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Everywhere people travel in the United
States, whether for business or pleasure, they
find hotels and motels ready to cater to their
comfort. The gigantic business of providing a
“home-away-from-home” is a source of employ­
ment for a great number of workers who serve
travelers in cities and towns, along highways,
and in remote resort areas in every section of
the country.
Approximately half a million people (not
counting those in business for themselves)
were employed in 1960 in hotels, motels, and
related businesses. Roughly four out of every
five of these workers were employed in the Na­
tion’s 29,000 hotels and motor hotels, chiefly in
urban areas. Of the remainder, most worked
in the substantially larger number of motels
and tourist courts located on the outskirts of
large cities, along major highways, and, to
some extent, in resort areas. A few hotel work­
ers were employed in related businesses such
as summer camps and dude ranches. About
half of all the employees in hotels and related
businesses were women.
Many hotel workers are in occupations which
can be entered with little or no specialized
training. However, in many kinds of hotel
work, the demand for specially trained people
is increasing. Hotels are complex organizations*
and need some personnel with specialized train­
ing, as well as long experience in the business,
to direct and coordinate operations which may
involve thousands of guests annually and mil­
lions of dollars’ worth of property and equip­
This chapter deals with employment oppor­
tunities in hotels, motels, and related busi­
nesses. Following the introductory sections,
which give an overall view of the hotel (and
motel) industry and its workers, are separate
statements on several occupations unique to
hotel operations.

The Hotel Business and Its Workers

Hotels are of three main types—commercial,
residential, and resort. The vast majority are
commercial hotels which cater chiefly to tran­
sients—that is, travelers seeking a room for a
brief stay of one or a few nights. A relatively
small number are residential hotels, which
chiefly accommodate people for long periods,
ranging from a few months to many years.
Others are resort hotels, which provide lodgings
mainly for vacationers. Motor hotels, motels,
and other establishments catering especially to
motorists accommodate vacationers and other
travelers, but rarely have guests who stay for
long periods. Commercial and residential hotels
generally operate the year round. Many resort
hotels and motels, however, are open for only
part of the year—during the winter season in
Florida, for example, or during the summer
months in the northern parts of the country.
Hotels range from modest two- or three-story
establishments to towering buildings covering
large areas. There are small commercial and
residential hotels with less than 25 rooms and
only a few employees, and there are some large
ones with 1,000 or more rooms and many hun­
dreds of workers. Resort hotels range from the
small “family-operated” type to those employing
several hundreds of workers during their peak
seasons. In the past few years, an increasing
number of motor hotels, some with a hundred
or more rooms, have been built. Most motels
are relatively small, including a sizable number
which are run by the owners without any paid
help or possibly with one employee.
Most hotels have restaurants, ranging from
simple coffee shops to vast dining rooms, wine
cellars, and elaborate kitchens. Large city
hotels also have banquet rooms, exhibit halls,
and spacious ballrooms—to accommodate con­
ventions, business meetings, and social gather­
ings. Many hotels, especially in resort areas,
have recreational facilities such as swimming

pools, golf courses, and tennis courts. For the
convenience of guests, hotels may provide in­
formation about interesting places to visit, sell
tickets to theaters and sporting events, and
even supply baby sitters. Often there are news­
stands on the premises and gift shops, barber
and beauty shops, laundry and valet services,
and railroad and airline ticket reservation
offices. Motels and tourist courts typically offer
fewer services than hotels. The number with
restaurants, swimming pools, and other con­
veniences for guests is steadily increasing, how­
ever. The new deluxe motor hotels provide the
same variety of services as other high-class
Because of the many services they offer,
hotels need workers in a wide variety of occu­
pations. One of the largest groups of hotel em­
ployees is in the housekeeping department.
Many thousands of maids, porters, housemen,
linen room attendants, and laundry room work­
ers are employed in “back of the house” jobs—
to make beds, clean rooms and halls, move
furniture, hang draperies, provide guests with
fresh linens and towels, operate laundry equip­
ment, and mark and inspect laundered items.
Women are usually employed for the lighter
housekeeping tasks, whereas men have jobs re­
quiring more strenuous physical effort, such as
washing walls and arranging furniture. Large
hotels usually employ executive housekeepers to
supervise these workers, and some hotels may
also have a special manager in charge of laundry
Food preparation and service is another large
hotel operation. Hotels employ many kitchen
workers, ranging from unskilled dishwashers
and vegetable peelers to highly skilled cooks
and chefs. Many thousands of waiters and
waitresses are also required to serve meals in
hotel coffee shops and dining rooms. (The oc­
cupations of waiter and waitress and of cook
and chef are discussed in the chapter on Res­
taurant Occupations. See index for page num­
A uniformed staff performs services “up
front” in the hotel lobby. This staff includes
the bellmen who, directed by bell captains,
carry baggage for guests and escort them to
their rooms. Elevator operators and doormen


are also a part of the uniformed staff; these
types of workers, like many others in hotels,
are also employed in other industries.
The front office staff, most of whom are men,
work in hotel lobbies as room clerks, key clerks,
mail clerks, and information clerks. Their
chief duties are to greet guests, assign rooms,
and furnish information. Perhaps half of all
hotel clerical workers are front-office employees.
The remainder of the clerical workers, mainly
women, are employed in a variety of office occu­
pations—as bookkeepers, who may operate
office machines especially designed for hotel
work; as cashiers, who total hotel bills and re­
ceive payments when guests check out; as
telephone operators; and as secretaries, steno­
graphers, and typists.
Managers and their assistants are a relatively
small group with the highly important task of
supervising hotel operations and making them
profitable. A general manager is in overall
charge of hotel operations. Sometimes general
managers have executive assistants who may
be in charge of the front office or help with
other phases of hotel management. Some assist­
ants may be responsible for specific operations;
they may be, for example, food-service man­
agers who operate the dining rooms and other
eating facilities, or sales managers responsible
for attracting more business to the hotel.
In addition to the occupations mentioned
above, hotels employ numerous other types of
workers who are also found in other industries.
Among these are accountants and auditors, per­
sonnel workers, musicians and entertainers, and
recreational workers. There are also main­
tenance workers such as carpenters, electricians,
stationary engineers, plumbers, and painters.
Still other types of workers employed in hotels
include detectives, barbers, beauty operators,
valets, tailors, seamstresses, and gardeners.
(See index for separate statements on many of
these and other occupations found both in hotels
and in other industries.)
Employment Outlook

Many thousands of job openings will arise
in the hotel (and motel) industry each year
during the 1960’s. Most of these openings will



be vacancies that occur as workers retire, die,
transfer to other kinds of employment, or leave
for other reasons, but a good many will probably
be new jobs. The demand for hotel rooms and
other lodgings is expected to increase during
the decade, as the country’s population grows
and travel for business and pleasure increases.
The number of year-round employees in the in­
dustry should therefore rise moderately. Thou­
sands of temporary jobs will also continue to
be available each year in resort hotels, motels,
and other establishments which are open only
part of the year or have more business in some
seasons than others.
Employment is likely to rise more rapidly
during the 1960’s in motels and other businesses
catering especially to motorists than in com­
mercial and residential hotels. This has been the
trend during the past two decades of increasing
automobile travel, and the situation is likely to
be much the same in the years ahead, as the
Federal highway building program further
stimulates both automobile travel and the build­
ing of motels and motor hotels. In motels, most
of the additional workers (not counting the
new owners) will be in housekeeping and foodservice occupations such as maid, cook, and
waitress. In motor hotels, which usually offer
guests a greater variety of services, many more
kinds of jobs will be available.
As motels expand their facilities and employ­
ment, hotels will undoubtedly take steps to meet
this competition. For example, they are likely
to speed up redecoration and modernization of
their buildings and equipment, arrange for
better parking facilities and more drive-in en­
trances, and intensify their efforts to “sell
themselves” through publicity and other promo­
tional campaigns. Aided by these efforts, hotels
are expected to share in the increasing demand
for lodgings and related services. Existing
hotels can look forward to a probable expansion
in business. Some new hotels will be built, and
rooms will be added to others. As a result,
there is likely to be some increase in hotel em­
Most of the job openings in hotels will con­
tinue to be in occupations which can be entered
with little specialized training, such as maid,
porter, houseman, kitchen helper, and some

dining room jobs. These jobs not only account
for a large proportion of all hotel workers, but
also have high turnover rates. As long as
general employment conditions are good, people
in such jobs find it relatively easy to shift to
other kinds of work. Furthermore, many of the
workers are women, who often leave their jobs
to stay at home and take care of their families.
In a few of these occupations, however, tech­
nological changes may limit the number of
openings. For example, the increased use of
automatic dishwashers, vegetable cutters and
peelers, and other mechanical kitchen equip­
ment is likely to reduce the need for kitchen
helpers. Similarly, self-service elevators will
probably continue to displace some elevator
A number of young people will also be needed
every year in front office jobs, in which some
vacancies can be expected to arise owing to
promotion of clerks to managerial posts. Good
opportunities are also expected through the
mid-1960’s for young people who acquire the
training and experience necessary to qualify
for jobs as cooks and food managers. In addi­
tion, there will be openings for stenographers,
bookkeepers, and other office employees, al­
though the use of office machines may continue
to affect clerical employment in hotels. (Food
service workers and office workers are dis­
cussed in the chapters on Restaurant Occupa­
tions and Clerical and Related Occupations.
See index for page numbers.)
Employment in hotels and motels is closely
related to economic conditions which affect
travel. Jobs, such as those of maid and bellman,
in which a large number of hotel workers are
employed, are the ones which have, in the past,
been most affected by economic downturns.
Some groups of workers—bell captains, head
housekeepers, and managers—have had rela­
tively stable employment.
Earnings and Working Conditions

Hotel workers’ earnings depend not only on
their occupations but also on the location, size,
and type of the hotel. These factors largely
determine both the workers’ wages and the
amount received in tips—a major part of

earnings for many hotel workers, including
bellmen, waiters, and waitresses.
Salaries of hotel employees in managerial
positions have an especially wide range, mainly
because of great differences in the duties and
responsibilities of hotel administrative and
supervisory personnel. The annual salaries of
executive housekeepers typically ranged from
$3,600 to $8,000 in 1958. Many working house­
keepers who supervised only a few people and
spent part of their time in such work as cleaning
rooms received salaries below the bottom of this
range. Most hotel housekeepers are furnished
with rooms in the hotel, meals, laundry, and
other services, in addition to their salaries.
Management trainees who had graduated
from colleges offering specialized hotel manage­
ment programs had beginning salaries of $4,000
or more in 1960. Increases are usually given
trainees periodically for the first year or two,
and thereafter may be granted as the employees
are advanced to more responsible positions. Ex­
perienced managers may earn several times as
much as beginners; a few, in top jobs, earn
$50,000 or more a year. In addition to salary,
hotels customarily furnish managers and their
families with lodging in the hotel, meals, park­
ing facilities, laundry, and other services.
Since earnings of bellmen are greatly affected
by the tips they receive, it is difficult to obtain
meaningful data on their income. In New York
City, the hourly earnings of bellmen ranged
from 70 cents to $1.20 in mid-1960; the average
was 84 cents an hour (or $33.60 for a 40-hour
week). With tips, earnings were probably con­
siderably higher. In large luxury hotels and in
resort areas, bellmen may earn $100 or more a
week (including tips).
Data on the earnings of nonsupervisory
workers in several other hotel occupations are
available from a 1960 survey made by the
Bureau of Labor Statistics in 24 large cities.
Except for bellmen, waiters, and waitresses, who
usually receive tips which add substantially to
their salaries, maids typically received the
lowest pay of any of the occupations surveyed,
and room clerks the highest. In practically all
occupations, earnings were generally lower in
southern cities than elsewhere in the country,
and highest in cities in the West.


The average earnings of maids (some of
whom may also receive tips) ranged from 41
cents an hour in New Orleans to $1.51 an hour
in the San Francisco-Oakland area. For house­
men and lobby cleaners, the averages were gen­
erally a little higher. For elevator operators
they were a little higher still—ranging from
less than $1 an hour in some cities to $1.61 for
men in New York City, San Francisco, and
Oakland and $1.63 for women in New York
City. Men room clerks averaged from $1.25 an
hour in Baltimore to $2.20 in San Francisco
and Oakland, and the relatively few women
room clerks made somewhat less. Key, mail,
and information clerks are usually paid lower
salaries than room clerks.
The scheduled workweek for most front office
clerks in the cities surveyed ranged from 40
hours—particularly common in the Northeast—
to 48 hours in practically all of the southern
cities. In a few cities, the workweek was less
than 40 hours. Housemen and most other non­
supervisory employees worked a 40-hour week,
except in the South where the scheduled week
was usually 48 hours; in a few cities, some em­
ployees in jobs of this kind regularly worked
less than 40 hours a week.
Since hotels are open round the clock, workers
may be employed on any one of three shifts,
beginning early in the morning, in mid-afternoon, or at midnight. Staffs are usually smaller
on night than on day shifts, and additional
compensation may be paid for work during late
hours. Managers and housekeepers who live in
the hotel usually have regular work schedules
but may be on call 24 hours a day, 7 days a
Cooks, pantry workers, dishwashers, and
other kitchen help commonly receive two free
meals a day; in a few hotels, maids, elevator
operators, and room clerks also receive free
meals while on duty. A large majority of the
workers in the 24 cities surveyed received a
week’s vacation with pay after 1 year of service
and 2 weeks after 3 or more years. Paid holi­
days—frequently, 4 to 6 a year—were provi­
ded the majority of these workers. Group
life insurance, hospitalization, and surgical
insurance plans are frequently provided hotel



The Hotel and Restaurant Employees and
Bartenders International Union is the major
union in the hotel business. Uniformed staffs,
such as bellmen and elevator operators, may be
members of the Building* Service Employees
International Union.
Where To Go for More Information

Information on jobs in hotels may be obtained
directly from personnel departments of hotels.
Information on careers in hotel work may be
obtained from:
American Hotel Association,
221 West 57th St., New York 19, N.Y.

Additional information on training opportu­
nities, and a directory of schools and colleges

offering courses in the hotel field may be ob­
tained by writing to :
The National Council on Hotel and Restaurant
Room 1336, Wyatt Bldg., 777 14th St. NW.,
Washington 5, D.C.

Information on housekeeping in hotels, in­
cluding a list of schools offering courses in
housekeeping, may be obtained from:
National Executive Housekeepers Association, Inc.,
Glendale Sanitarium and Hospital, Glendale, Calif.

Information on courses relating to hotel
work may be obtained from the local Director
of Vocational Education, the Superintendent of
Schools in the local community, or the State
Director of Vocational Education in the De­
partment of Education in the State capital.

Bellmen and Bell Captains

(D.O.T. 2-22.11; 2-22.01)

Nature of Work

Bellmen, also called bellboys or bellhops,
carry baggage and perform a variety of other
services for hotel guests. After a guest has
registered, a bellman obtains the room key, takes
the guest to his room, and deposits his baggage.
The bellman checks the lights and the supply
of towels and soap, and sees that everything is
in order in the room. He may suggest the use
of various hotel services, including the dining
room and the valet service. Bellmen also deliver
packages and perform other errands for guests.
In large hotels, special baggage porters are
usually employed to carry baggage for guests
who are checking out. In smaller hotels, bell­
men carry baggage for outgoing as well as in­
coming guests and may also relieve the elevator
operator or switchboard operator.
Bell captains are employed in large hotels
and many medium-size ones to supervise the
bellmen. They assign work to these employees,
keep their time records, and instruct new bell­
men in their duties. In addition, they handle
complaints from guests regarding the work of
their department, and take care of unusual re­
quests for services. They may also help guests
arrange for transportation by giving them in­

formation on train and plane schedules and
sending a baggage porter or a bellman to pick
up their tickets. At times, bell captains may
also perform the duties of bellmen.
Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement

Bellman jobs are filled, in many hotels, either
by promoting men employed as elevator oper­
ators or by hiring experienced bellmen from
the outside. Some hotels, particularly the
smaller ones and resort hotels, hire inexperi­
enced young men as bellmen.
Young men seeking work as bellmen may
apply to personnel departments of hotels in
their own community, where their knowledge
of the local area will be helpful in giving guests
information. Applicants are often referred to
bell captains for an interview. Work and char­
acter references of job applicants are carefully
checked prior to hiring. Since bellmen are in
frequent contact with the public it is important
that they be neat, tactful, and courteous. They
must also be able to be on their feet all day
and to carry heavy baggage.
No specific educational requirements exist for
bellman jobs. However, courses covering bell-



occurs. Opportunities for advancement to the
position of superintendent of service are even
more limited. Men in this job—which is found
in only a few hotels with large service depart­
ments—supervise elevator operators and start­
ers, doormen, and washroom attendants, as well
as bellmen.
Employment Outlook

Bellman takes luggage of arriving guests from hotel

man work, which are offered by a small but
growing number of trade and vocational schools,
are generally helpful in obtaining jobs. Grad­
uation from high school is also valuable because
outstanding bellmen with this educational back­
ground may be transferred to front office cleri­
cal jobs, which offer better opportunities for
promotion. (See statement on Front Office
Clerks in this chapter.)
In the service department of the hotel, the
line of promotion is from bellman to bell cap­
tain to superintendent of service. Some of the
factors which may affect a bellman’s chances
for advancement are a favorable work record
showing few complaints by guests, good work
habits, and leadership qualities. Since there is
only one bell captain’s position in each hotel,
it may be a number of years before an opening

A few thousand openings for bellmen are ex­
pected each year through the mid-1960’s. Most
of these openings will arise primarily because
of the need to replace young men who shift to
other kinds of work. Since a promotion-fromwithin policy is followed by many hotels in
advancing men from elevator operator to bell­
man jobs, chances for outsiders to enter yearround jobs as bellmen will be best in hotels
which employ women as elevator operators, and
in the increasing number of hotels with auto­
matic elevators. Many opportunities will also
arise in resort hotels which are open only part
of the year and hire college students and other
young men for temporary jobs. Vacancies for
beginners will also arise in small hotels, as ex­
perienced bellmen shift to jobs in better hotels
where earnings from tips may be higher. Com­
petition among employed bellmen for the re­
latively few bell captain jobs that will become
available in the future is expected to remain
Only slight growth in employment of bell­
men is likely in the long run. Some jobs will
arise as new hotels and motor hotels are built
and additions are made to existing hotels. The
fast growing motel business will also provide
some new jobs; however, because of the type
of construction and the emphasis on informality,
relatively few motels employ bellmen.
(See introductory section to this chapter for
information on Where Employed, Earnings and
Working Conditions, Where To Go for More
Information, and for additional information on
Employment Outlook.)


Front Office Clerks

(D.O.T. 1-07.)

Nature of Work

Most hotels employ one or more front office
clerks to greet guests, rent rooms, handle mail,
and do other work related to assigning rooms.
Working “up front” in hotel lobbies, they deal
directly with the public and help build a hotel’s
reputation for courteous and efficient service.
In small hotels and in motels, a front office
clerk (who may be the owner) may not only
rent rooms, issue keys, sort mail, and give in­
formation, but also do some bookkeeping and
act as cashier. On the other hand, large hotels
usually employ several front office clerks, who
may be assigned to the following different kinds
of jobs.
Room or desk clerks (D.O.T. 1-07.60), mostly
men, have the responsible job of renting rooms.
They usually are the first of the front office
clerical staff to greet guests. In assigning
rooms, they must consider any preferences
guests may express, and at the same time try
to obtain maximum revenues for the hotel.
Room clerks give information about hotel rates
and the types of services available, and see that

guests fill out registration forms properly.
After registration is completed, room clerks sig­
nal bellmen to carry guests’ luggage. Key clerks
(D.O.T. 1-07.20) issue and receive room keys.
Reservation clerks (D.O.T. 1-07.50) acknowl­
edge room reservations by mail or telephone,
type out registration forms, and notify the room
clerk when guests are due to arrive. To keep
room assignment records current, rack clerks
(D.O.T. 1-07.40) insert or remove forms indi­
cating when rooms become occupied or vacant
or when they are closed for repairs. They also
keep housekeepers, telephone operators, and
other personnel informed about changes in
room occupancy. Other special clerks, such as
mail and information clerks are employed in
some hotels. In the largest hotels, floor super­
visors or floor clerks (D.O.T. 1-07.10) are as­
signed on each floor to handle the distribution
of mail and packages and perform other inci­
dental duties.
In all but the very largest hotels, front office
clerks may be responsible for a combination of
these various duties. They may have other
duties as well, particularly when they work on
late evening shifts. For example, the night
room clerk may perform bookkeeping func­
tions or assist cashiers with their clerical work.
Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement

Room clerk sees that guest fills out registration form.

High school graduates who have some clerical
aptitude and the personal characteristics neces­
sary for dealing with the public may be hired
for beginning jobs such as mail, information,
or key clerk. Neatness, a courteous and friendly
manner, and ease in dealing with people are
important personal traits for front office clerical
workers. Men are generally preferred as room
clerks and, in some hotels, for more routine
front office jobs, since hotel managers, most of
whom are men, are often selected from among
the front office clerks. Typing and bookkeeping
courses given in high school may be helpful,
particularly for night-shift work where addi­
tional clerical duties are often performed, or
for jobs in smaller hotels, where the front office



clerks often handle a variety of jobs. Although
education beyond high school is generally not
required for front office work, hotel employers
are placing increasing emphasis on college
training in selecting personnel, who may later
be advanced to managerial positions. Front
office clerks may improve their opportunities
for promotion by taking home study courses,
such as those sponsored by the American Hotel
Association through the American Hotel
Regardless of their educational background,
most front office workers start out as key clerks
or mail clerks, or in other fairly routine front
office jobs. Sometimes outstanding employees in
other types of hotel work*—for example, bellmen
or elevator operators—may be transferred to
such front office jobs.
Inexperienced front office workers learn
mainly through on-the-job experience. They
usually have a brief initial training period
during which their duties are described and they
are given background information about the
hotel, such as the location of rooms and the
types of services offered. After new employees
begin work, they receive help when necessary
from the assistant manager or some experienced
front office worker.
Most hotels have a promotion-from-within
policy for front office workers. Advancement
depends on the individual’s personal character­
istics, his on-the-job performance, and, of course,
on the number of openings that arise. A typical
line of promotion might be from key or rack
clerk to room clerk, to assistant front office man­
ager, and later to front office manager. Further

opportunities exist for promotion to top man­
agerial posts which usually require many years
of hotel experience. (See statement on Hotel
Managers and Assistants later in this chapter.)
Employment Outlook

A limited number of openings in this rela­
tively small occupation will probably arise each
year through the mid-1960’s. Most of them will
be in beginning jobs which become vacant as a
result of promotions. Some new jobs will be­
come available in cities where new hotels will
be built or existing ones expanded. In addi­
tion, there will be new front office jobs in the
hundreds of motor hotels and large motels that
will open for business in the years ahead.
Hotel employers will continue to hire women
in a few front office jobs such as those of mail
and information clerk and reservation clerk,
but women’s chances for advancement to room
clerk jobs and to managerial posts will probably
remain limited. Women will find somewhat
better opportunities in resort than in commer­
cial hotels.
Front office clerks have relatively stable em­
ployment. The number of workers employed in
this occupation does not tend to expand or con­
tract as sharply with changes in general eco­
nomic conditions as employment in many other
hotel occupations and many other industries.
(See introductory section to this chapter for
information on Where Employed, Earnings and
Working Conditions, Where To Go for More
Information, and for additional information on
Employment Outlook.)

Housekeepers and Assistants

(D.O.T. 2-25.21, .22)

Nature of Work

Hotel housekeepers have charge of the many
kinds of work that must be done to keep guest
rooms, meeting rooms, halls, and lobbies clean
and attractive. The very great majority are
women. They supervise the activities of maids,
housemen, and other employees in their depart­
ment—which is, in many instances, the largest
department of the hotel. They generally have

charge of hiring and discharging employees
under their supervision, help train new ones,
keep employee records, and perform other
duties which vary with the size and type of the
hotel. Some housekeepers are employed in
middle-size and small hotels, where they not
only supervise the cleaning staffs but also do
some of the maids’ work. In large hotels and
smaller luxury-type hotels, the duties of execu-



Executive housekeeper overseeing reupholstering job.

tive or head housekeepers are primarily ad­
ministrative. Besides supervising a staff which
may number in the hundreds, they may prepare
the budget for the housekeeping department;
make regular reports to the manager on the
condition of rooms, needed repairs, and sug­
gested improvements; purchase or assist in pur­
chasing supplies; take periodic inventories; and
have responsibility for interior decorating work.
Some executive housekeepers employed by large
hotel chains may have special assignments such
as reorganizing housekeeping procedures in an
established hotel or setting up the housekeeping
department in a new or newly acquired hotel.
In many hotels, executive housekeepers are
assisted by floor housekeepers who directly su­
pervise the work on one or more floors. Large
hotels may also employ assistant executive
housekeepers. The number and types of work­
ers in the housekeeping department depend, of
course, on the size and kind of hotel. In some,
the housekeeper supervises not only maids and
housemen (who do the heavy cleaning and move
furniture) but also a variety of specialized
workers such as seamtresses, draperymakers,
upholsterers, furniture refinishers, painters, and
Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement

Positions as executive housekeepers in hotels
are usually filled either by promoting assistant

or floor housekeepers, or by hiring people who
have held positions of this kind in other hotels
or in institutions such as hospitals. Maids and
linen room attendants who have proved their
ability by on-the-job performance and who have
the personal characteristics necessary for su­
pervisory jobs are sometimes considered for
jobs as floor or assistant housekeepers. They
must be well informed about housekeeping
duties and different kinds of cleaning supplies
and equipment in order to organize work effi­
ciently and to train new employees. The execu­
tive housekeeper must also know about pur­
chasing equipment and supplies, be able to pre­
pare budgets, and sometimes do interior de­
corating. Although employment as a house­
keeper in a private household provides useful
background, it does not generally qualify an
individual to take over a job as hotel house­
No specific educational requirements exist for
housekeepers. Individuals may obtain training
in several ways, however, either for entry posi­
tions of this kind or for improving their oppor­
tunities for advancement to such positions. In
1961, specialized training in hotel administra­
tion, including courses in housekeeping, was
available at several colleges, and at least one
offered a bachelor of science degree with a
major in housekeeping. In addition, some uni­
versities offer short summer courses or con­
duct evening classes in cooperation with the
National Executive Housekeepers Association.
Probably the most helpful courses are those
emphasizing housekeeping procedures, person­
nel management, interior decorating, and the
use and care of different types of equipment
and fabrics.
Employment Outlook

Several hundred openings for housekeepers
and their assistants are expected each year
through the mid-1960’s. Most openings are ex­
pected to result from the need to replace house­
keepers who retire or leave the occupation for
other reasons. A relatively large number of
vacancies will occur because housekeepers are
generally mature women, many of whom are
near retirement age. Some openings for house­



keepers will also rise in new city hotels as well
as in the growing number of large luxury motels
and motor hotels. Most of these openings will
be filled by promotion, and as assistant house­
keepers and maids are advanced to fill them,
there will be job openings in these two occu­
pations. However, since only one top job as
housekeeper exists in each hotel, it is sometimes
many years before an opening of this kind
occurs in a given hotel.
The best opportunities in this occupation will
arise for women with administrative ability,
specialized training in hotel housekeeping pro­

cedures, and a flair for interior decorating work.
Housekeepers with hotel experience will also
find employment opportunities in hospitals,
clubs, college dormitories, and a variety of wel­
fare institutions. Employment in this occupa­
tion is relatively stable, because housekeepers
occupy a key position in hotel management.
(See introduction to this chapter for infor­
mation on Earnings and Working Conditions,
Where To Go for More Information, and for
additional information on Employment Out­

Managers and Assistants

(D.O.T. 0-71.13, .15; 0-97.63)

Nature of Work

Hotel managers have overall responsibility
for operating their hotels profitably and at the
same time providing maximum comfort for
guests. Within the framework of policy set by
owners or boards of directors, managers direct
and coordinate the activities of the front office,
kitchen and dining rooms, and the various de­
partments such as housekeeping, service, ac­
counting, personnel, purchasing, publicity, and
maintenance. They make decisions on room
rates, establish credit policy, introduce im­
provements in operations, and have final re­
sponsibility for dealing with many other kinds
of problems that arise in connection with oper­
ating their hotels. Like many other managers
of business enterprises, they may also spend
considerable time conferring with business and
social groups and participating in community
In small hotels, the manager may perform
much of the front office clerical work in addi­
tion to his administrative duties. In the
smallest hotels and in many motels, the owners
—often a husband-and-wife team—do all the
work necessary to run the business.
The general manager of a large hotel may
have several assistants, each assigned an area
of responsibility. An executive assistant may be
employed to manage one or more departments
and to assume general administrative responsi­
bility when the manager is absent. Because food

Hotel manager checking table arrangements for large

preparation and service is such an important
part of the operation of most large hotels, a
special manager is usually in charge of this
department. (The occupation of restaurant
manager is discussed in the chapter on Res­
taurant Occupations. See index for page num­
ber.) Managers of large hotels usually also em­
ploy a special assistant, known as sales manager,
whose job is to promote maximum use of hotel
facilities. Much of the sales manager’s time is
spent traveling about the country explaining to



various groups the facilities his hotel can offer
for meetings, banquets, and conventions.
Since large hotel chains often centralize cer­
tain activities such as purchasing supplies and
equipment and planning employee training
programs, managers of these hotels may have
fewer different duties than managers of large
independently owned hotels. In hotel chains,
managers may be assigned on a temporary basis
to help organize work in a newly acquired hotel,
or they may be transferred to established hotels
in different States or in foreign countries.
Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement

Managerial positions are usually filled by ex­
perienced men who have come up from the
ranks. In accordance with the promotion-fromwithin policy followed by most hotels, indivi­
duals who have proved their ability, usually in
front office jobs, may be promoted to assistant
manager positions and eventually to general
Although successful hotel experience is gen­
erally the first consideration in selecting man­
agers, employers are placing increasing em­
phasis on a college education. Many believe the
best educational preparation is that provided by
the few colleges in the country which offer a
specialized 4-year curriculum in hotel adminis­
tration, including study in the field of food man­
agement. Specialized courses in hotel work,
available in a few junior colleges, and home
study courses given by the American Hotel In­
stitute are also regarded as helpful.
In colleges offering a specialized 4-year cur­
riculum in hotel management, the courses in­
clude hotel administration, hotel accounting,
economics, food service management and cater­
ing, and hotel engineering (plumbing and
heating systems, refrigeration, and electrical
equipment). In addition, students are encour­
aged to study foreign languages and other sub­
jects of cultural value such as history, philos­
ophy, and literature. They are also required to
spend three summer vacations working in hotel
or restaurant jobs—for example, as busboys or
bellmen, room clerks, or sometimes as assistant
managers. The experience and contacts with
employers gained in these jobs may enable

young people to obtain better hotel positions
after graduation.
Young men with specialized training often
start in front office clerical jobs but, as a rule,
are advanced to assistant managerial posts more
rapidly than clerks without this kind of train­
ing. Several years of experience are generally
required to advance to top managerial positions.
An increasing number of employers are requir­
ing some experience in food operations. Chances
for advancement may be somewhat better in
hotel chains than in independent hotels, since
persons may be selected to fill vacancies which
arise in any hotel in the chain as well as on the
central management staff.
Company training programs for managers
are a recent development in hotels. Some large
hotels have established special programs for
management trainees who are college graduates
or for less highly trained personnel promoted
from within. Such programs consist mainly of
on-the-job training assignments in which the
trainee is rotated among jobs in the various
hotel departments. In addition, some large
hotels provide financial assistance to outstand­
ing employees for college study.
Employment Outlook

Well-qualified young people will find good op­
portunities through the mid-1960,s to obtain
entry positions offering the possibility of pro­
motion to managerial work. There is likely to
be keen competition for the relatively few pro­
motional opportunities that become available
each year, however. Young men with college
degrees in hotel administration will probably
have preference for good entry positions and
later advancement, particularly if they can
handle food management or can qualify as
sales managers.
In the long run, the number of hotel managers
is expected to increase moderately. New posi­
tions will arise as new hotels are built and old
ones enlarged, and as the number of luxury
motor hotels and motels continues to increase.
However, most of the openings for manage­
ment personnel during the next decade will prob­
ably result from the need to fill vacancies re­
sulting from turnover. For general managers,

a limited number of openings can be antici­
pated, primarily because of retirements and
deaths; for assistant managers, a somewhat
greater number of openings will arise, princi­
pally because of promotions or transfers to
other fields of work. Salaried hotel managers
make up a relatively small occupational group,
however, and occupational growth and turnover,


combined, can be expected to create only a
limited number of job opportunities for new­
(See introductory section of this chapter for
information on Where Employed, Earnings and
Working Conditions, Where To Go for More
Information, and for additional information
on Employment Outlook.)

The industrial chemical industry has devel­
oped, in just a few decades, into one of the great
manufacturing industries in the country, with
more than 10,000 products. The products of
this industry are used by almost all other manu­
facturing industries. The industrial chemical
industry is also important to our defense ac­
tivities since materials for munitions, roc­
kets, and other military supplies require many
types of industrial chemicals.
In 1960, nearly 450,000 wage and salary
workers were employed in the industrial chem­
ical industry in a wide range of occupations.
Requirements for jobs vary from graduate
college degrees for some scientists and engi­
neers to a few days of on-the-job training for
some plant workers.
Nature of the Industry

The industrial chemical industry is made up
of plants which manufacture organic and in­
organic chemicals. These chemicals are known
as “industrial chemicals” because they are used
mainly by other industries as raw materials or
as processing agents to make their own products.
Industrial chemicals are unlike other chemical
products, such as drugs, paints, and fertilizers,
which are sold directly to the consumer with­
out further processing.
Industrial chemical plants make organic
chemicals from raw materials obtained from
the remains of prehistoric life such as coal, pe­
troleum, and natural gas, or from living ma­
terials such as agricultural and forest products.
Some products of organic chemicals such as
synthetic fibers (nylon, rayon, and orlon), syn­
thetic rubber, and plastics are well known.
Those less well known to the public are benzene,
acetone, and formaldehyde. Among the princi­
pal users of organic chemicals are the textile,

plastic products, rubber, and food-processing
Inorganic chemicals which come from non­
living matter, such as salt, sulfur, mineral ores,
and limestone, are basic materials for making,
or helping to make, other chemicals as well as
steel, glass, paper, gasoline, and other products.
More than 1,200 plants in the United States
make industrial chemicals. Chemical plants are
usually located on the outskirts of industrial
centers. Sometimes, plants are built near the
source of raw material; for example, plants
which produce chemicals made from petroleum
and natural gas are located near the oilfields
of Texas, California, and Louisiana.
Industrial chemical workers were employed in
plants in every State, but over two-thirds of
these workers were in 10 States. The largest
numbers were employed in Tennessee, New
Jersey, and Texas. Other States in which, large
numbers of industrial chemical workers were
found were New York, Virginia, West Virginia,
Pennsylvania, Michigan, Ohio, and Delaware.
The manufacture of chemicals differs from
the manufacture of other types of products.
Most industries start with a raw material (such
as wood or metal) and make it into a product
(such as a chair or a nail). The raw material
can be identified in the final product. The
chemical industry, however, makes products
that are completely unlike the raw materials
that are used to make the products. For
example, by combining and rearranging the
molecules (the smallest particle of a compound)
found in coal, air, and water, the chemical in­
dustry can produce nylon, a product that has
no resemblance to any of its raw materials.
A modern chemical plant is made up of huge
towers, tanks, and buildings linked together by
a network of pipes. These structures contain
the various pieces of equipment needed to pro645



ducing them, the industrial chemical industry
employs a large number of chemists; chemical,
mechanical, and electrical engineers; laboratory
assistants; draftsmen; and other scientific and
technical personnel. Employees in some admin­
istrative jobs, such as purchasing agent, sales­
man, and patent attorney, often have some
scientific background. Chemical companies
have many other administrative and profes­
sional employees, including accountants, per­
sonnel officers, and lawyers. Also employed are
large numbers of clerical workers, such as book­
keepers, stenographers, typists, and office ma­
chine operators.
About 56,000 women worked in industrial
chemical plants in 1960, mainly in clerical jobs.
Some women work in chemical laboratories as
research chemists or as laboratory technicians
and assistants. In a few industrial chemical
plants, they may be employed as chemical oper­
ators or as packers.
Chemical operator regulating controls for temperature,
pressure, and flow of chemicals.

cess raw materials into chemical products. Raw
materials go through several processing opera­
tions such as drying, heating, cooling, mixing,
evaporating, and filtering. Between each opera­
tion, the materials, which are usually in liquid
or gas form, flow through pipes. Throughout
these operations, automatic control devices re­
gulate the flow of materials; the combination
of chemicals; and the temperature, pressure,
and time needed for each operation. These con­
trol devices make it possible for tons of material
to be processed in one continuous operation
with little manual handling of materials.
Occupations in the Industrial Chemical Industry

Workers with many different levels of skill
and education are employed in the plants, offices,
and laboratories of industrial chemical firms.
About two-thirds of the employees work in
plant occupations, mainly in processing and
maintenance jobs. Because of the highly tech­
nical nature of its products and methods of pro­

Plant Occupations. Chemical plants workers
can generally be divided into three major occu­
pational groups: production workers who
operate the chemical-processing equipment;
maintenance workers who maintain, install,
and repair machinery, pipes, and equipment;
and other plant workers such as stock clerks,
material handlers, and truckdrivers.
Process equipment operators and their helpers
are the largest occupational group in the in­
dustrial chemical industry. Many of these oper­
ators are highly skilled workers. Chemical oper­
ators (D.O.T. 4-51.600 through .699, 4-51.
705 through .949, 4-52.350 through .399, 452.500 through .899, 6-51.600 through 699,
6-51.750 through .949, 6-52.350 through .399,
6-52.500 through .899) control the various
pieces of equipment which convert raw mate­
rials into chemical products. Operators are
responsible for carrying out the instructions
given to them by the supervisor in charge.
Operators set dials on devices that measure
the exact amount of materials to be processed
and that control the temperature, pressure,
and flow of materials. They keep a record
of the operations and report any sign of
breakdown of the equipment. From time to
time, chemical operators may use instruments



ment; and instrument repairmen who install
and repair electric and electronic instruments
and control devices. In some chemical plants,
the duties of several maintenance jobs may be
combined into a single job and performed by
one maintenance man.
Plant workers who do not operate or maintain
equipment perform a variety of other tasks in
industrial chemical plants. Some workers drive
trucks and tractors to make deliveries to various
parts of the plant; some load and unload ma­
terials on trucks, trains, or ships; and other
workers keep inventory records of stock and
tools. The industry also employs custodial
workers such as guards, watchmen, and janitors
whose jobs are similar to those in other in­

Chemical operator drawing off samples of a chemical for
testing in the laboratory.

which measure and test chemicals or they may
send samples of chemicals to laboratory tech­
nicians in the testing laboratory. They may be
assisted by other chemical operators of less
skill as well as by helpers. Sometimes, chemical
operators are classified according to the type
of equipment they operate, such as filterer,
grinder, or mixer.
The industry employs many skilled mainten­
ance workers because the manufacture of in­
dustrial chemicals requires a large amount of
complicated equipment and because high tem­
peratures and pressures greatly increase the
wear on this equipment. Included in the group
of maintenance workers are pipefitters who lay
out, install, and repair pipes and pipefittings;
maintenance machinists who make and repair
metal parts for machines and equipment; elec­
tricians who maintain and repair wiring,
motors, switches, and other electrical equip­

Scientific and Technical Occupations. The in­
dustrial chemical industry is one of the Nation’s
largest employers of scientific and technical
personnel. About 1 out of every 10 employees
in this industry is in some activity requiring
scientific, engineering, or technical training.
About half of these employees work in labora­
tories to develop new chemical products and
new methods of production as well as to per­
form basic research. About a fourth supervise
the production of chemicals and other plant
operations. The remaining scientific and tech­
nical personnel are in analysis and testing work,
and in administrative or technical sales posi­
Chemists and chemical engineers make up the
largest proportion of scientific and technical per­
sonnel in the industrial chemical industry.
Many chemists work in research and develop­
ment laboratories. A large number work in
production departments, analyzing and testing
chemicals in order to control their quality dur­
ing processing. Some chemists are supervisors
of plant workers; others are technical salesmen,
technical writers, or administrators whose posi­
tions require technical knowledge.
Chemical engineers apply their knowledge of
both chemistry and engineering to the design,
construction, operation, and improvement of
chemical equipment and plants. They convert
processes developed in a laboratory into largescale production methods, using the most eco­



nomical manufacturing techniques. Some
chemical engineers are employed in production
departments and others are in technical selling
and writing jobs.
Other types of engineers are also employed
in industrial chemical firms. Mechanical engi­
neer's design and lay out power and heating
equipment, such as steam turbines. They also
build nuclear reactors which are used in re­
search laboratories for the study of chemical
reactions. They often supervise the installa­
tion, operation, and maintenance of chemical
processing equipment. Electrical engineers de­
sign and develop electrical and electronic ma­
chinery and equipment, such as control devices
and instruments, as well as facilities for gener­
ating and distributing electric power.
In addition to the large number of such pro­
fessional personnel, the industry employs many
technical assistants such as laboratory techni­
cians, chemical technicians, draftsmen, and
engineering aids. Laboratory technicians as­
sist chemists and engineers in research and
development work and in production control.
They may perform simple routine tests or ex­
periments, or do highly technical testing and
analyses of chemical materials, depending on

their training and experience. Much of the
work of laboratory technicians consists of con­
ducting tests and recording the results—often
in the form of simple reports, charts, or graphs
—for interpretation by chemists and chemical
Administrative, Clerical, and Related Occupcvtions. The industrial chemical industry em­
ploys a variety of administrative, clerical, and
other white-collar workers. Many high-level
administrative and management positions are
filled by men with training in chemistry or
chemical engineering. At the top of the ad­
ministrative group are the executives who make
policy decisions concerning matters of finance,
types of products to manufacture, and loca­
tion of plants. To make such decisions, execu­
tives require the help of a large body of
specialized personnel. Some of these workers
are accountants, purchasing agents, sales rep­
resentatives, lawyers, and personnel employed
in such activities as industrial relations, public
relations, transportation, advertising, and
market research. Other workers are required
to assist these specialized administrative work­
ers. For example, clerical employees keep rec­
ords on personnel, payroll, raw materials, sales,
shipments, and plant maintenance.
(Detailed discussions of professional, techni­
cal, mechanical, and other occupations found
in the industrial chemical industry, as well as
in many other industries, are given elsewhere
in this Handbook, in the sections covering the
individual occupations. See index for page
Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement

Laboratory technician testing samples.

The industrial chemical industry generally
hires inexperienced workers for processing and
maintenance jobs and trains them on the job.
Companies in the industry usually prefer to hire
young workers with some high school education.
In many plants, a new worker is sent to a
labor pool from which he is assigned to such
jobs, as filling barrels and moving materials.
After several months, he may be transferred to
one of the processing departments when a
vacancy occurs. As he gains experience and


know-how, he moves to more skilled jobs in his
department. Thus, he may advance from
laborer to chemical operator helper, to assistant
chemical operator, and eventually to skilled
chemical operator. Skilled process workers are
rarely recruited from other plants.
Most maintenance jobs are filled by men who
are trained on the job in the plant. Experienced
men are sometimes hired when no qualified
trainees are available. Many industrial chemi­
cal companies have training programs to meet
the needs of their maintenance shops. These
programs may last from a few months to
several years and include mainly on-the-job
training and some classroom instruction related
to the trainees’ particular work. Instrument
repair trainees often learn how to assemble and
repair instruments in the factories which manu­
facture them. Many companies encourage
skilled maintenance workers as well as trainees
to take courses related to their jobs in local
vocational schools and technical institutes, or
to enroll in correspondence courses. Upon the
successful completion of these courses, some
companies reimburse the workers for part or
all of the tuition.
The minimum educational requirement for
entry into scientific and engineering jobs in the
industrial chemical industry is a bachelor’s de­
gree in chemistry, engineering, or other techni­
cal field. For jobs in research laboratories, ap­
plicants with advanced degrees are generally
preferred. Some companies have formal train­
ing programs for young college graduates with
engineering or scientific backgrounds. These
men work for brief periods in the various divi­
sions of the plant to gain a broad knowledge of
chemical manufacturing operations before be­
ing assigned to a particular department. Other
firms immediately assign junior chemists or en­
gineers to a specific activity—research, process
development, production, or sales.
Technicians in the industrial chemical in­
dustry qualify for their jobs in many different
ways. Most workers become technicians
through on-the-job training and experience
only. Generally, industrial chemical firms select
young men from their labor pool and give them
training while working at one of the technician
jobs. Sometimes, technicians may be sent to


a technical institute for training, usually at
company expense. Other men and women qual­
ify for such jobs by obtaining formal education
in technical institutes or junior colleges. Stu­
dents who have not completed all requirements
for a college degree, especially those who have
received some education in mathematics, science,
or engineering, are tfften employed in technician
Laboratory technicians begin their work in
routine jobs as assistants and advance to jobs
of greater responsibility after they have ac­
quired additional experience and have shown
their ability to work without close supervision.
Inexperienced draftsmen usually begin as copy­
ists or tracers. With additional experience and
training, they may advance to more skilled and
responsible jobs as draftsmen.
Administrative positions are frequently filled
by men and women who have college degrees
in business administration, marketing, account­
ing, economics, statistics, industrial relations,
or other specialized fields. Some companies
have advanced training programs in which they
give their new employees additional training in
their chosen specialties.
Most industrial chemical firms employ people
who have had commercial courses in high school
or business schools as clerks, bookkeepers,
stenographers, and typists. Although the quali­
fications for and the duties of administrative,
sales, clerical, and related occupations in this
industry are similar to those in other industries,
a knowledge of chemistry is often helpful. This
is especially true of those sales jobs in which
it is often necessary to give technical assistance
to customers.
Employment Outlook

The industrial chemical industry is expected
to provide many thousands of job opportunities
for new workers each year during the 1960’s.
Many of these openings will result from the ex­
pected rapid expansion of the industry. Large
numbers of job openings for new workers will
also be created by retirements, deaths, or trans­
fers to jobs in other fields of work. Retirements
and deaths alone will probably provide, on the



average, about 7,000 to 9,000 openings for new
workers each year during the 1960-70 decade.
The industrial chemical industry has vast
potential for further gains from its research
activities. This dynamic industry has far out­
stripped most other major industries in the de­
velopment of new products. Some of these prod­
ucts, such as plastics and synthetic fibers, have
not only created completely new markets, but
have competed successfully in markets pre­
viously dominated by wood, natural textile
fibers, and metals. They are expected to continue
to make inroads in these markets. A plentiful
supply of the raw materials used in chemical
manufacturing is also favorable to the industry’s
future growth. The development of nuclear
energy will greatly stimulate expansion in the
industrial chemical industry. Not only will
other chemicals be required for the manufacture
of radioactive materials, but these radioactive
sources hold promise for new chemicals to be
made by processes not yet developed.
Industrial chemical production has grown
tremendously in the past two decades; employCHART 30
Index (1947-49=100)

ment has also increased but at a much slower
rate. For example, between 1950 and 1960, the
number of industrial chemical workers rose
nearly 50 percent in contrast with output,
which more than tripled. (See chart 30.) The
major reason for this difference is the industry’s
emphasis on improved methods of making chem­
icals. The widespread use of automatic process­
ing and control equipment in industrial chemi­
cal plants has enabled the industry to increase
its production considerably with a relatively
small addition of labor. During the 1960’s, in­
dustrial chemical output will expand greatly,
resulting in a continued growth in the number
of employees.
All major occupational groups in the industry
are expected to grow, but some will increase
faster than others. The number of technical
and administrative jobs is expected to increase
more rapdily than the number of plant (proc­
essing and maintenance) workers, continuing
recent trends in this industry. Continued em­
phasis on research and development and greater
complexity of products and processes are ex­
pected to increase the need for chemists, engi­
neers, technicians, and other technical person­
Most of the demand for additional plant
workers will be for maintenance workers, such
as instrument repairmen, pipefitters, electri­
cians, and maintenance machinists, because of
the increasing use of instrumentation and auto­
matic equipment in processing operations. Proc­
ess equipment operators will continue to be the
largest occupational group in the industry, al­
though employment of these workers is not ex­
pected to increase as much as the employment
of maintenance and repairmen.
Earnings and Working Conditions


Production workers in the industrial chemi­
cal industry are among the higher paid factory
workers. In January 1961, workers employed in
inorganic chemical plants averaged $117.58 a
week, or $2.84 an hour, and those working in
organic chemical plants averaged $110.98 a
week, or $2.72 an hour. In comparison, average
weekly earnings in all manufacturing industries
for the same period were $90.25, or $2.32 an


hour. Average earnings in the industrial chemi­
cal industry are high because of the large pro­
portion of workers in skilled occupations.
Entry salaries for chemists and chemical en­
gineers in the industrial chemical industry
were among the highest in American industry,
according to a 1960 survey conducted by the
American Chemical Society. In this industry,
the average starting salary was $500 a*month
for chemists with a bachelor's degree, and $520
a month for chemical engineers ,with a bache­
lor's degree. Chemists and cherriical engineers
with graduate degrees received higher starting
salaries. Earnings data for other engineers and
scientists in this industry are not available.
Paid vacations are universal in this industry
and are generally based on length of service.
Workers generally receive 1 week vacation
after 1 year of employment, 2 weeks after 5
years, and 3 weeks after 12 years.
A majority of the workers are covered by
insurance plans. These plans include life, sick­
ness, accident, hospitalization, and surgical in­
surance. Practically all plants have pension
Many chemical workers are employed in
plants that operate around the clock—three
shifts a day, 7 days a week. Owing to the wide­
spread industry practice of rotating shifts,
process workers can expect to work the second
or third shift at one time or another. Nearly
all workers receive extra pay for shift work,
usually 7 to 10 cents more an hour for the
second shift, and 12 to 15 cents more an hour
for the third or night shift. Very few mainte­
nance workers are employed on these shifts.
Work in the industry has little seasonal varia­
tion and regular workers have year-round jobs.
With the exception of work performed by
laborers and material handlers, most industrial


chemical jobs require little physical effort.
Much of the plant work involves tending, in­
specting, repairing, or maintaining machinery
and equipment since most of the process opera­
tions are controlled automatically or semiautomatically. Some workers climb stairs and lad­
ders to considerable heights in the course of
their duties. Other jobs are performed out of
doors in all kinds of weather.
In some plants, workers may be exposed to
dust, disagreeable odors, or high temperatures.
Chemical companies, however, have reduced the
discomforts arising from these conditions by
installing ventilating or air-conditioning sys­
tems. Safety measures such as protective cloth­
ing, warning signs, showers and eye baths near
dangerous work stations, and first-aid stations
have also reduced hazards. These measures have
helped to make the injury-frequency rate (num­
ber of disabling injuries for each million man­
hours worked) in the industrial chemical in­
dustry about half that of all manufacturing
Most production workers in the industrial
chemical industry are members of labor unions.
The leading unions are the International Chemi­
cal Workers Union; Oil, Chemical and Atomic
Workers International Union; and District 50,
United Mine Workers of America (Ind.).
Where To Go for More Information

Further information concerning jobs, proc­
esses, and working conditions in the industrial
chemical industry can be obtained from the
following sources:
Manufacturing Chemists’ Association, Inc.,
1825 Connecticut Ave. NW., Washington 9, D.C.
International Chemical Workers Union,
1659 West Market St., Akron 13, Ohio

Insurance is a multibillion dollar business,
employing about 1 million people in 1959—more
than the number employed by such great in­
dustries as automobile manufacturing or tele­
phone and telegraph. It offers many job op­
portunities for young people who have just
finished school, as well as for experienced
More than 1,400 life insurance companies and.
approximately 3,500 property and casualty in­
surance companies were in operation in 1960.
They conducted their businesses in main offices,
commonly called “home” offices, and in thou­
sands of local sales offices or agencies in cities
and towns throughout the country. Local offices
may be operated as branches of the insurance
companies whose policies they sell, or they may
be operated by agents and brokers in business
for themselves.
Nature of the Business

Nearly 3 out of every 4 Americans, plus
hundreds of thousands of business firms, hold
one or more insurance policies. People can buy
policies which will provide them with money
in their retirement, or give their heirs an income
or a lump sum of money after their death. They
can also take out insurance against loss or
damage to almost anything they consider valu­
able, from a prized possession such as a fine
camera or a fur coat to a giant factory and all
the equipment in it. These and many other
kinds of insurance are classified into two broad
categories—life insurance, and property and
casualty insurance. Although some companies
sell insurance in both these fields—and the num­
ber of these companies is increasing—most
companies specialize in one type of insurance
or the other.
Life insurance companies sell policies which
not only give basic life insurance protection,
but several other kinds of protection as well.

For example, the proceeds from some policies
give policyowners an income when they reach
retirement age or become disabled and have to
stop working; other policies help policy owners
meet the costs of educating their children
when they reach college age; and still other spe­
cial life insurance policies give extra financial
protection while the children in a family are
young. Life insurance companies also sell ac­
cident and health insurance, which assists the
policyholders in meeting medical expenses and
sometimes provides them with other kinds of
benefits when they are injured or ill.
Policies sold by property and casualty insur­
ance companies provide financial protection
against loss or damage to the policyholder's
property—from hazards such as fire, theft, and
windstorm. This insurance field also includes
workmen's compensation and other forms of li­
ability insurance, which give financial protec­
tion to policyholders when they are responsible
for injuries to other people or damage to other
people's property. Property and casualty insur­
ance companies, like life insurance companies,
may also sell accident and health insur­
ance. They also sell fidelity bonds, protecting
employers against theft by employees who han­
dle large sums of money on the job.
Many policies sold by life and by property
and casualty companies—although by no
means the majority—are group policies, each
of which may cover anywhere from a very few
individuals to many thousands. Policies pro­
viding retirement income, life insurance, and
health and accident insurance are the kinds
most likely to be sold on a group basis. Such
policies have gained greatly in popularity in
recent years. In life insurance alone, about
175,000 master group policies were in effect in
the United States at the close of 1960, and they
covered nearly 45 million individuals—or more
than twice the number of people covered by
group life insurance policies 10 years earlier.

Insurance Workers

Since insurance companies are in business to
sell policies, salesmen are a key group of em­
ployees and a relatively large one. About two
out of every five insurance people are sales
workers—chiefly agents, brokers, and others
who sell policies directly to individuals and
business firms. Agents and brokers are usually
responsible for finding their own customers or
“prospects”, and for planning each policy they
sell so that it provides the special kind of pro­
tection required by the policyholder. (The
chapter on Sales Occupations, elsewhere in this
Handbook, includes statements on Life Insur­
ance Agents and on Property and Casualty In­
surance Agents and Brokers. See index for
page numbers.)
Behind every policy offered by an insurance
company, there must be a carefully planned in­
surance program which is financially sound
and meets any legal requirements that may ex­
ist. After a policy is sold, the insurance com­
pany must deal with any claims made by the
policyholder, and keep records of the premiums
paid the company and the benefits the company
pays the policyholder. Most of this planning,
recordkeeping, and other behind-the-scenes
work is done in home offices and requires the
services of three different employee groups—
company officials and others in managerial po­
sitions ; professional employees; and clerical
People in managerial positions make up a
considerably higher proportion of the employ­
ees in insurance companies than in many other
kinds of businesses. About 1 out of every 10
insurance workers is in a position of this kind.
Some are in charge of the local offices through
which most insurance policies are sold. Others
who work in home offices are company officials
or administrators in charge of accounting, in­
vestments, loans, and other important home
office work. The large-scale investment ac­
tivities of many insurance companies make fi­
nancial administration a particularly impor­
tant area of employment.
Working closely with the managerial person­
nel in insurance companies are specialists who
study insurance risks and coverage problems,

analyze investment possibilities, prepare finan­
cial reports, and do other professional work.
Professional workers, employed mainly at
home offices, represent about 1 out of every 20
insurance workers. Included among them is
the actuary, whose job is unique to the insur­
ance field. Actuaries make statistical studies
relating to various kinds of risks and, on the
basis of these studies, determine how large the
premium on each type of policy should be in
order to keep company operations financially
sound. (Further information on the profession
of actuary is included in the chapter on Math­
ematics and Related Fields. See index for page
number.) Most other professional employees in
insurance companies do work which is fun­
damentally the same as the work performed in
other industries by members of their pro­
fessions, although their specific duties some­
times differ because of the nature of the insur­
ance business. Many accountants, for example,
are employed to deal with records and finan­
cial problems relating to premiums, invest­
ments, payments to policyholders, and other as­
pects of the business. Engineers work on prob­
lems connected with policies covering indus­
trial work accidents, damage to industrial
plants and machinery, and other technical
matters. Lawyers interpret the regulations
which apply to insurance company operations,
handle the settlement of some kinds of insur­
ance claims, and do other legal work. As more
and more electronic computers are installed to
handle office records, increasing numbers of
programmers are being employed to plan the
processing of data on this new equipment.
Keeping track of millions of policies involves
a vast amount of paperwork and occupies the
time of hundreds of thousands of clerical work­
ers. Almost half of all insurance company
employees are in jobs classified as clerical—a
much larger proportion than in most other in­
dustries. Within the insurance business itself,
moreover, these clerical workers make up the
largest single employee group.. More than four
out of five are women.
A great many clerical workers—probably
the majority—are secretaries, stenographers,
and typists, or operators of bookkeeping and
other kinds of office machines, or general office


Insurance companies employ many clerical workers.

clerks. They do much the same kind of work
in insurance companies as in business enter­
prises of all types. Other clerks, employed
mostly in home offices, have specialized jobs
found only in the insurance business. Among
them are typists known as policy writers
(D.O.T. 1-37.32) who copy onto policy forms
from approved insurance applications the name
of the policyholder, his address, the amount
of the policy, the premium rate, and other
information. Policy change clerks (D.O.T.
1-08.12) revise policies according to instruc­
tions from insurance agents as to changes
in beneficiaries or policy amounts. Insurance
checkers (D.O.T. 1-03.02) check the informa­
tion which has been entered on policies by oth­
er clerical workers, in order to be certain that
the work is accurate and that changes have
been correctly recorded.
Some home office positions included in the
clerical group call for considerable responsi­
bility and judgment and may require extensive
knowledge of one or more phases of the insur­
ance business. Home office underwriters
(D.O.T. 1-57.30), who review applications for
insurance to decide the class of policy involved
and select the appropriate premium rates, have
positions of this kind. They may be assisted by


undenuriter clerks (D.O.T. 1-05.01) assigned
to this work as part of their training for more
responsible office positions as underwriters.
Claim adjusters (D.O.T. 1-57.40), who also hold
responsible office positions, decide whether in­
surance claims are covered by the terms of the
customer’s insurance policy and see that any
payment due the policyholder is made on each
claim. When necessary, they may conduct in­
vestigations of the circumstances which give
rise to claims.
All other groups of insurance company em­
ployees, combined, represent fewer than 1 out
of every 20 workers in the industry. They in­
clude electricians, janitors, and others who do
maintenance and custodial work similar to that
required in other large business organizations.
(This Handbook contains reports giving ad­
ditional information about many of the occu­
pations referred to above. See index for page
references to the chapter on Clerical and Related
Occupations and reports on: Accountants; En­
gineers; Lawyers; Programmers; and Mainte­
nance Electricians.)
Where Employed

The greatest numbers of insurance workers
are to be found where home offices are
located—particularly in Connecticut and
Texas, and in metropolitan centers elsewhere—
and in New York State, California, and other
States which are heavily populated. However,
many insurance workers are also employed in
the agencies, brokerage firms, and other sales
offices scattered in cities and towns in every
section of the country. Almost all sales per­
sonnel work out of these offices. The majority
of professional and clerical workers, on the
other hand, are employed in company home
The total number of people working for life
insurance companies and agencies is about the
same as the total in the property and casualty
field. Some life insurance companies are very
large and employ thousands of workers. Com­
panies which deal mainly in property and cas­
ualty insurance, although more numerous than
the life insurance companies, tend to be
smaller. The vast majority of local agencies



and sales offices are also small, regardless of the
type of insurance they handle.

wards certificates to individuals who success­
fully pass the Institute’s examinations. Several
national, State, and local insurance associa­
tions offer home study training or evening
courses in various aspects of the insurance
business. Other courses, especially designed to
help clerical employees gain a better under­
standing of the business, deal with the organ­
ization and operation of life insurance agency
offices. They are given under the auspices of
the Life Office Management Association Insti­

Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement

Insurance offers job opportunities for people
with very different educational backgrounds
and talents. Some of the positions require a
great deal of managerial and administrative ex­
perience and know-how, and others require col­
lege training in technical fields such as ac­
counting and engineering. In still other posi­
tions, the duties are routine and can be learned
on the job.
Graduation from high school or business
school is regarded as adequate preparation for
most beginning clerical positions. Courses in
business subjects such as typing, business
arithmetic, and the operation of office ma­
chines may also be valuable. One or another of
these special skills is not only required for many
jobs in insurance company offices, but this kind
of training provides a background of informa­
tion which helps employees advance to more
responsible office positions. Home office posi­
tions such as underwriter and claim adjuster
are often filled by promotion in this way. For
a position as a claim adjuster, some legal train­
ing in a college or university may also be help­
Engineering, accounting, and other profes­
sional positions in insurance companies usu­
ally require the same kinds of college training
as they do in other business firms. Collegetrained people are also given preference for ex­
ecutive and managerial positions, most of
which are filled by promotion from within. In
professional and managerial work requiring
contact with the public, as well as in sales
work and claim adjusting, it is important that
the employee have a pleasant personality and
that he be able to inspire confidence in his abil­
ity to look after customers’ interests.
Insurance companies and associations of
companies and agents offer several kinds of
training programs designed to help employees
prepare themselves for better jobs. The In­
surance Institute of America, for example, fur­
nishes study guides relating to the fundamen­
tals of property and casualty insurance and a­

Employment Outlook

Many thousands of job openings can be ex­
pected in the insurance field each year during
the 1960’s. The number of insurance workers
has risen rapidly during recent years, and
it will probably continue to mount at a con­
siderably faster rate than employment in many
other industries. Besides the additional work­
ers needed to fill new jobs, insurance firms are
likely to require many more thousands each
year to fill positions that become vacant as em­
ployees retire, die, or leave their jobs for other
reasons. A large proportion of the openings
during the next decade will be for clerical
workers; this large occupational group in­
cludes many young women who are likely to
work only a few years and then leave their jobs
to take care of their families at home. Turn­
over is also relatively high among insurance
salesmen during their first years in the busi­
ness, and, since salesmen also make up a large
occupational group, many vacancies can be ex­
pected in this kind of work as well.
Both major branches of the insurance busi­
ness will share in the employment increase dur­
ing the 1960’s. In all likelihood, both will have
a greater volume of business to handle. With
population growth, there will be more private
citizens needing life insurance, and wanting
other kinds of policies such as those making
financial provision for the education of their
children and for their own retirement. In ad­
dition, some groups of people who do not now
carry insurance may well become policy­
holders. Advances in medical science, for ex­
ample, are making life insurance available to

increasing numbers of individuals who were
formerly rejected as poor insurance risks; and
automobile liability insurance—already re­
quired by law in some States—may become
compulsory for car owners in other States.
Similarly, in the business world the need for
property and casualty insurance will rise as
new plants are built and new equipment is in­
stalled, and as the quantity of goods shipped to
all parts of the country and the world in­
creases; and, as the coverage of State work­
men's compensation laws is broadened, more
employers may need workmen's compensation
insurance. For individuals as well as business
firms, additional policy sales may also result as
new kinds of hazards—for example, radiation
hazards—create new kinds of insurance needs.
Insurance employment will probably rise at
a somewhat slower rate than the volume of
business handled by insurance companies. It
is becoming more and more common for com­
panies to issue “multiple-line" policies under
which a variety of insurance risks are covered
in a single policy rather than in separate poli­
cies, and this tends to reduce somewhat the
workload of sales personnel in local offices and
clerical employees in home offices. The antici­
pated increase in the number of group poli­
cies will have a similar effect on employment.
Even more likely to cause changes in insurance
company employment is the probability that
more and more insurance companies will in­
stall electronic computers and other modern
office equipment to process some of the routine
paperwork now done by clerks. The total num­
ber of insurance company clerical workers is
likely to continue to rise but the number of
routine job openings will be relatively fewer
than in the past, and jobs requiring special
training—including machine operator posi­
tions connected with the new mechanical
equipment—more numerous.
Insurance workers have better prospects of
regular employment than workers in many oth­
er industries. For most businessmen, property
insurance of all kinds is a necessity in years of
economic recession as well as in boom periods.
Private individuals also attempt to retain as
much basic financial protection as possible,
even when incomes decline.

Earnings and Working Conditions

The many thousands of clerical employees
in insurance companies include some in begin­
ning, routine jobs who earn considerably less
than $50 a week, and other experienced employ­
ees such as claim adjusters who may earn up to
four times as much. Information about the
earnings of workers in many of the largest of­
fice occupations is available from a 1959-60
survey covering employees in insurance com­
panies, banks, and related businesses in 16 ci­
ties. The average earnings of women employed
in beginning jobs as office girls and junior file
clerks ranged from $45 a week in Dallas—1 of
the 16 cities—to $58 in Chicago. In most cities,
the averages for office boys were slightly higher
than those for office girls or file clerks. Switch­
board operators, another fairly large group of
women office employees, averaged from $52.50
a week in Washington, D.C., to $76.50 in Chica­
go; in the great majority of the 16 cities, how­
ever, their average earnings were between $60
and $70 a week. Secretaries, who averaged
from $72.50 a week in St. Louis to $89.50 in
New York City and in the Los Angeles-Long
Beach area, were generally the highest paid of
any of the women office workers covered by the
survey. Among men in the occupations sur­
veyed, skilled accounting clerks and tab­
ulating machine operators usually had the
highest average earnings; the city averages for
these two groups ranged from $76.50 for senior
accounting clerks in Boston to slightly over
$100 a week for senior tabulating machine op­
erators in Chicago and the Los Angeles-Long
Beach area. (The chapter on Clerical and Re­
lated Occupations gives additional information
about the earnings of workers in most of the
occupations referred to above, as well as in
many other office occupations. See index for
page numbers.)
Starting salaries for professional workers
are generally comparable to starting salaries
for similar positions in other industries and
businesses. It is not uncommon for specialists
with years of experience in the insurance busi­
ness to receive annual salaries of $10,000 or
more. Agents and brokers, unlike salaried pro­
fessional workers, depend chiefly on the com­



missions they earn. (See index for page refer­
ences to reports on Life Insurance Agents, and
Property and Casualty Insurance Agents and
Except for agents and brokers, who must
sometimes plan their working hours to meet
the convenience of their prospective customers,
insurance company employees usually work
regularly scheduled hours. Most of them work
between 37 and 40 hours a week. The number
of holidays with pay is somewhat more liberal
than in most other industries. Employees who
have completed 1 year of service generally re­
ceive 2-week paid vacations. Some companies
allow 3-week vacations after 10 or 15 years of
service, and 4 weeks after 20 or 25 years. Many
insurance company workers are covered by
group life insurance and participate in group
plans providing retirement income, hospitaliza­
tion, and surgical benefits.

Where To Go for More Information

General information on employment oppor­
tunities and requirements may be obtained from
the personnel departments of major insurance
companies or from insurance agencies in local
communities. Other information on careers in
the insurance field is available from:
Institute of Life Insurance,
488 Madison Ave., New York 22, N.Y.
Life Office Management Association,
110 East 42nd St., New York 38, N.Y.
Insurance Information Institute,
60 John St., New York 38, N.Y.

For additional information on the salaries
of clerical workers in finance industries, in­
cluding insurance, see:
Wages and Related Benefits, 60 Labor Markets,
1959-60, Bureau of Labor Statistics Bulletin
1265-62, (1961), Superintendent of Documents,
Washington 25, D.C. Price 70 cents.

There is hardly a product in daily use that
has not been made from steel, or by machinery
made of steel. The Nation's high and rising
standard of living, its industrial might, and its
military strength depend largely on its ability
to produce great quantities of steel. In 1960,
steelmakers produced more than 99 million
tons of steel—26 percent of the world's output
of this vital metal.
The iron and steel industry is one of the
Nation's largest employers. About 570,000
wage and salary workers were on the payrolls
of the industry's more than 300 plants in 1960.
Employees work in a broad range of jobs re­
quiring a wide variety of skills—from unskilled
to technical and professional jobs. Many of
these jobs are found only in iron and steel
The production of iron and steel consists of
a closely related series of production processes.
First, iron ore is converted to molten iron in
blast furnaces. The molten iron is poured into
“hot metal cars" and either transported directly
to the steelmaking department, or cast into
“pigs" (iron in bar form) for use by foundries
or by steel mills that do not produce their own
iron (see chart 31). Molten iron or pig iron is
then converted into steel in various types of
steelmaking furnaces. Finally, the steel is rolled
into basic products, such as plates, sheets,
strips, rods, bars, rails, and structural shapes.
These products are usually sold to manufac­
turers who further process the semifinished
steel. However, many plants carry the manu­
facturing processes beyond the rolling stage to
produce finished products, such as tinplate, pipe,
and wire rope. (This chapter does not describe
the mining of coal, iron ore, limestone, and
other raw materials used to make steel, or the
casting, stamping, forging, machining, or fab­
rication of steel. These activities are not clas­
sified in the basic iron and steel industry, which

consists of blast furnaces, steel works, and
rolling mills.)
Because iron and steel are produced in huge
quantities, the industry uses gigantic processing
equipment. Modern blast furnaces are some­
times more than 200 feet tall (about as high
as a 20-story building). A single blast furnace
may produce up to 500 tons of iron in each
production cycle of about 4 to 5 hours. The
several different types of furnaces used to con­
vert iron into steel are also immense. For ex­
ample, open-hearth furnaces, used to make most
steel, may be 70 feet long and 20 feet wide or
even larger. Limestone and scrap metal are
loaded into open-hearth furnaces by enormous
electrically operated “charging" machines.
After the initial charge is heated, molten iron
is poured into open hearths from huge, craneoperated ladles. Seven or eight hours later,
molten steel is “tapped," or emptied from the
furnace into other giant ladles, which are
moved by a crane to a pouring platform where
the steel is “teemed," or poured, into ingot
The rolling equipment which forms steel into
various shapes is hundreds of feet long. Some
of the steel cylinders, or “rolls," used in this
equipment may weigh 40 or 50 tons.
Steel companies differ in the number of opera­
tions they perform. Many of them, known as
integrated companies, produce their own coke
from coal, reduce ore to pig iron, make steel,
and form the steel into products by rolling and
other finishing methods. Such companies ac­
count for the bulk of total steel production and
employ most of the industry's workers. Another
group of companies make various types of steel
from steel purchased from other companies. A
third group rolls and finishes purchased steel.
A fourth type makes only pig iron to be sold to
small steel plants and foundries.
Most of the basic products made by steel
mills are shipped to the plants of other indus-



tries, where they are made into thousands of
different products. Some steel mill products,
however, such as rails, pipe, wire, and nails,
are produced in their final form at the mills.
The leading steel consuming industries are the
automobile, construction and building ma­
terials, containers, household appliances, and
machine tool industries.
Steel sheets are made into such things as
automobile bodies, household appliances, and
metal furniture. Steel bars are used to make
parts for automobiles and machinery, and tc
reinforce concrete in building and highway
construction. Steel plates become parts of ships,
bridges, heavy machinery, and railroad cars.
Strip steel is used in the manufacture of such
items as pots and pans, automobile body parts,
razor blades, and toys. Tin coated steel, known
as “tinplate,” is used primarily to make “tin”
Individual plants in this industry typically
employ a large number of workers. More than
two-thirds of all the industry’s employees work
in plants which have more than 2,500 wage and
salary workers. Some plants have more than
20,000 employees. However, other plants em­
ploy fewer than 100 workers, particularly those
which make highly specialized steel products.
Iron and steel industry plants are located
mainly in the northern and eastern parts of the
United States. The Pittsburgh-Youngstown,
Pa., area is the country’s largest steel-producing
area. In the East, there are large plants in
Buffalo, N.Y., and Johnstown, Bethlehem, and
Morrisville, Pa. The Nation’s largest steel plant
is located at Sparrows Point, near Baltimore,
Md. The Great Lakes region has many impor­
tant steel centers, particularly the Chicago
and Cleveland areas. Much of the steelmaking
in the South is in the vicinity of Birmingham,
Ala. Since the early 1940’s, steelmaking facili­
ties have been expanded greatly in the Far
About three-fourths of the industry’s workers
are employed in five States—Pennsylvania, Ohio,
Indiana, Illinois, and New York. Nearly a third
are in Pennsylvania.

