected to be above average for graduates
with a good background in engineering and
science to fill jobs in purchasing departments of
firms that manufacture complex machinery,
chemicals, and other technical products. Graduates
with degrees from liberal arts colleges will be able
to obtain trainee positions in many types of firms.
Outstanding persons who do not have a college
education will continue to be promoted from
clerical, sales, and other types of jobs, but their
opportunities for advancement to high-level pur­
chasing jobs will tend to decrease. They will also
be at a competitive disadvantage for jobs which
involve the development of scientific methods for
materials management or purchasing-related
activities such as inventory control, including the
use of electronic data-processing equipment.
Some of the major factors which point toward a
rising demand for purchasing agents and their
assistants over the long run, are: The continuing
increase in the size of business and manufacturing
firms, the development of new products and new
sources of supply (including foreign markets),
and the ever-increasing complexity and speciali­
zation of business functions. Competition among
manufacturers for new, improved, and less costly
goods, raw materials, and services will further
direct the attention of top management to the
importance of the purchasing function. Many job
opportunities will result from the need to replace
personnel who retire, transfer to other jobs, or
leave the field for other reasons.
Earnings and Working Conditions

Beginning annual salaries for men college
graduates hired as trainees in purchasing
departments of large firms averaged about $5,500
in early 1962.
According to the most recent information
available (1959), average (median) annual
salaries of experienced purchasing agents ranged

BU SIN ESS ADMINISTRATION AND RELATED PROFESSIONS

from $8,400 in firms with an annual volume of
purchases under $3 million to $15,300 in firms
with purchases amounting to more than $30
million. Some top purchasing executives earned
$25,000 to $50,000.
Employees in purchasing departments usually
work the standard workweek of the company—
generally from 35 to 40 hours a week. In addition,
purchasing agents may spend time outside the
regular hours to attend meetings, prepare reports,
visit suppliers’ plants, or travel. Purchasing




203

department employees usually receive the same
holidays, vacations, and various benefits as other
workers in the company.
Where To Go for More Information

Young people interested in a career in pur­
chasing may consult members of local purchasing
associations, or they may write to :
National Association of Purchasing Agents,
11 Park PL, New York, N.Y., 10007.

TH E PERFO RM IN G A R TS

The performing arts include music, acting, and
the dance. The interest in and attraction of ca­
reers in this field are so great that the number of
first-rate artists seeking employment is generally
much larger than the number of full-time employ­
ment opportunities available. As a result, many
performers supplement their incomes by teaching,
and others have to work much of the time in
different types of occupations.
The difficulty of earning a living as a performer
is one of the facts young people should bear in
mind in considering an artistic career. They
should, therefore, consider the possible advan­
tages of making their art a hobby rather than a
field of work. Aspiring young artists must usually
spend many years in intensive training and
practice before they are ready for public per­
formances. A person needs not only great natural
talent but also determination, a willingness to
work long and hard, and an overwhelming inter­
est in his chosen field—a love for it so great that,

despite all obstacles he would rather work in it
than in any other occupation.
The statements which follow this introduction
give detailed information on the instrumental
musician, singer, actor, and dancer as performing
artists and in related work. Many men and women
with an interest and talent in music are also
employed as directors of church choirs or school
choruses or as orchestra or band conductors. A
few with great creative talent work chiefly as
composers of music. Other musicians arrange or
adapt melodies for orchestras or bands; still others
(copyists) copy parts for individual instruments
from the musical scores written by arrangers.
Similarly, a few people with ballet training and
originality work as choreographers, who design
new ballets or other types of dance performances,
and some are dance directors. Another small field
of employment, to which people with executive
ability and a knowledge of acting and of produc­
tion problems can sometimes progress, is that of
directing or producing stage, television, or
motion picture productions.

Musicians and Music Teachers

(D.O.T. 0-24.12 and 0-24.31)

Nature of Work

Professional musicians—whether they play the
piano, violin, or trumpet in a symphony orchestra,
dance band, or “jazz combo”—have behind them
many years of study and intensive practice.
Although most musicians play only one in­
strument, many are qualified to play two or
more—for example, the saxophone and clarinet,
oboe and English horn, or piano and organ. As a
rule, musicians also specialize in either classical
or popular music; only a few play both types
professionally.
In a symphony orchestra, 85 to 100 or more
musicians play together under the direction of a
conductor. About half the musicians in the
orchestra play the strings—violins, violas, cellos,
204




and double basses. Smaller numbers play the
brass—trombones, trumpets, French horns, and
tubas; and the wroodwinds—oboes, flutes, piccolos,
clarinets, English horns, and bassoons; and a few
play the drums, cymbals, and other percussion
instruments. Usually the orchestra also has among
its members a pianist and one or two harpists.
Each orchestra player has attained great technical
skill in playing his particular instrument, and
they play together with great precision. The
musicians in the “first chairs”—the leading play­
ers of each kind of instrument—are especially
fine artists and can play any solos called for by the
parts for their instruments.
Musicians trained in classical music also play
in opera and theater orchestras and for other

THE PERFORMING ARTS

205

kinds of performances needing orchestral accom­
paniments. Some form small groups—a string
quartet or a*trio (made up of a violinist, a cellist,
and a pianist, for example)—which give concerts
of chamber music. Many pianists serve as accom­
panists for vocal or instrumental soloists or choral
groups or provide background music in res­
taurants or other places. Most organists play in
churches, often directing the choir as well as
playing the organ. A very few exceptionally
brilliant and well known musicians—chiefly pian­
ists and violinists—become concert artists, giving
their own concerts and appearing as soloists with
symphony orchestras. Orchestras, chamber music
groups, and individual artists often make
recordings.
Musicians who specialize in popular music
usually play the trumpet, trombone, clarinet, saxo­
phone, or one of the “rhythm'5 instruments—the
piano, string bass, drums, or guitar. Dance bands
using these instruments play in nightclubs, res­
taurants, and at special parties. The best known
bands and solo performers sometimes give con­
certs and perform on television. They also make
recordings.
Many musicians, in addition to their work as
performers, give private lessons in their own
studios or in pupils’ homes. More than half of the
people primarily employed as instrumental
musicians (estimated at about 100,000 in 1962)
teach in the Nation’s schools and colleges and are
seldom, if ever, paid for performing. These
teachers may be members of the faculty of music
schools or conservatories or of colleges which offer
instruction in instrumental music. Some are music
teachers in elementary or secondary schools where
they direct vocal and instrumental music pro'

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1

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L

Musicians in dance bands must usually work nights and weekends




grams, teach music appreciation, and may also
give group instruction on an instrument.
In addition to the people primarily employed
as musicians or music teachers, thousands of
qualified instrumentalists have other full-time jobs
and only occasionally are paid for work in the field
of music. Most of these part-time musicians belong
to dance bands which are hired to play at private
parties or for other special occasions. Many of
those with a background in classical music play
occasionally in an orchestra or for other per­
formances, or do some part-time teaching.'
Where Employed

Most professional musicians work in large cities,
principally in New York, Chicago, and Los
Angeles, where most of the Nation’s entertain­
ment activities are concentrated. In addition,
sizable numbers work in Baltimore, Boston, Cin­
cinnati, Cleveland, Minneapolis, Philadelphia,
Rochester, San Francisco, and other cities which
have major symphony orchestras or music schools
and conservatories. Music teachers in elementary
and secondary schools, as well as in colleges and
universities, are employed all over the country.
Moreover, just about every town and city has at
least one private music teacher, usually a pianist.
Dance bands and civic orchestras are also located
in many communities, although in the smaller
towns, their members are usually only part-time
musicians with other regular jobs.
A few* musicians v*ere employed in hospitals, to
work in the field of music therapy, and some
worked in music libraries and other places.
Training and Other Qualifications

Most people who become professional musicians
begin studying an instrument at an early age.
Boys and girls often get* their first introduction
to instrumental music through group instruction
in piano, violin, trombone, and other instruments
offered in many elementary schools and high
schools. They can also take music lessons from
private teachers or in the preparatory department
of a music conservatory.
To achieve a career as a performer of classical
music or as a music teacher, young people need
intensive training—either through private study
with an accomplished artist, or in a college or

206

university with a strong music program, or in a
conservatory of music. They need to acquire not
only great technical skill but also a thorough
knowledge of music, and they must learn how to
interpret music. Before a young person can
qualify for advanced study in a music conserv­
atory, it is frequently necessary to have an
audition. Many of the teachers in these schools are
accomplished artists who will undertake the
training only of promising young musicians. An
audition is sometimes required also for admission
to the department or school of music of a college
or university. However, the emphasis on talent
as a performer is less for young people preparing
to be music teachers than for those preparing only
for careers as performers.
Many conservatories of music and college and
university schools of music offer 4-year programs
leading to a bachelor’s degree in music education.
Students who complete these programs can qual­
ify for the State certificate required for elemen­
tary and secondary school positions. Conservato­
ries and collegiate music schools frequently award
also the degree of bachelor of music to students
who major in instrumental or vocal music. The
4-year program leading to this degree provides
not only training as a performer but also a broad
background in musical history and theory, to­
gether with some liberal arts courses. Advanced
degrees are usually required for college teaching
positions, but exceptions may be made for
especially well-qualified artists.
Musicians who play jazz and other popular
music also must be skilled in their instrument and
have an understanding of and feeling for that
style of music. As a rule, when young, they
take lessons with private teachers and then seize
all opportunities, beginning while they are still
in high school, to play in amateur or professional
performances. Some groups of young people form
their own small dance bands. As they gain
experience and become known, the players may
have opportunities to audition for other local
bands and, still later, for the better known bands
and orchestras.
Employment Outlook

As a field of employment, instrumental music
has been overcrowded for many years, and it is
expected to remain so throughout the 1960’s.



OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

Opportunities for concerts and recitals are not
numerous enough to provide adequate employment
for all the pianists, violinists, and other instru­
mentalists qualified as concert artists. Competition
is usually keen for positions which afford some
stability of employment—for example, jobs with
major orchestras and teaching positions in
conservatories and colleges and universities.
Because of the ease with which a musician can
enter private music teaching, the number of music
teachers has been and will probably continue to be
more than sufficient to give instruction to all the
young people seeking lessons. Though many
opportunities for single and short-term engage­
ments playing popular music in night clubs,
theaters, and other places can be expected, the
supply of qualified musicians seeking such jobs is
likely to remain greater than the demand. On the
other hand, a shortage of highly qualified church
organists and choir masters may persist in many
communities during the next few years; firstclass, experienced accompanists and well trained,
outstanding players of stringed instruments,
including violin, viola, cello, and double bass, are
likely to remain relatively scarce; and public
school systems will probably continue to need
more, fully qualified music teachers and
supervisors.
Employment opportunities for performers are
not expected to increase over the long run.
Although the number of civic orchestras in smaller
communities has been growing steadily, many of
these orchestras provide only part-time employ­
ment for musicians who work chiefly as teachers
or in other occupations. Moreover, the openings
created by the establishment of these orchestras
have been more than offset by the decline in
opportunities in the theater and other places,
which has resulted, in part, from the greatly
increased use of recorded music.
The employment outlook in music education,
for people who are well-qualified as both musi­
cians and as teachers, is considerably brighter than
for performers. A great increase in the numbers
of young people of high school and college age will
take place during the 1960’s. Moreover, the number
of schools with music programs is growing
steadily, and interest in music as an avocation is
also rising, as evidenced by the increasing sales of
musical instruments. Thus over the long run, a

THE PERFORMING ARTS

207

fairly rapid increase can be expected in the em­
ployment of elementary andv secondary school
music teachers and also in the teaching staffs of
college and university music schools and conserva­
tories of music.
Earnings and Working Conditions

Musicians who were members of the 26 major
symphony orchestras in the United States in 1962,
had a very wide range of earnings—from a low of
$1,600 for the season, to $10,000 and higher.
According to the American Symphony Orchestras
League, Inc., the average of the salaries paid to
musicians by these orchestras was about $4,500 for
the season. Those who played in dance bands were
paid from $60 to $300 per week in 1962, according
to the'limited information available. Symphony
orchestras had relatively short seasons, generally
ranging from 22 to 32 weeks a year. Instrumen­
talists who were members of small ensembles
reportedly received as much as $200 per concert.
Concert soloists have the highest earnings of all
musicians, but they have to deduct the cost of
expensive clothes, travel, and management and
coaching fees from their earnings. The amount
they receive for a performance depends to a large
extent on their professional reputations.
The salaries of public school music teachers
are determined by the salary schedule adopted for
all teachers. (See statements on Elementary and
Secondary School Teachers.) However, they
frequently supplement their earnings by giving
private music lessons and taking church positions.
Earnings from private teaching are very uncertain
and vary according to the musician’s reputation,
the number of teachers in.the locality, the number
of students desiring lessons, the economic status
of the community, and other factors.
Musicians who are performers customarily work
at night and on weekends. They must also spend
considerable time in regular daily practice and in
rehearsing new scores. Most private teaching is

done in the late afternoon, on Saturdays, and
sometimes in the evening.
Performers may have relatively long periods of
unemployment between jobs and, thus, the overall
level of their earnings is generally lower than that
in many other occupations. Moreover, performers
do not usually work steadily for one employer.
Consequently, fewTperformers can qualify for un­
employment compensation, and they seldom have
either sick leave or vacations with pay.
Most musicians who play professionally belong
to the American Federation of Musicians (AFLCIO). Concert soloists also belong to the Ameri­
can Guild of Musical Artists, Inc. (AFL-CIO).
Where To Go for More Information

Information about wages, hours of work, and
working conditions for professional musicians is
available from:
American Federation of Musicians (AFL-CIO),
425 Park Ave., New York, N.Y., 10022.

Information about employment opportunities
for church musicians, as well as the requirements
for certification of organists and choir masters,
may be secured from:
American Guild of Organists,
630 Fifth Ave., New York, N.Y., 10020.

A list of accredited schools of music is avail­
able from:
National Association of Schools of Music,
Knox College, Galesburg, 111., 61401.

Further information about music teaching in
elementary and secondary schools is available
from:
Music Educators National Conference, The National
Education Association of the United States,
120116th St. NW, Washington, D.C., 20036.

Information about employment opportunities
with symphony orchestras may be obtained from:
The American Symphony Orchestra League, Inc.,
Symphony Hill, P.O. Box 66, Vienna, Va., 22180.

Singers and Singing Teachers

(D.O.T. 0-24.00 through 0-24.05)
Nature of Work

Professional singing is an art which requires
not only a fine voice, but also a highly developed



technique and a broad knowledge of music. The
pinnacle of a singing career is to become an opera
and concert star. The tiny group of famous artists

208

who have reached this height sing leading roles
with the major opera companies, go on concert
tours in the United States and other countries,
and often make recordings. Somewhat larger num­
bers of singers obtain secondary roles in operas
and engagements as soloists in oratorios and other
types of performances. A much larger group—
probably the majority of all professional singers
of classical music—are soloists in churches or
synagogues. Some singers also become members
of opera and musical comedy choruses or other
professional choral groups.
Singers who specialize in popular music have a
style of singing so different from that of singers
of classical music that the two groups have little
in common technically. Although most popular
music singers have some vocal training, many of
them rely on their personalities to a much greater
extent than do singers of classical music to help
them “put a song across.” Popular music singers
perform in musical shows of all kinds—in the
movies, on the stage, on radio and television, and
in nightclubs and other entertainment places.
They may be employed as featured singers with
a dance band; or they may sing with other vocal­
ists in small groups such as trios or quartets. The
best known popular music singers make many
recordings.
Since most singers of both classical and popu­
lar music have only part-time or irregular em­
ployment as singers, they often have full-time
jobs of other types and sing only in the evenings
or on weekends. Some—chiefly singers of serious
music—give private voice lessons. A sizable num­
ber of singers with the necessary qualifications
are employed in elementary and secondary schools,
where they teach music appreciation courses and
lead choruses. Others give voice training or direct
choral or opera theater groups in music conserva­
tories or in colleges and universities with schools
or departments of music.

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

singers, including those who specialize in folk
and country music, for both “live” performances
and recordings. Persons trained as singers who
teach music in elementary and secondary schools
and in colleges, universities, and conservatories of
music are employed throughout the country. Op­
portunities for part-time employment, chiefly as
church singers, are to be found in small towns as
well as in big cities.
Training and Other Qualifications

Young people who want to perform profession­
ally as singers of serious, or classical, music should
acquire a broad background in music, including
its theory and history. The ability to dance is also
very helpful since singers who perform in musical
comedies and other shows are frequently required
to dance as well as to sing. In addition, boys and
girls interested in a singing career should start
piano lessons at an early age. As a rule, voice
training should not begin until after the individ­
ual has matured physically, although young boys
who sing in church choirs receive some training
before their voices change. Moreover, because of
the work and expense involved in serious voice
training—which often continues for years after
the singer’s professional career has started—it is
important that a prospective singer audition be­
fore a competent voice teacher to determine
whether professional training is warranted.
Young people can prepare for careers as singers
of classical music by enrolling in a music con­
servatory, a school or department of music con-

Where Employed

Probably not more than 75,000 to 80,000 people
were earning the major part of their incomes from
singing engagements or vocal teaching in 1962.
Opportunities for singing engagements are mainly
in New York City, Los Angeles, and Chicago—
the Nation’s chief entertainment centers. Nash­
ville, Tenn., is a major place of employment for



Professional singers may also be required to dance

THE PERFORMING ARTS

nected with a college or university, or by taking
private voice lessons. Before students are ad­
mitted to music conservatories or to college- or
university-connected schools or departments of
music, they may have to audition before a faculty
member who may be a well-known artist. These
schools provide not only voice training but other
training necessary for understanding and inter­
preting music, including music-related training
in foreign languages, and sometimes dramatic
training. After completing a 4-year course of
study, a graduate may be awarded either the de­
gree of Bachelor of Music or Bachelor of Science
(in music) or Bachelor of Fine Arts.
Young singers who plan to teach music in public
elementary or secondary schools need at least a
bachelor’s degree with a major in music education
and must meet their State certification require­
ments for teachers. Such training is available in
over 500 colleges and universities throughout the
country. College teachers are usually required to
have a master’s degree and sometimes a doctor’s
degree, but exceptions may be made for especially
well-qualified artists.
Although voice training is an asset for singers
of popular music, many with untrained voices
have had successful careers. The typical popular
song does not demand that the voice be developed
to cover as wide a range on the musical scale as
is required for classical music, and the lack of a
powerful voice may be overcome by using a micro­
phone.
Young singers of popular songs may become
known by participating in amateur and paid per­
formances in their communities. These engage­
ments may lead to employment with local dance
bands, and possibly later with well-known ones.
In addition to musical ability, it often takes an
outstanding personality, an attractive appearance,
good contacts, and good luck to achieve a singing
career. Furthermore, a career in this art is often
relatively short, since it depends on a good voice
and public acceptance of the artist, both of which
may be affected by age.
Employment Outlook

The employment situation for singers will prob­
ably remain highly competitive during the re­
mainder of the 1960’s. Competition among popular
692— 0 —63------15
408




209

singers will continue to be especially keen. A great
number of single-job openings are likely to occur
in the entertainment field—the opera and concert
stage, the movies, the theater, nightclubs, radio
and television, dance bands, and other places—
but not enough to provide steady employment for
all qualified singers. The great majority of pro­
fessional singers, therefore, will probably have to
supplement their incomes by working part time
as singing teachers or in other jobs. The demand
for church singers is expected to expand because
of the continued growth in number of religious
congregations, but most of these openings will
probably be filled either by part-time singers who
have steady employment in other fields or by
volunteers.
Little growth in overall employment oppor­
tunities for performers is likely over the long
run. The use of recorded music has practically
replaced the “live” singer on radio; also, the num­
ber of television performances given by singers
is, and will probably continue to be, limited. How­
ever, there is a growing demand for singers to
record commercials for both radio and television
advertising. The outlook for singers who can meet
State certification requirements for positions as
music teachers or who can qualify for college
teaching will be considerably brighter than for
performers. As school enrollments increase, the
demand for music teachers in the Nation’s ele­
mentary and secondary schools is expected to grow
and some increased employment of music teachers
can be expected in colleges and universities also,
since enrollments in schools and departments of
music in these institutions are likely to rise along
with the increase expected in college enrollments
generally. In addition, music teachers will be
needed to replace those who will transfer to other
fields of work, retire, or die.
Earnings and Working Conditions

Most professional singers have relatively modest
earnings. For example, soloists with church choirs
received about $25 per service, or its equivalent
each month, in 1962, according to the limited in­
formation available. Singers employed by dance
bands and in motion pictures earned as much as
$200 per week. In contrast, the relatively few wellknown singers in the field earn considerably more

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK,

210

than these amounts. A concert soloist, opera star,
or a top recording artist of popular music may
command more than $1,000 for a single perform­
ance.
The salaries of public school music teachers are
determined by the salary schedule adopted for all
teachers in their school system. Private music
teachers charge fees which vary greatly, depend­
ing on the teacher’s reputation, the economic
status of the families in the community, and other
factors.
Singers generally work at night and on week­
ends. School teachers have regular working hours,
and private voice teachers can usually give les­
sons at their own convenience. Work in the enter­
tainment field is seasonal, and few performers
have steady jobs.
Singers who perform professionally on the con­
cert stage or in opera belong to the American
Guild of Musical Artists, Inc.; those who sing on
radio or television or who make phonograph re­
cordings are members of the American Federa­
tion of Television and Radio Artists; singers in
the variety and night club field belong to the

American Guild of Variety Artists; those who
sing in musical comedy and operettas belong to
the Actors’ Equity Association; and those who
sing in the movies belong to the Screen Actors
Guild, Inc. All of these unions are branches of
the Associated Actors and Artistes of America
(AFL-CIO).
Where To Go for More Information

Information about wages, hours of work, and
working conditions for performers is available
from the unions which organize singers in the
various entertainment media.
Information about accredited schools and de­
partments of music may be obtained from:
National Association of Schools of Music,
Knox College, Galesburg, 111., 61401.

