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1961 E D IT IO N

Career In form ation
for Use in Guidance

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
Arthur J. Goldberg, Secretary
BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS
Ewan Clague, Commissioner




Pointers on Using the Handbook
To find out what is in this book and how it is arranged, see

Guide to the Handbook, page 4.
To locate an occupation or industry in this book, see:

Table of Contents, page XI.
Alphabetical Index, page 812.
Occupations Classified by Broad Fields of Work, page 803. This list can be
used to find occupations suitable for a person with certain types of abili­
ties or interests.
For a general view of work and jobs in the United States, read the chapter on

Looking Ahead to Earning a Living, page 11.
Forecasts of the future are precarious! In interpreting the statements on the outlook

in each occupation, keep in mind the points made on page 5.
The job picture is constantly changing. To find out how you can keep your informa­

tion up to date, see the chapter on Where To Go for More Information
and Assistance, page 7.
You may need local information too. This book gives facts about each occupation for




the United States as a whole. For suggestions on where to get informa­
tion for your own locality, see page 8.

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK
EMPLOYMENT INFORMATION ON MAJOR OCCUPATIONS
FOR USE IN GUIDANCE

1961 edition

Bulletin No. 1300
(Revision of Bulletin 1255)

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
Arthur J. Goldberg, Secretary
BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS
Ewan Clague, Commissioner

For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington 25, D.C. - Price $4.50







This volume was prepared by the U.S. Department of Labor’s
Bureau of Labor Statistics with the cooperation of the following
Bureaus of the Department—
Bureau of Employment Security
Robert C. Goodwin, Director
Women's Bureau
Esther Peterson, Director
Bureau of Apprenticeship and Training
W. C. Christensen, Director
Bureau of Labor Standards
Arthur W. Motley, Director

and the—
Veterans Administration
U.S. Department of Agriculture
U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare

Foreword
The Department of Labor takes pride in issuing this fifth edition of the
Occupational Outlook Handbook. We hope the information here presented
on the employment outlook in more than 650 occupations will be of assist­
ance to young people concerned with making a career choice and to the
counselors responsible for aiding them in this momentous decision.
The process of occupational choice and development is likely to become
steadily more complex and difficult in the decade ahead. The space age
will bring with it very rapid technological developments and consequent
shifts in occupational requirements. Furthermore, the number of young
people completing school and entering the labor market will be far greater
than ever before, and competition for employment is likely in many entry
occupations. At the same time, the country will continue to have urgent
need of highly qualified workers in many occupations, especially in the
professional and skilled categories.
It has been our aim to include in this Handbook the best possible assess­
ment of future manpower needs and employment opportunities in the wide
range of occupations discussed. By bringing this information to young
people’s attention and helping them to relate it to their own aptitudes and
interests, counselors can assist boys and girls to find occupations which
promise opportunities for them to realize their full potential. They can
thus contribute not only to the life adjustment of millions of individuals
but also to the economic growth of the country and its defense and welfare.




A rthur J. Goldberg, Secretary of Labor

Prefatory Note
This fifth edition of the Occupational Outlook Handbook, which supersedes the
fourth edition, Bulletin 1255, is designed to provide the occupational information
young people need to help them in career decisions. It presents a reappraisal of
the employment outlook in the occupations and industries discussed in the previous
edition, together with the most recent information on earnings, training require­
ments, and other related topics which was available early in 1961 when the book
went to press.
In addition, the occupational coverage of the Handbook has been significantly
expanded. To help meet a widely recognized need for information on jobs open to
young people with little or no specialized training, this edition includes new chap­
ters on factory jobs and post office occupations. Business administration and re­
lated professions are also covered in a comprehensive new chapter. Other occu­
pational groups on which chapters have been added include astronomers, geogra­
phers, electronic computer operating personnel, musicians and others in the per­
forming arts, photographers, appliance servicemen, apparel industry workers, and
dental laboratory technicians.
This Handbook reflects the results of two decades of research by the Occupa­
tional Outlook Service, which was established in the Bureau of Labor Statistics
by the Congress in 1940. The first edition of the Handbook was published in 1949,
with subsequent editions in 1951, 1957, and 1959. The more than 160,000 copies
of these editions which have been sold attest to the widespread need for occupa­
tional outlook information. Counselors in many high schools, colleges, and commu­
nity agencies throughout the Nation rely on the Handbook in their vocational
guidance work, as do Federal and State agencies offering counseling services—
including the Veterans Administration, the Department of Defense, State rehabili­
tation agencies, and offices of State employment services affiliated with the U.S. Em­
ployment Service.
In 1955, the Congress provided for the maintenance of the Occupational Outlook
Handbook and related publications on a regular basis. This action has made
possible the present edition of the Handbook; the publication of a periodical, the
Occupational Outlook Quarterly, which provides a continuous flow of current in­
formation between editions of the Handbook; and the Occupational Outlook Re­
port Series, a set of reprints of the Handbook statements on different fields of work.
The Bureau of Labor Statistics wishes to acknowledge with gratitude the coop­
eration of hundreds of business organizations, unions, trade associations, educa­
tional institutions, professional societies, and government agencies whose officials
gave freely of their time in discussing employment trends in their respective fields,
in supplying information, and in reviewing and commenting upon drafts of the
various chapters. Thanks are due also to the Women’s Bureau and the Bureau
of Employment Security of the U.S. Department of Labor, the Agricultural Re­
search Service of the U.S. Department o f Agriculture, and the Office of Education
of the U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, for their special
contributions.




E w a n Clague, Commissioner of Labor Statistics

Letter From the Veterans Administration
The Veterans Administration has cooperated with the Bureau of Labor Statistics,
U.S. Department of Labor, in the support and development of this Handbook since
its inception in the late 1940’s. This cooperation began, and has continued, in
direct fulfillment of a statutory requirement that the Administrator of Veterans
Affairs make current and reliable information on occupations available to counselees and trainees participating in the Vocational Rehabilitation and Education
programs. The progressive improvement of the Handbook and its increasing ac­
ceptance among counselors and other personnel workers throughout the United
States are indeed gratifying.
The Handbook, the supplemental Occupational Outlook Quarterly, and periodic
cooperative pamphlets on the employment outlook in specially selected fields of work
provide a basic, coordinated, and increasingly effective source of authoritative and
current occupational outlook information for VA counseling and training activities.
This new edition of the Handbook reflects still further advancement in the content
and presentation of outlook information. The Veterans Administration is glad to
take this opportunity both to commend the Bureau of Labor Statistics for its
leadership and responsiveness in this continuing qualitative improvement and to
recommend this publication as a major reference for occupational information
libraries throughout the Nation.




J. S. Gleason , Jr., Administrator,

Veterans Affairs

Letter From the Bureau of Employment Security
The Bureau of Employment Security welcomes this fifth edition of the Occupa­
tional Outlook Handbook as warmly as it has welcomed the earlier ones. The
Bureau shares the opinion of the many experts in the fields of occupational infor­
mation and counseling who regard it as a most important reference document on
occupational and industrial fields in our economy. That this comprehensive and
authoritative work is kept current and expanded in scope and quality with each
succeeding edition is of real benefit to this Bureau and to other organizations
responsible for counseling and placement.
Over 10 million jobseekers come to local employment service offices each year.
More than 1 million of them receive employment counseling in these offices. Em­
ployment service counselors use the Occupational Outlook Handbook as an impor­
tant source of national information to supplement the local, State, and national
information they get through regular employment service channels. Employment
service counselors also encourage counselees to read the Handbook for information
that will help them in determining the extent of their interest in specific occupa­
tional fields and their possible qualifications for entering these fields. A copy of
the Handbook is available for reference in each of the 1,800 local employment
service offices.
Occupational choice is so wide, and yet so critical to our manpower outlook, that
the prospective worker must have the most reliable and up-to-date factual infor­
mation on which to base his vocational decision. In recent years, the need for such
information has heightened, as automation has resulted in greater displacement of
workers who must find other work they can do. Increasingly, people seek profes­
sional help from a counselor in analyzing their own interests and abilities, and in
matching these characteristics to job demands and employment possibilities. Such
counseling help, along with job placement, testing, and other related services, is
available in local employment service offices throughout the Nation. A brief de­
scription of what the public employment offices offer the jobseeker appears on
page — .
On behalf of the Bureau of Employment Security and the affiliated State employ­
ment security agencies, I extend to all readers of the Handbook who are making
occupational choices an invitation to go to the nearest local office of the State em­
ployment service if they wish additional information and assistance in formulating
page 8.




R obert C. Goodwin , Director
Bureau of Employment Security

Letter From American Personnel and Guidance Association
In a society as mobile and dynamic as ours— and there is every evidence that it
will be increasingly so— reliable, up-to-date information about occupations is a need
deserving high priority. In the eyes of knowledgeable counselors, the Occupational
Outlook Handbook has always been identified as the sourcebook for such infor­
mation. Each new edition is reassuring to counselors who, with but a flick of a few
pages, are able to provide authentic and current information.
This fifth edition of the Occupational Outlook Handbook continues the high
standards of its illustrious predecessors. It is not only a new edition but also an
improved one, with a more comprehensive coverage of occupations, some simplifica­
tion in the language used, and format changes that add to its general attractiveness.
Even though counselors are exceptionally busy people, they will find it worth
their efforts to read the Occupational Outlook Handbook from cover to cover. It
may take the better part of a vacation but, as a reward, they will receive a most in­
sightful orientation to the world of work. And to keep information from the Hand­
book up to date, they may wish to use the Occupational Outlook Quarterly, a peri­
odical which presents current occupational research and information.
As a representative of the American Personnel and Guidance Association, it is a
privilege to commend the Bureau of Labor Statistics for its research program and
for its presentation of that research in the fifth edition of the Occupational Outlook
Handbook. Continuity in the occupational outlook program has been and will remain
critical. Without continuity in this program of the Bureau of Labor Statistics,
counselors would soon be at the mercy of inaccurate and misleading information,
reducing career planning to absurdities. It is, therefore, a pleasure to express ap­
preciation for the fifth Handbook on behalf of thousands of counselors and those
individuals who ultimately use the information in their personal career-planning
activities.




E dward C. R oeber, President
American Personnel and Guidance Association

Contributors
This Handbook was prepared in the Bureau
of Labor Statistics, Division of Manpower and
Employment Statistics under the direction of
Harold Goldstein, Division Chief, and Sol
Swerdloff, Assistant Division Chief for Man­
power and Occupational Outlook.
The general planning of the Handbook was
done under the direction of Helen Wood, Chief
of the Branch of Occupational Outlook and
Specialized Personnel, who also provided gen­
eral supervision over the research program on
professional, technical, clerical, sales, service,
and related occupations. The research and
preparation of the chapters on these fields of
work were carried on under the direct super­
vision of MortPn Levine, Bernard Michael, and
Jane H. Palmer.
Howard Rosen, Chief of the Branch of Skilled
Manpower and Industrial Employment Studies,
provided general supervision over the research
program on trades and industrial occupations
and major industries. The research and prep­
aration of the chapters on these fields of work
were carried on under the direct supervision
of Bernard Yabroff.
Margaret L. Plunkett prepared the chapter
on Looking Ahead to Earning a Living. Other
members of the Division staff who contrib­
uted sections were: Joseph F. Fulton, Cora
E. Taylor, Annie Lefkowitz, Arthur F. Neef,
Dorothy M. Orr, Naomi Riches, Arthur Schatzow, Howard V. Stambler, Maxine G. Stewart,
Ian R. Sutherland, Leibert B. Wallerstein, Rose
K. Wiener, Joseph A. Brackett, Russell B.
Flanders, Jr., Clare S. Frisby, Sheldon H.
Luskin, Allan F. Salt, William J. Kelley, Henry
J. Makey, and Carl Oesterle, Jr. Evelyn R. Kay
and Morris Cobern were responsible for assem­
bling and editing the photographs, besides con­
tributing sections to the Handbook. Catherine
F. Delano, Madelene D. Gearing, Maxine J.
Mitchell, and Lena S. Walker provided research
assistance, checked the manuscripts for factual
accuracy, and assisted in other ways.
VIII




James J. Treires assisted in the preliminary
planning of the Handbook, reviewed the manu­
scripts for consistency with vocational guid­
ance standards, and coordinated the prepara­
tion of the introductory sections and the state­
ments prepared by agencies outside the Bureau
of Labor Statistics. Verna E. Griffin assisted
in the review of these statements. J. Sue White
aided in the planning and review of the charts
and the format of the book.
Reports on 14 occupations in which women
predominate were prepared in the Women’s
Bureau of the U.S. Department of Labor under
the direction of Stella P. Manor, Jean A. Wells,
and Mary Murphy. The following individuals
wrote the various reports: Caroline Cherrix,
Audrey Freedman, Caryl Holiber, and Drucilla
Hopper.
The section on services to job seekers at
public employment offices was prepared by the
Bureau of Employment Security of the U.S.
Department of Labor.
The chapter on Agricultural Occupations
was prepared in the Farm Economics Division,
Economic Research Service, U.S. Department
of Agriculture, under the direction of Wylie
D. Goodsell and Frank H. Maier.
The section on Using the Handbook in Guid­
ance was prepared by Frank L. Sievers, Chief,
Guidance, Counseling, and Testing Section, and
Louise 0. Eckerson, Research Assistant, Office
of Education, U.S. Department of Health,
Education, and Welfare.
The graphic work in the Handbook was done
under the supervision of Alice L. Wells, Chief,
Branch of Graphic Presentation, Bureau of
Labor Statistics, by Joseph 0. Harrison, Charles
N. Kibby, Robert E. Lembcke, and Sylvia B.
McMeritt. B. Ray Ramseur prepared the illus­
trations for the charts.
The cover symbol and cover were designed,
respectively, by John J. Kennelly, Chief, and
Jon Massey, of the Division of Visual Services,

CONTRIBUTORS

Office of Information, Publications, and Reports,
U.S. Department of Labor.
The photographs credited to the U.S. Depart­
ment of Labor were taken and processed by
Bernard Myers, Jr., and Jacob T. Davis, Jr., of
the Department’s Visual Services Division.
Some photographs were supplied by various
other Government agencies as shown by the
credit lines accompanying the pictures. The
Bureau wishes to acknowledge the cooperation
of the following organizations which either con­
tributed the remaining photographs or made
their facilities available for the Labor Depart­
ment photographer: Acacia Mutual Life Insur­
ance Co.; Addressograph-Multigraph Corp.; Air
Line Dispatchers Association; American Air­
lines, Inc.; American Bankers Association;
American Dental Association; American Dietet­
ic Association; American Electroplaters’ So­
ciety ; American Institute of Architects; Amer­
ican Institute of Biological Sciences; American
Iron and Steel Institute; American Marketing
Association; American Optical Co.; American
Optometric Association; American Physical
Therapy Association; American Podiatry As­
sociation; American Society of Medical Tech­
nologists; American Telephone and Telegraph
Co.; Arena Stage; Argonne National Labora­
tory ; Associated Traffic Clubs of America; Boe­
ing Airplane Co.; Bricklayers, Masons and
Plasterers’ International Union of America;
Brookhaven National Laboratory; Brotherhood
of Locomotive Engineers; Brotherhood of
Painters, Decorators, and Paperhangers of
America; Brotherhood of Railroad Trainmen;
Brotherhood of Railway and Steamship Clerks,
Freight Handlers, Express and Station Em­
ployes; Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters;
Brown and Sharpe Manufacturing Co.; Capital
Radio Engineering Institute; Catholic Univer­
sity of America; Central Armature Works, Inc.;
Chamberlain Vocational High School; Chambersburg Engineering Co.; Chicago Police De­
partment; Clissold Publishing Co. ; Cummins
Engine Co., Inc.; Davidson Transfer and Stor­
age Co.; District of Columbia Fire Depart­
ment; Dupont Chemical Co.; Eastern Grey­




IX

hound Lines; Edmonds Opticians; Educational
Council of the Graphic Arts Industry, Inc.;
Famous Artists School; Fleet Owner Magazine;
Flight Engineers’ International Association;
General Electric Co.; General Motors Corp.;
The Hecht Co.; Higger’s Drugs, Inc.; Hot
Shoppes, Inc.; Institute of Life Insurance; In­
ternational Association of Bridge, Structural
and Ornamental Iron Workers; International
Stereotypers’ and Electrotypers’ Union of North
America; International Association of Heat and
Frost Insulators and Asbestos Workers; Inter­
national Association of Machinists; Interna­
tional Brotherhood of Electrical W orkers; Inter­
national Institute of Interior Design, Inc.; In­
ternational Ladies’ Garment Workers’ Union;
International Union of Operating Engineers;
Johnson Service Co.; Henry J. Kaufman and
Associates; Kimberly-Clark Corp.; Lockheed
Aircraft Corp., Missiles and Space Division;
Mayflower Hotel; Metropolitan Opera Associ­
ation, Inc.; Milk Industry Foundation; Jack
Morton Productions, Inc.; National Association
of Home Builders; National Association of
Real Estate Boards; National Bank of Wash­
ington; National Broadcasting Co.; National
Restaurant Association; National Wholesale
Druggists Association; New York Central Sys­
tem; New York Employing Printers Associa­
tion; The New York Times; Nordberg Manu­
facturing Co.; North American Aviation, Inc.;
Ohio School of Cosmetology; Potomac Electric
Power Co.; Radio Corp. of America; Ransdell,
Inc.; Republic Aviation Corp.; Rothstein Dental
Laboratories, Inc.; Sheffield Corp.; Standard
Brands, Inc.; Standard Oil Co. of New Jersey;
Statler-Hilton Hotel; Union Bag-Camp Paper
Corp.; Union Carbide Chemicals Co.; Union
Trust Co. of the District of Columbia; United
Air Lines; United Association of Journeymen
and Apprentices of the Plumbing and Pipe Fit­
ting Industry of the United States and Canada ;
United Horological Association of America,
Inc.; United States Steel Corp.; Washington
Post and Times Herald; Westinghouse Electric
Corp.; and Williamette Iron and Steel Co.

Note
A great many trade associations, professional societies, unions, and
other organizations in industry are in a position to supply valuable infor­
mation to counselors or young people seeking information about careers.
For the convenience of users of this Handbook, the reports on separate
occupations or industries list some of the organizations or other sources
which may be able to provide further information. Although these refer­
ences were assembled with care, the Bureau of Labor Statistics has no
authority or facilities for investigating organizations. Also, since the
Bureau has no way of knowing in advance what information or publica­
tions each organization may send in answer to a request, the Bureau
cannot evaluate the accuracy of such information. The listing of an or­
ganization, therefore, does not in any way constitute an endorsement or
recommendation by the Bureau or the U.S. Department of Labor, either
of the organization and its activities or of the information it may supply.
Such information as each organization may issue is, of course, sent out
on its own responsibility.
The occupational statements in this Handbook are not intended, and
should not be used, as standards for the determination of wages, hours,
jurisdictional matters, appropriate bargaining units, or formal job
evaluation systems. These descriptive statements are presented in a
general, composite form and, therefore, cannot be expected to apply exactly
to specific jobs in a particular industry, establishment, or locality.




x

Contents
P age

USING THE HANDBOOK IN GUIDANCE____________________________ ......
GUIDE TO THE HANDBOOK _______________________________________________________ .... ..
How the handbook is organized_____________________________________________________________
Some important facts about the occupational reports_____________________________________

1
4
4
5

WHERE TO GO FOR MORE INFORMATION OR ASSISTANCE______ ____

7

Keeping up to date on the occupational outlook____________________________________________
Services to jobseekers at public employment offices------------------------------------------------------------

7
8

LOOKING AHEAD TO EARNING A LIVING_________________________
The population and the people who w ork_________________________________________________
The kinds of jobs there will be___________________________________________________________
The outlook for occupational change______________________________________________
Implications of the outlook for education and training___________________________________

PROFESSIONAL, ADMINISTRATIVE, AND RELATED
OCCUPATIONS ______________________________________________________________________

_ ....
Professional and related occupations______________________________________________________
Administrative and related occupations___________________________________________________
Teaching ____________________________________________________________________________________
Kindergarten and elementary school teachers_________________________________________
Secondary school teachers______________________________________________________________
College and university teachers________________________________________________________
School counselors_______________________________________________________________________
Health service occupations_________________________________________________________________
Registered professional nurses________________________________________________________
Physicians ______________________________________________________________________________
Pharmacists ___________________________________________________________________________
Dentists ------------Medical X-ray technicians____________________________________________________________
Medical technologists _________________________________________________________________
Chiropractors ______________________________________________________________________
Dental laboratory technicians_________________________________________________________
Optometrists ___________________________________________________________________________
Veterinarians __________________________________________________________________________
Osteopathic physicians ____________________
Occupational therapists _______________________________________________________________
Podiatrists ________________________________________________________________________
Dental hygienists ______________________________________________________________________
Dietitians____________________________________________________________________
Physical therapists ____________________________________________________________________
Medical record librarians______________________________________________________________
Engineering ________________________________________________________________________________
Aeronautical engineers ________________________________________________________________
Agricultural engineers ________________________________________________________________
Ceramic engineers _____________________________________________________________________
Chemical engineers ____________________________________________________________________
Civil engineers _________________________________________________________________________
Electrical engineers ___________________________________________________________________
Industrial engineers____________________________________________________________________
Mechanical engineers __________________________________________________________________
Metallurgical engineers__________________________________________
Mining engineers ______________________________




XI

11
12
15
22
27
29
29
33
35
37
40
43
46
49
50
54
57
50
63
67
71
73
75
78
80
82
85
87
90
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101
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HI
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112
H3
H4

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

XII

Page

Physical and earth sciences____________________________________
Chemists _________________________________________________
Physicists_________________________________________________
Astronomers ______________________________________________
Geologists_________________________________________________
Geophysicists ____________________________________________
Meteorologists_____________________________________________
Biological sciences ____________________________________________
Mathematics and related fields________________________________
Mathematicians __________________________________________
Statisticians _____________________________________________
Actuaries _________________________________________________
Technicians who work with engineers and physical scientists
Social sciences ___________ ____________________________________
Anthropologists __________________________________________
Economists _______________________________________________
Historians ________________________________________________
Political scientists _______________________________________
Sociologists ______________________________________________
The clergy ____________________________________________________
Protestant clergymen ____________________________________
Roman Catholic priests__________________________________
R abbis____________________________________________________
Business administration and related professions_____________
Accountants________ :_____________________________________
Advertising workers _____________________________________
Industrial traffic managers______________________________
Marketing research workers_____________________________
Personnel workers ______ _________________________________
Public relations workers_________________________________
Purchasing agents _______________________________________
The performing arts_________________________________________
Musicians and music teachers____________________________
Singers and singing teachers____________________________
Actors and actresses______________________________________
Dancers __________________________________________________
Other professional and related occupations_________________
Architects _______________________________________________
Commercial artists __________________________ ___________
Draftsmen _______________________________________________
Foresters _____________ ,__________________________________
Geographers _____________________________________________
Home economists ________________________________________
Interior designers and decorators_______________________
Lawyers _________________________________________________
Librarians _______________________________________________
Newspaper reporters____________________________________
Photographers __________________________________________
Programmers ___________________________________________
Psychologists ___________________________________________
Social workers __________________________________________

CLERICAL AND SALES OCCUPATIONS_____________________________
Clerical and related occupations___________________________________________________________
Secretaries, stenographers, and typists_______________________________________________
Bookkeeping workers
_______________________________________________________________
Office machine operators_______________________________________________________________
Electronic computer operating personnel_____________




116
117

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124
128
132
135
140
148
148
151
154
158
169
171
173
175
176
178
181
182
184
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188
190
193
198

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207

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218

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227
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230
233
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238
240
245
247
250
255
258
261
266
268
274
274
277
281
283
287

XIII

CONTENTS

Page

Sales occupations __________________________________________________________________________
Salesmen and saleswomen in retail stores________________________________________
Salesmen in wholesale trade______________________________________________ .____________
M anufactured salesmen ______________________________________________________________
Life insurance agents___________________________________ .______________________________
Property and casualty insurance agentsand brokers__________________________________
Real estate salesmen and brokers_____________________________________________________

291
292
295
297
301
304
307

SERVICE OCCUPATIONS____________________________________________.____

311
311
312
314
317
321
322
324
328

Protective service occupations______________________________________________________________
FBI agents ____________________________________________________________________________
Firemen ________________________________________________________________________
Policemen _____________________________________________________________________________
Other service occupations__________________________________________________________________
Barbers ________________________________________________________________________________
Beauty operators ________________________________________________________ -____________
Practical nurses and auxiliary nursing workers_____________________________________

SKILLED TRADES AND OTHER INDUSTRIAL OCCUPATIONS______ _
Skilled workers______________________________________________________________________________
Semiskilled workers________________________________________________________________________
Unskilled workers ______________________________________________________________________
Building trades ______________________
Carpenters ____________________________________________________________________________
Painters and paperhangers___________________________________________________________
Plumbers and pipefitters_______________________________________________________________
Bricklayers ____________________________________________________________________________
Operating engineers (construction machinery operators)____________________________
Electricians (construction) ___________________________________________________________
Structural-, ornamental-, and reinforcing-iron (rodmen) workers.—________________
Plasterers _____________________________________________________________________________
R oofers______________________ T__________________________________________________ _______
Cement masons (cement and concrete finishers)_______________________________________
Sheet-metal workers __________________________________________________________________
Asbestos and insulating workers______________________________________________________
Lathers_________________________________________________________________________________
Marble setters, tile setters, and terrazzo workers____________________________________
Glaziers ________________________________________________________________________________
Elevator constructors ____
Stonemasons ___________________________________________________________________________
Construction laborers and hod carriers_______________________________________________
Printing (graphic arts) occupations________________________________________________________
Composing room occupations__________________________________________________________
Photoengravers __________________
Electrotypers and stereotypers_________________________________________________________
Printing pressmen and assistants_____________________________________________________
Lithographic occupations ....___________________________________________________________
Bookbinders and related workers_______________________________________________________
Mechanics and repairmen_________________________________
Air-conditioning and refrigeration mechanics________________________________________
Appliance servicemen _________________________________________________________________
Automobile mechanics________________________________ ______ „___________________ ______
Business machine servicemen__________________________________________________________
Diesel mechanics ______________________________________________________________________
Industrial machinery repairmen*______________________________________________________
Instrument repairmen ________________________________________________________________
Jewelers and jewelry repairmen ...____________________________________________________
Maintenance electricians_______________________________________________________________




332
333
336
338
339
346
349
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356
359
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OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

XIV

Page

Millwrights ____________________________________________________________________________
Television and radio servicemen______________________________________________________
Watch repairmen_____________
Machining occupations ____________________________________
All-round machinists _________________________________________________________________
Machine tool operators_________________________________________________________________
Tool and die makers___________________________________________________________________
Instrument makers __________________________________________________________________ Setup men (machine tools)____________________________________________________________
Layout m e n ______________________________________________________________________ __—
Foundry occupations_____ -__________.______________________________________________________
Molders ________________________________________________________________________________
Coremakers ____________________________________________________________________________
Patternmakers ________________________________________________________________________
Forge shop occupations__________
Driving occupations_______________________________________________________________
Over-the-road truckdrivers ___________________________________________________________
Local truckdrivers ____________________________________________________________________
Routemen _____________________________________________________________________________
Intercity bus drivers___________________________________________________________________
Local transit bus drivers______________________________________________________________
Taxi drivers ___________________________________________________________________________
Some factory occupations not requiring specialized training____________________________
Assemblers ____________________________________________________________________________
Inspectors _____________________________________________________________________________
Power truck operators____________________________________
Production painters __________________________________________________________________
Stationary firemen (boiler)____________________________________________________________
Other trades and industrial occupations___________
Blacksmiths ____________________________________________________________________________
Boilermaking occupations ____________________________________________________________
Dispensing opticians and optical laboratory mechanics_____________________________
Electroplaters __________________________________________;_______________________________
Stationary engineers _________________________________ ,_______________________________
Welders and oxygen and arc cutters__________________________________________________

SOME MAJOR INDUSTRIES AND THEIR OCCUPATIONS _____________

....
Occupations in aircraft, missile, and spacecraft manufacturing__________________________
Air transportation occupations___________________________ -_______________________________
Pilots and copilots_____________________________________________________________________
Flight engineers ________________________________________ -______________________________
Stewardesses___________________________________________________________________________
Airplane mechanics ___________________________
Airline dispatchers ___________________________________________________________________
Air traffic controllers___________________
Ground radio operators and teletypists_______________________________________________
Traffic agents and clerks______________________________________________________________
Occupations in the apparel industry_______________________________________________________
Occupations in the atomic energy field____________________________________________________
Automobile manufacturing occupations___________________________________________________
Occupations in the baking industry________________________________________________________
Banking occupations _______________________________________________________________________
Bank clerks and related workers______________________________________________________
Tellers__________________________________________________________________________________
Bank officers ___________________________________________________________________________
Occupations in the electric light and power industry__________ .__________________________
Powerplant occupations _______________________________________________________________




438
440
443
446
450
452
454
457
459
460
462
466
468
470
472
477
477
482
484
488
491
494
497
497
499
501
503
504
507
507
509
511
515
518
521
526
526
536
539
543
545
547
550
552
554
555
557
567
581
592
599
602
604
605
608
613

XV

CONTENTS

Page

Transmission and distribution occupations_________________________________
Customer service occupations_________________________________________________________
Electronics manufacturing occupations____________________________________________________
Hotel occupations _________________________________________________________________________
Bellmen and bell captains______________
Front office clerks______________________________________________________________________
Housekeepers and assistants______________ „___________________________________________
Managers and assistants_________________
Occupations in the industrial chemical industry___________________________________________
Occupations in the insurance business.—. _______________ ,________________________________
Occupations in the iron and steel industry_________________________________________________
Petroleum production and refining occupations___________________________________________
Petroleum production occupations___________________________________________________
Petroleum refining occupations_______________________________________________
Occupations in the pulp, paper, and paper products industry___ __________________________
Radio and television broadcasting occupations____________________________________________
Radio and television announcers______________________________________________________
Broadcast technicians
____________________________________
Railroad occupations ____________________________________
Locomotive engineers _________________________________________________________________
Locomotive firemen(helpers)_______________________________
Conductors ____________________________________
Brakemen _________________ — ____________________ _____________________________________
Pullman porters and passenger attendants___________________________________________
Dining car cooks_______________________________________________________________________
Dining car waiters_________________________________________________________________
Telegraphers, telephoners, and towermen_____________ r
______________________________
Station agents ______________________________
Clerks __________________________________________________________________________________
Redcaps __________________
Shop trad es________________________________________________________________________,___
Signal department workers__________________________________________________________
Track workers _________________________________________________________________
Bridge and building workers_________________________________________________________
Restaurant occupations__________________
Waiters and waitresses_______________________________________________________________
Cooks and chefs____________________________________________________
Managers and assistants___________________________________________
Telephone occupations________________________________________________________________
Central office craftsmen_________________________________________________________
Linemen and cable splicers___________________________________________________________
Telephone and PBX installers and repairmen___________________
Telephone operators ____
Central office equipment installers___________________________________________________

AGRICULTURAL OCCUPATIONS ____________________________________________
Opportunities on fa rm s______________________________
Opportunities on specific types of fa rm s__________________________________________________
Occupations related to agriculture ...________________________________________
Agricultural extension workers_______________________________________________________
Soil scientists _______________________________________________________________________ ....
Soil conservationists ______________________________________________________________
Other professional workers____________________________________________________________
Farm service jobs .,____________________________________________________________________

616
620
622
633
337
639
640
642
645
652
658
670
671
677
682
691
699
700
704
709
711
713
715
716
717
718
719
721
722
723
724
726
727
729
730
732
734
736
739
742
744
746
748
750
752
753
756
762
762
763
765
766
770

OCCUPATIONS IN GOVERNMENT ______________________________________________________ 771
Civilian employment _________________________________________________________________
Federal Government __________________________________________________________________
State and local governments_________________________________________________




773
773
781

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

XVI

Page

Armed Forces ______________________________________________________________________________
Post office occupations______________________________________________________________________
Mail carriers___________________________________________________________________________
Postal clerks _________________________-_________________________________________________

785
788
793
796

TECHNICAL APPENDIX _______________________________________________

800

INDEX I. OCCUPATIONS CLASSIFIED BY BROAD FIELDS
OF WORK_____________________________________________________________

803

INDEX II. ALPHABETICAL INDEX TO OCCUPATIONS AND
INDUSTRIES__________________________________________________________

812




OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

Using the Handbook In Guidance
In 1949, the first edition of the Occupational
Outlook Handbook filled a void felt by vocational
counselors in Veterans Guidance Centers
throughout the United States. The counselors
had been calling on their limited knowledge,
reasonable deductions, and imagination to
answer veterans’ questions about the present
and future of occupations. The Handbook ap­
peared because it was needed. Now in its fifth
edition, it has found a much wider readership
and has become an invaluable tool of guidance
and placement.
The Handbook and guidance have grown up
together and are mutually dependent on each
other. In the guidance field, the Handbook is
used by several groups. At the college level,
the counselor educator explains its contents to
counselor trainees to help them understand
specific job patterns, characteristics of related
occupations, and trends affecting the nature
and number of jobs. More important, the
counselor educator teaches the future counse­
lors to use the Handbook in everyday guidance.
At the secondary school level, the teacher of
occupations finds the Handbook organized and
written in such readable language that his stu­
dents can use it as a reference book in compre­
hending different kinds and levels of work, and
in informing themselves about careers of per­
sonal interest.
However, at both secondary and collegiate
levels, the Handbook is most valued by the
counselor on the job, and the student who seeks
help in choosing a career. The counselor utilizes
all available facts about the youth sitting across
the desk, and about the jobs that might be




suitable. Planning for the future requires in­
terpretation of economic and political news,
anticipation of the effect of science and inven­
tions on vocational fields, and estimates of
changing occupational emphases. Few counse­
lors possess this information and the vision to
correlate it for guidance.
So the Occupational Outlook Handbook does
part of the job. It makes use of nationwide
statistics in projecting the future in over 650
of the job fields of most interest to students.
It brings descriptions of jobs up to date, and
advises and warns the prospective worker as
to the upswing or downswing indicated by the
most reliable data.
The Handbook is supplemented by other
publications listed on page 827 to provide a con­
tinuous flow of information on the employment
outlook. The counselor who fails to avail him­
self of these materials lacks the most authentic
and current data about occupations.
J. A. Stratton, president of the Massachusetts
Institute of Technology, said over 2 years ago,
that half of all we know in science has been
learned in the last 10 years, and that our scienti­
fic knowledge would double in the next 5 years,
and continue to multiply at an ever-increasing
rate. Consequently, most occupations which
are affected by scientific knowledge— and what
job is not?— will be subject to change. As work
patterns move with the times* worker functions,
too, will shift.
Since many occupations which will be
covered in the Handbook a decade hence have
not yet been created, a student with some years
of preparation before him may be encouraged

1

2
to elect a broad program of courses and perhaps
identify a general area of interest such as
science, social studies, or art. Specialization
may be delayed until a later date. The further
one goes in school, the more time he will have
to select his major field. The more familiar he
is with areas of work as described in the Hand­
book, the better prepared he will be to plan his
own future as he goes along.
Most of the career information in the Hand­
book follows a uniform outline: Nature of
Work; Where Employed; Training and Other
Qualifications; Employment Outlook; Earnings
and Working Conditions; and Where To Go for
More Information. The descriptions include
basic information from which the counselor can
deduce values which contribute to job satis­
faction. The effective counselor must be aware
of these all-important aspects of work, and also
acquaint the student with the economic, politi­
cal, social, artistic, or scientific values to be
derived.
The counselor has information about the
student in his files to help with the process of
matching work to the worker. He assists the
student in considering vocational goals or areas
which will utilize his strongest potentials— in­
telligence, special talents, personality, interests,
and values. Probing hobbies and cocurricular
activities, as well as reviewing school grades and
test results, make the student aware of abilities
which he might use on a job. Thus, the coun­
selor may relate model shipbuilding to aspects
of watch repairing, or holding a class office to
selling.
It is not necessary that a high school student
choose from the Handbook one job which will
meet all of his criteria for a life work. About
50 percent of the students who go to college
change their majors specified at entry, before
graduation. Graduate level courses frequently
alter the emphasis in career planning. In the
business field, too, there is much job shifting.
Using the Handbook, one can open vistas to
the student, pointing out several occupational
areas to which specific training may lead, and
additional courses or experience which ,may
qualify him for advancement. Counseling at the
high school level, therefore, should prepare the
student to do some self-counseling subsequently,




OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

as he acquires experience and information in
new fields.
A counselor needs to weigh what the Hand­
book indicates are the usual demands of a job,
and what the person in front of him offers.
Sometimes, ambition and determination com­
pensate for less-than-promising qualifications
for specific work. When the qualifications are
based on test results, the chance for error in
interpretation must be considered. Errors may
be due to factors in the test or in the student,
and even the best test gives only a rough esti­
mate of what it is designed to measure.
Of the various steps on an occupational
ladder, the one at the top usually has the
greatest appeal. This can be a reasonable goal
for one who easily meets all of the requirements.
A wise counselor, however, will spell out for
the counselee the hurdles involved, and let the
latter make his choice on the basis of his likely
success on the various rungs. Thus, mathemat­
ical ability which is insufficient to qualify a
student for engineering may be adequate for a
related nondegree technical course. Similarly,
one may aspire to become a doctor, but there
are other health service careers which involve
less training and talent and may serve as al­
ternative objectives.
Good counseling consists of opening up an
area of related occupations, with the path to
each precisely delineated. The Handbook groups
together vocations which have common bases;
the counselor should assist the student in
selecting a basic program upon which he will
build later when he has determined the specific
character of work for which he is best
qualified.
The Handbook stresses the point that fore­
casts of the future are precarious. Scientific
discoveries and inventions, national and inter­
national situations, and even styles and fads
can affect the economy and hence the demand
for workers in certain fields. The Handbook is
a valuable guide to national occupational trends,
but it makes no claim to infallibility. It under­
lines the warning that local conditions do not
always mirror the national scene. What is set
down in black and white must be qualified by
events which affect the particular labor market.
Counselors, students, and parents can profit

USING THE HANDBOOK IN GUIDANCE

from the Handbook’s analyses of* occupations.
Teachers of occupations and counselor educa­
tors can also utilize the data presented between
its covers. To understand the factors contri­
buting to the stability of labor in general, and
jobs in particular, it is urged that all profes­
sionally prepared persons who use the Occupa­
tional Outlook Handbook read the introductory
sections.
Guidance is not an exact science. Youth
matures and jobs evolve, and the counselor
must function in the present to effect a com­
patible union of worker and work at some time




3
in the future. Intelligent use of the Handbook
can give a counselor a sense of assurance that
after he understands what the counselee brings
to his potential job, he can suggest the work
areas which meet those qualifications. A wise
counselor and the Handbook make a good team.
F r ank L. Sievers, Chief
Guidance, Counseling and Testing Section
and
L ouise 0 . E ckerson , Research Assistant
Office of Education, U.S. Department
of Health, Education, and Welfare

Guide to the Handbook
This book answers many questions young
people ask when they are interested in choosing
an occupation. It gives information on occupa­
tions— on the employment outlook in each field,

the nature of the work, training, and other
qualifications needed for entry, lines of advance­
ment, where jobs are located, and earnings and
working conditions.

How the Handbook Is Organized
Introductory Chapters

The Handbook starts off with three introduc­
tory chapters, designed to help counselors and
young people make effective use of the book
and to give them a general view of the world
of work.
This chapter, the Guide to the Handbook, de­
scribes the contents and organization of the
book. It tells how the information was assem­
bled and discusses a number of points which
need to be borne in mind in interpreting the
statements made. The second introductory chap­
ter gives suggestions regarding supplementary
sources of occupational information and tells
how readers can keep up to date on developments
affecting the employment outlook in different
occupations. It also contains a brief descrip­
tion of the counseling, placement, and other
services available to jobseekers at local offices
of State employment services affiliated with the
U.S. Employment Service. The final introduc­
tory chapter describes some of the most im­
portant trends in population and employment,
both past and prospective, and provides a
needed background for interpreting the reports
on particular occupations.
Occupational Reports

The reports on different fields of work make
up the main body of the book. They are
arranged in chapters dealing with groups of
related occupations. These chapters are
4



grouped, in turn, into seven major divisions of
the book: professional, administrative, and
related occupations; clerical and sales occupa­
tions; service occupations; skilled trades and
other industrial occupations; some major in­
dustries and their occupations; agricultural
occupations; and occupations in government.
Indexes and Appendix

To help readers locate information on the
occupations in which they are interested, a list
of the occupational reports is included in the
table of contents at the front of the book. Per­
sons wishing to find statements on occupations
related to a general field of interest— for ex­
ample, artistic, technical, managerial, clerical,
or manipulative work— may do so by referring
to the Index to Occupations Classified by Broad
Fields of Work, the first of the two indexes at
the back of the book. The second index lists
occupations and industries alphabetically for
easy reference.
The Technical Appendix contains a discus­
sion of the sources and methods used in analyz­
ing the occupational outlook in different fields
of work. It is designed for readers wishing
more information on this subject than is in­
cluded in the present chapter. The appendix
also contains an explanation of the D.O.T.
numbers given in the occupational reports, to
indicate where each occupation fits into the
classification system of the Dictionary of Oc­
cupational Titles.

5

GUIDE TO THE HANDBOOK

Some Important Facts About the Occupational Reports
Occupations Covered

The more than 650 occupations discussed in­
clude those of greatest interest to young people.
Most of the large ones requiring long periods
of education or training are discussed, as are
a number of small but rapidly growing fields
and other occupations of special interest for
various reasons. Altogether, the occupations
covered account for about 90 perceht of all
workers in professional and related and in sales
occupations; nearly as high a proportion in
skilled occupations; over half in clerical and in
service occupations (outside private house­
holds) ; and smaller proportions in administra­
tive and semiskilled occupations. The main
types of farming are also discussed.
General information on many fields of work
not covered in the occupational reports is con­
tained in the introductions to the major divi­
sions of the book. These introductions are also
designed to aid the reader in interpreting the
reports on individual occupations.
Sources of Information

Information on employment trends and out­
look and the many related topics discussed
in the occupational reports was drawn from a
great variety of sources. It is based in part on
extensive field investigation carried out by the
Bureau of Labor Statistics professional staff; in­
terviews with hundreds of persons in industry,
unions, trade associations, and public agencies
provided a wealth of up-to-date information. In
addition, the Bureau's other research programs
supplied data on employment in different in­
dustries, productivity and technological de­
velopments, wages and working conditions,
trade union agreements, accident hazards, and
a number of other topics. Other agencies of
the Federal Government— among them, the Bu­
reau of Apprenticeship and Training and Bu­
reau of Employment Security in the Depart­
ment of Labor, the Bureau of the Census of the
Department of Commerce; the Office of Educa­
tion of the Department of Health, Education,
and Welfare; the Civil Service Commission; the



Interstate Commerce Commission; the Civil
Aeronautics Administration; and the Federal
Communications Commission— provided addi­
tional data regarding the nature of the work
in various occupations, training and licensing
requirements, wages, and employment trends.
Many other public and private organizations—
including State licensing boards, educational in­
stitutions, business firms, professional societies,
trade associations, and trade unions— also made
available published and unpublished data and
supplied much helpful information through
interviews.
By bringing together and analyzing informa­
tion from these many sources, conclusions were
reached as to prospective employment trends in
the occupations covered by this Handbook. In
addition, estimates were made of the numbers
of job openings which will be created by retire­
ments and deaths. The supply of new workers
likely to be available in particular fields was
also analyzed, by studying statistics on high
school and college enrollments and graduations
and data on the numbers of apprentices in
skilled trades.
When preliminary drafts of the occupational
reports had been completed, these were reviewed
by officials of leading companies, trade associa­
tions, trade unions, professional societies, and
other experts. The information and conclusions
presented in each report thus reflect the knowl­
edge and judgment not only of the Bureau of
Labor Statistics staff but also of leaders in the
field discussed, although the Bureau, of course,
takes full responsibility for all statements made.
Points To Bear in Mind in Using the Reports

In using the information which this book
contains about employment prospects, it is im­
portant to keep in mind that all conclusions
about the economic future necessarily rest on
certain assumptions. For practical purposes,
in vocational guidance, the statements on em­
ployment outlook in the Handbook assume : (1)
that high levels of economic activity and em­
ployment will be maintained over the long run
even though there may be temporary recessions;

6
(2) that there will be no major war but, at
the same time, the defense program will con­
tinue at about the current level; (3) that scien­
tific and technological advances will continue;
(4) that the institutions and fundamental eco­
nomic structure of the United States will not
change significantly.
These assumptions are believed to be the ones
most useful for practical purposes in vocational
guidance. A catastrophe such as a war or a
severe and prolonged economic depression
would, of course, create an employment situa­
tion entirely different from that likely to de­
velop under the assumed conditions. But young
people cannot build their lifetime plans in ex­
pectation of such unpredictable catastrophes,
though, on the basis of historical experience,
they must be prepared to weather economic ups
and downs during their working lives.
To avoid constant repetition, the assumptions
are seldom mentioned in the reports on the
many fields of work where the impact of a
general decline in business or a change in the
scale of mobilization would probably be about
the same as in the economy as a whole. On
the other hand, in the statements on occupa­
tions where employment tends either to be un­
usually stable or to be especially subject to ups
and downs, these facts are indicated. Even in
the latter occupations, however, long-term
trends in employment are more important than
short-run fluctuations in appraising the out­
look in connection with an individual's choice
of a lifetime career.
It should be noted also that the picture of




OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

employment opportunities given in this book ap­
plies to the country as a whole unless other­
wise indicated. People who want supplemen­
tary information on job opportunities in their
communities should consult local sources of in­
formation, as suggested in the following chapter
of the Handbook.
The information presented on earnings and
working conditions, as on other subjects, rep­
resents the most recent available when the
Handbook was prepared early in 1961. Much
of the information came from Bureau of Labor
Statistics surveys, but many other sources
were also utilized. For this reason, the earnings
data presented in the various occupational re­
ports often refer to different periods of time,
cover varying geographic areas, and represent
different kinds of statistical measures. Com­
parisons between the earnings data for differ­
ent occupations should, therefore, be made with
great caution.
Finally, it should be borne in mind that in­
formation on occupations and the employment
opportunities they offer is only part of that
needed in a career decision, which means
matching a person and an occupation. The
other part relates, of course, to the potential
worker himself— his interests and aptitudes.
People can obtain help in assessing their own
abilities and interests and in selecting the oc­
cupation for which they are best suited from
vocational counselors in schools and colleges,
State employment service offices, Veterans Ad­
ministration regional offices and guidance cen­
ters, and many community agencies.

Where To Go for More Information
or Assistance
Persons using this Handbook may want more
detail on some of the occupations discussed in
the occupational reports, or information on
fields of work which could not be covered in
this publication.
Suggestions as to sources of additional in­
formation on the occupations discussed are
given in most of the occupational reports. In
addition, several types of publications of the
U.S. Department of Labor, including periodicals
described on pages 827-828 of this Handbook,
provide further information on topics such as
earnings, hours of work, and working condi­
tions. Other sources likely to be helpful include
the following:

community agencies. Teachers of special sub­
jects such as music, printing, and shorthand
can often give information about occupations
related to the subjects they teach.
State Employment Services

Counselors in local public employment offices
are in a particularly good position to supply
information about job opportunities, hiring
standards, and wages in their localities. (The
services available through the public employ­
ment offices are described in the concluding
section of this chapter.)
Business Establishments

Public Libraries

These libraries usually have on their shelves
many books, pamphlets, and magazine articles
giving information about different occupations.
They may also have several books and current
indexes which list the great numbers of publi­
cations on occupations, and the librarians may
be of assistance in finding the best ones on a
particular field of work.

Employers and personnel officers can usually
supply information about the nature of the work
performed by employees in their industry or
business and the qualifications needed for vari­
ous jobs, as well as other facts about employ­
ment conditions and opportunities. The names
of local firms in a particular industry can be
found in the classified sections of telephone
directories or can be obtained from local cham­
bers of commerce.

Schools

School libraries and guidance offices often
have the same kinds of reading materials on
occupations. In addition, school counselors and
teachers usually know of any local occupational
information which has been assembled through
special surveys made by schools or by other

Trade Unions, Employers7 Associations,
and Professional Societies

Frequently, these organizations have local
branches, with officials who can supply in­
formation relating to the occupations with
which they are concerned.

Keeping Up To Date on the Occupational Outlook
The present edition of the Handbook, like all
previous editions, incorporates the most recent
occupational information available when the




book was prepared for publication early in
1961.
The Bureau of Labor Statistics also issues
7

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

8

a periodical, the Occupational Outlook Quart­
erly, to keep readers up to date between editions
of the Handbook, on developments affecting
employment opportunities and on the findings
of new occupational outlook research. In addi­
tion, the Bureau issues at irregular intervals oc­
cupational outlook bulletins which give much
more detailed information on various fields of
work than can be included either in the Hand­
book or in the Occupational Outlook Quarterly.
Further information about these publications,

and directions for ordering them, will be found
on page 829 of the Handbook.
The Bureau will be glad to place the name
of any user of this Handbook on its mailing
list to receive announcements of new publica­
tions and releases summarizing the results of
new studies. Anyone wishing to receive such
materials should send the requests, with his
address, to the Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S.
Department of Labor, Washington 25, D.C.

Services to Jobseekers at Public Employment Offices
Many of the readers of this Handbook want
assistance in choosing a suitable type of work
and in finding the right job. The reader who
wants professional assistance from trained em­
ployment counselors should know about the
services of his local public employment office.
The U.S. Employment Service and affiliated
State employment services form a nationwide
organization which plays an important part in
our economy. Through 1,800 local offices, con­
veniently located in cities and towns through­
out the United States, this employment service
finds jobs for workers and workers for jobs.
Although the employment service is a Fed­
eral-State system, each employment office is
basically a local community organization. It
is concerned with facilitating suitable and
stable employment for the community's work­
ing population and with adequately meeting the
manpower needs of the employers. Because of
this concern, the local office tries to do more
than merely refer a worker to a job— it tries
to match the worker and job so that the re­
quirements of each are satisfied. To do this, the
public employment office has deyfeloped a num­
ber of services that are available to all job­
seekers. Many of these are particularly im­
portant to young men and women entering the
world of work for the first time.
Counseling Services

Employment service counseling assists both
young people leaving school and experienced
workers who wish or need to change their field




of work in choosing and adjusting to a suitable
field of work.
The major purposes of employment coun­
seling are to help people gain insight into their
actual or potential abilities, their interests, and
their personal traits ; to understand something
of the nature of occupations; and to make the
best use of their capacities and preferences in
the light of available job opportunities.
In the employment service, the counselor has
a great store of resources, including testing fa­
cilities and labor market and occupational
information.
Testing. Most local offices provide testing serv­
ices, including the General Aptitude Test
Battery, which measures basic abilities for
many and varied broad fields of work and for
about 850 specific jobs within these fields.
These tests help the applicant appraise his
abilities. They may reveal aptitudes the job­
seeker did not know he had.
Labor Market Information. The State employ­
ment office counselor has information about
jobs in the community. He knows what kinds
of jobs prevail in local industry, which jobs are
more plentiful, what the hiring requirements
and the opportunities for promotion are, and
what the jobs pay. In many labor market
areas, the counselor has information about
future occupational opportunities, based on
area skill surveys which usually cover employ­
ers' forecasts of their long-range requirements.
He may also have detailed occupational guides

9

WHERE TO GO FOR MORE INFORMATION

covering specific jobs in the community. In
addition, since his office is a part of the nation­
wide employment service, the counselor has in­
formation regarding employment opportunities
in other areas all over the country.
Occupational Information. The employment
service office has occupational information
which helps the job applicant decide whether
he is suited to a particular kind of work. The
Dictionary of Occupational Titles, Job De­
scriptions, Estimates of Worker Traits for 4,000
Jobs, and other compilations describe the work
performed in the various occupations and the
training required, lines of advancement, physi­
cal demands, and working conditions for most
occupations. Recent publications of the type
on file in the employment offices include: Oc­
cupations in Electronic Data Processing Sys­
tems, Technical Occupations in Research, De­
sign, and Development Considered as Directly
Supporting to Engineers and Physical Scien­
tists, and Selected Occupations Concerned with
Atomic Energy.
Cooperative Arrangements With Other Com­
munity Groups. Local employment office coun­
selors work closely with other public and pri­
vate agencies and organizations which provide
special services that the jobseeker may need in
order to become better prepared for employ­
ment. These groups include educational, train­
ing, vocational rehabilitation, and health and
welfare agencies.
Placement Assistance

The primary objectives of the placement
service in the local employment office are to
fill employers' job openings with occupationally
qualified workers and to locate employment for
workers which is suited to their skills, knowl­
edge, and abilities. The employment office place­
ment service is designed to eliminate the waste
of “ hit-or-miss” job hunting.
Local Openings. State employment office per­
sonnel maintain regular contacts with local
employers and know their hiring needs and
their jobs. Placement interviewers receive re­



quests from employers for all kinds of workers.
Through the local office, therefore, the job ap­
plicant has access to a variety of job vacancies
with many employers, just as the employer has
access to many applicants. When no suitable
job exists for an individual worker, the em­
ployment service may attempt to solicit an open­
ing for him from likely employers.
Jobs Throughout the Country. The job clear­
ance system of the nationwide network of State
employment offices offers the applicant an op­
portunity to qualify for jobs outside his area,
elsewhere in the State and the Nation, and even
in foreign countries. Each State employment
service prepares frequent inventories of hardto-fill jobs which are distributed to all other
State employment services. This makes it possi­
ble for them to refer local workers to out-of-area
jobs for which they qualify. In addition, a
national network of highly specialized profes­
sional placement offices has been established
with the State employment service in order to
speed the matching of jobs and applicants in
professional fields.
Placement Aids. As in counseling, the infor­
mation on local job opportunities for industries,
occupations, and areas, and on occupational
requirements which is available in the employ­
ment offices contributes greatly to getting the
right job for the worker and the right worker
for the job. Also available to the jobseeker are
aptitude and proficiency tests which help de­
termine whether an applicant is qualified to
perform satisfactorily on specific jobs.
Services to Special Worker Groups

The employment service has developed tech­
niques and procedures for particular applicant
groups who may encounter special problems in
their search for suitable jobs.
Special services to youths include emphasis
on counseling graduating students and school
dropouts, and intensive efforts to promote em­
ployment opportunities for them. In many
cities, employment service offices have coopera­
tive arrangements with high schools to provide
counseling, testing, occupational information,

10
and placement services to seniors prior to their
graduation, as well as to those who leave school
earlier. Such arrangements were in effect in
over 9,000 high schools in the school year
1959-60.
The State employment offices have long main­
tained an active program for helping applicants
with vocational handicaps. The emphasis is on
what these people can do with their abilities
rather than on what they cannot do because
of a disability.
Special services for veterans are provided by
the employment service. In each local office,
there is a veterans' representative who is fully
informed regarding veterans' rights and bene­
fits and who carries on job promotion for
veterans. In addition, he assists veterans in
making use of the usual counseling, place­
ment, and other services provided by local office
staff.
The employment service also has developed
techniques to deal with job problems of middleage and older workers. Special attention is




OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

given to assist them to make realistic job choices
and to overcome problems related to getting and
holding a job. Employers have been encouraged
to remove age restrictions on hiring and to
hire only according to the qualifications of the
individual.
Similar attention is also given to job prob­
lems of members of minority groups and others
facing special difficulties in obtaining suitable
employment.
How To Locate the Local Employment Office

The addresses and telephone numbers of local
offices of State employment services affiliated
with the U.S. Employment Service may be
found in local telephone directories. Jobseekers,
employers, schools, and public and private
agencies aiding clients to find employment are
invited to utilize the services of the public em­
ployment offices in their communities and to
avail themselves of the fund of job information
maintained in these offices.

Looking Ahead To Earning A Living
Choosing the way to earn one’s living is
probably as important a decision as a person
ever makes in his entire lifetime. If occupa­
tional goals are thought about early, they can
be a guide to the kind and amount of education
to plan for. If consideration of occupational
choice is postponed too long, the necessary
education or training may be much more dif­
ficult to obtain. Education and occupation are
together an index to probable future income and
chances for steady employment, and hence to
the kind of home one can provide for a family,
one’s chance for leisure, and, eventually, secur­
ity in old age. In other words, when teachers
and parents and counselors urge boys and girls
to start thinking seriously about the kind of
work they want to do, they are not just talking
about getting a job— they are inviting them to
start mapping their lives.
In the broadest sense, one’s work determines
the kind of life that one can expect to live. A
sailor will be long away from home and must
adjust to all weathers and strange lands; a
pilot knows adventure and high income, but
carries a heavy responsibility on every flight;
a miner sees little of the sun; an office worker
can wear nice clothes on the job but may have
to sit at a desk all day; a construction worker
gets a high hourly rate of pay but may have
his income cut off by bad weather for weeks
at a tim e; the factory worker’s security is pro­
tected in many ways by his union, but some
workers may find an assembly-line job monoto­
nous, whereas others may find its pressures too
great; a teacher usually has all summer off
with the opportunity for study or travel, but
rarely will he be able to build up a big bank
account.
In considering choice of a job, therefore, the
Nation’s economic “ life map” in the next de­
cade becomes of vital importance to boys and
girls now in high school and to those who will
follow them through the 1960’s. They will need




to know about trends in the Nation’s work force
and in its business, industrial, and occupational
development, in order to evaluate satisfactorily
where they can find their own best place. To
help young people in this process, this section
of the Handbook briefly describes what indus­
tries and occupations will be developing over
the next decade.
No one can accurately forecast the future,
but reasonable estimates, based on the best in­
formation available, are much better than pure
speculation. Of course, some aspects of the
future are easier to predict accurately than
others. For example, the number of young
people who will be 18 years old in 1970 can be
estimated with a very high degree of accuracy,
because these are the same individuals whom
the Census counted as 8-year-olds in 1960. On
the other hand, forecasting employment of auto­
mobile assemblers in 1970 is extremely difficult.
The first estimate will be affected only by the
death rate among boys and girls who will be
10 years old in 1962, and this extremely low
rate stays about the same from year to year.
Employment of automobile assemblers, how­
ever, will be affected by the changing demand
for American-made automobiles, shifts in buy­
ers’ preferences (toward the “ compact” car,
for instance), changes in the way cars are made
(more automation), and economic developments
outside the automobile industry that are almost
impossible to foresee. Nevertheless, we can
make use of a wealth of available information
and, by using the best judgment of informed
experts, can describe, at least in broad terms,
what the future world of work will be like.
Forecasts involve not only factual data but
some basic assumptions, as well. Just as one
cannot plan to go swimming at a certain time
without assuming the weather will be warm
enough, so economists cannot forecast the de­
mand for certain kinds of workers without
making specific assumptions about general ecoll

12

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

nomic movements and broad national policy.
The picture of the future as reflected in this
Handbook is based on four fundamental
assumptions:
(1) that high levels of economic activity
and employment will be maintained over the
long run, even though there may be temporary
recessions;
(2) that there will be no major war but,
at the same time, the defense program will
continue at about the current level;
(3) that scientific and technological ad­
vances will continue;
(4) that the institutions and fundamental
economic structure of the United States will
not change significantly.
Starting with these assumptions and making
use of detailed information collected from a
great variety of sources during the preparation
of this Handbook, the following sections pro­
vide answers to some questions of major im­
portance to students who will begin work in
the 1960's.
Some of these questions are: What kinds of
jobs will there be? What industries will pro­
vide which kinds of jobs? What fields of
work look especially promising? What com­
petition will I face from other workers?
New ways of making things, new things to
make, and new patterns of living are continu­
ally causing changes in the kinds of jobs that

are available to workers. When a boy leaves
school today, he may be thinking in terms of
jobs that have come into existence within the
last 30 or 40 years, or even less— electronic
technician, airplane mechanic, or radio repair­
man, for example. On the other hand, he may
possibly never have heard of occupations such
as cooper and wheelwright which, 50 years ago,
were large and well-paid trades.
Awareness of the dynamic changes going on
in our economy is particularly important for
young people because the process of change is
not suddenly going to grind to a halt. The
young worker must be prepared to adjust to
what will happen next in the world around
him. It is therefore of great importance to him
to get the broadest kind of training available
when preparing for a particular occupation* so
that if a shift in plans becomes necessary,
transition from one field of work to another
may be not only possible but smooth.
To throw light on the changing character of
occupational life and to provide background
for an understanding of the trends and outlook
in particular occupations, the next few pages
will review the growth and changing composi­
tion of the Nation's population as a whole and
of that portion of the population that makes up
the work force. The discussion will also tell
something about the major trends in employ­
ment in broad industry and occupation groups.

The Population and the People Who Work
The Population

Work and jobs exist because there is a popu­
lation to be served. The larger the population,
the more needs there are to be met, hence more
jobs. The changing age and other characteris­
tics of the population will also affect to some
extent the kinds of goods and services that will
be needed, which in turn will influence the kinds
of jobs that will develop.
The basic fact about our population is its
enormous growth since the beginning of our
life as an independent Nation. The first Census,
in 1790, counted 4 million people occupying
889,000 square miles of territory, only half the
population of New York City today. During



the first 150 years of our history, from 1790 to
1940, the population grew to 132 million people,
occupying 3 million square miles.
The growth in population was particularly
rapid in the several decades preceding World
War I, when there was a combination of a high
birth rate, large-scale immigration from Euro­
pean countries, and a sharp reduction in death
rates. After World War I, the rate of popula­
tion increase slackened for two principal
reasons— the birth rate declined and our immi­
gration laws were so changed that the flow of
people coming to the United States as immi­
grants virtually stopped. During the depression
years of the 1930's, there was an especially

13

LOOKING AHEAD TO EARNING A LIVING

sharp decrease in marriages and therefore in
births because of widespread unemployment,
low incomes, and limited job opportunities. The
low birth rates of the depression years are re­
flected clearly in the age distribution of the
working population today, and will continue to
result in a shortage of experienced, middle aged
workers right through this decade.
Since most of the young people using this
book were born after 1940, this discussion of
population changes will concentrate on what
has happened since the beginning of World War
II. Chart 1 shows recen t and anticipated
population changes.
CHART l
POPULATION WILL REACH 208 MILLION IN 1970 —
15 PERCENT MORE THAN IN 1960.....

Pro jected

to rise ever since. The 1960 Census counted 180
million people, almost 50 million more than only
20 years earlier; by 1970, the population is
expected to reach a total of 208 million.
The presence of so many young people in
the population has changed its age distribution
considerably since 1940. For example, people
under 14 then equaled 23 percent of the total
population, but by 1960 this age group had risen
to almost 30 percent, and will drop only a
little (to 28 percent) between 1960 and 1970
(table 1). The population declines have been
in the age groups which are the primary sup­
pliers of experienced workers. In 1940, the
broad age group from 25 to 44 was 30 percent
of the total population; by 1960, it had dropped
to 26 percent and by 1970, it will have drop­
ped still further to 23 percent, almost the exact
reverse of the changes that took place in the
young group, over the same period of time.
After 1970, of course, today’s flood of young
people will again be changing the proportion of
those aged 25-44 in the total population.
T a b l e 1. Percent distribution of population by age,
1940-70
1940

1950

1955

1960

1965

1970

T o t a l p o p u l a t i o n ......................

1 0 0 .0

1 0 0 .0

1 0 0 .0

1 0 0 .0

1 0 0 .0

1 0 0 .0

U n d e r 14 y e a r s ..........................

2 3 .1
1 1 .2

2 5 .4

2 8 .1

8 .5
7 .7
1 5 .8
1 4 .2

8 .2

2 9 .6
9 .0

2 8 .7
1 0 .8
7 .0

2 7 .6
1 1 .2

1 1 .6
1 2 .6
1 1 .4
8 .8

1 2 .1
1 1 .1
1 1 .2
9 .1
9 .4

A ge

1 4 - 1 9 y e a r s ..................................
2 0 - 2 4 y e a r s ...................................
2 5 - 3 4 y e a r s ...................................
3 5 - 4 4 y e a r s ...................................
4 5 - 5 4 y e a r s ...................................
5 5 - 6 4 y e a r s ...................................
6 5 y e a r s a r id o v e r ....................

8 .9
1 6 .2
1 3 .9
1 1 .8
8 .1
6 .8

1 1 .5
8 .8

6 .5
1 4 .6
1 3 .8
1 1 .4
8 .8

8 .1

8 .6

6 .3
1 2 .7
1 3 .3
1 1 .6
8 .7
8 .8

9 .1

8 .3

S o u r c e : U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census, Cur­
rent Population Reports, Series P -25, No. 98 and Series P-25, No.
187.

1960

1970

S o u rce : D ata fo r 1940-R0. U .S . B u re a u of th e Census*.
p r o je c t io n s : U .S . B u reau of L a b o r S t a t is t ic s .

During the war years, but particularly after
1945, when young veterans began to return
home, the birth rate rose spectacularly. In
1947, 3.8 million births were recorded, com­
pared with fewer than 2.5 million a year during
the late 1930’s. Since that time, the rate has
remained high, with the number of births pass­
ing the 4 million mark in 1954 and continuing



Of most immediate significance to young
people now making their occupational plans is
the number who will be reaching age 18 during
the present decade. To look back for a moment,
in 1955 young people reaching their 18th birth­
day totaled only 2.2 million. In 1960, those
becoming 18 totaled 2.6 million, but by 1965
they will number 3.8 million. With only slight
variation each year, their number will remain
at approximately that level through 1970. These
are the post-World War II babies growing up,
and their numbers are a measure of the com­
petition for college education or other advanced

14

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK
CHART 2

NUMBER O F 18-YEAR-OLDS W ILL IN CREASE RAPIDLY
DURING THE 1960'S......
M illions of persons reaching 18 annually

S o u rc e : U .S . B u re a u o f th e C e n s u s .

training and for jobs that every 18-year-old
will have to face. (See chart 2).
For the majority of young people, age 18 is
a crucial turning point. It is the age at which
most of them graduate from high school, if
they do graduate, and either go on to further
education or training or start to work on a
full-time basis. Some may decide on full-time
work and part-time school or on full-time school
and part-time work. Many girls will decide to
marry. Whatever the specific decision, it will
be, for most young people, as vital a one as
they will ever make— often a point of no
return.
The People Who Work

Statisticians often use terms whose mean­
ings are not obvious and need to be explained.
One of these terms, which is used frequently
in the Handbook, is “ labor force.” This group
of people is only a part of the total population.
First, no one under 14 years of age is counted
in this group because child labor and school




attendance laws generally make it illegal for
children under this age to hold jobs. Among
persons 14 and over only two groups are
counted as being in the labor force: (1) Per­
sons who work, either as full-time or part-time
employees (including those in the Armed
Forces) or as self-employed; and (2) persons
who are unemployed and actively looking for
work.
During the 1960’s, the labor force will grow
even faster than the population as a whole,
mainly because of the large number of young
people reaching working age. From 73 V2 million
in 1960 the labor force is expected to grow,
by 1970, to over 87 million, an increase of 13V£
million or close to 20 percent. At the same
time, the population will grow only 15 percent.
This 131/2 million is, of course, only the net
increase over this period. The total number of
new workers entering the labor force will far
exceed this figure. Those under 25, alone, will
equal 26 million in the decade and larger pro­
portions of older women entering or reentering
the labor force will augment this number to
29 million. The difference of 151 million be­
/)
tween this total and the net growth of 131/2
million represents persons absorbed into the
labor force as replacements for those workers
who, during the same 10 years, will have died,
retired, or left for other reasons, such as dis­
ability or, among women, for marriage or to
take care of children.
The anticipated changes in the size and age
distribution of the work force are shown in
table 2. Those under 25 will total almost half
the increase between 1960 and 1970, and their
overall proportion in the labor force will rise
from less than 19 to more than 23 percent.
Workers over 45 will contribute the second
largest increase in numbers, but their propor­
tion in the total work force will rise only a
little. Those between 35 and 44, always con­
sidered a key age group in the experienced
work force, will not only decline in numbers
but will drop from second to fourth (and low­
est) place proportionately among all workers.
Thus, the first notable characteristic of the
work force in the 1960’s will be the presence
of much larger numbers of young people than
in the past, despite the fact that higher pro-

15

LOOKING AHEAD TO EARNING A LIVING

portions of youth are remaining in school longer.
This is the result of their sheer numbers. Sec­
ond will be the ever greater role of women
worKers. For example, of the total net increase
of 131/2 million in the labor force, almost half
will be women. Young girls just finishing school
and planning for their future should therefore
take a good look at the changing pattern of
women's working lives in the United States,
which these labor force figures dramatize so
vividly.
T a b l e 2. Changes in the number and age distribution of

people in the labor force, 1960-70
P r o p o r t i o n in

N u m b e r in
la b o r fo r c e

la b o r fo rce

C h a n g e 1960
to 1970

A ge grou p
1960

1970

(m illio n s )

(m illio n s )

1960

1970

(p e r c e n t) (p e r c e n t)

(M illio n s ) (P e r c e n t)

A l l w o r k e r s ...........................

7 3 .6

8 7 .1

1 0 0 .0

1 0 0 .0

+ 1 3 .5

+ 1 8 .3

U n d e r 2 5 y e a r s ..................
2 5 - 3 4 y e a r s ...........................
3 5 - 4 4 y e a r s ...........................
4 5 y e a r s a n d o l d e r ...........

1 3 .8
1 5 .3
1 6 .6
2 7 .9

2 0 .2

1 8 .7
2 0 .8

2 3 .2

+ 6 .4

+ 4 6 .0

1 9 .6
1 8 .8
3 8 .4

+ 1 .8
-0 .2

+ 1 2 .0
-

+ 5 .5

+ 2 0 .0

1 7 .1
1 6 .4
3 3 .4

2 2 .6
3 7 .9

1.0

Based on studies by the Bureau of Labor
Statistics, most girls can expect the following
life pattern as they move from school to middle
and old age. Most unmarried girls will go to
work at age 17 or 18 (unless they go to college).
Within 3 or 4 years, most of these girls will
marry. Some of them will then stop working
for pay in order to get a new home organized,
but a majority will continue to work, either to
help put a husband through school, to supple­
ment a husband's income, or to permit purchase
of a home, a car, or the laborsaving equipment
that modern industry produces in such abun­
dance. Then, when the first baby arrives, the
vast majority of young mothers give up their

jobs and remain out of the labor market until
their youngest child is old enough to go to
school. It is true that as many as one in seven
women with preschool-age children do continue
to work, usually because of economic necessity,
but the general pattern is that the age group
25-34 supplies the lowest proportion of women
workers.
When the youngest child no longer needs
constant care, the trek of mothers back to paid
employment begins. This usually happens when
the women are approaching their middle thir­
ties, after they have been nonwage earners for
about 8 to 10 years. Once back, the tendency
is for them to remain in the labor force, perhaps
not continuously, but certainly for a substantial
proportion of their years to age 65. By 1970,
nearly half of all women between 35 and 65
will probably be either working or looking for
work. Unless things change radically and un­
expectedly in the years ahead, the highest par­
ticipation rate will be among women aged 45„
to 54.
These comments have concentrated on the
life pattern of married women because they
will be in the vast majority. But for the girl
who remains single— and 1 in 10 does— the
length of her working life will be little different
from that of a man. Since most single women
must support themselves, and often parents or
other relatives, they must continue to hold a job.
The “ work-life expectancy," as it is often refered to, looks like this for women: For single
women, 40 years at w ork; for childless married
women, 31 years, and for married women with
children, 27 years. It therefore behooves girls,
as well as boys, to give serious thought to the
kind of work they want to do and can do best.

The Kinds of Jobs There Will Be
What can young people anticipate about the
kinds of jobs that will be available? In what
industries will the jobs be found? Just as the
size of our work force has changed sharply
over the years, so has the size and character of
major industries, and these changes greatly
affect employment opportunities and occupa­
tional choice. Some industries which flourished



at the turn of the century are all but gone;
others unknown 50 years ago are now among
the largest employers. Two dramatic examples
of the new industries are aircraft and chemicals.
But even these are now old, compared with
those in the atomic energy field and in the
production and servicing of electronic equip­
ment. There is little doubt that there are in­

16
dustries and occupations which are so small
right now as to be hardly noticeable but which
will, one day, become major fields of employ­
ment.
Changes in Important Industries

Most people, when thinking about what they
want to do for a living, think in terms of a
specific occupation such as secretary, airplane
mechanic, clerk, doctor, machinist, truckdriver, or carpenter, rather than in terms of
industrial activities such as manufacturing, re­
tail trade, or construction. This being the case,
it might seem more logical to discuss the trends
in major groups of occupations first rather than
trends in major industries. Although it is true
that the occupation is of primary interest, the
same occupation often exists in so many differ­
ent industries that the individual can better
visualize the broader opportunities if he first
finds out something about industry trends.
Knowing these trends, he can then decide not
only on the occupation to train for, but what
industries offer the best possibilities for using
that occupational training.

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

of horses and mules by tractors and trucks in
both the city and on the farm has freed millions
of acres for the production of food for human
beings instead of for livestock. The use of
scientific methods, chemicals, fertilizers, better
seeds, and improved cattle and hogs have also
greatly increased farm productivity.
The results of this technological revolution
are shown in chart 3. The number of farmers
CHART 3
MORE WORKERS IN BUSINESS AND INDUSTRY —
FEWER ON FARMS.....
Millions of workers

Farming

The terms “ technology” and “ mechaniza­
tion” bring to mind images of great auto assem­
bly plants or oil refineries or an army of robots
doing man’s work. Actually, however, the
greatest technological revolution in the United
States has taken place on the farm. In 1870,
more than half of the Nation’s workers were
engaged in agriculture. Today, only 1 worker
in 12 makes his living from farming, either
as a farm owner or as a laborer. The implica­
tions of this fact are enormous. Ninety years
ago, the average farmer could supply food for
only about 6 people; in 1960, 1 farmer met the
food needs of 26 people.
By comparing a farm of 1870 with one of
today, we can readily see why this has been
possible. Today’s farmer has machinery which
enables him to put into use several times the
acreage that a man could handle in 1870. This
has contributed to the great growth in size of
individual farms. Moreover, the replacement



S o u r c e : D a ta f o r 1 8 7 0 -1 9 6 0 , U .S . B u re a u o f the C e n s u s ,
p r o je c t io n s : U .S . B u rea u of L a b o r S t a t is t ic s .

and farm workers increased from about 7 mil­
lion (53 percent of the labor force) in 1870 to
a peak of IIV 2 million around 1910. By 1950,
the number of farm workers had declined to 7
million (12 percent of the labor force), the
same number as 80 years before, even though
the Nation’s population had increased almost
fourfold and the quantity of farm products, by
41/2 times.
This downward trend in the number of farm
workers continued during the 1950-60 decade.
In 1960, only 5.9 million farmers and farm

17

LOOKING AHEAD TO EARNING A LIVING

laborers were in the labor force; by 1970, the
total will have dropped still further, to about
5 million, only 6 percent of the labor force—
a ninefold drop in 100 years. In view of this
continuing decline, the young man who has been
dreaming of making a living by operating his
own small family acreage may want to con­
sider training for something else. Many scienti­
fic and professional occupations and specialized
services associated with agriculture are develop­
ing rapidly and offer greater economic promise
than farming on a small scale.

CHART 4
EMPLOYMENT IN EIGHT MAJOR INDUSTRY GROUPS, I960....

Millions of workers

Manufacturing

Trade

Government

Nonfarm Industries

Most workers are employed in industries
other than farm ing; in fact, more than 90 per­
cent now earn their living in one of the fol­
lowing major types of activity: Mining, manu­
facturing, construction, transportation and
public utilities, trade, finance, service, and
government. These are broad designations re­
ferred to as “ industry groups” by the Census
and other agencies that collect information on
employment. (See chart 4.) Each of these groups
includes a variety of individual industries, and
in each industry there are many different kinds
of jobs. One should not think of “ trade,” for
example, only in terms of clerks selling things
over the counter, or of “ manufacturing” as
offering only jobs on an assembly line, or of
“ service” as being mainly waiting on tables in
a restaurant or pressing a suit in a dry cleaning
shop.
The number and kind of jobs in any specific
industry will depend on whether the industry
is growing or declining, and what kind of
processes and machines it uses to carry out
its work. Actually, a young person making his
work choice will be most interested in whether
employment in an industry is increasing or de­
creasing, and whether there is a shortage or
surplus of workers to perform the tasks in that
particular industry.
We can get some idea of how the eight major
industry groups have been changing in the past
40 years by looking at some figures which the
Bureau of Labor Statistics has been collecting
directly from employers over all that time.
First, the total number of employees in all eight




Service

Transportation

Construction

Finance, insurance,
and real estate

Mining

groups has exactly doubled, and in 1960 totaled
about 53 million. But the same amount of growth
did not occur in each of the eight groups. Em­
ployment in transportation and public utilities,
for example, hardly grew at all, despite the
tremendous jump in air and bus travel. Jobs in
mining are now only three-fifths as many as
at the end of World War I. On the other hand,
the service industries, government employment,
construction, and wholesale and retail trade
grew with the greatest rapidity. Employment
in the services and in government are now both
more than threefold what they were in 1919,
followed by construction (2.7 times) and
wholesale and retail trade, 2.5 times. Employ­
ment in manufacturing, while continuing to
grow, grew more slowly, increasing by 1960 to
only li/o times its 1919 total. A closer look at
some aspects of each broad industry group will
help to show what each has to offer in terms of
employment prospects.
Although manufacturing as a whole has not
grown at as fast a rate as some others, it still

18
employs many more people than any of the
other seven industry groups. In 1960, more
than 16 million people earned their living in the
multitude of occupations found in this very di­
versified segment of the economy. “ Operative”
jobs, the biggest group in manufacturing, pro­
vide work for about 45 percent of all manu­
facturing employees and include three or four
main types of semiskilled workers:
(1) those who operate machines or equip­
ment used in making things;
(2) those who assemble various parts to
make a single final product such as a radio or
television set;
(3) those who inspect and test the product
to see that it is made properly and will work
satisfactorily;
(4) those who serve as helpers to more
skilled workers— such as the stationary fireman
who helps the skilled stationary engineer run
and repair the steam boilers in a plant.
There are many other kinds of jobs in manu­
facturing besides operatives— machinists, en­
gineers, stenographers, production managers,
tool and die makers, traveling salesmen, and
unskilled laborers, to name a few.
The number of people employed in the differ­
ent branches of manufacturing are shown in
chart 5. The industries making durable goods
(things that last a long time), such as ma­
chinery, refrigerators, and automobiles, em­
ployed a total of almost 9!/£ million people in
1960. The nondurable-goods manufacturers,
who process food, make clothing, print news­
papers, and produce many other things that are
used up quickly, employed almost 7 million
people. Employment in the durable-goods
branch was highest in those industries produc­
ing machinery and transportation equipment
(autos, aircraft, and railway cars) and was
lowest in industries making such specialized
items as instruments and ordnance (things like
guns and ammunition). Employment in the
nondurable-goods branch was highest in food
and clothing, and the fewest workers were em­
ployed in making cigarettes and other tobacco
products.
The second biggest industry group in 1960
was retail and wholesale trade, employing 12
million people, about three-fourths of them in



OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK
CHART 5
EMPLOYMENT IN MAJOR BRANCHES OF MANUFACTURING,
1960....

0

0.5

Millions of wage and salary workers
1.0
1.5
2.0

DURABLE G O O D S
Transportation
equipment
Machinery, except
electrical
Electrical m achinery
Primary metal
industries
Fabricated metal
products
Lumber
Stone, clay, and g lass
Furniture
Instruments and
related products
O rdnance and
accessories
Miscellaneous

NONDURABLE GO O DS
Food
Apparel
Textiles
Printing and
publishing
Chemicals
Paper
Leather
Rubber
Petroleum and coal
Tobacco

the retail branch. Although various kinds of
sales jobs make up the largest group of these
employees, the industry also has jobs for large
numbers of clerical workers, truckdrivers, de­
livery men, elevator operators, porters, pack­
agers, and often repair services of various kinds.
In the past 40 years, wholesale and retail trade
has been a “ growth” industry— its present em­
ployment being
times the 1919 level. One
of its significant features is the fact that it
employs high proportions of women on both
full-time and part-time jobs, principally retail

LOOKING AHEAD TO EARNING A LIVING

selling, and is one of the principal “ absorbers”
of middle-aged and older women who are re­
entering the labor force.
In 1960, government was the third largest
employer, with 8 14 million workers. Threefourths of these workers were State and local
employees, such as teachers, policemen, firemen,
sanitation workers, and welfare workers. As
the population continues to rise, the need for
more and more of such workers will increase
and will continue the long-range upward trend
that has been apparent since 1919. The 6
million people who were working for State and
local governments in 1960 were three times the
number so employed 40 years earlier. Federal
employment, which rises to higher levels in
times of war, has been stablized at close to 2
million since the end of the Korean fighting.
As in other industries, there is considerable
turnover in the Federal service and the govern­
ment often finds it necessary to put on special
recruitment programs for young professional
and clerical workers.
In 1960, the service industries stood in fourth
rank among employers, providing jobs for more
than 6V2 million people. These millions were
working in such diverse places as auto and
other kinds of repair shops, laundries, dry
cleaning establishments, hotels, barber shops,
theaters, movie production, advertising firms,
and a host of others. The service industry
group has also been one of the fastest growing
and is now well over three times its size in 1919.
This reflects a very important fact about our
way of life— that as we grow and prosper,
higher and higher proportions of people will be
engaged, not in making things, but in perform­
ing the multitude of services that make life
more pleasant and easier for people generally.
The remaining four of the eight major in­
dustry groups employed far fewer people in
1960, less than 10 million all together. The
largest of the four was transportation (trains,
buses, airplanes, ships), communications and
public utilities (telephone, telegraph, electric
light and power) with a total of almost 4 mil­
lion workers. Despite the many new activities
in this general area and all the new inventions
involved, this group is one of the slowest grow­
ing in overall employment, with only a 5-percent



19
increase in the past 40 years. This reflects the
great decline in railroad employment, owing to
mechanization, competition from other forms
of public transportation, from the use of pri­
vate automobiles, and the increasing mechani­
zation in many other branches of the industry
group. A vivid example is telephones. In 1921,
when the automatic dial system was introduced,
118,500 operators handled IV3 billion calls a
month. If, since that time, there had been no
increase in the use of dial equipment and no
change in productivity, over 750,000 operators
would now be needed instead of the approxi­
mately 225,000 currently employed. Continuing
technological improvements will undoubtedly
enable the telephone industry to expand its serv­
ice as needed without expanding employment of
operators. Nevertheless, there is a very high
turnover in this occupation, since it employs
mainly young girls of marriageable age, and the
job opportunities here for women are compara­
tively good. In the transportation branch of
this industry group most employees are men.
The contract construction industry includes
the building of such structures as homes, fac­
tories, schools, public buildings, office buildings,
apartment houses, roads, bridges, and dams. In
the past 40 years, employment in this industry
has almost tripled, reflecting again the rapid
growth of the Nation's population and indus­
tries. In 1960, this industry employed 2.8
million people (almost all of them men), half
of them skilled craftsmen. Employment in con­
struction fluctuates greatly, from one season to
another and also from year to year, reacting
to business activity generally. When business
conditions are good, people buy new homes and
companies invest in new plants; when business
is slack, businessmen and private citizens both
tend to put off this kind of spending. Every
year, when the weather turns bad, outdoor work
stops. Sometimes, as during a war, resources
of material and skills go into construction of
camps, defense plants, and ships, and private
building may almost cease. This happened dur­
ing World War II, but after 1947, the accumu­
lated, unfilled civilian demand of 7 years
boosted construction employment by 40 percent
to its present level. Maximum employment in

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

20

any single year of the past decade, however, was
in 1956 when it reached 2.9 million.
Employment in the finance, insurance, and
real estate group was almost as great as in
construction in 1960— 2.5 million, more than
21/3 times the 1919 figures. Here again is an
industry which, although not one of the largest,
is a rapidly growing one. Some of its growth
has a direct relation to the building of new
homes, and the phenomenal increase since the
depression of the 1930’s in instalment buying
and credit facilities has contributed to its ex­
pansion. In contrast to construction, most of
the jobs are white-collar ones, and almost half
the employees are women.
Other than agriculture, mining is the one
industry group where a decline in jobs has
persisted over many years. Employment was
665,000 in 1960, only 60 percent of the 1919
figure, despite the fact that the industry group
includes petroleum and natural gas production
where the number of jobs has grown 40 percent
in the past 10 years alone. However, the silent,
abandoned coal mines that scar so much of
West Virginia, Illinois, Kentucky, and western
Pennsylvania are mute evidence of rapid de­
cline in this industry whose deep pits once
produced the fuel that fed the furnaces of
American industry.
The Industrial Forecast

The preceding paragraphs tell where Ameri­
can industry stood in 1960. They describe what
has happened over a period of years and illus­
trate the point that changes occur at varying
speeds and often go in different directions.
What is perhaps more important for those about
to choose a career, however, is “ What can be
expected to happen next?” What industries will
employ the expected increase of 13 ^ million
workers in the next 10 years? This is where
projections come in— forecasts based on the
best available information. (See chart 6.)
How do the employment prospects for in­
dividual industry groups compare with the ex­
pected overall employment growth of 20 per­
cent? Two groups, construction and finance,
though not among the largest employers, will
grow far more rapidly than the average, with



CHART 6
INDUSTRIES WILL VARY WIDELY IN THEIR RATE OF
GROWTH DURING THE 1960’S . . . .
Expected employment growth rates compared with
20 percent rise in total employment
Actual
decline

I n du stry

Much
Much About
Faster
slower same
fa ste r

Construction ............
Finance, insurance, real estate...............................<■
■■
»■
♦
Trade —........... .