Occupations in the Industry

Workers in the iron and steel industry hold
more than 1,000 different types of jobs. Many
of them are directly engaged in making iron
and steel and converting it into partly finished
and finished products. Others take care of the
vast amount of machinery and equipment used
in the industry, operate cranes and other equip­
ment which move raw materials and steel prod­
ucts about the plants, or perform other kinds of
work. In addition, many workers are needed to
do the clerical, sales, professional and technical,
administrative, and supervisory work connected
with the operation of steelmaking plants.
About four-fifths of all employees in the iron
and steel industry in 1960 were plant workers.
These workers were directly concerned with the
production of iron and steel, the maintenance
of plant equipment, and the movement of ma­
terials within and among plant departments.
Semiskilled workers made up almost half of all
production workers; approximately threetenths were skilled workers, including foreman;
and about one-fifth were unskilled workers.
Clerical and sales workers accounted for
roughly two out of every three office workers in
iron and steelmaking plants. About one out of
every four of the office workers were employed
in professional and technical jobs, and roughly
1 out of every 10 in administrative occupations.
Most iron and steel workers are men, since
much of the work is strenuous. However, the
physical labor involved in steelmaking has been
reduced through mechanization of production
processes. Approximately 4 percent of the in­
dustry’s workers are women. About half of
them are employed in production jobs such as
craneman, machine operator, assorter, and in­
spector; the rest are in office jobs, including
research and other technical work.
The iron and steel industry employs many
Negroes. Some plants employ more Negroes
than others, depending mainly on their geo­
graphical location. A large number work as
laborers, but many are employed in skilled and
semiskilled occupations.
Processing Occupations. The majority of the
workers in the iron and steel industry are em­
ployed in the many processing operations in­


volved in converting iron ore into semifinished
and finished steel products. In order to under
stand better the types of jobs in the steel in­
dustry, brief descriptions of steelmaking oper­
ations and of the more important occupations, as
they occur in the steelmaking process, are given
Blast furnaces. The blast furnace, essenti­
ally, extracts molten iron (called “pig iron”)
from iron ore. Alternate layers of iron ore, coke,
and limestone are fed into the top of the fur­
nace. Hot air, blown in from the bottom of the
furnace, rises through the mass of material and
causes combustion. The gases formed by the
burning of the coke combine with and remove
the oxygen from the ore.
Molten iron trickles down through the charge
and collects in a pool at the bottom of the
furnace. At the same time, the intense heat
melts the limestone which combines with silica
and other impurities in the iron ore and coke
and forms molten “slag,” a waste material. This,
too, trickles down through the charge and floats
on top of the heavier molten iron. The slag and
molten iron ore are separately tapped or “cast”
from the blast furnace.
A blast furnace operates continuously, 24
hours a day, 7 days a week, unless it has to be
shut down for repairs or for other reasons.
Molten iron is removed every 4 or 5 hours; slag
is removed more frequently. The charging of
iron ore, coke, and limestone into the furnace is
a continuous operation.
The raw materials used in blast furnaces are
stored in a stock house below furnace level. Here
stock house men or stock house larrymen
(D.O.T. 7-40.050) load traveling stock or larry
cars with raw materials from storage bins. They
weigh all raw materials in accordance with a
prearranged schedule, which depends upon the
kind of hot metal desired. The loaded stock cars
are emptied into waiting “skip cars,” which
carry the materials up tracks to the top of the
blast furnace where they are automatically
dumped. Other stock house men or skipmen
(D.O.T. 5-73.550), stationed on the ground be­
low, control the skip cars through electric and
pneumatic controls. Stove tenders (D.O.T. 691.311) and their assistants operate huge, brickDigitized lined stoves which heat air for the blast furnace.


They regulate valves to control the heating
cycle of the stoves and regulate the flow of
heated air to the furnace.
The men who are responsible for the quantity
and quality of iron produced are called blowers
(D.O.T. 4-91.311). They direct the operation
of one or more blast furnaces, including load­
ing and tapping the furnace, and regulating the
air blast and furnace heat. Blowers carefully
check the metal produced, periodically sending
samples of the molten iron and slag to the lab­
oratory where quality tests are made and the
results reported to the blower. Keepers (D.O.T.
4-91.321), under the direction of the blower,
are responsible for tapping the furnace. They
direct their helpers and cindermen or slaggers
(D.O.T. 8-92.01) in lining (with sand) the
troughs and runners through which the molten
iron and slag are run off into waiting cars. In
plants where both iron and steel are made, most
of the molten iron is carried by “hot metal
cars” or in giant ladles to the steelmaking fur­
naces. If the iron is to be shipped or stored,
it is carried to a casting machine where it is
cast into pigs (bars).
Steel furnaces. The second major step in
steelmaking is to convert the iron into steel.
This is done in several ways. More than fourfifths of all steel is produced in open-hearth
furnaces. Steel is also produced in oxygen con­
verters, electric furnaces, and in Bessemer
Open-hearth steel is produced by adding
molten pig iron to previously charged and heated
steel scrap and limestone and melting the mix­
ture in furnaces. It is possible to make from
about 150 to more than 600 tons of steel per
load or “heat.” The open-hearth process is so
named because the saucer-shaped hearth, or
floor of the furnace, is exposed to the sweep
of the flames which melt the steel.
A melter (D.O.T. 4-91.444) is in charge of
one or more open-hearth furnaces and is re­
sponsible for the quality and quantity of the
steel produced. Each heat of steel is made to
specifications, which depend upon the end use
for the steel. The melter makes the steel to the
desired specifications by varying the propor­
tions of limestone, iron ore, scrap steel, and
molten pig iron in the furnace, and by adding


Melter’s helper inserting jet tapper into open-hearth
furnace tap hole.

small amounts of other materials, such as car­
bon, manganese, silicon, copper, or aluminum.
He supervises three grades of helpers—first
(D.O.T. 4-91.445), second (D.O.T. 6-91.183),
and third (D.O.T. 8-92.01). These helpers pre­
pare the furnaces for the heat, regulate furnace
temperatures, take samples of molten steel for
laboratory tests, direct the loading of various
alloying materials, and tap the molten steel from
the furnace into a ladle. One first helper is
responsible for each open-hearth furnace.
The charging machine operator (D.O.T. 691.181) runs an electrically controlled machine
with a long steel arm which picks up, one by
one, long steel boxes full of limestone, scrap,
and other materials. The machine pushes each
box through the open furnace doors, turns it
upside down, and then withdraws it. The hot
metal craneman (D.O.T. 5-73.030) operates a
large overhead crane that picks up ladles of
molten iron (which were filled at the blast fur­
naces) and pours the contents into the openhearth furnaces.
After 7 to 8 hours, the heat of steel is ready
to be tapped. The furnace crew, consisting of
one or more helpers, knocks out a plug at the
back of the furnace with a “jet tapper” (small
explosive charge which is fired into the plug)


which allows the molten metal to flow into a
ladle. The slag, which floats to the top of the
ladle, overflows into a smaller ladle, called a
slag pot.
The molten steel is then poured from the ladle
into ingot molds (hollow cast iron forms). A
ladle craneman (D.O.T. 5-73.030) operates an
overhead crane which picks up the ladle and
moves it over a long row of ingot molds resting
on flat-bottom cars. The steel pourer (D.O.T.
4-91.651) operates a stopper on the bottom of
the ladle to let the steel flow into the molds.
As soon as the steel in the molds has solidified
sufficiently, an ingot stripper (stripper-crane­
man) (D.O.T. 5-73.010 and .020), operating an
overhead crane, removes the molds from the
still-hot blocks of steel, called ingots, leaving
the stripped ingots standing to cool on the “in­
got buggies” (four-wheel cart running on rails).
Nearly 12 percent of all steel made in 1960
was produced in electric furnaces and oxygen
converters, and this proportion is expected to
increase rapidly in the years ahead. In electric
furnaces, steelmaking can be controlled very
closely. Consequently, such furnaces are being
used increasingly to produce high quality and
high alloy steels. Oxygen converters can make
steel faster than any other furnaces currently
in use.
The electric furnace is a circular steel shell
that resembles a huge tea kettle. It is mounted
on rockers so that it can be tilted to pour off
molten metal and slag. The furnace is lined
with heat-resistant brick. Large cylinder­
shaped columns of carbon, called electrodes,
conduct electric current from the power source
to the metal charge. They extend down through
the top of the furnace to within inches of the
metal, usually scrap steel. When current is
turned on, electric arcs are struck between the
electrodes and the scrap, providing heat to melt
the charge.
The oxygen converter, which has been intro­
duced in some steel making plants in recent
years, is a melon-shaped, brick-lined, steel vessel
which is held in an upright, stationary posi­
tion when operated. The furnace is tilted to
receive, through a hole in its top, its charge of
scrap metal, molten pig iron, and limestone.
After the converter has been charged, a long


lance, or pipe, is lowered through the hole.
Oxygen is blown through this lance, causing
a chemical reaction which melts the entire
charge and burns off impurities in the molten
metal. The furnace is again tilted to allow the
molten steel to pour out through a hole near
the top.
Steel made by the Bessemer process accounts
for less than 2 percent of the total amount of
steel produced in this country each year, having
declined steadily over the past half century.
Steel made by this method has qualities that
are particularly favorable for making certain
stee^ products, such as welded steel pipe and
various types of wire; however, such qualities
can be obtained today in open-hearth furnaces.
Rolling and finishing. The third and final
step in the production of steel is shaping. The
three principal methods of shaping metal in
steel plants are casting, forging, and rolling.
In casting, molten metal is poured into a mold
where it hardens into the exact shape of the
mold. In forging, heated metal is hammered or
pressed into the desired shape. Although con­
siderable amounts of forging and casting are
done in steel plants, much is also done by other
About three-fourths of all steel products are
shaped by the rolling process. In this method,
heated steel ingots are squeezed longer and
flatter between two cylinders or “rolls.” Before
ingots of steel are rolled, they are heated to
the temperature specified by the plant’s metal­
lurgist. The heating is done in large furnaces
called “soaking pits,” accessible through doors
in the plant floor. A heater (D.O.T. 4-88.081)
controls the soaking pit operation. He directs
helpers in heating the ingots to the specified
temperature and, with the help of control equip­
ment, determines when they are ready for
rolling. A soaking pit craneman (D.O.T. 573.010) operates an overhead crane, by means
of electrical controls, to lift the stripped ingots
from an ingot car and place them into the soak­
ing pit. When the ingots are sufficiently
“soaked” with heat, the craneman removes the
ingots and places them on ingot buggies, which
carry them to the rolling machinery. Here, the
ingots are rolled into semifinished shapes—
blooms, slabs, or billets. Blooms are generally


more than 6 inches wide and 6 inches thick.
Slabs are much wider and thinner than blooms.
Billets are the smallest of these three shapes.
Later, in the finishing operations, blooms, slabs,
and billets receive their final rolling and pro­
The rolling of blooms illustrates the semi­
finishing process. In the blooming mill, as in
other rolling mills, the ingot moves along on a
roller conveyor to a machine which resembles
a giant clothes wringer. A “two-high” bloom­
ing mill has two, heavy, grooved rolls which
revolve in opposite directions. The rolls grip
the approaching ingot and pull it between them,
squeezing it thinner and longer. When the in­
got has made a “pass” through the rolls, the
rolls are revolved in the opposite direction, and
the ingot is fed back through them. Throughout
the rolling operation the ingot is periodically
turned 90 degrees by mechanical devices called
“manipulators,” and passed between the rolls
again, so that all sides are rolled. Guides, lo­
cated on each side of the roll table, properly
position the ingot for entry into the rolls. This
operation is repeated until the ingot is reduced
to a bloom of the desired size. The bloom is
then ready to be cut to specified lengths.
A blooming mill roller (D.O.T. 5-92.301), the
man in charge of the mill, works in a glass-

Speed operator (one type of roller) controlling continu­
ous butt weld pipe mill while helper knocks off scale.

enclosed control booth, or “pulpit,” located
above and directly over the roller line. His
duties, which appear to consist principally of
moving levers and pushing buttons, look rela­
tively simple. However, the quality of the prod­
uct and the speed with which the ingot is rolled
depend upon his skill. The roller regulates the
opening between the rolls after each pass. This
requires long experience and a knowledge of
steel characteristics. A manipulator operator
(D.O.T. 4-88.012) sits in the pulpit beside the
roller and coordinates his controls with those
of the roller.
Upon leaving the rolling mill, the red-hot
bloom moves along a roller conveyor to a place
where a shearman (D.O.T. 6-88.664) controls
a heavy, hydraulically operated shear which
cuts the steel into desired lengths.
In a blooming mill with automatic (elec­
tronic) process controls, a rolling mill attendant
is given a card which has been punched with
a series of holes. The holes represent coded in­
formation and directions as to how the ingot is
to be rolled. The attendant inserts the card into
a card “reader,” then presses a button that
starts the rolling sequence. The information in
punched-card form governs the setting of the
roll opening, the speed of the rolls, the number
of passes to be made, and the number of times
the ingot must be turned. When the automatic
process is used, the roller’s function is shifted
from operating the rolling controls to directing
and coordinating the entire rolling process.
This consists of heating, rolling, and shearing.
After the steel is rolled into semifinished
shapes—blooms, slabs, or billets—most of it is
put through “finishing” operations. For exam­
ple, steel slabs may be reduced and shaped into
rods, bars, plates, sheets, and strips. Even
after additional rolling, some steels must be
worked further. Some rods, for instance, are
reduced to wire by drawing. Wire can be fur­
ther processed into wire rope, fencing, or other
end products. Much sheet steel is further re­
duced by cold-rolling, and then it may be run
through galvanizing or tinplating lines. Bars,
skelp (a thick, narrow sheet), and plate can be
formed into pipe of widely varying diameters.
Equipment operator, inspector, and assorter,
are among the major occupations in finishing


operations; women are frequently employed in
these jobs.
An important occupation in wire making is
the ivire drawer (D.O.T. 4-88.511). This
worker hand pulls the pointed end of a steel rod
through a die (a block of hard metal with a
tapered hole in it). The rod end is then attached
to a reel which, while revolving, pulls the rest
of the rod through the die. As the rod passes
through the die it is made thinner and longer
and becomes wire, which is automatically
coiled around the revolving reel. If extensive re­
duction of the rod is required, it is passed
through a series of dies, each die reducing the
diameter of the wire slightly.
Pipe, both welded and seamless, is also an im­
portant steel mill product. In making welded
pipe, the flat steel is fed into a machine which
rolls it into tube shape; then the edges of the
pipe are fused by continuous welding.
Seamless pipe and tubing are formed from
a solid billet of steel, called a tube round. In
the seamless operation, the piercer-machine op­
erator (D.O.T. 6-88.351) passes a preheated
tube round between two barrel-shaped rolls.
The revolving rolls spin the tube round and
force one end against a piercing plug or
“mandrel.” The combined rolling action and
the pressure of the rolls tend to make the steel
draw apart providing space for the mandrel to
enter. The mandrel smooths the inside walls
and makes the diameter of the hole uniform.
The making of tinplate, another important
steel product, is essentially a rolling process in
which steel slabs are rolled into long, thin sheets.
These sheets are coated with tin as they are
fed continuously through a electrolytic bath
which deposits the thin tin coating on the steel.
Maintenance, Transportation, and Plant Serv­
ice Occupations. Large numbers of support­
ing workers are required in steel plants. Some
maintain and repair machinery and equipment,
and others operate the equipment which pro­
vides power, steam, and water. Other groups of
workers move material and supplies and per­
form a variety of service operations.
In the machine shops, machinists and ma­
chine-tool operators make and repair metal
parts for machinery or equipment. Die makers


use machine tools to form dies, such as those
used in wire drawing units. Roll turners
(D.O.T. 4-78.011) use lathes, grinders, and
other machine tools to finish steel rolls to de­
sired shapes and sizes for use in the rolling
Millwrights maintain mechanical equipment.
They overhaul machinery, and repair and re­
place defective parts. Electricians install elec­
tric wiring and fixtures and “hook up” elec­
trically operated equipment. Electrical repair­
men (motor inspectors) keep wiring, motors,
switches, and electrical equipment in good opera­
ting condition and make repairs when electrical
equipment breaks down.
Electronic repairmen install, repair, and
adjust the increasing number of electronic de­
vices and systems used in steel manufacturing
plants. Typically, this equipment includes com­
munication systems, such as public address
systems; closed-circuit television installations;
electronic computing and data recording sys­
tems; and measuring, processing, and control
devices, such as X-ray measuring or inspection
Bricklayers (D.O.T. 5-24.130) repair and
rebuild the brickwork in furnaces, soaking pits,
and coke ovens, as well as mill buildings and
offices. Pipefitters lay out, install, and repair
piping which is used to carry the large amount
of water, gas, steam, oil, air, oxygen, and
acetylene used in the steelmaking process.
Boilermakers test, repair, and rebuild heating
units, locomotive boilers, storage tanks, sta­
tionary boilers, and condensers. Locomotive en­
gineers and other train crew members operate
steam, diesel, or electric trains used to transport
materials and products in the vast yards of iron
and steel plants. Welders operate welding
equipment to join together metal parts in re­
pairing and rebuilding plant machinery and in
fabricating steel products. Skilled workers run
the various boilers, turbines, and switchboards
in the powerplants which provide the large
amounts of power needed in steelmaking.
Other types of maintenance and service oc­
cupations found in steel plants include carpen­
ter, cranemen, oiler, painter, instrument repair­
man, scale repairman, loader, rigger, greaser,
janitor, and guard. Many laborers are employed


to load and unload materials and do a variety
of cleanup operations.
Administrative, Clerical, and Technical Occupa­
tions. Professional, technical, administrative,
clerical, and sales workers accounted for ap­
proximately one-fifth of the industry’s total em­
ployment in 1960. Of these, the majority were
clerical workers, such as secretaries, stenog­
raphers, typists, accounting clerks, and gen­
eral office clerks.
Engineers, scientists, and technicians made up
approximately one-fourth of the industry’s
“white-collar” employment. Several thousand
of these workers were engaged in research and
development. The work of these employees is
aimed at improving iron and steel products and
processes. For example, research and develop­
ment workers are now developing alloy steels
that are highly resistant to heat, extremely
strong, and relatively light-weight, for use in
space vehicles. Another important activity
of these professional and semiprofessional
workers is their continuing research directed to­
ward improving the quality of steel and toward
developing special types of steel needed in mod­
ern industry.
The technical specialists in iron and steel
plants also include mechanical engineers whose
principal work is the design, construction, and
operation of mill machinery and material han­
dling equipment. Many mechanical engineers
work in operating units where their jobs in­
clude, for example, determination of roll size
and contour, rolling pressures, and operating
speeds. Others are responsible for plant and
equipment maintenance. Metallurgists and met­
allurgical engineers work in laboratories and in
production departments where they have the
important task of testing and controlling the
quality of the steel during its manufacture.
They also develop and improve the industry’s
products and processes through research. Civil
engineers are engaged in the layout, construc­
tion, and maintenance of steel plants and the
equipment used for heat, light, and transporta­
tion. To design, lay out, and supervise the
operation of electrical generating and distribu­
tion facilities which provide the power essential
in modern steel mill operation is the task of

electrical engineers. These engineers are con­
cerned also with the operation of electrical
machinery and electrical and electronic con­
trol equipment.
Chemists work in the laboratories, making
chemical analyses of steel and raw materials
used in steel manufacture. Laboratory tech­
nicians do routine testing and assist chemists
and engineers. Draftsmen prepare working
plans and detailed drawings required in plant
construction and maintenance.
Employees in administrative, managerial, and
supervisory occupations made up about 1 out of
every 10 of the industry's white-collar workers.
Among these employees are office managers,
personnel workers, purchasing agents, plant
managers, industrial* engineers, and other su­
pervisory workers. Working closely with these
personnel were several thousand professional
workers, other than scientists and engineers.
By far, the largest group of these professional
workers were accountants, but there were also
many nurses, lawyers, economists, statisticians,
mathematicians, librarians, and social workers.
In addition, the industry employed several thou­
sand workers in sales positions.
(Detailed discussions of professional, techni­
cal, mechanical, and other occupations found
in the iron and steel industry as well as in
many other industries are given elsewhere in
this Handbook, in the sections covering the
individual occupations. See index for page num­
Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement

New workers in processing operations are
usually hired at the unskilled level, as laborers.
Openings in higher rated jobs are usually filled
by promoting workers from lower grade jobs.
Factors considered when selecting workers for
promotion are: Ability to do the job, physical
fitness, and length of service with the company.
Training for processing occupations is done
almost entirely on the job. Workers move to
operations requiring progressively greater skill
as they acquire experience and “know-how.”
A craneman, for example, is first taught how to
operate relatively simple cranes, and then he ad­
vances through several steps to cranes much


more difficult to run, such as the hot-metal
Generally, steel companies give preference to
high school graduates in selecting workers for
processing jobs. To help them advance in their
work, many workers take part-time courses in
subjects such as chemistry, physics, and metal­
lurgy. In some cases, this training is provided
by the steel companies and may be given within
the plant. Other workers take evening courses
in high schools, trade schools, and universities
in their communities or enroll in correspondence
Workers in the various operating units us­
ually advance along fairly well defined lines of
promotion within their department. Examples
of possible lines of advancement in the various
operating units follow:
To become a blast furnace blower, a worker
generally starts as a laborer, advancing to cinderman or slagger, keeper's helper, keeper,
blower's helper, and, finally, to blower. In the
open-hearth departments, a man may begin by
doing general cleanup work around the furnace
and then generally advance to third helper,
second helper, first helper, and, eventually, to
melter. A possible line of job advancement for
a roller in a finishing mill might be pitman,
roll hand, manipulator, rougher, and finish
roller. Workers can be trained for skilled jobs,
such as blower, melter, and roller (which are
among the highest rated steelmaking jobs),
in a minimum of 4 or 5 years, but usually need
to wait a much longer time before openings
Experienced craftsmen, such as machinists,
boilermakers, pipefitters, and electricians, are
rarely hired directly by steel companies. Most
plants conduct some type of apprenticeship pro­
gram to meet the needs of their maintenance
shops. There are apprentice training programs
for more than 20 different crafts in the steel
industry. Also, inexperienced workers are hired
as helpers to skilled craftsmen.
The apprenticeship programs usually are of
3 or 4 years duration and consist mainly of shop
training in various aspects of the particular
jobs. In addition, classroom instruction in re­
lated technical subjects is usually given, either
in the plant or in local vocational schools.


Steelmaking companies have different quali­
fications for apprentice applicants. Generally,
employers require applicants to be high school
or vocational school graduates. In most cases,
the minimum age is 18 years; usually an upper
age limit is specified. Some companies give ap­
titude and other types of tests to applicants to
determine their suitability for the trades. Ap­
prentices are generally chosen from among
qualified young workers already employed in
other plant jobs. The following occupations are
among those most often included in apprentice
training programs in iron and steel plants:
Blacksmith, boilermaker, bricklayer, coremaker,
carpenter, electrician, instrument repairman,
lead burner, machinist, molder, painter, pattern­
maker, pipefitter, rigger, roll turner, sheet
metal worker, tool and die maker, and welder.
Applicants for jobs as helpers to skilled
maintenance workers are usually given aptitude
tests. Helpers receive on-the-job training and
may be promoted to jobs requiring greater skill
as openings occur. However, vacancies in these
higher grades may not occur for several years,
depending on the rate of turnover.
The minimum requirement for engineering
and scientific jobs is usually a bachelor's degree
with an appropriate major. Practically all the
larger companies have formal training pro­
grams for college-trained technical workers in
which the trainees work for brief periods in
various operating and maintenance divisions to
get a broad picture of steelmaking operations
before they are assigned to a particular depart­
ment. In other companies, the newly hired
scientist or engineer is assigned directly to a
specific research, operating, maintenance, or
other unit. Engineering graduates are fre­
quently hired for sales work and many of the
executives in the industry have engineering
backgrounds. Engineering graduates as well as
graduates of business administration and liberal
arts colleges are employed for jobs in sales, ac­
counting, and labor-management relations, as
well as in managerial positions.
Completion of a business course in high
school, junior college, or business school is us­
ually preferred for entrance in most of the
office occupations. Office jobs requiring special
knowledge of the steel industry are generally


filled by promoting personnel already employed
in the industry.
Employment Outlook

The iron and steel industry will hire or rehire
many thousands of workers in the 1960-70 dec­
ade, mainly to replace workers who transfer
to other fields of work, retire, or die. For
example, the industry will have to replace, on
the average, about 12,000 workers who retire
or die each year during the 1960's.
The steel industry has shown a long-term
growth. In every year since 1947 there has
been an increase in the industry's capacity (the
maximum volume of steel that the industry is
capable of producing with existing facilities
in any one year). Production of steel (the
volume of steel actually produced) has fluc­
tuated widely from year to year, but over the
long run has increased considerably. However,
as in most other manufacturing industries, em­
ployment growth has not kept pace with the
rise in production or capacity.
The industry is expected to expand its steel­
making facilities and steel production during
the 1960's. Many of the industries which pur­
chase large quantities of steel are expected to
require increasing amounts. The population of
the United States will continue to rise steadily,
resulting in greater demand for automobiles,
highways, and houses, which require great
amounts of steel. New machinery will also be
needed to produce the growing quantity of
goods needed to feed, clothe, and otherwise
satisfy the requirements of our expanding
Over the 1960-70 decade, employment is ex­
pected to rise slowly above the 1960 level. The
rate of employment increase in the iron and
steel industry will be much slower than the
estimated 20 percent rise in the Nation's total
working population over the same period. Fur­
thermore, as in the past, employment is ex­
pected to rise at a much slower rate than steel
production, because of increasing efficiency in
steelmaking operations. The use of higher top
(air) pressure in blast furnaces and the intro­
duction of oxygen into open-hearth and electric
furnaces, are examples of new techniques which

have substantially reduced the time needed to
produce a ton of iron or steel.
The shift toward more automatic production
operations and the greater use of instruments to
control the quality of steel will also result in
increased operation efficiency. Automatic proc­
essing techniques are now evident in rolling
mills, in tin coating processes, and in heating
and controlling furnaces, and these techniques
will be improved and extended to other opera­
tions. Other new steelmaking processes still
being developed include making iron without
using conventional blast furnaces and convert­
ing molten steel into semifinished shapes with­
out using ingot molds, soaking pits, and some
types of rolling equipment.
Employment of professional and clerical
workers will probably continue to grow faster
than that of production workers in the next
decade. Over the 1950’s, the proportion of
“white-collar” workers in the industry rose sub­
stantially. Employment of engineers, chemists,
laboratory aids, and other technical personnel
will probably increase especially fast during the
1960’s, owing partly to the industry’s expand­
ing research and development program. Main­
tenance mechanics and electronic repairmen
are among the skilled plant personnel expected
to be in great demand, because of the increas­
ingly complex machinery and equipment used
by the industry. In contrast, the number of
less skilled workers in processing jobs is ex­
pected to decline. Nevertheless, there will be
many thousands of opportunities for young peo­
ple to get jobs in the iron and steel industry
during the 1960’s because of transfer of work­
ers to other fields of work, retirements, and
Employment in the iron and steel industry
fluctuates widely with changes in general busi­
ness conditions and defense needs. During pe­
riods of prosperity, production and employment
generally rise substantially but drop off during
business recessions. These fluctuations occur
because a large proportion of the industry’s
output goes to industries that are particularly
sensitive to changes in economic conditions.
For example, more than two-fifths of the steel
produced in this country is used by the auto­


mobile, construction, and machine-tool indus­
Employees in the industry have not all been
equally affected by employment cutbacks. In
general, production workers, particularly un­
skilled and semiskilled workers, have had more
irregular employment than professional, cleri­
cal, and other white-collar workers.
Earnings and Working Conditions

Earnings of production workers in iron and
steelmaking establishments are among the high­
est in manufacturing. In January 1961, their
earnings averaged $114.25 a week, or $3.13 an
hour. This compares with average earnings of
$90.25 weekly, or $2.32 an hour, for all produc­
tion workers in manufacturing establishments.
Basic (standard) hourly wage rates for 10
selected processing occupations in the United
States Steel Corp., the largest single steel com­
pany, are shown in the following tabulation:
Blast furnaces
Stock house man________________
Cinderman ____________________
Melter’s helper, first, open hearth __
Charging-machine operator, open
hearth ______________________
Ingot stripper, open hearth______
Helper, third, open hearth_______
Rolling and finishing mills
Roller, blooming mill____________
Manipulator, blooming m ill______
Assorters, tin plate_____________

Claes 1 basic hourly







1 An arrangement of jobs into a series of categories rated accord­
ing to skill, experience, training, and other factors, to set wage

These rates are from the wage agreement be­
tween the company and the United Steelwork­
ers of America, effective December 1, 1960.
Basic hourly wage rates for skilled processing
jobs ranged from about $2.65 to $4.10; for semi­
skilled jobs, from approximately $2.24 to $2.58;
and for unskilled jobs, from $2.03 to about
$2.17. (The individual worker’s rate depends
on his particular job classification.) These rates



were representative of those for processing jobs
throughout the industry and were guaranteed
minimums for those workers who were paid on
the incentive (piece rate) basis. Since about
two-thirds of the industry’s production workers
were paid on an incentive basis, a majority of
such workers generally earned more than the
basic hourly wage rate.
In addition to the above rates, steel workers
may, under conditions specified in their con­
tracts, receive a pay adjustment if the cost of
living rises above a stipulated amount. They
also receive premium pay for overtime work and
for work on Sundays and holidays.
For a number of years, agreements between
most steel companies and the United Steel­
workers have included provisions for various
“fringe” benefits, such as vacation pay, retire­
ment pensions, and unemployment benefits.
Most workers receive vacation pay ranging from
1 to 3V2 weeks based on length of service. Re­
tiring workers are eligible for a company-paid
pension, in addition to any benefits for which
they may be eligible. Workers having 2 or more
years of service are eligible to receive supple­
mental unemployment benefits for up to 52
weeks. Other important provisions include a
$100 monthly disability pension provided by
the company, and accident and sickness, hos­
pitalization, surgical, and life insurance benefits
financed by the company.

Working conditions depend upon the par­
ticular plant department in which the worker
is employed. Maintenance shops generally are
clean and cool. Rolling mills, however, are
generally hot and noisy. Some plants are de­
veloping methods to reduce job discomfort. For
example, the use of .remote controls enables em­
ployees to work outside the immediate vicinity
of processing operations. In other instances,
the cabs in which the men work, while op­
erating the mechanical equipment, are air con­
ditioned. Some of the workers near the blast
and steel furnaces are exposed to considerable
heat. Because certain processes are operated
continuously, some workers are on night shifts
or work weekends.
The iron and steel industry is a leader in the
development of safety programs for workers,
emphasizing the use of protective clothing and
devices on machines to prevent accidents. In
1959, steel plants had an injury frequency rate
(injuries per million hours of work) that Was
about one-third of the rate for all manufactur­
Approximately nine-tenths of the plant work­
ers in the iron and steel industry are members
of the United Steelworkers of America.
Where To Go for More Information

American Iron and Steel Institute,
150 East 42d St., New York 17, N.Y.

The petroleum industry provides the fuel to
run millions of cars and trucks and great fleets
of military and civilian aircraft; the oil to heat
millions of homes and to supply the power for
thousands of locomotives and ships; the lubri­
cants for machinery in factories; the asphalt
to cover thousands of miles of highways; and
hundreds of other products ranging from in­
secticides to plastic materials.
In 1960, nearly half a million workers, with a
wide range of educational backgrounds and
skills, were employed in petroleum production
and refining. Earnings were high and jobs
were located in different parts of the country.
Nature and Location of the Industry

Thousands of companies are in the oil busi­
ness, most of them specializing in a single
activity such as exploring for oil; drilling wells;
producing, transporting, or refining oil; or op­
erating service stations. Much of the oil busi­
ness, however, is done by a small number of
large firms that conduct all activities from ex­
ploring for crude oil to selling the finished
products. These firms provide a large share
of the industry's jobs.
This chapter deals exclusively with the proc­
esses and jobs involved in getting oil to the
surface of the earth (production) and convert­
ing it to usable products (refining. It ex­
cludes transporting and marketing oil products.
Petroleum Production. In 1960, almost 300,000
wage and salary workers were employed in pe­
troleum production, including the production of
natural gas, in the United States. Although
drilling for oil goes on in 33 States, nearly 90
percent of the workers were employed in 10
States. Texas was the leading State in the
number of oilfield jobs, followed by Oklahoma,

Louisiana, California, Kansas, Illinois, New
Mexico, Wyoming, Colorado, and Mississippi.
About 10,000 Americans were also employed
overseas by United States oil companies, par­
ticularly in the Middle East. Many Americans
also worked for oil companies in Venezuela and
other South American countries and in Canada.
The jobs and processes in the petroleum pro­
duction branch of the industry involve finding
crude oil and extracting it from the earth.
Petroleum production includes three broad fields
of work: exploration, drilling and oilfield serv­
icing, and well operation and maintenance.
Since oil is difficult to find—only rarely are
there any signs on the earth's surface of its
presence underground—an important part of
petroleum production activities involves using
scientific methods to search for oil. Although
some of this work is done by exploration de­
partments of major oil companies, most of it is
done by nearly 350 other firms under contract
to major oil companies or individuals seeking
appropriate places to drill for oil. Approxi­
mately 15 percent of all petroleum production
workers are engaged in exploration. After these
workers make scientific tests which indicate
the presence of oil beneath the surface of the
earth, the drilling process begins.
About 35 percent of the workers in petro­
leum production build rigs and derricks, drill
for oil, or provide other oilfield services. Before
a well can be drilled, a derrick or towerlike
steel structure is built. The derrick supports the
tools and pipes that must be lowered into the
well. In 1960, almost 47,000 wells were drilled
in the United States, each averaging over 4,000
feet deep. Although a few large oil firms do
some of their own drilling, they contract out
most of this work to more than 3,000 other
companies known as contractors.
Besides rig building and drilling, a number of


other services are performed in connection with
oil production. These services include hauling
supplies, cementing wells, cleaning wells with
chemicals, and other special operations. Most
of this work is handled by about 2,500
When oil is reached, the job of the drilling
crew is finished and the well-operating crew
takes over. About half of the petroleum pro­
duction workers operate or maintain 600,000
oil-producing wells in the United States. These
wells are operated by more than 12,000 com­
panies, ranging in size from large firms with
wells all over the world to small firms with
only a single well. After crude petroleum is
brought out of the ground, it is transported by
pipelines, ships, and trucks to refineries.
Petroleum Refining. Crude oil as it comes from
the ground has few uses. To make useful end
products, such as gasoline, fuel oil, kerosene,
and lubricants, oil must be heated under pres­
sure or vacuum, or treated with chemicals. This
processing, called refining, is done in plants
known as refineries.
Nearly 300 refineries were in operation in
the country in 1960, employing almost 200,000
wage and salary workers. Refineries range in
size from small plants with fewer than 50 em­
ployees to plants with several thousand em­
ployees. Although refineries are located in 40
States, nearly 80 percent of the refinery workers
are employed in only 8 States: Texas, California,
Pennsylvania, New York, Louisiana, Indiana,
Illinois, and New Jersey. Most refineries are
located near metropolitan areas which have
deepwater ports where tankers can dock. Other
refineries are near oilfields, the source of crude
Employment Outlook

Many thousands of job openings in both petroleum production and refining are expected


each year during the 1960’s. Most openings—
probably about 8,000 annually—will occur be­
cause of the need to replace workers who trans­
fer to jobs in other industries or who retire
or die. Some job openings may result from the
expansion of the industry as a whole. The great­
est number of job opportunities will be for oil­
field wokers, especially in drilling and welloperating jobs.
Demand for oil products will continue to rise
over the next 10 years at a faster rate than
employment. Most of the factors responsible for
past growth will continue to influence future
growth. For example, gasoline consumption is
expected to rise steadily with the expected
growth in the numbers of automobiles, trucks,
buses, and airplanes. The demand for jet fuels
will increase rapidly as the use of jet planes
expands. The growing use of farm, factory, con­
struction, and other industrial machinery will
also require many other oil products, such as
diesel oil and lubricants. Demand for asphalt
will be high as highway construction expands.
Petroleum will also continue to be an important
source of raw materials in the manufacture of
chemical products. (See pages 676 and 679 for a
more complete discussion of the employment
outlook in petroleum production and refining.)
Where To Go for More Information

Further information concerning jobs, proc­
esses, and working conditions in the petroleum
industry can be obtained from the public rela­
tions department of individual petroleum com­
panies and from:
American Petroleum Institute, Committee on Public
50 West 50th St., New York 20, N.Y.

Petroleum Production Occupations
Nature of Work

Workers in the petroleum production branch
ofFRASER industry explore for oil, drill wells,
the oil
Digitized for

and operate and maintain them. These activities provide job opportunities for workers with
a wide range of education, skills, and interests.

Exploration. Exploring for oil is the first step
in petroleum production. Small crews of spe­
cialized workers travel to remote areas to search
for geological formations which are likely to
contain oil. Exploration parties, led by a pe­
troleum geologist (D.O.T. 0-35.63), study the
surface and subsurface composition of the
earth. Geologists seek clues to the possibility
of oil traps by examining types of rock and rock
formations on and under the earth's surface.
Besides making detailed, foot-by-foot surveys,
petroleum geologists depend on aerial photo­
graphs for a broad picture of the surface fea­
tures of the area being explored. Geologists often
use the “atomic clock," a device that determines
the age of rocks by%measuring their radio­
activity. Subsurface evidence is collected by
making test drills and bringing up samples of
the rocks, clays, and sands that form the layers
of the earth. From these examinations, geolo­
gists can draw a cross-section map of the under­
ground formations being surveyed in order to
pinpoint areas where oil may be located.
Many geologists work in district offices of
oil companies or exploration firms where they
study geological maps. They also analyze core
samples collected by exploration parties to find
any clue to the presence of oil.
Exploration parties may include, in addition
to the geologist, paleontologists (D.O.T. 0-36.
03) who study the fossil remains in the earth
in order to locate oil-bearing sands; chemists
(D.O.T. 0-07.03) and mineralogists (D.O.T.
0-35.63) who study the physical and chemical
properties of minerals and rock samples. Planetable operators (D.O.T. 0-64.30), draftsmen
(D.O.T. 0-48.50), and rodmen (D.O.T. 7-87.100)
assist in surveying and mapping operations.
A drilling crew may also be part of the party.
Another way of searching for oil is through
the science of geophysics—the study of the
inner characteristics of the earth's structure.
About 90 percent of geophysical exploration is
done by seismic prospecting. The seismograph
is a sensitive instrument which records natural
and manmade earthquakes. Manmade earth­
quakes are caused by exploding small charges
of dynamite in the ground. The time it takes
for sound waves to reach an underground rock
layer and to return indicates the depth of the


layer. The seismograph records such informa­
tion by wavy lines on a chart. By setting off
explosions at a number of points, underground
formations can be mapped with considerable
accuracy, thus providing a clue to the where­
abouts of traps which may contain oil.
A seismograph crew generally includes from
10 to 20 persons, led by a party chief who is
usually a geophysicist (D.O.T. 0-35.65). Other
members of the seismograph crew may include
computers (D.O.T. 0-66.67) who prepare maps
from the information recorded by the seismo­
graph; observers (D.O.T. 0-66.66) who operate
and maintain seismic equipment; prospecting
drillers (D.O.T. 5-75.050) and their helpers
(D.O.T. 7-75.050) who operate portable drilling
rigs to make holes into which explosive charges
are placed; and shooters (D.O.T. 5-74.030) who
are in charge of placing and detonating explo­
sive charges.
Once the oil company has decided where to
drill, it must obtain permission to use the land.
The landman or leaseman (D.O.T. 0-98.22 and
1-48.21) makes necessary business arrange­
ments with owners of land in which his com­
pany is interested.
Another important job in oil exploration is
that of the scout (D.O.T. 1-48.22). He keeps
his company informed of all exploring, leasing,
drilling, and production activity in his area.
Drilling. Despite all the petroleum exploration
methods that have been developed, there is no
device that will actually find petroleum. Only
by drilling can the presence of oil be proved.
Overall planning and supervision of drilling are
usually the responsibilities of the petroleum
engineer (D.O.T. 0-20.11). He helps to select
drilling sites and the method of drilling. He
directs workers in erecting the derrick and in­
stalling the drilling machinery. He advises drill­
ing personnel on technical matters and may
stay on the drilling site until oil drilling opera­
tions are completed.
There are two methods of drilling a well—
rotary drilling and cable-tool drilling. No matter
which method is used, all wells are started in
the same way. Rig builders (D.O.T. 5-20.840)
and a crew of helpers (D.O.T. 7-20.850) erect a
steel tower, called a derrick. The main purpose
of the derrick is to support the machinery and


Rotary crew on derrick floor bringing drill pipe out of

equipment which raise and lower the drilling
The rotary method is used for drilling deep
wells through rock and clay formations such
as those found in Texas, California, and Okla­
homa. In 1960, about 85 percent of the wells
in the United States were drilled by this method.
In rotary drilling, a revolving steel drill bit
bores a hole in the ground by chipping and
cutting rock. The drilling bit is a steel tool
with cutting teeth at its lower end. The bit is
attached to a string of jointed pipe (drill stem)
which is rotated by a steam, diesel, or gasoline
engine. As the bit cuts through the earth, the
drill stem is lengthened by the addition of more
pipe which is screwed on at the upper end.
A stream of mud is continuously pumped
through the hollow pipe. This mixture of clay
and water cools the drill bit, plasters the walls
of the hole to prevent cave-ins, and floats the
cuttings to the surface.
A typical rotary drilling crew consists of a
rotary driller and four or five helpers. From 15
to 20 workers, divided into 3 crews, generally
are required to operate a rig 24 hours a day,
7 days a week. A rotary driller (D.O.T. 5-75.
050) is in charge of the work of the crew during


his tour of duty. His major duties include oper­
ating the drilling machinery which controls
drilling speed and pressure. He also selects the
proper drill bit and keeps a record of operations.
He must be ready to meet any emergency, such
as breakdown of equipment or problems caused
by unusual geological formations. A derrickman (D.O.T. 5-20.825), second in charge of the
crew, works on a small platform high on the
rig. When a drill bit becomes dull and has to
be replaced, he catches the upper ends of the
pipe sections and pulls them over to a rack
beside his platform. He often has several miles
of pipe racked up before the worn bit is
brought to the surface. Meanwhile, rotary floormen (D.O.T. 7-75.050) guide the lower end of
the pipe to and from the well opening and con­
nect and disconnect the pipe joints and the
worn drill bit. Helpers, called roughnecks
(D.O.T. 7-20.910), assist floormen in handling
these heavy pipes. Another member of the crew
is a fireman (D.O.T. 7-70.070) (if steam is
used) or engineman (D.O.T. 5-72.915) (if diesel
or electric power is used) who operates the
engine which provides power for drilling.
An important oilfield worker is the tool
pusher (D.O.T. 5-93.310) who acts as foreman
of several drilling rigs. He also is in charge
of supplying rig builders and drilling crews
with needed materials and equipment. Rousta­
bouts (D.O.T. 9-20.10) or general oilfield labor­
ers are not considered part of drilling crews
but are utilized to do odd jobs, such as cleaning
derrick floors and pipes or constructing roads
in oilfields.
In cable-tool drilling, a hole is broken through
rocks by continuously raising and dropping a
heavy, sharpened bit attached to the end of a
cable. Cable-tool drilling is mainly used to drill
shallow wells in hard rock formation. Most of
it is done in Kentucky, Ohio, West Virginia,
Pennsylvania, and the rocky areas of Texas and
A cable-tool drilling crew usually consists
of a driller and a tool dresser. The cable-tool
driller (D.O.T. 5-75.270) is in charge of all
operations during his tour of duty and main­
tains a detailed record of drilling activity. He
controls the force with which the drilling bit
strikes the rocks at the bottom of the well.

He also supervises and helps in setting up the
machinery and derrick. The cable-tool dresser
(D.O.T. 5-75.280), whose job is related to that
of a blacksmith, assists the driller and main­
tains the equipment.
Well Operation and Maintenance. Production
begins when oil is struck. The drill pipe and bit
are pulled from the well and the casing and
tubing are lowered. The upper end of the tub­
ing is fastened to a system of valves and con­
trols, called a “Christmas Tree.” Gas pressure
in the well forces the crude oil to the surface,
through the Christmas tree, and into storage
tanks. If there is not enough natural pressure
to force the oil to the top, a pump is used to
produce an artificial flow of oil.
Petroleum engineers generally have charge of
overall planning and supervision of the opera­
tion and maintenance of wells. One of their
principal duties is to prevent waste by deciding
which production method to use and how fast
the oil should flow. Some companies hire as­
sistants to the petroleum engineer. These aids
perform routine duties such as making elemen­
tary calculations, running tests, and keeping
records. The job of pumper is the largest oc­
cupation in the oilfield. Pumpers (D.O.T. 5-72.
570) and their helpers (D.O.T. 7-72.570) oper­
ate and maintain motors, pumps, and other
equipment used to force an artificial flow of oil
from wells. Their chief duty is to regulate the
flow of oil according to a schedule set up by
the petroleum engineer. Generally, a pumper
operates a group of wells. Switchers (D.O.T.
5-20.600 through .699 and 7-20.610) work in
fields where oil flows under natural pressure and
does not require pumping. They open and close
valves to regulate the flow of oil from wells to
tanks or into pipelines. Gagers (D.O.T. 6-55.
060) keep track of the amount of oil flowing
into the tanks or pipelines. They measure and
record the contents of storage tanks and take
samples of the oil to check its quality. Treaters
(D.O.T. 7-20.410) make tests of crude oil for
water and other sediment. They remove these
impurities from oil by opening a drain at the
base of the tank or by using special chemical
or electrical equipment. In many fields, one man
may perform any combination of jobs of pump­


ing, switching, gaging, or treating. Roustabouts
perform various field and well maintenance jobs
which require little skill, but often involve
heavy, hazardous work.
Many workers are employed in maintenance
operations in oilfields. Welders, carpenters,
electricians, and machinists repair and install
pumps, gages, pipes, and other oilfield equip­
Other Oilfield Services. Companies which offer
oilfield services (other than exploration and
drilling) on a contract basis provide another
important source of employment. Employees in
these companies perform many services, in­
cluding cementing and cleaning wells and build­
ing foundations at well locations. Oilfield con­
tractors employ such skilled workers as cementers (D.O.T. 5-20.020) who mix and pump ce­
ment into the space between steel casings and
side walls of the well to prevent cave-ins;
acidizers (D.O.T. 5-20.420) who force acid into
the bottom of the well to increase the flow of
oil; perforator operators (D.O.T. 5-74.040) who
pierce holes in drill pipes or casings by using
subsurface “guns” to make passages through
which oil can flow; sample-taker operators
(D.O.T. 5-74.042 and 5-20.156) who obtain

Pumper measuring contents of storage tank in oil field.


samples of soil and rock formations from wells
to help geologists determine the presence of oil;
and well-pullers (D.O.T. 5-20.010) who remove
pipes and casings from wells for cleaning and
repairing equipment or for salvaging.
Offshore Operations. Most exploration, drilling,
and producing activities are done on land, but
an increasing amount of these operations is
being done offshore, particularly in the Gulf of
Mexico off the coasts of Louisiana and Texas.
Some wells have been drilled as far as 100 miles
from shore in water over 200 feet deep. In
addition to the same types of workers employed
in land operations, the industry employs radio
men, able-bodied seamen, cooks, and mess boys
for work on crew boats, barges, and other craft.
(Detailed discussions of professional, tech­
nical, mechanical, and other occupations found
in the petroleum production industry as well
as many other industries are given elsewhere
in the Handbook, in the sections covering the
individual occupations. See index for page
Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement

Exploration. Most workers of an exploration
crew begin as helpers and work into one of the
specialized jobs after gaining experience. Their
period of training on the job may vary from
several months to several years. New workers
are usually hired in the field by the party chief
or by local company representatives. For many
of their nonprofessional jobs, companies gener­
ally hire young men with a high school or voca­
tional school education and with training or ap­
titude in mathematics, drafting, and mechanics.
College students majoring in physical and earth
sciences and in engineering are often hired for
part-time or summer work for these jobs. This
may be a means of working into a full-time job
after graduation.
For entry into professional occupations such
as geologist, geophysicist, chemist, or engineer,
college training with at least a bachelor's de­
gree is required. Professional workers usually
start at junior levels and, after several years
of experience in field surveys, are eligible for
promotion to the job of party chief. After field


survey experience, they may take a position of
responsibility in an area or division office and
then perhaps in the central office. Scientists
and engineers with research ability, preferably
those with advanced graduate degrees, may
move to research or consulting work.
Drilling. Members of the drilling crew usually
begin work in the industry as roughnecks. As
they acquire experience and know-how, they
may advance to more skilled jobs. In rotary
drilling, for example, a worker may be hired as
a roughneck, advance to the job of floorman,
and eventually to derrickman. After several
years, he may become a driller. He may then
be promoted to the job of tool-pusher in charge
of several drilling crews. Many drilling com­
panies hire high school and college students for
drilling jobs during the summer months.
Drilling requires men capable of performing
heavy physical labor. Drilling crew members
are usually between the ages of 20 and 40.
Some companies, however, report that their best
drillers are over 50 and even in their 60's, for
the job of driller requires good judgment and
practical experience rather than strength or
Well Operation and Maintenance. Companies
generally hire persons who live near operating
wells for well operation and maintenance jobs.
They prefer men with mechanical ability and
a knowledge of oilfield processes. Because this
type of work is less strenuous and offers the
advantage of a fixed locale, members of drilling
crews or exploration parties who prefer not to
travel often transfer to well operation and main­
tenance jobs.
New workers may start as roustabouts and
advance to jobs as switchers, gagers, or pumper
helpers, and later to pumpers. Training is usu­
ally acquired on the job and at least 2 years of
experience is necessary to become a good all­
round pumper.
The preferred educational qualification for a
petroleum engineer is a college degree with
specialization in courses dealing with the pe­
troleum industry. However, college graduates
with degrees in chemical, mining, or mechani­
cal engineering, or in geology or other related

sciences are sometimes hired for petroleum en­
gineering jobs. Petroleum engineering aids gen­
erally are former roustabouts or pumpers. They
are given several months of on-the-job and class­
room training.
Employment Outlook

Employment in crude petroleum production
is expected to increase only slightly during the
1960’s. Replacement needs will be the major
source of job openings for new workers. Re­
tirements and deaths alone will probably result
in about 5,000 job openings annually during the
1960-70 decade.
Demand for oil products is expected to in­
crease moderately in the 1960-70 decade, al­
though production of crude oil within the
United States may increase at a slower rate.
Rising costs of finding oil and bringing it to
the surface may result in a greater proportion
of our oil needs being supplied by imports in
the latter half of the decade. Other sources of
energy, especially natural gas, will probably
continue to be competitive with oil products. In
addition, the commercial production of liquid
fuel from oil shale and coal may become alter­
native sources of energy in the late 1960,s.
Most of the slight increase expected in em­
ployment in crude petroleum production will be
found in well operation and maintenance—the
largest segment of the crude petroleum industry.
At the end of 1960, there were nearly 600,000
producing wells. During the 1960’s, the in­
creasing number of producing wells will require
some additional pumpers and skilled mainte­
nance workers to operate the equipment and
keep it in good running order.
The increased demand for petroleum prod­
ucts should result in more drilling activity.
Although the number of new wells drilled each
year in the 1960’s may not change much, the
trend toward digging deeper into the ground to
find oil pools will probably continue. The aver­
age well is over 4,000 feet deep and there are
some wells with a depth of more than 4 miles.
As new techniques develop, such as jet drilling
or turbo-drilling, wells can be drilled at even
greater depths but not necessarily with a pro­


portionate increase in employment. During the
1960-70 decade, drilling employment may in­
crease, slightly—at a slower rate than in the
previous 10 years. Additional petroleum engi­
neers and drilling crews may be needed during
this period as well as oilfield servicing special­
ists, such as cementers and acidizers.
The number of workers employed in explora­
tion activities is expected to remain about the
same during the early 1960’s. Exploration ac­
tivities have slowed down considerably during
the past 5 years because demand for oil prod­
ucts has not grown as fast as the level of
underground reserves in known oil-producing
fields. After the mid-1960’s, the demand for oil
is expected to increase at a faster rate thus
cutting into known reserves. At that time, addi­
tional exploration parties will probably be
needed to find new areas in which to drill.
Some employment opportunities for geologists
may arise abroad as major United States oil
companies expand exploration activities in
foreign lands.
Future job opportunities should continue to
be concentrated in the States with the largest
number of producing wells and the highest oil
reserves—Texas, Oklahoma, Pennsylvania, Kan­
sas, Illinois, California, and Louisiana. Al­
though offshore activities still account for only
a small portion of total production employment,
they are expected to increase greatly in the
1960’s, particularly off Texas and Louisiana.
Earnings and Working Conditions

Earnings of oilfield workers are among the
highest in American industry. In 1960, earnings
of nonsupervisory employees averaged $114.49 a
week, or $2.82 an hour for a 40.6-hour work­
week, compared with an average of $90.91 a
week, or $2.29 an hour for a 39.7-hour work­
week, for production workers in all manufac­
turing industries.
Earnings for individual oilfield occupations
range widely from region to region. According
to a survey made in mid-1960, average hourly
earnings (excluding premium pay for overtime
and for work on weekends, holidays, and late


shifts) for selected oilfield occupations were
as f o l l o w s :

Drilling occupations:
Drillers, rotary _________
Enginemen, rotary ______
Floormen, rotary________
Well operation and maintenance:
Mechanics, maintenance__
Pumpers _______________
Roustabouts ____________
Truckdrivers ___________
Welders, oilfield_________

Range of average
Average hourly earnings in
10 major oil


2.32- 3.63
1.79- 2.69
1.82- 2.78



The average starting salary in 1960 for geol­
ogists with a bachelor’s degree and no experi­
ence was about $460 a month in the petroleum
industry, according to the American Geological
Institute. Graduates with a master’s degree
started at about $515 a month, and those with
a doctor’s degree earned considerably more.
Graduates with job-related experience and spe­
cial skills were paid above-average entrance
salaries. Salaries for foreign assignments
ranged from 20 to 25 percent more.
The work schedule for most oilfield workers
is 40 hours a week. Often, however, drilling
and rig building is carried on 24 hours a day,
with a complete crew for each 8-hour shift.
Generally, workers in these crews receive a dif­
ferential pay of 8 cents an hour for work on the
second shift and 16 cents an hour for the
third shift. Most establishments provide 8 paid
holidays annually. Paid vacations are granted
according to length of service: 2 weeks after


1 year of service, 3 weeks after 10 years, and
4 weeks after 20 years.
The majority of oilfield employees do most
of their work outdoors and are exposed to all
kinds of weather. Although some fields may be
near cities, they are more often far from
sizable communities and are sometimes located
in swamps or deserts. Drilling employees may
expect to move from place to place since their
work in a particular field may be completed in
less than a year. Exploration personnel move
even more frequently. They may be away from
home for weeks or months at a time, living in a
trailer or a tent. Workers in well operation
and maintenance often remain in the same lo­
cation for long periods.
In offshore operations, earnings are usually
higher than those in land operations. Except
for drilling activity that is close to shore, work­
ers’ living quarters are on platforms held fast
to the ocean bottom or on ships anchored
nearby. Living quarters, as well as meals, are
provided by the employer, generally without
charge. Tours of duty vary from 3 to 12 or
more consecutive days, depending upon com­
pany policy and distance from shore, with an
equal number of days off on land.
Injury data indicate that occupations in ex­
ploration and crude oil production are not par­
ticularly dangerous. They have a lower injury
frequency rate, for example, than the average
for all manufacturing industries. Drilling, on
the other hand, is much more hazardous.
During recent years, however, improved equip­
ment and drilling methods and special safety
training have greatly reduced hazards.

Petroleum Refining Occupations
Nature of Work

Petroleum refining changes crude oil into
gasoline, kerosene, fuel oil, lubricants, and other
products for use in homes and industry. The
modern refinery is a complicated structure made
up of tanks and towers connected by a maze of
pipes. From the time crude oil enters the re­
finery to the shipment of finished products, the
flow of production is continuous. The refining
process is highly automatic and is controlled

by instruments which measure and regulate the
flow, temperature, and pressure of the liquids
and gases going through the pipes and tanks.
Manual handling of materials is virtually elim­
inated in the modern refinery.
Briefly, petroleum refining consists of heat­
ing crude oil as it flows through a series of pipes
in a furnace. The vapors from the heated oil
pass into a tower where the various “fractions,”
or parts, of crude oil are condensed. The heaviest


Stillman reading instruments on graphic panel which
shows flow plan of petroleum refinery.

parts (for example, asphalt) are drawn off
along the bottom of the tower where tem­
peratures are highest; lighter parts (kerosene)
are drawn off along the middle of the tower;
and the lightest (gasoline and gases) are taken
off at the top where temperatures are lowest.
About a third of the plant workers in
refineries in 1960 were employed in processing
work. A key worker in converting crude oil
into usable products is a Stillman (D.O.T. 455.030), or chief operator. He is responsible for
the efficient operation of one or more distilla­
tion units. The Stillman watches instrument
readings for any changes in temperature, pres­
sure, and oil flow. In more modern refineries,
the stillman, or chief operator, can watch in­
struments on graphic panels which show the en­
tire operation of all the distillation units in the
refinery. He regulates the instruments so that
oil products will meet specifications. From
time to time, the stillman patrols all units for
which he is responsible to check their operating
condition and to take samples for testing. He
may have one or more assistants (D.O.T. 655.020), depending on the number and size of
the units he directs.
Other plant workers whose jobs are related


to the processing of crude oil include pumpmen
(D.O.T. 5-72.550) and their helpers (D.O.T.
6-55.930) who maintain and operate powerdriven pumps which circulate petroleum prod­
ucts, chemicals, and water through units
during processing; and treaters (D.O.T. 4-55.
310) who operate equipment to remove im­
purities from gasoline, oil, and other petroleum
In a typical refinery more than half of the
plant workers repair, rebuild, and clean the
highly complicated refinery equipment. A large
number of maintenance workers are needed
because high heat and pressure and corrosion
quickly wear out the equipment. Included
among these are skilled boilermakers, carpenters,
electricians, instrument repairmen, lead burners,
machinists, masons, painters, pipefitters, pipe
coverers, riggers, sheet-metal workers, and
welders. Many helpers and trainees are also in
these trades. Some skilled workers have a pri­
mary skill in one craft as well as the ability
to handle the duties of closely related crafts.
For example, a pipefitter may also be able to do
boilermaking and welding repair work on a
piece of equipment. Maintenance workers who
have such combined jobs are sometimes called
refinery mechanics.
Plant workers who do not operate or main­
tain equipment do a variety of other tasks in
refineries. Some workers are employed in the
packaging and shipping department; some load
and unload materials on trucks, trains, or ships;
some drive trucks and tractors to deliver ma­
terials to various parts of the plant; and others
keep inventory records of stock and tools. The
industry also employs custodial workers such as
guards, watchmen, and janitors.
The petroleum refining industry employs
many workers with chemical, engineering, and
other professional or technical backgrounds.
Among these technical workers are chemists,
chemical engineers, mechanical engineers, pe­
troleum engineers, laboratory technicians, and
draftsmen. In refineries, chemists control the
quality of petroleum products by making tests
and analyses to determine chemical and physical
properties. In laboratories chemists are en­
gaged in research and development activities
to discover new products and to improve those


already produced. Laboratory technicians as­
sist chemists in research projects or do routine
testing and sample taking. Some engineers de­
sign chemical processing equipment and plant
layout and others supervise refining processes.
Draftsmen prepare detailed plans and drawings
needed in refinery construction and mainte­
Many administrative, clerical, and other
white-collar personnel are employed by refining
companies. A large number of the top adminis­
trative and management positions are filled by
technically trained men, many of whom are
chemists or engineers. Sales engineers are also
technically trained. Other specialized workers
in the field of administration include account­
ants, purchasing agents, and lawyers. Many
typists, stenographers, secretaries, bookkeepers,
and business machine operators are employed to
assist these specialized workers.
(Detailed discussions of professional, techni­
cal, mechanical, and other occupations found in
the petroleum refinery industry as well as many
other industries are given in the sections of this
Handbook covering the individual occupations.
See index for page numbers.)
Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement

Petroleum refineries often require their new
plant workers to have a high school or voca­
tional school education. In large refineries,
aptitude and psychological testing and in­
terviewing are used in selecting employees.
Usually, a new worker begins in a labor pool
where he does such jobs as moving materials,
packing cartons, or filling barrels. When a
vacancy occurs either in a processing depart­
ment or in a maintenance shop, he may be
transferred to one or the other, depending on his
particular aptitudes or seniority.
A new worker assigned to a processing de­
partment learns to operate processing equip­
ment under the supervision of experienced work­
ers. As he gains experience and know-how, he
moves to the more skilled jobs in his depart­
ment. For example, one line of advancement
for a processing worker may be from helper to
assistant stillman to stillman. Skilled process­


ing workers are rarely recruited from other
An inexperienced worker who is assigned to
a maintenance shop receives training on the job
under the supervision of the foreman. In some
refineries, he may also receive classroom in­
struction related to his particular work. Over
a period of 3 or 4 years, he may advance from
helper to skilled craftsman in one of the main­
tenance jobs. Some large refineries have pro­
grams under which workers are given training
in several related maintenance crafts. For
example, a qualified instrument repairman may
be given additional training as electrician or
A bachelor's degree in science or engineering
is usually the minimum educational require­
ment for scientists and engineers. For research
jobs, scientists and engineers with advanced
degrees are preferred. Laboratory assistants
begin their work in routine jobs and advance
to positions of greater responsibility as they
acquire additional experience and demonstrate
their ability to work without close supervision.
Inexperienced draftsmen begin as copyists or
tracers. With additional experience and train­
ing, they may advance to more skilled and re­
sponsible drafting positions. Administrative
positions are frequently filled by men and
women who have college degrees in business
administration, marketing, accounting, indus­
trial relations, or other specialized fields. Most
refineries employ persons who have had com­
mercial courses in high school or business school
for positions as clerks, bookkeepers, stenog­
raphers, and typists.
Employment Outlook

Petroleum refineries are expected to provide
some job opportunities for new workers in the
1960's. A small number of job openings may
result from the anticipated expansion of the
petroleum refining industry, but most openings
will occur because of the need to replace workers
who leave the industry. Retirements and deaths
alone probably will result in about 3,500 job
openings annually.
More refinery output will be needed to
supply petroleum products for the Nation's

rapidly expanding economy. The increasing
number of automobiles, airplanes, tractors, home
heating units, and industrial users will continue
to increase demand for these products. It has
been estimated that during the 1960's, demand
for petroleum products may grow more slowly
than the 50-percent increase during the 1950's.
Employment is expected to increase only
slightly despite the anticipated expansion of
refinery output. Employment will lag because
of the industry's emphasis upon improved
methods of refining crude oil. Automated re­
fineries and the trend toward larger and fewer
refineries are expected to continue in the 196070 decade.
Much of the slight increase in employment
will be in professional, administrative, and
technical workers, particularly chemists, chemi­
cal engineers, and technicians, who will be
needed for the industry's research and develop­
ment activities. Among plant workers, most of
the opportunities will be in maintenance occu­
pations, such as those of instrument repairman,
pipefitter, machinist, and maintenance electri­
cian, because of the increasing use of complex,
automated equipment and control instruments.
Earnings and Working Conditions

Refinery workers are among the highest paid
employees in American industry. In 1960, pro­
duction workers in petroleum refining averaged
$118.44 a week, or $2.91 an hour for a 40.7hour workweek, compared with the average for
all manufacturing industries of $90.91 a week,
or $2.29 an hour for a 39.7-hour workweek.
The higher average earnings in refineries re­
flect the large proportion of workers in skilled
Hourly earnings and ranges of earnings in
selected plant occupations in July 1959 follow:
Operating personnel:
Stillman __________________________
Stillman, assistant_________________
Pumper __________________________
Pumper’s helper___________________
Treater __________________________
Maintenance personnel:
Carpenter ________________________

3.00- 3.08
3.08- 3.20

Electrician _______________________ 3.11
Instrument repairman _____________ 3.12
Machinist ________________________ 3.11
Mechanic _________________________ 3.06
Pipefitter _________________________ 3.09
Welder, hand _____________________ 3.11
Helpers __________________________ 2.60
Routine tester—laboratory _____________ 2.85
Laborer ______________________________ 2.31

Entry salaries for chemists and chemical en­
gineers in the petroleum refining industry were
the highest in American industry, according to
a survey conducted by the American Chemical
Society in 1960. The survey showed that in
this industry, the average starting salary for
chemists with a bachelor's degree and no ex­
perience was $485 a month and for chemical
engineers, it was $525 a month.
Most petroleum refinery workers receive a 2week vacation with pay after 1 year of serv­
ice; 3 weeks, after 10 years; and 4 weeks,
after 20 years. A large number of the companies
have adopted some type of insurance, pension,
or medical and surgical plans for their em­
ployees. Employee stock-purchase and savings
plans, to which companies make contributions,
are in effect in many firms.
Because refining is a continuous, around-theclock operation, processing workers may be as­
signed to any one of the three shifts, or they
may be rotated on the various shifts and be
subject to Sunday and holiday work. Employees
usually receive from 8 to 16 cents an hour addi­
tional pay when they work on the second or
third shift. Most maintenance workers are on
duty during the day shift; only a few work at
night to handle emergencies. Work in the in­
dustry has little seasonal variation and regular
workers have year-round jobs.
Most refinery jobs require only moderate
physical effort. A few workers, however, have
to open and close heavy valves and climb stairs
and ladders to considerable heights in the course
of their duties. Others may work in hot places
or may be exposed to unpleasant odors. Re­
fineries are relatively safe places in which to
work. The injury-frequency rate is about half
that of manufacturing as a whole.
A majority of refinery plant workers are


union members. A large number of refineries
have been organized by the Oil, Chemical and
Atomic Workers International Union. Some re-


finery workers are also members of other AFLCIO unions or of various local unions which
are not members of the AFL-CIO.