Further information about music teaching in
elementary and secondary schools is available
from:

Music Educators National Conference, The National
Education Association of the United States,
1201 16th St. NW., Washington, D.C., 20036.

Actors and Actresses

(D.O.T. 0-02.11, .15, and .41)
Nature of Work

Making a character come to life before an audi­
ence is a job which has great glamour and fasci­
nation for many people. It is also hard and de­
manding work, requiring special talent and
involving many difficulties and uncertainties.
Only a very few of the nearly 20,000 actors and
actresses in the United States have achieved rec­
ognition as stars—on the stage, in motion pictures,
or on television or radio. A somewhat larger num­
ber are well-known, experienced performers, who
are frequently cast in supporting roles. The great
majority, however, are struggling for a toehold in
the profession, glad to pick up small parts when­
ever and wherever they can.
New actors generally start in “bit” parts, where
they have only a few lines to speak. If successful,
they may progress to larger supporting roles, of
which there are several in most plays. The actors
who have minor parts in stage productions may



also serve as understudies for the principals. If a
leading player must miss a performance, the un­
derstudy has a chance to demonstrate his acting
ability and attract attention to his qualifications
for important roles.
When a play is being prepared for production,
the cast spends many hours in rehearsal. Actors
who prepare for roles either on the stage or in
the movies must memorize their lines and know the
cues—the last words or action, by another actor
which are the signal to come on stage, make an
exit, or begin speaking. Radio actors typically
read their parts. They have to be especially skilled
in expressing character and emotion through the
voice, since this is their sole means of creating an
impersonation for their audience.
Besides the actors with speaking parts, “extras”
who have no lines to deliver are used in almost
every motion picture. In spectacular productions,
the number of extras who take part in crowd
scenes is often very large.

211

THE PERFORMING ARTS

Some actors find jobs as dramatic coaches or
become directors of stage, television, radio, or
motion picture productions. A few are engaged in
teaching in schools of acting or in the drama de­
partments of colleges and universities.
Where Employed

The legitimate stage and motion pictures, in­
cluding films made especially for television, are
probably the largest fields of employment for
actors, although “live” television and radio also
employ actors intermittently.
In the winter, most employment opportunities
on the stage are in New York. In the summer
months, however, stock companies in suburban
and resort areas are an equally large field of em­
ployment. There are also a small but growing
number of winter stock companies in southern
resort areas. In addition, many cities now have
community or “little” theaters, which provide
opportunities for local talent as well as for pro­
fessional actors and actresses from New York
and other centers. Plays that go “on the road,”
moving from city to city, are normally produced

A successful actor must have outstanding talent, interest, and
determination




in New York, and the casts are therefore selected
from actors located there.
Although employment opportunities in motion
pictures and film television are centered in Holly­
wood, a few studios are on Long Island, N.Y., and
some in other parts of the country. In addition,
many films are shot on location, providing em­
ployment for “extras” who live in the area. In
live television and radio, most opportunities for
actors are at the headquarters of the main net­
works—in New York, Los Angeles, and, to a
lesser extent, Chicago. Some local television and
radio stations occasionally employ actors.
Training and Other Qualifications

Since an actor learns largely through practice,
young people aspiring to acting careers should
get as much amateur acting experience as possible
by taking part in high school and college plays or
working with little theaters and other acting
groups in their home towns.
Formal training in acting may also be helpful.
Such training can be obtained at special schools
of the dramatic arts, chiefly in New York, or at
the High School of Performing Arts which is
part of that city’s school system. The dramatic
arts are also taught in over 400 colleges and uni­
versities. A college degree is becoming increas­
ingly necessary for an acting career. Because col­
lege drama curriculums usually include courses
in liberal arts subjects, speech, pantomime, play
production, and the history of the drama, as well
as practical courses in acting, the actor develops
an appreciation of the great plays, old and new,
and a greater understanding of the roles he may
be called on to play. Graduate degrees in the fine
arts or in drama are necessary for college teaching
positions.
Outstanding talent for acting and great inter­
est and determination are essential for success in
the theater. Ability to memorize, a good speaking
voice, good health, and the physical stamina to
work long hours are necessary. Ability to sing
and dance is an asset, and is becoming increasingly
important for an acting career.
In all media, whether the legitimate stage, mo­
tion pictures, radio, or television, the best way to
start is to make use of local opportunities and to
build on the basis of such experience. Many ac­
tors who are successful in local dramatic produc­

212

tions eventually try to appear on the New York
stage. Inexperienced actors usually find it ex­
tremely difficult to obtain employment in New
York or Hollywood. Although motion picture pro­
ducers do give some screen tests to inexperienced
applicants, only an infinitesimal proportion of the
many thousands of people taking these tests enter
the movies in this way. The motion picture field
is an especially difficult one to enter, and employ­
ment is often a result of previous successful ex­
perience on the Broadway stage.
To become a movie extra, one must usually be
listed by Central Casting, a no-fee agency which
works with the Screen Extras Guild and supplies
all extras to the major movie studios in Holly­
wood. Applicants are accepted only when the num­
ber of people of a particular type on the list—
for example, athletic young men, old ladies, or
small children—is below the foreseeable need. In
recent years, only a very small proportion of the
total number of applicants have succeeded in be­
ing listed. Extras have very little, if any, oppor­
tunity to advance to speaking roles in the movies.
The length of an actor’s working life depends
largely on his skill and versatility. Great actors
and actresses can go on almost indefinitely. Sup­
porting players also may have opportunities to
portray roles in which age is not a disadvantage.
On the other hand, for many members of the pro­
fession, employment opportunities become increas­
ingly limited during and past middle age. This is
especially true of those who become typed in
romantic, youthful roles.
Employment Outlook

The overcrowding which has existed in the
acting field for many years is expected to persist.
In the legitimate theater and also in motion pic­
tures and radio and television, job applicants out­
number by many times the jobs available. More­
over, most actors have employment in their
profession for only a small part of the year.
With the development first of motion pictures,
then of radio, then of TV, employment opportuni­
ties for actors in the theater have been more and
more reduced. The recent growth of summer
stock companies has somewhat increased the em­
ployment of actors in the summer months, but
the numbers of New York stage productions, of



OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

motion pictures, and of radio shows requiring
actors have been declining.
Although a motion picture production may use
a very large number of actors, they are employed
only while the picture is being filmed, and the
films are widely distributed and may be used for
years. Radio uses few actors. The number of
filmed TV dramas and commercials using actors
is increasing, but not nearly enough to offset the
decline in the other media. Moreover, television
stations often broadcast “taped” dramas rather
than live productions, and, like motion picture
films, these tapes may be widely distributed and
used for a long time. Taped TV plays give em­
ployment to actors for only one performance,
whereas live dramas may give employment for sev­
eral performances.
One possibility for future growth in the legiti­
mate theater lies in the establishment of yearround professional acting companies in more
cities. The number of communities with such act­
ing groups is growing. Further increases are
likely also in the employment of actors on tele­
vision. In the acting field as a whole, however,
employment opportunities are not expected to in­
crease, and may well decrease somewhat, over the
next decade. The number of new entrants to the
profession is expected to outnumber employment
opportunities that may generally become avail­
able. Even highly talented young people are likely
to face great competition and economic difficulties
in the profession.
Earnings and Working Conditions

Actors and actresses employed in the legitimate
theater belong to the Actors’ Equity Association.
If employed in motion pictures, including televi­
sion films, they belong to the Screen Actors Guild,
Inc., or to the Screen Extras Guild, Inc. If em­
ployed in “live” television or radio, they belong to
the American Federation of Television and Radio
Artists. These unions and the show producers sign
basic collective bargaining agreements which set
minimum salaries, hours of work, and other con­
ditions of employment. In addition, each actor
enters into a separate contract which may provide
for higher salaries than those specified in the
basic agreement.
The minimum weekly salary for actors in large
New York theaters w^as $117.50 in mid-1963. Those
appearing in small “off-Broadway” theaters had

THE PERFORMING ARTS

213

considerably lower rates. For shows on the road,
the minimum rate was $150 a week. For rehearsal
time, it was $97.50 a week in Broadway shows and
much lower in small “off-Broadway” theaters. All
minimum salaries are adjusted upward according
to increases in the cost of living as reflected in the
Bureau of Labor Statistics Consumer Price Index.
Motion picture actors and actresses had a mini­
mum daily rate of about $100 in mid-1962. For
extras, the minimum rate was about $25 a day.
Actors on network television received a minimum
program fee of $155 for a single half-hour pro­
gram, and 10 hours of rehearsal time; actors on
radio received $49.60 for a half-hour performance,
1 rehearsal hour included. Those with contracts
for longer programs or a series of programs re­
ceived relatively lower rates.
In all fields, many well-known actors and ac­
tresses have salary rates above the minimums.
The salaries of the few top stars are many times
the figures cited. On the other hand, because of the
frequent periods of unemployment characteristic
of this profession, annual earnings are low for all
but a very few of the best known performers.
Eight performances amount to a week’s w^ork
on the legitimate stage and any additional per­
formances are paid for as overtime. The basic

workweek after the opening of a show is 36 hours,
including limited time for rehearsals. Prior to the
opening, however, the workweek is usually longer
to allow enough time for rehearsals. Evening w^ork
is, of course, a regular part of a stage actor’s life.
Rehearsals may be held late at night and over
weekends and holidays. Traveling over the week­
end is often necessary when plays are on the road.
Some actors are covered by a pension fund and
a growing number have hospitalization insurance
to which their employers contribute, but very few
have paid vacations or sick leave. Most actors get
little if any unemployment compensation, since
they seldom have enough employment in any State
to meet the eligibility requirements. Consequently,
when a show closes, they often have to take any
kind of casual work obtainable while they are
waiting for another role.
Where To Go for More Information

American Federation of Television and Radio Artists,
724 Fifth Ave., New York, N.Y., 10019.
Screen Actors Guild, Inc.,
7750 Sunset Blvd., Hollywood, Calif., 90046.
Screen Extras Guild, Inc.,
723 North Western Ave., Hollywood, Calif., 90029.

Dancers

(D.O.T. 0-45, 11 through .51)
Nature of Work

Dancing is an ancient and worldwide art, hav­
ing many different forms. Dancers may perform
in classical ballet or modern dance, in dance adap­
tations for musical shows, in folk dances, or in
tap and other popular kinds of dancing. In the
classical ballet, movements are based on certain
conventional or stylized “positions,” and women
dance “en pointe” (on the very tips of their toes).
The effect sought is one of effortless grace. In
modern dance, movements are much more varied
but are nonetheless carefully' planned and exe­
cuted to follow a pattern.
In all types of dance productions, most of the
performers dance together as a chorus. However,
a group of selected dancers may do special num­
bers, and a very few do solo work. The number



of ballerinas and other top artists is, of course,
much smaller still.
Many dancers combine teaching with their stage
work or teach full time in schools of the ballet or
in colleges and universities. A few dancers have
become choreographers, who create new ballets or
dance routines. Others are dance directors and
train the dancers in new productions.
This statement does not include instructors of
ballroom and other social dancing.
Where Employed

In 1962, there were about 20,000 dancers and
dancing teachers in the United States. It is esti­
mated that over half of them were teaching in
private schools of the dance and in schools and
colleges. Most of the other dancers were pri­
marily performers on the stage, screen, and tele­
vision. A few trained in dance therapy were em­

214

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

ployed by hospitals to work in this new field used
in the treatment of mental disorders.
Dancing teachers are located chiefly in large
cities, but almost every town and city has its
school of the dance. The great majority of per­
forming dancers are in New York City, Los An­
geles, Las Vegas, and Chicago.
Training and Other Qualifications

The traditional way of preparing for a dancing
career is to begin serious training in a professional
school by age 12 or earlier. Girls wishing to be­
come ballet dancers should begin taking lessons at
the age of 8. In either case, 2 or 3 years of prior
preparation is needed before the young girl should
start dancing “en pointe.” Professional ballet
training typically takes from 10 to 12 lessons per
week for 11 or 12 months in the year, and many
additional hours of practice. The length of the
training period depends on the student’s ability
and physical development, but most dancers have
their professional audition by age 17 or 18.
The selection of the professional dancing school
is important for two reasons. First, the school
must use expert judgment in setting the pace of
training since too early and too severe exercise can
permanently damage the legs and feet. Second, the
school’s connections with producers may help the
students in obtaining employment on the stage,
screen or television.
Because of the strenuous training program in
the professional schools, the general education
received by students in these schools is not likely
to exceed the legal minimum. However, really
great performing artists have to be more than
technicians. Many people competent to judge
therefore believe that a dancer’s education should
include such subjects as music, literature, and his­
tory to aid him in his interpretations of dramatic
episodes and of music. Approximately 70 colleges
and universities confer bachelor’s degrees on stu­
dents who have majored in physical education and
have concentrated on the dance, and some give
graduate degrees, the M.A. and Ph. D. A few col­
leges and conservatories of music also award de­
grees (usually in the fine arts) to qualified stu­
dents who major in the dance. Labanotation,
which is the method of writing dance routines and
is comparable to writing an orchestral score, is



Physical vitality is necessary fo ra dancing career

one of the advanced courses taught. Knowledge
of this is especially important to choreographers.
A college education is an advantage in obtain­
ing employment in teaching professional dancing
or in choreography. However, the girls who post­
pone their first audition until graduation compete
at a disadvantage with younger girls for openings
in classical ballet. On the other hand, they can
compete successfully for openings in modern
dance performances which do not generally re­
quire a proficiency in toe dancing.
For teaching in the professional schools, experi­
ence as a performer is usually necessary; in col­
leges and conservatories, graduate degrees are
generally required, but often experience as a per­
former may be substituted. Maturity and a broad
educational background are also important for
teaching positions.
Excellent health and unusual physical vitality
are necessary for a dancing career. Height and
body build should not vary much from the aver­
age. Good feet with normal arches are required.
These physical qualifications must be accompanied
by unusual talent for dancing.
For women dancers, employment in ballet com­
panies is very difficult to obtain after the age of
30, except for a few outstanding stars. Women
past 25 are rarely hired for Broadway shows un­
less they have already had experience in such

THE PERFORMING ARTS

productions. Men who are ballet dancers, and
men and women who perform in modern dance
productions, can usually continue somewhat
longer. After the employable age as performers
has passed, some dancers teach in schools of the
ballet in colleges, or conservatories, or establish
their own schools. The few who become choreog­
raphers or dance directors can continue working
as long as people in most other occupations do.
Employment Outlook

The keen competition and irregular employ­
ment experienced in this profession for many
years are likely to persist. The supply of trained
dancers has always exceeded the demand, which
has been decreasing year after year. The number
of stage productions has decreased because of the
competition of the motion picture industry, which
in turn has been adversely affected by television.
Very few stage shows have a run of 26 weeks or
more, and many “fold” after the first week. On the
other hand, there is a growing trend toward using
professional dancers at industrial exhibitions, such
as auto shows. Also, a few new professional dance
companies are being developed around the coun­
try. Nevertheless, employment opportunities for
dance performers will remain limited. The num­
ber of musical shows produced for the stage and
motion pictures, will probably continue to decline.
Although television will offer some additional
employment opportunities, technical problems
must be solved before this medium can be fully
satisfactory for large-scale dance productions.
Civic and community dance groups are increasing
in number and opportunities for dancers will ex­
pand as these develop into professional groups.
Most of the openings for dance performers in the
years ahead, however, will stem from the need to
replace dancers who leave the field.
The employment outlook for dancers who have
the personal and educational qualifications for
teaching will be much better than for those trained
only as performers. The growing interest in the
dance as one of the fine arts is contributory to the
demand for teachers of dancing. The increase in
college enrollments will be another factor which
will tend to enlarge teaching opportunities. (See
statement on College and University Teachers.)
Men dancers face less competition for employ­
ment than do women dancers, since fewer men



215

than women seek dancing as a career and nearly
equal numbers are needed.
Earnings and Working Conditions

Dancers who perform professionally are mem­
bers of one of the unions affiliated with the Asso­
ciated Actors and Artistes of America (AFLCIO). The American Guild of Musical Artists,
Inc., is the union to which dancers belong who
perform in opera ballets, classical ballet, and
modern dance. Dancers may also belong to other
unions depending upon the field in which they
perform. (See statement on Singers and Singing
Teachers.) Minimum salary rates, hours of work,
and other conditions of employment are specified
in basic agreements signed by the unions and the
producers. In addition, the separate contract
signed by each dancer with the producer of the
show has to be at least as favorable in the matter
of salary, hours of work, and working conditions
as the basic agreement.
The minimum salary for dancers in ballet and
other stage productions was $110 a week, as of
mid-1962. The minimum rate for rehearsal time
was $80 a week, except in small ballet companies
which provided $60 for a rehearsal week. When
a show goes on tour, salaries are increased, since
dancers pay their own hotel bills. The employer
pays the cost of first-class transportation. If a
dancer signs a contract for a brief appearance—
for instance, for a performance on television or
a few days’ work in a movie—the minimum rate
is higher, relative to time worked. However, this
difference is offset by the brevity of the engage­
ment and the long period likely to be spent wait­
ing for the next one. A few performers, of course,
have much higher salaries. For principals, chore­
ographers, and stars, salaries in stage productions
ranged from $200 to over $2,000 per week in 1962.
Because most dancers are employed as perform­
ers only a small part of the year, their annual
earnings are much less than would be expected
from these weekly rates. According to union rec­
ords, about half of all dancers employed in 1962
earned less than $3,000 from all professional per­
formances on the stage, in motion pictures, and
on television. Only about 3 percent earned more
than $10,000. Some dancers qualified to teach in
the technical schools of the ballet are able to com­
bine this work with engagements as performers.

216

A much greater number have to supplement their
incomes by working in offices, waiting on tables,
or babysitting, wdiile waiting for a new contract.
Salaries of teachers in the technical schools of
the ballet vary with the location and prestige of
the school. Dancers employed as teachers in col­
leges and universities are paid on the same basis
as other faculty members. (See statement on Col­
lege and University Teachers.)
During a rehearsal week, the normal workweek
is 30 hours. During a performance week, the nor­
mal workweek consists of eight performances plus
12 hours for rehearsal. Extra compensation is
paid for hours worked outside the normal work­
week. Most stage performances are, of course, in
the evening, and rehearsals may require very long
hours, often on weekends and holidays. When
shows are on the road, traveling over the week­
end is often required.




OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

Dancers are entitled to some paid sick leave and
to various health and welfare benefits provided by
their unions and to which the employers contrib­
ute.
Where To Go for More Information

Information on colleges and universities and
conservatories of music which provide for a ma­
jor in the dance, or some courses in the dance,
and details on the types of courses, and other
pertinent information may be obtained from the
Dance Directory, 1963 edition, compiled by the
American Association for Health, Physical Edu­
cation and Recreation, a division of the National
Education Association, 1201 16th St. NW., Wash­
ington, D.C., 20036.
Information on hours, earnings, and working
conditions may be obtained directly from the un­
ions which organize dancers in the various enter­
tainment media.

OTHER PROFESSIONAL AND RELATED OCCUPATIONS
Architects

(D.O.T. 0-03.10)
Nature of Work

Architects plan buildings and other structures
and supervise their construction. Their goal is to
design structures which are safe, useful, and
pleasing in appearance.
When an architect receives a commission for
a building, he meets with the client to discuss the
purpose, requirements, and cost limitations of the
structure as well as the client’s preferences as to
style and plan. Subsequently, the architect must
make hundreds of decisions, taking into account
not only the requirements of the building, but also
local and State building codes, zoning laws, fire
regulations, and other ordinances. For example, in
planning a school, the architect must decide,
among other things, the amount of corridor and
staircase space required to enable students to move
easily from one class to another; the type and
arrangement of storage space; and the location,
size, and interior arrangements of the classrooms,
laboratories, lunchroom, gymnasium, and adminis­
trative offices.
The architect draws preliminary plans of the
structure and submits them to the client for his
approval. Alterations suggested by the client may
be incorporated in the final design, which includes
floor plans as well as details of the interior and
exterior of the building. The final design is then
translated into working drawings, which show’ the
exact dimensions of every part of the structure
and the location of the plumbing, heating, elec­
trical, air-conditioning, and other equipment. Con­
sulting engineers usually prepare detailed supple­
mentary drawings of the structural, plumbing,
heating, and electrical work. Engineers’ draw­
ings are coordinated with the architect’s work­
ing drawings, and specifications are prepared list­
ing the construction materials to be used, the
equipment, and, in some cases, the furnishings.