.

...... .................... -.......... ...... »♦

Government services —...........................................»
All other services............................ — ------------ »
Manufacturing -i------------ -— ..............
Transportation and public utilities******
Mining.................. .

...........................♦

f.......* Agriculture

employment gains of 30 percent or more. The
millions of young families expected to be
formed, especially after 1965, will push up­
ward the demand for more homes, more school
rooms, more highways, more stores, more facil­
ities of all kinds. The construction industry
will boom. Accompanying it in rate of growth
will be the finance, insurance, and real estate
group. Contributing to this growth will be gen­
erally rising income levels, the increasing com­
plexity of the country’s financial activities, the
growth of industries with insurance and finan­
cial needs, and the continuing flow of popula­
tion from farms to urban areas.
Greater than average employment increases,
but less than those in construction and finance,
will occur in retail and other branches of trade,
and in government, chiefly in the services pro­
vided by State and local units, such as public
education, health, sanitation and welfare^ and
in other professional, business, recreational and
personal services. In both these broad groups,
increases between 25 and 29 percent are
expected.
The largest employer, manufacturing, will
grow at about the same rate as all groups com­
bined— 20 percent. However, some of its
branches will grow much faster than others.
In general, the shift in employment from non­

LOOKING AHEAD TO EARNING A LIVING

durable to durable goods industries is expected
to continue, even though variations in this
trend also occur from year to year. Accelerated
mechanization, which is difficult to predict, may
belie this forecast to a certain extent.
Rising less than the average will be two other
groups transportation, communications, and
public utilities, and mining. As in manufactur­
ing, some segments of this industry group will
expand rapidly but these gains will be offset by
employment declines in others. The contributing
factors already mentioned in trends to 1960
will continue to influence the overall situation.
Finally, agricultural employment is expected
to decline substantially, releasing thousands of
workers to be absorbed elsewhere. Neverthe­
less, the professional and technical jobs con­
nected with agriculture, such as those of agri­
cultural research specialist, soil scientist, and
soil conservationist will actually grow.
Before leaving the subject of industry growth
and change, one more factor should be men­
tioned, i.e., that the changes discussed above
will not be spread evenly over all areas of the
country. Although nonfarm employment be­
tween 1947 and 1959 increased in all States
except Rhode Island, West Virginia, and Penn­
sylvania, the rate of growth has been quite
different in various parts of the country. (See
chart 7.) Nationally, employment grew 21 per­
cent between 1947 and 1959, but in California,
the Rocky Mountain area, the Southwest, and
Florida, employment growth was twice or more
than twice the national average. Aircraft, elec­
tronics, and tourism account for much of this
growth. The Southeastern States, long slow in
industrial development, have been growing
faster than the national average, but not as
fast as the West and Southwest. Employment
growth in the Southeast has been between 21
and 42 percent., On the other hand, in New
England, the Middle Atlantic, and East North
Central States, employment has increased less
than the national average.

21
CHART 7
EMPLOYMENT IS INCREASING MOST RAPIDLY IN
WESTERN AND SOUTHERN STATES.....

—




EZZ3 U n d e r 21

p e rc e n t
B SM 71 an d u n d e r 4 2 p e rc e n t
i ^ H 42 p e rc e n t an d o v e r

N a t io n a l a v e r a g e in c r e a s e
21 p e rc e n t

In spite of these shifts, the geographic con­
centration of industry and commerce remains
substantially in the areas where it was at the
end of World War II. Even though in one of
the fastest growing areas, the Pacific and
Mountain States, manufacturing jobs have in­
creased by 60 percent since 1947, 60 percent
of all manufacturing jobs are still found in
the New England, Middle Atlantic, and East
North Central States, compared with 67 percent
in 1947. These three regions also still provide
half the jobs in trade, finance, service, and
transportation, and more than 40 percent of
those in construction and government— a de­
cline of no more than 3 percentage points in
any of these categories over the 12 intervening
years. Only in the extractive industries has the
concentration of employment definitely shifted
— from the coal producing areas of the Middle
Atlantic to the petroleum and gas producing
States of Texas, Louisiana, and Oklahoma. This
reflects not so much the migration of an in­
dustry, however, as a revolution in the type of
natural resources being used.

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

22
CHART 8

PROPORTION OF EXPERIENCED LABOR FORCE IN EACH OCCUPATIONAL GROUP
1910-60

Professional, clerical, and sales occupations have grown most rapidly
Percent

Farm and unskilled occupations have lost ground
Percent

1910 ’20 ’30 ’40 ’50 60

1910 ’20 '30 '40 ’50 ’60

1910 ’20 ’30 ’40 '50 ’60

Others have shown no consistent trend
Percent

1910 ’20 '30 ’40 ’50 ’60




1910 ’20 30 '40 ’50 '60

1910 ’20 ’30 '40 ’50 ’60

1910 ’20 ’30 '40 ’50 '60

Source: Data for 1910-50. U.S. Bureau of the Census; data tor 1960,
estimated by U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.

The Outlook For Occupational Change
Changes in industries, which are the sup­
pliers of jobs, have been accompanied by
changes in the nature of occupations and the
numbers of people employed in them. These
changes have been going on for many decades
in every major occupational group. Some groups
of occupations have been growing rapidly,
others declining, and still others rising or fall­
ing from one decade to the next without con­
sistent pattern. The professional and other
white-collar occupations have grown fastest over
the past 50 years; farm owners and farm labor­
ers have declined most rapidly. Some groups,
the skilled, semiskilled, and service workers,
have fluctuated, with net gains of about 20
percent or slightly more over the half century.
Chart 8 shows the changing proportions of each
of these groups in the experienced work force,
since 1910.
Probably the most significant overall change
in the Nation’s occupational structure has been
the shift toward white-collar jobs. In 1956, for
the first time in the Nation’s history, profes­
sional, managerial, office and sales wokers out­
numbered craftsmen, operatives, and laborers.
The startling import of this continuing trend
can be fully realized only when we remember
that in 1910 the number of white-collar jobs
was less than half the blue-collar jobs; now,
they have left the blue collars behind, and by
1970 they will be 25 percent greater than blue
collars. Expressed somewhat differently, whitecollar workers in 1910 were 22 percent of the
labor force; by 1960, they had reached 42
percent.
One of the more interesting illustrations of
this shift has occurred in the postwar period
in manufacturing, the chief industrial employer
of manual workers. Between 1948 and 1960,
the number of production workers declined by
nearly a half million, while at the same time,
nonproduction workers, mainly in the whitecollar occupations, increased by 11/2 million.
Chart 9 shows the proportions of white-collar,
blue-collar, and service workers in each major
industry group in 1960. Much of the overall
growth in the white-collar group reflects the
Nation’s technological advancement, the shift
from a predominantly agricultural economy to



CHART 9
PROPORTION O F W H ITE-CO LLA R, BLU E-CO LLAR, AND
SERVICE W ORKERS IN SEV EN M AJOR INDUSTRY
G R O U P S, 1 9 60.......
Percent
ALL NONAGRICULTURAL
INDUSTRIES
Finance, insurance, and
real estate
W holesale and retail
trade
Services (including
educational, m edical,
and other services)
Tran sportation, com muni cation,land other
public utilities
Manufacturing
Forestry, fishing,
and mining
Construction

W hite-collar
workers

Blue-collar
workers

Service
•'l l ] workers

a predominantly industrial economy, the grow­
ing needs of a growing population for educa­
tional and medical services, the increasing size
and complexity of business organizations, and
the accelerating tendency in all types of enter­
prises for more research and more record­
keeping.
Chart 10 projects the changes that are ex­
pected to take place between 1960 and 1970 in
the major nonfarm occupational groups. In de­
veloping these projections, many things were
taken into account: the expected increase in
the size of the labor force, the changing de­
mands of the population for various goods and
services, the changing occupational require­
ments of each industry, and continuing changes
in technology, as well as the industrial develop­
ments discussed in the preceding section.
Chart 10 shows which occupations will grow
faster than the expected average increase of
20 percent for all employment. The vertical
line at the 20-percent point permits a quick
grasp of the relationship of one occupational
group to another. All the growing occupations
except the semiskilled workers will exceed the
average increase, whereas the proportion of
23

24

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK
CHART 10

PROFESSIONAL, CLERICAL, AND SERVICE OCCUPATIONS
ARE THE FASTEST G RO W IN G ......

Professional and
technical workers

Proprietors and
managers

Clerical and sales
workers

Skilled workers

Semiskilled workers

Service workers

Unskilled workers

unskilled workers is not expected to change at
all.
White-Collar Jobs

Within the white-collar group, there are vari­
ations in rate of growth, just as in major in­
dustry groups. Professional and technical per­
sonnel, the most highly educated of all workers,
are increasing the fastest. In 1950, almost 5 mil­
lion persons were employed in professional and
technical occupations; by 1960, their total had
reached 7V& million and by 1970 will exceed
10 million, a rise in 20 years from 8 percent
to well over 121/2 percent of total employment.
Much of this increase has been in the scientific
and engineering professions, reflecting rapid
advances in electronics, jet aircraft, guided
missiles, chemicals, and communications. This
growth in employment is not confined to the
top-flight professionals, however. Technicians,
who assist these specialists, now number 700,000 and are increasing in number even faster
than the engineers and scientists. Together,
these 2 million well-trained workers are develop­
ing the newest type of economic activity in the
country, aptly named “ the industry of dis­
covery”— the pursuit of new inventions, new
techniques, new materials, and new weapons.
These developments, plus an ever increasing de­



mand for both public school and college teach­
ers, and medical and other health specialists
will result in a rate of growth in the profes­
sional group about twice that of the labor force
as a whole.
Today’s numerically largest white-collar oc­
cupation, the clerical workers (close to 10
million), have grown at a faster rate than any
other except the professional group. Between
1950 and 1960, the number of clerical workers
grew over 30 percent; in the next 10 years,
a further increase of 26 percent is expected.
This growth has occurred in spite of the intro­
duction of laborsaving office machines and more
efficient management methods. The supply of
typists, stenographers, secretaries, and other
office workers never seems to catch up with
the demand. Girls graduating from high school
with skills in these “ commercial arts” almost
certainly will find jobs waiting for them. The
more complex a society becomes, the greater its
need for records and communications, not only
to keep modern business operating, but to pro­
vide the expanded tax and other reports re­
quired by government. Since no end is in sight
to the accelerating complexity of modern
society, the need for clerical workers will con­
tinue to grow over the long run, although possi­
bly at a somewhat slower pace, as the laborsaving effects of improved office machines and
equipment become more general. Even so, the
development and operation of these machines
will create some new, more highly skilled jobs
than the clerical tasks with which we are now
so familiar.
The third largest group of white-collar work­
ers is the managerial group, consisting mainly
of owners of small enterprises and salaried
officials in both private businesses and govern­
ment agencies. This group in 1960 numbered
7 million. The proportion of these workers in
the total labor force, however, is relatively
static, despite their increase in numbers. The
noticeable replacement of small groceries, gen­
eral stores, hand laundries, often run as a
family business, by supermarkets and big chains
is cutting into the number of proprietors. On
the other hand, salaried managerial positions,
with their demand for better education and
training, are increasing rapidly. Even though

LOOKING AHEAD TO EARNING A LIVING

the managerial group as a whole is not showing
the same growth as some other white-collar
occupations, its numbers are expected to in­
crease more than 20 percent by 1970.
Among the white-collar occupations, the
smallest numerically (less than 4y2 million) is
the sales group, but it is expected to increase
at a somewhat faster rate than the labor force
as a whole. Except for some specialized sales
personnel, this is the white-collar group that
requires less extensive training. One of its great
advantages is that it can and does absorb con­
siderable numbers of older women, many of
them on a part-time basis. Although such
mechanical devices as vending machines, and
the increasing availability of self-service in
groceries and variety stores will probably act
as brakes in the growth of retail sales employ­
ment, nevertheless, as the population grows,
steady, long-run increases are expected.
Blue-Collar Jobs

The most highly trained workers in this
group, and the highest earners as well, are
craftsmen and foremen sometimes referred to,
in more general terms, as “ skilled workers.”
Examples of skilled workers are carpenters,
plumbers, electricians, and all the other skilled
building trades workers who make possible not
only our convenient and efficient homes and
offices, but also our roads, bridges, harbors,
and airfields. Then there are the skilled metal­
workers (such as machinists, tool and die mak­
ers, and molders) who read the blue prints, and
prepare models, dies, and tools from which
production machines and instruments are made.
Before the factory operative can turn out his
product on his machine, the machine itself must
be manufactured; the construction of this
machine from engineering designs is the re­
sponsibility of the skilled metalworking crafts­
man. Another important group are the mechan­
ics and repairmen, who keep automobiles and
factory machinery in running order, fix radios
and television sets, maintain airplanes in safe
flying condition, and do all manner of other
repair work that helps our machine-based
society to run smoothly. Included also among
the skilled wokers are the foremen, who direct
the work of others, and in many cases also do



25
skilled work themselves. All together, this group
totaled 8 1/2 million workers in 1960 and will
grow 25 percent during the decade.
The importance of the skilled worker has
been shadowed to some extent in recent years
because of the attention which has been con­
centrated on professional workers, notably
scientists and engineers and teachers. This is
shortsighted, because the work of the scientist
and engineer would be barren were there no
skilled workers to give it form and substance.
Different industries employ quite different
proportions of craftsmen. Manufacturing em­
ploys a greater number than any other industry
(3.2 million). In construction, however, these
skilled workers are a much higher proportion
of employees than in any other industry group
— 1 out of every 2, compared with 1 in 5 in
manufacturing and in transportation, and
fewer than 1 in 10 in other industries. The
young man who prepares himself, through ap­
prenticeship or otherwise, for one of the skilled
occupations can therefore anticipate pretty well
where his greatest job opportunities are apt to
be. Another point to remember is that certain
occupations within the skilled worker group
have grown and will grow faster than others, as
is true of so many other aspects of the economy.
Mechanics and repairmen of all kinds have in­
creased the fastest during the first half century,
from 300,000 to 21/2 million. Some once-preeminent skilled occupations, such as blacksmiths,
and shoemakers and shoe repairmen, total only
40,000 and 60,000 respectively among today's
8i/2 million skilled workers.
In 1960, the age group 25-44 supplied half
of all the skilled workers. But with this broad
age group growing very little in the present
decade and the number of 35 to 44-year-olds
actually declining, the opportunities in the
skilled trades should be bright indeed for work­
ers under 25, provided that they plan for and
carry through on the necessary training. Aware­
ness of the magnitude of the opportunity be­
comes sharper, perhaps, if we count up the total
number of new skilled workers who will need
to be trained in the next 10 years to keep the
economy functioning. First, 214 million more
skilled workers will be needed in 1970 than in
1960, and in addition, replacements will need

26
to be found for another 2,700,000 who in these
10 years will transfer, for one reason or another,
to other occupations, or who will retire or die.
The economy will therefore be looking for 5
million able young men to apply their intelli­
gence and skills to produce machines, to build
homes and highways, and to keep things run­
ning efficiently. The whole burgeoning field of
atomic development presents an even greater
challenge, because it will need more and more
highly trained craftsmen with skills adequate
to keep the new industrial revolution moving
ahead.
Next to the skilled workers in importance,
within the blue-collar group, are the semiskilled
workers. The most numerous of all major oc­
cupational groups, they find jobs in almost every
major industry. In 1960, they totaled about 12
million and were 18 percent of the employed
work force. This was a drop, however, from
20 percent in 1950, and indicates the way the
wind blows for such workers. Prospects for
1970 are that the group will probably maintain
its present relative position, with an increase
in numbers to something over 141/2 million, but
it will not share the growth rate either of the
skilled worker or of some white-collar groups.
Changing technology which, in the early part
of the century, created so many new jobs
through mechanization of manufacturing proc­
esses and thereby the development of giant
mass-production industries, shows signs, in the
future, of braking the growth of semiskilled
jobs, at least in manufacturing. Newly found
ways of getting machines to do the work of
men, popularly known as “ automation,” permit
larger output without a corresponding increase
in semiskilled machine operators. The automo­
bile industry is a prime example of this recent
kind of change. On the other hand, the in­
creasing use of trucks, buses, and motor vehi­
cles, for both human and freight transport, will
continue to create a demand for truck and bus
drivers, who are also classified as semiskilled
workers.
The third main group among blue-collar
workers are the laborers, who follow such voca­
tions as deckhand, street cleaner, ditch digger,
and carnival roustabout. The least skilled of
all workers, they do the hardest physical work,



OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

except perhaps farm laborers, and usually are
the lowest paid. Over the past half century their
place in the labor force has dropped from 12
percent to less than 6 percent in 1960. In
numbers, the need for unskilled workers will
remain about the same during the decade, but
their proportion in the labor force will con­
tinue to drop— to less than 5 percent by 1970.
Even in some of these hard, laborious tasks,
growing mechanization will displace much of
the physical labor that was once so crucial to
industrial production.
A growing occupational group called “ serv­
ice workers” offers a great variety of job op­
portunities ranging from some quite unskilled
jobs to those requiring specialized education
and training. For example, janitors are in­
cluded here, but also waiters, cooks, barbers,
laundry workers, beauticians, policemen, fire­
men, practical nurses, and FBI agents. Over
many decades up to the end of World War II,
this group rose only slightly as a proportion
of the entire labor force, but since then it has
sprinted ahead of labor force growth as a whole.
The increased demand for services of all kinds
reflects not only the needs of a growing popula­
tion but of the greater concentration of people
in urban areas, an increasing number of women
who go out to work and hence need these serv­
ices, and generally rising income levels. By
1970, we can expect a numerical growth of
service workers to more than 10 million, on a
par numerically and proportionately with pro­
fessional workers.
Growth of this group, nevertheless, will not
escape some of the slowing down effects of
mechanization and new kinds of equipment.
For example, barbers and beauticians are feel­
ing the effects of widespread use of electric
razors and home permanent-wave kits, and
certain groups of household workers, such as
laundresses, are being supplanted by commer­
cial laundry services and housewives who use
electric washing machines, dryers, and ironers.
On the other hand, many occupations in this
group will grow substantially— the policemen
and firemen who guard our safety, the hospital
attendants and practical nurses who guard our
health, and others whose basic function can not

27

LOOKING AHEAD TO EARNING A LIVING

be supplanted by machines. These are the oc­
cupations which also require more training than
many of the service occupations that are
declining.
To sum up, the principal occupational
changes expected in the 1960’s will b e :
(1)
a continuing rapid growth in white-collar
occupations, especially in the professions;

(2) among blue-collar workers, a slower
growth in skilled and semiskilled occupations
and little change in employment in unskilled
occupations;
(3) a somewhat faster-than-average growth
among service workers; and
(4) a further decline in employment among
farmers and farm laborers.

Implications of the Outlook for Education and Training
It is clear that multitudes of opportunities
will open up for jobseekers during the years
ahead. The ability of young people to embrace
these opportunities, however, will depend to an
important extent on their education and train­
ing. The job world of the future obviously calls
for people who have a marketable skill. The
day of the “ I can do anything,” applicant is
definitely past. In these days of increasing com­
plexity of jobs and of professional specializa­
tion, no one, whether young or old, will be
able to offer such versatility in the job market.
Since the fastest growing occupations also
call for the most education or specialized train­
ing, it becomes obvious that a young worker’s
chances for a steady, well-paying job in many
areas of our economy will be substantially less
if he does not have at least a high school educa­
tion. For many “ growth” jobs, in professional
and scientific and technical fields especially,
he must have considerably more.

The need for educational upgrading of the
work force will not be confined to the profes­
sions alone. As new, automated equipment is
introduced on a wider scale in offices, banks,
insurance companies, and government opera­
tions, the, skill requirements for clerical and
other office jobs will rise also. The demand of
employers for better trained personnel to oper­
ate complicated and expensive machinery is al­
ready apparent.
Just how soon industrial processing will yield
to an emerging pushbutton era is difficult to
predict, but declining employment in automo­
bile production, for example, suggests that in
this and some other leading industries the effects
of automation have been felt for the past 2 or
3 years. In some segments of the sales field,



too, new developments in machine design, use
of new materials, and the complexity of equip­
ment are making it necessary for demonstrators
to have greater understanding of technical
matters; and repairmen must become familiar
with ever more complicated machines.
The rising educational level of the younger
population is a partial response to these develop­
ing labor market requirements. In 1960, twothirds of the population 18 years of age had
completed high school, compared with only
about 1 in 15 in 1900. College enrollments are
also rising rapidly. For example, of 1.7 million
high school graduates in 1960, 45 percent were
enrolled in college in the fall immediately fol­
lowing completion of high school. Additional
thousands were enrolled in special training
courses such as nursing, apprenticeships of var­
ious kinds, and others.
Estimates covering a longer period, between
1950 and 1970, give an even sharper indication
of the continuing rise in the numbers of high
school and college graduates. By 1970, high
school enrollment will be double the 6% million
of 1950 and college enrollment will be about
21/2 times the 2.7 million of 1950.
With so much competition from young people
with higher levels of education, the boy or girl
who does not get good preparation for work,
either by completing high school or college or
by some other effective means, will find the
going rougher and rougher in the years ahead.
Labor Department studies indicate the possi­
bility of 7 V2 million school dropouts during the
1960’s, of whom 2 14 million will not have
completed even the 8th grade. These young
people will find jobs harder and harder to get
because employers prefer the worker who has

28

“ stayed the course’' through high school. At
the same time, the unskilled jobs that once
absorbed many untrained people will be a nar­
rowing field of employment.
These facts bring us back, full circle, to the
point made at the beginning of this chapter,
that the nature of one’s job determines in large
measure the nature of one’s life. Young people




OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

who have acquired a skill or a good basic educa­
tion will have a better chance at interesting
work, good wages, steady employment, and
greater satisfaction with life in general. Get­
ting as much education and training as one’s
ability and circumstances permit should, there­
fore, be high on the list of things to be done by
today’s youth.

Professional, Administrative, and Related
Occupations
Professional and administrative occupations
have many attractions for young people con­
sidering the choice of a career. These occupa­
tions offer opportunities for interesting and re­
sponsible work and lead to relatively high earn­
ings. As a rule, however, they can be entered
only after long periods of specialized education
or other preparation, since a broad knowledge

of one’s field and judgment of a high order are
outstanding requirements for success in these
types of work.
More than one-fifth of all workers in 1960
were in professional, adminstrative, and related
occupations.
These occupations— employing
about 14i/2 million people— accounted for about
half of all white-collar employment.

Professional and Related Occupations
Professional occupations are of two main
types. The largest group of professions—
including those of engineer, architect, physi­
cian, lawyer, and teacher— requires formal edu­
cation in well-organized fields of knowledge.
The other group— inclifding occupations such
as editor and actor— does not require as much
specialized, theoretical knowledge, but demands
a great deal of broad background knowledge or
creative talent and skill acquired chiefly through
experience. Generally, the professions require
either college graduation— often with an ad­
vanced degree— or experience of such kind and
amount as to provide a comparable background.
Licenses are required for practice in many pro­
fessions— medicine, dentistry, and pharmacy,
for example— with licensing authorities deter­
mining the minimum qualifications which mem­
bers must have. Professional societies also set
up membership standards, which tend to define
their respective fields. In many areas of work,
however, there is no clear-cut line between pro­
fessional and other classes of workers.
It is not easy to prepare for and enter pro­
fessional work. For most professions, one must
complete a long period of education and train­
ing. Often, applicants are not accepted for
professional training unless their school grades




are high, and employers generally give prefer­
ence in hiring to graduates whose grades in
professional school put them high in their class.
Closely related to the professions— and some­
times overlapping them— is a wide variety of
technical occupations. People in these occupa­
tions work with engineers, scientists, physi­
cians, and other professional personnel. Their
job titles include, for example, those of drafts­
man, engineering aid, and electronic, labora­
tory, or X-ray technician. Employment in these
technical occupations usually requires a combi­
nation of basic scientific knowledge and spec­
ialized education or training in some particular
aspect of technology or science. Such training
may be obtained in technical institutes, junior
colleges, and other schools, or through equivalent
on-the-job training. Many of the duties of tech­
nicians may be performed also by beginning
professional workers. However, because of their
more limited educational background, techni­
cians generally find it much more difficult to
advance to high-level positions than do profes­
sional wokers.
The major professional, technical, and related
occupations are shown in chart 11. Teaching,
engineering, nursing, and accounting are by far
the largest professions.
29

30

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK
CHART 11

TEACHING AND ENGINEERING ARE THE LARGEST PROFESSIONAL OCCUPATIONS
Employment in S electe d

P ro fessio n al, T echn ical, and

Kindred

O ccu p atio n s

Thousands of w o rk e rs , I9 6 0 1
0
Teachers, elem entary
schools

100

200

300

400

500

600

700

800

900

1,000

1 ------------- 1
---------------1
---------------1
---------------1
---------------1
-------------- 1
---------------1
---------------1
-------------- 1
---------------1

Engineers
Teachers, secondary
schools
Nurses
Technicians excluding
medical and dental)
Accountants
Clergym en
Physicians
Lawyers
Draftsmen
Teachers college
M usicians and
music te a ch e rs
Pharmacists
So cial w orkers
Chemists
Dentists
Biological scientists
Librarians
Personnel w o rk e rs
Photographers
So cia l scientists
M athem aticians
Architects
Fo resters

1 Estimated.

Employment Trends

Employment in professional, technical, and
related occupations has risen rapidly over the
years. From less than half a million in 1870,




the number of these workers has grown to about
7*/2 million in 1960. (See chart 12.) Moreover,
while the professions accounted for only about
4 percent of all workers at the turn of the

PROFESSIONAL, ADMINISTRATIVE, AND RELATED OCCUPATIONS
CHART 12
GROWTH O F PROFESSIONAL, TECHNICAL,
AND KINDRED O CCUPATIONS.....
M illio n s

31

fields, thereby freeing the professional personnel
for work requiring more training.
During the 1960’s, the professional and tech­
nical occupations will probably continue to
grow at a faster rate than any other broad
occupational group. However, there will natur­
ally continue to be differences in the rate of
growth among the professions, as is indicated
in the statements on most of the major profes­
sions in the chapters that follow.
Educational Trends

1960 and 1970 fig u r e s n o t s t r ic t l y com parable to e a r lie r y e a rs .
S o u rce : U .S . D e p a rtm e n t of C o m m erce. U .S . Bureau of the C e n su s.
and U .S . D ep a rtm en t of L a b o r. 3 u re au of L a b o r S t a t is t ic s .

century, by 1960, they represented more than
11 percent. During the 1950 decade, the rate
of growth in the professions was nearly twice
that for clerical workers, the second fastest
growing occupational group.
A major reason for the increase in the total
number of workers in professional and related
occupations has been the development of new
professional fields. The scientific, engineering,
and closely related professions have had a spec­
tacular growth over the years, while employ­
ment in the traditional professions— medicine,
the ministry, law, and teaching—has risen more
slowly. Other major professions, which have de­
veloped wholly or largely during the present
century include social work, accounting, and
personnel work. In addition, growth has been
rapid in technical occupations, especially since
the 1940’s. This growth has accompanied the
expansion in scientific and engineering profes­
sions. As scientific and technical work has be­
come more highly organized, particularly in the
laboratories and engineering departments of
large firms and in government agencies, more
technical assistance has been provided for the
professional workers. Similarly, large numbers
of technicians and assistants work in the health




The growth of the professions has been ac­
companied by a great increase in the numbers
of young men and women graduating from
college— who are, of course, the chief source
of professionally trained workers. The propor­
tion of young people completing college (repre­
sented as a percent of all persons 22 years of
age) rose from 21 percent in 1920 to 8 percent
/?
in 1940 and to 18 percent in 1960, as shown in
the inset in chart 13. (The high level reached
in 1950, is artificial, reflecting the large number
CHART 13
NUMBER O F BA CH ELO R S D EG R EES G RAN TED ......

Thousands of degrees

Source:

U. S. Department of Health. Education, and Welfare. Office of Education.

32

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

of veterans who went to college under the vet­
erans’ education program and who, in many
cases, would have completed college earlier if
it had not been for the war.)
The recent rapid increase in the proportion
of young people graduating from college (chart
13) reflects a number of basic social trends.
Family incomes are higher, and more people
can afford to put off going to work and to pay
the costs of education. More families want a
college education for their children. Scholar­
ships and loans are available for more students;
part-time work opportunities are also available,
particularly in times of labor shortages. Finally,
a college education is becoming necessary for
an increasing proportion of jobs, and in many
professions the amount of education needed is
increasing. Since these factors will probably
continue to be influential in the future, the pro­
portion of young people who graduate from
college is expected to go on increasing for many
years. The college-age population is also grow­
ing. The number of people aged 18 to 21 will
rise by 5 million during the 1960’s. These fac­
tors, considered together, point to a great in­
crease in college graduations, assuming that the
Nation’s colleges and universities can build the
classrooms, laboratories, dormitories, and other
facilities and hire the faculty members needed
to provide for the greatly increased numbers
of students. It is likely that the number of
bachelor’s degrees awarded annually will al­
most double the 1959 figure by 1970. Projec­
tions prepared by the U.S. Office of Education
indicate an increase from the 385,151 bachelor’s
degrees granted in 1959 to 401,000 in 1960,
529,000 in 1965, and 709,000 in 1970.
The number of students taking graduate
training has also risen very rapidly during past
decades, and will probably continue to mount
in the years ahead. A master’s degree is usually
earned through 1 or 2 years of study beyond
the bachelor’s degree. To earn the Ph.D. (doc­
tor of philosophy) degree usually requires 3 or
more years beyond the bachelor’s degree. As
a rule, graduate study is concentrated in the
major subject field of the student’s interest,
whereas undergraduate study is broader in
content.
Chart 14 shows the tremendous increase in




graduate degrees awarded since 1920 in all
fields taken together. The numbers of master’s
and doctor’s degrees granted reached unpre­
cedented heights in the early 1950’s, following
the record number of bachelor’s degrees granted
a few years before. After a slight decline in
the mid-1950’s, master’s degrees rose to about
69.000 in 1959 and are expected to exceed 100,000 in 1965, if past trends continue. The
number of doctorates awarded (9,360) in 1959
may reach 13,000 by 1965. According to pro­
jections made by the U.S. Office of Education,
the number of master’s degrees conferred may
reach 140,000 and doctorates may approximate
18.000 in 1970.
These projections obviously imply a great in­
crease in the supply of personnel which will
be available for professional employment. Since
the demand for personnel is also expected to
show continued growth, there is promise of ex­
panding employment opportunities for the in­
creasing numbers of college graduates. The
anticipated increases in college-trained person­
nel raise the possibility, however, of increasing
CHART 14
NUMBER O F M ASTER'S AND D O C TO R ’S D EG REES
G RAN TED ......

1890

1900

1910

1920

1930

1940

1950

1960

1970

Source: U.S. Departm ent of Health.Education.and Welfare.Office of Education.

PROFESSIONAL, ADMINISTRATIVE, AND RELATED OCCUPATIONS

competition during the 1960’s for the better
professional positions in at least some fields of

33

work, as indicated in the statements on the
various fields in following chapters.

Administrative and Related Occupations
People in administrative and related occupa­
tions run the Nation's businesses and manage
a wide variety of other organizations, both pri­
vate and governmental. The problems they deal
with are as varied as the affairs they manage.
They may have to decide, for example, whether
and how to manufacture a new model of auto­
mobile, furnish a hotel lobby, advertise a store,
or build a highway. Whether their organiza­
tions are small or large, employing only a few
people or many thousands, the decisions ad­
ministrators reach and their effectiveness in
getting these decisions carried out contribute
greatly to the success or failure of the enter­
prise.
About 6 million men and 1 million women,
not counting farm owners or farm managers,
were chiefly engaged in administrative or re­
lated work in 1960. These 7 million people
were about equally divided between proprietors
in business for themselves and managers and
officials in salaried positions.
The largest group of proprietors— about half
of the total number— are owners of stores,
restaurants, gasoline service stations, or other
kinds of retail establishments. In addition, large
numbers manage their own factories or con­
struction businesses.
Executives and other managerial personnel
in business firms form the largest group of
salaried managers and officials. In addition,
several hundred thousand people in this category
are officials of Federal, State, and local govern­
ment agencies and nonprofit organizations of
many kinds; and there is a very large number
of other workers— purchasing agents, credit
men, and many others— in specialized jobs
closely related to administrative and managerial
work. Also grouped with administrative work­
ers in the occupational statistics are persons
in a variety of official and managerial positions
— for example, Members of Congress, ship cap­
tains, railroad conductors, trade union officials,



and building managers and superintendents—
whose functions and background are quite dif­
ferent from those of most administrative per­
sonnel and who are, therefore, not covered by
the rest of the information presented in this
part of the Handbook. (Some of these occupa­
tions are discussed elsewhere in the Handbook,
however; see index for page numbers.)
The number of people in administrative and
managerial positions is growing in the United
States, although by no means as fast as the
number of professional workers. Fifty years
ago, in 1910, only 1 out of every 15 workers
in the country was in an administrative or re­
lated job. By 1960, the proportion had risen to
about one out of every nine workers. Employ­
ment in this field as a whole is expected to
continue increasing moderately. By 1970, the
total number of people in administrative and
related positions may be nearly 9 million, over
a fifth more than in 1960.
Most of this increase in employment will be
in salaried positions. Growth in the number of
self-employed proprietors will be relatively slow
in the years ahead, because of the trend toward
the formation of larger businesses. In the retail
field, for example, supermarkets and other types
of large stores are replacing the small general
store, the separate meat market, the corner
grocery store. On the other hand, the number
of managers and salaried officials in business
organizations and government agencies is
mounting rapidly.
This trend has brought with it an increased
demand for college graduates to fill executivetrainee and other managerial positions. College
graduates are now being given preference over
people with comparable experience, but less
education, for many administrative positions
which either did not exist a few decades ago
or which would have been filled by employees
selected primarily on the basis of their exper­
ience and personal characteristics. This em­
phasis on a college education will probably be

34
reinforced in the years ahead— in view of the
growing complexity of modern industry and
technology, which is constantly increasing the




OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

amount of technical knowledge required for ef­
fective performance in many administrative
jobs.

TEACHING
Teaching is the largest of all the profes­
sions. More than 1% million men and women
in the United States are full-time teachers, and
thousands of others teach on a part-time basis
(chart 15). Many scientists, physicians, ac­
countants, and members of other professions
teach one or more classes in colleges and uni­
versities. Similarly, large numbers of craftsmen
— carpenters, mechanics, and others— teach
part time in vocational schools. Also, many
other people instruct in adult education
programs.
No other profession offers so many employ­
ment opportunities for women; about 1 million
women are teachers, more than twice the num­
ber employed in nursing— the second largest
field of professional employment for women.
Women teachers far outnumber men in kinder­

garten and elementary schools. The numbers
of men and women, however, are about equal in
secondary (junior and senior high) schools,
and men hold about four-fifths of all college and
university teaching positions.
The number of teachers needed by the Na­
tion’s schools depends chiefly, of course, on the
number of students enrolled. In the fall of 1960,
nearly 49 million people— more than one-fourth
of the country’s total population— were enrolled
in the Nation’s schools and colleges. The ex­
tremely high birth rates of the past two decades
largely account for this record enrollment. For
example, the high birth rates of the 1940’s
brought unprecedented increases in elementary
school enrollments in the early 1950’s. By the
mid-1950’s, these children were beginning to
enter the high schools, and toward the end of

CHART 15

MORE THAN HALF THE N A TIO N ’S TEACHERS ARE IN
ELEMENTARY SC H O O LS......
T h o u san d s of full-tim e te a c h e rs , 1959-60
0

100

20 0

30 0

400

500

600

700

800

900

1,000

-------------------- 1
-------------------- '-------------------- 1
-------------------- 1
-------------------- 1
-------------------- 1
-------------------- 1
-------------------- 1
-------------------- 1
-------------------- 1

E le m e n ta ry sch o o ls

S e c o n d a r y scho o ls
(include iunior a n d sen io r
high schools]

C o lle g e s and u n iv e rsitie s




mmmm
twin
Source: U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, Office of Education.
35

36

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

the decade the colleges were beginning to feel
the impact of the high birth rates. Further­
more, the proportion of young people of high
school and college age who are attending school
is higher than ever before. A continuation of
both these trends— population growth and in­
creased high school and college attendance
— is expected to produce an impressive rate of
increase in high school enrollments by 1970 and
an even more rapid increase in college enroll­
ments. The proportion of young children of
elementary school age enrolled in these schools

is not expected to change appreciably during
the coming decade; nevertheless, a sizable in­
crease in the number of children so enrolled
is expected. Total enrollments in all schools
and colleges combined, according to U.S. Office of
Education estimates, may increase to more than
60 million by 1970 (chart 16).
To staff the new classrooms that must be
provided for the rising numbers of students,
the Nation’s teaching staff will need to be about
one-third larger by 1970. In addition, a still
greater number will be required to replace

CHART 16

SCH O O L AND C O LLEG E ENROLLMENTS CONTINUE TO MOUNT

M illio n s of stu d en ts

1950

*60

65

70

Elem entary




1950

'6 0

'65

Secon dary

70

1950

*60

65

'7 0

C o lle g e

Source? U.S. Department of Health, Education,and Welfare.

TEACHING

37

teachers who leave the profession. Many new
teachers will also be needed, in both elementary
and secondary schools, to reduce overcrowding
and to replace teachers with substandard quali­
fications. This school staffing problem has
brought about an increasing interest in tech­
nological developments and other changes in
educational methods. Educational television,
for example, is already in use on an experi­
mental basis, and its extension may enable many
teachers to handle larger classes efficiently in
some subject areas. Teaching machines designed
to present information mechanically and to test
student responses to the material covered are
being considered for use as a teaching aid
where appropriate. Language laboratories
where tape recordings are used in foreign lan­
guage instruction are being set up in many
secondary schools and colleges. Other adjust­
ments, including lengthening the school year
and providing teachers with clerical assistance,

may also affect the demand for teachers. Al­
though opinions differ concerning the effect of
these innovations, it seems likely that, for the
next few years at least, their chief effect may
be to improve the quality of education.
The outlook for teachers at each educational
level— in elementary and secondary schools, and
also in colleges and universities— is discussed in
the following statements. A statement on the
specialized field of school counseling is also in­
cluded in the chapter.
Where To Go for More Information
U.S. Department of Health, Education, and W el­
fare, Office of Education. Two publications by this
Office which are of special interest are: Teaching as a
Career (Bull. 1955, No. 2) and Teaching Opportuni­
ties (Circular No. 589).

See pages 40, 43, 46 and 769 for additional
sources of information.

Kindergarten and Elementary School Teachers
(D.O.T. 0-30.02 and .11)

Nature of Work

Elementary school teaching is the largest
field of professional employment for women
and is also a growing field for men. In 1960,
about 1 million kindergarten and elemen­
tary teachers were employed in elementary
schools. This total included more than 800,000
classroom teachers and several thousand princi­
pals and supervisors in public schools; and more
than 100,000 teachers in parochial and other
private schools.
Kindergarten teachers provide a program of
education for young children. Most frequently
they divide the schoolday between two groups,
teaching two classes a day. Some, however, may
work with one group all day. The kindergarten
program provides the children with experi­
ences in play, music, artwork, stories, and
poetry; it also introduces them to science, num­
bers, language, and social studies. After school
hours, kindergarten teachers may plan the next
day's work, study and prepare the children's
school records, confer with parents or profes­
sional personnel concerning individual children,



participate in teachers' in-service activities, and
locate and become familiar with teaching
resources.
Elementary school teachers usually work
with one group of pupils during the entire
schoolday, teaching several subjects and super­
vising various activities such as lunch and play
periods. In some school systems, however,
teachers in the upper elementary grades may
teach several groups of children in one or two
subjects. Many school systems also employ
special teachers to give instruction and to as­
sist classroom teachers in subjects such as art,
music, physical education, industrial arts, and
homemaking. Teachers in schools with only a
few students, especially in rural areas, may be
required to teach all subjects in several grades.
Although the time spent in the classroom is
usually less than the average working day in
many other occupations, the elementary school
teacher must spend additional time each day
on such activities as planning work, preparing
instructional materials, developing tests, check­
ing papers, making out reports, and keeping

38

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

Courtesy of U.S. Office of Education

More than a million teachers are employed in the
Nation’s elementary schools.

records. Conferences with parents, meetings
with school supervisors, and other professional
activities also frequently occur after classroom
hours.
Where Employed

Elementary school teachers are employed in
all cities, towns, villages, and in rural areas.
Well over half of them, however, are employed
either in rural areas or in towns with fewer
than 10,000 population. Although the number
of 1-room schools is steadily decreasing as a
result of reorganization of school districts, the
U.S. Office of Education estimates that about
19,000 teachers are still employed in these
schools, which are located chiefly in the North
Central States— particularly in Iowa, Nebraska,
Wisconsin, and South Dakota. Kindergarten
teachers, however, are employed primarily in
the large city school systems.
Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement

All States require every teacher in the public
schools to hold a certificate. Several States
have this same requirement for teachers in
parochial and other private elementary schools.
In 1961, 42 States and the District of Colum­



bia issued regular teaching certificates only to
persons with at least 4 years of approved college
preparation, and 8 other States required at least
2 years. Some school systems have educational
requirements higher than those established for
State certification.
In nearly all States, certificates are issued
by State departments of education on the basis
of transcripts of credits and recommendations
from approved colleges and universities. Certi­
ficates may be issued to teachers from other
States if the prescribed programs have been
completed at accredited colleges. Under cer­
tain conditions, usually related to a shortage
of qualified teachers, most States will issue
emergency or temporary certificates to partially
prepared teachers. However, these teachers
must have their certificates renewed every year
until all requirements for regular certificates
have been met.
All States and many individual school sys­
tems have certain additional requirements for
public school teaching. They may, for example,
require a health certificate, evidence of citizen­
ship, or an oath of allegiance. The prospective
teacher should find out about the exact require­
ments of the area in which he plans to work
by writing to the State department of education
or to the superintendent of the local school
system.
Most institutions of higher education offer
teacher preparation. In a 4-year teacher-prep­
aration curriculum, the prospective elementary
school teachers spend roughly one-fourth of the
time in professional courses learning about
children, the place of the school in the com­
munity, and materials and methods of instruc­
tion— including practice teaching in an actual
school situation; the remainder of the time is
devoted to studying academic subjects common
in the usual liberal arts program. Some study
of the process of learning and human behavior
is usually included.
Beginning teachers will find opportunities
for advancement through annual salary in­
creases in the same school system; by trans­
ferring to a system with a higher salary sched­
ule which recognizes experience gained in
another school system; by appointment to a

39

TEACHING

supervisory, administrative, or specialized posi­
tion ; or by obtaining* additional preparation.
Among the most important personal quali­
fications for elementary school teaching are a
love and enjoyment of children. Teachers must
be patient and self-disciplined, and have high
standards of personal conduct. A broad knowl­
edge and appreciation of the arts, sciences,
history, and literature are also valuable. Civic,
social, and recreational activities of teachers
are often influenced, and sometimes restricted,
by the customs and attitudes of their com­
munity.
Employment Outlook

Many thousands of openings for elementary
school teachers will occur each year through­
out the 1960’s. Enrollments in kindergarten
and grades 1 through 8 will continue to rise
during this period, but possibly at a slower rate
than in the preceding decade. As a result, the
demand for teachers to staff new kindergarten
and elementary school classrooms is expected
to level off in the mid-1960’s. Nevertheless, ac­
cording to U.S. Office of Education projections,
an average of 15,000 new teachers will be
needed annually to take care of the increase in
enrollments, and in addition, an average of close
to 100,000 annually will be required as replace­
ments. Each year, a large number of young
women enter the teaching profession and then
withdraw because of marriage or for other
reasons. In addition, many teachers will reach
retirement age.
Altogether, the number of additional elemen­
tary and kindergarten teachers needed will be,
on the average, about 115,000 each year during
the 1960 decade, unless replacement rates are
reduced considerably. This figure does not pro­
vide for the additional teachers needed to lower
the pupil-teacher ratios in overcrowded class­
rooms, to replace persons not meeting regular
requirements, to extend kindergarten facilities
to all areas, or to provide for other improve­
ments. On the other hand, classroom innova­
tions and technological developments may af­
fect the number of teachers needed. Educational
television, for example, is already in use on
an experimental basis and its expansion may



enable teachers to handle larger classes effi­
ciently in some subject areas. Other adjust­
ments such as lengthening the school year and
providing teachers with clerical assistance may
also affect the demand for teachers.
The number of students preparing for ele­
mentary school positions each year is likely to
continue to fall short of the demand for new
teachers. For example, in 1961, only 57,000
prepared for such teaching positions, whereas
at least twice that number were needed. Some
expansion in the supply of qualified teachers
is expected to result from the increasing col­
lege population and the offering of special
incentives such as those provided by the Na­
tional Defense Education Act of 1958 under
which financial aid is given to students who
desire to enter the teaching profession. As in
the past decade, the deficiency in the supply
of elementary school teachers will probably
continue to be met by issuing short-term emer­
gency certificates to teachers not meeting
regular requirements, by increasing the size of
classes, by the reentry of former teachers into
the profession, and by attracting qualified per­
sonnel from other fields of work. Shortages will
tend to be greatest in areas where teachers’
salaries are lowest or where better-paying em­
ployment opportunities are available in other
fields.
Barriers to the employment of certain groups,
particularly married women and older men and
women, are being continually lowered, largely
because of teacher shortages.
Earnings and Working Conditions

The average salary for classroom teachers in
public elementary schools, according to Na­
tional Education Association estimates, was
$4,835 in 1959-60. In three States (Alaska,
California, and New York), teachers’ salaries
averaged more than $6,000; in seven States
(Arkansas, Kentucky, Mississippi, Nebraska,
North Dakota, South Carolina, and South
Dakota), less than $3,500.
Teachers’ salaries are usually lowest in rural
schools and highest in large city systems, where
educational and experience requirements are
likely to be highest.

40

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

Teachers generally enjoy a dignified and re­
spected position in their communities, and are
often relied upon for counsel and advice. Their
employment is steady, and usually not af­
fected by changes in business conditions. Ten­
ure provisions protect teachers from arbitrary
dismissal. Pension plans and sick leave plans
are common practices, and a growing number
of school systems grant other types of leave
with pay.
Most schools are in session about 9 months a
year. Teachers, therefore, have a long vaca­
tion period, during which they often work at
other jobs or take summer courses for profes­
sional growth and to help them obtain advance­
ment and salary increases. Some school sys­
tems, however, are extending the teachers'
working year to 12 months with a 1-month vaca­

tion period in the summer. These systems, then,
require the teacher to teach in summer sessions
or attend workshops during the time beyond the
regular school year.
Where To Go for More Information

Information on schools and certification re­
quirements in a particular State is available
from the State department of education at the
State capital.
General information on teaching may be ob­
tained from :
U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare,
Office of Education, Washington 25, D.C.
National Education Association,
1201 16th St. N W ., Washington 6, D.C.

Secondary School Teachers
(D.O.T. 0-31.01 and .10)

Nature of Work

Secondary school teachers— those employed
in junior and senior high schools— usually
specialize in a particular subject such as
English, history, mathematics, or science. They
teach several classes every day either in their
main subject, in related subjects, or both.
The most frequent combinations are English
and history or other social science subjects;
mathematics and general science; and chem­
istry and biology or general science. Teachers
in fields such as home economics, agriculture,
commercial subjects, driver education, music,
art, and industrial arts less frequently conduct
classes in other subjects.
Besides giving classroom instruction from 20
to 30 hours each week, secondary school teach­
ers develop and plan teaching materials, de­
velop and correct tests, keep records, make out
reports, consult with parents, supervise study
halls, and perform other duties. Many super­
vise student activities, such as clubs and social
affairs— sometimes after regular school hours.
Maintaining good relations with parents, the
community, and fellow teachers is an impor­
tant aspect of their jobs.
Nearly 600,000 teachers, principals, and



supervisors were employed in the Nation's
public and private secondary schools in 1959G . Slightly more than half the classroom
O
teachers in public secondary schools were men,
but women predominated in private schools.
Men outnumber women in supervisory and ad­
ministrative positions in both public and pri­
vate schools.
Where Employed

The number of grades in secondary schools
depends on how the local school system is
organized. Many secondary school teachers are
employed in 6-year combined junior-senior high
schools (grades 7-12) in which nearly onethird of all public secondary school students
were enrolled in 1959. Another large group
of teachers are in separate junior high schools
of either two or three grades (7-8, or 7-9),
in which nearly one-quarter of the secondary
students were enrolled in 1959. The remainder
teach in 4-year high schools (grades 9-12) and
in senior high schools (grades 10-12).
Despite school consolidations, more than half
of the secondary school teachers are still em­
ployed in rural areas or in cities of less than

41

TEACHING

Courtesy of U.S. Office of Education

High school teachers use language laboratories in
foreign language instruction.

30,000 population; close to one-third are in
rural schools.
Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement

In every State, a certificate is required for
public secondary school teaching. To qualify
for this certificate, the prospective teacher
must have a bachelor’s degree. Most States
require, in addition, the equivalent of one-half
year of education courses, including practice
teaching, plus specialized courses in one or
more subjects commonly taught in secondary
schools.
The States of Arizona, California, New York,
Oregon, and Washington, and the District of
Columbia grant secondary certificates only to
persons with a year of graduate work. Many
school systems, especially in large cities, have
requirements beyond those needed for State
certification. Some systems require additional
educational preparation, successful teaching
experience, or special personal qualifications.
College students preparing for secondary
school teaching usually devote about one-third
of the 4-year course to their major, which may
be in a single subject or a group of related
subjects. About one-fifth of the time is spent
in education courses— learning about children,
the place of the school in the community, and
materials and methods of instruction— includ­
ing practice teaching in an actual school situa­
tion. The remaining time is devoted to general




or liberal education. Satisfactory teacherpreparation curriculums are offered by universi­
ties with schools of education, by colleges with
strong education departments and adequate
practice-teaching facilities, and by teachers’
colleges.
Although certification requirements vary
among the States, the person who is well pre­
pared for secondary school teaching in one
State usually has little trouble meeting require­
ments in another State. A well-qualified teacher
can ordinarily obtain temporary certification
in a State while he prepares to meet any addi­
tional requirements.
Qualified secondary school teachers may ad­
vance to positions as supervisors, assistant
principals, principals, superintendents, or other
administrative officers. At least 1 year of pro­
fessional education beyond the bachelor’s de­
gree, plus several years of successful classroom
teaching experience, are required for most
supervisory and administrative positions. Often
a Ph.D degree is required for appointments as
superintendent. A few experienced teachers are
assigned to the positions of part- or full-time
guidance counselors, teachers who instruct in
the pupils’ homes, or instructors of handicapped
or other special groups. Usually additional
preparation, and sometimes special certificates,
are required for these assignments.
Probably the most important personal qualifi­
cations for secondary school teaching are an
appreciation and understanding of adolescent
children accompanied by a devotion to guiding
their growth. Patience and self-discipline are
desirable traits as also are high standards of
personal conduct. In addition to a special en­
thusiasm for the subjects they teach, a broad
knowledge and appreciation of the arts, sci­
ences, history, and literature are also desirable.
Civic, social, and recreational activities of teach­
ers are often influenced, and sometimes re­
stricted, by the customs and attitudes of their
community.
Employment Outlook

A growing number of secondary school
teachers will be needed during the 1960’s, when
enrollments will expand rapidly as a result of

42
the high birth rates following World War II.
The great increase in population reaching
high school age, combined with the trend for
a growing proportion of young people to enter
and graduate from high school, will result in
an average annual demand for about 25,000
additional teachers, according to the U.S. Office
of Education. Furthermore, throughout the 10year period, vacancies created by turnover will
exceed the number of new positions. Altogether,
the U.S. Office of Education estimates that
more than 90,000 new secondary school teach­
ers must be recruited each year during the
1960’s. Classroom innovations and technologi­
cal developments, however, may affect the
number of teachers needed. Educational tele­
vision, for example, is already in use on an
experimental basis, and its expansion may
enable teachers to handle larger classes effi­
ciently in some subject areas. Teaching ma­
chines that are designed to present information
mechanically and to test student responses to
the material covered are being considered for
use as a teaching aid where appropriate. Lan­
guage laboratories where tape recordings are
used for the teaching of foreign languages are
being used in many secondary schools. Other
adjustments, including lengthening the school
year and providing teachers with clerical as­
sistance, may also affect the demand for
teachers.
The supply of persons available to fill teaching
positions each year is difficult to estimate. Al­
though most of the new teachers are drawn
directly from college graduating classes, some
positions are filled by former teachers (many
of whom dropped out to care for their young
children), by persons not meeting certification
requirements, and by fully qualified persons who
have been in other types of employment. Not
all qualified new graduates seek teaching posi­
tions. For example, in June 1960 about 78,000
college graduates met certification requirements
for secondary school teaching; of these, how­
ever, only about two-thirds were teaching the
following academic year. The rest were em­
ployed in positions other than teaching, were
engaged in graduate study, were in the military
service, had become homemakers, or were other­
wise lost to the teaching field. Similarly, a



OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

large proportion of the 85,000 potential teach­
ers graduated in 1961 were not available for
teaching positions. Should this situation per­
sist throughout the 1960 decade, well-qualified
candidates seeking to enter secondary school
teaching will find employment opportunities in
most geographic areas and in most subject
fields.
Employment opportunities for teachers are
expected to continue to be best in science,
mathematics, industrial arts, and other subject
fields for which the demand in private industry
is also great. When economic conditions are
unfavorable, competition for teaching positions
increases. At such a time, certification require­
ments are often raised.
Earnings and Working Conditions

The average annual salary for all classroom
teachers in public secondary schools was about
$5,334 in 1959-60, according to estimates by
the National Education Association. In Alaska,
California, and New York, average salaries ex­
ceeded $6,000; the average was less than $3,500
in only one State.
Junior high school teachers frequently re­
ceive somewhat lower salaries than high school
teachers in the same school system; however,
the trend is toward equalizing salaries of teach­
ers with the same educational preparation, re­
gardless of grade taught or sex. Teachers of
vocational education, physical education, and
other special subjects often receive higher
salaries for their work than do other teachers
in the same school. Under the salary schedules
in effect in most school systems, teachers in
all subject fields receive regular salary increases
as they gain experience and additional educa­
tion.
Salaries of teachers are usually lower in
towns and small cities than in larger cities, but
higher educational and experience requirements
are likely to prevail in large city school sys­
tems. On the average, salaries of principals in
the largest cities, where administrative respon­
sibilities are great, are much higher than in
towns and small cities. Salaries of superinten­
dents are as high as $25,000 in many large
cities.

43

TEACHING

Teachers often add to their incomes by
teaching in summer school sessions, working as
camp and recreational counselors, or doing
other work. Many teachers, however, use their
vacation periods to work toward advanced de­
grees or to take specialized courses. Some
teachers supplement their incomes during the
regular school year in various ways. For ex­
ample, they may teach in adult education or
other evening classes, work part time in busi­
ness or industry, or write for publication.
Some form of retirement, often under the Gov­
ernment social security program, is provided for
most teachers. Nearly all school systems have
some provision for sick leave and an increasing
number grant other types of leave with pay.

Where To Go for More Information

Information on Vocational Agriculture
Teachers is given elsewhere in the Handbook.
(See index for page number.)
Information on schools and certification re­
quirements in a particular State is available
from the State department of education at the
State capital.
General information on teaching may be ob­
tained from :
U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare,
Office of Education, Washington 25, D.C.
National Education Association,
1201 16th St. N W ., Washington 6, D.C.

College and University Teachers
(D.O.T. 0-11.50)

Nature of Work

More than 300,000 faculty members are em­
ployed in the Nation's 2,000 colleges and univer­
sities. However, probably fewer than 200,000
of these staff members were engaged in full­
time teaching in 1960. Close to 100,000 were
teaching on a part-time basis in medicine, law,
business administration, and other professional
fields. Other faculty members were employed in
administrative work, full-time research, or
other educational activities. Men predominated
in most college teaching fields and held about
95 percent or more of the positions in engineer­
ing, the physical sciences, agriculture, law, and
philosophy. Only about one-fifth of all college
and university teachers were women; however,
the majority of teachers in the fields of nursing,
home economics, and library science were
women.
College and university teachers instruct stu­
dents in specific subject fields. More than half
of all faculty members teach courses in social
science, fine arts, English, physical science,
education, or engineering. In many 4-year in­
stitutions, the usual teaching load is from 12
to 15 hours a week. Associate professors and
full professors— who also serve as advisers to
graduate students— may spend only 6 or 8 hours
a week in actual classroom work. Besides teach­




ing classes, college teachers spend considerable
time preparing tests and other materials for
classroom use, checking and grading students'
work, and keeping up to date with developments
in their specialties. Many faculty members
carry on research projects, write for publica­
tion, aid in college administration, or lecture to
civic and professional groups. Some professors
act as consultants to business, industrial, sci­
entific, or government organizations.
Where Employed

More than half of all faculty members are
employed by universities. The next largest
number (about 20 percent) are in liberal arts
colleges. Between 5 and 10 percent are em­
ployed by teachers' colleges, and roughly the
same proportion are on the faculties of com­
munity (junior) colleges. The rest (fewer than
5 percent) are in technological, theological, and
other professional schools.
Some States have many more colleges and
universities than others, partly as a result of
differences in population size. About half of
all college and university teachers were em­
ployed in the following eight States, in each of
which college enrollments exceeded 100,000 in
1959: New York, California, Pennsylvania,

44
Illinois, Massachusetts,
Michigan.

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

Texas,

Ohio,

and

Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement

To qualify for most beginning positions in
college teaching, applicants must have at least
the master's degree; and for many such posi­
tions, they must have completed all require­
ments for the doctorate except the dissertation.
The doctor's degree is often, but not always,
required for promotion or appointment to posi­
tions above the rank of instructor. The doc­
torate is particularly important for teaching
positions in scientific fields—biological sciences,
physical sciences, psychology, social sciences—
as well as in philosophy and religion; it is least
likely to be a requirement in the fields of busi­
ness and commerce, engineering, fine arts,
health and physical education, and home eco­
nomics. A number of States that maintain
public junior colleges require State certification
for teaching in these 2-year schools. To obtain
such a certificate, a teacher must have com­
pleted the master’s degree and certain profes­
sional courses in education.
To enter college teaching, specialization in
some subject field is usually necessary. In addi­
tion, undergraduate courses in the humanities,
social sciences, and natural sciences, and the
mastery of at least one foreign language are
also an important part of the college teacher's
educational background. Intensive instruction
in the selected field of specialization is given
in graduate school. During graduate work, out­
standing students may be employed as part-time
assistants to aid in teaching undergraduates.
Such work affords valuable experience for the
prospective teacher. Some colleges offer other
means, such as informal seminars or meetings,
by which the graduate students can develop
teaching competence. A good many beginning
college teachers— especially those in education
departments— have had some experience in high
school or other types of teaching.
Most 4-year colleges and universities recog­
nize four academic ranks: Instructor, assistant
professor, associate professor, and full profes­
sor. Few institutions grant tenure (full status
as a member of the staff on a continuing basis)




or give advancement to instructors with less
than 3 years of service. Advancement to as­
sistant and associate professorship is generally
restricted to candidates with extensive gradu­
ate training or teaching experience. A relatively
few college teachers who have a doctor's degree
and many years of teaching experience, usually
from 10 to 15 years, may become professors.
Outstanding achievement, generally through re­
search or publications, often hastens advance­
ment. In some fields, such as engineering, law,
mathematics, medicine, and natural sciences,
teachers of these subjects are sometimes ap­
pointed at higher ranks than other teachers
with comparable experience and education.
Employment Outlook

Openings for new entrants to college teach­
ing will be numerous through the mid-1960's
and will increase greatly during the latter part
of the decade. Opportunities will be best for
those with doctoral degrees and for those who
have completed all requirements for the doc­
torate except the dissertation. Nevertheless,
there will be many employment opportunities
for new entrants with only the master's degree,
particularly in junior colleges.
A great increase in college enrollment is in
prospect. The number of young people in the
18- to 21-year age group will rise by 5 million
during the 1960's. During the same time, it
is likely that the extension of college education
to a higher proportion of young people will
continue— owing to rising family income,
greater demand for college-trained personnel,
and the increasing number and proportion of
the population who finish high school and are,
therefore, eligible to enroll in college. The antici­
pated increase in the number of community
colleges and schools offering evening classes, as
well as the greater availability of scholarships
and other student financial aids, will also tend
to make it possible for more young people to
attend college. If the proportion of young peo­
ple attending college continues to increase
moderately and facilities are available, college
enrollments are expected to increase by about
70 percent by 1970.
To handle this increase in enrollments,

45

TEACHING

thousands of additional full-time teachers will
be needed annually during the 1960’s. Besides
the new teachers needed to take care of ex­
panding enrollments, even larger numbers are
likely to be required annually to replace persons
who will retire, die, or otherwise leave the
profession. The number leaving teaching each
year to enter other types of employment will
depend primarily on the level of business activity
and on conditions in the academic profession
itself. During the 1960 decade, a total of about
200.000 new teachers will be needed to take care
of enrollment increases and to provide for re­
placement needs. Teaching innovations and
technological developments also may affect the
number of college teachers needed. Educational
television, for example, is already in use on an
experimental basis, and its expansion may
enable teachers to handle larger classes effi­
ciently in some subjects. Teaching machines
that are designed to present information me­
chanically and to test student responses to the
material covered are being considered for use
as a teaching aid, where appropriate. Language
laboratories that use tape recordings in foreign
language instruction are being used in many
colleges. Some college teachers today advocate
larger classes, and more independent work on
the part of students.
The supply of new college teachers is com­
prised largely of students receiving graduate
degrees. The U.S. Office of Education estimates
that the number of doctorates conferred dur­
ing the 1960 decade will average about 15,000
a year, the number of master’s degrees, close to
110.000 annually. It is impossible, however, to
predict the proportion of graduates who will
enter teaching. In 1959, when the demand was
close to 20,000 new teachers, about 75,000 per­
sons received graduate degrees; nevertheless,
shortages of teaching personnel were reported
in several fields, particularly in the physical
sciences, engineering, and mathematics. Some
increase in the supply of college teachers is
anticipated because of Federal legislation en­
acted in 1958, which will make more fellowships
available to graduate students interested in col­
lege teaching as a career. Nevertheless, it is
likely that the number of well-qualified persons
available for teaching positions will continue



to be insufficient to meet the demand in many
subject fields throughout the 1960’s. (See index
for page numbers of separate statements on each
profession.)
Earnings and Working Conditions

Teachers in 4-year colleges and universities
had an average salary of $7,330 for 9 months’
work in 1960-61: instructors averaged $5,310;
assistant professors, $6,440; associate profes­
sors, $7,590; and professors, $9,740. Average
salaries of teachers tend to be lower in com­
munity colleges, small liberal arts colleges, and
women’s colleges; they are highest in State
universities, technological institutes, and large
privately controlled universities.
According to a survey by the American As­
sociation of University Professors, average
salaries in 1959-60 for teaching personnel of
all ranks in 19 selected privately controlled in­
stitutions in New England and the Middle
Atlantic States were as follows:
3
6
5
5

women’s colleges------ ------------------------------------------ $7,663
small institutions_______________________________ 8,447
medium-size institutions_______________________
8,785
large institutions----------------------------------------------- 9,262

Faculty members who teach the year round
receive higher salaries than those who are em­
ployed for the academic year only. Moreover,
teachers in professional schools (medicine,
dentistry, etc.) and graduate schools generally
receive higher salaries than teachers in other
colleges.
Some faculty members have professional in­
come in addition to their regular salaries. The
chief source of supplementary income is addi­
tional teaching (often in summer sessions)
which is not a part of the teachers’ regular
duties. Consulting work may be a major source
of extra income, particularly for teachers of
engineering and physical sciences; research
grants providing additional income to faculty
members are now common, especially in many
large, well-known universities; fees for lectur­
ing and royalties on publications are other
sources of income. Opportunities for such addi­
tional income usually increase as the faculty
member gains in recognition in his field. For

46

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

the majority of college teachers, however, the
additional income earned may be small.
Retirement plans differ considerably among
institutions, but an increasing number of col­
leges and universities are participating in the
Government social security program, often as
an accompaniment to plans of their own. The
greatest number of institutions have set 65
years as the retirement age, though nearly as
many stipulate 70 years.
Many colleges and universities provide bene­
fits such as: sabbatical leaves of absence—
typically, 1 year’s leave with half salary or a
half year’s leave at full salary after 6 or 7
years of employment in the same college;
other types of leave for advanced study; life,
sickness, and accident insurance; reduced tui­
tion charges for children of faculty members;
and housing allowances and other benefits.

Where To Go for More Information

Information on college teaching as a career
is available from :
U.S. Department of Health, Education, and W elfare,
Office of Education, Washington 25, D.C.
American Association of University Professors,
1785 Massachusetts Ave. N W ., Washington 6, D.C.
American Council on Education,
1785 Massachusetts Ave. N W ., Washington 6, D.C.
National Education Association,
1201 16th St. N W ., Washington 6, D.C.

Professional societies in the various subject
fields will generally provide information on
teaching requirements and employment oppor­
tunities in their particular fields. Names and
addresses of societies are given in the statements
on specific professions. (See index for page
number.)

School Counselors
(D.O.T. 0-36.40)

Nature of Work

School counselors help pupils to make plans
for school and work and to carry out these
plans and solve other personal problems. Be­
sides counseling individuals, counselors may
work with groups of students, either teaching
classes in occupations or leading discussion
groups. Another important part of their work
is consulting with classroom teachers, school
administrators, parents, and others regarding
individual pupils and general guidance prob­
lems. Many work only part time as counselors
and also teach classes in social studies or other
subjects.
The personal interview is the basic technique
used by counselors to help students understand
their interests and abilities and make appro­
priate plans. Counselors also use psychological
tests for this purpose; they may give these
tests themselves or interpret those given by
others. Other kinds of information often used
by counselors include the school and medical
records on each pupil.
Counselors in junior and senior high schools
guide students in choosing career fields and




selecting courses which fit in with these plans,
besides assisting them with problems related
to their school and social adjustments. They
help those planning to attend college to choose,
and apply for admission to, colleges suited to
their needs. They may also aid students in
selecting other types of post-high school train­
ing, and sometimes in finding part-time work
while in school, or full-time employment after
leaving school. To aid pupils in making career
plans, counselors maintain libraries of occupa­
tional and other information, teach classes in
occupations, arrange for educational films, con­
duct “ career day” programs, and arrange trips
to factories and other business firms and to
colleges. A sizable number also make followup
studies of recent graduates and dropouts and
cooperate in surveys of job opportunities in the
community.
In elementary schools, counselors work with
classroom teachers, helping them to understand
and meet the needs of the individual children
in their classes. These counselors also confer
with parents and spend considerable time work­
ing directly with children referred for counsel-

47

TEACHING

No up-to-date figures are available on coun­
selors in elementary schools. The number in
these schools is known to be sizable and grow­
ing, though still much smaller than in secondary
schools.
The great majority of counselors are in large
city schools. An increasing number of school
districts, however, employ counselors to provide
guidance services in several small schools.
Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement

Courtesy of U.S. Office of Education

High school counselors inform classes about college
requirements and programs.

ing services by teachers, principals, and parents.
The methods used in counseling young children
necessarily differ in many respects from those
used with older students. Special tests and play
activity are among the techniques used with
children in the lower grades.
Many people in full-time counseling jobs are
called on to perform a variety of other duties,
such as supervising school clubs or other extra­
class activities (sometimes after regular school
hours). In many schools, counselors do their
own recordkeeping and other paperwork; how­
ever, an increasing number of schools are pro­
viding clerical assistance.
Where Employed

More than 9,000 people were employed as
full-time counselors in public junior and senior
high schools in 1960-61, according to informa­
tion from the U.S. Office of Education. About
7,500 more spent half or three-fourths of their
working time, and another 12,500 spent onefourth of their time in counseling in these
schools. In addition, several thousand secondary
school teachers in some parts of the country
had 1 hour each week free for counseling.




All school counselors must have State
teaching certificates. Special certificates are
also required for school counseling in the
majority of States (as of mid-1960) and the
District of Columbia. Many of these States
issue counselor certificates only to people with
master’s degrees or the equivalent in counselor
education, as well as several years of teaching
experience; about half also require at least 1
year of work experience outside of teaching.
Undergraduate students interested in be­
coming school counselors usually take the
regular program of teacher education, prefer­
ably with additional courses in psychology and
sociology. After graduating from college, they
can get the needed teaching experience, either
before or while studying for advanced degrees
in guidance. In some school systems, teachers
who have completed half of the courses required
for the master’s degree may counsel under
supervision while taking additional courses.
Subjects covered by the required courses usu­
ally include the counseling process, understand­
ing the individual, and educational and occupa­
tional information. Supervised practice in
guidance is provided in many training programs.
Some knowledge of statistics is necessary also
for interpreting tests.
Employment Outlook

Employment opportunities for school coun­
selors are likely to be very good during the
1960’s. A shortage of qualified counseling per­
sonnel existed in all States in 1960-61, accord­
ing to the U.S. Office of Education, and this
situation was expected to continue for at least
several years.

48
Many hundreds of new counselors will prob­
ably be required each year just to replace those
leaving the profession. According to recent
data from the U.S. Office of Education, about
10 percent of all counselors leave the field an­
nually because of family responsibilities, retire­
ment, promotion to administrative jobs, or for
other reasons. Counseling services will have to
be expanded about 10 percent a year, on the
average, during the decade just to keep pace
with the growth in school enrollments. This
adds up to an annual need for new counselors
equivalent to a fifth of the total number cur­
rently employed, without allowing for any fur­
ther strengthening of counseling services. Yet,
the average ratio of counselors to students in
the country as a whole is still below generally
accepted standards—despite the stimulation
and financial aid in strengthening school coun­
seling programs which the Federal Government
has provided to States under the National De­
fense Education Act of 1958. Another factor
contributing to improvement in counseling serv­
ices is the growing public awareness of the
value of guidance services in assisting students
in their occupational planning, helping them
with their personal and social problems, and
reducing the number of school dropouts. In
addition, there is increasing recognition of the
need to identify and counsel talented children
at an early age, in order to help them make
maximum use of their abilities in ways that
will benefit both themselves and the Nation.
The extent of guidance services and of em­
ployment opportunities for counselors in dif­
ferent localities will continue to be related to
the wealth of the community and to the priority
which school administrators and the commun­
ity assign to guidance services in school plan­
ning. Although communities may favor the ex­
pansion of counseling services, the necessary
money may not be made available because of
competing needs for funds. In recent years,




OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

however, budget allocations for counseling ac­
tivities have been increasing, and this trend
is expected to continue, leading to a growing
demand for counselors in most parts of the
country.
Earnings and Working Conditions

Many school counselors have annual earnings
about $500-$600 higher than those of classroom
teachers with comparable educational prepara­
tion and experience. (See statements on Ele­
mentary and Secondary School Teachers.) In
some cases, these extra earnings are due to the
fact that the counselors work 1 or 2 months
longer each year than the classroom teachers.
However, some school systems pay counselors
an additional amount which is not dependent
on the number of months they work each year.
In most school systems, counselors receive
regular salary increases as their counseling ex­
perience increases and they obtain additional
education. Some counselors supplement their
income by part-time employment in consulting
or other work with private or public counseling
centers, government agencies, or private in­
dustry. Many take summer jobs, especially as
teachers in counselor-training institutes.
Where To Go for More Information

Information on schools and universities of­
fering training in guidance and counseling, as
well as on the certification requirements of each
State, may be obtained from the State depart­
ment of education at the State capital and from
the U.S. Department of Health, Education, and
Welfare, Office of Education, Washington 25,
D.C.
Additional information on this occupation
may be obtained from :
American Personnel and Guidance Association,
1605 New Hampshire Ave. N W ., Washington 9, D.C.

HEALTH SERVICE OCCUPATIONS
Nearly everyone knows something about the
professional services provided by doctors, den­
tists, and pharmacists. Many people also have
some first-hand knowledge of the duties of
nurses, attendants, and other workers who take
care of patients in hospitals. Less well known,
but likewise of great importance to the public
health, are the large number of people employed
behind the scenes in other health service occu­
pations such as laboratory or X-ray technician.
Altogether, about 2 million people were em­
ployed in the health field in 1960.
Nurses, physicians, pharmacists, and den­
tists make up the largest of the professional
health occupations; in 1960, the numbers in
these occupations ranged from about 100,000
dentists to more than 500,000 nurses. Among
the smaller professional occupations are those
of the medical technologist, dietitian, optome­
trist, chiropractor, veterinarian, and osteo­
pathic physician. Other health service workers
include technicians of various types, as well
as practical nurses, hospital attendants, and
nursing aids. (See p. 328.)
Workers in the health field are employed in
many kinds of places including hospitals, clin­
ics, laboratories, pharmacies, nursing homes,
industrial plants, private offices, and patients’
homes. Those employed in health-related occu­
pations are concentrated in the more heavily
populated and prosperous sections of the Nation
and in big cities, but some are in every village
and town.
Many women are employed in the health
field. Nursing, the largest of the major health
service occupations, is second only to teaching
as a field of professional employment for women.
Other health service occupations in which
women also predominate are practical nurse
and hospital attendant, medical X-ray techni­




cian, medical technologist, dietitian, physical
therapist, occupational therapist, dental hygien­
ist, and medical record librarian. On the other
hand, the great majority of dentists, optome­
trists, physicians, veterinarians, and pharma­
cists are men.
The educational and other requirements for
work in the health field are as diverse as the
health occupations themselves. For example,
professional health workers— physicians, den­
tists, pharmacists, and others— must complete
a number of years of preprofessional and pro­
fessional college education and pass a State
licensing examination. On the other hand,
some health service occupations— for example,
those of practical nurse and hospital atten­
dant— can be entered with relatively little
training.
A continued expansion of employment in
the health field is expected during the 1960’s,
although the rate of growth will differ consider­
ably among the various health service occu­
pations. In general, the factors which have
contributed to an increase in the demand for
health care in the recent past will probably
continue to operate in the future. Among these
factors are the country’s expanding and aging
population, the rising health consciousness of
the general public, the extension of hospitali­
zation and medical insurance plans, the rapid
expansion of expenditures for medical research,
and the continued provision of health care for
veterans and members of the Armed Forces and
their families. In addition, many new workers
will be needed each year to replace those who
retire, die, or— particularly in the case of
women— leave the field for other reasons. Thus,
there will be many opportunities for employ­
ment in the health field over the next decade.
49

50

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

Registered Professional Nurses *
(D.O.T. 0-33)

Nature of Work and Where Employed

Registered professional nurses provide
nursing services to patients, either by giving
direct nursing care or through supervising
allied nursing personnel. Because they are pri­
marily responsible for carrying out physicians’
instructions as well as having other independent
duties, professional nurses are important mem­
bers of the medical team. Generally, the main
concerns of professional nurses are: Care of
the sick and injured, prevention of illness, and
promotion of good health. They perform such
tasks as administering medication and treat­
ments prescribed by a physician; observing,
evaluating, and recording symptoms, reactions,
and progress of patients; assisting in patient
education and rehabilitation; improving the
physical and emotional environment of patients;
and instructing auxiliary personnel or students.
The approximately 504,000 professional
nurses employed in 1960 made up the largest
group of health workers; at least 90,000 of
them were working part time. About 99 percent
of all professional nurses are women.
Among the several distinct groups of pro­
fessional nurses specializing in a particular type
of patient care and treatment, hospital nurses
(about 64 percent of the total) make up the
largest group. Employed either in hospitals or
related institutions, most of these are general
duty nurses, who usually perform the more
skilled bedside services, such as caring for a pa­
tient after an operation, assisting with blood
transfusions and intravenous feedings, and giv­
ing medications. General duty nurses often as­
sign to auxiliary workers duties requiring less
extensive training. Some hospital nurses are
engaged primarily in administrative or super­
visory w ork; others specialize in a specific type
of hospital care as, for example, those em­
ployed as nurse anesthetists.
Private duty nurses (14 percent of the total)
are employed directly by patients or their fam­
ilies to give individual nursing care, usually
* Prepared by the Women’s Bureau, U.S. Department of Labor.




when constant attention is needed. Private
duty nurses work in hospitals and patients’
homes, frequently in situations which require a
good deal of independent judgment. An out­
growth of the nursing shortage and of higherhospital costs has been the recent development
of group nursing plans, in which one private
duty nurse may take care of as many as four
patients who require special nursing care but
not full-time attention.
Office nurses (8 percent of the total) com­
prise the third largest group of professional
nurses. Employed mainly by physicians in pri­
vate practice or in medical clinics and occa­
sionally by dentists, office nurses assist in the
care of patients; sometimes perform routine
laboratory work; and may also take care of
appointments, records, and other officework.
Public health nurses (6 percent of the total)
work for public and private health agencies,
including city and county health departments,
and visiting nurse associations. They may care
for patients in clinics and offices or visit them
in their homes. In addition, some work in

Courtesy of U.S. Veterans Administration

Professional nurses provide nursing care to the growing
proportion of older people in the population.

HEALTH SERVICE OCCUPATIONS

schools, although not all school nurses are pub­
lic health nurses. The varied duties of public
health nurses may include giving first aid treat­
ment or periodic nursing care as prescribed by
a physician, helping prepare booklets and charts
on home health and sanitation, and demon­
strating diet plans to groups of patients. Espe­
cially concerned with promoting good health
and preventing disease and injury, public
health nurses may work with community lead­
ers, teachers, parents, and physicians in plan­
ning or conducting a community health educa­
tion program.
Sometimes called industrial nurses, occupa­
tional health nurses (4 percent of all registered
professional nurses) provide nursing care prin­
cipally to company employees in business and
industry. Responsible for promoting employee
health, and thus reducing absenteeism, they
may work alone (with a doctor on call), or
they may be part of a health service depart­
ment in a large organization. They give treat­
ment for minor injuries and illnesses occurring
at work, provide continued nursing care when
indicated, arrange for further medical care if
necessary, and offer health counseling. They
may also assist with health examinations and
inoculations, keep health records of employees,
and help develop programs to prevent or con­
trol diseases and accidents.
Nurse educators (3 percent of the total) are
employed by hospital nursing schools, colleges
and universities, public vocational schools,
schools of practical nursing, large medical cen­
ters, and the armed services. Their primary
duty is to teach students the principles and
skills of nursing, both in the classroom and at
the bedside. They devise teaching methods,
help beginners put nursing theory into prac­
tice, and recommend facilities and materials
needed in training. They may also conduct
refresher and in-service courses for nurses who
need information about new drugs and improved
nursing techniques.
Nurses are also engaged in numerous other
specialities as, for example, performing re­
search and analysis of nursing services, editing
nursing journals or textbooks, and serving on
the staffs of nursing organizations. Professional
nurses employed as commissioned officers by



51
the Armed Forces are assigned mostly to mili­
tary hospitals and dispensaries but also to mili­
tary advisory groups, military field units, and
air and sea evacuation services. Some social,
religious, and welfare agencies; the Federal
Government; and some large industrial con­
cerns employ nurses in jobs overseas.
Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement

Three types of training programs— diploma,
baccalaureate degree, and associate degree—
offer the basic preparation required for pro­
fessional nursing. Traditional diploma pro­
grams are conducted by hospital schools and
last for 3 years. The programs leading to a
bachelor’s degree usually require 4 years of
study in a college or university although a few
require 5 years. The newer associate degree
programs being introduced into an increasing
number of junior and community colleges last
approximately 2 years. In late October 1960,
there were 1,137 programs of these three types
with a total enrollment of 118,849. Included
in this group were 94,812 diploma students (80
percent), 20,783 baccalaureate students (17
percent), and 3,254 associate degree students
(3 percent).
Graduation from high school is required for
admission to all schools of nursing. Many
schools accept only graduates in the upper third
or half of their class. Demonstrated compe­
tence in science and mathematics may also be
required. Some schools admit only persons be­
tween 17 and 35 years of age, but in most
schools the upper-age limit has been relaxed.
In all programs, nursing preparation in­
cludes classroom instruction and supervised
nursing practice. Generally, nursing students
begin their program by studying such subjects
as anatomy, physiology, microbiology, nutri­
tion, psychology, and basic nursing care. Sub­
sequently, they are assigned to various hospital
and health facilities and learn how to care for
different types of patients. They work, for
example, with medical and surgical patients,
new mothers and children, orthopedic patients,
and those with eye, ear, nose, and throat dis­
orders. In many collegiate nursing schools,
students are assigned also to public health

52
agencies and learn how to care for patients in
their homes.
General education is combined with nursing
education in all good schools of nursing. In
baccalaureate degree programs, nursing stu­
dents have a normal schedule of general aca­
demic subjects but major in nursing. The asso­
ciate degree programs, which also emphasize
general education, include consolidated nursing
courses and a minimum of repetitive nursing
practice.
Tuition and other educational expenses vary
widely among schools of nursing, ranging from
no cash outlay to $2,000 a year. In some hos­
pital schools, services performed for the hos­
pital by the nursing students compensate for
all or part of the training costs. Colleges and
universities, on the other hand, charge their
regular fees for a full college curriculum. Tui­
tion at junior and community colleges is usu­
ally less expensive than in other colleges and
universities. Scholarships and loans for nursing
education are available from nursing schools;
colleges and universities; and business, profes­
sional, civic, and social groups. In the armed
services, various educational plans have been
established for nurses. The Army gives reserve
status to either diploma or baccalaureate pro­
gram students and finances their last 1 or 2
years of training. The Navy admits only bac­
calaureate candidates to a similar type pro­
gram during their final year and, in addition,
selects qualified enlisted women for collegiate
nursing education.
For graduate study in nursing administra­
tion, supervision, or education, as well as for
public health work, financial assistance is avail­
able through a Federal program administered
by the United States Public Health Service
and through many private and public agencies.
The armed services also offer opportunities for
graduate study at colleges and universities.
A license is needed to practice professional
nursing within each State. To obtain a license,
a nurse must have graduated from a school
approved by the State board of nursing and
must pass a State board examination. All State
boards use a uniform examination prepared in
cooperation with the National League for Nurs­
ing, but each State sets its own passing grade.



OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

A nurse may be registered in more than one
State either by examination or endorsement of
a license issued by another State. Examina­
tion and endorsement fees range from $5 to
$30, depending upon the State.
Persons interested in a nursing career should
have a genuine interest in people and a desire
to care for the sick and injured. Other personal
traits needed are dependability, patience, co­
operativeness, human understanding, and sym­
pathy. In addition, a nurse must be in good
physical and mental health. For a better under­
standing of the basic requirements and oppor­
tunities in nursing, students may join one of
the 3,500 Future Nurses Clubs found in ap­
proximately one-eighth of the Nation's high
schools. These clubs, as well as other service
organizations, arrange for volunteer work in
hospitals. If adequately supervised, such ex­
perience offers a good opportunity to test one's
personal qualifications and gain a first-hand
picture of nursing.
Hospital nursing usually begins with general
duty work, from which nurses may advance to
progressively more responsible supervisory po­
sitions, such as head nurse, supervisor, assist­
ant director, and director of nursing service.
A bachelor's or master's degree, however, is
customarily required for supervisory and ad­
ministrative positions, as well as for the fields
of nursing education and public health nursing.
Because of the shortage of degree nurses, how­
ever, some public health agencies are hiring
staff nurses who lack training in public health
nursing, but advancement in these agencies is
frequently limited without at least a bachelor's
degree. In other nursing fields, advanced edu­
cation in a functional speciality (administra­
tion or teaching) or in a clinical speciality
(medical or surgical nursing, pediatrics, obstet­
rics, or psychiatry) also increases the chances
for promotion to more specialized and respon­
sible positions.
Employment Outlook

During the 1960's, the demand for profes­
sional registered nurses will continue to ad­
vance rapidly. For the growing population, a
total of 585,000 nurses will be required by

HEALTH SERVICE OCCUPATIONS

1970 to maintain the present ratio of 282 nurses
for every 100,000 people. If the more desirable
ratio of 300 nurses per 100,000 population is
to be attained, more than 600,000 nurses will
be needed. In addition to population growth,
the principal reasons for the rising demand
for nurses are: Improved economic status of
the population, widespread membership in hos­
pital and medical insurance plans; expansion
of medical services as a result of new medical
techniques and drugs; increased interest in
preventive medicine and rehabilitation of the
handicapped; and growing proportions of
young and elderly persons in the population.
A sizable number of openings also arise because
of replacement needs. About 5 percent of the
nurses are estimated to leave the profession
each year, primarily because of marriage and
family responsibilities.
At present, not enough students are entering
the nursing field to meet growth and replace­
ment needs. In 1960, student admissions totaled
49,787. However, about one-third of those who
enter nursing schools usually do not complete
the course. During the school year 1959-60,
a total of 30,113 nurses were graduated from
basic training programs. In addition, 2,301
graduate nurses obtained a bachelor's degree
and 1,197 a master's degree. If 5 percent of
the college-age women continue to enter pro­
fessional nursing schools, it is estimated that
annual admissions will reach 75,000 by 1970
and annual graduations, about 48,000.
The future outlook is especially favorable for
nurses with graduate training in education and
administration. The growing demand for welltrained nursing specialists with a master's or
doctor's degree reflects the rapid advances
in medical drugs, techniques, and equipment;
the need for more supervisors or administra­
tors to gain the optimum assistance of auxiliary
personnel in providing nursing services; and
the creation of more teaching positions in new
or expanding programs for training profes­
sional and practical nurses.
Earnings

Minimum starting salaries of general duty
nurses employed by hospitals in 15 metropoli­



53
tan areas ranged from $55 to $100 a week in
mid-1960. According to the same survey, aver­
age salaries of general duty nurses (including
both beginning and experienced nurses) ranged
from $65 a week in Atlanta to $89 a week in
the Los Angeles-Long Beach area. Head nurses
averaged about 10 to 19 percent more than
general duty nurses and supervisors of nurses
and nursing instructors averaged about 20 to
31 percent more.
Private duty nurses generally charged be­
tween $14 and $18 for a basic 8-hour day in
1959, according to the American Nurses' Asso­
ciation (AN A). Average salaries of local pub­
lic health nurses in 1959 were $4,408 in official
(public) agencies and $4,042 in nonofficial (pri­
vate) agencies, as indicated by a National
League for Nursing study. At the same time,
staff nurses employed by boards of education
averaged $5,267 a year. Office nurses earned
$3,600 a year on the average when surveyed by
the ANA in June 1958.
Occupational health (industrial) nurses
averaged from $73 a week (or $3,796 a year)
in Providence, R.I., and Greenville, S.C., to
$111.50 a week (or $5,798 a year) in the
Beaumont-Port Arthur, Tex., area, among 54
metropolitan areas surveyed between July 1959
and June 1960.
Nurse educators and administrators had an
average (median) salary of $4,680 when sur­
veyed by the American Nurses’ Association in
1958. Teachers in hospital schools received $4,500, and those in collegiate schools, $5,200.
In the Federal Government, the entrance
rate in 1961 was $4,345 for graduates of a 3year training program or for those of a 2-year
school with 1 year of experience or additional
nursing education. The Veterans Administra­
tion, which employs about 14,400 nurses, hired
diploma and associate degree graduates in the
junior grade at salaries ranging from $4,760
to $5,790 and baccalaureate graduates in the
associate grade, from $5,600 to $6,630. For
nurses having 1 year of graduate education
and 1 year of experience in public health nurs­
ing, the Federal starting salary was $5,355; the
majority of public health nurses earned salaries
ranging from this amount to $7,425 a year.
Beginning salary in 1961 for nurse officers

54

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

(second lieutenants and ensigns) in the military
services and also in the commissioned corps
of the U.S. Public Health Service ranged from
$4,063 (including rental and food allowance)
to $5,513, depending upon experience and
education.
Virtually all nurses receive extra pay for work
on evening or night shifts and at least 2 weeks
of paid vacation after 1 year of service. Most
hospital nurses receive from 5 to 13 paid holi­
days a year and also some type of health and
retirement benefits.
Where To Go for More Information

Additional information about professional
nursing as a career is available in a publica­

tion of the U.S. Department of Labor, Women’s
Bureau, The Outlook for Women in Professional
Nursing Occupations, Bull. 203-3, Revised,
80 pp. Washington, D.C., 1953. Price 30 cents.
Information on education for nursing, ap­
proved schools of nursing, nursing careers,
Future Nurses Clubs, and scholarships may be
obtained from :
National League for Nursing, Committee on
Careers,
10 Columbus Circle, New York 19, N .Y.

Information on salaries, working conditions,
and employment opportunities may be obtained
from :
American Nurses’ Association,
10 Columbus Circle, New York 19, N .Y.

Physicians
(D.O.T. 0-26.10)

Nature of Work

Physicians diagnose diseases and treat people
who are ill or in poor health. In addition, they
are concerned with the prevention of disease
and with the rehabilitation of people who are
injured or ill.
Physicians generally examine and treat pa­
tients in their own offices and in hospitals, but
they also visit patients at home when necessary.
Some physicians combine the practice of medi­
cine with research or college teaching. Others
hold full-time research or teaching positions or
perform administrative work in hospitals, pro­
fessional associations, and other organizations.
A few are primarily engaged in writing and
editing medical books and magazines.
Almost half the physicians engaged in pri­
vate practice are general practitioners— often
referred to as “ family doctors” ; the others are
specialists in 1 of the 32 fields recognized by
the medical profession. In recent years, there
has been a marked trend toward specialization.
Among the largest specialties are surgery, in­
ternal medicine, pediatrics (medical care of
children), pathology (diagnosing changes in
body tissues), obstetrics (childbirth), gynecol­
ogy (women’s diseases), psychiatry (mental
disorders), radiology (use of X-ray, radium, and




other radioactive sources), ophthalmology (the
eye and its diseases), and otolaryngology (di­
seases of the ear, nose, and throat).
Where Employed

Nearly 235,000 physicians were profession­
ally active in the United States in mid-1960.

Courtesy of National Institutes of Health

Surgeon performing an operation, assisted by a medical
team.

HEALTH SERVICE OCCUPATIONS

The great majority— over 170,000— were en­
gaged in private practice. More than 30,000
were interns or residents in hospitals, and
another 18,000 held regular positions on hospi­
tal staffs. Sizable numbers of physicians were
serving as commissioned officers in the Armed
Forces or were employed in Federal Govern­
ment agencies, chiefly in the hospitals and
clinics of the Veterans Administration and the
Public Health Service. The remainder were
employed in private industry, State and local
health departments, medical schools, research
foundations, and professional organizations.
In 1960, nearly 40 percent of all physicians
were in the five States with the largest popula­
tion: New York, California, Pennsylvania, Illi­
nois, and Ohio. In general, the Northeastern
State have the highest ratio of physicians to
population and the Southern States, the lowest.
As a rule, general practitioners were much more
widely distributed geographically than special­
ists, who were concentrated in big cities.
Training and Other Qualifications

A license to practice* medicine is required in
all States and the District of Columbia. To
qualify for a license, a candidate must graduate
from an approved medical school, pass a licens­
ing examination, and— in 37 States and the
District of Columbia— serve a 1-year hospital
internship. As of 1960, 13 States permit a
physician to be licensed immediately after
graduation from medical school, but even in
these States an internship is always necessary
for acceptance by the profession. Twenty-one
States and the District of Columbia require
candidates to pass an examination in the basic
sciences to become eligible for the medical
licensing examination.
Licensing examinations are given by State
boards. The National Board of Medical Exam­
iners also gives an examination which is ac­
cepted by most States as a substitute for State
examinations. Although physicians licensed in
one State can usually obtain a license to prac­
tice in another without further examination,
some States limit this reciprocity.
In 1960, there were 86 schools in which
students could begin the study of medicine.



55
Eighty-one awarded the degree of doctor of
medicine (M.D.) to those completing the 4year course; 3 offered 2-year courses in the
basic sciences to students who could then trans­
fer to regular medical schools for the last 2
years of study. The two remaining schools (set
up as 4-year institutions) had not yet graduated
their first class and were, therefore, only pro­
visionally approved. Every year, more young
people apply to medical schools than can be
admitted. In recent years, however, the ratio
of applicants to medical school openings has
been declining and many medical schools have
reported a need for a greater number of highly
qualified candidates.
Most medical schools require applicants to
have completed at least 3 years of college educa­
tion for admission and a few require 4 years.
The great majority of students (over 80 per­
cent in 1960) entering medical schools have
completed 4 years of college. A few medical
schools allow selected students with exceptional
qualifications to begin their professional study
after completion of 2 or 3 years of college.
These students are usually awarded a bachelor's
degree while in medical school.
Premedical study must include courses in
English, physics, biology, and inorganic and
organic chemistry in an accredited college.
Students are also encouraged to acquire a broad
general education by taking courses in the
humanities, mathematics, and the social sci­
ences. Other factors considered by medical
schools in selecting students include the indi­
vidual's college record; the standing of the
college where his premedical work was taken;
and his score on the Medical College Admission
Test, which is taken by almost all applicants.
Consideration is also given to the applicant's
character, personality, and leadership qualities,
as shown by personal interviews, letters of rec­
ommendation, and extracurricular activities in
college. In addition, many State-supported
medical schools give preference to residents of
their particular States and, sometimes, nearby
States.
The first 2 years of medical training are spent
in laboratories and classrooms learning basic
medical sciences, such as anatomy, biochemis­
try, physiology, pharmacology, microbiology,

56
and pathology. During the last 2 years, students
spend most of their time in hospitals and
clinics under the supervision of experienced
physicians and learn to take case histories, per­
form examinations, and recognize diseases.
New physicians are increasingly taking
training beyond the 1-year hospital internship.
Those who plan to be general practitioners
often spend an additional year as interns or
residents in a hospital. To become recognized
as specialists, physicians must pass specialty
board examinations. To qualify for these exam­
inations, they must spend from 2 to 4 years—
depending on the specialty— in advanced hospi­
tal training as residents, followed by 2 or more
years of practice in the specialty. Doctors in­
terested in teaching and research may take
graduate work leading to the master’s or Ph.D.
degree in a field such as biochemistry or
microbiology.
A growing number of United States citizens
are studying medicine in foreign countries
(over 350 who received their training abroad
were licensed by 23 States in 1959). To be
appointed to approved internships or residen­
cies in U.S. hospitals, however, graduates of
foreign medical schools (citizens of foreign
countries as well as U.S. citizens) must pass
the American Medical Qualification Examina­
tion given by the Educational Council for
Foreign Medical Graduates.
Among the personal qualifications needed for
success in this profession are a strong desire to
become a physician, above-average intelligence,
and an interest in science. In addition, pro­
spective physicians should possess good judg­
ment, be able to make decisions in emergencies,
and have emotional stability. Although some
aspects of the physicians’ practice may appear
to be glamorous or dramatic, much of their
work involves dealing with human tragedy.
The majority of newly qualified physicians
open their own offices. New graduates enter­
ing the Armed Forces are usually commissioned
as first lieutenants or lieutenants (j.g.) and can
rise to higher ranks if they make military serv­
ice a career. Graduates of accredited medical
schools are eligible for Federal Civil Service
positions and for commissions in the U.S. Public
Health Service.




OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

Employment’ Outlook

Excellent opportunities are anticipated for
physicians in the 1960’s. The number of medi­
cal school graduates is expected to increase
moderately. Many medical schools have recently
expanded their facilities and a few new schools
are being planned. The number of graduates
will, therefore, rise from about 7,000 in 1960
to more than 7,400 by 1965. Moreover, grad­
uates of foreign medical schools may continue
to add to the supply— in 1959, over 1,800
foreign-trained physicians were licensed in the
United States. On the other hand, about 4,500
new doctors will be needed each year to replace
those who retire or die. The remaining number
will not be sufficient even to maintain the cur­
rent ratio of physicians to population, at least
until 1965. According to the U.S. Public Health
Service, the shortage of physicians will become
more critical unless training facilities are
greatly expanded.
A steady increase in demand for physicians’
services is in prospect in both the* near future
and the long run. The need for medical services
will be increased by the anticipated growth
and change in the age composition of the popu­
lation, the rising health consciousness of the
public, and the trend toward higher standards
of medical care. Extension of prepayment plans
for medical care and hospitalization, continued
Federal Government provision of medical care
for veterans and for members of the Armed
Forces and their families, and the continuing
growth in the fields of public health, rehabili­
tation, industrial medicine, and mental health
will also tend to bring about a need for more
doctors. In addition, expanded medical re­
search activities will require more trained in­
vestigators; medical schools will have open­
ings for additional faculty members; and the
growing number of hospital training programs
will require more interns and resident
physicians.
The rise in demand for physicians’ services
will be limited to some extent by advances in
medical science and more efficient use of medi­
cal personnel. The introduction of new drugs
and medical techniques, the more extensive use
of assistants trained in other health occupa­
tions, and the increasing proportion of patients

57

HEALTH SERVICE OCCUPATIONS

treated in hospitals rather than at home will
probably enable individual physicians to care
for more patients. Improved roads and trans­
portation facilities as well as the movement of
people to urban areas will continue to decrease
the time needed to make house calls. In addi­
tion, the growing tendency of doctors to work
in groups is expected to result in a more effec­
tive use of the physician's time. Nevertheless,
population expansion and the general rise in
use of medical services are expected to out­
weigh any lessening in demand for physicians
arising from other developments. For all these
reasons, the long-run outlook is very bright for
young people who have proper qualifications
and are able to gain admittance to medical
school.
Women physicians, who represent about 6
percent of the profession, will continue to find
good opportunities as general practitioners and
as specialists. In 1960, about 6 percent of all
medical school students were women. Three
schools had no women students; one school ac­
cepted only women.
Earnings and Working Conditions

New graduates serving as interns in 1960 had
an average (median) stipend, during this train­
ing period, of $166 a month in hospitals affili­
ated with medical schools and $207 a month in
other hospitals. In many cases, interns also
received room, board, and other maintenance.
The average stipend of residents during 1960
was $203 a month in hospitals affiliated with
medical schools, and $242 a month in nonaffiliated hospitals. Many hospitals also provid­
ed full or partial room, board, and maintenance
allowances. During the first year or two of
independent practice, physicians may earn
little more than the minimum needed to pay

expenses but, as a rule, their earnings rise
rapidly as their practice develops.
According to a survey made by a private
organization in mid-1955, the average (median)
income above business expenses of family phy­
sicians was approximately $15,000. About onefifth of the family physicians had net incomes
of less than $10,000; nearly half netted between
$10,000 and $20,000; and one-third netted $20,000 or more. Although later information is not
available, incomes of family physicians have
probably increased since 1955.
Earnings of individual physicians depend on
factors such as size of community and region
of the country in which the practice is located,
income level of the patients, and the physician's
skill and personality as well as his length of
experience. Physicians engaged in private
practice usually earn more than those in
salaried positions, and specialists usually earn
considerably more than general practitioners.
Many physicians work long and irregular
hours. Most specialists work fewer hours each
week than general practitioners. As doctors
grow older, they tend to work shorter hours.
Many, however, continue in practice well be­
yond 70 years of age.
Where To Go for More Information

Persons wishing to practice in a given State
should find out about the requirements for li­
censure directly from the board of medical
examiners of that State. Lists of approved
medical schools, as well as general information
on premedical education and medicine as a
career, may be obtained from :
Council on Medical Education and Hospitals,
American Medical Association,
535 North Dearborn St., Chicago 10, 111.
Association of American Medical Colleges,
2530 Ridge Ave., Evanston, 111.

Pharmacists
(D.O.T. 0-25.10)

Nature of Work

Pharmacists help to protect people’s health
by making drugs and medicines available and



providing information on their use. They fill
prescriptions written by physicians and other
medical practitioners and also sell many medi-

58

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

research, supervise the manufacture of pharma­
ceuticals, develop new drugs, write for pharma­
ceutical journals, or do administrative work.
Where Employed

Pharmacists follow doctors’ instructions in compounding
prescriptions.

cines which can be bought without prescrip­
tions. Pharmacists must understand the com­
position and effects of drugs and be able to
test them for purity and strength. Compound­
ing— the actual mixing of ingredients to form
powders, pills, capsules, ointments, and solu­
tions— is only a small part of present-day phar­
macists’ work, since many drugs are now
produced by manufacturers in the form used
by the patient.
Many pharmacists in retail drug stores have
sales and managerial as well as professional
duties. Besides dispensing drugs, these phar­
macists may hire and supervise salesclerks and
buy and sell many other kinds of merchandise.
Some retail pharmacists, however, operate pre­
scription pharmacies which sell only drugs and
medical supplies. Pharmacists in hospitals fill
prescriptions and advise the medical staff on
the selection and effects of drugs; they may
also make sterile solutions, buy medical sup­
plies, teach in schools of nursing, and perform
administrative duties. Some pharmacists, em­
ployed as “ detail men” by drug manufacturers
and wholesalers, inform doctors and dentists
about new drugs and sell medicines to other
pharmacists. Others teach in colleges, perform



About 104,000 of the 117,000 registered phar­
macists in early 1960 worked in drugstores,
according to the National Association of Boards
of Pharmacy. About half of these 104,000 re­
tail pharmacists owned their drugstores, alone
or as members of a partnership, and the others
were salaried employees. Of the remaining
13,000 pharmacists, the greatest number were
employed by pharmaceutical manufacturers and
wholesalers, and the next largest number
worked for hospitals. Approximately 750 were
civilian employees of the Federal Government,
working chiefly in hospitals and clinics of the
Veterans Administration and the U.S. Public
Health Service. In addition, some served as
pharmacists in the Armed Forces, taught in
colleges of pharmacy, or worked for other em­
ployers such as State and local government
agencies.
Nearly every small town has at least one
drugstore with one or more pharmacists in at­
tendance. Most members of the profession,
however, are employed in or near big cities and
in those States which have the greatest popu­
lation.
Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement

A license to practice pharmacy is required
in all States and the District of Columbia. To
obtain a license, one must be a graduate of an
accredited pharmacy college, pass a State Board
examination and, in most States, also have 1
year of practical experience under the super­
vision of a registered pharmacist. In 11 States,
part or all of this experience must be acquired
after graduation. All States except California,
Florida, Hawaii, and New York grant a license
without an examination to properly qualified
pharmacists already licensed by another State.
In 1960, there were 75 accredited pharmacy
colleges in the United States. Some of these
were not filled to capacity and qualified appli­
cants could usually expect to be accepted.

59

HEALTH SERVICE OCCUPATIONS

To graduate from a pharmacy college, one
must have at least 5 years of study beyond
high school; two schools require a longer
period of education. Some pharmacy colleges
with a 5- or 6-year course admit students di­
rectly from high school and provide all the
education necessary for graduation. Other
pharmacy schools provide 3 or 4 years of pro­
fessional instruction and require all entrants to
have completed their prepharmacy education in
an accredited college or university. Prephar­
macy education usually emphasizes mathe­
matics and basic sciences, such as chemistry
and biology, but also includes courses in the
humanities and social sciences.
The bachelor's degree awarded upon grad­
uation from a pharmacy college is sufficient
educational qualification for most positions in
the profession. However, the master's or Ph. D.
degree in pharmacy or a related field— such as
pharmaceutical chemistry, pharmacology (the
study of the effects of drugs on the body),
pharmacognosy (the study of the drugs derived
from plant or animal sources), or pharmacy
administration— is usually required for re­
search work or college teaching. Graduate
study is also considered desirable for pharma­
cists planning to work in hospitals. Those in­
terested in becoming hospital pharmacists can
sometimes secure 1- or 2-year internships which
combine graduate study and practical experi­
ence in a hospital pharmacy.
Prospective pharmacy students should have
a good high school background in mathematics
and science. In addition, orderliness and a
liking for detail are desirable qualities for young
people entering the profession. For those plan­
ning to become retail pharmacists, the ability
to deal with people and manage a business is of
special importance.
Pharmacists often begin as employees in retail
pharmacies. After obtaining some experience
and the necessary funds, they may open their
own pharmacies or buy established drugstores.
A pharmacist who gains experience in a chain
drugstore may advance to store manager and,
later, to a higher executive position within the
company. Hospital pharmacists with the nec­
essary training and experience may advance to
administrative positions.



Employment Outlook

Most new pharmacy graduates are expected
to find employment readily through the mid1960's. From 3,000 to 4,000 openings will arise
each year as pharmacists retire, die, or transfer
out of the profession. These openings, together
with the anticipated gradual increase in new
positions for pharmacists, are expected to pro­
vide enough jobs to absorb each year's grad­
uates. In early 1961, employers in some locali­
ties were having difficulty in meeting their
needs for pharmacists, and not enough people
with graduate degrees in pharmacy and re­
lated fields were available for college teaching
and laboratory research positions.
In the long run, a moderate increase in em­
ployment of pharmacists is expected. The
country's expanding population— especially the
growing number of old people and children—
and the rising standard of medical care point
to an ever-increasing demand for pharmacists'
services. Some drug stores will be added, par­
ticularly in new residential areas or suburban
shopping centers, and the trend toward bigger
drugstores is expected to continue. The number
of salaried positions for pharmacists will there­
fore increase and these pharmacists will spend
more of their time in professional activities.
The trend toward larger drugstores, however,
may lessen the overall demand for retail phar­
macists. Nevertheless, in view of the trend
toward shorter working hours, many drugstores
will hire additional pharmacists. Continued ex­
pansion in pharmaceutical manufacturing and
research is expected to provide more oppor­
tunities for pharmacists not only in production
and research but also in distribution and sales
positions. Employment in hospitals will prob­
ably rise significantly with the construction
of additional facilities and the more extensive
use of pharmacists for hospital work. In both
the pharmaceutical industry and hospitals, the
demand will be greatest for pharmacists with
graduate education.
Thus, many factors point toward continuous
growth in this profession. It should be borne
in mind, however, that employment of phar­
macists is closely related to the prosperity of
the retail drug industry which, in turn, de­

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

60

pends to a large degree on the general level of
economic activity.
Women, who represent about 7 percent of all
pharmacists, will continue to find their best
opportunities in hospital pharmacies, prescrip­
tion pharmacies, and in laboratory work, al­
though some are employed in all branches of
the profession. Women students are accepted
by all colleges of pharmacy and, in 1960, con­
stituted about 12 percent of undergraduate
enrollments.
Earnings and Working Conditions

Beginning pharmacists employed in drug­
stores often earned between $125 and $150 a
week in 1960, according to reports from cities
in various parts of the country. Pharmacists
who owned and operated drugstores generally
made more than this; however, their earnings,
and also to a lesser extent those of salaried
pharmacists, are greatly affected by the length
of their workweek, the size and geographic lo­
cation of the store, and many other factors.
Beginning pharmacists employed in hospitals
and drug manufacturing firms generally earned
from $5,000 to $6,500 a year. The entrance
salary for pharmacists in the Federal Civil
Service was $5,355 a year in early 1961; how­
ever, pharmacists with a year of experience
could start at $6,435.

Retail pharmacists generally work more than
the standard 40-hour week. Drugstores are
often open in the evenings and on weekends
and all States require a registered pharmacist
to be in attendance during store hours. Despite
the trend toward shorter hours, 45 or 48 hours
is still the basic week for many salaried retail
pharmacists, and some work 50 or more hours a
week. Self-employed pharmacists often work
more hours than those in salaried positions.
Those who teach or work for industry, Govern­
ment agencies, or hospitals have shorter work­
weeks.
Where To Go for More Information

Information on pharmacy as a career may be
obtained from :
American Pharmaceutical Association,
2215 Constitution Ave. N W ., Washington 7, D.C.

A list of accredited colleges may be obtained
from :
American Council on Pharmaceutical Education,
77 West Washington St., Chicago 2, 111.

Current requirements for licensure in a par­
ticular State may be obtained from the Board
of Pharmacy at the State capital. Information
on college entrance requirements, curriculums,
and scholarships is available from the dean of
any college of pharmacy.

Dentists
(D.O.T. 0-13.10)

Nature of Work

Dentists look for and fill cavities in the
teeth, straighten teeth, take X-rays of the
mouth, and treat gum diseases. Dentists also
extract teeth and substitute artificial dentures
especially designed for the individual patient.
In addition, they clean teeth and examine the
mouth for diseases that may affect a patient's
general health. Dentists spend most of their
time with patients, but they also devote some
time to laboratory work— making dentures, in­
lays, and other dental appliances. Many den­
tists, however— particularly those in large
cities— send most of their laboratory work to



commercial firms. Some dentists also employ
dental hygienists who clean patients' teeth.
Most dentists are general practitioners who
provide many types of dental care; only about
4 percent are recognized as specialists. Approxi­
mately half of these specialists are orthodon­
tists, who straighten teeth. The next larger
number, oral surgeons, perform operations on
the mouth and jaws. The remainder specialize
in periodontology (treating the tissues that
support the teeth), prosthodontics (making
artificial teeth or dentures), pedodontics (chil­
dren's dentistry), oral pathology (diseases of
the mouth), and public health dentistry.

HEALTH SERVICE OCCUPATIONS

61
cent. The region including Delaware, the Dis­
trict of Columbia, Maryland, New Jersey, New
York, Pennsylvania, and West Virginia had the
highest ratio of dentists to population, with one
dentist for every 1,429 persons in 1959. New
England had the second highest ratio and the
Far West, the third. At the other extreme was
the Southeast with an average of only one den­
tist for every 2,850 residents in 1959.
Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement

Some dentists specialize in the care of children’s teeth.

A few dentists— about 3 percent of the total
number— are primarily employed in work that
does not involve “ chairside” practice, such as
teaching and research. Many dentists in pri­
vate practice, however, do this work on a parttime basis.
Where Employed

About 93,000 dentists were at work in the
United States in mid-1960. Nine out of every
10 were in private practice. Of the remainder,
about 5,500 served as commissioned officers in
the Armed Forces; about 1,200 had other types
of Federal Government positions— chiefly in the
hospitals and clinics of the Veterans Adminis­
tration and the Public Health Service; and
about 1,800 held full-time positions in schools,
hospitals, or State and local health agencies.
Women dentists represented only about 2 per­
cent of the profession.
Dentists are concentrated in large cities and
in a few States. In 1959, 40 percent of the
dentists were in the 4 most populous States
(New York, California, Pennsylvania, and Illi­
nois), whereas 21 States had less than 10 per­




A license to practice dentistry is required in
all States and the District of Columbia. To
qualify for a license, a candidate must be a
graduate of an approved dental school and pass
a State Board examination. Many States (33
in 1960) and the District of Columbia recog­
nized the examination given by the National
Board of Dental Examiners as a substitute for
the written part of the State Board examina­
tions. One State, Delaware, also requires new
graduates to serve 1 year of hospital internship.
Most State licenses permit dentists to engage
in both general and specialized practice. In
10 States, however, a dentist cannot call himself
a “ specialist” unless he has been licensed as
such after passing a special State examination.
Few States permit dentists licensed in other
States to practice in their jurisdictions without
further examination.
Two years of predental college work followed
by 4 years of professional training in a dental
school are the minimum educational require­
ments for the profession; 7 of the 46 dental
schools in operation in the United States in
1960 required 3 years of predental study. Pre­
dental education must include at least a halfyear course in organic chemistry and full-year
courses in English, biology, physics, and inor­
ganic chemistry.
In dental college, the first 2 years are usually
devoted to classroom instruction and laboratory
work in basic sciences such as anatomy, bac­
teriology, and pharmacology. The last 2 years
are spent chiefly in the school’s dental clinic,
treating patients. The degree of Doctor of Den­
tal Surgery (D.D.S.) is awarded by most dental
colleges; the degree of Doctor of Dental Medi­

62
cine (D.M.D. or D.D.M.) is conferred by a few
schools.
Dentists interested in research or teaching
often take graduate work in one of the basic
sciences. To become recognized as a certified
specialist, a dentist must pass specialty board
examinations. To qualify for these examina­
tions, he needs 2 or 3 years of graduate educa­
tion and several years of specialized experience.
Graduate training may be obtained at graduate
schools of dentistry and also by serving an
internship or residency at 1 of the 218 approved
hospitals that offer these programs.
Keen competition exists for admittance to
dental schools. In selecting students, dental
schools give considerable weight to college
grades and amount of college education; nearly
80 percent of the students enrolled in 1959 had
at least 3 years of college education and about
45 percent had bachelor's degrees. In addition,
all dental schools participate in a nationwide
dental aptitude testing program, and scores
earned on these tests are considered along with
information gathered about the applicant
through recommendations and interviews. Many
State-supported dental schools also give pref­
erence to residents of their particular States.
The profession of dentistry requires both
manual skills and a high level of intelligence.
Dentists should have good visual memory, ex­
cellent judgment of space and shape, delicacy
of touch, and a high degree of manual dex­
terity, as well as scientific ability. A liking
for people and a good business sense are helpful
in achieving success in private practice.
The majority of newly qualified dentists open
their own offices or purchase established prac­
tices. Some start in practice with dentists who
are already established to gain experience and
to save the money required to equip an office;
others may enter residency or internship train­
ing programs in approved hospitals. Dentists
entering the Armed Forces are commissioned
as first lieutenants or lieutenants (jg) and may
progress to higher ranks. Graduates of recog­
nized dental schools are eligible for Federal
Civil Service positions and for commissions in
the U.S. Public Health Service.




OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

Employment Outlook

The demand for dental services is likely to
increase faster than the supply of new dentists
in the 1960's. Although the number of dentists
graduated each year is expected to increase
from about 3,100 in 1959 to an estimated 3,700
by 1956, about two-thirds of these new grad­
uates will be needed to replace those who retire
or die. Thus, unless there is a greater increase
in dental school facilities than was contem­
plated in 1960, it appears that it will be impos­
sible to retain the present ratio of dentists to
population over the next decade.
The demand for dental services is expected
to increase steadily over the long run— not only
because of the growth in population but also
as a result of the growing awareness of the
importance of obtaining regular dental care and
the development of new payment arrangements
which makes it easier for people of moderate
means to obtain dental service. Expanded den­
tal research activities will require more trained
personnel; dental public health programs will
need qualified administrators; and dental col­
leges will have openings for additional faculty
members. A number of dentists will continue
to serve in the Armed Forces. Although better
dental hygiene and fluoridation of community
water supplies may prevent some tooth and
gum disorders, such measures— by preserving
teeth that might otherwise be extracted— may
tend to increase rather than decrease the de­
mand for dental care over the long run.
Individual dentists will be able to care for
more patients as a result of the introduction of
new techniques, equipment, and drugs as well
as more extensive and effective use of dental
hygienists, assistants, and laboratory techni­
cians. These developments, however, will not
offset the need for dentists for the reasons
discussed earlier.
Location is one of the major factors in deter­
mining success of dentists who open their own
offices. For example, people who are well edu­
cated and well paid are most likely to visit
dentists regularly. Also, a practice can be de­
veloped most quickly in small towns where the
new dentists can easily become known and
where there is less competition with established
practitioners. Although the income from prac-

63

HEALTH SERVICE OCCUPATIONS

tice in small towns may rise rapidly at first,
over the long run the level of earnings may be
lower than that in larger communities.
Earnings and Working Conditions

During the first year or two of practice, den­
tists often earn little more than the minimum
needed to cover expenses, but their earnings
rise rapidly as their practice develops. In 1958,
average income above expenses for all selfemployed dentists was about $14,300 a year,
and nearly $10,000 for all salaried dentists,
according to an American Dental Association
survey. About 50 percent of all dentists earned
between $9,000 and $18,000 annually; 25 per­
cent earned less than $9,000; and 25 percent
earned more than $18,000. About 4 percent of
all dentists reported incomes of $30,000 or more.
Specialists generally earned considerably more
than general practitioners, with orthodontists
reporting the highest average incomes.
Dentists in the Far West and South had
higher average incomes than those in other
parts of the country. Dentists’ incomes tended
to be lowest in New England and the Middle

Atlantic States. Practitioners in cities of 50,000 to 500,000 population earned more, on the
average, than those in larger or smaller cities.
Most dental offices are open 5 days a week and
some dentists have evening hours. Dentists
work an average of about 43 hours a week,
although almost one-fifth of those surveyed in
1958 reported they spent 50 or more hours a
week in the office. Many dentists work fewer
hours as they grow older, since the hours of
work are usually determined by the dentist him­
self. A considerable number continue in parttime practice well beyond the usual retirement
age.
Where To Go for More Information

People wishing to practice in a given State
should find out about the requirements for li­
censure directly from the board of dental exam­
iners of that State. Lists of State boards and
of accredited dental schools, as well as infor­
mation on dentistry as a career, may be ob­
tained from :
American Dental Association, Council on Dental
Education,
222 East Superior St., Chicago 11, 111.

Medical X-Ray Technicians*
(D.O.T. 0-50.04)

Nature of Work

Medical X-ray technicians perform a variety
of duties related to the utilization of X-ray
equipment. These duties are in two major areas
of work— diagnostic and therapeutic.
Most technicians perform diagnostic X-ray
work, using X-ray equipment to take pictures of
internal parts of the body which the doctor
wishes to examine. This equipment is also used
to detect the presence of foreign matter or an
injury and to discover malformation or mal­
functioning of various parts of the body.
To prepare for X-ray, technicians position pa­
tients between the X-ray tube and the film and
cover body areas which are not to be exposed
to the rays with a protective lead plate. When
* P repared by the W om en’s Bureau, U.S. D epartm ent o f Labor.




necessary, they set up or adjust devices which
prevent the patient from moving. In taking
X-rays (radiographs), technicians determine
the proper voltage, current, and exposure time
and regulate the controls to obtain film of high
technical quality for interpretation by the
physician.
Diagnostic technicians may also assist physi­
cians in fluoroscopy or other special types of
X-ray work. They may prepare a prescribed
X-ray "opaque,” such as barium salts, which
the patient swallows in order to shade various
portions of the anatomy to provide proper visi­
bility for X-ray purposes. The actual fluoro­
scopic process, however, is conducted by the
physician.
Other technicians are concerned with thera­
peutic X-ray work. They operate special X-ray

64

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

Courtesy of National Institutes of Health

X-ray technician positioning a patient for a chest X-ray.

equipment used for treatment of certain dis­
eases, including various types of cancer and
tissue infections. After placing the patient in
the proper position, these technicians operate
the equipment from an adjoining room. They
may also assist radiologists— physicians who
are specialists in the use of X-rays— in the prep­
aration of radium and other radioactive ma­
terials. (Radium gives off “ gamma” radiations
which are similar to X-rays.)
Some technicians perform duties and follow
work procedures involved in both diagnostic
and therapeutic X-ray work.
Other duties of X-ray technicians may include
processing film and keeping records of services
performed for patients. In a large institution,
such tasks are usually assigned to a darkroom
assistant or clerk. Some X-ray technicians may
be expected to operate other kinds of apparatus,
such as equipment used in diagnosing heart
disease or brain damage or that used for deter­
mining basal metabolism. Usually, they are ex­
pected to keep the X-ray equipment in good
working order by cleaning it and making minor
repairs.
Chief technicians may be expected to in­



struct nurses, interns, and students in X-ray
technique, in addition to their usual duties.
Most technicians are given a wide range of
job assignments, but some tend to specialize in
a particular phase of the work. For example,
a technician working in a dental clinic might
specialize in dental X-ray, or one in a tubercu­
losis hospital might specialize in chest X-ray.
A few of these workers, called radioisotope
technicians, work in the new and expanding
field of atomic medicine. These technicians
assist scientists in conducting certain experi­
ments with specially treated chemical elements
that trace the course of foods or chemicals
through the body. The radioactive isotopes
(atoms that give off radiation) are also used
to help diagnose and treat certain diseases. Ra­
dioisotope technicians generally prepare dilu­
tions of radioactive material according to a
prescribed formula, operate the several types
of equipment used to perform the different
tests and measurements, and make the neces­
sary calculations. These technicians may also
design or adapt apparatus and develop methods.
All medical X-ray technicians work under the
direction of a medical doctor, usually a radiolo­
gist.
Where Employed

Roughly one-fourth of the more than 60,000
X-ray technicians work in hospitals and over
one-third of all registered technicians are em­
ployed in hospitals. The others work in medical
and research laboratories, Federal agencies,
State and local public health services, physi­
cians’ offices, dental clinics, school systems,
business or industrial establishments which op­
erate an employee-health program, and military
establishments. Hospitals and research centers
are most likely to employ persons skilled in
both diagnostic and therapeutic techniques,
whereas most other establishments usually em­
ploy only diagnostic technicians.
Most technicians work in large cities where
medical facilities and services are largely con­
centrated. However, there are some jobs in
rural areas where a hospital or other medical
facility exists. In addition, the widespread use
of X-ray for routine medical examinations in

HEALTH SERVICE OCCUPATIONS

various health and welfare and industrial pre­
ventive medicine programs has brought about
expansion in the utilization of small mobile
X-ray teams.
Most X-ray technicians are women, and about
70 percent of all registered technicians are
women. The proportion of men who are reg­
istered has increased significantly during the
past 15 years.
Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement

Training programs in X-ray technology ap­
proved by the Council of Medical Education
and Hospitals of the American Medical Asso­
ciation are the most widely accepted courses
of study. These programs are conducted by
hospitals or by medical schools affiliated with
hospitals.
In June 1960, there were 650 approved
schools of X-ray technology located throughout
the United States, nearly a 100-percent in­
crease over 1953. Of these, about 85 percent
offered a 24-month training program in 1960.
Courses in most of the remaining schools were
from 12 to 18 months in length. In a few
schools, a 36-month curriculum was available,
and one had a 48-month program. (Beginning
July 1, 1962, approved courses must be a mini­
mum of 24 months, with adequate vacation
periods for each 12 months of training.)
All of the approved schools require that ap­
plicants be at least high school graduates, and
a few schools require 1 or 2 years of college
or a certificate from an approved nursing school.
One school accepts only registered nurses. High
school courses in mathematics, physics, chem­
istry, biology, and typing are considered de­
sirable, but generally are not required. Pref­
erence is usually given to applicants between
the ages of 18 and 30.
Aside from maintenance expenses, the cost
of training in approved hospital schools is rela­
tively low. Almost two-thirds of these schools
charged no tuition in 1960, and most of the
others charged less than $200 for the complete
program. Some charged the regular fees of the
affiliated university. More than three-fourths
of the schools paid their students a stipend.
A 24-month program in X-ray technology al­



65
most always includes the following courses:
Anatomy and physiology, physics, radiation
protection, darkroom chemistry, medical ethics,
principles of radiographic exposure, film
critique, radiographic positioning, department
administration, and equipment maintenance.
Although most courses in X-ray technology
prepare a student for a job with a wide range
of duties, it is possible to acquire some degree
of specialized training. All training programs
now include courses in X-ray therapy. Some of
the programs offer a course in radioisotopes for
all students, but those who wish to specialize
in this field are usually trained separately.
A few schools offer a bachelor of science de­
gree in X-ray technology. With the exception
of one school, however, the degree program is
a recent development in the field. In some
schools, students may take courses in X-ray
technology along with their academic and sci­
entific courses; in others, students may be re­
quired to complete their academic and scien­
tific training in the first 2 years and then
devote the remaining time to technical and
practical experience in X-ray work.
Each year, the American Society of X-Ray
Technicians conducts refresher courses to help
technicians keep abreast of the field and to
attain a higher degree of skill.
A technician with at least 2 years’ expe­
rience (which may include training time), may
apply for registration with The American Reg­
istry of X-Ray Technicians. An examination is
held semiannually in various cities throughout
the United States and the Registry issues cer­
tificates to all persons who pass. A technician
may then use the title, “ Registered Technician,”
and its abbreviation R.T. (A R X T ). The certifi­
cate may be renewed each year. There were
27,000 registered technicians in 1960.
In addition to training programs in approved
hospital schools, some vocational or technical
schools offer courses in X-ray technology. Train­
ing also may be obtained while serving in one
of the military services or through experience
gained on the job under the supervision of a
radiologist. Persons who acquire training in
schools which have not been approved by the
American Medical Association, or on the job,
may have difficulty in qualifying for some X-

66
ray jobs, especially those with a wide range of
assignments. Finding satisfying work com­
mensurate with one’s training depends in large
measure upon the interest, application, and apti­
tude of the individual student, as well as on the
requirements of individual employers.
An analysis of the results of examinations
held by the Registry in 120 cities in May
1960 showed that a significantly higher per­
centage of persons with formal training passed
than those with no formal training. In addi­
tion, grades were higher for students who had
taken a 24-month program. Nearly 90 per­
cent of the technicians who were trained under
a 24-month program passed, compared with
only 75 percent of those trained in a 12-month
course.
In addition to the required training, an Xray technician must be accurate, thorough, and
precise. A knowledge of electrical and me­
chanical detail gained through training or
experience is helpful. Since X-ray work is often
performed on sick or helpless people, a techni­
cian should be sympathetic and patient and
have a cheerful disposition and a keen sense
of responsibility. The physically rigorous de­
mands of continuous standing and lifting, often
necessary in this work, call for persons with
good health and stamina. People with a tend­
ency toward anemia should avoid work with
X-ray.
Authorities in the field believe that, in gen­
eral, technicians with a variety of skills and
experience have the best opportunities for pro­
motion. Those employed in large X-ray depart­
ments usually have the chance to qualify for
the job of chief X-ray technician or assistant
to the chief. They also may be able to advance
in their positions by qualifying to teach X-ray
techniques to students in training. Since the
number of such positions is fairly limited, how­
ever, versatility and ability to supervise or in­
struct others are very important for advance­
ment.
Employment Outlook

The demand for qualified X-ray technicians
is expected to continue well into the 1960’s,
This demand will be due, in part, to the rising



OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

need for technicians to staff rapidly expanding
hospital and medical programs. The expansion
of public health programs and services and
growing interest in preventive medicine have
increased the number of job opportunities in
government employment. In addition, more
technicians will be needed to help administer
radiotherapy, which has become more widely
used with new knowledge of the medical bene­
fits of radioactive material.
During the past two decades, there has been
a vast amount of basic medical research which
is now being applied in the health field. Hospital
facilities have been growing and significant
technological advances have occurred in the
diagnosis and treatment of diseases and in­
juries. The expanded use of X-ray equipment
has accounted for a part of this advance. Orig­
inally confined to bone diagnosis and locating
foreign bodies, X-ray is now used in such fields
as tuberculosis detection, examination of teeth,
and treatment of cancer and certain skin
diseases. Routine X-raying of large groups is
still being performed as part of a program for
disease prevention and control by health de­
partments, tuberculosis hospitals, industrial
establishments, and health associations in many
parts of the country. Many insurance com­
panies now include a chest X-ray as part of the
physical examination required for an insurance
policy. All of these developments contribute
to a growing need for medical X-ray technicians.
More than 90 percent of the 6,923 hospitals
surveyed by the American Hospital Associa­
tion in 1959 had diagnostic X-ray facilities.
Almost half of them gave routine chest X-rays
on admission and nearly one-third had an X-ray
therapy department. Approximately one-fifth
had facilities for radioisotop therapy. The con­
tinuation and expansion of these services will
depend, in large part, on the availability of
qualified technicians.
In addition to the demand for X-ray techni­
cians to fill new positions created by expansion,
annual replacement needs will be relatively high
because of the large number of women in the
field, many of whom can be expected to leave
because of marital or family responsibilities.
The American Society of X-Ray Technicians
estimates that approximately 5,000 technicians

67

HEALTH SERVICE OCCUPATIONS

are needed each year to fill expansion and re­
placement needs. Because of the shortage of
trained technicians who are available for full­
time work, employers have in the past and are
expecting in the future to hire part-time work­
ers. Mature persons with recognized training
or experience are generally acceptable to em­
ployers.
In 1959, nearly 2,300 persons graduated from
approved courses in X-ray technology. This was
an increase over the previous year, but, even
so, the schools were only 86 percent filled.
Earnings and Working Conditions

Salaries for X-ray technicians vary widely
among geographic areas of the country and
between urban and rural areas. Beginning
technicians generally receive from $3,000 to
$4,200 a year, according to authorities in the
field. In 1960, the annual salary of a staff
technician ranged between $4,200 and $5,400.
Often a registered technician receives from $25
to $75 a month more than a nonregistered tech­
nician doing the same or similar type of work.
Top salaries for chief technicians sometimes
reach $10,000 annually and may even exceed
this level.
For persons entering Federal employment,
salaries ranged in 1960 from $4,040 to $5,885 a
year, depending on education and experience.
The average salary for X-ray technicians in the
Government was $4,741 in 1959.
Average salaries (excluding premium pay
and value of meals or other supplements) of
X-ray technicians working full time in hospitals
in 15 metropolitan areas in 1960 ranged from
$52.50 to $91 a week for men and $57 to $88
for women. Corresponding earnings o f chief

technicians averaged from $91 to $123 a week
for men and from $84 to $111.50 for women.
Full-time technicians generally work 8 hours
a day, 40 hours a week and may be “ on call”
for some night or emergency duty for which
they receive equal time off or additional com­
pensation. Most are covered by the same vaca­
tion and sick leave provisions as other workers
in the organizations which employ them, and
some receive free medical care and private pen­
sion benefits.
Medical X-ray technicians usually work in
sanitary surroundings, and great care is exer­
cised to protect them from radiation exposure.
Potential hazards are kept in check partly by
frequent blood counts and attention to diet,
fresh air, and sunshine. Other precautions in­
clude the use of safety devices such as individ­
ual instruments that measure radiation, lead
aprons, rubber gloves, and other shieldings. In
the past few years, dangers have been greatly
reduced or have been eliminated as a result of
safety procedures followed by technicians and
their employers.
Where To Go for More Information

Detailed information about medical X-ray
technicians is given in The Outlook for Women
as Medical X-Ray Technicians, Women's Bu­
reau Bulletin 203-8, 1954. Superintendent of
Documents, Washington 25, D.C. Price 25 cents.
Information on approved schools and general
information on the field may be obtained from :
The American Registry of X-R ay Technicians,
2600 Wayzata Boulevard, Minneapolis 5, Minn.
The American Society of X-R ay Technicians,
16 14th St., Fond du Lac, Wis.

Medical Technologists*
(D.O.T. 0-50.01)

Nature of Work

Medical technologists are laboratory workers
who perform a wide variety of chemical, micro­
scopic, and bacteriological tests to aid physi­
* P repared by the W om en’s Bureau, U .S. D epartm ent o f Labor.




cians in the detection, diagnosis, and treat­
ment of disease. Medical technologists are
usually responsible to a doctor of medicine, gen­
erally a pathologist (a physician who spe­
cializes in the nature and causes of disease).
Some technologists, however, work under the

68

Medical technologist analyzing lung gases to aid in the
diagnosis of respiratory ailments.

supervision of a medical scientist who spe­
cializes in a particular branch of clinical sci­
ence. Other laboratory personnel, working as
technicians, assistants, or aids, may perform
some of the less complex and more routine
tests to assist the medical scientist, technolo­
gist, or physician.
Among the numerous tests which medical
technologists may make are blood counts, uri­
nalyses, and biological skin tests. Other body
fluid and tissue samples are also examined
microscopically, cultured to determine the pres­
ence of micro-organisms such as bacteria or
fungus, and analyzed for chemical content or
reaction. Technologists may also type and
cross-match blood samples, determine blood co­
agulation time and sedimentation rates, meas­
ure basal metabolism, and analyze water, food
products, or other materials for bacteria.
As reliance on laboratory tests to reveal dis­
ease in its early stages becomes more general,
the role of the medical technologist in providing
accurate, lifesaving information grows in­
creasingly important. For example, in cases of
suspected cancer, medical technologists must
sometimes prepare slides from sample tissues
and body cells during an operation. Both speed
and accuracy are required in such preparation.
In all their work, technologists must be able to
recognize unusual conditions and make correct



OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

observations. They need both theoretical knowl­
edge and scientific competence in the solution
of difficult problems and analyses.
Medical technologists who work in small lab­
oratories often perform many different types
of tests. Those employed in large laboratories,
on the other hand, usually specialize even
though they are qualified to work in various
fields of laboratory science. Specialized areas
include bacteriology, parasitology, biochemis­
try, blood banking, hematology (blood analy­
sis), histology (tissue preparation and exami­
nation), and the newer fields of virology and
cytology (analysis of cast-off body cells for
early evidence of cancer). Most medical tech­
nologists conduct tests or studies in connection
with examinations and treatment of patients;
some do research on new drugs or on the im­
provement of laboratory techniques; and some
perform administrative duties as the technical
head of a laboratory.
Where Employed

About 30,000 medical technologists were reg­
istered in 1960 with the Registry of Medical
Technologists of the American Society of Clini­
cal Pathologists (ASCP) and have earned the
right to use the professional designation “ M.T.
(A SC P)” after their name. Of this group,
nearly 23,000 were employed, and between 80
and 90 percent were women. In recent years,
an increasing number of men have been enter­
ing this comparatively new profession.
The Registry of the American Medical Tech­
nologists (AMT),which compared with ASCP
has set fewer years of formal training as a
requirement for registration, reported in 1960
that more than 10,000 medical laboratory
workers had satisfied their registry require­
ments and were entitled to use the designation
“ M.T.” The AMT estimated that over 80 per­
cent of their group were men and about 95
percent were employed.
In 1959, hospitals employed 39,000 medical
technologists and technicians, including 13,000
with the designation M.T. (ASCP), according
to an American Hospital Association survey.
The AMT reported that these hospital em-

PROFESSIONAL, ADMINISTRATIVE, AND RELATED OCCUPATIONS

ployees included 3,500 persons with the desig­
nation M.T.
The largest group of medical technologists
work in hospital laboratories. Others are em­
ployed in private laboratories, public health fa­
cilities, government and private research in­
stitutions, and pharmaceutical companies; a
few are self-employed. Most technologists work
in large metropolitan areas where the largest
facilities are located, but some will be found in
less populated areas, wherever a hospital or
laboratory exists.
Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement

In order to qualify as an M.T. (ASCP), a stu­
dent must have completed 3 years of college
plus 12 months in a school of medical tech­
nology approved by the Council on Medical
Education and Hospitals of the American Med­
ical Association (AM A), and pass an examina­
tion administered by the Registry of Medical
Technologists of the ASCP. The 3-year college
prerequisite for admission to AMA-approved
schools, effective January 1962, replaces a 2year prerequisite and includes the following
course requirements: 4 semesters of chemistry,
2 semesters of which must be general college
chemistry; 4 semesters of biological sciences, 2
semesters of which must be general biology or
zoology; and 1 semester of mathematics.
At the end of 1960, about 750 schools of
medical technology, all of which are in or af­
filiated with a hospital, were AMA-approved.
Students at these schools receive 12 months of
instruction in theory and laboratory work. Over
500 schools of medical technology have estab­
lished joint programs with colleges and uni­
versities whereby a bachelor of science degree
is granted upon completion of 3 years of college
work and 1 year of clinical training. Several
universities also offer advanced degrees in med­
ical technology for those who plan to specialize
or teach.
To meet the AMT’s qualifications for an
M.T., a person must be a high school graduate,
complete a specified course in an AMT-approved
school of medical technology or a college pro­
gram which offers equivalent training, and
pass a written examination. The specified



69

course in an AMT-approved school now con­
sists of 12 months of concentrated study in
medical technology and 6 months’ internship in
a medical laboratory, but will be expanded,
effective September 1962, to 18 months of study
plus 6 months’ internship. Most of the class­
room study and all of the laboratory work must
include certain biological science and related
courses.
The rising emphasis on academic training,
including more science course requirements, is
related to the increasing complexity of medical
laboratory procedures, the advance in scientific
knowledge, and the establishment of profes­
sional standards for medical technologists. As
a result, the trend at the present time is toward
a 4-year training program. Many employers
prefer or require that prospective staff mem­
bers be registered, or eligible for registration,
with the ASCP. Still other hospitals and clin­
ics are accepting only those with a college
degree.
In the Federal service, applicants for entry
positions as medical technologists must have
completed successfully either a 4-year course in
medical technology leading to a bachelor’s de­
gree or 3 years of college (with certain courses)
plus a combination of approved training and
experience. Those with a bachelor of science
degree in either chemistry or one of the bio­
logical sciences must also have 1 year of train­
ing and/or experience in medical technology. To
be eligible for advancement, additional profes­
sional education and/or experience is required
as a medical technologist or medical specialist.
Care should be taken in the selection of a
training school, as there is much variation in
the quality and type of training offered. Persons
with the most and best training will find a
greater number of positions requiring broad
training and experience open to them, especially
positions leading to advancement.
Four States (Alabama, California, Florida,
and Hawaii) require licenses for medical tech­
nologists and other laboratory personnel. Since
the laws differ among these States, students
should obtain licensing information at the time
they plan their program of training in medical
technology.
The cost of training, aside from maintenance

70
expenses, is usually low. About six out of seven
AMA-approved schools of medical technology
charge no tuition, and about four out of seven
grant stipends. College students preparing for
a career in medical technology are eligible to
participate in the National Defense Education
Act program under which they can apply for
loans in amounts up to $1,000 a year, for 5
years of education. Several State societies of
medical technology and other local organiza­
tions offer college scholarships to students
planning to enter this profession. Various ar­
rangements are available for those who wish to
combine work and study. Some employers have
set up plans whereby students are offered schol­
arship aid in return for current services or
agreement on future employment.
Advancement for medical technologists may
be to supervisory, research, or teaching posi­
tions. More frequently, through additional col­
lege training, they may advance to higher levels
in one of the specialties. For example, for work
in the field of cancer detection, the RSCP offers
Certification in Exfoliative Cytology to those
who have completed 2 years of college work plus
6 months of specialized study and 6 months of
experience in accordance with specified require­
ments.
A Certificate in Blood Banking is awarded
by ASCP to those who have completed the re­
quirements for an M.T. (ASCP) plus an addi­
tional year of training and experience in blood
banking. Similarly, the ASCP awards a Cer­
tificate in Chemistry or in Microbiology to
those with a bachelor's degree and a major
in chemistry or bacteriology plus 1 year of
medical laboratory experience in their respec­
tive field; and Specialist Certification to those
with a master's or doctor's degree plus 3 years
of experience in an acceptable medical labora­
tory.
The Registry of the AMT offers specialty cer­
tification to an M.T. who has satisfied the 4-year
requirements for a bachelor's degree in the re­
spective specialty or has 60 college credits and 4
years' experience in the specialty. The specialties
include clinical bacteriology, clinical biochemis­
try, clinical cytology, clinical hematology, clini­
cal parasitology, blood banking, and serology.
Important personal traits needed by those



OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

interested in medical laboratory work are ex­
treme accuracy, patience, dependability, and
resourcefulness, as well as the ability to work
under pressure. Since correct results depend
upon manual and visual accuracy, deftness and
good eyesight are essential. Technologists
should also have an interest in science and a
desire to serve the sick.
Employment Outlook

Employment opportunities for qualified medi­
cal technologists are expected to remain excel­
lent throughout the 1960's. As advances in
medical knowledge and practice depend more
and more on laboratory work and as additional
hospital and medical facilities are constructed,
there is greater need for more technologists.
Particularly strong demand is anticipated in
biochemistry, bacteriology, immunology, and
virology. The increasing complexity of labora­
tory procedures in these fields and the continual
development of new drugs and new techniques
point up the necessity for well-qualified per­
sonnel with college training. Newly developed
automatic analyzers will be able to make some
types of tests but are not expected to affect
materially the demand for skilled medical tech­
nologists. Much medical laboratory work will
continue to be carried on in hospital labora­
tories, although testing in laboratories outside
hospitals has been stimulated by the growing
membership in health insurance plans.
Replacement needs will account for addition­
al job openings, since many of the workers in
this field are young women who may be leaving
their jobs for marriage and family responsi­
bilities. Good employment opportunities exist
for mature persons who are adequately trained
or experienced and for persons interested in
part-time work. Women returning to this field
after several years' absence, however, may find
refresher courses necessary.
Over the long run, the factors responsible for
the increased demand for medical technologists
in recent years are expected to continue to be
influential in the future. With the expandiing
need for medical laboratory services, the cur­
rent shortages will probably continue, despite
the fact that a nationwide campaign to recruit

PROFESSIONAL, ADMINISTRATIVE, AND RELATED OCCUPATIONS

young people into the profession has been meet­
ing with considerable success.
Earnings and Working Conditions

Average weekly salaries of women medical
technologists employed by private and nonfederal Government hospitals in 15 cities in 1960
ranged from $69 a week in Philadelphia to $109
a week in Los Angeles-Long Beach. (Those
covered performed “ duties normally requiring
12 months’ training in an approved school for
medical technologists following at least 2 years
of college.” ) The range of average weekly sal­
aries for men medical technologists was from
$69.50 in Philadelphia to $110 in San Francisco-Oakland. In general, higher salaries
were paid by the government hospitals than
by private hospitals in the same cities.
Salaries of persons classified, as “ medical tech­
nologists” employed by the Federal Government
started at $4,345 in 1961. Those with more ex­
perience and responsibility could earn up to
$10,255 a year. According to a 1959 survey, the
average salary was $5,561. Federal employees
classified as medical technicians (who are not
required to have the training in type, scope, and
thoroughness equivalent to that represented by
completion of full professional training in medi­
cal technology) had a starting salary of $3,185
in 1961 and an average salary of $4,769 in 1959.

71

The average workweek of medical technolo­
gists is 40 hours, but there are many oppor­
tunities for part-time and night work. Tech­
nologists generally are provided vacations and
sick leave benefits, and almost all are covered
by private retirement plans or Federal social
security. The medical laboratories where they
work are usually well-lighted, clean, and pleas­
ant, although unpleasant odors, diseased tis­
sue, and blood are often present. Few hazards
exist, however, in laboratories using proper
methods of sterilization and requiring extreme
care in the handling of specimens, materials,
and equipment.
Where To Go for More Information

Information about employment opportunities
and schools of medical technology approved by
the American Medical Association may be ob­
tained from :
Registry of Medical Technologists of the American
Society of Clinical Pathologists,
P.O. Box 44, Muncie, Ind.
American Society of Medical Technologists,
Suite 25, Hermann Professional Bldg., Houston 25,
Tex.

Information about employment opportunities
and other schools offering training in medical
technology may be obtained from :
American Medical Technologists,
Suite 5A, Bass Bldg., Enid, Okla.

Chiropractors
(D.O.T. 0-39.90)

Nature of Work

Chiropractic is a system of treatment based
on the belief that the nerve system largely de­
termines the state of health of the human body
and that any interference with this system im­
pairs normal functions and lowers the body’s
resistance to disease. Chiropractors treat their
patients primarily by specific adjustment of
parts of the body, especially the spinal column.
Many also use such supplementary measures
as diet, exercise, rest, and water, light, and
heat therapy. Because of the emphasis placed
on the importance of the spine and its position,



most chiropractors use X-ray extensively in
their practice to aid in locating the source of
patients’ difficulties. Chiropractic as a system
of healing does not include the use of drugs
or surgery.
Where Employed

About 25,000 chiropractors were employed
in the United States in 1960. The greatest
numbers were engaged in independent private
practice. Some were employed by athletic
organizations and industrial firms; others
taught or did research work at chiropractic

72
schools, worked on the staffs of chiropractic
clinics, or were employed as salaried assistants
to established practitioners. About 40 percent
of all chiropractors were located in California,
New York, Texas, and Ohio.
Training and Other Qualifications

Most States and the District of Columbia
regulate the practice of chiropractic and grant
licenses to chiropractors who meet certain edu­
cational requirements and pass a State board
examination. The type of practice permitted
and the educational requirements for licensure
vary considerably from one State to another.
As of 1960, four States— Louisiana, Massachu­
setts, Mississippi, and New York— did not reg­
ulate the practice of chiropractic nor issue
licenses to chiropractors.
Most States require 4 years of training in a
chiropractic school following high school grad­
uation. Over one-third of the States also re­
quire 1 or 2 years of preparatory college work
before chiropractic training. In a few States,
considerably less than 4 years of chiropractic
education is sufficient to qualify for a license.
About half the States also require that chiro­
practors pass a basic science examination in
order to qualify for a license. Chiropractors
licensed in one State may generally obtain a
license to practice in another State without
further examination.
Approximately two-thirds of the 16 chiro­
practic schools in the United States in 1960
restricted their teaching to manipulation and
spinal adjustments. The others offered a broader
curriculum including training in such subjects
as chiropractic physiotherapy and clinical
nutrition. In most chiropractic schools, the first
2 years of the 4-year curriculum are devoted
chiefly to classroom and laboratory work in
subjects such as anatomy, physiology, and bio­
chemistry. The last 2 years are spent in obtain­
ing practical experience in the schools’ clinics.
The degree of doctor of chiropractic (D.C.)
is awarded by all schools to students completing
chiropractic training.
Most newly licensed chiropractors open their
own offices or purchase an established practice.
Some start as assistants to other chiropractors



OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

in order to acquire experience and funds. A
considerable financial investment is usually
necessary to open and equip an office. Among
the personal qualities considered desirable for
a practitioner is the ability to deal with people
sympathetically. The work does not call for
unusual strength or endurance, but does require
considerable dexterity with the hands.
Employment Outlook

The success of the new practitioner will de­
pend in large part on proper selection of a
location for practice. Opportunities for begin­
ning chiropractors will continue to be best in
those parts of the country where chiropractic
is most fully accepted as a method of treatment.
Small towns or suburban areas, where the
young practitioner can become known more
quickly than in a big city, offer the best pros­
pects for developing a practice.
The wide variation in community acceptance
and in the provisions of State laws is reflected
in the concentration of chiropractors in cer­
tain areas. The ratio of chiropractors to popu­
lation is highest in the Western States.
Employment opportunities are expected to be
greatest for new entrants who are able to meet
the highest State licensing requirements, in­
cluding graduation from a 4-year course of
4,000 or more hours. In view of the trend in
many States toward raising the educational
requirements for chiropractic practice, thor­
ough training will become increasingly im­
portant.
Women are expected to continue to find good
opportunities in this field, since some women
and children prefer to go to women chiroprac­
tors for treatment. About 15 percent of the
chiropractors in practice in 1960 were women,
and all chiropractic schools accept women as
students.
Earnings and Working Conditions

In chiropractic, as in other types of inde­
pendent practice, earnings are relatively low
at the beginning but rise after the first few
years. Though incomes of chiropractors vary
widely, their average income above expenses

73

HEALTH SERVICE OCCUPATIONS

was over $10,000 a year in 1959, according to
the limited data available.

Where To Go for More Information

Information on State licensing requirements
may be obtained by writing to the State board

of licensing in the capital of the State in which
the individual plans to practice.
General information on chiropractic as a
career may be obtained from :
National Chiropractic Association,
National Bldg., Webster City, Iowa
International Chiropractors Association,
741 Brady St., Davenport, Iowa

Dental Laboratory Technicians
(D.O.T. 0-50.06)

Nature of Work

Making artificial dentures— teeth, crowns,
bridges, or other dental appliances— is highly
skilled work, which used to be done chiefly by
dentists. Now dental laboratory technicians do
much of this work. These technicians do not
deal directly with patients but receive prescrip­
tions from dentists, which are often accom­
panied by impressions of patients’ mouths.
Since no two patients have exactly the same
dental problems, technicians have to do varied
work in carrying out dentists’ prescriptions.
A first step in making many kinds of appliances
is forming models in hard plaster (dental stone)
from the impressions taken by dentists. In ad­
dition, technicians may, for example, make
metal castings for dentures; polish and finish
dentures; construct metal or porcelain crowns
or inlays for partially destroyed teeth; make
gold and other metal bridges; and make appli­
ances to correct such difficulties as cleft
palates. In performing this work, dental lab­
oratory technicians use small handtools, elec­
tric lathes and drills, high-heat furnaces, and
other kinds of specialized laboratory equipment.
Some dental laboratory technicians are “ gen­
eralists” who do all types of dental laboratory
work. Others specialize in such areas as mak­
ing crowns and bridges, arranging artificial
teeth on dental appliances so that they func­
tion properly and look natural, processing
plastic materials, working with ceramics (por­
celain), or making castings of gold or other
metal alloys used in dentistry. The level of the
work done by technicians ranges from semi­
skilled to highly skilled, depending upon the
qualifications of the individual technician and



the requirements of the job. Technicians with
limited training and experience ordinarily per­
form relatively simple jobs— for example, mix­
ing and pouring plaster into casts and molds.
Well-qualified dental laboratory technicians are
assigned to the more difficult laboratory proc­
esses and may work with expensive metals.
Where Employed

About 25,000 dental laboratory technicians
were employed in mid-1959. Most of them
worked in commercial laboratories, either as
employees or as owners of the business. Commerical laboratories, which handle orders from
any dentist, are typically small businesses;
more than one-fourth of all laboratories were
1-man shops and less than 15 percent had 10

Dental laboratory technician making an exact likeness
of a tooth.

74
or more workers in 1959. Between 2,000 and
3,000 laboratory technicians worked for indi­
vidual dentists in their offices. Most of the re­
mainder— about 650— were employed by the
Federal Government, chiefly in the Veterans
Administration and in the Department of the
Army. Women, who account for about 10 per­
cent of all dental laboratory technicians, worked
mainly in large commercial laboratories.
Dental laboratory technicians, like the den­
tists who use their services, are located mainly
in big cities and in the States with the largest
populations. In 1959, more than half of all
dental laboratory technicians were in cities of
more than 50,000 population. Moreover, they
were concentrated in California, Illinois, New
York, and Pennsylvania.
Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement

The most common way of entering this oc­
cupation is to secure a trainee position and
learn the craft on the job— usually in a com­
mercial laboratory or in a Veterans Adminis­
tration or other hospital offering dental serv­
ices. Typically, an on-the-job training program
lasts 3 or 4 years, depending on such factors
as the student’s previous experience and train­
ing, his ability to master the techniques, and
the number of specialized areas to be learned.
Courses in dental laboratory work are offered
in some public vocational high schools and
junior colleges. In addition, a few private
schools offer 1- to 2-year courses in dental lab­
oratory technology. Regardless of the student’s
educational background, actual work experi­
ence is always necessary to qualify as a fullfledged technician.
Recently, the National Association of Dental
Laboratories and the American Dental Associ­
ation have jointly sponsored a certification pro­
gram for dental laboratory technicians who
can meet certain training and other require­
ments established by the associations. By the
fall of 1960, four schools had been accredited
by the American Dental Association to pro­
vide high school graduates (or those with
equivalent education) with the 2 years of train­
ing required under the program. The first year
of training consists of formal classroom in­



OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

struction in medical law and ethics, chemistry,
ceramics, metallurgy, and other related sub­
jects. During the second year, the student
must complete 12 months of supervised practi­
cal experience in an approved school or dental
laboratory. He may receive some pay for work
performed during this period. After completion
of the 2-year training program, 3 years of ex­
perience in a dental office or a commercial
laboratory are required before the dental lab­
oratory technician is eligible to take the exam­
ination for certification in one or more of five
areas— generalist, full denture fabrication, par­
tial denture fabrication, ceramic technique, and
crown and bridge fabrication.
Among the personal qualifications which em­
ployers look for in selecting trainees are a high
degree of manual dexterity, good color percep­
tion, patience, and a liking for detailed work.
Preference may also be given young people who
have completed high school courses in art,
ceramics and pottery, sculpturing, blueprint
reading, plastics, metalworking, and physiology.
A year or two of experience as either a clerk
or an assistant in a dentist’s office is also help­
ful preparation for prospective dental labora­
tory technicians.
Employment Outlook

Job opportunities are expected to be good
through the mid-1960’s for well-qualified, all­
round craftsmen and for specialists in ceram­
ics, gold, and other metalwork. Some job op­
portunities will also arise each year for trainees.
As in the recent past, the demand for dental
laboratory technicians will probably stem
largely from the need to replace technicians
who transfer to other fields of work, retire, or
die. Most opportunities for salaried employ­
ment, for both experienced and inexperienced
dental laboratory technicians, will be with
large commercial laboratories and in the Fed­
eral Government. Some experienced technicians
will find favorable opportunities for establish­
ing their own laboratories. A technician whose
work has become known to several dentists in
a community will have the best prospect of
building a successful business.
A moderate increase in employment of dental

75

HEALTH SERVICE OCCUPATIONS

laboratory technicians is anticipated over the
long run. The anticipated growth in popula­
tion, rising income, the growing public aware­
ness of the importance of preventive dentistry,
the mounting number of people in the older age
groups and, with it, the number of people re­
quiring artificial dentures, all point toward the
need for more dental laboratory technicians.
Moreover, the number of dentists is not ex­
pected to keep pace with population growth,
and it is likely that dentists will send more and
more of their laboratory work to commercial
firms, to free themselves increasingly for “ chairside” practice, research, and other professional
activities.
In the long run, certification may become
important for obtaining employment as a den­
tal laboratory technician, since many employ­
ers are likely to regard the certificate as the
best readily available evidence of the individ­
ual's competence for work in this field.

ment started at about $75 a week in mid-1960.
The majority of experienced dental laboratory
technicians employed in the Federal Govern­
ment earned about $100 a week.
Salaried technicians usually work the stand­
ard 40-hour week, but self-employed technicians
frequently work longer hours. Many techni­
cians in commercial laboratories receive paid
holidays and vacations, and some are also pro­
vided paid sick leave, bonuses, and other fringe
benefits. Technicians employed by the Federal
Government come under the same leave and
retirement provisions and have the same bene­
fits as other Government workers.
The work of dental laboratory technicians
is not strenuous and most jobs can be done by
handicapped workers provided they have use
of their hands and fingers.
Where To Go for More Information

Information about the training and other re­
quirements for certification, as well as a list
of approved schools, is available from :

Earnings and Working Conditions

Inexperienced dental laboratory technicians
employed in commercial laboratories typically
earned between $40 and $60 a week, according
to a 1958 survey by the American Dental Asso­
ciation. Experienced technicians in commer­
cial laboratories generally earned between $80
and $125 a week, depending on their skill level
and experience. Technicians who work with
ceramics or gold and other metals received the
highest salaries. In general, earnings of selfemployed technicians are higher than those of
salaried workers.
Trainees employed in the Federal Govern­

American Dental Association, Council on Dental
Education,
222 East Superior St., Chicago 11, 111.

Information on career opportunities in commerical laboratories may be obtained from :
National Association of Dental Laboratories,
201 Mills Bldg., Washington 6, D.C.

Information on entrance requirements for
trainees in dental laboratories in veterans'
hospitals may be obtained from :
Veterans Administration, Department of Medicine
and Surgery, Washington 25, D.C.

Optometrists
(D.O.T. 0-39.92)

Nature of Work

Optometrists examine eyes and perform other
services to safeguard and improve vision. They
use special instruments and tests to find and
measure defects in vision and, when needed,
prescribe eyeglasses, contact lenses (invisible
lenses), and eye exercises or other treatment
that does not require drugs or surgery. Most



optometrists supply their patients with the eye­
glasses prescribed, though some do only minor
repair work, such as straightening frames or
replacing nose pieces on glasses. A few optome­
trists specialize in work such as fitting persons
who are nearly blind with telescopic spectacles,
studying the relationship of vision to highway
safety, and analyzing lighting and other condi-

76

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

are engaged in office work or other occupations
which tend to create or emphasize vision prob­
lems. Nearly 40 percent are in four States—
Illinois, California, New York, and Pennsyl­
vania. Many small towns and rural areas, espec­
ially in the South, have no optometrists.
Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement

Optometrist examining patient’s eyes.

tions that affect the efficiency of workers in
industry or business. A few optometrists are
engaged primarily in teaching, research, or a
combination of the two.
Optometrists should not be confused with
ophthalmologists, oculists, or dispensing opti­
cians.
Ophthalmologists and oculists are li­
censed physicians who specialize in the medi­
cal and surgical care of the eyes and may pre­
scribe drugs or other treatment, as well as
lenses. Dispensing opticians (see index) fit
and adjust eyeglasses according to prescriptions
written by ophthalmologists or optometrists;
they do not examine eyes or prescribe treatment.
Where Employed

Most of the 17,000 optometrists employed in
early 1960 were in private practice in their own
offices. However, some were salaried employees,
working as assistants to established practition­
ers or for health clinics, hospitals, optical in­
strument manufacturers, or government agen­
cies. A few taught in colleges of optometry
or served as optometrists in the Armed Forces.
Optometrists are located chiefly in large
cities and industrial areas, where many people




To practice optometry in any State or the
District of Columbia, one must have a license.
Applicants for licenses must be graduates of an
accredited school of optometry and pass a
State Board examination. In some States, only
graduates of certain schools of optometry are
admitted to these examinations. A student plan­
ning to become an optometrist should, there­
fore, choose a school approved by the Board
of Optometry in the State where he expects
to practice. Altogether, there were 10 schools
of optometry in the country in 1960. Appli­
cants with the necessary qualifications have an
excellent chance of being admitted to one of
these schools.
At least 5 years of study beyond high school
are needed to become an optometrist. The most
usual requirement is 2 years of preoptometry
education in an approved college, followed by
3 years of training in an optometry school.
However, some optometry schools require com­
pletion of a 4-year course after the 2 years
of preoptometry study which are a prerequis­
ite for admission. Preoptometry courses in­
clude mathematics, physics, biology, and chem­
istry, as well as English and other liberal arts
courses. Students in schools of optometry have
both classroom and laboratory work, as well as
an opportunity to gain professional experience
in the clinic run by the school. Most schools
award the degree of Doctor of Optometry
(O.D.), but some confer bachelor’s degrees in
science or optometry instead. Optometrists
who wish to specialize often take additional
training. A master’s or Ph. D. degree in phys­
iological optics or in a related field is usually
required for teaching and research work.
A prospective optometrist should have a lik­
ing for mathematical and scientific work, the
ability to use delicate precision instruments,
mechanical aptitude, and good vision. In addi­

HEALTH SERVICE OCCUPATIONS

tion, to become a successful practitioner, he
must be able to deal with people tactfully.
The majority of optometrists start either by
setting- up a new practice or by purchasing- an
established one. Some begin as assistants to
established practitioners, and young graduates
are frequently advised to do this in order to
acquire experience and the funds necessary to
equip an office. A good office location is of
major importance for a successful practice.
The optometrist should consider the number of
optometrists and medical eye specialists in the
vicinity, in relation to size, occupations, age,
and income level of the population in the area.
Employment Outlook

Employment opportunities for new optome­
try graduates are expected to remain favorable
through the mid-l^GO’s. During this period,
the number of new graduates is likely to be
considerably less than the number of experi­
enced optometrists who retire or stop practic­
ing for other reasons. As in the past, opportuni­
ties to set up a new practice will generally be
best in small towns and in residential areas of
cities, where the new optometrist can easil;
become known and where competition is not at
keen as in large business centers. Communi­
ties, especially in the South, that have no optometric services available will also offer op­
portunities for new graduates.
Over the long run, the demand for eye-care
services will continue to grow. The importance
of good vision to efficiency at work and in
school is becoming more widely recognized; eye
strain has been increased by many aspects of
modern living; and the use of eyeglasses has
come to be generally accepted. The volume of
eye-care services needed will also be increased
by the anticipated growth in population, espec­
ially by the expected sharp rise in the number
of older people— the group most likely to need
glasses. Although the expanded demand will
be met in part by medical doctors who are eye
specialists, optometrists will continue to supply




77

a substantial proportion of all eye-care services.
Women optometrists, who constitute about 5
percent of the profession, have many opportuni­
ties to work as salaried assistants in the field
of visual training. Those in private practice
have been particularly successful in work with
children.
Earnings and Working Conditions

In optometry, as in some of the other health
fields, a low income must be expected during
the first few years of practice. As a practice
becomes established, earnings usually rise sig­
nificantly. In 1958, the average income above
expenses for self-employed optometrists was
$9,970, according to the American Optometric
Association.
Optometrists practicing in towns and small
cities have higher average earnings than those
in large cities. However, there are some success­
ful practitioners in big cities who have very
high incomes. Although optometrists in sal­
aried positions may at first earn more than
those who go into practice for themselves, the
situation is likely to be reversed after a few
years of experience.
Working hours in this profession are usually
regular. Since the work is not strenuous, op­
tometrists can often continue to practice after
the normal retirement age.
Where To Go for More Information

Additional information on optometry as a
career is available from :
American Optometric Association, Inc.,
4030 Chouteau Ave., St. Louis 10, Mo.

Information on required preoptometry courses
may be obtained by writing to the optometry
school in which the prospective student wishes
to enroll. The Board of Optometry in the capi­
tal of the State in which the student plans to
practice will provide a list of optometry schools
approved by that State.

78

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

V eterinarians
(D.O.T. 0-34.10)

Nature of Work

Veterinarians (doctors of veterinary medi­
cine) treat sick and injured animals. They
also give advice regarding the care and breed­
ing of animals and help to prevent the outbreak
and spread of diseases among them, by physi­
cal examinations, tests, and vaccinations. Be­
cause many animal diseases can be transmitted
to people, this work is important to the public
health.
About half of all veterinarians are general
practitioners who take care of both large and
small animals. Of those who are specialists,
the greatest number are in “ pet practice,” often
operating hospitals with boarding facilities for
dogs and cats. Some veterinarians specialize in
the treatment of certain kinds of animals, such
as prize livestock, poultry, or thoroughbred
horses. Many veterinarians inspect meat, poul­
try, and other foods as a part of the public
health programs of the Federal Government
and many State Governments. A small number
teach in colleges or do public health or other
research related to animal diseases, drugs, and
foods.
Since animals cannot describe how they feel,
veterinarians must diagnose diseases and in­
juries on the basis of appearance and behavior,
and by taking temperatures and making tests.
When needed, veterinarians operate on animals
and prescribe and administer drugs, medicines,
biologicals, serums, and vaccines. They use
X-ray machines, hypodermic needles, syringes,
and other medical equipment especially adapted
for use with animals. They may treat animals
on the farm— sometimes in open fields— or in
veterinary clinics or hospitals.
Where Employed

About 19,000 veterinarians— fewer than 5
percent of whom were women— were at work
in the United States in 1960. Of these, more
than two-thirds were in private practice. The
second largest number worked for the Federal
Government— chiefly in the U.S. Department



Courtesy of U.S. Air Force

Veterinarian checking the physical condition of animals
used in space probes.

of Agriculture, which employed nearly 2,000
veterinarians full time and over 5,000 part
tim e; a few worked for the U.S. Public Health
Service. More than 700 were commissioned of­
ficers in'the Veterinary Corps of the Army and
the Air Force. In addition, a substantial
number worked for State and local government
agencies and a few worked for international
health agencies. Some were also employed by
schools of veterinary medicine, State agricul­
tural colleges, animal food companies, and
pharmaceutical companies that manufacture
drugs for animals.
Veterinarians practice in all parts of the
country, although they are located chiefly in
States where many cattle and other livestock
are raised. In 1960, one-third of all the veter­
inarians in the United States were in five
States— California, with about 1,500; and New
York, Illinois, Iowa, and Ohio, each with over
1,000. Veterinarians in rural areas chiefly
treat large animals; those in small towns usu­
ally engage in general practice; those in cities
and suburban areas frequently limit their prac­
tice to pets.

79

HEALTH SERVICE OCCUPATIONS

Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement

To practice veterinary medicine in any State
or the District of Columbia, one must have a
license. An applicant for a license is generally
required to be a graduate of an approved vet­
erinary school and to pass a State Board exami­
nation. A few States also require some practi­
cal experience under the supervision of a
licensed veterinarian. A limited number issue
licenses without examination to veterinarians
who have passed an examination in another
State.
For positions in public health or other re­
search or college teaching, the master's or
Ph.D. degree in a field such as pathology, public
health, or bacteriology may be required, in ad­
dition to the degree of Doctor of Veterinary
Medicine (D.V.M.), awarded upon graduation
from veterinary school.
Two years of preveterinary college work
followed by 4 years of professional study in a
school of veterinary medicine are the minimum
requirements for the D.V.M. It may take 3
years, however, to complete the preveterinary
curriculum, which emphasizes chemistry and
other science courses. The veterinary school
training includes considerable practical expe­
rience in treatment of animals, as well as lab­
oratory work in anatomy, biochemistry, and
other scientific and medical fields.
There were 18 colleges of veterinary medi­
cine in the United States in 1960. Each year
many more young people apply for admission
than can be accepted. Some of the qualifica­
tions considered in selecting students are: a
good scholastic record, amount and character
of preveterinary training (in 1958, about onefourth of the students selected had a bachelor's
degree), a farm background, good health, and
a liking for animals. Opportunities for women
students are limited; most veterinary colleges
are reluctant to admit them. Since veterinary
colleges are largely State supported, residents
of the State in which the school is located are
almost always given preference. In the South
and West, regional educational plans have been
developed that permit cooperating States with­
out veterinary schools to send a few students
to designated regional schools. In other areas,
schools may informally decide to accept a cer­




tain number of students from other States, of­
ten giving priority to applicants from nearby
States without veterinary schools.
Some veterinarians begin as assistants to,
or partners of, established practitioners. Many
establish their own practice and start with a
modest financial investment in such essentials
as drugs, instruments, and a car. To open an
animal hospital or purchase an established
practice requires a substantial investment.
Newly qualified veterinarians who enter the
Army or Air Force are commissioned as first
lieutenants. New graduates of accredited vet­
erinary schools can also qualify for Federal
civil service positions as meat and poultry in­
spectors, disease-control workers, and research
assistants. In addition, the U.S. Department
of Agriculture offers juniors in schools of vet­
erinary medicine opportunities to serve as
trainees during the summer months.
Employment Outlook

Graduates of schools of veterinary medicine
will probably continue to have good employ­
ment opportunities throughout the 1960's. The
supply of graduates is not expected to meet the
total demand for veterinarians in private prac­
tice, government service, and colleges and uni­
versities. Many of the opportunities to enter
private practice or salaried employment will
arise from the need to replace veterinarians
lost to the profession through retirement or
death. Because many veterinarians are in the
older age groups, it is anticipated that these
replacement needs will continue to absorb al­
most half of the nearly 900 veterinarians who
will graduate each year from existing schools.
A gradual expansion in employment of vet­
erinarians can be expected in the long run.
More veterinarians will be needed to care for
the increased number of animals required to
feed the country's expanding population. The
trend toward suburban living is expected to
bring about a large growth in the pet popula­
tion and thus create a greater demand for pet
animal specialists. Emphasis on scientific
methods of raising and breeding livestock and
poultry will continue to increase, and public
health and disease-control programs are ex­

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

80

pected to grow. More teachers will be needed
to meet the anticipated rise in agricultural
college enrollment, and veterinary research will
expand further. In addition, the developing
programs in international public health and
atomic energy research will offer some oppor­
tunities.
The need for replacements and the antici­
pated growth in demand for veterinary serv­
ices, when related to the limited number of
veterinarians who can be trained each year by
existing schools, point toward continued favor­
able opportunities for veterinarians in the long
run. However, the demand for veterinary serv­
ice is closely related to economic conditions.
Since the market value of a farm animal largely
determines how much its owner can afford to
spend on its care, any major economic reces­
sion would greatly affect incomes and employ­
ment opportunities in large-animal practice.
Earnings and Working Conditions

Newly graduated veterinarians had a start­
ing salary of $6,435 a year in full-time posi­
tions with the Federal Government in 1960.
Summer trainees in the U.S. Department of
Agriculture were paid $103 per week actually
employed (representing a rate of $5,355 per
year). Veterinarians commissioned as first
lieutenants in the Army and Air Force re­
ceived pay and allowances totaling approxi­
mately $6,000 per year.
Beginning veterinarians employed in animal
hospitals received monthly salaries averaging
about $500, according to an estimate by the
American Veterinary Medical Association. In

addition, salaried veterinarians may be fur­
nished with lodgings and may also share in the
income of the animal hospital.
Veterinarians beginning their own practice
can generally cover their expenses the first
year and may often add to their earnings by
working part time for government agencies.
As they gain experience, their incomes in­
crease substantially. In general, income from
private practice also depends upon location and
type of practice. Very successful practition­
ers may earn $20,000 or more a year.
Veterinarians are sometimes exposed to dan­
ger of physical injury, disease, and infection.
Those in private practice are likely to have
long and irregular working hours; those in
rural areas may have to spend much time
time traveling to and from distant farms. Vet­
erinarians can continue working well beyond
the normal retirement age because of the many
opportunities for part-time employment or
practice.
Where To Go for More Information

Additional information on the earnings of
veterinarians and on veterinary medicine as a
career, as well as a list of schools providing
training, may be obtained from :
American Veterinary Medical Association,
600 South Michigan Ave., Chicago 5, 111.