Thousands of paper products are manufac­
tured by the pulp, paper, and paper products
industry for homes, industry, schools, and other
users. Paper bags, facial tissues, and writing
paper are a few examples of these products. In
1960, the industry employed over 560,000 men
and women in occupations ranging from un­
skilled to highly specialized professional and
technical jobs. Many of these occupations are
found only in the pulp, paper, and paper prod­
ucts industry.
Nature and Location of the Industry

Plants in the pulp, paper, and paper products
industry are engaged in one or more of three
different manufacturing operations: the manu­
facture of pulp (the basic ingredient of all
paper) from wood, rags, or other raw mate­
rials; the production of paper or paperboard
(thick paper) from pulp; or the conversion
of rolls of paper or paperboard into such
items as envelopes, bags, boxes, and cartons.
Some of the larger plants produce pulp as
well as paper or paperboard. A few very large
plants also produce finished paper products.
Almost half of the workers in the industry
in 1960 worked in mills that made pulp, paper,
or paperboard. The remaining workers were
about equally divided between plants that made
paperboard boxes and other types of containers,
and those that produced a variety of other pa­
per products such as wallpaper, stationery, and
paper cups.
Plants in the pulp, paper, and paper prod­
ucts industry are generally large. In 1958, plant
employment averaged more than 100 workers;
some plants employed 1,000 or more.
Workers in this industry are located through­
out the country. However, in 1959 about half or
all the industry's workers were employed in

eight States: New York, Pennsylvania, Wis­
consin, Ohio, Massachusetts, Illinois, Michigan,
and New Jersey. Employment has been expand­
ing more rapidly in the South and West than in
other areas in recent years mainly because of
the large supply and rapid growth of trees from
which paper is made.
Occupations in the Industry

Workers with many different types of skills
and levels of education are employed in the
paper industry. Most of them work in produc­
tion, maintenance, and other plant jobs. Pro­
duction workers and their helpers comprise the
largest single group of workers. In converting
plants, compositors, pressmen, and other print­
ing workers are also employed. Large numbers
of chemical and mechanical engineers, chem­
ists, laboratory technicians, pulp and paper
testers and inspectors, and other professional
and technical workers are employed in the mills
because of the highly complex processes and
equipment involved in manufacturing paper.
Many purchasing agents, accountants, person­
nel managers, salesmen, and other administra­
tive and related personnel are also employed,
as are clerks, stenographers, bookkeepers, office
machine operators, and other office workers.
About 120,000 women (1 of every 5 workers)
were employed in this industry in 1960. Most of
them worked in plant jobs, mainly as machine
operators in paper finishing and converting
plants ; others were in office jobs. Few women
were employed in the making of pulp or paper.
The paper industry is one of the most highly
mechanized manufacturing industries. Pulp,
paper, and many finished paper products are
manufactured by huge machines in a series of
nearly automatic operations, with minimum
handling of raw materials or paper by produc­


tion workers. The plant jobs involved in the
production of pulp, paper, and finished paper
products differ somewhat, depending on the
type of paper products made and the raw ma­
terials and equipment used. However, pulp and
paper mill workers in plant jobs may be classi­
fied into three broad groups: production work­
ers and their helpers who operate and control
specialized papermaking, finishing, and convert­
ing machines and equipment (such as printing
presses, cutting presses and gluers); mainte­
nance workers who install, maintain, and repair
machinery, pipes, and equipment; and other
workers such as material handlers and stock
Production Jobs. The manufacture of finished
paper products, such as paper bags, involves
three major processes: the production of pulp
from pulpwood (logs, scraps of wood, and other
wood from which pulp is made), the manufac­
ture of paper and paperboard from pulp, and
the conversion of paper and paperboard into
finished products. The simplified description of
the papermaking occupations and processes
which follows applies to a plant which combines
these three processes into one continuous opera­
tion (see chart 32). It takes between 12 and
15 hours, on the average, for pulpwood or other
raw materials to be converted into rolls of pa­
per or paperboard.
After the pulpwood logs are received in the
pulp mill, the bark is removed. One machine
used for this operation is a large revolving
cylinder known as a “drum barker.” This ma­


chine, which is operated by a semiskilled work­
er called a barker operator (D.O.T. 6-41.011),
cleans the logs of bark by tumbling them against
each other and against the rough inner surface
of the drum. The operator feeds logs into the
machine either manually or mechanically. The
pulp fibers in the pulpwood are separated from
the other wood substances which are not re­
quired in the papermaking process. This is done
by a chemical or mechanical process, or a com­
bination of both, depending on the type of
wood used and the grade of paper desired. In
the mechanical process, the pulpwood is held
against a fast-revolving grindstone which sep­
arates the fibers. In the chemical process,
which is most commonly used, pulpwood is car­
ried on conveyor belts to a chipper machine in
which it is cut into small chips about the size
of a quarter. This machine is operated by a
chipperman (D.O.T. 8-41.01) who feeds logs
into a machine either manually or mechanically.
These wood chips are “cooked” with chemi­
cals under high temperature and pressure in a
“digester,” a kettlelike vat several stories high.
The digester is operated by a skilled worker
called a digester operator (D.O.T. 4-41.050)
(also called a “cook”). He determines the
amount of chemicals to be used and the cook­
ing temperature and pressure, directs the load­
ing of the digester with wood chips and chemi­
cals, and, through close observation of an instru­
ment panel, determines when the contents are
ready for removal. When the pulp fibers are
removed from the digester, they are washed to





Machine tender and helpers regulating and controlling flow of pulp into papermaking machine.

remove chemicals, uncooked chips, and other
impurities. The final product, called pulp, re­
sembles very wet, brown or dirty white cotton.
Pulp that is to be stored or shipped to a papermaker company is pressed into flat sheets and
dried. Pulp that is to be used immediately is
further refined (in both chemical and mechani­
cal processes) in a machine operated by a semi­
skilled worker called a beater engineer (D.O.T.
6-41.111). He is responsible for thoroughly
mixing pulp with water and the proper chemi­
cals and dyes. Many of the final characteristics
of the paper, such as color and strength, are
determined by the kind and amount of chemi­
cals and dyes used and the length of time that
the solution is mixed.
The pulp solution, now more than 99 percent
water, is turned into paper or paperboard by
machines that are among the largest in Amer­
ican industry; some are longer than a city
block. The machines are of two types. One is
the Fourdrinier machine which is, by far, the
most commonly used. The other is the cylinder
machine which differs from the Fourdrinier in

the paperforming section. On the Fourdrinier,
the pulp solution pours onto a continuously
moving belt of fine wire screen. As the water
drains, millions of pulp fibers adhere to each
other, forming a thin wet sheet of paper. After
passing through presses which squeeze out more
water, the newly formed paper passes through
the dryer section of the papermaking machine
to remove the remaining water. Papermaking
machines are operated by a paver machine op­
erator (D.O.T. 4-41.420) (also called a “ma­
chine tender”). The quality of the paper that
is produced depends largely on this skilled
worker. His principal responsibility is to con­
trol the “wet-end” of the papermaking machine
where paper of a specified thickness, width,
and moisture content is formed. He checks
control-panel instruments to make certain that
the flow of pulp and the speed of the machine
are coordinated and that the paper is being
properly formed. He determines whether the
paper meets the required specifications by in­
terpreting laboratory tests or, in some instan­
ces, by observing and feeling the paper. He


also supervises the less skilled workers of the
machine crew and, with their help, repairs
breaks that may occur in the paper as it is be­
ing formed. The paper machine operator and
his crew may also replace worn belts and wire
screens on which the paper is formed and dried.
The backtender (D.O.T. 6-41.420), who is su­
pervised by the paper machine operator, con­
trols the “dry-end” of the papermaking ma­
chine where the paper is dried and prepared
either for shipping or converting into finished
paper products. The backtender controls the
pressure and temperature of the rolls that dry
and finish the paper and give it the correct
thickness. He may check the paper for im­
perfections and makes sure that the paper is
being tightly wound onto rolls. The backtender
also adjusts the machinery which cuts the rolls
of paper into smaller rolls and, with the help
of assistants, may weigh and wrap the rolls
for shipment.
Many paper mills which produce a fine grade
of paper for books, magazines, or for stationery
and other writing purposes maintain a finishing
department. Most of the workers in these de­
partments are either semiskilled or unskilled.
One such semiskilled worker is the supercal­
ender operator (D.O.T. 6-41.450). This worker,
aided by several helpers and by mechanical
handling equipment, places huge rolls of paper
onto a machine which gives the paper a smooth
and glossy finish. He also inspects the finished
paper to make sure that specifications have been
met. Another semiskilled worker in the finish­
ing department, the paper sorter and counter
(D.O.T. 6-41.940), inspects sheets of paper for
defects, such as dirt spots and wrinkles, and
counts the number of sheets.
Most of the paper and paperboard produced
in this country is converted into one of thou­
sands of paper products such as envelopes, nap­
kins, containers, and paper for books and
magazines. Operations in converting plants dif­
fer widely, depending largely on the product
being manufactured. Production workers in­
volved in converting operations, as in finishing
operations, generally are semiskilled or un­
skilled, and most of them operate machines
which convert paper and paperboard into final
products. An example of a semiskilled worker


in a paper converting plant is the envelope ma­
chine operator (D.O.T. 6-42.621) who feeds and
tends an automatic machine that makes en­
velopes from rolls of paper or from specially
prepared envelope blanks. He loads the rolls or
stacks of blanks into the machine and supplies
the machine with glue. Another semiskilled
worker, the corrugating operator (D.O.T. 642.932), tends a machine which makes corru­
gated paperboard (paperboard with alternate
ridges and grooves) used in the manufacture of
cartons. He regulates the speed of the machine
which glues together three pieces of paperboard.
One of the few skilled workers in a converting
plant is the printer-slotter operator (D.O.T.
4-42.315) who makes box blanks from corru­
gated or paperboard sheets. This worker sets,
adjusts, and operates a machine which cuts and
creases these sheets and prints designs or let­
tering on them. He also positions the printing
plates and cutting devices and turns keys to
control the distribution of the printing ink, the
pressure of rollers, and the speed of the ma­
chine. Another skilled job is that of the die
maker (D.O.T. 4-42.301) who works for manu­
facturers of “set up” cartons which are designed
to be easily formed into complete cartons. The
die maker makes cutting dies which are used
on machines to form these set up cartons.
Approximately 28,000 workers in 1960 were
directly engaged in printing lettering, designs,
and text on boxes, bags, wallpaper, envelopes,
and other converted paper products. Among
these printers are skilled compositors who set
type and pressmen who prepare and operate
printing presses.
Because the pulp, paper, and paper products
industry uses a great deal of complex machinery
and electrical equipment, it employs many
skilled maintenance workers. One of the im­
portant maintenance occupations is that of the
miihvright. This skilled worker takes apart and
reassembles machines and equipment when
they are moved around the plant. He also
maintains, installs, and repairs machinery and
equipment and examines paper machine rolls,
bearings, pumps, and other parts to insure that
all are in proper working condition.
The industry also employs instrument repair­
men to install and repair the electrical, elec­

tronic, and mechanical instruments which
measure and control the flow of pulp and paper
as it is being made. The job of the instrument
repairman is becoming increasingly important
with greater use of automatic control equip­
ment in pulp and paper manufacturing.
Other maintenance employees are electricians
who repair wiring, motors, switches, and other
electrical equipment and maintenance machin­
ists who produce replacement parts for me­
chanical equipment. Another important main­
tenance job is that of the pipefitter who lays
out, installs, and repairs pipes.
Stationary engineers operate powerplants
that generate electricity for paper and pulp
mills. They operate and maintain equipment
such as steam engines, boilers, air compressors,
motors, and turbines. In some plants, many
maintenance duties (such as welding and sheetmetal work) are combined into a single job and
handled by a maintenance mechanic.
In addition to production and maintenance
workers, pulp, papermaking, or converting
plants employ many others, such as truck and
tractor drivers who make deliveries to and from
plants, and other workers who load and unload
trucks, trains, and ships. Workers who keep in­
ventory records of stock and tools and custodial
workers, such as guards, watchmen, and jani­
tors, are also employed.
Professional and Technical Occupations. The
increasing complexity of pulp and paper manu­
facturing requires the employment of many
thousands of workers with engineering, chemi­
cal, or other professional training and educa­
tion. According to a Bureau of Labor Statistics
survey of scientific manpower in American in­
dustry, 9,700 engineers and scientists were em­
ployed in January 1959 by pulp and paper manu­
facturers and converters. In recent years, the
trend has been to employ engineers and chem­
ists (called paper engineers and paper chem­
ists) who have specialized training in paper
A large number of the industry's chemists
are employed in production departments, where
they control the quality of the product by super­
vising the testing of pulp and paper. Some
chemists work in research laboratories; others


are employed as supervisors of plant workers,
as technical salesmen, or as administrators in
positions which require technical knowledge.
Chemical engineers apply their knowledge to
the design, construction, operation, control, and
improvement of pulp and papermaking equip­
ment. They transform new pulp and paper­
making techniques developed in the laboratory
into large-scale production methods. Some
chemical engineers are employed in plant super­
visory jobs where they can apply pulp and
paper technology to the production process.
Electrical engineers are employed by pulp
and paper manufacturers to supervise the de­
sign, development, and operation of electrical
and electronic instruments and machines and
power-generating and distributing equipment.
Packaging engineers (D.Q.T. 0-68.60) design
and supervise the production of packages and
containers made from paper or paperboard; for
example, boxes and shipping sacks. A few box
manufacturers also employ artists who work
out the lettering, designs, and color for the
containers they produce.
Professionally trained foresters are employed
by pulpmaking companies to manage large
areas of timberland; other foresters assist in
the wood-buying operations of these companies.
Frequent testing is required throughout the
manufacturing process to determine weight,
strength, color, consistency, finish, and size of
pulp and paper products. Some of this work is
done by machine operators but in many mills,
testing technicians are employed in special
laboratories where they use various types of
chemicals and mechanical testing equipment.
These employees, who have job titles such as
laboratory technician, paper tester, pulp tester,
paper inspector, and chemical analyst, also as­
sist professional engineers and chemists in re­
search and development activities, as well as
in maintaining the quality of the pulp and paper
produced. In January 1959, 6,100 technicians
were employed in the paper industry. These
technicians may perform simple, routine tests,
or do highly technical or analytical work,
depending on their training and experience. For
example, much of the work of the laboratory
technician consists of conducting tests and re-



in the sections covering individual occupations.
See index for page numbers.)
Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement

Paper tester conducting tests to determine bursting
strength of newly made corrugated paperboard.

cording the results on charts or graphs for in­
terpretation by chemical engineers and chemists.
Administrative, Clerical, and Related Occupa­
tions. Many different types of administrative,
clerical, and other office personnel work in the
paper industry. A large number of the higher
level administrative and management positions
are filled by technically trained men. At the
top of the administrative group are the execu­
tives who make policy decisions concerning such
matters as finance, types of products to manu­
facture, and location of plants. To reach such
decisions, executives require information which
must come from a large group of personnel.
Some are accountants, purchasing agents, sales
representatives, lawyers, and personnel em­
ployed in such activities as industrial relations,
public relations, transportation, advertising, and
market research. Clerical employees who keep
records of personnel, payroll, raw materials,
sales, shipments, and plant maintenance are also
employed in this industry.
(Detailed discussions of some of the profes­
sional, technical, mechanical, and other occupa­
tions found in the paper and allied products
industry are given elsewhere in this Handbook

The training requirements for new workers in
jobs in the pulp, paper, and paper products in­
dustry range from a few days of on-the-job
training to years of preparation. Many of the
operating jobs can be learned in a few days.
On the other hand, maintenance jobs, some
machine operating jobs, and, particularly, engi­
neering and scientific jobs require years of spe­
cialized training.
Paper and pulp companies generally hire in­
experienced workers for processing and main­
tenance jobs and train them on the job. Many
companies prefer to hire high school graduates
between the ages of 18 and 25. Production work­
ers usually start as laborers or helpers and ad­
vance along fairly well-defined paths to more
skilled jobs. Maintenance jobs are generally
filled by men trained in the plant; however, such
jobs are sometimes filled by hiring experienced
men when no qualified workers are available
in the plant.
Most companies in this industry do not have
formal apprenticeship programs to meet the
needs of their own maintenance shops. In recent
years, however, some of the large plants that
make paper and paperboard, as well as pulp,
have started formal apprenticeship programs
which require 3 or 4 years of training. Under
these programs, young men may be trained for
skilled maintenance jobs, such as machinist,
electrician, millwright, and pipefitter. Gen­
erally, an applicant is given a physical exami­
nation, mechanical aptitude tests, and other
qualifying tests. Apprentice training includes
both on-the-job training and classroom instruc­
tion related to the occupation. For example, the
machinist apprentice receives classroom instruc­
tion in mathematics, blueprint reading, shop
theory, and specialized subjects. During shop
training, the apprentice also learns the use and
care of the tools of his trade.
A bachelor’s degree from a recognized college
is usually the minimum educational requirement
for scientists, engineers, foresters, and other
specialists employed by the industry. For re­

search jobs, persons with advanced degrees are
preferred. Many schools offer specialized
courses in papermaking. A listing of these
schools is available from the Paper Industry
Career Guidance Committee, 122 East 42d
Street, New York 17, N.Y. Generally, students
specializing in papermaking are hired by a com­
pany for summer work and upon graduation
are often hired on a permanent basis. Associa­
tions, colleges, universities, and individual com­
panies offer many scholarships in pulp and
papermaking technology.
Some companies have formal training pro­
grams for young college graduates with engi­
neering or scientific backgrounds. These em­
ployees may work for brief periods in the various
plant operating divisions to gain a broad knowl­
edge of pulp and paper manufacturing before
being permanently assigned to a particular de­
partment. Other firms immediately assign
junior chemists or engineers to a specific re­
search operation or maintenance unit.
Generally, no specialized education is required
for jobs as laboratory assistant, testing techni­
cian, or for other kinds of technician jobs.
Some employers however, prefer to hire those
who have had training in a technical institute
or junior college. Training, for the most part,
is on the job. Laboratory assistants, for ex­
ample, begin in routine jobs and advance to posi­
tions of greater responsibility after they have
acquired experience and demonstrated their
ability to work without close supervision.
Administrative positions are frequently filled
by men and women who have college degrees in
business administration, marketing, accounting,
industrial relations, or other specialized business
fields. A knowledge of paper technology is help­
ful for administrative, sales, and related occupa­
tions. This is especially true of sales jobs where
customers often require technical assistance.
Most pulp and paper companies employ clerks,
bookkeepers, stenographers, and typists who
have had commercial courses in high school or
in business school.
Factors affecting advancement of plant work­
ers include the length of time that a worker has
held a plant job, how well he performs his job,
and his physical condition. Promotion is gen­
erally limited to jobs within a “work area,”


which may be a department, section, or an oper­
ation on one type of machine. For example, to
become a paper machine tender, the worker may
start as a laborer, wrapping and tying the
finished rolls of paper as they come off the papermaking machine. As he gains experience and
skill, he moves to more difficult assignments—
finally becoming a machine tender in charge of
the operation of a machine. These promotions
may take many years, depending on the avail­
ability of jobs. Experience gained within a
work area is generally not transferable; workers
who transfer to jobs outside their seniority area
or to other plants usually must start again in
entry jobs.
Many plant foremen and supervisors are
former production workers. In some plants,
qualified workers may be promoted directly to
foreman or other supervisory positions. In other
plants, workers are given training before they
are eligible for promotion to higher level jobs.
This training is often continued after the worker
is promoted—through conferences, special plant
training sessions, and, in some cases, by taking
courses at universities or trade schools.
Employment Outlook

Many thousands of new workers will be able
to find jobs in the pulp, paper, and paper prod­
ucts industry each year during the 1960’s. Em­
ployment, which increased about 15 percent
from 1950 to 1960, will probably rise at about
the same rate in the 1960-70 decade. In addi­
tion, a large number of job openings will result
from the need to replace workers who retire,
die, or transfer to other fields of work. Retire­
ments and deaths alone are expected to provide
between 10,000 and 13,000 job openings each
year during the 1960’s.
Employment in the paper industry has grown
steadily for many years. In the 1950’s, this
industry was one of the more rapidly growing
areas of employment. However, employment has
increased at a slower rate than production, as
in other manufacturing industries. The industry
has been able to expand its production without
a corresponding increase in employment princi­
pally because of its continuing use of larger and
more efficient processing machinery and more


automatic control equipment. Although con­
tinuing technological advances are expected to
further speed up and improve the production
processes, overall employment should increase
moderately as a result of the growing demand
for the industry’s products.
The production of paper is expected to con­
tinue to increase during the 1960’s. The ex­
pected rapid growth in school enrollments and
higher levels of educaton should bring about a
greater demand for textbooks, writing papers,
books, periodicals, and newspapers. Rising pop­
ulation and consumer purchasing power will
also increase the use of paper products.
The development of new paper products and
new uses for existing paper products will also
stimulate paper production. For example,
stretchable paper has been introduced in recent
years. Paper “fabric” used in the manufacture
of disposable’ clothing is another new product
of the paper industry. Also, the use of pre­
packaged items in increasingly popular selfservice retail stores is expanding the demand
for different kinds of packaging paper.
Different rates of growth are expected for
the various occupational groups in the paper
industry during the 1960-70 decade. For ex­
ample, the number of engineers, scientists, and
other technical personnel and skilled workers,
such as electricians, machinery repairmen, car­
penters, pipefitters, and millwrights, are ex­
pected to grow faster than other occupational
groups in the industry. Large increases are
anticipated in research and development activi­
ties, as well as in installation and maintenance
work because of the growing amount of com­
plex machinery used in making paper products.
The employment of administrative and clerical
workers is also expected to increase at a faster
pace than production employment. On the other
hand, employment of semiskilled workers and
helpers, laborers, and other unskilled plant
workers probably will increase at a slower rate
than total employment as more automatic ma­
chinery is introduced.
Earnings and Working Conditions

Production workers in the paper and allied
 industry had average earnings of


$2.28 an hour, or $96.22 for a 42.2-hour work­
week in 1960. in the same year, production
workers in all manufacturing industries aver­
aged $2.29 an hour, or $90.91 for a 39.7-hour
Some highly skilled machine operators and
many of the skilled maintenance workers have
the highest paying plant jobs. For example, in
1960 a few skilled paper machine tenders earned
more than $4 an hour, and many maintenance
workers were receiving more than $3 an hour.
The following data collected from a number
of 1960 union-management collective bargain­
ing contracts in the paper industry illustrate the
approximate range of hourly wage rates for
selected production and maintenance occupa­
tions for the country as a whole. Local rates
will fall within these ranges depending on fac­
tors such as the type and size of mill and kind
of machines used.
Hourly rate

Pulpmaking occupations
Drum barker operator__________________ $1.80-$2.30
Chipper operator ______________________ 1.80- 2.50
Cook ______
2.20- 3.40
Beater engineer _______________________ 2.90- 3.40
Pulp tester ___________________________ 1.90- 2.60
Papermaking occupations
Paper machine operator________________ 2.50- 4.50
Back tender___________________________ 2.00- 4.20
Paper tester __________________________ 1.90- 2.60
Converting occupations
Corrugating machine operator___________ 1.70- 2.85
Printer slotter operator________________ 1.90- 2.75
Printing pressman and compositor_______ 1.75- 4.00
Die maker ____________________________ 1.90- 2.95
Maintenance occupations
Maintenance mechanic (also millwright,
welder, pipefitter, sheet-metal worker,
machinist, blacksmith, and boilermaker)__ 1.70- 3.30
Painter_______________________________ 2.30- 3.10
Carpenter ____________________________ 1.85- 3.30
Electrician____________________________ 2.15- 3.30

Starting salaries for chemists, engineers, and
other professional personnel depend upon size
of the company, the particular specialization,
and the academic degree. A survey conducted
by the American Chemical Society indicated
that the average starting salary for chemical
engineers in the paper industry was $515 a
month in 1960.

Many of the workers in pulp and paper pro­
ducing operations work in plants that operate
around the clock—three shifts a day, 7 days a
week. Owing to the widespread industry prac­
tice of rotating shifts, production workers can
expect to work on the evening or night shifts
from time to time. Maintenance workers, for
the most part, are employed on the regular day
shift. Many plants pay between 5 and 10 cents
an hour more for work on the evening shift
and between 8 and 15 cents an hour extra for
the night shift. Most workers in the industry
generally have year-round employment because
paper production is not subject to seasonal
A work schedule of 40 hours a week for firstshift workers is in effect in most mills. (A
small part of the industry has a standard work­
week of 35 hours or less.)
Paid vacations are almost always provided
and are generally based on length of service.
In practically all mills, workers receive 1 week
of vacation after 1 year of employment, 2
weeks after 3 to 5 years, and 3 weeks after 10
or more years. Many companies give 4 weeks’
vacation to employees who have been with them
at least 25 years, but a few provide such vaca­
tions after 20 years. Nearly all workers receive
paid holidays; the number of days ranges from
4 to 10 a year, with most mills granting 6 or
7 paid holidays.
Insurance or pension plans, financed at least
partially by employers, were in effect in the ma­
jority of plants. These plans include life, sick­
ness, accident, hospitalization, and surgical
insurance benefits for the employee and, in some
cases, his dependents. Employee stock-purchase
and savings plans to which the company makes
contributions are in effect in some firms.
Most pulp and papermaking jobs do not re­
quire strenuous physical effort. Some employees,
however, work in hot, humid, and noisy areas.


They may also be exposed to disagreeable odors
from the chemicals used in the papermaking
process. Pulp and paper companies, however,
have made intensive efforts in recent years to
reduce heat and unpleasant odors by improved
plant ventilating systems.
The injury frequency rate in this industry
(number of injuries per million man-hours
worked) approximates the rate for all manu­
facturing. Intensified safety programs have re­
sulted in some decline in the injury frequency
rate in recent years. Protective clothing, warn­
ing signs in danger areas, locking devices on
potentially dangerous equipment, guards and
rails around moving machinery, and instruction
in safe practices have been important in reduc­
ing the accident rate. Some of the more haz­
ardous jobs are in converting plants where
many cutting tools and moving equipment are
A majority of the production workers in this
industry are members of trade unions. A large
number belong to either the International
Brotherhood of Pulp, Sulphite and Paper Mill
Workers or the United Papermakers and Paperworkers. Many printing workers belong to the
International Printing Pressmen and Assist­
ants’ Union of North America. Some of the
maintenance workers and other craftsmen in
the industry belong to various craft unions.
Where To Go for More Information

American Forest Products Industries,
1816 N St. NW., Washington 6, D.C.
Fiber Box Association,
224 South Michigan Ave., Chicago 4, 111.
Folding Paper Box Association of America,
222 West Adams St., Chicago 6, 111.
Paper Industry Career Guidance Committee,
122 East 42d St., New York 17, N.Y.

The glamour and excitement associated with
radio and television make careers in broadcast­
ing attractive to many young people. The elec­
tronic technology involved in transmitting pro­
grams and the business aspects of operating a
broadcasting station or network also attract
many young people to radio and television occu­
pations. In 1960, there were more than 75,000
full-time and 15,000 part-time staff employees
in commercial broadcasting, of whom about 55
percent were employed in radio. Staff employ­
ees work for a broadcasting station or network
on a regularly scheduled and continuous basis.
In addition to staff employees, many thousands
of free-lance performers, such as actors, singers,
dancers, comedians, and top-level announcers,
work on specific assignments from stations, net­
works, and other program producers. (Several
thousand other employees worked for independ­
ent program producers in activities closely re­
lated to broadcasting, such as the preparation
of filmed programs and commercials for tele­
Broadcasting stations offer a variety of in­
teresting jobs in all parts of the country. Op­
portunities to get entry jobs are best in sta­
tions in small population centers. Generally,
the most specialized and best paying jobs are
in large population centers, especially in the
national networks. Nevertheless, the talented
individual will have many opportunities to ad­
vance to good paying jobs in stations located in
smaller population centers.
Nature and Location of the industry

At the end of 1960, more than 3,000 AM
(amplitude modulation) radio stations, about
225 FM (frequency modulation) radio stations,
and more than 500 combination AM-FM radio
stations were operating commercially in the

United States. AM stations broadcast on the
standard radio band and are heard on most
r$dio sets. FM stations provide better, staticfree reception but cannot broadcast as far.
There were about 530 commercial television
stations in operation at the end of 1960. Most
wereVHF (very high frequency) stations whose
broadcasts were received on ordinary television
sets—those with channels 2 through 13. There
were about 80 UHF (ultra high frequency)
stations which could be received only by tele­
vision sets with channels 14 through 83. UHF
stations usually employed fewer workers than
VHF stations and served smaller areas.
In addition to commercial stations, there were
more than 200 noncommercial radio stations
(mostly FM) and about 50 noncommercial tele­
vision stations. These stations were generally
operated by educational institutions and hiad
relatively few full-time employees (about 1,500)
because teachers and students helped to operate
them. However, a few large noncommercial
television stations had as many as 200 full-time
Most broadcasting stations are small, inde­
pendent businesses. In 1960, the average AM
radio station had about 15 employees and the
average television station about 60. FM-only
stations usually had about five employees each.
Half of all radio stations had fewer than 10
full-time staff employees and only 10 percent
had more than 25. Most television stations had
fewer than 50 full-time staff employees al­
though a few of the largest television stations
employed more than 250 workers.
Commercial radio stations are served by 4
nationwide networks and more than 100 re­
gional networks. Stations can affiliate with a
network by agreeing to broadcast network pro­
grams on a regular basis. National radio net­
works have affiliated stations in almost every


Television cameraman on crane taking overhead color
picture of studio scene.

large metropolitan area, although the major­
ity of radio stations are not affiliated with
a national network. Regional radio networks
have fewer affiliated stations and their activi­
ties usually consist of merely interconnecting
member stations for special events such as base­
ball games. Regional networks have few full­
time employees because their programing is
conducted by staff employees of affiliated sta­
tions. The four national radio networks to­
gether employed about 1,400 workers in 1960.
Three nationwide television networks provide
program service to affiliated commercial sta­
tions. Because television programing is very ex­
pensive, most television stations are affiliated
with a network which enables them to broad­
cast programs that would be too expensive
for them to originate individually. Networks
in turn can offer advertisers national cover­
age. Because some small cities have only
one or two television stations, these stations
often affiliate with two or three networks in
order to offer their viewers a wider variety of
programs. Many network television programs
are broadcast simultaneously from more than
150 stations throughout the Nation. In 1960,
the 3 television networks employed about 10,000
workers, or 1 of every 4 staff employees in


Almost every population center of over 10,000
has at least 1 broadcasting station (usually ra­
dio) and a few of the largest cities have more
than 20. One-third of all radio stations are
located in population centers of less than 10,000
and most of these are in 1-station communi­
ties. Generally, television stations are located in
centers of more than 25,000 population. More
than 70 percent of all television stations are in
centers of more than 100,000. In contrast, 65
percent of all radio stations are in population
centers of less than 100,000.
Practically all large broadcasting stations
are located in metropolitan areas, but small sta­
tions are found in big cities as well as in small
communities. About one out of four broadcast­
ing jobs are in New York and California. These
two States have large numbers of broadcasting
employees in New York City and Los Angeles,
the two major centers originating network pro­
grams. Other large and heavily populated States,
such as Illinois, Texas, Pennsylvania, and Ohio,
also have many broadcasting workers because
of the large number of individual stations.
Broadcasting Occupations

Broadcasting employees do four general types
of work. Those concerned with programing
prepare and produce programs; engineering
workers operate and maintain the equipment
which converts sounds and pictures into elec­
tronic impulses that can be picked up on home
receivers; sales workers sell time to advertis­
ers; and the remaining employees handle gen­
eral business matters, such as accounting, cleri­
cal work, public relations, and legal and per­
sonnel administration.
More than 40 percent of all full-time staff
employees are in programing work. Personnel
in the engineering department make up over
20 percent of staff employment. Workers in the
sales, publicity, and promotion departments
account for about 15 percent, and the remain­
ing workers—about 25 percent—are engaged in
business management. These percentages vary
widely among individual stations, depending on
station size and type of programing.
Job duties vary greatly between small and
large stations. In small radio stations, a large


proportion of broadcast time consists of re­
corded music and weather and news announce­
ments. As a result, small stations employ only
a few workers, and they perform a variety of
tasks. The station manager, who in many cases
is also the owner, may act as business and sales
manager, or perhaps as program director, an­
nouncer, and script writer. Announcers in small
stations usually do their own writing, often
operate the studio control board, and may even
act as salesmen. The engineering staff may
consist of only one full-time broadcast tech­
nician assisted by workers from the other de­
partments on a part-time basis. In large radio
and television stations, jobs are more specialized
and are usually confined to one of the four de­
partments. The kinds of jobs found in each
of these departments are described below.
Programing Department. The programing de­
partment plans, prepares, and produces radio
and television programs. Staff employees plan
the station’s programing, produce the daily and
weekly shows, assign personnel to cover special
events, and provide general program services
such as music, sound effects, and lighting. In
addition to these staff employees, free-lance ac­
tors, comedians, singers, dancers, some wellknown announcers, and other entertainers are
hired for specific broadcasts or series of broad­
casts or for special assignments. These per­
formers work on a contract basis for either the
station or network or for an advertising agen­
cy, sponsor, or an independent company which
produces programs. Many entertainers in radio
and television are also employed outside the
broadcasting industry—in stage plays, motion
pictures, nightclubs, and other entertainment
The size of a station’s programing department
depends not only on the size of the station,
but also on the extent to which it broadcasts
recorded, filmed, or network shows. In small
stations, the program functions are handled by
a few people who make commercial announce­
ments, read news and sports summaries, select
and play recordings, and introduce network
programs. A large television station, on the
other hand, may have a program staff consist^


ing of more than 75 people in a wide variety
of specialized jobs.
Responsibility for the overall program sched­
ule of a large station rests with the ^program
director. He arranges for a combination of pro­
grams that he believes will be most effective in
meeting the needs of advertisers who buy the
station’s services and will at the same time be
most attractive and interesting to members of
the community served by the station. He de­
termines and administers the station’s pro­
graming policy.
Daily program schedules are prepared by a
traffic manager, who also keeps a record of
broadcasting time available for advertising. The
continuity director is responsible for the writ­
ing and editing of all scripts. He may be as­
sisted by a continuity writer, who prepares
“Announcers’ Books.” These books contain each
program’s script and commercials, along with
their sequence and length.
Individual programs or series of programs
are planned and supervised by the director. In
large stations, he may work under the super­
vision of the producer, who assumes responsi­
bility for selection of scripts, financial control,
and other overall problems of production.
Sometimes these functions are combined in the
job of producer-director. Selecting appropriate
artists and studio personnel, scheduling and
conducting rehearsals, coordinating the efforts

Directors, assistants, and technicians in television
control room.

of all the people involved in the show to pro­
duce effective entertainment, and directing the
on-the-air show are the director’s major re­
sponsibilities. He may be assisted by an asso­
ciate director, who takes over such tasks as
working out detailed schedules and plans, ar­
ranging for distribution of scripts and changes
in scripts to the cast, and assisting in directing
the on-the-air show. To aid in carrying out the
orders of the director and his associates, some
stations employ program assistants, who help
assemble and coordinate the various parts of
the show. They arrange for obtaining props,
makeup service, art work, and film slides. They
assist in timing the on-the-air show, preparing
cue cards from the scripts and using them to
cue the performers.
Announcers are the largest and best known
group of program workers. In radio and tele­
vision stations of all sizes, the announcer in­
troduces programs, guests, and musical selec­
tions, and delivers most of the live commercial
messages. (Detailed information on the duties,
training, employment outlook, earnings, and
working conditions of announcers is given later
in this chapter.)
Music is an important part of radio and tele­
vision programing. Both small and large sta­
tions use recordings and transcriptions to pro­
vide musical programs and background music
for other shows. Large stations, which have
extensive music “libraries,” sometimes employ
a music librarian, who maintains the music files
and answers requests for any particular selec­
tion or type of music. In addition to recorded
music, a few of the largest stations have spe­
cialized personnel who plan and arrange for
musical services. The musical director selects,
arranges, and directs suitable music for pro­
grams on general instructions from the program
director. He selects musicians for live broad­
casts and directs them during rehearsals and
broadcasts. Musicians are generally hired for
particular assignments on a free-lance basis. A
few stations employ full-time staff musicians.
News gathering and reporting is another im­
portant aspect of radio and television program­
ing. In addition to daily coverage of the news,
the news department also presents special
programs covering such events as conventions,


elections, and disasters. The news director
plans and supervises the overall news and spe­
cial events coverage of a station. A newscaster
broadcasts daily news programs, and reports
special news events on the scene. A newswriter
selects and writes news copy to be read on the
air by the newscaster. In small stations the
jobs of newscaster and newswriter are fre­
quently combined.
Staging a television show is similar in many
respects to producing a professional stage play.
Stations which originate live television shows
must have staff members capable of handling
the staging jobs. The studio supervisor plans
and supervises the setting up of scenery and
props and other studio and stage equipment for
broadcasts. The floor or stage manager plans
and directs the actors’ positions and move­
ments on the set in accordance with the di­
rector’s instructions, relaying stage directions,
station breaks, and cues. The jobs of studio
supervisor and floor manager are often com­
bined. Floormen set up props, hold cue cards,
and do the unskilled chores around the studio.
This job is frequently held by beginners in
programing departments. Makeup artists pre­
pare personnel for broadcasts by applying
proper makeup, and maintain supplies and fa­
cilities necessary for this work. Scenic design­
ers plan and design settings and backgrounds
for programs. They select furniture, draperies,
pictures, and other properties to help convey
the visual impressions desired by the director.
Sound effects technicians operate special equip­
ment to simulate sounds, such as gunfire, thun­
der, or falling water, during rehearsals and
In 1960, almost half of all television program­
ing was on film, about one-third was live, and
about one-fifth was recorded on magnetic video
tape. Video tape recording is done by broad­
cast technicians on electronic equipment that
permits instantaneous playback of a television
performance. It can be used either to record a
live show being broadcast or to prerecord a
program for future broadcast. For filmed pro­
grams, the role of the station’s programing staff
is limited to editing the film and timing and
scheduling the show. Many stations employ
specialized staff members to take care of filmed


program material. The film editor edits nega­
tives and prints of film in accordance with
program requirements. He arranges film se­
quences to establish continuity of action and
he may also splice them. The film librarian
catalogs and maintains the station’s files of
motion picture film, which include not only
complete programs, but many short sequences
that can be fitted into programs to create ef­
fects which are difficult to produce in the
studio, such as outdoor action.
Engineering Department. The engineering de­
partment of a broadcasting station is respon­
sible for converting the sounds and pictures
making up programs into electronic impulses
that can be received on home radio and tele­
vision sets. Placing microphones, adjusting lev­
els of sound, keeping transmitters operating
properly, moving and adjusting television cam­
eras to produce clear, well-composed pictures,
and lighting television scenes and performers
are the main tasks of the engineering staff.
They also install, maintain, and repair the
many types of electrical and electronic equip­
ment that are required for these operations.
The basic job in the engineering department
is that of the broadcast technician who is quali­
fied to perform a variety of jobs in the radio or
television station. For example, these techni­
cians control the operation of the transmitter
to keep the output level and frequency of the
outgoing broadcast within legal requirements.
They also set up, operate, and maintain equip­
ment in the studio and in locations from which
remote broadcasts are to be made. (Further
information on the duties of broadcast tech­
nicians, as well as information on the training,
employment outlook, earnings, and working
conditions of such personnel is given later in
this chapter.)
Stations with more than one or two techni­
cians generally employ a chief engineer, who
has responsibility for all engineering matters.
In small stations, he may also work a regular
shift at the control board. The large stations
have engineers who specialize in such fields as
sound recording, maintenance, and lighting. A
small number of development engineers is em­
ployed by the networks to design and develop


new electronic apparatus to meet special prob­
Sales Department. Broadcasting stations earn
their income by selling services to advertisers.
These services consist of time on the air which
is allotted to the advertisers’ commercials. Ad­
vertisers may buy time as part of a regular
daily or weekly show with which they wish to
identify their product, or they may simply buy
a time segment or “spot” without special ref­
erence to the program being broadcast.
Time salesmen, the largest group of workers
in this department, sell time on the air to spon­
sors, advertising agencies, and other buyers.
They must have a thorough knowledge of the
station’s operations and the characteristics of
the area it serves that are of most interest to
advertisers, such as population, number of ra­
dio and television sets in use, income levels,
and consumption patterns. Time salesmen in
large stations often maintain a close relation­
ship with particular sponsors and advertising
agencies, selling time and acting as general
consultants and advisers to these clients in mat­
ters pertaining to advertising through the sta­
tion. In very small stations, the time salesman

Broadcast technician removing reel of tape from video
tape machine after program has been recorded.

may also handle other functions. Many stations
sell a substantial part of their time, particularly
to national advertisers, through independent
sales agencies known as station representatives,
which act as intermediaries for time buyers
^nd stations or groups of stations.
Large stations generally have several workers
who do only sales work. The sales manager
supervises his staff of time salesmen, directing
their efforts and setting general sales policy.
He may also handle a few of the largest ac­
counts personally. Some large stations employ
statistical clerks and research personnel to as­
sist the sales staff by analyzing and reporting
the market data relating to the community
served, the significance of the ratings of the
station's programs reported by the rating serv­
ices, and other types of statistical information.
Business Management. Like other businesses,
broadcasting stations perform a considerable
amount of administrative work. In a very small
station, the owner and his secretary may han­
dle all the recordkeeping, accounting, purchas­
ing, hiring, and other routine office work. In
large stations, executives, such as station man­
agers, have wide responsibilities which vary
with the size and scale of operations of the sta­
tion. Where the size of the station warrants the
employment of full-time specialists, the business
staff may include accountants, publicity spe­
cialists, personnel workers,' and other profes­
sional workers. They are assisted by officeworkers such as stenographers, typists, book­
keepers, clerks, and messengers. Building main­
tenance men are employed in the large stations
to keep the facilities in good condition.
Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement

A high school diploma is the minimum educa­
tional requirement for entry jobs in broadcast­
ing, but some college training is preferred.
Training in specialized areas such as writing,
dramatics, designing, makeup, or electronics
may be required of beginners in these areas
even though work experience usually is not
necessary. Some young people without special­
ized training or experience get their start in
broadcasting in such jobs as clerk, messenger,


typist, floorman, or assistant to an experienced
worker. As these new workers gain knowledge
and experience, they have the chance to ad­
vance to more responsible jobs. Young people
are sometimes hired on the basis of their po­
tentialities rather than for any specific training
or experience, but the more skills, education,
and varied background these beginners have,
the better will be their chances for advance­
ment. A few young people get started in broad­
casting with temporary jobs in the summer
when regular workers go on vacations and
broadcast schedules of daylight hours stations
are increased.
Technical training in electronics is required
for entry jobs in engineering departments. In
addition, anyone who operates or adjusts a
broadcast transmitter must have a Radiotele­
phone First Class Operator License. To obtain
this license, an applicant must pass a series
of technical examinations given by the Fed­
eral Communications Commission. Small radio
stations with only a few employees sometimes
prefer to have as many personnel as possible
legally qualified to operate their transmitters.
Because of this, nontechnicians, especially an­
nouncers, will have a better chance of getting
a job in radio if they have a first class license.
A course in electronics at a recognized techni­
cal institute is probably the best way of pre­
paring for the FCC test.
Specific training or experience is usually not
required for entry jobs as announcers but appli­
cants must have a good voice, a broad cultural
background, and other characteristics that
make them dramatic or attractive personalities.
Qualifications for administrative and sales jobs
in broadcasting are similar to those required
by other employers in the community; business
course of study in high school or college is a
good preparation for such jobs.
Most beginners start out in small stations.
Although these stations cannot pay high sala­
ries, they offer new workers an opportunity to
learn many different phases of broadcasting
work because they generally use their person­
nel in “combination” jobs. For example, in ad­
dition to his regular duties, an announcer may
perform some of the duties of a broadcast


Many high-level jobs in broadcasting are held
by people who started out in low-level jobs and
moved up to more responsible jobs over the
years. Advancement was especially rapid dur­
ing the years following World War II when
television and radio were growing rapidly, and
people skilled and experienced in broadcast
work were in short supply. However, since the
mid-1950’s the rate of employment growth has
declined and competition for new job openings
and promotion has grown keener. As a result,
educational and experience requirements have
Women make up about a fourth of broadcast­
ing staff employment. They are seldom employed
as technicians, announcers, or salesmen, but
frequently work as production assistants, pro­
ducers, newswriters, continuity writers, casting
directors, costume or set designers, supervisors
of religious and children’s programs, as well as
in the many office occupations often filled by
women. A job as secretary is frequently a good
entry job for women interested in the program­
ming and administrative areas of broadcasting.
People in the engineering department tend
to remain in this area of work, where thorough
training in electronics is essential. Program
employees who usually remain in programing
work, although sometimes transfers from and
to the sales and business services departments
are made. Transferability is easier between
sales and administrative departments because
of their close working relationship; in fact,
they are often merged into one department in
the small stations. Although transfers of ex­
perienced workers between departments are
limited to the extent noted, these distinctions
are less important in the beginning jobs and
also in the top-level jobs. At the higher levels,
a station executive may be drawn from toplevel personnel of any department. Many toplevel administrative jobs are filled by people
with sales experience.
Employment Outlook

Employment in broadcasting occupations is
expected to increase slowly during the 1960’s.
Approximately 1,000 new staff broadcasting
jobs will be added each year. Although many


new stations will be established, most will be
small and require few employees. Employment
in existing television stations is expected to re­
main relatively unchanged. In existing radio
stations, the number employed may decline
slightly. In addition to the job opportunities
to be provided by the industry’s slow growth,
about 2,000 openings will arise each year be­
cause of retirements and deaths. Some openings
will also occur when workers in the industry
transfer to other fields of work.
Broadcasting employment grew rapidly from
the early 1920’s, when the first commercial
radio broadcasts began, to World War II. Fol­
lowing the war, it resumed its rapid growth,
aided by the introduction of television. Staff
broadcasting employment more than doubled
between 1945 and 1954. Since then, employment
and the number of radio and television stations
have increased less rapidly as the number of
stations became adequate to serve nearly all
communities. Increasing mechanization of
equipment also slowed employment growth.
In the 1960’s, the rate of growth in broad­
casting employment will slacken considerably.
More than 1,000 new radio stations and 50 to
100 new television stations are expected to be
put into operation during this period. Since
most of the new stations will be small, the re­
sulting employment increase will be substantial­
ly less than that in the past decade. However,
if the Federal Communications Commission
should change its regulations which determine
the number of television stations that can oper­
ate, additional stations could go on the air.
This would increase employment at a faster
rate than is now anticipated. Although the
number of noncommercial educational televi­
sion stations is expected to increase rapidly,
most of these stations will be small and will
employ only a small number of additional
Employment in existing radio stations may
decline slightly because many stations are in­
troducing equipment which allows control of
transmitters from the studio and eliminates the
need for a technical crew at the transmitter
site. Automatic programing, another relatively
recent technical advance, could reduce employ­
ment requirements because it permits radio sta-



tions to provide unattended programing service.
Employment in existing television stations prob­
ably will remain about the same. The trend
away from live network television programing
to filmed presentations prepared by independent
producers is expected to reduce network em­
ployment and increase employment by the in­
dependent producers. The effect of increased
color television broadcasting will be limited to
a small expansion in the number of programing
and technical workers.
Competition will be keen for entry jobs in
broadcasting during the 1960’s, especially in
the large cities, because of the attraction of
many young people to the field and the relatively
few beginning jobs that will be available.
Earnings and Working Conditions

Earnings of broadcasting workers range
from about $45 a week for beginning clerical
workers in small stations to more than $13,000
a year for established and highly skilled an­
nouncers, engineers, directors, and time sales­
men in large stations. The following table of
weekly earnings, based on a survey by a private
organization, presents national averages for
selected broadcasting occupations.
Wages of individuals in broadcasting vary
considerably. Employees in large cities earn
Average weekly earnings for selected broadcasting
occupations, late 1960


Sales manager..............
Chief engineer.............
Program director........


News director.............
Staff announcer...........
Art director..................
Film department head
Staff photographer
Traffic manager..........
Continuity writer.......







much more than those in the same kinds of
jobs in small towns. Wages are higher in large
stations than in small stations and higher in
television than in radio.
Working conditions in broadcasting stations
are usually pleasant. The work is done in
clean, attractive surroundings. It is performed
indoors except where remote pickups are in­
volved. Jobs in programing are particularly
attractive because of the glamour attached to
this field of work and the opportunities it af­
fords for high earnings and artistic expression.
Most broadcasting employees have a sched­
uled 40-hour workweek. Sales and business serv­
ices workers generally work in the daytime
hours common to most office jobs. However,
program and engineering employees must work
shifts which may include evenings, nights, and
weekends. In order to meet a broadcast dead'
line, program and technical employees in the
networks may have to work continuously for
many hours and under great pressure. Some
employees, particularly in the small stations,
work 42- to 48-hour weeks regularly, receiving
overtime pay for the extra hours.
Many unions operate in the broadcasting
field. They are most active in the network
centers and large stations. The National As­
sociation of Broadcast Employees and Techni­
cians and the International Brotherhood of Elec­
trical Workers both organize all kinds of broad­
casting workers, although most of their mem­
bers are technicians. The International Alli­
ance of Theatrical Stage Employees and Moving
Picture Machine Operators organizes various
crafts, such as stagehands, sound and lighting
technicians, wardrobe attendants, makeup men,
and cameramen. Many announcers and enter­
tainers are members of the American Federa­
tion of Television and Radio Artists. The Di­
rectors Guild of America Inc. (Ind.) organizes
program directors, associate directors, and stage



Radio and Television Announcers
(D .O .T. 0-69.21)

Nature of Work

Radio and television staff announcers present
news and live commercial messages, introduce
programs, describe sporting events, act as
masters of ceremonies, conduct interviews, and
identify stations. In small stations, they may
perform additional duties such as operating the
control board, selling time, and writing scripts
and news copy. In large stations, their duties
are confined to the programing department.
Many announcers act as disc jockeys, in­
troducing selections of recorded music and com­
menting on the music and other matters of in­
terest to the audience. Disc jockeys “ad-lib”
much of the commentary, working without a
detailed script.
More than 12,000 staff announcers were em­
ployed on a regularly scheduled, full-time basis
in radio and television broadcasting stations in
1960. About 85 percent of them were employed
in radio. In addition to staff announcers, an esti­
mated 10,000 to 15,000 free-lance announcers
sell their services for individual assignments to
networks and stations, or to advertising agencies
and other independent producers, for both pro­
grams (news, sports, disc jockey, etc.) an,d
Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement

Announcing is a job in which personal char­
acteristics are very important. To succeed as
an announcer, one must have a dramatic and
well-controlled voice, a good sense of timing,
and excellent pronunciation. In addition, a
thorough knowledge of correct English usage
and a broad cultural background, including
knowledge of foreign languages, dramatics,
sports, music, and current events, improves
chances for success. In television, rather high
standards of personal appearance must also be
met. When on the air, an announcer must be
able to react quickly and imaginatively in un­
usual situations. He must also be a convincing
salesman when presenting commercials. In
addition to all the above qualifications, the mo^t

Floor manager on television news program preparing to
“cue” announcer.

successful announcers have a combination of
personality and showmanship that makes them
attractive to an audience. Therefore, anyone
considering a career as an announcer should
judge his chances of success realistically. Most
announcers are men, but there are a few op­
portunities for women, especially in programs
and commercials aimed at women.
High school courses in English, public speak­
ing, dramatics, and foreign languages, plus
sports and music hobbies, are valuable back­
ground for prospective announcers. A number
of vocational schools offer training in announc­
ing, and some universities offer courses of study
in the broadcasting field. A college liberal arts
education also provides an excellent background
for announcers.
Most announcers get their first broadcasting
jobs in small stations. Because announcers in
small stations sometimes operate transmitters,
prospective announcers often obtain a Federal
Communications Commission Radiotelephone
First Class Operator License which enables them
legally to operate a transmitter and, therefore,
makes them much more useful to these stations.
Announcers usually work in several different
stations in the course of their careers. After ac­
quiring experience in a station in a small com­



munity, an ambitious and talented announcer
may move to a better paying job in a larger
population center. He may also advance by
working into a regular program as a disc jockey,
sportscaster, or other specialist. Competition
for announcing jobs in the national networks
is intense, and an announcer must be a college
graduate with at least 5 years of successful
announcing experience before he will be given
an audition. Some announcers become wellknown and highly paid personalities.
Employment Outlook

Employment of announcers will increase
moderately in the 1960’s as new radio and tele­
vision stations are opened. The gains in em­
ployment resulting from the more than 1,000
radio stations and 50 to 100 television stations
expected to go on the air during the period will
be slightly reduced by the increased use of auto­
matic programing. Some job openings in this
relatively small occupation will also result from
transfers to other fields of work and from re­
tirements and deaths. The growth of the in­
dustry and replacement needs will create, on
the average, about 500 openings for announcers
each year in the coming decade.
It will be easier to get an entry job in radio
than in television because of the greater num­
ber of radio stations, especially small stations,
which hire beginners. However, the great at­
traction this field has for young people and its
relatively small size will result in keen competi­
tion for beginning jobs.
Earnings and Working Conditions

In the fall of 1960, average earnings of staff
announcers were $95 a week in radio and $136
in television. Earnings of individual announcers

depend primarily on the size and location of
the population center in which they work. As
a rule, wages increase with size of the popula­
tion center. In centers of comparable size,
wages are somewhat lower in small stations
than in large stations. In 1960, earnings of
radio announcers ranged from about $75 per
week in small communities to approximately
$160 in large metropolitan areas. Earnings of
television announcers ranged from about $100
a week in small communities to about $200 in
large metropolitan areas.
The earnings of many better paid announcers
include fees received from advertisers in addi­
tion to the salaries received from stations. Such
fees are larger and more common in television
than in radio. In small radio stations, an­
nouncers are generally paid a fixed weekly
or monthly salary. Announcers who work into
regular shows, such as disc jockeys, or announc­
ers who become identified with popular network
radio or television programs, earn considerably
more than other staff announcers. In medium
and large communities, some of these person­
alities earn more than $13,000 a year. Top an­
nouncers in the largest metropolitan areas
sometimes earn more than $25,000 a year.
Most announcers in large stations work a 40hour week and receive overtime for work beyond
40 hours. In small stations, many announcers
work 2 to 6 hours of overtime each week. Even­
ing, night, and weekend work occurs frequently
since some stations are on the air 24 hours a
day, 7 days a week. Announcers’ working hours
consist of both time on the air and time spent
in preparing for broadcasts. Working condi­
tions are generally pleasant because of the
variety of work and the many personal con­
tacts which are part of the job. Announcers
also receive some satisfaction from having their
names become well known in the area their
station serves.

Broadcast Technicians

(D.O.T. 0-66.00 through .09)

Nature of Work

Broadcast technicians set up, operate, and
maintain the electronic equipment used to re

or transmit radio and television programs.
They work with such equipment as microphones,
sound recorders, lighting equipment, sound



effects devices, television cameras, magnetic
video tape recorders, and motion picture pro­
jection equipment. In the control room, broad­
cast technicians operate equipment that regu­
lates the quality of sounds and pictures be­
ing recorded or broadcast. They also operate
controls that switch broadcasts from one cam­
era or studio to another, from film to live pro­
graming, or from network to local programs.
From the control room, they give technical di­
rections to personnel in the studio by means of
hand signals. When working on disc jockey
programs, they sometimes operate phonograph
record turntables. Other duties of control room
technicians may include operating movie pro­
jectors, making recordings of live shows, and
keeping an operation log of all broadcasts.
As a rule, broadcast technicians in small sta­
tions perform a wide variety of duties. In large
stations and in networks, technicians are more
specialized, although specific job assignments
may change from day to day. Broadcast tech­
nicians who specialize may be given titles such
as transmitter technician (monitors outgoing
signals and is responsible for proper operation
of the transmitter), maintenance technician
(sets up, maintains, and repairs electronic
broadcasting equipment), audio control tech­
nician (operates controls that regulate sound
pickup, transmission, and switching), video
control technician (operates controls that regu­
late brightness and contrast of television pic­
tures), lighting technician (directs lighting of
television programs), field technician (sets up
and operates broadcasting equipment for pro­
grams originating outside the studio), record­
ing technician (operates and maintains sound
recording equipment), and video tape re­
cording technician (operates and maintains
magnetic video tape recording equipment).
(Sometimes the term “engineer” is substituted
for technician in the above titles.)
Installing and maintaining complex electron­
ic equipment is the most technically difficult
work of broadcast technicians. Most techni­
cians do at least occasional maintenance, but
large stations usually have one or two experi­
enced men whose chief duties are to repair and
maintain electronic equipment under supervi­
sion of the chief engineer. In small radio sta


Broadcast technician adjusting controls to assure a
perfect picture.

tions, the chief engineer frequently does all
maintenance and repair work himself.
When events taking place outside the studios
are to be broadcast, technicians go to the site
of the pickup and set up, test, and operate the
necessary equipment. They also make emer­
gency repairs. After the broadcast, they dis­
mantle the equipment and return to the station.
In 1960, about 9,000 nonsupervisory broad­
cast technicians were employed in radio sta­
tions and more than 6,000 in television stations.
Most radio stations are small enterprises em­
ploying fewer than 4 technicians, although a
few large radio stations may employ more than
15. Nearly all television stations employ at
least 5 broadcast technicians with the average
large station having about 25. A few of the
largest television stations may employ more
than 75. The majority of broadcast technicians
work in communities of more than 250,000 pop­
ulation. The highest paying and most special­
ized jobs are concentrated in New York, Los
Angeles, Washington, D.C., and Chicago, the
originating centers for most of the network
In addition to the nonsupervisory techni­
cians, an estimated 5,000 supervisory personnel
with job titles such as chief engineer, assistant

chief engineer, director of engineering, techni­
cal director, and supervisory technician work in
the engineering departments. Many of these su­
pervisors have worked their way up from tech­
nician jobs, but an increasing number have
college degrees in engineering. Supervisory per­
sonnel are responsible for the operation, main­
tenance, and repair of all electronic equipment
in the studio and at the transmitter. They may
also do maintenance and repair work, design
and build new equipment, purchase equipment
for the station, and help lay out plans for build­
ing new studios, transmitters, relay equipment,
and towers.
Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement

A young man interested in becoming a
broadcast technician should plan on getting a
Radiotelephone First Class Operator License
from the Federal Communications Commission.
Federal law requires that anyone who operates
or adjusts broadcast transmitters in television
and radio stations must hold such a license.
Some stations require all their broadcast tech­
nicians, including those who do not operate
transmitters, to have this license. Applicants
for the license must pass a series of written ex­
aminations covering the construction and oper­
ation of transmission and receiving equipment,
the characteristics of electromagnetic waves,
and Federal Government ^and international reg­
ulations and practices governing broadcasting.
Information about these examinations, and
guides to studying for them, may be obtained
from the Federal Communications Commission,
Washington 25, D.C.
High school courses in algebra, trigonometry,
physics, and other science courses provide val­
uable background for young men anticipating
a career in this occupation. Building and oper­
ating an amateur radio station is also good
training. •A good way to acquire the knowledge
necessary for becoming a broadcast technician
is to take an electronics course in a technical
school. Many schools give courses especially de­
signed to prepare the student for the FCC first
class license test and to qualify him for a be­
ginning job in a broadcasting station. Techni­
cal training at the college level is a distinct ad­


vantage for those who hope to advance to su­
pervisory positions or to the more specialized
jobs in large stations and in the networks.
Young men with FCC first class licenses who
get entry jobs at large stations are instructed
and advised by the chief engineer or other ex­
perienced technicians concerning the work pro­
cedures of the station. In small stations, they
may start by operating the transmitter and
handling other technical duties after a brief
instruction period. As they acquire more ex­
perience and skill, they are assigned to more re­
sponsible jobs. Men who demonstrate aboveaverage ability may move into the top-level
technical positions, such as supervisory tech­
nician and chief engineer.
Employment Outlook

Employment of broadcast technicians will
increase slightly in the 1960’s. The more than
1,000 new radio stations and the 50 to 100 new
television stations which are expected to go on
the air during this period will create a few
thousand additional jobs for technicians.
Transfers to other jobs and retirements and
deaths will also result in some job openings in
this relatively small occupation.
Technical advances, such as automatic
switching and programing, automatic opera­
tion logging, and remote control of transmit­
ters, will hold down employment growth of
technician jobs in broadcasting.
Color television broadcasting probably will
become widespread during the next decade, and
may slightly increase the need for technicians.
Color television pickup and transmitting equip­
ment which will have to be added is much more
complicated than black and white and requires
more maintenance. Originating a color show
requires additional technical work in lighting
and photographing.
Earnings and Working Conditions

In late 1960, weekly earnings of broadcast
technicians averaged about $93 a week in radio
and about $116 in television. However, earn­
ings varied greatly depending on such factors
as size and location of the community a station


serves, the size of the station, and the experi­
ence of the individual. As a rule, technicians'
wages are highest in large cities. Beginning
wages for technicians in small radio stations,
where most of them start, ranged from $60 to
$80 per week. Experienced technicians in radio
earned from about $75 a week in small towns to
more than $130 in larger communities. Earn­
ings of experienced broadcast technicians in
television ranged from $100 a week in small
towns to more than $180 in large cities. Many
broadcast technicians in the networks and
largest cities earned more than $190 a week.
Supervisory technicians below the rank of chief
engineer in the networks and large city stations
often earned in excess of $200 a week. Chief
engineers earned still higher salaries.
Most technicians in large stations work a 40-


hour week with overtime pay for work beyond
40 hours. In small stations, many technicians
work 2 to 8 hours of overtime each week.
Evening, night, and weekend work occurs fre­
quently since some stations are on the air as
many as 24 hours a day, 7 days a week. Net­
work technicians may occasionally have to
work continuously for many hours and under
great pressure in order to meet broadcast dead­
Broadcast technicians generally work in­
doors in pleasant surroundings. The work is
interesting and there is often considerable va­
riety of work duties. When remote pickups are
made, however, technicians may work out of
doors at some distance from the studios, under
less favorable conditions.

The railroads, with their network of more
than 200,000 miles of rail line reaching into all
parts of the country, are one of the Nation’s
largest employers. About 895,000 railroad
workers were employed in 1960 operating
trains, looking after the needs of the traveling
public, maintaining and repairing facilities
and equipment, and carrying on the hundreds
of other activities required in this industry.
These activities offer a great variety of inter­
esting careers requiring different kinds of skills
and levels of education. Regardless of the oc­
cupation, a railroad worker usually starts at
the bottom of the ladder and works his way up
by learning his job, proving his ability, and ac­
quiring the seniority which will enable him to
Nature and Location of the Industry

The railroad industry is made up chiefly of
“line-haul” railroad companies which trans­
port freight and passengers between cities and
towns, and switching and terminal companies
which operate facilities at stations, stockyards,
and other terminal points. About 110 of these
railroad companies were operating in 1960.
In addition, the Pullman Company performs
special services for passengers traveling on
these railroads.
Slightly more than 100 line-haul railroads
and about 40 switching and terminal companies
are in a group called class I railways. (Each
of these companies has operating revenues of
$3 million or more a year.) The remaining
companies in the industry are in the class II
group; most of them are the so-called short­
line railroads, each of which usually operates
only a limited number of miles of track.
The class I line-haul railroads, which include
all of the large, well-known companies, handle
99 percent of the railroad industry’s business
and employ about 95 percent of all railroad
workers. With about 30,000 locomotives, anoth­

er 28,000 passenger train cars, and about 1.7
million freight cars, they transported 1.2 bil­
lion tons of freight and over 380 million passen­
gers in 1960. Employment and earnings data
for class I line-haul railroads have been used
in this chapter to illustrate employment and
earnings throughout the entire railroad in­
Passenger service is the part of the railroad
business most familiar to the traveling public.
However, revenues from passenger service were
much less than from freight service. In 1960,
receipts from hauling coal, ore, grain, lumber,
and other commodities were more than 12
times the revenue from passenger service.
Other sources of railroad revenue include mail
and express services.
The railroads serve every part of the Nation.
Workers are employed on the trains, along the
right-of-way where tracks and other railroad
facilities are located, and in railroad stations,
yards, and offices in every State in the union.
The greatest numbers work at various points
where the railroads maintain their central
offices, freight yards, and maintenance and re­
pair shops. The metropolitan area of Chicago,
where the great eastern and western railroad
systems meet, is the hub of the Nation’s rail­
road network and has more railroad workers
than any other area. Other places where par­
ticularly large numbers of railroad workers are
employed are the metropolitan areas around
New York City, Pittsburgh, Philadelphia, Los
Angeles, Cleveland, and St. Louis. “Railroad
towns,” where locomotive and car shops are lo­
cated, such as Altoona, Pa., and Roseville,
Calif., also have relatively large concentrations
of railroad workers.
Railroad Occupations

The work force of the railroad industry can
be divided into five main groups—employees
who (1) operate trains, (2) handle luggage, pre-



pare and serve food, and provide other personal
services to passengers, (3) perform communica­
tions, station, and office work, (4) build and
maintain locomotives, cars, and other rolling
stock, and (5) build and maintain tracks,
structures, and other railroad property. In
1960, 95 percent of the workers in railroad jobs
were men. Most women employed by the rail­
roads do office work.
Chart 33 shows the number of employees in
some of the principal railroad occupations.
Other occupations in which large numbers of
workers are employed but which are not shown
on the chart, range from professional positions
such as accountants, engineers, and statisti­
cians to unskilled laundry and cleaning jobs.
(Information about some of these jobs is given



Thousands of workers. I960*
100 120

Locomotive firemen
Locomotive engineers
Dining car waiters
Pullman porters and
passenger attendants
Red caps
Dining car cooks
Telegraphers, telephoners, ...... :::~ i
and towermen
Station agents
Helpers (all skilled trades)
Electrical workers
Sheet-metal workers
Gang foremen and leaders ZJ
Apprentices (all skilled
Trackmen and gang
Bridge and building workers^
Signal department workers I
Portable equipment opera-f
tors and helpers






1 Estimated from Interstate Commerce Commission
Class 1 railroad data and other sources.

elsewhere in this Handbook. See index for page
The workers directly engaged in running the
trains are known as “operating employees.”
They represent about one-fourth of all railroad
workers. Class I line-haul railroads had about
211,600 operating employees in 1960. In this
group are locomotive engineers and firemen, as
well as conductors, brakemen, and, on some
passenger trains, baggagemen. These men
work together as train crews, either operating
trains out on the “run” or operating trains at
the terminals and railroad yards where freight
is loaded and unloaded, freight cars are re­
ceived and switched, and trains are broken up
and made up. Other operating employees work­
ing in the yards include switchtenders, who as­
sist conductors (or foremen) and brakemen
(or switchmen) by throwing the track
switches, and hostlers, who fuel locomotives,
check their operating condition, and deliver
them to the engine crews.
A second group of railroad workers provide
personal services to passengers at stations and
aboard trains. With 22,820 employees in 1960,
or little more than 2 percent of all employed in
the railroad industry, it is by far the smallest
of the five major railroad occupational groups.
It includes Pullman conductors who are in
charge of sleeping and parlor car service on
most trains, as well as porters and attendants
who perform many kinds of personal services
for passengers traveling in their cars. This
group also includes cooks and waiters who pre­
pare and serve food on dining and buffet cars,
and redcaps who work in and around railroad
stations where they handle luggage and other­
wise assist passengers in boarding and leaving
A large group of railroad workers, more than
one-fifth of all those employed in the industry,
consists of communications, station, and office
employees who regulate the movement of
trains and take care of the business affairs of
the railroads. In 1960, class I line-haul rail­
roads employed about 196,430 persons in such
jobs. Communications are handled by dis­
patchers who coordinate the movement of
trains and issue train orders, and by telegra­
phers, telephoners, and towermen who either

pass train orders and other instructions to the
train crews or carry them out by setting sig­
nals and track switches. At each station, a sta­
tion agent is in charge of the railroads’ busi­
ness affairs. Railroad clerks work in stations
and company offices where they may do secre­
tarial and other kinds of office work, assist
station agents, deal with customers, sell tickets,
tend baggage rooms, keep records, and perform
related tasks. Also included in this group
of railroad workers are claims investigators,
accountants, lawyers, motor vehicle operators,
patrolmen, and watchmen.
Another fifth of all railroad workers are em­
ployed in railroad yards, carshops, and engine
houses where they maintain and repair loco­
motives, cars, and other railroad rolling stock.
Class I line-haul roads employed about 184,000
workers in this group in 1960. Carmen perform
a variety of repair and maintenance tasks nec­
essary to keep railroad freight and passenger
cars in good operating condition. Electrical
workers, machinists, boilermakers, black­
smiths, and sheet metal workers are also em­
ployed in car shops, each contributing his par­
ticular skill to the maintenance of the rolling
A considerably smaller group of railroad
workers, about one seventh of the total, main­
tain and construct tracks, bridges, stations,
signals, and other railroad property. The class
I line-haul railroads employed about 118,520 in
work of this kind in 1960. Trackmen and other
maintenance-of-way workers maintain, con­
struct, and repair tracks and roadbeds. Bridge
and building mechanics construct and main­
tain bridges, tunnels, and many other kinds of
structures along the right of way. Signal
workers are responsible for installing the rail­
road’s vast network of train and crossing sig­
nals and for keeping it in efficient working or­
Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement

For most jobs, particularly those on the
trains, in the yards, and around the stations,
training is received on the job. The new em­
ployee learns his job by working and receiving
instruction from experienced men. For some


office and maintenance jobs, training may be
obtained in high schools and vocational schools.
Home study courses that add to a worker’s
practical knowledge of railroading are also
available. In addition, universities and techni­
cal schools offer college courses in railway engi­
neering, transportation, traffic management,
and other subjects which are valuable to pro­
fessional and technical workers.
New employees in some occupations—prin­
cipally those connected with train or engine
service—start as “extra board” men, that is,
their names are placed on an “extra list” for
individual occupations. From these lists, they
are called to fill vacancies that arise due to vaca­
tions, days off, or illness of men on regular
jobs. They also may be called for extra work
because of an increase in railroad traffic. As
regular job assignments become available and
as the extra board workers gain experience and
seniority, they are assigned to regular posi­
tions. The time spent on extra board work
varies with the type of job and the number of
available openings. In some cases workers may
not receive regular assignments for a number
of years.
Apprenticeship programs are limited chiefly
to trainees in the railroad shop crafts. Many
of these programs are jointly planned and op­
erated by the companies and the railroad work­
ers’ unions. Of the several thousand men who
were taking this kind of training in 1960, the
majority were “regular” apprentices, usually
high school graduates with no previous work
experience, who were working and receiving
instruction in their chosen trades for a 4-year
period. Others were “helpier” apprentices, men
with some previous experience as railroad work­
ers, who were receiving the same kind of train­
ing, usually for a 3-year period.
Applicants with a high school education or
its equivalent are preferred by railroad com­
panies for most kinds of nonprofessional posi­
tions. Good physical condition is required for
most jobs, and almost all large railroads require
applicants to pass physical examinations before
they are hired. Excellent hearing and eyesight
are essential for train and engine service jobs,
and color blindness is an absolute bar to em­


ployment in any kind of work involving the
interpretation of railroad signals.
Promotions of qualified workers are gen­
erally made on the basis of seniority. Most job
vacancies are listed on a bulletin board, and all
workers who are interested may “bid” for
them. The job goes to the qualified applicant
whose length of service places him highest on
the seniority list. Often, before workers can
qualify for promotion, they must pass written
and performance tests. For occupations in train
and engine service, there are well-established
avenues of promotion. Engineers are always
chosen from the ranks of the firemen, and con­
ductors from the list of brakemen.
A railroad worker’s seniority usually en­
titles him to promotion only for job openings
which occur within a limited area or “seniority
district” of the railroad system for which he
works. In some cases, seniority rights may ap­
ply only to one shop, locality, or office. Among
train and engine personnel, seniority rights may
be limited either to road (freight and pas­
senger) service, or yard service. Workers may
bid only for positions in the particular type of
service in which they have been employed.
The worker’s seniority also determines how
much choice he may have with respect to his
working conditions. A beginning telegrapher,
for instance, may have to work several years on
a night shift in an out-of-the-way location be­
fore he accumulates enough seniority to get an
assignment without these disadvantages.
(Later sections of this chapter contain more
complete information about the training and
other qualifications for specific occupations in
the railroad industry.)
Employment Outlook

The total number of persons employed by the
railroad industry is expected to continue to de­
cline during the 1960 decade, but job oppor­
tunities will be available for thousands of new
workers. The railroads have one of the largest
work forces in American industry, with a high
proportion of older workers. Many jobs will
become vacant because of retirements, deaths,
promotions to other railroad jobs, and trans­
fers to other fields of work. Retirements and

deaths alone may result in an estimated 200,000
job openings during the 1960’s.
The number of job openings for new workers
will differ from one company to another, but
they will probably be most numerous in con­
struction work along the right of way, in signal
installation and maintenance jobs, and in office
work. On many railroads it probably will be
more difficult for new workers to obtain jobs in
highly specialized railroad work such as that
done by telegraphers and tow.ermen and by
train and engine crews. This is because many
specialized workers, who have been furloughed
in recent years, will find it relatively difficult
to obtain jobs at the same skill level outside the
railroad industry. Seniority agreements, in
most instances, provide for recalling furloughed
men to their former jobs according to their
length of service on the job. An effort is being
made, also, to use furloughed workers in other
occupations before hiring new workers. Thus
the opportunities for new workers in some spe­
cialized occupations are severely limited.
Employment has been declining over the past
few decades and this trend has continued in
recent years. Between 1955 and 1960, employ­
ment dropped by more than 25 percent, from
about 1.2 million to 895,000. One of the main
reasons for the decline has been competition
from other kinds of transportation—notably
automobiles, trucks, buses, airplanes, and pipe­
lines—which has resulted in a drop in freight
and, especially, passenger traffic.
The improvements in railroad equipment and
methods of operation during recent years have
also been important factors in reducing em­
ployment requirements. Railroad employment
has also declined because of developments such
as modernized freight classification yards and
automatic signaling and communications sys­
tems, the use of mechanical equipment in maintenance-of-way operations, and the use of elec­
tric and electronic business machines in railroad
offices. Along with these reductions, however,
some new job opportunities are developing for
workers with specialized knowledge of the main­
tenance, installation, and operation of the new
kinds of equipment which are coming into more
general use.
Most of the factors which have led to reduced

employment in the past will continue to depress
railroad employment during the 1960,s. In ad­
dition, mergers of two or more competing rail­
roads serving the same general area could fur­
ther reduce railroad employment by eliminating
duplicate facilities such as terminals. Some
mergers of railroad lines have occurred in re­
cent years, and current discussions of mergers
between other railroad companies may result in
many more mergers in the 1960’s. Employment
opportunities for railroad operating employees
may also be affected by changes in work rules.
These changes may result from recommenda­
tions to be issued by a Presidential Commission
set up in November 1960 to examine railroad
work rules and practices.
In contrast to the trend in recent years, rail­
road freight traffic is expected to rise con­
siderably in the 1960,s, because the large in­
crease anticipated in general business activity
will result in greater production and transpor­
tation of goods. Also, the railroads’ freight
traffic may increase as a result of improvements
in the handling of freight, for example, the
carrying of truck trailers (“piggyback”) and
other types of containers on railroad flat cars.
The additional employment expected to result
from increased freight traffic will tend to slow
down the overall decline in railroad employ­
Earnings and Working Conditions

Average earnings of railroad workers are
higher than those of workers in most manu­
facturing industries. Employees of class I linehaul railroads, exclusive of executives and ad­
ministrative personnel, averaged $2.60 an hour
and $108.42 a week in 1960, whereas production
workers in all manufacturing industries aver­
aged $2.29 an hour and $90.91 a week.
The earnings of individual railroad workers
vary greatly because of the great variety of
occupations and skill requirements in this in­
dustry. Geographic differences in wage levels
are considerably less than in most other in­
dustries, since the wage scales specified in many
labor-management contracts in the railroad in­
dustry are identical throughout the country.
(Earnings in some of the principal occupations


are discussed in later sections of this chapter.)
The great majority of railroad workers are
members of trade unions and many of the con­
ditions under which they work are regulated
by collective bargaining agreements. Contracts
between the unions and the railroad companies
contain clauses dealing with wage rates, hours
of work, vacation pay, seniority, and other mat­
ters. (The principal unions representing each
occupational group are listed in the sections of
this chapter which deal with individual occupa­
The work schedules of railroad employees and
the conditions under which they are paid for
overtime work depend upon the type of opera­
tion in which they are employed. The great
majority of railroad employees work at ter­
minals—in yards, stations, and railroad of­
fices. In 1960, the “basic” workweek for most
workers in this group was a 5-day week of 40
hours. Premium pay amounting to time and
one-half the regular wage rate, was usually
paid for any time worked over 8 hours a day.
In freight and passenger road service, the
basic workday for train and engine crews is
established on an entirely different basis. Gen­
erally, when a member of the train or engine
crew has covered a specified number of miles,
or worked a certain number of hours—which­
ever occurs first—he is paid for a full day’s
work at his regular wage. He receives extra
pay for any additional miles covered or hours
worked on that day.
The basic hours of employees directly con­
cerned with looking after the needs of pas­
sengers aboard trains—dining car cooks and
waiters, Pullman porters, and train attendants
—are set on a monthly basis. In 1960, workers
in these jobs received time and one-half pay
for hours worked over 240 a month. Those
employed on regular assignments were guar­
anteed at least 205 hours of work a month.
Because freight shippers and the traveling
public must be served 24 hours a day, the mem­
bers of train and engine crews, as well as hos­
tlers, telegraphers and telephoners, and station
agents, are often required to work nights, week­
ends, and on holidays. Irregular work schedules
are particularly common for extra board work­
ers, since they have no regular assignments and



may be called to work any time of the day or ployment Insurance Act provides benefits for
night. Some railroad workers, like bridge and railroad workers who become unemployed. In
building mechanics and certain track and road 1960, these benefits ranged from *$22.50 to
maintenance workers are required to work $51.00 a week depending on earnings. Unem­
away from home for days at a time.
ployment benefits are paid for a period up to
Practically all railroad employees receive 1 26 weeks, but workers with 10 or more years
week’s paid vacation after 1 year on the payroll, of service can receive benefits for a longer
2 weeks after 3 years, and 3 weeks after 15’ period.
Under the Railroad Unemployment Insurance
years of service. On many roads, nonoperating
employees and some classes of yard workers re­ Act, railroad workers also receive compensa­
tion for workdays lost because of sickness or
ceive pay for 7 holidays a year.
Under the federally administered Railroad injury. The amount of the benefits paid is the
Retirement Act, all employees with more than same as the amount paid in the case of unem­
10 years of service in the railroad industry re­ ployment.
Other insurance programs, operated under
ceive pensions upon retirement. They receive
full pensions when they reach 65 years of age agreements with trade unions, provide group
and partial pensions at age 60, provided they life insurance to nonoperating employees and
have worked for the railroads for at least 30 comprehensive hospital and medical insurance
years. Employees with 10 or more years of serv­ to these employees and their dependents.
ice who become disabled and are unable to con­
tinue to work, and the dependent wives and Where To Go for More Information
husbands of railroad workers who have died
Additional information about occupations in
also receive pensions. In February 1961, the
average pension paid to railroad workers who the railroad industry can be obtained from rail­
were retired because of age or disability was road offices in your locality. General informa­
about $133 a month; the average pension paid tion about the railroad industry can be obtained
to survivors of railroad workers, about $60 a from:
Association of American Railroads,
Another Federal law, the Railroad Unem­
Transportation Building, Washington 6, D.C.
Locomotive Engineers

(D.O.T. 5-41.010)

Nature of Work

The engineer is responsible for running the
locomotive safely and efficiently. He operates
the throttle, air brakes, and other controls, and
he supervises the work of the fireman (helper)
who works in the cab with him. The engineer
may work in a railroad yard or on the road in
passenger or freight service.
The yard engineer operates the locomotive or
switch-engine, which is used to move freight
and passenger cars when trains are being made
up before a run and broken up after a run, or
when cars are being switched for loading or
unloading. The engineer in passenger or
freight service operates the locomotive which
moves trains over the road, in accordance with

the train orders for each run or any instruc­
tions received en route through the conductor,
the wayside signal system, or by train radio.
Before and after each run, the engineer
checks on the condition of the locomotive and
either sees that minor adjustments are made
on the spot or reports back to the yard on any
mechanical defects needing attention. With the
assistance of the firemen or helper, he checks
his reading of wayside signals and other in­
structions, and watches for obstructions on the
In 1960, about 36,220 engineers were em­
ployed by class I line-haul railroads, and a few
thousand more were employed by short-line
railways and switching and terminal com-



be restricted to working as engineers only in
certain types of service, or they may be trans­
ferred to other kinds of work where physical
standards are less exacting.
Employment Outlook

Engineer observing conditions ahead during freight run.

panies. The class I railroads employed 15,800
in the yards, 15,580 in freight service, and
4,840 in passenger train service.
Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement

Vacancies which occur in engineer positions
are filled by firemen who have qualified for pro­
motion. Selection is on a seniority basis. In
order to qualify, a fireman (helper) must pass
comprehensive examinations which deal with
the train’s mechanical and electrical equipment,
and with fuel economy, safety, timetables, train
orders, and other operating rules and regula­
tions. He must also be able to operate any kind
of locomotive in service on his road.
A ne\yly promoted engineer starts out as an
extra board man without any regular assign­
ment. It may be several years before he re­
ceives such an assignment. During this period,
he works on temporary assignments whenever
an engineer is needed. An experienced engineer
may advance to a supervisory position such as
foreman of engines for his road.
Engineers are required to take physical exam­
inations at regular intervals. It is particularly
important that they have good eyesight and
hearing. If they fail at any time to meet all
of the physical standards required, they may

Under present work rules, the number of job
openings that will be available as locomotive
engineers in the 1960’s will be limited. Vir­
tually all openings as locomotive engineers, most
of these workers are in the older age groups,
will arise from the need to fill positions left
vacant by engineers who retire or die. These
positions will be filled by firemen (helpers) who
are promoted, or by firemen whose jobs as en­
gineers were terminated during recent years
because of cutbacks in railroad services. Future
employment opportunities in this occupation
may also be influenced by recommendations
which may be made by a Presidential Commis­
sion, established in November 1960 to study
work rules of railroad operating employees.
The number of engineers employed by the
railroads has been declining for some years be­
cause of the decrease in railroad business and
the introduction of diesel engines, “pushbut­
ton” freight yards, and other changes in rail­
road equipment and operating methods. The
total number of engineers employed by class
I line-haul railroads dropped from about 49,500
in 1950 to about 36,220 in 1960 and some fur­
ther decrease is expected during the 1960’s.
Earnings and Working Conditions

The earnings of engineers depend on the class
of locomotive operated and the kind of service
in which the engineer is employed. Engineers
in yard service for class I line-haul railroads
(including extra board men) earned, on the
average, about $798 a month in 1960. In
through-freight service, engineers averaged
$877 a month and in local and way-freight
service $1,064 a month. The earnings of pas­
senger service engineers averaged about $1,041
a month in 1960.
In 1960, most yard engineers on regular
jobs worked a basic 8-hour day for 6 days a
week; the others worked 5- or 7-day weeks.