Architect compares drawings with model of new housing
development

The architect then assists his client in selecting
a building contractor and may also aid in drawing
up the contract between client and contractor and
act as the client’s advisor and representative in
dealings with the contractor. As construction pro­
ceeds, the architect makes periodic inspections to
make certain that the design is not altered and
that the materials specified in the contract are
used. The architect’s work is not completed until
the project is finished, all required tests are made,
and guarantees are received from the contractor.
Most self-employed architects plan and design
a wide variety of structures, ranging from homes
to churches, hospitals, office buildings, and air­
ports. A few specialize in one particular type of
structure. When working on large-scale projects
or for large architectural firms, architects fre­
quently specialize in one phase of the work, such
as design, specification writing, or construction
supervision.
217

218
Where Employed

An estimated 27,000 registered (licensed) archi­
tects were employed in the United States in 1962.
In addition, several thousand people were work­
ing in positions requiring a knowledge of archi­
tecture. Less than 3 percent of all architects are
women.
Approximately half of all architects are selfemployed, either practicing individually or as
partners. Most of the others work for architectural
firms. Some w^ork for engineers, builders, real
estate firms, and for other businesses with large
construction programs. A small number are em­
ployed by government agencies, often in fields
such as city and community planning and urban
redevelopment. Another small group are full-time
teachers in schools of architecture. Members of
the profession are located in all parts of the
country, primarily in metropolitan areas.
Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement

A license for the practice of architecture is re­
quired by law in all States and the District of
Columbia. In general, the purpose of these laws is
to insure that work which may affect life, health,
or property is done by qualified architects. Re­
quirements for admission to the licensing exam­
ination are set by the individual States. These
generally include graduation from an accredited
professional school followed by 3 years of prac­
tical experience in an architect’s office. As a sub­
stitute for formal training, most States accept
longer periods of practical experience (usually 10
to 12 years) for admission to the licensing exam­
ination.
In 1962, professional training in architecture
was offered by 72 colleges and universities in the
United States, 52 of which were accredited by
the National Architectural Accrediting Board.
The great majority of these schools offered a 5year curriculum leading to the bachelor of archi­
tecture degree. Many architectural schools also
offer graduate education leading to the master’s
degree, and a few schools offer the Ph. D. degree.
Although graduate training is not essential for
the practice of architecture, it is often desirable
for research and teaching positions.
Most schools of architecture admit qualified
high school graduates who meet the entrance re­



OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

quirements of the liberal arts college with wdiich
the school of architecture is associated. Some
schools require 1 or 2 years of preprofessional
education, followed by 3 or 4 years of architectural
training. In general, architectural schools prefer
that students’ preparation include mathematics,
science, social studies, language, and art. Training
or ability in both freehand drawing and drafting
are helpful, though not a requirement for enter­
ing a course in architecture.
A typical curriculum includes not only architec­
tural courses but also other subjects—usually
English, mathematics, physics, chemistry, soci­
ology, and economics. Some examples of technical
and professional courses in the curriculum are:
Architectural design, structural theory, working
drawings, specification writing, graphic presenta­
tion, freehand drawing, the history of architec­
ture, professional ethics, and business practices.
Success in the profession requires an unusual
combination of abilities—a capacity to master
technical problems, a gift for artistic creation, and
a flair for business and for human relations. To
determine their interests and potentialities, young
people should, if possible, spend some time in an
architect’s office before entering architectural
school. Students are also encouraged to w^ork for
architects or for building contractors during sum­
mer vacations to gain some knowledge of practical
problems.
The new graduate usually begins as a junior
draftsman in an architectural firm, where he is
assigned to making drawings and models of build­
ing projects or to the drafting of details in the
working drawings. As he gains experience, he is
given more complex wurk. After several years, he
may progress to chief or senior draftsman, with
responsibility for all the major details of a set of
working drawings. Some architects become job
captains with the responsibility for a full set of
working drawings and for the supervision of other
draftsmen. Others become designers or construc­
tion supervisors, or branch off into the field of
specification writing. An employee who is par­
ticularly valued by his firm may be designated an
associate and may receive, in addition to his sal­
ary, a share of the profits. Usually, however, the
architect’s goal is to establish his own practice.

OTHER PROFESSIONAL AND RELATED OCCUPATIONS
Employment Outlook

Employment opportunities for architects are
expected to be very good throughout the 1960’s,
and continued growth in their employment is an­
ticipated over the long run.
Most architects work on nonresidential projects
—office buildings, stores, schools, hospitals, and
the like—and the volume of such construction is
expected to expand considerably. Residential con­
struction, a growing area of work for architects,
will also increase. Moreover, the increasing size
and complexity of modern nonresidential build­
ings, as well as homeowners’ growing awareness of
the value of architects’ services, are likely to bring
about a greater demand for architectural plan­
ning. Urban redevelopment and city and commun­
ity planning projects, other growing areas of em­
ployment for architects, are also expected to
increase considerably in the years ahead. (See
statement on Urban Planners.) Expanding col­
lege enrollments will create a need for additional
teachers.
In addition to new positions created by the ris­
ing demand for architectural services, more than
500 openings are likely to arise each year owing
to retirement and death of experienced architects.
Along with the anticipated growth of employ­
ment, a rise in the number of architectural gradu­
ates is likely to occur. Assuming that graduations
in this field follow the trend expected in college
graduations as a whole, the number of architec­
tural degrees awarded each year during the mid­
dle and late 1960’s should be considerably greater
than the 1,800 degrees awarded in 1961. However,
many architectural graduates utilize their train­
ing in fields such as sales and administration and

219

do not enter the profession. Thus, those who
choose to enter the field should have favorable
employment opportunities through the 1960’s, at
least.
The outlook for women architects, although less
favorable than for men, is nonetheless expected to
be good. Women who are good draftsmen will
probably be able to obtain employment readily.
However, very few women are able to establish
themselves in private practice.
Earnings and Working Conditions

Starting salaries for architectural school gradu­
ates were generally between $80 and $100 a week
in mid-1962, according to available information.
Draftsmen with 3 or more years’ experience
earned up to $160 a week; job captains, specifica­
tion writers, and other senior employees usually
earned $150 to $200 a week. Senior employees
often receive yearly bonuses in addition to their
salaries.
After architects have become well established in
private practice, they generally earn much more
than high-paid salaried employees of architectural
firms. The range in their incomes is very wide,
however. Some architects with many years of ex­
perience and good reputations earn well over
$25,000 a year, while many who have not become
well known have very low incomes. Young archi­
tects just starting their own practices may go
through a period when their expenses are greater
than their income.
Where To Go for More Information

The American Institute of Architects,
1735 New York Ave. NW., Washington, D.C., 20006.

Commercial Artists

(D.O.T. 0-44.)

Nature of Work

Artwork designed to attract the attention of
readers and to stimulate their interest in par­
ticular products and ideas is found in most news­
papers, magazines, and other publications. These
illustrations used in advertisements and editorial
features are prepared by commercial artists who
also work on television commercials and movie



cartoons, industrial and other films, fashion illus­
trations, greeting card and book illustrations and
design, packaging, wallpaper and textile designs,
and do many other kinds of artwork. They may
also design and illustrate displays, posters, and
direct mail advertising. Commercial artists usu­
ally carry out artistic ideas that are created by
others.

220

Some artists do routine but essential tasks such
as “pasting-up”—cutting and pasting together
the basic parts of an advertisement or other art­
work. The majority are “general boardmen” who
spend nearly all their time over the drawing board
—sketching, lettering, retouching photographic
prints, preparing charts and maps, cartooning,
or performing other art assignments. Still other
artists work as letterers, executing appropriate
lettering either freehand or with the use of me­
chanical aids, or as illustrators who make sketches
and drawings. Layout men plan the selection and
arrangement of illustrations and lettering and
determine color and other elements of design. Art
directors and designers develop visual ideas for
art programs, submitting ideas in rough form to
layout men to be further developed. Directors and
designers also buy the artwork of photographers,
illustrators, letterers, and other artists for use in
their programs and often supervise an art staff.
Where Employed

An estimated 50,000 commercial artists were
employed in early 1963; about one-fourth were
women. Most commercial artists are employed in
big cities, such as New York, Chicago, Philadel­
phia, Los Angeles, and Detroit, where the largest
users of commercial art are to be found. Some,
however, are employed in nearly every city.
Most commercial artists are employed as staff
artists on a regular salaried basis by advertising
agencies, commercial art studios, advertising de­
partments of large companies, printing and pub­
lishing firms, textile companies, television and
motion picture studios, department stores, sign
shops, mail-order houses, greeting card compa­
nies, and a variety of other business organizations.
Many work as freelance artists, selling their art­
work to any available customers—chiefly to the
same kinds of organizations that employ salaried
artists. Some salaried commercial artists also do
freelance work in their spare time. A number of
commercial artists work for Federal Government
agencies, principally in the Defense Department.
A few teach in art schools.

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

commercial art, but it is essential that these quali­
ties be supplemented by specialized training in
the techniques of commercial and applied art. In
addition, extensive educational training in the
fine arts—painting, sculpture, or architecture—
and in academic studies provides a good founda­
tion not only for obtaining employment as a
commercial artist but especially for qualifying
for promotions to higher level jobs.
The most widely accepted training for commer­
cial art is the instruction given in art schools or
institutes that specialize in commercial and ap­
plied art. To enter art school, a high school edu­
cation is usually, but not always, required. Some
schools admit only those applicants who demon­
strate talent by submitting acceptable work sam­
ples. The course of study, which may include some
academic work, generally takes 2 or 3 years, and
a certificate is awarded on graduation. A growing
number of art schools, particularly those in or
connected with universities, require 4 or more
years of study and confer a bachelor’s degree—
commonly the bachelor of fine arts (B.F.A.) de­
gree. In these schools, commercial art instruction
is supplemented by courses in such liberal arts

Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement

Artistic ability and good taste are the most im­
portant qualifications for success in the field of




Artistic ability is a basic qualification for commercial art work

OTHER PROFESSIONAL AND RELATED OCCUPATIONS

subjects as English tod history. Some limited
training in commercial art may also be obtained
through courses offered by public vocational high
schools, or through private home-study schools,
and through practical experience on the job, but
supplemental training is often needed for ad­
vancement.
The first year in art school may be devoted
primarily to the study of fundamentals—perspec­
tive, design, color harmony, composition, and use
of pencil, crayon, pen and ink, and other art
media. Subsequent study generally includes draw­
ing from life, advertising layout, lettering, typog­
raphy, illustration, and highly specialized
courses in the student’s particular field of interest.
Accomplished draftsmanship, imagination, and
artistic judgment concerning the harmony of
color and line are basic requirements for a suc­
cessful career in commercial art. The various spe­
cialties, however, differ in some of the specific
abilities required. For example, letterers and re­
touchers must be able to do precise and detailed
work requiring excellent coordination, whereas
illustrators and designers need imagination, a
distinctive art style, and, in most cases, the ability
to draw well. Some experience with photography
is useful to those interested in art direction or
design jobs. For commercial artists engaged in
freelance work, the ability to sell both ideas and
finished work to employers or clients is very im­
portant. Art directors need a strong educational
background not only in art and business practices,
but also in general liberal arts subjects.
Beginning commercial artists usually need some
on-the-job training before they can qualify for
other than strictly routine work. Advancement is
based largely on the individual’s artistic talent,
creative ability, and education. After considerable
experience, many commercial artists leave salaried
employment for freelance work.
Often commercial artists assemble their best
artwork into a folder, or “portfolio,” to use in dis­
playing their work to others. A good up-to-date
portfolio is essential in obtaining initial employ­
ment and freelance assignments as well as in
changing jobs.
Employment Outlook

Employment and advancement opportunities
for talented and well-trained commercial artists in



221

most kinds of work are expected to be good
throughout the rest of the 1960’s. Young people
with only average ability and little specialized
training, however, will encounter competition for
beginning jobs and will have limited opportunity
for advancement. The demand for commercial
artists varies with the kind of specialization: For
example, opportunities for illustrators, except
those who are well known and have a unique style,
are declining, largely because of increasing use of
photography in advertising and editorial features.
Demand is steady for mechanical lettering and for
paste-up artists, but jobs for designers, art direc­
tors, and layout men are few in number, much
sought after, and open only to highly talented and
creative artists.
A moderate increase in employment of com­
mercial artists is expected over the long run. The
upward trend in business expenditures for all
kinds of visual advertising will be reflected in a
growing demand for commercial artists. Televi­
sion graphics (including animations) and pack­
aging design are expected to continue to be sources
of expanding employment opportunities. Demand
for other forms of art such as poster and window
displays, greeting cards, and movie cartoons will
probably create employment for an increasing
number of artists. In addition, the growing field
of industrial design is expected to need more
artists who are qualified to work with engineering
concepts. (See statement on Industrial Design­
ers.)
Generally, the effect of a serious economic down­
turn would be a reduction in advertising budgets
and a decrease in employment of commercial ar­
tists. During minor business recessions, however,
the policy of many companies is to advertise their
products more vigorously, thus increasing the use
of advertising art.
Women with exceptional artistic talent will con­
tinue to find employment in all aspects of com­
mercial art work, but particularly in the textile
industry and as fashion illustrators in department
stores.
Earnings and Working Conditions

Beginning commercial artists typically earned
between $50 and $85 a week, in late 1962, accord­
ing to limited data available. Talented artists with
strong educational backgrounds and a good port­

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK*

222

folio, however, sometimes started at higher sala­
ries. After a few years of experience, qualified
artists may expect to earn $100—$150 or more a
week. Art directors, designers, executives, wellknown freelance illustrators, and others in top
positions generally have much higher earnings,
many beyond $15,000 a year.
The earnings of freelance artists have an espe­
cially wide range, since they are affected by such
factors as the amount of artwork sold, the price
that the individual artist receives for his work,
and the nature of the work he performs. For ex­
ample, a recent private survey indicates that a
freelancer may receive from $25 for a single
black and white fashion sketch to $750 for a figure
in full color with a background; from $1,000 to
$4,000 for a color cover for a national magazine;
or from $75 to $250 for a book jacket. Sometimes

freelance artists are paid for their services by the
hour; letterers may be paid from $7 to $10 a word.
Salaried commercial artists generally work 35
to 40 hours a week, but sometimes they must work
additional hours and under a considerable amount
of pressure in order to meet deadlines. Freelance
artists usually have irregular working hours.
Where To Go for More Information

Information on art training and employment
trends is available from:

National Society of Art Directors, Art Education
Chairman,
115 East 40th St., New York, N.Y., 10016.

A list of schools offering highly specialized
education in art and design is available from:
National Association of Schools of Art,
50 Astor PI., New York, N.Y., 10003.

Foresters

(D.O.T. 0-35.07)
Nature of Work

Forests are one of America’s greatest natural re­
sources, covering more than one-third of the land
area of the country. Foresters manage, protect,
and develop these valuable properties and their
related resources. They estimate the amount and
value of timber in a forest area, plan and super­
vise the harvesting and cutting of trees, purchase
and sell trees and timber, and carry out reforesta­
tion activities (renewing the forest cover by seed­
ing or planting). Foresters also safeguard forests
from fire, destructive animals and insects, and
diseases. Some foresters are responsible for wild­
life protection, soil conservation, and watershed
control as well as for the management of camps,
parks, and grazing land.
Foresters may specialize in one of several areas,
such as timber management, fire control, forest
economics, recreation, wildlife management, range
management, arboriculture, and soil conservation.
Some of these areas of work are becoming recog­
nized as distinct professions. Foresters may also
specialize in a particular activity, such as research,
writing and editing, extension work (providing
information about forestry practice to farmers,
logging companies, and the public), and college
and university teaching.



Where Employed

An estimated 20,000 persons were employed as
foresters or as specialists in closely related fields
in the United States in 1962. The largest group,
about 7,500, were employed by the Federal Govern­
ment, mainly by the Forest Service of the Depart­
ment of Agriculture. Some were employed by
other Federal agencies, including the Department
of the Interior, the Department of Defense, and
the Tennessee Valley Authority. State govern­
ments employed nearly 3,000 foresters, and a few
hundred were employed by local governments.
Almost 7,000 foresters were employed in private
industry in 1962, mainly by pulp and paper,
lumber, logging, and milling companies. Approxi­
mately 1,000 foresters were managers of their own
land, were in business for themselves as con­
sultants, or were employed by consulting firms.
Colleges and universities employed about 1,000
foresters.
Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement

A bachelor’s degree with a major in forestry is
the usual minimum educational requirement for
young persons seeking careers in forestry. An ad­

OTHER PROFESSIONAL AND RELATED OCCUPATIONS

vanced degree is generally required for teaching
or research positions.
Education in forestry leading to a bachelor’s
or higher degree was offered in 1962 by 43 colleges
or universities. The curriculums in most of these
schools include specialized forestry courses in
five essential areas: (1) Silviculture (methods of
growing and improving forest crops); (2) forestprotection (primarily from fire, insects, and
disease); (3) forest management (the application
of business methods and technical forestry princi­
ples to the operation of a forest property); (4)
forest economics (study of the factors affecting the
supply of and the demand for forest products);
and (5) forest utilization (the harvesting and
marketing of the forest crop and other forest
resources). The curriculums also include courses
in mathematics, science, engineering, economics,
and the humanities. In addition, the great ma­
jority of colleges require that students spend one
summer in a camp operated by the college. For­
estry students are also encouraged to work other
summers in jobs that will give them firsthand
experience in forest or conservation work.
Beginning positions for forestry graduates of­
ten involve performing routine duties under the
supervision of higher level foresters. As they
gain experience and are given more responsibility,
foresters may advance to positions such as that of
branch forester, district ranger, forest supervisor,
and managing forester.
Qualifications for success in forestry include an
enthusiasm for outdoor work and the ability to
meet and deal effectively with people. Many jobs
also require physical stamina and a willingness
to work in isolated areas.

223

are becoming increasingly aware of the profita­
bility of improved forestry and logging practices,
and are applying new techniques for utilizing the
entire forest crop and for cutting trees in forests
once regarded as unprofitable for timber opera­
tions. In addition, competition from metal, plas­
tics, and other materials is expected to stimulate
further research to develop new and improved
wood products.
The Federal Government is likely to offer in­
creasing employment opportunities for foresters
in the years ahead, mainly in the Forest Service
of the Department of Agriculture. Among the
major factors expected to contribute to this ex­
pansion are the growing amount of timber cut
on Federal lands, the trend toward more scientific
management of these lands, and expanding pro­
grams in areas such as recreation, watershed
management, range management, and wildlife
protection.

Employment Outlook

Employment opportunities for forestry gradu­
ates are expected to be favorable throughout the
remainder of the 1960’s. There will be particular
need for well-qualified personnel with advanced
degrees for college teaching positions and for re­
search in areas such as forestry genetics, fire be­
havior and control, and forest products utilization.
Private and industrial owners of timberland are
expected to offer increasing numbers of employ­
ment opportunities to foresters, primarily because
of anticipated growth in the demand for wood
and wood products. The forest products industries



Forester selects tree for removal to allow more sunlight for other
trees

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

224

State government agencies should also offer
additional employment opportunities for forest­
ers. Forest fire control, protection against insects
and diseases, provision of technical advice to own­
ers of private forest lands, and other FederalState cooperative programs are usually channeled
through State organizations. Growing demands
for recreation facilities in forest lands are likely
to result in expansion of State parks and other
recreation areas.
In addition to new positions created by the ris­
ing demand for foresters, a few hundred openings
will arise each year owing to retirements, deaths,
and transfers out of the profession.
The longrun outlook is for continued growth in
the profession. The country’s growing popula­
tion and rising living standards will tend to in­
crease the demand for lumber, paper, and other
major forest products. In addition, the application
of scientific management practices to forest lands,
both public and private, is expected to expand.
Moreover, occupational fields closely related to
forestry, such as wood utilization, wildlife man­
agement, watershed management, forest recrea­
tion, soil conservation, and range management,
have grown rapidly in the recent past and should
continue to grow, thus creating many new posi­
tions for foresters in both government and private
industry.
Opportunities for women in forestry will prob­
ably continue to be limited, largely because of
the strenuous physical requirements of much of
the work. The few women presently employed in
forestry are engaged chiefly in research and edu­
cation work, and future opportunities for women
are also likely to be primarily in these fields.
Earnings and Working Conditions

In the Federal Government in early 1963, in­
experienced foresters with the bachelor’s degree

could start at either $4,565 or $5,540 a year, de­
pending on their college record. Those with the
bachelor’s degree and 1 or 2 years of graduate
work could begin at $5,540, $6,675, or $8,045; those
with the Ph. D. degree, at $8,045 or $9,475.
Annual salaries of beginning foresters with
bachelor’s degrees employed by private industry
were typically between $4,800 and $6,000 in early
1963, according to the Society of American Forest­
ers. Starting salaries of new graduates with mas­
ter’s degrees were usually between $6,000 and
$7,000 a year. Those with doctor’s degrees usually
received starting salaries of more than $7,000.
Beginning salaries of foresters employed by State
governments varied widely, but were roughly
comparable with those paid by private industry
and the Federal Government.
In colleges and universities, salaries of forestry
teachers were generally the same as those paid
other faculty members. (See statement on College
and University Teachers.) Foresters in educa­
tional institutions sometimes supplement their
salaries with income from consulting, lecturing,
and writing books and articles.
As part of his regular duties, the forester must
spend considerable time out of doors under all
kinds of weather conditions. Many foresters put
in extra hours in travel and in emergency duty
such as firefighting. Foresters, particularly those
in beginning jobs, are often required to travel for
extended periods of time.
Where To Go for More Information

Society of American Foresters,
425 Mills Bldg., 17th and Pennsylvania Ave. NW.,
Washington, D.C., 20006.
U.S. Forest Service, Department of Agriculture,
Washington, D.C., 20250.
American Forest Products Industries, Inc.,
1816 N St. NW., Washington, D.C., 20036.