Information on opportunities for veteri­
narians in the U.S. Department of Agriculture
is available from :
Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department
of Agriculture, Washington 25, D.C.

Osteopathic Physicians
(D.O.T. 0-39.96)

Nature of Work

Osteopathic physicians emphasize manual
manipulation in treating patients, and also use
surgery, drugs, and all other accepted methods
of medical care. Most are "family doctors”
who engage in general practice. These physi­
cians usually see patients in their offices, make
house calls, and treat patients in osteopathic




and some city and county hospitals. A few doc­
tors of osteopathy are engaged primarily in
research, teaching, or writing and editing sci­
entific books and journals. A growing number
specialize in 1 of the following 12 fields for
which approved specialty examining boards
have been set u p : Internal medicine, neurology
and psychiatry, ophthalmology and otorhino­

HEALTH SERVICE OCCUPATIONS

laryngology, pediatrics, anesthesiology, physi­
cal medicine and rehabilitation, dermatology,
obstetrics and gynecology, pathology, proctol­
ogy, radiology, and surgery.
Where Employed

Nearly all of the 13,500 osteopathic physi­
cians professionally active in the United States
in 1960 were in private practice. Less than 5
percent held full-time salaried positions, mainly
in osteopathic hospitals and colleges. A few
osteopathic physicians were employed by pri­
vate industry or government agencies.
Osteopathic physicians are located chiefly
in those States which have osteopathic hos­
pital facilities. In 1960, over half of all
osteopathic physicians were in the follow­
ing five States: California, with more than
2,000; Michigan, Pennsylvania, and Missouri,
each with more than 1,000; and Ohio, with
more than 800. Twenty-one States and the
District of Columbia each had fewer than 50
osteopathic physicians. Over half of all gen­
eral practitioners are located in towns and
cities with under 25,000 population; the spe­
cialists, however, mainly practice in big cities.
Training and Other Qualifications

A license to practice as an osteopathic physi­
cian is required in all States. As of 1960, li­
censed osteopathic physicians were qualified to
engage in all types of medical and surgical
practice in three-fourths of the States and the
District of Columbia. The remaining States,
however, limit in varying degrees the use of
drugs or the type of surgery that may be per­
formed.
To obtain a license, a candidate must be a
graduate of an approved school of osteopathy
and pass a State board examination. In 21
States and the District of Columbia, the candi­
date must pass an examination in the basic
sciences before he is eligible to take the pro­
fessional examination; some States also require
a period of internship after graduation from
osteopathic school. All States except Florida
and Rhode Island will usually grant licenses,
without further examination, to properly quali­



81
fied osteopathic physicians already licensed by
another State.
Three years of preosteopathic college work
followed by 4 years of professional study in an
osteopathic college are the minimum require­
ments for the degree of doctor of osteopathy
(D.O.). Preosteopathic education must include
a specified number of credits in chemistry,
physics, biology, and English. During the first
2 years of professional training, emphasis is
placed on basic sciences such as anatomy,
physiology, and pathology and on the prin­
ciples of osteopathy; the last 2 years are
largely devoted to work with patients in hos­
pitals and clinics.
After graduation, almost all doctors of
osteopathy serve a 12-month internship at 1 of
the 94 osteopathic hospitals which the Ameri­
can Osteopathic Association has approved for
intern training. Those who wish to become
specialists must have at least 3 years of addi­
tional training followed by 2 years of super­
vised practice in the specialty.
Every year, more young people apply for
admission to the six approved schools of osteo­
pathy than can be accepted. In selecting
students, consideration is given to grades re­
ceived in preprofessional education, scores on
medical aptitude tests, and the amount of pre­
osteopathic college work completed (in 1960,
about 70 percent of the students had bachelor’s
degrees). Also of great importance is the de­
sire to serve as an osteopathic physician rather
than as a doctor trained in other schools of
medicine. Considerable weight is also given to a
favorable recommendation by an osteopathic
physician familiar with the applicant’s back­
ground.
Newly qualified doctors of osteopathy usu­
ally establish their own practice. A few work
as assistants to experienced physicians or be­
come associated with osteopathic hospitals. In
view of the variation in State laws regulating
the practice of osteopathy, the osteopathic
physician should carefully study the profes­
sional and legal requirements of the State in
which he plans to practice. The availability of
osteopathic hospitals and clinical facilities
should also be taken into account when choos­
ing a location.

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

82

Employment Outlook

Opportunities for osteopathic physicians will
remain excellent through the mid-1960’s in
those parts of the country where osteopathy
is a commonly accepted form of medical care.
Greatest demand will probably continue to be
in California, Pennsylvania, and a number of
midwestern States; further growth in employ­
ment opportunities is also anticipated in the
Southwest and Northwest. Prospects for be­
ginning a successful practice are likely to be
best in rural areas, small towns, and city
suburbs, where the young doctor of osteopathy
can become known more easily than in the
centers of large cities.
In the long run, opportunities for osteo­
pathic physicians will probably continue to be
good. There is likelihood of greater public ac­
ceptance of osteopathy, liberalization of certain
State licensing laws, and the establishment of
additional osteopathic hospitals. In addition,
the demand for all kinds of medical care—
including the services of osteopathic physicians
— will continue to grow as a result of the in­
crease in population, government provisions of
medical services for veterans and members of
the Armed Forces, the development of prepay­
ment plans for medical care and hospitaliza­
tion, and the underlying trend toward higher
standards of health care. At the same time,
growth in the number of osteopathic physi­
cians in the country will be slow, unless train­
ing facilities are expanded. Approximately 430
doctors of osteopathy were graduated in 1960,
but many of these are needed to replace those
lost to the profession through retirement or
death.
Women osteopathic physicians will find good

opportunities not only in private practice but
also on faculties of osteopathic colleges and on
the staffs of hospitals and clinics. Approxi­
mately 7 percent of all osteopathic physicians
are women. Women students, however, rep­
resented only about 2 percent of the total en­
rollment in osteopathic colleges in 1960, al­
though men and women are equally eligible for
admission.
Earnings and Working Conditions

In osteopathy, as in many of the other health
professions, incomes usually rise markedly
after the first years of practice. Earnings of
individual practitioners are determined mainly
by such factors as ability, experience, the in­
come level of the community served, and geo­
graphic location. According to a survey made
by the American Osteopathic Association in
1960, the average income above business ex­
penses of general practitioners was $15,400 a
year, and for specialists $23,100 a year.
Many osteopathic physicians work more than
50 and 60 hours a week. Those in general prac­
tice work longer and more irregular hours than
specialists.
Where To Go for More Information

Persons wishing to practice in a given State
should find out about the requirements for li­
censure directly from the board of examiners
of that State. A list of State boards, as well
as general information on osteopathy as a
career, may be obtained from :
American Osteopathic Association,
212 East Ohio St., Chicago 11, 111.

Occupational Therapists *
(D.O.T. (1-32.04)

Nature of Work

An occupational therapist is a member of a
medical team whose purpose is to restore
maximum function to mentally or physically
disabled patients. This team may include doc* Prep&red by the W om en’s Bureau, U .S. D epartm ent o f Labor.




tors, nurses, social workers, physical therapists,
and other specialists. After a physician makes
his diagnosis and outlines a course of treat­
ment for a patient, an occupational therapist
selects and directs functional, recreational, edu­
cational, and vocational activities designed to
meet the specific needs.

83

HEALTH SERVICE OCCUPATIONS

tional therapists have administrative duties as
directors or assistant directors of occupational
therapy programs, and others may teach courses
in occupational therapy.
Where Employed

Courtesy of U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare

Occupational therapist directing handicapped children
in play therapy and activities in daily living.

Occupational therapists may employ several
types of therapy to attain the rehabilitation
goals set for patients. These goals may include
the restoration of physical, mental, or emo­
tional stability; combating boredom during a
long-term illness; aiding in developing maxi­
mum self-sufficiency in activities of daily living
(such as eating, dressing, writing, and using a
telephone); and helping patients, in the latter
stage of treatment, to perform jobs in a practi­
cal work situation.
Traditionally, occupational therapists have
taught manual and creative arts such as weav­
ing, clay modeling, and leatherworking. Today,
business and industrial skills such as typing,
operation of a key punch machine, and the use
of power tools have been added. Occupational
therapists may be required to design and make
special equipment or splints to aid patients in
performing their activities. Other duties may
include supervision of volunteer workers, stu­
dent therapists, and occupational therapy as­
sistants who give instructions in a particular
skill.
A chief occupational therapist in a hospital
may teach classes composed of medical students
and graduate and student nurses. Some occupa­



Most occupational therapists work in hospi­
tals and other health institutions, such as
school clinics, nursing homes, sanitoriums, and
homes for the aged. Some are employed in
special workshops, rehabilitation centers, camps
for handicapped children, and in State health
departments. A few occupational therapists are
employed in home-visiting programs for pa­
tients unable to attend clinics or workshops.
More than one-fourth of all occupational ther­
apists work with psychiatric patients, and
another fourth work with persons having physi­
cal disabilities (including general medical and
surgical patients). Approximately one-fifth
work with children (including those with cere­
bral palsy). Others work with tuberculosis pa­
tients or older persons, or they teach courses
in occupational therapy.
The exact number of occupational therapists
is not known, but in 1960 about 6,300 were
registered with the American Occupational
Therapy Association. In 1959, hospitals em­
ployed nearly 5,500 occupational therapists and
the Federal Government employed about 550.
In addition, well over 100 occupational thera­
pists were on active military duty.
The great majority of occupational therapists
are women. However, in recent years more men
have been entering the field. In the spring of
1960, about 75 men were enrolled in occupational
therapy courses.
Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement

A general requirement for entry into the
profession is graduation from a college or uni­
versity offering courses in occupational therapy
approved by the Council on Medical Education
and Hospitals of the American Medical Associa­
tion. In 1960, 32 such colleges and universities
offered courses leading to a bachelor of science
or bachelor of arts degree with a major in
occupational therapy. These courses emphasize

84
the health sciences and the application of oc­
cupational skills.
In addition to the 4 years of academic work,
a clinical training period— 9 to 10 months of
supervised practice in hospitals or health agen­
cies— is required to qualify for professional
registration. Some colleges permit their stu­
dents to take the clinical practice during the
summer and/or during part of their senior year
in college.
Half of the schools with approved programs
accept college graduates with training in other
fields and allow them to earn a certificate in
occupational therapy upon completion of 18
months' specialized training.
The Army, Navy, and Air Force offer pro­
grams whereby persons who satisfy basic re­
quirements for a commissioned officer and have
a college major in occupational therapy may
receive the clinical part of their training while
serving in the Armed Forces.
Upon graduation and completion of a clinical
training period, therapists are eligible to take
the examination for professional *registration
given semiannually by the American Occupa­
tional Therapy Association. Persons who suc­
cessfully complete this examination may use
the initials O.T.R. (Occupational Therapist Reg­
istered) after their names. Some hospitals re­
quire that their occupational therapists be
registered.
Five institutions offer a program leading to
a master's degree in occupational therapy for
persons who are registered occupational thera­
pists. Some occupational therapists have earned
advanced degrees in allied fields, such as in
guidance and counseling, education, psychology,
rehabilitation, or sociology. Persons working
for the master's degree often are interested in
teaching, research, or administrative work.
A number of colleges and universities offer
scholarships to students interested in becoming
occupational therapists, as do private and gov­
ernmental agencies.
A few colleges and health agencies offer ad­
vanced courses in the treatment of special dis­
abilities, such as those resulting from cerebral
palsy and poliomyelitis, for graduates of ap­
proved curriculums. Some institutions provide



OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

continuous inservice educational programs for
their occupational therapists.
Programs have been set up in some areas for
the training of occupational therapy assistants
who work under the direct supervision of a
registered therapist. To be eligible for the 12week minimum program for assistants, appli­
cants must be at least 18 years of age, have
a high school education, be in good physical
health and emotionally stable, and have the
ability to work well with others.
Occupational therapists without experience
usually begin as staff therapists and may
qualify as senior therapists after several years
on the job. Experienced therapists may be­
come directors of occupational therapy pro­
grams in large hospitals, clinics, or workshops,
or may become teachers. A few positions are
available as program coordinators and as con­
sultants with large institutions and agencies.
Personal characteristics needed in this pro­
fession are emotional stability, physical stam­
ina, a cheerful personality, a genuine liking
for people, a sincere interest in medical work,
and a sympathetic but objective approach to
illness and disability. Manual dexterity, ingen­
uity, and imagination are also needed.
Employment Outlook

Opportunities for occupational therapists are
expected to be excellent during the 1960's. Cur­
rently, there is a serious shortage of these
workers. The greatest demand is in and near
metropolitan areas where medical and ’ health
facilities are generally located.
The demand for occupational therapists has
been increasing due to the increased public
interest in the rehabilitation of disabled persons
and the demonstrated success of occupational
therapy programs in restoring people to health.
There are opportunities for work with psychia­
tric patients, children, and aged persons, as well
as those with persons suffering from cerebral
palsy, poliomyelitis, tuberculosis, and heart dis­
ease. Since active military personnel and their
dependents, including wives, children, and par­
ents, may be treated in military hospitals,
military occupational therapists are assured of
a wide range of experience.

85

HEALTH SERVICE OCCUPATIONS

Several measures have been taken to help
alleviate the shortage of fully trained person­
nel. Although hospitals and other employers
prefer to hire registered occupational therapists,
the continued shortage has led to the employ­
ment of therapists who are not registered. In
addition, some qualified personnel have been
employed on a part-time basis. Approximately
6 percent of the nearly 5,500 occupational ther­
apists in hospitals in 1959 were employed part
time.
In 1960, 353 persons earned degrees in occu­
pational therapy. Almost all of these were
bachelor's degrees; only 1 percent was a
master's. Men received only 3 percent of all
degrees. Despite the increasing number of per­
sons enrolled in occupational therapy courses,
classes were not filled to capacity in the school
year 1960-61.
Earnings and Working Conditions

Salaries of occupational therapists ranged
from approximately $4,200 to $10,000 in late
1959, according to the American Occupational
Therapy Association. Staff therapists were most
frequently paid salaries of $4,200 to $4,700 a
year, while senior therapists reported earnings
of $4,700 to $5,500. Directors of occupational
therapy programs with 4 or more years' ex­

perience received from $5,500 to $7,000; a few
coordinators or consultants earned between
$6,000 and $10,000 a year.
In the Federal Government, the beginning
salary for an occupational therapist without
experience in 1961 was $4,345; those with at
least 1 year of experience started at $5,355.
The highest salary in 1959 was about $9,000,
with the average at $5,706.
Most occupational therapists work an 8-hour
day, 40-hour week, with evening work required
in a few organizations. Vacation leave for ther­
apists usually ranges from 2 to 4 weeks a year.
Many positions offer health and retirement
benefits.
Where To Go for More Information

Additional information on occupational ther­
apy is available in the following publication:
The Outlook for Women as Occupational Thera­
pists (Women’s Bureau Bull. 203-2, Revised,
1952). Superintendent of Documents, Washing­
ton 25, D.C. Price 20 cents.

Detailed information on the field, on colleges
offering approved programs, and on scholar­
ships can be obtained from :
American Occupational Therapy Association,
250 West 57th St., New York 19, N .Y.

Podiatrists
(New D.O.T. 0-39.901)

Nature of Work

Podiatrists (also called chiropodists) diagnose
and treat diseases and deformities of the feet.
They perform minor surgery, use drugs and
physical therapy, prescribe proper shoes, and
fit corrective devices. To help in diagnoses,
they also take X-rays of the feet and utilize
blood and other tests. Among the conditions
podiatrists treat are corns, bunions, calluses,
ingrown toenails, skin and nail diseases, de­
formed toes, and shortened tendons. They refer
patients to physicians whenever they observe
symptoms in the feet and legs that may be
evidence of diseases— such as arthritis or heart



or kidney trouble— which also affect other parts
of the body.
As a rule, podiatrists provide most types of
foot care. Some of them, however, prefer to
treat particular ailments, and others devote
most of their practice to children. A few act as
consultants to shoe manufacturers, and some do
research or teach in colleges of podiatrychiropody.
Where Employed

Nearly all of the 7,600 podiatrists who were
actively engaged in the profession in early 1961
were in private practice. The few who held

86

Podiatrist using model of patient’s foot to explain
proposed treatment.

full-time salaried positions worked mainly in
hospitals or podiatry colleges, or for other
podiatrists. Some were commissioned officers
in the Army and Navy. Women represented
between 3 and 4 percent of the profession.
Podiatrists practice mainly in large cities.
More than half are in five of the most heavily
populated States— New York, Pennsylvania,
Illinois, California, and Ohio. There are many
small towns and rural areas, especially in the
South and the Northwest, where there are no
podiatrists.
Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement

All States and the District of Columbia re­
quire a license for the practice of podiatry. To
qualify for a license, an applicant must have
had at least 1 year— in some States, 2 years— of
preprofessional college education, have grad­
uated from an accredited college of podiatrychiropody, and must pass a State board exami­
nation. In addition, four States— Michigan,
New Jersey, Rhode Island, and West Virginia—
require applicants to have completed a 1-year
internship in a hospital or clinic after gradua­
tion from a podiatry college; the State of Okla­
homa requires those seeking a license to have
completed 1-year of practice under the direct
supervision of an experienced podiatrist. Over
half the States grant licenses without further
examination to podiatrists already licensed by
another State.




OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

The five accredited podiatry colleges in the
United States have differing entrance require­
ments. Two will admit only students who have
completed at least 2 years of college; the oth­
ers require only 1 year. This education must
include courses in English, chemistry, biology
or zoology, and, in some instances, also physics
or mathematics.
The first 2 years of podiatry training are
devoted chiefly to classroom instruction and
laboratory work in such basic sciences as
anatomy, bacteriology, chemistry, pathology,
and physiology, though in the second year stu­
dents obtain some limited experience in the
school clinics. During the final 2 years, stu­
dents spend most of their time obtaining clini­
cal experience. The degree of Doctor of Pod­
iatry (Pod.D.) or Doctor of Surgical Chiropody
(D.S.C.) is awarded upon graduation. Addi­
tional education and experience are necessary
to qualify for membership in any one of the
five professional groups recognized by the
American Podiatry Association: American
College of Foot Surgeons, American College of
Foot Orthopedists, American Society of Chiropodical Roentgenology, American Board of
Chiropodical Dermatology, and the American
Association of Hospital Podiatrists.
Among the personal qualifications considered
desirable for a career in this profession are
scientific aptitude, manual dexterity, and a
good business sense. The ability to get along
well with people is also important.
Most newly licensed podiatrists open their
own offices or purchase established practices.
Some begin by taking salaried positions in hos­
pitals, or with podiatrists already in practice,
to gain experience and to save the money needed
to equip an office. Podiatrists entering the
Army or Navy are commissioned as second
lieutenants or ensigns and may progress to
higher ranks if they make the service a career.
Employment Outlook

The employment outlook for podiatrists is
expected to be good through the mid-1960’s,
especially in those parts of the country where
the services of podiatrists are widely used.
New graduates of colleges of podiatry should

87

HEALTH SERVICE OCCUPATIONS

generally be able to find favorable opportunities
for establishing practices and some will also
have opportunities for salaried employment. In
1961, the American Podiatry Association re­
ported that there were unmet needs for podi­
atrists in some parts of the country. This
situation was expected to continue during the
1960's even if enrollments in podiatry colleges
rise substantially. In recent years, the number
of new graduates has only slightly exceeded
the number needed to replace members of the
profession who retire or die.
In the long run, the demand for podiatrists'
services is likely to grow, along with the de­
mand for other health care. The rising popula­
tion and the growing proportion of older people
are two factors pointing in this direction; in
1961, the American Podiatry Association esti­
mated that over half the population, par­
ticularly people in the older age groups, need
podiatrists' services. In addition, the trend
toward providing preventive foot care in
schools and factories is likely to continue, and
additional podiatrists may be needed to fill
salaried positions with organizations that pro­
vide all kinds of health services.
Location is one of the major factors in de­
termining success of podiatrists opening their
own offices. A practice can be developed most
quickly in small cities and suburban areas,
where the new podiatrist can easily become

known in the community and where there is
less competition from established practitioners.
Earnings and Working Conditions

In podiatry, as in many of the other profes­
sions, incomes usually rise markedly after the
first years of practice. Earnings of individual
podiatrists are determined mainly by such fac­
tors as ability, experience, the income level of
the community served, and location. In 1959,
the average income above expenses for selfemployed podiatrists was $10,364, according to
a survey by the American Podiatry Association.
Podiatrists do not have a standard workweek
but set their hours to suit the needs of their
practice. Their average workweek in 1959 was
about 38 hours, according to the Association's
survey.
Where To Go for More Information

Current information on the requirements for
licensure in a particular State may be obtained
from the State board of examiners in the State
capital. Information on entrance requirements,
curriculums, and scholarships is available from
the colleges of podiatry-chiropody. Additional
information on podiatry as a career, as well
as a list of accredited colleges, may be ob­
tained from :
American Podiatry Association,
3301 16th St. N W ., Washington 10, D.C.

Dental Hygienists *
(D.O.T. 0-50.07)

Nature of Work

Dental hygienists contribute to oral health
by helping to prevent tooth decay and pro­
moting better mouth care. Working under
the supervision of licensed dentists, dental hy­
gienists clean teeth by removing stains and
calcium deposits, polish teeth, and massage
gums. While performing this work— called
“ oral prophylaxis"— they chart conditions of
decay and disease for final diagnosis by the
dentist. Dental hygienists also instruct pa­
* P repared by the W om en’s Bureau, U .S. D epartm ent o f Labor.




tients on the techniques of mouth care and
proper diet and, in many localities, they apply
stannous or sodium fluoride solution to chil­
dren's teeth to aid in the prevention of decay.
Dental hygienists who work in private den­
tal offices may also take and develop dental
X-rays, mix filling compounds, prepare solu­
tions, sterilize instruments, and act as chairside assistants to the dentists. They may also
make appointments, receive patients, order and
maintain instruments and supplies, and keep
records.
One of the chief responsibilities of dental

88

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

pitals and dental hygiene schools, and as civil­
ian employees of the Armed Forces.
Training and Other Qualifications

Courtesy of U.S. Public Health Service

Dental hygienists spend much of their time working
with children.

hygienists employed by school systems is to
promote proper care of teeth among children.
Hygienists periodically examine children’s
teeth and report their findings to parents.
They also perform oral prophylaxes for chil­
dren and give classroom instruction on cor­
rect toothbrushing technique. They give talks
on good nutrition and its influence on dental
health. They may also help to develop class­
room projects or assembly programs on oral
health.
Dental hygienists employed as consultants
by public and private health agencies engage
in dental health projects or perform clinical
duties. A few assist in research projects. Den­
tal hygienists with advanced training may
teach in schools of dental hygiene.
Where Employed

About 10,000 dental hygienists were in prac­
tice in the United States in 1960; almost all
were women. The majority of hygienists work
in the eastern section of the country. How­
ever, the number employed in other areas has
been growing during the past decade.
Most dental hygienists are employed in pri­
vate dental offices. About one in four works for
a public health agency or a school system. A
few dental hygienists work in industrial plants,
union-sponsored clinics, on the staffs of hos­



Dental hygienists must be licensed by the
State Board of Examiners in the State in
which they wish to practice. Eligibility for
the licensure examination is limited to grad­
uates of dental hygiene schools in all but two
States (Alabama and Georgia). The examina­
tions consist of both written and practical clini­
cal tests. Although examination fees range from
$10 to $75, most commonly they are $25 or less.
Upon passing a licensure examination, a hy­
gienist becomes a Registered Dental Hygienist
(R.D.H.) in the State in which the examina­
tion was taken. Periodic registration, at a fee,
is also required in most States. To relocate
for practice in a different State, a licensed
dental hygienist usually must take another
examination.
In 1960, 33 schools of dental hygiene, lo­
cated in 23 States and the District of Columbia,
were accredited by the Council of Dental Edu­
cation of the American Dental Association.
These schools provide either a basic 2-year
dental hygiene certification course or a 4-year
program leading to a bachelor’s degree. Most
schools offer the 2-year curriculum, a few offer
the degree course only, and more than a third
offer both programs.
For dental hygienists interested in practic­
ing in a private dental office, completion of the
2-year certification program is usually suffi­
cient. Those who wish to work in public
health or school programs, research, or teach­
ing generally are required to complete the 4year program.
The minimum requirement for admission to
a school of dental hygiene is graduation from
an accredited secondary school in a college
preparatory course or its equivalent. Several
schools which offer the bachelor’s degree admit
students to the dental hygiene program only
after they have completed 2 years of college
study in liberal arts. Most schools also require
that students take aptitude tests, conducted by
the American Dental Hygienists’ Association,

89

HEALTH SERVICE OCCUPATIONS

to demonstrate their suitability for dental hy­
giene work.
The basic curriculum at a school of dental
hygiene consists of courses in the basic sci­
ences, dental sciences, and liberal arts. Class­
room instruction, laboratory study, and clini­
cal experience are combined to provide the
prospective dental hygienist with the basic
knowledge and skill essential to her job. The
student learns the basic procedures performed
by the dental hygienist and develops the manual
dexterity and attentiveness to detail essential
in this work. Classroom work includes sub­
jects such as anatomy, chemistry, histology,
pathology, pharmacology, English, and speech.
The average cost of 2 years’ education in
dental hygiene, not including living expenses,
was slightly more than $1,200 in late 1959,
according to a survey conducted by the Coun­
cil on Dental Education of the American Den­
tal Association. Tuition, instruments, text­
books, supplies, and special fees ranged from a
total of $375 to $2,492. Scholarships and loans
are available at many schools; however, they
are usually limited to second-year students.
The Public Health Traineeship Program of the
U.S. Department of Health, Education, and
Welfare provides tuition and modest living
expenses for graduate or specialized public
health training.
A personal attribute particularly desirable
for dental hygienists is the ability to work well
with people. Sympathy, understanding, and
patience also are important.
Employment Outlook

The current shortage of qualified dental hy­
gienists is expected to continue during the
1960’s. In recent years, between 900 and 1,000
dental hygienists have been graduated annu­
ally from approved schools. Although this is
double the number graduated in 1950, there
are still twice as many job openings as can be
filled. Many openings are created by turnover
among young women who leave their jobs for
marriage and family responsibilities. Accord­
ing to a 1959 survey made by the American
Dental Association, fewer than one out of seven
dentists in private practice employed dental



hygienists. In the future, many more dentists
are expected to employ dental hygienists to do
preventive work.
A further need for the services of hygienists
will result from an expanding population with
higher incomes and educational levels. Growing
interest in dental care programs for children
will lead to more employment opportunities for
dental hygienists in school systems. Greater
participation in prepayment plans, industrial
and union dental programs, and the growth of
group practice among dentists should also result
in additional jobs.
Mature women who wish to return to the
profession can expect to find good opportunities
for employment. In addition, as a result of ex­
panding demand, schools are studying methods
of recruiting a larger percentage of older
women for initial training in dental hygiene.
Earnings and Working Conditions

Earnings of dental hygienists— like those in
many other occupations— are influenced by the
type of employer, education and experience of
the individual hygienist, and the part of the
country in which the job is located. Dental
hygienists working in private dental offices are
most often salaried employees, though some are
paid a commission for work performed or a
combination of salary and commission.
More than four-fifths of all dental hygienists
employed full time had annual incomes of be­
tween $2,000 and $8,000, according to a 1960
study made by the Commission on the Survey
of Dentistry of the American Council on Educa­
tion. The average annual salary of a dental
hygienist employed full time in a private
dental office was $4,396 in 1958, according to
a survey conducted by the American Dental
Association. Authorities in the field estimated
that hygienists employed in large metropolitan
centers earned between $100 and $125 a week
in 1960. Dental hygienists employed in research,
administrative, supervisory, or teaching posi­
tions often earned higher salaries.
The entry salary for a dental hygienist em­
ployed by the Federal Government is either
$4,040 or $4,345 a year, depending on educa­
tion and experience. The average annual salary

90

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

of hygienists employed by the Federal Govern­
ment in 1959 was $4,414.
Dental hygienists employed full time in pri­
vate offices usually work between 35 and 40
hours a week. They may work on Saturdays or
during evening hours. In order to have a full
workweek, some hygienists work for two or
more dentists. Many hygienists combine parttime jobs in private dental offices with home
responsibilities. Those employed by the Federal
Government, other public agencies, or by pri­
vate organizations, work the number of hours
scheduled by those organizations.
Working conditions are pleasant. The hy­
gienist generally provides her own white uni­
form, cap, and shoes. Regular medical check­
ups and strict adherence to establish procedures
for using X-ray equipment and for disinfection
are important health protections for persons in
this occupation.

A paid vacation of 2 or 3 weeks is common
in most dental offices in which hygienists work
for a salary. Those working part time or for
a commission generally have no paid vacation.
Dental hygienists employed by school systems
and public or private health agencies have the
usual vacation, sick leave, and retirement bene­
fits of such organizations.
Where To Go for More Information

Information about approved schools, educa­
tion requirements, and job opportunities may
be obtained from the following organization:
American Dental Hygienists’ Association,
100 East Ohio St., Chicago 11, 111.

Information concerning licensing require­
ments can be obtained from the State Board
of Dental Examiners in the State in which a
dental hygienist wishes to practice.

Dietitians *
(D.O.T. 0-39.93)

Nature of Work and Where Employed

Dietitians are generally responsible for plan­
ning and supervising the preparation and serv­
ing of appetizing and nutritious meals to help
people maintain or recover good health. Their
work usually includes the planning of menus or
modified diets, supervision of the food person­
nel who prepare and serve the meals, manage­
ment of purchases and accounts, and promotion
of good eating habits.
Probably about 25,000 persons were employed
as dietitians in 1959, of whom approximately
5 percent worked part time. Although substan­
tial numbers are employed in industrial plants
and commercial eating places, about half of all
dietitians are estimated to be engaged in hospi­
tal work. Nearly 6,300 of these hospital dieti­
tians were certified by The American Dietetic
Association. (For further information on certi­
fication, see the section on Training.) All of the
four major types of specialists to be found
among professional dietitians are employed by
hospitals.
* P repared by the W om en’s Bureau, U.S. Departm ent o f Labor.




Administrative dietitians, the largest group,
administer and direct food-service programs in
either public or private establishments. The
majority of administrative dietitians work in

In hospitals, dietitians supervise the serving of
modified-diet meals.

HEALTH SERVICE OCCUPATIONS

hospitals, but some are also employed in col­
leges and universities; school food-service pro­
grams; company-operated cafeterias; commer­
cial restaurants, tearooms, and other cafeterias;
camps; homes for children or the aged; and on
airlines, steamships, and railroads. Applying
the principles of nutrition to large-scale meal
planning and cooking, they supervise the prep­
aration of meals which are nutritious, wellbalanced, and appetizing. In performing their
job, the staff dietitians select, train, and direct
food-service workers; arrange for the purchase
of food, equipment, and supplies; enforce sani­
tary regulations; and prepare records and re­
ports for management or for evaluation pur­
poses. Directors and assistant directors of a
dietary department also formulate departmen­
tal policy, coordinate dietary service with the
activities of other departments, and are respon­
sible for the development and management of
the dietary department budget, which in large
hospitals may run into millions of dollars
annually.
Dietary consultants, employed by State
health departments or other public agencies,
visit a number of public hospitals, institutions,
and sanatoriums to provide technical advice on
the maintenance of adequate diets for patients,
methods of food preparation, food-service oper­
ation and management, selection and purchases
of food and equipment, and kitchen layouts.
Therapeutic dietitians, usually employed in
hospitals and clinics, plan meals for patients
including those who have been placed on modi­
fied diets by their doctors for treatment of such
illnesses as diabetes, tuberculosis, or ulcers. They
also supervise the serving of meals and discuss
food likes and dislikes with patients. Other
duties of therapeutic dietitians include instruct­
ing patients and their families on the require­
ments and importance of their modified diets
and suggesting ways for them to stay on these
diets after leaving the hospital. Therapeutic
dietitians who work primarily with out-patients
in hospital clinics are usually called clinic
dietitians. In the clinics, they discuss dietary
needs and problems, including diets suitable at
home, with individual patients or with groups
of patients, such as expectant mothers or over­
weight people.



91
Teaching dietitians are employed by hospitals,
colleges, and universities to instruct classes in
such subjects as dietetics, foods and nutrition,
diet therapy, menu planning, budgeting, and
institution management. The students may be
dietetic interns, student nurses, medical or den­
tal students, dietary employees, or others. Be­
sides classroom work, teaching dietitians super­
vise dietetic interns in the performance of their
practical training. They also conduct less form­
alized and continuous in-service training for
food-service workers, and may also provide
dietary instruction to individuals or groups of
patients.
Research dietitians conduct experiments or
surveys in food and nutrition to learn how
foods can aid in the treatment of disease and
in helping persons to attain and maintain good
health. Generally they work as members of
medical teams, composed of doctors, nurses,
physiologists, psychologists, chemists, and
others. Sponsored largely by government agen­
cies, universities, large hospitals, and commer­
cial organizations, much dietary research is cur­
rently directed at the nutritional needs of the
aging and persons with chronic diseases. Some
dietitians are engaged in research in an effort
to solve the problems of space-travel nutrition
and discover new sources of food for the future.
Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement

Educational preparation recommended for a
professional dietitian is college study leading to
a bachelor’s degree plus 1 year as a dietetic
intern. Undergraduate work should include
courses in foods and nutrition, institution
management, chemistry, bacteriology, and phys­
iology, as well as such related courses as psy­
chology, sociology, and economics. During the
school year 1959-60, 670 bachelor’s degrees, 109
master’s degrees, and 14 doctorates were
granted to graduates who majored in foods and
nutrition and institution management.
College graduates who meet specific academic
requirements may enroll in 1 of the 65 dietetic
internship programs approved by The Ameri­
can Dietetic Association. During the school year
1960-61, about 600 dietetic interns were enrolled
in approved programs. As there was room for

92
about 200 more interns, the existing internship
programs were filled, on the average, to only
three-fourths of capacity. Scholarships and
loans are available to dietetic interns in numer­
ous programs.
Internships are conducted in three types of
establishments: In hospitals (which emphasize
food-service administration and therapeutic
dietetics), in business and industrial firms
(which emphasize food-service administration),
and in nutrition clinics (which emphasize nu­
trition education and therapeutic dietetics).
Most of the interns’ education is gained from
on-the-job experience under the supervision of
a qualified dietitian. The remainder of their
internship is spent in the classroom and on
special projects. Interns may be provided room,
board, and some laundry service without cost,
and they usually receive a monthly stipend.
The Veterans Administration, the largest
single employer of dietitians (about 960 in
1960), pays dietetic interns for the time they
work at the rate of $4,345 a year for a 40-hour
week. Some of the VA hospitals offer dietetic
interns living quarters and meals for a nominal
charge. Interns commissioned as second lieu­
tenants and ensigns in the Armed Forces re­
ceive $4,063 a year, including subsistence and
quarters allowance and a $300 uniform allow­
ance when commissioned and called to active
duty. The Army conducts two approved intern­
ship programs; the Navy and the Air Force
allow interns to participate in approved civil­
ian internships. In return for this training,
these interns are required to serve 2 years of
active duty.
Many employers give hiring preference to
dietitians who have completed an approved in­
ternship because they consider it evidence of
adequate training. However, 3 years of experi­
ence as a dietitian is usually considered accepta­
ble if at least 1 year of work has been super­
vised by a member of The American Dietetic
Association. Either of these two methods of
preparation makes a dietitian eligible for mem­
bership in the Association.
Some junior colleges and vocational schools
offer 2 to 3 years of training in dietetics, but
this schooling is not considered adequate for
professional work. Graduates of these programs



OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

may obtain employment as food-service super­
visors.
In addition to acceptable training, other es­
sential requirements for work in the field of
dietetics are a strong interest in and an apti­
tude for the sciences, particularly chemistry and
mathematics. Good physical stamina is also
needed, as well as ability to organize and man­
age work programs and to work with others.
Young people who wish to test their interest in
and adaptability to this profession will find it
helpful to have summer-work experience in a
hospital department of dietetics.
Experienced dietitians have good opportuni­
ties for advancement either in their own field
or in related work. After a few years of ex­
perience, a dietitian may be eligible for promo­
tion to director or assistant director of dietetics.
Those engaged in teaching or research usually
find it necessary to do graduate work in order
to advance to higher level jobs as supervisors
or specialists in their field.
Persons interested in becoming public health
nutritionists usually earn a graduate degree in
public health nutrition in 1 of the 12 colleges
and universities offering this type of training.
Graduate study in nutrition and related subjects
may lead to a variety of interesting and reward­
ing positions such as research nutritionist, nu­
trition consultant, or nutrition teacher.
Employment Outlook

Opportunities for qualified dietitians are ex­
pected to continue to be excellent throughout
the 1960’s. It has been estimated that about
2,000 dietitians will need to be recruited yearly.
New and expanding hospital facilities and more
widespread use of hospitals and medical serv­
ices for the increasing population will intensify
the present need for dietitians in hospitals.
Moreover, an increasing number of dietitians
will be recruited to direct food services for in­
dustrial feeding programs and commercial eat­
ing places. Expansion of school food-service
programs will also affect the demand.
Many young women select this field of study
because of their interest in food and home­
making and leave the profession for marriage
and family responsibilities. As a result, there

93

HEALTH SERVICE OCCUPATIONS

is a significantly large replacement need. The
current number of people graduating from diete­
tic internships amounts to approximately onethird of the yearly need.
Because of the present shortage, some hospi­
tals and other establishments are hiring college
graduates with suitable undergraduate educa­
tion to assist a member of The American Diete­
tic Association and thereby gain the qualifying
experience needed to become professional dieti­
tians. Small hospitals and institutions which
do not require the services of a full-time dieti­
tian are hiring dietitians on a part-time basis.
Some of these dietitians are married women
who have returned to work. In addition, a
number of dietitians, particularly those living
in rural areas, find it advantageous to work
part time for each of several institutions in
their area.
The number of men engaged in dietetics,
although small at present, is gradually increas­
ing and is expected to continue to rise as a
result of the greater emphasis on a dietetic
background for work "in the restaurant and
hotel management field.
Earnings and Working Conditions

In a survey of hospital employees' salaries in
15 metropolitan areas during mid-1960, dieti­
tians averaged from $75.50 to $102.50 a week,
or from $3,926 to $5,330 a year.
Salaries offered in hospitals in 1960 ranged
from about $4,200 to $5,400 for inexperienced
graduates of approved dietetic internship pro­
grams and from $5,300 to over $10,000 for
qualified dietitians with experience, according
to The American Dietetic Association. Open­
ings for dietitians in industrial companies, as
listed with the Association, specified annual
salaries averaging about $4,500 in 1960. Col­
lege food services offered salaries ranging from
$3,800 to $6,000 for staff assistants and from
$6,000 to $10,000 for directors. Supervisors of




school lunch service programs received be­
tween $5,000 and $9,000, and teachers in col­
leges and universities between $5,000 and
$ 10, 000.
In Veterans Administration hospitals, where
the majority of the* Federal Government dieti­
tians work, and in the U.S. Department of
Health, Education, and Welfare, which em­
ploys most of the others, the entrance salary
for internship graduates without experience
was $5,355 in 1961. Federal salaries increase
with the amount of experience and level of
responsibility, ranging up to $15,030 for ad­
ministrators and specialists.
Dietitians with the rank of second lieutenant
or ensign in the Armed Forces and junior as­
sistants in the commissioned corps of the U.S.
Public Health Service receive a starting salary
of $4,063 including subsistence and quarters
allowances; following 18 months of satisfactory
duty, a dietitian is qualified for promotion to
the next rank at $4,612.
Most dietitians work a regular 40-hour work­
week. However, dietitians in hospitals may
sometimes have to work weekends, and dieti­
tians in restaurants and cafeterias have ‘some­
what irregular hours. Rooms, laundry service,
and meals are sometimes provided in addition
to cash salaries. Paid vacations and holidays
as well as sickness and retirement benefits are
usually received.
Where To Go for More Information

The U.S. Civil Service Commission, Washing­
ton 25, D.C., has information on the require­
ments for dietetic interns and dietitians in
Federal Government hospitals.
Further information on approved colleges
and dietetic internship programs, available
scholarships, and employment opportunities
may be obtained from :
The American Dietetic Association,
620 North Michigan Ave., Chicago 11, 111.

94

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

Physical Therapists *
(D.O.T. 0-39.935)

Nature of Work

Physical therapists (sometimes called physio­
therapists) help persons with muscle, nerve,
joint, or bone diseases or injuries to overcome
such disabilities. Carrying out physicians’ in­
structions, physical therapists treat a variety
of disorders through physical exercise, me­
chanical apparatus, and applications of mas­
sage, heat, light, water, or electricity. These
disorders include physical injuries, deformities,
and disabilities resulting from such diseases
as poliomyelitis, cerebral palsy, and arthritis.
Most of the patients are accident victims,
crippled children, and disabled veterans.
To obtain information needed in developing
a treatment program, physical therapists per­
form muscle and nerve tests. They also keep
records of their patients’ progress during treat­
ments. In many instances, disabled persons must
be helped to accept their physical handicaps and
learn how to live with their limitations. An
important aspect of a therapist’s job is teach­
ing patients how to use and care for braces,
crutches, and artificial limbs. In addition, they
show patients and their families how to con­
tinue treatments at home.
Physical therapists may instruct physical
therapy students, students of related profes­
sions, or nonprofessional personnel (such as
physical therapy assistants and orderlies). In
order to integrate their work with that of
other staff members of a rehabilitation team,
they also attend conferences at which the prog­
ress of patients is discussed. Such a team is
directed by a physician and may include a
teacher, nurse, clinical social worker, occupa­
tional therapist, psychologist, speech thera­
pist, recreational worker, and vocational coun­
selor, in addition to a physical therapist.
Although qualified physical therapists may
treat all types of patients, some specialize in
working with children, veterans, amputees,
paraplegics, or victims of poliomyelitis, cere­
bral palsy, arthritis, or muscular dystrophy.
* P repared by the W om en’s Bureau, U.S. D epartm ent o f Labor.




Physical therapist helping polio patient regain sense of
balance with walker.

Where Employed

An estimated 8,000 qualified physical ther­
apists were employed in 1960; of these about
80 percent were women. In recent years, the
number of men entering this occupation has
been growing.
The majority of physical therapists work in
hospitals. About half of this group are em­
ployed by private, nonprofit hospitals; approxi­
mately one-fourth in hospitals run by State or
local governments; and most of the remainder
in Federal Government hospitals— operated pri­
marily by the Veterans Administration, the
Armed Forces, and U.S. Public Health Service.
Most hospitals employing physical therapists
are general hospitals, but some specialize in
care for pediatric, orthopedic, psychiatric, or
chronically ill patients. Many small community
hospitals also employ physical therapists. The
American Hospital Association has reported
that approximately two-fifths of the hospitals
surveyed in 1959 had physical therapy facili­
ties.

HEALTH SERVICE OCCUPATIONS

More than one-fourth of the physical ther­
apists were employed by rehabilitation or treat­
ment centers, schools or societies for crippled
children, and public health agencies. Most of
these organizations provide regular treatment
for patients with chronic diseases, and some
have home visiting programs.
The remainder work in physicians’ offices or
clinics, teach physical therapy, or perform re­
search relating to treatment procedures or in
such basic sciences as anatomy or physiology.
A few physical therapists serve as directors or
coordinators of departmental programs in large
hospitals and rehabilitation centers or as con­
sultants in government and voluntary agencies.
Training and Other Qualifications

Professional education for physical thera­
pists may be obtained in any of 42 schools of
physical therapy (including the Army Medical
Service School) which have been approved by
the American Medical Association (AM A) in
collaboration with the American Physical Ther­
apy Association. The majority of approved
schools are part of large universities. Most of
the others are operated by hospitals, which
usually have university affiliations.
All the physical therapy schools except the
Army Medical Service School offer 4-year pro­
grams leading to a bachelor’s degree. These
programs are open to high school graduates,
as well as to college students who have com­
pleted certain required science courses. A stu­
dent in the latter group can earn a degree in
less than 4 years if previous college work satis­
fies the course requirements of the physical
therapy school.
All but 14 of the approved schools also offer
12- to 16-month courses leading to a certificate
in physical therapy. Entrance requirements
for admission to certificate courses vary some­
what but generally include possession of a bac­
calaureate degree with undergraduate courses
in specified biological, physical, and social
sciences.
The curriculum of approved schools covers
the sciences and skills basic to physical therapy,
including anatomy, physiology, pathology, clini­
cal medicine, and psychology, as well as tech­
niques of electrotherapy, radiation therapy,



95
hydrotherapy, massage, and exercise. In addi­
tion to classroom instruction, students are as­
signed to a hospital or treatment center for
supervised clinical experience in the care of
patients.
Annual tuition in schools of physical therapy
ranges from $140 in a State university (for
State residents) to a maximum of $1,400 in a
private university. Many organizations, as well
as schools of physical therapy, offer scholar­
ships to students planning careers in physical
therapy. The principal source of scholarship
funds is The National Foundation, which of­
fers Health Scholarships to high school seniors
planning health careers. These scholarships are
renewable annually for 4 years.
Graduation from an AMA-approved school
of physical therapy is considered essential for
a career in this profession. It is required for
membership in the American Physical Therapy
Association (A PTA ), for registration with the
American Registry of Physical Therapists, and
may be necessary for licensure or registration
in some States. In 1960, 36 States required
licensing or registration of physical therapists.
Most employers, particularly large hospitals and
organizations, hire only therapists who are
graduates of AMA-approved programs.
Qualified therapists may take advanced de­
gree programs in physical therapy or in related
subjects such as anatomy, physiology, or ad­
ministration. Several universities now offer a
master’s degree in physical therapy. Graduate
education combined with clinical experience
greatly increases the opportunities for advance­
ment to positions of responsibility and leader­
ship in teaching, research, and administration,
as well as in the treatment area of physical
therapy.
Important characteristics needed by physical
therapists include emotional stability, a moder­
ate amount of manual dexterity, and a desire
to help people. Since an important part of a
therapist’s job is helping patients and their
families understand the treatments given and
preparing them emotionally for the changes
that occur, therapists must demonstrate pa­
tience, resourcefulness, and a sympathetic atti­
tude toward people. Their work also requires
good verbal expression in giving instructions

96
and the ability to plan and organize time,
material, and work output. In addition, good
health is essential for all physical therapists.
For those wishing to determine whether they
have the personal qualities needed for a career
in physical therapy, summer or part-time work
as a volunteer in the physical therapy depart­
ment of a hospital or clinic may prove helpful.
Employment Outlook

Employment opportunities for physical ther­
apists are expected to remain excellent through­
out the 1960's. It is estimated that at least
3,000 additional physical therapists will be
needed each year through the middle of this
decade. More new positions will be created as
present rehabilitation centers are enlarged and
new ones are built to meet the demands of the
growing population and increasing public in­
terest in the rehabilitation of handicapped per­
sons. In addition, a sizable number of vacancies
arise each year from turnover of personnel in
this occupation, especially since these workers
include many young women who may leave the
profession for marriage and family responsi­
bilities.
Crippled children's programs and vocational
rehabilitation activities in which States are
assisted by Federal funds, and possible expan­
sion of public health services at the State, coun­
ty, and municipal levels will further add to the
demand for physical therapists during the
1960's. More physicians are expected to recom­
mend physical therapy for patients, as tech­
niques and equipment for treating many dis­
eases are improved. Currently, an estimated
28 million Americans are disabled; within a
year, 50,000 more will have suffered disabling
diseases or injuries and will need physical
therapy.
The demand for physical therapists continues
despite the fact that the number of graduates
from approved schools has almost tripled in
the past 19 years, rising from 238 in 1941 to
682 in 1960. Facilities for more students are
available, as it was reported that during the
academic year 1960, approved courses in physi­
cal therapy were filled, on the average, only to
three-fourths of capacity.
Many opportunities for advancement to posi­



OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

tions of leadership and responsibility in this
profession will exist during the 1960's. Many
jobs such as coordinator, program director, con­
sultant, and teacher will be open to qualified
physical therapists.
Part-time work is available in many com­
munities. In 1959, nearly one-tenth of the
physical therapists working in hospitals were
employed in part-time positions. These are
particularly attractive to married women who
have physical therapy training and wish to
return to this type of work but cannot do so
on a full-time basis.
Earnings and Working Conditions

Average salaries of physical therapists (in­
cluding both beginning and experienced work­
ers) employed in hospitals in 13 metropolitan
areas, surveyed in mid-1960, ranged between
$77.50 a week ($4,030 a year) in Boston and
$103 a week ($5,356 a year) in the Los An­
geles-Long Beach area.
Inexperienced physical therapists averaged
$4,250 in 1959, according to the APTA. Some
salaries were supplemented by maintenance
and/or meals and by the laundering of uni­
forms. Working chiefly for the Veterans Ad­
ministration and U.S. Public Health Service,
physical therapists in the Federal Government
in 1961 received starting salaries of between
$4,345 and $6,435, depending upon previous
experience. At the same time, an entrance
salary of $4,063 (including rental and subsist­
ence allowances) was paid to physical therapists
with a second lieutenant or ensign rating in
the military services and also to junior assist­
ants in the commissioned corps of the U.S.
Public Health Service.
The average (median) salary of supervisors,
as reported by the APTA, was $6,250 in 1959.
For those employed as physical therapy direc­
tors or coordinators, salaries started at about
$7,000 a year and increased with experience,
competence, and responsibility.
A 1959 study of the APTA indicated that
most physical therapists worked 44 hours or
less a week. Almost all were receiving 2 or
more weeks' vacation. The majority of physi­
cal therapists received sick leave benefits, and
many were also covered by retirement plans.

HEALTH SERVICE OCCUPATIONS

97

Where To Go for More Information

apists, Bulletin No. 203-1, Revised, 51 pp.
Washington, D.C. 1952. Price 20 cents.
Information may also be obtained from :

Additional information concerning- women as
physical therapists is available in a U.S. De­
partment of Labor, Women’s Bureau publica­
tion, The Outlook for Women as Physical Ther­

American Physical Therapy Association,
1790 Broadway, New York 19, N.Y.

Medical Record Librarians *
(D.O.T. 0-23.25)

Nature of Work

Medical record librarians are responsible for
the planning, preparation, maintenance, analy­
sis, and use of records and reports on patients’
illnesses and treatments.
As a member of a professional team, the
medical record librarian may be engaged in
several areas of work, such as assisting the
medical staff in research projects; developing,
analyzing, and technically evaluating medical
records; developing auxiliary records (such as
indexes of physicians, diseases treated, and
operations perform ed); compiling statistics,
especially those pertaining to services given
patients; coordinating institution records and
reports; preserving medical records; maintain­
ing an educational and training program for
professional, technical, and clerical staffs; and
managing the medical record department.
The number and kind of duties medical rec­
ord librarians perform may vary markedly,
depending on the size and type of institution
where employed.
The chief medical record librarian, whose
staff consists of other medical record librarians,
medical record technicians, and clerical work­
ers, directs the activities of the entire medical
record department. She usually represents her
department at hospital staff meetings and may
testify in court actions that involve medical
records. Some medical record librarians have
unique administrative and research positions,
and a few are employed as consultants.
The records maintained by the medical rec­
ord librarian contain medical and surgical in­
formation on each patient, including history of
the illness, physical examination findings, doc­
tors’ orders and progress notes, nurses’ notes,
* Prepared by the W om en’s Bureau, U.S. Departm ent o f Labor.




and reports on X-rays and laboratory findings.
These records are used for research, insurance
claims, legal actions, evaluation of treatment
and medications, and for training medical,
nursing, and related personnel. Medical in­
formation found in hospital records is also im­
portant in planning community health
programs.
The occupation of medical record librarian
should not be confused with that of medical
librarian, whose work is chiefly confined to
books, periodicals, and other publications.
Where Employed

Most medical record librarians are employed
in hospitals. Others work in clinics, medical
research centers, •
medical departments of in­
surance companies and industrial establish­
ments, health agencies, local and State health
departments, regional hospital councils, and
student health centers. Since most hospitals

Courtesy of U.S. Veterans Administration

Medical record librarian orienting new doctors in the
preparation of medical records.

98
are located in or near large cities, virtually all
medical record librarians work in these popula­
tion centers.
More than 24,500 medical record personnel
were employed in 6,845 private and government
hospitals in 1959, according to the American
Hospital Association. Nearly 2,550 of these
workers were registered medical record librar­
ians, about 300 were accredited medical record
technicians, and the remainder were clerks,
unaccredited technicians, and nonregistered
record librarians. In 1958, about three-fourths
of these persons were working in general hospi­
tals, and the remainder were in specialty hospi­
tals providing care for patients with mental
diseases, tuberculosis, orthopedic conditions,
and other long-term illnesses.
At the present time, almost all medical rec­
ord librarians are women, but the number of
men in the field is growing.
Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement

The minimum requirement for professional
registration is 2 years of general college work
and 1 year of study in medical record science.
The trend is toward higher educational require­
ments— a bachelor's degree in medical record
science or a bachelor's degree supplemented by
a 1-year postgraduate course in medical record
science.
Twenty-nine schools, located in 20 States and
Puerto Rico, were approved by the Council on
Medical Education and Hospitals of the Ameri­
can Medical Association (AM A) for training
medical record librarians in 1960. Most of the
schools were college-affiliated. Two-thirds of
the schools admitted both men and women; onethird admitted only women.
Curriculums offered at these schools lead to
a bachelor's degree or a certificate in medical
record science. In general, schools granting
degrees require only high school graduation for
admission. Certificate-granting schools offer a
12-month concentrated course and usually re­
quire that applicants have 2 or more years of
college training or that they be registered
nurses. A few schools require an applicant to
have a college degree before entering the medi­
cal record science program. The trend is toward
higher educational standards which will require



OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

a bachelor's degree in medical record science
or a bachelor's degree supplemented by a 1year graduate course in the field.
To be approved by the AMA, each educa­
tional program for medical record librarians
must provide at least 50 weeks of theoretical
instruction and practical experience. The cur­
riculum must include courses in anatomy and
physiology; fundamentals of medical science;
medical terminology; medical record science;
organization and administration; interdepart­
mental relations; and legal aspects pertaining
to medical records, ethics, and statistics. Prac­
tical experience involves hospital admitting and
discharging procedures; standard indexing and
coding practices; and knowledge of the work
of such adjunct departments as X-ray, path­
ology, medical library, outpatient, and social
service.
Graduates of approved schools in medical
record science are eligible to take the national
examination of the American Association of
Medical Record Librarians, which is given an­
nually. Candidates who pass this examination
receive a certificate of registration which en­
titles them to professional recognition as Reg­
istered Record Librarians (RRL).
At the present time, no graduate work is
offered in medical record science, but some
medical record librarians do graduate work in
the field of health education.
Formal training at the technician level was
introduced about 8 years ago to meet the criti­
cal demand for personnel who can assume some
of the technical medical record work requiring
less responsibility. For high school graduates
unable to spend 3 or 4 additional years in school,
technician training offers an opportunity to
enter the less demanding positions.
Approved technician training courses are of­
fered in 12 schools and last from 9 to 12
months. In 7 of the 12 schools, men are ad­
mitted as well as women. Theoretical instruc­
tion, which may be presented through formal
lectures or informal conferences, includes anat­
omy, medical terminology, and the use and care
of medical records. Most of the training is
practical in nature and includes admitting pro­
cedures, discharge procedures, and secretarial
practice. On completion of the technician

99

HEALTH SERVICE OCCUPATIONS

course, students may take an examination given
by the American Association of Medical Rec­
ord Librarians. Candidates who pass the ex­
amination are recognized as Accredited Record
Technicians (A R T).
Certain personal characteristics are deemed
highly desirable in the achievement of a suc­
cessful and satisfying career in this profession.
Applicants must be accurate and meticulous,
be interested in detail, and have a willingness
to be persistent in obtaining data. Because
medical record information is of a confidential
nature, personnel must be especially discreet
in processing and releasing it. Since the work
is exacting and yet subject to frequent inter­
ruptions, the medical record librarian should
be able to maintain standards of accuracy de­
spite pressures. Medical record librarians,
especially those in administrative positions,
must be able to work with other members of
the medical team— physicians, surgeons, nurses,
heads of other departments, other hospital per­
sonnel— and the general public.
Medical record librarians may advance by
being assigned to supervisory positions. A
medical record librarian may be appointed as
chief of a single department or as the coordina­
tor of medical record departments of several
hospitals.

the use of new drugs and other methods of
treatment. Special interest in the aging popu­
lation will necessitate the recording and periodic
summarizing of the conditions of persons in
nursing homes and in home care programs.
Consultants and group supervisors are needed
to provide services for standardization of rec­
ords in areas where medical record librar­
ians are not available. Positions are available
in military hospitals in the United States and
overseas, as well as in other government agen­
cies and private industry.
In 1959,143 persons graduated from approved
courses in medical record science. At the same
time, 180 students were enrolled in the senior
class of degree programs or in certificate pro­
grams. Enrollment in these programs has been
rising in recent years, but classes still are not
filled to capacity.
Despite the increase in the number of newly
trained medical record librarians, the shortage
was so great that many hospitals were unable
to hire registered personnel. The American
Association of Medical Record Librarians es­
timated in 1960 that 3,000-4,000 more regis­
tered medical record librarians and 10,00015,000 additional medical record personnel, in­
cluding technical and clerical workers, were
needed.

Employment Outlook

Earnings and Working Conditions

Opportunities for qualified medical record
librarians are expected to be excellent during
the 1960’s. Currently, the demand is great and
the number of unfilled job openings is increas­
ing, partly because of growth in the number of
hospitals and in the volume and complexity of
hospital records. In addition to the need for
professional record personnel, there is a grow­
ing demand for persons at the technician level.
Persons are needed in both general and special
hospitals. There is also an increasing need for
record personnel to engage in specialized fields
of research and to assume administrative and
training responsibilities. The field is open to
both men and women.
The importance of medical records is grow­
ing rapidly owing in part to increased demands
for clinical data to be used in research on the
many killing and crippling diseases and on

Salaries of medical record librarians are in­
fluenced by the geographic location, size, and
type of employing agency, as well as by the
nature of duties and responsibility of the posi­
tion held. Average weekly salaries of these
workers ranged from $80 to $112, according to
a survey of hospital employees in 15 metropoli­
tan areas in mid-1960.
The average (mean) salary for chief medical
record librarians (registered) in 1960 was es­
timated by the American Association of Medi­
cal Record Librarians to be $5,200 a year. Per­
sons with a degree from an approved school
averaged about $300 more a year than grad­
uates of schools which did not offer degrees
in medical record science. The average annual
salary for accredited medical record techni­
cians was $3,750.
Yearly salary scales established for per­




100
sons entering Federal employment ranged in
1960 from $4,345 to $8,955, depending upon
the amount and type of education and expe­
rience. The average Federal salary for record
librarians in 1959 was $5,857.
Medical record librarians usually work the
hours scheduled for other professional and
technical workers in the same place of em­
ployment. In the 15 areas surveyed, a 40-hour
workweek was most common. Vacations with
pay, of at least 2 weeks’ duration, were usual
after a year of service, and longer vacations for
persons with longer service. The number of
paid holidays ranged from 5 to 13.




OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

Working conditions are generally pleasant,
although increasing complexity of the work of
medical record departments and the growing
accumulation of records have resulted in
crowded conditions in some hospitals.
Where To Go for More Information

Information about approved schools and em­
ployment opportunities may be obtained from :
The American Association of Medical Record
Librarians,
840 North Lake Shore Dr., Chicago 11, 111.

ENGINEERING
Engineering, the second largest professional
occupation, is exceeded in size only by teach­
ing; for men, it is the largest profession. The
approximately 875,000 engineers in the United
States in mid-1960 have made major contribu­
tions to the design, construction, and efficient
utilization of the machines, equipment, roads,
and buildings used by the Nation’s 180 million
people. Engineers provide technical and, fre­
quently, managerial leadership in industry and
government. They develop new products and
processes, design many types of machines and
structures, and contribute in countless other
ways to the technological progress of the
country and to the national defense.

such as washing machines, electronic compu­
ters, guided missiles, and industrial machinery.
Besides developing and designing new and
improved products, engineers are engaged in a
number of other kinds of activities. Many are
in administrative and management positions,
particularly in industries such as aircraft and
missiles and electronics manufacturing where
engineering methods are of great importance.
Many supervise construction activities or the
operation of plants and mines. Others do re­
search, aimed at providing the information
needed for the development of new products or
manufacturing processes. Some, particularly

Nature of Work

Engineers work out the most efficient ways
of transforming metals and other raw ma­
terials into things people can use and of har­
nessing waterpower, nuclear energy, and other
sources of power. This emphasis on efficiency,
which is closely related to cost, is one of the
main factors which distinguishes the work of
most engineers from that of most scientists.
A chemist may create a new compound or a
biologist may discover a new vaccine. The en­
gineer must determine how the compound or
the vaccine can be manufactured efficiently
and profitably. In constructing a large build­
ing, for example, an engineer must calculate
just how much weight the walls will have to
bear, what other forces will affect them, and
what margin of safety must be allowed. The en­
gineer has to decide which construction ma­
terials would be the best to use, taking into
consideration their relative strengths and dura­
bility, their cost, the quantities needed, and the
cost of their installation and upkeep. Similar
factors must be considered by engineers who
develop and design a wide variety of products




Engineers studying construction proposal for new plant.

101

102
trainees or beginning engineers, do drafting,
analysis, or testing, much of which is routine
work. Others with considerable experience
work as independent consultants or for con­
sulting firms, advising clients on engineering
matters. Many engineers are employed in sales
positions, where they must be able to discuss
the technical aspects of a product or assist in
planning its installation and use. A relatively
small but exceedingly important group of engi­
neers teach in colleges, universities, or engi­
neering schools.
Most engineers eventually specialize in one
of the many branches of the profession, al­
though there is a trend away from specializa­
tion in the early phases of training and career
development. More than 25 specialties are rec­
ognized by the profession or in engineering
school curriculums. Several of these— aeronau­
tical, agricultural, ceramic, chemical, civil,
electrical, industrial, mechanical, metallurgi­
cal, and mining engineering— are discussed
separately in this chapter. Work in each of
these areas involves specialized knowledge, but
there is a considerable body of basic engineering
and scientific knowledge and methodology which
is common to most areas of engineering. Thus,
engineers are often able to shift from one
branch of the profession to another, particularly
in the early stages of their careers.
Engineers may also become specialists in a
particular field of technology, such as nuclear
engineering, or in the engineering problems of
a particular industry. In many instances these
specialties cut across the traditional branches.
Nuclear engineers, for example, frequently have
considerable experience and some graduate
training in nuclear engineering, but their
bachelor’s degrees are usually in chemical,
mechanical, or one of the other traditional
branches of engineering.
Where Employed

The large majority of engineers— nearly
three-fourths of the total number in 1960— are
employed in private industry. Virtually all
manufacturing industries employ some engi­
neers. Those employing the largest numbers are
the aircraft and parts, electrical equipment,



OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

and machinery industries. Other industries
which employ sizable numbers of engineers in­
clude construction, chemicals and allied prod­
ucts, transportation and other public utilities
(including electric light and power and com­
munications companies), fabricated metal prod­
ucts, petroleum, and primary metals.
Another large group of engineers— more than
10 percent of the 1960 total— are employed by
Federal, State, and local government agencies.
Most of the engineers employed by the Federal
Government work for the Departments of De­
fense, the Interior, Commerce, and Agriculture,
and the National Aeronautics and Space Ad­
ministration. Most of those in State govern­
ment service are employed by highway and
public works departments.
Other major areas of employment for engi­
neers are engineering and architectural serv­
ices (including consultants), the Armed Forces
(active duty), and educational institutions.
The remainder are in a variety of other types
of employment, including independent com­
mercial laboratories and nonprofit organiza­
tions.
Engineers are employed in every State, in
small cities as well as large. The profession
also offers opportunities for employment over­
seas. However, some branches of engineering
are concentrated in particular geographic
areas or industries (as indicated in the state­
ments on these branches later in this chapter).
Training and Other Qualifications

A bachelor’s degree in engineering is usually
the minimum educational requirement for
young people seeking careers as engineers.
Some engineers, however, have entered the pro­
fession with training in physics or one of
the other natural sciences, or mathematics.
Others have been able to enter the field without
a degree, but only after long experience as semiprofessional workers— such as draftsmen and
engineering technicians— and some college-level
training. The proportion of engineers with ad­
vanced degrees is still small in most branches
of the profession, but graduate training is being
emphasized in the selection of personnel for
an ever-increasing number of jobs. Further­

103

ENGINEERING

more, training in some engineering specialties,
such as nuclear engineering, is available chiefly
at the graduate level.
Training in engineering leading to a bache­
lor's or higher degree was offered in 1960 by
238 universities and engineering schools. Of
these, 158 had one or more curriculums which
were accredited by the Engineers Council for
Professional Development. Although admission
requirements vary considerably, most engineer­
ing schools require courses in mathematics (of­
ten through trigonometry and college algebra)
and the physical sciences, and place great em­
phasis on the general quality of the applicant's
high school work.
In the typical 4-year engineering curriculum,
the first 2 years are spent mainly in studying
preengineering subjects such as mathematics,
chemistry, and physics, and taking courses in
the liberal arts— the humanities, social sciences,
and English. The last 2 years are devoted
chiefly to engineering and advanced mathema­
tics and science courses, with some differences
in courses depending on the branch of engi­
neering in which the student is specializing.
Some engineering curriculums require more
than 4 years to complete. A number of institu­
tions have 5-year programs leading to the
bachelor's degree. Other engineering schools
have arrangements with liberal arts colleges
whereby a student spends 3 years in the college
and 2 years in the engineering school and re­
ceives a bachelor's degree from each. About 50
institutions have cooperative plans, under which
students spend alternate periods in engineering
school and in employment in industry or govern­
ment. Under most such plans, the normal 4year curriculum is spread over 5 and sometimes
6 years, but the graduate has the advantage
of about 2 years of experience in addition to
his engineering degree.
Recent developments in science and engi­
neering have made a good background in mathe­
matics and the physical sciences especially im­
portant for the prospective engineer. Young
people considering an engineering career should
therefore obtain extensive training in these sub­
jects in college. A broad education which in­
cludes courses in the social sciences and human­



ities is also valuable in many engineering
positions.
Engineering graduates usually begin work as
trainees or in the more routine jobs. Some
companies have special training programs for
their beginning engineers. These programs are
designed to acquaint new graduates with speci­
fic industrial techniques and to aid in determin­
ing the type of work for which the individual
is best suited. As they gain experience, engi­
neers frequently move up to positions of greater
responsibility. Those with ability and interest
can advance to high-level technical, super­
visory, and administrative jobs and to top execu­
tive positions.
Laws providing for licensing (or registration)
of professional engineers whose work may affect
life, health, or property are in effect in all 50
States and the District of Columbia. In 1960,
about 240,000 engineers were registered under
these laws in the United States. Generally, re­
quirements for registration as a professional en­
gineer are: graduation from an accredited cur­
riculum of an engineering college plus at least
4 years of experience and passing of a State
examination. Examining boards may accept a
longer period of experience as a substitute for
a college degree.
Employment Outlook

The outlook is for continued rapid expansion
of the engineering profession, both through the
mid-1960's, and over the long run. Engineering
has been one of the fastest growing professional
occupations in the United States in the past 50
years, and there is every indication that the
demand for engineers will continue to grow.
As in recent years, there will probably be a
particular need for engineers with advanced
degrees to teach and to do research.
Some of the major factors expected to raise
the demand for engineering personnel are:
Continued high levels of Government spending
for defense, accentuated by the increasingly
large amount of engineering time necessary for
the development of modern weapons; growth
of population and expansion of industry; in­
creasing complexity of industrial technology,
as such the trend toward automation of in­

104
dustrial manufacturing processes; and further
growth in expenditures for research and de­
velopment. In particular, the large sums spent
for research and development in recent years
by both industry and Government— total re­
search and development expenditures in the
United States amounted to more than $13 bil­
lion in 1960-61— have broadened existing areas
of employment for engineers and opened up new
ones, such as those concerned with computers,
missiles, and nuclear energy. As scientific
frontiers are extended, more areas of work for
engineers will be provided. In addition, the
rise in engineering enrollments anticipated
during the middle and late 1960’s will result
in additional openings in college and univer­
sity teaching. (See statement on College and
University Teachers.)
Besides the engineers needed to fill new posi­
tions, thousands more will have to be trained
annually to replace those who transfer to other
occupations, retire, or die. Losses to the pro­
fession from retirements and deaths alone were
estimated to be more than 10,000 in 1960 and
were expected to rise in the future.
Despite the anticipated growth in demand for
engineers, little or no increase in the annual
number of engineering graduates is expected
until the mid-1960’s. Thus, employment pros­
pects for engineering graduates should continue

to be very favorable through the mid-1960’s, at
least. For engineering graduates with ability
and thorough training, there is every reason to
believe that employment opportunities will re­
main very good for many years to come.
Women engineers, who represent only an ex­
tremely small proportion of the profession, are
expected to have favorable employment oppor­
tunities through the mid-1960’s. Furthermore,
there are some indications that employers are
eliminating salary and other employment dif­
ferences between men and women engineers
of comparable education and experience who
are doing similar work.
The preceding analysis relates to the outlook
for the engineering profession as a whole. The
employment outlook in various branches of en­
gineering is discussed in the statements on
these branches later in this chapter.



OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

Earnings

The average (median) yearly salaries of
engineering graduates with bachelor’s degrees
and no experience are shown in the following
tabulation, based on a survey made by Engi­
neering Manpower Commission in mid-1960.
Upper
decile 2

Lower
decile 3

$6,450
6,325
6,200

$7,450
6,950
6,900

$5,875
6,000
5,600

6,575

7,250

6,025

6,300
6,250

6,900
6,825

5,775
5,675

6,125
6,150

6,500
6,475

5,575
5,600

6,250

7,250

5,425

6,825

7,850

6,125

5,900

6,775

5,150

Industry

Median

Aircraft and parts____________
Chemical ______________________
Construction _________________
Electrical machinery and
electronics _________________
Machinery manufacturing
(except electrical) _________
Petroleum _____________________
Telecommunications
(operations) _______________
Utilities (electric and g a s )___
Miscellaneous services:
Consulting services_______
Research and development
activities _______________
Government:
State highway
commissions ___________

1

1 50 percent earned more and 50 percent earned less than amounts
shown.
2 10 percent earned more than amounts shown.
3 90 percent earned more than amounts shown.

Engineering graduates with master’s degrees
and no experience usually received between
$800 and $1,400 a year more than those with
only bachelor’s degrees. Salaries for beginning
graduates with doctor’s degrees were typically
between $9,000 and $11,000 a year.
In the Federal Government in 1960, the be­
ginning salary for engineers with the bache­
lor’s degree and no experience was either
$5,335 or $6,345 a year, depending on the in­
dividual’s college record. Beginning engineers
with 1 full year of graduate study could begin
at $6,345; those with 2 full years at $6,435.
New graduates with the doctorate were eligible
to begin at $7,560 or $8,955.
Most engineers can look forward to a marked
increase in earnings as they gain experience.
Thus, in industry the median annual salary of
engineers with 10 years of experience was about
$10,000 in 1960, and that of engineers with 20
years of experience was about $12,400 (chart
17). Nearly all (90 percent) of those with 20
years of experience had earnings of at least

105

ENGINEERING
CHART 17

EARNINGS OF ENGINEERS INCREASE WITH EXPERIENCE
S a la rie s

of Engineering Graduates

Employed

in Industry

Annual s a la r y , 1960

A n n u al s a l a r y , 1960

Years since receiving ba ch elo r's d eg ree
Source: Engineers Joint Council,Professional Income of Engineers. 1960.

$9,000 a year and a few (10 percent) earned
$17,600 or more. A small number in top-level
executive positions had much higher earnings.
In general, earnings of engineers are some­
what higher in private industry than in other
types of employment. Though engineers in
government employment generally earn less
than those in private industry, particularly in
top-level jobs, their salaries tend to be somewhat
higher than those of engineering teachers. On
the other hand, engineers in educational in­
stitutions frequently supplement their salaries



with income from special research projects,
consulting work, and writing for publications.
Where To Go for More Information

General information on engineering careers
— including student selection and guidance,
professional training and ethics, salaries and
other economic aspects of engineering— may be
obtained from :
Engineers’ Council for Professional Development,
29 West 39th St., New York 18, N .Y.

106

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

Engineers Joint Council,
29 West 39th St., New York 18, N .Y.

American Society of Civil Engineers,
33 West 39th St., New York 18, N .Y.

National Society of Professional Engineers,
2029 K St. N .W ., Washington 6, D.C.

The American Society of Mechanical Engineers,
29 West 39th St., New York 18, N .Y.

Information on engineering schools and curriculums and on training and other qualifica­
tions needed for entrance into the profession
may also be obtained from the Engineers’
Council for Professional Development. Infor­
mation on registration of engineers may be ob­
tained from the National Society of Professional
Engineers.
Organizations which can furnish information
on the respective branches of engineering are
listed below:

Institute of the Aerospace Sciences, Inc.,
2 East 64th St., New York 21, N .Y.

The above list does not include all of the
many engineering organizations. Other engi­
neering organizations are listed in the follow­
ing publications available in most libraries:
Engineering Societies Directory, 1959, published by
Engineers Joint Council.
Scientific and Technical Societies of the United
States and Canada, published by the National
Academy of Sciences, National Research Council.

Some engineers are members of labor unions.
Information on engineering unions may be ob­
tained from :

American Ceramic Society,
4055 North High St., Columbus 14, Ohio
American Institute of Chemical Engineers,
25 West 45th St., New York 36, N.Y.

The American Federation of Technical Engineers
(A F L -C IO ),
900 F St. N W ., Washington 4, D.C.

American Institute of Electrical Engineers,
33 West 39th St., New York 18, N.Y.

The U.S. Civil Service Commission, Wash­
ington 25, D.C. will furnish information on
positions available in Federal Government
agencies. For further information see chapter
on Occupations in Government.

American Institute of Industrial Engineers,
145 North High St., Columbus 15, Ohio
American Institute of Mining, Metallurgical
and Petroleum Engineers,
29 West 39th St., New York 18, N.Y.

Aeronautical Engineers
(D.O.T. 0-19.03)

Nature of Work

Aeronautical engineers have played a vital
role in America’s entry into the space age.
Engineers in this specialty work on all types
of missiles and spacecraft, as well as conven­
tional aircraft. They may work in any phase
of missile or aircraft development, from the
initial planning to the final design, testing, and
manufacture.
Aeronautical engineers usually specialize in
some particular area of work, such as struc­
tural design, instrumentation, propulsion sys­
tems, fuels, or production methods. They may
also specialize in a particular type of aircraft,
such as conventional propeller-driven planes or
jet-powered aircraft, or in spacecraft or mis­
siles.




Courtesy of National Aeronautics and Space Administration

Engineer checking out payload of communications
satellite before launching.

107

ENGINEERING

Where Employed

Most aeronautical engineers are employed by
the aircraft and missiles industries, sometimes
called the aerospace industry. Some work for
Federal Government agencies, principally the
Department of Defense and the National Aero­
nautics and Space Administration. Small num­
bers work for commercial airlines, colleges and
universities, and other employers.
Employment Outlook

The outlook is for continued expansion of
employment in aeronautical engineering, both
in the near future and over the long run. Em­
ployment will grow as a result largely of con­
tinued increases in Government expenditures

for missiles and spacecraft. In recent years, the
focus of aeronautical engineering work has
shifted from propeller-driven and jet-powered
aircraft to missiles and rockets, and this em­
phasis on space vehicles is expected to grow.
Moreover, the increasing complexity of missiles
and spacecraft, which require more and more
engineering time to design and build, will fur­
ther increase the demand for these engineers.
Research aimed at developing new aircraft and
improving those now in use will probably also
require additional engineers. (See introduc­
tory section of this chapter for discussion on
training and other qualifications, earnings, and
where to go for more information. See also
chapter on Occupations in Aircraft, Missile,
and Spacecraft Manufacturing.)

Agricultural Engineers *
(D.O.T. 0-19.10)

Nature of Work

Agricultural engineers develop equipment
and methods to make farm work easier, more
productive, and more economical. The efforts
df agricultural engineers are directed largely
to the design of tractors and other farm equip­
ment and farm structures; utilization of elec­
trical energy on farms; soil and water conser­
vation and management; and processing of
agricultural products for the market. They use
basic engineering principles and concepts to
help achieve greater production per farmworker
with fewer man-hours per unit of produce, at
a greater yield to the farmer and improved
quality for the consumer. Specific areas of work
include research, education, production, design,
development, testing and application, produc­
tion engineering, sales engineering, mainte­
nance, management, or some combination of
these.
Where Employed

Private industry employs approximately 60
percent of the agricultural engineers in the
* Prepared by the U.S. Department of Agriculture.




United States and the rest are engaged in gov­
ernmental and other service activities.
Agricultural engineers are employed by more
than 1,000 private business organizations, rang­
ing from very large manufacturers to individual­
ly owned small businesses. These include farmequipment manufacturers who produce tractors
and related farm equipment; smaller companies
manufacturing more specialized lines of field,
barnyard, and household equipment; producers
of electrical, mechanical, and structural com­
ponent parts and basic component materials
having agricultural applications; electric serv­
ice companies; distributors and dealers in farm
equipment and supplies; trade associations;
specialized agricultural producers and proces­
sors ; publishers; advertising agencies; consult­
ing engineers; and engineering and manage­
ment services for farmers. Some agricultural
engineers are self-employed as owners or part­
ners in some of the above types of business.
The U.S. Department of Agriculture— prin­
cipally the Department's Soil Conservation
Service and Agricultural Research Service— is
the largest Federal Government employer of
agricultural engineers. The Departments of the
Interior and Defense employ smaller numbers,
and several other Federal agencies each em­

108

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

ploy a few. Individual State Governments also
employ agricultural engineers, most of whom
are affiliated with the agricultural engineering
departments of the State colleges, universities,
experiment stations, and extension services.
Some are employed by other State agencies con­
cerned with natural resources, food sanitation,
pollution control, highways, soil conservation,
and other work related to State interests in
public welfare, business, and agriculture. A
few agricultural engineers work for counties,
cities, and special districts organized to carry
on activities connected with drainage, irriga­
tion, public power, and soil conservation.
Employment Outlook

The employment outlook for agricultural
engineers is expected to be favorable, both
through the mid-1960’s and over the long run.
Several factors contribute to the favorable out-

look. The market for agricultural products will
increase with the increase in population. Broad­
ening use of agricultural products and wastes
as industrial raw material will create new
openings for agricultural engineers. These
engineers have already proved their worth in
agriculture, especially in improving man's ca­
pacity to deal effectively and economically with
the problems that are characteristic of the
modern farm— high tonnages, large volumes,
and enormous energy and power requirements.
However, these major factors in the cost and
quality of agricultural production are open to
much further improvement through agricultur­
al engineering. They present major opportuni­
ties for additional engineering service to agri­
culture. (See introductory section of this
chapter for discussion of training and other
qualifications, earnings, and where to go for
more information. See also chapter on Agri­
cultural Occupations.)

Ceramic Engineers
(D.O.T. 0-15.11)

Nature of Work

Where Employed

Ceramic engineers are concerned with the
processing of clay and other nonmetallic min­
erals, and with their manufacture into a wide
variety of ceramic products, ranging from
cement and bricks to dentures, and coatings for
missile nose cones. They may also design and
supervise the construction of the plant and
equipment used in the manufacture of these
products. Many ceramic engineers are engaged
in research and development work. Others are
employed in administration and management,
plant operations, selling, and teaching. A few
do consulting work.
Ceramic engineers usually specialize in one
or more products— for example, products of re­
fractories (fire- and heat-resistant materials,
such as firebrick); whiteware (such as porce­
lain and china dinnerware or high voltage elec­
trical insulators); structural materials (such
as brick, tile, and terra cotta ); protective and
refractory coatings for metals; glass; and
abrasives.

Most engineers in this branch are employed
in manufacturing industries. The largest num­
bers are in the stone, clay, and glass industries,
but others work in the iron and steel, electrical
equipment, chemicals, and other industries
which produce or use ceramic products. Some
are employed by educational institutions and
by other organizations. A small number work
for government agencies, chiefly the Federal
Government.




Employment Outlook

The outlook is for rapid growth in employ­
ment of ceramic engineers, both through the
mid-1960's and over the long run. Ceramic en­
gineering is one of the smaller branches of the
profession, however, and opportunities for new
entrants in any one year will be few, compared
with those in some of the other branches of
engineering.
Newer areas of work in nuclear energy, elec­
tronics, and rocket propulsion will provide

109

ENGINEERING

many of the opportunities for these engineers.
Ceramic-coated metals which are corrosionresistant and capable of withstanding both ra­
diation and extremely high temperatures are
becoming increasingly important in the develop­
ment of nuclear reactors and rockets. Increasing
use of the more traditional ceramic products,
such as whiteware and abrasives, will also re­
quire additional ceramic engineers for research

and design work, both to improve these prod­
ucts and to adapt them to new requirements.
The growing use of cement and structural-clay
products in construction will also add to the
opportunities for ceramic engineers. (See in­
troductory section of this chapter for discussion
on training and other qualifications, earnings,
and where to go for more information.)