For work beyond 8 hours daily, they were paid
at one and one-half times their regular rates.
In addition to their basic day’s pay, road serv­
ice engineers received extra pay under certain
conditions; for example, when they travel more
than 100 miles during a run.
On many roads, the amount a road engineer
may earn in a single month is governed by
mileage limitations agreed upon by the unions
and the railroad companies. Whenever an en­
gineer on one of these roads reaches the top
number of miles he is permitted to operate a
locomotive during a month, his assignment for
the rest of the month is taken over by another
engineer—usually an extra board man.
The engineer in road service, even though on
a regular assignment, is often scheduled to
work nights, weekends, and holidays. Like
other workers in road service, he must often
“lay over” away from home for a period of

time at the end of a run before he makes the
return trip back to his home terminal. At such
times, he must pay for his own meals and other
living expenses that he may incur.
The assignments of engineers on the extra
board may be very irregular, because these men
may be called to work at any time of the day or
night, and the amount of traffic varies from
one season to another on many roads. Extra
board engineers are also likely to have less
work, with the result that their earnings may
be lower than those of men with regular as­
On all major railroads, wages and the con­
ditions under which engineers work are agreed
upon by employers and unions. The great ma­
jority of engineers are represented by the
Brotherhood of Locomotive Engineers (Ind.).
A few are represented by the Brotherhood of
Locomotive Firemen and Enginemen.

Locomotive Firemen (Helpers)

(D.O.T. 5-42.100)

Nature of Work

The locomotive fireman (or “helper” as he is
called when working on a diesel locomotive)
works with the engineer either in the railroad
yards or in road service. On diesel locomotives,
he operates mechanical and electrical controls
when necessary to assure the continuous flow
of power needed to drive the locomotive. On
the limited number of steam locomotives in use
today, he maintains proper steam pressure in
the locomotive boiler by operating valves which
control fuel and water supply.
At the beginning of each run, the fireman
(helper) checks to make sure that the locomotive
is supplied with the fuel and water needed for
the run, that the engine is in proper working
order, and that the flagging equipment, classi­
fication markers, and tools needed by the engine
crew are on hand and ready for use. During
the run; he makes mechanical and electrical
adjustments as needed to keep the engine in
proper working order. He is responsible for
operating the equipment which supplies heat
to the train. From his position at theMeft side

of the cab, the fireman (helper) also assists
the engineer by acting as lookout for obstruc­
tions on tracks and at grade crossings, and by
checking wayside signals which indicate the
speed at which the train is to proceed. In ad­
dition, he inspects the train as it rounds curves,
because this side view of the train enables him
to spot smoke, sparks, fire, and other signs
which indicate defective equipment.
The fireman (helper) must be prepared at any
time to take over the controls of the locomotive,
should the engineer become ill or otherwise in­
capacitated. An important part of his job,
therefore, is learning to operate the locomotive
by observing the engineer. Often he may be
called upon to relieve the engineer at the con­
trols for brief periods, or to take the controls
for a “practice run.”
Class I line-haul railroads employed about 38,765 firemen in 1960, and short-line railways and
switching and terminal companies a few thou­
sand more. Of the firemen on class I roads,
17,970 worked in the railroad yards, 16,470 in
road freight service, and about 4,325 in pas­
senger service.

Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement

Most railroads prefer that applicants for posi­
tions as firemen (helper) be at least 21 years of
age and not over 35. Some roads accept ap­
plicants up to 45 years of age. A high school
education or its equivalent is desired. Good
health is important, and firemen must be able
to pass periodic physical examinations. Stand­
ards as to eyesight and hearing are particularly
A beginning fireman first makes a series of
trial trips in the railroad yard or on the road.
On these trips, he works under the direction of
an experienced engineer or fireman who in­
structs him about his future duties and about
railroad rules and regulations. This training
period lasts for a few days on some roads and
for as long as 3 weeks on others. After the
newly hired fireman has satisfactorily demon­
strated his ability on the trial trips, and after
he has passed examinations on railroad rules
and regulations, his name is placed on the fire­
man’s extra board and he becomes subject to
call for temporary work assignments as men
are needed. He may remain on extra board
work for a period of time which can range up
to several years before he obtains his first reg­
ular assignment. On some roads, beginning as­
signments are in yard service and the fireman
works his way up later to road freight service
and then to road passenger service. On other
railroads, firemen usually remain either in yard
service or in road service throughout their rail­
road careers.
Firemen with sufficient experience and sen­
iority—usually at least 3 or 4 years—can be­
come eligible for promotion to the position of
engineer by passing qualifying examinations
covering the mechanical and electrical equip­
ment on trains, air brake systems, fuel economy,
timetables, train orders, and other operating
rules and regulations. As engineers are needed,
qualified firemen with the greatest seniority are
placed on the engineers’ extra board.
Employment Outlook

Under present work rules, there will be some
opportunities for new workers to obtain jobs
as locomotive firemen during the 1960’s. Job


openings will arise chiefly because of the need
to replace firemen who transfer to other kinds
of work, or those who advance to the jobs as
engineers, retire, or die. Future employment
opportunities in this occupation may be in­
fluenced by recommendations which may be
made by a Presidential Commission established
in November 1960 to study work rules of oper­
ating employees.
Changes in road equipment and yard-operating methods, together with the decline in rail­
road traffic, caused the number of locomotive
firemen employed by class I line-haul railroads
to decline from about 51,500 in 1950 to 38,765
in 1960. During the 1960’s, the expected decline
in passenger service and further changes in
yard-operating methods will probably result
in a further decline in the number of firemen
employed. Opportunities for new workers to
obtain jobs as firemen will also be limited by
the practice of transferring engineers, whose
jobs are terminated because of reductions in
railroad services, to positions as firemen.
Earnings and Working Conditions

The earnings of firemen depend on the class
of locomotive on which they work and the type
of service for which it is operated. Firemen in
yard service for class I line-haul railroads (in­
cluding extra board men) averaged $617 a
month in 1960. Freight service firemen aver­
aged $853 monthly on local and way freight
trains, and $675 monthly on through freight
trains. Road passenger firemen averaged $884
monthly in 1960.
In 1960, firemen in yard service worked a
basic 8-hour day and 40-hour week, and one
and one-half times the basic hourly rate was
paid for work beyond these hours. Firemen in
road service received extra pay under certain
conditions; for example, when they traveled
more than 100 miles during a run. On many
roads, the amount that firemen in road service
could earn in a single month was governed by
mileage limitations agreed upon by the unions
and the railroad companies. Whenever a fireman
on one of these roads reached the maximum
number of miles he was permitted to cover in
a month, his assignment for the rest of the



month was taken over by another fireman—
usually a man on the extra board.
Firemen must often work at night and on
weekends and holidays because train schedules
require 24-hour-a-day service. Road service
often requires that they be away from their
home stations for varying periods of time; on
these occasions, firemen must pay their own
living expenses. Irregular working hours are
particularly common among men on the extra
board and in road freight service. Extra board

men tend to have less work and therefore lower
incomes than firemen with regular assignments.
On many roads, the amount of work varies from
one season of the year to another.
Workers in this occupation are covered by
union contracts on all major roads. The great
majority of firemen are represented by the
Brotherhood of Locomotive Firemen and Enginemen. A few are members of the Brother­
hood of Locomotive Engineers (Ind.).


(D.O.T. 0-92.00 through .29)
Nature of Work

Conductors are responsible for seeing that
railroad cars are moved according to train
orders or other instructions, either when the
train is on its run or when cars are in the
railroad yards. Freight and passenger train
conductors are the “captains” of their trains.
They are responsible for the safety of their
cargoes and passengers, and they supervise the
work of the train crews.
Before a freight or passenger train leaves the
terminal, the conductor receives the train
orders from the dispatcher and confers with
other crew members to make sure they under­
stand the orders. During the run, he sees that
the cars in the train are inspected periodically
and arranges either for the repair of mechanical
breakdowns while the train is on its run, or
for defective cars to be set out on the nearest
siding. At stops, he signals to the engineer the
proper time for departure. As the superior offi­
cer on the train, the conductor takes charge in
any emergency that may occur while the train
is on its run, and all persons employed on it
are subject to his instructions.
On freight trains, the conductor keeps a rec­
ord of the contents and destination of each car,
and he sees that freight cars are picked up and
set out along the route. On passenger trains, the
conductor collects tickets and cash fares.
Yard conductors, who are often called “yard
foremen,” direct the work of the switching
crews who make up and break up trains. In
mechanized yards, they operate the car re­

tarders by means of which the movement of
cars is controlled electronically.
Of the 39,020 conductors employed by class
I line-haul railroads in 1960, about 13,735 were
in freight service, 4,080 on passenger trains,
and 18,920 in yard service; 2,285 were employed
as assistant passenger conductors and ticket
collectors. Switching and terminal companies
and short-line railways also employed several
thousand conductors.
Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement

Openings for conductors are filled on a sen­
iority basis by promotion of qualified brakemen.
To qualify for promotion, a man usually must
have had several years’ experience as a brakeman, and must have passed examinations cover­
ing signals, air brakes, timetables, operating
rules, and related subjects. On some roads,
those who have qualified for promotion are first
given temporary assignments as conductors
while they are still working as brakeman. On
other roads, brakenlen promoted to conductor
positions are put on the extra board where they
are given temporary assignments as men are
needed. In either case, as regular conductor as­
signments become available, they are assigned
to the men with the greatest seniority.
On most roads, conductors in yard service
and in road service have separate seniority
lists, and they usually remain in one of these
two types of service throughout their careers.
A few roads, however, start conductors on yard



The number of conductors on class I line-haul
railroads declined from about 46,500 in 1950
to 39,020 in 1960, owing to the decline of pas­
senger traffic and the trend toward longer
freight trains and the mechanization of yard
operations. As more and more of the yard con­
ductors’ work is speeded up by the use of new
devices such as radar “eyes” and closed-circuit
television, it is expected that the number of
conductors will continue to decline in the
Earnings and Working Conditions

Conductor and brakeman on freight train making out
trip reports.

assignments, and then move them to freight
service and finally to passenger service.
The conductor is the member of the train
crew who has the most direct contact with the
public and it is important that he be able to
act effectively as the railroad’s representative.
Conductors who show special ability of this
kind may advance to managerial positions.
Several top railroad executives were once
Employment Outlook

Under present work rules, there will be a
moderate number of opportunities for brakemen to be promoted to jobs as conductors during
the 1960’s, even though the total number of
conductors is expected to decline during this
period. Conductors comprise one of the oldest
age groups in the Nation’s work force, and job
openings will develop principally to replace those
who retire, die, or leave railroading for some
other reason. Future employment opportunities
in this occupation may also be influenced by
recommendations which may be made by a
Presidential Commission established in Novem­
ber 1960 to study work rules of operating

The type of service in which they are em­
ployed and the number of cars in their trains
determine the basic earnings of conductors; for
work in mountainous regions, they receive extra
pay. In 1960, yard conductors employed by class
I line-haul railroads earned an average of $721
a month. In road freight service, conductors on
local and way freight trains averaged $994
monthly, and conductors on through freight
trains averaged $830 a month. The average for
passenger conductors was $908 and for assistant
passenger conductors and ticket collectors $794
a month in 1960.
In 1960, conductors in yard service worked
a basic 8-hour day and 5-day week. For work
beyond these hours, they were paid one and onehalf times their basic wage rates. The pay re­
ceived by passenger and freight conductors is
based on a combination of miles traveled and
hours worked. Under this practice these con­
ductors may receive more for a trip than their
basic day’s pay.
Like all other road crew members, conductors
in freight or passenger service are often sched­
uled to work nights, weekends, and on holidays.
During the time spent “laying over,” after one
run has been completed and before the con­
ductor makes the return trip to his home
terminal, he must pay for his own meals and
any other living expenses. Conductors on extra
board work often have very irregular hours be­
cause they are subject to call at any time. They
may also work less time than conductors with
regular assignments and, therefore, earn less.
Conductors on every major railroad are



covered by union contracts. Freight and pas­
senger conductors are represented principally
by the Order of Railway Conductors and Brakemen (Ind.) or the Brotherhood of Railroad

Trainmen. Yard conductors (or yard foremen)
have been organized by the Brotherhood of Rail­
road Trainmen and the Switchmen's Union of
North America.


(D.O.T. 5-38.010 and .020)
Nature of Work

freight service and sometimes involves shorter
working hours.
When they have acquired sufficient seniority,
brakemen in road service may advance to posi­
tions as conductors. Less frequently, they go on
to positions as baggagemen. Conductor posi­
tions are nearly always filled by promoting
brakemen who have qualified by passing writ­
ten and oral examinations covering such sub­
jects as signals, timetables, brake systems, and
operating rules. Promotions are made accord­
ing to seniority rules, and it may take up to
10 years or more for a brakeman to get his
first assignment as a conductor.

Brakemen work with the conductors as mem­
bers of the train crews on freight and pas­
senger trains and in the railroad yards. One
brakeman (or “flagman”) is generally stationed
in the rear of each freight and passenger train ;
his duties include seeing that the proper flags,
warning lights, and other signals are displayed
at the rear of the train in order to protect it
while it is in motion and at stops. Most freight
and passenger trains carry at least one other
brakeman who is stationed in the front end of
the train and whose duties include putting out
signals to protect the front of the train at
unexpected stops.
Before a train leaves the station, the brake- Employment Outlook
man in road service checks the air brakes on
Under present work rules, several thousand
the cars and sees that tools and other equipment
are in their proper places. At stops during the opportunities for new workers to obtain jobs
run, he makes “walking inspections" of the as brakemen will, develop during the 1960's
cars in the train and, when necessary, couples even though the total number of brakemen em­
and uncouples cars and air hose. He is re­ ployed by the railroad industry is expected to
sponsible for regulating the air-conditioning, decline during this period. Job openings will
lighting, and heating equipment in the cars. develop almost entirely as a result of retire­
Brakemen in passenger service (often known ments and deaths of conductors and brakemen
as “trainmen") sometimes have the added duty and because of promotions and transfers to
of assisting the conductor by collecting tickets other work. Future employment opportunities
and generally looking after the needs of the in this occupation may also be influenced by
passengers. Yard brakemen (frequently called recommendations which may be made by a Pres­
“switchmen" or “helpers") assist in making up idential Commission established in November
and breaking up trains by throwing switches, 1960 to study work rules of operating em­
coupling and uncoupling freight and passenger ployees.
The number of brakemen employed by class I
cars, and riding on them to control their speed
line-haul railroads declined from about 102,000
as they are moved about the yard.
Yard brakemen may advance to positions as in 1950 to 85,525 in 1960. During the 1960's,
yard conductors; usually they stay in yard serv­ work in railroad yards is expected to become
ice throughout their railroad careers. On some increasingly mechanized, with the use of auto­
roads, brakemen in road service may move from matic car retarders, automatic switching, and
freight into passenger work, usually considered other devices. This is expected to result in a
more desirable because it is less strenuous than further decline in the employment of brakemen.



Earnings and Working Conditions

The number of cars in the train and the type
of service in which he is employed determine
the earnings of a brakeman; extra pay is given
for work in mountainous country. The average
monthly earnings of yard brakemen employed
by class I line-haul railroads were $578 in 1960.
Brakemen on through freight trains averaged
$665 a month and those employed on local and
way freight trains averaged $849 monthly in
1960. The monthly average for passenger train
brakemen was $786 in 1960.
In 1960, brakemen in yard service had a 5day, 40-hour basic workweek, and for work be­
yond this they were paid one and one-half times
their regular hourly rates. In addition to their
basic day’s pay, brakemen in road, passenger,
or freight service earned extra pay under cer­
tain conditions; for example, when they trav­

eled more than 100 miles on a freight run or
150 miles on a passenger run.
Like other members of train and engine
crews, brakemen are often scheduled to work
nights and on weekends and holidays. They
pay their own living expenses while on duty
away from their home terminals. Brakemen
who are on the extra board and have been em­
ployed by the railroad for only a short time
tend to have less steady work and lower earn­
ings than men with regular assignments, and
they may also work more irregular hours. Yard
and freight brakemen face considerably greater
accident risks than most other railroad workers.
The great majority of brakemen are repre­
sented by the Brotherhood of Railroad Train­
men. The Order of Railway Conductors and
Brakemen (Ind.) has organized freight and
passenger brakemen on a few roads, however,
and the Switchmen’s Union of North America
has organized some yard brakemen.

Pullman Porters and Passenger Attendants

(D.O.T. 2-91.10)

Nature of Work

Pullman porters make up berths in sleeping
cars, keep the cars in order, make sure that
washrooms are clean and adequately supplied
with towels, and handle luggage. They make
trips more comfortable and enjoyable for pas­
sengers by their services, as helping invalids
and otherwise attending to passengers’ personal
wants, answering questions about the train
route, and looking for passengers’ lost or for­
gotten property. Porters must know how to
operate the heating, lighting, and air condi­
tioning equipment on Pullman cars. Porters-inchatge, employed on some trains that do not
have Pullman conductors, collect Pullman tick­
ets, sell space and keep records, in addition to
handling regular porter duties.
On club cars and other cars where refresh­
ments are served, passenger attendants prepare
and serve beverages and light meals and also
perform any necessary porter work. On some
roads, busboys assist the attendants on large
club cars.
In early 1961, the Pullman Company em

Pullman porter adjusting pillow for passenger’s

ployed about 3,500 porters on regular assign­
ments and 1,500 on fill-in assignments, mainly
on sleeping cars, and about 350 passengers at­



tendants and 50 bus boys. Line-haul railroads
operating their own sleeping or parlor cars em­
ployed an additional 500 porters and 300 at­
Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement

Applicants for porter jobs should be between
21 and 45 years of age, and be able to make
simple mathematical calculations. To qualify
for an attendant's job, previous experience as a
busboy or porter is desirable. Applicants for
all of these jobs undergo physical examinations,
and those who handle food are reexamined
every 90 days.
Porters starting oh the job go through a
training period of approximately 2 weeks, get­
ting instruction from a porter-instructor, and
working on a train under the supervision of an
experienced porter. After this training period,
the employee works as a porter for a 6-month
probationary period. He starts on the extra
board, and is given temporary assignments as
men are needed, and later, when he has gained
seniority, bids for a regular assignment.
Busboys, as well as porters, may be promoted
to attendant positions when openings occur.
Porters may become porters-in-charge or por­
Employment Outlook

A limited number of opportunities in these
small fields will arise in the 1960's because of
retirements, deaths, and transfers to other oc­
cupations. Virtually all job openings for por­
ters and attendants will probably be filled by
furloughed workers, particularly to meet tem­
porary seasonal needs. Porters and attendants,
like other groups whose employment depends
mainly on the volume of first-class (Pullman)
passenger traffic, have been decreasing in num­
ber in recent years, and the number is expected
to continue to decrease in the 1960's.

Earnings and Working Conditions

In 1960, porters, attendants, and busboys
working on regular assignments for the Pull­
man Company were guaranteed a monthly wage
based on 205 hours of work. Although extra
board men did not have a guaranteed wage, the
company nevertheless tried to schedule enough
work for them to maintain their earnings at no
less than two-thirds of the basic month's pay.
All hours worked by porters, attendants, and
busboys, up to a total of 240 a month, were
paid for at straight-time rates. Time and onehalf was paid for work in excess of 240 hours a
In 1960, the basic rates for porters (repre­
senting pay for 205 hours of work a month)
ranged from $419.36 a month for beginning
workers to a maximum of $430.36 after 15
years of service. (Porters-in-charge receive an
additional $32.50 a month.) Comparable rates
for attendants were $431.86 for beginners and
$441.46 for those with 15 years or more of
service. Busboys started at $418.66 and reached
a maximum of about $428.26 a month after
15 years of service. In addition to these basic
monthly rates, porters, attendants, and busboys
receive tips which often vary with type of serv­
ice performed for passengers.
On night runs, sleeping-car porters are pro­
vided sleeping accommodations. The porter in
the adjacent car services the car of the porter
released for sleep. Porters pay 50 percent of
the cost of most of their uniforms. When on a
run, they may buy dining car meals at approxi­
mately 60 percent of the regular price.
Porters receive life insurance benefits, and
they and their dependents are covered by medi­
cal, surgical, and hospitalization programs, fi­
nanced entirely by the employer.
Most porters are represented by the Brother­
hood of Sleeping Car Porters.


Dining Car Cooks

(D.O.T. 2-26.40 through .49)
Nature of Work

Employment Outlook

Dining car cooks prepare the meals served
on trains. There may be from one to four cooks
in a dining car kitchen, depending on the size
of the kitchen and the number of customers
expected. When four cooks are employed, each
has specialized tasks. The chef keeps a record
of the supplies on hand and supervises the work
of the kitchen crew, roasts and carves meats
and poultry, and garnishes dishes. The second
cook fries and broils meat, bakes muffins and
rolls, and puts the food on the plates. The third
cook prepares soup, vegetables, and coffee and
works at the steam table. The fourth cook, or
“helper,” is the vegetable peeler, dishwasher,
and general cleanup man. Many dining cars
carry fewer than four cooks, and each man is
therefore required to perform some additional
tasks. Approximately 2,275 dining car cooks
were employed by the railroads in 1960.
(Information about the nature of the work
performed by other cooks, employed in res­
taurants operated by the railroads, may be
found elsewhere in this Handbook. See index
for page numbers.)

Opportunities for new workers to enter this
small field in the 1960’s will be very limited.
In recent years, many cooks have been laid off
and placed on furlough. Before new workers
are hired to fill openings which occur during
the next several years, these furloughed em­
ployees will be called back either to fill tem­
porary jobs which become available because of
seasonal peaks in passenger service, or to replace
men who retire, die, or find a job outside the
railroad industry.
Like other railroad workers whose employ­
ment depends mainly on the volume of pas­
senger traffic, dining car cooks decreased in
number during the 1950’s, and the number is
expected to continue to decrease in the 1960’s.

Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement

The railroads prefer that applicants for jobs
as dining car cooks have a high school educa­
tion and some experience in the preparation of
food. They are required to pass strict physical
examinations and undergo periodic tests for
communicable diseases.
New workers generally begin as fourth cooks
and are given only temporary assignments. As
the cook gains experience, he is usually assigned
to a regular run. After 2 or 3 years’ experience,
a fourth cook may be promoted to third cook.
He may remain in this job for 5 or more years
before becoming a second cook, after which it
generally takes an additional 3 to 5 years to
work up to the position of chef.

Earnings and Working Conditions

Basic monthly rates paid by a large midwestern railroad for a 205-hour month in 1960
ranged from about $409, or $2 an hour, for
fourth cooks, to $491 or $2.40 an hour for chefs.
These rates were generally representative of
those paid by railroads throughout the country.
Nationally, all hours worked up to a total of
240 a month were paid for at basic rates, and
work in excess of 240 hours was paid for at
time and a half. The railroads furnish the
coats and aprons worn on the job. When cooks
are away from their home terminals, they are
provided free meals and sleeping quarters.
Disabling injuries are more frequent among
cooks than among many other groups of rail­
road workers because cooks work with sharp
knives and near hot stoves, and the sudden
jerks and swaying of the dining car increases
the danger of cuts or burns.
The majority of cooks and chefs are organized
by the Hotel and Restaurant Employees and
Bartenders International Union.


Dining Car Waiters

(D.O.T. 2-27.95)

Nature of Work

Waiters are employed by the railroads to
serve meals in dining cars. Many dining cars
carry a full crew of six waiters, each of whom
has several specific duties in addition to taking
orders from customers, serving them food, and
removing dishes from tables. Two waiters serve
as “pantrymen” and are responsible for the
proper storage of food and the preparation of
salads. One waiter takes care of the linen and
water bottles, while another washes, cleans, and
polishes the larger pieces of silverware, such as
sugar bowls, ice tubs, and finger bowls. An­
other waiter is responsible for the flat silver
and glassware, and the remaining waiter keeps
the floors clean. When the crew of waiters is
smaller, each man handles several of these as­
signments. In 1960, the railroad industry em­
ployed almost 4,910 dining car waiters.
Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement

Previous experience as a waiter is an asset
to men seeking positions with the railroads.
Railroads prefer high school graduates who are
ip? their early twenties, fairly tall, and of pleas­
ing appearance. Each new waiter is given a
thorough physical examination and is period­
ically tested for communicable diseases. Ad­
vancement for waiters is limited. A few waiters
may become waiters-in-charge who supervise
the operation of very small dining cars or re­
freshment cars serving light meals. On some
roads, waiters may be promoted to positions as
stewards in charge of dining car staffs.
Employment Outlook

A limited number of job opportunities for

new workers in this small field will arise in the
1960,s, primarily to replace experienced waiters
who retire, die, or transfer to other fields of
work. Some new workers may be hired also for
temporary assignments during seasonal peaks
in passenger service. In recent years, many
experienced waiters have been laid off and
placed on furlough, however, and these fur­
loughed workers will be given opportunities for
reemployment before any new workers are hired
to fill jobs that become available.
Employment of dining car waiters has de­
clined rather sharply since 1950. Like other
groups, whose employment depends mainly on
the volume of passenger traffic, dining car
waiters are expected to continue to decrease in
number in the next decade.
Earnings and Working Conditions

Waiters generally worked 205 hours each
month in 1960. Those employed by a large
midwestern railroad in 1960 received $411 a
month or $2 an hour, in addition to their tips.
These rates were generally representative of
those paid by railroads throughout the country.
Nationally, any extra hours worked each month,
up to a total of 240, were paid for at the regular
hourly rate; for any time worked over 240
hours a month, they received time and one-half
pay. Waiters who serve as pantrymen are paid
a few dollars extra each month, and those who
go through the railroad coaches selling sand­
wiches and other items receive a small commis­
sion on their sales. Jackets and aprons worn by
waiters are furnished by the railroads.
Waiters are organized primarily by the Hotel
and Restaurant Employees and Bartenders In­
ternational Union.

Telegraphers, Telephoners, and Towermen

(D.O.T. 1-41.22 and 5-44.020)

Nature of Work

Telegraphers, telephoners, and towermen are
concerned with controlling the movement of
trains in accordance with instructions issued

by the train dispatchers. Telegraphers and
telephoners receive train orders from the dis­
patchers and pass them on to the train crews.
Towermen operate the controls which throw

track switches and set signals in order to route
traffic according to train schedules or special
orders. To some extent, the three jobs are inter­
changeable. For example, many towermen also
act as telegraphers and telephoners in trans­
mitting orders, and some telegraphers and tele­
phoners spend part of their time operating
signals. Telegraphers, telephoners, and towermen work either in railroad stations or in
towers located in yards, terminals, and other
important junction points along the railroad’s
right of way. Often, at the largest stations and
towers, either a chief telegrapher, a chief tele­
phone^ or wire chief, or chief tower man (train
director) is in charge of the work.
Telegraphers and telephoners may transmit
information about train orders, as well as other
types of communications relating to the rail­
road’s business, by Morse Code, radio telephone,
telephone, and teletype or some similar device.
Morse Code, which was once generally used for
this purpose, has generally been replaced by the
telephone. At some stations, telegraphers may
sell tickets or do clerical work in addition to
their other duties.
Class I line-haul railroads employed about
19,045 workers in the telegrapher, telephoner,
and towerman group in 1960. About 1,155 were
chief telegraphers and telephoners, and 375
were chief towermen. About 17,515 combined
telegraphing and telephoning with clerical du­
ties in stations. Short-line railways employed
several hundred more of these workers.
Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement

Most telegraphers, telephoners, and towermen
receive their training on the job, working under
the supervision of experienced telegraphers, sta­
tion agents, or towermen. They are instructed
about their future responsibilities, including
operating rules, train orders, station operations,
and the Morse Code. On many roads, trainees
must pass examinations on train operating
rules as well as practical tests on other duties
relating to their future assignments before they
can qualify for permanent positions as teleg­
raphers, telephoners, or towermen.
Most roads place newly hired workers on the
extra board, where they serve on temporary


assignments as men are needed and, after ac­
quiring sufficient seniority, bid for regular as­
signments as telegraphers, towermen, clerktelegraphers, and station agent-telegraphers.
Most railroads prefer applicants for begin­
ning positions to be high school graduates be­
tween 21 and 30 years of age. Applicants must
pass physical examinations which have strict
eyesight and hearing requirements.
A man with the necessary experience and
seniority may be promoted to a position as sta­
tion agent or train dispatcher.
Employment Outlook

There will be a few hundred opportunities
for new workers to become student operators
each year during the 1960’s, even though em­
ployment in this occupational group is expected
to decline somewhat. The openings that occur
will result primarily from the need to replace
experienced workers who retire or die.
Employment on class I line-haul railroads in
the telegrapher, telephoner, and towerman
group dropped from about 26,500 in 1950 to
19,045 in 1960, and it is expected to continue
to decline in the 1960’s. The mechanization of
yard operations, the use of dispatcher-to-train
radio hookups and other new communications
devices, and the extension of centralized traffic
control and other automatic signaling systems
are reducing the number of workers needed to
help control the movement of trains.
Earnings and Working Conditions

The average straight-time hourly earnings of
clerk-telegraphers and clerk-telephoners on class
I line-haul railroads in 1960 were $2.47; teleg­
raphers, telephoners, and towermen averaged
$2.50. Chief telegraphers and telephoners and
chief towermen averaged, respectively, $2.79
and $3.20 an hour in 1960.
Telegraphers worked a basic 40-hour week of
five 8-hour days in 1960, with time and one-half
paid for overtime. Under Federal law, they are
prohibited from working more than 9 hours in
any one day, except in emergencies.
Most telegraphers, telephoners, and tower­
men are members of The Order of Railroad


Station Agents

(D.O.T. 1-44.22)

Nature of Work

Station agents are the railroads’ official rep­
resentatives in dealing with the public at rail­
road stations. Most agents work at small sta­
tions where they sell tickets, check baggage,
calculate freight and express charges, load and
unload freight and express packages, and per­
form many other tasks. They may also serve
as telegraphers and telephoners, receiving and
delivering train orders and other messages per­
taining to the company’s business. In larger
stations, some of this work may be done by
railway clerks, telegraphers, and other employ­
ees working under the station agent’s super­
vision. In major freight and passenger stations
with many railroad employees, the duties of
the station agent are primarily administrative
and supervisory.
About 15,935 station agents were employed
by class I line-haul railroads in 1960. About
13,965 worked in small stations (10,740 of them
acting as telegraphers and telephoners in addi­
tion to their other duties), and 1,970 had super­
visory positions at major stations. The short­
line railways employed several hundred other
agents, chiefly at small stations.
Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement

Positions as agents in small stations or as­
sistant agents in larger ones are usually filled
by promoting experienced telegraphers. Less
frequently, railroad clerks may advance to sta­
tion agent positions. A promotion to an agent’s
position, requires, in addition to the necessary
seniority, a knowledge of train schedules and
routes, rates, bookkeeping methods, signals, and
other railroad business transacted at wayside
Station agents may advance from small to
larger stations or from positions as assistant

agents to agents. They may be promoted to
supervisory positions such as stationmaster or
Employment Outlook

A limited number of opportunities for promo­
tion to station agent jobs will arise each year
during the 1960’s, principally because of the
need to replace agents who retire or die. For
some years the number of station agents em­
ployed by class I line-haul railroads has been
declining; between 1950 and 1960, employment
dropped from about 21,000 to less than 16,000,
principally because some local passenger and
freight services were discontinued. It is ex­
pected that the railroads will discontinue addi­
tional passenger services during the 1960’s, with
the result that the total number of station
agents employed will decline further.
Earnings and Working Conditions

The earnings of station agents vary accord­
ing to the size of the station and the nature of
their duties. In 1960, the earnings of agents
who also served as telegraphers and telephoners
on class I line-haul roads averaged $2.47 an
hour; other agents at small stations who did
not act as telegraphers averaged $2.65 an hour.
Agents at major stations earned a straight-time
average of $3.18 an hour in 1960.
Most agents were paid either by the hour or
by the month in 1960; those in nonsupervisory
positions had a basic 40-hour workweek, and
time and one-half was paid for overtime work.
Whenever agents handled the business of the
Railway Express Agency, they received, in ad­
dition to their regular pay, a commission on the
business transacted,
Many station agents are members of The
Order of Railroad Telegraphers.



(D.O.T. 1-01.31; 1-11.02 through .15; 1-18.74, .93, .97; 1-26.03; 1-13.01, .10; 1-34.02, .04; 1-36.01)
Nature of Work

Railroad clerks handle the huge volume of
paper work necessary to keep an account of
each piece of rolling stock, and transact busi­
ness with freight shippers and the traveling
public. They work in railroad stations, freight
houses, yards, terminals, and company offices.
Clerks make up the largest single group of rail­
road employees—class I line-haul railroads em­
ployed about 116,340 of these workers in 1960,
and short-line railways, thousands more.
The majority of railroad clerks—73,805 on
class I line-haul railroads in 1960—do clerical
work connected with business transactions such
as collecting bills, investigating complaints,
adjusting claims, tracing shipments, compiling
statistics, selling tickets, and keeping books. In
small offices and stations, one man may perform
duties related to several of these jobs, but in
large offices with many employees, each clerk
usually handles a specialized job.
A second group, totaling 21,210 in 1960, con­
sists of secretaries, stenographers, typists, and
operators of calculating, bookkeeping, and
other kinds of office machines. They perform
duties similar to those of workers in the same
kinds of jobs in other industries. (Information
about the nature of the duties of employees in
these clerical jobs may be found elsewhere in
this Handbook. See index for page numbers.)
In 1960, class I line-haul railroads employed
more than 10,490 other railroad clerks in higher
grade “senior” jobs involving more responsible
or technical work. Some of the clerks in this
group prepare the statistics on employment,
traffic, and other matters relating to railroad
operations which are required periodically by
the Federal Government. Others, called “cash­
iers,” deal with customers on such matters as
uncollected freight bills. Still others do account­
ing work related to their companies’ use of
terminals and other facilities which are owned
jointly by several roads.
A fourth group are the supervisory and chief
clerks. In 1960, they numbered about 10,835 on
class I line-haul railroads. They not only super

Railroad clerk checking car numbers in freight yard.

vise the work of other railroad clerks and as­
sume responsibility for the work of entire de­
partments, but they may be called on to deal
with highly complex problems related to the
business end of railroad operations.
Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement

Beginning railroad clerk positions are often
filled by hiring newcomers or by promoting
workers such as office boys or messengers who
are already employed by the company. A high
school education is usually required, and cleri­
cal aptitude tests are sometimes given. The rail­
roads prefer workers who have had training or
some experience in working with figures. In a
few kinds of positions—yard clerks, for instance
—beginning workers on some roads are assigned
to extra board work, where they work on
temporary assignments until such time as reg­
ular assignments become available.
In many offices, a railroad clerk may advance



to assistant chief clerk of chief clerk, or to a
higher administrative position. Some clerks
may move from routine jobs to work requiring
special knowledge of subjects such as account­
ing or statistics, and this work may lead eventu­
ally to positions as auditors or statisticians.
Railroad clerks may also be promoted to jobs as
traffic agents, buyers, storekeepers, or ticket and
station agents.
Employment Outlook

Even though employment in clerical positions
is expected to decline somewhat during the
1960’s, several thousand job opportunities for
new workers will become available each year.
Because this is a large occupational group, re­
tirements, deaths, and transfers to other fields
of work will create many openings for new
Employment in this occupational group has
been declining. In 1950, class I line-haul rail­
roads employed about 152,000 railroad clerks;
in 1960, only 116,340 were employed. A con­
tinued decrease in the employment of these

workers is expected, as electronic business ma­
chines do more of the work formerly done by
railroad clerks in processing freight bills and
recording information about freight car move­
ments and freight yard operations.
Earnings and Working Conditions

Employees of class I line-haul railroads who
had clerical jobs involving work such as collect­
ing bills and investigating complaints received
average straight-time pay of $3.03 an hour in
1960. Secretaries, stenographers, typists, and
office machine operators averaged $2.45 an hour;
senior clerks and specialists averaged $2.78 an
hour; and supervisory and chief clerks, $2.98
an hour in 1960. Railroad clerks in nonsupervisory positions work a basic 8-hour day and
40-hour week, with time and one-half paid
for overtime.
The Brotherhood of Railway and Steamship
Clerks, Freight Handlers, Express and Station
Employes represents the railroad clerks on all
major roads.


(D.O.T. 2-92.30)
Nature of Work

Redcaps (porters) work at passenger sta­
tions and terminals, carrying baggage for rail­
road passengers, either by hand or on trucks.
They check luggage, make telephone calls, and
perform other services for travelers. They also
answer questions on such subjects as train
schedules and the tracks on which particular
trains will arrive or depart. At a few stations,
they stock the timetable racSs, and do cleaning
and other work. About 3,000 redcaps were em­
ployed in 1960, either by railroad companies or
by companies operating railroad terminal facil­
ities and concessions furnishing this service in
stations and terminals.
Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement

Hiring standards for redcap jobs vary from
company to company. As a rule, the railroads

prefer applicants who are at least 18 or 21 and
not over 45 years of age. Applicants must be
able to read and write and must be strong
enough to carry heavy baggage. Physical exam­
inations are required.
Promotional opportunities for a redcap are
limited chiefly to positions as assistant captain
or captain in charge of all redcaps at a station.
Employment Outlook

There will be only a small number of op­
portunities for new workers to obtain jobs as
redcaps during the 1960’s. Openings will arise
primarily from the need to replace redcaps who
retire, die, or transfer to other fields of work.
As openings develop, however, almost all of them
are likely to be filled by redcaps who have been
furloughed in force reductions in recent years,
or by furloughed railroad workers who have



been employed in other kinds of jobs. Like other
groups whose employment depends mainly on
the volume of railroad passenger traffic, redcaps
have been declining in numbers in recent years
and this decline is expected to continue in the
Earnings and Working Conditions

Wage rates specified for redcaps in union
contracts averaged $2.05 an hour in 1960. In
addition to their basic rates, paid them by the
railroad and terminal companies, redcaps keep
any tips which passengers give them over and

above the regular charge for carrying baggage.
Most of the redcaps who are employed under
union contracts work an 8-hour day. Often they
are scheduled to work at irregular hours such
as in the early morning or late afternoon when
most of the trains are arriving and departing
from their stations. Some companies furnish
the uniforms worn by redcaps in their employ,
but in other cases, the companies pay part of
the cost and the redcaps pay the rest.
Practically all redcaps are members of unions.
They are represented primarily by the United
Transport Service Employees, or by the Brother­
hood of Railway and Steamship Clerks, Freight
Handlers, Express and Station Employees.

Nature of Work

The skilled workers employed by the rail­
roads to build, maintain, and repair rolling
stock and other equipment may be classified in
six main “shop crafts:” Carmen (D.O.T. 579.020), machinsts, electrical workers, sheet
metal workers, boilermakers, and blacksmiths.
They work in railway shops, engine houses,
yards, and terminals.
In 1960, about 112,230 journeymen mechan­
ics were employed by class I line-haul railways
in these six crafts. Working with them were
7,560 gang foremen and leaders, 20,565 helpers,
and 4,415 apprentices. Several thousand more
workers in the same occupations were employed
by short-line railways.
Carmen, who numbered about 58,430 on class
I line-haul railroads in 1960, are by far the
largest group of shop craftsmen. They do many
different kinds of work, since they build, main­
tain, and repair railroad freight and passenger
cars, and also work on locomotives and on small
vehicles such as the motor-driven cars used in
transporting workers along the tracks. Most
carmen are skilled in carpentry and can use
power equipment as well as handtools. A few
are skilled only in specialties such as uphol­
stering, car painting, and patternmaking. Some
carmen work as car inspectors in the railroad
yards and stations, examining cars for defects
that might lead to train accidents or delays>

Machinists are the second largest group of
skilled shop workers. About 26,850 were em­
ployed by class I line-haul railroads in 1960,
doing such work as assembling and dismantling
equipment, and making and repairing parts.
Electrical workers, about 15,495 of whom were
employed in 1960, install and maintain wiring
and electrical equipment in locomotives, pas­
senger cars, and cabooses, as well as in build­
ings owned by the railroads. (Another group of
electrical workers, numbering about 2,460 in
1960, and employed mainly away from the shop,
install and maintain the telephone, telegraph,
teletype, and radio equipment used by the rail­
roads.) Sheet-metal workers, numbering about
7,155 in 1960, install and maintain light sheetmetal parts and do pipefitting on cars, locomo­
tives, and other equipment. Boilermakers, of
whom there were about 2,340, work mostly in
locomotive shops where they maintain and re­
pair locomotive and stationary boilers, fire­
boxes, tanks, and other parts made of sheet
iron or heavy sheet steel. Blacksmiths, who
numbered about 1,955, are employed to forge
and fabricate parts such as springs and side
rods for locomotives and other equipment.
Other craftsmen employed in the shops include
molders, stationary firemen, oilers, and station­
ary engineers (steam). (More information
about the nature of the work of most of the
above shop trades may be found elsewhere in
this Handbook. See index for page numbers.)


Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement

Apprenticeship is the usual way of entering
the shop trades. Apprentices are trained in all
branches of their respective trades, according
to standards which in many cases are included
in agreements negotiated by the shopmen’s
trade unions and the railroad companies. Upon
completion of their training, they are certified
as qualified journeymen. Beginners with no
previous experience in their chosen trades take
this training as regular apprentices, generally
for a 4-year period. Men with at least 2 years
of previous work experience in the trade train
as helper apprentices for a 3-year period.
To become a regular apprentice, the applicant
must be at least 16 and not over 21 years of
age. The railroads prefer that helpers entering
the 3-year apprentice training be no older than
30 or 35. On some roads, applicants for regular
apprentice training are required to pass mathe­
matical and mechanical aptitude tests.
Workers in the shop trades may advance to
supervisory positions as foremen in shops, enginehouses, and powerplants.
Employment Outlook

There will be several hundred opportunities
for new workers to obtain jobs either as helpers
or as apprentices in the shop crafts each year
during the 1960’s. In 1960, apprenticeship pro­
grams operated by class I line-haul railroads
were training about 4,415 new workers, 3,952
of them as regular apprentices.
Openings in the skilled shop crafts will re­
sult primarily from the need to replace expe­
rienced craftsmen who retire, die, or transfer
to other fields of work. The number of journey­
man mechanics employed in these crafts de­
clined from about 163,000 in 1950 to 112,230 in
1960, and some further decline appears likely in
the 1960’s despite the fact that more rolling
stock will be needed to handle the anticipated
increase in freight traffic. Among the factors
which are making it possible for the railroads
to handle a given amount of work in the shops
with a smaller work force than formerly are
the use of assembly line techniques in repair
work, greater specialization of labor, and the

use of better designed and constructed rolling
Employment in the individual shop crafts has
not been affected in the same way by the
changes in equipment and operating methods,
nor is it likely to be in the future. Two ex­
tremes in shop craft employment trends are
represented by electrical workers and boiler­
makers. During the 1950-60 period, while the
total number of skilled craftsmen in the six
principal shop trades decreased by one-third,
the number of electrical workers remained vir­
tually unchanged. Some increase in employment
of electrical workers may occur during the
1960’s, because of the widespread use of dieselelectric power and the installation of more com­
plex electrical and electronic equipment in
locomotives, railroad cars, and communication
systems. On the other hand, the decline that
has already taken place in the number of boil­
ermakers employed in the shops—from about
10,000 in 1950 to 2,340 in 1960—is expected to
continue, because the skills of these workers
are not required as much in the repair of diesel
locomotives as in the repair of steam locomo­
tives. In the case of carmen and machinists,
who together account for three-fourths of all
journeymen mechanics employed in the shop
crafts, the decline since 1950 in the number
employed has been roughly one-third; some
further decline, although probably less pro­
nounced, is expected during the 1960’s.
Earnings and Working Conditions

Straight-time average hourly earnings of
journeymen employed by class I line-haul rail­
roads in the shop trades in 1960 were: Carmen
$2.58; machinists $2.61; electrical workers
$2.63; sheet metal workers $2.62; boilermakers
$2.64; and blacksmiths $2.62. Straight-time
earnings of helpers in all shop crafts averaged
$2.33 an hour in 1960; regular apprentices, who
spend part of their time in classroom instruc­
tion and the rest of it on the job, averaged
$2.19 an hour; and helper-apprentices, who
also worked on the same basis, averaged $2.31
an hour; gang foremen and gang leaders aver­
aged $2.96 an hour. Most shop workers have a
basic 40-hour workweek of five 8-hour days,



and are paid time and one-half for overtime
Much of the work on railroad cars is done
outdoors and workers are on the job in all kinds
of weather. Major repairs on locomotives,
however, are generally made indoors in the
enginehouses or locomotive shops.
Most shop workers are members of unions.
Among the unions in this field are: Brother­
hood of Railway Carmen of America; Interna­

tional Association of Machinists; International
Brotherhood of Electrical Workers; Sheet Met­
al Workers’ International Association; Interna­
tional Brotherhood of Boilermakers, Iron Ship­
builders, Blacksmiths, Forgers and Helpers;
and the International Brotherhood of Firemen
and Oilers. In collective bargaining, these un­
ions usually negotiate their labor contracts
through the Railroad Employees’ Department
of the AFL-CIO.

Signal Department Workers

(D.O.T. 5-79.170 and 7-79.170)

Nature of Work

Workers in railroad signal departments con­
struct, install, maintain, and repair the sig­
naling systems which control the movement of
trains and assure the safety of railroad travel.
One group of skilled workers, known as sig­
nal maintainers, is responsible for keeping
wires, lights, switches, and other controlling
devices in good operating condition. The work
requires a thorough practical knowledge of elec­
tricity and considerable mechanical skill. Work
on the newer signaling systems also requires a
knowledge of electronics.
A second skilled group, known as signalmen,
generally has the same skills and knowledge
required of maintainers, but is primarily con­
cerned with constructing and installing new
signals and signal systems. Signalmen work
as members of crews which also include un­
skilled and semiskilled workers. The crews
travel from one part of the road to another,
wherever construction work is underway. In
constructing a signal system, crews often build
forms for concrete, mix and pour cement, weld
metal, and do many other types of work in
addition to electrical work.
In 1960, class I line-haul railroads employed
15,305 men in this kind of work; 9,470 were
signalmen and signal maintainers, about 1,775
were semiskilled assistants, and 1,590 were un­
skilled helpers. Several hundred workers in
these groups were also employed by the short­
line railways and by switching and terminal

Signal maintainer checking control hoard which controls
speed of railway cars.
Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement

Railroads prefer that applicants for entry
jobs in the signal department be between 18
and 35 years of age and have a high school
education or its equivalent. Knowledge of elec­
tricity and mechanical skill are assets to young
men seeking these jobs.
New employees start as helpers doing un­
skilled work under the direction of experienced
men, or as semiskilled assistants, if they have
had previous experience in signal work. Help­
ers, after about 1 year of training on the job,
usually advance to the job of assistant. Open­
ings for signalmen and signal maintainers are



filled, as they occur, by promoting qualified as­
sistants according to seniority rules. It gen­
erally takes at least 4 years for an assistant to
work up to a position as signalman or signal
Both signalmen and signal maintainers may
be promoted to more responsible positions such
as those of inspectors or testmen, gang fore­
men, leading signalmen, or leading signal main­
tainers. A few may advance to such jobs as
assistant supervisor or signal engineer.
Employment Outlook

There will be some opportunities for new
workers to obtain entry jobs as helpers or as­
sistants during the 1960’s. Most of these op­
portunities will result from the need to replace
workers who retire, die, or transfer to other
fields of work. Job openings for new workers
will be limited because men furloughed in recent
years will be recalled before new men are hired.
Employment of helpers and assistants de­
clined from about 5,000 in 1950 to 3,365 in
1960 and the number of skilled signalmen and
signal maintainers declined from about 10,000
to 9,470. These occupations are expected to
continue to decline during the 1960-70 decade.
While the installation of new equipment has
initially increased signal work opportunities,
the overall effect has been declining mainte­
nance and repair requirements.

Earnings and Working Conditions

The average straight-time hourly earnings of
signalmen and signal maintainers employed in
Class I line-haul railroads in 1960 were $2.63.
Assistant signalmen and signal maintainers
averaged $2.44 and helpers $2.32 an hour in
1960. Signal workers have a basic 8-hour day
and 5-day week, and are paid time and one-half
for work beyond 8 hours a day.
Signal maintainers tend to have fairly steady
work, because the amount of work required for
maintaining railroad signal systems does not
change greatly with variations in traffic or with
the seasons. Signalmen and other crew mem­
bers, particularly on some northern roads, may
have less work during periods of especially bad
weather. Workers in both of these occupations
do most of their work out of doors, and main­
tainers must be prepared to make repairs re­
gardless of the time of day or the weather
conditions. Both maintainers and signalmen,
when working on signaling devices, must often
climb poles and work near high-tension electric
wires and unguarded railroad tracks.
Signalmen and other crew members who
work on construction and installation, fre­
quently work away from their homes and, on
these occasions, many railroads provide camp
cars for living quarters while the men pay for
their own food. Maintainers are generally able
to live at home, since they maintain signals
only over a limited stretch of track.
Most signal workers are members of the
Brotherhood of Railroad Signalmen.

Track Workers

(D.O.T. 0-98.71, 7-23.121, 9-32.01, and 9-49.30)
Nature of Work

Trackmen and portable equipment operators
construct, maintain, and repair railroad tracks
and roadways. Many of them work in section
crews which patrol and maintain a limited sec­
tion of the railroad's right-of-way. Some roads
combine the section crews with highly mechan­
ized crews to cover longer stretches of the
right-of-way. Still other track workers are em­
ployed in “extra” crews. These men perform

seasonal maintenance and repair work, such as
replacing rails.
Either a member of the section crew or track
workers operating track motor cars make regu­
lar inspections of the right-of-way, looking for
cracked rails, weak ties, washed-out ballast, and
other track and roadway defects. Trackmen
and portable equipment operators working in
the crews then make the necessary repairs.
Power equipment, such as multiple tie tampers,
power wrenches, and ballast cleaners, has been



gradually displacing the use of such handtools
as picks, shovels, and spike hammers. More and
more railroads are using roadway machines,
which require skilled operators, to do heavy
maintenance-of-way work which was once done
by trackmen using handtools.
In 1960, an average of 78,445 track workers
were employed by class I line-haul railroads.
They included 56,715 trackmen working in
crews, 7,705 portable equipment operators and
helpers, and 14,025 gang foremen. Additional
thousands of these workers were employed by
the short-line railroads. The size of this maintenance-of-way work force varies considerably
during the year because many construction and
repair jobs are done in the summer months
when the weather is best.
Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement

Most track workers are trained on the job,
and it takes about 2 years for a beginner to
acquire the skills necessary to become an all­
round trackman. Machine operating jobs in
track maintenance work are assigned to quali­
fied trackmen on the basis of seniority.
Most roads prefer workers between the ages
of 21 and 45 for their track work forces. Men
seeking work as trackmen must be able to read
and write and do heavy work. Applicants are
often required to take physical examinations.
A high school education is desirable for work­
ers who are seeking to advance to positions
as portable equipment operators and gang fore­
Trackmen and portable equipment operators
with the necessary seniority and qualifications
may advance to positions of gang foremen or
assistant foremen. A qualified foreman may
advance to a supervisory maintenance-of-way
position such as track supervisor.

Trackman operating power wrench to fasten connecting

larly in northern sections of the country. Com­
paratively few openings that occur will offer
steady year-round employment.
For some years, the use of mechanized equip­
ment and new kinds of materials in roadway
construction have been substantially reducing
the number of men employed by the railroads
in maintenance-of-way work. At the same time,
however, the use of mechanized equipment has
been creating a limited number of maintenanceof-way jobs involving the operation of roadway
machines. Between 1950 and 1960, as the num­
ber of trackmen and foremen in section and
other kinds of crews dropped from about 174,000 to 78,445, the number of portable equip­
ment workers rose from 6,000 to about 7,705.
These trends are expected to continue in the
Earnings and Working Conditions

Employment Outlook

Several thousand new workers will be hired
each year in track maintenance occupations
during the 1960’s even though employment in
this work is expected to decline. Most of these
new workers will be hired for the seasonal rush
of work during the summer months, particu

Track workers are among the lowest paid
groups in the railroad industry. Men employed
in section and other kinds of crews on class I
line-haul railroads had straight-time average
earnings of $1.45 an hour in 1960. Portable
equipment operators and helpers averaged
$2.42 and crew foremen averaged $2.47 an hour



in 1960. A basic 5-day, 40-hour week was in
force for most classes of track workers. Time
worked in excess of 8 hours a day was paid for
at time and one-half rates, and after 16 hours
of continuous service, double time rates usually
were paid.
Since most section men inspect and maintain
only a few miles of track, they are usually able
to live at home. However, the section crew is

rapidly giving way to the mechanized “floating”
crew. Trackmen and portable equipment op­
erators who work in “floating” crews usually
travel from place to place and generally live in
camp cars or trailers provided by the railroads.
They pay for their own food.
Most maintenance-of-way workers are mem­
bers of the Brotherhood of Maintenance of Way

Bridge and Building Workers
Nature of Work

These workers construct, maintain, and re­
pair tunnels, bridges, stations, railway shops,
and a variety of other structures owned by the
railroads. In 1960, class I line-haul railroads
employed in this kind of work about 11,395
skilled craftsmen, 3,675 helpers, and 2,695
foremen. Among the skilled craftsmen were
about 7,145 carpenters working as all-round
mechanics in a variety of construction trades
in addition to carpentry; about 2,750 masons,
bricklayers, plasterers, and plumbers; and about
915 painters and 585 iron workers. The short­
line railways employed several hundred more
workers in the same occupations. (Information
about the nature of the work done by these
craftsmen can be found elsewhere in this Hand­
book. See index for page numbers.)
Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement

New employees usually receive their training
on the job as helpers. As openings occur in
skilled mechanics' jobs, they are filled by help­
ers who have qualified for promotion and have
the necessary seniority.
Skilled workers with the necesary experience
and ability may advance to positions as fore­
men, inspectors, or bridge and building super­
Employment Outlook

A small number of job openings in the bridge
and building work force will arise each year
during the 1960's, even though the overall num­
ber of these workers may decline somewhat.

Retirements, deaths, and transfers to other fields
of work will provide some job opportunities for
new workers. Most of the jobs available will
be as beginners or helpers, where turnover rates
are relatively high.
Employment by class I line-haul railroads of
skilled craftsmen, helpers, and foremen on
bridge and building work decreased from about
29,500 in 1950 to 17,765 in 1960. This trend
is expected to continue because the increased
use of power tools and other labor-saving equip­
ment, and of new materials which require less
maintenance and repair, will cut down further
on the number of men needed for construction
and maintenance work.
Earnings and Working Conditions

The average straight-time hourly earnings of
carpenters employed by class I line-haul rail­
roads in bridge and building work in 1960 were
$2.41. Masons, bricklayers, plasterers, and
plumbers averaged $2.56, iron workers $2.58,
painters $2.44, helpers $2.26, and foremen $2.71
an hour in 1960. Bridge and building workers
work a 5-day, basic 40-hour week and are paid
time and one-half for work beyond 8 hours a
day, and may receive double time for work over
16 continuous hours.
Bridge and building men usually are away
from home during their workweek. On these
occasions, they usually live in camp cars sup­
plied by the railroads, but they pay for their
own food.
The Brotherhood of Maintenance of Way Em­
ployees represents the bridge and building work­
ers on most roads.

Millions of Americans eat meals every day in
restaurants, cafeterias, snack bars, and other
eating places. There are almost 350,000 estab­
lishments whose main business is to serve food
and beverages. In mid-1959, about 2 million peo­
ple were employed in these establishments—in­
cluding almost 400,000 who owned and worked
in their own restaurants. In addition, thousands
of other food-service workers were employed in
establishments which serve meals in connection
with some entirely different kind of business
activity—for example, drug and department
stores, hotels, hospitals, schools operating lunch­
rooms for students, and factories operating
them for employees. Still others work on board
ships, in railroad dining cars, and for airlines.
Nature and Location of the Restaurant Business

Establishments which cater to the American
custom of “eating out” range from roadside
diners to luxurious and expensive restaurants.
The kind of food offered and the way it is served
depends primarily on the type of customer the
restaurant seeks to attract. For example, cafe­
terias and other restaurants where large num­
bers of people eat lunch on workdays emphasize
rapid service and inexpensive meals. At the
other extreme are restaurants which cater to
customers who have the time to eat in a more
leisurely manner and are willing to pay higher
prices; meals in some restaurants of this kind
are served more elaborately and often include
unusual dishes which are “specialities of the
Most restaurants are small independent busi­
nesses—some of them operated by their owners
with no paid help or with the aid of only one
or two part-time employees. Only a small pro­
portion of all restaurants are run by proprietors
or business firms owning more than one restau­
rant. However, this small group includes some
of the largest restaurants in the country. The

average eating place employs only about 6
workers, but some large restaurants employ 100
or more.
Restaurant employment is concentrated in
the States with the largest populations, and par­
ticularly in large cities. However, even the
smallest communities usually have coffee shops,
luncheonettes, and roadside diners.
Restaurant Workers

Three-fourths of all the people who work in
restaurants are employees who prepare and
serve food or do other kinds of service work.
The two largest groups, each with several hun­
dreds of thousands of workers, are waiters and
waitresses, and cooks and chefs. In addition to
these two principal groups of service workers,
there are busboys and busgirls who clear tables,
carry soiled dishes back to the kitchen, and
sometimes set tables; kitchen workers who wash
dishes and prepare vegetables; and janitors and
porters who dispose of trash and garbage, sweep
and mop floors, and do other cleaning jobs.
Many of these workers operate mechanical
equipment such as power-driven dishwashers,
floor polishers, vegetable slicers and peelers, and
garbage disposal equipment, which eliminates
much drudgery and physical exertion. Different
kinds of service jobs such as these are likely
to be found only in the largest restaurants, how­
ever. In many small eating places, waiters and
waitresses clear and set up their own tables,
sometimes prepare certain kinds of dishes, help
out in the kitchen when they are not busy with
customers, and do other kinds of work.
Another large group of restaurant workers—
almost one-fifth of the total—consists of man­
agers and proprietors. Most of the people in
this group own and operate fairly small restau­
rants and, in addition to acting as managers,
do cooking and other kinds of work. A much
smaller number are salaried employees who



spend all of their time managing the affairs of
the larger restaurants.
All other restaurant workers combined rep­
resent only 1 out of every 20 people in the industy and are employed principally in the
larger restaurants. Most of them are clerical
employees of various kinds—cashiers who re­
ceive payments and make change for customers;
food checkers, who total the cost of the meals
selected by cafeteria customers; and bookkeep­
ers, stenographers, typists, and other clerical
workers. Large restaurants also employ me­
chanics and other kinds of maintenance workers,
as well as professional employees such as musi­
cians and other entertainers, accountants, and
personnel workers.
The sections of this chapter which follow
give information about three key restaurant oc­
cupations—waiters and waitresses, cooks and
chefs, and restaurant managers. The work done
by many clerical and professional restaurant
employees is much the same as that done by the
same kinds of workers in other industries and
is described elsewhere in this Handbook. (See
index for page numbers.)
Employment Outlook

Thousands of openings in restaurant occupa­
tions are expected each year through the mid1960’s. Although many new jobs will be created
by the growth of the restaurant business, most
openings will result from turnover. Turnover is
always high among waitresses, primarily be­
cause of the large number of women who work
only a short time and leave to take care of
family responsibilities. Turnover is also high
among kitchen helpers and others in jobs re­
quiring little training or skill, since many people
who do work of this kind find it easy to shift
to other types of jobs when business conditions
are good. Therefore, most of the job openings
will be for waitresses and kitchen helpers—both
because of high turnover rates and because
these workers make up a very large proportion
of all restaurant employees. In addition, em­
ployment opportunities are expected to be favor­
able for skilled cooks and for people who can
qualify as restaurant managers. There will also
be a number of openings in clerical jobs, such

as cashier, bookkeeper, stenographer, and typist.
The need for people trained for specialized posi­
tions, such as food manager and dietitian, is
also expected to continue.
In the long run, the restaurant business will
probably expand rapidly and require the serv­
ices of many additional workers. Some of the
major factors which will contribute to this ex­
pansion are rising population and income levels,
the trend for more women to work outside the
home and thus cook fewer meals at home, in­
creased leisure time owing to shorter workweeks
and longer vacation periods, and the fact that
more Americans than ever before are traveling
both on their jobs and on vacations. The Na­
tion’s long-range, multibillion dollar highway
construction program will undoubtedly be a
special stimulus to automobile travel and hence
to the restaurant business.
The employment increase that takes place
because of these developments may be limited
to some extent by the increased use of vending
machines to dispense prepared foods, the avail­
ability of more precooked and frozen foods, and
the saving in work time which will be achieved
through the use of precut meats and better
mechanical equipment in restaurant kitchens.
Despite these limiting factors, restaurant em­
ployment can be expected to rise rapidly during
the 1960’s. Even in the event of a slowdown
in business activity, employment will probably
continue upward—although undoubtedly com­
petition for some kinds of restaurant jobs will
be greater.
Where To Go for More Information

Additional information on the restaurant
business as a field of work may be obtained from
State and local restaurant associations and
Educational Director, National Restaurant
1530 North Lake Shore Dr., Chicago 10, 111.
Hotel and Restaurant Employees and Bartenders
International Union,
525 Walnut St., Cincinnati 2, Ohio

Additional information on training opportuni­
ties in the restaurant field, including a list of
schools and colleges offering courses which

train managers and other restaurant workers,
may be obtained by writing to :
The National Council on Hotel and Restaurant
Room 1336, Wyatt Bldg., 777 14th St. NW.,
Washington 5, D.C.

Additional information on the restaurant
business and its workers is available in :
Establishing and Operating a Restaurant, U.S.
Department of Commerce (Revised edition, 1957).

Superintendent of Documents, Washington 25,
D.C. Price 70 cents.

High school students may obtain information
on training programs for cooks, bakers, man­
agers, and other restaurant workers by writing
to the Director of Vocational Education or
Superintendent of Schools in their community,
or to the State Director of Vocational Educa­
tion in the Department of Education in the
State capital.

Waiters and Waitresses

(D.O.T. 2-27.01 through .12)

Nature of Work

Waiters and waitresses spend most of their
time taking guests’ orders, serving food and
beverages, making out checks, and, sometimes,
collecting payments. The way they go about
this work is largely determined by the type and
size of the establishment in which they work.
In diners, luncheonettes, and many other small
restaurants, the emphasis is on quick service
with a minimum of frills. Waiters and wait­
resses in such eating places may have to clear
tables, carry soiled dishes to the kitchen, and
clean equipment, in addition to serving food.
Sometimes they combine counter service, cash­
iering, preparing certain foods, or other duties
with waiting on tables. In other kinds of restau-

rants, waiters and waitresses may serve food
at a more leisurely pace and are expected to
observe certain rules of correct food service.
They may advise guests on the choice of wine
for each food course or answer questions about
how the food is prepared. They are sometimes
assisted by busboys or busgirls who carry used
dishes to the kitchen, set tables, and perform
other duties incidental to meal service.
In large restaurants, waiters and waitresses
may be supervised by captains, hostesses, headwaiters, or headwaitresses, who also greet guests
and escort them to tables; in small eating places,
they may work directly under the supervision of
the owner or manager.
Where Employed

Well over half a million waiters and wait­
resses were employed in 1959 in establishments
operated primarily for the purpose of serving
food and beverages. In addition, many thou­
sands worked in places such as railroad dining
cars, hotels, stores, and other establishments
whose primary business was something other
than operating a restaurant. Women far out­
number men in this occupation. Men are em­
ployed in many restaurants, however, especially
in the more formal and expensive ones.
Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement

Waitress wearing native costume in restaurant
specializing in foreign foods.

Although many people with little formal
schooling find it possible to enter this occupa­
tion, more and more employers, in hiring in­



experienced workers, prefer people with at least
2 or 3 years of high school. Special courses for
waiters and waitresses, given by vocational
schools, restaurant associations, and individual
hotels, are considered good preparation by most
employers. Some restaurants hire inexperienced
workers and give them a few weeks of on-thejob-training, often first as busboys or busgirls
and later as waiters and waitresses. On the other
hand, many restaurants—especially those with
the more formal type of service—hire only ex­
perienced personnel.
Waiters and waitresses must be able to do
the simple arithmetic needed to add food checks
and make tax computations. They should speak
English reasonably well, have a friendly man­
ner, know how to put people at ease, and be
neat and clean in their personal appearance.
In a few restaurants, knowledge of a foreign
language is important. Health certificates are
frequently required of waiters and waitresses
to indicate that they are free from communicable
Experienced waiters or waitresses may trans­
fer to jobs in better paying restaurants and ad­
vance to supervisory positions, such as headwaiter or hostess. Supervisory workers may
sometimes advance to managerial positions.
Employment Outlook

Many employment opportunities for waiters
and waitresses are expected to become available
during the mid-1960’s. Most openings for begin­
ning waitresses will probably continue to arise
from turnover in the relatively low-price res­
taurants where the majority of women in this
occupation are employed. Competition for wait­
ress jobs will remain keen in higher price res­
taurants, because the rate of turnover in these
jobs is relatively low. Moreover, the better
restaurants usually prefer to hire experienced
waiters. A considerable number of temporary
jobs for both waiters and waitresses will be­
come available each summer in resort areas.
College students and temporary workers who
live in the locality are usually hired for these

Over the long run, employment in this oc­
cupation is expected to rise fairly rapidly, as
the restaurant business expands. However, an
even larger number of openings are likely to
occur because of the need to replace workers
who leave the occupation. (See Employment
Outlook statement at the beginning of this
Earnings and Working Conditions

In general, waiters and waitresses receive
only a small wage from their employers—often
little more than a token payment. Total earn­
ings in this occupation depend not only on
wages, but also on tips, which may comprise a
high proportion of earnings. The amount re­
ceived in tips varies considerably, depending on
such factors as the skill of the worker; the size,
type, and location of the eating place; and the
general tipping habits of the community.
Data on minimum union wage rates for
waiters and waitresses are available from a
relatively small number of union contracts in
several large cities. In 1959, wages (exclusive
of tips) for unionized waiters and waitresses
ranged from about $6 per 8-hour day in one
midwestern city to about $12 a day in a West
Coast city. Wages in many restaurants, par­
ticularly in smaller cities and towns, were con­
siderably less.
Many waiters and waitresses work 48 hours
or more a week; others ordinarily work only
40 hours. It is common for many restaurant
employees to work on split shifts—that is, to
work for several hours serving one meal, take
some time off, and then return to serve the next
meal. Many eating places furnish meals—either
free or at a low cost—and some also provide
uniforms. Although the modern dining room
is a pleasant place in which to work, waiters
and waitresses are on their feet for hours at a
time and often have to carry heavy trays.
The principal union which organizes waiters
and waitresses is the Hotel and Restaurant Em­
ployees and Bartenders International Union.
(See introductory statement for Where To
Go for More Information.)