Geographers

(D.O.T. 0-36.93)
Nature of Work

Geographers seek knowledge about the distribu­
tion throughout the world of people and natural
resources. They study the activities of people—
where they live, why they are located there, and



how they earn a living. They also study the physi­
cal characteristics of the earth, such as its terrain,
minerals, soils, water, vegetation, and climate,
and attempt to relate the earth’s physical char­
acteristics to the location and activities of people.

OTHER PROFESSIONAL AND RELATED OCCUPATIONS

Most geographers are engaged in college and
university teaching and/or research. Their re­
search may include the study and analysis of the
distribution of soils, vegetation, land forms, cli­
mate, and mineral and water resources, sometimes
utilizing surveying and meteorological instru­
ments. They also analyze political organizations,
transportation systems, and a broad range of other
activities. Some geographers spend much time in
field study, in preparing and interpreting statis­
tics, and in analyzing aerial photographs and
other data collected in the field. Many construct
and interpret maps, graphs, and diagrams.
Most geographers specialize in one of the several
main branches of geography. Those working in
economic geography deal with the geographic dis­
tribution of economic activities—including manu­
facturing, mining, farming, trade, and communi­
cations. Regional geography is concerned with all
the physical, economic, political, and cultural
characteristics of a particular region or area,
which may range in size from a river basin or
an island, to a State, a country, or even a continent.
Political geography is the study of geographic
factors affecting national and international poli­
cies and events. Urban geography, a relatively new
and growing field for geographers, is concerned

225

with the study of cities, and with community
planning. (See statement on Urban Planners.)
Specialists in physical geography study the earth’s
physical characteristics. Geographers in the field
of cartography are concerned with the design and
construction of maps, as well as the compilation
of data for them.
Relatively few professional workers in the field
of geography have the title of geographer. Many
have job titles which describe their specialization
such as map cataloger, cartographer, or regional
analyst. Others have titles relating to the subject
matter of their study, such as photointelligence
specialist or climatological analyst. Still others
have titles such as community planner, market or
business analyst, or intelligence specialist.
Where Employed

Geography is a relatively small field of employ­
ment. Only about 2,500 geographers were em­
ployed in the United States in mid-1962; about
10 percent were women.
About two-thirds of all geographers are em­
ployed by colleges and universities. Those teach­
ing in institutions which do not have separate de­
partments of geography usually are assigned to
departments of geology, economics, or other physi­
cal or social sciences.
The Federal Government employs about 400
geographers, mostly in the Washington, D.C.,
area. Among the major agencies employing these
workers are the Departments of Defense, the In­
terior, Commerce, Agriculture, and State, and
the Library of Congress. State and local gov­
ernments also employ a number of geographers,
mostly on city and State planning and develop­
ment commissions.
Most of the small but growing number of ge­
ographers employed by private industry work
for map companies, textbook publishers, travel
agencies, manufacturing firms, chain stores, and
marketing research organizations. A few geogra­
phers work for scientific foundations and other
nonprofit organizations and research institutes.
Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement

Geographer uses curved ruler on globe to measure distance
692—
408 0 — 63------16




The minimum educational requirement for be­
ginning positions in geography is a bachelor’s

226

degree with a major in the field. For most posi­
tions in research and teaching, and for advance­
ment in many other types of work, graduate train­
ing is required.
Undergraduate training in geography is offered
by many colleges and universities. In 1962, bache­
lor’s degrees in geography were awarded by more
than 150 institutions. Undergraduate study usu­
ally provides a general introduction to geographic
knowledge and research methods and often in­
cludes some field studies. Typical courses offered
are principles of geography, physical geography,
weather and climate, economic geography, politi­
cal geography, urban geography, and regional
courses, such as geography of North America,
Western Europe, the U.S.S.R., and Asia. Courses
in cartography and map interpretation are also
offered, since the drawing, analysis, and under­
standing of maps are an important part of the
geographer’s work.
Advanced degrees in geography are offered by
a relatively small number of schools; in 1962,
master’s degrees were awarded by about 60 in­
stitutions and Ph. D. degrees by about 30. A
bachelor’s degree with a major in geography is
the usual requirement for admittance to a gradu­
ate department of geography. However, most
universities will admit otherwise well-qualified
students with bachelor’s degrees in such fields
as economics, forestry, geology, or history. Re­
quirements for advanced degrees include geogra­
phic field and laboratory work, as well as
classroom studies, library research, and thesis
preparation.
New graduates with only the bachelor’s degree
in geography find employment mainly in positions
connected with mapmaking, either in government
or private industry. Some obtain positions as re­
search or teaching assistants in educational in­
stitutions while studying for advanced degrees.
Others enter beginning positions in the planning
field. Those with the master’s degree can qualify
for some teaching and research positions in col­
leges and universities and for many research posi­
tions in government and private industry. The
Ph. D. degree is usually required for high-level
posts in college teaching and research and may be
necessary for advancement to top-level positions in
other activities.



OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK,
Employment Outlook

The outlook is for a moderate growth in em­
ployment of geographers throughout the re­
mainder of the 1960’s and over the longer run.
There will be a particular need for geographers
with graduate degrees to fill research and teach­
ing positions in colleges and universities and re­
search jobs in industry and government. Those
with advanced training in fields such as economics
or law, in addition to a degree in geography, will
also be in demand.
Colleges and universities are expected to offer
the greatest number of employment opportunities
during the 1960’s, primarily owing to anticipated
increases in total college enrollments. Expanding
interest in foreign countries, and growing aware­
ness of the value of geography training in several
other fields of work, such as in the foreign service,
should also result in increased enrollments in
geography and in a need for additional teachers
at the college level. A growing demand for
geography teachers in secondary schools is also
anticipated.
Employment of geographers in government
positions is also likely to increase. The Federal
Government will need additional personnel in
positions related to area development and re­
gional and urban planning; resource manage­
ment; planning, construction, and interpretation
of maps; and in intelligence work. State govern­
ment employment of geographers will probably
expand also, particularly in such areas as con­
servation, highway planning, and city, community,
and regional planning and development.
The number of geographers employed in pri­
vate industry is also expected to rise. Market re­
search work, in which many of these geographers
are engaged, should continue its rapid growth.
Opportunities should also increase in private area
planning and development work.
Since geography is a relatively small field, job
openings, resulting from growth in the profes­
sion and the need to replace workers who retire or
otherwise leave the profession, are not expected to
be numerous in any one year. However, unless the
number of persons receiving degrees in the field
should grow far beyond current expectations,
well-trained geographers, particularly those with
advanced degrees, should have good employment
opportunities through the 1960’s.

OTHER PROFESSIONAL AND RELATED OCCUPATIONS

Employment prospects for women geographers
will be best in teaching, especially in junior col­
leges, women’s colleges, and in the larger coeduca­
tional institutions. Government agencies should
also offer some opportunities, mainly in mapping
work. However, because of the field work re­
quired for most geographic positions, opportuni­
ties for women will be somewhat less favorable
than for men.
Earnings and Working Conditions

In the Federal Government, in early 1963,
geographers with the bachelor’s degree and no
experience could start at $4,565 or $5,540 a year,
depending on their college record. Inexperienced
geographers with 1 or 2 years of graduate train­
ing could start at $5,540 or $6,675; and those
with the Ph. D. degree, at $8,045.
In colleges and universities, annual starting
salaries for well-trained geographers—those with
the Ph. D. or with all the requirements for the

227

doctorate except the thesis—were usually between
$6,000 and $8,000 in 1962, according to the limited
information available. (For further information,
see statement on College and University Teach­
ers. ) Geographers in educational institutions often
have an opportunity to earn income from other
sources, such as consulting work, special research
projects, and publication of books and articles.
Working conditions of most geographers are
similar to those of other teachers and office work­
ers. Geographic research sometimes requires ex­
tensive travel, in foreign countries as well as in
the United States. The geographers engaged in
such projects are frequently away from home for
long periods, at times living and working under
somewhat primitive conditions.
Where To Go for More Information

Association of American Geographers,
1201 16th St. NW., Washington, D.C., 20036.

Home Economists

(D.O.T. 0-12.10 through .36)
Nafure of Work

Improving products, services, and practices that
affect the comfort and well-being of the family is
the primary aim of home economists. These pro­
fessional workers must have a broad knowledge
of the field or be specialists in a particular area
such as food, clothing and textiles, housing, home
equipment, child care, household management, or
family economics.
The largest single group of home economists
are teachers, mainly in secondary schools. They
conduct courses which include such areas of home
economics content as food, nutrition, clothing, tex­
tiles, child development, family relations, homefurnishings and equipment, household economics
and home management. The nature of much of
the work done by home economists who are second­
ary school teachers is similar to that described in
the statement on Secondary School Teachers, else­
where in this Handbook. (See index for page num­
ber.) In addition, they may help students and
their parents with homemaking problems, sponsor
chapters of Future Homemakers of America, and



conduct many related activities. Teachers in adult
education programs help homemakers to increase
their understanding of family relations, and to
improve their homemaking methods and skills.
College teachers not only prepare students for
professional careers in home economics, but also
help prepare young people for homemaking. Col­
lege teachers, who may combine research with
teaching, often specialize in one particular area
of home economics.
Home economists employed by private business
firms and trade associations help to promote the
development, use, and care of specific home prod­
ucts. They may do research and test products;
prepare advertisements and booklets with instruc­
tional materials; plan, prepare, and present pro­
grams for radio and television; serve as consult­
ants ; give lectures and demonstrations before the
public; and conduct classes for workers, salesmen,
and appliance servicemen. They may study con­
sumer needs, help manufacturers translate these
needs into desirable products, and provide miscel­
laneous consumer services. Home economists who

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK,

228

work for food manufacturers do an important
part of their work in test kitchens—developing
new recipes, improving present products, or help­
ing to create new products. They may also publi­
cize the nutritional value of specific foods. Homeservice workers employed by utility companies
often give advice on kitchen planning and laundry
problems, in addition to describing the operation
and benefits of products and services. Home econo­
mists employed by manufacturers of kitchen and
laundry equipment may work with engineers on
product development and also devise plans for
product uses. Those engaged in communications
work for magazines, newspapers, radio and tele­
vision stations, advertising and public relations
agencies, trade associations and other organiza­
tions, usually plan, write and edit articles and ad­
vertisements and supervise the preparation of
photographs designed to tell homemakers about
home products and services. Their work may in­
clude product testing and analysis, work in re­
search laboratories or test kitchens, and the study
of consumer buying habits. Still other home econo­
mists in business organizations hold positions with

Courtesy of U.S. Department of Agriculture
Home economist does research on food freezing methods




dress-pattern companies, department stores, in­
terior design studios, and other firms involved in
designing, manufacturing, and selling products
for the home. A small number of home economists
are employed in such businesses as financial in­
stitutions, giving customers advice on spending,
saving, and budgeting. Others work for moving
companies, as consultants on family moving prob­
lems and for chain food stores, providing food
and household information to consumers. A few
experienced home economists work as freelance
consultants.
Home economists are engaged in research work
in laboratories and offices of the Federal Govern­
ment, State agricultural experiment stations, col­
leges, universities, and private organizations. The
largest single group works for the U.S. Depart­
ment of Agriculture conducting research on food
and nutrition, textiles and clothing, . housing,
household equipment, or household economics.
Some make surveys of farm families and their
buying and spending habits and then develop
budget guides. Others perform laboratory tests
to determine the effect of different methods of
cooking on nutritive value, flavor, tenderness, or
volume of a food. A few in other Federal agencies
are engaged in research on space travel; for ex­
ample, working on problems of meeting food
needs in outer space.
Home economists employed in the Cooperative
Extension Services of the State land-grant col­
leges conduct adult education programs for
women (both rural and urban) and 4-H Club pro­
grams for girls. Through these programs, exten­
sion workers help families to use home economics
research findings in such areas as home manage­
ment, consumer education, family relations, and
nutrition.
Home economists employed on social-welfare
programs by State, county, city, and private wel­
fare agencies may act as advisers and consultants
in the development of budget standards and also
give homemaking advice. They may work as home­
making counselors and consultants, helping handi­
capped homemakers and their families adjust to
physical limitations by changing the arrange­
ments in the home and revising methods of work.
Other home economists in welfare agencies super­
vise or train workers engaged in homemaker serv­

OTHER PROFESSIONAL AND RELATED OCCUPATIONS

ices which provide temporary or part-time help
to households disrupted by illness.
Where Employed

Altogether, about 85,000 persons were employed
in home economics occupations in 1962. However,
this figure includes 26,000 dietitians and approxi­
mately 5,000 extension workers whose work is
discussed in separate statements on Dietitians and
Agricultural Extension workers. (See index for
page numbers.) Nearly 50,000 home economists
were teachers. Approximately 35,000 were pri­
marily secondary school teachers, and about 10,000
were “primarily adult education instructors; how­
ever, a good many of these teachers taught both
secondary school and adult education classes; In
addition, there were nearly 3,500 college and uni­
versity teachers. The remainder taught in elemen­
tary schools or were child development and family
relations specialists teaching in kindergartens,
nursery schools, recreation centers, and other
institutions. About 5,000 or 6,000 home economists
were in private business firms and associations.
Several hundred were primarily research workers,
and a smaller group participated in social welfare
programs as advisers, consultants, and training
supervisors. A few were self-employed.
Although home economics is generally consid­
ered a woman’s field, a growing number of men are
employed in home economics positions. Most men
specialize in foods and institution management,
though some are in the family relations and child
development field, in applied arts, and in other
areas.
Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement

Approximately 450 colleges and universities
offer training leading to a bachelor’s degree in
home economics, which qualifies graduates for
most entry positions in the field. A master’s or
doctor’s degree is required for college teaching,
for certain research and supervisory positions, for
work as an extension specialist or supervisor and
for some jobs in the nutrition field.
The undergraduate curriculum in home eco­
nomics provides students with a strong back­
ground in science and liberal arts and also includes
courses in each of the areas of home economics.
Advanced courses in chemistry and nutrition are



229

important for those wishing to specialize in foods
and nutrition; science and statistics for research
work; and journalism for advertising, public
relations work, and all other work in the com­
munications field. In order to teach home eco­
nomics in a high school, it is necessary to complete
the professional education courses and other re­
quirements for a teacher’s certificate in the State
in which one wishes to teach.
A few scholarships especially designated for
undergraduates in this field are available, as well
as scholarships, fellowships, and assistantships
for graduate study. Although colleges and uni­
versities offer most of these financial grants, some
are provided by government agencies, research
foundations, businesses, and the American Home
Economics Association.
Home economists must be able to work with
people of various living standards and back­
grounds and should have a capacity for leadership,
with ability to inspire cooperation. Good groom­
ing, poise, and an interest in people are also es­
sential, particularly when dealing with the public.
Employment Outlook

Home economists are expected to have very good
employment opportunities throughout the re­
mainder of the 1960’s. In early 1963, experienced
home economists with graduate training to fill
administrative, college teaching, and extension
specialist positions were in especially strong de­
mand. Graduates with the bachelor’s degree were
also being sought to fill entry positions, mainly
as teachers in secondary schools. In most States,
not enough home economics graduates were enter­
ing and remaining in home economics occupations
to satisfy the demand for these workers in teach­
ing and other fields. Some young women who
study home economics do not enter employment in
the field but become full-time homemakers. Others
work professionally for only a short time before
marriage but often return to part-time or full­
time employment after their children are in school.
The demand for home economists to fill teaching
positions in secondary schools and in colleges and
universities will be the principal factor in the
longrun growth in employment in this field. In
addition, the need for more home economists in
research is expected to increase with the continued
interest in using scientific methods for improving

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

230

various home products and services. Employers in
many business establishments are also likely to be­
come increasingly aware of the contributions that
can be made by professionally trained home econo­
mists and will probably hire more of them to
promote home products and to act as consultants
to customers. Replacement needs will undoubtedly
continue to be high in this field. There will be
many opportunities for part-time teachers in adult
education programs as more women utilize such
programs to improve their homemaking skills for
personal reasons and to obtain positions requiring
such training.
Earnings and Working Conditions

Home economics teachers in public schools gen­
erally receive the same salaries as other teachers,
as most school districts have a single-salary sched­
ule, graduated by education and experience. In
school districts with 100,000 or more pupils, the
average (median) salary of beginning teachers
with a bachelor’s degree was $4,700 for the school
year 1962-63, according to a National Education
Association survey; in districts with 50,000 to
99,999 enrollment, starting salaries averaged
$4,600, and in districts with 25,000 to 49,999
enrollment, $4,400.
Annual beginning salaries of home economists
employed by business firms generally ranged from
about $4,000 to $5,700, according to the limited
data available in late 1962. Earnings of home
economists with 5 years of experience usually
ranged from $5,000 to $7,000 and top executives
from $7,200 to $14,000 a year. According to a sur­
vey by the American Home Economics Associa­

tion, the average (median) salary of home econo­
mists engaged in college and university teaching
was $7,000 a year in 1962; 1 in 8 earned between
$10,000 and $15,000 a year. In the cooperative ex­
tension service, salaries of county home demonstra­
tion agents averaged about $6,800 per year and
those of State specialists, $8,400 per year in early
1963.
In the Federal Government, the entrance salary
for inexperienced workers with a bachelor’s degree
in home economics was $4,565 in early 1963. For
those with additional education and experience,
salaries ranged from $5,540 to over $16,000 a year,
depending upon the type of position and level of
responsibility.
Many home economists work a regular 40-hour
week or less. Those in teaching and extension
work, however, frequently work longer hours as
they are expected to be available for evening lec­
tures, demonstrations, and other work falling
outside the regularly scheduled hours. Most home
economists receive such fringe benefits as paid
vacation, sick leave, retirement pay, and insurance
benefits.
Where To Go for More Information

A list of schools granting degrees in home eco­
nomics is available from the Home Economics
Education Branch, Office of Education, U.S. De­
partment of Health, Education, and Welfare,
Washington, D.C., 20202.
Additional information about home economists
and graduate scholarships may be obtained from:
American Home Economics Association,
1600 20th St. NW., Washington, D.C., 20009.

Industrial Designers

(D.O.T. 0-46.88)
Nature of Work

Industrial designers combine technical knowl­
edge of materials, machines, and methods of pro­
duction with artistic talent to improve the ap­
pearance and functional design of machine-made
products. Since the public has a wide choice of
selection of styles in products, particularly radios,
television sets, automobiles, refrigerators, and
furniture, a primary objective of the industrial



designer is to design or redesign his employer’s
product to compete favorably with similar goods.
As a first step in designing, the industrial de­
signer spends time on historical research on the
product or related products. He examines the
nature of the competition in today’s market and
the ways in which the product may be used. Then,
he sketches a variety of alternative solutions,
which are examined from many points of view.

OTHER PROFESSIONAL AND RELATED OCCUPATIONS

For example, the designer may consult engineers,
production supervisors, and the sales and market
research staff for their opinions as to the prac­
ticability of producing a newly designed product,
or changing the design of an old product, and as
to the sales potential of the proposed designs.
After the most suitable design is selected by com­
pany officials, a model may be made by the de­
signer. The first model of a new design is often
made of clay so that it can be altered easily to
reflect modifications in design. The final or work­
ing model, which may be produced by machinists,
patternmakers, or other highly skilled craftsmen,
is usually made of the material to be used in the
finished product. If the model is finally approved,
it is adopted and put into production.
Industrial designers may also be called upon to
do related types of work of an artistic nature.
For example, they may design containers and
packages, prepare small exhibits for display pur­
poses, or design the entire layout for industrial
fairs. Some also design the layout of the interior
of special purpose commercial buildings, such as
gasoline stations and supermarkets.
Industrial designers employed by a manufac­
turing company usually find their work limited to
the one or few products made by their employer;
many senior designers, however, are now given a
free hand to engage in long-range planning which
may lead to the development of a new product.
Designers who work as consultants to more than
one industrial firm, either as freelance designers
or as members of consulting firms, may plan and
design a great variety of products.