Chemical Engineers
(D.O.T. 0-15.01)

Nature of Work

Chemical engineers transform the discoveries
made in chemical laboratories into large scale
production. They are primarily concerned
with designing and operating the chemical
plants and equipment and with the other engi­
neering work required to produce chemicals in
large quantities. A chemical process may con­
sist of a combination of “ unit operations” —
mixing, crushing, grinding, crystallization, heat
transfer, distillation and drying— and chemi­
cal operations— oxidation, hydrogenation, chlo­
rination, and polymerization. The chemical
engineer determines the combination of these
operations which will result in the most effec­
tive manufacturing process.
Because of the great complexity of this work,
the chemical engineer frequently becomes a
specialist in a particular type of operation,
such as heat transfer, distillation, or drying,
or in the products of one industry, such as
petroleum, plastics, rubber, food, or industrial
chemicals. The activities in which chemical
engineers are chiefly engaged are research and
development, plant operation, design, and
management.
Where Employed

A great many industries employ chemical
engineers. However, most of them work for
manufacturing firms— chiefly in the chemicals
and petroleum industries. Some are employed
by government agencies, colleges and univer


sities, and consulting firms, or as independent
consulting engineers.
Employment Outlook

Chemical engineering is one of the youngest
and most rapidly growing of the major branches
of engineering. The outlook is for continued
growth in this branch of engineering, both
through the mid-lOGO’s and over the long run.
The major factors which have contributed
to the growth in past years— expansion of in­
dustry and increases in research and develop­
ment activities— will in all probability continue
to be important in the future. In particular,
continued expansion of research and develop­
ment activity (in which about one-third of all
chemical engineers are employed) is expected
to contribute to further growth of employment
in the profession.
The increasing complexity of chemical proc­
esses and the growing trend toward automation
of these processes, particularly in the chemicals
and petroleum industries, will require additional
chemical engineers to design, build, and main­
tain the necessary plants and equipment. Chem­
ical engineers will also be needed in many rela­
tively new areas of work, such as nuclear
energy and rocket fuels. (See introductory sec­
tion of this chapter for discussion on training
and other qualifications, earnings, and where to
go for more information. See also statement
on Chemists and chapter on Occupations in the
Industrial Chemicals Industry.)

110

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

C iv il Engineers
(D.O.T. 0-16.01)

Nature of Work

Civil engineering is the oldest and one of
the largest branches of the engineering profes­
sion. Civil engineers design and supervise the
construction of roads, harbors, airfields, dams,
tunnels, watersupply and sewage systems,
transportation facilities, buildings, and many
other types of structures. This branch of the
profession is so broad that many specialties
have developed within the field; the major
specialties are structural, highway, hydraulic,
railroad, and sanitary engineering.
A sizable number of civil engineers are in
supervisory or administrative positions, ranging
from that of site supervisor of a construction
gang or head of a drafting department to toplevel executive posts. Many are also employed
in design and related activities.

gineering and architectural firms or work as
independent consulting engineers. Others are
employed by public utilities, railroads, and by
educational institutions. Still others are em­
ployed in the iron and steel industries and other
branches of manufacturing.
Civil engineers work in all parts of the
country, in every State and city. The largest
numbers work in or near the industrial and
commercial centers. However, since civil en­
gineers are frequently called upon to work at
construction sites, they are sometimes stationed
in remote areas of the United States or in
foreign countries. Furthermore, although many
positions involve little or no travel, civil engi­
neers in some positions are often required to
move from place to place to work on different
projects.

Where Employed

Employment Outlook

The great majority of civil engineers are em­
ployed by Federal, State, and local government
agencies and the construction industry. In
addition, many are employed by consulting en-

Employment in civil engineering is expected
to grow, both in the near future and over the
long run, although not as rapidly as in elec­
trical and mechanical engineering, the other
large branches of the profession. Construction
activity, including housing, industrial building,
and highway construction, is expected to in­
crease for many years. New programs in areas
related to water and sewage systems, flood con­
trol, air and water pollution, and reclamation
are likely to be introduced during the next
decade, and these programs will require addi­
tional civil engineers.
Large numbers of civil engineers will also
be needed each year to replace those leaving
the field. Civil engineers as a group are older
than engineers in other specialties and the pro­
portion of them lost to the profession each year
by retirement or death is therefore relatively
high. The number of civil engineers needed
to fill vacancies thus created was about 2,800
during 1960 and will probably rise slowly in
the future. (See introductory section of this
chapter for discussion on training and other
qualifications, earnings, and where to go for
more information.)

Courtesy of U.S. Bureau of Reclamation

Civil engineer inspecting reinforcing steel used in a river
basin project.




ENGINEERING

111

Electrical Engineers
(D.O.T. 0-17.01 and .02)

Nature of Work

Electrical engineering has been among the
most rapidly growing branches of the profes­
sion in recent years. This branch of the pro­
fession, which includes engineers specializing
in electronics, is today one of the three largest
branches of engineering. Electrical engineers
are concerned with the generation of electricity
and its transmission and use. They may design,
develop, and supervise the manufacture of elec­
trical and electronic equipment— including elec­
tric motors and generators; communications
equipment; electronic apparatus such as tele­
vision, radar, computers, and missile guidance
systems; and electrical appliances of all kinds.
They may also participate in the design and
operation of facilities for generating and dis­
tributing electric power.
The major areas of work in this branch of
engineering include electronics, electrical ma­
chinery and equipment manufacturing, tele­
phone and telegraph, power, illumination, and
transportation. Electrical engineers usually spe­
cialize in one of these broad areas of work or
even in a subdivision of some one area. Elec­
tronic engineering, for example, is increasingly
becoming recognized as a distinct branch of
the profession.
A large number of electrical engineers are
engaged in design, development, and research.
Another large group are employed in technical
administration. Others are employed in manu­
facturing operatons or in technical sales.
Where Employed

Electrical engineers are chiefly employed by
electrical and electronic equipment manufac­
turers, and by electric light and power, aircraft
and missile, telephone and telegraph, and radio
and television broadcasting companies. How­
ever, many members of this profession are em­
ployed in still other industries, and some are
employed by government agencies, colleges and



universities, and consulting firms. A few work
as independent consulting engineers.
Employment in this branch of the profession
is concentrated to a considerable extent in the
industrial centers where electrical and elec­
tronic equipment is manufactured. However,
jobs with electric light and power companies,
telephone companies, and radio and television
stations are located in every State— in small
towns as well as large cities.
Employment Outlook

The outlook is for rapid growth of employ­
ment in this branch of the engineering profes­
sion, both in the near future and over the long
run. Military needs for new and improved types
of electronic and electrical equipment have
been, and are expected to remain, a major factor
in increasing the demand for electrical engi­
neers. These defense needs, added to those of
the civilian economy, are expected to result in
a continued rapid growth in the electrical and
electronics equipment industry. The electric
utility and the telephone and telegraph indus­
tries— other large fields of employment for elec­
trical engineers— are also expected to grow.
Newer areas of work such as nuclear energy,
missile guidance systems, servomechanisms,
computers, and automation will probably con­
tinue to require large numbers of electrical
engineers as well as other engineers and scien­
tists.
Besides those needed to fill new positions, a
sizable number of electrical engineers will be
required to replace personnel lost to the pro­
fession by retirement or death. The number
needed to fill such vacancies was estimated to
be about 2,000 in 1960, and will probably rise
slowly in the future. (See introductory section
of this chapter for discussion on training and
other qualifications, earnings, and where to go
for more information. See also chapter on Elec­
tronics Manufacturing Occupations.)

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

112

Ind ustrial Eng ineers
(D.O.T. 0-18.01)

Nature of Work

Industrial engineers are primarily concerned
with the efficient use of machines, materials,
and personnel. They often specialize in plan­
ning plant layouts so that the work will flow
efficiently from one production process to the
next, or in the selection and design of machines
and equipment to be used in manufacturing
operations. They are also concerned with the
installation of automated manufacturing proc­
esses. Among their numerous other specialties
are time, motion, and incentive studies; produc­
tion methods and standards; cost control and
records; quality control; and safety engineer­
ing.
Where Employed

A large proportion of all industrial engineers
are employed in manufacturing industries.
Others work in the construction and mining
industries, for utilities, and for the Federal
Government. A few are employed by banks,

mail-order houses, life-insurance companies,
and other large business organizations to im­
prove the efficiency of clerical and other
operations.
Employment Outlook

Employment of industrial engineers is ex­
pected to grow, both in the near future and
over the long run. The increasing complexity of
industrial operations and the expansion of auto­
mated processes, coupled with the continued
growth of the Nation’s industries, are expected
to increase the demand for personnel trained
in this branch of engineering. Growing recogni­
tion of the importance of scientific management
and safety engineering and of the contribution
of industrial engineers in reducing costs and
increasing productivity is expected to stimulate
further the demand for personnel in this
branch of engineering. (See introductory sec­
tion of this chapter for discussion on training
and other qualifications, earnings, and where
to go for more information.)

Mechanical Engineers
(D.O.T. 0-19.01, .05, .81, .91)

Nature of Work

Mechanical engineering is one of the three
largest branches of the profession, along with
civil and electrical engineering. If aeronautical
and industrial engineering, which are offshoots
of mechanical engineering were included, it
would represent by far the largest branch of
the profession.
Mechanical engineers deal primarily with
machines, power, and heat. They design and
develop machines, such as internal combustion
engines, steam turbines, jet and rocket engines,
and nuclear reactors, which produce power
from fuels and other sources. They also de­
velop and design a great variety of machines
and devices which use power— refrigerating and
air conditioning equipment, elevators, machine




tools, printing presses, steel rolling mills, and
many others. Mechanical engineers often super­
vise the installation, operations, and mainte­
nance of industrial machinery.
Many specialized areas of work have developed
within mechanical engineering. Among these
are motor vehicles, marine equipment, railroad
equipment, rockets, steam power, heating, ven­
tilating and air conditioning, hydraulics or
fluid mechanics, instrumentation, ordnance,
and machines for specialized industries, such
as petroleum, rubber and plastics, and wood­
working.
Where Employed

Mechanical engineers are employed in all
major manufacturing and in most nonmanu­

113

ENGINEERING

facturing industries. Many are employed in
government agencies, educational institutions,
and consulting engineering firms, or as inde­
pendent consulting engineers.
Employment Outlook

The outlook is for rapid growth in this branch
of the profession, both through the mid-1960’s
and over the long run. The industries which
employ the largest numbers of mechanical en­
gineers— electrical equipment, machinery, fab­
ricated metal products, transportation equip­
ment, and primary metals industries— are ex­
pected to continue to expand. Growth of re­
search and development activities in these and

other industries will also require additional
mechanical engineers. Moreover, newer areas
of work, such as atomic energy, missile and
space craft development, and automation will
probably provide additional openings for large
numbers of mechanical engineers as well as
for other engineers and scientists.
Besides those needed to fill new positions,
sizable numbers of mechanical engineers are
required each year to replace those who retire
or die. Recent estimates placed this number
at approximately 2,300 in 1960, and it will rise
slowly in the future. (See introductory section
of this chapter for discussion on training and
other qualifications, earnings, and where to go
for more information.)

Metallurgical Engineers
(D.O.T. 0-14.10 and .20)

Nature of Work

Metallurgical engineers are concerned with
the processing of metals and their conversion
into commercial products. These engineers
usually work in one of two main branches of
metallurgy. The first of these, extractive metal­
lurgy, deals with the extraction of metals from
their ores, and with refining and related proc­
esses. The other branch, physical metallurgy,
deals with the content and structure of metals
and their alloys and with methods of convert­
ing refined metals into final products having a
specified strength and hardness or other de­
sired properties.
Persons working in the field of metallurgy
are sometimes referred to interchangeably as
metallurgists or metallurgical engineers. How­
ever, those known as metallurgists are generally
engaged in such activities as research and de­
velopment or analysis and testing, whereas
those with the title of metallurgical engineers
are engaged mainly in directing the processing
of ores.

mining industry also employs a substantial
group. Small numbers hold positions in other
industries, government agencies, consulting
firms, research organizations, and educational
institutions.
Most metallurgical engineers are in the large
metal-fabricating centers of the country. Those

Where Employed

Metallurgical engineers are employed chiefly
in metalworking industries— especially in iron
and steel and nonferrous metals. The metal



Many engineers are engaged in research aimed at
developing new products.

114

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

employed in the mining industry are naturally
located chiefly in metal mining regions.
Employment Outlook

Employment in this small branch of the pro­
fession is expected to grow rapidly, both in the
near future and over the long run. Increasing
numbers of metallurgical engineers will be need­
ed by the metalworking industries to work on
problems involved in the adaptation of metals
and alloys to new needs. For example, the de­
velopment of such items as supersonic jet air­
craft, missiles, satellites, and space craft has

brought about a need for light-weight metals
capable of withstanding both extremely high
and extremely low temperatures. Metallurgical
engineers will also be needed to solve metal­
lurgical problems connected with the atomic
energy program. As the supply of high grade
ores diminishes, more metallurgical engineers
will be needed to find ways of processing low
grade ores now regarded as too unprofitable to
mine. (See introductory section of this chapter
for discussion on training and other qualifica­
tions, earnings, and where to go for more in­
formation. See also chapter on Occupations in
the Iron and Steel Industry.)

Mining Engineers
(D.O.T. 0-20.01 and .11)

Nature of Work

Mining engineers are responsible for the ef­
ficient extraction of minerals from the earth.
They plan and supervise the construction of
mine shafts and tunnels, devise means of ex­
tracting the minerals, and plan the methods- to
be used in transporting the minerals to the
surface. Mining engineers also design and su­
pervise the installation of water supplies, elec­
tric light and power facilities, and ventilation
equipment in mines. They direct the operation
of mines and are responsible for mine safety.
Some mining engineers work with geologists
and other specialists in searching for ore-bear­
ing rock or for deposits of petroleum, coal, or
other minerals.
Mining engineers frequently specialize in the
extraction of a particular type of mineral—
metals, coal, nonmetallic minerals, or petroleum
and natural gas. (Petroleum engineering has
become so specialized that it is becoming recog­
nized as a separate branch of the profession.)
Specialization of mining engineers may also
extend to a particular type of work, such as mine
safety, mine appraisal, or exploration.
Where Employed

A large proportion of all mining engineers
are employed in the mining and petroleum in­



dustries. The remainder work for colleges and
universities, for government agencies, or as in­
dependent consultants.
Mining engineers are usually employed at the
location of mineral deposits. They may work
near small communities or in out-of-the-way
places— in mountains or deserts. Those engaged
in research, teaching, management, or consult­
ing may, however, be located in large metro­
politan areas.
Employment Outlook

Mining engineering is one of the smaller
branches of the profession, and opportunities
for new entrants in any one year are expected
to be relatively few. In recent years, employ­
ment prospects for new graduates with a de­
gree in mining engineering have been less fa­
vorable than for those in most other branches
of engineering.
Over the long run, mining engineering is ex­
pected to grow, although more slowly than
most other branches of the profession. As needs
for metals increase with the expansion of in­
dustry and easily mined deposits are exhausted,
mining engineers will probably be needed to
devise ways of mining poorer deposits or those
which are more difficult to mine at a competitive

ENGINEERING

cost. Additional areas of employment for min­
ing engineers will arise as the development of
new alloys and the discovery of new uses for
metals increase the demand for less widely used
ores. In the petroleum industry, some mining
engineers will be needed to locate and utilize




115
new oil fields, both in the United States and
abroad. (See introductory sections of this
chapter for discussion on training and other
qualifications, earnings, and where to go for
more information. See also chapter on Petrole­
um Production and Refining Occupations.)

PHYSICAL AND EARTH SCIENCES
Natural science— the sum of man's knowledge
of the physical world and of the animals and
plants in it— had its beginnings many centuries
ago. At first, scientific knowledge was so limited
that men of science did not need to specialize.
Aristotle, for example, was familiar with all
the science known in his day and was the
author of books on both physics and animal
life. Gradually, however, the body of scien­
tific knowledge became too great for one in­
dividual to grasp in its entirety, and scientists
became specialists in different fields.
Today, the natural sciences are customarily
grouped into several broad categories: physical
sciences— chemistry, physics, astronomy; earth
sciences— geology, geophysics, meteorology; life
sciences— including animal and plant sciences
and microbiology; and mathematics, which is
often classified with the physical sciences. Fur­
thermore, most scientists now specialize in sub­
divisions of these broad fields, Physicists, for
example, are usually specialists in such areas
as nuclear physics or optics; chemists, in such
branches as organic or inorganic chemistry.
The trend toward finer subdivision of the
sciences has, in recent years, gone hand in
hand with a blurring of the lines between the
different specialties. Information and tech­
niques developed by scientists working in one
field have, with some new discovery, often be­
come the basis for the solution of problems in
a different field. New specialties, such as geo­
chemistry and biophysics, have come into being
through a combination of the knowledge of two
or more sciences. Thus, the total body of scien­
tific knowledge is interrelated in many ways.
No one branch of the natural sciences is en­
tirely independent of all others.
It would be hard to exaggerate the impor­
tance of the natural sciences to the country's
welfare and to the national defense. Neverthe­
less, they are still relatively small fields of
employment. The total number of scientists at
116



all levels of professional training was about
335,000 in mid-1960, or 1 scientist for every
225 workers in the labor force. Nearly onethird of all scientists are in chemistry, the
largest scientific profession.
Employment of natural scientists has grown
rapidly over the last several decades, and par­
ticularly since World War II. This growth is a
reflection of scientific discoveries which have
led to new and improved products and processes
in a wide variety of industrial fields. Develop­
ments in recent years in aircraft and missiles,
in television and radar, in atomic energy, and
in a multitude of chemical products are but a
few of the best-known examples of the uses of
science in the production of necessities and
conveniences for modern life. The sciences
which have contributed most conspicuously to
these developments are chemistry, physics, and
mathematics. A number of life science special­
ties have also had important roles.
Some scientific specialties, such as astronomy
and certain branches of mathematics, are still
chiefly in the academic realm, with colleges
and universities providing most of the employ­
ment opportunities. For many of the natural
science professions, however, large fields of em­
ployment have opened up in the laboratories of
business and government during the past four
decades. After World War I, advances in chem­
istry formed the basis for a rapid growth of
the chemical industry, and a consequent great
expansion in the profession of chemist. Physics
became industrially important during the 1920's
and 1930's and has grown very rapidly since
World War II. Mathematics has always been
of fundamental importance to industry but its
period of very rapid growth, the seeds of which
were sown during World War II, began in the
late 1940's and early 1950's. Whereas chem­
istry fathered a new industry, the impact of
physics and mathematics has not been concen­
trated in any one industry but has been impor­

117

PHYSICAL AND EARTH SCIENCES

tant in a number of different ones, notably elec­
tronics, professional and scientific instruments,
and aircraft manufacturing.
Generally speaking, scientific specialties
which do not have large-scale industrial appli­
cations are very small fields of employment,
affording opportunities chiefly in teaching for
persons with advanced training. In order to
offer sizable employment opportunities for per­
sons with only 4 years of college training, a
science must have developed a field of applica­
tion— for example, in production or testing
activities— where professional work can con­
sist of applying established principles or al­
ready existing knowledge to the solution of
practical problems— rather than in conducting
research.

The outlook in both the near future and over
the long run is for the continued rapid growth
in employment in most, though not all, of the
natural sciences. It is expected that in all sci­
ence fields there will be considerable demand
for graduates with advanced degrees, particu­
larly those with the doctorate, to teach in col­
leges and universities and to do research work.
This chapter is concerned with the physical
and earth sciences and the outlook for the major
branches of these professions— chemistry, phys­
ics, astronomy, geology, geophysics, and me­
teorology— is discussed in detail in the state­
ments which follow. The biological sciences
and mathematics and related fields are dis­
cussed in separate chapters. (See index for
page numbers.)

Chemists
(D.O.T. 0-07.02 through .85)

Nature of Work

Most people visualize the chemist as some­
one in a white coat working in a laboratory
with a maze of glass tubing and intricate ap­
paratus. This picture is reasonably accurate.
The majority of chemists are employed in
laboratories, chiefly in research and develop­
ment or in analysis and testing work. Those
engaged in research and development usually
work on applied research projects aimed at
creating new products or improving and find­
ing new uses for existing ones. Detergents,
antibiotics and other wonder drugs, fabrics
made from synthetic fibers, and rocket fuels
are only a few examples of the vast range of
products which research chemists have helped
to create. In addition, many research chem­
ists work on basic research projects; their in­
terest is in extending scientific knowledge, not
in solving immediate practical problems. Many
important discoveries have stemmed from basic
research. For example, research on polymeri­
zation— how and why certain small molecules
unite to form giant molecules— resulted in the
development of synthetic rubber and nylon.
Analysis and testing is another major ac­
tivity in which many chemists are engaged.
These chemists analyze the composition of sub­



stances and test them to determine their qual­
ity, purity, and other characteristics. Tests of
various kinds must be made at practically every
stage in the manufacture of a product, from its
initial development to its production for sale.
Other activities in which sizable numbers of

Courtesy of U.S. E .partment of Agriculture

Chemists often work with complex laboratory apparatus.

118
chemists are employed include administrative
work and college teaching. Smaller numbers
of chemists are employed as sales representa­
tives by chemical companies and other manu­
facturers; companies are especially likely to
employ scientists as salesmen when the nature
of the products is such that the salesmen must
be able to discuss their technical aspects and
tell customers how they can be used. Still other
activities in which some chemists are employed
include supervision of production processes,
patent work, technical writing, purchasing
materials, and marketing research. A few work
as independent consultants.
Chemists usually specialize in one of the five
main branches of chemistry— organic, inor­
ganic, physical, analytical, or biochemistry.
They may even specialize in a subdivision of one
of these branches. Organic chemists, the larg­
est group, usually deal with carbon compounds
— substances originally derived from animal
and vegetable matter. Inorganic chemists are
chiefly concerned with compounds of other ele­
ments, including most of the minerals and
metals. Physical chemists study the quantita­
tive relationships between chemical and physi­
cal properties of both organic and inorganic
substances— for example, how these substances
are affected by electricity, pressure, heat, and
light. Analytical chemists determine the exact
chemical composition of substances and thereby
provide controls for all types of chemical oper­
ations. Biochemists are concerned with chemi­
cal reactions occurring in plants and animals,
such as the effects of food or chemicals on plant
and animal tissues, and with the influence of
chemicals on life processes.
Some chemists specialize in a particular in­
dustry or product, such as petroleum, plastics,
or rubber. In many instances, such work re­
quires a knowledge of more than one branch
of chemistry. The specialist in plastics, for
example, may need a knowledge of physical as
well as organic chemistry.
Regardless of their field of employment or
specialization, however, all chemists need to
know the fundamentals of chemistry— the com­
position and properties of substances and how
they can be changed. They also need a knowl­
edge of the processes required to obtain sub­



OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

stances from nature or produce them syntheti­
cally and are concerned with the ways in which
these substances can be put to practical use.
Where Employed

Chemistry is by far the largest field of em­
ployment in the sciences. There were approxi­
mately 100,000 chemists in the country in mid1960; about 5 percent of them were women.
The largest number of chemists— more than
three-fourths of the total in 1960— are employed
by private industry. The major industrial em­
ployer of chemists is the chemicals industry,
which employed more than four-fifths of all
chemists in private industry in 1960. Other
industries utilizing relatively large numbers of
chemists are the petroleum, food, primary
metals, and electrical equipment industries.
Sizable numbers of chemists are also employed
in colleges and universities and by Federal,
State, and local governments. The Federal Gov­
ernment agencies employing the most chemists
are the Department of Defense; the Department
of Health, Education, and Welfare; the Depart­
ment of Agriculture; and the Department of
the Interior. Smaller numbers of chemists are
employed by research institutes, foundations
and other nonprofit organizations, and by in­
dependent commercial laboratories.
Training and Other Qualifications

A bachelor’s degree with a major in chemis­
try is usually the minimum educational require­
ment for beginning chemists. Graduate train­
ing, preferably the doctor’s degree, is highly
desirable.
Chemists with the bachelor’s or master’s de­
gree usually find employment in manufacturing
industries— particularly the industrial chemi­
cals industry. Sizable numbers also find op­
portunities in government agencies, as research
workers. Some of those with the bachelor’s or
master’s degree are employed in colleges and
universities as graduate assistants or instruc­
tors while taking graduate work.
Beginning chemists with the Ph. D. degree are
most likely to enter research and development
work or teaching. In fields such as biochemistry

119

PHYSICAL AND EARTH SCIENCES

and physical chemistry, in which teaching and
research positions are predominant, the doc­
torate is necessary for most jobs.
Beginning chemists with the bachelor's or
master's degree usually start out as trainees in
laboratory research or development, or in analy­
sis, testing, quality control, technical service,
production, or sales. With additional experience
they may advance to positions of greater re­
sponsibility, sometimes to high-level research
and management positions. In industry, em­
ployers usually have special training programs
for chemistry graduates. Those programs are
designed to supplement college training with
specific industry techniques and to aid in deter­
mining the type of work for which the in­
dividual is best suited.
Employment Outlook

Employment opportunities for well-trained
chemistry graduates are expected to be good
during the mid-1960's, and the long-run outlook
is for continued expansion of the profession.
As in recent years, there will probably be parti­
cular need for chemists with advanced degrees,
for research and teaching positions.
The anticipated growth in research and de­
velopment activities, in which about one-half
of all chemists are engaged, is expected to be
one of the major factors tending to increase
employment of chemists. Total expenditures for
research and development have increased rap­
idly in recent years, and are expected to con­
tinue to grow during the next decade. The con­
tinued expansion of the industries which em­
ploy the largest numbers of chemists will also
be an important factor. In particular, the
chemicals industry, which employs nearly onethird of all chemists, is expected to grow fur­
ther during the next decade.
The demand for chemists to fill college and
university teaching positions should also rise
substantially, primarily because of the increases
in total college enrollments anticipated during
the mid-1960's. The greatest demand will be
for those with Ph. D. degrees, but there will be
many positions for chemists with the master's
degree. (See index for page number of state­
ment on College and University Teachers.)




In addition to those needed to fill new posi­
tions, many chemists will have to be trained
each year to replace members of the profession
who retire, die, or transfer to other occupa­
tions. Losses to the profession from retire­
ments and deaths alone were estimated to be
approximately 1,000 in 1960 and may rise con­
siderably during the next 10 years.
Along with the expected growth in demand
for chemists, a steady increase in the number
of chemistry graduates is expected. If gradu­
ates in this field continue to represent the same
proportion of all college graduates as in recent
years, the number seeking employment in the
profession will rise rapidly during the next
decade. Thus, there may be competition for the
better paying professional entry positions in
chemistry, particularly for graduates with only
the bachelor's degree. However, the rising de­
mand for chemists with ability and thorough
training will continue to provide favorable op­
portunities for such graduates for many years
to come.
Earnings and Working Conditions

Chemistry graduates with bachelor's degrees
and no experience had an average (median)
starting salary of $490 a month in private in­
dustry in 1960, according to a survey conducted
by the American Chemical Society. Graduates
with the master's degree and no experience
averaged $560 a month and those with the
Ph. D. degree, $763.
In the Federal Government, the annual start­
ing salary for chemists with the bachelor's de­
gree and no experience was either $5,335 or
$6,345 in 1960, depending on the individual's
college record. Chemists with the master's de­
gree could start at $6,345 or $6,435, and those
with the Ph. D. degree at $7,560 or $8,955.
In academic institutions, the average start­
ing salary for graduates with bachelor's degrees
and no experience was $354 a month. Grad­
uates with the master's degree averaged $403
a month and those with the Ph. D. degree, $513.
Most chemists can look forward to a marked
increase in earnings as they gain experience.
According to the National Science Foundation's
1960 National Register of Scientific and Tech­

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

120

nical Personnel, the average (median) salary
of chemists with 5 to 9 years of experience
was $8,000 a year and that of chemists with
20 or more years of experience about $12,000.
Nearly all (90 percent) of the chemists with
20 years of experience earned at least $8,000
and a few (10 percent) earned $20,000 or more.
Chemists in private industry tend to have
higher incomes than those in other types of
employment. For example, the median annual
professional salary of chemists was about 10
percent greater in private industry than in
Federal Government employment, and nearly
25 percent greater than in colleges and uni­
versities, according to the 1960 Register. How­
ever, many chemists in colleges and universities
supplement their regular salaries with income

from other sources, such as consulting work,
special research projects, and writing for pub­
lication. Within a particular field of employ­
ment, holders of Ph. D. degrees usually earn
considerably more than those with bachelor’s
or master’s degrees.
Where To Go for More Information
American Chemical Society,
1155 16th St. N W ., Washington 6, D.C.
Manufacturing Chemists Association, Inc.,
1825 Connecticut Ave. N W ., Washington 9, D.C.

For additional sources of information, see
also Chemical Engineers and Industrial Chemi­
cals Industry. (Refer to index for page
numbers.)

Physicists
(D.O.T. 0-35.73)

Nature of Work

Physics, one of the most rapidly growing
scientific professions, is concerned with energy
in all its forms, with the structure of matter,
and with the relationship between matter and
energy. Physicists try to discover the funda­
mental laws of nature, and to understand how
these laws may be put to use. Much of the
scientific progress in the past several decades
stems from discoveries made by physicists in
such critical fields as nuclear energy, cosmic
rays, and electronics.
Most physicists are engaged in research or
college teaching, and many do both. A sizable
number conduct basic research, designed to in­
crease scientific knowledge without regard to
its practical applications. Those who do basic
research may be either “ experimental” or
“ theoretical” physicists. Experimental physi­
cists make careful, systematic observations and
perform experiments to identify and measure
the elements of matter and energy and their
interactions; for example, they may try to de­
termine the density of charged particles in the
upper atmosphere or the lifetime of subatomic
particles. In their research, they use apparatus
such as geiger counters, particle accelerators,
X-ray spectrometers, electron diffraction cam­




eras, microwave devices, and phase and electron
microscopes. When their research requires new
kinds of instruments, they design and some­
times build them. Theoretical physicists, on
the other hand, seek to work out mathematical
descriptions of the relationships between physi­
cal phenomena. They may use no apparatus
at all but may work out their theories on paper.
Some physicists are interested both in the de­
velopment of theory and in experimentation.

Physicist using microwave spectroscopy
atom masses.

to measure

121

PHYSICAL AND EARTH SCIENCES

The difference between theoretical and experi­
mental physicists is often merely one of em­
phasis in their work.
A large number of physicists do applied re­
search. They use the knowledge gained from
basic research to solve practical problems and
to create new products for industry or for na­
tional defense. For example, the work of physi­
cists specializing in solid-state physics led to
the development of transistors, which are being
used in place of vacuum tubes in many types
of electronic equipment, ranging from hearing
aids to guidance systems for missiles.
Some physicists are engaged in the manage­
ment and administration of scientific activities.
Still others do work related to the production
of industrial products, including inspection and
quality control. A few physicists do technical
writing or consulting work.
Modern physics covers such a large area of
knowledge that most physicists specialize in one
or more branches of the science— mechanics,
heat, light, sound, electricity and magnetism,
electronics, atomic and molecular phenomena,
nuclear physics, physics of fluids, solid-state
physics, classical theoretical physics, or quan­
tum mechanics. In addition, new fields are con­
tinually emerging; for example, cryogenics,
plasma physics and ultrasonics are new fields
which have developed in recent years. Nearly
all physics specialties, however, have a close
interrelationship, and many physicists do work
which cuts across a number of specialties.
Every specialty of the profession utilizes prin­
ciples and methods drawn from other branches
of physics, and all rest on the same fundamental
principles.
Physicists often apply the theories and
methodology of their science to problems origi­
nating in other sciences, including geology,
biology, chemistry, and astronomy. Some peo­
ple have become specialists in both physics and
related sciences. Thus, a number of scientific
specialties have developed on the border line
between physics and other fields— geophysics,
biophysics, physical chemistry, and astrophys­
ics. (Information on these occupations is con­
tained elsewhere in the Handbook. See index



for page numbers.) Furthermore, the practical
applications of physicists, work has increasingly
merged with engineering.
Where Employed

More than 30,000 physicists were employed
in the United States in mid-1960. The largest
number of physicists— more than half of the
total— were employed by private industry.
About 9,000 worked for colleges and univer­
sities, and approximately 4,000 for Federal
Government agencies. The remainder were
employed chiefly by research institutes, foun­
dations and other nonprofit organizations, and
by independent commercial laboratories.
The industries employing the most physicists
are the electrical equipment and the aircraft
and missile industries. These two industries
employed more than half of all physicists in
private industry in 1960. Other industries
utilizing relatively large numbers of physicists
include the chemicals, professional and scien­
tific instruments, telecommunications and
broadcasting, petroleum, and machinery. Most
physicists in private industry work chiefly on
research and development projects.
Although teaching is the main activity of
most physicists in colleges and universities, a
sizable number of those employed by such in­
stitutions work full time in research, often on
projects conducted for the Federal Government.
Part of the research of the Atomic Energy
Commission and the National Aeronautics and
Space Administration, for example, is done in
laboratories operated by universities.
The Government agencies employing the
most physicists are the Department of Defense,
the National Aeronautics and Space Adminis­
tration, and the National Bureau of Standards
of the Department of Commerce. A few mem­
bers of the profession work directly for the
Atomic Energy Commission, the Department of
the Interior, and the Department of Agricul­
ture.
Relatively few physicists are women— only
about 2 percent, according to the National Sci­
ence Foundation's National Register of Scien­
tific and Technical Personnel.

122

Training and Other Qualifications

A bachelor’s degree with a major in physics
is the minimum entrance requirement for young
people seeking careers as physicists. Graduate
training, preferably a doctor’s degree, is highly
desirable. Anyone interested in becoming a
physicist should take as much mathematics as
possible; a serious deficiency in this subject is
almost impossible to overcome.
A doctor’s degree is required for appoint­
ment to some positions and is definitely pre­
ferred for many others. The Ph. D. degree is
usually necessary for advancement in high-level
teaching positions in a college or university.
In research projects at academic institutions
and in the Federal Government, the greatest
demand is also for physicists with the extensive
training represented by the doctor’s degree.
Many private companies prefer to hire physi­
cists with Ph. D. degrees because of the com­
plex nature of their research problems.
Physicists with master’s degrees usually
qualify for applied research activities in pri­
vate industry, educational institutions, and the
Government, and for appointment as physics
instructors in some colleges and universities.
Frequently, graduate students working toward
a doctor’s degree are assigned to teach begin­
ning college courses in physics, conduct labora­
tory sessions, or aid senior faculty members on
research projects.
Most physicists with bachelor’s degrees find
jobs with private industry or the Federal Gov­
ernment, usually in applied research and de­
velopment work. Some physicists become re­
search assistants in colleges and universities
while working toward advanced degrees. A
bachelor’s degree is seldom sufficient for full
professional development as a physicist. Many
persons with only a bachelor’s degree in the
science do not work as physicists but go into
nontechnical work or, sometimes, into engineer­
ing positions.
Approximately 100 colleges and universities
offered Ph. D. degrees and about 200 offered
master’s degrees in physics in 1960. Nearly
650 colleges and universities had a department
of physics which offered an undergraduate ma­
jor in the science. In addition, many engineer­
ing schools offer a physics major as part of



OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

the general engineering curriculum. Many
schools have also set up an engineering physics
or industrial physics curriculum leading to a
bachelor’s degree, which provides training in
“ applied physics in an engineering atmosphere.”
Personnel with this combination of physics and
engineering training are being increasingly
sought by industrial firms.
Among the chief personal qualifications need­
ed for a career in physics are a disciplined
and creative imagination and a highly inquisi­
tive mind. Strong interest and facility in
mathematics are also essential.
Employment Outlook

The outlook is for continued rapid growth in
employment of physicists, both through the
mid-1960’s and over the long run. As in recent
years, there will probably be a particular de­
mand for physicists with Ph. D. degrees who
are qualified to teach advanced physics courses
and do basic research or advanced applied re­
search and development work. Research or­
ganizations, whether those of government, uni­
versities, or industry, have had considerable
difficulty in filling their requirements for physi­
cists with* advanced degrees, and their needs
for such physicists will probably continue to
increase.
Among the major factors which should con­
tinue to make physics one of the most rapidly
growing science fields in the next decade is the
continued increase in expenditures for research
and development by both industry and govern­
ment. Total expenditures for scientific research
and development in the United States increased
from $5.4 billion in 1953 to more than $13
billion in 1960-61. Such expenditures are ex­
pected to continue to increase during the next
decade. Moreover, much of this increase will
take place in those science-based industries
which employ large numbers of physicists, par­
ticularly in the industries producing electrical
and electronic equipment, aircraft, missiles, and
spacecraft.
Demand for physicists qualified to teach in
colleges and universities is also expected to in­
crease substantially, both to provide for the
much larger enrollments expected in the late

123

PHYSICAL AND EARTH SCIENCES

1960's and to meet the growing need for ad­
vanced physics training in other science fields
and in engineering. During the late 1950's and
early 1960's, many colleges were unable to re­
cruit sufficient numbers of well qualified physics
teachers, and this problem may well become
acute during the next decade. (See index
for page number of statement on College and
University Teachers.)
Along with the anticipated rise in demand
for physicists, an increase is expected in the
number of physics graduates, especially at the
bachelor's level. If physics graduates continue
to represent the same proportion of all college
graduates as in recent years, the number seek­
ing employment in the profession will rise
rapidly during the 1960's. Nevertheless, un­
less the annual number of degrees awarded in
physics rises far above anticipated levels, the
demand for persons trained as physicists is
expected to be greater than the number of new
graduates available for employment. Very good
employment opportunities are thus in prospect
in the profession through the mid-1960's, at
least, and probably for much longer. For physi­
cists with Ph. D.'s, in particular, employment
opportunities should be excellent during the
next decade.
Earnings and Working Conditions

Starting salaries for physicists with bache­
lor's degrees were usually between $5,600 and
$6,500 a year in private industry in 1960, ac­
cording to the limited information available.
Physicists with master's degrees received start­
ing salaries about $500 to $1,000 higher than
those with bachelor's degrees. Annual salaries
for new graduates with Ph. D. degrees ranged
roughly from $7,500 to as high as $15,000.
In Federal Government positions in 1960,
physicists with bachelor's degrees and no ex­
perience could begin at either $5,335 or $6,345
a year, depending on the individual's college




record. Beginning physicists with 1 full year
of graduate study could begin at $6,345; those
with 2 full years of graduate study at $6,435.
Physicists with the Ph. D. degree could start
at $7,560 or $8,955.
Comparable information on beginning sal­
aries of physicists employed as college and uni­
versity teachers is not available. Some indica­
tion of their salary levels, however, may be
obtained from the salary figures for college and
university teachers as a group. This informa­
tion is presented in the statement on college
and university teachers. (See index for page
number.) In addition to their regular salaries,
many physicists in educational institutions ob­
tain income from other sources, such as consult­
ing work and special research projects.
Most physicists can look forward to a marked
increase in earnings as they gain experience.
According to the National Science Foundation's
1960 Register of Scientific and Technical Per­
sonnel, the average (median) annual salary of
physicists with 5 to 9 years of experience was
$10,000 a year and that of physicists with 20
or more years of experience was about $13,000.
Nearly all (90 percent) of the physicists with
20 years of experience earned at least $8,000
and a few (10 percent) earned $21,000 or more.
In general, physicists in private industry tend
to have higher incomes than those in other
types of employment. For example, the median
annual salary of physicists was about 20 percent
greater in private industry than in Federal
Government employment, and about 50 percent
greater than in colleges and universities, ac­
cording to the 1960 register. Within a par­
ticular field of employment, physicists with
Ph. D.'s usually earn considerably more than
those with the bachelor's or master's degree.
Where To Go for More Information
American Institute of Physics,
335 East 45th St., New York 17, N .Y.

124

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

Astronomers
(D.O.T. 0-35.61)

Nature of Work

Astronomy, often considered the most the­
oretical of all sciences, serves the Nation in a
variety of ways. Astronomical observations of
the sun, moon, planets, and stars are the basis
for sea and air navigation, the calendar, and the
accurate measurement of time. Astronomy pro­
vides both a proving ground for theories of
time and space and a laboratory where matter
and energy may be observed under the most
extreme conditions of temperature and density.
Astronomy also helps fill in gaps in the under­
standing of the physical world. For example,
astronomers who have studied the behavior of
atoms under stellar temperatures have made
valuable contributions to thermonuclear re­
search and to knowledge of the atom.
Astronomers study the universe and all its
celestial bodies. They collect and analyze data
on the sun, moon, planets, and stars and at­
tempt to determine their sizes, shapes, bright­
ness, and motions. They compute the positions
of the stars and planets; calculate the orbits
of comets, asteroids, and artificial satellites;
and make statistical studies of stars and
galaxies. Astronomers also study the size and
shape of the earth and the density of its upper
atmosphere.
In making their detailed observations of the
heavens, astronomers use complex photographic
techniques, light-measuring instruments, and
optical devices. The telescope is the major in­
strument used for observation, and specialized
devices are often attached to the telescope for
making particular types of observations. Among
these devices are the spectrometer, which
measures the wave lengths of radiant energy
(by means of its spectrum); the photometer,
which measures the intensity of light; and var­
ious other photoelectric, photographic, and
electronic instruments and devices. Although
most observations are made by means of tele­
scopes permanently mounted in observatories,
astronomers sometimes gather information by
sending aloft balloons and space vehicles con­
taining various measuring devices. In process­



ing and analyzing the data derived from their
observations, astronomers often utilize high­
speed electronic computers.
Astronomers usually specialize in one of the
many branches of the science. In astrophysics,
they apply the techniques and concepts of phy­
sics to astronomical problems, principally in
an attempt to determine the temperature, lum­
inosity, and chemical composition of heavenly
bodies. Some astronomers work in the field of
celestial mechanics, one of the earliest fields of
astronomy and one that has recently acquired
new importance. Celestial mechanics deals with
the motions of objects in the solar system, and
hence has a particular application in the calcu­
lation of the orbits of artificial earth satellites
and the paths of guided missiles. Radio astron­
omy is the study, by means of radio telescopes
of extraordinary sensitivity, of the source and
nature of celestial radio waves. Among the
other specialties are astrometry (measurements
of apparent positions of celestial bodies); pho­
toelectric and photographic photometry (meas­
urement of the intensity of ligh t); spectroscopy
of astronomical sources (analysis of the wave

Courtesy of U.S. Navy

Astronomer adjusting telescope to photograph the stars.

125

PHYSICAL AND EARTH SCIENCES

lengths of radiation from celestial bodies); and
statistical astronomy (statistical study of large
numbers of stars to determine their average
properties).
About three out of every four astronomers
are engaged in teaching, research, or some com­
bination of the two. In colleges and universities
without separate departments of astronomy or
with small enrollments in the subject, astron­
omers may teach courses in mathematics or
physics as well as astronomy. Other members
of the profession are engaged in a variety
of activities, including management, develop­
ment and design of astronomical instruments,
technical writing and consulting.
Where Employed

Astronomy is one of the smallest of the science
fields; the total number of astronomers in the
United States was estimated to be only about
500 in 1960. More than half of all astronomers
are employed by colleges and universities. Many
of these work in university-operated observa­
tories, where they usually devote most of their
time to research, working by themselves or in
cooperation with other astronomers.
The Federal Government provides employ­
ment opportunities for a number of astronomers.
Among the major Government agencies em­
ploying astronomers are the National Aeronau­
tics and Space Administration, which is re­
sponsible for directing and implementing U.S.
research efforts in aeronautics and the explora­
tion of space; the U.S. Naval Observatory,
which determines the Nation's official time, pro­
vides data for air and sea navigation, and con­
ducts research in astrometry and stellar as­
tronomy ; the Naval Research Laboratory, which
does research in radio astronomy and space
astronomy; and the Army Map Service, which
utilizes astronomers in measuring exact dis­
tances and in determining the positions of
points on the earth's surface. Government
positions in astronomy may also be found at
the Air Force Cambridge Research Center (Bed­
ford, Mass.), the Smithsonian Astrophysical
Observatory, the U.S. Coast and Geodetic Sur­
vey, the National Bureau of Standards, and
other agencies.



A very small but growing number of astrono­
mers are employed in private industry, mostly
by firms in the aircraft and missile industry.
A few astronomers work for museums, planetariums, and other organizations.
Training and Other Qualifications

A Ph. D. degree in astronomy is extremely
important for persons who hope to attain highlevel professional positions in this field. Colleges
and universities usually appoint only astrono­
mers who have received the doctorate or who
are working towards it, and observatories are
equally strict in their hiring requirements.
Some beginning astronomer positions in the
Federal Government and private industry do
not require the doctorate, but opportunities for
advancement for those with a Ph. D. degree are
more favorable.
New graduates with bachelor's or master's
degrees in astronomy usually obtain employ­
ment mainly in semiprofessional or starting
positions in observatories, planetariums, large
departments of astronomy in colleges and uni­
versities, Government agencies, or industry.
Among these workers are research assistants,
computers, photographers, optical workers, ob­
servers, and technical assistants. The position
of research assistant is a particularly desirable
one for astronomical workers who do not have
the Ph. D. degree. An appointment as research
assistant in an observatory or university pro­
vides opportunity for active participation in
astronomical research programs and close as­
sociation with top rank professional astrono­
mers. Some persons with only the bachelor's
degree take these research assistant positions
while working toward advanced degrees.
Young people seeking careers as astronomers
need not wait until they go to college to start
their preparation. They should begin while still
in high school by taking all of the mathematics
and science offered. Courses in physics, chemis­
try, and a foreign language are particularly
valuable.
Upon graduation from high school, the pro­
spective astronomer should attend a college or
university that offers a great many courses in
physics and mathematics in addition to some

126
courses in astronomy. A reading knowledge of
at least one foreign language (German, French,
or Russian) is essential, and training in chem­
istry, statistics, and electronics is useful. A
few of the courses often taken by undergrad­
uates in the field of astronomy are optics, spec­
troscopy, atomic physics, calculus, differential
equations, solar and stellar systems, introduc­
tory astrophysics, and astronomical techniques
and instruments.
Bachelor’s degrees in astronomy are offered
by a relatively small number of schools. In
1960, only about 30 colleges and universities of­
fered such a degree. A prospective astronomer
is not necessarily handicapped if he is unable
to obtain such a degree, however, since the
undergraduate work required for a degree in
astronomy is similar to that required for a de­
gree in physics or mathematics. Consequently,
the student with a degree in physics or mathe­
matics and with some courses in astronomy
should encounter little difficulty in pursuing
graduate work leading to the Ph. D. in astron­
omy. Conversely, students with bachelor’s de­
grees in astronomy can usually obtain positions
in the fields of physics or mathematics, if they
so desire.
Training leading to the doctorate in astron­
omy may be obtained in about 20 institutions
located in various sections of the country. The
academic work of the graduate student seeking
the Ph. D. degree in astronomy consists pri­
marily of advanced courses in astronomy, phy­
sics, and mathematics. A few of the astronomy
courses typically offered in graduate school are
celestial mechanics, galactic structure, radio
astronomy, stellar atmospheres and interiors,
theoretical astrophysics, and variable stars.
Some schools require that graduate students
spend several months in residence at an observa­
tory. In most institutions, however, the pro­
gram of work leading to the doctorate is flexible
and allows the student to take the courses which
will be of most value to him in his astronomical
specialty or particular area of interest.
New astronomy graduates employed by edu­
cational institutions normally begin as instruc­
tors. Advancement is usually from instructor,
through assistant and associate professor, to
full professor and, on occasion, to department




OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

head or other top positions. Astronomers some­
times move from a small college to a large uni­
versity or from a position in which most of
their time is spent teaching to one which offers
more opportunity for research. Because of the
opportunity it offers to carry on research, a
professional position in a large observatory,
either university- or government-operated, is
considered by many to be the most desirable
position in the field of astronomy.
Entry into Federal Government positions is
on the basis of competitive examinations. Such
examinations are given continuously by the
Board of U.S. Civil Service Examiners for
Scientific and Technical Personnel of the Po­
tomac River Naval Command, Washington 25,
D.C. Advancement in Government service de­
pends upon the individual astronomer’s ability,
education, and experience.
The student planning a career in astronomy
should consider not only whether he has the
financial means and the perseverance necessary
for the 7 or more years of college study, but
also whether he has the necessary personal
qualifications. The personal qualifications de­
sirable in an astronomer are very much the
same as those which nearly every scientist
needs for success— among them a deep curiosity
about the nature of the physical world, precise
and logical thought processes, a strong interest
and facility in mathematics and physics, and
a fertile imagination. Astronomers should also
be able to express themselves clearly and simply,
both in writing and speaking, since their work
often requires them to communicate not only
with other astronomers and scientists, but with
the public as well. Perhaps the most striking
and singular personal characteristic possessed
by most successful astronomers is a deep and
abiding love for their field of science. A young
man without this feeling of dedication may
find that the rewards of astronomy, both fi­
nancial and psychological, are not enough pay­
ment for the years of intensive preparation
required.
Employment Outlook

Employment opportunities for astronomers
with the Ph. D. degree are expected to be ex­

127

PHYSICAL AND EARTH SCIENCES

cellent through the mid-1960’s. Well-trained
persons with only bachelor’s or master’s degrees
in astronomy will also have good employment
prospects, primarily as research and technical
assistants. As in the past, however, the higher
level professional positions in astronomy will
be filled mainly by persons with doctorate
degrees.
The outlook is for rapid growth of this small
profession, both in the mid-1960’s and over the
long run. America’s entry into the space age—
the age of rockets, guided missiles, manmade
earth satellites, and space travel— has height­
ened interest in astronomy and is opening up
large new fields for astronomers. These scien­
tists will be needed to aid in the development
of guidance systems and other instrumentation
for missiles and satellites and to help solve many
of the problems connected with the flights of
missiles, space vehicles, and artificial earth
satellites.
Increased research activities in astronomy
by educational institutions, government, and
industry are also expected to add to the demand
for astronomers. In recent years, the growth
of Federal Government sponsored research, in
the form of grants to educational institutions
and observatories (for astronomical research
and for new buildings and equipment), has
opened many new positions for astronomers. In
all probability, government expenditures for re­
search will continue to grow. Additional as­
tronomers will also be needed by industry to
conduct further research on manned satellites
and space stations, as well as on problems in­
volved in charting rocket courses to the moon
and nearby planets.
The growing public interest in satellites and
space exploration has created a demand for a
greater amount of popular information on as­
tronomy. Furthermore, enrollments in astron­
omy courses in colleges and universities are
likely to increase, not only as a result of this
heightened public interest but also due to the
growing awareness of the value of astronomical
training in many other scientific and engineer­
ing specialties. These factors, coupled with the
anticipated increases in college enrollments, are
expected to create many new openings for
teachers of the science.



Since astronomy is a small profession, the
number of job openings in any one year will
not be large. On the other hand, the number of
college students taking the rigorous and lengthy
programs in astronomy has so far been small.
In 1959, only 28 bachelor’s, 21 master’s, and 17
doctor’s degrees were awarded in astronomy.
Thus, the young men or women who obtain the
necessary training should have excellent em­
ployment opportunities during the 1960’s.
Job prospects for graduates in astronomy
without the Ph. D. are also expected to be fa­
vorable during the next decade, particularly
for work as research assistants in astronomy
departments or laboratories. Research assist­
ants are being utilized more and more in re­
search programs, under the direction of the
professional staff. Numerous other openings for
these graduates are expected to arise during
the next decade for employment as technicians,
such as computers and photographic and elec­
tronic experts. These assistants and technicians
are not usually regarded as professional astron­
omers, however, and without the Ph. D. degree
their chances of promotion may be limited.
For women astronomers, particularly those
with the Ph. D., the most favorable oppor­
tunities will be in teaching and research posi­
tions in women’s colleges and in the larger co­
educational institutions. Government agencies
are also expected to offer some employment
opportunities for women astronomers. In addi­
tion, some openings for research assistants or
computers in observatories or universities will
probably arise for women with bachelor’s or
master’s degrees in astronomy.
Earnings and Working Conditions

Astronomy, like many other scientific fields,
offers its scientists a comfortable living. Ac­
cording to information from the National
Science Foundation’s 1960 National Register
of Scientific and Technical Personnel, the
average (median) annual salary of astron­
omers was $9,000. About 25 percent earned
more than $12,000 a year and 10 percent
earned $14,000 or more.
In the Federal service in 1960, beginning
astronomers with the Ph. D. degree were eligi­

128

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

ble to enter at $7,560 or $8,955 a year, depend­
ing on their college record. Astronomers with
the bachelor's degree could start at $5,335 or
$6,345 a year, depending on their college record.
Beginning astronomers with 1 full year of
graduate study could begin at $6,345; those with
2 full years of graduate study at $6,435. Some
astronomers in high-level government positions
earned more than $14,000 a year in 1960. As
in educational institutions, the Ph. D.‘ degree
is usually required for promotion to the higher
level and better paying professional positions.
Astronomers in educational institutions re­
ceive roughly the same salary and have the
same prerogatives and responsibilities as other
faculty members. (Detailed information on
salaries of college and university teachers is
contained in the section on College and Uni­
versity Teachers. See index for page number.)
Astronomers in educational institutions often
earn some professional income in addition to
their regular salaries. Consulting work is one
source of extra income for astronomers, as is
summer school or other teaching that is not a
part of their regular duties. A few astronomers
in colleges and universities earn some income
from lectures and from books and articles.

Some astronomers spend considerable time in
nightwork, making visual observations or
setting up and adjusting the telescope for
photographic and photoelectric work. Others
make observations and photographs 4 or 5
nights each month and devote the remainder of
the time to studying and analyzing the plates
and other findings during usual daytime work­
ing hours. Astronomers' hours of work may
range from a 40-hour week, when they are
studying and analyzing data and photographic
plates, to considerably more than 40 hours,
when they are engrossed in a particularly in­
teresting or perplexing problem. Observational
work at a telescope involves exposure to the
outside air through the open dome of the ob­
servatory, even on cold winter nights. In
general, however, the physical requirements of
astronomical work are not heavy and can be
met by a reasonably healthy person.

Where To Go for More Information
The American Astronomical Society, Dearborn Ob­
servatory,
Northwestern University, Evanston, 111.

Geologists
(D.O.T. 0-35.63)

Nature of Work

Geology is the science of the earth. Geologists
study the earth's history, structure, and com­
position as revealed by rock formations on and
under its surface and by fossil remains of ani­
mal and vegetable life. They search for valuable
fuels and minerals and study the physical proc­
esses which bring about changes in the earth’s
structure and surface features.
Most geologists spend a large amount of their
time in field work in different parts of the
United States or foreign countries. This field
work may involve drilling into the earth and
studying the rock cores and cuttings brought
up by the drills; collecting and examining fos­
sils, minerals, and rocks; recording data; and
preparing geological maps. Geologists also
spend considerable time in their laboratories



and offices. In the laboratory, they study geolog­
ical specimens and do other research. In the
office, they work on reports, articles, maps and
other illustrations incorporating the findings
of field and laboratory investigations. A large
number of geologists perform administrative
and executive functions. In colleges and uni­
versities, geologists often combine teaching with
research and administrative work.
Geologists usually specialize in one particular
branch of the science. Economic geologists find
and develop mineral resources. Petroleum geol­
ogists, who locate new deposits of oil and gas,
are also economic geologists but are generally
regarded as a separate category of specialists,
mainly because they make up the large majority
of all geologists. Engineering geologists apply
geological knowledge to the solution of engi­

129

PHYSICAL AND EARTH SCIENCES

neering problems, such as the construction of
tunnels, airfields, and dams. Paleontologists
identify and classify fossils from past geological
periods. Stratigraphers study the arrangement
of the rock layers in the earth’s crust. Petrologists and petrographers study the origin and
composition of rocks. Mineralogists are con­
cerned with the physical and chemical proper­
ties of minerals, and the ways of classifying
them and of distinguishing them from each
other. Geomorphologists are concerned with the
form of the earth’s surface and with the
forces— such as erosion, glaciation, and sedi­
mentation— which cause changes in the land­
scape. Structural geologists study the struc­
ture of rocks, the origin of mountains, and
the forces which deform the earth’s crust.
Geochemists are a small but growing group
of specialists with extensive training in both
geology and chemistry. Scientists specializing
in this field are concerned with the application
of chemistry to geological problems.

Courtesy of U.S. Geological Survey

Geologist examining mineral grains with a hand lens.




Hydrology is another specialty in which
growing numbers of geologists are engaged.
These scientists are concerned with the waters
of the earth— their occurrence, circulation, and
distribution; their chemical and physical prop­
erties ; and how they can be controlled and put
to use. (Hydrology is often considered a branch
of geophysics and is also discussed in the state­
ment on Geophysicists which follows.)
Where Employed

In 1960, there were approximately 15,000
geologists in the United States. Most geologists,
probably about three out of every four, work
for private industry. The petroleum and natural
gas industry employs most of these scientists—
chiefly in Texas, Louisiana, California and
Oklahoma, but to some extent also in many
other States and in foreign countries. Some
geologists are employed by mining and con­
struction companies, by railroads and other
public utilities, and by manufacturing concerns,
especially in the primary metals and stone and
clay products industries. Others work for con­
sulting firms or as independent consultants,
providing services on a fee basis to companies
interested in exploration for and extraction of
minerals and fuels.
A sizable number of geologists are employed
also by the Federal Government and by colleges
and u n iv e rsitie s. In 1960, abo u t 80 percent of
all the geologists on Federal payrolls worked
for the U.S. Geological Survey of the Depart­
ment of the Interior. Other Federal agencies
employing geologists include the Corps of En­
gineers of the Department of the Army, the
Soil Conservation Service of the Department
of Agriculture, and the Bureau of Reclamation
.of the Department of the Interior. State
government agencies also employ a number of
geologists, many of whom work on surveys con­
ducted in cooperation with the U.S. Geological
Survey. Most government positions are located
in the United States, though some Federal jobs
are in the possessions and in foreign countries.
Some geologists teach and do research in col­
leges and universities. A few geologists work
for nonprofit research institutions and museums.

130
Training and Other Qualifications

Young people seeking professional careers in
geology should, if possible, obtain an advanced
degree. Although the bachelor's degree with a
major in geology has heretofore been adequate
for many jobs, graduate training is now con­
sidered necessary for a great many positions.
At least the master's degree, and often the
Ph. D., was required for most entry jobs in
private industry in 1960. While a few topranking graduates with the bachelor's degree
could qualify for positions with some Federal
agencies, the Geological Survey was looking for
people with advanced degrees, particularly the
Ph. D. degree, to fill full-time positions.
Training beyond the bachelor’s level is ex­
tremely helpful to geologists in competing not
only for professional entry positions but also
for advancement to more desirable jobs. The
Ph. D. degree is usually essential for college
teaching careers and for most research posts.
Many colleges, universities, and institutes of
technology offer training in geology. In 1959,
according to the U.S. Office of Education, bache­
lor’s degrees in the science were awarded by
206 institutions, master's degrees by 89, and
doctorates by 41.
In most colleges and universities, students
majoring in geology devote about a fourth of
their time to geology courses during the 4
years of undergraduate study. Usually, about
a third of the work is in related natural sci­
ences and in mathematics, and the remainder
is in other subjects such as English composi­
tion, economics, and foreign languages. Some
colleges have a more intensive curriculum, lead­
ing to a bachelor's degree in geology, under
which as much as half of the undergraduate
course work is in geology. In some schools of
engineering which offer undergraduate pro­
grams in geological or petroleum engineering
and petroleum geology, as much as 90 percent
of the work may be in the major field and re­
lated technical subjects.
The student who plans a career in geology
should have an aptitude for science and mathe­
matics. He should like outdoor activities and
have sufficient physical stamina to participate
in geological field work, which often necessi­



OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

tates camping out under primitive conditions.
A willingness to travel is important, in view
of the frequency with which geologists are re­
quired to move from place to place in the
course of their employment.
Employment Outlook

Employment opportunities for geologists are
expected to be limited through the mid-1960's.
The relatively few graduates with the Ph. D.
degree should have good employment prospects.
New graduates with master's degrees will prob­
ably encounter competition for professional
positions. Of those with only the bachelor's
degree, many may find it necessary to take
semiprofessional jobs. Others may take the
training in teaching methods and related sub­
jects required to qualify them as science teach­
ers in secondary schools, or may seek other
work outside the field of geology.
Worldwide surpluses of oil reserves, resulting
from recent discoveries, have caused severe
cutbacks in domestic and foreign exploration
for oil by American companies. The search for
oil is being conducted on a reduced scale, as is
the exploration for most minerals, so that em­
ployment prospects in these fields will be limited
during the early and middle 1960's. There is,
however, a growing concern about diminishing
water supplies in many parts of the country,
and some openings for geologists to work on
this problem are expected. In addition, a few
hundred new geologists will be needed each
year to replace those receiving promotions to
managerial positions, transferring to other
fields of work, or lost to the profession through
retirement or death. These replacement needs
will probably be the chief source of openings
in the profession through the mid-1960's.
Federal Government agencies will probably
hire only a limited number of geologists during
the mid-1960's; the exact size of their staffs will
depend on appropriations voted by Congress.
The U.S. Geological Survey, which has geolog­
ically mapped only part of the United States,
expects to appoint only a few additional geol­
ogists yearly, mainly for mapping work. The
agency would, however, have additional open­
ings for geologists with advanced degrees if a

131

PHYSICAL AND EARTH SCIENCES

large number of State governments should
decide to cooperate with it in joint projects
for the surveying and mapping of their land
areas.
Colleges and universities also will offer some
opportunities for geologists in teaching and re­
search work. College enrollments in general
are expected to rise, and geology is a popular
course in liberal arts colleges. On the other
hand, the numbers of juniors and seniors major­
ing in geology were substantially fewer in
1960 than in 1959. Unless the numbers major­
ing in the field start to rise again, there will
be relatively little increase in employment of
geologists in colleges and universities during
the mid-1960,s.
The longrun employment outlook in the
profession is more favorable. As the world's
population expands and nations become more
industrialized, the demand for petroleum, min­
erals, and water supplies will increase, and
there will be a rising demand for geologists to
locate these resources. Geologists with ad­
vanced training will be needed to devise new
techniques for exploring deeper within the
earth's crust and to search underseas areas; to
do more extensive research and analysis of geo­
logical data; and to work with petroleum en­
gineers in developing more efficient methods of
finding and recovering crude oil.
Few women have become professional geol­
ogists. Those seeking such careers face the
problem that field work positions usually are
considered unsuitable for them. However,
some well-qualified women will be able to find
positions as teachers in colleges and univer­
sities, or to obtain laboratory or office posi­
tions in industry and Government.
Earnings and Working Conditions

Monthly starting salaries for new geology
graduates with bachelor's degrees ranged typi­




cally from about $450 to $485 in private industry
in 1960, according to the limited information
available. New graduates with master's de­
grees usually started at between $510 and $550
a month. Those with doctor's degrees received
yearly starting salaries ranging from $7,000
to $10,000, depending upon their individual
qualifications.
In the Federal Government, new graduates
with bachelor's degrees could begin at either
$5,335 or $6,345 a year in 1960, depending on
their college records. Those with master's de­
grees could start at $6,345 or $6,435, and those
with the Ph. D. degree at $7,560 or $8,955.
Some geologists in supervisory positions were
earning $12,000 a year, and a few in highlevel posts had larger salaries.
Earnings of geologists are usually somewhat
higher in private industry than in Govern­
ment agencies. Salaries in educational insti­
tutions are usually lower than in either indus­
try or the Federal Government, but teachers
have the advantage of long summer vacations
during which they can supplement their sal­
aries by doing research, consulting, or other
work. Extra allowances are generally paid
geologists for work outside the United States.
Many geologists spend a great deal of time
traveling and may be doing field work away
from home for long periods of time. Their
hours of work are uncertain because their ac­
tivities in the field are affected by weather
conditions as well as by travel.
Where To Go for More Information
American Geological Institute,
2101 Constitution Ave. N W ., Washington 25, D.C.

Further information on positions in the Fed­
eral Government are given in the chapter Oc­
cupations in Government. (See index for page
reference.)

132

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

Geophysicists
(D.O.T. 0-35.65)

Nature of Work

Geophysics is an overall term covering a
number of sciences concerned with the com­
position and physical aspects of the earth— of
its atmosphere and interior, as well as of the
land and bodies of water on its surface and un­
derground. Geophysicists utilize the principles
and methods of physics, mathematics, engineer­
ing, geology, and chemistry in investigating
and measuring the earth’s forces— including
magnetic, electrical, gravitation, radioactive,
seismic (forces responsible for earthquakes),
and geothermal forces (those resulting from
the earth’s interior heat and from solar ra­
diation). In studying the earth’s physical
characteristics, geophysicists use highly com­
plex precision instruments such as the seis­
mograph, which measures the transmission of
vibrations through the earth’s interior; the mag­
netometer, which measures minute variations
in the earth’s magnetic #
field and the different
ways this field is affected by various kinds of
rocks; and the gravimeter, which measures
minute variations in the pull of gravity.
Exploration geophysicists, sometimes known
as prospecting geophysicists, are one of the
largest groups of geophysical scientists. Em­
ployed chiefly in searching for oil and mineral
deposits, most of these scientists serve as lead­
ers or members of field parties, which may also
include geologists, petroleum engineers, and
other workers. Some exploration geophysicists
conduct research aimed at developing new
techniques and instruments for prospecting or
improving existing ones.
Another sizable group of geophysical scien­
tists are hydrologists, who study the surface
and underground waters in the land areas of
the earth. Some hydrologists work on such
projects as water supply for cities, irrigation,
flood control, and soil erosion. Others specialize
in studies of sedimentation in river beds, reser­
voirs, and harbors. Still others are concerned
with glaciers, snow surveys, the use of per­
manently frozen land areas, and forecasting
the flow of rivers. (Hydrology is. often con­




sidered a branch of geology and is also dis­
cussed in the preceding statement on Geology.)
Other smaller groups of geophysical scien­
tists include oceanographers, seismologists, geo­
desists, geomagneticians, tectonophysicists, and
volcanologists. Oceanographers are a small but
rapidly growing group, who study the ocean in
all its aspects, including the sea bottom, the
shores, the water itself, and the interaction
between the sea and the atmosphere. Those
concerned with physical oceanography study
such matters as currents, tides, waves, and the
physical properties of sea water. Geological
oceanographers are concerned with the topo­
graphic features of the continental shelves and
ocean bottom, and with the sediments and rocks
that are found there. Marine biologists, who
study the life in the sea, are sometimes classi­
fied as oceanographers, although they are not
geophysicists. Seismologists study the vibra­
tions of the earth caused by earthquakes or
manmade explosions. They may provide infor­
mation for use in designing bridges and build­
ings in earthquake regions, work as prospecting
geophysicists in exploration for oil and min-

Courtesy of U.S. Geological Survey

Geophysicist measuring specific heat of minerals using
a low-temperature calorimeter.

133

PHYSICAL AND EARTH SCIENCES

erals, or explore the problems involved in detect­
ing underground nuclear explosions. Geodesists
measure the size and shape of the earth; deter­
mine the position and elevation of points on
the earth’s surface, chiefly for use in mapping
large areas; and determine variations in the
direction and force of gravity over the earth’s
surface. Geomagneticians specialize in meas­
urements of the strength and direction of the
earth’s magnetic field, for use in navigation
and surveying. They are also concerned with
variations in the magnetic field and how these
are related to sunspots and other solar phenom­
ena ; with the conditions affecting radio signals;
and with many aspects of space science. Tectonophysicists study the structure of mountains
and ocean basins, the properties of the ma­
terials forming the earth’s crust, and the physi­
cal forces that cause movements and changes
in it. A few geophysical scientists known as
volcanologists are concerned with the origin,
location, and activity of volcanos and hot
springs, and with heat processes in the earth
and similar phenomena.
Meteorology is another specialty which is
usually classified as a geophysical science:
However, this specialty is discussed in a sepa­
rate statement (immediately following this one),
since it represents a separate field of training
and employment.
Where Employed

The number of geophysicists in this country
in 1960 was estimated to be approximately 6,000
(not counting meteorologists). This figure in­
cludes not only people with the title of geophysi­
cist, most of whom are engaged in exploration,
but also hydrologists, seismologists, geodesists,
and other geophysical specialists.
A majority of all geophysicists work for pri­
vate industry— chiefly in the petroleum indus­
try. Geophysicists also work for mining com­
panies and for exploration and consulting firms.
A few are in business for themselves as con­
sultants. Geophysicists in private industry are
employed mainly in the southwestern and
western sections of the United States, where
most of the country’s large oil fields and min­
eral deposits are located, although many work



in foreign countries where American firms are
carrying on prospecting activities.
The Federal Government employs geophysi­
cists, chiefly in the Coast and Geodetic Survey,
the U.S. Geological Survey, and the Navy Hy­
drographic Office. Some geophysical scientists
are employed in colleges and universities. In
addition, relatively small numbers work for
State governments and for private research
institutions.
Training and Other Qualifications

Degrees in geophysics are awarded by only
a few colleges and universities. Many students
planning to enter this relatively new field major
in geology, physics, mathematics, chemistry,
or engineering, or a combination of these sub­
jects, as did many present members of the
profession.
Training leading to a bachelor’s degree in
geophysics may be obtained in only about 16
institutions. These undergraduate programs
provide training chiefly in exploration geo­
physics, though the curriculums may have other
titles, such as geophysical technology or geo­
physical engineering. Some students take
undergraduate training in exploration geophys­
ics at colleges offering degree programs in en­
gineering geology or petroleum geology. Other
students prepare for exploration work by taking
a combination of courses in geology, engineer­
ing, mathematics, and physics.
Graduate training is usually required for geo­
physical specialties other than exploration geo­
physics, and is becoming increasingly important
in competing for the more desirable positions
in exploration work. The doctor’s degree is gen­
erally required for teaching careers and is fre­
quently needed for positions involving funda­
mental research.
A student wishing to obtain a graduate de­
gree in geophysics must attend one of the few
institutions offering advanced training in the
science. Only about 14 colleges and universities
award the master’s degree and 9 institutions,
the doctor’s degree in geophysics. The student
should select a school which not only offers
subjects of interest to him but also opportuni­
ties to carry out research projects in the partic­

134
ular aspects of geophysical science in which
he is interested. For admission to these schools,
students must have a bachelor's degree with
a good background in geology, mathematics,
physics, or engineering, or a combination of
these subjects; an undergraduate major in geo­
physics is seldom required.
New graduates with bachelor's degrees who
are hired for geophysical work in industry or
government are usually given on-the-job train­
ing in the application of geophysical principles
to their employers' projects. If a new employee's
college work did not include courses in geo­
physics, he is taught geophysical methods and
techniques as part of his on-the-job training.
Federal Government agencies provide sum­
mer jobs for a few promising undergraduates.
Trainees gain practical experience on these jobs
and, after graduation from college, may obtain
permanent positions with the employing agency.
Also, Federal Government agencies select a few
of their geophysicists each year and send them
to universities for graduate training.
The prospective geophysicist needs an apti­
tude and interest in mathematics and the physi­
cal sciences. He should have considerable phys­
ical stamina and be willing to travel, since
geophysicists often have to work outdoors and
explore remote areas of the earth.
Employment Outlook

Good employment opportunities are expected
through the mid-1960’s for the relatively few
graduates with degrees in geophysics— espe­
cially for those with master's or doctor's
degrees.
Small numbers of openings for geophysicists
are anticipated in the near future in several
different fields of employment. Federal Govern­
ment agencies anticipate having 40-50 openings
each year for geophysicists, though the exact
size of their staffs will depend on the appropri­
ations voted by Congress. The petroleum in­
dustry probably will hire a few scientists with
degrees in geophysics for exploration work. In
previous years, this industry employed large
numbers of people in geophysical work, many
of them with degrees in other sciences. How­
ever, American companies were doing relatively




OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

little exploration for oil either in this country
or abroad in 1960, and only a small increase
in oil exploration activities is anticipated during
the mid-1960's. Mining companies are expected
to hire some additional geophysicists to search
for mineral deposits. Colleges and universities
will probably offer only limited employment op­
portunities for geophysical scientists. The num­
ber of students majoring in geophysics dropped
between 1959 and 1960. Unless the number
starts rising again, there will be a few new
teaching positions during the mid-1960's in in­
stitutions of higher education. Furthermore,
some geophysicist positions will become vacant
as a result of deaths and retirements, although
these openings will not be numerous in the near
future since geophysicists are a relatively young
group.
It is also expected that the number of new
geophysics graduates will continue to be small
during these years. In 1959, only 132 degrees
in geophysics were granted— 64 bachelor's, 44
master's, and 24 doctor's degrees— according
to the U.S. Office of Education. Although some
people with training in other fields will probably
continue to come into the profession, employers
now indicate a preference for people with geo­
physical training for the available geophysical
positions. Thus, the small number of graduates
with degrees in geophysics should have favor­
able employment opportunities.
Over the long run, growth in the profession
is expected. There will be increasing use of
petroleum and mineral products by a growing
population. As natural resources located at or
close to the surface of the earth become de­
pleted, more exploration geophysicists will be
hired by petroleum and mining companies to
find new sites of fuels and minerals at greater
depths under ground or under water. In addi­
tion, the growing importance of basic research
in the geophysical sciences, as well as the con­
tinuing need to develop new geophysical tech­
niques and instruments, will create a demand
for personnel with advanced training in hy­
drology, oceanography, seismology, geodesy, and
other geophysical specialties. Federal Govern­
ment agencies probably will have larger staffs
to study the problems of the Nation's water
supplies; work on flood control; do research in

135

PHYSICAL AND EARTH SCIENCES

radioactivity and cosmic and solar radiaton;
and explore the outer atmosphere and space,
using such vehicles as sounding rockets and
artificial satellites.
Few women are employed as geophysicists.
Opportunities for women are and will be limited
in field exploration because of the strenuous
nature of the work. However, a small number
of well-qualified women will be able to find posi­
tions in offices and laboratories or as teachers
in colleges and universities.
Earnings and Working Conditions

New graduates with bachelor’s degrees could
enter geophysical work in the Federal Govern­
ment at either $5,335 or $6,345 a year in early
1961, depending on their college records. Those
with master’s degrees could start at $6,345 or
$6,435, and those with the Ph. D. degree at
$7,560 or $8,955. Some geophysicists in super­
visory positions were earning $12,000 a year,
and a few in high-level posts had higher salaries.
Geophysicists working for private industry
have somewhat higher earnings than those em­
ployed by Federal agencies. Salaries in educa­

tional institutions are usually lower than in
private industry or in the Federal Government,
but university teachers have the advantages of
long summer vacations during which they can
do consulting, writing, or research work. Geo­
physical scientists working outside the United
States usually receive extra bonuses and allow­
ances.
Geophysicists, particularly those in begin­
ning jobs, often have to be away from home for
long periods of time. Their working hours are
usually irregular and are frequently determined
by travel, weather conditions, and the require­
ments of field activities.

Where To Go for More Information
American Geophysical Union,
1515 Massachusetts Ave. N W ., Washington 5, D.C.
Society of Exploration Geophysicists,
Box 1536, Tulsa 1, Okla.

Further information on positions in the Fed­
eral Government is given in the chapter on
Occupations in Government. (See index for
page reference.)

Meteorologists
(D.O.T. 0-35.68)

Nature of Work

Meteorology is the science of the atmosphere.
Its aim is the understanding of the physical
processes which produce the “ weather.”
Weather forecasting is the best-known applica­
tion of the science and the type of work in
which most meteorologists are engaged. How­
ever, members of the profession are concerned
also with many other types of problems, ranging
from research on atmospheric data gathered
in outer space by earth satellites to the effect
of day-to-day temperature changes on retail
sales.
Weather forecasters are technically known as
synoptic meteorologists. They interpret current
weather information— air pressure, tempera­
ture, humidity, wind velocity— reported by ob­
servers in many parts of the world and make
short- and long-range forecasts for given re­



gions. Smaller numbers of meteorologists are
specialists in other branches of the profession.
Climatologists, for example, analyze past rec­
ords on wind, rainfall, sunshine, temperature,
and other aspects of climate for a given area and
use this information for many purposes, includ­
ing the improvement of long-range weather
forecasting, and the planning of military and
business operations. Dynamic meteorologists in­
vestigate the physical laws governing air cur­
rents. Physical meteorologists study the chemi­
cal composition and electrical properties of the
atmosphere; the solar radiation; the effect of the
atmosphere on the transmission of light, sound,
and radio waves; and the factors affecting the
formation of clouds, precipitation, and other
weather phenomenon. Specialists in applied
meteorology, sometimes called industrial meteo­
rologists, are concerned with the effect of

136

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

Courtesy of U.S. Weather Bureau

Photographs from cameras in earth satellite provide research meteorologists with data on atmospheric conditions.
w e a th e r on specific h u m a n a c tiv itie s, b io lo gical

fo r e c a s tin g fo r m ilita r y o p era tio n s. T h e A r m e d

p ro cesses, and in d u stria l o p era tio n s. F o r e x a m ­

F o r c e s also em p lo y ed m o re th a n 2 0 0 c iv ilia n

ple, th e y m a k e sp ecial fo r e c a sts f o r in d iv id u a l

m e te o r o lo g ists in 1 9 6 0 , ch iefly in re se a rch w o rk .

co m p a n ies, a tte m p t to induce ra in or sn o w in a

T h e U n ite d S ta te s W e a t h e r B u re a u is b y f a r

g iv e n a re a th ro u g h cloud seedin g , and w o r k on

th e la r g e s t em p lo y e r o f c iv ilia n m e te o ro lo g ists.

such p ro b lem s as sm o k e con trol and a ir pollu tion .
G r o w in g n u m b e rs o f m e te o ro lo g ists a re en ­

In

1960,

a p p r o x im a te ly

1 ,7 0 0

m e te o r o lo g ists

w o rk ed a t 3 0 0 sta tio n s m a in ta in e d b y th e B u ­

g a g e d in resea rch on such su b jec ts as th e p r o p ­

reau in all p a r ts o f th e U n ite d S ta te s, th e p o la r

e rties

re g io n s, P u e rto R ico, G u a m , and o th er sites in

and

d y n a m ic s

a tm o sp h e re

of

(in c lu d in g

the
th e

u pp er

and

h ig h

io n o sp h e re)

and

the P acific a rea.

A

fe w

m e te o r o lo g ists w ere

space, u sin g d ata o btain ed fr o m ro ck ets, g u ided

em p lo yed b y o th er G o v e r n m e n t a g en cies, such

m issile s, and ea rth sa tellites. In v e s tig a tio n s are

as th e F o r e s t S e rv ic e

also b e in g condu cted on th e m e te o ro lo g ic a l a s­

A g r ic u ltu r e , th e

pects o f ra d io p ro p a g a tio n , a u ro ra and a ir g lo w ,

th e F e d e r a l A v ia tio n A g e n c y , and th e N a tio n a l

and co sm ic r a y s. In a d d ition , resea rch is b e in g

A e r o n a u tic s and S p a ce A d m in is tr a tio n .

condu cted

on

lo n g -r a n g e

fo r e c a s tin g ,

severe

A s id e

fr o m

o f th e

D e p a r tm e n t

of

D e p a r tm e n t o f th e In te r io r ,

th e

F ed eral

G o v e rn m e n t,

th e

w e a th er p h en o m en a , so la r h ea tin g , and oth er

la r g e st fields o f e m p lo y m e n t f o r m e te o r o lo g ists

p ro b lem s.

are co m m e rcia l a irlin e s, e d u ca tio n al in stitu tio n s,

M e te o r o lo g ists w h o teach in u n iv e rsitie s or

and w e a th e r c o n su ltin g serv ices.

In 1 9 6 0 , the

colleges m a y also e n g a g e in resea rch or a ct as

a irlin es em p lo yed a b o u t 3 0 0 m e te o r o lo g ists to

co n su lta n ts.

In colleges w ith o u t se p a ra te de­

fo r e c a s t th e w e a th e r a lo n g th e c o m p a n ie s’ flig h t

p a r tm e n ts o f m e te o ro lo g y , th ey m a y teach su b ­

ro u tes and to b r ie f p ilo ts on w e a th e r co n d ition s.

je c ts such as g e o g r a p h y , m a th e m a tic s, p h y sics,

C o lleges and u n iv e rsitie s em p lo y ed a n o th er 3 0 0 .

and g e o lo g y , as w ell as m ete o ro lo g y .

P r iv a te w e a th er c o n su ltin g f ir m s , w h ich con ­
tr a c t th e ir serv ices to in d iv id u a ls an d co m p a n ies,
em p lo yed

Where Employed
M o re

th a n

6 ,0 0 0

m o re th a n

m e te o r o lo g ists
m e te o ro lo g ists

ployed in th e U n ite d S ta te s in 1 9 6 0 .

w ere

em ­

w ere

150.

In

w o r k in g

a d d itio n ,
fo r

so m e

co m p an ies

th a t d esig n an d m a n u fa c tu r e m e te o ro lo g ic a l in ­

O f th ese,

str u m e n ts, a s w ell as fo r a n u m b e r o f la rg e

a p p r o x im a te ly 2 ,8 0 0 w ere on a ctiv e d u ty in the

co m p an ies in th e a ir c r a ft, in su ra n ce , u tilities,

A ir

w ere in the

and o th er in d u stries. A f e w m e te o r o lo g ists p r e ­

A r m y , N a v y , and M a r in e C o rp s. M e te o r o lo g ists

F o rc e , and sev er a l h un d red

sen t ra d io and te le v isio n w e a th e r p r o g r a m s or

on a ctiv e d u ty are u su a lly en g a g ed in w e a th er

w o rk as e d ito rs and lib r a r ia n s.