Cooks and Chefs

(D.O.T. 2-26)

Nature of Work

Cooks and chefs (head cooks) help establish
a restaurant’s reputation through their skill.
The type of cooking they do and the skill they
need depend on the size and type of restaurant.
In large and exclusive restaurants, several
cooks may be employed, each a specialist in
preparing a particular type of food—soups,
meats, vegetables, sauces, pastries, or ice cream.
The chef supervises the staff of cooks and
kitchen helpers and has overall responsibility
for all food prepared. In addition, he helps
train other cooks, estimates food consumption
(in order to assist managers in making food
purchases, and planning and pricing menus),
creates new dishes, and decides on the size of
food portions. In contrast, many small restau­
rants have only one cook, perhaps assisted by
one or two helpers, who prepares all the food.
In inexpensive eating places, menus may have
little variety and the work of cooks is likely to
be standardized and involve the preparation of
only a limited number of dishes, often cooked
on a “short order” basis, one serving at a time
as customers order them.
To assist cooks, many large restaurants em­
ploy pantrymen or salad makers who prepare
and mix ingredients for salads, certain des­
serts, and some other types of food, but in a
small restaurant the cooks usually do this work
as well as a variety of other kinds of work in­
cidental to food preparation.
Where Employed

Approximately 300,000 cooks, about half of
them women, were employed in 1959 in estab­
lishments which were primarily eating and
drinking places. Chefs—many of them Euro­
pean trained—are employed principally in ex­
pensive restaurants and represent less than 1
percent of all cooks employed in the Nation’s
eating places. Many additional thousands of
cooks are employed in institutions such as hos­
pitals and schools, and in department stores,
private clubs, aboard ships, on railroad dining
cars, and in other eating places. About 40,000

Pastry cooks prepare a variety of baked foods.

cooks and chefs—the majority of whom are
men—are employed in hotel kitchens. In in­
stitutions such as hospitals and schools, how­
ever, the majority of cooks are women.
Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement

Cooks generally learn their trade either by
informal on-the-job training or, less often, by
a more formal type of apprenticeship. Years
of experience are required to become a skilled
Although there are no specific educational
requirements for this work, employers are giv­
ing increasing consideration to applicants who
have taken courses in restaurant cooking. Such
courses are offered in some public vocational
schools, private trade schools, and a few col­
leges. In addition, specialized cooking courses
are sometimes given by local restaurant asso­
ciation groups with advice and assistance from
the National Restaurant Association. These
training programs are particularly valuable be­
cause a major portion of the student’s time is
spent in well equipped school kitchens and skill
is acquired through actual practice cooking.
Courses for cooks include study in the use and



care of equipment; food standards (selection,
preparation, and service of food and determin­
ing the size of servings); proper sanitation
procedures—including the public health aspects
of food handling; cooking methods, such as
broiling and use of steam; and in the prepara­
tion of special dishes, such as soups, salads,
and garnishes, and such egg dishes as souffles
and meringues.
Experienced cooks may advance to more re­
sponsible cooking jobs in the same place of
employment or may transfer to better paying
jobs in other restaurants, especially if they
qualify as specialists in preparing certain types
of food. Promotion from cook to executive chef
or head cook may take as long as 15 to 20 years;
in some instances, less time may be required,
depending on the educational background and
other qualifications of the person involved and
the situation in the particular restaurant. The
job of head cook or chef in the better restau­
rants is usually filled by a man. In addition to
being an expert cook, a chef must have super­
visory ability and a thorough knowledge of all
types of foodstuffs and kitchen equipment in
order to organize and direct kitchen operations
efficiently. Cooks in supervisory positions may
sometimes advance to managerial positions.
Cleanliness, the ability to work under pres­
sure during peak periods, physical stamina, and
a keen sense of taste and smell are among the
characteristics required for the jobs of cook and
chef. Health certificates which indicate that
cooks are free from communicable diseases are
frequently required.
Employment Outlook

Well-qualified cooks are expected to be in
strong demand throughout the mid-1960's. Al­
though there is always keen competition for the
best jobs, there will be many employment op­
portunities for well-trained cooks in the better
type of restaurants. An even greater number
of jobs will become available for experienced
but less skilled cooks for other kinds of res­
taurants. Most of the openings in all types of
eating places will arise from the need to replace
cooks who retire, resign, or die.

Even though the number of chefs is com­
paratively small, opportunities for Americantrained cooks to become chefs are expected to
show continued improvement. A relatively
large proportion of experienced chefs were at,
or near, retirement age in 1959 and many em­
ployers were finding it difficult to replace them,
particularly because few were available from
foreign countries—the traditional hiring source.
Young people will find many opportunities
for employment in kitchen helper jobs where
they sometimes gain experience helpful in qual­
ifying as cooks. Women will also continue to
find many opportunities for employment in the
Employment of cooks and chefs is expected
to increase fairly rapidly during the 1960,s.
In addition to the opportunities for employ­
ment that can be expected in restaurants, op­
portunities will probably continue to be good
for cooks and chefs in institutions and other
places which maintain eating facilities—hos­
pitals, schools, department stores, industrial
establishments, passenger ships, and private
clubs. (See introductory section of this chapter
for more information on Employment Outlook.)
Earnings and Working Conditions

Experienced cooks earn from about $50 to
more than $100 a week, according to reports
from several large cities. As a rule, cooks'
salaries are closely related to the type of res­
taurant in which they are employed. For
example, short-order cooks in low-price diners
and luncheonettes generally earn less than
cooks in medium-price or expensive restaurants.
Cooks employed by hotels generally have the
highest earnings.
Chefs generally earn from $5,000 to $15,000
annually, depending upon their training and
experience. Some chefs whose reputations are
well known receive more than $25,000 a year.
Although some cooks and chefs work a 40hour week, many regularly work 48 hours or
more. Cooks and kitchen workers generally
receive meals without charge or at reduced
prices. Sometimes they are furnished uniforms
that are needed on the job.
Modern kitchens in many large restaurants



are scientifically arranged, air conditioned, and
furnished with the latest equipment and laborsaving devices. In some of the smaller eating
places, however, working conditions may be
less desirable. The work hazards involved in­
clude the possibility of burns from steam or
hot stoves and injuries from knives and broken
glass or china. Cooks and their helpers are

frequently required to lift heavy supplies and
The principal union which organizes chefs,
cooks, and other kitchen workers is the Hotel
and Restaurant Employees and Bartenders In­
ternational Union.
(See introductory statement for Where To
Go for More Information.)

Managers and Assistants

(D.O.T. 0-71.21 through .23)

Nature of Work

Restaurant managers have overall responsi­
bility for the operation of establishments which
serve food to the public. They coordinate and
direct the work of cooks, chefs, kitchen help­
ers, waiters, waitresses, and other restaurant
employees to insure that food is properly pre­
pared and served. Managers also direct such
activities as hiring and training personnel,
purchasing food and kitchen equipment, keeping
cost accounts, taking inventories, approving
menus, and making sure that health and sani­
tation regulations are observed. Their work usu­
ally involves frequent contacts with customers
—to establish a friendly atmosphere, get their
suggestions on food and service, or handle
In a large restaurant, the manager may have
several assistants including a head cook or chef,
headwaiter, and dietitian. An increasing num­
ber of very large restaurants employ specially
trained assistants—often called food managers
—to supervise the kitchen staff and be respon­
sible for all food preparation. Many small
restaurants are managed by their owners or
by a paid assistant who may also help out on
various jobs; for example, he may act as cashier
and take customers’ orders during busy periods.
Where Employed

About 50,000 people were employed as sal­
aried managers in 1959—plus possibly an equal
number of waiters and other restaurant work­
ers who served as assistant managers part of
the time, and close to 375,000 proprietors who
ran their own businesses. In addition, thou­
sands of managers were employed in dining

Restaurant manager discussing menu with chef.

rooms and other eating places in hotels, de­
partment stores, factories, schools, hospitals,
private clubs, and other types of establishments
which also serve food.
Although opportunities for managers exist in
cities and towns of all sizes, the greatest num­
ber of large restaurants and, therefore, most
managerial positions are to be found in big
cities. Some large eating places which employ
managers are located in remote resort areas
and on main highways.
Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement

People usually become managers in one of
two general ways. They may start in a job



such as cook or waiter and work their way up,
or they may enter directly as executive trainees.
In either case, several years of experience in
restaurant work are necessary to qualify as a
manager; and a good educational background is
always an asset to an employee who hopes to
attain a management job.
In a large restaurant, the promotion ladder
for restaurant workers with kitchen experience
may be from a minor supervisory position—
such as pantry supervisor—to food manager,
then to assistant manager, and later to res­
taurant manager; top administrative positions
such as executives in restaurant chains may
also be attained. Similar advancement is pos­
sible for dining room workers who have a
knowledge of kitchen operations. Experience
in all aspects of restaurant work is important,
since managers must be familiar with the
duties performed and the equipment used by all
the workers engaged in food preparation and
service. They also must be able to apply their
knowledge about food to such matters as pur­
chase, storage, inventory, and cost control.
Poise, self-confidence, and the ability to get
along with people are desirable personal char­
acteristics for restaurant managers.
Although no specific educational requirements
exist for restaurant managers, participation in
management training programs offered in vo­
cational schools may be helpful in obtaining
employment. Employers in the larger and more
expensive establishments are showing an in­
creasing preference for college graduates. The
work-and-study programs offered by the few
colleges which have specialized 4-year curriculums in institutional, restaurant, and hotel
management are generally recognized as the
best educational preparation. The curriculum
usually includes preliminary and advanced
courses in food preparation; specialized courses
in restaurant accounting, catering, manage­
ment, and sanitation; and more general courses,
such as economics, law, marketing, and finance.
Another requirement for a degree in these
schools is three summers of work in restaurant
or hotel jobs, ranging from busboy, food
checker, and waiter to dining room captain and
assistant restaurant manager. The valuable
experience and contacts with employers thus

obtained are often of assistance in obtaining
desirable trainee or other restaurant positions
after graduation. Individuals who enter res­
taurant work with this combination of educa­
tion and experience are usually advanced to
managerial positions within 5 years.
College graduates with less specialized train­
ing—especially those with degrees in business
administration—may also be hired as executive
trainees. They usually receive on-the-job train­
ing by rotating through all phases of restau­
rant work. Some trainees go through an in­
dustry-sponsored program of “executive ap­
prenticeship” under which participating restau­
rants cooperate with the National Restaurant
Association in preparing employees for man­
agement positions.
Employment Outlook

Opportunities for well-qualified people to be­
come managers of restaurants and hotel dining
rooms are expected to be favorable through the
mid-1960,s. New college graduates with train­
ing in food management will be in strong de­
mand to fill jobs offering good possibilities of
promotion. In addition, there will also be many
opportunities for experienced restaurant em­
ployees with outstanding qualifications to move
up through the ranks to managerial positions.
The largest proportion of openings will con­
tinue to arise from the need to replace man­
agers who retire, resign, or die. A number of
jobs will result from the establishment of new
restaurants, however. In addition, some as­
sistant manager jobs will become vacant as a
result of promotions to top managerial posts.
The expansion of existing dining facilities will
also create new positions for assistant man­
agers. Students seeking on-the-job experience
in restaurants will have good chances for em­
ployment, particularly in summer jobs in resort
In the long run, a rapid increase in employ­
ment of salaried managers is expected, as the
restaurant business continues to expand. The
trend toward a greater number of chain restau­
rants will also provide an increasing number
of managerial positions. The best opportunities
will be for men with specialized education in

food management who have the experience
necessary to manage a large restaurant. Oppor­
tunities will arise in hotels, institutions, and
other places serving meals in connection with
some other kind of business activity.
. There will be many opportunities, in both
the short and long run, for experienced people
with business ability and the necessary capital
to establish and manage their own restaurants.
However, operating one's own restaurant in­
volves considerable risk of financial loss until
the business is firmly established. (See intro­
duction to this chapter for further information
on Employment Outlook in Restaurant Occu­
Earnings and Working Conditions

Trainees hired for managerial positions in
large city restaurants were often paid starting
salaries of $4,000 or more a year in 1960, ac­
cording to the limited data available. New col­
lege graduates with specialized training in res­
taurant management usually received consider­
ably more than beginners without this back­
Most experienced restaurant managers re­
ceive salaries between $5,000 and $10,000 a year,
depending on the size, location, and type of
restaurant. Salaries below this range are often
paid to managers of small restaurants, and con­
siderably higher salaries are particularly likely
to be paid managers employed by exclusive
restaurants and large restaurant chains. Most
restaurants furnish free meals to managerial
personnel while they are on the job, and pro­
vide for laundering any uniforms which they
may wear. Some restaurants pay annual bo­


nuses to their managers, and include them in
pension, insurance, hospitalization, and surgical
The earnings of restaurant managers who
own and manage their own businesses may
vary even more than the earnings of salaried
managers. In a small, moderate-price restau­
rant with counter service, for example, the
proprietor-manager may have only a very mod­
est income from his business. On the other
hand, many restaurants where food is prepared
and served in a more elaborate manner provide
the owners who run them with incomes con­
siderably higher than $20,000 a year.
Salaried managers often work longer than
40 hours a week—sometimes 48 hours or more.
People who own and manage their own res­
taurants may have an even longer workweek.
Generally, the evening hours worked by res­
taurant managers depend on the type of res­
taurant. For example, in city cafeterias which
close shortly after most of the workers in
nearby businesses have gone home, managers
may have little or no evening work. On the
other hand, in places serving late dinners, they
work mainly in the evening.
Managers work in clean and, often, air-con­
ditioned places. In large restaurants, they usu­
ally have their own office space. During meal­
time periods, managers often walk about their
establishments to check on the efficiency of
operations. Those in small establishments usu­
ally are on their feet for longer periods, since
they have more direct supervision of kitchen
and dining room workers than managers in
larger restaurants.
(See introductory statement for Where To
Go for More Information.)

About 288 million telephone calls are made
daily in the United States. Making connections
for these calls; installing new telephone equip­
ment and keeping existing equipment in good
working order; and performing the clerical, ad­
ministrative, and other duties needed to operate
a large and complicated business required about
700,000 telephone company employees in 1960.
The telephone industry offers men and women
many employment opportunities for steady,
year-round work in many different jobs in both
small and large communities. Some of the jobs,
such as telephone operator and file clerk, can
be learned in a few weeks; other jobs, such as
installer and repairman, take several years to
Three out of five telephone workers are
women. They work mainly as telephone opera­
tors and in clerical jobs. Men are usually em­
ployed in installing, repairing, and maintaining
telephone equipment.

or signaling the operator, it travels from the
caller through wires and cables to the cable
vault in the central office. From the cable vault,
thousands of pairs of wires fan out to a dis­
tributing frame where each set of wires is at­
tached to switching equipment. In order to join
the caller’s telephone to the telephone he is call­
ing, connections are made automatically by the
switching equipment or manually by an oper­
ator. Most long-distance calls are dialed by the
customer or by an operator, and connected
through the switching equipment with the tele­
phone called. Information that is needed to bill
the customer for these long-distance calls is
either recorded on special equipment called the
automatic message accounting system or re­
corded on a ticket by the operator.
Some customers make and receive so many
calls that they cannot be handled on a single
telephone line. To take care of these calls, a
system somewhat similar to a miniature central
office may be installed on the subscriber’s preCHART 34

Nature and Location of the Industry

Providing telephone service for the many
millions of residential, commercial, and indus­
trial customers is the main work of the Nation’s
telephone companies. In 1960, about 74 million
telephones were in use in the United States.
Telephone jobs are found in almost every
community in the United States. Most telephone
workers, however, are employed in large cities
with concentrations of population and indus­
trial and business establishments. Nearly threefifths of them work in the 10 most heavily
populated States: New York, California, Penn­
sylvania, Illinois, Ohio, Texas, Michigan, New
Jersey, Massachusetts, and Florida.
The nerve center of the local telephone system
is the central office containing the switching
equipment through which any telephone may
be connected with any other telephone. Each
time a telephone call is made, whether by dialing




Percent of total workers, 1960

1---------- 1
-------- 1 ------- 1
-------- 1

Telephone operators
Telephone craftsmen
Clerical workers
Adm inistrative and
sales personnel
Maintenance and building
service workers
Scientific and technical

Source: Based on data from the Federal Communications Commission.


mises. This system is the private branch ex­
change (PBX) usually found in apartment
houses, hotels, office buildings, and factories.
Other communication services provided by
telephone companies include conference equip­
ment installed at a PBX to permit conversations
among several telephone users simultaneously;
mobile radiotelephones in automobiles, boats,
and trains; and telephones equipped to answer
calls automatically and to give and take mes­
sages by recordings.
Telephone companies also build and maintain
the vast network of cables and radio-relay sys­
tems which join the thousands of television and
radio stations all over the Nation. These services
are leased to networks and their affiliated sta­
tions. Telephone companies also operate tele­
type and private-wire services which they lease
to business and government offices.
Telephone Occupations

Making a telephone call requires a vast
amount of communications equipment and work­
ers in many different occupations. Chart 34
shows the percentage distribution of employ­
ment by occupational group.
Telephone operators, the largest group of em­
ployees, make up nearly a third of the industry's
employment. Their duties include making tele­
phone connections, assisting customers on spe­
cialized types of calls, and giving telephone
A fourth of all telephone workers install,
repair, and maintain telephones, wires and
cables, switching equipment, and message ac­
counting systems. These workers can be grouped
by the type of work they perform: (1) Central
office craftsmen who maintain and repair equip­
ment in central offices; (2) line construction
men who place, splice, and maintain telephone
wires and cables; and (3) installers and repair­
men who place, maintain, and repair telephones
and private branch exchanges (PBX) in cus­
tomers' homes, offices, and other places of
When central office equipment is purchased
by a telephone company, it is usually installed
by central office equipment installers employed


by the manufacturers of this equipment. Al­
though these skilled workers do not work for
individual telephone companies, they are dis­
cussed in this chapter of the Handbook because
their work is so closely connected with the Na­
tion's telephone system.
More than a fifth of all telephone workers
are employed in clerical jobs; most of these
jobs are held by women. Clerical workers in­
clude stenographers, typists, bookkeepers, office
machine operators, cashiers, receptionists, file
clerks, accounting and auditing clerks, and pay­
roll clerks. They keep records of services pro­
vided by the company, make up and send out
bills to customers, and prepare statistical and
other reports. Some of this recordkeeping and
statistical work is done by electronic data-processing equipment.
About 12 percent of the employees in tele­
phone companies are in sales, administrative,
and certain professional jobs. A substantial
number of these workers are business represen­
tatives. They deal with the public, handling
orders for new telephone services and providing
information about these services. Administra­
tive and professional workers in this group in­
clude accountants, attorneys, personnel officers,
purchasing agents, public relations employees,
training specialists, and statisticians.
The telephone industry employs many engi­
neers, draftsmen, engineering aids, and other
technical personnel. Most of them plan and
design the construction of new buildings and
the expansion of existing ones, and solve engi­
neering problems that arise in the day-to-day
operations of the telephone system. Some engi­
neers are employed in sales development work.
Many top supervisory and administrative jobs
are held by men with an engineering back­
The rest of the telephone industry's workers
maintain buildings, offices, and warehouses;
operate and service motor vehicles; and do other
maintenance and service jobs in offices and
plants. Skilled maintenance workers include
stationary engineers, carpenters, painters, elec­
tricians, and plumbers. Other workers employed
by the telephone industry are janitors, porters,
watchmen, elevator operators, and guards.


Employment Outlook

Many thousands of new workers will be hired
by telephone companies each year during the
1960’s. Most job openings will result from the
need to replace the large number of workers
who leave the industry, especially women tele­
phone operators and clerical workers. A smaller
number of openings will occur in craft jobs as
the telephone industry expands its services and
its use of more complex equipment.
The number of telephones in use is expected
to continue to increase at an annual rate of
about 5 percent during the 1960-70 decade. This
expansion will result partly from the increase
in population and households as well as the
growing number of business and industrial es­
tablishments. The 11 million households in the
United States still without telephones will be an
important factor in the demand for increased
services. Other indications of future expansion
include the transmission of information from
electronic data-processing equipment, the in­
creasing trend toward using extension tele­
phones in private homes; the widespread in­
stallation of outdoor public telephone booths;
and the increasing demand for special equip­
ment, such as telephones in different styles and
colors, dials that glow in the dark, and volume
controls to compensate for impaired hearing.
Employment in the telephone industry is also
expected to grow—but at a much slower rate
than the number of telephones in use. As in the
past, the industry will be able to provide an
increasing amount of service per employee be­
cause of continued technological improvements.
Earnings and Working Conditions

Earnings of telephone workers depend upon
the type of job held, the training and experi­
ence required, and the geographic location of
the job. For example, earnings of telephone
operator trainees averaged $1.46 an hour in Oc­
tober 1960, compared with an average of $1.83
an hour for experienced telephone operators. In
general, earnings are higher in the Northern
and Far Western States.
A telephone employee usually starts at the
minimum wage for his particular job. Pay in­

creases are given at periodic intervals until the
top of the grade is reached in about 6 years.
Wage rates, wage increases, and the amount of
time required to move from one step to the next
are governed for most telephone workers by
labor-management contracts. These contracts
also call for extra pay for work beyond 8 hours
a day or 40 hours a week and for all Sunday
work. Most contracts also provide that the rate
of pay for nightwork shall be 5 or 10 percent
above the basic day rate. Overtime work is
sometimes required in the telephone industry,
especially during emergencies, such as floods,
hurricanes, or bad storms. During an “emer­
gency callout,” which is a short-notice request
to report, to work during nonscheduled hours,
workers are guaranteed a minimum period
of pay at the basic hourly rate, and travel time
to and from the job is counted as worktime.
In addition to these provisions which affect
the pay envelope directly, other benefits are
provided. Periods of annual vacations with pay
are granted to workers according to their
length of service. Usually, contracts provide
for a 1-week vacation for 6 months to 1 year
of service, 2 weeks for 1 to 15 years, 3 weeks
for 15 to 25 years, and 4 weeks after 25 years.
The number of paid holidays ranges from 6 to
11 days a year depending on locality. Nearly
all contracts contain sick leave provisions. A
typical program provides that payments for
sick leave up to 7 days be paid to employees
with at least 2 years of service after a waiting
period of 1 to 3 days depending on length of
service. Provisions for paid sick leave beyond
7 days are covered in benefit plans adopted by
most companies. The majority of telephone
workers are covered by group insurance plans
which usually provide sickness, accident, and
death benefits, and retirement and disability
The telephone industry has achieved one of
the best safety records in American industry
—less than one disabling injury for each million
man-hours worked in 1960.
Where To Go for More Information

Additional information about jobs in the
telephone industry can be obtained from the

local telephone company or from local unions
with telephone workers among their member­
ship. If no local union is listed in the telephone
directory, information may be obtained from
the following:

Alliance of Independent Telephone Unions,
418 Paddock Bldg., 101 Tremont St., Boston 8, Mass.
Communication Workers of America,
1925 K St. NW., Washington 6, D.C.
International Brotherhood of Electrical Workers,
1200 15th St. NW., Washington 5, D.C.

Central Office Craftsmen
Nature of Work

In 1960, telephone companies employed
nearly 70,000 central office craftsmen and their
foremen to test, maintain, and repair central
office equipment. One of the main duties of
central office craftsmen is preventive mainte­
nance to keep telephone equipment in operating
condition. They make periodic tests of central
office equipment to locate and repair trouble
spots before they interfere with service.
Testboardmen (D.O.T. 5-53.310) make peri­
odic checks of customers’ lines to prevent break­
downs or interference in telephone service.
They work at special switchboards made up of
electrical testing instruments and test for, lo­
cate, and analyze trouble spots reported on cus­
tomers’ lines. If repairs are needed, they direct
the repair activities of line and cable crews or
installer-repairmen (if the breakdown is outside
the central office), or of central office repairmen
(if the trouble is inside). In 1960, more than
17,500 testboardmen were working in telephone
Frameman (D.O.T. 7-53.020) is usually the
beginning job from which a worker may ad­
vance to more skilled central office craft jobs.
Framemen do most of their work at distribut­
ing frames or panels where customers’ lines
(wires) come into the central office. Framemen string these wires to the proper terminals
on the frames and then solder the connections.
Connections are made according to worksheets
prepared by others or by oral directions of
Central office repairmen (D.O.T. 5-53.235),
often called switchmen, maintain and repair
switching equipment and automatic message ac­
counting systems in central offices. They check
switches and relays, using special tools and
gages and their knowledge of electricity. They

Central office repairman recording trouble spots as
indicated on special test panel.

also locate and repair trouble spots on custom­
ers’ lines in central office equipment as reported
by testboardmen. In 1960, the telephone indus­
try had about 40,000 central office repairmen,
helpers, and framemen.
Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement

Telephone companies usually hire inexperi­
enced men to train for skilled jobs in central
offices. Applicants for these jobs must have at
least a high school or vocational school educa­
tion. A knowledge of the basic principles of
electricity is helpful. Preemployment tests are
usually given to prospective employees. Tele­



phone training and experience in the armed
services may be helpful in obtaining jobs as
telephone company craftsmen; men with this
training may be brought in above the entry
Most telephone companies have regular pro­
grams for training new employees in central
office jobs. A new worker may be given some
classroom instruction as well as on-the-job
training. After a few weeks he is usually as­
signed to the starting job of frameman and
works with skilled repairmen under the direc­
tion of supervisor or foreman. As the frameman
gains skill and experience, he may advance to a
job as central office repairman or testboardman.
At such times, he receives additional classroom
instruction lasting 6 weeks or longer. Instruc­
tion includes such courses as the principles of
electricity and electronics, as well as special
courses in the maintenance of the particular
type of central office equipment used by the
company. Central office craftsmen receive
training throughout their careers with the tele­
phone company. As new types of equipment
and tools are introduced and new maintenance
methods are developed, these men may be sent
to school for short periods of instruction. Usu­
ally it takes at least 6 years for workers to
reach the top pay rate as central office repair­
men or as testboardmen.
Many workers move into central office jobs
from other types of telephone jobs. For ex­
ample, some men start out as telephone installers
or as linemen and may, with additional train­
ing, transfer to jobs as central office craftsmen.
A few telephone craftsmen may be promoted
to the higher paying job of engineering assis­
tant. In this job, they help telephone engineers
plan cable layouts for new construction or for
replacement of outmoded cable facilities.
Employment Outlook

Young men will find many opportunities for
employment in central offices of telephone com­
panies in the 1960’s. Many of these openings
will arise from the expected expansion of tele­
phone facilities and the growing complexity of
central office equipment, such as the wider use
of the automatic message accounting system
and the introduction of electronic switching

equipment. Many additional central office crafts­
men will be needed to test, maintain, and repair
this equipment. It is expected that central of­
fice craftsmen will be one of the faster growing
groups of telephone employees. Job openings
will also result from the need to replace those
workers who transfer to other telephone jobs,
leave the industry, retire, or die. Retirements
and deaths alone may result in about 10,000 job
openings in the 1960-70 decade.
Earnings and Working Conditions

Central office craftsmen are among the high­
est paid group of skilled workers in the tele­
phone industry. In October 1960, average earn­
ings of testboardmen in large telephone com­
panies in the United States were $2.98 an hour,
and $2.86 an hour for central office repairmen.
Average hourly earnings ranged from $2.88 to
$3.20 for testboardmen and from $2.60 to $3.01
for central office repairmen depending on
Earnings increase considerably with length
of service in central office jobs. According to
a 1961 wage schedule in one of the higher pay
scale cities, framemen started at $64.50 for a
40-hour week and could work up to a maximum
of $108.50 after 5 years. At any time during
this period, if a vacancy occurred and the
worker was qualified, a frameman could move
into the job of central office repairman or test­
boardman on a higher pay schedule. Central
office repairmen and testboardmen could in
1961 earn a maximum of $132 a week after 6
years of periodic increases. Craftsmen who
transferred to engineering assistant jobs could
earn a maximum of $144.50 a week after 8
Since the telephone industry gives continuous
service to its customers, central offices operate
24 hours a day, 7 days a week. Therefore,
some central office craftsmen work schedules
which include evenings, nights, and weekends
for which they receive extra pay. Central of­
fice craftsmen are covered by the same provi­
sions governing overtime pay, vacations, holi­
days, and other benefits that apply to telephone
workers generally. (See p. 741.) Employees
in central offices work in clean and well-lighted


Linemen and Cable Splicers

Nature of Work

The vast network of wires and cables which
connects telephone central offices to the mil­
lions of telephones and switchboards in cus­
tomers’ homes and buildings is constructed and
kept in good operating order by linemen and
cable splicers and their helpers. In 1960, tele­
phone companies employed nearly 18,000 line­
men and over 18,000 cable splicers. About 6,000
foremen and 5,000 cable splicers’ helpers and
laborers were also employed in these operations.
In constructing new telephone lines, linemen
(D.O.T. 5-53.410) place wires and cables lead­
ing from the central office to customers’ prem­
ises. They dig holes with power-driven equip­
ment and set in telephone poles which support
cables. Linemen climb the poles to attach the
cables, usually leaving the ends free for cable
splicers to connect later. In cities where tele­
phone lines are below the streets they place
cables in underground conduits. Construction
linemen usually work in crews of two to five
men. A foreman directs the work of several of
these crews.
Much of the linemen’s work consists of re­
pairing and maintaining existing lines. When
wires or cables break or when a pole is knocked
down, linemen are sent immediately to make
emergency repairs. The line crew foreman
keeps in close contact with the testboardman
who directs him to trouble spots on the lines.
Some linemen are assigned sections of lines in
rural areas which they inspect periodically.
During the course of their work, they make
minor repairs and line changes.
After linemen place cables on poles or in
underground conduits, cable splicers (D.O.T.
5-53.950) complete the line connections. Splic­
ers work on aerial platforms, in manholes, or
in basements of large commercial buildings.
They connect individual wires within the cable
by matching colors of wires in such a way as
to keep each circuit continuous. Cable splicers
also rearrange pairs of wires within a cable
when lines have to be changed. At each splice,
they either wrap insulation around the wires
and seal the joint with a lead sleeve or cover the
splice with some other type of closure. Some

Lineman using hand line to raise wire to working

times they fill the sheathing with gas under
pressure to keep out moisture.
Cable splicers also maintain and repair
cables. The preventive maintenance work that
they do is extremely important because a sin­
gle defect in a cable may result in a serious
interruption in service. Many trouble spots are
located through electric and gas pressure tests.
Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement

Telephone companies hire inexperienced men
to train for jobs as linemen or cable splicers.
Applicants for these jobs must have a high
school or vocational school education and must
pass a physical examination. Knowledge of the
basic principles of electricity is also helpful.
Preemployment tests are often given to help
determine the applicant’s aptitudes. Some line
and cable work is strenuous, requiring workers
to climb poles and lift lines and equipment.
Accordingly, applicants for these positions must
be physically qualified for such work. Manual



dexterity and the ability to distinguish color
are also important qualifications for this work.
Men who have received telephone training and
experience in the armed services frequently are
given preference for job openings and may be
brought in above the entry level.
Telephone companies have training programs
for these jobs, including classroom instruction
as well as on-the-job training. Classrooms are
equipped with actual telephone apparatus, such
as poles, cable supporting clamps, and other
fixtures to simulate working conditions as close­
ly as possible. Trainees learn to climb poles
and are taught safe working practices to avoid
the hazards of live wires and falls.
After a short period of classroom training,
some trainees are assigned to a line crew to
work on the job with experienced men under
the supervision of a line foreman. It usually
takes about 6 years for linemen to reach the
top pay for the job. Other trainees are assigned
as cable splicers' helpers. They acquire the
skills of the trade by working with experienced
cable splicers. After working 3 or 4 years as
cable splicers' helpers, they may advance to the
job of cable splicer and reach top pay for the
job in another 2 or 3 years.
Line construction craftsmen continue to re­
ceive training throughout their careers to qual­
ify for more difficult assignments and to keep
up with technological changes in the industry.
Cross-training (switching workers from one
job to another) provides additional advance­
ment opportunities for workers in the telephone
industry. For example, a lineman may be trans­
ferred to the job of telephone installer and later
to telephone repairman.
Employment Outlook

Although there will be many job openings in
this field of work, the total number of linemen
and cable’ splicers is expected to remain at
about the same level for the next 10 years.
Telephone companies will probably continue to
extend lines and cables into suburban areas at
about the same rate as they have in the past
10 years.
Many job openings for workers to become
linemen and cable splicers will be available
Digitized formainly because of the need to replace workers

who transfer to other fields of work, retire, or
die. Retirements and deaths alone may result
in about 7,000 job openings during the 1960-70
Earnings and Working Conditions

Cable splicers have higher earnings than
linemen. In October 1960, cable splicers, in the
United States as a whole, averaged $2.92 an
hour, linemen averaged $2.50, and cable splic­
ers’ helpers averaged $2.01. Average hourly
earnings ranged from $2.59 to $3.10 for cable
splicers; from $2.16 to $2.75 for linemen; and
from $1.67 to $2.22 for cable splicers’ helpers
depending on locality.
Pay rates within the jobs also depend to a
considerable extent upon length of service. For
example, in 1961, new workers in line con­
struction jobs in one of the higher pay scale
cities began at $64.50 for a 40-hour week. Line­
men could reach the maximum of $123 after 6
years of service; cable splicers' helpers could
reach a maximum of $97.50 in less than 4
years. (However, before cable splicer helpers
reach this maximum, many are reclassified as
cable splicers and are transferred to a new pay
schedule.) The maximum basic weekly rate for
cable splicers was $132, based upon a combined
total of at least 6 years' work as a helper and
as a splicer. Linemen and cable splicers are
covered by the same contract provisions gov­
erning overtime pay, vacations, holidays, and
other benefits that apply to telephone workers
generally. (See p. 741.)
Linemen and cable splicers work outdoors in
all kinds of weather. They must do a con­
siderable amount of climbing. Linemen and
cable splicers also work in manholes, often in
stooped and cramped positions. Safety stand­
ards developed over the years by telephone
companies with the cooperation of labor unions
have greatly reduced the hazards of these oc­
cupations. When severe weather conditions
damage telephone lines, linemen and cable
splicers may be called upon to work long and
irregular hours to repair damaged equipment
and to restore service. Because of the nature
of their work, some linemen transfer to less
physically demanding jobs by the time they
reach their midfifties.


Telephone and PBX Installers and Repairmen

Nature of Work

Telephone and private branch exchange
(PBX) installers and repairmen (sometimes
called servicemen) install and service telephone
and PBX systems on the customers’ property
and make necessary repairs on the equipment
when trouble develops. These workers travel to
customers’ homes and offices in trucks equipped
with telephone tools and supplies. When tele­
phone customers move or request new types of
service, installers relocate telephones or make
changes on customers’ existing equipment. For
example, they may install a PBX system in an
office or change a two-party line to a single­
party line in a residence. Installers may also
answer a customer’s request to add an extension
in another room or to replace an old telephone
with a newer model.
In 1960, almost 82,000 telephone and PBX
installers and repairmen were employed, the
largest group of telephone craftsmen. More
than two-thirds of these men mainly installed
telephones or private branch exchanges. About
15,000 repaired and maintained this equipment,
and 10,500 were foremen. The jobs of installing
and repairing telephones and PBX systems are
discussed below as separate jobs, but many tele­
phone companies combine two or more of these
Telephone installers (D.O.T. 5-53.030) in­
stall and remove telephones in homes and
places of business. They connect newly in­
stalled telephones to outside service wires which
are on nearby buildings or poles. Installers
must often climb poles to make these connec­
tions. Telephone installers are sometimes called
station installers.
PBX installers (D.O.T. 5-53.020) perform the
same duties as telephone installers but they
specialize in more complex switchboard instal­
lations. They connect wires from terminals to
switchboards and make tests to check their in­
stallations. Some PBX installers also set up
equipment for radio and television broadcasts,
mobile radiotelephones, and teletypewriters.
Telephone repairmen (D.O.T. 5-53.240), with
the assistance of testboardmen in the central

Installer recommending possible location of new
extension telephone.

office, locate trouble on customers’ telephones,
and make necessary repairs to restore service.
Sometimes the jobs of telephone repairmen and
telephone installers are combined and the work­
ers are called telephone installer-repairmen.
PBX repairmen (D.O.T. 5-53.240), with the
assistance of testboardmen, locate trouble on
customers’ PBX systems and make necessary
repairs. They also maintain associated equip­
ment, such as batteries, relays, and power
plants. Some PBX repairmen maintain and re­
pair equipment for radio and television broad­
casts, mobile radiotelephones, and teletypewrit­
ers. Sometimes the jobs of PBX installers and
PBX repairmen are combined into the job of
PBX installer-repairmen.
Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement

Telephone companies hire inexperienced men
and train them for telephone and PBX instal­
lation and repair jobs. Since much of the work
requires personal contact with customers, ap­
plicants who have a pleasant appearance and
the ability to deal effectively with people are
preferred. Applicants for these skilled jobs must



have a high school or vocational school educa­
tion. To help determine applicants' aptitudes,
preemployment tests are sometimes given.
New workers are given classroom instruction
in addition to on-the-job training. Classrooms
are equipped with telephone poles, lines and
cables, and terminal boxes, as well as models
of typical residential construction to simulate
actual working conditions. Trainees practice
installing telephones and making connections
to service wires just as they would in the field.
After a few weeks of such training, new work­
ers accompany skilled installers and continue
to learn the job of installing by watching and
helping these experienced men. It usually takes
a month or more of such experience before
new workers are ready to do installation work
Telephone and PBX installers and repairmen
continue to receive training throughout their
careers with the telephone company to qualify
for more difficult and responsible work. Since
technological changes in the telephone indus­
try are occurring constantly, telephone com­
panies send their craftsmen to training schools
for further instruction. Cross-training (switch­
ing workers from one job to another) provides
additional advancement opportunities for work­
ers in this industry. For example, after a few
years of working as a telephone installer, a
man may be transferred to the higher paying
job of PBX installer. Similarly, a telephone
repairman may be promoted to PBX repairman,
one of the top paying craft jobs. In another
case, a new worker may start out as a lineman
and then transfer to the job of installing or
repairing telephones, later moving to either
PBX installer or PBX repairman.
Employment Outlook

Employment of telephone and PBX installers
and repairmen is expected to continue to in­
crease during the 1960's. More installers and

repairmen will be needed not only to install the
increasing number of new telephones but, more
importantly, to service and repair existing
equipment and to disconnect and hook up tele­
phones when customers move. Many other job
opportunities for new workers will result from
the need to replace workers who are promoted
or transfer to other fields of work, or who re­
tire or die. Retirements and deaths alone may
result in about 15,000 job openings in the 196070 decade.
Earnings and Working Conditions

In October 1960, PBX repairmen earned an
average of $3.04 an hour and telephone and
PBX installers earned $2.91. Average hourly
earnings ranged from $1.63 to $3.13 for PBX
repairmen and from $1.86 to $3.03 for telephone
and PBX installers, depending on locality.
Telephone companies have pay schedules in
which the wage rates within each job classifi­
cation increase with length of service. For
example, in a 1961 wage schedule in one of the
higher pay scale cities, telephone installers and
repairmen started with $64.50 for a 40-hour
week and received periodic pay increases until
they reached a maximum of $126 a week after
about 6 years. PBX installers and repairmen
began with the same base pay and progressed
to $132. Installers and repairmen are covered
by the same provisions governing overtime pay,
vacations, holidays, and other benefits that ap­
ply to telephone workers generally. (See p.
Telephone and PBX installers and repairmen
work indoors and outdoors in all kinds of
weather. Outdoor work includes climbing poles
to place and repair telephone wires leading
from poles to customers' premises. Installers
and repairmen may be called to work extra
hours in case of breakdowns in customers' lines
or equipment.


Telephone Operators

Nature of Work

Nearly a quarter million women were in tele­
phone operating jobs in 1960, making this
group of workers the largest in the industry.
Telephone operators (D.O.T. 1-42.00 through
1-42.09) assist customers and other operators
in making connections for specialized types of
calls. Because local calls and a large propor­
tion of long-distance calls—those known as
station-to-station ones—are dialed directly by
the customer, the majority of telephone opera­
tors are either long-distance or information op­
erators. Long-distance operators assist in com­
pleting calls which customers are unable to dial
themselves, such as person-to-person, reversecharge, and other special types of calls. They
also give assistance on calls when the customer
has difficulty in dialing and in emergencies. The
operator completes calls through equipment by
use of a key set, a kind of push button dial.
She records details of those calls which she
completes, for billing purposes. Information op­
erators handle customers’ and long-distance
operators’ requests for telephone numbers by
searching in telephone directories and other
records such as those of newly connected tele­
phones and lists of frequently called establish­
Service assistants, another type of telephone
operator, conduct the initial training of opera­
tors, continuing with followup training and de­
velopment as required. They may also assist
telephone operators or customers in completing
more difficult calls.
The chief operator (D.O.T. 0-99.53) plans
and'directs the administration activities of a
central office. She is responsible for the overall
efficiency of the office and all personnel matters
involving her employees. She is assisted by
group chief operators or assistant chief opera­
tors and central office clerks.
Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement

Women with a high school education are pre­
ferred for operator jobs. Some local companies
hire high school students or former telephone
operators for part-time work. Applicants for

Long-distance operators make direct calls to telephones
in distant cities.

telephone operating jobs are given physical
examinations and are checked for good eyesight
and hearing. They are also given spelling,
arithmetic, and learning ability tests. A pleas­
ing voice, alertness, legible handwriting, a will­
ingness to cooperate with other operators, an
even disposition, and the ability to use good
judgment in dealing with customers are the
main personal qualifications for the job of
One or two new employees are generally as­
signed to a service assistant who teaches them
on an individual basis for a period of 1 to 3
weeks. Trainees practice handling common
types of calls on dummy switchboards and
progress to more difficult types of calls. After
they develop speed and skill in making calls
without the help of the instructor, trainees are
assigned to a regular position at the switch­
Service assistants continue to instruct new
operators in handling other types of operating
services, such as long-distance and information.
The general policy of telephone companies is



to have a flexible force of operators capable of
working at a number of positions in the central
office. Because of changes that occur in the
methods of handling calls and installations of
new central office equipment, operators receive
additional training throughout their careers.
A switchboard operator may be promoted to
service assistant and then to group or assistant
chief operator. A service assistant may also
become a PBX service advisor who instructs
customers' employees in the efficient operation
of their telephone equipment. The job of chief
operator is usually the highest level to which a
telephone operator may advance within a cen­
tral office, but they may find equal or better
jobs in other departments.
Experienced operators may transfer to cleri­
cal jobs either in the central office or in the
administrative office of the traffic department.
Many of these jobs are filled by recruiting from
the operating staff since knowledge of operating
procedures is often useful in this work. Central
office clerks assist the chief operator in cleri­
cal duties. Administrative clerks prepare re­
ports used in managing and planning the work
of the traffic department. Qualified operators
frequently transfer to jobs in other depart­
ments, as, for example, to service representa­
tive in the business office. In addition, some
women with telephone operating experience
may transfer to such jobs as switchboard op­
erators in hotels, office buildings, or apartment
Employment Outlook

There will be tens of thousands of opportuni­
ties for women to enter this occupation each
year during the 1960's, although the total num­
ber of telephone operators is expected to con­
tinue to decline, following the trend of the
1950's. New operators will be hired mainly to
fill job openings resulting from the large num­
ber of women who leave these jobs. Most oper­
ator jobs are held by young women who remain
in the industry for only a few years. Some
stop work when they marry, and others who
are married leave to raise families.
Technological advances within the telephone
industry enable fewer operators to handle more

telephone calls and other services. Examples
of these developments include conversion of the
few remaining manual systems to dial service
and the extension of customer-dialed long­
distance calls to all areas of the country. The
introduction of electronic devices such as the
automatic message accounting system also re­
duces the amount of clerical work formerly
done by the operator. Despite these develop­
ments, large numbers of operators will still be
needed in the 1960's. Many types of calls, such
as information, long-distance calls from coin
telephones, person-to-person, credit-card, and
reverse-charge, cannot be handled without the
assistance of an operator.
Earnings and Working Conditions

In October 1960, major telephone companies
in the United States paid an average of $2.91
an hour to chief operators, $2.19 to service
assistants and instructors, $1.83 to experi­
enced telephone operators, and $1.46 to opera­
tor trainees. Average hourly earnings of ex­
perienced telephone operators ranged from
$1.63 to $1.96, depending on the areas in which
they work.
Earnings of telephone operators increase
considerably as they gain experience and skill.
For example, under a 1961 wage schedule in
one of the higher pay scale cities, telephone
operators started out at $61 a week and re­
ceived periodic increases to a maximum of $80
after a period of about 6 years. Service assist­
ants received $10 a week above the operator's
weekly wage. Operators whose tours of duty
ended after 7 p.m. received extra pay ranging
from 40 to 80 cents for each evening worked.
Operators on all-night tours of duty received
$1.20 extra for each night worked. Telephone
operators are covered by the same provisions
governing overtime pay, vacations, holidays,
and other benefits that apply to telephone
workers generally. (See p. 741.)
Rooms in which telephone operators work
are generally well lighted, well ventilated, and
air conditioned. Adjustable chairs are provid­
ed for operators. Most companies provide
pleasant, attractive lounges for operators to re­
lax in during rest periods. Large central of­



fices usually have cafeterias where inexpen­
sive hot foods and drinks are served
throughout the day.
The basic workweek for telephone opera­
tors is 40 hours. However, since the telephone
industry gives service 24 hours a day, many
operators work night and evening hours, Sun­
days, and holidays. Other operators work

split shifts to handle peak calling loads in late
morning and early evening hours. Split shifts
usually total 7 to 7Vfc hours in length. For
example, an operator may have a tour of duty
from 8 a.m. to noon and from 6 p.m. to 9 p.m.
In general, choice of hours is by seniority.
Telephone operators may also be called to work
during emergencies.

Central Office Equipment Installers

(D.O.T. 5-53.010)

Nature of Work

Central office equipment installers, who are
employed by the manufacturers of this equip­
ment, set up complex switching and dialing
equipment in central offices of local telephone
companies. They assemble, wire, adjust, and
test this equipment, making sure that it con­
forms to the manufacturer’s standards for ef­
ficient and dependable service. These jobs may
involve installing a new central office, adding
equipment in an expanding local office, or
modifying or replacing outmoded equipment.
Central office equipment installers are gen­
erally assigned to specific areas which may in­
clude several States, and they must travel to
central offices of local telephone companies
within these areas. On small jobs, such as in­
stalling a switchboard in a central office in a
small community, an installer may be teamed
with only one or two other installers. When
a long-distance toll center is installed in a big
city, he may work with hundreds of other in­
Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement

Manufacturers of telephone equipment re­
quire applicants for jobs as installers to have
a high school or vocational school education.
Men with some college education, especially
those with engineering training, are often
hired for these jobs. Preemployment tests are
generally given to determine the applicant’s me­
chanical aptitudes, and a physical examination
is required. Applicants must be willing to
New employees receive on-the-job training

Central office equipment installer making final check of
dial switching equipment.

and some classroom instruction. They attend
classes for the first few weeks to learn basic
installation methods. Trainees then start onthe-job training with experienced installers.
After several years of experience, they may
qualify as skilled installers. Training on the
job, however, continues even after they be­
come skilled workers. Additional courses are



given from time to time not only to improve
their skills but also to teach them new tech­
niques of installing telephone equipment.
Employment Outlook

The number of telephone equipment
installers—about 13,000 in 1960—is expected
to remain about the same during the 1960-70
decade. However, there will be some opportu­
nities for young men to enter this field to re­
place equipment installers who transfer to oth­
er fields of work, retire, or die.
The employment of equipment installers is
directly affected by general economic condi­
tions which influence plans for expansion and
modernization of central offices. For example,
as the post-World War II backlog of instal­
lation requirements was reduced, employment
of equipment installers dropped from a peak of
about 25,000 in 1947 to a low of about 10,000 in
During the 1950 decade, employment in­
creased somewhat as local dial systems were
installed in most central offices. Since much
of this equipment is still fairly new, any
changeover to a more modern system (for ex­
ample, electronic switching) probably will not
be widespread in the next 10 years. However,

the work force is expected to remain about the
same because of the increased use of other
types of telephone equipment, such as long­
distance dialing facilities and radio-relay sta­
Earnings and Working Conditions

Inexperienced installers start at $1.60 or
$1.67 an hour, depending on locality, accord­
ing to the major union contract in effect in
this industry in 1961. The contract provides
for periodic increases until the employees
reach rates of $2.58 or $2.70 an hour at 5%
years of experience. Employees may also re­
ceive annual merit increases above these rates,
up to $3.13 or $3.32 an hour. Time and a half
is paid for work in excess of 8 hours a day or
40 hours a week, and double time is paid for
work on Sundays or holidays. Installers re­
ceive 7 to 11 paid holidays a year, depending
on the locality. Vacations are provided ac­
cording to length of service. Workers with 1
year of service receive 1 week's vacation; 2 to
15 years of service, 2 weeks; 15 to 25 years of
service, 3 weeks; and 25 years and over,
4 weeks. Most central office equipment in­
stallers are represented by the Communication
Workers of America.

Agricultural Occupations
The American farmer functions in many ca­
pacities and makes many independent deci­
sions, despite the specialization and mechani­
zation which have occurred in agriculture.
The typical farmer is a manager, a supervisor,
and a laborer. He must know about genetics,
insects, bacteria, fungi, and viruses, as well as
a wide variety of crops and animals. He buys
a host of different items from various types of
dealers and sells his product in many kinds of
markets. In some respects, he acts as a book­
keeper and a financier. He is a producer who
has many and varied competitors.
As a way of life, farming offers advantages
that are attractive to many families. Some
people like the greater independence and free­
dom associated with various phases of
farmwork and the variety of jobs associated
with farming. They like living on farms or
in small communities and are willing to accept
lower incomes than they would consider satis­
factory in an urban environment. With mod­
ern means of transportation and communica­
tion, many of the former differences between
rural and urban living are vanishing. Many
consider the country a better place in which
to rear children. But some remain on farms
because they have no alternative; they are ei­
ther too old for, or otherwise unsuited or un­
adapted to, other kinds of work.
Migrant farm workers, whose earnings and
living conditions are so greatly inferior to
those of either the farm operator or the farm


worker who is employed throughout the year,
are not discussed in this chapter.
Significance of Agriculture in the Economy

The Nation’s agricultural economy, its meth­
ods of farming and the resources required to
finance a farm business have changed greatly
during the past century. They have changed
very rapidly in the past 20 years.
The national economy is no longer predomi­
nantly agricultural. Only about 9 percent of
the U.S. total civilian labor force are now em­
ployed on farms. About 12 percent of the to­
tal population now live on farms, compared
with 65 percent in 1860. One farm worker
can now produce food and fiber for himself and
25 other people, compared with only 4 others
in 1860.
The number of farm workers has declined,
but there has been a sharp increase in the num­
ber who work off the farm in jobs closely related
to agriculture. These include the workers in
feed mills, fertilizer plants, the farm machinery
industries, farm supply stores, food processing
plants, and many other businesses that process,
distribute, or transport farm products and farm
supplies. This whole complex of activities on
and off the farm is often called “Agri-Business.”
It has remained a relatively constant proportion
of the total economy. The total number of
trained persons needed in fields related to agri­
culture is constantly rising.

The typical farm of today is much larger and
more highly mechanized than the one of 20
years ago, and consequently requires much
more capital and farming skills to own and op­
erate. The standard of living of American
farmers today is also the highest in the Na­
tion's history. At the same time, opportunities
for the small farmer, as well as for the tenant
farmer, have become very limited.
Investment per Worker on Farms

Since before World War II, American agri­
culture has experienced a spectacular rise in
the value of productive assets relative to the
number of workers. Higher prices for land and
equipment and the substitution of machinery
for labor have been chiefly responsible for
this increase. The investment per worker in
land, farm buildings, livestock, machinery, equipment, and other capital items amounted to
about $22,000 in 1959, compared with less than
$4,000 in 1940. In physical terms (valued at
1947-49 prices), the quantity of all productive
assets per farm worker has nearly doubled
since 1940; the quantity of farm machinery
and equipment alone has more than tripled.
Technological developments have brought to
the farmer many new kinds of laborsaving de­
vices and production-expanding aids. This
technological progress has increased the
skills required for many farm jobs and has
raised the amount of capital needed to op­
erate a farm profitably.
Size of Farm Operations

Farms in the United States have been clas­
sified by the Bureau of the Census according
to the value of their annual sales. In terms
of size of operation, the data show that the
business firms in agriculture (the farms) vary
widely. In 1954, about 7 in 10 farms were clas­

sified as commercial (those providing the
farmer with his major source of income), but
fewer than 3 in 10 reported sales of $5,000
or more. From these data, it is clear that many
farms are too small to provide more than part
of the income needed to support a satisfac­
tory standard of living. However, the trend is
toward fewer and larger farms. For farm op­
erators, the consolidation of farms into larger
units means that more managerial skills, more
capital, and more mechanical equipment are
Farm Employment Outlook

The employment situation for farm workers
is unfavorable basically because mechaniza­
tion is rapidly displacing labor and because too
many people are seeking employment in agri­
culture. As farms continue to increase in size
and as further and continued mechaniza­
tion takes place, the number of desirable open­
ings in agriculture for new workers will be
fewer each year than the number of workers
who retire, die, or leave the farm for other rea­
sons. Probably the number of both farm op­
erators and other farm workers will continue
to decline. By 1975, the number of persons em­
ployed on the farm may be a fourth less than
the number employed in 1960.
During the 1960's, an estimated 227,000 op­
erators of medium-size to large farms (those
selling as much as $5,000 worth of farm prod­
ucts annually) are expected to leave the occu­
pation because of retirement and death. Obvi­
ously only a small proportion of the 2,200,000
farm boys 10 to 19 years of age in 1954 will
have the opportunity to become operators of
such farms. Those who did not grow up on
farms and do not have a farmer's skills will
have even less chance of becoming farm opera­
Unlike many other segments of the economy,

agriculture cannot expect a general increase
in per capita consumption of its products. Ex­
pansion of domestic markets will, therefore,
depend mainly on growth of the population
and exports of farm products. Because of the
rapid advances in technology, faster commu­
nications and transportation and better in­
formed producers and consumers, farming
probably will become more competitive in the
years ahead. For the next decade or so, no
great pressure is expected to be placed on farm
output. As a result, the demand for farm prod­
ucts at prices that will support a high stand­
ard of living for some farm families may be
lacking. For nearly a decade, despite the fact
that many farm people have turned to other
occupations, mounting surpluses have contin­
ued to exert a downward pressure on farm in­
comes. Even though the Federal Government
has spent billions of dollars to support farm
commodity prices in recent years, real incomes
of farmers have tended to decline and those
of industrial workers have tended to rise.
Despite the less than rosy outlook for job op­
portunities in farming, agriculture will remain
one of the largest areas of employment in the
economy. Moreover, if farmers’ demands for
machinery, equipment, and supplies are to be
met and if consumers are to get farm products
processed and packaged in the form they are
now demanding, an expanding list of openings
in fields closely related to agriculture will be
available. In 1959, an average of 5.8 million
employed persons (farm operators, unpaid
family workers, and hired farm workers)
worked on farms, and about an equal num­
ber were engaged in closely related activities.
Some of them were producing such farm sup­
plies as fertilizer, processed feed, and machin­
ery. Others were engaged in transporting,
storing, processing, packaging, or otherwise
fabricating or handling farm products along
the route from the farmer to the final consum­
er. Increased employment in these areas of
work will provide opportunities for some of
those affected by declines in employment on


Courtesy of U.S. Department of Agriculture

Farmers using mechanical equipment to harvest a crop.
Opportunities for Hired Workers on Farms

Most of the workers on farms are either
self-employed farm operators or members of
farm families. The number of hired workers
on farms (including family members who are
paid wages) fluctuates seasonally from about
1 million in January to nearly 3 million at the
peak of the harvest in September. Roughly
750,000 hired workers are employed on farms
for at least 150 working days each year. The
rest, including many students and housewives,
work chiefly during the harvest season.
Although farm wage rates in 1960 were more
than four times as high as they were in 1940,.
they were still low in relation to earnings of
factory workers. Ordinary farm work is ex­
cluded from the coverage of the Fair Labor
Standards Act. Average farm wage rates for
full-time workers in the United States as of
October 1,1960, were as follows:
Per month with house_______ ______________ $186.00
Per month with board and room_____________ 147.00
Per week with board and room_______________ 35.50
Per week without board or room____________ — 43.75

Employment opportunities for hired farm
workers vary from season to season and also


among geographic areas. Specific information
concerning the kinds of jobs available and cur­
rent wage rates may be obtained from the local
offices of the State employment services.
Training Opportunities Available for Farming

The best initial training for farming is to
grow up on a farm. However, those who lack
this early farm background can gain the nec­
essary experience as a hired worker on a suc­
cessful farm.
Several types of vocational training are
available under the Smith-Hughes Act, which,
among other things, provides for the teaching
of agriculture in the high schools. The train­
ing includes:
1. All-day programs supervised by teachers who are
agricultural college graduates;
2. Young farmer programs consisting of short courses
carried on during the day, with intensive training in
some aspects of farming, such as growing broilers or
breeding cattle, swine, sheep, etc.; and

3. Adult farmer programs in evening classes (or day
classes in offseasons) giving intensive training in con­
servation, crop and livestock production, and special
problems such as control of pests, and planning adjust­
ments in land use and treatment.

The most significant general sources of in­
formation and guidance available to farmers
are the network of services provided by the
land-grant colleges and universities and the
U.S. Department of Agriculture. These serv­
ices include the facilities of the various State
and Federal experiment stations, the Extension
Services, and resident teaching. The local
county agricultural agent is frequently the best
point of contact for the young person seeking
advice and assistance in farming. The Farm­
ers Home Administration's system of super­
vised credit represents one example of credit
facilities combined with a form of extension
teaching. Organized groups such as the Future
Farmers of America and the 4-H Clubs also
furnish valuable training to young farm

In the preceding section, it was pointed out
that the overall number of desirable openings
in farming is decreasing. Nevertheless, in such
a large field, a considerable number of desira­
ble and rewarding openings will occur from
time to time.
Each year also, many young people must de­
cide whether to go into farming or some other
field of work. For some people, this decision
may be influenced by the fact that there may
be an opening on the family farm or on one
nearby. Others may simply decide to go into
farming and then look around to find out what
opportunities are available. But if their choice
is to be a sound one, it must be made between
specific types of farming and specific lines of
nonfarm work.
Whether or not a specific farm situation is
involved, the particular requirements of each
type of farming under consideration and the
prospects for success in the work should be ap­
praised carefully. Each person must make this
appraisal in the light of his aptitudes, his in­
terests and preferences, his experience and
knowledge, and his skills in directing labor and
handling livestock or machinery. His choice
must take into account also his family labor
supply and his financial resources, as the labor
and capital requirements for an operation of
adequate size vary widely from one type of
farm to another.
A realistic decision to go into farming can
be made only in terms of a particular type (or
types) of farming in a particular area or com­
munity. This section evaluates some of the more
common farm types from an occupational
standpoint. Illustrative data on land, labor and
capital requirements, and net farm incomes re­
ceived by operators of typical or representative
farms in various parts of the country are
shown in the accompanying table. On most of
the farms, the major part of the work is done
by the farm operator with help from his fami­

ly. The smaller farms may hire help during
peak labor seasons, whereas some of the larger
ones often use hired labor the year around.
The figures on capital invested should not
be interpreted to mean that the operator must
have that amount of money saved up in order
to get started. They indicate only that on these
farms, operators control or use resources of
this value or amount. Many farmers supple­
ment their own capital with borrowed funds;
others rent part or all of the land they use,
thus allowing more of their own funds for the
purchase of livestock and machinery. Still
others have partners who provide most of the
working capital. For example, many farmers
raise broilers in partnership with a feed dealer.
Before discussing in greater detail the various
types of farming, it may be well to mention
the question of specialization versus diversifica­
tion. No brief general statement can be made
that would apply in all parts of the country,
but the general trend is in the direction of
more specialized farming. Farms that pro­
duced a number of different products a genera­
tion ago may now produce only two or three.
One of the main reasons for this is that efficient
production of most farm products requires sub­
stantial investments in specialized equipment.
In order to reap the full benefit from these
investments, the overhead cost of this equip­
ment must be spread over many units of pro­
duction. Two other factors are the greater em­
phasis in farm product markets on quality and
the increased knowledge and skill required for
effective production of each farm product.
Relatively few farmers, however, find it to
their advantage to produce only one product.
Chief among the reasons for this are the spread­
ing of price and production risks and the more
effective use of labor, particularly family labor,
and other resources that might be virtually
wasted or ineffectively used in a one-product


L and


F arm , L abor U sed , Capital I nvested , and N et F arm I ncome of Commercial F arms , by T ype , L ocation,
and S ize , 1957-59 A verage
T y p e of farm , location, an d size

D airy farm s:
C en tral N o rth e a s t................................................................................
E astern W isco n sin ................................................................................
W estern W isco n sin ..............................................................................
D a iry — hog farm s, so u th eastern M in n e s o ta .................................
C orn B elt farm s:
H og— d a i r y .............................................................................................
H og— beef r a is i n g ...............................................................................
H og— beef fa tte n in g ............................................................................
C ash g ra in .................................................................................................
P o u ltry farm s, N ew Jersey (egg p ro d u cin g )...................................
C o tto n farm s:
S o uth ern P ie d m o n t..............................................................................
B lack P rairie, T e x a s ...........................................................................
H igh P lain s, T exas (n o n irrig a ted )..............................................
H igh P lain s, T exas (irrig a te d )......................................................
M ississippi D elta:
S m a ll..................................................................................................
L a r g e - s c a le ...................................................................................
P e a n u t— co tto n farm s, S o uth ern C o astal P la in s ..........................
T obacco farm s:
T obacco— livestock, K e n tu c k y .....................................................
T obacco— co tto n , N o rth C a ro lin a ..............................................
T obacco— co tto n (larg e)...................................................................
T obacco (sm a ll).....................................................................................
Spring w h eat farm s, N o rth ern P lain s:
W h eat— sm all g rain — liv esto ck .....................................................
W h eat— corn— liv esto ck ...................................................................
W h eat— ro u g hag e— liv e sto ck .........................................................
W in ter w h eat farm s:
W heat, S o uth ern P la in s ....................................................................
W h eat— g rain sorghum , S o uth ern P la in s ................................
W h eat— pea, W ashington an d Id a h o ........................................
W h ea t— fallow , W ashington an d O reg o n ................................
C a ttle ran ch es:
N o rth ern P la in s .....................................................................................
In te rm o u n ta in re g io n .........................................................................
S o u th w e st..................................................................................................
Sheep ran ch es:
N o rth ern P la in s.....................................................................................
S o u th w e st..................................................................................................

T o tal land
in farm

T o tal labor

C ap ital in v ested in —
L and and

M achinery
and eq u ip m ent

L ivestock

T o tal farm
cap ital

N et farm
incom e

O ops


4,3 6 0
4,1 4 0
4,1 8 0
3 ,9 2 0

22,0 4 0
26,4 3 0

6,9 2 0
3 ,8 6 0
6 ,6 7 0

$ 7,430
6 ,0 5 0
6 ,4 1 0
5 ,9 1 0

$2 ,8 0 0
2 ,5 9 0
2 ,6 4 0
2 ,7 7 0

37,6 0 0
2 7,650
4 1,780

$ 4,348
2 ,7 4 8
3 ,3 7 8
3 ,9 5 3


4,3 7 0
3,4 8 0
4 ,0 5 0
3 ,4 5 0
5 ,8 3 0

32,1 6 0
29,4 6 0
5 0 ,7 2 0
8 7,510
42,8 3 0

6,5 9 0
5 ,3 4 0
7 ,5 9 0
7,1 7 0

6 ,6 2 0
6 ,5 8 0
2 ,8 9 0
7 ,1 5 0

4 ,1 8 0
3 ,3 6 0
6 ,0 9 0

4 9,550
7 4 ,8 9 0
9 9 ,3 6 0
5 1 ,8 4 0

5 ,9 8 5
8 ,2 3 2
6 ,6 6 3


4 ,6 7 0
3 ,0 4 0
3 ,3 6 0
6 ,6 6 0

26,6 1 0
4 5 ,4 4 0
87,5 7 0

3 ,3 1 0
7,1 6 0

1 ,440


2 0 ,6 7 0
3 1 ,8 6 0
5 3 ,6 1 0

2 ,1 9 5
2 ,4 6 0
7 ,1 6 8
1 4,007


3 ,2 2 0
3 3,720
3 ,5 1 0

9 ,2 4 0
9 ,7 5 0

2 ,9 5 0
3 0,920
2 ,4 4 0

6 ,8 3 0
1 ,140

2 ,0 3 0


1 ,609
2 ,7 1 9


3 ,9 2 0
5 ,6 4 0
8 ,4 6 0
3 ,1 5 0

2 1 ,9 4 0
33,2 1 0
9 ,6 7 0

2 ,5 2 0
3 ,0 2 0
5 ,5 4 0

2 ,2 2 0
1 ,340

1 ,200

2 7 ,4 9 0
23,6 5 0
41,2 9 0

3 ,1 4 2
3 ,5 6 4


2 ,8 4 0
3 ,8 3 0
3 ,5 6 0

3 0 ,9 4 0
2 9 ,8 6 0
2 7 ,3 6 0

8 ,8 5 0
8,4 4 0

3 ,2 5 0
6 ,9 8 0
5 ,6 0 0

1 ,730
2 ,8 2 0
2 ,3 7 0

4 6,570
48 ,5 1 0
43 ,7 7 0

4 ,4 3 6
4 ,9 0 7
3 ,5 9 9


2 ,6 2 0
3 ,3 4 0
3 ,4 8 0
3 ,6 0 0

6 9,320
66,2 6 0

9 ,5 8 0
8 ,0 9 0

4 ,6 9 0
4 ,2 4 0
2 ,2 0 0
3 ,6 7 0

1 ,620
1,2 3 0
1 ,730
1 ,420

85 ,2 1 0
79,8 2 0

9 ,5 6 5

4,2 6 8

3 ,9 4 0
5 ,0 1 0
3 ,4 5 0

4 6,370
3 1 ,2 2 0

7,5 4 0
5 ,1 4 0
3 ,7 8 0

3 6 ,6 9 0
2 4 ,6 2 0

2 ,9 1 0
3 ,8 8 0
1 ,850

74,9 3 0
7 6,930

5 ,2 4 8
7 ,4 6 6

6,3 0 3

8,2 1 0
5 ,3 6 0

5 8 ,8 9 0

6 ,6 4 0
4,7 2 0

24,9 7 0
2 2 ,7 2 0

2 ,7 3 0

9 3 ,2 3 0

9 ,401

N ote: Prepared in Farm Economics Research Division, Agricultural Research Service, U. S. Department of Agriculture.
Dairy Farms

Dairy farms are found in most parts of the
country. Despite modern methods of processing
and transporting milk, dairy production is still
concentrated near the large population centers.
A large part of the total national production
of dairy products is concentrated in the North­
eastern and the great Lakes States. However,
many other areas in the Far West and the
South are becoming large producers of dairy
products. Many of these are drylot operations.
On dairy farms in the Northeast and Lake
States, crops are important. This causes peak
labor loads, especially at harvesttime, but there

is plenty to do throughout the year on dairy
farms. This has its advantages from the stand­
point of effective use of labor, as a regular force
can be kept fully occupied most of the time.
Most people do not like to be “tied down”
7 days a week. But for the man who likes
livestock and enjoys working with them, this
presents no great hardship.
Dairying is also a good choice for the man
who likes to work with mechanical equipment.
As most dairy farmers still produce much of
their feed requirements, there is enough variety
in the work to keep it from becoming too



Courtesy of U.S. Department of Agriculture

Highly mechanized modern dairy farm.