Industrial designer sketches changes in auto body design




231
Where Employed

Fewer than 10,000 industrial designers were
employed in early 1963. The great majority
worked for large manufacturing companies and
in design consulting firms; of the remainder, the
greatest number did freelance work or combined
salaried employment with freelance work. Some
also worked for architects, and a few were on the
staffs of firms of interior designers.
Industrial designers employed by consulting
firms are located mainly in large cities. Those em­
ployed by industrial firms are most often found
in the manufacturing plants of their companies.
Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement

The completion of a course of study in indus­
trial design—in an art school, an art department
of a university, or a technical college—is the
usual requirement for entering this field of work.
People from other areas, however, notably engi­
neering and architecture, often qualify as indus­
trial designers if they have appropriate experi­
ence and artistic talent.
Formal education in industrial design at the
college or university level usually takes at least
4 years to complete, though a few schools require
5 years of study. These schools award the bache­
lor’s degree in industrial design or fine arts; some
of these schools also award the master’s degree for
advanced study in the field. Some schools, usu­
ally private art schools or those associated with
large art museums, offer a 3-year course of study
in industrial design which leads to a diploma.
Entrance to the course of study in industrial
design is limited, with rare exceptions, to quali­
fied high school graduates; in addition, art schools
and colleges may require students to present
sketches and other examples of their artistic abil­
ity. Some schools require students to complete
their freshman year or sophomore year before
they select an industrial design major.
Industrial design curriculums differ considera­
bly among schools. Some schools stress the engi­
neering and technical aspects of the field, whereas
others give students a strong cultural background
in art. Nevertheless, all industrial design curricu­
lums include at least one course in two-dimen­
sional design (color theory, spatial organization,
etc.) and one in general three-dimensional design

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

232

(abstract sculpture and art structures), including
a substantial amount of studio practice in the ac­
tual design of three-dimensional products. In the
studio course, students learn to make working
drawings and models with clay, wood, plaster, and
other easily worked materials. In schools that have
the necessary machinery, students gain experience
in making models of their designs while learning
to use metalworking and woodworking machin­
ery. Some schools, principally those with a tech­
nical emphasis, require the completion of courses
in basic engineering and in the composition of ma­
terials. All schools which offer 4- or 5-year courses
leading to a bachelor’s degree also include
academic subjects, such as English, history, and
science, in their curriculums.
Creative ability, skill in drawing, and the abil­
ity to predict consumer needs are among the most
important personal qualifications needed by young
people aspiring to work in this field. A mechanical
interest is also important. Applicants for jobs will
find it helpful to have previously assembled a
“portfolio” which demonstrates their skill in de­
signing and their creative talent. Since industrial
designers are frequently required to work cooper­
atively with engineers and other staff members,
ability to work and communicate well with others
is important. Young people who plan to do in­
dustrial design on a consulting basis should, in
addition, have a knowledge of business practices,
as well as sales ability.
New graduates of industrial design courses fre­
quently start as assistants to other designers. They
are usually given relatively simple assignments
which do not involve making structural changes
in the product. As they gain experience, designers
may be assigned to supervisory positions with
major responsibility for the design of a product
or a group of products. Those who have the neces­
sary funds, as well as established reputations in
the field, may open their own consulting firms.
Employment Outlook

Employment in this relatively small occupation
is expected to expand moderately during the rest
of the 1960’s. Employers will be actively seeking
applicants with a college degree and outstanding
talent. Some employment opportunities will also




arise each year from the need to replace designers
who retire or leave the field for other reasons.
Although these vacated positions are likely to be
filled by promoting designers’ assistants, such
promotions result in openings at the entry level.
Over the long run, employment in the field of
industrial designing will continue to expand.
Rapid obsolescence of military and commercial
equipment and the rising population will increase
the demand for newly designed products. As in
the past, manufacturers will strive to capture
their share of this market through creating new
products, by improving the design of existing
ones, and by changing package designs and other­
wise modernizing the appearance and use of their
products. Small companies will probably make in­
creasing use of services offered by industrial de­
sign consulting firms in order to compete more
effectively with larger firms. All of these factors,
combined with rising per capita income, will con­
tribute to long-term growth in the employment of
industrial designers. However, as in the past, new
entrants trained specifically in industrial design­
ing are likely to encounter keen competition for
beginning jobs from persons with engineering,
architectural, and related educational back­
grounds and who have artistic and creative talent
as well. Also, since personnel needs in this pro­
fession are closely related to general business con­
ditions, any downturn in the economy would tend
to affect adversely the employment outlook for
industrial designers.
Earnings

Starting salaries of inexperienced industrial
designers employed by manufacturing firms
ranged from $90 to $125 a week in early 1963,
according to the limited information available.
Beginning salaries of those employed by consult­
ing firms were usually lower. Salaries of experi­
enced industrial designers vary greatly, depending
on individual ability, size and type of firm in
which employed, and other factors. According to
scattered reports, those with several years of ex­
perience earned salaries ranging from $6,000 to
$12,000 on the average, in early 1963. Some large
manufacturing firms paid $25,000 or more to ex­
perienced and talented designers.

OTHER PROFESSIONAL AND RELATED OCCUPATIONS

Earnings of industrial designers who own their
consulting firms, alone or as members of a part­
nership, may fluctuate markedly from year to
year. In recent years, earnings of most consultants
ranged between $12,000 and $20,000 a year, with
a few outstanding industrial designers making
as much as $200,000 a year.

233
Where To Go for More Information

American Society of Industrial Designers,
15 East 48th St., New York, N.Y., 10017.
Industrial Designers’ Institute,
441 Madison Ave., New York, N.Y., 10022.
National Association of Schools of Art,
50 Astor PI., New York, N.Y., 10003.

Interior Designers and Decorators

(D.O.T. 0-43.40)
Nature of Work

Interior designers and decorators plan the se­
lection and arrangement of furniture, draperies,
floor coverings, and decorations for homes and
other structures, such as offices, stores, hotels,
theaters, clubs, schools, and even ships and air­
craft. They may work on the interior settings used
for motion pictures and television. Their plans are
intended to achieve both an artistic and functional
effect. Interior designers who plan the space and
other interior design for their clients most often
work on large projects—an entire office building,
for example—and plan the complete layout of the
rooms within the space allowed by the exterior
walls and other framework. When their plans
have been completed, the architect for the struc­
ture usually checks them against his blueprints to
assure compliance with building requirements and
to solve any structural problems. Some interior
designers also design the furniture and accessories
to be used in interiors and then arrange for their
manufacture.
Many designers and decorators have their own
establishments, where they sell some or all of the
merchandise with which they work. Some work
alone, or with one assistant; others have a large
staff, sometimes including salespeople.
Many of the larger department and furniture
stores have special departments with interior
decorators in charge to advise customers on deco­
rating plans. One of the main functions of such
departments is to help sell the stores’ merchandise,
although the decorators are usually permitted to
use materials not carried by the stores when this
is essential to their decorating plans. In addition
to customers, department store decorators may ad-




Interior decorator checks to determine client's preference in
furnishings

vise the stores’ buyers and executives concerning
style and color trends in interior furnishings.
As a rule, designers and decorators work di­
rectly with clients to determine their preferences
and needs in furnishings; on large assignments,
they may submit sketches or water color render­
ings in perspective of their plans, along with cost
estimates. After the client approves both the plans
and cost estimates, arrangements are made for
the purchase of the furnishings; for the super­
vision of the work of painters, floor finishers,
cabinet makers, carpet layers, and other crafts­
men ; and for the installation and arrangement of
furnishings.

234
Where Employed

About 10,000 men and women were engaged in
interior design and decoration in 1962. The ma­
jority were located in large cities and their sub­
urbs—areas in which decorating services are
widely used. In recent years, large department
and furniture stores have become increasingly
important sources of employment for professional
decorators. Some designers and decorators have
regular jobs wT hotel and restaurant chains.
ith
Others are employed by architects, antique deal­
ers, office furniture stores, industrial designers,
furniture and textile manufacturers or other
manufacturers in the interior furnishings field,
or by periodicals that feature articles on homefurnishings.
Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement

Formal training in interior design and decora­
tion is becoming increasingly important for en­
trance into this field of work, although many
present members of the profession achieved suc­
cess without such training. Most department
stores, well-established design and decorating
firms, and other major employers will accept only
well-trained people for beginning jobs. Usually,
the minimum educational requirement is comple­
tion of either a 2- or 3-year course at a recognized
art school or institute specializing in interior
decorating and design or a 4-year college course
leading to a bachelor of fine arts degree, with a
major in interior design and decoration. The
course of study in interior design and decoration
usually includes the principles of design, history
of art, freehand and mechanical drawing, paint­
ing, the study of the essentials of architecture as
they relate to interiors, design of furniture and
exhibitions, and study of various materials, such
as woods and fabrics. In addition, courses in sales­
manship, business arithmetic, and other business
subjects are of great value.
Membership in either the American Institute of
Interior Designers of the National Society of In­
terior Designers is a recognized mark of achieve­
ment in this profession. For such membership a
decorator must usually have completed 4 years of
education or more beyond high school, with major
emphasis on training in design, and also have had




OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

several years of experience, including responsi­
bility for supervision of all aspects of decorating
contracts.
New graduates with art training usually serve
a training period, either with decorating firms, in
department stores, or in the firm of an established
designer. They may act as a receptionist, as a
shopper with the task of matching materials or
finding accessories, or as a stockroom assistant,
assistant decorator, or junior designer. In most
instances, from 1 to 3 years of on-the-job training
is required before a trainee is considered eligible
for advancement to the job of decorator. Begin­
ners who do not obtain trainee jobs often work as
salespeople for fabric, lamp, or other interior
furnishings concerns, to gain experience both in
dealing with customers and to become familiar
with the merchandise. This experience often
makes it easier to obtain trainee jobs with a
decorating firm or department; it may also lead
to a career in merchandising.
Decorators with ability and considerable ex­
perience may be advanced to head of the decorat­
ing department or to other supervisory positions
in department stores or large decorating firms.
Experienced decorators may open their own
decorating establishments or move into positions
as interior furnishings coordinators in department
stores.
Artistic talent, imagination, and good business
judgment are probably the personal qualities most
important for success in this field.
Employment Outlook

Talented art school or college graduates with a
major in interior design and decoration will
probably have good opportunities for employment
during the remainder of the 1960 decade. Young
people without formal training or real aptitude
for the work will, however, find it increasingly
difficult to gain a foothold in the field.
A slow but steady increase in employment of
interior designers and decorators is anticipated
over the long run. Factors that will contribute
to this expansion are population growth, larger
expenditures for home and office furnishings, the
increasing availability of well-designed furnish­
ings at moderate prices, and a growing recogni­
tion among middle-income families of the value

OTHER PROFESSIONAL AND RELATED OCCUPATIONS

of decorators’ services. In addition to newly cre­
ated jobs, some openings will arise each year as
workers retire, die, or leave the occupation for
other reasons.
Department and furniture stores will continue
to employ an increasing number of trained decora­
tors. These stores are also expected to share in the
growing volume of decorating work for commer­
cial establishments and public buildings, formerly
handled almost entirely by independent decora­
tors. This development will result in increased
opportunities for salaried employment of decora­
tors. As in the past, however, a sharp downturn
in general economic conditions would adversely
affect employment opportunities in this field.
Many women will continue to find employment
opportunities in this field. Mature women with
suitable educational and personal qualifications
should be able to compete successfully, since some
clients do not have confidence in youthful appear­
ing decorators.
Earnings and Working Conditions

Beginning salaries ranged from $65 to $85 a
week in 1962 for art school or college graduates
with formal training in interior design and deco­
ration, according to limited data available.
Many interior decorators with experience in this
field earn only moderate incomes—from $4,000 to

235

$5,000 a year. Other decorators who are well
known in their localities may earn up to $12,000
or more. Designers and decorators whose talents
are nationally recognized may earn more than
$25,000 yearly.
Decorators in business for themselves have an
especially wide range of earnings; their profits
are related to factors such as the volume of busi­
ness, their prestige as a decorator, economic level
of their clients, and their own business compe­
tence. Decorators in the employ of others also
have variable earnings, since few of them are paid
straight salaries; some receive salaries plus com­
missions which usually range from 5 to 10 percent
of the value of their sales; others receive com­
missions only, which may be as much as one-third
of the value of their sales.
Hours of work for decorators and designers
are sometimes long and irregular. They usually
adjust their workday to suit the needs of their
clients, meeting with them during the evenings
or on weekends, when necessary.
Where To Go for More Information

American Institute of Interior Designers,
673 Fifth Ave., New York, N.Y., 10022.
National Society of Interior Designers, Inc.,
Suite 700,157 West 57th St.,
New York, N.Y., 10019.

Landscape Architects

(D.O.T. 0-03.20)

Nature of Work

Landscape architects plan the arrangement of
outdoor areas for people to use and enjoy. Parks,
gardens, scenic roads, housing projects, campuses,
and country clubs reflect the skill of these archi­
tects in designing landscapes that are both useful
and pleasing. Because of their knowledge of site
planning, landscape architects may serve many
types of clients, such as a school board planning
a new high school, a manufacturer wishing to
fit a factory into a suburban area attractively,
a homeowner wishing to improve his grounds,
a Government agency desiring a master plan for a
military site, a city preparing to build an airport,




or a real estate firm embarking on a new suburban
development.
The landscape architect may plan the entire
arrangement of a site and supervise the grading,
construction, and planting required to carry out
the plan. Whether he performs all or only part
of these services on a particular project, however,
depends on the client’s wishes and the available
funds.
A landscape architect begins to plan a site by
studying the nature and purpose of the client’s
project and the various types of structures needed.
Next, he studies the site itself, observing and map­
ping such features as the slope of the land and

236

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

tectural or engineering firms; others were em­
ployed by landscape contractors or nurseries, and
a few taught in colleges and universities.
Landscape architects are found in every State
and in many small towns as well as big cities. The
largest numbers are in the most highly populated
States. California, with a large population, a highper capita income, and a mild climate, has more
landscape architects than any other State.
Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement

Landscape architects may plan the entire site for an area
redevelopment project

the position of existing buildings and trees. He
also considers the views, the parts of the site that
will be sunny or shaded at different times of day,
the structure of the soil, existing utilities, and
many other factors. Then, after consultation with
the architect and engineer working on the project,
he draws up preliminary plans for the develop­
ment of the site. After the client approves the
preliminary plans, working drawings are made
which show all existing and proposed features,
such as buildings, roads, walks, terraces, grading,
and drainage structures in planted areas. The
landscape architect outlines in detail the methods
of constructing such features as walks and ter­
races and draws up lists of materials to be used.
Landscape contractors are then invited to submit
bids for the work.
Firms of landscape architects usually handle a
wide variety of assignments. Some, however, spe­
cialize in such projects as parks and playgrounds,
campuses, hotels and resorts, shopping centers,
roads, or public housing.
Where Employed

About 4,000 landscape architects were employed
in early 1963. The majority were in business for
themselves or worked for other landscape archi­
tects in private firms. Most of the remainder—
about a third of all landscape architects—were
employed by government agencies concerned with
public housing, city planning, or parks and recre­
ational areas. Some were on the staffs of archi­



A bachelor’s degree from a college or university
which offers professional training in landscape
architecture is usually the minimum requirement
for entering the profession. Such training is of­
fered in at least 20 colleges and universities, of
which 16 have been accredited by the American
Society of Landscape Architects. The curriculum
for the bachelor’s degree requires 4 to 5 years of
study, depending on the institution. A few uni­
versities also offer master’s degrees in landscape
architecture.
Entrance requirements for the landscape archi­
tecture course are usually the same as those for
admission to the liberal arts college of the same
university. Some schools also require completion
of a high school course in mechanical or geo­
metrical drawing, and most schools advise high
school students to take courses in art and more
mathematics than the minimum required for col­
lege entrance.
Courses in design, including architecture and
drawing as well as landscape design, constitute
over half of the typical curriculum in landscape
architecture. Other major fields of study are civil
engineering and horticulture. In addition, courses
in English, science, the social sciences, and mathe­
matics are usually required. A bachelor’s degree
in landscape architecture provides a good back­
ground for graduate work in city planning.
Young people who plan to become landscape
architects should be interested in both art and
nature, for the profession demands a talent for
design and an understanding of plant life, as well
as technical ability. Successful practice as an in­
dependent landscape architect also requires a
good business sense and the ability to deal with
people.

OTHER PROFESSIONAL AND RELATED OCCUPATIONS

Working for landscape architects or landscape
contractors during summer vacations will help the
student to discover what phases of landscape
architecture interest him most and may enable
him to get a better than average job and salary
upon graduation.
New^ graduates usually begin as junior drafts­
men assigned to tracing drawings and other sim­
ple drafting work. As their skill increases, they
progress to more responsible work. After 2 or 3
years, they can usually advance to positions as
senior draftsmen, qualified to carry a design
through all its stages from preliminary sketches
to finished working drawings. Experienced drafts­
men often handle other aspects of landscape archi­
tects’ work also, such as preparing specifications
and detailing methods of construction. Employees
who demonstrate ability for all phases of work
may become associates of the firm; landscape ar­
chitects who progress this far often open their
own offices.
A license is required for the independent prac­
tice of landscape architecture in six States—Cali­
fornia, New York, Virginia, Georgia, Oregon, and
Louisiana. Candidates for the licensing examina­
tion are required to have 6 to 8 years’ experience,
or a degree from an accredited school of landscape
architecture plus 2 to 4 years’ experience.
Employment Outlook

Employment opportunities for graduates with
professional training in landscape architecture
are expected to be good for the remainder of the
1960’s. In the long run, the profession will proba­
bly continue to expand, as a result of the con­
tinued growth of metropolitan areas with their
needs for parks and recreational areas, the grow­
ing population’s requirements for outdoor recre­
ational facilities, the continued increase in public
construction (including public housing), and the
rising interest in city and regional planning. Op­
portunities for landscape architects may increase
sharply if developers of new residential and com­
mercial areas continue to offer planned recrea­
tional facilities and landscaping to compete with
existing areas.
In some parts of the country, the expected in­
crease in homeownership, coupled with rising per




237

capita incomes and living standards, will also spur
the demand for landscape architects. These fac­
tors are likely to have much less effect in some
other areas (especially the northern and eastern
parts of the country) where homeowners generally
choose the services of landscape gardeners and
nurserymen instead of landscape architects.
Women can enter training for landscape archi­
tecture. They represent about 10 to 15 percent of
all landscape architects (but only about 1 percent
of the Nation’s registered architects). Welltrained and competent women landscape archi­
tects can look forward to interesting and worth­
while careers in the profession, chiefly as
specialists in garden and planting design.
Earnings and Working Conditions

In early 1963, starting salaries in private indus­
try for new graduates in landscape architecture
ranged from about $90 to $130 a week, accordingto the limited information available. The rela­
tively higher salaries generally were paid to
graduates who had gained experience in summer
jobs in landscape architecture firms. Some firms
started inexperienced landscape architects at
about $75 a week and advanced them to higher
salaries after a few months’ experience. Experi­
enced persons employed by private firms typically
earned from $7,000 to $8,000 a year, though it was
not unusual for especially well-qualified people
to receive annual salaries of $10,000 or more.
Landscape architects in independent practice
often earn more than salaried employees with con­
siderable experience, but their earnings vary
widely and may fluctuate from year to year. In
recent years, earnings for this segment of the pro­
fession have tended to range from $6,000 to
$15,000 a year, with some people of exceptional
. ability and established reputation making $25,000
or more a year.
The annual entrance salary for newly graduated
landscape architects in the Federal Civil Service
was either $5,365 or $6,465 in early 1963, depend­
ing on their qualifications. The salary schedule
also provides for periodic increases above this
amount. A large majority of experienced land­
scape architects in the Federal Government earn
$8,045 or more a year; a few earn $15,000 or more.

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK,

238

Salaried employees in both the government and
in landscape architectural firms usually work
regular hours. Self-employed persons often work
long hours, especially in the planting season. Sala­
ried employees in private firms may also work
overtime in the seasonal rush periods.

Where To Go for More Information

Additional information on the profession and
a list of colleges and universities offering ac­
credited courses of study in landscape architec­
ture may be obtained from:
American Society of Landscape Architects, Inc.,
2000 K St. NW., Washington, D.C., 20006.

Lawyers

(D.O.T. 0-22.)
Nature of Work

Lawyers (attorneys) advise clients on their
legal rights and obligations and, when necessary,
represent them in courts of law. In addition, they
negotiate settlements out of court and represent
clients before quasi-judicial or administrative
agencies of the government. They may act as
trustees, guardians, or executors. Government at­
torneys play a large part in developing and ad­
ministering Federal and State laws and programs;
they prepare drafts of proposed legislation, estab­
lish law enforcement procedures, and argue cases.
Some lawyers serve as judges in Federal, State,
and local courts. Others are primarily engaged in
teaching, research, writing, or administrative
activities.
The great majority of practicing lawyers are
engaged in general practice, handling all kinds
of legal work for clients. However, a significant
number practice in a particular branch of the law
—for example, corporation, criminal, labor, pat­
ent, real estate, tax, or international law. Some
attorneys devote themselves entirely to trying
cases in the courts. Others never appear in court
but spend all their time in such activities as draw­
ing up wills, trusts, contracts, mortgages, and
other legal documents, conducting out-of-court
negotiations, and doing the investigative and other
legal work necessary to prepare for trials.
Many people with legal training are not em­
ployed as lawyers but are.in other occupations
where they can use their knowledge of law. They
may, for example, be FBI agents, insurance ad­
justers, tax collectors, probation officers, credit
investigators, or claims examiners. A legal back­
ground is also a valuable asset to people seeking
public office.