The financial problem of the dairyman is
somewhat simplified by the fact that his income
is spread over the year. Moreover, the prices
he receives for his product and his income are
usually less subject to the marked year-to-year
fluctuations experienced by operators of some
other types of farms. The accompanying table
shows the average net farm income in the
1957-59 period on dairy farms in the central
Northeast and Wisconsin.
Compared with farmers in most other areas,
dairy farmers in the more concentrated milksheds of the Northeast, such as the dairy
farms in the central Northeast shown in the
table, frequently milk larger herds, buy a
larger proportion of their feed requirements,
and are more likely to buy rather than raise
their herd replacements. Exceptions are the
specialized dairy farms on the Pacific Coast
and in a few other isolated areas. Perhaps the
most highly specialized producing area is the
“dry lot” dairy area near Los Angeles. In this
area, dairy farms are quite small in terms of
acreage but large in number of cows milked.
No crops are produced. Instead, these dairy
operators buy their entire feed requirements,
which are shipped in from outside the area.
Most of the cows are bought at freshening time
and are replaced when their lactation period is

completed. These highly specialized operations
are virtual “milk factories.”
Net farm income represents the return to the
farm operator for his own and his family’s
labor, and for the capital invested in the farm
business. For simplicity and for comparison,
it is assumed that the farmer owns all of his
land and is free from debt. If a farmer rents
part or all of his farm, not all of net farm in­
come is available for family living. Part of it
must be used to pay the rent. Likewise, the
farmer who is in debt must use part of this net
farm income to meet interest and principal
For example, lenders usually consider a 2 to
1 ratio of assets to liabilities a safe one, which
means that for the eastern Wisconsin dairy
farm shown in the accompanying table with
land and buildings worth a little more than
$20,000, they would consider a $10,000 mort­
gage a reasonable one. If this were set up on
a monthly level-payment (Standard) plan at
5-percent interest, the monthly payments
($65.42) would total about $785 per year; that
is, the farmer who is meeting such a repayment
schedule has $785 less available for family liv­
ing than one who is free from debt. Likewise,
this same general qualification applies to the
income figures shown for other types of farms.
Livestock Farms and Ranches

On general livestock farms, such as the hogbeef raising and the hog-beef fattening farms
of the Corn Belt (table), there is considerably
less daily “chore work” to be done than on dairy
farms. Many farmers would consider this an
advantage. Although this means that livestock
producers often do not work as long hours as
dairymen, it means also that they may not
make as effective use of the regular labor force
during slack seasons. This may present no
great problem when a substantial part of the
labor force is made up of young people of
school age, however, as the busiest times on
the farm come mainly when the children are
out of school.
As with dairy farms, general livestock farms
are good choices for farmers whose interests



tion water is available, few feed crops are har­
vested. Some of these ranchers, particularly
those in the Intermountain region and the
Northern Plains, own only a relatively small
part of the land they operate. The bulk of it is
public land on which they buy the rights to
graze their livestock. Large acreages are re­
quired to provide enough pasture for their stock,
so the ranchers spend much of their time in the
saddle, truck, or jeep, managing their herds.
Poultry Farms

Photograph by U.S. Department of Agriculture

Beef cattle being fattened for market in feeding lot.

and skills lie in the direction of livestock and
mechanical equipment.
The livestock farmers’ income is not as well
distributed throughout the year as that of the
dairymen’s, and it is less likely to be uniform
from year to year. To some extent, this com­
plicates their financial management problem
and increases the risks of operation, compared
with the dairymen’s. Moreover, on farms of
rather limited acreages, which are often found
in the Eastern States, the level of income from
general livestock is usually lower than is the
case from a dairy herd on a similar acreage.
Most hog producers have their own breeding
stock and raise the pigs they fatten for market.
With cattle and sheep, however, the situation
differs. Most of the cattle and sheep fattened
and finally marketed by the livestock farmer
are produced originally by someone else—usu­
ally the livestock rancher of the West. Five
situations representative of Western livestock
ranching are shown in the accompanying table
and chart—Northern Plains sheep and cattle
ranches, Intermountain cattle ranches, and
sheep and cattle ranches in the Southwest. In
these areas of low rainfall, the main source of
feed is range grass. Several acres are required
to support one animal. Except where irriga­

Most farmers in the United States keep some
poultry, but at the time of the 1954 census,
fewer than 5 percent of them were classified as
poultry farmers. Many poultry farms concen­
trate on egg production. Most of the larger and
more specialized of these farms are found in
the Northeastern States and in California.
Other poultry farms produce broilers. There
are a number of highly concentrated centers of
broiler production east of the Mississippi River
and a couple on the West Coast. There are also
specialized turkey producers, and a concentra­
tion of specialized producers of ducks in Suf­
folk County, Long Island, N.Y.
Although a few poultrymen produce some
crops, the crops are usually sold and special

Photograph by U.S. Department of Agriculture

Poultry farmer regulating brooder lamps to keep his
new.laying flock warm.



poultry feeds and laying mash are purchased.
Most specialized poultry producers grow no
crops, particularly operators producing broilers
and large laying flocks. The typical commer­
cial poultry farm in New Jersey, for example,
purchases all its feed. The typical broiler pro­
ducer on the Delmarva (Delaware, Maryland,
Virginia) peninsula and in northern Georgia
grows broilers only. The work requires some
specialized skill in handling birds, but little
skill is required of anyone except the operator.
Not much is demanded in the way of physical
strength, as the tasks involved are generally
not arduous. This is particularly true now that
bulk handling of feed and mechanical feeding
is widespread. Therefore, poultry farms can
make good use of available family help.
Capital investment and net farm income av­
eraged over the 1957-59 period for representa­
tive egg producers in New Jersey are shown in
the table. These averages do not reveal the
sharp fluctuations in income that these pro­
ducers experience from year to year. Because
egg producers have a high proportion of cash
costs and a rather thin margin of profit, rela­
tively small changes in feed and egg prices can
produce sizable fluctuations in income.
The incomes of most broiler producers, on

Courtesy of U.S. Department of Agriculture

Farmer using corn combine to harvest his crop.

the other hand, are somewhat steadier. Per­
haps the main reason for this is the high pro­
portion of broiler growers who produce “under
contract.” Contract production is much more
widespread in broiler production than in any
other major type of farming. Under these ar­
rangements, the financing agency—usually a
feed dealer—furnishes the feed, chicks, and
technical supervision. The feed dealer furnishes
virtually everything except the direct produc­
tion labor and the buildings and equipment.
The grower gets a stipulated amount per bird
marketed, and often a bonus for superior
Many turkey producers operate under similar
contracts, but the practice of production under
contract is not nearly so universal as among
broiler growers.
Corn and Wheat Farms

For the man who prefers working with
crops and farm machinery, cash grain or corn
or wheat farming has much to offer. Many
farmers would rather not be tied down the year
round with livestock and related farm chores.
They prefer to work long hours during the busy
seasons, if they can operate with laborsaving
equipment, and then take things easy when the
rush times are over.
The investment required and the recent in­
come experience on some representative cash
grain farms are shown in the table. Farms of
this type include cash grain farms in the Corn
Belt, spring wheat farms in the Northern Plains,
winter wheat farms in the Southern Plains,
and wheat-pea and wheat-fallow farms in the
Pacific Northwest. Although some of these
farmers, and particularly those in the Northern
Plains, usually raise some beef cattle for sale
as feeders and keep a few milk cows, livestock
production is usually of secondary importance.
In many instances, it is absent entirely.
One of the main risks faced by the commer­
cial wheat grower is the uncertainty of weather.
At present, the Nation has a large surplus of
wheat. Although there is also some price risk,
wheat prices have been stabilized to some extent
by the Federal Government’s price-support


Cotton, Tobacco, and Peanut Farms

In terms of numbers of farmers, the produc­
tion of cotton, tobacco, and peanuts makes up
a substantial part of the agriculture in the
Southeastern and South Central States. Farms
on which these products are grown range from
very small operating units to comparatively
large ones. Competition among these growers
has been keen, and many have been forced to
diversify and enlarge their farms. Both of these
adjustments require expenditures of capital.
Industrial expansion in the South and competi­
tion from growers in the irrigated cotton areas
of the West and Southwest have forced many
cotton farmers in the Southeast out of cotton
growing. Some of them have stopped farming,
and some have diversified their operations.
Competition will continue in the growing of
cotton, tobacco, and peanuts.
Courtesy of U.S. Department of Agriculture

Crop Specialty Farms

Many farmers throughout the country have
special resources and advantages chiefly be­
cause of location. They may specialize in pro­
duction of a single crop, such as grapes, or­
anges, potatoes, sugarcane, melons, or a com­
bination of related crops.
Operators of these types of farms or enter­
prises usually employ considerable labor and
require relatively expensive specialized equip­
ment. They also need specific skills, many of
which can be obtained only through experience.
None of these operations should be undertaken
unless the person has had considerable expe­
rience and has developed some of these special
skills and techniques. An alert individual with
reasonable aptitude can usually obtain these
skills by working a few years as a laborer for a
good operator or by operating as a tenant for
a landlord who is able to give direction and
Annual returns from these specialty farms
usually vary greatly from year to year. Ordi­
narily, production is subject to considerable var­

A mechanical cotton picker gathering cotton.

iation because of the vagaries of nature and the
variation in prices during the marketing season.
In general, operators of these farms are well
rewarded for their ability to produce and
market. They must keep abreast of production
and marketing conditions.
Other Specialties

Other highly specialized operations, which
include fur farms, apiaries, hop farms, cran­
berry production, and the like are very sensitive
to price and market conditions. Special land,
skills, and equipment are required and risks are
high. But even with the high risk, from the
standpoint of capital invested and income, the
venture is often rewarding to individuals who
have the requisite ability and resources. If he is
to succeed, the operator of such a farm must
be enterprising and alert, must keep abreast of
production and markets, and must have the
ambition and desire to accomplish his objective.

As agriculture becomes more technical and
more commercial, the number of people di­
rectly engaged in farming decreases but the
number who engage in occupations related to
agriculture increases rapidly. Power machin­
ery, for example, save many man-hours of labor
on the farm, but many highly trained non­
farm workers are required to develop, distrib­
ute, and service these machines.
A large number of the vocations that are

emerging around agriculture and for which a
farm background may be helpful are of a pro­
fessional or technical nature and call for col­
lege training or its equivalent. Other vocations
are in the nature of special services to farmers,
which can sometimes be learned through onthe-job training. For many of these positions,
a farm background is not essential, although it
may be helpful. The following sections discuss
occupations related to agriculture in detail.

Agricultural Extension Service Workers
(D .O .T. 0-12.20)

Nature of Work

Agricultural extension workers are engaged
in educational work in agriculture and home
economics. They are employed jointly by State
land-grant college and the U.S. Department of
Agriculture. Because their work is primarily
educational, extension workers must be pro­
ficient in both subject matter and teaching
County agricultural agents are concerned pri­
marily with increasing the efficiency of agri­
cultural production and marketing, including
the development of new market outlets. County
home demonstration agents work closely with
women in home management and nutrition.
Agricultural extension workers try to help
people analyze and solve their farming and
homemaking problems. Much of this education­
al work is with groups through meetings, tours,
and demonstrations. Individual assistance is
given to farmers and homemakers on problems
that cannot be solved satisfactorily by group
methods. Both the county agent and the home
agent, along with the 4-H Club agent in coun­
ties that have one, work with rural youth in
organized groups on projects related to agri­
culture, homemaking, and community improve­
ment. Extension workers rely heavily on the
use of mass communication media, such as
newspapers, radio, and television.
The work of the county extension staff is
supported by State extension specialists in such

Courtesy of U.S. Department of Agriculture

Agricultural extension worker checking water pressure
in irrigation system.

subject matter fields as agronomy, livestock,
marketing, agricultural economics, home eco­
nomics, horticulture, and entomology. Each of
these specialists keeps abreast of the latest re­
search findings in his particular field and works
with agents in applying them to local needs
and problems.
Where Employed

Extension agents are located in nearly every
agricultural county in the United States. In
counties with large numbers of farmers pro­



ducing a variety of crops, there may be as
many as 10 or more agents on the county staff.
In these counties, an agent usually specializes
in a particular field, such as dairying, poultry
production, crop production, or livestock.
Training and Other Qualifications

A prospective county agent must have a
bachelor’s degree in agriculture or home eco­
nomics. In most States, the Extension Service
maintains an in-service training program to
keep its agents informed of the newest findings
in agricultural research, of new programs and
policies that affect agriculture, and new teach­
ing techniques. To be successful, extension
workers must like to work with people.
In most instances, specialists on the State
staff are expected to have the master’s degree
and special training in their particular lines
of work.
Employment Outlook

The Cooperative Extension Service has ex­
perienced constant growth, and the demand for
new extension workers continues. There were
approximately 15,000 extension service workers
in the United States in 1960. As agricultural
technology becomes more complicated, farmers
are increasingly demanding trained personnel
to assist them in applying this technology.
Moreover, as farm people become more aware
of the need for organized activity, they make
additional requests for increases in Extension
Service personnel. A growing number of ex­
tension workers will be needed in depressed
rural areas. Rural nonfarm families including
suburban residents also recognize the value of
educational assistance from extension workers,

and the work of the Extension Service is being
expanded to new segments of our population.
Counterparts of the Agricultural Extension
Service are being established in many countries
of the world and Extension Service personnel
are often recruited to help initiate and organize
these programs.
Earnings and Working Conditions

The salaries of extension agents vary from
State to State and county to county. In 1960,
the average annual starting salary of assistant
agricultural agents was about $4,600, and of
home agents approximately $4,300; starting
salaries for assistant agricultural agents ranged
from $4,200 to $5,600.
Ordinarily, the successful assistant agent is
promoted rapidly. Promotion may occur in the
county where he is employed as an assistant
agent or through promotion to a more responsi­
ble job in another county in the State. Salaries
for agricultural agents in 1960 ranged from
$7,800 to $11,800. Salaries of experienced home
demonstration agents ranged from $5,800 to
$10,000 annually.
Hours of work are long and irregular. Many
evenings are devoted to meetings with farmers
and other groups.
Where To Go for More Information

Additional information may be obtained from
County Extension Offices, State Directors of Ex­
tension located at each State College of Agricul­
ture, or the Federal Extension Service, U.S.
Department of Agriculture, Washington 25,
(See also statement on Home Economists.
Refer to index for page number.)

Soil Scientists
(D .O .T . 0-35.03)

Nature of Work

Soil scientists study the physical, chemical,
and biological characteristics and behavior of
soils. They investigate soils in the field and in
the laboratory and classify them into homo­

geneous units in accordance with a national
system of soil classification. From study of
their characteristics and through research, soils
can be defined in terms of their responses to
management practices and their capabilities for
producing crops, grasses, and trees, as well as

their behavior as engineering materials. Soil
scientists prepare maps, usually based on aerial
photographs, on which the individual kinds of
soil and other landscape features significant to
soil use and management are plotted in relation
to land lines, field boundaries, roads, and other
conspicuous features.
Soil scientists also conduct research to deter­
mine the physical and chemical properties of
soils and their water relationships in order
to understand their behavior and origin. They
predict the yields of cultivated crops, and
of grasses and trees, that can be produced
under alternative combinations of management
The field of soil science offers opportunities
for those who wish to specialize in soil classifi­
cation and mapping, soil geography, soil chem­
istry, soil physics, soil microbiology, and soil
management. Training and experience in soil
science will also fit persons for positions as
farm managers, land appraisers, and many
other professional positions.
Where Employed

Most soil scientists are employed by agencies
of the Federal Government, State experiment
stations, and colleges of agriculture. Many
soil scientists, however, are employed through­
out the United States in a wide range of other
public and private institutions, including ferti­
lizer companies, private research laboratories,
insurance companies, banks and other lending
agencies, real estate firms, land appraisal
boards, State highway departments, State and
city park departments, State conservation de­
partments, and farm management agencies. A
few operate independent consulting businesses.
An increasing number of soil scientists are em­
ployed as research leaders, consultants, and
agricultural managers in foreign countries.
Training and Advancement

Training in a college or university of rec­
ognized standing is important in obtaining em­
ployment as a soil scientist. The B.S. degree is
a minimum requirement for entrants in this
field. Those with graduate training, and espe­


cially those having a doctor’s degree, can be ex­
pected to advance rapidly into responsible posi­
tions with good pay. This is particularly true
in soil research, including the more responsible
positions in soil classification, and in teaching.
Soil scientists who are able to work with both
field and laboratory data have a special
Many colleges and universities offer fellow­
ships and assistantships for graduate training
or employ graduate students for part-time
teaching or research.
Employment Outlook

Opportunities for well-trained soil scientists
are expected to be favorable for several years.
A number of positions were vacant in early
1961 because of the shortage of qualified soil
Demand is increasing for soil scientists to
help complete the scientific classification and
evaluation of the soil resources in the United
States. One of the major program objectives
of the Soil Conservation Service of the U.S.
Department of Agriculture is to complete the
soil survey of all rural lands in the United
States. This program includes research, soil
classification and correlation, interpretation of
results for use by agriculturists and engineers,
and training of others in use of the results.
Also, demand is increasing for both basic and
applied research to increase the efficiency of
soil use.

The incomes of soil scientists depend upon
their educational background, professional ex­
perience, and individual abilities.
Entrance salaries in the Federal service for
soil scientists with a B.S. degree were approxi­
mately $4,345 a year in 1960, with advancement
to $5,355 after 1 year of satisfactory perform­
ance. Beyond that, advancement depends upon
the ability of the soil scientist to carry on highquality work and to accept responsibility. Earn­
ings of well-qualified Federal soil scientists with
several years’ experience ranged from about
$8,000 to $12,500 per year.


Where To Go for More Information

Additional information may be obtained from
the U.S. Civil Service Commission, Washington
25, D.C.; Office of Personnel, U.S. Department

of Agriculture, Washington 25, D.C.; or any
office of the Department’s Soil Conservation
(See also statements on Chemists and Biolo­
gists. Refer to index for page numbers.)

Soil Conservationists
(D .O .T . 0-35.03)

Nature of Work

Soil conservationists are trained to give farm­
ers, ranchers, and others technical assistance
in planning, applying, and maintaining meas­
ures and structural improvements for soil and
water conservation on individual holdings,
groups of holdings, or on watersheds. Farmers
and other managers of land apply this technical
assistance by making adjustments in land use;
protecting land against soil deterioration; re­
building eroded and depleted soils; stabilizing
runoff and sediment-producing areas; improv­
ing cover on crop, forest, pasture, range, and
wildlife lands; conserving water for farm and
ranch use and reducing damage from flood
water and sediment, and by draining or irrigat­
ing farms or ranches.
The landowner or operator has the responsi­
bility for resolving problems concerning land
use and treatment in connection with his farm
or ranch conservation plan. In reaching his
decisions, however, he can take advantage of
the technical information which the soil con­
servationist can provide. These technical serv­
ices are:
1. M aps presenting inventories o f soil, w ater, vegeta­
tion, and other details essential in conservation planning
and application.
2. In form ation on the proper land uses and the treat­
ment suitable fo r the planned use o f each field or part
o f the fa rm or ranch, groups o f farm s or ranches, or
entire watersheds.
3. The relative cost o f, and expected returns from ,
various alternatives o f land use and treatment.

After the landowner or operator decides upon
a conservation program that provides for the
land to be used within its capability and treated
according to the planned use, the relevant facts
are recorded in a plan which, together with the
maps and other supplemental information, con

Courtesy of U.S. Department of Agriculture

Soil conservationist preparing use-capability soil map
for a farm.

stitute a plan of action for conservation farm­
ing or ranching. The soil conservationist then
gives the land manager technical guidance in
applying the conservation practices and in
maintaining them.
Where Employed

Most soil conservationists are employed by
the Federal Government, mainly by the U.S.
Department of Agriculture’s Soil Conservation
Service and the Bureau of Indian Affairs in



the Department of Interior. Some are employed
by colleges and State and local governments;
others work for banks and public utilities.
Training and Advancement

A bachelor’s degree is the minimum require­
ment for professional soil conservationists.
Those with degrees in the following specialties
are eligible to become soil conservationists
after special field training in farm and ranch
conservation and land use planning: forestry,
biology, agronomy, engineering, range, and
general agriculture. A college degree is not
required for subprofessional soil conservation­
ists whose primary work is that of giving farm­
ers or ranchers assistance in applying con­
servation practices after conservation planning
has been done.
Professional soil conservationists who show
unusual aptitude in the various phases of the
work have good chances of advancement to
higher salaried technical and administrative
Employment Outlook

Employment opportunities for well-trained
soil conservationists were good in 1960. There
are frequent openings in most parts of the
country because of the normal turnover in per­
sonnel. Opportunities in the profession will ex­
pand because of increasing interest in conserva­

tion by Government agencies, public utility
companies, banks, and other organizations
which are adding conservationists to their
staffs. It is likely that there will be a number
of new openings in this field in college teaching,
particularly at the undergraduate level.

The entrance salary for soil conservationists
with a B.S. degree employed by the Federal
Government in 1960 was approximately $4,345
a year, with advancement to $5,355 after 1 year
of satisfactory service. Subsequently, advance­
ment depends upon the individual’s ability to
advance to positions of greater responsibility.
Earnings of well-qualified Federal soil conser­
vationists with several years’ experience ranged
from $8,000 to $12,500 a year.
The entrance salary in private employment
depends upon the individual’s education and
Where To Go for More Information

Additional information on employment as a
soil conservationist may be obtained from the
U.S. Civil Service Commission, Washington 25,
D.C.; Employment Division, Office of Personnel,
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Washington
25, D.C.; or any office of the Department’s Soil
Conservation Service.

Other Professional Workers
Nature of Work

There are numerous other professional oppor­
tunities in agriculture for people trained in
various technical fields. These specialties are
mentioned here only briefly but are discussed in
greater detail elsewhere in the Handbook. The
following are the more important categories
of technically trained persons employed in oc­
cupations that relate to agriculture:
Biochemists deal with the chemical com­
pounds and processes occurring in living plants
and animals.
Entomologists study insects, both beneficial

and harmful in farming. They are especially
concerned with developing measures to control
insects that injure growing crops and animals,
harm human beings, and damage agricultural
commodities in storage, processing, and distri­
Embryologists study the formation and de­
velopment of the embryos of plants and animals.
Bacteriologists conduct microbiological and
fermentation research to produce vitamins,
antibiotics, amino acids, sugars, and polymers,
by the action of micro-organisms.
Plant and animal pathologists conduct re­
search on the causes and control of diseases at­


tacking animals and plants, including those
diseases caused by fungi, bacteria, viruses, and
physiological conditions.
Geneticists try to develop strains, varieties,
breeds, and hybrids of plants and animals that
are better suited to the production of food
and fiber than those now available.
Plant and animal husbandry specialists are
concerned with methods of caring for and
managing plants and animals for the production
of food and fiber.
Human nutritionists study the process by
which persons take into their bodies and utilize
food substances.
Agricultural engineers develop new and im­
proved farm machines and equipment, study
the physical aspects of soil and water problems
in farming, devise new techniques for harvest­
ing and processing farm products, and design
more efficient farm buildings. (See chapter on
Engineers for information on opportunities for
these workers. Refer to index for page number.)
Agricultural economists deal primarily with
problems related to the production, financing,
and marketing of farm products. They are fact­
finders, evaluators, analysts, and interpreters
who help farmers with economic affairs.
Rural sociologists study the structure and
functions of the social institutions (customs,
practices, and laws) that are a part of or af­
fect rural society.
Where Employed

Such trained persons work in various capaci­
ties that relate to agriculture. Some are engaged
in research for government agencies, colleges,
and agricultural experiment stations, and pri­
vate businesses that deal with farmers. Others
have technical and administrative responsibili­
ties in public agencies that deal with, or whose
programs affect, farmers. Some are employed by
cooperatives and by private business, commer­
cial, and financial companies that buy from,
sell to, or serve farmers. Yet others serve in
vocational agriculture teaching, in agricultural
communications work, in farmers’ organiza­
tions, or in trade associations whose members
deal with farmers.
The number of research activities related to


Courtesy of U.S. Department of Agriculture

Entomologist showing farmer how army-worms have
stripped leaves from his wheat.

agriculture has increased rapidly within the
last several decades. Although the largest
agencies in this field are the State experiment
stations connected with the land-grant colleges
and the various research branches of the U.S.
Department of Agriculture, many other re­
search organizations exist. Of the latter, some
are engaged in independent research; others are
connected with companies that produce chem­
icals, equipment, and other supplies or services
for farmers, that finance farming operations, or
that market farm products. Research positions
with the U.S. Department of Agriculture are
located in various parts of the country. Some
are in Washington, D.C., or at the nearby Agri­
cultural Research Center at Beltsville, Md.
Others of the research staff of the U.S. Depart­
ment of Agriculture are stationed at land-grant
colleges, but U.S. Department of Agriculture
research units are also located at numerous oth­
er places. Many agricultural research jobs are
found in other government departments.
Various independent research organizations,
foundations, and private business groups in
many parts of the country have recently initi­
ated research relating to agriculture. They
tend to be located either in industrial centers

or in areas of high agricultural activity, and
include producers of insecticides, herbicides,
and other chemical dusts and sprays; producers
of feed, seed, and fertilizer; and producers of
farm equipment.
Public and private lending institutions that
make loans to farmers need the services of men
with broad training in agriculture and busi­
ness. This training ordinarily requires practi­
cal farm experience, as well as academic train­
ing in agriculture, economics, and other fields.
Making loans on a sound basis involves careful
analysis of the farm business and proper eval­
uation of farm real estate and other farm prop­
erty. Trained personnel in lending institutions,
therefore, are the key to sound credit practices
in financing farmers. They are employed by the
cooperative Farm Credit Administration in its
banks and in the associations that operate un­
der its supervision in all parts of the country,
by the Farmers Home Administration in its
Washington and county offices, by country
banks, and by those insurance companies that
have substantial investments in farm mort­
The Federal and, to a lesser extent, the State
Governments employ various specialists in their
several programs and regulatory activities re­
lating to agriculture. These specialists have
technical and managerial responsibilities in ac­
tivities such as programs relating to the produc­
tion and marketing of farm products; inspec­
tion and grading of farm products; prevention
of the spread of plant pests, animal parasites,
and diseases; and wildlife management and
Large numbers of professionally trained per­
sons are employed by cooperatives and business
firms that deal with farmers. As farmers rely
increasingly on cooperatives and business firms
to provide them with farm supplies, machinery,
equipment, and services, and to market their
products, employment in these cooperatives and
business firms may be expected to expand. The
number of employees in any business or coopera­
tive, their responsibilities, and the nature of
their jobs depend upon the size of the coopera­
tives and businesses and the services they offer.
Large farm supply cooperatives and businesses,
for example, may have separate divisions for


feed, seed, fertilizer, petroleum, chemicals, farm
machinery, and public relations, and credit,
each supervised by a department head. In small­
er businesses and cooperatives, such as local
grain-marketing elevators, the business is run
almost entirely by the general manager with
only two or three helpers.
Another growing field of specialization is
that of agricultural communications. Staffs of
crop reporters and market news reporters are
employed by the U.S. Department of Agricul­
ture in field offices throughout the United
States. Crop reporters gather information on
crop production during all stages of the growing
season. Market news reporters collect infor­
mation on movement of agricultural produce
from the farm to the market. Radio and T.V.
farm directors are employed by many radio
and T.V. stations to report prices, sales, grades,
and other agricultural information to farm peo­
ple. Agricultural reporters and editors compile
farm news and data for farm journals, farm
bulletins, and farm broadcasts. Closely related
to agricultural communications is employment
in farmer's organizations or in-trade associa­
tions whose members deal with farmers.
The nationwide, federally aided program of
vocational education in agriculture continues
to offer employment for persons technically
trained in agricultural and related subjects.
Such vocational agricultural instruction is con­
ducted in public high schools or classes for
those persons over 14 years of age "who have
entered upon or who are preparing to enter upon
the work of the farm or the farm home." Along
with class instruction and supervision of farm­
ing programs, teachers of vocational agriculture
give instruction in farm mechanics in school
farm shops. In addition, each student is re­
quired to conduct a farming project, either at
home or on facilities provided by the school,
with year-round supervision by the teacher. The
teacher of vocational agriculture also serves as
adviser to the local chapter of Future Farmers
of America. In addition to work with "inschool" students, vocational agriculture teach­
ers provide organized instruction for young
farmers to assist them in becoming satisfac­
torily established in farming and in becoming
community leaders. They also provide organ­



ized instruction, for adult farmers, with indi­
vidual consultation on their farms, to keep them
abreast of modern farm technology.
The qualifications of workers in all of these
fields ordinarily include a college education with
special training in a particular line of work.
In most of these fields, the demand for workers
exceeds the supply. In recent years, the de­
mand has been increased by the recruitment
of professional personnel to staff agricultural
missions and to give technical aid to agricul­
tural institutions and farmers in other coun­
Where To Go for More Information

Opportunities in Research. Additional informa­
tion on research opportunities at land-grant
colleges, may be had from the dean of agricul­
ture at the State land-grant college. The USD A
recruitment representatives at the land-grant
college will supply information on employment
in the U.S. Department of Agriculture, as will
the Office of Personnel, U.S. Department of
Agriculture, Washington 25, D.C. For further
information on research activities related to
agriculture, see also statements on selected pro­
fessional and technical occupations in other
chapters in this Handbook. (See especially
chapter on the Biological Sciences. Refer to
index for page numbers.)
The following publications will be valuable:
Career Service Opportunities in the U.S. D epart­
ment o f A gricu lture, A gricu ltu re Handbook No.
45, U.S. Departm ent o f A gricu lture, Division o f
Em ploym ent, Office o f Personnel, W ashington
25, D.C.
Choose a Challenging and R ew arding Career in the
U.S. D epartm ent o f A gricu lture, M iscellaneous
Publication 833, U.S. Departm ent o f A gricu lture,
W ashington 25, D.C.
Pve Found M y Future in A gricu lture, Am erican
A ssociation o f Land-G rant Colleges and State
U niversities, W ashington, D.C. 1958. Copies can
be obtained from your State A gricu ltu ral College.

Opportunities in Agricultural Finance. In­
quiries on employment opportunities in the field
of agricultural finance may be directed to the

Farm Credit A dm inistration, W ashington 25, D.C.
Farm Credit D istrict— Springfield, M ass.; B alti­
more, M d.; Columbia, S.C.; Louisville, K y .; New
Orleans, L a.; St. Louis, M o.; St. Paul, M inn.;
Omaha, N e b r.; W ichita, K ans.; Houston, T ex .;
Berkeley, C a lif.; Spokane, Wash.
Farm ers Home A dm inistration, U.S. Departm ent o f
A gricu lture, W ashington 25, D.C.
A gricu ltural D irector, Am erican Bankers
12 E ast 36th St., New Y ork 16, N.Y.

A sso­

(See also chapters on Banking Occupations
and Insurance Occupations. Refer to index for
page numbers.)
Opportunities with Cooperatives. Farmer co­
operatives are located in every State. For in­
formation relating to job opportunities in
farmer cooperatives, contact the local or re­
gional cooperatives in your home community
first. If these have no positions open, they may
be able to refer you to others that do. Other
sources of information are the county agent and
the Agricultural Economics Departments of
State Agricultural Colleges. General informa­
tion may also be obtained from the American
Institute of Cooperation or the National Council
of Farmer Cooperatives, both located at 744
Jackson Place NW., Washington, D.C., and the
Cooperative League of the U.S.A., 343 South
Dearborn St., Chicago 4, 111.
Opportunities for Agricultural Economists. For
additional information about opportunities in
agricultural economics, check with the Depart­
ment of Agricultural Economics in the landgrant college in your State. For information on
Federal employment opportunities, get in touch
with USDA Recruitment Representatives at
your land-grant college or write directly to the
Office of Personnel, U.S. Department of Agri­
culture, Washington 25, D.C.
(See also statement on Economists. Refer to
index for page number.)
Opportunities as Vocational Agriculture Teach­
ers. As salaries, travel, and programs of voca­
tional agriculture teachers vary slightly among



States, prospective teachers should consult the
Head Teacher Trainer in Agriculture Educa­
tion at the land-grant college or the State Super­
visor of Agricultural Education at the State

Department of Public Instruction in their re­
spective States.
(See also statement on Secondary School
Teachers. Refer to index for page number.)

Farm Service Jobs

In almost every type of agriculture, individ­
uals can readily learn and perform certain spe­
cialized services for farmers. A person can
enter many of these services, either as an em­
ployee or as an independent operator. Some of
these services require an extensive outlay of
capital but others require very little. Some are
highly seasonal, whereas others are performed
the year round. These services can sometimes
be combined well with the operation of a small
Services that provide employment on a yearround basis include the following: cow testing,
artificial breeding service, whitewashing serv­
ice, livestock trucking, well drilling, fencing,
and tiling.
In cow testing and artificial breeding work,
an association of farmers employs one or more
workers on a monthly basis to conduct the
operations. Supervisors who do cow testing are
employed by dairy herd improvement associa­
tions. They must have a high school education,
and a farm background is almost essential. In
1960, annual salaries were from about $3,000
to $4,200. Artificial breeding associations em­
ploy inseminators who must have at least a high
school education. In 1958, these workers were
paid from about $4,800 to $7,200 a year. Agri­
cultural college training is desirable but not
essential for employment in these occupations.
Brief periods of approximately a month of spe­
cialized training are available through the as­
sociations. Individuals ordinarily set up the

whitewashing, trucking, and well-drilling serv­
ices and employ such assistants as they need.
Other services performed for farmers are of
a more seasonal nature. These include: Fruit
spraying (2-3 months), airplane dusting (4-6
months), grain combining (2 months), hay and
straw baling (2-8 months), tractor plowing and
cultivating (4-6 months), and sheep shearing
(2-3 months).
These and many other services are often done
by farmers who wish to keep their equipment
busy and therefore engage in custom work as
a sideline. In areas where the growing season
is long, however, the period when these services
can be carried on is long enough to permit
individuals to specialize in them.
Somewhat more remote from farm operation
but still closely tied in with agriculture are
such vocations as: repairing and servicing
farm machinery; feed grinding and mixing;
maintaining storages and warehouses of agri­
cultural products; operation of nurseries and
greenhouses; and packing, grading, and proc­
essing of farm products.
These activities are sometimes performed on
the farm, but the tendency has been for them
to be moved away from the farm and carried
on as specialized lines of business. An agricul­
tural background is helpful to people who enter
these lines of work. The agricultural aspects,
however, can be learned more readily than the
specialized skills that are required for these oc­

Occupations in Government
Government service is one of the Nation’s
largest fields of employment. Several hundred
thousand workers in a great variety of occupa­
tions are hired every year for government jobs
all over the country.
One out of every eight workers in the United
States—over 8 million persons—was employed
as a civilian worker at some level of govern­
ment—Federal, State, or local in 1960. More
than half of these employees worked for local
government units, about a fifth for State gov­
ernments, and the remainder (2.2 million)
worked for the Federal Government. The figures
given above do not include the 2.5 million addi­
tional persons who were serving in the various
branches of the Armed Forces.
Government workers constitute a significant
part of the work force in every State, ranging
from 10 percent to more than 20 percent of
total nonagricultural employment. Jobs in gov­
ernment service are found in cities, towns, and
villages across the Nation. They are also in
such remote and isolated spots as lighthouses
and forest ranger stations.
Government service is an important source
of job opportunities for women. About 40 per­
cent of all government employees are women,
most of whom are employed in clerical and
teaching jobs.

The second largest group of government
workers—more than 1 million—were engaged
in national defense activities of the Federal
Government. This group includes the civilian
employees of the Department of Defense and a
few other defense-related agencies such as the
Atomic Energy Commission. They include a
wide variety of workers such as administrative
and clerical employees, scientists, and engineers,
manual workers in navy yards and arsenals, and
employees of hospitals and schools run by the
military services.
Other large concentrations of employment,
each with more than a half million workers,
were in health services and hospitals, the postal
service, highways, and general control func­
tions. (General control functions include the
C H A R T 35



Thousands of employees, O ctober I9 6 0 1
1,000 1,500 2,000 2,500 3,000

National defense


Hospitals (including
health services)
General adm in istra tio n 2

State and local

Government Activities and Occupations

More than 2.5 million persons, about one-third
of all government workers, were engaged in
providing educational services in October 1959.
(See chart 35.) Employment in this field, the
largest in government service, includes admin­
istrative, clerical, maintenance, and auxiliary
employees, as well as teachers and other profes­
sional staff such as counselors, librarians, dieti­
tians, and nurses. The great majority of em­
ployees in the educational field were in elemen­
tary and secondary schools.

Postal service


A ll o th e r3

1 All Federal civilian employees, including,those outside United States and 34.000
employees of the Rational Guard paid directly from the Federal Treasury.
^Includes legislative, judicial, tax, and other financial and general,
administrative activities.
3 Includes police protection, administrators of natural resources, and all other
services not elsewhere classified.
Source: U. S. Bureau of the Census.


activities of government chief executives and
their staffs, legislative bodies, the administra­
tion of justice, tax enforcement and other
financial activities, and general administra­
tion.) Other government activities are housing
and community development, police and fire
protection, public welfare services and assist­
ance, transportation and public utilities, social
security, and conservation of natural resources.
Most workers in the health and hospital fields,
in highway work, and in police and fire protec­
tion activities are employed by State and local
government agencies. On the other hand, the
postal service is Federal, and so are most of
the jobs concerned with natural resources, such
as those in the National Park Service. Major
functions of government workers are shown in
chart 35.
The wide variety of government functions re­
quires the services of employees in many differ­
ent occupations. Because of the special char­
acter of many government activities, the oc­
cupational distribution of employment is very
different from that found in private industry,
as can be seen from the percentage distributions
of employment in 1960 which appear on this
A majority of government workers—more
than 4 million—in 1960, were employed in pro­
fessional and technical, managerial, clerical and
some sales occupations, the so-called “whitecollar” jobs. Of these, important occupational
groups were teachers, postal clerks, and office
workers such as stenographers, typists, and
clerks. Among the approximately 3 million


craft, service, and manual workers, some im­
portant occupational groups were aircraft and
automotive mechanics and repairmen, police­
men, firemen, truckdrivers, skilled mainte­
nance workers (including carpenters, paint­
ers, plumbers, and electricians), custodial work­
ers, and laborers.
The following three chapters discuss oppor­
tunities for civilian employment in the major
divisions of government (Federal, State, and
local) as well as career opportunities in the
various branches of the Armed Forces. A con­
cluding chapter gives detailed information on
post office occupations. The postal service, the
second largest area of Federal civilian employ­
ment, provides many job opportunities for
young people who have no specialized training.

Percent of—
workers in employed
the U.S. workers in
the U.S.

A ll categories _____________________



Professional and tech n ical____
M anagers, and officials and



proprietors ________________
Clerical and kindred w orkers..
Sales w orkers ________________
Craftsm en, forem en, and
kindred w orkers _________ ...
Operatives and kindred
w orkers ____________________
Service w orkers ______________
... .
Farm ers and fa rm w orkers___









N ote : Because of rounding, sums of the individual items may not
equal 100 percent.

Federal Government

The Federal Government employs more work­
ers than any other single employer in the United
States. In 1960, its establishments in the 50
States and the District of Columbia employed
about 2.2 million civilian workers. Practically
all (about 99 percent) of these workers were
employed by the departments and agencies
which make up the executive branch of the
Government. The remainder were employed by
the legislative and judicial branches.
The executive branch is responsible for such
services as: Maintaining the flow of supplies
and equipment to the Armed Forces; delivering
mail; conducting scientific research; conserv­
ing natural resources; enforcing Federal laws;
handling international relations; treating and
rehabilitating disabled veterans; and adminis­
tering other programs aimed to promote the
health and welfare of the American people.
About 68 percent of all Federal civilian work­
ers (over 1.5 million) were employed by the
Department of Defense and the Post Office in
November 1960. The Department of Defense,
which includes the Departments of the Army,
Air Force, and Navy, employed more than 932,000 workers, and the Post Office employed about
572,000 workers.
The Veterans Administration, with more
than 172,600 employees, is the only other
agency in the Federal Government which has
more than 100,000 workers.
Other civilian employees of the executive
branch are distributed among 70 departments,
agencies, and commissions. Employment
ranges from very small boards and commissions
to large departments with more than 50,000
employees. Among the larger departments are
Agriculture; Treasury; Health, Education, and
Welfare; and Interior.
The legislative and judicial branches of the
Federal Government have relatively few em­

ployees. In 1960, they employed about 23,000
and 5,000 workers, respectively.
Civilian employees of the Government are en­
gaged in most of the occupational fields that
are also found in private industry—accounting,
engineering, medicine, law, stenography, me­
chanical trades, and truckdriving, to cite a few
illustrations. Many workers, however, are em­
ployed in occupations unique to the Federal
Government, such as border patrolman and
postal clerk.
Full-time white-collar workers (administra­
tive, clerical, and professional) were employed
in more. than 500 occupations and accounted
for about two-thirds of all Federal employees
in the United States in 1959. The remainder
were employed in a wide range of craft, service,
and manual labor jobs.
More than half of all white-collar workers
were in general administrative or clerical and
office services groups which include most
postal employees. Three other groups—account­
ing and budget, engineering, and medical—each
comprised more than 5 percent of all whitecollar employees. The remainder were employed
in a wide variety of fields such as investigation,
legal work, biological and physical sciences, per­
sonnel administration and industrial relations,
and transportation and supply.
Eighty-six percent (1.2 million) of all Fed­
eral white-collar workers were in nonprofes­
sional occupations. Of these, more than a third
were office workers such as secretaries, stenog­
raphers, typists, clerks, office machine opera­
tors, and receptionists. Chart 36 shows the rela­
tive distribution of Federal white-collar work­
ers in October 1959, by occupational group.
Professional workers made up the remaining
14 percent of white-collar employment. Work­
ers in these occupations usually require more
education, specialization, and training than



most nonprofessional workers. A majority of
the approximately 205,000 professional workers
were engaged in three broad areas of work:
Engineering; medical, including hospital, den­
tal, and public health; and accounting and bud­
gets. The largest occupational groups were en­
gineers (over 56,000) and doctors, dentists, and
nurses (more than 37,000). Large numbers

were also employed as accountants, biological
scientists, physical scientists, social scientists,
attorneys, educators, mathematicians and stat­
isticians, and librarians.
In addition to the many white-collar occupa­
tions in the Federal Government, more than
600,000 workers were employed in many differ­
ent craft, service, and manual labor jobs in

C H A R T 36

Percent distribution

Percent distribution 2
Mathematicians and

pr-Transportation workers 2%
w T P ersonnel workers 2%
Investigators and inspectors 3% i
SKftSS Protective workers 2%
:|S|| Hospital workers 4%
Nonprofessional, scientific,
i and technical workers 6%
Fiscal clerks 6%
Supply workers 6%

^Stenographers and typists 13%|

Other office workers 22%!

Postal clerks and carriers 34%

1 Excludes those employed in territories
and foreign countries.

2 Figures do not add to 100 percent because of rounding.
Source: U.S. Civil Service Commission.



1959. Most of these workers were in establish­
ments such as naval shipyards; arsenals; air
bases; quartermaster depots; construction proj­
ects and harbor, flood-control, irrigation, or
reclamation projects. More than 80 percent of
these workers were employed by the Depart­
ment of Defense. Most of the remaining em­
ployees were engaged in activities of the Vet­
erans Administration, the General Services Ad­
ministration, the Department of the Interior,
the Tennessee Valley Authority, and the De­
partment of Agriculture.
The following tabulation illustrates the
wide range of craft, service, and manual labor
occupations found among the more than 635,000
full-time workers employed in these occupations
by the Federal Government in the United States
in October 1958:
Total, all g ro u p s_________
M anual labor ___________________
M obile industrial equipm ent
operation and m aintenance___
W a re h o u s in g ____________________
F ixed industrial equipm ent
operation and m aintenance___
Services _________________________
M etal w ork _____________________
M achine shop w o rk ______________
A irc ra ft repair, propeller w ork,
and engine overh au l__________
E lectrical installation and
m aintenance __________________
W oodw orking ___________________
E lectron ic equipm ent installa­
tion, maintenance, and
operation _____________________
M arine w o r k ____________________
Pipefitting ______________________
Am munition and arm am ent w ork
Painting and paperh an ging____
P rinting and reprodu ction _____
P acking and processin g_________
Construction and m aintenance
w ork __________________________
M anufacture and repair shop
operation _____________________
F abric, leather, fu r, and textile
w ork __________________________
Other ___________________________

Number of


of total


Among individual craft, service, and manual
labor occupations, laborers comprised the larg­
est single group. Other occupations with large
numbers of workers were made up of automobile

and aircraft mechanics, carpenters, cooks, con­
struction machinery and equipment operators,
electricians, electronic technicians, machinists,
painters, plumbers, printing pressmen, sheetmetal workers, stationary engineers, steamfitters, truckdrivers, and waiters.
(Detailed description of the work duties for
most white-collar and craft, service, and manual
labor jobs mentioned above are provided in
other sections of this Handbook. See index.)
Federal employees are stationed in all parts
of the United States and its territories and in
many foreign countries. Although most Gov­
ernment departments and agencies have their
headquarters offices in the Washington, D.C.,
metropolitan area, only about 1 out of 10 Fed­
eral workers was employed in that area in 1960.
California, with almost 240,000 Federal em­
ployees had somewhat more than the metropoli­
tan area of Washington, D.C. Other States with
more than 100,000 Federal workers included
New York, Pennsylvania, and Texas.
The Merit System

Approximately 9 out of every 10 jobs in the
Federal Government in the United States were
covered by the Civil Service Act in 1960. This
act was passed by the Congress in order to in­
sure that employees are hired on the basis of
individual merit. It provides for competitive ex­
aminations and the selection of new employees
from among those who make the highest scores.
The U.S. Civil Service Commission, which ad­
ministers the Civil Service Act, is responsible
for examining and rating applicants and sup­
plying Federal departments and agencies with
names of persons who are eligible for the jobs
to be filled.
Many Federal jobs are excepted from Civil
Service requirements either by law or by action
of the Civil Service Commission. However, a
large percentage of the excepted positions are
under separate merit systems of other agencies,
such as the Foreign Service of the Department
of State, the Department of Medicine and Sur­
gery of the Veterans Administration, the Fed­
eral Bureau of Investigation of the Department
of Justice, the Atomic Energy Commission, and
the Tennessee Valley Authority. These agencies

establish their own standards for the selection
of new employees.
Civil Service competitive examinations may
be taken by all persons who are citizens of
the United States, or who owe allegiance to
the United States. To be eligible for appoint­
ment, an applicant must meet minimum age,
training, and experience requirements for the
particular position, and be physically able to
perform the duties of the position. Examina­
tions vary according to the types of positions
for which they are held. Some examinations
include written tests; others do not. In nonwritten examinations, applicants are rated ac­
cording to their training, experience, and skills
as shown by their applications and any corrob­
orating evidence required by the Commission.
Examinations are given for a great variety
of jobs either at the entrance grades or at
higher levels, depending upon the needs of the
Government. In a given period, for example,
examinations may be open for clerk-typists, ac­
countants and auditors, agricultural mar­
keting specialists, offset pressmen, and research
An examination for persons with college
training or the equivalent—the Federal Service
Entrance Examination—is given to fill entrance
or trainee positions in a wide range of occupa­
tions. It is used to fill positions in which an
employee’s potential capacity is considered
more important than special training for the
work. Thus, a person who passes the examina­
tion may be considered for entrance-level pro­
fessional, administrative, or technical positions
in a variety of fields—not just positions in the
applicant’s special field of study or training.
The Federal Service Entrance Examination,
which is a written examination, is given peri­
odically during the school year. It is open to
college graduates, college seniors and juniors,
and to persons who can qualify through ex­
perience or a combination of education and
This is not the only entrance examination
for college graduates. Other examinations are
given under specific job titles such as engineer;
physicist, chemist; accountant; and librarian.
Persons who have primary interest in and train­
ing for a specialized field should refer to the


announcements of examinations appropriate
to that field.
The Civil Service Commission will not open
an examination to the general public and ac­
cept applications until there are job vacancies
or expected job vacancies. When vacancies ex­
ist or are expected, the Commission issues an
examination “announcement” which tells about
experience or training requirements, location
of jobs, duties, pay, forms that must be filed,
and when and where examinations will be held.
(See p. 780 for sources of information concern­
ing examination announcements.)
After the examination is announced, appli­
cations are accepted as long as the examination
is open. Even after an examination is closed,
some persons are permitted to file applications.
These include, for example, persons in military
service, those working overseas for the Govern­
ment or for an international organization, and
those who have been granted “10-point veteran
preference” by the Civil Service Commission.
A person who has been granted veteran pref­
erence receives extra points which are added to
the passing grade (70 percent) in an examina­
tion. An honorably discharged war veteran gets
5 extra points; a person who is eligible for
disabled veteran preference gets 10 extra points.
The Commission notifies applicants whether
they have achieved eligible or ineligible ratings
and enters the names of eligible applicants on a
list in the order of their scores. When a Feder­
al agency requests names of applicants for a
job vacancy, the Commission sends the agency
the three names at the top of the appropriate
list. The appointing officer in the requesting
agency can select any one of the top three avail­
able eligibles. Names of those not selected by
this agency are restored to the list for consid­
eration in connection with other job openings.
Appointments to civil service jobs are made
without regard to an applicant’s race or reli­
gion. Civil service employees can vote as they
choose, but they are prohibited from certain po­
litical activities and may not be forced to con­
tribute to any political fund.
After a person is appointed to a Federal job
through a civil service competitive examina­
tion, he must complete a 8-year period of con­
ditional service to acquire full career status.



His appointment is probationary during the
first year. He can be dismissed if his work is
not satisfactory within this period, merely up­
on written notice giving the reason for the dis­
missal and the effective date. After he has com­
pleted the 1-year probationary period, he has
the same protections against dismissal as
career employees (within limitations men­
tioned below). A career or career-conditional
employee may be promoted, reassigned to an­
other job in his agency, or transferred to an­
other agency. Except for removals resulting
from reductions in force, he can be removed
from the career service only for cause—such as
inefficiency, misconduct, or insubordination—
after adequate review to protect him against
dismissal for arbitrary or capricious reasons.
A career employee can be reinstated without
time limit after leaving the Federal service,
without competing in examinations with the
general public.
Federal employees who demonstrate out­
standing ability are encouraged to prepare for
more responsible assignments. Although agen­
cies tend to promote from within, they also seek
workers elsewhere in the Federal service or out­
side the Federal service to obtain the best qual­
ified person for each position.
Layoffs, or “reductions in force,” are some­
times necessary in the Federal Government for
such reasons as cuts in appropriations made by
the Congress and decreases in work in certain
fields. When a reduction in force occurs, an em­
ployee may be either retained or separated by
the agency affected depending on whether he
has career status, whether he is a veteran or
nonveteran, how many years of service he has
and whether he performs his duties satisfacto­
rily. A career employee receives retention pref­
erence over career-conditional and temporary
employees of the same grade, and a veteran re­
ceives retention preference over nonveterans
with the same type of appointment. A Federal
employee who is laid off is entitled to unemploy­
ment compensation similar to that provided for
employees in private industry. He is covered
by the unemployment insurance system in the
State or area in which he worked.

Employment Trends and Outlook in
Federal Government

Each year, the Federal Government hires
several hundred thousand employees. In recent
years, the majority of these workers were em­
ployed as replacements for employees who
left the Government for such cause as retire­
ment, resignation, illness, or death.
In recent years, Federal employment has re­
mained at about the same level, averaging
about 2.2 million workers. Over the long run,
the trend in Federal employment has been up­
ward, stimulated by national emergencies such
as World War II and the Korean crisis, which
ended in 1953. (See chart 37.)
Employment in the Federal Government has
increased in the long run not only because of
the need for a stronger defense establishment,
but also because of the important role
the United States has been playing in world
affairs and the greater acitivity of the Federal
Government in such fields as agriculture, social
security, conservation and flood control, veter­
ans’ services, and the regulation of interstate
commerce. The need to provide a growing pop­
ulation with services such as those of the Post
Office has also contributed to an expansion in
Federal Employment.
The outlook for Federal Government employC H A R T 37

M illions o f employees

^Data are for c iv ilia n employees in continental!
United States; Alaska and Hawaii are excluded.



ment is difficult to forecast, because the number
of Federal workers is determined by the needs
of the domestic government programs and our
international responsibilities, as defined by the
The most important factor determining em­
ployment opportunities in the Federal Govern­
ment is the need for replacements. During 1960,
for example, about 444,000 workers left Federal
employment. At the same time, more than 465,000 persons were hired. .Of these, about 89,000
were individuals who transferred from one
agency to another, were reappointed to Govern­
ment service, or returned to active employment.
Federal civilian employees are paid under
several pay systems. In June 1960, the distri­
bution was approximately as follows: 46 per­
cent of all full-time employees under the Clas­
sification Act; 23 percent, under the Postal Pay
Act; 28 percent, under the wage board pay sys­
tem ; and the remainder were paid under other
Pay rates for employees under the Classifi­
cation Act are set by the Congress and are
nationwide in coverage. The Classification Act
provides a pay scale called the General Schedule
for employees in professional, administrative,
technical, and clerical jobs, and for employees

such as guards and messengers. The jobs un­
der the General Schedule are classified and ar­
ranged in 18 pay grades according to difficulty
of the duties, the responsibilities, knowledge,
experience, or skill required. The distribution
of Federal white-collar employees by grades
and the entrance and maximum salary, as well
as the amount of periodic increases for each
grade are listed in table 1.
Employees in all grades except GS-18 receive
from four to six scheduled periodic increases if
their job performance is satisfactory. In each
of the first 10 grades, the increases occur every
12 months until the maximum salary is reached.
In grades GS-11 through GS-17, they occur
every 18 months. Employees in grades GS-1
through GS-15 also get three “longevity in­
creases” at intervals if they continue to serve
in the same grade after they have reached the
maximum salary.
The number of employees in each pay grade
differs, of course, from one occupation to
another. These differences are illustrated in
table 2, which shows the distribution of em­
ployees in three selected occupations.
Table 2 shows that almost all of the clerktypists were in grades GS-2 and GS-3. About
90 percent of the secretaries were concentrated
in grades GS-4, GS-5, and GS-6, and about
7 percent were employed at higher grades.
About 71 percent of all electronics engineers

T a ble

T able

Earnings, Advancement, and Working Conditions

1. D istribution o f full-tim e Federal em ployees in
the U nited States under Classification Pay
Scale by grade level, June 30, 1960

G eneral schedule
T o ta l...................................
1 .............................................
3 .............................................
4 .............................................
5 .............................................
6 .............................................
7 .............................................
8 .............................................
9 .............................................
10 ..........................................
1 1 ..........................................
1 2 ...........................................
1 3 ..........................................
1 4 ..........................................
1 5 ..........................................
16 ...........................................
1 7 ..........................................
1 8 ...........................................

E m ployees

Salaries 1

S ecretary

C lerk -ty p ist
G rade d istrib u tio n

E lectronics engineer

P ercen t

E n tran ce

2 ,3 8 5
38,8 7 0
3 9,703

4 .1
1 6.7
16 .8
5 .0
8 .8
2 .7
10 .3
1 .4
8 .7
6 .4
4 .2

$ 3 ,185
3 ,7 6 0
4 ,0 4 0
4,3 4 5
4 ,8 3 0
5 ,3 5 5
5 ,8 8 5
6 ,4 3 5
6 ,995
7 ,6 5 0
8,9 5 5



N u m b er

P ercent

N u m b er

P ercen t

N u m b er

P ercen t

T o ta l..............................

N u m b er





8 ,186


1 ........................................
4 .......................................
5 .......................................
1 0 .....................................
1 2 .....................................
14 .....................................
1 5 .....................................
N o t specified..............


0 .3 3
8 0.56

9 ,356
4,9 3 9

2 9.85





M axim um
4,1 3 0
4 ,390
4 ,670
5,3 3 5
5,8 2 0
6 ,875
8 ,860

1 Salary scale effective July 10, 1960, U.S. Civil Service Commission.
2 Less than 0.05 percent.
Source: U.S. Civil Service Commission, Federal Employment Sta­
tistics Bulletin, August 1960.

2. Grade distribution o f full-tim e Federal G ov­
ernm ent employees in the United States in
three selected occupations, October 31, 1959

l Less than 0.01 percent.
Source : U.S. Civil Service Commission.





7.2 9

2,4 0 5

7 .8 8
2 9 .3 8
2 2 .6 4
8 .65
3 .2 2





were in grades GS-11, GS-12, and GS-13, and
17 percent were in grades GS-5 through GS-9;
and 12 percent in grades above GS-13.
New appointments to professional entrancelevel positions such as those filled through the
Federal Service Entrance Examination, de­
scribed earlier in this chapter, are usually made
at the entrance salary in grade GS-5 with
some appointments at GS-7 of especially wellqualified individuals. An eligible individual
who holds a master’s degree, or the equivalent
in education or experience, usually enters at
grade GS-7, and those who are especially well
qualified may enter at grade GS-9. In addition,
the Federal Government also makes new ap­
pointments of very well-qualified, experienced
people at the GS-11 level and above. These ap­
pointments are for such positions as psycholo­
gists, statisticians, economists, writers and
editors, budget analysts, accountants and audi­
tors, electronic and nuclear engineers, and phys­
icists. Appointments to entrance-level posi­
tions requiring less than professional-level
training are usually made in the grades below
GS-5, the exact grade and corresponding sal­
ary depending on the difficulty and responsibil­
ities of the position.
Although most new appointments are usually
made at the entrance salary rate in the appro­
priate pay grade, the Civil Service Commission
may authorize recruitment at rates above the
usual entrance salary for hard-to-fill positions.
For example, new employees were being re­
cruited above the minimum rates in grades
GS-5 and GS-7 for engineering and certain
physical science jobs in 1960.
Promotions of employees depend upon open­
ings in higher grades and upon the ability and
work performance of the individual employee.
Sometimes, however, it is not necessary for an
employee to move to a new job to get a promo­
tion. If his work assignments become more dif­
ficult and his responsibilities increase, his job
may be reclassified to a higher grade with a
corresponding increase in pay.
Approximately 505,000 workers, not includ­
ing postmasters of 4th class post offices and
rural carriers, were employed under the Postal
Field Service Compensation Act in mid-1960.
Of these, more than 360,000, or 71 percent, were

in pay level 4 which includes all city carriers
and most postal clerks. About half the em­
ployees in this pay level received salaries of
$5,305 a year. (A detailed discussion of earn­
ings of postal workers is found elsewhere in
this Handbook. See index.)
Over 585,000 full-time craft, service and
manual workers employed by the Federal
Government in the United States in 1960 were
paid under the wage board system. The pay
rates for these workers are fixed by wage
boards on the basis of “prevailing” rates paid
for similar work by private employers in the
areas where they work, rather than by legis­
lation. The median annual pay of employees
paid under this system was $5,387 in 1960. The
following tabulation of Army-Air Force Wage
Board pay rates for selected occupations in
specific labor market areas, in February 1961,
illustrates hourly wage rates in effect for work­
ers paid under the wage board system.
C ity

C om m on
lab orer

Atlanta, Ga. ______________
Boston, M a s s ._____________
Charleston, S .C .___________
Chicago, 111. ______________
Denver, Colo. _____________ ...
F ort W orth -D a lla s, Tex. _
Ham pton Roads, V a _______
H ouston-G alveston, Tex. _ _
Los A ngeles, C a lif_________
New Orleans, L a __________ ...
New Y ork, N .Y .-N ew a rk ,
N.J. _____________________...
Pensacola, Fla. ___________ ...
Philadelphia, P a . __________ ...
Portsm outh, N.H. ________ ...
Puget Sound, W a sh _______ ...
San D iego, C a lif___________ ...
San Francisco, C a lif_______ ...
St. Louis, M o______________ ...
W ashington, D.C. ________ ...



E le c tr i­


M ach in ist,
ge n e ra l


Source: Army-Air Force Wage Board, U.S. Department of De­
fense. Rates are for the second rate of a three-step pay range, in
effect February 1, 1961.

More than 60,000 Federal Government em­
ployees in the United States in 1960 were paid
under acts or orders other than those discussed
above. Among the employees paid under the
miscellaneous pay acts or orders were those
working for the Tennessee Valley Authority,
the Foreign Service of the Department of

State, and physicians, dentists, and nurses in
the Department of Medicine and Surgery of
the Veterans Administration.
The standard workweek for Federal Govern­
ment employees is 40 hours, and the pay sched­
ules are based on this workweek. If an em­
ployee is required to work more than 40 hours
a week, he is either paid overtime rates for the
additional time worked or given compensatory
time off at a later date.' Most employees usually
work 8 hours a day, 5 days a week, Monday
through Friday. However, the head of an
agency may decide on a different schedule for
his agency. Annual earnings, for most full-time
Federal workers, are not affected by seasonal
Federal employees receive paid vacations and
sick leave. They earn 18 days of annual
(vacation) leave during each of their first 3
years of service, then 20 days each year until
they have completed 15 years; after 15 years,
they earn 26 days of leave each year. In ad­
dition, they earn 13 days of paid sick leave a
year. Eight paid holidays are observed an­
nually. Employees who are members of mili­
tary reserve organizations are also granted up
to 15 days of paid military leave a year for
training purposes. Court leave with pay may
be granted to employees to attend court as a
Government witness or for jury duty.
Other benefits available to most Federal em­
ployees include: A contributory retirement
system providing annuities based on salary,
length of service, and either age or disability,
along with survivorship annuities; optional par­
ticipation in low-cost group life and health in­
surance programs supported in part by the
Government; and compensation to employees
injured in performance of duty.
Where To Go for More Information

Information on Federal employment oppor­
tunities is available from a number of sources.
For college students, the college placement of­
fice is often a good source of such information.
High school students in many localities may ob­
tain information from their high school voca­
tional guidance counselors. Additional infor­
mation about Federal job opportunities and


Civil Service competitive examinations may be
obtained from the central and regional offices
of the Civil Service Commission, State employ­
ment service offices, and post offices in many
cities. The offices of the U.S. Civil Service
Commission are listed below along with the
States included in each region.
Central Office— U.S. Civil Service Commission, W a sh ­
ington 25, D.C.
F irst Region— Post Office and Courthouse Building,
Boston 9, Mass. (M aine, New H am pshire, V erm ont,
M assachusetts, Rhode Island, and Connecticut.)
Second Region— News Building, 220 E. 42d St., New
Y ork 17, N .Y . (N ew Y ork and New Jersey.)
Third Region— U.S. Customhouse, Second and Chestnut
Sts., Philadelphia 6, Pa. (Pennsylvania, D elaw are,
M aryland, and V irg in ia .)
F ifth R egion— Federal Office Building, 275 Peachtree
St. N E ., A tlan ta 3, Ga. (N orth Carolina, South C aro­
lina, G eorgia, Florida, Tennessee, Alabam a, M issis­
sippi, Puerto Rico, and the V irg in Islands.)
Sixth Region— Post Office and Courthouse B uilding, 5th
and W alnut Sts., Cincinnati 2, Ohio. (O hio, Indiana,
K entucky, and W est V irg in ia.)
Seventh Region— M ain Post Office Building, 433 W est
Van Buren St., Chicago 7, 111. (M ichigan, W isconsin,
and Illinois.)
Eighth Region— 1114 Com merce St., D allas 2, Tex.
(A rkan sas, Oklahoma, Louisiana, and T exas.)
Branch Office— M asonic Tem ple Building, 333 St.
Charles Ave., New Orleans 12, La.
Ninth R egion— N ew Federal Building, 1114 M arket St.,
St. Louis 1, Mo. (M issouri, Kansas, Iowa, N ebraska,
M innesota, North Dakota, and South D akota.)
Branch Office— P ost Office and Customhouse Build­
ing, 180 E. K ellogg Blvd., St. Paul 1, Minn.
Tenth Region— Building 41, D enver F ederal Center,
Denver, Colo. (C olorado, New M exico, Utah, W y ­
om ing, and A rizon a.)
Eleventh Region— 302 Federal Office Building, F irst
Ave. and M adison St., Seattle 4, W ash. (M ontana,
Oregon, Idaho, W ashington, and A laska.)
Branch Office— L oussac-Sogn Building, A n chorage,
T w elfth Region— 128 A pp raisers Building, 630 Sansome
St., San Francisco 11, Calif. (C a liforn ia, N evada, and
H aw aii.)
Branch Offices— (1 ) 514 Post Office Courthouse
Building, Los A ngeles 12, Calif. (2 ) F ederal
Building, Honolulu 2, Haw aii.
Canal Zone— Secretary, B oard o f U .S. Civil Service
Exam iners, Balboa H eights, C.Z.

Information on career and competitive ex­
amination opportunities in Federal agencies
which have separate career systems such as the



Foreign Service, the Federal Bureau of Inves­
tigation, and the Atomic Energy Commission
may be obtained by writing to their respective
personnel offices in Washington, D.C.

State and Local Governments
State and local governments provide an
important source of job opportunities in com­
munities throughout the country. Also, since
government activities are so varied, work op­
portunities are available in many different oc­
cupational fields.
In 1960, over 6 million (full- and part-time)
workers were employed in State and local
government agencies. About 75 percent (4.6
million) of these workers were with units
of local governments, such as counties, munici­
palities, towns, school districts, or special dis­
tricts. The remainder were employed in State
government agencies.
More than 2.5 million employees or about 45
percent of all full-time State and local govern­
ment workers were engaged in educational ac­
tivities in October 1960—more than in any
other single field. The proportion of State and
local government employment in educational
activities varies greatly; for example, the
highest proportion was 58 percent in Utah, and
the lowest was 27 percent in the District of
In addition to approximately 1.4 million
classroom teachers, (the largest single occupa­
tion in the field of education), school systems
also employ administrative personnel, librar­
ians, guidance counselors, nurses, dietitians,
clerks, and maintenance workers. More than
85 percent of employment in the field of edu­
cation is in elementary and secondary schools,
which are largely administered by local govern­
ments. State employment in education is con­
centrated chiefly in institutions of higher learn­
The next two largest areas of full- and parttime State and local government employment
in 1960 were in hospital and highway work.
The 679,000 persons employed in hospital work
included physicians, nurses, medical laboratory
technicians, and hospital attendants. About

General information on administrative ca­
reers in government may be obtained from:
The American Society for Public Administra­
tion, 6042 Kimbark Ave., Chicago 37, 111.

532,000 workers were employed in many differ­
ent occupations in highway activities. State
and local government workers construct and
maintain roads, highways, city streets, toll
turnpikes, bridges, and tunnels. Among these
employees were civil engineers, surveyors, op­
erators of construction machinery and equip­
ment, truckdrivers, concrete finishers, carpen­
ters, and construction laborers.
Protective services such as those provided by
police and fire departments were other large
areas of employment in State and local govern­
ments. More than 340,000 full- and part-time
people were employed in police work in 1960,
principally by local governments. Employment
in police work includes administrative, clerical,
and custodial personnel, as well as uniformed
and plainclothes policemen. All of the 220,000
firemen were employed by units of local govern­
ments, and about a third of these were part-time
Another large group, more than 475,000 fulland part-time workers in 1960, were employed
in general control activities—most of them at
the local level. General control functions in­
clude the activities of chief executives and
their staffs and legislative bodies; the adminis­
tration of justice; tax enforcement; and other
financial activities and general administrative
work. Lawyers, judges and court officials, tax
agents, accountants, and recording clerks are
examples of persons in this field of government
Other State and local government employees
are engaged in a wide variety of fields—social
security administration; public welfare; and
operation of prisons, government-owned liquor
stores, and local utilities (including those pro­
viding water, electricity, gas, and transporta­
tion supply systems). These functions require
workers in many different types of occupations
such as welfare workers, prison guards, elec-



Table 3. Number of workers employed by State and

local governments and percent engaged in
education, October 1960
[Full-time equivalent]

United States, total..............
District of Columbia............
Iow a.........................................
K entucky................................
M aine......................................
M aryland................................
M ontana.................................
N evada....................................
New Hampshire....................
New Jersey.............................
New M exico............................
New Y o rk ...............................
North Carolina......................
North D ak ota.......................
Rhode Island.........................
South Carolina......................
South D akota........................
West Virginia.........................
W yom ing................................

all functions

engaged in





Source: State Distribution of Public Employment in 1960. U.S.

Bureau of the Census.

trical engineers, electricians, pipefitters, and
bus drivers.
Clerical, administrative, maintenance, and
custodial workers constitute a significant pro­
portion of all employees in many areas of gov­
ernment activity. Among the more important
groups of workers engaged in these occupations
are clerk-typists, stenographers, secretaries,
office managers, fiscal and budget administra­
tors, bookkeepers, accountants, carpenters,
painters, plumbers, guards, and janitors. (De­
tailed discussions of professional, technical,
mechanical, and other occupations in State and
local goverments are given elsewhere in this
Handbook, in the sections covering the individ­
ual occupations. See index for page numbers.)
State and local government employment op­
portunities are distributed among the States
roughly in proportion to their population. For
example, New York, California, Pennsylvania,
Illinois, Ohio, and Texas which have approxi­
mately 40 percent of the Nation’s population,
also employ about 40 percent of the State and
local government work force.
Employment Trends and Outlook

The long-range trend of employment in State
and local governments has been steadily up­
ward. (See chart 38.) Over the past 30 years,
the number of employees (full- and part-time)
more than doubled, reaching more than 6 mil­
lion in 1960. Since the end of Wofld War II,
the rate of employment growth has been rapid.
State and local government employment has
expanded primarily because of rapid popula­
tion growth, expansion of school systems, and
growth of cities. City development has re­
quired more highway facilities, health and
sanitation services, fire and police protection,
and other services.
A continued steady increase in State and
local government employment seems likely in
the 1960-70 decade. In particular, a substan­
tial growth in educational employment is antic­
ipated as a result of the rising school-age
population. In addition to employment op­
portunities arising from the expected overall
growth in State and local government em­
ployment, thousands of employees will be


C H A R T 38

M illion s of employees1

for any specific occupation can be obtained
from the appropriate agencies in each State or
The average earnings of State and local gov­
ernment employees also vary from one govern­
ment function to another. Average monthly
earnings in October 1960 for full-time em­
ployees engaged in various functions were as
F u n c tio n 1

A v e ra g e m o n th ly
e a rn in g s o f fu ll­
tim e em p lo y ee s

A ll fu n c tio n s _________________________
Education _____________________________________ 437
Local s c h o o ls _______________________________


Instructional p e r so n n e l_______________
Other _________________________________
Institutions o f higher education___________
Other ______________________________________
Functions other than education________________


H ighw ays

i Data are for civilia n employees in continental United States;
Alaska and Hawaii are excluded.

needed to replace workers who transfer to other
fields of work, retire, or die. Retirements and
deaths alone will probably result in the need for
more than 100,000 new workers annually dur­
ing the 1960’s.
Most positions in State and local govern­
ments will be filled by persons who are perma­
nent residents of the particular State and lo­
cality where they seek employment. Often,
however, it is necessary for State and local
governments to recruit outside their areas
whenever they want specialized personnel, or
if shortages of particular skills exist in their
Earnings and Working Conditions

Earnings of State and local government
workers depend first of all on the employee’s
occupation. Information on salary rates paid



Public w elfare ____________________________
H ospitals __________________________________
Health _____________________________________


Sanitation ________________________________
Police protection __________________________ 425
Local fire p rotection _______________________
N atural resources _________________________ 389
W ater supply ______________________________ 373
Other local u tilities_________________________ 462
General c o n t r o l____________________________
A ll o t h e r ____________________________________ 379

1 Because a considerable number of educational employees are paid
on a 9- or 10-month school term basis, average earnings for this
group for a single month, such as October, cannot be used directly
to estim a te co m p arative an n u a l e a rn in g s of ed u ca tion al p erson n el
in relation to those of other employees. The lower average earnings
for hospitals reflect cash compensation only and do not include the
value of meals, lodgings, or other payments-in-kind.
Source: State Distribution of Public Employment in 1960, U.S.
Bureau of the Census.

Average montly earnings of full-time State
and local government workers in the continen­
tal United States (48 States) in October 1960
ranged from $270 in Mississippi to $506 in
A majority of State and local government
positions are filled through some type of formal
civil service test, and personnel are hired and
promoted on the basis of merit. In some areas,
broad groups of employees, such as teachers,
firemen, and policemen have separate civil serv­

ice coverage which applies only to their specific
More than half of all State and local govern­
ment employees are covered by State-adminis­
tered retirement systems; most of the re­
mainder are either covered by locally ad­
ministered systems or by the Federal old-age
and survivors insurance program. Nearly all
teachers and full-time local policemen and fire­
men are covered by some kind of retirement
provisions. In addition, approximately half of
the public school teachers and about a third
of the policemen and firemen are also under
the Federal old-age and survivors insurance
Most State and local government employees
work a 40-hour week; overtime pay or com­
pensatory time benefits are often granted for


hours of work in excess of the standard work­
Where To Go for More Information

People interested in working for State or local
government agencies should seek information
about job openings, salary rates, and how to
apply for employment at the appropriate agen­
cies in the State, county, or city. Local school
boards, city clerks, school and college coun­
selors or placement offices, and local offices of
State employment services will also have or can
tell applicants where to get information.
General information on administrative ca­
reers in government may be obtained from:
Am erican Society fo r Public A dm inistration,
6042 K im bark Ave., Chicago 37, 111.

In planning their careers young men must
take into account their military service obliga­
tion. By knowing the choices open to them for
the fulfillment of this obligation, they can
better fit their military service into their prep­
aration for life careers and, in many cases, re­
ceive valuable vocational training while in the
service. The Armed Forces also offer many op­
portunities to qualified young men and women
for lifetime careers in many occupational fields.
At the present time, the Armed Forces are
maintained through voluntary enlistment, sup­
plemented by a Selective Service System which
drafts young men between the ages of 18 V2 and
26. A young man has the choice of enlisting
in any one of a variety of programs involving
different combinations of active service and re­
serve duty; or he may wait to be drafted for
a 2-year period of active duty, followed by 4
years in the reserves.
These enlistment choices and the draft are
subject to change at any time by Congressional
action. The alternative choices described here
in a general way serve only to illustrate a few
possibilities. Detailed up-to-date information
can be obtained from local Armed Forces Re­
cruiting Stations or from such publications as
IPs Your Choice, and Your Life Plans and the
Armed Forces. The former is available by
writing to the following address:
It's Y our Choice
W ashington 25, D.C.

Your Life Plans and the Armed Forces is
available at high schools, colleges, and State
Employment Service offices.
The Reserve Forces Act of 1955 provided
additional choices for fulfilling military obliga­
tions. One of these important new choices allows
a young man to fulfill his military obligation
by enlisting in the reserves for 8 years, 6 months
of which is spent in active duty training. This
enables him to complete his active military serv

ice in a 6-month period just after high school,
before he enters college or starts to work.
If a young man wants to go directly to col­
lege, he can remain in a deferred status by
qualifying for student deferment or, upon en­
tering college, by enrolling in ROTC or certain
other officer training programs. A young man
who wants to enter an industry training pro­
gram directly from high school may qualify for
apprentice deferment and complete apprentice
training before entering military service.
About half of all enlisted jobs in the Armed
Forces require training in a skilled trade or a
technical specialty. It is possible for a young
man, during his military service, to receive
training in electronics, aircraft maintenance,
metalworking, or other skilled work. (See chart
39.) Such work can often be utilized later in
civilian employment. To receive this kind of
training, it is usually necessary to enlist for
more than 2 years.
In addition to specific on-the-job experience,
the Armed Forces provide enlistees with a wide
choice of voluntary off duty educational pro­
grams. Military personnel may enroll in (1)
the U.S. Armed Forces Institute, (2) the Res­
ident Center Program, or (3) the Group Study
Program. The U.S. Armed Forces Institute of­
fers approximately 200 correspondence courses
ranging from the elementary level to introduc­
tory college grade. The Resident Center Pro­
gram provides for classroom courses leading
toward high school diplomas and college de­
grees. These courses are offered either at mili­
tary posts or in one of the many high schools,
colleges, and universities which participate in
this program, both in the United States and
overseas. The Group Study program is con­
ducted on military installations and is designed
for military personnel in areas where regular
civilian educational facilities are not available.
In 1959, more than 640,000 military personnel
enrolled in these three programs.


C H A R T 39

ARMED FORCES, JUNE 30, I9601....

1 Includes total enlisted jobs (1.830.000). excludes trainees, transients.
and other "bulk" positions without occupational designation.
Source: U.S. Department of Defense.

General information on the occupations in
the Army, Navy, Air Force, Marine Corps, and
Coast Guard may be obtained from their respec­
tive recruiting stations. Career fields in the
Navy, Air Force, and Army are listed in later
sections of this chapter together with further
sources of information. In October 1960, the
military personnel in the Armed Forces was
distributed among the various services as fol­
lows: Air Force, 814,000; Army, 881,000; Ma­
rine Corps, 177,000; Navy 629,000; and Coast
Guard, 30,604.

The Army has divided its occupations into
approximately 60 occupational career fields
classified into 10 occupational areas, which

are explained in the U.S. Army Handbook,
Army Occupations And You, Office of the Ad­
jutant General, Department of the Army, Wash­
ington 25, D.C., revised edition 1960. Briefs on
the career fields describe job organization,
duties and responsibilities, work environment,
qualifications, training given, advancement,
and related civilian jobs. Each brief contains
a job progression chart showing normal lines
of advancement and indicating areas of work
involved in the particular career field. The
handbook contains additional sections on re­
quirements for enlistment, pay scale and allow­
ances, educational opportunities in the Army,
opportunities for commissioned and warrant
officers, opportunities for women in the Army,
aptitude areas, and an index to related civilian
jobs. The handbook is available in high schools,
State Employment Service offices, and Army
recruiting stations. Information on jobs in each
career field is given in greater detail in the
Manual of Enlisted Military Occupational Spe­
cialties, AR 611-201, June 1960. Although in­
tended for military use, this book is useful to
civilians as well, because of its thorough exam­
ination of each job specialty. The manual is
available at all Army recruiting stations, posts,
and installations.
Air Force

The Air Force has published a manual for vo­
cational guidance counselors and Air Force per­
sonnel officers called the Occupational Handbook
of the United States Air Force (Headquarters,
U.S. Air Force, The Pentagon, Washington 25,
D.C., 1960-61). This handbook contains descrip­
tions of each of the 43 airmen career fields. Each
brief includes a statement of the scope of the
particular career field and an organizational
chart which shows the relationship between the
various jobs and indicates the paths of advance­
ment. For the various jobs in a career field,
the brief gives a description of duties and re­
sponsibilities, qualifications and preparation,
training given, and related civilian jobs. The
handbook also has special sections on pay rates,
opportunities for a commission, women in the
Air Force, and reserve components. In addition,
there is a valuable school subject index to air­
men career fields. This publication is available


in high schools, colleges, public libraries, State
Employment Service offices, and Air Force re­
cruiting stations.

The many different kinds of occupations
found in the Navy are described in the U.S.
Navy Occupational Handbook (Bureau of Naval
Personnel, Washington 25, D.C., 1959). This
handbook contains 74 vocational information
statements on Navy occupations, classified into
8 major groups. Each brief explains the pur­

pose of the job, duties and responsibilities, work
assignments, qualifications, and preparation,
training given, lines of advancement, and re­
lated naval or civilian jobs. Promotions, pay
rates, retirement provisions, and other aspects
of careers in the Navy are explained in the
introduction. Included in the handbook are sec­
tions on women in the Navy, commissioned offi­
cers, the Naval Reserve, and the Submarine
Service. This publication is available in all high
schools, colleges, public libraries, State Employ­
ment Service offices, and Navy recruiting

Post Office Occupations
The mailman, with the familiar leather pouch
over his shoulder, and the clerk behind the
stamp window in the Post Office are the two
employees of the Federal Government most
familiar to the general public. Although we all
receive or send mail almost every day, few
people realize how many workers are employed
by the Post Office Department and exactly what
they do.
In 1959, approximately 550,000 American
workers were employed in the postal service in
about 36,000 separate installations throughout
the country. These workers, employed in the
second largest agency in the Federal Govern­
ment (the Department of Defense is the larg­
est), collected and distributed more than 61
billion letters, post cards, newspapers, maga­
zines, parcels, and other items of mail. They
also provide special mail services such as reg­
istration (giving evidence of mailing and de­
livery), insurance, and c.o.d. (the collection of
the price of an article and the cost of postage
from a customer upon delivery). Nonmail serv­
ices performed by postal workers include filling
out and selling money orders and accepting
deposits in postal savings accounts.
Postal employment is concentrated in the
larger centers of population. The metropolitan
area of New York City, in its various post offices
and other installations, has about 50,000 postal
workers, or almost 10 percent of all post office
employment. Other large centers of employment
are Chicago, with more than 20,000 postal work­
ers, and Boston, Los Angeles, and Philadelphia
with about 10,000 each. At the same time,
postal jobs are also found in very small com­
munities and in rural areas. Young people in
these places sometimes find postal employment
particularly attractive in view of the limited
opportunities which may exist for other types
of employment. Approximately 10 percent of
all postal employees are women, most of whom
are employed in the smaller post offices.

Young men may try postal work before mak­
ing a career choice, by getting a temporary post
office job during vacation periods. During the
Christmas rush season, from early in December
until Christmas Day, temporary workers are
employed in most post offices throughout the
country to handle the extra mail. In the summer
months also, when regular employees usually
take their vacations, some post offices hire
temporary workers. Because it is sometimes
difficult to get enough temporary workers, par­
ticularly during the Christmas rush season, the
minimum age requirement may be lowered to
17. This gives a young man, still in high school,
a chance to try post office work to see whether
or not he likes it.
Occupations in the Postal Service

Unseen by the general public, the giant work­
rooms behind the lobbies of the big city post
offices are busy centers of activity. At all hours
of the day and night, an endless flow of mail
moves from unloading platforms through the
workrooms and out to loading platforms. In the
workrooms, the mail goes through a series of
separations in which it is sorted according to
type of mail and destination. The people who
do this sorting are called distribution clerks and
make up the largest single group of employees
in the postal service. (Another group of em­
ployees also distributes mail but they do not
work in the post office. These are the postal
transportation clerks who work on a train or
bus, sorting mail while moving.) Behind count­
ers in the lobby of the post office building are
the window clerks who sell stamps and money
orders, register and insure mail, and accept
parcel post. In all, there were about 230,000
postal clerks throughout the country in 1959.
The city carriers are the second largest
group of postal workers (almost 150,000 in
1959). These workers collect the mail which



Courtesy of U.S. Post Office Department

Postal clerks feeding letters into high-speed cancelling machines.

flows into the city post office and deliver the
mail after it has been sorted by the distribution
clerks. Rural carriers collect and deliver mail
in the country and provide some of the services
which are available in post offices. Both city
and rural carriers cover assigned routes on reg­
ular schedules. Some city carriers may work
exclusively delivering parcel post or collecting
mail. (A detailed description of the duties,
training, qualifications, employment outlook,
earnings, and working conditions for clerks and
carriers appears in later sections of this chap­
ter.) A relatively small number of postal em­
ployees deliver only special delivery mail.
The “Star” route carrier transports mail
under contract with the Post Office Department
in sparsely settled areas of the country and is
not an employee of the Department. There were
approximately 10,000 “Star” route carriers at
the end of 1959. The length of the routes varied

considerably. Most of these carriers use trucks
to carry the mail, but in certain remote areas
where there are no roads many use horses or
In all post offices, bulk mail in large, heavy
sacks must be loaded, unloaded, and moved about
the premises. In the smaller post offices, this
heavy work is performed by the clerks. In the
larger post offices, mail handlers are employed
to do most of this heavy work. In addition to
handling sacked mail, the mail handlers make
rough separations of the mail into parcel post,
paper mail, and letter mail, and bring the mail
to distribution clerks for processing. They also
pick up the processed mail and put it into sacks.
In 1959, there were 26,000 mail handlers.
About 28,000 postal supervisors and 12,000
postmasters directed the work of approximately
400,000 clerks, carriers, and mail handlers in
the larger post offices in 1959. (There were

about 23,000 additional postmasters in the
smaller post offices.)
Approximately 17,000 custodial service em­
ployees were concerned with the operation,
maintenance, and protection of post office build­
ings and equipment. About 1,600 of these em­
ployees were mechanics or craftsmen such as
electricians, carpenters, and painters. The re­
mainder included employees such as laborers,
janitors, elevator operators, and building
More than half of the approximately 9,500
employees in the motor vehicle service were
motor vehicle operators who drove trucks trans­
porting bulk mail. The other employees were
concerned with the maintenance of the trucks
driven by the motor vehicle operators as well
as the balance of the post office vehicle fleet,
including more than 30,000 parcel post deliv­
ery trucks and mailsters (light three-wheel
motor vehicles) driven by carriers. This group
included garagemen who did the routine serv­
icing of vehicles, automotive mechanics who
made major repairs, body and fender repair­
men, and parts clerks.
About 1,000 postal inspectors are employed
in the oldest investigative agency in the Federal
Government—the Post Office Inspection Serv­
ice. The main function of these employees is to
inspect post offices to see that they are effi­
ciently operated, that funds are being properly
spent, and that postal laws and regulations are
complied with. Other principal duties include
the prevention and detection of crimes such as
theft, forgery, and fraud involving use of the
Another small, but very important, group of
employees is made up of the several hundred
technicians who service the semiautomatic and
automatic equipment now being introduced in
some post offices. As the mechanization of the
Post Office Department continues, many more
such employees will be needed.
The Post Office Department also employs a
small number of engineers, accountants, and
lawyers, and clerical and office workers, such
as typists, stenographers, file clerks, and per­
sonnel assistants.

Qualifications, Training, and Advancement

To qualify for a job in the Post Office De­
partment, an applicant must be a citizen, at least
18 years of age, and pass a civil service exami­
nation. Usually the applicant must also live in
the area served by the particular post office in
which he would work if selected for appoint­
No formal education or special training is re­
quired for most post office entry jobs. In recent
years, however, most of the applicants who have
been appointed were high school graduates.
As in the case of other civil service exami­
nations, an honorably discharged war veteran
has 5 extra points added to his passing grade
and a disabled veteran receives 10 extra points.
Veterans with compensable disabilities are
placed at the top of the list. Certain jobs in the
custodial service (guards, elevator operators,
laborers, janitors, etc.) are reserved for vet­
The names of applicants who pass an exami­
nation are placed on a register in the order of
their scores. The appointing officer can select
any of the top three available applicants to fill
a job vacancy. Those not selected are put back
on the list for consideration for the next job
opening. Appointments to postal jobs are made
without regard to an applicant’s race or re­
ligion. Postal employees, like all other Federal
workers, are subject to an investigation of their
moral character and loyalty. Before an appli­
cant may be appointed, he must pass a physical
examination by a Federal medical officer. Spe­
cific physical requirements differ according to
the nature of the work in the various types of
In general, most of the work in the post
office requires considerable physical stamina.
An even more important quality is a good
memory. Clerks, for example, must be able to
memorize the streets and numbers which make
up a district so that they can sort mail rapidly.
Carriers have to memorize changes of address.
Both clerks and carriers must also remember
many postal regulations.
Window clerks and carriers are expected to
be pleasant and tactful in dealing with the
public. Distribution clerks in the large post
offices have no contact with the public. How­



ever, since they have tight deadlines and work
in large groups at close quarters, they should
be able to get along well with their coworkers.
All new postal employees must serve a pro­
bationary period of 1 year. An employee's con­
duct and performance are observed, and, if
warranted, he may be dismissed at any time
during the probation.
The amount of training given to a new em­
ployee varies considerably, depending on the
size of the post office in which he is employed.
On-the-job training is generally provided by
the supervisor or an experienced employee. The
new employee performs the simpler tasks of
his job from the very first day. To become
proficient in all of his work, however, takes
much longer. The new clerk or carrier must
spend many hours of his own time in memoriz­
ing postal regulations and schemes and routes
and additional hours of practice in sorting to
get the necessary speed and accuracy. (A
scheme is a group of places consisting of States,
cities, zones, or streets and numbers arranged
for convenient delivery of mail.)
Career postal employees are classified as reg­
ulars or substitutes. The great majority of
postal employees begin as substitutes. The posi­
tions of clerk, city carrier, special delivery
messenger, mail handler, and positions in the
vehicle service are initially filled by substitute
appointment from the civil service register.
Substitutes replace absent regular employees
and also supplement the regular work force.
There may not be more than one career sub­
stitute for every five regular employees. As
vacancies occur in the regular work force, they
are filled by converting substitutes to regulars
in order of seniority. The length of time served
as a substitute depends on the size of the in­
stallation, economic conditions in the area, and
other factors.
Some jobs, even at the same salary level,
may be considered more desirable than others
because of the type of work performed, the
hours of work, or for other reasons. When a
vacancy occurs, it is posted and employees in
the occupational group may submit “bids"
(written requests for assignment to the va­
cancy). The preferred assignment is given to
the qualified bidder with the longest service.

For assignment to a higher level position,
however, merit, not seniority, is the controlling
factor. Qualifications for promotion may in­
clude experience, training or education, aptitude
as measured by a written examination or per­
formance test, work record, and personal char­
acteristics. (The last mentioned is particularly
important in supervisory positions.) If the
leading candidates for the job are about equally
qualified, length of service determines which
one is selected.
Opportunities for advancement in the postal
service are fairly limited. Most employees start
as postal clerks and carriers and continue in
those categories. Some employees may become
supervisors or advance to higher level, nonsupervisory jobs. Most employees, however, can
expect only to receive preferred assignments
or routes as their seniority increases.
One higher level position which offers an in­
teresting career and excellent opportunities for
further advancement is that of postal inspector.
The openings are few, however, and the re­
quirements are very exacting.
Employment Outlook

The Post Office Department will hire many
thousands of young workers each year during
the 1960's. Based on the experience of recent
years, there should be about 100,000 job op­
portunities in the postal service each year dur­
ing the next decade as a result of the need to
replace employees who retire, die, or transfer
to other employment.
A modest increase in total post office em­
ployment will result in some additional job
opportunities during the next decade. Most of
this employment increase will occur in carrier
jobs. As in the past, the volume of mail is
expected to continue to grow rapidly, largely as
a result of expanding population and increasing
business activity. Employment, however, will
grow at a much slower rate than in the past
because of a new program of modernization and
mechanization of postal facilities and equip­
ment which should greatly increase the volume
of mail an individual employee can handle.
As a result of this program, the “Mail-Flo"
system has already been installed in some large

post offices. This is an integrated system of
conveyors and controls which automatically
transports mail from one place to another in a
post office. Light-weight vehicles (mailsters)
are also in use on a number of residential
routes and additional ones are being purchased.
The carrier provided with such a vehicle de­
livers parcel post as well as letter mail and
paper mail. For every 10 route0 so mechanized,
one less parcel post carrier is required.
In advanced stages of development, and in
actual use in a few post offices are a variety of
electromechanical and electronic devices and
controls which receive, process, and dispatch
mail at a considerable saving in postal clerk
manpower. Nevertheless, because of the large
increase expected in mail volume in the next
decade, employment will still continue to grow.
Earnings and Working Conditions

Almost all postal employees are paid under
the Postal Field Service Compensation Act, un­
der which three separate pay schedules are
provided. One schedule determines the salaries
of rural carriers and is based primarily on the
length of their routes. Another schedule covers
fourth-class postmasters whose compensation is
based on the annual receipts of their post offices.
Salaries of all other postal field service em­
ployees are determined under the third sched­
ule, the Postal Field Service Schedule (PFS).
The grade level of a position under this sched­
ule depends upon the duties and responsibilities
and the knowledge, experience, or skill required.
In all three schedules, employees receive
“step” increases every 12 months for 6
years if their job performance is satisfactory.
Thereafter, there are three longevity steps of
$100 each for 13, 18, and 25 years of postal
service. A distribution of employees by PFS
level, together with the entrance and maximum
salary, as well as the amount of the periodic
increases for each grade, is shown in the table
which appears on this page.
The median (average) annual salary of the
almost 500,000 PFS employees in mid-1959 was
$4,875. All of the city carriers and most of
the postal clerks are in PFS level 4.
The standard workweek for most postal em­


ployees is 40 hours. If a regular employee sub­
ject to a 40-hour week works overtime, he is
either paid overtime rates for the additional
time worked or he may take time off at a later
date. Substitute employees are paid at straighttime rates for all hours of work.
Postal employees, both substitutes and regu­
lars, receive the same vacation, sick leave, and
other benefits available to Federal employees
generally. They earn 13 days' annual (vaca­
tion) leave during each of their first 3 years of
service, then 20 days each year until they have
completed 15 years of service; and after that,
26 days of leave a year. In addition, they earn
13 days of paid sick leave a year.
Other benefits include: Retirement and sur­
vivorship annuities, optional participation in
low-cost group life insurance and health insur­
ance programs supported in part by the Gov­
ernment, and compensation to employees in­
jured in performance of duty.
Postal workers are covered by the civil service
system and enjoy a maximum of job security.
The physical surroundings are usually pleasant.
Most postal employees have frequent contact
with the public or other employees, a work
situation which most people enjoy. Prospec­
tive employees have the opportunity to choose
between outdoor work (carrier) and indoor
work (postal clerk).
Scheduled salaries

E m ployees
P o stal field service level
N u m b er

P ercent E n tra n c e increases M axim um 2

T o tal em ployees u n der
P F S schedule 1



1 ....................................................
2 ....................................................
3 ....................................................
4 ....................................................
5 ....................................................
6 ....................................................
7 ....................................................
8 ....................................................
9 ....................................................
1 0 ....................................................
1 1 ....................................................
1 2 ....................................................
1 3 ....................................................
1 4 ....................................................
1 5 .....................................................
1 6 ....................................................
1 7 ....................................................
18 ....................................................
1 9 ....................................................
2 0 ....................................................

3 ,7 0 4
23 ,7 2 9
37,1 8 3
3 60,979
24,7 2 7
1 7,500
7 ,2 1 8
3 ,4 5 0
1 ,768
1 ,310
1 ,028

0 .7
4 .7
7 .4
7 1 .4
4 .9
2 .2
3 .5
2 .1
1 .4
(3) ’

$3,4 1 5
3 ,6 7 0
3 ,9 5 5
4 ,3 4 5
4,6 0 5
4 ,9 7 5
5 ,3 7 0
5 ,7 9 0
6 ,2 5 5
6 ,8 7 0
7 ,5 6 0
8 ,3 2 0
9 ,1 6 0
1 6.585


$ 4 ,1 9 5
4 ,4 8 0
4 ,8 2 5
5 ,3 0 5
5 ,5 6 5
6 ,0 2 5
6 ,4 8 0
7 ,0 2 0
7 ,6 0 5
8 ,3 1 0
9 ,1 2 0
1 0,030
1 1,020

1 Does not include postmasters of fourth-class offices and rural car­
2 Does not include longevity increases of $100 after 13, 18, and 25
years of service.
3 Less than 0.05 percent.
Source : U.S. Post Office Department.



Some of the work requires considerable physi­
cal exertion such as walking, reaching, lifting,
and carrying heavy sacks of mail. Some of the
work is also of a routine nature.
Most postal employees are members of un­
ions. There are about 15 unions representing
postal employees.

Where To Go for More Information

Information on post office employment op­
portunities and civil service competitive exami­
nations for postal jobs may be obtained from
the local post office, the regional offices of the
Civil Service Commission, or State employment
service offices.

Mail Carriers
(D .O .T . 1-28.01)

Nature of Work

The carrier—or “mailman” as he is known
to most people—is responsible for delivering and
collecting mail in a specific area. Most of his
time is spent outdoors where he has frequent
contact with the people on his route. Some
city carriers (usually new men) may be as­
signed only to collect mail from street letter
boxes and from office building mail chutes. Most
of the work of this group of carriers is done in
the evening after the close of the business day.
The great majority of carriers, however, work
during the day, delivering as well as collecting
The carrier begins his work very early in
the morning. He spends a couple of hours at
the post office. There he arranges the mail in
the order in which it will be delivered. To do
this sorting, he uses a “case,” which is an up­
right box with compartments labeled with
names of streets, house numbers, or buildings.
(Rural carriers sort [“case”] the mail by name
of patron and rural box number rather than by
street and number.) He readdresses mail to be
forwarded and marks the mail of persons who
have moved without leaving forwarding ad­
dresses to show how it should be handled. He
also prepares and places in his route case re­
minders for special mail, such as insured mail
which requires a signature by the person re­
ceiving the mail. He signs receipts for postage
due and c.o.d. mail which he is to deliver.
When the mail has been arranged, it is as­
sembled into bundles numbered in the order of
delivery. The residential foot carrier’s mail is
generally too heavy to be carried by him all
at one time. (Thirty-five pounds is the maxi

Courtesy of U.S. Post Office Department

Mail carrier using cart to carry mailbag as he delivers

mum to be carried.) He, therefore, makes up
larger bundles of mail, called “relays” which
are transported by other carriers in trucks and
placed in storage (relay) boxes at intervals along
the route.
The carrier starts out on his route with the
mail in a large leather bag which is carried
over his shoulder or in a mail cart. When he
reaches the first relay box, his bag is empty,
or nearly so, and he refills it with the bundles
in the relay box containing the mail for the
next section of his route.

In some cities, a carrier on an outlying
residential route may use a light, three-wheel
motor vehicle called a “mailster” to deliver the
mail. Such a carrier does not make up relays,
but rather loads the vehicle with the mail for
his entire route. He also takes the parcel post
mail for his route and delivers it together with
the letter and paper mail.
On his route, the carrier goes from door to
door, placing ordinary mail in boxes or through
door slots. Mail is delivered throughout office
buildings served by elevators, but in apartment
houses, usually it is deposited only in the boxes
near the front entrance. The carrier collects
charges on postage-due and c.o.d. mail and ob­
tains receipts for registered and certain insured
mail. When a required signature cannot be ob­
tained for mail such as an insured parcel, the
carrier leaves a notice that tells where the
parcel is being held. The carrier brings back
to the post office letters left in the mail box
for mailing. He also collects mail from street
letter boxes.
When the carrier returns to the post office
after completing his route, he “faces” the mail
he has brought back for cancellation (i.e., ar­
ranges letters so that the stamps are all in the
same direction). He also turns in the money
and receipts which he collected.
The residential city carrier covers his route
once during the day. The carrier in the down­
town business district, covering a more highly
concentrated area, makes a number of trips over
his route during the course of the day.
Where letter and paper mail is delivered by
foot carriers, parcel post is delivered separately
by other carriers who drive trucks. Parcel post
is sorted by postal clerks and put into sacks.
Each sack has a parcel post carrier’s route
number and another number indicating the
order of delivery within the route. The parcel
post carrier loads his truck, arranging the sacks
in the order of delivery, and proceeds along
his route which covers about the same area as
8 to 10 foot carrier routes combined. He also
collects mail of all kinds from street letter
A substitute carrier may have a combination
of duties. For example, he may deliver mail
on foot during part of the day and then drive


Courtesy of U.S. Post Office Department

Carrier driving “mailster” to deliver mail in residential

a truck in the evening, making collections from
street letter boxes.
The rural carrier delivers mail by motor
vehicle along routes primarily outside city
limits. He places the mail in mail boxes set
up on posts by the side of the road and collects
the letters which have been left in the boxes
for mailing. In addition, he sells stamps and
money orders and accepts parcel post, letters,
and packages to be registered or insured.
All carriers must be able to answer questions
about postal regulations and service and pro­
vide change of address cards and other postal
forms when requested.
Qualifications, Training, and Advancement

Some qualifications for the carrier position,
such as citizenship and age, are the same as
for all postal jobs and have been discussed pre­
viously. See page 790.
The same written civil service examination
is given to applicants for city carrier or postal
clerk jobs. At the time of the examination, the
applicant is usually required to specify whether
he wants to be on the carrier or clerk register.
This decision is important to the applicant be­
cause he is usually committing himself to either
clerk or carrier work during his career in the


postal service. For example, a young man who
enjoys walking and being outdoors may decide
that he would like to be a carrier. For him,
this is probably the right choice. However, he
should bear in mind that he will have to be
outdoors in bad weather as well as good and
that walking may prove less enjoyable after he
has been carrying mail for 15 or 20 years.
Transfers between the clerk group and the car­
rier group are not common and when they do
occur, the persons who transfer lose seniority
rights for 5 years in bidding for more desirable
assignments in the new group.
The written test consists of three parts. The
longest part is a test of general intelligence, in­
cluding questions on simple arithmetic, spell­
ing, vocabulary, and reading comprehension.
Another part tests the applicant's reading accu­
racy by requiring him to compare addresses
arranged in pairs and to indicate whether they
are the same or different. The third part tests
the applicant's ability to follow instructions
carefully in making changes on a mailing scheme
and routing mail. Sample questions are sent
to applicants with their notices of admission
to the written tests.
Persons being considered for appointment are
given a road test in which they must demon­
strate their ability to handle, under various
driving conditions, vehicles of the type and size
they may be required to operate as carriers.
At the time of appointment, they must have
a valid driver's license.
Applicants must pass a rigorous physical
examination to determine whether they are able
to stand the arduous physical exertion required
to perform the jobs. They must be able to
stand for long periods of time, walk considerable
distances, and handle heavy sacks of mail.
Carriers must weigh at least 125 pounds. The
minimum weight requirement may be waived
for those who can pass a strength test con­
sisting of lifting a sack weighing 80 pounds to
their shoulders.
In addition to good health and physical
stamina, a carrier should have a good memory.
He relies on his memory in arranging the mail
on his route in the proper order for delivery.
He must also memorize many postal rules and
regulations. Other desirable qualities for a car­

rier are a pleasant manner and a neat appear­
ance because he is the postal employee who has
the most contact with the public.
City carriers begin as substitutes, becoming
regulars in order of seniority as vacancies
occur. Rural carriers start as regulars.
New carriers are taught the procedures for
casing mail. Substitute city carriers may be
assigned to postal clerk duties and may some­
times be required to pass examinations on
schemes of city “primary distribution" (first
sorting by destination). About once a year, the
carrier is checked on how well he performs
his job.
Promotional opportunities for carriers are
very limited. Some carriers in city delivery serv­
ice may advance to jobs as carrier foremen
and route examiners. Such employees, however,
constitute only slightly more than 1 percent
of the number of city carriers. Most carriers,
therefore, can look forward to only preferred
routes as their seniority increases.
Employment Outlook

There will be many thousands of opportuni­
ties each year during the 1960's for young men
to become carriers. Based on the experience of
recent years, about 40,000 persons will be hired
each year during the next decade as replace­
ments for carriers who leave the service as a
result of transfer to other work, retirement, or
death. The total number of carrier jobs is also
expected to increase substantially.
As in the past, the number of city carriers
will increase steadily as population continues
to grow and to spread out into suburban areas.
As long as mail continues to be delivered to
homes and businesses, such innovations as
“mailsters" will probably no more than slow
down the rate of employment growth.
Rural carrier employment is expected to re­
main relatively unchanged during the 1960-70
decade, as it has for many years in the past.
Rural routes near large cities are converted to
city routes as the suburbs continue to spread.
On the other hand, new rural routes are es­
tablished to provide service in areas where
fourth-class post offices are discontinued. In
recent years, vacancies have averaged about
1,500 annually.



Earnings and Working Conditions

Almost all city carriers begin as substitutes
and receive $2 an hour. If their work is satis­
factory, they receive increases of 7 cents an
hour each year for 6 years to a maximum of
$2.42 an hour. Regular city carriers are paid
on an annual basis, beginning with $4,035 and
increasing each year by $140 to a maximum of
$4,875 after 6 years. After 13, 18, and 25 years
of postal service, carriers receive an increase of
$100 a year.
When a substitute city carrier receives a reg­
ular appointment, he gets credit for his career
service as a substitute. For example, a substi­
tute with 2 years of career service who is ap­
pointed to a regular position would be paid at
the annual rate of $4,315. All city carriers re­
ceive an allowance for postal uniforms they are
required to wear.
Rural carriers are paid a salary based on a
combination of fixed annual compensation and
the number of miles in their routes. In addition,
they receive a maintenance allowance of 10
cents a mile for the use of their automobiles.
A carrier with a 56-mile route (the average
route length in 1959) would receive $4,463 a
year in his first year and $5,183 in his seventh
year. The allowance for the use of his automo­
bile would give him an additional $1,702.40.
A substitute rural carrier receives the same
pay as the regular whose route he is covering.
The schedule of a regular city carrier calls

for an 8-hour day, 5 days a week. If he works
beyond that, he gets paid at a rate of 11/2 times
his regular annual rate converted to an hourly
rate or he receives compensatory time off. Sub­
stitute city carriers receive straight-time rates
for all hours worked. Both regular and sub­
stitute city carriers receive 10 percent addi­
tional pay for work between the hours of 6 p.m.
and 6 a.m. Rural carriers work a 6-day week.
Most carriers begin work very early in the
morning. In some cities, carriers with routes in
the business district report to the post office
at 6 a.m. The working conditions of carriers
vary considerably depending upon the time of
year and the part of the country in which they
work. They work outdoors in the pleasant
spring and fall weather, as well as under the
hot summer sun and in the snow and ice of
The carrier must cover his route within cer­
tain time limits. Otherwise, he is on his own
while out delivering the mail and has the op­
portunity of meeting and dealing with different
people along his route.
Most carriers have to do a great deal of walk­
ing with a heavy, awkward mail bag slung over
the shoulder. Even the carriers who drive
vehicles have to do considerable walking and
lift heavy sacks of parcel post while loading
their vehicles. They may also carry heavy
packages in making deliveries to business es­
tablishments or homes.

Postal Clerks
(D .O .T. 1-27.20)

Nature of Work

The great majority of post office clerks work
behind the scenes and are never seen by the
public. They are the distribution clerks in the
large city post offices who sort incoming and
outgoing mail and prepare it for dispatching.
Other clerks deal directly with the public at
windows in the lobbies of post office buildings,
selling stamps and money orders and providing
other services. (In smaller post offices, the
same clerk does both types of work.) New sub­
stitute clerks may be assigned to carrier duties.

Every postal clerk, whether a distribution clerk
or a window clerk, must be able to sort mail.
The mail that has been collected by the car­
riers is brought into the post office workroom
and dumped on long tables. Here the first rough
separation of the mail into parcel post, paper
mail, and letter mail takes place, usually per­
formed by new distribution clerks (and some­
times by mail handlers). Parcel post and paper
mail are thrown into separate containers. The
letter mail which remains on the table is “faced”
(stamps down and facing the same direction)
and fed into canceling machines which print


over the stamps the date and time, and the city
and State in which the post office is located.
(New canceling machines make it unnecessary
to face the letters because the machines can
“find” and cancel the stamp, wherever it is.)
Parcel post and paper mail are canceled by
hand. After the mail has been canceled, it is
taken to different sections where other clerks
begin a series of sortings according to destina­
Clerks who work on letter mail throw the
letters into a case (an upright box with labeled
compartments). For a “primary distribution”
(first sorting by destination) the case usually
has one or two compartments for local mail,
a number of compartments for groups of distant
States, a compartment for each of the nearby
States, one for each of the largest cities in the
country, etc.
The primary distribution is followed by one
or more “secondary” distributions in which the
mail from each compartment in the primary
case is sorted in greater detail. For example,
clerks will gather the local mail from the ap­
propriate compartment in each primary case
and combine it with the local mail which has
come in from outside the city to be sorted in a
secondary case. The clerks who sort this mail
have to be familiar with every street in the
city and know the streets and street numbers
that are included in each postal zone, branch,
or station. Mail is sometimes further separated
by sections within postal zones so that when* it
arrives at a neighborhood post office is it almost
ready for immediate delivery by carriers.
Parcel post is sorted in the same way as let­
ter mail, by separating it into ever finer group­
ings. However, to sort parcels, clerks use
chutes, conveyors, slides, tables, and bags or
other containers instead of letter cases.
Some distribution clerks separate mail while
traveling in trains or buses. Other clerks,
known as transfer clerks, arrange for mail to
be moved to and from trains promptly and at the
lowest possible cost.
New equipment is being used to make dis­
tribution work faster and easier. Mechanical
conveyor systems are in use in a number of
post offices to reduce the manual movement of
mail between work areas. With new electronic


Courtesy of U.S. Post Office Department

Postal clerks sorting mail according to destination.

sorting machines, a clerk can push a button on
a keyboard and a letter is automatically sent
to the proper compartment. This clerk must
know distribution schemes, as do the clerks
who sort mail by hand.
Distribution clerks have to work quickly be­
cause mail must be delivered as speedily as pos­
sible. Accuracy is also important because plac­
ing a letter in the wrong compartment of a
case will result in delayed delivery.
The clerks who work at public windows in
the lobby of the post office building, in addi­
tion to selling stamps, provide a variety of
other services. In accepting material for mail­
ing, window clerks weigh letters and parcels
and determine the proper amount of postage
required. They check packages and envelopes
to see if their sizes and shapes are acceptable.
They register and insure mail and sell the post­
age or collect the charges required for the
Window clerks also sell and cash money or­
ders, distribute general delivery mail and par­
cels and other undeliverable mail being held at
the post office, accept deposits in postal savings
accounts, and rent post office boxes. They also
answer questions on rates, mailing restrictions,
and other postal matters. Occasionally, a win­

dow clerk will help someone file a claim for mail
that has been damaged. In the larger post offi­
ces, a window clerk will perform only one or
two of these services. Thus, in these offices
there are such clerks as registry clerks, stamp
clerks, and money order clerks.
Qualifications, Training, and Advancement

Some of the requirements for entry as a
postal clerk are the same as for any post office
job and are discussed on page 790. The written
civil service examination and the physical re­
quirements are the same as for carrier appli­
cants and are discussed on page 794. A new
type of examination, including a machine apti­
tude test, is given to applicants for the recently
established position of distribution clerk (ma­
Good health and a good memory are essential
for those who want to be postal clerks. The
work requires much stretching and lifting,
walking and standing, and throwing of pack­
ages of mail as well as handling of heavy sacks
of mail. Clerks have to memorize distribution
schemes and many postal rules and regulations.
They also need to have good eye-hand coordina­
tion and the ability to read rapidly.
The distribution clerk works closely with
other clerks, frequently under the tension and
strain of meeting mailing deadlines and should,
therefore, be even-tempered. The window clerk
is in constant contact with the public and con­
siderable tact may be required in his replies to
questions and complaints.
Most postal clerks begin as substitutes and
become regulars in order of seniority as vacan­
cies occur. New clerks receive brief instruc­
tions in their duties. They are first given a
primary scheme to learn. When they have mas­
tered this, they are given one or two secondary
schemes to learn. They practice on their own
time to achieve speed and accuracy. All postal
clerks are required periodically to pass scheme
examinations on the work for which they are
Promotional opportunities for postal clerks
are somewhat better than for carriers, but still
very limited. In the larger post offices, there
are some special postal clerk jobs at a higher


level, as well as some scheme examiner jobs,
mail dispatch expediter jobs, and foreman
jobs. Compared with the large number of post­
al clerk jobs, these “higher level” jobs are
relatively few. Most postal clerks, therefore,
do not advance to a higher level. However, as
their seniority increases, they may receive pre­
ferred assignments such as the day shift, or a
window clerk job.
Employment Outlook

There will be many thousands of job open­
ings for postal clerks during the 1960,s. Most
of these openings will result from the need to
replace clerks who leave the service because of
transfers to other work, retirements, or deaths.
Based on the experience of recent years, about
45,000 persons will be hired each year in the
next decade as replacements. Some additional
job opportunities will result from an expected
moderate increase in total postal clerk employ­
The anticipated growth in our population in­
dicates that mail volume will grow substantially
in the years ahead. The spread of population to
suburban areas means that post offices will be
needed in the new communities. The increased
volume of mail and the need for new post offi­
ces will require more postal clerks.
However, because of technological develop­
ments already introduced and others on the
horizon, employment is expected to grow at a
much slower rate than the volume of mail.
Some of the larger post offices already have
conveyor systems which move mail mechanical­
ly between work areas, machines which auto­
matically face and cancel mail, and machines
which sort mail electronically. This equipment
is being introduced in additional post offices
and more advanced models of the machines are
being developed. As a result of these develop­
ments, the amount of mail a clerk can handle
will increase and postal clerk employment will
rise at a slower rate than it has in the past.
Earnings and Working Conditions

Most postal clerks are at the same grade
level as city carriers and the earnings informa­


tion for clerks is therefore, the same as that
presented on page 792. Clerks working on the
nightshift receive 10 percent additional pay.
Postal clerks in small post offices receive lower
salaries and clerks in the post-offices-on-wheels,
higher salaries than the clerks in the large
post offices.
The working conditions of post office clerks
differ according to the specific work assignment
and the amount and kind of labor saving ma­
chinery in the particular post office. Generally,
distribution clerks work in close contact with
each other and often there is a spirit of friend­
liness and cooperation within a group. Much
of the work is routine, however, and may be­

come boring unless the clerk accepts the chal­
lenge of improving his speed and accuracy.
The work is also physically demanding. The
clerk has to do considerable walking, throwing,
and reaching. He is on his feet much of the
time and may have to handle heavy sacks of
The work of the window clerk requires much
less physical exertion. It is usually more varied
and the window clerk also has the constant
contact with the public to keep him interested.
Furthermore, very few window clerks work at
night. For these reasons, the job of the window
clerk is generally regarded as a preferred as­

Technical Appendix
This appendix is designed fo r readers w ho w ish m ore
in form ation on the sources and procedures follow ed in
developing the conclusions on em ploym ent outlook than
is presented in the nontechnical reports on individual
occupations and industries. A lso included in this appen­
dix is a b rief explanation o f how the D.O.T. numbers
(fro m the D iction ary o f Occupational T itles) given in
the occupational reports fit into the d iction a ry’s occu pa­
tional classification system.

Employment Outlook Conclusions
The sections on em ploym ent outlook in the occupa­
tional reports present conclusions based not only on
in form ation com piled from m any sources but also on
extensive econom ic and statistical analyses. Although
the sources used and the methods o f analysis differed
am ong occupations and industries, because o f differences
in the fa cto rs influencing the labor market, the same
general pattern o f research w as follow ed in all o f the
outlook studies.
The startin g point in m ost studies was an analysis o f
past and prospective population trends, including the
changes expected in population o f school and college age,
in numbers o f older people, in em ploym ent o f women,
and in the concentration o f population in and around
cities. In fields such as teaching, the health professions,
and m any personal services, population fa ctors have a
direct and obvious influence on em ploym ent opportu ni­
ties. They are also o f grea t im portance in m any indus­
tries— fo r exam ple, residential construction, baking,
telephone com m unications, apparel, and retail trade.
M any fa cto rs besides the size and com position o f the
population m ay affect the volum e o f business and em­
ploym ent in a given industry. Consumer purchasing
patterns change w ith shifts in preference from one type
o f product to another, and w ith the development o f new
products which cut into the m arket fo r old ones. A
general rise in incom e levels can create new markets fo r
m ore expensive items. Technological developments not
only bring changes in the raw m aterials and equipm ent
needed in production, but they also influence the size o f
the required w ork fo rce and the kinds o f occupations
and skills needed.
In studying the outlook in each industry, the fa ctors
having the greatest influence w ere analyzed and p ro je c­
tions w ere made o f demand fo r the industry’s products or
services. These p rojection s w ere then translated into
estim ates o f the num bers and kinds o f w orkers required
to produce the indicated amounts o f products or services
— in view o f the relative numbers curren tly em ployed in
different occupations, productivity trends, possible


fu rth er reductions in the w orkw eek, and other fa ctors.
Past trends in em ploym ent w ere also given much w eigh t
in arrivin g at the conclusions as to probable fu tu re
To assist in carry in g through this analysis and ensure
that the assum ptions made in the different studies w ere
consistent, overall projection s o f the econom y to 1975
were developed. This general analytical fram ew ork in ­
cluded projection s o f the population, labor force, gross
national product, average hours o f w ork, em ploym ent in
m ajor industries, and related econom ic measures, by
5-year intervals from 1960 to 1975. In all studies o f
separate occupations and industries, the em ploym ent
projection s w ere tied in w ith those derived fro m the
projection s o f the entire econom y.1
The basic data on population and labor fo rce trends,
used fo r the overall em ploym ent projection s and fo r the
studies o f individual occupations and industries,1 are
from the decennial Censuses o f Population, and from
the m onthly labor force surveys conducted by the B u­
reau o f the Census fo r the Bureau o f Labor Statistics.
Data w ere also draw n from the Censuses o f M an u fa c­
tures and Business conducted by the Census Bureau.
It should be noted that the 1960 Census o f Population
data w ere not available when this Handbook w as in
E qually essential to the studies o f em ploym ent trends
in m a jor industries w ere the statistics on em ploym ent
in n onagricultural establishm ents, com piled by the B u­
reau o f Labor Statistics. These estimates provide
m onthly data on em ploym ent, hours o f w ork, earnings,
and labor turnover, based on reports from a sample o f
industrial, com m ercial, and governm ental establishm ents
which together em ploy about 25 million w orkers. They
are available fo r a great num ber o f different industries,
fo r the past qu arter-century or m ore.3
Another Bureau program which contributed to the
analysis o f fu tu re em ploym ent trends w as its series o f
studies o f productivity and technological developments.
A nticipated productivity trends and technological
changes w ere allowed fo r in converting the projection s
of demand fo r the products o f a given industry into
estimates o f the num ber o f w orkers who w ill be needed

1 Some of the economic projections derived in these studies by the
Bureau of Labor Statistics have been published in the pamphlet,
Manpower—Challenge of the 1960’s, U.S. Department of Labor, Wash­
ington 25, D.C., 1960. 24 pp.
- U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics, Popula­
tion and Labor Force Projections for the United States, 1960-75
(BLS Bull. 1242); for sale by Superintendent of Documents, Wash­
ington 25, D.C., at 40 cents a copy.
8 See Employment and Earnings, described on page 827.


in that industry. In form ation on em ploym ent o f scien­
tists and engineers in research and other activities,
obtained fro m surveys conducted by the Bureau in
cooperation w ith the N ational Science Foundation, has
also been extensively utilized.4
Still another Bureau p ro je ct w hich had a m a jor role
in the developm ent o f estim ates o f fu tu re em ploym ent
requirem ents in different occupations is the O ccupa­
tional Industry M atrix. The m atrix consists o f a set o f
tables fo r 159 industry sectors w hich represent the en­
tire econom y o f the U nited States. F o r each industry
sector, the tables show a percentage distribution o f
em ploym ent am ong about 150 o f the m ost im portant
occupations and also am ong the m a jor occupational
groups. The m atrix w as valuable in appraising the
effects o f changing em ploym ent levels in different indus­
tries on em ploym ent in specified occupations. It was
also useful in estim ating the num bers o f w orkers cu r­
rently em ployed in each occupation. This w as an im ­
portant fu nction , since fo r m any occupations the 1950
Census o f Population w as the m ost recent source o f
basic data on em ploym ent, and fo r m any others only
frag m en tary data w ere available, w hich had to be
integrated by means o f the m a trix in order to derive
overall estim ates o f employm ent.
Conclusions based on the analysis o f in form ation from
these m any sources generally indicate increases in em­
ploym ent and, hence, openings fo r new workers. E x ­
pected gains in em ploym ent, how ever, are by no means
an adequate indication o f the total num bers o f job
openings w hich w ill need to be filled. In m ost occu pa­
tions, more w orkers are needed y early to fill positions
le ft vacant b y those w ho leave the occupation (to enter
other occupations or because o f retirem ent or death)
than are needed to staff new positions created by grow th
o f the field. R a rely do occupations g row fa s t enough so
that the reverse is true. Even occupations w hich are
declining in size m ay offer em ploym ent opportunities to
m any youn g people.
In estim ating the num ber o f openings likely to arise
in an occupation, use has been made o f Bureau o f Labor
Statistics studies o f occupational m obility am ong se­
lected groups o f w orkers, and o f Tables on W ork in g
L ife, also developed by the Bureau.5 The tables, which
are sim ilar to the actuarial tables o f life expectancy
used by insurance com panies, provide a basis fo r assess­
ing fu tu re rates o f replacem ents resulting from deaths
and retirem ents, in turn affected by differences in sex
and average age o f the w orkers in various occupations.
In m any occupations, fo r exam ple, w here men com prise

4 National Science Foundation, Science and Engineering in Ameri­
can Industry, Report on a 1956 Survey (NSF 59-50); for sale by
Superintendent of Documents, Washington 25, D.C., at 70 cents a
U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics, Tables of
Working Life—Length of Working Life for Men (BLS Bull. 1001)
and Tables of Working Life for Women, 1950 (BLS Bull. 1204); for
sa le b y Superintendent of Documents, Washington 25, D.C., at 40
cents and 30 cents a copy, respectively.

the great m a jority o f w orkers, the rate o f replacem ent
fo r death and fo r retirem ent is generally between 1 and
4 percent. The rate is usually som ewhat higher in
w om en’s occupations, how ever, because so m any women
leave paid em ploym ent to g et m arried and assume fa m ­
ily responsibilities; the replacem ent rate am ong stenog­
raphers, typists, and secretaries is at least 6 percent
a year.
The types o f in form ation mentioned so fa r in this
section all relate to the demand fo r w orkers. In order
to appraise the prospective em ploym ent opportunities in
an occupation, it is also im portant to have in form ation
on the probable fu tu re supply o f personnel. The statis­
tics on high school and college enrollm ents and gradua­
tions com piled by the U.S. Office o f Education are the
ch ief source o f in form ation on the potential supply o f
personnel in the professions and other occupations re ­
quiring extensive form al education. D ata on num bers
o f apprentices from the U.S. D epartm ent o f L a b or’s
Bureau o f A ppren ticesh ip and T rain in g provide some
inform ation on new entrants into skilled trades.
M any o f the statistical sources and analytical a p ­
proaches referred to above have been developed only
within com paratively recent years. The reader should
bear in mind that econom ic foreca stin g is still in an
early stage o f developm ent and that it is, at best, d if­
ficult and uncertain. It is necessary to keep in mind
also the basic assum ptions underlying the forecasts
(enum erated on page 5 ). The Bureau believes that,
within this general fram ew ork o f assum ption, the basic
trends affecting em ploym ent can be discerned w ith su f­
ficient accuracy to meet the needs o f youn g people
preparin g fo r careers.

D.O.T. Classification Numbers
The reports in this H andbook have been grouped in
the m anner w hich seemed m ost appropriate in view o f
the needs o f the users and the realities o f the industrial
w orld. The arrangem ent follow ed does not con form to
any one established system o f cla ssify in g occupations.
Provision has been made, nevertheless, to m eet the needs
o f those persons who w ish to relate the occupations dis­
cussed to an established classification system. To indi­
cate where each occupation fits into the classification
system o f the D iction ary o f O ccupational Titles, D.O.T.
num bers are given w herever possible follow in g the title
o f the occupation. The first digit o f each o f these num ­
bers indicates the m a jor occupational grou p in w hich a
given occupation is classified, and the second digit the
subgroup, as follow s:

O Professional and managerial occupations:
0 -0 through 0 -3

P rofessional occupations

0 -4 through 0 -6
0-7 through 0 -9

Sem iprofessional occupations
M anagerial and official


Clerical and sales occupations:
1-0 through 1 -4

Clerical and kindred

1-5 th rough 1 -9


Agricultural, fishery, forestry, and kindred

Sales and kindred occupations

3 -0 through 3 -4
3 -8
3 -9


Service occupations:
2 -0

Dom estic service occupations

2 -2 through 2 -5

Personal service occupations

2 -6

P rotective service occupations

2 -8 and 2 -9

B uilding service w orkers and


A gricu ltu ral, h orticultural,
and kindred occupations
F ishery occupations
F orestry (ex cep t lo g g in g ),
and hunting and trap p in g

Skilled occupations.


Semiskilled occupations.


Unskilled occupations.

Index I. Occupations Classified
By Broad Fields of Work
This index is designed to help counselors and
young people locate information on occupations
related to particular fields of interest or apti­
tude—for example, artistic or technical work,
mechanical repair work, farming, or selling.
It classifies the occupations discussed in this
Handbook according to a classification system
developed by the U.S. Employment Service as
an aid in counseling and placing inexperienced
applicants—“the Entry Occupational Classifi­
cation” published as Part IV of the Dictionary
of Occupational Titles.
All occupations in the Handbook are grouped
together in this index according to general
areas of work. For example, all occupations
requiring artistic ability and training—such as
commercial artists, interior designers and decoProfessional, technical, and managerial work

A rtistic

drawing and related work

A d vertisin g artists and layout m en_________
Com m ercial artists __________________________

A rtistic



M usical work , vocal
Singers and singing teach ers______



M usicians and music teachers____



Creative writing and


Continuity w riters, radio and tele v is io n ____

Copy writing



E ntertainment

work , oral

A ctors and actresses_________________________
Announcers, radio and television-----------------P rogram directors, radio and television _____

E ntertainment


work , rhythmic

D ancers and dancing teachers_______________



I nstructive

service work

A gricu ltu ral extension w ork ers_____ ________
Home econom ists ___________________________
Librarians ___________________________________
M edical record lib ra rian s____________________
Occupational therapists _____________________
Teachers, college and university_____________
Teachers, kindergarten and
elem entary school ______________________
Teachers, secondary school_________________
Vocational agricu lture tea ch ers____________

S ocial service work


Social research

and journalism

C opyw riters, advertising ________

N ew spaper reporters _______________________
Public relations w orkers_____________________



Musical work ,




D esigners, apparel in du stry_________________
In terior designers and decorators___________
L ightin g directors, television________________
Makeup artists, television____________________
Photographers, com m ercial _________________
Photographers, p ortrait _____________________
Scenic designers, television ___________________

rators, and television scenic designers—are list­
ed under the heading “artistic work.” Persons
interested in repairing machines will find, under
“mechanical repairing,” references to such oc­
cupations as industrial machinery repairmen,
adding machine servicemen, and similar occu­
pations, including those in which the ability to
repair machinery is a secondary requirement—
for example, turbine operators.
In general, the page references in this index
relate only to the parts of the Handbook con­
taining the principal discussions of the occupa­
tions in question. Index II, which provides a
complete alphabetical listing of all discussions
of each occupation, may be consulted for addi­
tional references.


A gricu ltu ral econom ists _____________________






Professional, technical, and m an agerial
w o rk—Continued
A n th ropologists -----------------------------------------------E conom ists ____________________________________
H istorians ____________________________________
M arketing research w orkers------------------------P olitical scientists _____________________________
Psychologists -----------------------------Sociologists ____________________________________


S o cia l w e lfa re w o rk
Social w orkers _______________________________


R elig io u s w o rk
Protestant clergym en ________________________
Rabbis _________________________________________
Rom an Catholic priests________________________


G uidan ce an d a d v iso ry w o rk
School counselors ___

P rotective service work


F .B .I. a g e n t s _________________________________
Firem en ________________________________________
Policem en and policew om en__________________
Postal inspectors, post office---------------------------790

Chiropractors __________________________
Dental hygienists ______________________
Dentists _______________________________
Medical X-ray technicians___ ,___________
Optometrists ___________________________
Osteopathic physicians _________________
Physical therapists ____________________
Physicians _____________________________
Podiatrists ____________________________
Registered professional nurses___________
Veterinarians __________________________


Biochemists ____________________________
Biological scientists ____________________
Botanists ______________________________
Dental laboratory technicians____________
Dietitians _____________________________
Health physicists, atomic energy_________
Medical technologists __________________
Nutritionists ___________________________
Pathologists, plant and animal___________
Pharmacists ___________________________
Radiation monitors, atomic energy_______
Soil scientists _________________________
Zoologists _____________________________


Chemical technicians ___________________
Chemists ______________________________
Hot cell technicians, atomic energy_______
Laboratory technicians _________________


B ioch em ical w o rk (n o t elsew h ere cla ssi­
fied )

M a teria ls a n a ly sis an d rela ted w o rk

B usiness


relations and related work

Accounting and related work

A ccountants _________________________________
A ctu aries _____________________________________
Estim ators, building trades_________________
Statisticians _________________________________


Landm en, petroleum production _____________
Law yers ______________________________________
Leasemen, petroleum production _____________


M an ufacturers' salesmen ____________________
Purchasing agents __________________________


A stronom ers _________________________________
F oresters _____________________________________
G eographers _________________________________
Geologists ____________________________________
G eophysicists ________________________________
M eteorologists _______________________________
Observers, petroleum production _____________
Plant and animal husbandry specialists____
Soil conservationists ________________________


Legal work

Purchase and sales work

Geographical science work

L aboratory science work

N u rsin g an d m ed ica l w o rk

M athem atical assistants, electronics
m an u factu rin g __________________________
M athem aticians ______________________________
M athem atics aids ___________________________
M etallurgical technicians ___________________
M etallurgists, iron and steel in du stry_______
Physicists ____________________________________
Radiographers, atom ic en ergy_________________
Radioisotope production operators,
atom ic energy ____________________________


E ngineering

and related work

Industrial engineering and related work

Ceram ic engineers __________________________
Chemical engineers _________________________
E n gineerin g aids ____________________________
Industrial engineers _________________________
Industrial engineering technicians__________
M ining engineers ____________________________
S a fety technicians __________________________
Scouts, petroleum production _______________


A eronautical engineers _____________________
A eron au tical technicians ____________________
A gricu ltu ral engineers ______________________
A rch itects ____________________________________
Civil engineers _______________________________
Contractors, building con stru ction __________


A eron au tical engineers _____________________
A gricu ltu ral engineers ______________________
A ir-condition in g, heating, and
refrig era tion technicians _______________
Autom otive technicians _____________________


Structural engineering and related work

Mechanical engineering and related work





Diesel technicians ___________________________
Instrum ent technicians _____________________
L aboratory technicians _____________________
M echanical engineers _______________________
M echanical en gineering tech nicians_________
Technical w riters, a ircra ft, missiles,
and sp acecraft __________________________


A ccelerator operators, ^tomic en ergy________
A eron au tical engineers* i ____________________
B roadcast technicians, radio and
television ________________________________
Developm ent engineers, radio and
television ________________________________
E lectrical engineers _________________________
E lectron ic technicians ______________________
E n gineerin g aids, electronics
m a n u factu rin g __________________________
Ground radio operators, air
transportation __________________________
L ab ora tory technicians _____________________
N uclear reactor operators (research and
test rea ctors), atom ic en ergy__________
Sound technicians, radio and television ______
Technical w riters, electronics
m anu factu ring __________________________



Electrical engineering and related work

Technical control work

A ir traffic controllers, air tra n sp orta tion ___
E lectronic com puter program m ers__________
Film editors, television ______________________
F ligh t engineers, air tran sp ortation ________
N avigators, air tran sp ortation ______________
N uclear reactor operators (research
and test rea ctors), atom ic en ergy______
Photographers _______________________________
Pilots and copilots, air tran sp ortation _____
S afety technicians __________________________

D rafting and


related work

Com puters,k petroleum p rod u ction __________
D raftsm en __________________________________
Industrial designers, electronics
m anu factu ring __________________________
M echanical engineering tech n ician s_________
Plane-table operators, petroleum
production ______________________________
Rodmen, petroleum p rodu ction ______________
Technical artists, electronics
m a nu factu ring __________________________
Technical illustrators, a ircra ft, missiles,
and sp acecraft __________________________



sales work

A ccou n t executives, ad vertisin g ____________
A dvertisin g m anagers ______________________
Bank officers ________________________________
C o n tin u ity directors, radio and television . _
Media directors, advertisin g________________

Personnel workers _____________________
Postmasters, post office___________________
Production managers, advertising________
Program producers, radio and television___
Public relations workers__________________
Research directors, advertising___________
Sales managers, radio and television________
Station agents, railroad__________________
Station and operations agents, air
transportation ______________________
Traffic managers, radio and television_____

Personal service work
Headwaiters, restaurant _________________
Hostesses, restaurant ___________________
Housekeepers and assistants, hotel_________
Managers and assistants, hotel____________
Managers and assistants, restaurant________
Stewardesses and stewards, air
Stewards, railroad dining car_____________
Farming supervision and related work
Farm managers, specialty farms___________
Construction, mining, and related work
Tool pushers, petroleum production_______
Transportation and miscellaneous services
Airline dispatchers and assistants_______
Chief operators, telephone______________
Industrial traffic managers______________
Railroad conductors ____________________
Train directors, railroad__________________
Train dispatchers, railroad______________
Yard foremen, railroad_________________




Clerical and sales work

Calculating machine operators____________
Central office clerks, telephone__________
Comptometer operators ________________
Electronic computer operators___________




Clerical, administrative , fiscal , and



General recording work
Bank tellers ___________________________
Bookkeepers ___________________________
Bookkeeping machine operators__________
Central office clerks, telephone___________
Office machine operators________________
Railroad clerks ________________________
Typing (not elsewhere classified)
Billing machine operators_______________
Mortgage clerks, banking________________
Policy writers, insurance________________
Teletypists, air transportation..,__________
Transcribing machine operators__________:
Stenographic work
Court reporters ________________________



Cle rical and sales



Secretaries ____________________________
Stenographers _________________________
Stenotype operators ____________________

E quipment and material checking

Checkers, automobile manufacturing---------Electronic computer tape librarians----------Film librarians, television_______________
Food checkers, restaurant----------------------Railroad clerks ________________________
Stock chasers, automobile manufacturing Stock clerks, automobile manufacturing----




Routine recording work
Adding machine operators----------------------- 283
Electronic computer operators___________ 287
Insurance checkers _____________________ 654
Insurance clerks _______________________ 653
Keypunch operators ___________________ 284
Meter readers, electric light and power
Office machine operators________________ 283
Policy change clerks, insurance___________ 654
Proof machine operators, banking------------- 602
Railroad clerks ________________________ 722
Reservation clerks, hotel________________ 639
Sorting machine operators_______________ 284

Classifying and related work
Central office clerks, telephone___________ 748
Mail clerks, hotel_______________________ 639
Mail clerks, post office__________________ 796
Mail handlers, post office________________ 796
Transit clerks, banking__________________ 602
Clerical machine operating (not elsewhere
Addressing machine operators_____ _____ 284
Duplicating machine operators___________ 284
Electronic computer operators___________ 287
Embossing machine operators____________ 284
Mail preparing and mail handling
machine operators _________________ 283
Monotype caster and keyboard operators,
printing (graphic arts)______________ 399
Office machine operators________________ 283
Tabulating machine operators___________ 284
Routine clerical work (not elsewhere classified)
Bank messengers ________________
Mail carriers, post office__________
Office boys and girls____________________ 276
Rack clerks, hotel_______________________ 639

Executive secretaries ___________________
Hotel room and desk clerks______________
Insurance claims adjusters_______________
Mail carriers, post office________________


R ailroad cashiers ___________________________
R eservation clerks and agents, air
transportation __________________________
Rural carriers, post office____________________
Special delivery carriers, post office________
Ticket agents, air tra n sp orta tion ___________
W indow clerks, post office___________________

S elling
D ispensing opticians _______________________
Hotel sales m anagers_______________________
L ife insurance agents_______________________
M an u fa ctu rers’ salesmen ___________________
P roperty and casualty insurance agents
and brokers ____________________________
Real estate salesmen and brok ers__________
Routem en ____________________________________
Salesmen and saleswom en, retail store _____
Tim e salesmen, radio and television________
Traffic representatives, air transportation.
W holesale salesm en__________________________





service work

D istrict representatives, electric light
and pow er _______________________________
D river-salesm en, baking industry___________
Hotel floor clerks and su pervisors__________
Hotel key clerk s_____________________________
Restaurant cashiers _________________________
Routemen ____________________________________
Salesmen and saleswom en, retail store_____
Telephone operators _______________________


Service Work
Railroad dining car cooks and ch e fs________
R estaurant cooks and ch e fs_________________

F ood serving and

related work

Bus boys and girls, restau ran t______________
D ining car w aiters, ra ilroa d _________________
W aiters and w aitresses, resta u ran t_________

A dult care
Barbers ______________________________________
Beauty operators ___________________________
P ractical nurses and au xiliary
nursing w orkers _______________
Stewardesses and stewards, air
transportation __________________________

M iscellaneous

personal service work

Bellmen, hotel _______________________________
E levator operators, h otel____________________
M aids, hotel _________________________________
P orters, hotel ________________________________
Pullm an porters, ra ilroa d ____________________
Redcaps, r a ilr o a d ____________________________
T axi drivers _________________________________




Agricultural Work

Farm operators _______________________
Farm workers, hired____________________


Dairy farmers _________________________
Livestock farmers ______________________
Poultry farmers________________________


Corn farmers __________________________
Cotton growers ________________________
Crop specialty farmers__________________
Peanut growers ________________________
Tobacco growers _______________________
Wheat farmers_________________________




Mechanical work


Metal machining

E ngine lathe operators______________________
Instrum ent makers __________________________
L ayou t m e n __________________________________
M achine tool op era tors______________________
M achinists, all-round _______________________
Patternm akers _______________________________
Roll turners, iron and steel in du stry________
Setup men (m achine to o ls )_________________
Tool and die m akers_________________________


W ood m ach in in g
Lathe operators _____________________________


G lass m ach in in g
Benchmen, optical goods_____________________
Su rfacers, optical g ood s_____________________

Mechanical repairing


A ll-ro u n d re p a irin g

Industrial m achinery repairm en ____________
M aintenance m echanics _____________________
M illw rights __________________________________


E n g in e an d p u m p m a in ten a n ce an d rep a irin g
A u x ilia ry equipm ent operators,
electric ligh t and pow er_________________
B oiler operators, electric ligh t and p ow er___
N uclear reactor operators, atom ic en ergy___
O perating engineers, building tra d es_______
Pum pers, petroleum p rod u ction ____________
Pumpmen, petroleum refin in g_______________
Stationary engineers ________________________
Turbine operators, electric ligh t and power..


C om bu stion en gine rep a irin g
A irplan e mechanics, air tra n sp o rta tio n ___
Autom obile m echanics ______________________
Chief m echanics, a ircra ft, missiles,
and sp acecraft __________________________
Diesel mechanics ____________________________
Enginem en, petroleum p rodu ction _________



Aircraft equipment repairing
Airplane mechanics, air transportation___ 547
Chief mechanics, aircraft, missiles,
and spacecraft _____________________ 532
Flight line mechanics, aircraft, missiles,
and spacecraft _____________________ 532
Office machine repairing
Accounting-bookkeeping machine
servicemen ________________________ 421
Adding machine servicemen_____________ 421
Calculating machine servicemen__________ 421
Cash register servicemen________________ 421
Dictating machine servicemen____________ 422
Duplicating and copying machine
servicemen ________________________ 422
Electronic machine servicemen, see:
Business machine servicemen.._______
Typewriter servicemen _________________ 421
Miscellaneous mechanical repairing
Air-conditioning mechanics _____________ 411
Appliance servicemen ___________________ 413
Automobile mechanics __________________ 416
Body and fender repairmen______________ 417
Refrigeration mechanics ________________ 411

Complex machine operating (not elsewhere

Printing press operating

Cylinder pressmen __________________________
Gravure pressm en ___________________________
L ithographic pressmen _____________________
Offset pressmen _____________________________
Platen and jo b pressm en_____________________
Provers ______________________________________


F orgin g press sm iths_________________________
Ham m er drivers ____________________________
Ham m er runners ____________________________
Ham mermen _________________________________
Ham m ersm iths _______________________________
M anipulators, iron and steel industry_______
Pow er shear operators, a ircra ft,
missiles, and sp a cecra ft_________________
Rollers, iron and steel in du stry______________
Stretch press operators, a ircra ft,
missiles, and sp a cecra ft________________


Power press forming and related work


Tube benders, a ircra ft, missiles, and
sp acecraft _______________________________
U psetterm en, fo rg e shop____________________
W ire draw ers, iron and steel in du stry______


Brakemen, railroad __________________________
Flagm en, railroad ___________________________
H ostlers, railroad ___________________________
Intercity busdrivers ________________________
Local transit bu sd rivers_____________________
Local truckdrivers __________________________
Locom otive engineers, r a ilro a d _____________


Hauling machine operating


Mechanical work—Continued

Locomotive firemen (helpers) railroad------Motor vehicle operators, post office----------Operating engineers, building trades--------Over-the-road truckdrivers ______________
Parcel post carriers, post office___________
Portable equipment operators, railroad_____
Power truck operators__________________
Routemen _____________________________
Rural carriers, post office________________
Special delivery carriers, post office---------Star route carriers, post office___________
Switchmen, railroad ____________________
Towermen, railroad_____________________
Trainmen, railroad _____________________
H o istin g m ach ine o p era tin g

Crane operators, building trades_________
Ingot strippers, iron and steel industry____
Ladle cranemen, iron and steel industry___
Metal cranemen, iron and steel industry___
Operating engineers, building trades______
Portable equipment operators, railroad____
Power truck operators___________________
Skipmen, iron and steel industry_________
Soaking pit cranemen, iron and steel
industry ___________________________
D rillin g m ach ine o p era tin g

Cable-tool dressers, petroleum production
Cable-tool drillers, petroleum production
Derrickmen, petroleum production________
Earth-boring machine operators,
building trades _____________________
Prospecting drillers, petroleum production ^
Rotary drillers, petroleum production_____
Rotary floormen, petroleum production____





Central office repairm en, telephone__________


Construction electricians ____________________
D istrict representatives, electric light
and pow er _______________________________
E lectrical assem blers, a ircra ft, missiles,
and sp acecraft __________________________
E lectron ics checkout men, aircra ft,
m issiles, and sp a ce cra ft_________
Fram em en, telephone _______________________
Groundmen, electric light and pow er________
Linemen, s e e :
E lectric ligh t and pow er occu pation s_____
Telephone occupations ____________________


A ir-con dition in g and refrig era tion
m echanics _______________________________
A ppliance servicem en ________________________
A utom obile m echanics ______________________
Business m achine servicem en_______________
E levator m echanics _________________________
M aintenance electricians ____________________
Signal w orkers, ra ilro a d _____________________
Television and radio servicem en_____________


Electrical equipment repairing work

Radio repairing and related work

A ppliance servicem en ______________________
E lectron ic technicians ______________________
E lectronics checkout men, a ircra ft,
missiles, and sp a ce cra ft________________
M aintenance electricians ____________________
Television and radio servicem en _____________

Electric power plant operation, repairing work

Control room operators, electric ligh t
and pow er _______________________________
Load dispatchers, electric ligh t and pow er
M aintenance electricians ____________________
N uclear reactor operators, atom ic en erg y ___
P ow erplant occupations, electric ligh t
and pow er _______________________________
Substation operators, electric ligh t
and pow er _______________________________
Sw itchboard operators, electric ligh t
and pow er _______________________



Structural work, assorted materials

W irin g an d rela ted w ork
splicers, see :

E lectric ligh t and pow er occu pation s_____
Telephone occupations ____________________
Central office equipm ent in stallers__________


S tructural crafts

E lectrical repairing


M aintenance electricians ____________________
M eter installers, electric light and pow er___
P B X installers and repairm en, telephon e___
P ow er linemen, electric ligh t and p ow er____
Signal w orkers, railroad _____________________
Telephone installers and repairm en _________
Testboardm en, telephone ____________________
Troublem en, electric ligh t and pow er________


Carm en, railroad ____________________________
E levator constructors _______________________
R ig builders, petroleum production _________


A ssem bly m echanics, aircra ft, missiles,
and sp acecraft __________________________


Boilerm akers ________________________________
Carm en, railroad ____________________________
F itup men __________
Gas fitters ____________________________________
L ayout men _________________________________
Ornam ental-iron w orkers ___________________
Pipefitters ___________________________________
Plum bers _____________________________________
R ein forcin g iron w ork ers____________________
Sheet-m etal w orkers, building tra d es________
Steam fitters _________________________________
Stru ctu ral-iron w o r k e r s _____________________


Metal structural work



Wood structural work

Carpenters ____________________________________
R oofers ______________________________________



Structural work, plastic materials
Asbestos and insulating w orkers,
building t r a d e s __________________________
Cement finishers ____________________________
Cement m asons _____________________________
Painters and paperh an gers_________________
Plasterers ____________________________________
R oofers ______________________________________


Welding and related work
A rc w e ld e r s __________________________________
Gas welders _________________________________
O xygen c u t t e r s _______________________________
Profile cutting torch operators, a ircra ft,
missiles, and sp a ce cra ft________________


B ench

B en ch w ork, fa b ric, leath er, and rela ted m a te ria ls

B en ch w ork, p a p e r p ro d u c ts

B en ch w ork, foods a n d re la te d p ro d u cts
In sp ectin g an d te stin g





Bushelmen, apparel industry_____________ 560
Cutters, automobile manufacturing_________ 587
Dressmakers, apparel industry_____________ 560
Fur shop occupations, apparel industry____ 561
Pattern graders, apparel industry__________ 558
Patternmakers, apparel industry___________ 558
Tailors, apparel industry__________________ 560
Trimmers, automobile manufacturing_____ 587

Bench hands, baking industry______________
Hand icers, baking industry_______________

Metal benchwork


B en ch w o rk , p la stic m a te ria ls

Coremakers, foundry ___________________
Glass blowers, electronics manufacturing__
Molders, foundry _______________________
Shakeout men, foundry__________________


Benchwork, assorted materials

Bench assem blers ___________________________
Blacksm iths _________________________________
Die sinkers, fo r g e shop______________________
Final assem blers, a ircra ft, missiles,
and sp acecraft ______________________
F loor assem blers ____________________________
Instrum ent m akers _________________________
Instrum ent repairm en ______________________
Jew elers and jew elry repairm en ____________
M achinists, all-round _______________________
Metal patternm akers, fou n d ry ______________
M etermen, electric light and pow er__________
Sheet-metal w orkers _______________________
and die m a k ers_________________________
W atch
 repairm en ___________________________

B en ch w o rk , g la ss

Dispensing opticians _____________________ 511
Instrument repairmen __________________ 430
Optical laboratory mechanics______________ 511



Instrum ent repairm en _______________

Diemakers, pulp, paper, and paper
products industry ____________________ 685
Jig and fixture builders, aircraft,
missiles, and spacecraft_____________ 530
Patternmakers, foundry ________________ 470

Bookbinders and related workers_________
Finishers, printing (graphic arts)________

Excavating, mining, grading, and related work
A cidizers, petroleum produ ction ____________
Cementers, petroleum production ___________
P erfora tor operators, petroleum
production _______________________________
Sam ple-taker operators, petroleum
production _______________________________
Shooters, petroleum produ ction ______________
Sw itchers, petroleum p rod u ction ____________


W ood ben ch w ork

Structural work, stone or glass
B ricklayers ____________________________________
B ricklayers, iron and steel industry___________
Glaziers ________________________________________
M arble setters _________________________________
R oofers ________________________________________
Stonem asons ___________________________________
Terrazzo w orkers _____________________________
Tile setters ____________________________________


Inspectors _____________________________
Meter testers, electric light and power____


art work


A r t w ork (bru sh , sp ra y , pen , sty lu s, an d re la te d )
E ngravers, steel and copper plate,
prin tin g (gra ph ic a r t s )_________________
Etchers, prin tin g (g ra p h ic a r t s )_____________
Im posers, prin tin g (g ra p h ic a r t s )__________
Lithographic artists _________________________
Silk screen operators, electronics
m a nu factu ring _______________________ ..


T y p e se ttin g an d re la te d w o rk
E lectrotypers ________________________________
Hand com positors ___________________________
Imposers, prin tin g (g ra p h ic a r t s )__________
Linotype operators __________________________
M onotype caster o p e r a to r s __________________
M onotype keyboard op era tors_______________
Stereotypers _________________________________
T ypesetting m achine op era tors______________


P h o to g ra p h ic w o rk ( p h o to en g ra vin g and
dark ro o m w o rk )
Camermen, prin tin g (g ra p h ic a r ts ), see:




Mechanical work—Continued

Photoengravers ______________________
Photoengravers ________________________
Photographers _________________________
Platemakers, printing (graphic arts)_____
Strippers, printing (graphic arts)-------------

P rocessing



P ro c e ss in g , a sso rte d m a te r ia ls

Chemical operators, industrial
chemicals industry _________________
Decontamination men, atomic energy_____
Waste disposal men, atomic energy_______


M e t a l p r o c e s s in g

Annealers, foundry _____________________
Anodizers, electronics manufacturing_____
Blowers, iron and steel industry__________
Electroplaters _________________________
Heat treaters, forge shop________________
Heat treaters, foundry__________________
Heaters, forge shop_____________________
Keepers, iron and steel industry__________
Melters, foundry _______________________
Platers, see :
Aircraft, missiles, and spacecraft
occupations ______________________
Automobile manufacturing occupations _
Stove tenders, iron and steel industry_____



P r o c e s s i n g , fo o d s a n d r e l a t e d p r o d u c t s

Bakers, all-round, baking industry_______
Mixers, baking industry_________________
Ovenmen, baking industry_______________


R e f in in g a n d r e l a t e d w o r k

Chemical operators, industrial chemicals
industry __________________________
Stillmen, petroleum refining_____________
Treaters, s e e :
Petroleum production occupations___
Petroleum refining occupations.....