Where Employed

Of the approximately 250,000 lawyers employed
in 1961, three-fourths were in private practice. Ap­
proximately 60 percent of the private practition­
ers were in practice by themselves, about 30 per­
cent were in partnerships, and the remainder—
less than 10 percent—worked for other lawyers
or law firms.
The greatest number of salaried attorneys are
employed by government agencies. In 1961, the
Federal Government employed approximately
13,000 attorneys, chiefly in the Department of
Justice, the Department of Defense, and the
Veterans Administration. About 8,300 attorneys
held positions with city or county governments,
and 4,300 were employed by State governments.
Nearly 8,200 held judicial positions.
The second largest number of salaried lawyers
are employed by private companies, including
large manufacturing firms, banks, insurance com­
panies, real estate firms, and public utilities. Most
of the remainder teach in law schools. Some law­
yers in salaried legal positions also have an in­
dependent practice; others do legal work on a
part-time basis while primarily employed in an­
other occupation.
Although lawyers pratice in all parts of the
country, most of them are in cities and in the
States with the greatest population. In 1961, for
example, nearly one-third of all lawyers were in
New York City, Chicago, Washington, D.C., Los
Angeles, Boston, Detroit, Philadelphia, and Cleve­
land.
Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement

Before a lawyer can practice in the courts of
any State he must be admitted to the bar of that

OTHER PROFESSIONAL AND RELATED OCCUPATIONS

State. In all States applicants must pass a written
examination; a few States waive this requirement,
however, for graduates of their own in-State law
schools. Other usual requirements are U.S. citizen­
ship and good moral character. If a lawyer has
been admitted to the bar in one State, he can usu­
ally be admitted to practice in another State with­
out taking an examination, provided he meets the
State’s standards of good moral character and has
a specified amount of legal experience. The right
to practice before Federal courts and agencies is
controlled by special rules of each court or agency.
To qualify for the bar examinations in the
majority of States, an applicant must have com­
pleted a minimum of 3 years of college work and,
in addition, must be a graduate of a law school
approved by the American Bar Association or the
proper State authorities. Some States will accept
study in a law office instead of, or in combination
with, study in a law school—though this method
of training is now rare. A few States will accept
study of the law wholly in a law office; two States
will accept study of the law by correspondence.
A number of States require registration and ap­
proval by the State Board of Examiners before
students enter law school or during the early years
of legal study. In a few States, candidates must
complete a period of clerkship in a law office before
they are admitted to the bar examination.
As a rule, it takes 6 years of full-time study
after high school to complete the required college
and law school work. The most usual preparation
for becoming a lawyer is 3 years of college study
followed by 3 years in law school. Some law
schools, particularly if they have a 4-year, full­
time curriculum, may accept students after 2 years
of college work. On the other hand, an increasing
number of law schools are requiring applicants
to have a college degree. Law schools seldom
specify the college subjects which must be included
in students’ prelegal education. However, courses
in English, history, economics, and other social
sciences, logic, and public speaking are all im­
portant for prospective lawyers. In general, their
college background should be broad enough to
give them an understanding of society and its in­
stitutions. Students interested in a particular as­
pect of the law may find it helpful to take related
courses; for example, engineering and science
courses would be useful to the prospective patent



238

attorney, and accounting would be useful to the
future tax lawyer.
Of the 159 law schools in existence in 1962, 134
were approved by the American Bar Association
and the others—chiefly night schools—were ap­
proved by State authorities only. A substantial
number of full-time law schools have night divi­
sions designed to meet the needs of part-time stu­
dents; some law schools have only night classes.
Four years of part-time study is usually required
to complete the night-school curriculum. In 1962,
about one-quarter of all law students were en­
rolled in evening classes.
The first 2 years of law school are generally de­
voted to fundamental courses such as contracts,
criminal law, and property. In the third year, stu­
dents may elect courses in specialized fields such
as tax, labor, or corporation law. Practical ex­
perience is often obtained by participating in legal
aid activities sponsored by the school, in the
school’s practice court where the students con­
duct trials under the supervision of experienced
lawyers, and by writing on legal issues for the
school’s law journal. Upon graduation, the degree
of bachelor of laws (LL.B.) is awarded by most
schools, although a few confer the degree of juris
doctor (J.D.). Advanced study is often desirable
for those planning to specialize in one branch of
the law or to engage in research and law-school
teaching.
Most beginning lawyers start in salaried posi­
tions, although some go into independent practice
immediately after passing the bar examination.
Young salaried attorneys usually act as assistants
(law clerks) to experienced lawyers. Initially,
their work is limited to research such as checking
points of law; they rarely see a client or argue a
case in court. After several years of progressively
responsible salaried employment, during which
time they can obtain experience and funds and
become well known, many lawyers go into practice
for themselves.
Employment Outlook

Graduates from widely recognized law schools
and those in the top 10 percent of their
classes will have favorable employment prospects
throughout the 1960’s. They are expected to have
good opportunities for obtaining salaried posi­
tions with well-known law firms, on legal staffs

240

of corporations and government agencies, and as
law clerks to judges. Graduates of the less wellknown schools and those who graduate with lower
scholastic ratings are likely to experience some
difficulty in finding salaried positions as lawyers.
However, numerous opportunities will be avail­
able for law school graduates to enter a variety of
other types of salaried positions requiring a
knowledge of law. Law graduates will also be in
demand as commissioned officers in the Armed
Forces for legal assignments. Young attorneys
who open their own law offices after being admit­
ted to the bar will, as in most other independent
professions, generally face a period of low earn­
ings while they build up their practice.
Prospects for establishing a new practice will
probably continue to be best in small towns and
expanding suburban areas. In such communities,
competition with other lawyers is likely to be less
than in big cities; also, office rent and other busi­
ness costs may be somewhat lower, and young
lawyers may find it easier to become known to
potential clients. On the other hand, opportunities
for salaried employment will be limited largely
to big cities where the chief employers of legal
talent—government agencies, law firms, and big
corporations—are concentrated. For able and wellqualified lawyers, good opportunities to advance
will be available in both salaried employment and
private practice.
Although the majority of employment oppor­
tunities for new lawyers will continue to arise
from the need to replace those who retire, die,
or otherwise leave the field, a gradual increase in
the legal profession is expected over the long run.
Most of the growth will result from the continu­
ing expansion of business activity and population.
In addition, the increased use of legal services by
low- and middle-income groups will add to the
long-term growth in demand for lawyers. The
growing complexity of business and government
activities is expected to create a steadily expand­
ing demand for lawyers who have extensive ex­
perience in fields such as corporation, patent,
administrative, labor, and international law.
Opportunites for women lawyers, who com­
prised less than 3 percent of the profession in
1961, will probably continue to be limited for
some time to come. More than half of all women



OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK,

lawyers are employed in salaried positions, a few
are in practice for themselves. Many women law­
yers hold positions, not as attorneys, but in oc­
cupations requiring a knowledge of law.
Earnings and Working Conditions

In the Federal Government, the annual starting
salary for attorneys who had passed the bar was
either $5,540 or $6,675 in early 1963, depending on
the applicant’s qualifications. Attorneys employed
in beginning salaried positions with manufactur­
ing and other business firms had an average salary
of approximately $6,550 a year in early 1962.
Beginning salaries for young lawyers are gen­
erally highest in large law firms and Federal agen­
cies. Those working for small law offices or en­
gaged in legal aid work usually receive the lowest
salaries. The beginning lawyer in practice for
himself may make little more than his expenses
during the first few years and may add to his
total income by engaging in other part-time
employment.
Lawyers’ earnings usually rise with increased
experience. Those employed on a salaried basis
receive increases as they demonstrate their ability
to assume greater responsibilities. Incomes of law­
yers in private practice usually grow as their
practices develop. Private practitioners who are
partners in law firms generally have greater aver­
age incomes than those who practice alone.
Lawyers often work long hours and under con­
siderable pressure when a case is being tried. In
addition, they must keep abreast of the latest laws
and court decisions. However, since lawyers in
private practice are able to determine their own
hours and workload, many stay in practice until
well past the usual retirement age.
Where To Go for More Information

The specific requirements for admission to the
bar in a particular State may be obtained from
the clerk of the Supreme Court or the secretary
of the Board of Bar Examiners at the State
capital. Information on law schools and on law
as a career is available from:
The American Bar Association,
1155 East 60th St., Chicago, 111., 60637.

OTHER PROFESSIONAL AND RELATED OCCUPATIONS

241

Librarians

(D.O.T . 0-23.)
Nature of Work

Librarians select, acquire, and organize collec­
tions of books, pamphlets, manuscripts, periodi­
cals, dippings, and reports and assist readers in
their use. In many libraries, they also make avail­
able organized collections of phonograph records,
maps, slides, pictures, tapes, films, and film strips.
Their duties include analyzing the reading inter­
ests and information needs of people served by
the library and developing a collection of materi­
als to meet those requirements, preparing a catalog
to serve as a guide to the collection, and aiding
readers in securing information or reading materi­
als. Librarians may also review and abstract
published and unpublished materials, prepare
bibliographies, advise schools or business organi­
zations on sources of information for research,
provide library services for community projects,
publicize library services, and plan and operate
information storage and retrieval systems.
In a small library, a librarian may perform a
great variety of tasks. In a large organization,
each librarian may perform only a single function
or may specialize in a subject matter area, such
as science, business, the arts, or medicine.
Librarians may be classified according to the
types of libraries in which they are employed:
Public libraries, school libraries, college and uni­
versity libraries, and special libraries. In each of
these, there are two principal kinds of library
work—reader services and technical services.
Those who perform reader services, for example,
reference librarians and children’s librarians,
work directly with the public. Catalogers and
others who perform technical services usually
have no contact with readers.
Public librarians serve all kinds of readers—
children, students, teachers, research workers, and
others. The professional staff of a large public
library system may include the chief librarian,
an assistant chief, and several division heads, who
plan and coordinate the work of the entire system
and perform other administrative duties. Such a
system may also include librarians who supervise
branch libraries, and other librarians who are
specialists in certain areas. The duties of some of
692-408 0 —63------17



A growing number of librarians are men

these specialists are briefly described in the para­
graph which follows.
Acquisition librarians have responsibility for
the purchase of books and other library materials
that are selected by staff members; they may also
acquire materials by exchange or gift. Catalogers
classify books under various subjects and other­
wise describe them so they may be identified
through card catalogs. Reference librarians aid
readers in their search for information—answer­
ing specific questions or suggesting sources of
information about broad subjects. Children's li­
brarians plan and direct special programs for
children, including preschool children. Their du­
ties include instructing children in the use and
content of the library, giving talks on books, and
maintaining contact with schools and community
organizations. Often they conduct a regular story
hour at the library and sometimes on radio or tele­
vision. Adult services librarians may select materi-

242

als for and advise mature readers. They are often
asked to suggest reading materials or to plan and
conduct educational programs on such topics as
community development, public affairs, creative
arts, problems of the aging, or home and family
life. Young adult services librarians may select
books and materials for young people, and guide
them in the use of these materials. They may ar­
range book or film discussion groups, concerts of
recorded popular and classical music, and other
programs related to the interests of young adults.
They may also help to coordinate the services of
the school libraries and the local public library.
Bookmobile librarians take library materials to
people who live in areas where other public library
services are nonexistent or inadequate.
School librarians work with pupils as well as
with teachers and school supervisors concerned
with planning the curriculum. They prepare lists
of printed and audiovisual materials on certain
subjects; meet with faculty members to select ma­
terials for school programs and select, order, and
organize library materials. They instruct students
in the use of the library and visit classrooms to
acquaint students with library materials relating
to the subjects being taught. Many school librar­
ians are employed by school district central offices
as supervisors to plan and coordinate library ser­
vices for the entire school system, as catalogers,
and as librarians to administer professional li­
braries for teachers. Very large high schools may
employ several professional librarians, each re­
sponsible for a special aspect of the library
program or for special subject materials.
College and university librarians work with
students, faculty members, and research workers,
in general reference work or in a particular field
of interest, such as law, medicine, economics, or
music. In addition, they may teach one or more
classes in the use of the library. Some specialize
in acquisition and cataloging. A few librarians,
who are employed in university research projects,
operate documentation centers, sometimes using
computers and other modern devices to record and
retrieve specialized information.
Special librarians serve in libraries maintained
by commercial and industrial firms, such as phar­
maceutical companies, banks, and advertising
agencies; professional and trade associations;
government agencies; and other types of organiza­



OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

tions. These librarians plan, acquire, organize, and
catalog collections designed to provide intensive
coverage of information resources about subjects
of special interest to the organization. The special
librarian utilizes his extensive knowledge of the
subject matter, as well as library science, in build­
ing up library resources, advising and assisting
library users, abstracting, and routing available
materials. Literature searching and the prepara­
tion of summaries, translations, bibliographies,
and special reports are among the major duties
of special librarians. Some special librarians
develop coding and programing techniques for
using electronic and electromechanical informa­
tion storage devices.
Where Employed

Nearly 60,000 people were employed as full-time
professional librarians in 1962, according to the
U.S. Office of Education. According to the same
source, an additional 15,000 to 20,000 other people
were working as librarians; of these some were
working part time and others were not regarded
as “professional” librarians. School librarians and
public librarians each accounted for about onethird of the full-time employed professional
group. Librarians in colleges and universities and
those employed in special libraries (including
libraries in government agencies), each accounted
for about one-sixth of the total. A small number
of librarians were employed, as teachers and ad­
ministrators in schools of library science.
About 85 percent of all librarians are women.
The proportion of men is rising however; in re­
cent years nearly 25 percent of the college gradu­
ates who earned a degree in library science were
men. Men are more frequently employed than
women in executive and administrative positions
in large library systems and in special libraries
concerned with science and technology.
Most librarians work in cities and towns. Those
attached to bookmobile units serve widely scat­
tered population groups mostly in suburban or
rural areas. Increasingly, rural libraries are being
organized into systems with centralized reference
and technical services. The headquarters for these
library organizations are frequently in the largest
town or the governmental seat of the region or
county served.

OTHER PROFESSIONAL AND RELATED OCCUPATIONS
Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement

To qualify as a professional librarian, one must
ordinarily have completed a course of study in a
library school. This usually means 5 years of col­
lege—four to meet requirements for a bachelor’s
degree and a fifth year or more of specialized
study in library science, after which the master’s
degree is conferred. A growing proportion of the
persons in administrative and other high-level
library positions have such training. A Ph. D.
degree is an advantage to those who plan a teach­
ing career in library schools or who aspire to a
top administrative post, particularly in a college
or university library or in a large school library
system.
In 1962, there were 31 graduate schools in the
United States which were accredited by the Amer­
ican Library Association. Approximately 70 other
institutions also conferred library science degrees
at either the undergraduate or graduate level or
both. Many other colleges offer courses within
their 4-year undergraduate programs which pre­
pare students for some types of library work.
Entrance requirements to graduate schools of
library science commonly include: (1) Graduation
from an accredited 4-year college or university,
(2) a good undergraduate record, and (3). a read­
ing knowledge of a foreign language. Some
schools also require introductory undergraduate
courses in library science. Most library schools
emphasize the importance of a liberal arts under­
graduate program with a major selected from one
of the following: Social sciences, physical and
biological sciences, the arts, or comparative
literature.
Special librarians must have extensive knowl­
edge of the subject with which their work will
deal, as well as training in library science. In
libraries devoted to scientific information, the
librarian must know one or more languages well.
Subject matter specialists in other libraries may
also be required to know foreign languages.
Many students attend library schools under
cooperative work-study programs, combining
their academic program with practical work ex­
perience in a library. To aid the student in arrang­
ing his work-study schedule, many schools have
adopted the policy of offering all courses every
semester. Scholarships for training in library
science are available from certain State and Fed­



243

eral funds and from library schools, as well as
from a number of the large libraries and library
associations.
School librarians must be certified in all States
as having met the requirements for both librar­
ians and teachers. Certification of public librar­
ians is required in 22 States and is optional in 11
other States. Other requirements, based on differ­
ent combinations of education and experience, are
sometimes established by local, county, or State
authorities. In the Federal Government, comple­
tion of a 4-year college course, including at least
24 hours of library science or the equivalent in
experience, is required for beginning positions;
candidates with a year of graduate work in library
science are eligible for appointment to a higher
grade.
In addition to an appropriate educational back­
ground, a person interested in becoming a librar­
ian should have above-average intelligence, an
interest in people, an attraction to books, intel­
lectual curiosity, an ability to express himself
clearly, a desire to search for and use recorded
materials, and an ability to work harmoniously
with others.
Experienced librarians may advance to admin­
istrative positions or to specialized work. Promo­
tion to these higher positions may be limited,
however, to those who have completed graduate
training in library school, or to those who have
had specialized training and experience.
Employment Outlook

The employment outlook for trained librarians
is expected to be excellent for the remainder of
the 1960 decade. A nationwide shortage of trained
librarians was reported in early 1963, by library
schools, associations, the U.S. Office of Education,
and other sources. This situation is expected to
persist despite the anticipated rise in the number
of library school graduates. Thus, it appears that
employment opportunities will exist in most parts
of the country and in all types of libraries. The
greatest shortage areas will probably continue to
be in cataloging, children’s work, school libraries,
extension work, and in special library services.
As long as there is a shortage of fully trained
librarians, persons who have only a bachelor’s
degree with a major in library science, as well as
some college graduates who have had little or no

244

library training, will continue to find employment
opportunities in libraries. Many part-time posi­
tions will also be available for persons trained in
library work. Retired librarians should be able
to find employment and short-term positions as
consultants, as substitutes for librarians during
vacation periods, or in other types of library
work. Jobs for library assistants will also be avail­
able for college students or other persons inter­
ested in gaining library experience.
Over the long run, the demand for full pro­
fessional librarians to meet the requirements of
a growing and increasingly well-educated popula­
tion will be intensified by the vast and continuing
expansion in the volume and variety of materials
which must be processed for reader use. Also,
because of the ever-increasing demands upon highlevel executives in business and industry, manage­
ment will tend to rely more heavily on the serv­
ices of special librarians to keep abreast of new
developments. The extension of Federal aid to
rural libraries will further increase the demand
for librarians. Improved standards for school and
college libraries and the expanding student popu­
lation will also necessitate the employment of a
growing number of fully trained librarians. Fur­
thermore, as new methods of storing and retriev­
ing information by means of computer equipment
are developed, demand will increase for librar­
ians who are specialists in this area. Especially
well-qualified librarians will probably continue
to find some opportunities for employment in
American libraries overseas. Several thousand
librarians will also be needed each year to fill
positions vacated by young women who leave
their jobs to take care of their families, and to
replace librarians who transfer to other types of
work, retire, or leave the field for other reasons.
Earnings and Working Conditions

The annual average starting salary of new li­
brary school graduates was $5,365 in 1961, accord­
ing to a private survey. Specialists with extensive
experience earned up to $15,000 or more. Degree
of responsibility and technical skill required, as
well as geographical location, size, and type of
library are important factors which determine
librarians’ salaries.




OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

In the Federal Government, the annual en­
trance salary for librarians with a bachelor’s de­
gree was $4,565 in early 1963; for those with a
master’s degree it was $5,540. Many in supervisory
and administrative positions earned salaries rang­
ing from about $11,000 to $16,000, and a few
earned more.
Annual starting salaries of special librarians
with a master’s degree in library science generally
ranged from $5,200 to $6,000 in 1962, according
to the Special Libraries Association. Head librar­
ians in special libraries earned salaries which
ranged from about $8,000 in business libraries to
$10,000 and over in science libraries. Scientific
information-retrieval specialists earned as much
as $15,000 annually.
The annual salaries of library directors in col­
leges and universities averaged $7,300 in private
institutions and $10,000 in public institutions in
1962, according to the U.S. Office of Education.
A few in large universities earned as much as
$20,000. In junior colleges, average salaries of
library directors ranged from $5,400 in private
institutions to $7,300 in public institutions. School
librarians usually have the same pay scale as
teachers.
The typical workweek for librarians is 5 days
and from 35 to 40 hours. The work schedule of
public and college librarians may include some
Saturday, Sunday, and evening work. School li­
brarians generally have the same workday sched­
ule as classroom teachers. A 40-hour week during
normal business hours is common for government
and other special librarians.
The usual paid vacation after a year’s service
is 3 to 4 weeks. Vacations may be longer in school
libraries, and somewhat shorter in those operated
by business and industry. Many librarians are
covered by sick leave; life, health, and accident
insurance; and pension plans.
Where To Go for More Information

Additional information, particularly on accred­
ited schools, certification requirements, and schol­
arships or loans may be obtained from:
American Library Association,
50 East Huron St., Chicago, 111., 60611.

OTHER PROFESSIONAL AND RELATED OCCUPATIONS

Information on requirements and placement of
special librarians may be obtained from:
Special Libraries Association,
31 East 10th St., New York, N.Y., 10003.

Additional information on employment oppor­
tunities for librarians and about library develop­
ment may be obtained from:

245

Library Services Branch, Office of Education, U.S.
Department of Health, Education, and Welfare,
Washington, D.C., 20202.

Individual State library agencies can furnish
information on scholarships available through
their offices, on requirements for certification, as
well as general information about career prospects
in their regions. State boards of education can
furnish information on certification requirements
and job opportunities for school librarians.

Newspaper Reporters

(D.O.T. 0-06.71)
Nature of Work

Newspaper reporters gather information on
current events and write stories for publication
in daily or weekly newspapers. They interview
people, review public records, observe events, and
do research. As a rule, reporters take brief notes
while collecting facts and write their stories upon
return to the office. Sometimes, to meet deadlines,
they telephone their stories to “dictationists” or
give the information by phone to other staff mem­
bers known as “rewrite men,” who write the
stories for them.
Large dailies frequently assign some reporters^
to “beats,” such as police stations or the courts, to
cover news originating in these places, whereas
other local news is handled by general assignment
reporters. News on certain subjects, such as sports, politics, science, and religion, is dealt with, to an
increasing extent, by specialists in these fields.
Reporters on small newspapers get broad experi­
ence ; they not only cover all aspects of local news
but may also take photographs, write headlines,
lay out inside pages, and even write editorials.
On the smallest weeklies, they may also solicit
advertisements, sell subscriptions, and perform
general office work.
Newspaper reporting is only one of several oc­
cupations open to young people trained in journa­
lism. Persons with this background may also
work for magazines, trade, business, and labor
publications, and other periodicals; for radio and
television stations, advertising agencies, and pub­
lic relations firms; and for government agencies.
These related activities are not covered in this
statement.



Reporters preparing news stories in city room

Where Employed

^

OQO

An estimated 25,000-^ifpM® newspaper report­
ers were employed in the United States in 1962.
The majority worked for daily newspapers; most
of the others worked for weekly papers. In addi­
tion, some reporters were employed by press serv­
ices and newspaper syndicates.
Reporters work in cities and towns of all sizes
throughout the country. Of the approximately
1,800 daily and 9,000 weekly newspapers, the great
majority are in medium-size towns, often in the
suburbs of large cities. Large numbers of report­
ers, however, are in cities, since big city dailies
employ many reporters, wdiereas a small-town
paper generally employs only a few.

246
Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement

Although talented writers with little or no
academic training beyond high school sometimes
become reporters, an increasing number of news­
papers will consider only applicants with a col­
lege education. Some editors prefer those with a
degree in journalism; others consider a degree in
liberal arts equally desirable.
Professional training leading to a bachelor’s de­
gree in journalism can be obtained in more than
150 colleges; about 100 of these have separate de­
partments or schools of journalism. The typical
undergraduate journalism curriculum is offered
during the junior and senior years of college and
is divided about equally between cultural and pro­
fessional subjects. Students preparing to become
newspaper reporters take professional subjects
such as reporting, copyreading, editing, feature
writing, and the history of journalism. A number
of ‘schools award the master’s degree in journal­
ism, but only a few offer programs leading to the
doctor’s degree in this field.
Young people who wish to prepare for news­
paper work through a liberal arts course should
take English including specialized courses in
writing, as well as such subjects as sociology,
political science, economics, history, and psy­
chology. Those who look forward to becoming
technical writers or to reporting in a special field
such as science should concentrate course work in
their subject matter areas to the maximum extent
possible. (See Handbook statement on Technical
Writers.) Those without college training usually
qualify by gaining experience on rural, small­
town, or suburban papers.
Writing ability is fundamental to success in this
field. Other personal characteristics of importance
are a “nose for news,” persistence, initiative, re­
sourcefulness, an accurate memory, and the phys­
ical stamina necessary for an active and often
fast-paced life. Skill in typing is useful since re­
porters often type their own news stories. In
beginning jobs on small papers, a knowledge of
news photography is also valuable.
Many beginners start on weekly or small daily
newspapers. Some outstanding college graduates,
how.ever, are hired directly for reporting positions
by papers that prefer to train them on-the-job.
Others, also usually college graduates, start on
large city papers as copy boys, acting as messen­



OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

gers or office boys. They may be promoted to
reporting jobs as they gain experience and as
openings arise.
In competing for regular positions, it is helpful
to have had experience as a “stringer”—one who
covers the news in a particular area of the com­
munity for a newspaper and is paid on the basis
of the stories printed. Experience on a high school
or college newspaper may also be helpful in ob­
taining employment.
Beginning reporters are first assigned to such
work as summarizing speeches, covering civic and
club meetings, writing obituaries, interviewing
visitors to the community, and covering police
court proceedings and minor new-s events. As they
gain experience, they may advance to covering
more important developments or to a “beat” or
special subject. Reporters with extensive experi­
ence may become rewrite men or copy editors.
Newspapermen also progress to reporting jobs
with larger papers or with press services and
newspaper syndicates. Some experienced reporters
advance to positions such as columnists, corre­
spondent, editor, or to top executive positions or
become publishers, but these positions represent
the top of the field and competition for them is
keen. Other reporters transfer to related fields
such as advertising, radio, television, or public
relations.
Employment Outlook

Well-qualified beginners with writing talent
will have good employment opportunities in the
middle and late 1960’s. In early 1963, newspaper
editors were actively seeking young reporters with
exceptional talent. Other beginners, however, were
facing keen competition for jobs, especially on
large city dailies, and wT probably continue to
ill
do so. In addition to seeking young reporters with
exceptional talent, editors w7ere also looking for
reporters who were qualified to handle news about
atomic energy, military developments, labor, and
other highly specialized or technical subjects.
Weekly or daily newspapers located in small
towns and suburban areas will continue to offer
the most opportunities for beginners to enter
newspaper reporting. Openings continually arise
on these papers as young people gain experience
and transfer to reporting jobs on larger news­
papers or to other types of work. Moreover, the

OTHER PROFESSIONAL AND RELATED OCCUPATIONS

number of newspapers in suburban areas is in­
creasing, and many of the existing ones are ex­
panding their staffs to satisfy the need for more
detailed community news. Preference in employ­
ment on small papers is likely to be given to
beginning reporters who are able to help with
photography and other specialized aspects of
newspaper work and who are acquainted with the
community.
Large city dailies will also provide openings
for inexperienced people with a good educational
background as well as a flair for writing to enter
as reporter trainees, and a number of opportuni­
ties will continue to be available for young people
to enter as copy boys and advance to reporting
jobs.
In addition to jobs in newspaper reporting, newT
college graduates with journalism training will
find numerous openings in related fields, such as
advertising, public relations, trade and technical
publishing, radio, and television. The broad field
of mass communication, wdiich has grown rapidly
in recent years, will continue to expand through­
out the 1960 decade. Factors pointing toward con­
tinuing expansion include rising levels of educa­
tion and income; increasing expenditures for
newspaper, radio, and television advertising; and
a growing number of trade and technical journals
and various types of company publications. News­
papers will share in this growth. Employment of
reporters is expected to increase, although not as
fast as employment in some related areas. The
greatest number of job openings will continue to
arise from the need to replace reporters who are
promoted to editorial or other positions, transfer
to other fields of work, retire, or leave the pro­
fession for other reasons.
Special opportunities for women will continue
to be found in reporting on such subjects as so­
ciety news, food, fashions, clubs, and beauty cul­
ture for the women’s section of newspapers. Many
women reporters, however, have the same types
of job assignments as men.
Earnings and Working Conditions

Many daily newspapers have negotiated con­
tracts with the American Newspaper Guild which
set minimum wages based on experience and pro­



247

vide for annual salary increases. Papers with
Guild contracts often pay salaries higher than the
minimum rates called for in their contracts. Par­
ticularly successful, experienced reporters on city
dailies may earn more than $200 a week. In
early 1963, the minimum starting salaries on most
daily newspapers with Guild contracts ranged
from $60 to $98 a week for reporters with no
previous experience. On a few small dailies, the
Guild minimum starting salaries were less than
$65 a week; on a few large dailies, Guild minimum
rates for beginning reporters ranged between $95
and $110 a week. Young people starting as copy
boys earn less than new reporters—minimum
Guild rates for copy boys with some experience
ranged from about $46 to slightly more than $80
a week.
On most dailies, minimum Guild rates for re­
porters with some experience (usually for those
with 4 to 7 years) ranged from about $113 to $165
a week in early 1963. Contract minimums for ex­
perienced reporters on a few small dailies were
less than $115 a week; on a few large dailies they
were from $165 to $175 a week.
Newspaper reporters on big city papers fre­
quently work 7 or 7% hours a day, 5 days a week;
most other reporters generally work an 8-hour
day, 40-hour week. Many of those employed by
morning papers start work in the afternoon and
finish about midnight. City papers pay overtime
rates for work performed after the regularly
scheduled workday or for more than 40 hours of
work a week; they often provide various employee
benefits such as paid vacations, group insurance,
and pensions.
Where To Go for More Information

Information about opportunities with daily
newspapers may be obtained from:
American Newspaper Publishers Association,
750 Third Ave., New York, N.Y., 10017.

Information on opportunities in the newspaper
field as well as a list of scholarships, fellowships,
assistantships, and loans available at colleges and
universities, may be obtained from:
The Newspaper Fund, Inc.,
44 Broad St., New York, N.Y., 10004.

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

248

Sigma Delta Chi,
35 East Wacker Dr., Chicago, 111., 60601.

Information on union wage rates is available
from:

American Newspaper Guild, Research Department,
1126 16th St. NW, Washington, D.C., 20036.

Names and locations of all daily newspapers and
a list of departments and schools of journalism
are published in the Editor & Publisher Interna­
tional Yearbook, available in most large news­
paper offices and public libraries.

Photographers

(D.O.T. 0-56.01 through .31)
Nature of Work

Photography is both an artistic and a technical
occupation, involving much more than taking
clear pictures of people or views. Some photog­
raphers produce pictures which are so beautifully
composed, otherwise artistic, and striking that
they are recognized as works of fine art. Skillful
portrait photographers take pictures which are
not only natural looking and attractive, but
express the personality of the individual. In tak­
ing pictures for advertising and other commercial
purposes, the photographer has to understand
how the picture is to be used and plan to take it in
such a way as to achieve the desired effect. Photo­
graphing sports and other news events also calls
for special photographic skills, as do other
branches of photographic work.
In taking pictures, photographers use a variety
of cameras—miniature (35 mm.), still, motion
picture, and others. The cameras may be equipped
with telescopic, wide-angle, or other special lenses
and with different types of light filters, to enable
the photographer to get the particular effects
desired in each picture. Photographers also utilize
many kinds of film and must know which to use
for each type of picture, lighting condition,
camera, and filter. When taking pictures indoors
or after dark, they use lighting equipment—flash
bulbs for some pictures, flood and other special
lights and reflectors for others. In addition,
photographers must understand and be able to
carry through the chemical and other processing
by which pictures are developed, enlarged, and
printed. In small shops and photographic depart­
ments, the photographer often has to do all this
technical work. This may be required also in large
studios, but, as a rule, such studios employ photo­
graphic technicians to do the needed technical
work. The techniques involved in taking motion



pictures differ greatly from those used in still
photography and, therefore, most photographers
restrict themselves to one field or the other.
Many professional photographers specialize.
The most common specialties are portrait work,
commercial photography, and industrial photog­
raphy. Portrait photographers work in their own
studios, though they also go to people’s homes and
other places to take pictures. Commercial photog­
raphers generally take pictures for use in adver­
tising real estate, furniture, food, apparel, and
other items, but they may also do other kinds of
photographic work. Industrial photographers
work for a single firm or company, mainly taking
pictures that are used in company publications
and for advertising company products or services.
They may take motion pictures of workers on the
job and of equipment and machinery operating at
high speed to simplify work methods or to
improve the production process. Other photo-

Skillful portrait photographers capture the individual's
personality

OTHER PROFESSIONAL AND RELATED OCCUPATIONS

graphic specialties include press photography
(photo journalism that combines a “nose for news”
with photographic ability); aerial photography;
educational photography (preparing slides, film
strips, and movies for use in the classroom); and
scientific photography (taking pictures for use in
scientific research or technical journals). Some
photographers write for trade and technical
publications, teach photography in schools and
colleges, act as representatives of photographic
equipment manufacturers, manage photofinishing
establishments, sell photographic equipment and
supplies, produce documentary films, or do
freelance work.
Where Employed

About 55,000 photographers were employed in
1962. Roughly half of them worked in portrait or
commercial studios—many in business for them­
selves, the rest as salaried employees. In addition,
sizable numbers were employed in industry; some
worked for Federal, State, and local government
agencies; and others operated camera stores or
worked on the staffs of newspapers and magazines.
Still others worked as freelance photographers,
taking pictures of many kinds and selling them to
advertisers, magazines, and other customers.
Photographers w^ork in all parts of the country,
in small towns as well as large cities. They are,
however, mainly concentrated in States which are
heavily populated—New York, Pennsylvania,
California, Ohio, and Illinois—and which also
have great numbers of businesses and industrial
establishments.
Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement

After graduating from high school, young
people may prepare for work as professional
photographers through 2 or 3 years of on-the-job
training in a portrait or commercial studio. A
trainee generally starts by working in the dark­
room, where he learns how to develop and print
film and to do other related work such as making
enlargements. Later, he may set up lights and
cameras or otherwise assist an experienced photog­
rapher in taking pictures. Photographic training
can also be obtained in many colleges and
universities, trade schools, and technical institutes,
or by taking correspondence school courses.



249

Several colleges and universities offer 4-year
curriculums leading to a bachelor’s degree with
a major in photography. These curriculums
include liberal arts courses as well as courses in
professional photography. A few institutions have
2-year curriculums leading to a certificate or an
associate degree in photography. Training in
design, at art schools or institutes, is also useful,
although these schools usually do not provide the
technical training for camera work. (See state­
ment on Commercial Artists.)
The kind and amount of training obtained
greatly influence the kind of photographic work
for which a young person can qualify. Amateur
photographic experience may be helpful to the
young person considering entry jobs in this field.
Considerable formal post-high school training,
plus some photographic experience, is usually
needed to enter the fields of industrial, news, or
scientific photography. Photographic work in
scientific and engineering research generally re­
quires an engineering background as well as skill
in photography.
The prospective photographer should have
manual dexterity and some artistic ability. In ad­
dition, a pleasant personality, the ability to put
people at ease, and a good business sense are
needed by photographers who expect to go into
business for themselves. Imagination and original­
ity are particularly important for those aspiring
to careers in commercial photography or freelance
work. For press photography, a knowledge of
news values and the ability to act quickly are
important.
Beginning photographers often work in estab­
lished studios until they accumulate the capital
and experience needed to start their own
businesses, although some open their own portrait
or commercial studios immediately after com­
pleting their training.
Employment Outlook

Employment opportunities are expected to be
favorable through the middle and late 1960’s for
talented and well-trained photographers. Such
photographers should find work readily in most
parts of the country. People with less ability and
training are likely to encounter keen competition
and also to have limited chances of advancement.

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

250

The greatest number of job openings will stem
from the need to replace those photographers
who transfer to other fields of work, retire, or die.
The portrait and commercial fields of photog­
raphy were crowded in 1962, and this situation is
likely to persist. These fields may be easily entered,
since a photographer can go into business for him­
self without a large financial investment. More­
over, the available supply of portrait and com­
mercial photographers is continually enlarged by
people who are employed in other occupations but
who take pictures in their spare time. On the other
hand, a strong demand existed for industrial
photographers and other specialists with a thor­
ough knowledge of photography as well as some
training in a technical or scientific field.
Over the long run, a moderate increase in
employment of photographers is expected, with
the growth in population. The movement of
families to the suburbs will create some opportu­
nities for photographers to open portrait studios
in the new shopping centers. Other factors which
point toward more employment opportunities for
photographers are the more widespread produc­
tion of film strips and motion pictures for use of
business and industry, civic organizations, and
government; and increasing use of photographers
in research and development in the missile and
other scientific fields. The employment of indus­
trial photographers is expected to rise at a more
rapid rate than that of either portrait or commer­
cial photographers. Advertising photography, on
the other hand, may decline somewhat over the
next few years, unless the popular magazines—the
chief users of this kind of photography—return
to a higher level of sales.
Earnings and Working Conditions

Beginning photographers generally earned
from $60 to $80 a week in 1962, according to
limited information from various private sources.

Many photographers with established reputations
earned much more. For newspaper photographers
without previous experience and employed on
daily newspapers having contracts with the
American Newspaper Guild, minimum salaries
were usually between $60 and $98 weekly. Min­
imum rates for photographers with some experi­
ence (usually 4 to 6 years) ranged from $113 to
about $165 a week on most dailies organized by the
Guild. Photographers with an engineering back­
ground who work with engineers and scientists
usually receive beginning salaries of from $6,000
to $8,000 a year. The entrance salary for inexpe­
rienced photographers in the Federal Civil
Service was $3,665 a year; for those with at least
1 year of routine photographic experience, it was
$3,925 a year. In addition, the salary schedule
provides for periodic increases above this amount.
Most experienced photographers in the Federal
Government earn $4,565 or more a year; only a
few earn over $10,000 annually. Self-employed
photographers generally earn more than salaried
workers, but their earnings are greatly affected by
business conditions, their workweek, and many
other factors.
Photographers with salaried jobs usually work
the standard 5-day, 40-hour week and receive
benefits such as paid holidays, vacations, and sick
leave. Photographers in business for themselves
frequently work longer hours, especially during
their busy seasons. Working conditions are
generally pleasant. Freelance, press, and commer­
cial photographers may be required to travel
frequently.
Where To Go for More Information

Information about photography as a career, as
well as a list of schools of photography, is avail­
able from:
Professional Photographers of America, Inc.,
151 West Wisconsin Ave., Milwaukee, Wis., 53203.

Programers

(D.O.T. 0-69.981)
Nature of Work

The occupation of programer is one of the very
newest—as new as the electronic computer.
Cortiputers, although sometimes called “mechani­



cal brains,” can only follow carefully prepared
instructions as to what they are to do on each
job. The programer prepares these step-by-step
instructions.

OTHER PROFESSIONAL AND RELATED OCCUPATIONS

A computer not only makes mathematical
calculations at fantastic speeds but stores many
thousands of facts in its “memory” which it later
uses to carry out its work. Because of their enor­
mous speed and other capacities, computers are
used for a great deal of work (or “data process­
ing”) which might otherwise require the time of
many employees. They handle such varied assign­
ments as making up payrolls, controlling produc­
tion machinery in factories, and regulating the
movement of trains. They have been used for
work which otherwise would not be attempted on
the same scale because of the time involved—an­
alyzing masses of information about operating
costs and potential markets, for example, in order
to enable business firms to decide on the most
advantageous location for a new plant; and they
have accomplished things that would otherwise
be impossible—such as controlling the flight of a
missile by instantaneously correcting deviations
from the planned course. Still other “problems”
for which computers have been used include
studying the structure of chemical compounds,
designing aircraft and missiles, doing legal
research, and translating books into Braille for
the blind.
Every problem processed on a computer must
first be carefully analyzed so that plans can be
made for processing the data in the most efficient
manner. In some cases, this work is done by an
experienced programer; in others, it is done by
specialists known as methods analysts, project
planners, or systems analysts.
Once general plans have been completed, the
programer is ready to start writing the “pro­
gram,” or detailed plan for processing the data on
the computer. Exactly how he does this depends
on the nature of the problem being programed.
The mathematical calculations involved in prepar­
ing a payroll, for example, are very different from
those required in most kinds of scientific and
technical work. The programing techniques are
also very different. Special techniques are
required also in writing programing “aids” which
reduce the amount of detail associated with
programing. Because of these differences, many
programers are specialists in certain types of
work.
Under most circumstances, the programer starts
preparing instructions for a computer by confer­



251

ring with professional staff members and other
officials in his organization who are in a position
to furnish him with detailed information about
the subject matter of the problem. If the computer
is to be used to make up a payroll, for example, he
first determines which facts must be used in order
to calculate each employee’s paycheck and he finds
out the exact form in which these facts—wage
rates, hours worked, deductions to be made, and
other payroll information—are entered on the
company’s records. This done, he makes a flow
chart, or diagram, showing the order in which the
computer must perform each operation, and for
each operation he prepares detailed instructions.
These instructions, once they have been trans­
ferred to the computer’s memory, tell the machine
exactly what to do with all of the facts and
figures associated with the problem. The pro­
gramer is also responsible for preparing an
instruction sheet for the console operator to follow
when the program is run on the computer. (The

Programer prepares a flow chart

252

work of the console operator is described in the
chapter on Clerical and Related Occupations.
See index for page number.)
The final step in programing is “debugging”—
that is, checking on whether the instructions have
been correctly written and will produce the
desired information. A program is usually
debugged in two steps. First, the programer takes
a sample of the data to be processed and reviews
step by step just what will happen as the computer
follows the series of instructions which make up
the program. Then, after he has revised the
instructions to take care of any difficulties that
have appeared, he completes the testing by making
a trial run on the computer. The console operator
sometimes helps with this part of the debugging
process.
A comparatively simple program can be made
ready for a computer within a very few days. A
program which deals with a complex problem or
is designed to produce many different kinds of
information may require a year or more of
preparation—sometimes by a large number of
programers. On involved problems, several pro­
gramed at different levels of responsibility often
work as a team, under the supervision of a senior
programer.
Where Employed

No exact figures are available on the number of
programers. Industry spokesmen estimated the
total employed full time in this work in 1962 at
more than 50,000. In addition, a great many
workers spend part of their time programing. A
considerable number of these are engineers,
scientists, economists, accountants, and other
professional workers, whose programing duties
require specialized training in other fields
or else are incidental to other major job
responsibilities.
Programers are employed chiefly in metropoli­
tan centers wT large business organizations and
here
government agencies are located. A great many
work for insurance companies, public utilities,
wholesale and retail establishments, and manufac­
turing firms of almost every kind. A considerably
smaller number are government employees doing
work related either to scientific and technical
problems or to the processing of the vast amount



OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

of paperwork which must be handled in many
government offices. In addition, a growing number
of programers are employed in service centers
which furnish computer and programing services
to business firms and other organizations on a fee
basis.
Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement

Most programers are chosen for their jobs
because they are judged to have an aptitude for
the work and have had training or experience
related to the problems to be programed. As a
rule, they learn the programing techniques they
will need only after they are hired for this work.
The special abilities most sought after are similar
in all kinds of programing, but requirements with
respect to education and experience may be very
different, depending on the nature of the problems
with which the programer will be dealing. For
example, some people in this occupation are college
graduates with degrees in engineering, whereas
others have had years of experience in such work
as accounting or inventory control.
In selecting programers, employers look for
people with an aptitude for logical thinking and
the exacting kind of analysis which is part of the
job. Prospective programers are often required
to take special tests which indicate whether they
possess the high degree of reasoning ability
required. In addition, programers should have a
great deal of patience and persistence and be able
to work with extreme accuracy, follow instructions
carefully, and express themselves clearly in writ­
ing and orally. Ingenuity and imagination are
very desirable traits, since programers often have
to work out new ways of arriving at solutions to
problems.
Practically all organizations which use their
computers for scientific and engineering work
require their programers to be college graduates
with degrees in engineering, physics, or mathe­
matics. Graduate degrees may be required for
some positions; for almost all, an applicant who
has no college training is at a severe disadvantage.
Employers who use computers to process
business records generally place somewhat less
emphasis on the need for college training. Many
regard previous experience in related work—in
machine tabulation, for example, or in payroll

OTHER PROFESSIONAL AND RELATED OCCUPATIONS

work or accounting—equally important and fill
many of their programer positions by promoting
qualified employees with such experience. How­
ever, when they find it necessary to hire outsiders,
an increasing number give preference to appli­
cants with education beyond high school. They
regard college courses in the general field of elec­
tronic data processing, or in accounting, business
administration, engineering, and mathematics as
especially good preparation.
Entrance requirements for jobs in the Federal
Government are approximately the same as those
in private industry. For practically all entry
programer positions in the Government, persons
hired must have a college degree, preferably with
training in mathematics, or else they must have
had the equivalent of such preparation in previous
work experience.
Young people interested in programing jobs can
acquire some of the necessary skills at a steadily
increasing number of technical schools, colleges,
and universities. The instruction available ranges
from home study and extension courses to work
in computer technology at the graduate level.
Courses in computer programing are also open to
students in a few city high schools. High school
and post-high school instruction does not entirely
eliminate the need for on-the-job training, how­
ever. Since technological changes are continually
taking place in this field and each type of
computer has its own special programing require­
ments, training is usually necessary even in the
case of experienced “oldtimers” who change from
one job to another.
Most programers starting out on the job attend
training classes for a few weeks and then, as they
work on minor programing assignments, continue
with further specialized training. A year or more
of experience is usually necessary before a pro­
gramer can handle all aspects of his job without
close supervision. Once he becomes skilled at it,
his prospects for further advancement are good.
An experienced and capable programer in an
organization, employing several people in this
occupation may move up to a senior job with
supervisory responsibilities. Promotion to a
position as methods analyst may also be possible.
Still other programers may advance to man­
agement positions with their firms.