Manual work

I nspecting and testing

Checkers, apparel industry ____
Gagers, petroleum production____________
Inspectors ____________________ ________
Machine tending (not elsewhere classified)


M e ta lw o 7 ‘k in g m a c h in e te n d i n g

Blanking machine operators,
electronics manufacturing__ ________
Drill press operators__________________
Lathe operators ______________ _________
Machine tool operators__________________
Milling machine operators_______________
Punch press operators, s e e :
Aircraft, missiles, and spacecraft
occupations ______________________


Autom obile m a nu factu ring occupations.—
Tum bler operators, fou n d ry _________________


Food machine tending

Baking and m olding m achine operators,
baking industry _________________________
Slicing mach ine operators, baking in d u stry ....
W rappin g m achine operators, baking
industry _________________________________


Hauling, hoisting, and drilling machine operating
Bulldozer operators, building trades________
Crane operators, building trad es____________
D rivin g occupations _________________________
E a rth -b orin g machine operators,
building t r a d e s __________________________
O perating engineers, building t r a d e s _______
Pow er truck op era tors_______________________
Stock house larrym en, iron and
steel industry ___________________________

P rocessing



equipment tending

Nonmetal processing equipment tending
(not elsewhere classified)

Back tenders, pulp, paper, and paper
products industry ______________________
Core oventenders, fo u n d r y ___________________
In fra red oven operators, electronics
m anu factu ring __________________________
R otary firemen, petroleum production ______
Sand m ixers, fou n d ry _______________________
Stationary firemen (b o ile r )_________________
W aste-treatm ent operators, atomic en ergy....

Metal processing equipment tending

Autom atic rolling m ill attendants, iron
and steel in du stry______________________
C harging m achine operators, iron and
steel industry ___________________________
Cupola tenders, fou n d ry _____________________
H ydrogen fu rn ace firers, electronics
m anu factu ring __________________________
M elters and pourers,
Autom obile m anu factu ring occupations
F oundry occupations ______________________
Iron and steel industry o ccu p a tion s______
Picklers, forg e s h o p _________________________
Slaggers, iron and steel industry___________
Tinners, electronics m a n u factu rin g _________


Food processing equipment tending

Icin g m ixers, baking in du stry______________






S tructural work

Structural work, assorted materials

Construction laborers and hod c a r r ie r s _____
Trackm en, railroad __________________________


A ssem blers __________________________________
Lathers, building tra d e s_____________________


Structural work, metal



Ornamental-iron workers ________________
Reinforcing-iron workers_________________
W e ld in g a n d r iv e tin g



Resistance-welding operators _____________ 521
Riveters, aircraft, missiles, and spacecraft.... 530

B enchwork

B en ch w o rk , a sso rted m a teria ls

Assemblers ____________________________
Coilwinders, electronics manufacturing___
Core assemblers, foundry__________________
Grid lathe operators, electronics
manufacturing _____________________


Assemblers ____________________________
Blasters, forge shop_____________________
Chippers and grinders, s e e :
Forge shop occupations_______________
Foundry occupations _________________
Metal finishers, automobile manufacturing....
Polishers, automobile manufacturing_____
Sandblasters, s e e :
Forge shop occupations________________
Foundry occupations _________________


M e ta l benchw ork

B e n c h w o r k , s to n e , g la s s , o r j e w e l s

Crystal finishers and grinders,
electronics manufacturing __________
B en ch w o rk , p la stic m a teria ls and p a in t

Production painters ____________________
Sprayers, automobile manufacturing______

B en ch w o rk , fa b ric , leath er, an d rela te d
m a teria ls

Assemblers, apparel industry____________
Cleaners, apparel industry_______________
Collar pointers, apparel industry_________
Cutters, s e e :
Apparel industry occupations__________
Automobile manufacturing occupations....
Hand sewers, apparel industry___________
Hand spfeaders, apparel industry________
Machine spreaders, apparel industry______
Markers, apparel industry_______________
Pressers, apparel industry_______________
Roller pressers, apparel industry_________
Sample stitchers, apparel industry________
Shapers, apparel industry_______________
Spreaders, apparel industry______________
Thread trimmers, apparel industry_______


operating , manipulative


Machine operating, assorted materials

C orru gating operators, pulp, paper,
and paper products in du stry__________
E xhaust operators, electronics
m a nu factu ring __________________________
Glass lathe operators, electronics
m anu factu ring __________________________
Sealers, electronics m a n u factu rin g__________
Supercalender operators, pulp, paper,
and paper products industry___________



M eta lw o rk in g m ach ine o p era tin g
Grinders, see :

F orge shop occu pation s___________________
F oundry occupations _____________________
M etal finishers, autom obile m anu factu ring.—
Polishers, autom obile m a n u fa ctu rin g ______
Pow er brake operators, a ircra ft,
missiles, and sp a cecra ft________________
Punch press operators, s e e :
A irc ra ft, m issiles, and sp acecraft
occupations ___________________________
Autom obile m a nu factu ring occupations
Stretch press operators, a ircra ft,
missiles, and sp a cecra ft________________
Tube benders, a ircra ft, missiles,
and sp acecraft __________________________




P la stic w o rk in g m ach ine o p era tin g
Machine corem akers, fou n d ry ______________
M achine molders, fou n d ry ____________________


F a b ric or lea th er w o rk in g m ach ine o p era tin g
Pressers, apparel industry___________________


P a p erw o rk in g m ach ine o p era tin g
Press feeders, prin tin g (gra ph ic a r t s )_______
P rinter-slotter operators, pulp, paper,
and paper products in du stry___________


F ood m ach ine o p era tin g
M achine icers, baking industry______________


P re ss fo rm in g an d re la te d w o rk
Ham mermen, fo rg e shop____________________
P iercer m achine operators, iron and
steel industry ___________________________
P ow er hamm er operators, aircra ft,
missiles, and sp a cecra ft________________
Press smiths, fo r g e shop_____________________
Shearmen, iron and steel in du stry__________
Trim m ers, fo r g e sh op_______________________

P rocessing


P ro cessin g , a sso rte d m a te ria ls

Sand m ixers, fo u n d r y _______________________


P ro cessin g , p a p e r and re la te d m a te ria ls
Barker operators, pulp, paper, and
paper products in du stry________________
Beater engineers, pulp, paper, and
paper products industry________________
Chippermen, pulp, paper, and paper
products industry ______________________
D igester operators, pulp, paper, and
paper products industry________________
Paper m achine operators, pulp, paper,
and paper products industry___________



Service work

Dishwashers, restaurant ____________________
Housemen, hotel ____________________________
Janitors, porters, watchm en, see:
M aintenance, m aterial handling,
custodial, and plant protection
occupations o f each industry




Manual work—Continued

F arm



F arm w orkers, h ired________________________

E quipment


serving and related work

M aterial handlers, autom obile
m a n u factu rin g __________________________
Stock chasers, autom obile m anufacturing.. .



W ork distributors, apparel industry________


Cindermen, iron and steel industry__________
Construction laborers and hod ca rriers_____
Floorm en, television broad castin g__________
M ailhandlers, post office____________________
Roughnecks, petroleum produ ction _________
Roustabouts, petroleum produ ction ___________


M iscellaneous

physical work

Index II. Alphabetical Index to Occupations
and Industries
A ccelerator operators, atom ic en ergy___________
A ccou n t executives, ad vertisin g_________________
A ccountants ______________________________________
Insurance business occu pation s___
A ccou n tin g-bookkeepin g machine servicem en___
A ccou n tin g clerks,
Bookkeeping w orkers „
A cidizers, petroleum produ ction _________________
A ctors and actresses_____________________________
A ctu aries ________________________________________


Insurance business occu pation s_________
M athem aticians _________________________
A dd in g m achine op era tors_____________
A dding m achine servicem en______________________
A ddressing machine operators____________________
A dm inistrative and related profession s_________
Adm inistrative assistants, office________________
A dvertisin g artists and layout m en ______________
A dvertisin g copyw riters _________________________
A dvertisin g m anagers ___________________________
A dvertisin g production m anagers________________
A dvertisin g w orkers _____________________________
A eronautical engineers __________________________
A eronautical technicians _________________________
Agents, air traffic, air tran sp ortation ___________
A gricu ltu ral agents, coun ty______________________
A gricu ltu ral econom ists __________________________
A gricu ltu ral engineers ___________________________
A gricu ltural extension w orkers___________________
A gricu ltu ral finance w ork ers__________
A gricultural o c c u p a tio n s __________________________
A gricu ltu ral research w orkers___________________
A gricu lture, occupations related to_______________
A gricu lture teachers, vocation al_________________
A gronom ists ______________________________________
A ir-condition in g, heating, and refrig era tion
technicians _____________________________________
A ir-condition in g and refrig era tion m echanics___


See also:


See also:

A ircra ft, missile, and sp acecraft field,
occupations in t h e ______________________________
A ir F orce ________________________________________
A irfra m e m echanics, air tran sp ortation _________
A irline dispatchers ______________________ .... ____
A irplane mechanics, air tran sp ortation ___ ____
A irc ra ft, missile, and
sp acecraft occupations _______
A irplane pilots ____________________________________
A irp ort traffic con tro lle rs________________________
A ir-route traffic con trollers______________________

See also:


Air transportation occupations _______________
Alteration tailors, s e e : Bushelmen,
apparel industry _______________________ ...
Analysts, chemical, pulp, paper, and paper
products industry ________________________
Analytical chemists ________________________
Anatomists ________________________________
Animal husbandry specialists________________
Annealers, foundry _________________________
Announcers, radio and television______________
Anodizers, electronics manufacturing_________
Anthropologists ____________________________
Apparel industry, occupations in th e__________
Appliance servicemen _______________________
S e e a l s o : Electric light and power
occupations ________________________
Arc cutters, see: Welders____________________
Archeologists ______________________________
Architects _________________________________
Archivists, s e e : Historians__________________
Armament assemblers, aircraft, missiles,
and spacecraft ___________________________
Armed Forces______________________________
Army _____________________________________
Artists, s e e :
Commercial artists _____________________
Printing (graphic arts) occupations______
Artists and layout men, advertising___________
Artists, lithographic, printing (graphic arts)__
Artists, technical, electronics manufacturing___
Asbestos and insulating workers_____________
Assemblers ________________________________
See a lso :

Aircraft, missile, and spacecraft
occupations ___________________
Apparel industry occupations________
Automobile manufacturing
occupations ____________
Electronics manufacturing
occupations _______________
Assemblers, bench __________________________
Assemblers, floor ___________________________
Assembly inspectors, aircraft, missiles,
and spacecraft _____________
Assembly mechanics, aircraft, missiles,
and spacecraft ___________________________
Astronomers _______________________________
Astrophysicists, s e e : Astronomers____________





Atomic energy field, occupations in the-------------Attendants, hospital ________________________
Attorneys _________________________________
Auditors, s e e : Accountants__________________
Automatic rolling mill attendants, iron and
steel industry ____________________________
Automobile manufacturing occupations ---------Automobile mechanics ______________________
Automotive technicians, s e e :
Mechanical engineering technicians_________
Auxiliary equipment operators, electric
light and power___________________________
Auxiliary nursing workers___________________
Back tenders, pulp, paper, and paper
products industry ________________________
Bacteriologists, s e e :
Agricultural occupations ________________
Microbiologists _________________________
Bakers, all-round___________________________
Baking and molding machine operators,
baking industry __________________________
Baking industry, occupations in the____________
Ballet dancers _____________________________
Bank clerks and related workers______________
Banking occupations ________________________
Bank messengers __________________________
Bank officers ______________________________
Barbers ___________________________________
Barker operators, pulp, paper, and paper
products industry ________________________
Beater engineers, pulp, paper, and paper
products industry ________________________
Beauticians ________________________________
Beauty operators ___________________________
Bellhops, hotel _____________________________
Bellmen and bell captains, hotel______________
Bench assemblers __________________________
Bench coremakers, foundry__________________
Bench hands, baking industry________________
Benchmen, optical goods_____________________
Bench molders, foundry______________________
Billing machine operators____________________
Bindery workers, printing (graphic arts)______
Biochemists _______________________________
S e e a ls o : Agricultural occupations_______
Biological sciences _________________________
Biologists _________________________________
Biophysicists ______________________________
Blacksmiths _______________________________
S e e a ls o : Railroad shop trades___________
Blanking machine operators, electronics
manufacturing ___________________________
Blasters, sand, forge shop___________________
Blocker, printing (graphic arts)______________
Blowers, iron and steel industry______________
Body and fender repairmen, automobile_______
Boilermaking occupations ___________________
S e e a ls o :
Iron and steel industry occupations___
Railroad occupations________________


Boiler operators, electric light and pow er________
Bookbinders and related w orkers________________
Bookkeepers ___
Bookkeeping and accounting clerk s_____________


Bank clerks and related w orkers______
Bookkeepers ____________________________
Bookkeeping m achine operators, s e e :
Bank clerks and related w ork ers____________
Bookkeeping w orkers _______________________
H otel occupations ___________________________
Bookkeeping w orkers ____________________________
Botanists ________________________________________
Brakem en, railroad _____________________________
B ricklayers _______________________________________


S ee also :


S ee also :
Iron and steel industry occu pation s____
R ailroad bridge and building w orkers....
Brickm asons ______________________________________
B ridge and building w orkers, railroad ___________
B roadcast technicians, radio and television _____
B roadcasting occupations, radio and television ...
Brokers, p roperty and casualty insurance______
Brokers, real estate_______________________________
Building la b o r e r s _________________________________


Building trades ___________________________________
Bulldozer operators, see: O perating engineers ...
Bundlers, see: Assem blers, apparel in du stry____
Bus boys and girls, restau ran t____________________
Bus drivers, in tercity______________________________
Bus drivers, local tran sit_________________________
Bushelmen, apparel in du stry_____________________


Business, adm inistrative, and related professions
Business machine operators______________________
Business machine servicem en_____________________
Cabdrivers _______________________________________


Cable splicers,


E lectric light and pow er occupations________
Telephone industry occu pation s______________
Cable-tool dressers, petroleum production ________
Cable-tool drillers, petroleum production ________
Calculating machine operators___________________
Calculating machine servicem en_________________
Cameramen, prin tin g (g ra p h ic a rts ), see:
Lithographers _______________________________
P hotoengravers _____________________________
Captains, air transportation, see: Pilots
and c o p ilo t s _____________________________________
Captains, restaurant, see: W aiters
and waitresses _________________________________
Carmen, railroad sh op____________________________
Carpenters _______________________________________


See a lso:
A irc ra ft, m issile, and sp acecraft
occupations _________________________
R ailroad bridge and building w orkers —
C artographers, see : G eograph ers________________
Casew orkers, social _______________________________
Cashiers, banking ________________________________



Cashiers, railroad, s e e : Clerks, railroad_______
Cashiers, restaurant ________________________
Cash register servicemen____________________
Casting inspectors, foundry__________________
Casualty insurance agents___________________
Catholic priests ____________________________
Catalogers, s e e : Librarians__________________
Cementers, petroleum production_____________
Cement finishers ___________________________
Cement masons ____________________________
Central office clerks, telephone_______________
Central office craftsmen, telephone____________
Central office equipment installers, telephone__
Central office repairmen, telephone___________
Ceramic engineers __________________________
Certified public accountants__________________
Chaplains, s e e : Clergy_______________________
Charging machine operators, iron and
steel industry ____________________________
Checkers, apparel industry__________________
Checkers, automobile manufacturing__________
Checkers, insurance policy___________________
Chefs, s e e :
Railroad dining car cooks________________
Restaurant cooks and chefs______________
Chemical analysts, pulp, paper, and paper
products industry ________________________
Chemical engineers _________________________


Atomic energy occupations___ ....
Industrial chemical industry
occupations ____________________
Pulp, paper, and paper products
industry occupations ________
Chemical operators, industrial chemical
industry _________________________________
Chemical technicians _______________________
Chemists __________________________________
S e e a ls o :
Atomic energy occupations______
Industrial chemical industry
occupations ____________________
Iron and steel industry occupations___
Pulp, paper, and paper products
industry occupations____________
Petroleum production occupations____
Petroleum refining occupations_______
Chief engineers, radio and television__________
Chief mechanics, aircraft, missiles,
and spacecraft ___________________________
Chief operators, telephone___________________
Child psychologists _________________________
Children’s librarians ________________________
Child welfare workers, s e e : Social workers____
Chippermen, pulp, paper, and paper
products industry ________________________
Chippers, s e e :
Forge shop occupations_________________
Foundry occupations____________________
Chiropodists, s e e : Podiatrists_________________


S e e a ls o :



C hiropractors ___
Choreographers, see: D an cers____________________
Cindermen, iron and steel in du stry_________________
City carriers, post office__________________________
Civil engineering technicians_____________________
Civil engineers ___________________________________


A tom ic energy occu pation s______________
Iron and steel industry occupations____
Civil service w orkers, U.S. Governm ent_________
Claim adjusters, in su ran ce_________________________
Cleaners, see: Thread trim m ers, apparel
industry __________________________________________


C lergy, the __________________________________________
Clerical and sales occupations __________________
Clerks, air tran sp ortation __________________________
Clerks, banking ____________________________________
Clerks, insurance ___________________________________
Clerks, post office___________________________________
Clerks, railroad ____________________________________
Clim atologists, see: M eteorologists_______________
Clinical psychologists ______________________________
Clothing industry occupations, s e e :
A pp arel in d u s t r y _________________________________
Coil w inders, electronics m an u factu rin g _________
Collar pointers, apparel in du stry__________________
College and u niversity teach ers__________________
Com mercial artists ________________________________
Com mercial photographers ________________________
Com m unicators, air tran sp ortation ________________
Com munity organization w orkers, s e e :
Social w orkers ___________________________________
Com posing room occupations, prin tin g
(gra ph ic arts) ___________________________________
Com position roofers _______________________________
Com positors, hand, prin tin g (g ra p h ic a r ts )_____
Com ptom eter operators, see : Calculating
machine operators _____________________________
Com puter operators, s e e : E lectron ic
com puter operating personnel___________________
Com puters, petroleum p rodu ction __________________
Concrete finishers __________________________________
Conductors, railroad _______________________________
Conservationists, soil ______________________________
Console operators, see : E lectron ic com puter
operating personnel _____________________________
Construction electricians __________________________
Construction laborers and hod carriers__________
Construction m achinery operators, see:
O perating engineers . .. . __________________________
Construction trades _______________________________
Continuity directors, radio and television _________
Continuity w riters, radio and television___________
C ontractors, building tra d es________________________
Control room operators, electric ligh t
and pow er ______________________
Controllers, air rou te_______________________________
Controllers, airport traffic_______________________
Control room operators, electric light
and pow er ________________________________________


See a lso:




Cooks and chefs, restauran t---------------------------------Cooks, railroad dining cars-----------------------------------Cooks, see : D igesters, pulp, paper, and
paper products industry occupations--------------Copilots, air tran sp ortation ______________________
Copy boys, see : N ew spaper reporters----------------C opying m achine servicem en____________________
C opyw riters, advertisin g -------------------------------------Core assem blers, fou n d ry -------------------------------------Corem akers, fou n d ry ____________________________
S ee a ls o : A utom obile m anu factu ring
occupations _____________________________
Core-oven tenders, fo u n d r y _______________________
Corn and w heat fa rm e rs__________________________
C orru gating operators, pulp, paper, and paper
products industry _____________________________
C osm etologists ___________________________________
Cotton grow ers __________________________________
Counselors, school ________________________________
County agricu ltu ral agen ts______________________
Court reporters __________________________________
Cranemen, iron and steel in du stry----------------------Crane operators, see:
A utom obile m anu factu ring occu pation s-----O perating engineers ________________________
Credit analysts, see: Bank officers----------------------Crew chiefs, a ircra ft, missiles, and sp a cecra ft___
Crop reporters ___________________________________
Crop specialty fa rm e rs___________________________
Crystal finishers, electronics m a n u factu rin g -----Crystal grinders, electronics m a n u factu rin g____
Cupola tenders, fou n d ry __________________________
Customer service occupations, electric light
and pow er ______________________________________
Cutters, apparel in du stry________________________
Cutters, autom obile m a n u factu rin g______________
Cutters, fu r, apparel in du stry____________________
Cutting room occupations, apparel industry____
D airy farm ers ___________________________________
D ancers ___________________________________________
D ata processin g machine servicem en____________
D econtam ination men, atom ic en ergy___________
D ecorators, interior designers and_______________
D eliverym en, see: Routem en______________________
Dental h ygienists ________________________________
Dental laboratory tech n ician s_____________________
D entists ___________________________________________
D errickm en, petroleum production _______________
Design draftsm en ________________________________
D esigners, apparel in du stry______________________
D esigners, in d u s tr ia l_____________________________
D esigners, interior _______________________________
D esigners, tool and machine, s e e :
M echanical engineering tech n icia n s___________
D esign ing room occupations, apparel in du stry___
Desk clerks, h otel_________________________________
D etailers, see : D raftsm en _______________________
D etectives, police _________________________________
D evelopm ent engineers, radio and television ____
D ictating-m achine servicem en ___________________


Die makers, tool and________________________ 454
See a lso :
Aircraft, missile, and spacecraft
occupations ____________________ 530
Automobile manufacturing
occupations ____________________ 586
Electronics manufacturing
occupations ____________________ 627
Iron and steel industry occupations___ 664
Die makers, pulp, paper, and paper
products industry ________________________ 685
Diesel mechanics ___________________________ 425
Diesel technicians, s e e : Mechanical engineering
technicians_______________________________ 163
Die sinkers, forge shop______________________ 474
Dietitians _________________________________ 90
Digester operators, pulp, paper, and
paper products industry___________________ 683
Dining car cooks, railroad____________________ 718
Dining car waiters, railroad__________________ 719
Directors, program, radio and television_______ 693
Disc jockeys, radio and television_____________ 699
Dishwashers, restaurant ____________________ 730
Dispatchers, s e e :
Air transportation occupations___________ 550
Railroad occupations____________________ 705
Dispatchers, load, electric light and power_____ 616
Dispensing opticians and optical laboratory
mechanics _______________________________ 511
Distributors, work, apparel industry__________ 560
District representatives, electric light
and power _______________________________ 620
Dividermen, baking industry____'____________ 593
Doctors, medical ___________________________ 54
Draftsmen _________________________________ 233
S e e a ls o :

Electronics manufacturing
occupations ____________________
Iron and steel industry occupations___
Petroleum production occupations____
Petroleum refining occupations_______
Dressmakers, apparel industry____________
Drillers, petroleum production_______________
Drill press operators, s e e : Machine tool operators
Drivers, intercity buses______________________
Drivers, local transit buses___________________
Drivers, local trucks________________________
Drivers, over-the-road trucks_______________
Drivers, taxi _______________________________
Driver-salesmen ____________________________
S e e a ls o : Baking industry occupations____
Driving occupations _________________________
Drop hammer operators, forge shop___________
Druggists _________________________________
Duplicating and copying machine servicemen....
Duplicating machine operators_______________
Dynamic meteorologists ____________________
Earth-boring machine operators, s e e :
Operating engineers ______________________



Earth scientists, physical and____________________
E conom ic geographers ___________________________
E conom ic geologists __________________ ,__________
Econom ists _______________________________________
Econom ists, agricu ltural _________________________
E ditors, film, television ___________________________
E lectrical assem blers, a ircra ft, missiles,
and sp acecraft _________________________________
E lectrical engineers _____________________________


A tom ic energy occu pation s______________
Autom obile m anu factu ring
occupations _________________________
Industrial chem ical industry
occupations _________________________
Iron and steel industry occu pation s____
Pulp, paper, and paper products
industry occupations ______________
E lectrical repairm en, iron and steel in du stry____
E lectric-arc w elders _____________________________
Autom obile m anu factu ring
occupations _____________________________
E lectricians, construction _____________
E lectricians, m aintenance _______________________


See also:

See also:
See also:

E lectronics m anu factu ring
occupations ________________________
Iron and steel industry occu pation s____
Petroleum refinidg occu pation s_________
Pulp, paper, and paper products
industry o c cu p a tio n s _______________
R ailroad shop trad es____________________
E lectric ligh t and pow er linem en________________




E lectric light and pow er occu pation s_____________
E lectron ic com puter operating personnel________
E lectronic com puter program m ers_______________
E lectronic engineers, electronics
m anu factu ring _________________________________
E lectron ic m achine servicem en,
machine servicem en ___________________________
E lectronic repairm en, iron and steel in du stry____
E lectronic technicians ___________________________
E lectron ics m a nu factu ring
occupations _____________________________
Electronics checkout men, a ircra ft, missiles,
and sp acecraft _________________________________


E lectronics m anufacturing o c cu p a tio n s __________
E lectroplaters ___________________________________



See also:

See also:


E lectronics m anu factu ring
occupations _____________________________
E lectrotypers and stereotypers, prin tin g
(g ra ph ic arts) _________________________________
Elem entary school teachers______________________
E levator constructors ____________________________
E levator m echanics _______________________________
E levator operators, h otel_________________________
Em bossing machine operators, clerica l__________
E m bryologists __________


A gricu ltu ral occu pation s_________


See also:


Engineering _______________________________
Engineering aids ___________________________
S e e a ls o : Electronics manufacturing
occupations ________________________
Engineering geologists __
Engineering secretaries _____________________
Engineers, aeronautical _____________________
Engineers, agricultural _____________________
S e e a ls o : Agricultural occupations_______
Engineers, ceramic *
Engineers, chemical ________________________


Atomic energy occupations___________
Industrial chemical industry
occupations ____________________
Pulp, paper, and paper products
industry occupations ___________
Engineers, civil ____________________________


Atomic energy occupations___ ._______
Iron and steel industry occupations___
Engineers, development, radio and television___
Engineers, electrical ________________________
S e e a ls o :
Atomic energy occupations___________
Automobile manufacturing
occupations __________________
Industrial chemical industry
occupations ____________________
Iron and steel industry occupations___
Pulp, paper, and paper products
industry occupations____________
Engineers, electronic, s e e : Electronics
manufacturing occupations ________________
Engineers, flight, air transportation__________
Engineers, industrial _______________________


S e e a ls o :

S e e a ls o :

S e e a ls o :

Automobile manufacturing
occupations ____________________
Electronics manufacturing
occupations ____________________
Engineers, locomotive ______________________
S e e a ls o : Iron and steel industry
occupations ________________________
Engineers, marine, s e e : Diesel mechanics______
Engineers, mechanical ______________________
S e e a ls o :
Atomic energy occupations___________
Automobile manufacturing
occupations ____________________
Electronics manufacturing
occupations ____________________
Industrial chemical industry
occupations ____________________
Iron and steel industry occupations___
Engineers, metallurgical ____________________
S e e a ls o :
Atomic energy occupations___________
Iron and steel industry occupations___
Engineers, mining__________________________



E ngineers, nuclear reactor_______________________
Engineers, operating, building trades___________
Engineers, packagin g, pulp, paper, and paper
products industry _____________________________
Engineers, petroleum , s e e :
M ining engineers ____________________________
Petroleum production occu pation s__________
Engineers, stationary ____________________________


S ee a lso :

Pulp, paper, and paper
products industry occupations__________
Engineers, w atch, electric ligh t and pow er---------Engine lathe o p e r a t o r s ___________________________
Engine m echanics, a ircra ft, missiles,
and sp acecraft _________________________________
Enginem en, petroleum production_______________
E n gravers, steel and copper plate, prin tin g
(gra ph ic a rts) _________________________________
Entom ologists ___________________________________

See a lso : A g ricu ltu ra l occupations_________
Envelope-m achine operators, pulp, paper, and
paper products in du stry_______________________
E stim ators, bu ildin g tra d es______________________
E tchers, p rin tin g (g ra p h ic a r t s )_________________
E tch in g equipm ent operators, electronics
m a n u factu rin g _________________________
E thnologists, see: A n th rop ologists______________
E xecu tive secretaries ____________________________
E xhaust operators, electronics m anu factu ring
Experim ental m achinists, s e e : Instrum ent
makers _________________________________________
E xploration geophysicists _______________________
Extension agents, a g ricu ltu ral___________________
E xtras, see: A ctors and actresses_______________
F abrication inspectors, aircra ft, missiles,
and sp acecraft _________________________________
F actory jobs, selected_____________________________
F am ily service w orkers, see: Social w ork ers____
F arm cooperative w orkers_______________________
Farm operators __________________________________
F arm service jo b s _________________________________
F arm w orkers, h ired_____________________________
F .B .I. a g e n t s ______________________________________
Federal Governm ent em ploym ent________________
File clerks, see: Clerical occupations____________
Film editors, television___________________________
Film librarian s, television_______________________
Final assem blers, a ircra ft, missile,
and sp a cecra ft _________________________________
Finance w orkers, agricu ltu ral____________________
Finishers, autom obile m an u factu rin g ___________
Finishers, crystal, electronics m a n u fa ctu rin g ___
Finishers, fu r, apparel industry_________________
Finishers, optical goods___________________________
Finishers, p rin tin g (g ra ph ic a r ts )_______________
Firem en, petroleum p rod u ction __________________
Firem en, protective serv ice______________________
F irem en (h elp ers), railroad locom otive__________
Firem en, stationary (b o ile r )_____________________
F irers, h ydrogen fu rn ace, electronics
m a n u factu rin g _________________________________


Fitup men, boilermaking____________________ 509
Flagmen, railroad __________________________ 715
Flight attendants, air,transportation__________ 545
Flight engineers, air transportation__________ 543
Floor assemblers ___________________________ 497
Floor boys and girls, s e e : Work distributors,
apparel industry _________________________ 560
Floor clerks and supervisors, hotel____________ 639
Floor coremakers, foundry___________________ 469
Floor housekeepers, hotel____________________ 641
Floor managers, radio and television__________ 694
Floormen, television ________________________ 694
Floormen, rotary, petroleum production_______ 673
Floor molders, foundry______________________ 467
Food checkers, restaurant___________________ 731
Food managers, s e e :
Hotel occupations ______________________ 642
Restaurant occupations _________________ 736
Forest land managers, s e e : Foresters_________ 235
Foresters __________________________________ 235
Forge shop occupations______________________ 472
S e e a l s o : Automobile manufacturing
occupations ________________________ 586
Forging press smiths, forge shop_____________ 473
Forklift truck operators, s e e : Power truck
operators ________________________________ 501
Foundry occupations ________________________ 462
S e e a ls o : Automobile manufacturing
occupations ________________________ 586
Framemen, telephone central office craftsmen__ 742
Front office clerks, hotel_____________________ 639
Fur shop occupations, apparel industry________ 561
Gagers, petroleum production________________ 674
Garage mechanics, s e e : Automobile mechanics
Gas fitters, s e e : Plumbers and pipefitters______ 352
Gas welders________________________________ 521
S e e a ls o : Automobile manufacturing
occupations ________________________ 587
General bookkeepers ________________________ 281
General practitioners, s e e : Physicians________
Geneticists ________________________________ 143
S e e a ls o : Agricultural occupations_______
Geochemists, s e e : Geologists_________________ 129
Geodesists, s e e : Geophysicists_______________ 133
Geographers _______________________________ 238
Geologists _________________________________ 128
S e e a ls o : Petroleum production
occupations ________________________ 672
Geomagneticians, s e e : Geophysicists__________ 133
Geomorphologists, s e e : Geologists____________ 129
Geophysicists ______________________________ 132
S e e a ls o : Petroleum production
occupations ________________________ 672
Glass blowers, electronics manufacturing______ 627
Glass lathe operators, electronics
manufacturing ___________________________ 627
Glaziers ___________________________________ 384
Government employment, Federal____________ 773
Government, occupations in th e_______________ 771

Government employment, State and local--------Grain farmers, s e e : Corn and wheat farmers—
Gravure pressmen, printing (graphic arts)-----Grid lathe operators, electronics
manufacturing ___________________________
Grinders, s e e :
Forge shop occupations__________________
Foundry occupations-----------------------------Groundmen, electric light and power--------------Ground radio operators and teletypists,
air transportation ________________________
Group workers, social_______________________
Guidance counselors -----------------------------------Hairdressers _______________________________
Hammer drivers, forge shop--------------------------Hammer runners, forge shop-------------------------Hammermen, s e e :
Automobile manufacturing occupations----Forge shop occupations_________________
Hammersmiths, forge shop--------------------------Hand bookkeepers __________________________
Hand compositors, printing (graphic arts)-------Hand icers, baking industry__________________
Hand molders, foundry______________________
Hand sewers, apparel industry_______________
Hand spreaders, apparel industry_____________
Health physicists, atomic energy-------------------Health physics inspectors and monitors,
atomic energy ___________________________
Health physics technicians, atomic energy_____
Health service occupations___________________
Heaters, s e e :
Automobile manufacturing occupations___
Forge shop occupations__________________
Iron and steel industry occupations_______
Heat treaters, s e e :
Aircraft, missile, and spacecraft
occupations ________________________
Forge shop occupations__________________
Foundry occupations ___________________
High school teachers________________________
Historians _________________________________
Hod carriers ______________________________
S e e a ls o :
Bricklayers ________________________
Plasterers _________________________
Home economists __________________________
S e e a ls o :
Agricultural extension workers______
Dietitians _________________________
Home office underwriters, insurance__________
Horticulturists _____________________________
Hospital attendants ________________________
Hospital nurses ____________________________
Hostesses, restaurant _______________________
Hostlers, railroad __________________________
Hot cell technicians, atomic energy___________
Hotel managers ____________________________
Hotel occupations ___________________________
Housekeepers and assistants, hotel___________


Housemen, hotel _________________________________
H usbandry specialists (a n im a l)_________________
H ydrogen fu rn ace firers, electronics
m anu factu ring _________________________________
H ydrologists,
Geologists ____________________________________
Geophysicists ________________________________


Icers, baking in du stry____________________________
Icin g m ixers, baking in du stry____________________
Com m ercial artists___________


Illustrators, technical,
A irc ra ft, missile, and sp acecraft
occupations _____________________________
E lectronics m a n u factu rin g occu pation s_____
Im posers, prin tin g (g ra p h ic a r ts )________________


Industrial chem ical industry, occupations in the__
Industrial designers, electronics m anu factu ring ...
Industrial engineers _____________________________





See also:

A utom obile m anu factu ring
occupations ________________________
E lectronics m anu factu ring
occupations ________________________
Industrial m achinery repairm en _________________
Industrial m eteorologists _______________________
Industrial nurses _________________________________
Industrial photographers ________________________
Industrial psychologists __________________________
Industrial salesmen _____________________________
Industrial engineering tech n icia n s_______________
Industrial traffic m anagers______________________
Inform ation and m ail clerks, hotel_______________
Inform ation operators, telephone________________
In fra red oven operators, electronics
m anu factu ring _________________________________
Ingot strippers, iron and steel industry__________
Inorganic chemists _______________________________
Inspectors ________________________________________

See also:

A irc ra ft, m issile, and sp acecraft
occupations ________________________
A pp arel industry occupations__________
A utom obile m an u factu rin g
occupations _________________________
E lectronics m an u factu rin g
occupations _________________________
F orge shop occu pation s_________________
F oundry o c cu p a tio n s ____________________
M echanics, air transportation
occupations _________________________
Pulp, paper, and paper products
industry o c c u p a tio n s _______________
Inspectors, health physics, atom ic energy________
Installers and repairm en, telephone and P B X ..
Installers, telephone central office equipm ent_
Instrum ent makers ______________________________
Instrum ent repairm en ___________________________

See also :

Industrial chem ical industry
occupations ________________________






Pulp, paper, and paper products
industry occupations-----------------Instrument technicians, s e e : Instrument
makers __________________________________
Instrumentation technicians _________________
Insulating workers -------------------------------------Insurance agents and brokers________________
Insurance checkers _________________________
Insurance clerks ___________________________
Insurance occupations ---------------------------------Intercity busdrivers ________________________
Intercity truckdrivers_______________________
Interior designers and decorators_____________
Intertype operators, printing (graphic arts)----Investigators, F B I__________________________
Iron and steel industry, occupations in the-------Iron workers, building trades_________________
S e e a ls o : Railroad bridge and building
workers ___________________________
Jewelers and jewelry repairmen______________
Jig and fixture builders, aircraft, missiles,
and spacecraft ___________________________
Journalists, s e e : Newspaper reporters________
Junior high school teachers__________________
Keepers, iron and steel industry______________
Key clerks, hotel____________________________
Keypunch operators, s e e : Office machine
operators ________________________________
Kindergarten teachers ______________________
Laboratory mechanics, optical________________
Laboratory technicians ....___________________


Electronics manufacturing
occupations ____________________
Industrial chemical industry
occupations ____________________
Iron and steel industry occupations___
Petroleum refining occupations_______
Pulp, paper, and paper products
industry occupations____________
Laboratory technicians, medical, s e e :
Medical technologists _____________________
Laborers and hod carriers, building trades_____
Ladle cranemen, iron and steel industry_______
Landmen, petroleum production______________
Larrymen, iron and steel industry____________
Lathe operators, s e e : Machine tool operators__
Lathers __________________________________
Lawyers __________________________________
Layout men _______________________________
S e e a ls o : Boilermaking occupations______
Layout men, advertising_____________________
S e e a ls o : Commercial artists____________
Leasemen, petroleum production______________
Legal secretaries ___________________________
Letterers, s e e : Commercial artists____________
Letterpress pressmen, printing (graphic arts) Librarians _________________________________


S e e a ls o :

Librarians, m edical record_______________________
Librarians, tape, see: E lectronic com puter
operating personnel _____________________________
Librarians, television film __________________________
Licensed practical nurses__________________________
Licensed vocational nurses_________________________
L ife insurance agents______________________________
L ightin g directors, television______________________
Line-haul truckdrivers _____________________________
Line m aintenance mechanics, air
transportation ___________________________________



E lectric light and pow er occupations__________
Telephone occupations ________________________
Linotype operators, prin tin g (gra ph ic a r ts )____
L ithographic artists, prin tin g (g ra p h ic a r t s )___
L ithographic occupations, prin tin g
(gra ph ic arts) ___________________________________
L ithographic pressmen, prin tin g (g ra p h ic a rts)..
Livestock farm ers __________________________________
Load dispatchers, electric ligh t and power_______
Loan officers, banking____________________________
Local governm ent em ploym ent__________________
Local tran sit bus d riv ers____________________________
Local truckdrivers _________________________________
Lock-up men, s e e : Im posers, prin tin g
(g ra p h ic arts) _________________________________
Locom otive engineers ____________________________
S ee a lso : Iron and steel industry
occupations _______________________________
Locom otive firemen (h elp ers), railroad____________
Long distance operators, telephone________________
Long-haul truckdrivers ____________________________
M achine corem akers, fou n d ry ______________________
M achine designers, see: M echanical engineering
technicians _____________________________________
M achine icers, baking industry___________________


M achine m olders, see:
A utom obile m anu factu ring occu pation s____
F oundry o c cu p a tio n s _________________________
M achined parts inspectors, a ircra ft, missiles,
and sp acecraft _________________________________
M achine spreaders, apparel in du stry_____________
M achine tenders, see: P aper machine
operators, pulp, paper, and paper
products industry _________________________________ 684
M achinery repairm en ________________________________ 428
M achine (resistance) w elders, autom obile
m anufacturing _________________________________
M achine tool op era tors___________________________

See also:
A ircra ft, missile, and sp acecraft
occupations _________________________
A utom obile m an u factu rin g
occupations _________________________
E lectronics m a nu factu ring
occupations _________________________
Iron and steel industry occu p ation s____


Machining occupations ______________________
S e e a ls o : Automobile manufacturing
occupations ________________________
Machinists, all-round _______________________
S e e a ls o :
Aircraft, missile, and spacecraft
occupations ____________________
Electronics manufacturing
occupations ______________________
Instrument makers _________________
Iron and steel industry occupations___
Petroleum refining occupations_______
Pulp, paper, and paper products
industry occupations ___________
Railroad shop trades________________
Maids, hotel _______________________________
Mail and information clerks, hotel____________
Mail carriers, post office_____________________
Mail clerks, post office______________________
Mail handlers, post office____________________
Mailmen, post office________________________
Mail preparing and mail handling machine
operators, office machine operators_________
Maintenance electricians ____________________
S e e a ls o :


Electronics manufacturing
occupations ____________________
Iron and steel industry occupations___
Pulp, paper, and paper products
industry occupations____________
Railroad shop trades________________
Maintenance mechanics, s e e : Industrial
machinery repairmen _____________________
Makeup artists, television___________________
Managers, advertising ______________________
Managers and assistants, s e e :
Hotel occupations ______________________
Restaurant occupations _________________
Managers, food, s e e :
Hotel occupations ______________________
Restaurant occupations _________________
Managers, industrial traffic__________________
Managers, sales, s e e :
Hotel occupations ______________________
Radio and television broadcasting
occupations ________________________
Manipulators, iron and steel industry_________
Manufactured salesmen ___________________
Marble setters, tile setters, and terrazzo
workers _________________________________
Markers, apparel industry___________________
Marketing research workers_______
Market news reporters______________________
Masons, brick ______________________________


Iron and steel industry occupations___
Railroad bridge and building workers....
Masons, cement and concrete_________________
Masons, stone _______________________________
Materials handlers, automobile manufacturing __


S e e a ls o :

M athem atical assistants, electronics
m a nu factu ring _________________________________
M athem atical statisticians ______________________
M athem aticians ___


See also :
A ctu aries ______________________________
Statisticians ____________________________
M athematics aids ______________________ ■
M athem atics and related fields___________________
M echanical engineers ____________________________


A tom ic energy occu pation s______________
Autom obile m anu factu ring
occupations ________________________
E lectronics m anu factu ring
occupations ________________________
Industrial chem ical industry
occupations ________________________
Iron and steel industry occu pation s____
M echanical engineering te c h n ic ia n s_____________
M echanics and repairm en _________________________
M echanics, see:
A ir conditioning m echanics__________
A irc ra ft, m issile, and sp acecraft
occupations _____________________________
A irplan e m echanics ______________ :_________
A utom obile m echanics ______________________
Diesel m echanics ____________________________
D ispensing opticians and optical
laboratory m echanics ___________________
E lectronics m an u factu rin g occu pation s_____
R efrigera tion m echanics ____________________


S ee a lso :


S ee also:

Listings under servicemen
and repairm en
Media directors, advertisin g _____________________
M edical laboratory technicians, s e e :
M edical record lib ra rian s________________________
M edical secretaries __
M edical social w ork ers__________________________
M edical technologists ___________________________
M edical X -ra y technicians_______________________


M elters, see:
Autom obile m anu factu ring occupations____
F oundry o c cu p a tio n s _________________________
Iron and steel industry occu pation s_________
M essengers, bank ________________________________
Metal cranem en, iron and steel industry_________
Metal finishers, autom obile m an u factu rin g _____
M etallurgical engineers __________________________



See a lso:
A tom ic energy occu pation s______________
Iron and steel industry o ccu p a tion s_____
M etallurgical technicians _______________________


M etallurgists, s e e :
A tom ic energy occu pation s_____________
A utom obile m anu factu ring occu p a tion s___
Iron and steel industry occupations_________
Metal patternm akers, fou n d ry ____________________
M eteorologists ____________________________________


M eter installers, electric ligh t and pow er________
M eter readers, electric ligh t and p ow er__________
M eter testers, electric ligh t and pow er___________
Metermen, electric ligh t and pow er_______________
M icrobiologists ____________________________________
Milkmen, see: Routem en_________________________
M illing m achine operators, s e e : Machine
tool operators __________________________________
M illw righ ts _______________________________________

S ee a lso :

A utom obile m anu factu ring
occupations _________________________
Iron and steel industry occu pation s____
Pulp, paper, and paper products
industry o c cu p a tio n s _______________
M ineralogists, see:
Geologists ____________________________________
Petroleum production occu pation s__________
M ining engineers _________________________________
M inisters, P rotestan t ____________________________
M issile assem bly m echanics, aircra ft,
missiles, and sp a ce cra ft_____,__________________
M issile industry, occupations in the______________
M issionaries, see: C lergy_________________________
M ixers, baking in du stry__________________________
M odel makers, s e e : Instrum ent m akers__________
M olders ___________________________________________
S ee a ls o : A utom obile m anu factu ring
occupations _____________________________
M olders, fou n dry _________________________________
M olding machine operators, baking in du stry____
M onitors, health physics, atom ic en ergy_________
M onotype caster operators, prin tin g
(gra ph ic arts) _________________________________
M onotype keyboard operators, printing
(g ra p h ic arts) _________________________________
M ortgage clerks, banking______________________ ....
M otor vehicle operators, post office______________
M usic directors, radio and television ____________
M usic librarians, radio and television__ _________
M usicians and music teachers____________________



N avigators, air tran sp ortation ___________________
N avy _____________________________________________
N ew spaper reporters ___
N uclear reactor operators, atom ic en ergy________
N urse educators __________________________________
Nurses, industrial ________________________________
Nurses, licensed v oca tion al_______________________
N urses, p ractical _________________________________
N urses, registered profession al_________________
N u rsin g a i d s ______________________________________
N utritionists _______________________________


D ietitians ___
Home econom ists _______________________


See a ls o :

O bservers, petroleum production ________________
O ccupational health n urses_____________________
O ccupational therapists __________________________
O ceanographers, see: G eophysicists______________


Office boys and girls, s e e : Clerical occupations— 276
Office machine operators___________________ 283
Office machine servicemen___________________ 419
Office nurses _______________________________ 50
Offset pressmen, printing(graphic arts)_______ 407
Operating engineers ________________________ 359
Operations agents, air transportation_________ 555
Operatives, s e e :
Semiskilled workers_____________________ 336
Factory occupations ____________________ 497
Operators, telephone________________________ 748
Optical laboratory mechanics________________ 511
Opticians, dispensing _______________________ 511
Optometrists _______________________________ 75
Orderlies __________________________________ 328
Organic chemists ___________________________ 118
Ornamental-iron workers ___________________ 364
Osteopathic physicians __________
Outside production inspectors, aircraft,
missiles, and spacecraft___________________ 531
Overmen, baking industry___________________ 593
Over-the-road truckdrivers __________________ 477
Oxygen cutters_____________________________ 521
Packaging engineers, pulp, paper, and paper
products industry ________________________ 686
Pages, banking_____________________________ 603
Painters ___________________________________ 349
Aircraft, missile, and spacecraft
occupations ____________________ 532
S e e a ls o :
Railroad bridge and building workers__ 729
Painters, production ________________________ 503
S e e a ls o :
Automobile manufacturing
occupations ____________________ 587
Paleontologists, s e e :
Geologists _____________________________ 129
Petroleum production occupations________ 672
Paper, and paper products industry
occupations ______________________________ 682
Paper engineers, pulp, paper and paper
products industry ________________________ 686
Paperhangers ______________________________ 349
Paper machine operators, pulp, paper, and
paper products industry___________________ 684
Paper sorters and counters, pulp, paper,
and paper products industry_______________ 685
Parcel post carriers, post office_______________ 794
Parole officers, s e e : Social workers___________ 270
Passenger attendants, railroad_______________ 716
Pastors, s e e : Clergy________________________ 181
Pathologists _______________________________ 143
S e e a ls o : Agricultural occupations_______
Patrolmen, see: Policemen.__________________ 317
Pattern graders, apparel industry____________ 558
Patternmakers _____________________________ 470
S e e a ls o : Automobile manufacturing
occupations ________________________ 586
Patternmakers, apparel industry__ __________ 558
PBX installers and repairmen, telephone______ 746

Peanut growers _____________________________
Perforator operators, petroleum production___
Performing arts _____________________________
Peripheral equipment operators, s e e : Electronic
computer operating personnel_______________
Personnel workers ___________________________
Petrographers, s e e : Geologists_______________
Petroleum engineers, s e e :
Mining engineers ______________________
Petroleum production occupations________
Petroleum geologists _______________________
S e e a ls o : Petroleum production
occupations ________________________
Petrologists, s e e : Geologists________,_________
Petroleum production and refining occupations
Pharmacists _______________________________
Pharmacologists _________________
Photoengravers, printing (graphic arts)________
Photographers ______________________________
S e e a l s o : Listing under cameramen, printing
(graphic arts) _____________________
Phototypesetting machine operators___________
Physical and earth sciences __________________
Physical chemists __________________________
Physical geographers _______________________
Physical meteorologists _____________________
Physical science aids, s e e : Technicians_________
Physical therapists _________________________
Physicians _________________________________
Physicists _________________________________
S e e a ls o :
Atomic energy occupations___________
Electronics manufacturing occupations.,
Physicists, health, atomic energy______________
Physicists, radiological, atomic energy_________
Physiologists ______________________________
Physiotherapists ___________________________
Phytopathologists __________________________
Picklers, forge shop_________________________
Piercer machine operators, iron and
steel industry ___________________________
Pilots and copilots, air transportation_________
Pipefitters _________________________________
S e e a ls o :
Automobile manufacturing
occupations ____________________
Industrial chemical industry
occupations ______________________
Iron and steel industry occupations___
Petroleum refining occupations_____
Pulp, paper, and paper products
industry occupations____________
Plainclothesmen, s e e : Policemen_____________
Plane-table operators, petroleum production___
Plant and animal husbandry specialists, s e e :
Agricultural occupations __________________
Plant pathologists __________________________
Plasterers _________________________________
S e e a ls o : Railroad bridge and building
workers _________________________


Platemakers, prin tin g (g ra p h ic a r ts )__________
Platers, s e e :
A ircra ft, missile, and sp acecraft
occupations _____________________________
A utom obile m an u factu rin g occupations_____
Plum bers _________________________________________
See also : R ailroad bridge and building
workers _________________________________
P o d ia tr is ts ________________________________________
Policemen and policew om en______________________
P olicy change clerks, insurance__________________
P olicy w riters, insurance________________________
Polishers, autom obile m an u factu rin g___ ________
Political scientists ________________________________
Portable equipm ent operators, railroad_________
Porters, hotel _____________________________________
Porters, pullman, ra ilroa d _______________________
P ortrait photographers __________________________
Postal inspectors ________________________________
Postm asters ______________________________________
Post office o c c u p a tio n s ____________________________
Pou ltry fa r m e r s __________________________________
Pourers, see:
Autom obile m anu factu ring occupations____
F oundry occupations _______________________
Iron and steel industry occupations_________
Pow er brake operators, a ircra ft, missiles,
and sp acecraft _________________________________
Pow er hammer operators, a ircra ft, missiles,
and sp acecraft _________________________________
Pow er linemen, electric ligh t and pow er_________
Pow erplant installers, a ircra ft, missiles,
and sp acecraft _________________________________
Pow erplant mechanics, air tran sp ortation _______
Pow erplant occupations, electric light
and pow er ______________________________________
Pow er shear operators, a ircra ft, missiles,
and sp acecraft _________________________________
Pow er truck operators____________________________
Practical nurses and au xiliary nursing w ork ersPressers, apparel in du stry_______________________
Press feeders, prin tin g (g ra p h ic a r ts )___________
Pressing occupations, apparel industry__________
Pressmen, cylinder, prin tin g (g ra p h ic a r t s )_____
Pressmen, platen and job , p rin tin g
(gra ph ic arts) _________________________________
Press photographers ____________________________
Press smiths, fo rg e shop__________________________
Priests, Rom an C ath olic__________________________
Printer slotter operators, pulp, paper, and
paper products in du stry_______________________
Printing (g ra p h ic a rts) occupations ____________
P rinting pressmen and assistants________________
Private duty nurses_______________________________
Private secretaries _______________________________
Probation and parole officers, s e e : Social
w orkers ________________________________________
Producers, program , radio and television ________
Production m anagers, ad vertisin g_______________
Production painters _____________________________




Production planners, aircraft, missiles,
and spacecraft ____________________
Production technicians, s e e : Industrial
engineering technicians _____________________
Professors, college and university______________
Profile cutting torch operators, aircraft,
missiles, and spacecraft_____________________
Program assistants, radio and television_________
Program directors, radio and television__________
Program producers, radio and television_________
Programmers, electronic computer______________
Proof machine operators, banking______________
Proofreaders, printing (graphic arts)___________
Property and casualty insurance agents
and brokers_______________________________
Prospecting drillers, petroleum production____
Prospecting geophysicists _____________________
Protective service occupations_________________
Protestant clergymen _________________________
Provers, printing (graphic arts)________________
Psychiatric aids, s e e : Practical nurses and
auxiliary nursing workers___________________
Psychiatric social workers____________________
Psychologists _______________________________
Public assistance workers, s e e : Social workers....
Public health nurses________________________
Public relations workers______________________
Pullman conductors, railroad___________________
Pullman porters and passenger attendants,
railroad __________________________________
Pulp, paper, and paper products industry
occupations _______________________________
Pumpers, petroleum production________________
Pumpmen, petroleum refining__________________
Punch press operators, s e e :
Aircraft, missile, and spacecraft
occupations _________________________
Automobile manufacturing occupations____
Purchasing agents____________________________
Rabbis _____________________________________
Rack clerks, hotel____________________________
Radar technicians, s e e : Electronic technicians ___
Radiation monitors, atomic energy_____________
Radio and television announcers________________
Radio and television broadcasting occupations__
Radiographers, atomic energy__________________
Radioisotope-production operators, atomic
energy ___________________________________
Radiological physicists, atomic energy__________
Radio operators, ground, air transportation____
Radio repairmen _____________________________
Railroad clerks ______________________________
Railroad conductors __________________________
Railroad occupations _________________________
Ranchers ___________________________________
Real estate salesmen and brokers_______________
Realtors _____________________________________
Receiving inspectors, aircraft, missiles,
and spacecraft _____________________________


R ecording technicians, radio and television_____
Redcaps, railroad ___________________________________
R eference librarians _______________________________
R efrigera tion m echanics ___________________________
Regional geographers ____________________________
Registered professional n u rses_____________________
Rehabilitation workers, see: Social w orkers____
R einforcing-iron w orkers, building trad es________
Repairm en, see:
Body and fender repairm en, autom obile____
Industrial m achinery repairm en____________
Instrum ent repairm en ______________________
Jew elry r e p a ir m e n _____________________________
Telephone and P B X repairm en ________________
W atch repairm en _____________________________
See also : Listings under M echanics and
under Servicem en
R eporters, newspaper ______________________________
Research directors, ad vertisin g_____________________
Research w orkers, a gricu ltu ral_____________________
Research w orkers, m arketing______________________
Reservation clerks and agents, see:
A ir transportation occu pation s______________
H otel occupations _____________________________
Resistance-w elding operators ______________________
See also : Autom obile m anu factu ring
occupations ______________________________


Restaurant occupations _____________________________
Retail salesmen and salesw om en________________
Rew rite men, see: N ew spaper reporters_________
R ig builders, petroleum production ________________
Riveters, a ircra ft, missile, and s p a c e c r a ft______
Rocket assem bly mechanics, a ircra ft,
missiles, and sp a cecra ft_________________________
Rodmen, see: R ein forcin g-iron w orkers_________
Rodmen, petroleum production _____________________
Roller pressers, apparel in du stry___________________
Rollers, iron and steel industry_____________________
R olling mill attendants, iron and steel industry _
Roll turners, iron and steel in du stry_____________
Rom an Catholic priests___________________________
R oofers ___________________________________________
Room and desk clerks, h otel_____________________
R otary drillers, petroleum production _____________
R otary doorm en, petroleum production ____________
Roughnecks, petroleum produ ction _________________
Roustabouts, petroleum production ________________
Routemen ________________________________________
See also: Baking industry occu pation s_____
Routers, printing (g ra p h ic a r t s )____________________
Route salesmen, see: Routem en_________________
Rural carriers, post office___________________________
Rural sociologists, s e e : A gricu ltu ral
occupations _____________________________________
Safety technicians __________________________________
Sailors, see: N a vy _______________________________
Sales clerks, retail store____________________________
Sales engineers, see: M a n u fa c t u r e d salesmen _
Sales m anagers, see:
Hotel occupations _____________________________






Radio and television broadcasting
occupations _____________________________
Salesmen and saleswomen, s e e :
L ife insurance agents_______________________
M an ufacturers’ salesmen ------------------------------P roperty and casualty insurance agents
and brokers _____________________________
Radio and television occu pation s____________
Real estate salesmen and brokers___________
Salesmen and saleswomen in retail stores ...
Salesmen in wholesale trad e________________

Sales occupations __________________________

Sam ple stitchers, apparel industry______________
Sam ple-taker operators, petroleum p rodu ction ....
Sandblasters, fo r g e shop__________________________
Sandblasters, fou n dry ___________________________
Sand m ixers, fou n d ry ____________________________
Scenic designers, television______________________
School counselors ________________________________
School social w ork ers____________________________
Scientists, biological ____________________________
Scientists, physical and earth ___________________
Scientists, soil ___________________________________
Scouts, petroleum production _____________________
Sealers, electronics m anu factu ring______________
Secondary school teach ers_______________________
Secretaries, stenographers, and typists__________
Seism ologists, s e e : G eophysicists_______________
Semiskilled w orkers, in dustrial_________________
Service assistants, telephone_____________________
Servicem en, see:
A ppliance servicem en _______________________
Business m achine servicem en________________
Television and radio servicem en____________

Service occupations _________________________

Setup men (m achine to o ls )______________________
Sewers, hand, apparel industry__________________
Sew ing machine occupations, apparel industry ...
Sew ing machine operators, s e e :
A pparel industry occupations_______________
A utom obile m anu factu ring occu pation s____
Shakeout men, s e e :
Autom obile m anu factu ring occupations____
Foundry o c cu p a tio n s _________________________
Shapers, apparel industry_______________________
Shearmen, iron and steel in d u stry .-/.____________
Sheet-metal w orkers ____________________________

See also:

A irc ra ft, missile, and sp acecraft
occupations ________________________
Railroad shop trad es____________________
Shooters, petroleum production _________________
Shop trades, ra ilroa d ____________________________
Signal departm ent w orkers, ra ilroa d ___________
Signal m aintainers, ra ilroa d _____________________
Signalm en, railroad _____________________________
Silk screen operators, electronics
m anu factu ring _________________________________
Singers and singing teach ers_____________________
Skilled w orkers, in dustrial_______________________



Skipmen, iron and steel in du stry________________
Slaggers, iron and steel in du stry________________
Slate roofers, building trad es____________________
Slicing m achine operators, baking industry_____
Soaking pit cranem en, iron and steel industry___
Social casew orkers _______________________________
Social group w ork ers_____________________________


Social s c ie n c e s ____________________________________
Social w orkers ___________________________________
Sociologists ______________________________________
Sociologists, rural, see: A gricu ltu ral
occupations _____________________________________
Soil conservationists ____________________________
Soil scientists ___________________________________
Soldiers, see: A rm y ______________________________
Sorting machine operators_______________________
Sound technicians, radio and television__________
S p acecraft occupations __________________________
Special delivery carriers, post office____________
Specialty farm operators________________________
Specifications w riters, s e e : Technical w riters,
electronics m anu factu ring ____________________
Sprayers, autom obile m a n u factu rin g___________
Spreaders, apparel in du stry______________________
Stage m anagers, radio and television___________
Star route carriers, post office__________________
State and local governm ent em ploym ent_______
Station agents, air tran sp ortation _______________
Station agents, ra ilroa d __________________________
Stationary engineers ____________________________
See also: Pulp, paper, and paper products
industry occupations __________________
Stationary firemen (b o ile r )______________________
Station installers, telephone_____________________
Statisticians ______________________________________


See also:
A ctuaries _______________________________
M athem aticians _________________________
Steam fitters, see: Plum bers and pipefitters____
Steel industry occu pation s_______________________
Steel purers, iron and steel in du stry_____________
Stenographers ___________________________________
Stenotype operators _____________________________
Stereo typers, p rin tin g (gra ph ic a r ts )___________
Stewardesses and stewards, air tran sportation....
Stew ards, railroad dining ca r ____________________
Stillmen, petroleum refining_____________________
Stock chasers, autom obile m a n u factu rin g______
Stock clerks, autom obile m a n u factu rin g_________
Stock house larrym en, iron and steel industry___
Stock house men, iron and steel industry_________
Stonehands, s e e : Im posers, prin tin g
(gra ph ic arts) _________________________________
Stonemasons _____________________________________
Stonemen, s e e : Im posers, prin tin g
(graphic arts) _________________________________
Stove tenders, iron and steel industry___________
Stratigraphers, see: G eologists_________________
Stretch press operators, a ircra ft, missiles,
and sp acecraft _________________________________




Stripper-cranem en, iron and steel industry_____
Strippers, prin tin g (gra ph ic a r ts )_______________
Structural geologists ____________________________
Structural-, ornam ental-, and rein forcin g iron w orkers ____________________________________
Studio supervisors, radio and television_________
Substation operators, electric ligh t and pow er. _
Supercalendar operators, pulp, paper, and
paper products in du stry_______________________
Su rfacers, optical goods__________________________
Sw itchboard operators, telephone________________
Sw itchboard operators, electric ligh t and
pow er ___________________________________________
Sw itchers, petroleum produ ction _________________
Switchmen, railroad _____________________________
Switchmen, telephone ___________________________
Synoptic m eteorologists _________________________


T abulating machine operators____________________
T ailorin g occupations, apparel industry_________
T ailors, apparel in du stry_________________________
Tape librarians, see: E lectronic com puter
operating personnel ___________________________
T axi drivers ______________________________________
Teachers, college and u niversity_________________
Teachers, dancing ________________________________
Teachers, dram a _________________________________
Teachers, high school____________________________
Teachers, kindergarten and elem entary sch ool___
Teachers, music __________________________________
Teachers, secondary school_______________________
Teachers, singing ________________________________


Teaching __________________________________________
Technical artists, electronics m a n u fa ctu rin g ____
Technical illustrators, a ircra ft, missiles,
and sp acecraft _________________________________
Technical w riters, s e e :
A irc ra ft, missile, and sp acecraft
occupations __________________
E lectronics m anu factu ring occu pation s_____
Technicians, dental laboratory___________________


Technicians, engineering and physical science





See also:
A irc ra ft, missile, and sp acecraft
occupations ________________
A tom ic energy occupations_____________
D ispensing opticians and optical
laboratory mechanics ______________
E lectronics m anu factu ring occupations
Industrial chem ical industry
occupations ________________________
Iron and steel industry occu p a tio n s___
Petroleum refining occu p ation s______
Pulp, paper, and paper products
industry occupations _____________
Technicians, m edical X - r a y ______________________
Technologists, m edical ___________________________
Tectonophysicists, see: G eophysicists___________
Telegraphers, telephoners, and towerm en,
railroad ________________________________________


Telephone and P B X installers and repairm en ___
Telephone central office cra ftsm en _______________
Telephone central office equipm ent installers___
Telephone installers _____________________________
Telephone o c cu p a tio n s ____________________________
Telephone operators _____________________________
Telephone repairm en ______________________________
Telephoners, railroad ____________________________
Teletypesetters, prin tin g (g ra p h ic a r ts )_________
Teletypists, air tran sp ortation __________________
Television announcers ___________________________
Television broadcasting occupations____________
Television repairm en ____________________________
Tellers, banking _________________________________
Terrazzo w orkers, building trad es_________________
Testboardm en, telephone _______________________
Testers, see: In spectors__________________________
Therm al cutters (oxygen and a r c ), see:
W elders ________________________________________
Therapists, occupational ___________________________
Therapists, physical _____________________________
Thread trim m ers and cleaners, apparel
industry _________________________________________
Ticket agents, air tran sp ortation ________________
Tile roofers, building trades______________________
Tile setters, building trad es______________________
Tim e salesmen, radio and television _____________
Tinners, electronics m a n u factu rin g ______________
Tobacco grow ers ___________________________________
Tool and die m akers_______________________________


See a l s o :
A irc ra ft, missile, and sp acecraft
occupations _________________________
Autom obile m a nu factu ring
occupations _________________________
E lectronics m anu factu ring
occupations ________________________
Iron and steel industry occupations____
Pulp, paper, and paper products
industry occupations ______________
Tool designers, see: M echanical engineering
te ch n icia n s________________________________________
Toolm akers, electronics m a n u factu rin g__________
Tool pushers, petroleum production ______________
Towerm en, railroad _________________________
Tracers, see: D ra ftsm en _____ ____________________
Trackm en, railroad _________________________________
Track w orkers, railroad _____________________________
Traffic agents and clerks, air tran sp ortation ____
Traffic controllers, a ir p o r t_________________________
Traffic controllers, a ir-rou te________
Traffic m anagers, in du strial________________________
Traffic m anagers, radio and telev ision ___________
Traffic representatives, air tra n sp orta tion ______
Train directors _____________________________________
Train dispatchers __________________________________
Trainm en, see: Brakem en, ra ilroa d ________________
T ran scribin g m achine op erators_______________ ....
T ran sfer clerks, post office_________________________
T ransit clerks, ba n k in g _____________________________



Transm ission and distribution occupations,
electric ligh t and pow er_______________________
T reaters, s e e :
Petroleum production occu pation s__________
Petroleum refining occupations______________
Trim m ers, apparel in du stry______________________
Trim m ers, autom obile m a n u factu rin g ___________
Trim m ers, fo r g e shop_____________________________
Troublem en, electric ligh t and pow er___________
T ruckdrivers, local _______________________________
T ruckdrivers, over-the-road _____________________
T ruckdrivers, m otor vehicle operators,
post office ______________________________________
T rust officers, banking___________________________
Tube benders, a ircra ft, missiles, and
sp a cecra ft ______________________________________
Tum bler operators, fou n d ry ______________________
Turbine operators, electric light and pow er_____
Typesetters, hand, p rin tin g (gra ph ic a r ts )_____
T ypesettin g m achine operators, prin tin g
(gra ph ic arts) _________________________________
T ypew riter servicem en __________________________
Typists ____________________________________________
See also: Insurance clerks___________________


U nderw riter clerks, insurance____________________
U nderw riters, insurance _________________________
United States G overnm ent occu pation s_________
U niversity teachers ______________________________
Unskilled w orkers, in dustrial____________________
U psetterm en, fo rg e shop_________________________


V eterinarians _____________________________________
Vocational agriculture teachers, see:
A gricu ltu ral occupations ______________________
V ocational counselors ____________________________
V ocanologists, see: G eophysicists_______________


W aiters and w aitresses___________________________
See also: R ailroad dining car w a iters______
W aste disposal men, atom ic en ergy______________
W aste-treatm ent operators, atom ic en ergy_____


W atch engineers, electric ligh t and pow er_______
W atchm akers _____________________________________
W atch repairm en _________________________________
W eather forecasters, see: M eteorologists_______
W elders and oxygen cu tters______________________

See also:

A irc ra ft, missile, and sp acecraft
occupations ________________________
Electronics m anu factu ring occupations,.
Iron and steel industry occu pation s____
Petroleum refining occupations_______
W elders, electric-arc _____________________________
See also: A utom obile m anu factu ring
occupations _____________________________
W elders, gas ______________________________________



See also:

Autom obile m anu factu ring
occupations _____________________________
W elding operators, resistan ce____________________


See also:

A utom obile m a nu factu ring
occupations _____________________________
W elfa re workers, see: Social w orkers___________
W ell pullers, petroleum production _______________
W heat farm ers __________________________________
W holesale salesmen _____________________________
W ire chiefs, railroad_____________________________
W ire draw ers, iron and steel industry___________
W ood patternm akers, fou n d ry ____________________
W ood technologists, see: F oresters______________
W ork distributors, apparel industry______________
W rappin g machine operators, baking industry. ..
W riters, editorial, see: N ew spaper rep o rte rs___


W riters, technical, see:
A irc ra ft, missile, and sp acecraft
occupations _____________________________


E lectronics m anu factu ring occu pation s_____


X -ra y technicians, m edical_______________________


Y ard forem en, ra ilroa d ___________________________


Z o o lo g is ts _______________________________,__________


Other BLS Publications Useful to Counselors
The occupational outlook publications issued by the Bureau of Labor Statistics
for use in vocational counseling include several types of reports besides the Occupa­
tional Outlook Handbook. These publications are as follows:
Published four times during each school year,
to keep readers current on developments affecting employment trends and
outlook between editions of the Handbook. Presents the results of new
occupational outlook studies by the Bureau of Labor Statistics. Also re­
ports on projects and studies of special interest to counselors conducted by
other bureaus of the U.S. Department of Labor and other Government
agencies. May be ordered by using form on page 830.


(Reprints from the Occupational Outlook
Handbook) : For use by persons interested in particular occupations or in­
dustries and by counselors and librarians who keep a file of occupational
information materials. The occupational reports in the Handbook are re­
produced in this series of reprints, each of which covers either a single
occupation, an industry, or a group of related occupations. A list of the
reprints, with prices, is contained in the latest List of Occupational Out­
look Publications (which may be obtained by using request form on
page 830).


Sent free of charge to all
schools, organizations, and individuals on the occupational outlook mail­
ing list. Each of the briefs describes the employment outlook in a major
group of occupations or an industry. Wall charts, suitable for bulletin
board or classroom display, graphically emphasize the salient facts about
important occupations and industries. The available briefs and wall charts
are listed in the latest List of Free Occupational Outlook Publications.
Form on page 830 may be used to request this list and to have name placed
on mailing list.


These reports contain detailed information on employment trends
and outlook in major occupations and industries, and such related subjects
as labor force trends, unemployment, occupational mobility, and length of
working life. Reports are issued at irregular intervals; announcements of
these publications are sent to persons on the occupational outlook mail­
ing list. Current information on employment and earnings in different
parts of the country can be obtained from three other Bureau of Labor
Statistics publications:


Monthly report giving employment statistics for in­
dustries in each State and metropolitan area, as well as national figures on
employment, earnings, hours of work, and labor turnover in different
industries. Also includes the monthly report on the labor force, described
in the following paragraph. May be ordered by using form on page 830.





Monthly release analyzing the current em­
ployment situation. Contains summary of national data on size and char­
acteristics of the labor force and unemployment; national data on em­
ployment, hours and earnings of employees on payrolls of nonfarm
establishments; and State and area data for insured unemployment. This
publication is available without charge upon written request to the Bureau
of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor, Washington 25, D.C.


These reports include figures on average earnings
and employment in selected occupations and major industries and labor
market areas. Also report weekly working hours for some groups of work­
ers and customary practices regarding pensions, vacations, holidays, and
sick leave. List of available Occupational Wage Surveys may be obtained
by using the form on page 830.



Request Form

U.S. Department of Labor,
Bureau of Labor Statistics,
Washington 25, D.C.
| | Place my name on the mailing list for Occupational Outlook Briefs, wall charts,
and other occupational materials. ( N .—If you receive mail with the number
322 below your address, your name is already on this mailing list.)

Please send me the latest—
| | List of Occupational Outlook Publications
| | List of Occupational Outlook Report Series
| | List of Occupational Wage Surveys
| | Monthly Report on the Labor Force
Nam e_______________________________ Position .
School or agency____________________________________________________________
Street address______________________________________________________________
City_________________________________ Zone No________ State_________________
Order Form

Send to: Superintendent of Documents, Washington 25, D.C., or to a Regional
Office of the Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor, at any of the
following addresses:
18 Oliver St., Boston 10, Mass.
1371 Peachtree St., N.E., Suite 540,
341 Ninth Ave., New York 1, N.Y.
Atlanta 9, Ga.
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(Make checks or money orders payable to the Superintendent of Documents. Do
not send stamps.)
Please send me the following publications of the Bureau of Labor Statistics:
T itle

Q u a n tity


Annual subscription ($1, domestic; $1.25, foreign;
30 cents a copy)

A m ount

________ $________
________ ________


Annual subscription ($3.50, domestic; $5.00, foreign;
45 cents a copy)


1961 edition ($4.50 a copy)

YY U. S. G O V E R N M E N T P R I N T I N G O F F I C E : 196 1 -----O 5 9 8 4 1 7

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