253
Employment Outlook

Many thousands of new jobs will become avail­
able each year during the remainder of the 1960’s.
Employment in enterprises of all kinds is ex­
pected to rise, with a particularly sharp increase
in firms which use computers to process business
records or to control manufacturing processes.
Some industry spokesmen have estimated that, by
1970, the number of programers will be at least
four times what it was in 1962. The field can be
expected to offer excellent opportunities for
women as well as for men.
Over the long run, employment is expected to
continue rising rapidly—as it has ever since the
mid-1950’s when computers ceased to be a rarity.
Despite the many changes and improvements
which have already taken place, computer
technology is still in a comparatively early stage
of development. Undoubtedly further changes
will render computers even more useful to business
and government and, as this happens, the number
of computer installations will increase and many
more programers will be needed.
The rise in employment may well be accom­
panied by changes in the nature of the work done
by programers because of changes which can
be expected in computer technology. Already,
some of the time-consuming and routine work
associated with writing a program is being
eliminated by innovations such as “ automatic
programing,” the use of programs and parts of
programs stored in libraries for future use, and
other advances in techniques and in equipment.
In the future, the task of preparing a program
may thus develop into two quite different types of
work—one requiring a highly trained and
experienced specialist responsible for preliminary
analysis and planning and for developing pro­
grams for specialized computer applications; the
other requiring an employee who will work
primarily as a technician on the detailed machine
instructions which comprise the program. These
changes may alter training requirements. For some
kinds of programing assignments, undergraduate
and graduate study is likely to become in­
creasingly important. For other work, programers
may no longer need the kind of technical
knowledge now required; there is some evidence,
for example, that 2 years of intensive training
at the post-high school level, with emphasis on

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

254

higher mathematics and physics, may provide
sufficient background to enable programers to
handle some kinds of assignments in scientific and
engineering fields.
The new jobs that are created will provide most
of the openings for programers in the years ahead.
However, other openings will result as pro­
gramers advance to more responsible positions or
leave their jobs to enter other types of employ­
ment. Because this is still a small occupation which
includes many comparatively young workers, few
positions are likely to become vacant because of
retirement or death.
Earnings and Working Conditions

Average salaries for programers employed by
business firms ranged from $5,000 a year for
beginners in 1962, to about $8,000 for experienced
programers, according to a private survey which
covered over 500 companies in all parts of the
country. For programers with supervisory duties,
the averages ranged up to $10,000 a year, arid for
systems analysts, still higher. The survey indicated
substantial differences in the salaries of the lowest
and highest paid individuals in the same kinds of
positions, however—differences which were prob­
ably due to the kind of data processed, the kind of
computer used, and the industry involved and its
location. The salaries paid programers in engi­
neering installations, for example, were generally
somewhat higher than in other kinds of firms.
In some metropolitan areas, according to limited
information available, many highly skilled pro­
gramers earn considerably more than $10,000 a
year.
Federal Government salaries for programers are
comparable with those in private industry. The
great majority earn between $5,500 and $12,000
a year. The minimum entrance salary for
beginners was $4,565 a year in early 1963 and top

salaries paid experienced programers responsible
for complex programing or supervisory and
administrative work ranged up to $15,000 or more
a year.
The standard workweek for programers is
usually the same—35 to 40 hours—as the work­
week for other professional and office workers.
Unlike many computer console and peripheral
equipment operators who work on a 2- or 3-shift
basis, programers usually work only during the
day. Occasionally evening or weekend work may
be necessary—for example, when it proves
particularly difficult to “debug” a program.
Work places are usually modern offices, welllighted and air conditioned. Employers recognize
the desirability of providing better-than-average
work surroundings insofar as possible, because
programers working under such conditions can
concentrate more readily on the very exacting
kind of analysis which is an essential part of their
job.
Where To Go for More Information

Additional information about the occupation
of programer and about high school and post-high
school training facilities may be obtained from :
Data Processing Management Association,
524 Busse Highway, Park Ridge, 111., 60068.

A list of reading materials on career opportu­
nities in programing may be obtained from:
Association for Computing Machinery,
211 East 43d St., New York, N.Y., 10016.

School counselors may obtain a copy of the
pamphlet Careers in Electronic Data Processing,
which has been prepared by the National Science
Teachers Association and provides information
on the occupation of programer from:
Project on Information Processing, Box 201,
Montclair State College, Upper Montclair, N.J., 07087.

Psychologists

(D.O.T. 0-36.21 through .26)
Nature of Work

Psychologists seek to understand people and
explain their actions. They study the behavior of
individuals and groups and often help individuals
to achieve satisfactory personal adjustments.



Their work includes varied activities such as
teaching in colleges and universities, counseling
individuals, planning and conducting training
programs for workers, doing research, advising on
psychological methods and theories, and admin­

OTHER PROFESSIONAL AND RELATED OCCUPATIONS

istering psychology programs in hospitals, clinics,
research laboratories, and other places.
Psychologists may obtain information in several
ways about people’s capacities, traits, and
behavior. They may interview and observe in­
dividuals, develop and use tests and rating scales,
study personal histories, and conduct controlled
experiments. In addition, psychologists often
conduct surveys, either orally or by circulating
questionnaires. Some of their work is of a highly
statistical nature.
Since no one person can know all there is to
know about behavior,, psychologists usually
specialize in one of the many interrelated branches
of the profession. Clinical psychologists are the
largest group of specialists. Generally, they work
in mental hospitals or clinics and are concerned
mainly with problems of maladjusted or disturbed
people. They interview patients, give diagnostic
tests, and provide individual and group psycho­
therapy. Other specialties in psychology include
experimental psychology (the study of basic
learning and motivation); developmental psychol­
ogy (the study of special age groups such as young
children, teenagers, and the aged); social psychol­
ogy (the study of the social forces that affect in­
dividuals and groups) ; comparative psychology
(sometimes called animal psychology); physio­
logical psychology (the relationship of behavior
to physiological processes); counseling psychol­
ogy (helping people achieve satisfactory personal,
social, educational, or occupational adjustments);
educational psychology (the study of educational
processes); industrial psychology (developing
techniques for selecting and training workers and
improving worker motivation and morale); and
engineering psychology (the study of manmachine and other complex system relationships).

255

of the total. Government agencies—Federal, State,
and local—employ the second largest group.
Within the Federal Government, the agencies
which have the most psychologists are the Vet­
erans Administration, the Department of Defense,
and the Public Health Service of the Department
of Health, Education, and Welfare.
Many psychologists also work for elementary
and secondary schools, for private industry, and
for nonprofit foundations, hospitals, and clinics.
A small number are in independent practice, and
some serve as commissioned officers in the Armed
Forces and the Public Health Service. In addition
to positions with the title “psychologist,” many
personnel and administrative jobs are filled by
persons trained in psychology.
Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement

Generally, the master’s degree with a major in
psychology is the minimum educational require­
ment for professional employment in the field.
Psychologists with this degree can qualify for jobs
such as assisting in the administration and inter­
pretation of psychological tests, collecting and
analyzing statistical data, assisting in research
experiments, and performing routine administra­
tive duties. In addition, they may teach in colleges,
assist in counseling students or handicapped per­
sons, or—if they have had previous teaching ex­
perience—act as school psychologists or counselors.

Where Employed

The places where psychologists work range
from college classrooms to hospital wards and
from research laboratories to business offices. Most
are employed in large cities and in university
towns, but some are on the staffs of institutions
located in rural areas. Altogether, between 25,000
and 30,000 psychologists were professionally
employed in early 1963.
Colleges and universities employ the largest
number of psychologists—more than one-third



Courtesy of National Institutes of Health
Psychologist uses the "Psychomet" to measure individual's
reaction speed

256

(See statements on school counselors and rehabili­
tation counselors.) Because of the current shortage
of psychologists, applicants with only a bachelor’s
degree with a major in psychology may be hired
for certain jobs in work related to psychology or
other fields where training in psychology is
helpful.
The Ph. D. is needed for many entrance posi­
tions and is becoming increasingly important for
advancement. Psychologists with doctorates are
eligible for the more responsible research, clinical,
and counseling positions, as well as for the higher
level positions in colleges and universities, and in
Federal and State programs.
At least 1 year of full-time graduate study is
needed to earn the master’s degree, and most stu­
dents take longer. For the Ph. D. degree, a total
of 4 or 5 years of graduate work is usually re­
quired. In clinical or counseling psychology, the
requirements for the Ph. D. degree generally in­
clude 1 year of internship or supervised experi­
ence.
The American Board of Examiners in Profes­
sional Psychology offers diplomas in the special­
ties of clinical, counseling, and industrial psy­
chology to those with outstanding educational
records and experience who can pass the required
examinations.
Some universities require an undergraduate
major in psychology for admission to graduate
work in that field. Others prefer students with
a broader educational preparation, including not
only some basic psychology courses but also
courses in the biological and physical sciences,
statistics, and mathematics.
Many graduate students receive financial help
from universities and other sources in the form of
fellowships, scholarships, or part-time employ­
ment. Several Federal agencies provide funds to
graduate students, generally through the educa­
tional institution giving the training. The Veter­
ans Administration offers a large number of predoctoral traineeships, during which time the
students receive payments. The Public Health
Service of the U.S. Department of Health, Educa­
tion, and Welfare supports doctoral study in psy­
chology by providing funds for predoctoral and
postdoctoral traineeships and research fellow­
ships. In addition, the National Science Founda­
tion and the U.S. Office of Education offer large



OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

programs of financial aid, including fellowships,
grants, and loans.
Psychologists desiring to enter independent
practice must meet certification or licensing re­
quirements in an increasing number of States. In
early 1963, the following 21 States had such
requirements: Arkansas, California, Colorado,
Connecticut, Delaware, Florida, Georgia, Idaho,
Kentucky, Maine, Maryland, Michigan, Minne­
sota, Nevada, New Hampshire, New Mexico, New
York, Tennessee, Utah, Virginia, and Washington.
Employment Outlook

Employment Opportunities for psychologists
with doctor’s degrees will probably continue to be
excellent throughout the middle and late 1960’s.
Psychologists with master’s degrees are likely to
be in considerable demand but their opportunities
for full professional employment will be less fa­
vorable than for those with the Ph. D. degree. In
early 1963, the American Psychological Associa­
tion estimated that there were many more vacan­
cies than there were qualified psychologists to fill
them. A great shortage of clinical psychologists
existed in State mental hospitals and mental hy­
giene clinics; psychologists were being sought to
fill vacancies in both elementary and secondary
schools; and a number of openings in research,
clinical, and counseling positions were reported
by several agencies of the Federal Government.
Continued rapid expansion of this profession is
likely, particularly in view of the increasing em­
phasis on comprehensive community mental health
centers.
A large increase is anticipated in the number of
psychologists employed by State agencies. Cur­
rently understaffed mental hospitals and mental
hygiene clinics will need many clinical, counseling,
social, and physiological psychologists. Prisons,
training schools, and other State institutions are
expected to use psychologists more extensively in
the future.
Increasing awareness of the need for testing
and counseling children, plus growing school en­
rollments, are expected to increase the employ­
ment of psychologists in both elementary and
secondary schools. In colleges and universities,
more psychologists will be needed in student per­
sonnel work, as well as in teaching. (See statement
on College and University Teachers.) The trend

OTHER PROFESSIONAL AND RELATED OCCUPATIONS

toward greater use of psychological techniques
by private industry is likely to continue, thereby
creating new openings for experimental, in­
dustrial, personnel, and human engineering
specialists.
Many openings for psychologists with Ph. D.
degrees who are specialists in clinical, counseling,
experimental, human engineering, physiological,
social, and personnel psychology are expected
in the Veterans Administration, the Department
of Defense, in State programs, and in local
communities.
Some vacancies will occur each year owing to
retirements and deaths. However, such openings
will be relatively few during the 1960’s because
psychologists as a group are young. The transfer
of psychologists to work of a purely administra­
tive nature may also create some job vacancies.
Most opportunities, however, will result from the
rapid expansion that is anticipated for the
profession.
Earnings and Working Conditions

Beginning salaries in 1962 were generally be­
tween $5,000 and $6,000 a year for psychologists
with master’s degrees and between $7,000 and
$8,000 for Ph. D.’s, according to the limited data
available from private sources. A 1962 survey of

257

nearly 10,000 employed psychologists, part of the
National Scientific Register sponsored by the
National Science Foundation, indicated a median
annual salary of $8,000 for those with a master’s
degree and $10,000 for those with a Ph. D. degree.
In the Federal Government, psychologists with
limited experience could start at about $8,000 in
early 1963. Salaries of experienced psychologists
were considerably higher.
Where To Go for More Information

General information on career opportunities,
certification or licensing requirements, and also
a list of universities with approved doctoral pro­
grams in clinical and counseling psychology may
be secured from:
American Psychological Association,
1333 16th St. NW., Washington, D.C., 20036.

Information on traineeships and fellowships
may be secured from colleges and universities with
graduate psychology departments and from the
following Government agencies:

Chief Medical Director, Department of Medicine and
Surgery,
Veterans Administration, Washington, D.C., 20420.
Training Branch, National Institute of Mental
Health,
National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Md., 20014.

Social Workers

(D.O.T. 0-27.06 through .50)
Nature of Work

Social workers are concerned with many types
of social problems and needs, among them pov­
erty ; unemployment; illness; broken homes; fam­
ily maladjustment; physical, mental, and emo­
tional handicaps; antisocial behavior; limited
recreation opportunities; and inadequate housing.
A great variety of public and private agencies
have social work programs designed to meet spe­
cific needs in specific ways; for example, public
assistance programs; family and child welfare
services; social services for the crippled, disabled,
and ill; and programs for the prevention of juve­
nile delinquency. In tackling social problems,
many social work agencies emphasize service to
people as individuals or in family units; some
692-408 0—63------18




place primary emphasis on working with larger
groups; and still others are concerned mainly
with the community’s social welfare. These ap­
proaches are reflected in the three basic methods
of social work practice: casework, group work,
and community organization. Although social
workers in all agencies may use any of these
basic methods at times, they tend to specialize in
the approach customary in their own agency.
Caseworkers, who deal directly with individuals
or families, may help to arrange for financial
assistance, homemaker services, vocational guid­
ance, foster family or institutional care, or health
services. In addition, through interviews with
their clients, caseworkers try to modify feelings,
attitudes, and behavior detrimental to normal

258

adjustment and development. Group workers help
people to benefit from group activities, to learn
to understand themselves and others better, and
to work with others to achieve a common goal.
They may plan and conduct leisure-time pro­
grams and informal educational activities for
children and adolescents, for people in hospitals
and homes for the aged, and for many other kinds
of groups. Community organization workers help
plan and develop health, welfare, and recreation
services for a neighborhood or larger area.
The majority of social workers provide social
services directly to individuals, families, or
groups. But a substantial number (many of them
men) perform executive, administrative, or super­
visory duties. Still others are college teachers,
research workers, or consultants. The wide range
of services provided by social workers is suggested
by the description of the principal areas of social
work which follows.
Public assistance workers are employed largely
by State and local government agencies on public
welfare programs which extend financial assist­
ance to needy persons such as the disabled, blind,
or aged; unemployed persons; and dependent
children. Their duties include determining their
clients’ needs and whether they are eligible for
financial assistance; strengthening family ties;
helping clients to become self-sufficient; explain­
ing pertinent laws and requirements; and provid­
ing or arranging for other needed social services.
Family service workers in private agencies are
primarily concerned with providing counseling
services to families and individuals. They seek to
strengthen family life, by improving interper­
sonal relationships, and to establish satisfactory
relations between the family and the community.
Child welfare workers in government and vol­
untary agencies deal with the problems of chil­
dren. They may find foster homes or institute
legal action for the protection of neglected or
mistreated children, arrange for homemaker serv­
ice during the illness of a mother, arrange for
adoptions or placements in specialized institu­
tions, counsel youthful delinquents, or advise
parents on their children’s problems.
School social workers or “visiting teachers” em­
ployed by school systems also help troubled
children, including those who are excessively shy,
aggressive, or withdrawn; failing in school sub­



OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

jects for no apparent reason; hungry or ill; or
truants. Workers consult with parents, teachers,
principals, doctors, truant officers, and other
interested people. They frequently refer a child
to other social work agencies in the community
for help.
Medical social workers employed by hospitals,
clinics, health agencies, rehabilitation centers, and
public welfare agencies work directly with pa­
tients and their families, helping them meet
problems accompanying illness, recovery, and
rehabilitation. Usually these workers function
as part of a medical team composed of doctors,
nurses, and therapists.
Psychiatric social workers attend patients in
mental hospitals or clinics. In clinical teams, com­
posed of psychiatrists, psychologists, and other
professional personnel, these workers help pa­
tients and their families to understand the nature
of the illness, enlist the patients’ aid in using the
various kinds of help available, and guide the pa­
tients in their social adjustment to their homes
and communities. In some organizations medical
and psychiatric social workers are grouped to­
gether as “clinical social workers.” Psychiatric
social workers also participate in community men­
tal health programs concerned with the prevention
of mental illness and with the readjustment of
mental patients to normal home and community
living.
Social workers in rehabilitation services assist
emotionally or physically disabled persons in ad­
justing to the demands of everyday living. As part
of a rehabilitation team, which usually includes
physical or occupational therapists, these social
workers serve as a link with the community while
patients are in the hospital and later help them
adjust to home and community life. (Rehabilita­
tion counselors, a related occupational group, are
discussed in a separate statement in the Hand­
book. See index for page number.)
Probation and parole officers and other correc­
tional workers, who are employed primarily by
Federal, State, county, and city governments, as­
sist probationers, parolees, and juvenile offenders
in their readjustment to society. They make in­
vestigations and submit reports to the courts con­
cerning the activities of their clients. They also
counsel their clients and may help them find jobs;
keep a close watch on their clients’ conduct; and

OTHER PROFESSIONAL AND RELATED OCCUPATIONS

direct them to other services in the community
when possible. In addition, they frequently ar­
range for child placements or adoptions, provide
marriage counseling, and collect court-ordered
payments for support of families and children.
Social Group Workers are employed by a multi­
tude of agencies—settlements and community
centers; youth-serving groups; public housing
developments; correctional institutions; resident
and day centers for children, adolescents, or
elderly people; and general and psychiatric clinics
and hospitals. Group workers help individuals
to develop their personalities and find satisfaction
in life through group experiences in educational,
recreational, or other activities. They may plan
or direct group act