137

PHYSICAL AND EARTH SCIENCES

There are not many women meteorologists.
Some work as forecasters for the Weather Bu­
reau, and a few others are on active duty in
the Air Force. Another small group are em­
ployed by colleges and universities, primarily in
research positions. A very small number work
for commercial airlines.
Training and Other Qualifications

A B.S. degree, with a major in meteorology
or a related science, is the usual minimum edu­
cational requirement for young people wishing
to become meteorologists. Courses in physics
and mathematics, in addition to meteorology,
are important. For example, the Weather Bu­
reau’s minimum requirement for its beginning
positions is a bachelor’s degree, with at least
20 semester hours of study in meteorology and,
in addition, training in. physics and mathema­
tics. Airlines, which until recent years hired
many meteorologists without college degrees, are
now giving preference to those with bachelor’s
degrees. They are also looking for meteorologists
with training in upper air analysis, as well as
with the knowledge needed to work with the
increasingly complex data issued by the Weather
Bureau. New graduates with only the bachelor’s
degree are hired mainly for work in weather
forecasting. Positions in the more specialized
branches of the profession, in teaching, and in
research usually require advanced training in
meteorology, physics, and mathematics, and also
in chemistry.
Degrees in meteorology were awarded by only
17 colleges and universities in 1960. However,
many other institutions offer courses in meteor­
ology which, if combined with sufficient train­
ing in physics and mathematics, may serve as
adequate preparation for most professional
entry positions.
Meteorological training is also made available
to qualified persons in the Armed Forces. Each
year, the U.S. Air Force selects and sends more
than 150 college graduates who have received
commissions through the Air Force Reserve
Officers Training Corps (AFROTC) to civilian
universities for a special 1-year program in
meteorology. Those who complete this program
are assigned to meteorological work. Each year,




the U.S. Air Force also sends about 50 military
meteorologists to universities for advanced
training leading to the master’s or doctor’s
degree. Ex-servicemen with military training
and experience as meteorologists are given pref­
erence for civilian positions with the Armed
Forces and can also qualify for positions with
other employees of weather personnel.
The Weather Bureau has an in-service train­
ing program. Each year scholarships are
granted to some of its meteorologists to enable
them to take advanced and specialized training.
It also conducts a student-trainee program.
College students preparing for careers in mete­
orology may obtain summer jobs with the
Weather Bureau, where they may get regular
positions after they receive their bachelor’s de­
grees.
Promotions in the Weather Bureau, as in
other Federal Government agencies, are given
according to Civil Service regulations. (See
chapter Occupations in Government.) With the
airlines, the chances for advancement are
limited. However, after considerable work ex­
perience, some meteorologists in the largest air­
line companies may advance to the position of
flight dispatcher, or to various supervisory or
administrative positions. Some well-trained
meteorologists with a background in science,
engineering, and business administration may
find their best opportunities for advancement
in the profession through the establishment of
their own weather consulting services.
Among the personal characteristics needed
by meteorologists are mathematical aptitude
and an interest in the physical sciences. For
some jobs, the ability to draw quickly and neatly
is important. Since most of the work is done in
an office, unusual physical stamina is seldom
required.
Employment Outlook

Employment opportunities for meteorologists
will probably be very good during the mid1960’s. The coming of the “ space age”— the age
of supersonic aircraft, rockets, and space
travel— is broadening the scope of the science.
The demand for meteorologists is increasing
with the growing awareness, in both govern­

138
ment and private industry, of the value of ac­
curate weather information and with the con­
tinued expansion of meteorological research
programs.
In 1960, the Weather Bureau was seeking
new graduates and experienced men to fill va­
cancies in its weather forecasting services and
to work on programs such as hurricane research,
air pollution research, storm warnings, and flood
forecasting. The Bureau anticipates further in­
creases over the long run in its forecasting
staff, since the continued expansion in civilian
aviation will probably result in the building
of new airports and weather stations. In addi­
tion, it is expected that opportunities for re­
search will increase with the advent of mete­
orological satellites, and with a continuing
growth in new research programs. The Bureau
estimated that each year until 1965, and prob­
ably also until 1970, it would need more than
100 meteorologists with bachelor's or advanced
degrees to fill new positions and to replace
workers who resign, retire, or die.
Airlines also had openings for meteorologists
and expected a continuous growth in their em­
ployment throughout the 1960's. With the in­
troduction of jet aircraft, airlines have to solve
complicated weather forecasting problems.
They will probably hire increasing numbers of
meteorologists to determine the routes and flight
levels which will assure the safest and smoothest
flights. Research on problems relating to high
speed, high altitude jet aircraft will also require
some exceptionally qualified airline meteorol­
ogists with advanced scientific knowledge.
Employment opportunities for meteorologists
in weather consulting services and on the staffs
of private companies are also expected to in­
crease somewhat. More and more businessmen
are utilizing weather and climate data in plan­
ning their operations. As the value of this
information receives further recognition, the
demand for industrial meteorologists will con­
tinue to grow.
In colleges and universities, opportunities for
meteorologists are expected to rise over the next
decade, with the anticipated increase in college
enrollment, and as additional courses in meteor­
ology are offered.
Opportunities for civilian meteorologists in




OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

the U.S. Air Force were limited in 1960 and are
not expected to increase significantly in the
next few years. However, the U.S. Air Force
anticipates a growing need for officers who are
meteorologists during the early 1960's, when
many of those now on active duty will reach
retirement age.
Thus, all signs point toward growth in this
profession. Since meteorology is a small pro­
fession, job openings will not be numerous in
any 1 year. On the other hand, the number of
new graduates with degrees in meteorology
probably will continue to be small; in 1959, only
173 bachelor's, 88 master's, and 11 doctor's
degrees were granted. Furthermore, graduates
with majors in other fields such as physics and
mathematics, and with some training in mete­
orology, have not been attracted into the pro­
fession because of the numerous opportunities
open to them in other scientific fields. Military
meteorologists, upon leaving the armed services,
have in most instances left the profession al­
together. Unless there is an unexpected change
in these conditions, new meteorology grad­
uates— women as well as men— seeking employ­
ment in the profession should have favorable
employment opportunities through the mid1960's at least.
Earnings and Working Conditions

In the Federal Government service, meteor­
ologists with the bachelor's degree and no ex­
perience could start at either $5,335 or $6,345
a year in 1960, depending on their college rec­
ords. Meteorologists with the master's degree
could start at $6,345 or $6,435, and those with
the Ph.D. degree at $7,560 or $8,955. Some
meteorologists in supervisory positions were
earning as much as $12,000 a year, and a few
received still higher salaries. Workers stationed
outside the United States are paid an addi­
tional amount. The provisions for salary in­
crease, paid vacations, sick leave, pensions, life
and health insurance, and other benefits are the
same for meteorologists as for other Civil Serv­
ice employees. (See chapter Occupations in
Government.)
Current data on the earnings of meteorol­
ogists in private industry are available only for

139

PHYSICAL AND EARTH SCIENCES

those with the airlines. In late 1960, airline
meteorologists were receiving a starting salary
of approximately $500 a month, according to the
Air Transport Association. The top salary for
meteorologists in nonsupervisory positions in
the United States was approximately $800 a
month; some stationed outside the United States
were paid more. Supervisors had an average
salary of approximately $12,000.
Jobs in weather stations, which are operated
on a 24-hour, 7-day week basis, often involve
nightwork and rotating shifts. Most stations




are located at airports or other places in or near
cities. However, some are in isolated and re­
mote areas.
Where To Go for More Information
American Meteorological Society,
45 Beacon St., Boston 8, Mass.

The U.S. Weather Bureau, Washington 25,
D.C., will provide information on employment
opportunities with that agency and on its
student-trainee program.

BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES
Biological scientists are concerned with the
world of living things— men and microbes,
wild and domestic animals, plants and insects,
birds and fish. Some biological scientists collect
basic information about plants and animals or
do research to expand our knowledge about all
living things. Others teach in colleges and uni­
versities. Still others apply biological knowl­
edge to the solution of practical problems, such
as the development of new strains of plants.
Professional workers in several of these applied
fields— foresters, soil scientists and soil con­
servationists— are discussed elsewhere in the
Handbook. (See index for page number.)
Nature of Work

Biological scientists study the structure of
living organisms, their life processes, and the
relation between these organisms and their en­
vironment. The number and variety of plants
and animals are so vast and the life processes so
varied and complex that biologists must, of nec­
essity, become specialists. Some biologists spend
an entire career trying to learn as much as pos­
sible about a particular kind of animal or plant.
Others, interested in how an animal or human
body functions, study such things as the nervous
system, how food is digested, or the ways in
which organisms are affected by disease. Some
are interested in the evolution of living or­
ganisms, the mechanism of heredity, or the
ways in which environmental factors, such as
major changes in climate or radioactivity, af­
fect the development of various plants or
animals.
A large majority of the biological scientists
are engaged in either college and university
teaching or research, and many do both. Much
of the research performed by biological sci­
entists is basic research, aimed at adding to
140




our knowledge about living organisms regard­
less of whether such knowledge is of immediate
practical use. For example, the biologists who
developed a method for growing polio virus in
living tissue, an essential step in the evolu­
tion of the Salk polio vaccine, knew that their
work might eventually have some practical
value, but their immediate purpose was to learn
more about the way viruses act on living cells.
Research in the biological sciences may take
many forms. It may be conducted inside a
laboratory or outdoors, at the far corners of
the world, or near a quiet university town. A
botanist exploring the volcanic Alaskan valleys
to see what plants live in this strange environ­
ment and a zoologist searching the jungles of the
Amazon valley for previously unknown speci­
mens of animals and fish are both doing re­
search, as in an entomologist working in a lab­
oratory testing various chemical insecticides for
effectiveness and for possible hazards to human
and animal life.
In each of these different types of research,
the biologist must have at his command the
fundamental techniques of biological and chem­
ical research, such as skill in the use of micro­
scopes and other laboratory equipment, in mak­
ing and staining tissue sections, and in classify­
ing and identifying specimens. In the experi­
mental field, which includes microbiology, phys­
iology, genetics, biochemistry, biophysics, and
pharmacology, advanced techniques and tools
taken from the field of chemistry or physics
are frequently used. Also, because of the enor­
mous number of variable factors involved, a
knowledge of mathematical and statistical pro­
cedures is often needed to organize and analyze
the data gathered.
Teaching in colleges and universities is the
major function of a sizable number of biological
scientists. However, college teachers of biologi­

141

BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES
cal scien ces o fte n com bin e in d ep en den t research

and o th ers w o rk in w h a t m ig h t be con sidered

w ith th e ir re g u la r te a c h in g du ties and in som e

sp ecia lties.

la rg e in stitu tio n s spend th e m a jo r p ortio n o f

b io lo gical sc ie n tists f o l l o w s :

Botanists

th e ir tim e on resea rch .
S om e

b io lo gical

m anagem ent

and

A d escrip tio n o f th e w o rk o f som e

sc ie n tists

are

a d m in istr a tiv e

en g a g ed
w o rk .

in

( D .O .T . 0 - 3 5 .2 3 ) stu d y all a sp ects

o f p la n t life .

S o m e, k n o w n as p la n t ta x o n o ­

T h is

m is ts , sp ecialize in id e n t ify in g and c la s s ify in g

m a y in v o lv e s u p e r v isin g and a d m in iste r in g in ­

p la n ts. O th ers are p la n t m o r p h o lo g ists, w h o are

d u str ia l, n on p rofit, or g o v e r n m e n ta l la b o r a to rie s

p r im a r ily

en g a g ed in resea rch or in te stin g f o o d s ,‘ d ru g s

p la n ts and p la n t c e lls ; or p la n t p h y sio lo g ists,

in secticid es,

and

o th er

p ro d u cts.

concern ed

w ith

th e

stru c tu re

of

B io lo g ic a l

w h ose p r im a r y in te r e st is in th e life p ro cesses

sp ecia lists act as liaison betw een th e F ed e ra l

o f p la n ts and th e w a y s in w h ich th e y g r o w and

G o v e rn m e n t and th e e x p e r im e n t sta tio n s a t the

r e p r o d u c e ; or sp e cia lists in still o th er p h a ses

S ta te u n iv e rsitie s, and aid in th e p la n n in g , de­

o f p la n t life .

v e lo p m e n t, and e v alu a tio n o f resea rch p r o g r a m s
at th ese sta tio n s.
R e la tiv e ly

Microbiologists

( D .O .T .

0 - 3 5 .3 3 )

sp ecia lize

in th e stu d y o f b a c teria , v ir u se s, m o ld s, an d

sm a ll n u m b e rs

o f b io lo g ists

are

o th er o r g a n ism s o f m icro sco p ic or su b m ic r o -

en g a g ed in a v a r ie ty o f o th er ty p es o f w o rk ,

scopic size.

such as c o n su ltin g , w r itin g , and ro u tin e te stin g .

tu res, m icro sco p es, and a v a r ie ty o f o th er sp e­

T h e y w o rk w ith te st tu b es, cu l­

A fe w are em p lo yed in tech n ica l sales or field

cialized la b o r a to r y eq u ip m en t.

serv ice w o rk f o r in d u stria l fir m s ; such w o rk

te r io lo g y and m ic r o b io lo g y are so m e tim e s u sed

T h e te r m s b a c ­

in clu des, f o r ex a m p le , te a c h in g c o m p a n y sa le s­

in te rc h a n g ea b ly , b u t m ic ro b io lo g y , th e b roa d er

m en and p ro sp e ctiv e p u rch a se rs the valu e and

te r m , is p r e fe r a b le w h en r e fe r r in g to th e stu d y

p ro p er use o f n ew ch em icals w h en used as fo o d

o f all m icro sco p ic o r g a n ism s.

p r e se r v a tiv e s

th e stu d y o f m ed ica l p ro b lem s th ro u g h e x p e r i­

or

in secticid es,

or

fo r

oth er

p u rp o ses.

I t m a y in clu de

m e n ts w ith cells or o th er m icro sco p ic co m p o ­

B io lo g ic a l scie n tists m a y

be classified

in to

n en ts o f th e bod y. S o m e m ic ro b io lo g ists sp e c ia l-

th ree b roa d g r o u p s ch ara cterized b y th e ty p e
o f o r g a n ism w ith w h ich th e y w o r k : B o ta n ists
(p la n t s c ie n t is t s ), m ic ro b io lo g ists,

w h o w o rk

w ith m ic r o -o r g a n is m s , and zo o lo g ists
s c ie n t is t s ).

(a n im a l

S om e b io lo gical scien tists, p a r tic u ­

la r ly th ose w h o se w o rk cu ts across m o re th a n
one o f th ese m a jo r g r o u p in g s, as is fr e q u e n tly
th e case w ith college tea ch ers, m a y call th e m ­
selv es sim p ly b io lo g ists.
T h e re are also a la rg e n u m b e r o f sp ecia lties—
so m e w h o lly w ith in th ese m a jo r g r o u p in g s, and
o th ers w h ich cut a cro ss th em .

F o r e x a m p le ,

so m e b io lo gical sp ecia lties rela te to th e specific
ty p e

o f o r g a n ism

stu d ied ,

a s in th e

case o f

m y c o lo g ists (b o ta n is ts w h o stu d y f u n g i ) ; o th ers
in d icate the so rt o f a p p ro a ch used in stu d y in g
o r g a n ism s, as in th e case o f g e n e tic ists, w h o m a y
be b o ta n ists, zo o lo g ists, or m ic r o b io lo g ists stu d y ­
in g th e m e c h a n ism s o f th e h er ed ity o f a p a r tic ­
u la r p la n t (su ch as sw e e t p e a s ) , a n im a l (su ch '
as

f r u it

flie s ),

or

m ic r o -o r g a n is m

(su c h

as

m o ld s ).
S o m e bio lo gical sc ie n tists w o r k in w h a t m a y
be considered th e b roa d g r o u p in g s o f b io lo g y




Courtesy of National Institutes of Health

Biological scientists use live animals in study of
nutrition problems.

142
ize in soil bacteriology (the study of bacteria,
molds, algae, and protozoa and other micro­
organisms in soils, and the relation of such
organisms to soil fertility). Others spe­
cialize in virology (the study of viruses which
may cause diseases in animals or plants), im­
munology (the study of mechanisms by which
the body fights off infection), or serology (the
study of animal and plant fluids, including blood
serums). Others specialize in the study of the
fermentations involved in the manufacture of
beer, wine, flax, tobacco, and leather, or in the
search for new or better antibiotics. Many spe­
cialize in the testing and production of biologi­
cal products or in the testing of water supplies,
milk, or other foods, to control and prevent
contagious diseases.
Zoologists (D.O.T. 0-35.28) study all phases
of animal life— the origin, classification, life
history, behavior, life processes, diseases and
parasites, and the ways in which animals in­
fluence and are influenced by their invironment. Some zoologists make field trips to
study animals in their natural environment
and to collect specimens. Others work mainly
in laboratories, conducting experimental studies
with animals. Zoologists' who specialize in
the study of certain classes of animals usu­
ally use titles which indicate the kind of
animal studied; thus, ornithologists study birds
and herpetologists study snakes; icthyologists
study fish; and mammalogists, mammals. Teach­
ers and others whose work cuts across several
of these fields generally use the title of zoologist.
Agronomists (D.O.T. 0-35.01) are concerned
with the growing, breeding, and improvement
of plants which are generally grown in large
acreages, such as corn, wheat, tobacco, cotton,
and sugar cane and beets. They develop new
varieties of crops more resistant to the hazards
of weather, disease, and insects and search for
better methods of growing crops and controlling
weeds and pests. Agronomists may specialize
in problems of a specific geographical area, a
particular crop, or a technical specialty such
as crop breeding or production methods.
Anatomists (D.O.T. 0-35.36) study the form
and structure of organisms and the structure
and organization of the specialized organs. They
may study structures visible to the naked eye



OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

or of microscopic size, or those of submicroscopic size, visible only through the use of the
electron microscope. Many anatomists special­
ize in human anatomy. Others are comparative
anatomists who study animal and plant species.
Biochemists (D.O.T. 0-D7.02) use chemical
methods to study the composition of biological
materials and the mechanism of biological proc­
esses. They may conduct research on the
chemical reactions involved in the functioning
of living tissues, or the relationships of nu­
trients contained in food to plant and animal
nutrition, digestion, metabolism, growth,
health, and disease. (Biochemistry is often con­
sidered a branch of chemistry and is also dis­
cussed in the statement on Chemists. See index
for page number.)
Biophysicists (D.O.T. 0-35.49), who are
trained in both physics and biology, are con­
cerned with the physical properties and rela­
tionships of living cells and organisms— includ­
ing mechanics, heat, light, radiation, sound,
electricity, and energetics. They may use the
electron microscope to make tissues visible

Botanist studying effect of radiation on plants.

BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES

down to their smallest units, the molecules, or
they may use nuclear reactors, X-ray machines,
microscopes, and photomicrographic apparatus
to study the effect of high energy radiation on
cells and tissues.
Embryologists study the development of an
organism from the time of fertilization of a
single cell until it becomes a complete organ­
ism, animal, or plant. They study the physio­
logical and biochemical mechanisms which
control and direct the processes of development
and the ways in which this control is accom­
plished.
Entomologists (D.O.T. 0-35.30) study the
classification, anatomy, physiology, and be­
havior of insects, and the ways in which they
affect human beings, other animals, and plants.
Some entomologists specialize in identifying
and classifying insects— an enormously difficult
undertaking, since there are more than 80,000
species of insects in the United States and
Canada alone. Proper identification of insects
is basic to their control and thus to the preser­
vation of food supplies and the control of in­
sect-borne disease. Many entomologists do re­
search on methods of insect control through
the use of chemicals, birds, other insects,
biological methods such as insect diseases, or
mechanical means. Others study ways of uti­
lizing beneficial insects such as honey bees,
which not only produce valuable quantities of
honey and wax, but are also an essential spe­
cies in the pollination of crops so that they will
mature, yield good harvests, and produce viable
seed.
Geneticists (D.O.T. 0-35.35) specialize in
the study of factors of heredity— the way in
which various biological characteristics are
transmitted from one generation to another.
Geneticists interested primarily in the im­
provement of plant and animal breeds of eco­
nomic importance— such as cereal or tobacco
crops, dairy cattle, or poultry— may be classi­
fied as plant or animal breeders, agronomists,
or animal science specialists. Theoretical ge­
neticists search for the fundamental laws of
heredity and the mechanisms which produce
heritable traits in plants, animals or humans.
Horticulturists (D.O.T. 0-35.05) deal with
orchard and garden plants such as fruits, nuts,




143
vegetables, flowers and ornamental plants, and
nursery stock. They develop new or improved
plant varieties and try to find better methods
of growing, harvesting, and storing horticul­
tural crops. Horticulturists usually specialize
in some specific vegetable, flower, or fruit or in
a particular technical problem, such as plant
breeding or cultural practices.
Husbandry specialists (animal) (D.O.T.
0-35.13, .14, and .15) carry out investigations
and experiments on breeding, feeding, and man­
agement of cattle, hogs, sheep, poultry, and
other domestic animals, and in diseases of ani­
mals and poultry. They may specialize in
problems of feeding and nutrition, of breeding
and genetics, or of animal physiology.
Nutidtionists study the processes through
which human beings and animals utilize food;
the kinds and quantities of food elements, such
as minerals, vitamins, fats, sugars, and pro­
teins, which are essential to maintain the best
state of health; how these food elements are
transformed into body substances; and what
role food elements have in body processes and
functions. Nutritionists also analyze foods to
determine their composition in terms of essen­
tial food elements.
Pathologists study the causes and processes
of disease, degeneration, and abnormal func-

Courtesy of National Institutes of Health

Pharmacologists develop new drugs for treatment of
disease.

144
tioning in human or animal organisms. They
may specialize in the study of the effects of
diseases, parasites, and insect pests on organs
and tissues; in histology, which is the micro­
scopic study of animal and plant tissues; or in
the structure or anatomy of diseased organs.
They also study the chemistry and physiology
of tissues to see whether they are abnormal
and if so, in what way. The term “ pathologist”
is normally reserved for students of human
pathology (medical pathology); specialists in
animal pathology are usually veterinarians.
Those who study plant diseases may be called
plant pathologists or phytopathologists. Their
work is discussed under the heading “ phytopa­
thologists.”
Pharmacologists (D.O.T. 0-35.34) are con­
cerned primarily with the study of how drugs
affect life processes, and with the discovery and
development of new chemical compounds which
will have certain desired effects on organisms.
They conduct experiments with rats, guinea
pigs, monkeys, and other animals to determine
the physiological effects of drugs, gases, dusts,
poisons, and chemicals on the tissues and or­
gans of living creatures, and correlate their
studies with clinical medical data on the effects
of such substances on human beings.
Physiologists (D.O.T. 0-35.13) study the
functioning of organisms during life and how
life processes operate. They may specialize in
the study of the heart, circulatory system,
glands, nerves, cellular activities, or digestive,
excretory, reproductive, or other systems. They
conduct experiments to determine the effects of
environmental factors on life processes. The
knowledge gained in such studies provides the
basis for the work of many other specialists,
such as pathologists, pharmacologists, or nutri­
tionists.
Phytopathologists (D.O.T. 0-35.26) or plant
pathologists specialize in the causes and control
of plant diseases produced by parasitic or­
ganisms, viruses, chemicals, and other agents.
Some specialize in the pathology of a specific
plant or group of plants, such as forest trees,
vegetable crops, ornamental plants, and field
crops. Others work only with certain organ­
isms or groups of organisms affecting plants,
such as fungi, viruses, or bacteria.




OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

Where Employed

About 95,000 biological scientists were em­
ployed in the United States in mid-1960. About
half of all biological scientists are employed by
colleges and universities. Approximately onethird are employed by government agencies—
Federal, State, and local— and about 10 percent
by private industry. Another small number
are in independent commercial laboratories and
nonprofit organizations, mainly hospitals, clin­
ics, and privately financed research organiza­
tion or foundations. A few are self-employed.
The biologist's specialty largely determines
the type of organization he will work for. For
example, more than two-thirds of those special­
izing in anatomy, ecology, physiology, zoology,
and botany, and a majority of biologists in most
other specialties are employed in colleges and
universities, according to the National Science
Foundation's Register of Scientific and Techni­
cal Personnel. Government agencies— Federal,
State, and local— are the principal employers of
entomologists, and fish and wildlife biologists.
Biological scientists specializing in agronomy,
horticulture, animal husbandry, entomology, or
other subjects related to agriculture are em­
ployed chiefly in State agricultural colleges and
universities and in agricultural experiment
stations operated by these universities in co­
operation with the Federal and State Govern­
ments. Many research opportunities for teach­
ers and students, both full- and part-time
positions, are provided in agricultural experi­
ment stations. Teachers specializing in other
biological sciences, particularly those important
to medicine, are most often employed in liberal
arts institutions and in medical schools.
The Department of Agriculture is the prin­
cipal Federal Government agency employing
biological scientists. It employs the most ento­
mologists, botanists, plant physiologists, plant
pathologists, horticulturists, geneticists, animal
husbandry specialists, and parasitologists. The
Interior Department employs nearly all the fish
and wildlife biologists in the Federal Govern­
ment. The Defense Department— mostly the
Army— and the National Institutes of Health
of the Department of Health, Education, and
Welfare employ a good many pharmacologists,

BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES

parasitologists, physiologists, entomologists,
m icrobiologists, and specialists in other
branches of biology.
State Governments employ about half of all
the fish and wildlife specialists, and some micro­
biologists, entomologists, zoologists, phytopa­
thologists, and pathologists. City and county
health departments employ a good many micro­
biologists to detect, control, and prevent disease.
Private industry is the second largest em­
ployer of biochemists, microbiologists, nutri­
tionists and pharmacologists and is a growing
source of employment for agronomists, entomol­
ogists, and phytopathologists as well as other
biological scientists. Most of the microbiologists
and nearly all the pharmacologists in private
industry work for pharmaceutical firms. How­
ever, some firms manufacturing food products,
tobacco, leather, organic acids, and other in­
dustrial products also employ microbiologists.
Entomologists are employed mainly in the food
industry, to develop methods of protecting
stored foods from insect pests, and in the chemi­
cal industry, to do research in developing and
testing insecticides. Phytopathologists are most
often employed by firms manufacturing agri­
cultural chemicals to combat plant diseases.
Relatively few biological scientists are
women— about 10 percent, according to the
National Science Foundation's 1960 Register.
The largest number of women scientists special­
ize in microbiology. Smaller numbers of
women specialize in nutrition, botany, and
physiology.
Training and Other Qualifications

Young people seeking professional careers in
the biological sciences should, if possible, obtain
an advanced degree— preferably a Ph. D.— in
their field of interest. Although the bachelor's
degree with a major in one of the biological
sciences is adequate preparation for some jobs,
promotional opportunities for biologists with­
out graduate training are usually limited to
intermediate level positions.
The Ph. D. degree is generally required for
full professional recognition and, specifically,
for higher level college teaching positions and
for basic research in experimental biology. It is



145
also necessary for an increasing number of other
positions involving independent research.
Biologists with master's degrees are qualified
for most entry positions in their specialties and
for some types of positions in college teaching
and basic research. Most biologists with this
level of education work in colleges and univer­
sities or in government agencies.
New graduates with bachelor's degrees can
qualify for positions involving inspection and
testing, production and operation work, techni­
cal sales and service, and administrative duties
in connection with the enforcement of govern­
ment regulations. Those who graduate near the
top of their class may also have opportunities
to do research, although mostly of a routine
nature or under close supervision. Persons
with bachelor's degrees may also obtain posi­
tions as senior technicians, particularly in the
area of medical biology. Furthermore, some
new graduates with bachelor's degrees take
courses in education and choose a career as a
high school teacher of biology rather than as a
biological scientist. (See statement on Second­
ary School Teachers.)
Undergraduate students interested in pro­
fessional careers as biological scientists are ad­
vised to obtain the broadest training possible
in all branches of biology and in related sciences,
including organic and inorganic chemistry,
physics, and mathematics. Highly important
also are extensive training and practice in lab­
oratory techniques, in the use of laboratory
equipment, and in field work. Students inter­
ested in experimental research in biology need
advanced training in chemistry, mathematics,
statistics, and, in some cases, physics.
Most colleges and universities offer an under­
graduate major in biology or in one of the bio­
logical or agricultural specialties. However, the
courses offered differ greatly from one college
to another and students should find out ahead
of time, by studying the catalogues, which
college program will best fit their interests
and needs. In general, liberal arts colleges and
universities emphasize training in the basic bio­
logical sciences and in the medical aspects of
biological science. State universities and landgrant colleges offer special advantages to those
interested in agricultural sciences and in ento­

146
mology, since their agricultural experiment
stations provide many opportunities for prac­
tical training and research work.
Advanced degrees in the biological sciences
are awarded by a large number of colleges and
universities. In graduate school, the student
builds upon the broad background in the funda­
mentals of biology and related sciences acquired
in his undergraduate study, placing major em­
phasis on his specialty or field of interest. Re­
quirements for the master’s or doctor’s degree
usually include field work and laboratory re­
search, as well as classroom studies, library re­
search, and preparation of a thesis.
Employment Outlook

Employment opportunities for biological
scientists with graduate degrees are expected to
be very good in both the near future and the
long run. Employment opportunities are also
likely to be good for persons with bachelor’s
degrees who graduate near the top of their class,
particularly in the fields of entomology, fish
and wild life biology, and microbiology.
An increased demand is expected for bio­
logical scientists in most specialties, but there
will be particular demand for those with doctor­
ates in biophysics, microbiology, physiology,
pharmacology and virology to do research in
problems important to medicine. This research
will also require many more biologists with
bachelor’s and master’s degrees qualified to act
as junior professional assistants and techni­
cians. There will also be a need for additional
scientists with advanced degrees in microbiol­
ogy, plant science, and entomology for research
positions in the agricultural science areas.
Furthermore, college teachers in nearly all bi­
ological specialties will be needed.
One of the major factors which will tend to
increase employment of biological scientists is
the anticipated growth in research expenditures.
In recent years, the Federal Government has
greatly increased its support of research in the
biological (and agricultural) sciences, through
the National Institutes of Health, the U.S. De­
partment of Agriculture, the National Science
Foundation, and the U.S. Department of
Defense. Further growth is expected during the



OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

next decade, particularly in such relatively new
areas as space biology (research aimed at solving
the problems associated with the survival and
proper functioning of men in space) and radia­
tion biology (the study of the effects of high
energy radiation on the human body). Volun­
tary health agencies, such as the cancer, tuber­
culosis, and heart societies, also are giving in­
creased support to basic biological research.
Furthermore, additional research will probably
be conducted in the agricultural science fields,
particularly plant disease and insect control.
Research activities in industry are also ex­
pected to rise. In particular, microbiological
research has great potentialities and the recent
trend toward increased expenditures for re­
search and development activities in micro­
biology is likely to persist. The more stringent
health standards, established by Congress and
the Federal regulatory agencies, which will
probably require additional industrial research
and testing before new chemicals and new
processing methods may be used in agriculture
and food processing, are also expected to be a
factor in the increased demand for biological
scientists.
Still another factor which will tend to in­
crease employment of biological scientists will
be the substantially larger college and univer­
sity enrollments expected in the mid-1960’s and
thereafter. The resulting rise in demand for
teachers will be to a large extent for Ph. D.’s.
However, there will also be a large increase in
college openings for qualified people holding
master’s degrees.
Earnings and Working Conditions

In the Federal Government, the annual
starting salary for inexperienced biological
scientists with the bachelor’s degree was either
$4,345 or $5,355 in 1960, depending on the
individual’s college record. Inexperienced bio­
logists with 1 year of graduate training could
start at $5,355, and those with 2 years of grad­
uate work at $6,435. Biological scientists with
the Ph. D. degree could start at $7,560 or $8,955.
Pharmacologists received higher starting sal­
aries ; those with bachelor’s degrees could begin
at $5,335 or $6,345 a year, and those with 1

147

BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES

year of graduate training at $6,345. Pharma­
cologists with 2 years of graduate training and
those with the Ph. D. degree had the same start­
ing salaries as other biological scientists.
Information on beginning salaries of biologi­
cal scientists employed as college and univer­
sity teachers is not available. However, some
indication of their salary levels may be ob­
tained from the salary figures for college and
university teachers as a group. This informa­
tion is presented in the statement on College
and University Teachers. (See index for page
number.) In addition to their regular salaries,
many biologists in educational institutions ob­
tain income from other sources, such as con­
sulting work and special research projects.
The average (median) salary of experienced
biological scientists in all types of employment
was $8,000 a year in 1960. In general, expe­
rienced biological scientists in private industry
tend to have higher salaries than those in other
types of employment. For example, the median
annual salary of biological scientists was about
25 percent greater in private industry than in
either Federal Government employment or col­
leges and universities, according to the 1960




Register. Within a particular field of employ­
ment, holders of Ph. D. degrees usually earn
considerably more than those with bachelor’s
or master’s degrees.
Biologists can usually look forward to an
increase in salary as they gain experience. Ac­
cording to the 1960 Register, the average
(median) salary of biologists with 2 to 4 years
of experience was $6,000 a year. Biologists with
20 or more years of experience averaged about
$11,000, and 10 percent of them made $17,000
or more a year.

Where To Go for More Information
American Institute of Biological Sciences,
2000 P St. N W ., Washington 6. D.C.
Federation of American Societies for Experimental
Biology,
9650 Wisconsin Ave. N W ., Washington 14, D.C.
Office of Personnel, U.S. Department of
Agriculture,
Washington 25, D.C.
Employment Officer, U.S. Department of Health,
Education, and Welfare,
National Institutes of Health, Bethesda 14, Md.

MATHEMATICS AND RELATED FIELDS
Mathematics is both a profession and a tool
subject essential for many kinds of work. This
chapter includes descriptions of the mathe­
matics profession and two other closely related
professions— statisticians and actuaries. For
entrance into any of these three fields, college
training in mathematics is required. For many
types of work, graduate training in mathe­
matics is necessary.

In addition to the professions covered in this
chapter, many others utilize mathematics ex­
tensively in performing their jobs. These pro­
fessions— which include engineers, chemists,
physicists, astronomers, and other scientists—
are described elsewhere in the Handbook. High
school teachers of mathematics are not covered
in this chapter, but are included in the state­
ment on Secondary School Teachers.

Mathematicians
(D.O.T. 0-35.76)

Nature of Work

Mathematics is one of the oldest and most
basic fields of science. It is also one of the most
dynamic and rapidly growing professions.
Mathematicians today are engaged in a wide
range of activities, including research on the
behavior of the atom, calculating orbits of earth
satellites, and translating business and scien­
tific problems into mathematical terms for
solution by electronic computers.
Mathematical work may be divided into two
broad classes— pure or theoretical mathematics
and applied mathematics, which includes math­
ematical computation. Theoretical mathemati­
cians are concerned with the logical develop­
ment of mathematical systems and the study
of the relations among various mathematical
forms. In a sense, pure mathematics is an art
and pure mathematicians are simply attempt­
ing to advance the art. They seek to increase
basic mathematical knowledge without neces­
sarily considering how this knowledge may be
used. However, many scientific and engineer­
ing achievements have resulted from the de­
velopment and application of this pure and ab­
stract mathematical knowledge. For example,
a seemingly impractical non-Euclidean geom­
etry invented in 1854 by Bernhard Riemann
148




was to become an integral part of Albert Ein­
stein's theory of relativity developed more than
a half century later.
Mathematicians engaged in applied work
develop mathematical techniques and ap­
proaches to solve problems in the physical,
biological, and social sciences. They analyze
each problem and attempt to describe it in
terms of a mathematical system. Mathemati­
cians doing this kind of work need not only
competence and imagination in mathematics,
but also knowledge of the field in which they
are working. Applied and pure mathematics
are not always sharply separated in practice.
Many important developments in theoretical
mathematics have arisen directly from prac­
tical problems. For example, differential cal­
culus was developed by Isaac Newton to describe
and analyze the velocity and acceleration of
moving objects— something which could not be
done satisfactorily by earlier systems of mathe­
matics.
An important part of the work in applied
mathematics involves utilizing mathematical
knowledge and modern computing equipment,
ranging from desk calculators to complex elec­
tronic computers, to obtain numerical answers
to specific problems. Although such work often

MATHEMATICS AND RELATED FIELDS

requires a very high level of mathematical
knowledge and skill, many positions in this field
— for example, those of programmer and coder
for digital computers— do not require the ad­
vanced training and inventiveness needed in
other types of mathematical work. Much of
the mathematical work connected with scien­
tific research and development, as well as
statistics and business, is of this type.
Where Employed

More than 30,000 mathematicians, including
over 3,500 with Ph. D. degrees, were employed
in the United States in mid-1960. Relatively
few mathematicians are women— less than 10
percent, according to the National Science
Foundation’s 1960 National Register of Scien­
tific and Technical Personnel.
The largest number of mathematicians— more
than two-fifths of the total— are employed by
private industry. Almost as many— slightly
less than two-fifths of the total— are employed
by colleges and universities. Most of the re­
mainder are employed by Government agencies,
chiefly the U.S. Department of Defense, the
National Aeronautics and Space Administra­
tion, and the U.S. Department of Commerce;
by foundations and other nonprofit organiza­
tions; and by independent commercial labora­
tories.
Major industrial employers of mathemati­
cians are the electrical equipment and the air­
craft and missile industries. The machinery,
chemicals, fabricated metal products, and pe­
troleum industries also utilize significant num­
bers of mathematicians. These six industries
accounted for more than two-thirds of all
mathematicians employed in private industry
in 1960.

149
number of jobs, in research and in many other
areas of applied mathematics. The Ph. D. de­
gree is necessary for most high-level college
and university teaching positions and for the
more advanced research work, such as formu­
lating mathematical theories to describe an
engineering or scientific situation.
The bachelor’s degree is adequate preparation
for many positions in either private industry
or the Federal Government, particularly those
connected with computer work. Some new
graduates with only the bachelor’s degree be­
come graduate research or teaching assistants
in universities while working toward advanced
degrees. However, an advanced degree is gen­
erally required for advancement to the more
desirable teaching or research positions.
For teaching and work in applied mathe­
matics, training in the field to which mathe­
matics is to be applied is important. For many
applied mathematicians, the fields of applica­
tion are physics and engineering. Other fields
of application include business and industrial
management, economics, statistics, chemistry,
and biology. For research and teaching in pure
mathematics, however, training in a specific
field of application is seldom required.
The development in recent years of high­
speed electronic computers has brought a grow-

Training and Other Qualifications

A bachelor’s degree with a major in mathe­
matics is the minimum educational requirement
for entrance into this field. For many mathe­
matical positions, particularly in research and
teaching, graduate training is required.
In both industry and government, advanced
degrees are required for an ever-increasing




Courtesy of National Bureau of Standards

Mathematicians often work with other scientists to
develop statistical designs for experiments.

150
ing need for mathematicians particularly qual­
ified to work with these machines. Knowledge
of numerical analysis is especially desirable for
this work. Preparing the detailed instructions
or program to guide the computer also calls for
special training, as described in the statement
on Programmers. (See index for page number.)
Among the personal qualifications needed by
mathematicians are a keen logical mind, imagi­
nation, intellectual curiosity, and a desire to
analyze and solve new and difficult problems.
Mathematicians must also be able to express
themselves clearly and concisely in order to
present mathematical ideas to scientists, en­
gineers, and others who use mathematics but
are not mathematicians.
Employment Outlook

The outlook is for continued rapid growth
of employment in mathematics, both in the
near future and over the long run. As in recent
years, there will be a particular demand for
mathematicians with Ph. D. degrees— for re­
search, teaching, and many applied mathe­
matics positions.
One of the major factors which will tend to
increase employment of mathematicians is the
anticipated rise in scientific research and de­
velopment activities, in which more than onethird of all mathematicians are engaged. Total
expenditures for research and development
have increased rapidly in recent years, rising
from $5.4 billion in 1953 to more than $13 bil­
lion in 1960-61. In all probability, both private
industry and the Federal Government will con­
tinue to increase their spending on scientific
research and development.
The demand for mathematicians in research
and development is closely associated with the
development of high-speed electronic computers
which make possible the solution of a steadily
widening variety of complex physics and en­
gineering problems in such fields as operations
research, logistics (the transport, quartering
and supply of military personnel), inventory
control, and scientific management. High-speed
electronic computers have also opened broad
new fields of application for mathematics in
business management. These computers pro­




OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

vide needed accounting and other data very
rapidly and make possible analyses of business
operations which often were not practicable
with less advanced equipment.
The demand generated by these computers
is for people who can apply mathematics to spe­
cific problems, not simply for mathematicians
as such. Undoubtedly, a part of this demand
will be satisfied by including more advanced
mathematical training in the education of en­
gineers, physicists, biologists, and specialists
in other fields to which mathematics is applied.
Nevertheless, there will be a growing need for
applied mathematicians who combine a high
degree of mathematical competence with a broad
knowledge of the field of application. The de­
mand for people to do mathematical computa­
tion work will also expand.
Employment of mathematicians as college
and university teachers should rise substan­
tially during the 1960’s. Enrollments in mathe­
matics are expected to grow rapidly during this
period, along with the growth in total college
enrollments. It is expected that not only will
the number of students majoring in mathe­
matics increase, but the number of mathe­
matics courses taken by students majoring in
other fields will also rise. The greatest demand
in college teaching will be for mathematicians
with Ph. D. degrees, but there will also be many
openings for holders of master’s degrees. Col­
leges and universities will continue to provide
most of the employment opportunities for spe­
cialists in theoretical mathematics.
Along with the anticipated rise in demand
for mathematicians, an increase is expected in
the number of mathematics graduates. If grad­
uates in this field continue to represent the
same proportion of all college graduates as in
recent years, the number seeking employment
in the profession will rise rapidly during the
late 1960’s ; by 1970, it may be twice the number
at the beginning of the decade. Nevertheless,
unless the annual number of degrees awarded
in mathematics rises far above anticipated lev­
els, the demand for persons trained as mathe­
maticians is expected to be much greater than
the number of well-qualified new graduates
available for employment. Very good employ­
ment opportunities are thus in prospect in the

151

MATHEMATICS AND RELATED FIELDS

profession through the mid-1960’s, at least, and
probably for much longer. For mathematicians
with the Ph. D., particularly, employment op­
portunities are expected to be excellent.
Earnings and Working Conditions

Mathematicians with bachelor’s degrees em­
ployed in beginning positions in private indus­
try had an average (median) salary of $5,700
a year in 1960. New graduates with the mas­
ter’s degree received starting salaries about
$500 to $1,000 per year higher. Annual sal­
aries for new graduates with Ph. D. degrees,
most of whom usually have some experience,
averaged about $11,000 a year in 1960.
In Federal Government positions in 1960,
mathematicians with the bachelor’s degree and
no experience could begin at either $5,335, or
$6,345 a year, depending on the individual’s
college record. Beginning mathematicians with
1 full year of graduate study could begin at $6,345; those with 2 full years of graduate study
at $6,435. Mathematicians with the Ph. D. de­
gree could start at $7,560 or $8,955.
Available information on beginning salaries
of mathematicians employed as college and
university teachers is limited to those with the
Ph. D. degree. Starting salaries for these math­
ematicians ranged from $4,900 to $8,000 a year
in 1960, for 9 months of teaching. (Some fur­
ther indication of salary levels of mathemati­
cians employed as college teachers may be
obtained from the salary figures for all college
and university teachers, presented in the state­
ment on College and University Teachers. See

index for page number.) Mathematicians in
educational institutions can sometimes supple­
ment their regular salaries with income from
special research projects, consulting work, and
writing for publications.
Most mathematicians can look forward to
an experience in earnings as they gain expe­
rience. According to the 1960 National Register
of Scientific and Technical Personnel, the
average (median) salary of mathematicians
with 2 to 4 years’ experience was $7,000 a year
and that of mathematicians with 20 or more
years’ experience was about $11,000. Nearly
all (90 percent) of the mathematicians with
20 years’ experience earned at least $7,000 and
a few (10 percent) earned $22,000 or more.
In general, mathematicians in private in­
dustry tend to have higher incomes than those
in other types of employment. For example, the
median annual income of mathematicians was
about 10 percent greater in private industry
than in Federal Government employment, and
nearly 40 percent greater than in colleges and
universities, according to the 1960 Register.
Within a particular field of employment, hold­
ers of Ph. D. degrees usually earn considerably
more than those with bachelor’s or master’s
degrees.

Where To Go for More Information
American Mathematical Society,
190 Hope St., Providence 6, R.I.
Mathematical Association of America,
University of Buffalo, Buffalo 14, N .Y.

Statisticians
(D.O.T. 0-36.51)

Nature of Work

The charts and tables displayed in magazines
and newspapers and in business offices usually
illustrate the findings of studies planned and
conducted by statisticians. These studies pro­
vide government and business officials with the
statistical information needed in making major
decisions or help natural and social scientists
extend their knowledge.



Statisticians use scientific methods to collect,
analyze, and interpret numerical data for many
purposes— for example, to forecast population
growth or economic conditions, estimate the
size of a corn crop, help determine the best
design for a jet airplane or the effects of a new
marketing program, or measure the effective­
ness of vaccine in preventing polio.
Some statisticians spend most of their time

152

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

analyzing- data collected by others and prepar­
ing reports on their findings. Others plan
surveys or experiments to be used for collecting
the basic information. Statisticians engaged
in survey work may choose the sources from
which data can most readily be obtained, de­
termine the sample of people to be actually
surveyed, draw up questionnaires or reporting
forms, and prepare instructions for the survey
workers who will collect the data and for the
statistical clerks who will code and tabulate
the returns. Statisticians who design experi­
ments may prepare mathematical models which
can be tested to confirm or contradict a partic­
ular theory. In designing either a survey or
an experiment, the statistician’s principal task
is to obtain sufficiently precise information on
the subject being studied with the least possi­
ble expenditure of time and money, or to secure
the maximum amount of information for a
given expenditure. Statisticians present their
findings in summary tables, charts, and written
reports.
As a rule, statisticians specialize either in
mathematical statistics or in the application
of statistical methods to a subject-matter field.
Mathematical statisticians use mathematical
techniques to design and improve statistical
methods for obtaining and interpreting numer­
ical information in any subject field. Applied
statisticians use statistical methods to collect

Photograph by U.S. Department of Labor

Statisticians analyzing data collected in a survey.




and analyze data in a particular field— for
example, economics, psychology, public health,
finance, or engineering. Mathematical and ap­
plied statisticians frequently work together in
making statistical studies.
Many statisticians are engaged in research
or perform administrative or supervisory func­
tions in connection with research programs.
Some are employed as college teachers— often
combining teaching with research or adminis­
trative activities. Others serve as independent
consultants to business firms and government
agencies.
Because statistics is a tool which is used in
many different fields, it is sometimes impossible
to distinguish people who are primarily statis­
ticians from those who are chiefly subjectmatter specialists with only a limited knowl­
edge of statistics. For example, an applied
statistician who works with data on economic
conditions may have the title of economist in­
stead of statistician. On the other hand, a
mathematical statistician engaged in applying
probability theory to the development of new
statistical methods may be classified as a
mathematician. (See statement on Mathemati­
cians which appears in an earlier part of this
chapter.)
Where Employed

About 20,000 professional workers were em­
ployed as statisticians in the United States in
1961. A small but growing proportion of these
workers were mathematical statisticians.
The largest number of statisticians are em­
ployed by private industry, mostly in market
research, administration, and quality control
work. The Federal Government also employs
a sizable number of statisticians. Every major
Federal agency employs them, although more
than four-fifths of all statisticians on Federal
payrolls are in the Departments of Defense;
Commerce; Agriculture; Health,Education,and
Welfare; and Labor. Colleges and universities
employ some statisticians and are a major
source of employment for mathematical statis­
ticians. Other statisticians are employed by
State and local governments, nonprofit founda­
tions, and research organizations. Some stat­

153

MATHEMATICS AND RELATED FIELDS

isticians are in business for themselves as sta­
tistical consultants.
Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement

The usual educational requirement for begin­
ning positions in statistics is a bachelor's de­
gree with a major in mathematics, or in
economics or some other applied field and a
minor in statistics. A master's degree in sta­
tistics or mathematics is often required for
beginning positions in mathematical statistics
and teaching, and is almost indispensable for
promotion to high-level positions in mathemati­
cal statistics. The Ph. D. degree is essential
for advancement to top level teaching positions
and is an asset in obtaining high-ranking ad­
ministrative positions and consulting work.
Courses essential for prospective statisticians
include college algebra, plane trigonometry,
analytical geometry, differential and integral
calculus, and at least one course in statistical
methods. Advanced courses in mathematics
and statistical theory are desirable for many
jobs and essential for those in mathematical
statistics. Young people interested in becoming
applied statisticians also need thorough train­
ing in a subject-matter field related to the type
of work they will be doing. For example, a
statistician employed by a stock broker would
need a thorough knowledge of finance.
For Federal employment, the minimum re­
quirement for a beginning position as a mathe­
matical statistician is a bachelor's degree with
24 semester hours in mathematics and statistics.
At least 12 of these semester hours must be in
mathematics (including several courses beyond
calculus, such as theory of equations, vector
analysis, and differential equations) and 6 must
be in statistics; however, certain advanced
courses in mathematics may be substituted for
the statistics requirement. For a beginning
position as an analytical or survey statistician,
the minimum requirement is a bachelor's de­
gree with 24 semester hours in statistics or in
one of several designated subject-matter fields,
or 6 semester hours in statistics plus 24 semester
hours in a combination of the subject-matter
fields. These fields include agriculture, biologi­
cal or physical sciences, demography, educa­




tion, engineering, health and medicine, and
economics and other social sciences.
Minimum requirements for entrance positions
in private firms are similar to those for Federal
employment. For many quality control posi­
tions, statisticians also must have taken courses
in engineering and in the application of statis­
tical methods to manufacturing processes. For
market research and forecasting, courses in
business administration or a related field are
helpful. For advancement in analytical and
survey work, there is a trend toward requiring
advanced academic training (in the subjectmatter field as well as in statistics), in both
Government and private industry.
Inexperienced statisticians with only the
bachelor's degree often spend much of their
time in clerical work on their first jobs. The
ability to operate adding and calculating ma­
chines and tabulating equipment is, therefore,
extremely helpful. In many types of employ­
ment, statisticians must also have considerable
knowledge of modern tabulating equipment.
Employment Outlook

The outlook is for substantial growth in em­
ployment of statisticians, both in the next few
years and over the long run. Mathematical
statisticians will be in the greatest demand.
The growing emphasis on modern statistical
methods in conducting research and the de­
velopment of electronic data-processing equip­
ment will help to increase both the number and
proportion of mathematical statisticians, even
in organizations which do not greatly increase
their research staffs.
In addition to those needed to fill new posi­
tions, several hundred statisticians will be re­
quired each year to replace members of the
profession who resign, retire, or die.
The largest expansion in employment is ex­
pected to occur in private industry. Persons
who have broad training in mathematics and
statistics as well as a knowledge of engineering
or physical sciences will be in particular de­
mand for quality control work in manufactur­
ing and for work with scientists and engineers
in research and development activities. Com­
panies are also expected to rely more and more

154

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

on statisticians in analyzing and forecasting
sales and business conditions, modernizing
their accounting procedures, and solving other
management problems. With the growing use of
electronic computing machines, there will be
an increasing demand for statisticians who are
able to plan work to make the most efficient
use of such equipment. (See index for state­
ment on Programmers.)
Employment of statisticians in government
agencies will probably rise moderately. Addi­
tional personnel will be needed not only in re­
search and development work but also for
expanded programs in such fields as social
security, health, and education. Also, a large
number of statisticians will continue to be em­
ployed in long-term programs involving the
collection and analysis of economic data of
many kinds.
Employment of statisticians as college and
university teachers is also expected to rise
through the 1960’s, primarily as a result of
increasing college enrollments and the con­
sequent rise in employment opportunities for
college teachers. Furthermore, many colleges
are likely to offer additional courses in statistics,
as the importance of statistical training in
government, business, academic, and industrial
research becomes more widely recognized.
Earnings and Working Conditions

Starting salaries for new college graduates
employed as statisticians in private industry
averaged between $375 and $425 a month in
early 1961, according to the limited informa­
tion available. Starting salaries for beginning

mathematical statisticians with the bachelor’s
degree were usually somewhat higher. Begin­
ning statisticians with master’s degrees aver­
aged about $100 a month more than those with
only bachelor’s degrees.
In Federal Government positions, the annual
starting salary for inexperienced mathematical
statisticians with the bachelor’s degree was
either $5,335 or $6,345 in early 1961, depending
on the individual’s college record. Those with
1 year of graduate training could start at $6,345, and those with 2 years of graduate training,
at $6,435. Mathematical statisticians with the
Ph. D. degree were eligible to start at $7,560
or $8,955, depending on their college records
and the type of research they would be doing.
Beginning salaries for analytical and survey
statisticians with the bachelor’s degree were
either $4,345 or $5,355 a year in the Federal
Government, depending on the individual’s col­
lege record. Those with 1 year of graduate
training but no experience were eligible to start
at $5,355; those with 2 years of graduate train­
ing, at $6,435; and those with the Ph. D. degree,
at $7,560 or $8,955.
Detailed information on starting salaries of
statisticians employed by colleges and univer­
sities is not available. However, some indica­
tion of their salary levels may be obtained from
the figures for college and university teachers
as a group, presented in the statement on this
profession. (See index for page number.)
Where To Go for More Information
American Statistical Association,
1757 K St. N W ., Washington 6, D.C.

Actuaries
(D.O.T. 0-36.55)

Nature of Work

Actuaries are mathematicians whose main
job is to keep insurance plans on a sound finan­
cial basis. They evaluate the probability of loss
on whatever is to be insured. They develop
and analyze statistical tables on mortality
(death) and morbidity (sickness) rates. They
are also concerned with the frequency of in­




juries and with personal and property losses
from fire, burglary, explosion, and other haz­
ards, and with the resulting costs. Taking into
consideration the estimates of losses as well as
estimates of their company’s future expenses
and investment income, actuaries determine
the premium rates for each particular type of
insurance policy. They may also be responsible
for analyzing company earnings, developing

MATHEMATICS AND RELATED FIELDS

insurance plans, and preparing policy contract
provisions.
The actuary’s work requires an understand­
ing of general business trends and of legisla­
tive, health, social, and other factors that may
affect the insurance business. Actuaries must
continually study new developments in these
areas, in order to make certain that company
insurance practices are sound.
Because of their broad knowledge of the in­
surance field, actuaries frequently work on
problems arising in such insurance company
departments as the investment, underwriting,
and group insurance and pension sales and serv­
ice departments. Those in executive positions
may help determine general company policy
and may testify before public agencies on pro­
posed legislation which would affect the insur­
ance business or on the justification for in­
tended changes in company premium rates or
contract provisions.
Actuaries employed by the Federal Govern­
ment usually deal with a particular government
insurance program, such as social security (oldage and survivors’ insurance) or insurance for
veterans and members of the Armed Forces.
In State government positions, actuaries are
involved in the supervision and regulation of
insurance companies and may work on prob­
lems connected with unemployment insurance
or workmen’s compensation. Consulting actu­
aries perform services, on a fee basis, for pri­
vate companies, unions, and government agen­
cies. They are often hired by trustees who
represent both employers and employees to set
up employee pension and welfare plans.
Where Employed

Approximately 1,700 professional actuaries
were employed in the United States in 1960;
about four-fifths worked in the life insurance
field and one-fifth in property and casualty in­
surance (which includes workmen’s compensa­
tion, automobile, accident and health, and fire
insurance). A large majority of all actuaries
are employed by private insurance companies.
A few hundred are employed by consulting
firms or are in business for themselves. The Fed­
eral Government employs about 50 actuaries,



155
chiefly in the Department of Health, Educa­
tion, and Welfare and *the Veterans Adminis­
tration. Most of the remaining actuaries are
employed by State government agencies; a few
are with property and casualty insurance rat­
ing bureaus (associations which supply actuar­
ial data to member companies).
The size of a company’s actuarial staff de­
pends upon the volume and nature of its insur­
ance work. Large companies which sell all
lines of insurance or have considerable group
insurance business may employ as many as 50
to 100 actuaries. Small companies may have
only one or two actuaries on their staffs or may
rely entirely on consulting firms or rating
bureaus for actuarial services.
Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement

A bachelor’s degree with a major in mathe­
matics is the generally accepted educational
requirement for entry into actuarial work. Be­
sides courses in mathematics— including differ­
ential and integral calculus, analytical geom­
etry, mathematical statistics, probability, and
finite differences— courses in insurance law,
economics, investments, accounting, and other
aspects of business administration and in Eng­
lish composition and speech may prove valu­
able. A well-rounded educational background,
and the ability to deal with people and to ex­
press oneself clearly and simply are important
qualifications.
Most actuaries gain professional status after
passing a series of examinations, which cover
language aptitude, general mathematics, and
all phases of the insurance business. The ex­
aminations in life insurance are given by The
Society of Actuaries, and those in property and
casualty insurance by the Casualty Actuarial
Society. An actuary becomes an “ Associate” in
the Society of Actuaries after completing that
Society’s first five examinations, and in the
Casualty Actuarial Society after passing its
first four examinations. The designation of
“ Fellow” is conferred after completion of all
eight examinations given by either society. It
usually takes more than 5 years to complete the
entire series. For the more advanced examina­
tions, experience in insurance work and inten­

156
sive home study are usually required. It is de­
sirable for students to take some of the early
examinations while still in college. Success in
these examinations helps the student determine
whether he has the ability to become an ac­
tuary and greatly increases his opportunities
for employment.
In interviewing applicants for actuarial work,
employers evaluate both their mathematical
ability and personal characteristics,* such as
leadership, the ability to deal with people, and
an interest in business problems. Preference
is usually given to applicants who have passed
at least two of the actuarial examinations, and
to those with some actuarial experience. This
experience is provided in many insurance com­
panies which hire and train college undergrad­
uates during the summer months.
A beginning actuary is, usually rotated
among different jobs in the actuarial department
to learn the various actuarial operations and
become acquainted with different phases of in­
surance work. At first, the actuarial trainee
may make calculations or tabulations for ac­
tuarial tables or for the annual statement.
Later, he may supervise actuarial clerks and be
concerned with correspondence and reports.
Advancement to more responsible work as
an assistant and later as associate or chief
actuary depends largely upon on-the-job per­
formance and passing the actuarial examina­
tions. Some actuaries, because of their broad
knowledge, qualify for administrative positions
in other areas of company activity, particu­
larly in the underwriting, accounting, or in­
vestment departments, A few advance to top
executive positions as company vice presidents
or presidents.
Employment Outlook

Actuaries are expected to find very favorable
opportunities for employment during the mid1960’s. Although the field is small, actuaries
with the necessary education and background
are expected to continue to be in demand. Both
the insurance industry and government will
have to compete with other employers for the
limited supply of persons with good mathe­
matical training. (See statements on Mathe­



OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

maticians and Statisticians which appear in
other parts of this chapter.)
Over the long run, the employment of ac­
tuaries is expected to increase in both the life
and casualty insurance fields, primarily because
of anticipated growth in the number and type
of insurance policies. (See chapter on Insur­
ance Occupations. Refer to index for page
number.) More actuarial jobs will open up also
because of increasing problems arising from
changing and more complex insurance cover­
age. The rapidly growing number of group life
insurance plans, as well as health and pension
plans, will require additional actuarial service.
The greater use of electronic data-processing
machines by insurance companies may also re­
quire a few additional actuaries to help deter­
mine the best ways of utilizing this equipment
to solve insurance problems.
In the property^and casualty insurance field,
additional actuaries will be needed to make the
studies which are used as the basis for deter­
mining rate changes in the short-term policies
typical of this field, and to present justifica­
tion for these changes before State regulatory
agencies. Increased sales of “ multiple line”
policies— which can include most kinds of in­
surance (except life) in one policy— may even­
tually lead to larger companies in the property
and casualty field and these companies will also
require the services of more full-time actuaries.
In addition to actuaries needed to fill new po­
sitions, some will be needed to replace those
who resign, retire, or die. However, since ac­
tuaries are a relatively small group, the num­
ber of openings in any one year will be few.
Employment opportunities will probably con­
tinue to be good for the few women who choose
this field and qualify as actuaries. However,
young women who withdraw temporarily from
the labor market because of family responsi­
bilities or for other reasons may find it difficult
to complete the years of continuous training
and study required to gain full professional
status.
Earnings

Starting salaries of new college graduates
hired as actuaries in insurance companies were

157

MATHEMATICS AND RELATED FIELDS

generally between $5,000 and $5,500 a year in
1960, according to the limited information
available. Those who had passed some of the
preliminary actuarial examinations given by
the professional societies usually received con­
siderably higher starting salaries. Fellows of
either Society, or persons with comparable
knowledge, experience, and ability in actuarial
work, usually received $10,000 a year or more.
Earnings increase with experience and added
work responsibility. Annual salaries of $25,000
and more may be earned by actuaries in execu­
tive positions in large companies.
In the Federal Government in 1960, begin­




ning actuaries with the bachelor's degree could
start at either $5,335 or $6,345 a year, depend­
ing on the applicant's college record. Many
actuaries in government positions were earn­
ing more than $10,000 a year in 1960, and a
few were earning $15,000 or more.

Where To Go for More Information
Society of Actuaries,
208 South LaSalle St., Chicago 4, 111.
Casualty Actuarial Society,
200 East 42d St., New York 17, N .Y.

TECHNICIANS W H O W O R K WITH ENGINEERS
AND PHYSICAL SCIENTISTS
Technicians who work with engineers and
physical scientists are among the fastest grow­
ing occupational groups in the United States.
In recent years, the needs of the Nation's de­
fense program, added to those of the expanding
civilian economy, have greatly intensified the
demand not only for engineers and scientists but
also for the technical workers who assist them
— the technicians with whom this chapter is
concerned.
The chapter covers only those technicians
who work with engineers and physical scien­
tists (D.O.T. 0-67). It includes a discussion of
the general nature of their work, and of some
of the specialized areas of technology in which
they are trained and employed. It also includes
information on where they are employed, their
employment prospects, and their earnings.
In addition to the technicians described in
this chapter, there are many thousands of work­
ers whose jobs require technical competence
and considerable training and experience, but
who do not normally work directly with engi­
neers and scientists. These workers include,
for example, draftsmen and broadcast techni­
cians, who are described elsewhere in the Hand­
book, as well as many inspectors, production
supervisors, and some persons who maintain
complex machinery and equipment. Informa­
tion on technical occupations in the health field
— including medical laboratory technicians,
medical X-ray technicians, and dental hygien­
ists— is presented elsewhere in the Handbook
(See index for page references.)
Nature of Work

The term "technician" has been used by dif­
ferent employers to refer to workers in a great
variety of jobs, with many different job titles.
There is no generally accepted definition of this
158




term. In some cases, it has been applied to
employees doing relatively routine work, in
others, to persons performing work requiring
skills within a limited sphere, and again to per­
sons who do complex work of a highly technical
nature as assistants to engineers and scientists.
The workers' job titles may be descriptive of
their technical level (for example, engineering
technician, scientific assistant, or junior engi­
neer) or they may relate to the nature of the
work done (for example, laboratory assistant,
production analyst, time-study analyst, or tool
designer). Some employers use the word
"technician," modified by adjectives such as
mechanical, electrical, electronics, or chemical,
which are descriptive of areas of technology in
which personnel are employed.
In this chapter, the term "technician" refers
to technical workers whose jobs require basic
scientific and mathematical knowledge and
specialized education or training in some aspect
of technology or science, and who, as a rule,
work directly with scientists and engineers.
In general, the jobs are technical in nature but
more limited than those of the engineer or
scientist, and have a greater practical orienta­
tion. Many of these technician jobs require the
ability to analyze and solve problems and pre­
pare formal reports on experiments, tests, or
other projects. Nearly all technicians require
the ability to communicate orally or in writing.
Some require considerable aptitude in mathe­
matics and the ability to visualize objects and
to make sketches and drawings. Design jobs
often require creative ability. Many of these
technician jobs require some familiarity with
one or more of the skilled trades, although not
the ability to perform as a craftsman. Still
others demand extensive knowledge of industrial
equipment and processes. Sometimes jobs held
by these technicians are of a supervisory nature

TECHNICIANS

and require both technical knowledge and the
ability to handle people.
Frequently, technician jobs require use of
complex electronic and mechanical instru­
ments, experimental laboratory apparatus,
drafting instruments, and an understanding of
tools and machinery. Almost all of the techni­
cians whose jobs are described in this chapter
must be able to use engineering handbooks and
computing devices, such as the slide rule or
calculating machines.
Technicians work with engineers and physi­
cal scientists in virtually every aspect of engi­
neering and scientific work. One of their largest
areas of employment is research, development,
and design work. Technicians in this type of
activity generally serve as direct supporting
personnel to engineers or scientists. In the
laboratory, they conduct experiments or tests;
set up, calibrate, and operate instruments; and
make calculations. They may assist scientists
and engineers in developing experimental equip­
ment and models, do drafting, and frequently
assume responsibility for certain aspects of de­
sign work under the engineer’s direction.
Technicians in jobs related to production
usually follow a course laid out by the engineer
oj* scientist, but they often work without close
supervision. They may aid in the various phases
of production planning, such as working out
specifications regarding needed materials and
methods of manufacture. Sometimes techni­
cians devise tests to insure quality control of
products, or make time and motion studies de­
signed to improve production flow and the
efficiency of operations. They may also perform
liaison work between departments such as en­
gineering and production.
Technicians are often assigned work that
might otherwise have to be done by engineers.
They may advise on installation and mainte­
nance problems, serve as technical representa­
tives of manufacturers seeking to aid contrac­
tors or other customers in achieving maximum
utilization of technical products, or work as
technical writers of specifications and manuals.
The following sections describe a number of
areas of technology in which technicians who
work with scientists and engineers are trained
and employed.




159
Aeronautical Technology. Technicians spe­
cializing in this area of technology work with
engineers and scientists in many phases of air­
craft design and production engineering. They
work on conventional aircraft, helicopters,
rockets, guided missiles, and spacecraft, and
on propulsion systems and controls as well as
aircraft structures.
Many of these technicians aid engineers in
design work and on other projects. Often they
assist in preparing layouts of aircraft structures
or equipment installations by collecting infor­
mation, making calculations, and performing
many other tasks. They work on projects in­
volving stress analysis, aerodynamics, struc­
tural design, flight test evaluation, weight con­
trol, or propulsion problems. For example, under
the direction of an engineer, a technician might
be assigned the problem of estimating weight
factors, centers of gravity, and other items
affecting an airplane’s load capacity. Other
technicians working on engineering projects
prepare or check engineering drawings
for technical accuracy, practicability, and
economy.
Technicians sometimes help estimate the cost
of the materials and labor needed to manufac­
ture airplanes, parts, and equipment. They may
also be responsible for liaison between the engi­
neers who do the planning and development

Courtesy of National Aeronautics and Space Administration

Technician assisting engineer in experimental high­
speed wind tunnel study.

160
work and the people who convert the engineers’
ideas into finished products. As an airplane is
built, the liaison technician checks it for con­
formance with specifications, keeps the engi­
neer informed as to progress, and investigates
any production engineering problems that arise.
He may recommend minor changes in the de­
sign, the materials used, or the method of fabri­
cation, which would expedite production of
parts or assemblies.
Other aeronautical technicians are employed
as manufacturers’ field service representatives,
serving as the link between their employers and
the military services, commercial airlines, and
other customers. Technicians with a flair for
writing often prepare instruction manuals,
bulletins, catalogs, and other technical ma­
terials. (See also statements on Aeronautical
Engineers and Airplane Mechanics, and chapter
on Occupations in Aircraft, Missile, and Space­
craft Manufacturing elsewhere in the Hand-,
book. Refer to index for page numbers.)
Air-Conditioning, Heating, and Refrigeration
Technology. Heating, cooling, and refrigerating
are essential to defense operations as well as to
health and comfort in our daily lives and to
the operation of many factories, stores, and oth­
er businesses. Technicians in this field often be­
come specialists in one area of work, such as
refrigeration, and sometimes in a particular
type of activity, such as research and develop­
ment, or design of layouts for heating, cooling,
or refrigeration systems.
In the manufacture of air-conditioning, heat­
ing, and refrigeration equipment, technicians
work in research and engineering departments,
usually as aids to engineers and scientists. They
may also be assigned such jobs as devising
methods for testing equipment or analyzing
production methods.
Technical sales work for equipment manu­
facturers is still another area of employment
for technicians. In such work, they must be
able to supply contractors who design and in­
stall systems with information on such techni­
cal subjects as installation, maintenance, op­
erating costs, and expected performance of
equipment.




OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

An air-conditioning, heating, or refrigera­
tion system requires equipment for changing
temperature and duct-work or piping for dis­
tributing hot or cold air, hot water or steam,
or refrigerating fluid. Technically trained per­
sonnel assist in designing such systems and in
preparing instructions for their installation. In
designing the layout for an air-conditioning or
heating system, they must determine the heat­
ing or cooling requirements, decide what kind
of equipment would be best for the job, and
estimate costs. In this work, they must also
consider such problems as filtering air and con­
trolling moisture. (See statement on Refrigera­
tion and Air-Conditioning Mechanics elsewhere
in the Handbook. Refer to index for page
number.)
Chemical Technology. Technicians specializing
in this area work with chemists and chemical
engineers in the development, production, sale,
and utilization of chemical products and equip­
ment. They apply their knowledge of chemistry
and other physical sciences and of apparatus
and equipment to such work as the control of
complicated chemical processes or laboratory
research. The field of chemistry is so broad
that chemical technicians often become spe­
cialists in the problems of a particular industry
and in a particular type of activity— for ex­
ample, research or quality control.
Most chemical technicians assist chemists
and other scientists or engineers in research

Women technicians are often employed in laboratory
work.

TECHNICIANS

and development, testing, or other laboratory
work. Those helping to conduct experiments
may make the computations and tabulate and
analyze results. In testing work, technicians
make chemical tests to determine whether par­
ticular substances are present and, if so, in
what quantities. They may, for example, analyze
steel for carbon, phosphorous, and sulfur con­
tent, or water for the amount of silica, iron, and
calcium present. They also perform experi­
ments to determine the characteristics of sub­
stances as, for example, the viscosity and flash
point of oil. The work of technicians employed
in research or testing laboratories often re­
quires the assembly and use of such apparatus
and instruments as dilatometers, inferometers,
analytical balances, and centrifuges.
Outside the laboratory, chemical technicians
are sometimes employed to supervise various
operations in the production of chemical prod­
ucts and as technical salesmen of chemicals
and chemical equipment. (See statements on
Chemists, Chemical Engineers, and chapter on
Occupations in the Industrial Chemicals In­
dustry elsewhere in the Handbook. Refer to
index for page numbers.)
Civil Engineering Technology. Technicians
trained in this area assist civil engineers in
performing many of the tasks necessary in the
planning and construction of highways, rail­
roads, bridges, viaducts, dams, and other struc­
tures. On a construction project that is being
planned, technicians may help in estimating
costs, preparing specifications for materials, or
participate in surveying, drafting, or designing
work. Once the actual construction work has
begun, they may assist the contractor or super­
intendent in scheduling construction activities
and inspecting the work for conformance with
blueprints and specifications.
Many persons trained in civil engineering
technology become draftsmen, surveyors, or
specialists in other well-established technical
jobs. Those working as surveyors determine
the locations and measurements of land areas
and buildings for construction and other pur­
poses, using the transit, the level, and other
surveying instruments. Those employed in oth­
er technical jobs include estimators who pre­




161
pare estimates of the costs, materials, and time
necessary in the construction or repair of
various structures; and highway inspectors,
who usually supervise the clearing of rights-ofway and the preparation of roads for surfacing.
(See statements on Civil Engineers and Drafts­
men elsewhere in the Handbook. Refer to index
for page numbers.)
Electronics Technology. This field includes ra­
dio, radar, sonar, telemetering, television, tele­
phony, and other forms of communication;
industrial measuring, recording, indicating,
and controlling devices; navigational equip­
ment ; missile and spacecraft guidance and
transmitting instruments; electronic comput­
ers; and many other types of equipment using
vacuum tubes and semiconductor circuits. Be­
cause the field is so broad, technicians generally
become specialists in one area— for example,
communications— and often in a subdivision
such as radio or telephony. They may also
specialize in some aspect of industrial electron­
ics— for example, induction or dielectric heat­
ing, servomechanisms, automation controls, or
ultrasonics.
Technicians working with engineers and
physical scientists in the field of electronics

Technician wiring a rocket nose cone for a space capsule.

162
need a strong* background in electronics theory
and mathematics to enable them to handle com­
plex technical work above the level involved in
routine operating and repair jobs. (For addi­
tional information on service and repair jobs
in the electronics field, see statement on Radio
and Television Servicemen. Refer to index for
page number.) These electronics technicians
may, for example, be assigned such tasks as
preparing or interpreting layouts and other
diagrams, or the development and testing of
experimental electronic units, or assisting sci­
entists and engineers in the design of electronic
circuits. Their work often calls for use of en­
gineering handbooks; oscilloscopes, signal gen­
erators, ohmmeters, multitesters, Q-meters, and
other instruments; and computing devices, in­
cluding slide rules.
Electronics technicians employed in research
activities usually assist scientists or engineers
in designing, testing, and modifying experi­
mental electronic devices. They may be called
upon to devise practical solutions to problems
of design, select suitable materials, determine
the best method of building a piece of equip­
ment, and test and evaluate the operating char­
acteristics of the equipment after it is built.
They may also be assigned to make necessary
modifications in experimental equipment.
Electronics technicians working with engi­
neers in manufacturing operations may help in
designing and setting up different types of
testing equipment and devising quality control
and other tests for manufactured products.
(See also chapters on Occupations in Aircraft,
Missile, and Spacecraft Manufacturing, and
Electronics Manufacturing Occupations.)
Electronics technicians may also be employed
in special maintenance and repair jobs where
knowledge above the routine repair level is
needed. Electronics maintenance technicians
employed by the Federal Aviation Agency, for
example, are responsible for keeping radar and
other electronic equipment in perfect working
order for effective air traffic control. Elec­
tronics technicians employed by the Depart­
ment of Defense service radar, sonar, loran,
and other warning and detection devices. Manu­



OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

facturers and purchasers of electronic comput­
ers frequently employ electronics technicians
to maintain these complex machines.
Persons with training and experience in
electronics may be employed as broadcast tech­
nicians in the engineering departments of radio
and television broadcasting stations to operate
and maintain the electronic equipment in the
studio and at the transmitter. Many broadcast
technicians are employed in supervisory jobs
and, in some instances, may be responsible for
the entire technical operation of the station.
Technicians who operate transmitters must
meet Federal Communications Commission li­
censing requirements. (For additional infor­
mation on broadcast technicians, see chapter
on Radio and Television Broadcasting Occupa­
tions. Refer to index for page number.)
Industrial Engineering Technology. Techni­
cians trained in this area are sometimes called
industrial technicians or production techni­
cians. They assist industrial engineers on prob­
lems involving the efficient use of men, mate­
rials, and machines in mass production. Their
work includes such tasks as preparing layout
of machinery and equipment, planning the flow
of work, and making statistical studies and
analyses of production costs to eliminate unnec­
essary expense. They may study different
production methods and their costs in order to
find out the best way of manufacturing a par­
ticular item.
The industrial technician may also assist the
engineer in conducting time and motion studies.
These studies involve timing and analyzing the
movements workers m skf as they do their jobs.
On the basis of information obtained, changes
in the tools and equipment used and in the
organization of operations may be recom­
mended.
In the course of their duties, many industrial
technicians acquire experience which enables
them to qualify for other jobs. For example,
those expert in machinery and production
methods may move into the field of industrial
safety. Others who specialize in job analyses
may become involved later in the setting of
job standards and in the interviewing, testing,

TECHNICIANS

hiring, and training of personnel. (See state­
ment on Industrial Engineers. Refer to index
for page number.)
Mechanical Engineering Technology. Mechani­
cal engineering technology is a broad term
which is sometimes used to cover a large num­
ber of specialized fields, including automotive
technology, diesel technology, tool design, and
machine design.
Technicians trained in one of the above
areas of technology often assist engineers in
design and development work by making free­
hand sketches and rough layouts of machinery
and other equipment and parts. Using engi­
neering data and specifications and other avail­
able information, they help in determining
whether a proposed design change is practical
and how much it will cost to produce. They
may also be called upon to apply their knowl­
edge of mechanical engineering principles to
solve particular design problems such as those
involving tolerances, stress, strain, friction, and
vibration.
Planning and carrying out tests on experi­
mental engines and equipment for perform­
ance, durability, and efficiency is a large area
of work for technicians. As part of the testing
procedure, they record data, make computa­
tions, analyze results and write reports. They
sometimes make recommendations for changes
in design to meet performance requirements.
Their jobs often require the use of instruments
and gages such as dynamometers, as well as
the ability to prepare and interpret drawings.
Some workers with training in mechanical
engineering technology are employed in manu­
facturing departments to help develop plans
for testing and inspecting engines and equip­
ment, or to work with engineers in eliminating
production problems. Some obtain jobs as tech­
nical salesmen. (See statements on Mechanical
Engineers, Automobile Mechanics, and Diesel
Mechanics elsewhere in the Handbook. Refer
to index for page numbers.)
One of the better known specialties which
may be grouped under mechanical engineering
technology is that of tool designer. The tool
designer designs tools and devices for the mass
production of manufactured articles. He origi­



163
nates and prepares sketches of the designs for
cutting tools, jigs, dies, special fixtures, and
other attachments used in machine operations.
He may also make detailed drawings of these
tools and fixtures, or supervise others in making
them. Besides developing new tools, designers
frequently redesign tools currently in use to
improve their efficiency.
In order to perform his highly technical job,
the tool designer must have a knowledge of
machine shop practice and of drafting, and a
good background in advanced algebra, geom­
etry, and trigonometry. He must also be fa­
miliar with the characteristics of the materials
of which tools and fixtures are made. In addi­
tion, he needs a knowledge of manufacturing
procedures, and the advantages and disadvan­
tages of various methods of production, so that
he can design tools which will produce the
article desired as efficiently and cheaply as
possible.
Machine drafting with some .designing is
another major area of work which is often
grouped under mechanical technology. Drafts­
men’s jobs are described elsewhere in the Hand­
book. (See index for page number.)
Other Areas of Technology. Many fields of
work besides those described above offer oppor­
tunities for technicians with appropriate train­
ing. Those trained in metallurgical technology,
for example, work with metallurgists and met­
allurgical engineers in processing metals and
converting them into finished products. Their
jobs may include testing of metals and alloys
to determine their physical properties, or work­
ing in research laboratories on such projects
as developing new ways of treating and using
metals and alloys. Mathematics aids, another
technician group, assist mathematicians, engi­
neers, and scientists by doing computations in­
volving the use of algebra, logarithms, trigo­
nometric functions, and higher mathematics.
Still other fields of work for technicians in­
clude: cartography (mapmaking), electrical
technology, gas turbine technology, optical tech­
nology, and petroleum technology.
As industry becomes increasingly mecha­
nized new technical occupations are constantly

164
emerging. For example, instrumentation tech­
nology, a new and growing area of employment,
has evolved from the introduction of more and
more automatic controls and precision measur­
ing devices in manufacturing operations. In
industrial plants and laboratories, instruments
are used to record data, to control and regulate
the operation of machinery, and to measure
time, weight, temperature, speeds of moving
parts, mixtures, volume, flow, strain, and pres­
sure. Technicians— who may have either spe­
cific training in instrumentation or training
chiefly in electronics, mechanics, or hydraulics
— work with the engineers and scientists who
develop these highly complex devices, and with
those who use them for research and develop­
ment work. (See also statement on Instrument
Makers. Refer to index for page number.)
Another new area of work for technicians,
which has resulted from recognition of the need
for a more scientific approach toward the re­
duction of industrial hazards, is safety tech­
nology. In the rapidly growing atomic energy
field, technicians work with scientists on prob­
lems of radiation safety, inspection, and decon­
tamination. (For a more detailed description
of technicians employed in the atomic energy
field, see chapter on Occupations in the Atomic
Energy Field. Refer to index for page number.)
Where Employed

An estimated 340,000 engineering and physi­
cal science technicians, not including drafts­
men, were employed in the United States in
1959. More than 250,000 of these technicians,
about three-fourths of the total, were employed
by private industry. The industries employing
the largest numbers of engineering and physi­
cal science technicians are electrical equipment
and aircraft manufacturing. The machinery,
chemicals, and fabricated metal products indus­
tries also utilize large numbers of technicians.
These five industries accounted for about half
of all engineering and physical science tech­
nicians employed in private industry in 1959.
The Federal Government also employs sizable
numbers of technicians who work with engi­
neers and physical scientists. In 1959, the Fed­
eral agencies had more than 40,000 employees



OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

in the following occupational categories: engi­
neering technician, engineering aid, equipment
specialist, electronics technician, cartographic
aid, physical science aid, meteorological aid,
and mathematics aid. There were also a rela­
tively small number of such technicians in
other kinds of jobs. Of those in the selected
technical occupations mentioned above, about
23,300, or more than half, were in the Depart­
ment of Defense. The Departments of the In­
terior, Commerce, and Agriculture combined
employed an additional one-third, or about
14,500 technicians, and the remainder were
scattered among a number of other Government
agencies.
State and local government agencies employ
about the same number of engineering and
physical science technicians as are employed
by the Federal Government. Most of the re­
mainder are employed by nonprofit organiza­
tions, independent commercial laboratories, and
colleges and universities.
Training and Other Qualifications

Young men and women who wish to prepare
for technical careers can obtain formal educa­
tion for their work from a number of sources
including technical institutes, junior and com­
munity colleges, extension divisions of univer­
sities, colleges offering 2-year technical pro­
grams, some large comprehensive high schools,
technical high schools, and vocational-technical
high schools. In recent years, public schools of
the types listed have been putting a great deal
of emphasis on developing curriculums to qual­
ify young people for technician occupations as
a result of the stimulus provided by title VIII
of the National Defense Education Act of 1958.
Many engineering students who have not com­
pleted all requirements for a degree and some
liberal arts students and others with post-highschool education in mathematics and science
are able, with additional technical training
and experience, to qualify for technician jobs
assisting scientists and engineers. Very often
persons become qualified for the technician
jobs with which this chapter is concerned
through on-the-job training and experience,
plus formal course work taken on a part-time

TECHNICIANS

basis either through classroom or, occasionally,
through correspondence courses.
Schools which specialize in preparing stu­
dents for technical jobs usually design their
curriculums so that, on completion of their
training, individuals can become productive
with only a minimum of on-the-job training.
Courses given by these schools usually include
science, mathematics, and engineering, with
subject matter related to the practical prob­
lems students will meet on the job. Students
are also given instruction in the use of instru­
ments, machinery, and tools to gain a familiar­
ity with the equipment, rather than to develop
skills.
The entrance requirements of schools spe­
cializing in education for technical jobs are
usually less rigid and standardized than those
of 4-year colleges. All institutions offering
post-high-school technical training organize
their courses for high school graduates, and
most of the courses offered in these institutions
are of college level. However, some will admit
students without a high school diploma if they
have completed the equivalent of a full high
school course, or if they can pass special exami­
nations, or otherwise demonstrate their ability
to perform work above the high school level and
can show that they are able to profit from the
training offered. Some schools even have ar­
rangements for helping students make up defi­
ciencies in mathematics and science subjects.
On the other hand, many institutions admit
only high school graduates who have had
mathematics and science courses. For all the
occupations considered in this chapter, basic
training in mathematics and science is essen­
tial, and students interested in preparing for
technical careers should, therefore, obtain as
good a background as possible in these subjects
while in high school.
Because of the variety of educational institu­
tions where training may be obtained and the
differences in the kind and level of training
offered, a person seeking a technical education
should use more than ordinary care in selecting
a school. Information should be secured about
State accreditation, professional recognition,
the length of time the school has been in op­
eration, instructional facilities, faculty quali­



165
fications, transferability of credits, and the
kinds of jobs obtained by the school's grad­
uates. Students should also look into the costs
of technical education and available scholar­
ships and other financial aids. (See section on
Where To Go for More Information.) Above
all, a student should realize that there is no
quick and easy method of acquiring the back­
ground in mathematics, chemistry, and other
physical sciences which will enable him to
qualify for the technicians' jobs described in
this chapter.
A brief discussion of some of the types of
educational institutions and other sources where
young people can obtain training as technicians
follows.
Technical Institutes. Technical institutes offer
1, 2, or 3 years of education above the high
school level. Two years is the usual training
period.
The programs of technical institutes are
usually designed to give the prospective tech­
nician an engineering and science background
which prepares him for some specific job or
cluster of related jobs. The scope of these pro­
grams is more limited than that required to
prepare a person for a career as a professional
engineer. Much emphasis is placed on labora­
tory and drafting work in order to familiarize
students with instruments, equipment, and
techniques used in industry. In general, the
student receives intensive technical training
but less theoretical and general education than
is provided by 4-year engineering and liberal
arts colleges.
Some schools offer cooperative programs
under which a student spends part of his time
in school and part in employment related to the
occupation for which he is preparing himself.
It may take more than 2 years to complete the
curriculum at a technical institute with a co­
operative plan, but this type of program g4ves
students valuable work experience, which often
outweighs the disadvantages of a longer train­
ing period. In addition, students participating
in cooperative programs frequently earn enough
to pay for at least a part of their educational
expenses.
Most technical institutes conduct both day
and evening sessions. By attending evening

166
classes, employed workers can often become
qualified for technician jobs. Almost half of
the students attending technical institutes in
1958 were enrolled part time in evening and
special classes.
Some technical institutes give associate de­
grees which signify that the student has com­
pleted at least 2 years of college-level work.
If the prospective student desires eventually to
obtain a bachelor's degree from a 4-year col­
lege, he should investigate in advance whether
his technical institute credits are transferable
to the college of his choice. Although some
colleges give full or partial credit for work
taken at approved technical institutes, others
do not.
The amount of general education offered
varies greatly from one technical institute to
another. Some institutes offer intensive train­
ing for technical occupations but almost no
general education, whereas others require stu­
dents to spend as much as 25 percent of their
time in such courses as English and history
and 75 percent in specific courses in their tech­
nical field.
Some technical institutes are operated as
regular or extension divisions of colleges and
universities. Others are separate institutions
operated by States or municipalities, privately
endowed institutions, and proprietary schools.
Altogether, there were about 112 technical in­
stitutes with a total of more than 49,000 fulland part-time students in 1958.
Junior or Community Colleges. Many junior
and community colleges in the United States
also prepare students for technician occupa­
tions in industry and government. According to
a U.S. Office of Education survey, 143 out of a
total of 523 junior and community colleges of­
fered programs for training scientific and en­
gineering technicians in the fall of 1958. These
colleges had more than 15,000 students enrolled
in full-time study in technical programs, and
almost 12,000 students studying on a parttime basis. Two years of post-high-school
education is usually offered by such schools
and it is common practice for them to award
the degree of associate in arts or science upon
completion of the 2-year program.



OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

Not all junior colleges are equipped to give
technical training of the type described in this
report, nor do most of them consider this their
primary purpose. In contrast with most tech­
nical institutes which concentrate upon terminal
education (after which the student is not ordi­
narily expected to take advanced work else­
where), junior colleges usually offer courses
equivalent to those given in the freshman and
sophomore years of 4-year colleges, so that their
graduates can go on into the junior year in a
4-year college.
Junior college courses in technical fields are
often planned around the employment needs of
the industries in their locality. The training
programs for prospective technicians therefore
vary and may include highly specialized prep­
aration in addition to general courses. In some
cases, the courses are designed to meet the
specifications of one or two industries or even
of a single plant.
Many junior colleges are important adult
education centers with extensive night-school
programs. Through appropriate part-time study
at junior colleges, as at technical institutes,
workers may prepare themselves for technician
jobs.
Training in Industry. Some large corporations
conduct training programs to meet their need
for technically trained personnel. This type of
training is primarily technical and rarely in­
cludes any general studies. Instruction is given
both through formal classes and through train­
ing on the job. Workers who are trained
wholly on the job generally get less theoretical
background than those who receive formal in­
struction.
Other employers who do not have training
programs, but are aware of the need for tech­
nically trained workers, often encourage their
employees to attend classes in local schools or
to enroll in correspondence courses. Employers
sometimes ask the schools to arrange special
educational programs which will expand the
technical background of their employees. Some
large corporations reimburse their employees
for tuition after they have completed courses
satisfactorily. The workers are usually expected

167

TECHNICIANS

to take courses directly related to their work as­
signment, and are sometimes allowed to attend
classes on the employer's time.
Training for some occupations in the tech­
nician category— tool designers and electronic
technicians, for example— may be obtained
through a formal apprenticeship. In addition
to on-the-job training, supplementary educa­
tion in mathematics and science is provided.
Persons interested in apprentice training may
obtain further information from the local office
of their State employment service, directly
from employers, or from the local labor union
concerned with the occupation they wish to
learn.
Other Training. Although most of the jobs
considered in this report require post-highschool education or the equivalent in experi­
ence, a few advanced technical high schools,
principally in large cities, offer programs which
qualify their graduates for technical entry
jobs. These high schools have high admission
requirements and offer more thorough and ad­
vanced courses in mathematics, science, draft­
ing, and laboratory work than are usually
available in academic high schools. They some­
times offer an additional year of schooling be­
yond the 12th grade. Some schools have eve­
ning courses which may be organized as formal
technical programs to prepare technicians or
which may cover only a few subjects related
to a particular area of work. These programs,
like other evening courses, are designed espe­
cially for employed persons who wish to im­
prove their job status by increasing their tech­
nical knowledge.
Correspondence schools offering home study
courses are an additional source of preparation
for technicians. Persons who wish to learn
more about their jobs or who wish to advance
to a better job in the same field are the ones
who derive the most benefit from such courses.
Success in such courses depends greatly on the
ability of the student to study by himself.
In addition to the sources of training already
discussed, many thousands of technicians are
trained each year by the Armed Forces. The
Army, Navy, Air Force, Marine Corps, and
Coast Guard all train their own specialists.




Some trainees are given intensive short courses;
others receive extensive training of a year or
more. Much of the training is transferable
from military to civilian jobs, and many of the
technicians trained by the military establish­
ments utilize their training in civilian employ­
ment after they leave the Armed Forces.
Employment Outlook

The outlook is for continued expansion in
employment of technicians in the years ahead.
In recent decades, technicians have been one of
the fastest growing occupational groups, and
there is every indication of continued rapid
growth in these occupations. In addition, sev­
eral thousand technicians are needed each year
to replace those who retire or die or transfer
to other occupations.
Underlying the increase in demand for tech­
nicians are the general expansion of American
industry and the increasing complexity of mod­
ern technology. The trend toward automation
of industrial processes, the Nation's vast high­
way building program, and the growth of new
areas of work, such as the atomic energy field,
and the earth satellite and other space pro­
grams, are expected to add to the demand for
technical personnel. The demands of the defense
program, particularly in the aerospace and
electronics fields, will result in a growing need
for workers in the technician category.
Also of great importance to the longrun
growth in the employment of technicians is
the prospect of a continued high level of gov­
ernment and private expenditures for research
and development in future years. More and
more companies are establishing new research
programs and strengthening existing programs
to meet the strong competition in developing
new products and processes. Furthermore, ex­
penditures for defense-related research are ex­
pected to continue at a high level.
It is anticipated that technicians will be
needed in large numbers in research, develop­
ment, design, and other work which must pre­
cede the manufacturing process. As products
and the methods by which they are manu­
factured become more complex, increasing num­

168
bers of technicians are also expected to be re­
quired to assist engineers in such activities as
production planning, maintaining liaison be­
tween production and engineering departments,
and technical sales work.
The number of job openings available to tech­
nicians in any one year will, however, reflect
the general economic situation and changes
that may occur in the Nation's defense pro­
gram.
Employment opportunities for women tech­
nicians have been chiefly in drafting jobs, in
chemical and other laboratory work, and in
computation and other work requiring applica­
tion of mathematics. Over the long run, it is
likely that more women will be trained and find
employment in these and other technician occu­
pations.
Earnings

In general, a technician's earnings depend
upon his education, his technical specialty, and
his work experience. Other important factors
which influence his ea tin g s are the type of
employer for whom he works, the kind of work
he does, and the geographic location of his job.
Starting salaries for the majority of post­
secondary technical school graduates ranged
from $3,600 to $5,400 a year in 1960, according
to the limited information available. That most
technicians can look forward to a significant
increase in earnings as they gain experience,
is illustrated by information from the follow-up
studies conducted by a number of technical
schools. These studies show most of the grad­
uates earning between $6,000 and $8,000 a year
after about 5 years of experience.
In the Federal Civil Service, graduates of a
2-year technical institute accredited by the
Engineers Council for Professional Develop­
ment, or an equivalent course of study, were
eligible to start at $4,040 a year in 1960. Some
Federal Government agencies hire high school
graduates and train them for technician jobs.
Beginning salaries for these jobs ranged from
$3,500 to $3,760 a year, depending on the in­
dividual's high school courses and experience.




OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

The majority of experienced technicians work­
ing for the Federal Government earned between
$4,000 and $6,500 in 1960, and some earned
considerably higher salaries.
Where To Go for More Information

General information on careers for techni­
cians who work with engineers and physical
scientists may be obtained from :
Engineers’ Council for Professional Development,
29 West 39th St., New York 18, N.Y.
Technical Institute Division, American Society for
Engineering Education,
University of Illinois, Urbana, 111.
National Council of Technical Schools,
1507 M St. N W ., Washington 5, D.C.

Information on training opportunities may
also be obtained from the Engineers Council
for Professional Development, a nationally
recognized accrediting agency for technical in­
stitute programs; the National Council of Tech­
nical Schools; and:
U.S. Department of Health, Education, and W el­
fare, Office of Education, Division of Higher
Education and/or Division of Vocational Educa­
tion, Washington 25, D.C.

State departments of education at each State
capital also have information about approved
technical institutes, junior colleges, and other
educational institutions offering post-highschool training for specific technical occupa­
tions. Other sources include:
The American Association of Junior Colleges,
1785 Massachusetts Ave. N W ., Washington 6, D.C.
National Home Study Council,
2000 K St. N W ., Washington 6, D.C.

Information on apprenticeship may be ob­
tained from the Bureau of Apprenticeship and
Training, U.S. Department of Labor, Washing­
ton 25, D.C., or one of the regional offices of
the Bureau or State apprenticeship agencies.
The U.S. Civil Service Commission, Wash­
ington 25, D.C., will furnish information on how
to apply for positions in Federal Government
agencies.

SOCIAL SCIENCES
The social sciences are concerned with the
whole range of human society and its activities,
from the origin of man to the latest election
returns. Social scientists, however, generally
specialize in one of several major fields, in each
of which human behavior is studied from a
different point of view. Those specializing in
anthropology study primitive tribes, recon­
struct lost cities and civilizations, and are
concerned with the cultures and languages of
all peoples. Economists study the ways in
which man makes a living and analyze the
factors which help or hinder him in satisfying
his material needs. Historians describe and in­
terpret the events of the past. Political scien­
tists are concerned with the problems of govern­
ment. Sociologists deal with the behavior and
relationships of groups such as the family, the
community, and minorities.
Besides these basic social science fields, there
are a number of closely related fields, some of
which are covered in separate statements in
this Handbook. (See statements on Geogra­
phers, Statisticians, Psychologists, and Social
Workers.)
About 50,000 people were professionally em­
ployed in the basic social sciences in 1960,
according to rough estimates based on infor­
mation from a variety of sources. Fewer than
10 percent of the total were women. Because
of overlapping among the basic social science
fields and also with such related fields as busi­
ness administration, foreign service work, and
high school teaching, it is extremely difficult to
determine exactly the size of each social science
profession. Economists, however, are the lar­
gest group and anthropologists, the smallest.
The majority of all social scientists are em­
ployed by colleges and universities. The Federal
Government is the second largest employer,
especially of political scientists and economists.
Except for economists, private industry em­
ploys comparatively few persons in professional




social science positions, but there is a trend
toward hiring increasing numbers of college
graduates who have majored in the social
sciences as trainees for administrative and
executive positions in a variety of industries.
Research councils and other nonprofit organiza­
tions provide an important source of employ­
ment for economists and sociologists.
Employment Outlook

Employment in the social sciences has been
increasing and is expected to grow rapidly
during the 1960’s, mainly because of the antici­
pated rise in college teaching positions. The
reasons for this expected increase are dis­
cussed in the statement on College and Univer­
sity Teachers. (See index for page number.)
A moderate rise in employment is also expected
in government as a result of the growing re­
liance on social scientists for administrative as
well as research assistance. Employment in
government agencies is most affected by
changes in public policy. For example, new
legislation in areas such as health insurance or
urban planning would increase the demand for
social scientists. A moderate rise in employ­
ment in private industry and nonprofit organi­
zations is also expected. In addition to person­
nel required for new positions, many hundreds
of social scientists will be needed each year
to replace those who leave the field because of
retirement or death, or for other reasons.
Social scientists with doctor’s degrees are
likely to have very good employment opportuni­
ties during the 1960’s, in both teaching and
nonteaching positions, barring a sharp rise in
the proportion of college graduates majoring
in the social sciences. For those with less
formal training, the employment situation will
differ considerably among the several social
science fields. These differences are discussed
in the sections which follow.
169

170
Earnings

Starting salaries for social scientists em­
ployed as instructors generally ranged from
about $4,500 to $6,000 in large colleges and
universities in 1960, according to data from a
variety of sources. Generally, the positions pay­
ing salaries near the top of this range required
the Ph. D. degree or some experience and com­
pletion of all requirements for the Ph. D. degree
except the doctoral dissertation. In the majority
of colleges and universities, salaries, of profes­
sors were 60 to 75 percent higher than in­
structors’ salaries; in some very large univer­
sities, the difference was much greater.
In the Federal Government, the beginning
salary in 1961 for social scientists with a
bachelor’s degree was $4,345 a year. Those with
a superior academic record or with a year of
graduate training were eligible for positions at
an annual salary of $5,355. Starting salaries
were higher for candidates with additional
graduate training. Many experienced social
scientists in the Federal Government earned
from $9,000 to $11,000 a year, many with ad­
ministrative responsibilities earned at least
$12,000— in a good many cases considerably
more.
Economists and political scientists earn
more, on the average, than other social scien­
tists. They receive higher salaries in colleges
and universities. Furthermore, more of them
are employed in government agencies and pri­
vate industry where salary levels tend to be
higher than in academic positions. In general,
social scientists with the Ph. D. degree earn
substantially higher salaries than those with
the master’s degree. Women social scientists
usually earn substantially less than men of
comparable age, experience, and level of
education.
Many social scientists have some income in
addition to their regular salaries. Summer
teaching is the principal source of such income
in all fields, but consulting work is an important




OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

source of supplementary income for economists,
political scientists, and sociologists. Income
from royalties is a more common source of
supplementary earnings for historians. Social
scientists regularly employed by colleges and
universities are the group most likely to have
additional earnings. Comparatively few Fed­
eral Government employees earn supplementary
income.
Where To Go for More Information

Additional information on employment op­
portunities in the social sciences and related
fields is given in the following publications:
Anthropology As a Career, Smithsonian Institution,
Washington 25, D.C. Price 20 cents.
Career Opportunities as a Foreign Service Officer,
U.S. Department of State
Washington 25, D.C. Free.

Publication

7047,

America’s Helping Hand, International Cooperation
Administration, Washington 25, D.C. Free.

Information on the respective branches of
social science and on public administration
may be obtained from the following profes­
sional organizations:
American Anthropological Association,
1530 P St. N W ., Washington 5, D.C.
American Economic Association,
Northwestern University, Evanston, 111.
American Historical Association,
400 A St. SE., Washington 3, D.C.
American Political Science Association,
1726 Massachusetts Ave. N W ., Washington 6, D.C.
American Sociological Association, New York Uni­
versity,
Washington Square, New York 3, N.Y.
American Society for Public Administration,
6042 Kimbark Ave., Chicago 37, 111.

171

SOCIAL SCIENCES

Anthropologists
(D.O.T. 0-36.01)

Nature of Work

Anthropologists study primitive and civilized*
man— his origin, physical characteristics, cus­
toms, languages, traditions, material posses­
sions, and social and religious beliefs and
practices. Although the smallest group of the
social scientists, anthropologists cover the
widest range of subject matter.
Most anthropologists specialize in cultural
anthropology— usually archeology or ethnol­
ogy. Archeologists excavate the places where
earlier civilizations are buried and reconstruct
the history of the people who once lived there,
by studying the remains of homes, tools, cloth­
ing, ornaments, and other evidences of human
life and activity. For example, archeologists
are digging in the Pacific Coast area between
northern Mexico and Ecuador to find evidences
of trade and migration in the pre-Christian
Era. Some archeologists are excavating ancient
Mayan cities in Mexico and restoring temples.
Others are working in the river valley along
the Rio Grande to salvage remnants of Indian
villages and sites of early military forts and
trading posts before the area is flooded by dams
now under construction. Ethnologists may
spend long periods living among primitive
tribes or in other communities, to learn their

ways of life at first hand. The ethnologist takes
detailed and comprehensive notes describing
the social customs, beliefs, and material posses­
sions of the people, usually learning their lan­
guage in the process. He also collects examples
of their tools, utensils, weapons, and other
articles. Some cultural anthropologists specia­
lize in linguistics, the scientific study of the
sounds and structures of languages and of the
historical relationships among languages.
A few people specialize as physical anthro­
pologists. These anthropologists apply intensive
training in human anatomy and biology to the
study of human evolution, and to the scientific
measurement of the physical differences among
the races of mankind. Because of their knowl­
edge of body structure, physical anthropologists
are occasionally employed as consultants on
such projects as the improvement of clothing
sizes or the design of more comfortable
furniture.
The principal function of anthropologists is
college teaching, which in some schools may
include the teaching of sociology or, less often,
geography, as well as anthropology. Research
is the major activity of a substantial number
of anthropologists, including a large proportion
of those employed in government and nonprofit
organizations, as well as a good many in the
teaching field. Others specialize in museum
work, which generally combines management
and administrative duties with field work and
research on anthropological collections. A few
are engaged primarily in consulting, writing,
or other activities.
Where Employed

Courtesy of Smithsonian Institution

Anthropologist observing Indian method of food
preparation.




More than a thousand people were employed
as anthropologists in 1960. About a fifth of
them were women— a higher proportion than
in any other social science field. The majority
are employed in colleges and universities. The
Federal Government employed a . considerable

172

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

number, mainly in museums, in Governmentsupervised areas such as parks, and in technical
aid programs. The Government agencies which
employed the largest number of anthropologists
were the Smithsonian Institution and the Na­
tional Park Service. Many other Government
agencies, including the Departments of Defense
and of Health, Education, and Welfare, em­
ployed some members of the profession as con­
sultants. State and local government agencies
also employed some anthropologists, usually for
museum work. A few were employed in private
industry and nonprofit organizations.

The choice of a graduate school is very im­
portant, since the beginning anthropologist
usually gets his first job through the university
from which he receives his advanced degree.
Students interested in museum work should
select a school which can provide experience
in an associated museum having anthropologi­
cal collections. Similarly, those interested in
archeology should choose a university which
offers opportunities for summer experience in
archeological field work or should plan to at­
tend an archeological field school elsewhere
during their summer vacations.

Training and Other Qualifications

Employment Outlook

Young people who are interested in careers
in anthropology should obtain Ph. D. degrees.
College graduates with bachelor’s degrees can
obtain only temporary positions and assistantships in the graduate departments where they
are working for advanced degrees. A master’s
degree, plus field experience, is sufficient for
many beginning professional positions, but
promotion to top positions is generally reserved
for those with the Ph. D. degree. In some
colleges, only anthropologists holding the Ph. D.
degree can obtain a permanent teaching
appointment.
Some training in physical anthropology and
archeology, as well as in the other main sub­
divisions of the field, is necessary for all
anthropologists. Courses in linguistics (the
scientific study of language) are also valuable.
Undergraduate students may begin their field
training in archeology by arranging, through
their university department, to accompany ex­
peditions as laborers. They may advance to
supervisory positions in charge of the digging
or collection of material and may finally take
charge of a portion of the work of the expedi­
tion. Beginning ethnologists and linguists (as
well as experienced ones) usually do their
fieldwork alone, without direct supervision.
Most anthropologists base their doctoral dis­
sertations on data collected through field re­
search; they are, therefore, experienced fieldworkers by the time they obtain the Ph. D.
degree.

Expanding employment opportunities for
anthropologists are anticipated during the 1960
decade.
The number of anthropologists in colleges and
universities will probably rise substantially.
Employment outside the teaching field is ex­
pected to rise slowly. Anthropologists will find
some additional opportunities in museums and
archeological research programs. They will
also find some new openings in the field of
mental and public health and in other com­
munity survey work. Hiring in other fields is
likely to be limited largely to the replacement
of personnel retiring or vacating their posi­
tions for other reasons.
Anthropologists holding the doctorate will
probably have very favorable employment op­
portunities during the 1960’s, since the number
of new Ph. D.’s is expected to remain below
the demand for additional anthropologists dur­
ing this period. Graduates with only the
master’s degree, however, are likely to face
persistent competition for professional posi­
tions in anthropology and may enter related
fields of work. A few who meet certification
requirements may qualify for high school teach­
ing positions. Others may find jobs in public
administration and in nonprofit organizations
and civic groups, which prefer personnel with
social science training as a general background.
(Information on Earnings and Where To Go
for More Information is given at the beginning
of this chapter.)




173

SOCIAL SCIENCES

Economists
(D.O.T. 0-36.11)

Nature of Work

Economists study the ways in which man
makes a living- and satisfies his material needs.
They are concerned with the problems which
arise in utilizing limited resources of land, raw
materials, manpower, and manufactured prod­
ucts so as to meet, as well as possible, people’s
many unsatisfied wants. In this connection,
they may analyze the relation between the
supply of and demand for goods and services,
and the ways in which goods are exchanged,
produced, distributed, and consumed. Some
economists are concerned with such practical
problems as the control of inflation, the pre­
vention of depression, and the development of
farm, wage, tax, and tariff policies. Others de­
velop theories to explain the causes of employ­
ment and unemployment or the ways in which
international trade influences world economic
conditions. Still others are engaged in the col­
lection and interpretation of data on a wide
variety of economic problems.
Economists are employed principally as
teachers in colleges and universities, as re­
search workers in government agencies and,
to a lesser extent, in private industry and
nonprofit research organizations. Those em­
ployed as college teachers guide students in
learning the basic principles and methods of
economics and also frequently engage in writ­
ing, lecturing, or consulting activities. They
do much of the research on basic problems in
economic theory and formulate many of the
new theories and ideas which directly or in­
directly influence economic thought in industry
and government.
Most economists in the Federal Government
are specialists in agricultural, business, labor,
or fiscal economics, or in international trade
and development. They may plan and carry out
studies involving the collection of basic data in
these fields, use these and other data to analyze
the need for changes in government policy,
write reports on their findings, and sometimes
present these reports before policymaking
bodies. In addition, many people with training




as economists are employed by the Federal
Government as statisticians, foreign affairs
specialists, intelligence specialists, and in ad­
ministrative and other positions where a back­
ground in economics is important.
Economists employed by large business firms,
including banks and other financial institutions
do research and, in many cases, also have some
administrative and consultative duties. They
may concentrate on problems relating to do­
mestic business conditions, markets and prices
of company products, government policies af­
fecting business, or international trade. Their
main purpose is to provide management with
information to be used in making decisions on
problems such as the timing of new financing
or the advisability of expanding the company’s
business by adding new lines of merchandise or
by opening branch plants in new areas.
Where Employed

Economics is the largest of the basic social
science fields. About 20,000 people were em­
ployed primarily as economists in 1960. Of this
number, about half were employed by colleges
and universities; approximately a third worked
for government agencies— chiefly Federal. A
small but growing number of economists are
employed by private industry and some serve
in private research agencies and community
organizations. A few economists are self-em-

Courtesy of U.S. Department of Labor

Economists interpret their data for others.

174
ployed, acting as consultants, mainly to busi­
ness firms.
Economists are to be found in nearly all
cities and university towns. The largest group,
however, are in the Washington, D.C., area
where most of those in the Federal Government
are located. A good many American economists
are employed in foreign countries, mainly by the
International
Cooperation
Administration.
Most economists in private industry are em­
ployed in the home offices of large corporations
which are located chiefly in big cities— above
all New York City and Chicago. These two
cities also have the largest concentrations of
economists in nonprofit research organizations.
Training and Other Qualifications

All economists must have a thorough ground­
ing in economic theory, economic history, and
methods of economic analysis, including statis­
tics. An increasing number of universities em­
phasize the value of mathematical methods of
economic analysis and require candidates for
graduate courses in such methods to be well
trained in mathematics, including calculus.
A bachelor’s degree with a major in econom­
ics is sufficient for many beginning research
jobs in government and private industry, al­
though persons employed in such jobs are not
always regarded as professional economists.
Since beginning jobs are ordinarily concerned
mainly with the collection and compilation of
data, a thorough knowledge of statistical pro­
cedures as well as economics is usually required.
Industrial and business firms often hire young
people with bachelor’s degrees in economics as
management trainees and rotate them through
various departments to acquaint them with com­
pany activities. Whether or not the employee is
finally assigned a job which makes specific use
of his training in economics depends largely on
the needs of the company.
The master’s degree is generally required for
appointment as a college instructor, though
graduate assistantships may be awarded to out­
standing students working toward their mas­
ter’s degree. In many large colleges and uni­
versities, completion of all the requirements
for the Ph. D. degree, except the dissertation,




OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

is necessary for appointment to the position of
instructor. In government or private industry,
economists with the master’s degree can usually
qualify for more responsible research positions
than are open to those with only the bachelor’s
degree.
The Ph. D. degree is required for a professor­
ship in a high-ranking college or university and
is an asset in competing for other responsible
positions in government, business, or private
research organizations.
Economists interested in overseas assign­
ments will find broad training in other social
sciences, as well as advanced training in eco­
nomics, very helpful. For most positions with
the International Cooperation Administration,
considerable experience is also required.
The choice of a graduate school is very im­
portant for people planning to become econo­
mists. Students interested in research should
select schools which emphasize training in re­
search methods and statistics and provide good
research facilities, including opportunities for
practical experience. Those who wish to work
in the field of agricultural economics will find
exceptional opportunities for part-time research
work at State universities having agricultural
experiment stations. Professors and chairmen
of economics departments do much of the place­
ment of beginning economists in teaching posi­
tions and in positions in industry and nonprofit
research organizations.
Employment Outlook

Employment opportunities for well-qualified
economists will continue to increase during the
1960’s, especially in the college teaching field.
Colleges and universities will need hundreds of
new instructors annually to handle rapidly in­
creasing college enrollments and to fill positions
vacated because of retirements, deaths, or trans­
fers to other fields of work. In other fields of
employment, opportunities for economists are
likely to increase more slowly. However, many
economists are likely to be required annually
to meet expansion and replacement needs in
industry, government, and nonprofit organiza­
tions. Private industry is expected to employ
a growing number of economists, as business-

175

SOCIAL SCIENCES

men become more accustomed to relying on
scientific methods of analyzing business trends,
forecasting sales, and planning purchasing and
production operations. Employment of econo­
mists in State and Federal Government is likely
to increase somewhat to meet the needs of
government and industry for more extensive
data collection and analysis as a guide to policy
planning.
Economists with the doctorate are expected
to have the best opportunities for employment.
The number of new Ph. D.'s is likely to be
considerably less than the number of new col­
lege instructors needed during the 1960's. As
a result, employment opportunities for econo­
mists who have fulfilled all requirements for

the doctorate except the dissertation will also
be very good. Although there may be consider­
able competition for professional positions
among other economists with lesser qualifica­
tions— in view of the anticipated increase in
their numbers— it is likely that most of those
with graduate training will be able to find pro­
fessional employment, especially if they have
good training in statistics and mathematics.
Those with only a bachelor's degree are likely
to continue to face considerable competition for
professional employment as economists. (In­
formation on Earnings and Where To Go for
More Information is given at the beginning of
this chapter.)

Historians
(D.O.T. 0-36.91)

Nature of Work

Historians study the records of the past and
write books and articles describing and analyz­
ing past events, institutions, ideas, and people.
They may use their knowledge of the past to
explain current events. They may specialize
in the history of a specific country or region, or
in a particular period of time— ancient, medie­
val, or modern— or in economic, cultural, mili­
tary, or other phases of history. More histo­
rians specialize in either United States history
or in modern European history than in any
other field. Some are experts in such areas as
the development of various types of transporta­
tion (trains, cars, aircraft); others are special­
ists in art, architecture, or other objects of
historical interest. The number of specialties
in history is constantly growing. The history
of business and the relation between techno­
logical changes and other aspects of historical
development are among the newest fields.
Most historians are college teachers who also
do some research, writing, and lecturing. Some,
usually called archivists, specialize in identify­
ing, preserving, and making available documen­
tary materials of historical value. Others edit
historical materials, prepare exhibits, write
pamphlets and handbooks, and give talks for
museums, special libraries, and historical socie­



ties. A few serve as consultants to editors and
publishers and producers of materials for radio,
television, and motion pictures. Historians em­
ployed in government mainly do research and
administrative work in connection with research
projects; they also prepare studies, articles,
and books.
Where Employed

An estimated 9,000 to 10,000 persons were
employed as historians in 1960. This estimate
does not include high school history teachers,
who are usually classified as teachers rather
than as historians although some have had con­
siderable training in history.
Approximately 80 percent of the historians
were employed in colleges and universities.
Slightly less than 10 percent were employed in
Federal Government agencies, principally the
National Archives and the Departments of
Defense, Interior, and State. Small but growing
numbers were employed by other government
organizations (State, local, and international),
nonprofit foundations, research councils, special
libraries, State historical societies, museums,
and by large corporations.
Since history is taught in all institutions of
higher education, historians are found in all

176

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

college communities. About half the historians
in the Federal Government, including threefourths of those working as archivists, are em­
ployed in Washington, D.C. Historians in other
types of employment usually work in localities
which have museums or libraries with collec­
tions adequate for historical research.
Training and Other Qualifications

Graduate education is usually necessary for
qualification as a historian. The master's degree
in history is the minimum requirement for ap­
pointment to the position of college instructor,
but in many colleges and universities, the Ph. D.
degree is necessary for appointment. The doc­
torate is essential for attaining high-level col­
lege teaching, research, and administrative posi­
tions in the field of history. Most historians in
the Federal Government and in nonprofit or­
ganizations have a Ph. D. degree or the equiva­
lent in training and experience.
Although a bachelor's degree with a major in
history is sufficient training for some beginning
jobs in Federal, State, and local governments,
persons in such jobs may not be regarded as
professional historians. These beginning jobs
are likely to be concerned with the collection
of and preservation of historical data, so that a
knowledge of archival work is helpful. An
undergraduate major in history is often recom­
mended by employing agencies for jobs in in­
ternational relations and journalism.

Employment Outlook

Employment of historians is expected to con­
tinue to increase substantially during the 1960
decade, chiefly in college teaching. Hundreds of
new instructors will probably be needed annually
to teach new classes made necessary by expand­
ing enrollments, and to replace those who retire,
die, or leave for other types of work. The num­
ber of positions for historians in archival work
is also expected to rise, though more slowly than
the number in college teaching. Only a slight
rise is foreseen in the number of historians in
other types of work.
Historians with doctorates are expected to
have, very good employment opportunities
throughout the 1960 decade. Those with only
the master's degree in history will probably
encounter considerable competition for profes­
sional positions. College graduates with only
the bachelor's degree will find it difficult to ob­
tain employment as professional historians.
On the other hand, history majors who meet
certification requirements will find a good many
openings in high school teaching. Some will
also be able to qualify as trainees in admini­
strative and management positions in govern­
ment agencies, nonprofit foundations, civic or­
ganizations and, more rarely, in private indus­
try. (Information on Earnings and Where
To Go for More Information is given at the
beginning of this chapter.)

Political Scientists
(D.O.T. 0-36.96)

Nature of Work

Political science is the study of government
— what it is, what it does, and how and why.
Political scientists are interested in govern­
ment at every level— local, county, State,
regional, national, and international. Many poli­
tical scientists specialize in public administra­
tion, in American Government, or in inter­
national relations. Smaller numbers specialize
in such fields as public law, history of political
ideas, political parties, public opinion, and area
studies.



Political scientists are most frequently em­
ployed as college teachers, sometimes teaching
other social sciences as well as political
science. They may combine research, consulta­
tion, or administrative duties with their teach­
ing. Some teach in foreign universities where
they prepare students for careers in public
administration and assist in the development
of training programs for government personnel.
A good many political scientists are engaged
mainly in research. They may make surveys
of public opinion on political questions for

177

SOCIAL SCIENCES

private research organizations. They may make
studies of proposed legislation for state or
municipal legislative reference bureaus or con­
gressional committees to determine whether the
legislation is well drafted and constitutional.
They may analyze the operations of government
agencies or specialize in foreign affairs re­
search, either for government or nongovernment
organizations. Still others are engaged in ad­
ministrative or managerial duties in all fields
of work. For example, they may be employed
as budget analysts, as personnel directors or
assistants, as city planners or managers, as
legislative aids to congressmen, and as staff
members of congressional committees.
Where Employed

There were probably more than 10,000 politi­
cal scientists in 1960. Most political scientists
are employed in colleges and universities or in
government agencies. Fewer than 10 percent
work for other types of employers such as
municipal and other research bureaus, civic and
taxpayers associations, and large business firms.
Political scientists are employed in nearly
every college in the United States, since
courses in political science and government are
widely taught. Most other political scientists
are located in Washington, D.C., in other large
cities, or in State capitals. A good many are
employed in overseas jobs mainly by the U.S.
Department of State, International Cooperation
Administration, and the U.S. Information
Agency.
Training and Other Qualifications

Graduate training is generally required for
professional employment in political science.
College graduates with a master's degree in
public administration can qualify for various
administrative and research positions in govern­
ment and in nonprofit research and civic or­
ganizations. More than 100 colleges and uni­
versities offer graduate training in a wide
range of topics in the field of public administra­
tion— for example, city planning, municipal
administration, criminal investigation, and
social security administration. A majority of



these schools provide field training, and many
offer internships which enable the student to
obtain experience in government work. A good
many universities award graduate degrees in
international relations, foreign service, and
area studies, as well as political science in gen­
eral. A master's degree in any of these fields
is very helpful in obtaining a position in a
Federal Government agency concerned with
foreign affairs. However, for some jobs, such
as those with the International Cooperation
Administration, only persons with substantial
experience (preferably in public administration
in the government) are hired.
Completion of all requirements for the Ph. D.
degree, except the doctoral dissertation, is the
usual prerequisite for appointment as a college
instructor. The Ph. D. degree is generally re­
quired for advancement to the position of
professor.
Some young people with only a bachelor's
degree in political science qualify as trainees
for administrative jobs, such as budget analyst,
personnel assistant, or investigator in govern­
ment or industry. However, they must compete
for these jobs with college graduates majoring
in many other fields, particularly those with
majors in business administration, accounting,
economics, and other social science specialties.
A great many students with the bachelor's
degree in political science go on to study law;
many others obtain graduate training in public
administration, international relations, or other
specialized branches of political science.
Employment Outlook

Employment of political scientists is expected
to continue to increase rapidly during the 1960
decade. The largest increase will be in colleges
and universities. However, the number of poli­
tical scientists in administrative jobs in govern­
ment agencies will probably rise also because
of a growing recognition of the value of spe­
cialized training in public administration.
Government agencies concerned with foreign
affairs will continue to employ a good many
political scientists. A slow growth is antici­
pated in employment of political scientists in
private industry. No substantial change is fore­

178

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

seen in the number of political scientists in
other types of work.
Many more political scientists will be needed
to fill positions vacated because of retirements,
deaths, or transfers to other fields of work. Al­
together, colleges and universities may need 400
to 500 new political scientists annually during
the 1960's, both to fill new positions and to
meet replacement needs. Government agencies
will need several hundred more each year.
Political scientists with the doctorate will
find very good opportunities in college teaching
and good chances for employment in other fields
as well. Those who have completed all the
requirements for the doctorate except the dis­
sertation are also likely to find favorable op­
portunities in college teaching. Employment
opportunities for others with the master's de­

gree will be more limited, but many openings
will be available to them, in Federal, State, and
municipal government agencies; research bu­
reaus; political organizations; and civic and
welfare agencies. For new graduates with only
the bachelor's degree, opportunities for profes­
sional employment in the political science field
will probably continue to be limited. However,
those planning to continue their studies in law,
foreign affairs, journalism, and other related
fields will find their political science back­
ground very helpful. Some who meet State certi­
fication requirements will enter high school
teaching.
(Information on Earnings and Where To Go
for More Information is given at the beginning
of this chapter.)

Sociologists
(D.O.T. 0-36.31)

Nature of Work

Sociologists study the many groups which
man forms— families, tribes, communities, vil­
lages, and states, and a great variety of social,
religious, professional, business, and other or­
ganizations which have arisen out of living
together. They study the behavior of these
groups, trace their origin and growth, and
analyze the influence of group activities on in­
dividual members. Some sociologists are pri­
marily concerned with the characteristics of
particular kinds of social groups and institu­
tions ; others are more interested in the ways in
which individuals are affected by groups to
which they belong. Many sociologists specialize
in the study of social organization, social psy­
chology, or rural sociology. Others specialize
in intergroup relations, family problems, social
effects of urban living, population studies, or
analyses of public opinion. Some sociologists
concentrate on research methodology or the
conduct of surveys. Growing numbers are
concerned with the application of sociological
knowledge and methods in the areas of penology
and correction, education, human relations in
industry, and regional and community planning.
Some specialize in medical sociology— studying




the social factors which affect mental or public
health or the problems of hospital administra­
tion. The topics in which sociologists spe­
cialize are too many and varied to be fully
listed here.
Most sociologists are college teachers, but,
as a rule, these teachers also do research work.
In addition, many sociologists are employed full
time in research by big companies, government
agencies, and research bureaus connected with
universities, welfare agencies, and other non­
profit organizations.
Sociological research may involve the collec­
tion of data (often through personal interviews),
the preparation of case studies, administration
of tests, carrying out of statistical surveys, and
laboratory experiments. Sociologists may make
studies of individuals, families, or communities
in an attempt to discover the causes of social
problems— such as crime, juvenile delinquency,
alcoholism, poverty, and dependency— the
normal pattern of family relations, or the dif­
ferent patterns of living in communities of
varying types and sizes. They may collect and
compile data from official government sources
and make statistical analyses to show the trends
in population, including changes in age, sex,

179

SOCIAL SCIENCES

race, and other population characteristics; and
also the extent of population movement among
rural, suburban, and urban areas and among
different geographic areas. Some sociologists
specialize in conducting surveys, either those
which add to basic sociological knowledge or
those in such applied fields as public opinion
research, marketing and advertising research.
Still others are specialists in the use of mass
communication facilities, including radio, tele­
vision, newspapers, magazines, and circulars.
Sociologists are frequently administrators—
supervising research projects or the operation
of social agencies, including marriage and
family clinics. Some people with sociological
training are recreation workers, case workers,
prison inmate classification officers, or proba­
tion and parole officers. Other sociologists act
as consultants, advising on such diverse prob­
lems as the management of hospitals for the
mentally ill, the rehabilitation of juvenile de­
linquents, or the development of effective ad­
vertising programs to promote public interest
in particular products.
Where Employed

It is roughly estimated that about 6,000 or
7,000 persons were professionally employed as
sociologists in 1960. Numerous other persons
were employed in positions requiring some train­
ing in this field, including many in social,
recreation, and public health work.
Approximately three-fourths of the sociol­
ogists— people in research and administrative
positions, as well as teachers— were employed
in colleges and universities in 1960. About onetenth were in Federal, State, local, or inter­
national government agencies; about 5 percent
were working in private industry or were selfemployed; and the remainder were in welfare
or in other nonprofit organizations.
Since sociology is taught in most institutions
of higher learning, sociologists may be found
•in nearly all college communities. They are
most heavily concentrated, however, in large
colleges and universities which offer graduate
training in sociology and opportunities for
sociological research in a research bureau.
Medical sociologists are most often employed



on the teaching or research staff of medical
colleges and graduate departments of public
health and preventive medicine. They also find
employment on hospital staffs and in State and
municipal health departments. Rural sociolo­
gists most frequently work at State universities,
because they are likely to have exceptional op­
portunities for research at the State agricul­
tural experiment stations attached to these uni­
versities. Some specialists in rural sociology
and community development are employed in
foreign countries, by U.S. Government agencies
and private foundations.
Training and Other Qualifications

At least a master's degree with a major in
sociology is usually required for employment as
a sociologist. The Ph. D. degree is frequently
required for employment in the better positions
and virtually always for the most responsible
positions.
Young people with only a bachelor's degree
in sociology are not considered qualified for
professional employment, although they may be
able to secure routine jobs in this or related
fields where a knowledge of sociology is help­
ful. They may get jobs as interviewers or as
research assistants working under close super­
vision. A good many are employed as case
workers, counselors, recreation workers, or ad­
ministrative assistants in public and private
welfare agencies. As a rule, however, welfare
agencies prefer persons with specific training
in social work. Sociology majors with sufficient
training in statistics may obtain positions as
beginning statisticians. Those who meet local
certification requirements may enter high
school teaching.
Sociologists with master's degrees may
qualify for many administrative and research
positions, provided they are trained in research
methods and statistics. They may perform
work requiring responsibility for specific por­
tions of a survey or for the preparation of
analyses and reports under general supervision.
As they gain experience, they may advance to
supervisory positions in both public and pri­
vate agencies. Sociologists with the master's
degree may also qualify for some college in-

180
structorships. Most colleges, however, will ap­
point as instructors only people with training
beyond the master's level— frequently the com­
pletion of all requirements for the Ph. D. de­
gree except the doctoral dissertation. Outstand­
ing graduate students often get teaching or re­
search assistantships while completing their
training for the Ph. D. degree.
The Ph. D. degree is essential for attaining
a professorship in most colleges or universities
and is commonly required for sociologists who
direct major research projects, hold important
administrative positions, or act as consultants.
The choice of a graduate school is very im­
portant for people planning to become sociolo­
gists. Students interested in research should
select schools which emphasize training in re­
search methods and statistics and provide op­
portunities to gain practical experience in re­
search work. Professors and chairmen of
sociology departments frequently aid in the
placement of graduates.
Employment Outlook

Employment opportunities for sociologists
are expected to continue to increase substanti­
ally during the 1960's. Most of the new posi­
tions will be in college teaching because of
expanding college enrollments. Perhaps as
many as 300 new sociology teachers will be




OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

needed each year, on the average, to fill new
positions and to replace college faculty mem­
bers who leave the profession. A moderate rise
in the number of sociologists in nonteaching
fields is also anticipated.
Sociologists well trained in research meth­
ods and advanced statistics will have the widest
choice of jobs. Employment opportunities are
expected to be better than average for research
workers in rural sociology, community develop­
ment, population analysis, public opinion re­
search, and in various branches of medical
sociology. Employment opportunities will also
increase markedly in other applied fields, such
as the study of juvenile delinquency and educa­
tional sociology.
The number of sociologists with the doctor's
degree is expected to rise less rapidly than de­
mand during the 1960's. As a result, employ­
ment opportunities for both Ph. D.'s and those
who have completed all requirements for the
doctorate except the dissertation will probably
be very good during this period. Inexperienced
graduates with only the master's degree— with
the exception of those specifically trained in
research methods— will probably continue to
face considerable competition for positions as
professional sociologists. (Information on Earn­
ings and Where To Go for More Information
is given at the beginning of this chapter.)

THE CLERGY
The choice of the ministry, priesthood, or
rabbinate as one's lifework involves considera­
tions that do not influence to the same degree
the selection of a career in most other occupa­
tions. When young people decide to become
clergymen, they do so primarily because of their
religious faith and their desire to help others.
Nevertheless, it is important for them to know
as much as possible about the profession and
how to prepare for it, the kind of life it offers,
and its needs for personnel. They should under­
stand also that the civic, social, and recreational
activities of clergymen are often influenced,
and sometimes restricted, by the customs and
attitudes of their community.
The number of clergymen needed is broadly
related to the size and geographic distribution
of the Nation's inhabitants and their partici­
pation in organized religious groups. These
factors affect the number of churches and syn­
agogues that are established and, thus, the num­
ber of pulpits to be filled. In the past two de­
cades, there has been a sharp rise in church and
synagogue membership. More than 112 million
people in the United States were members of
organized religious groups in 1959— represent­
ing more than 60 percent of the total population,
whereas in 1940 slightly less than half the
population belonged to religious groups. In ad­
dition to those who serve congregations, many
clergymen teach in seminaries and other educa­
tional institutions, serve as missionaries, and
perform various other duties in meeting their
religious responsibilities.
Young people considering a career as a clergy­
man should seek the counsel of a religious leader
of their faith to aid them in evaluating their
qualifications for the profession. Besides a de­
sire to serve the spiritual needs of others and to
lead them in religious activities, they will need
a broad background of knowledge and the ability
to speak and write clearly. Emotional stability
is necessary, since a clergyman must be able




to help others in times of stress. Furthermore,
young people should know that clergymen are
expected to be examples of high moral character.
The amount of income clergymen receive de­
pends, to a great extent, on the size and financial
status of the congregation they serve and usually
is highest in large cities or in prosperous sub­
urban areas. Earnings of clergymen, as of most
other professional groups, usually rise with in­
creased experience and responsibility. Most
Protestant churches and a number of Jewish
congregations provide their spiritual leaders
with housing. Roman Catholic priests ordinar­
ily live in the rectory of a parish church or are
provided lodgings by the religious order to
which they belong. Many clergymen receive
allowances for transportation and other ex­
penses necessary in their work. Clergymen
often receive gifts or fees for officiating at
special ceremonies such as weddings and funer­
als. In some cases, these gifts or fees are an
important source of additional income; however,
they are frequently donated to charity by the
clergymen.
More detailed information on the clergy in
the three largest faiths in the United States—
Protestant, Roman Catholic, and Jewish— is
given in the following statements which were
prepared in cooperation with leaders of these
faiths. Information on the clergy in other faiths
may be obtained directly from leaders of the
respective groups. Numerous other church-re­
lated occupations— those of the missionary,
recreation leader, teacher, director of youth
organizations, editor of religious publications,
music director, church secretary, and many
others— offer interesting and satisfying careers.
In addition, opportunities to work in connection
with religious activities are present in many
other occupations. Clergymen or educational
directors of local churches or synagogues can
provide information on the church-related oc­
cupations and other areas offering opportunities
for religious service.
181

182

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

Protestant Clergymen
(D.O.T. 0-08.)

Nature of Work

Protestant clergymen lead their congrega­
tions in worship services and may administer
the rites of baptism, confirmation, and Holy
Communion. They prepare and deliver sermons
and give other talks; instruct people who are
to be received into membership of the church;
perform marriages; and conduct funerals. They
counsel individuals who seek guidance, visit the
sick and shut-in, comfort those who are be­
reaved, and serve their church members in many
other ways. Protestant ministers may also
write articles for publication and engage in
interfaith, community, civic, educational, and
recreational activities sponsored by or related
to the interests of the church. A few clergymen
teach in seminaries, colleges, and universities.
The types of worship services which ministers
conduct differ among Protestant denominations
and also among congregations within a denom­
ination ; in some denominations, ministers
follow a traditional order of worship, whereas
in others they adapt the services to different
occasions. Most of these services include Bible
reading, hymn singing, prayers, and a sermon.
Bible reading by a member of the congregation
and individual testimonials may constitute a
large part of the service in some denomina­
tions.
Ministers serving small congregations gener­
ally work on a close personal basis with their
parishioners. Those serving large congrega­
tions usually have greater administrative re­
sponsibilities and spend considerable time work­
ing with committees, church officers, and staff,
besides performing their other duties. They
may have one or more associates or assistants
who share specific aspects of the ministry, such
as the Ministers of Education whose work is
principally with young people.

Where Employed

In 1959, more than 215,000 people were
serving as ministers of churches, composing
over 225 Protestant denominations or other




groups. In addition, thousands of ordained
clergymen were in other occupations— many
closely related to the ministry. The greatest
numbers of clergymen are affiliated with the
four largest groups of churches— Baptist, Meth­
odist, Lutheran, and Presbyterian— to which
about 7 out of every 10 of the 62 million
Protestant church members belong. Most
ministers serve individual congregations; some
are engaged in missionary activities in the
United States and in foreign countries; others
serve as chaplains in the Armed Forces, in
hospitals, and in other institutions; still others
teach in educational institutions, engage in
other religious educational work, or are em­
ployed in social welfare and related agencies.
Less than 5 percent of all ministers are women;
however, about 80 denominations ordain women.
In addition, in some denominations an increas­
ing number of women who have not been or­
dained are serving as pastors' assistants.
All cities and most towns have one or more
Protestant churches with a full-time minister.
The majority of ministers are located in cities
and towns. Many others live in less densely
populated areas where each may serve the reli­
gious needs of two or more congregations in
different communities. A larger proportion of
Protestants than members of other faiths live
in rural areas.
Training and Other Qualifications

The educational preparation required for
entry into the ministry has a wider range than
that for most professions. Some religious
groups have no formal educational require­
ments, and others ordain persons who have re­
ceived varying amounts of training in liberal
arts colleges, Bible colleges, or Bible institutes.
An increasingly large number of denominations,
however, require a 3-year course of professional
study in theology following college graduation.
After completion of such a course in a theolog­
ical school, the degree of bachelor of divinity
or sacred theology is awarded.
Eighty-two of the many theological institu-

183

THE CLERGY

tions in the Nation in mid-1960 were accredited
by the American Association of Theological
Schools. Accredited institutions admit only
students who have received the bachelor’s de­
gree, or its equivalent, from an approved college.
In addition, certain character and personality
qualifications must be met, and endorsement by
the religious group to which the applicant be­
longs is required. The American Association of
Theological Schools recommends that presemi­
nary studies be concentrated in the liberal arts.
Although courses in English, philosophy, and
history are considered especially important, the
pretheological student should take courses also
in the natural and social sciences, religion, and
foreign languages. The standard curriculum
recommended for accredited theological schools
divides the course of studies into four major
fields: Biblical, historical, theological, and
practical. There is a trend toward adding more
courses in psychology, pastoral counseling, so­
ciology, religious education, administration, and
other studies of a practical nature. Many ac­
credited schools require that students gain ex­
perience in church work under the supervision
of a faculty member or experienced minister.
Some institutions offer the master of theology
and the doctor of theology degrees to students
completing 1 or more years of additional study.
In general, each denomination has its own
schools of theology which reflect its particular
interests and needs; however, some of these
schools are open to students from various
denominations. Several nondenominational
schools associated with universities give grad­
uate training covering a wide range of the­
ological points of view.
Among the personal qualifications which most
denominations seek in a candidate for the
ministry are a deep religious conviction, a sense
of dedication to Christian service, a genuine
concern for and love of people, a wholesome
personality and high moral and ethical stand­
ards, and a vigorous and creative mind. Be­
cause of the demands of the ministry, good
health is a valuable asset.
Persons who have met denominational quali­
fications for the ministry are usually ordained
following graduation from a seminary. In de­
nominations which do not require seminary



training, clergymen are ordained at various
appointed times. Clergymen often begin their
careers as pastors of small congregations or as
assistant pastors in large churches. Protestant
clergymen in many of the larger denomina­
tions— especially those groups which have a
well-defined church organization— often are re­
quested to serve in positions of great adminis­
trative and denominational responsibility.
Outlook

Shortages of Protestant ministers have per­
sisted in the postwar period and are likely to
continue through the mid-1960’s. However, not
all Protestant denominations will have equal
difficulty in filling vacant pulpits. Some de­
nominations will probably have a sufficient num­
ber of people who are qualified to serve as
ministers. Generally, those denominations
which require many years of formal training
to qualify for the ministry are having the
greatest difficulty in filling the needs of all
their churches, and this situation is likely to
persist. Although total enrollment in Protestant
theological schools has increased substantially
in the past few years, the number of students
graduated annually probably will not be suffi­
cient to replace the thousands of ministers who
retire or die each year, to meet the needs of
newly established congregations, and to supply
assistant pastors where needed.
Many congregations— mainly those in rural
areas— did not have a full-time ordained minis­
ter in 1960. Some had to rely on the services
of theological students or shared the services
of a pastor with another congregation. Many
large congregations were unable to fill openings
for assistant pastors. In addition, ordained
ministers were being sought to serve in foreign
missions, in religious educational activities, and
as chaplains in the Armed Forces and in hos­
pitals, penitentiaries, and other institutions.
Over the long run, the total number of min­
isters needed by Protestant churches will be­
come larger as a result of the expected increase
in population and in the number of congrega­
tions. The greatest expansion is anticipated in
the suburbs of large cities. The increasing op­
portunities for ministers in fields such as tele­

184

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

vision and radio, youth and family relations
work, the campus ministry, and religious ac­
tivities including chaplaincies in institutions
and industry, also point toward a need for ad­
ditional clergymen. Replacement of those re­
moved from the ranks by death, retirement, or
other causes will also require an ever-increasing
number of newly trained ministers.

Where To Go for More Information

Young people who wish to enter the Protes­
tant ministry should seek the counsel of a min­
ister or church guidance worker. Additional
information on both the ministry and other
church-related occupations are also available
from many denominational offices. Informa­
tion on admission requirements may be obtained
directly from each theological school.

Roman Catholic Priests
(D.O.T. 0-08.)

Nature of Work

Roman Catholic priests attend the spiritual,
moral, and educational needs of the members
of their Church. Their duties include offering
the Sacrifice of the Mass; hearing confessions;
administering the Sacraments; visiting and
comforting the sick; conducting funeral services
and consoling survivors; counseling those in
need of guidance; and assisting the poor.
Priests give religious instruction at Mass in the
form of a sermon. They have numerous other
responsibilities to assure that all laws of the
Church are fulfilled.
Priests spend long hours performing services
to the Church and the community. Their day
usually begins with morning Mass and may x
end
with an evening visit to the local hospital or
the hearing of confessions. In addition, each
day priests spend several hours in prayer and
reading their breviaries. Many of them serve
on Church committees or in civic organizations
and assist in community projects. Various
societies that carry on charitable and social
programs also depend upon priests for direc­
tion.
Although all priests have the same powers
acquired through ordination by a bishop, they
are classified in two main categories— diocesan
and religious— by reason of their way of life
and the type of work to which they are assigned.
Diocesan priests (sometimes called secular
priests) generally work as individuals in the
parishes to which they are assigned by the
bishop of their diocese. Religious priests are
members of religious orders— for example
Jesuits, Dominicans, or Franciscans— and gen­



erally work as members of a community in
specialized activities, such as teaching or mis­
sionary work, assigned to them by the superiors
of the orders to which they belong.
Both religious and secular priests hold teach­
ing and administrative posts in the Catholic
seminaries, universities and colleges, and high
schools. Priests attached to religious orders
staff a large proportion of the institutions of
higher education and many high schools,
whereas secular priests are primarily concerned
with the parochial schools attached to parish
churches and with diocesan high schools. The
members of religious orders do most of the
missionary work conducted by the Catholic
Church in this country and in the foreign field.

Where Employed

More than 53,000 priests served about 40
million Catholics in the United States in 1960.
There are priests in nearly every city and town
and in many rural communities; however, the
majority are in heavily populated metropolitan
areas, where most of the Catholic population
is located. Catholics are concentrated in the
Northeast and the Great Lakes regions, with
smaller concentrations in California, Texas,
and Louisiana. A large number of priests are
located in communities near Catholic educa­
tional and other institutions. Many are sta­
tioned throughout the world as missionaries.
Others travel constantly on missions to local
parishes throughout the country. Some priests
serve as chaplains with the Armed Forces or
in hospitals or other institutions.

185

THE CLERGY

Training and Other Qualifications

The course of study for the priesthood takes
at least 8 years after graduation from high
school. Most students take this training in the­
ological seminaries— first, in a minor seminary
(usually for 2 years), then in a major seminary
which offers 6 years of advanced training. In
1960, almost 40,000 students, known as semi­
narians, were enrolled in 525 seminaries in the
United States. High school graduates with the
desired scholastic background— an academic
course, including Latin— can complete the
minor seminary in 2 years and then advance
to the major seminary. Elementary school
graduates may enter the minor seminary where
they complete their high school work before
taking the 2 years of college level work.
Courses include Christian doctrine, Latin,
Greek, English, at least one other modern
language, rhetoric and elocution, history, geog­
raphy, bookkeeping, mathematics, natural sci­
ences, and Gregorian chant.
At the major seminary, the first 2 years are
devoted to the study of philosophy, scripture,
church history, and the natural sciences as re­
lated to religion. During the remaining 4
years, the course of study includes sacred scrip­
ture; apologetics; dogmatic, moral, and pas­
toral theology; homiletics; church history;
liturgy; and canon law. Diocesan and religious
priests attend different major seminaries,
where slight variations in the training reflect
the differences in the type of work expected of
them as priests. During the later years of his
seminary course, the candidate receives from
his bishop a succession of orders culminating
in his ordination to the priesthood.
Most postgraduate work in theology is taken
either at Catholic University of America
(Washington, D.C.) or at the ecclesiastical
universities in Rome. Many priests also do
graduate work at other universities in fields
unrelated to theology. Priests are commanded
by the law of the Catholic Church to continue
their studies, at least informally, after ordina­
tion.
Young men are never denied entry into
seminaries because of lack of funds. In semi­
naries for secular priests, the bishop may make
arrangements for loans to the students. Those



in religious seminaries are often financed by
contributions of benefactors.
Among the qualities considered most desir­
able in candidates for the Catholic priesthood
are a love of and concern for people, a deep
religious conviction, a desire to spread the
Gospel of Christ, at least average intellectual
ability, capacity to speak and write correctly
and fluently, and more than average skill in
working with people. Candidates for the priest­
hood must understand that priests are not per­
mitted to marry and are dedicated to a life of
chastity.
The first assignment of a newly ordained
secular priest is usually that of assistant pastor
or curate. Newly ordained priests of religious
orders are assigned to the specialized duties
for which they are trained.
Outlook

A growing number of priests will be needed
in the years ahead to provide for the spiritual
and educational needs of the rising number of
Catholics in the Nation. Although the number
of seminarians has increased steadily since
World War II, the number of ordained priests
has not been sufficient to fill the needs of newly
established parishes and expanding colleges
and other Catholic institutions, and to replace
priests who die. Priests usually continue at
their work longer than persons in other pro­
fessions, but the varied demands and long hours
create a need for young priests to assist the
older ones. Also, an increasing number of priests
have been serving in many diverse areas— for
example, religious radio and television work
and labor-management mediation. Continued
expansion of such activities, in addition to the
expected further growth in Catholic population,
will require a steady increase in the number of
priests, both in the next few years and over
the long run.
Where To Go for More Information

Young men interested in entering the priest­
hood should seek the guidance and counsel of
their parish priest. Additional information re­
garding different religious orders and the secu-

186

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

lar priesthood, as well as a list of the various
seminaries which prepare students for the

priesthood, may be obtained from Diocesan Di­
rectors of Vocations.

Rabbis
(D.O.T. 0-08.)

Nature of Work

Rabbis are the spiritual leaders of their
congregations and teachers and interpreters of
Jewish law and tradition. They conduct daily
services and hold special services on the Sab­
bath and on holidays. Rabbis are customarily
available at all times for counsel to members
of their congregations, other followers of Ju­
daism, and the community at large. Many of
the rabbis’ functions— preparing and delivering
sermons, performing wedding ceremonies, visit­
ing the sick, conducting funeral services, com­
forting the bereaved, helping the poor, super­
vising religious education programs, engaging
in interfaith activities, assuming community re­
sponsibilities, and counseling individuals— are
similar to those performed by clergymen of
other faiths. Rabbis may also write for re­
ligious and lay publications, and teach in the­
ological seminaries, colleges, and universities.
Rabbis serve congregations affiliated with
one of the three branches of American Judaism
— Orthodox (traditional), Conservative, or Re­
form (liberal). Regardless of their particular
point of view, all Hebrew congregations pre­
serve the substance of Jewish religious wor­
ship. The congregations differ in the extent to
which they follow the traditional form of wor­
ship— for example, in the wearing of head
coverings or in the use of Hebrew as the lan­
guage of prayer, or in the use of music. Be­
cause of these differences, the format of the
worship service and therefore the ritual that
the rabbis use may vary even among congre­
gations belonging to the same branch of Ju­
daism.
Where Employed

About 4,300 rabbis served more than 5 mil­
lion followers of the Jewish faith in this coun­
try in 1960. Most are Orthodox rabbis; the
rest are about equally divided between the



Conservative and Reform branches of Ju­
daism. Most rabbis act as the spiritual leaders
of individual congregations; some serve as
chaplains in the Armed Forces and in hospitals;
others teach either full or part time in private
educational institutions; and others are em­
ployed in social welfare agencies and in religi­
ous education work for such organizations as
the Hillel Foundation.
Although rabbis serve Jewish communities
throughout the Nation, they are concentrated
in those States which have sizable Jewish
populations. In 1959, six States (New York,
California, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Illinois,
and Massachusetts) had about four-fifths of
the estimated total Jewish population in the
United States.
Training and Other Qualifications

To become eligible for ordination as a rabbi,
a student must complete the prescribed course
of study at a Jewish theological seminary.
Entrance and training requirements depend
upon the branch of Judaism with which the
seminary is associated. The Hebrew Union
College-Jewish Institute of Religion (Reform)
and The Jewish Theological Seminary of
America (Conservative) are the only semi­
naries that train rabbis for their respective
branches of Judaism. Both schools require the
completion of a 4-year college course, as well
as prior preparation in Jewish studies, for ad­
mission to the rabbinic program leading to
ordination. Although 5 years are normally re­
quired to complete the rabbinic course at the
Reform seminary, exceptionally well-prepared
students can shorten this period of study to a
minimum of 3 years. The course at the Con­
servative seminary can be completed in 4 years
if the student has a strong background in Jew­
ish studies; otherwise, the course may take
as long as 6 years.

THE CLERGY

Several seminaries train Orthodox rabbis.
These schools have programs of various lengths,
all leading to ordination. At one of the larger
Orthodox seminaries, well-qualified students
who are college graduates may complete the
rabbinic program in 3 years; however, students
who are not college graduates may spend a
longer period at this seminary and complete
the requirements for the bachelor’s degree at
the same time they are pursuing the rabbinic
course. Some Orthodox seminaries, however,
do not require a college degree to qualify for
ordination.
In general, the curriculums of Jewish the­
ological seminaries provide students with a
comprehensive grasp of all aspects of Jewish
knowledge, including the Bible and Talmud
(Jewish civil and canonical law). Other
courses include Jewish history, theology, pas­
toral psychology, and public speaking. The Re­
form seminary places less emphasis on the
study of Talmud and offers a broad course of
study that includes such subjects as human
relations and Jewish religious education. Some
seminaries grant advanced academic degrees in
such fields as Talmudic and Biblical research.
All Jewish theological seminaries make scholar­
ships and loans available to students.
Newly ordained rabbis usually begin as lead­
ers of small congregations, as assistants to ex­
perienced rabbis, or as chaplains in the Armed
Forces. As a rule, the pulpits of large and wellestablished synagogues and temples are filled
by experienced rabbis.
The choice of a career as a rabbi should,
of course, be made on the basis of a fervent
belief in the religious teachings and practices
of Judaism and of a desire to serve the re­
ligious needs of others. In addition to having
high moral and ethical values, the prospective
rabbi should have good judgment and be in­
telligent and able to write and speak effectively.
Outlook

The number of rabbis in this country will
probably not be sufficient to meet the needs of




187
all congregations and other organizations de­
siring their services during the 1960’s. At the
beginning of the decade, many congregations—
especially those located in States where there
are relatively few persons o f the Jewish faith—
could not secure the spiritual leadership of a
full-time ordained rabbi and had to rely on the
services of senior theological students and lay
readers. Rabbis were also being sought to lead
the many new congregations which had been
organized in and around New York, Chicago,
Los Angeles, Philadelphia, and Boston— where
the majority of the Jewish population is con­
centrated.
The striking increases since World War II
in Jewish religious affiliation and in the num­
ber of synagogues and temples seem likely to
continue. Furthermore, an increasing demand
for rabbis to work with social welfare and
other organizations connected with the Jewish
faith is anticipated.
Although the number of students graduating
annually from the Jewish theological semi­
naries is expected to increase also, there will
probably not be enough new graduates to re­
place the rabbis who retire or die, and to fill
the openings which will be created by the for­
mation of new congregations. Immigration,
once an important source of supply of rabbis,
is no longer significant. In fact, graduates of
American seminaries are now in demand for
Jewish congregations in other countries.

Where To Go for More Information

Young people who are interested in entering
the rabbinate should seek the guidance of a
rabbi. Additional information on how to pre­
pare for service in the rabbinate of a particular
branch of Judaism, including school admission
requirements, may be obtained from each the­
ological school.

BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION AND RELATED
PROFESSIONS
People employed in the field of business ad­
ministration are a large group and an extremely
important one. The success or failure of a
business enterprise probably depends more on
how well its managers do their job than it does
on anything else. Business managers are also
one of the fastest growing groups in our
country. During the 5 years between 1955 and
1960, the number of salaried management work­
ers increased four times as fast as the number
of workers in all nonagricultural occupations
combined.
Management workers do the same kinds of
things that the owner of a small business does
for himself in order to keep his business run­
ning, but they do them on a much bigger scale.
The man who runs a small television repair
service, for example, may attempt to attract
new customers through advertisements which
he writes and places in the classified pages of
local papers. The workers in charge of ad­
vertising household appliances produced by a
large manufacturing company may use news­
paper advertisements also, but their firm’s
advertisements are likely to be bigger and more
elaborate and published in newspapers through­
out the country. Their company’s products will
probably be advertised also through radio, tele­
vision, and other channels. Similarly, the small
businessman has, at most, only a few employees
to direct, whereas the personnel workers in a
large corporation must consider the welfare and
productiveness of thousands of employees.
In 1960, there were around 3 million people
in salaried management positions with private
firms. In addition, many more thousands were
employed as supervisors, and as engineers and
other professional specialists whose work in­
volved managerial responsibilities.
At the top of the management ladder are
the corporation presidents, vice presidents, and
other company officials. These are the people
188




who set company goals, coordinate company
activities, and make the major decisions which
establish companywide policies. In small com­
panies, they may also carry through with the
plans which they develop, taking direct charge
of the work done in connection with store dis­
plays, financial reports, employee recreational
activities, or other projects. In large corpora­
tions, however, the plans and policies developed
by officials at the top are more likely to be
carried out with the assistance of management
workers in subordinate positions. Usually, there
is at least one level of subordinate management
position— the middle-level managers who direct
the work of sales, accounting, personnel, engi­
neering, and other departments. (See chart 18
illustrating how management functions might
be organized within a large company.) Com­
panies with branch plants and chain stores,
have middle-level managers in charge of these
operations as well. Many companies also rec­
ognize a second subordinate level of manage­
ment— supervisory positions which involve
management responsibilities. Middle-level man­
agers, as well as supervisors in positions of
this kind, are responsible for keeping the
units under their direction operating at peak
efficiency and in accordance with the broad
policies established for the company as a whole.
At the bottom of the management ladder are
the beginners who are gaining experience
which will later qualify them for management
positions. Many are college graduates who have
been recruited by their companies because
their ability, personality traits, and training
make them promising candidates for managerial
work. Such trainees are placed usually in jobs
where they have particularly good opportuni­
ties to become acquainted with the firm’s busi­
ness activities and policies. Some work as
assistants to people in management positions,
while others are given job assignments which

189

BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION AND RELATED PROFESSIONS
CHART 18

SAMPLE ORGANIZATION CHART OF A LARGE
MANUFACTURING COMPANY.....
System s and p ro ce d u re s
A u d itin g
Budget
Taxes
G e n e r a l acco u n tin g
W ork s acco u n tin g
P ayro ll

Co n tro ller
V I C E P R E S ID E N T FIN A N C E
Treasurer

Personnel
V IC E PRESID EN T-

Manager

PERSON N EL AND
IN D U STR IAL

In d u stria l

R ELA T IO N S

R elation s
M anager

Production
M anager

&

Em p loyee se le ctio n ,
placement, and training
W a g e and sa la ry
ad m in istra tio n
La b o r relatio n s
E m p lo y e e b enefits

__ f P r o d u c t i o n c o n t r o l
J Quality Control
M ethods
S tan d ard s
D esig n
Plant lay o u t

Plant
En g in ee r
V IC E

P R E S ID E N T -

PRO DUCTIO N
P u rc h a sin g
M anager

BOARD OF
DIRECTORS




T r a f f ic
Manager

PRESIDENT —

V I C E P R E S ID E N T .
RESEARCH AND
DEVELOPMENT

Raw m a te ria ls
M a chin ery
Sto rek eep in g
Surp lus d is p o s a l
Routing
Rates
Tr ansportation
Claim s

Research
M anager

Product
D evelopm ent
Manager

S ales
M anager

V IC E PRESIDEN T­
MARKETING
AND SALES

—

M arket
Research
M anager

A dvertising
M anager

R e s e a r c h a n d de sig n
Ex p erim en ta l o p era tion s

[R e g io n a l s a l e s
-{District sa le s
I
Plant sa les
[C o nsu m er su rvey s
- < S a l e s forecasting
[N ew p l a n t loc ation
Prod uct adv ertis ing
S p a c e a n d time
buying (n ew sp a p ers,
m a g a z i n e s , ra dio , TV )

V I C E P R E S ID E N T .
P UBL IC
R E L A T IO N S

Public information
Sto ckh older relations
D irector of
_ J C o m m u n i t y rela tio ns
P u b lic R e la t io n s
S p e e c h ,e d ito r ia l
an d publicat ions
. se rv ice s

V I C E PRES ID EN TLE G A L AFFAIRS

Chief Counsel

Corporate legal affairs
Employee legal problems
Patents
Copy rights

190

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

are changed periodically so that they may have
an opportunity to learn all phases of their em­
ployer’s business operations. A limited number
go through formal executive trainee programs.
The number of companies which undertake
formal recruitment and training programs, and
the number of people who get their start as
management trainees are relatively small. Most
people in the field of business administration
enter their jobs only after several years of
work experience, often with the same employer
but in work unrelated to management. This
kind of experience gives the manager-to-be an
opportunity to acquire the knowledge of business
practices and problems he will need. It also
enables his employer to observe whether he
possesses the maturity, judgment, and leader­
ship qualities which are essential if he is to
be effective in planning and directing company
activities. Today, more and more employers
are seeking to develop the qualities which make
for successful management through companysponsored training programs which are open
to carefully selected groups of employees.
Private industry’s increasing dependence on
trained management specialists plus the econo­
mic growth which is anticipated during the
next decade point towards the likelihood that
employment in this field of work will expand
very considerably during the 1960’s. Openings
for newcomers will arise also because of the
need to fill positions which become vacant as
management workers retire or leave their jobs

for other reasons. Altogether, the number of
management positions in private industry which
will have to be filled can be expected to reach
150,000 or more per year in the 1960-70 decade.
Most of them will be filled by people who have
already acquired a substantial amount of ex­
perience in other phases of their employer’s
operations or by outsiders with work experi­
ence related to the positions to be filled. Op­
portunities for many young people to start on
the road to a career in business management
will be provided, however, as the entry jobs
farther down on the ladder are vacated by
people who move up to better positions.
This chapter gives information about several
of the principal occupations related to the
management of private business enterprises. In
the case of occupations in which there are
substantial numbers of government employees,
information about government service is in­
cluded. Other occupations in the field of busi­
ness management, which are not described here
but are discussed elsewhere in this Handbook,
include Hotel Manager, Restaurant Manager,
and Bank Officer. Engineers, Chemists, and
other scientists, who often carry management
responsibilities, are also discussed elsewhere in
this Handbook. Still other fields of business
management are referred to in the statements
on Sales Occupations, Radio and Television
Broadcasting Occupations, and various manu­
facturing industries. (See index for page
numbers.)

Accountants
(D.O.T. 0-01.)

Nature of Work

Accounting is the second largest field of
professional employment for men. In 1960, more
than 400,000 accountants and auditors were
engaged in professional accounting work, in­
cluding about 70,000 certified public account­
ants (CPA’s) who had passed rigorous exami­
nations and met educational and experience
requirements prescribed by law in their State.
Fewer than 10 percent of all accountants, and
2 percent of the CPA’s, were women.




Accountants compile and analyze business
records and prepare financial reports, such as
profit and loss statements, balance sheets, cost
studies, and tax reports. The major fields of
employment are public, private, and government
accounting. Public accountants are independ­
ent practitioners who work on a fee basis for
any business enterprises and individuals wish­
ing to use their services. Private accountants,
often referred to as industrial or management
accountants, handle the financial records of
particular business firms for which they work

BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION AND RELATED PROFESSIONS

on a salary basis. Government accountants work
on the financial records of government agencies
or audit the records of private business organi­
zations and individuals whose dealings are sub­
ject to government regulation.
Accountants in any field of employment may
specialize in such areas as auditing, tax work,
cost accounting, budgeting and control, or sys­
tems and procedures. Public accountants are
likely to specialize in auditing— that is, in re­
viewing financial records and reports and giv­
ing opinions as to their reliability. They may
also advise clients on tax matters and other
accounting problems. Most private accountants
do cost or other management accounting. Some­
times they specialize in tax work or in internal
auditing— that is, examining and appraising
their companies’ financial systems and pro­
cedures. Many accountants in the Federal
Government are employed as Internal Revenue
agents, investigators, and bank examiners, as
well as in regular accounting positions.
Where Employed

More than half of all accountants do private
accounting work for the business and industrial
firms where they are employed. Perhaps a third
are engaged in public accounting as proprie­
tors, partners, or employees of independent ac­
counting firms. About 10 percent work' for
Federal, State, and local government agencies.
Accountants are employed wherever business,
industrial, or governmental organizations are
located. The majority, however, work in large
metropolitan centers where there is a partic­
ularly heavy concentration of public account­
ing firms and central offices of large business
organizations.
Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement

Training in accounting can be obtained in
many kinds of institutions, including univer­
sities, junior colleges, accounting and private
business schools, and correspondence schools.
Graduates of all these institutions are included
in the ranks of successful accountants. How­
ever, a bachelor’s degree with a major in ac­
counting or a closely related field is always an




191

asset; for the better positions, especially in
public accounting, it may be required. Candi­
dates with a master’s degree in accounting, as
well as college training in other business and
liberal arts subjects, are preferred by some
large public accounting firms. The Federal
Government requires; for beginning accounting
positions, 4 years of college training (including
24 semester hours in accounting) or an equiva­
lent combination of education and experience.
Some previous work experience can be of great
value also in qualifying for private employ­
ment. A number of colleges offer students an
opportunity to get such experience through in­
ternship programs which are conducted in co­
operation with public accounting or business
firms.
All States require that anyone practicing in
the State as a “ certified public accountant”
hold a certificate issued by the State board of
accountancy. Over half the States also re­
strict the title “ public accountant” to those
who are licensed or registered. Requirements
for licensing and registration vary consider­
ably from one State to another, and informa­
tion on these requirements should be obtained
directly from the board of accountancy in the
State where the student plans to practice. Be­
fore the CPA certificate is issued, at least 2
years of public accounting experience, or its
equivalent, is required in nearly all States. The
States of New York, New Jersey, Florida, and
Connecticut also require CPA candidates to be
college graduates. Similar requirements are
pending in several other States, but as yet the
majority have no specific educational require­
ments for certification. All States use the CPA
examination provided by the American Insti­
tute of Certified Public Accountants. In recent
years, 9 out of 10 successful CPA candidates
have been college graduates.
Inexperienced accountants usually begin with
fairly routine work. Junior public accountants
may be assigned to counting cash, verifying
additions, or performing other detailed work.
They usually advance to semi-senior positions
in 2 or 3 years and to senior positions within
another 2 or 3 years. Those successful in dealing
with top executives in industry may eventually
become supervisors, managers, or partners in

192
the larger firms. Many become independent
practitioners. Beginners in private accounting
may start as ledger or cost clerks, timekeepers,
junior internal auditors, or, occasionally, as
trainees for technical and executive positions.
They may rise to chief plant accountant, chief
cost accountant, senior internal auditor, or man­
ager of internal auditing, depending on their
specialty, and some become controllers, treas­
urers, and even corporation presidents. In the
Federal Government, beginners are hired as
trainees and are usually promoted in a year or
so. Although advancement may be rapid for able
accountants, particularly in public accounting,
those with inadequate academic preparation are
likely to be assigned to routine jobs and find
themselves handicapped in obtaining promotion.
Accountants who want to get to the top in
their profession usually find it necessary to
continue their study of accountancy and related
problems in their spare time— even though they
may have already obtained college degrees or
CPA certificates. Even experienced accountants
may spend many spare hours in study and re­
search, in order to keep abreast of legal and
business developments which affect their work.
Thousands of practicing accountants have en­
rolled in formal courses offered by universities
and professional associations, in order to spe­
cialize in particular areas of accounting work or
to broaden their professional skills.
Employment Outlook

Employment opportunities for accountants
are expected to be very good through the mid1960’s. As many as 10,000 accountants may be
needed annually during this period to replace
those who retire, die, or transfer to other oc­
cupations. Provided there is no major drop in
the general level of business activity, nearly as
many more may be needed each year to fill new
positions. Demand for college-trained account­
ants will rise faster than demand for people
without this broad background of training, be­
cause of the increasing complexity of account­
ing.
If the proportion of college graduates major­
ing in accounting remains the same as in recent
years, the number receiving degrees in this




OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

field will rise gradually— from about 11,000 in
1959 to more than 20,000 by 1970. These grad­
uates are likely to have very good employment
opportunities, at least through the middle of the
decade, and graduates of private business and
accounting schools should also have good job
prospects during this period. The greatest num­
ber of jobs will continue to be in major in­
dustrial centers, but there will be many open­
ings in small industrial communities.
Over the long run, accounting employment
is expected to expand rapidly because of several
factors: The greater use of accounting informa­
tion in business management; complex and
changing tax systems; the growth in size and
number of business corporations which are re­
quired to provide financial reports to stock­
holders; and the increasing use of accounting
services by small business organizations. Highly
trained accountants will be in even greater de­
mand as consultants to business managers in
projects such as planning new recordkeeping
systems and procedures for use with electronic
data-processing equipment.
Increasing numbers of women will be engaged
in professional accounting, though most public
accounting firms will probably remain reluctant
to employ them— because of tradition and pre­
ferences expressed by individual clients, and
because some types of travel and factory as­
signments are considered better suited to men
than to women. However, those women who
rank high among college graduates with ac­
counting majors and who secure the CPA cer­
tificate will, in time, undoubtedly break down
these barriers.
Earnings and Working Conditions

Starting salaries for new college graduates
averaged about $5,300 a year early in 1960,
according to a private survey of 100 large busi­
ness organizations actively recruiting college
seniors for accounting positions. Smaller firms,
especially the small CPA firms, generally pay
somewhat lower rates. Salaries of senior ac­
countants with about 5 years’ experience are
generally about 50 percent higher than starting
salaries; salaries of those with 10 years’ ex­
perience are likely to be about twice as high

BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION AND RELATED PROFESSIONS

as the beginning rate. Many accountants in
both public and private work earn much more.
In the Federal Civil Service, the entrance
salary for junior accountants and auditors was
$4,345 in 1960. Some candidates with superior
academic records could qualify for a starting
salary of $5,355. Many experienced account­
ants in the Federal Government made between
$8,000 and $9,000 a year, and some, with ad­
ministrative responsibilities, earned $12,000 or
more a year in 1960.
Public accountants are likely to be much
busier in some seasons of the year than others.
They may have to work long hours and under
considerable pressure during the busy period
from late November to April, and at other
times as well. They do most of their work in
their clients’ offices, and sometimes do a con­
siderable amount of traveling in order to serve
distant clients. Private and governmental ac­
counting sometimes involves a good deal of
traveling also. However, most private and
governmental accountants work in the same
offices day after day. Usually they work be­
tween 35 and 40 hours a week, and under the

193

same general conditions as their fellow office
workers.
Where To Go for More Information

Information, particularly on CPA’s and on
the aptitude and achievement tests now given
in many high schools and colleges and by many
public accounting firms, may be obtained from :
American Institute of Certified Public Accountants,
270 Madison Ave., New York 16, N .Y.

Further information on specialized fields of
accounting may be obtained from :
National Association of Accountants,
505 Park Ave., New York 22, N.Y.
Controllers Institute of America,
2 Park Ave., New York 16, N.Y.
The Institute of Internal Auditors,
120 Wall St., New York 5, N .Y.

A leaflet describing accounting as a career
may be obtained free from :
The American Accounting Association, School of
Commerce,
University of Wisconsin, Madison 6, Wis.

Advertising Workers
(D.O.T. 0-81 and 0-06.94)

Nature of Work

Through advertisements published in news­
papers and magazines, broadcast on the radio
or television, displayed on billboards, sent
through the mail, or even written in smoke in
the sky, businessmen can reach potential cus­
tomers and persuade them to buy their products.
The individuals who plan and prepare these
advertisements and get them before the public
are a highly specialized group of workers who
help to find buyers for the tremendous amounts
of goods and services produced by American
industry.
Advertising workers are employed by many
different kinds of organizations. Some work
for big “ advertisers”— the manufacturing com­
panies, stores, and other organizations which
want to sell their products and services. An
even larger number are employed by “ adver­
tising agencies” — firms which prepare and



handle advertising for others on a commission
or service fee basis. Still other advertising
workers are on the staffs of the various “ adver­
tising media” — newspapers, magazines, radio
and television stations, outdoor advertising
firms, direct mail organizations, and other firms
which provide a means of communicating with
potential customers. Still others work for
printers, engravers, art studios, product and
package designers, and other firms which pro­
vide services to advertisers and advertising
agencies.
About 125,000 men and women were employed
in 1960 in professional positions or other jobs
requiring considerable knowledge of advertis­
ing, according to an estimate by the Advertising
Federation of America. This total includes
executives responsible for planning and overall
supervision; copywriters who write the text;
artists who prepare the illustrations; layout

194

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

Account executive and copywriter discussing
advertising copy and art with a client.

specialists who put copy and illustrations into
the most attractive arrangement possible; ad­
ministrative and technical workers who see to
the satisfactory reproduction of the “ ads” ; and
salesmen who sell advertising space in publica­
tions or time on radio or television programs.
In a very small advertising organization, one
person may do all these things. In contrast,
large organizations not only employ specialists
for research, copywriting, and layout work, but
sometimes have staff members who specialize
in writing copy for particular kinds of prod­
ucts— for example, heavy industrial equip­
ment, drugs, or foods— or for publication
through such media as radio, popular magazines,
or direct mail.
The specialized occupations most commonly
found in advertising work are described below.
Only the largest firms employ workers in each
of those specialties, however; in smaller organi­
zations, workers’ jobs may combine several of
the specialties described.
Advertising managers head the advertising
departments of manufacturing companies and
other advertisers, and of newspapers and other
media. In many large department stores and
some large manufacturing concerns, the ad­
vertising manager is responsible not only for
the planning but also for the preparation of
the firm’s advertising. In such cases, he super­
vises copywriters, artists, and many other kinds



of workers. Most businesses, however, use the
services of advertising agencies to handle all
or part of their advertising programs; under
these circumstances, the company’s advertising
manager works mostly on policy questions—
such as what general type of advertising the
company should use, how large the advertising
budget should be, and which agency should be
employed to handle the work— and he works
with the agency selected in planning and carry­
ing through the program. He may be assisted
by staff members who help him review copy and
art prepared by the agency and who keep in
contact with the newspapers and other firms
carrying the advertising. He may also super­
vise the preparation of sales brochures, display
cards, and other promotional materials.
The advertising manager of a newspaper, a
radio station, or other advertising medium has
duties similar to those of the sales manager
in other kinds of businesses; he is chiefly con­
cerned with selling the advertising time or
space.
Account executives are employed in adver­
tising agencies to handle relations between the
agency and its clients. In starting to work with
a new client, an account executive studies the
client’s sales and advertising problems and dis­
cusses them with him. Then he develops an
advertising program to meet the client’s needs
and wishes and gets the client’s approval of
the plans and of the details of proposed ad­
vertisements. Account executives must be able
to sell ideas and maintain good relations with
clients. They must know how to write copy
and also how to use artwork, even though they
usually call on copywriters and artists to carry
out their ideas and suggestions.
Some advertising agencies have account su­
pervisors who oversee the work of the account
executives. In others, account executives are
directly responsible to agency heads.
Advertising copywriters create the headlines,
slogans, and text that attract buyers. They
collect information about the products to be
advertised and the people who might use them.
They use their knowledge of psychology and
writing techniques to prepare copy especially
suited for readers or for listeners, depending on
the particular advertising medium to be used.

BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION AND RELATED PROFESSIONS

They may write for television and radio audi­
ences or for readers of newspapers, magazines,
car cards, signs, and posters. Some prepare
letters, booklets, and other printed materials
which are sent out by direct mail advertis­
ers to promote sales to homeowners and other
prospective customers. Copywriters may spe­
cialize in copy that appeals to housewives or
businessmen, or to scientists or engineers— or
even in copy which deals with specific products
such as lipsticks or washing machines. In ad­
vertising agencies, copywriters work closely
with account executives, though they may also
be under the supervision of a copy chief.
Media directors (or space buyers and time
buyers) are employed by advertisers or in ad­
vertising agencies to determine where and when
advertising should be carried in order to reach
the largest group of prospective buyers at the
lowest cost. They must have a vast amount of
information about the cost of advertising in all
kinds of media and the relative size and type
of the reading or listening audience reached in
various parts of the country by specific publi­
cations, broadcasting stations, and other media.
The media director dealing with television and
radio must also know the coverage of the various
broadcasting stations, the advantages and dis­
advantages of different periods in the broad­
casting day, and different types of programs,
and related factors. Sometimes he has overall
responsibility for the production of the broad­
cast that is to be sponsored by an advertiser,
and for the “ commercials.” More often, how­
ever, these responsibilities are assumed by TV
and radio specialists.
Research directors and their assistants as­
semble and analyze the information needed for
effective advertising programs. They study the
possible uses of the product to be advertised
and its advantages and disadvantages over
competing products as well as its potential
purchasers and the best ways of reaching them.
Such workers may make special surveys of the
buying habits and motives of customers or may
try out sample advertisements in order to find
the most convincing selling theme or most effi­
cient media for carrying the advertising mes­
sage. The research director is an important
executive in advertising organizations. More



195

information on tino occupation is contained in
the statement on Marketing Research Work­
ers. (See index for page number.)
Production managers and their assistants ar­
range to have the final copy and art work con­
verted into printed form. They deal with the
printers, engravers, and other outside firms in­
volved in the reproduction of advertisements.
The production manager must have a thorough
knowledge of various printing processes and of
typography, photography, paper, inks, and re­
lated technical materials and processes. He
must also see to it that each of the many dif­
ferent steps irivolved in producing an advertise­
ment is completed within a specified time
schedule.
Artists and layout men are part of a key
creative group in advertising work. They work
closely with advertising managers, copywriters,
and other advertising personnel in planning
eyecatching advertisements. Their work is de­
scribed in more detail in the statement on
Commercial Artists in this Handbook and is
touched upon also in the statement on Photog­
raphers. (See index for page numbers.)
Where Employed

Perhaps a third of all advertising workers
are employed in advertising agencies and more
than half of these agency workers are employed
in the New York City and Chicago metropoli­
tan areas. However, there are many independ­
ent advertising agencies in other cities as well,
and many of the leading agencies operate
branch offices outside the major centers.
Large numbers of advertising workers em­
ployed by other types of employers— especially
those employed by advertising service and
media firms— are also located in the New York
and Chicago metropolitan areas. However,
many advertising workers are found in smaller
cities throughout the country.
Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement

Most employers, in hiring advertising train­
ees, prefer college graduates with liberal arts
training or majors in journalism or business
administration. High grades are often con­

196
sidered more important than the specific type
of course taken. Extracurricular college ac­
tivities— particularly writing or layout work or
selling experience in connection with school
publications— are given weight. However, there
is no such thing as a typical educational back­
ground for success in advertising. Some suc­
cessful advertising people have had no college
training; others started in such varied occupa­
tions as engineer, teacher, chemist, artist, or
salesman.
For most advertising jobs, the essential re­
quirement is a flair for language, both spoken
and written. Since every assignment requires
individual handling, a liking for problem-solv­
ing is also very important. Advertising per­
sonnel should have an unceasing interest in
people and things, to help them sell their ideas
to their superiors, to advertisers, and to the
public. They must be able to accept criticism
and to gain important points with tact.
Young people planning to enter the adver­
tising field should get experience in copywrit­
ing or other work for their school publications
and, if possible, through summer jobs in selling
or in interviewing or other work connected
with marketing research services. Previous ex­
perience of this kind is helpful in getting a
good starting job.
Some large advertising organizations recruit
outstanding college graduates and train them
through programs which cover all aspects of
advertising work. Most beginners, however,
have to locate their own jobs by applying di­
rectly to possible employers. Young men some­
times begin as mail clerks, or as messengers
and runners who pick up and deliver messages
and proofs for departments and agency clients.
Some start as assistants in research or produc­
tion work or as space or time salesmen. A few
begin as junior copywriters. Women commonly
begin as stenographers and secretaries, or, if
they have the required educational background,
as research assistants.
Employees with initiative and drive and
demonstrated talent progress from beginning
jobs to creative, research, or managerial work
in advertising. To qualify for management
positions, they should have a well-rounded
background covering all phases of the adver­



OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

tising business including some experience with
advertising agencies, media, and advertisers.
This broad experience will show them the par­
ticular areas of work in which they excel and
should perhaps specialize.
Exceptionally able copywriters and account
executives may look forward to rapid promo­
tion, because their work brings them directly
into contact with advertisers— and these con­
tacts can often mean the success or failure of
an advertising organization. Many of these
workers prefer to remain in their own special­
ties, however, and for them promotion can be
to more responsible work at increased pay.
Other topflight copywriters and account execu­
tives have set up their own agencies.
For women, one of the best avenues of en­
trance to advertising work is through adver­
tising departments in retail stores. A job as
clerk or runner in such a department provides
the new employee with a chance to know the
store's buyers and advertising personnel, and
its merchandise and style of advertising. The
worker may then get a chance to try her hand
at copywriting and eventually to become a
copywriter. Further promotion may be to copy
chief and then to advertising manager or to
another managerial position in the store. Ex­
perienced people frequently move from store to
agency jobs, where the work is more varied
and the opportunities for promotion are greater.
Employment Outlook

Young people who are really well qualified
by experience and aptitude for advertising
work will find good employment opportunities
in the field during the 1960 decade. Competi­
tion for advertising positions will probably be
keen, however, and those who are only mod­
erately well qualified for the work may find the
advertising field a hard one to enter and an even
harder one in which to advance.
The volume of advertising is expected to in­
crease steadily during the 1960’s because of
the growth of industry, the development of
new products and services, and the increase in
competition among producers of industrial
and consumer goods. Moreover, the trend to­
ward self-service in retail stores, and the in­

BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION AND RELATED PROFESSIONS

creasing use of automatic vending machines
are leading more and more manufacturers to
advertise their products on a nationwide scale.
Thousands of new workers will be needed
each year to fill the additional advertising jobs
resulting from these changes. The sharpest in­
crease in employment and the greatest number
of openings are likely to occur in advertising
agencies, since the present trend is for manu­
facturers and other advertisers to turn over
more and more of their advertising work to
agencies. The increase in employment of adver­
tising workers in firms outside the agency field
will probably be more moderate. As in the
past, these openings in advertising will occur in
many cities and towns throughout the country,
but are likely to be most numerous in New
York City. Even greater than the number of
new job openings during the 1960 decade will be
the number of openings resulting from the need
to replace advertising workers whose jobs will
become vacant as they transfer to other types
of work, or who retire or leave for other rea­
sons.
Earnings and Working Conditions

Starting salaries for beginners in New York
City advertising firms commonly ranged from
$60 to $70 a week in 1960, according to limited
information available. These salaries are be­
lieved typical of those paid in most large metro­
politan centers. However, higher salaries were
frequently paid in very large firms recruiting
outstanding college graduates, and lower sal­
aries in stores and small advertising agencies.
Salaries of workers above the trainee level
were also likely to be highest in the very large
firms. In advertising agencies doing a busi­
ness in excess of half a million dollars annually,
salaries of junior copywriters in 1959 ranged
from $3,200 to $14,000 a year and more, ac­
cording to a survey made for the trade journal,
Printer's Ink. In these same firms, the range
for senior copywriters was from $4,500 to
$16,000 and over; and the range for account
executives was from $4,700 to $22,000 and over.
Salaries reported for copy chiefs and account
supervisors were usually, but not always, sub­



197

stantially higher. The wide spread in salaries
reflects the great difference in experience, func­
tion, talent, and degree of responsibility among
workers with the same job title.
Every important advertisement represents
the cooperative efforts of many different people
— sales and advertising managers, marketing
research specialists, product designers and
technicians, printers, media representatives,
and other specialists within the advertising
organization itself. The advertising worker
must be able to work well with all these spe­
cialists, no matter how different their point
of view. Also, failure in getting along with a
client or in selling a company’s product can
mean the loss of an important client and,
sometimes, staff reductions with little advance
notice.
Advertising workers frequently work under
great pressure. Working hours are highly ir­
regular, because publication deadlines must be
met and last minute changes are not uncom­
mon. People in creative jobs often work eve­
nings and weekends to finish important assign­
ments.
At the same time, advertising offers a satis­
fying and financially rewarding career to peo­
ple who enjoy variety, excitement, and a con­
stant challenge to their creative ability and
who accept the attendant risks. The copywriter
and the artist have the satisfaction of seeing
their work in print or hearing it over the ra­
dio, even though they remain unknown to the
public at large. The increased sales which
result from an effective advertising job also
bring satisfaction to those who have partici­
pated in the job. In spite of the hazards and
the hard work, advertising “ gets into the blood”
of many people who have chosen a career in
this field.
Where To Go for More Information
Advertising Federation of America,
655 Madison Ave., New York 21, N .Y.
American Association of Advertising Agencies,
420 Lexington Ave., New York 17, N .Y.
Association of National Advertisers,
155 East 44th St., New York 17, N .Y.

198

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

Industrial Traffic Managers
(D.O.T. 0-97.66)

Nature of Work

Traffic managers and their assistants ar­
range for transportation of raw materials,
equipment, and finished products to and from
industrial and business firms. It is their job to
see that products bought and sold by their
employers are shipped in a way that will in­
sure prompt and safe delivery and at the same
time keep costs as low as possible. After taking
into consideration the kind and amount of
goods to be shipped, the time when delivery is
needed, and other factors, they choose the type
of transportation— water, highway, rail, air,
or pipeline— the route, and finally the particu­
lar carrier, or transportation company, which
would be best to use for each shipment. (Traf­
fic managers employed by railroads, airlines,
trucking firms, and other transportation com­
panies, who are chiefly concerned with attract­
ing business to their firms, are not covered by
this statement.)
The duties of industrial traffic managers and
their assistants range from routine tasks, like
checking freight bills, to matters involving
major planning and policymaking, such as de­
ciding whether the company should buy and
operate its own fleet of trucks. Other major
duties include ascertaining the freight classi-

fications and rates which apply to goods
shipped, routing and tracing shipments, ar­
ranging with carriers for transportation serv­
ices, preparing bills of lading and other ship­
ping documents, and handling claims for lost
or damaged goods. In addition, traffic man­
agers are responsible for maintaining records
not only of shipments but also of freight rates,
commodity classifications, and applicable gov­
ernment regulations.
Some traffic managers are responsible for
the packaging of shipments of goods and for
their companies’ warehouse facilities and
transportation equipment. In a few companies
— usually very large ones— a traffic manager
may also be responsible for research activities
relating to the shipping or storage of goods—
for example, he may design shipping containers.
In small companies, or in firms without sep­
arate traffic departments, arrangements for
transporting incoming goods may be made by
the purchasing department— those for outgoing
shipments, by personnel in the sales depart­
ment. Employees who handle transportation
arrangements in such firms must have a broad
knowledge of the transportation field, but they
do not usually have the title “ traffic manager.”
Since many aspects of transportation are sub­
ject to Federal, State, and local government
regulations, traffic managers and their assist­
ants must know about these and any other
legal matters which apply to their companies’
shipping operations. Some traffic managers are
qualified to represent their companies before
ratemaking and regulatory bodies— including
the Interstate Commerce Commission, State
Commissions, and local traffic bureaus— in or­
der to request or oppose changes in rates, com­
modity classifications, or types of service pro­
vided by carriers.
Where Employed

Traffic manager inspecting newly purchased trucks.




Altogether, probably fewer than 15,000 per­
sons held jobs as industrial traffic managers in
1960. The majority were employed by manu­
facturing firms, although some worked for

BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION AND RELATED PROFESSIONS

stores and other types of establishments. A
few traffic managers are in business for them­
selves, acting as consultants on transportation
problems for various clients. Most traffic man­
agers are men.
Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement

Although it is still possible for persons with
a high school education to qualify for traffic
manager positions on the basis of previous ex­
perience, a college education is becoming in­
creasingly important for those who want to
make a career in this field. For some kinds of
work, college training may be required. For
example, in order to argue cases before the
U.S. Government’s Interstate Commerce Com­
mission, a traffic manager must meet certain
“ qualification standards” which generally in­
clude at least 2 years of college training. In
selecting college graduates for trainee positions,
some employers prefer to hire graduates of
schools of business administration who have
majored in transportation; others prefer grad­
uates with degrees in liberal arts subjects who
have had courses in transportation, manage­
ment, economics, statistics, marketing, or com­
mercial law.
The first jobs of new traffic department em­
ployees are often in shipping rooms, where they
gain experience in routing shipments and pre­
paring bills of lading and other shipping forms,
or in general traffic offices, where they may do
clerical work such as filing schedules of freight
rates and calculating freight charges. After
gaining experience in various routine tasks,
employees may be advanced to more technical
work such as analyzing rates and transporta­
tion statistics. After further experience, a
competent worker may advance to a super­
visory position, such as supervisor of rates and
routes. For the most competent, promotion to
assistant manager, and eventually to manager,
is possible.
Workers in traffic departments may prepare
themselves for advancement by participating in
training programs offered by the companies
where they work, by taking courses in colleges,
universities, and vocational schools, or by at­
tending seminars sponsored by various private



199

organizations. A mark of professional status
and recognition in traffic management work is
membership in the American Society of Traffic
and Transportation, Inc., which can be acquired
by successfully completing the Society’s exami­
nations and meeting certain experience require­
ments.
Employment Outlook

A steady increase in employment in this
small occupation can be expected during the
1960’s. Some large companies will probably
follow the example already set by many cor­
porations and reorganize their shipping and
receiving activities into separate traffic depart­
ments with traffic managers in charge. In other
companies, the new transportation jobs will
probably be located in purchasing or sales de­
partments and thus have different job titles.
Among the factors contributing to the fa­
vorable outlook for traffic managers and their
assistants are the growing emphasis in many
industries on efficient management of transpor­
tation activities and the trend toward procur­
ing raw materials and finished products from
more and more remote places and distributing
them to increasingly wider markets. Since
transportation costs are a major factor in the
price of many items, companies are becoming
increasingly concerned with economies in ship­
ping. Undoubtedly, there will be strong demand
for specialists who know how to classify prod­
ucts so as to obtain the lowest possible freight
rates, choose the carriers which are best able to
handle each shipment, and otherwise protect
their companies from excessive shipping ex­
penses.
Although college training will probably be
emphasized increasingly for entry jobs, expe­
rience and demonstrated ability in the fields
just indicated will remain the most important
factors in qualifying for promotion, especially
to high-level traffic management positions.
Earnings and Working Conditions

Young men with college degrees who started
as business trainees in the traffic departments
of large industrial firms often received annual

200

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

salaries of about $5,000 in 1960, according to
the limited data available. Many beginners
with less schooling received lower salaries.
Earnings of experienced traffic managers
are related generally to their companies’ sales
volume and transportation costs. The average
(median) salary of traffic managers in com­
panies with transportation costs totaling less
than $500,000 annually was about $8,000 in
1959, according to a private survey. In com­
panies where transportation costs ranged be­
tween $4 million and $10 million, the average
was approximately $14,000. In firms where
these costs are still higher, some traffic execu­
tives earned considerably more than $20,000.
Traffic department employees usually work
the standard workweek of their companies—
generally from 35 to 40 hours. Those in par­
ticularly responsible jobs may have to spend

some time outside regular working hours pre­
paring reports, attending meetings, and travel­
ing to hearings before State and Federal regu­
latory agencies.
Where To Go for More Information

Young people interested in careers in indus­
trial traffic management may consult with
members of local traffic and transportation as­
sociations or they may write t o :
The Associated Traffic Clubs of America,
815 Washington Bldg., Washington 5, D.C.

For information on the requirements for
certification by the American Society of Traffic
and Transportation, Inc., write to:
American Society of Traffic and Transportation,
Inc.,
22 West Madison St., Chicago 2, 111.

Marketing Research Workers
(D.O.T. 0-36.11)

Nature of Work

Many management decisions about the goods
companies produce, the sales campaigns they
undertake, and a host of other problems con­
nected with the marketing of products are
based on the reports and recommendations of
marketing research workers. Marketing re­
search can help company officials get a better
picture of what kinds of company products
their customers want and where new customers
can be found, thus pointing the way to bigger
sales and more profitable operations.
Marketing research workers assemble the
information needed by businessmen to reach
decisions about such'widely differing problems
as selecting a new brand name, package, or
design for a product; choosing a new plant
location; forecasting the volume of future sales;
deciding what prices to charge; making changes
in the salary scales and the commissions paid to
salesmen; deciding on the best means of dis­
tributing products; and choosing the kinds of
advertising most likely to attract buyers. In
investigating such problems, these workers may
have to obtain information on people’s buying



Marketing research workers planning a survey.

habits, consumer credit, prices charged by other
firms producing competing products, transpor­
tation facilities, economic trends, population
growth, technological changes, and any other
factors which may be related to the specific
problem they are studying.
Practically all marketing research starts with
the collection of facts from published materials,

BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION AND RELATED PROFESSIONS

from the firm's own records, and from people
especially familiar with the subject under in­
vestigation. Research workers analyzing the
fluctuations in a company's sales, for example,
may first study sales records in a number of
different cities, in order to determine year-toyear and month-to-month changes in sales vol­
ume. They may then compare these changes
with changes in population, income levels, the
size of the company's sales force, and the
amounts spent by the company for advertising
in each city and, from these comparisons, dis­
cover the reasons for changes in the volume of
sales. Other marketing research workers may
study changes in the quantity of company goods
on store shelves, or take inventories of products
stocked in warehouses, or make door-to-door
surveys to learn how many company products
are already used in households.
Marketing research is often concerned with
the personal opinions of the people who are
using company products or who might be likely
to use them in the future. For example, a sur­
vey intended to help management decide on
the design and pricing of a new line of cooking
utensils may involve the use of a questionnaire
to obtain, from a limited number of housewives
among the many who might purchase the new
utensils, information about the price they would
be willing to pay and their preferences in such
things as the color and size of the utensil and
type of handle.
A survey of this kind is usually carried on
under the supervision of marketing research
workers who specialize in research on con­
sumer goods— that is, merchandise sold to the
general public. In planning the survey, the
marketing research worker may get help from
a statistician in selecting a group (or “ sample” )
of individuals to be interviewed, in order to be
certain that the opinions obtained from them
will be representative of the opinions held by
all of the people who might buy the product in
question. He may also seek assistance from a
specialist in “ motivational research” — an ex­
pert in framing questions that will produce
reliable information about the motives that lead
people to make the purchases they do. When
the investigation gets under way, the marketing
research worker may supervise a number of in­



201

terviewers, who call on housewives to obtain
answers to the questions. He may also direct the
work of the office employees who tabulate and
analyze the information collected. His report
summarizing the survey findings may also in­
clude other information that company officials
need in order to make decisions about the new
line— for example, facts about products already
on the market which might compete with the
product his company is proposing to introduce
or facts about anticipated technological changes
which might affect production methods or the
salability of the product.
Marketing research surveys concerned with
products used by business and industrial firms
may be conducted somewhat differently from
consumer goods surveys. The number of firms
which might use some kinds of industrial prod­
ucts is relatively small and, for this reason, in­
terviewers are sometimes able to talk to a large
proportion of all potential customers, rather
than a small sample as in a consumer goods
survey. Also, because research on some indus­
trial products requires interviewers with a
technical knowledge of the product involved, the
interviews are often conducted by the market­
ing research worker himself (or by several re­
search workers, if the survey is a particularly
extensive one). In the course of his interviews,
the marketing research worker not only tries
to get opinions about the proposed product, but
keeps on the lookout for possible new ways of
adapting it to industrial needs. He must, there­
fore, be a specialist both in marketing research
and in the industrial uses of the product
involved.
Where Employed

An estimated 10,000 to 15,000 people were
employed full time as marketing research spe­
cialists in 1960. This number included research
assistants and others in junior positions who
helped experienced analysts collect information
and prepare reports, as well as research super­
visors and directors. The majority of these
workers were men; positions held by women
were, for the most part, at the junior profes­
sional levels.

202
In addition to these marketing research work­
ers, a limited number of other professional em­
ployees (statisticians, economists, psycholo­
gists, and sociologists) and several thousand
clerical workers (clerks who coded and tabu­
lated survey returns, typists, and others) were
employed full time in this field. Thousands of
other workers, many of them women, were
employed on a part-time or temporary basis
as survey interviewers. The great majority of
the interviewers and a large proportion of the
professional and clerical workers were employed
on large-scale research projects dealing with
consumer goods.
Among the principal employers of marketing
research workers are manufacturing companies
and independent advertising and marketing re­
search organizations which do this kind of work
for clients on a contract basis. Marketing re­
search workers are also employed by very large
stores, radio and television firms, and newspa­
pers, and some work for university research
centers, government agencies, and other organi­
zations which provide information for business­
men. In size, marketing research organizations
range from independently operated one-man
and husband-and-wife enterprises to large firms
with hundreds of employees, including dozens
of professional marketing research workers,
and, when needed, thousands of part-time and
temporary interviewers and clerical workers.
Some business firms and independent research
organizations are staffed to handle all aspects
of marketing research, while others handle only
certain phases of the work and turn to spe­
cialized research firms for services such as
interviewing; editing, coding, and tabulating
questionnaires; or making store audits.
The largest number of marketing research
workers are in New York City, where many
major advertising and independent marketing
research organizations are located and where
many large manufacturers have their central
offices. The second largest concentration is in
Chicago. However, marketing research work­
ers are employed in many other cities as well—
wherever there are central offices of large
manufacturing and sales organizations.




OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement

Many people go into marketing research
after having worked in other kinds of research
jobs or having been employed in work related
to the field of marketing. University teachers
with experience in teaching marketing research
or statistics are often chosen by employers to
head new marketing research departments.
A college degree is usually required of people
hired as trainees in marketing research. Mar­
keting, statistics, English composition, speech,
psychology, and economics are among the
courses considered most valuable as prepara­
tion for this field of work. Candidates for posi­
tions involving marketing research on indus­
trial products are frequently required to have
specialized training in engineering or other
technical subjects, or else a substantial amount
of sales experience and a thorough knowledge
of the company’s products. Graduate training
may be necessary for some kinds of work— for
example, motivational research or sampling
and other statistical work connected with largescale surveys. Advanced training is also an as­
set to the research worker who may be com­
peting for advancement to a top-level position.
Trainees in marketing research usually start
as research assistants or junior analysts. At
first, they are likely to do a great deal of
clerical work, such as copying information from
published sources, editing and coding ques­
tionnaires, and tabulating results of question­
naires returned in surveys. They also learn how
to conduct interviews and to write reports on
survey findings.
After 2 to 5 years’ experience, assistants and
junior analysts usually advance to higher level
positions, with responsibility for specific
marketing research projects. With more experi­
ence, they may be promoted to supervisory posi­
tions, often with the title of project director or
associate. An exceptionally able individual may
eventually move on to a top position such as
vice president in charge of marketing and sales.
The qualifications most important to success
in marketing research work include exceptional
ability in recognizing and defining problems
to be solved and imagination and ingenuity in
applying marketing research techniques to these

BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION AND RELATED PROFESSIONS

problems. Above all, this kind of work calls for
the ability to analyze information and to write
reports which get across to management the
significance of the information collected and
how it can be applied in solving the company’s
marketing problems.
Employment Outlook

Employment in this relatively small field of
work is expected to increase rapidly during the
1960’s. College graduates who are well trained
in marketing research methods and statistics
are likely to find good job opportunities, even
though only a limited number of openings can
be expected to occur each year as a result of
expansion and the need to replace people who
retire, die, or leave the field for other reasons.
Competition for top jobs is expected to be in­
creasingly keen, however, because of the grow­
ing supply of experienced people in the field.
The demand for marketing research services
is expected to increase, because there is every
prospect that a constant stream of new prod­
ucts will be developed by American industry
and competition for customers will become in­
creasingly sharp. Business management will
have a very strong incentive to make use of
the best information obtainable in appraising
marketing situations and planning marketing
policies. Moreover, recent improvements in
marketing research techniques and in statisti­
cal data have made it possible for marketing
researchers to do a better job for management
than ever before. As a result, company officials
are likely to turn to these workers more and
more for information and assistance. Existing
marketing research organizations are likely to
increase in size, and many new marketing re­
search departments and new independent re­
search firms are expected to be set up.
Earnings and Working Conditions

Annual starting salaries for inexperienced
college graduates entering marketing research
in New York City commonly ranged from $3,600
to $4,800 in 1960, according to the limited data
available. People with master’s degrees in
related fields usually started at higher salaries.



203

Earnings of marketing research workers rise
substantially with experience. In 1957, when
salaries were somewhat below present levels,
men employed as junior analysts averaged about
$5,400 a year; those employed as analysts,
about $6,400; and senior analysts, over $8,500,
according to a survey by the American Market­
ing Association. Women in marketing research
positions tend to earn less than men in com­
parable positions, and relatively few move up
to the top jobs. According to the same 1957
survey, the average salary for women employed
as junior analysts was about $4,800 a year;
for women analysts $5,000; and for women
senior analysts, $7,200. Salaries of marketing
research directors ranged from $8,000 to more
than $30,000 a year, with an average of around
$13,000. The top salaries were paid to directors
employed by very large consumer goods manu­
facturing companies, advertising agencies, pub­
lishing and broadcasting firms, and other types
of businesses which rely heavily on the serv­
ices of marketing research people.
Marketing research workers usually work in
modern, centrally located offices. Some, espe­
cially those employed by independent research
firms, do a considerable amount of traveling
in connection with their work. They frequently
work under pressure and for long hours to meet
deadlines. Nevertheless, marketing research
offers an opportunity for interesting and varied
work to the individual who enjoys a challenging
job.
Where To Go for More Information

Information about specialized types of mar­
keting research is contained in a report en­
titled “ Selecting Marketing Research Serv­
ices” which may be obtained from :
Small Business Administration,
Washington 25, D.C.

Additional information on marketing re­
search as a career may be obtained from :
American Marketing Association,
27 East Monroe St., Chicago 3, 111.

204

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

Personnel Workers
(D.O.T. 0-39.81 through .88 and 0-68.70 through .78)

Nature of Work

Personnel workers are responsible for helping
their employers obtain good workers and assign
them to work they can do effectively. One part
of the personnel worker’s job is to develop re­
cruiting and hiring procedures and to inter­
view job applicants and select the ones best
qualified for the openings to be filled. Another
is to keep personnel records and prepare reports
based on these records. In addition, they may
advise employees about their personal and job
problems, deal with disciplinary cases, classify
jobs, plan wage and salary scales for different
positions, develop safety programs, and conduct
research in personnel methods. Employee train­
ing, the administration of retirement and other
employee benefit plans, and labor relations—
including negotiating agreements with trade
unions— are also important aspects of their
work. (Personnel workers in schools and col­
leges who are concerned with student problems
are discussed in the statement on School Coun­
selors elsewhere in this Handbook.)
Most of the things personnel workers do in­
volve constant contacts with employees, union
representatives, job applicants, and other people
in and outside the company. However, some
personnel jobs— for example, setting up and
analyzing personnel records— require only
limited contact with people.
In business organizations with large person­
nel departments there are personnel workers
with many different levels of responsibility.
Usually, the department is headed by a top-level
official who may be known as Personnel Direc­
tor, or sometimes as Industrial Relations Di­
rector, Labor Relations Director, or Employee
Relations Director. It is his job to formulate
policy, advise other company officials on per­
sonnel matters, and administer his department.
Within the department, supervisors and various
personnel specialists— in labor relations, wage
administration, training, safety, job classifica­
tion, and other aspects of the personnel program
— may be responsible for the work done by
different groups of employees. Some of these




employees do technical work such as retraining
employees assigned to new duties in the course
of a companywide reorganization, while others
assist in interviewing applicants, keep records
of interviews, and do other fairly routine work.
Some business organizations limit their per­
sonnel activities largely to recruiting workers,
handling disciplinary problems, and maintain­
ing personnel records; an organization of this
kind employs relatively few personnel workers.
In a small business, one person often handles
all activities of this kind and, in some cases,
has other duties as well.
Personnel workers do much the same kind of
work in Federal, State, and local government
agencies as in large business firms, and the per­
sonnel departments in government agencies are
organized in much the same way as in private
firms. Because of special circumstances that

Photograph by U.S. Department of Labor

Personnel worker interviewing applicant for position.

apply to government employment, however,
some kinds of personnel activities are likely to
be more important in government than they
are in private industry, and others less im­
portant. For example, government salary scales
and hours of work are often fixed by law or
regulation, and government personnel workers
generally have much less occasion to discuss
wage scales with trade union representatives

BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION AND RELATED PROFESSIONS

than do personnel workers in private industry;
on the other hand, government personnel work­
ers spend considerably more of their time in
activities related to classifying jobs. Also, be­
cause many government employees are hired
under merit systems, it is much more common
in government than in private industry for per­
sonnel staffs to include people who devise, ad­
minister, and score the competitive examina­
tions which are given to job applicants.
Where Employed

Personnel workers are employed in nearly all
kinds of business enterprises and government
agencies. The total number employed in 1960
was probably between 50,000 and 60,000. Most
of them work in large cities and in the highly
industrialized sections of the country. The
majority are men. However, many women are
employed in positions of this kind in organiza­
tions where there are large numbers of workers
— for example, in department stores, telephone
companies, and very large companies and gov­
ernment agencies.
Well over half of all personnel workers are
employed by private firms. The second largest
number are employed by Federal, State, and
local government agencies. A third and con­
siderably smaller group of personnel workers
are in business for themselves, often as manage­
ment consultants or labor relations experts. In
addition, a number of trained personnel work­
ers are employed in colleges and universities as
teachers of personnel administration, labor re­
lations, and similar subjects.
Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement

A college education is becoming increasingly
important for entrance into personnel work.
In many companies and government agencies,
new graduates are hired for junior personnel
positions and then put through in-service train­
ing programs to acquaint them with their em­
ployers' operations, policies, and problems.
Other companies prefer to fill their personnel
positions by transferring people who already
have firsthand knowledge of company opera­
tions— employees in administrative, sales, and




205

other types of positions. A large number of
the people now in personnel work who are not
college graduates entered the field in this way.
College work which provides good preparation
for personnel work includes courses in person­
nel management, business administration, ap­
plied psychology, statistics, labor economics,
political science, sociology, English, and public
speaking. Some employers in private industry
prefer college graduates with the specialized
training provided by a major in personnel ad­
ministration, while others prefer graduates with
a broader background in general business ad­
ministration. Still other employers consider a
well-rounded liberal arts education the most de­
sirable preparation for personnel work. Young
people interested in personnel work in govern­
ment are often advised to major in public ad­
ministration, political science, or personnel ad­
ministration ; however, those with other college
majors are also eligible for government employ­
ment.
For some personnel positions, educational re­
quirements may be more specialized. Jobs in­
volving testing or employee counseling often
require a bachelor's degree with a major in
psychology and sometimes a graduate degree
in this field. An engineering degree may be
needed for work dealing with safety standards,
and a degree with a major in industrial rela­
tions may be helpful for work involving labor
relations. A background in accounting or law
may be useful for positions concerned with
wages or pension and other employee benefit
plans.
Some college graduates, when starting out in
personnel work, learn what they need to know
about their employer's operations and specific
personnel procedures by taking part in formal
training programs. Others start out as assist­
ants to experienced personnel workers and learn
on the job. From entry positions such as these,
they may be advanced to higher level positions
with responsibility for interviewing applicants,
classifying jobs, and for other aspects of per­
sonnel work. Eventually, after they have gained
experience, those with exceptional ability may
perhaps be promoted to executive positions such
as that of personnel director. Personnel work­
ers sometimes advance also by transferring to

206
other organizations with larger personnel pro­
grams or from a middle-rank position in a big
corpqration to the top job in the personnel de­
partment of a smaller one.
Personal qualities regarded as important for
success in personnel work include the ability to
speak and write effectively and more than
average skill in working with people of all levels
of intelligence and experience. In addition, the
prospective personnel worker should be the kind
of person who can see the employee’s point of
view as well as the employer’s, and be able to
give advice which is in the best interest of both.
A liking for detail, a high degree of persuasive­
ness, and a pleasing personality are also im­
portant in this field of work.
Employment Outlook

A moderate number of opportunities for col­
lege graduates to enter personnel work can be
expected each year through the mid-1960’s.
However, the competition for trainee and other
entry professional positions is likely to be keen
in many parts of the country. In general, em­
ployment prospects will probably be best for
college graduates with specialized training in
the field. Some opportunities to advance to per­
sonnel positions will be available also for young
people who start out in production, clerical,
or subprofessional positions and demonstrate
their ability for work in the personnel field.
Employment in personnel work is expected
to expand fairly rapidly over the long run—
probably somewhat faster than the average
increase of about 20 percent, as estimated
for all occupations. As employment rises in
many fields of work, companies will tend to
grow in size; and with these changes there
will be a need for mpre personnel workers to
carry on recruiting, recordkeeping, and related
activities. Moreover, many employers are com­
ing to recognize the importance of the “ human
factor” and to depend more heavily on the serv­
ices of trained personnel workers to handle
their employee relations. Employment in some
specialized areas of personnel work is partic­
ularly likely to rise. Wider use will probably
be made of psychological tests; employee train­
ing programs are likely to be expanded and




OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

adapted to new problems; the need for labor
relations experts to handle relationships with
trade unions will probably continue to increase;
and the growth of employee services, safety
programs, pension and other benefit plans, and
personnel research is likely to continue. Thus,
the expected increase in demand for trained
workers should extend throughout the person­
nel field, although it is likely to be most rapid
in some specialized areas.
Earnings and Working Conditions

Beginning salaries averaged about $5,000 in
1960 for men college graduates employed by
large companies, according to reports from col­
lege placement directors. According to limited
data from a private survey in 1959, average
(median) earnings of personnel directors, in­
dustrial relations directors, and others in charge
of personnel departments ranged from $10,000
a year in comparatively small companies to
$20,000 in larger organizations. Some top
personnel executives in very large corporations
earned considerably more.
In the Federal Government, inexperienced
graduates with bachelor’s degrees started at
$4,345 a year in 1960 or, in the case of those
with exceptionally good academic records, at
$5,355. The entrance salary for graduates with
master’s degrees was usually $5,355 also, al­
though a few especially well-qualified people
in this group were started at $6,435. The sala­
ries paid many Federal Government personnel
workers with administrative responsibilities
and several years of experience in the field were
around $10,000 a year; some of these personnel
workers, in charge of personnel for major
departments of the Federal Government, earned
$15,000 or more a year.
Employees in personnel offices generally work
35 to 40 hours a week. Often, during a period
of intensive recruitment, or at the time of a
strike or other emergency, they may put in con­
siderable overtime. As a rule, personnel work­
ers are paid for holidays and vacations and
share in the same retirement plans and other
employee benefits as do all professional employ­
ees in the organizations where they work.

BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION AND RELATED PROFESSIONS

Where To Go for More Information

Public Personnel Association,

General information on personnel work as a
career may be obtained by writing t o :

207

1313 East 60th St., Chicago 37, 111.

The American Society for Personnel Administra­
tion,
Kellogg Center, East Lansing, Mich.

Information about government careers in
personnel work may be obtained from :

Information about government careers, in­
cluding personnel work, may be obtained from :
American Society for Public Administration,
6042 Kimbark Ave., Chicago 37, 111.

Public Relations Workers
(D.O.T. 0-06.97)

Nature of Work

Public relations workers are responsible for
developing and maintaining public opinion
favorable to the individuals and organizations
which use their services. It is their job to be in­
formed about the attitudes and opinions of
customers, employees, and other groups which
are important to the interests of their em­
ployers. They are factfinders who use the
results of their investigations to help their em­
ployers build a favorable public opinion.
Public relations workers often provide in­
formation about their employers’ business and
professional activities for publication in news­
papers and magazines, for broadcasting over
radio and television, and for use by other chan­
nels of communication. They plan the kind of
publicity which they believe will be most ef­
fective, contact the people who may be inter­
ested in printing or broadcasting it, assemble
the needed information, and write up the
material. Many news items in the daily
papers, human interest stories in popular maga­
zines, and pamphlets giving information about
industrial processes and job opportunities have
their start at public relations workers’ desks.
These workers may also play an important
part in arranging speaking engagements for
company officials, and sometimes write speeches
for them to deliver. Often they participate
actively in community affairs, serving as
their employers’ representatives during safety
campaigns and other community projects;
or they may arrange plant tours for visit­
ing businessmen, school pupils, and other
groups. Showing a film at a school assembly,




staging a beauty contest, calling a press con­
ference, and planning a convention may all be
a part of a public relations worker’s job.
All public relations workers tailor their pro­
grams to their employers’ particular needs.
Public relations work for a concert singer, for
example, is likely to be directed chiefly at the
concert-going public and concerned with build­
ing up the singer’s reputation as an artist. In a
business firm, the public relations worker is
usually concerned with an altogether different
set of problems— for example, with his em­
ployer’s relationships with employees, civic
organizations, and other community groups,
as well as with such matters as promoting sales
and with legislation.
Some public relations workers— for example,
the press agent who handles publicity for an
individual and the man who is in charge of a
limited public relations program for a univer­
sity, fraternal organization, or small busi­
ness firm— may handle all aspects of the work.
They make their own contacts with outsiders,
do their own planning and research, prepare
their own material for publication, and other­
wise carry out the plans which have been de­
cided on. In some business organizations,
public relations workers in charge of such
limited programs may be top-level officials,
while in others they may occupy positions
farther down the management ladder. They
may combine their public relations duties with
responsibility for advertising or other mana­
gerial work.
In large firms with extensive public relations
programs, staffs assigned to this work some­

208

times number 100 or more, and several levels
of managerial responsibility may be involved.
Responsibility for developing plans and policies
may be shared between a vice president or other
top executive who is responsible for the final
decisions and the director (or manager) of a
public relations department. In addition to
the public relations department's writers, re­
search workers, and other professional and
clerical employees, there may be specialists in
different kinds of public relations work— in
preparing material for publication in the daily
press, for example, or in writing the financial
reports sent to stockholders.
Any extensive public relations program in­
volves both routine staff assignments and
assignments which call for much skill and ex­
perience. Beginners often start out in work
such as maintaining files of material about the
company and its activities, scanning newspapers
and magazines for appropriate articles to
clip, and doing the research needed in order
to assemble information for speeches and
pamphlets. After gaining experience, they
may be given progressively more difficult
assignments, such as writing press releases,
speeches, and articles for publication. The most
skilled public relations work— initiating and
developing plans and maintaining the outside
contacts which are so important in a suc­
cessful program— is usually in the hands of the
director of the department and his most ex­
perienced staff members. Good ideas are so
important to effective public relations work
that some experts in this field spend all of their
time providing ideas and planning programs
but take no active part in carrying out any of
these programs.
Where Employed

In 1960, there were an estimated 40,000 or
50,000 public relations workers in managerial
and supervisory positions and probably an
equal number in nonsupervisory jobs. The
number in jobs at the top (directors) was prob­
ably no more than a few thousand. Most
public relations workers are men. An increasing
number of women are entering and advancing




OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

in this field, however, particularly in depart­
ment stores, hospitals, hotels, and restaurants.
The majority of workers in this field are on
the staffs of the organizations using their serv­
ices— manufacturing firms, stores, public utili­
ties and telephone companies, professional
associations, and labor unions. Others are in
consulting firms which provide counsel and
other kinds of public relations services to clients
on a fee basis. In 1960, there were about 2,000
public relations consulting firms, as well as a
number of advertising agencies which offered
public relations services; and there were about
5,000 corporations which either used the services
of consulting firms or had public relations staffs
of their own. The consulting firms as well as
the private companies included some one-man
organizations and some organizations with
very large staffs.
Employment in public relations work tends to
be concentrated in big cities where press services
and other communications facilities are readily
available and where large corporations and
trade, professional, and other associations
have their headquarters. More than half of
the consulting firms are either in New York
City or in Los Angeles, Chicago, and Washing­
ton, D.C.
Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement

A college education is generally required as
preparation for this relatively new field of
work. There is some difference of opinion, how­
ever, about the specific type of college training
which provides the best background. College
programs emphasizing courses in public rela­
tions have been in existence for only about a
dozen years, and few top-ranking public rela­
tions executives have yet had an opportunity to
observe how well some of this training equips
graduates for work in the field. In 1960,
public relations courses were being offered at
an estimated 200 colleges and universities, in­
cluding a few which offered a bachelor’s degree
with a major in public relations and a very
small number which offered graduate work in
this field.
Most employers agree that a broad liberal
arts education provides an excellent back­

BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION AND RELATED PROFESSIONS

ground for public relations work. Some prefer
graduates with majors in English or journa­
lism, while others prefer candidates with a
background in science or some other field re­
lated to the firm's business activities. Among
the college subjects considered desirable as
preparation for a career in public relations are
journalism, economics and other social sciences,
business administration, psychology, public
speaking, literature, and physical sciences. Ex­
tracurricular activities which may provide
students with some valuable experience include
writing or other work connected with school
publications, participation in student govern­
ment activities, and part-time or summer em­
ployment in selling, public relations, or related
fields of work.
In selecting new employees for work in this
field, employers stress such personal qualifica­
tions as initiative and drive, the ability
to express thoughts clearly and simply— both
in writing and orally— and the ability to use
ideas creatively. Many also prefer to hire people
who have had some previous work experience.
Consulting firms often stress public relations
experience with another employer or experience
in some related field— particularly in journa­
lism. Other employers think that experience
in other jobs with the same company or with
companies in the same line of business provides
a particularly good background for public rela­
tions work.
Some companies— particularly large ones
which recruit and hire young men with out­
standing college records as public relations
trainees— have formal training programs for
new employees. In other companies, new
workers learn their duties by working on the
job under the guidance of experienced staff
members. Some companies seek to broaden the
knowledge and experience of their public rela­
tions workers by arranging for them to
observe different plant operations and to handle
each of the various kinds of work involved in
the company's public relations program.
Promotion to supervisory and managerial
positions may come as the worker demonstrates
ability to handle more difficult and creative
assignments. Jobs at the top are limited in
number, however, and competition for them is



209

keen. Some experienced public relations workers
eventually open their own consulting firms,
while others move on to better positions with
other employers.
Employment Outlook

This relatively new field of employment has
expanded at a phenomenal rate since World
War II. During the 1960's, it will probably
continue to grow faster than most other fields
of employment, although less rapidly than in
the past. In addition to the new jobs created as
expanding business firms require the services
of more public relations specialists, other open­
ings will occur because of the need to replace
workers who retire or leave their positions for
other reasons.
Many of the positions which will have to be
filled during the coming years will call for ex­
perienced public relations workers. They are
likely to be filled mainly by people who have
already done research, prepared material for
publication, or handled other public relations
assignments. As workers with this kind of
experience are moved up to fill the public rela­
tions jobs that become available, however,
they will leave job vacancies farther down
the line which will afford newcomers a chance
to start and gain experience in the field.
Earnings and Working Conditions

Young men employed as trainees in public
relations work started in 1960 at salaries of
$5,000 to $7,000 a year, according to limited
data for large corporations and consulting
firms. In some parts of the country and in
certain types of organizations, starting salaries
were somewhat lower. The highest starting
salaries were paid chiefly to beginners who
were employed by consulting firms in major
cities and who were exceptionally well quali­
fied from the standpoint of educational back­
ground and previous work experience.
The salaries of experienced public relations
workers are generally highest in large com­
panies, where public relations programs are
likely to be more extensive than elsewhere.
According to a 1959 private survey, the average

210

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

(median) salary for privately employed public
relations directors or managers was about
$19,000 a year in firms with an annual sales
volume of more than $200 million and about
$12,000 in those with a sales volume of less
than $100 million. Top officials such as vice
presidents in charge of public relations earned
from $25,000 to $50,000 a year or more. Many
consulting firms employ fairly large staffs of
experienced public relations specialists and
often pay salaries which are somewhat higher
than the salaries paid in other business organi­
zations. In social welfare agencies and uni­
versities, salary levels tend to be somewhat
lower.
The standard workweek for public relations
workers is usually the same as for other of­

ficials in their organizations— 35 to 40 hours.
Irregular hours and overtime may often be
necessary, however, when public relations
workers have to meet deadlines, prepare or de­
liver speeches, attend meetings and community
functions, and make trips out of town. Some­
times, because of the nature of their regular
assignments or because of disasters or special
events, they may be on call on a round-the-clock
basis with the workweek stretching to 6 or 7
days instead of the usual 5.
Where To Go for More Information
Public Relations Society of America, Inc.,
375 Park Ave., New York 22, N .Y.

Purchasing Agents
(D.O.T 0-91.60)

Nature of Work

Purchasing agents and their assistants buy
the raw materials, machinery, supplies, and
services required by companies to carry on
their businesses. Agents are responsible for
obtaining needed items and services at the
lowest cost consistent with good quality and
for seeing that deliveries are made at the right
time so that men and machines will not be idle.
Many companies spend large sums of money on
equipment, supplies, and services, and the people
whose job it is to see that these are on hand
when needed play an important role in business
management.
The head of the purchasing department in a
business firm or other organization is usually
called a purchasing agent; sometimes, however,
he may have the title of procurement or pur­
chasing officer, director or manager of pur­
chasing, or buyer. ( “ Buyer” is a title also used
in retail stores for people who select and pur­
chase merchandise for resale to individual
customers. Retail store buyers are not included
in this report.) In a large firm, the head of the
purchasing department directs the work of a
staff including assistant purchasing agents
and various types of clerical workers. Purchas­
ing assistants may be assigned to broad areas;




Purchasing agent’s assistant checking catalogs to
compare prices of items .

for example, one person may be responsible
for buying raw materials; another, factory
machinery; and another, office supplies. Still
others may be specialists in buying certain
items— for example, lumber, steel, cotton, or
oil. Some companies also assign purchasing

BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION AND RELATED PROFESSIONS

personnel (expediters) to the specific job of
following up orders to insure delivery as sched­
uled.
The purchasing agent and his assistants re­
ceive order forms or requisitions from the
various departments of the company. These re­
quisitions list and describe needed items and
include such information as quantities required
and the date delivery is wanted. Since it is
usually possible to make purchases from a num­
ber of different sources, the purchasing agent’s
main job is to select the seller who offers the
best buy. In order to do this, the agent or his
staff members must consider a number of
factors, such as the exact specifications for the
items required, price, quantity discounts,
freight or other transportation cost, and de­
livery time. Much of the necessary information
is obtained by comparing listings in catalogs
and trade journals and telephoning various
suppliers. Sometimes, suppliers are invited to
bid on large orders, and the purchasing agent
selects the lowest bidder who meets require­
ments with respect to the specifications set up
for the goods and date of delivery.
Purchasing agents and assistants meet
with manufacturers’ salesmen to examine
sample goods, watch demonstrations of equip­
ment, and discuss items to be purchased. Some­
times, the agents visit suppliers’ plants to see
how products are made and to check on their
quality. After placing an order, they keep in
touch with the seller to insure prompt delivery.
Purchasing personnel may also check on in­
coming shipments to see that they are of the
price, quantity, and quality ordered.
It is important for purchasing agents to de­
velop good working relations with their sup­
pliers in order to get “ rush” orders accepted,
arrange for favorable terms of payment, and
receive other considerations such as special
packaging and prompt adjustment service.
They must also work closely with personnel in
various departments of their own company—
for example, they frequently discuss product
specifications with company engineers or prob­
lems on handling shipments with employees in
the shipping and receiving, storage, or traffic
departments.



211

Where Employed

Well over half of the nearly 100,000 purchas­
ing agents and closely related types of buyers
employed in 1960 were in manufacturing in­
dustries. Large numbers of purchasing workers
were also employed in government agencies—
Federal, State, and local— and in wholesale and
retail trade. Public utilities, transportation
companies, and institutions— schools, colleges,
universities, and hospitals— each employed
substantial numbers of purchasing agents
and assistants. Even the smallest industries
employ some purchasing personnel.
Most agents work in firms in which the pur­
chasing department includes fewer than 10
employees. In some large firms, however,
the purchasing staff may include a hundred or
more specialized buyers. Probably fewer than
10 percent of all purchasing agents are women.
Government agencies, hospitals, restaurants,
and textile firms are the principal employers of
women purchasing agents.
Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement

Although employers differ greatly in the
background they prefer for purchasing person­
nel, it is evident that a college degree is becom­
ing increasingly important for promotion to a
high-level purchasing position. Graduates of
schools of business administration who have a
good background in accounting and economics
and some courses in purchasing are preferred
by many employers. However, because of the
growing complexity of factory equipment and
the wide variety of new materials available,
some employers seek young men who have
technical knowledge as well as business train­
ing. Graduate training in business administra­
tion is required by a few employers. On the
other hand, many firms select purchasing
personnel from the young men of aptitude
and promise who are already employed in
various departments of the company. Ex­
perience with the company may outweigh edu­
cational qualifications.
Regardless of previous training and ex­
perience, new recruits in the purchasing field
must spend considerable time learning about

212
their company's operations and purchasing
procedures. Some companies provide classroomtype instruction as well as on-the-job training.
The beginner may be assigned to the store­
keeper's section to learn about such operations
as keeping inventory records, filling out forms
to initiate purchases of additional stock, or
providing proper storage facilities. He may
then work with an experienced buyer to learn
about types of goods purchased, prices, and
sources of supply. Following the initial train­
ing period, the trainee may become a junior
buyer of standard catalog items. After gaining
experience in the various aspects of purchasing
and demonstrating ability to accept responsibi­
lity and exercise good judgment, he may be
promoted to assistant buyer or assistant pur­
chasing agent, and then to full-fledged pur­
chasing agent. In large companies, purchasing
agents or heads of purchasing departments may
eventually become vice presidents with overall
responsibility for purchasing, warehousing,
traffic, and related functions.
Employment Outlook

Opportunities are expected to be good during
the 1960's for young men to enter and advance
in purchasing occupations. Many new positions
will arise in rapidly expanding companies.
However, a greater number of job opportuni­
ties will result from the need to replace ex­
perienced personnel who will retire, die, or
transfer to other jobs.
The most rapid advancement and the best
jobs in purchasing work will, in most cases,
go to college graduates who show exceptional
judgment, a sense of responsibility, integrity,
and skill in human relations. Graduates of
schools of business administration who have
had courses in purchasing are expected to con­
tinue to be in strong demand by employers.
Demand is expected to be above average for
graduates with a good background in engineer­
ing and science to fill jobs in purchasing de­
partments of firms manufacturing complex
machinery, chemicals, and other products of a
technical nature. Graduates with degrees from
liberal arts colleges will also continue to obtain
trainee positions in many types of firms. Al­



OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

though outstanding persons without a college
education will continue to be promoted from
clerical, sales, and other types of jobs, their
opportunities for advancement to high-level
purchasing jobs will tend to decrease.
Over the long run, a continued increase in
the demand for purchasing agents and their
assistants may be expected. Among the major
factors underlying this generally favorable
outlook are the continuing increase in the
size of business and manufacturing firms, the
emergence of new products, new sources of
supply (including foreign markets), and the
ever increasing complexity and specialization
of business functions. Competition among
manufacturers for new, improved, and less
costly raw materials, goods, and services will
further direct the attention of top manage­
ment to the importance of the purchasing
function. Furthermore, large companies are
expected to expand purchasing-related activi­
ties such as inventory control— including the
use of electronic data-processing equipment—
and the development of scientific methods for
materials management.
Earnings and Working Conditions

Beginning annual salaries for men college
graduates hired as trainees in purchasing de­
partments of large firms averaged about $5,000
in early 1960.
A private survey indicated that average
(median) annual salaries earned by experienced
purchasing agents in 1959 ranged from $8,400
in firms with an annual volume of purchases
under $3 million to $15,300 in firms with pur­
chases amounting to more than $30 million.
Salaries of $25,000 or more are earned by some
top purchasing executives.
Employees in purchasing departments usually
work the standard workweek of the company—
generally from 35 to 40 hours a week. Purchas­
ing agents may prepare reports, attend meet­
ings, visit suppliers' plants, or travel outside
regular working hours. Employees in purchas­
ing departments usually receive the same holi­
days, vacations, and various benefits as other
workers in the company.

BUSINESS ADMINISTRATIVE AND RELATED PROFESSIONS

A few companies pay tuition and other fees
for purchasing- department personnel who en­
roll in specialized educational courses and
training programs. Purchasing agents and
buyers who must travel in connection with
their jobs are usually reimbursed for lodging,
transportation, and other costs.




213

Where To Go for More Information

Young people interested in a career in pur­
chasing may consult with members of local
purchasing associations, or they may write t o :
National Association of Purchasing Agents,
11 Park PL, New York 7, N .Y.

THE PERFORMING ARTS
Every day, millions of people get recreation
and pleasure from listening to music on the
radio, on records, and at concerts and from
watching stage and television plays, movies,
and ballet performances. For many, singing or
playing an instrument is a rewarding avoca­
tion and so, for smaller numbers, is acting or
ballet dancing. These performing arts are also
professional careers for thousands of highly
trained artists, who aim to make a living
from their performances.
The interest in and attraction of careers in
the arts is so great that the number of firstrate artists seeking employment is generally
much larger than the number of full-time em­
ployment opportunities available. Many per­
formers therefore supplement their incomes by
teaching, and thousands of others have to work
much of the time in other occupations.
The difficulty of earning a living as a per­
former is one of the facts young people should
bear in mind in considering an artistic career.
They need to know also that most aspiring
young artists have to spend many years in
intensive training and practice before they
are ready for public performances. It is im­
portant for them to consider the possible
advantages of making their art a hobby rather

than a field of work. For a career in any of
the performing arts, a person needs not only
great natural talent but also determination,
a willingness to work long and hard, and an
overwhelming interest in his chosen field— a
love for it so great that, despite all obstacles,
he would rather work in it than in any other
occupation.
The following statements give detailed infor­
mation on the instrumental musician, singer,
actor, and dancer as a performing artist and in
other work. Many men and women with an in­
terest and talent in music are also employed as
directors of church choirs or school choruses or
as orchestra or band conductors. A few with
great creative talent work chiefly as composers
of music. Other musicians arrange or adapt
melodies for orchestras or bands; still others
(copyists) copy parts for individual instruments
from the musical scores written by arrangers.
Similarly, a few people with ballet training and
originality work as choreographers, who design
new ballets or other types of dance perform­
ances, and some are dance directors. Another
small field of employment, to which people with
executive ability and a knowledge of acting and
of production problems can sometimes progress,
is directing or producing stage, television, or
motion picture productions.

Musicians and Music Teachers
(D.O.T. 0-24.12 and 0-24.31)

Nature of Work

Professional musicians— whether they play
the piano, violin, or trumpet in a symphony
orchestra, dance band, or “ jazz combo” — have
behind them many years of study and intensive
practice. Although most musicians play only
one instrument, many are qualified to play two
or more— for example, the saxophone and clari­
net, oboe and English horn, or piano and violin.
As a general rule, musicians also specialize in
either classical or popular music; only a few
play both types professionally.
214




In a symphony orchestra, 85 to 100 or more
musicians play together under the direction of
the conductor. More than half the musicians in
the orchestra play the strings— violins, violas,
cellos, and double basses. Smaller numbers
play the brass— trombones, trumpets, French
horns, and tubas; and the wood winds— oboes,
flutes, piccolos, clarinets, English horns, and
bassoons; and a few play the drums, cymbals,
and other percussion instruments. As a rule,
the orchestra has among its members a pianist,
who plays with it when needed. Each orchestra
player has attained great technical skill in

215

THE PERFORMING ARTS

Dance bands usually include piano, string bass, drum,
trumpet, and saxophone.

playing his particular instrument, and they
play together with great precision. The musi­
cians in the “ first chairs” — the leading players
of each kind of instrument— are especially
fine artists and can play any solos called for by
the parts for their instruments.
Musicians trained in classical music also
play in opera and theater orchestras and other
kinds of performances needing orchestral ac­
companiments. Some form small groups— a
string quartet or a trio (made up of a violinist,
a cellist, and a pianist, 'for example)— which
give concerts of chamber music. Many pianists
serve as accompanists for vocal or instrumental
soloists or choral groups or provide background
music in restaurants or other places. Most
organists play in churches, usually directing
the choir as well as playing the organ. A very
few exceptionally brilliant and well-known
musicians— chiefly pianists and violinists—
become concert artists, giving concerts of
their own and with symphony orchestras. Or­
chestras, chamber music groups, and individual
artists often make recordings.
Musicians who specialize in popular music
usually play the trumpet, trombone, or saxo­
phone, or one of the “ rhythm” instruments—
the piano, string bass, drums, or guitar. Dance
bands made up of these instruments play in
night clubs, restaurants, and at special parties.
The best known bands and solo performers
sometimes give concerts and perform on tele­
vision. They also make recordings.
Besides working as performers, many musi­
cians give lessons. A large number of pianists,



as well as some other musicians, are chiefly
teachers and do little if any paid work as per­
formers. For others, teaching is a secondary
activity. Sometimes musicians instruct pupils
privately in their own studios or in the pupils’
homes; others become members or join the
faculty of music schools or conservatories or
of colleges which offer instruction in instru­
mental music. In addition, many people with
training in piano, or sometimes another in­
strument, become music teachers in elementary
or secondary schools. These teachers direct
vocal and instrumental music programs in the
schools, teach music appreciation, and may also
give group instruction on an instrument.
In addition to the people primarily employed
as musicians or music teachers, thousands of
qualified instrumentalists have other full-time
jobs and only occasionally do paid work in the
field of music. Most of these part-time musi­
cians belong to dance bands which are hired
to play at private parties or for other special
occasions. Some with a background in clas­
sical music play occasionally in an orchestra or
for other performances, or do some part-time
teaching.
Where Employed

The number of people chiefly employed as
instrumental musicians was probably somewhat
less than 100,000 in mid-1960. About half were
teaching in the Nation’s schools and colleges.
Most of the remainder were either private
music teachers or primarily performers. A
few musicians were employed in hospitals, to
work in the field of music therapy, and some
worked in music libraries and other places.
Most professional musicians work in large
cities, principally in New York, Chicago, and
Los Angeles, where most of the Nation’s enter­
tainment activities are concentrated. In ad­
dition, sizable numbers work in other cities—
such as Boston, Philadelphia, Rochester, and
Baltimore— which have major symphony or­
chestras or music schools and conservatories.
Music teachers in elementary and secondary
schools, as well as in colleges and universities,
are employed all over the country. Moreover,
just about every town and city has at least one

216
private music teacher, usually a pianist. Dance
bands are also located in many communities,
although in the smaller towns, their members
are usually only part-time musicians with other
regular jobs.
Training and Other Qualifications

Most people who become professional musi­
cians begin studying an instrument at an early
age. Boys and girls often get their first intro­
duction to instrumental music through group
instruction in piano, violin, trombone, and
other instruments offered in many elementary
schools and high schools. They can also take
music lessons from private teachers or in the
preparatory department of a music conserva­
tory.
To achieve a career as a performer of clas­
sical music or in teaching instrumental music,
young people need intensive training— either
through private study with an accomplished
artist, or in a college or university with a
strong music program, or in a conservatory of
music. They need to acquire not only great
technical skill but also a profound knowledge
of music and how to interpret it. Before a
young person can qualify for advanced study
in a music conservatory, it is frequently neces­
sary to have an audition. Many of the teachers
in these schools are accomplished artists who
will undertake the training only of promising
young musicians. An audition is sometimes
required also for admission to the department
or school of music of a college or university.
However, the emphasis on talent as a performer
is less in the case of young people preparing
for music teaching than for those preparing
only for careers as performers.
Many conservatories of music and college
and university schools of music offer 4-year
programs leading to a bachelor’s degree in
music education. Students who complete these
programs can qualify for the State certificate
required for public school positions. Conserva­
tories and collegiate music schools frequently
award also the degree of bachelor of music to
students who major in instrumental or vocal
music. The 4-year program leading to this
degree provides not only training as a performer
but also a broad background in musical history



OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

and theory, together with some liberal arts
courses. Advanced degrees are usually required
for college teaching positions, but exceptions
may be made for especially well-qualified artists.
Musicians who play jazz and other popular
music also must be skilled in their instrument
and have an understanding of and feeling for
that style of music. As a rule, when young,
they take lessons with private teachers and
then seize all opportunities, beginning while
they are still in high school, to play in amateur
or paid performances. Some groups of young
people form their own small dance bands. As
they gain experience and become known, the
players may have opportunities to audition for
other local bands and, still later, for the bet­
ter known bands and orchestras.
Employment Outlook

As a field of employment, instrumental music
has been overcrowded for many years, and it is
expected to remain so during the 1960’s. Oppor­
tunities for concerts and recitals are not numer­
ous enough to provide adequate employment
for all the pianists, violinists, and other instru­
mentalists qualified as concert artists. Compe­
tition is usually keen for positions which afford
some stability of employment— for example,
jobs with major orchestras and teaching posi­
tions in conservatories and colleges and uni­
versities. Because of the ease with which a mu­
sician can enter private music teaching, the
number of music teachers has been and will
probably continue to be more than sufficient to
give instruction to all the young people seeking
lessons. Though many opportunities for single
and short-term engagements playing popular
music in night clubs, theaters, and other places
can be expected, the supply of qualified musi­
cians seeking such jobs is likely to remain
greater than the demand. On the other hand, a
shortage of well-qualified church organists and
choir masters may persist in many communi­
ties during the next few years; first-class,
experienced accompanists are likely to remain
relatively scarce; and public school systems
will probably continue to need more, fully
qualified music teachers and supervisors.
Employment opportunities for performers
are not expected to increase over the long run.

217

THE PERFORMING ARTS

Although the number of civic orchestras in
smaller communities has been growing steadily,
many of these orchestras provide only part-time
employment for musicians who work chiefly as
teachers or in other occupations. Moreover, the
openings created by the establishment of these
orchestras have been more than offset by the
decline in opportunities in the theater and
other places, which has resulted, in part, from
the greatly increased use of recorded music.
The employment outlook in music education,
for people who are well-qualified as both
musicians and as teachers, is the bright spot in
the picture. A great increase in the numbers of
young people of high school and college age will
take place during the 1960's. Moreover, the
number of public schools with music programs
is growing steadily, and interest in music as an
avocation is also rising, as evidenced by the in­
creasing sales of musical instruments. Thus
over the long run, a fairly rapid increase can
be expected in the employment of public school
music teachers and also in the teaching staffs
of college and university music schools and
conservatories of music.

very uncertain and vary according to the music­
ian's reputation, the number of teachers in the
locality, the number of students desiring lessons,
the economic status of the community, and other
factors.
Musicians who are performers customarily
work at night and on weekends. They must
also spend considerable time in regular daily
practice and in rehearsing new scores. Most
private teaching is done in the late afternoon,
on Saturdays, and sometimes in the evening.
Performers may have relatively long periods
of unemployment between jobs and, thus, the
overall level of their earnings is generally lower
than it is in many other occupations. More­
over, performers do not usually work steadily
for one employer. Consequently, few performers
can qualify for unemployment compensation,
and they seldom have paid sick leave or paid
vacations.
Most musicians who play professionally be­
long to the American Federation of Musicians
(A F L -C IO ). Concert soloists also belong to the
American Guild of Musical Artists (AFL-CIO).
Where To Go for More Information

Earnings and Working Conditions

Musicians who were members of symphony
orchestras earned from $90 to $350 a week in
1960, and those who played in dance bands
were paid from $60 to $300 per week, ac­
cording to a private survey. Symphony orches­
tras had relatively short seasons, generally
ranging from 22 to 32 weeks a year. In­
strumentalists who were members of small
ensembles reportedly received as much as $200
per concert. Concert soloists have the highest
earnings of all musicians, but they have to
deduct the costs of expensive clothes, travel,
and management and coaching fees from their
earnings. The amount they receive for a per­
formance depends to a large extent on their
professional reputations.
The salaries of public school music teachers
•are determined by the salary schedule adopted
for all teachers. (See statements on Elementary
and Secondary School Teachers.) However,
they frequently supplement their earnings by
giving private music lessons and taking church
positions. Earnings from private teaching are



Information about wages, hours of work, and
working conditions for performers is available
from :
American Federation of Musicians (A F L -C IO ),
425 Park Ave., New York 22, N.Y.

Information about employment opportunities
for church musicians, as well as the require­
ments for certification of organists and choir
masters, may be secured from :
American Guild of Organists,
630 Fifth Ave., New York 20, N.Y.

A list of accredited schools of music is avail­
able from :
National Association of Schools of Music,
Knox College, Galesburg, 111.

Further information about employment op­
portunities for elementary and secondary school
music teachers is available from :
Music Educators National Conference, The Na­
tional Education Association of the United
States,
1201 16th St. N W , Washington 6, D.C.

218

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

Singers and Singing Teachers
(D.O.T. 0-24.00 through 0-24.05)

Nature of Work

Professional singing is an art which requires
not only a fine voice, but also a highly developed
technique and a broad knowledge of music. The
pinnacle of a singing career is to become an
opera and concert star. The tiny group of
famous artists who have reached this height
sing leading roles with the major opera com­
panies, go on concert tours in the United States
and other countries, and often make recordings.
Somewhat larger numbers of singers obtain
secondary roles in operas and engagements as
soloists in oratorios and other types of perform­
ances. A much larger group— probably the
majority of all professional singers of classical
music— are soloists in churches or synagogues.
Some singers also become members of opera
and musical comedy choruses or other choral
groups.
Singers who specialize in popular music have
a style of singing so different from that of
singers of classical music that there is little
in common technically between the two groups.
Although most popular music singers have
some vocal training, many rely on their per­
sonalities to help them “ put a song across” to
a much greater extent than do singers of classi­
cal music. These singers perform in musical
shows of all kinds— in the movies, on the stage,
on radio and television, and in night clubs and
other entertainment places. They may be em­
ployed as featured singers with a dance band;
some also sing with other vocalists in small
groups such as trios or quartets. The best known
popular music singers make many recordings.
Since most singers of both classical and
popular music have only part-time or irregular
employment as singers, they often have to work
at other jobs between engagements. Some—
chiefly singers of serious music— give private
voice lessons. A sizable number with the neces­
sary qualifications are employed in elementary
and secondary schools, where they teach music
appreciation courses and lead choruses. Others
give voice training in college and university



schools or departments of music or in music
conservatories. A large number have full-time
jobs of other types and sing only part time,
in the evening or on weekends.
Where Employed

Probably fewer than 75,000 people were earn­
ing the major part of their incomes from sing­
ing engagements or vocal teaching in mid-1960.
Opportunities for singing engagements are
mainly in New York City, Los Angeles, and
Chicago— the Nation’s chief entertainment
centers. Nashville, Tenn., is a major place of
employment for folk singers and country music
singers, for both “ live” performances and re­
cordings. Persons trained as singers who teach
music in elementary and secondary schools and
in colleges, universities, and conservatories
of music are employed throughout the country.
Opportunities for part-time employment, chiefly
as church singers, are to be found in small
towns as well as in big cities.
Training and Other Qualifications

Young people who want to perform profes­
sionally as singers of serious, or classical,
music should acquire a broad background in
music, including its theory and history. Ability

Singers who perform on stage sometimes are required to
dance.

219

THE PERFORMING ARTS

to play the piano is also very helpful; so boys
and girls interested in a career in this profes­
sion should start piano lessons at an early age.
As a rule, voice training should not begin until
after the individual has matured physically,
although young boys who sing in church choirs
receive some training before their voices
change. Moreover, because of the work and
expense involved in serious voice training—
which often continues for years after the sing­
er's professional career has started— it is im­
portant that a prospective singer audition
before a competent voice teacher to determine
whether professional training is warranted.
Young people can prepare for careers as
singers of classical music by enrolling in a
music conservatory, a school or department of
music connected with a college or university,
or by taking private voice lessons. Before stu­
dents are admitted to music conservatories or
collegiate schools or departments of music, they
may have to audition before a faculty member
who may be a well-known artist. In addition
to voice training, these schools provide young
people with the background needed for an
understanding of music and its interpretation,
a knowledge of foreign languages, and some­
times dramatic training. After completing a
4-year course of study, a graduate may be
awarded either the degree of Bachelor of Music,
or Bachelor of Science (in music), or Bachelor
of Fine Arts.
Young singers who plan to teach music in
public elementary or secondary schools need
at least a bachelor's degree with a major in
music education and must meet their State
certification requirements for teachers. Such
training is available in over 500 colleges and
universities throughout the country. College
teachers are usually required to have a master's
degree and sometimes a doctor's degree, but
exceptions may be made for especially wellqualified artists.
Singers of popular songs usually have some
voice training, but not as much as singers of
classical music. The typical popular song does
not demand that the voice be developed to cover
as wide a range on the musical scale as is
required for classical music, and the lack of a
powerful voice may be overcome by using a



microphone. Although voice training is an
asset for singers of popular music, many with
untrained voices have had successful careers.
There are some opportunities for young
singers of popular songs to become known in
their communities by participating in amateur
and paid performances while still in high school.
These engagements may lead to employment
with local dance bands, and possibly later with
well-known ones.
Young people wishing to become either classi­
cal or popular singers need to realize that, in
addition to musical ability, it often takes an
outstanding personality, an attractive appear­
ance, good contacts, and just plain good luck to
achieve a singing career. Furthermore, a career
in this art is often relatively short, since it
depends on a good voice and public acceptance
of the artist, both of which may be affected
by age.
Employment Outlook

The employment situation for singers of
either classical and popular music will prob­
ably remain highly competitive during the
1960's. As in past years, competition will be
especially keen among popular singers. A great
number of single job openings are likely to oc­
cur in the entertainment field— the opera and
concert stage, the movies, the theater, night
clubs, radio and television, dance bands, and
other places— but not enough to provide all
qualified singers with steady work. The great
majority of professional singers, therefore, will
probably have to supplement their incomes by
working part time as singing teachers or in
other jobs. The demand for church singers is
expected to expand because of the continued
growth in the size and number of religious con­
gregations, but most of these openings will
probably be filled either by part-time singers
who have steady employment in other fields or
by volunteers.
Little growth in overall employment opportunties for performers is likely over the long
run. The use of recorded music has practically
replaced the “ live" singer on radio; also, the
number of television performances given by
singers is, and will probably continue to be,
limited. On the other hand, the outlook for

220

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

singers who can meet State certification re­
quirements for positions as music teachers or
who can qualify for college teaching will be
considerably brighter than for performers. The
demand for music teachers in the Nation's
public elementary and secondary schools is ex­
pected to grow along with school enrollments.
Some increased employment of music teachers
also can be expected in colleges and univer­
sities, since enrollments in schools and depart­
ments of music in these institutions are likely
to rise along with the increase expected in
college enrollments generally. In addition,
music teachers will be needed to replace those
who will transfer to other fields of work, retire,
or die.
Earnings and Working Conditions

Most professional singers have relatively
modest earnings. For example, soloists with
church choirs received around $25 per service,
or its equivalent each month, in mid-1960, ac­
cording to the limited information available.
Singers employed by dance bands and in motion
pictures earned as much as $200 per week. In
contrast, the relatively few well-known singers
in the field earn considerably more than these
amounts. A concert soloist, opera star, or a
top recording artist of popular music may com­
mand more than $1,000 for a single performance.
The salaries of public school music teachers
were determined by the salary schedule adopted
for all teachers in their school system. Private
music teachers charged from $1 to $25 per
lesson, depending on the teacher's reputation,
and location, size of community, and other
factors.

Singers generally work at night and on week­
ends. School teachers have regular working
hours, and private voice teachers can usually
arrange to give lessons at their own convenience.
Work in the entertainment field is seasonal,
and few performers have steady jobs.
Singers who perform professionally on the
concert stage or in opera belong to the Ameri­
can Guild of Musical Artists, Inc.; those who
sing on radio or television or who make phono­
graph recordings are members of the American
Federation of Television and Radio Artists;
singers in the variety and night club field
belong to the American Guild of Variety Artists;
and those who sing in the movies belong to the
Screen Actors Guild, Inc. All of these unions
are branches of the Associated Actors and
Artistes of America (AFL^CIO).
Where To Go for More Information

Information about wages, hours of work, and
working conditions for performers is available
from the unions which organize singers in the
various entertainment media.
Information about accredited schools and de­
partments of music may be obtained from :
National Association of Schools of Music,
Knox College, Galesburg, 111.

Further information about employment op­
portunities for elementary and secondary school
music teachers is available from :
Music Educators National Conference, The Na­
tional Education Association of the United
States,
1201 16th St. N W ., Washington 6, D.C.

Actors and Actresses
(D.O.T. 0-02.11.15 and .41)

Nature of Work

Making a character come to life before an
audience is a job which has great glamour and
fascination for many people. It is also hard
and demanding work, requiring special talent
and involving many difficulties and uncertain­
ties.




Only a very few of the close to 20,000 actors
and actresses in the United States have achieved
recognition as stars— on the stage, in motion
pictures, or in television or radio. A somewhat
larger number are well-known, experienced per­
formers, frequently hired for supporting roles.
The great majority, however, are struggling for

221

THE PERFORMING ARTS

a toehold in the profession, glad to pick up
small parts whenever and wherever they can.
New actors generally start out in “ bit” parts,
where they have only a few lines to speak. If
successful, they may then have a chance to
progress to larger supporting roles, of which
there are several in most plays. The actors
who have minor parts in stage productions may
also serve as understudies for the principals.
If a leading player has to be absent from a
performance, the understudy gets a chance to
demonstrate his acting ability and attract at­
tention to his qualifications for important roles.
When a play is being prepared for produc­
tion, the cast has to spend many hours in
rehearsal. Actors who prepare for roles either
on the stage or in the movies must memorize
their lines and the cues— the last words spoken
by another actor which are the signal to come
on stage, make an exit, or begin speaking.
Radio actors typically read their parts. They
have to be especially skilled in expressing
character and emotion through the voice, since
this is their sole means of creating an imper­
sonation for their audience.
Besides the actors with speaking parts,
“ extras” who have no lines to deliver are used
in almost every motion picture. In spectacular
productions, the number of extras who take
part in crowd scenes is often very large. Al­
together, about 3,000 people were listed as movie
extras in Hollywood in 1959, although the num­
ber employed at any given time is generally
much smaller than this.
Some actors find jobs as dramatic coaches
or become directors of stage, television, radio,
or motion picture productions. A few are en­
gaged in teaching in schools of acting or in
the drama departments of colleges and univer­
sities.
Where Employed

The legitimate stage and motion pictures are
probably the largest fields of employment for
actors, although television and radio also employ
many actors intermittently.
In the winter, most employment opportuni­
ties on the stage are in New York. In the
summer months, however, stock companies in




Actors and actresses often rehearse many hours before
the curtain goes up.

suburban and resort areas are an equally large
field of employment. There are also a small
but growing number of winter stock companies
in southern resort areas. In addition, many
cities now have community or “ little” theaters,
which provide opportunities for local talent as
well as for actors and actresses brought in
from New York and other centers. Plays that
go “ on the road,” moving from city to city,
are normally produced in New York, and the
casts are therefore selected from actors located
there.
Although employment opportunities in mo­
tion pictures are centered in Hollywood, a few
studios are on Long Island, N.Y., and some in
other parts of the country. In television and
radio, most opportunities for actors are at the
headquarters of the main networks— in New
York, Los Angeles, and, to a lesser extent,
Chicago. In addition, some local television and
radio stations occasionally employ actors.
Training and Other Qualifications

Since an actor learns largely through prac­
tice, young people aspiring to acting careers
should get as much amateur acting experience
as possible. They obtain this experience by
taking part in high school and college plays or
working with little theatre and other acting
groups in their home towns.
Formal training in acting may also be help­
ful. Such training can be obtained at special

222
schools of the dramatic arts, chiefly in New
York, or at the High School of Performing Arts
which is part of that city's school system. The
dramatic arts are also taught in over 400 col­
leges and universities. A college degree is not
necessary for an acting career, but has value
in giving the actor an appreciation of the great
plays, old and new, and a greater understanding
of the roles he may be called on to play. College
drama curriculums usually include courses in
liberal arts subjects, speech, pantomine, play
production, and the history of the drama, as
well as practical courses in acting. Graduate
degrees in the fine arts or in drama are neces­
sary for college teaching positions.
Outstanding talent for acting and great in­
terest and determination are essential for suc­
cess in the theatre. Ability to memorize, a good
speaking voice, good health, and the physical
stamina to work long hours are necessary. Abil­
ity to sing and dance is an asset, and is becom­
ing increasingly important for a career in
acting.
Many actors who are successful in local dra­
matic productions eventually try for a chance
to appear on the New York stage. To accom­
plish this, an actor registers with one of the
theatrical agents in New York listed by the
Actors' Equity Association, AFL-CIO. When
the agent judges that an actor is promising,
the agent may arrange for auditions with pro­
ducers; the auditions may lead to acting con­
tracts.
In all media, whether the legitimate stage,
motion pictures, radio, or television, the best
way to start is to make use of the local oppor­
tunities and to build on the basis of such ex­
perience. Inexperienced actors usually find it
extremely difficult to obtain employment in
New York or Hollywood. Although motion pic­
ture producers do give some screen tests to in­
experienced applicants, only an infinitesimal
proportion of the many thousands of people
taking these tests succeed in entering the movies
in this way. The motion picture field is an
especially difficult one to enter, and employment
is often a result of previous successful experi­
ence on the Broadway stage.
To become a movie extra, one must get on
the list maintained by Central Casting, a no-fee




OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

agency which works with the Screen Extras
Guild and supplies all extras to the major movie
studios in Hollywood. Applicants are accepted
only when the number of people of a particular
type on the list— for example, athletic young
men, old ladies, or small children— is below the
foreseeable need. In recent years, only a very
small proportion of the total number of appli­
cants have succeeded in getting on the list.
Extras have very little, if any, opportunity to
advance to speaking roles in the movies.
The length of an actor's working life depends
largely on his skill and versatility. Great actors
and actresses can go on almost indefinitely.
Supporting players also may have opportunities
to portray the kinds of roles in which age is
not a disadvantage. On the other hand, for
many members of the profession, employment
opportunities become increasingly limited
during and past middle age. This is especially
true of those who become typed in romantic,
youthful roles.
Employment Outlook

The acting field has been overcrowded for
many years. In the legitimate theater and also
in motion pictures and radio and television, job
applicants outnumber the jobs available many
times. Most actors have employment in their
profession for only a small part of the year.
With the development first of motion pictures,
then of radio, then of TV, employment oppor­
tunities for actors in the theater have been more
and more reduced. The recent growth of sum­
mer stock companies has somewhat increased
the employment of actors in the summer
months, but the numbers of New York stage
productions, of motion pictures, and of radio
shows requiring actors have been declining.
Although a motion picture production may
use a very large number of actors, they are em­
ployed only while the picture is being filmed,
and the films are widely distributed and may be
used for years. Radio uses few actors. The
number of TV dramas and commercials using ac­
tors is increasing, but not nearly enough to
offset the decline in the other media. Moreover,
television stations often broadcast “ taped"
dramas rather than live productions, and, like

223

THE PERFORMING ARTS

motion picture films, these tapes may be widely
distributed and used for a long time. Taped
TV plays give employment to actors for only
one performance, whereas live dramas give em­
ployment whenever broadcast.
One possibility for future growth in the le­
gitimate theater lies in the establishment of
year-round professional acting companies in
more cities. The number of communities with
such acting groups is growing. Further in­
creases are likely also in the employment of
actors on television. In the acting field as a
whole, however, employment opportunities are
not expected to increase, and may well decrease
somewhat, over the next decade. The number
of new entrants to the profession will continue
to be greater than the number of employment
opportunities that may generally become avail­
able. Even highly talented young people are
likely to face great competition and economic
difficulties in the profession.
Earnings and Working Conditions

Actors and actresses employed in the legiti­
mate theater belong to the Actors’ Equity
Association. If employed in the movies or on
TV or radio, they belong to the Screen Actors
Guild, the Screen Extras Guild, or the Ameri­
can Federation of Television and Radio Artists.
These unions and the show producers sign
basic collective bargaining agreements which
set minimum salaries, hours of work, and other
conditions of employment. In addition, each
actor signs an individual contract which may
provide for higher salaries than those specified
in the basic agreement.
The minimum weekly salary for actors in
large New York theaters was $111 in 1960.
Those appearing in small “ off-Broadway” the­
aters had considerably lower rates. For shows
on the road, the minimum rate was $145 a week.
For rehearsal time, it was $82.50 a week in
Broadway shows and much lower in small “ offBroadway” theaters.
Motion picture actors and actresses had a
minimum daily rate of about $100 in mid-1960.
For extras, the minimum rate was about $24 a
day. Actors on network television received a
minimum of $155 for a single half-hour pro­



gram, and 10 hours of rehearsal time; actors on
radio received $49.60 for a half-hour perform­
ance, 1 rehearsal hour included. Those with
contracts for longer programs or a series of
programs had relatively lower rates.
In all fields, many well-known actors and
actresses have salary rates above the minimums.
The salaries of the few top stars are many
times the figures cited. On the other hand,
because of the frequent periods of unemploy­
ment characteristic of this profession, annual
earnings are low for all but a very few of the
best known performers. According to union
estimates, the earnings of actors from work in
the legitimate theater averaged well under
$2,000 in 1959. The majority of those employed
primarily in radio and television made slightly
more— probably around $2,500, on the average.
Screen extras averaged about $1,400 in 1958.
Eight performances amount to a week’s work
on the legitimate stage and any additional per­
formances are paid for as overtime. The basic
workweek after the opening of a show is 36
hours, including time for rehearsals. Prior to
the opening, however, the workweek is usually
longer to allow enough time for rehearsals.
Evening work is, of course, a regular part of a
stage actor’s life. Rehearsals may extend over
weekends and holidays as well as late at night.
Traveling over the weekend is often necessary
when plays are on the road.
Some actors are covered by a pension fund
and a growing number have hospitalization
insurance to which their employers contribute,
but very few have paid vacations or sick leave.
Most actors get little if any unemployment
compensation, since they seldom have enough
employment to meet the eligibility require­
ments. Consequently, when a show closes, they
often have to take any kind of casual work ob­
tainable while they are waiting for another
role.
Where To Go for More Information
Actors’ Equity Association,
226 West 47th St., New York 36, N .Y.
American Federation of Television and Radio
Artists,
15 West 44th St., New York 36, N .Y.

224

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

Dancers
(D.O.T. 0-45)

Nature of Work

Dancing is an ancient and worldwide art,
having many different forms. Its aim may be
to express emotions— joy, anger, grief, wor­
ship— to tell a story, or to achieve beautiful
and exciting patterns of movement.
Dancers in this country may perform in
classical ballet or modern dance, in dance
adaptations for musical shows, in folk dances, or
in tap and other popular kinds of dancing. In
the classical ballet, movements are based on
certain conventional or stylized “ positions,” and
women dance “ en pointe” (on the very tips of
their toes). The effect sought is one of effortless
grace. In modern dance, movements are much
more varied but are nonetheless carefully
planned and executed to follow a pattern.
In all types of dance productions, most of the
performers dance together as a chorus. A
smaller group of selected dancers may do special
numbers, and a very few do solo work. The num­
ber of ballerinas and other top artists is, of
course, much smaller still.
Many dancers combine teaching with their
stage work or teach full time in schools of the
ballet or in colleges and universities. A few
dancers have become choreographers, who
create new ballets or dance routines. Others
work as dance directors and train the dancers
in new productions.
This statement does not include instructors
of ballroom and other social dancing.
Where Employed

In mid-1960, there were about 15,000 dancers
and dancing teachers in the United States.
More than half of this number were teaching
in private schools of the dance and in schools
and colleges. The remainder were primarily
performers on the stage, screen, and television.
A few trained in dance therapy were employed
by hospitals to work in this new field used in the
treatment of mental disorders.




Dancing teachers are located chiefly in large
cities, but almost every town and city has its
school of the dance. The great majority of
performing dancers are in New York City, Los
Angeles, Las Vegas, and Chicago.
Training and Other Qualifications

Most girls and boys who expect to become
professional dancers have had this ambition
since they were young children. The traditional
way of preparing for a dancing career is to
begin serious training in a professional school
by age 12 or earlier. The age at which girls
should learn toe dancing depends on the individ­
ual child. In any case, 2 or 3 years of prior
preparation is needed before the young girl
should start dancing “ en pointe.” Professional
ballet training typically involves from 10 to 12
lessons per week for 11 or 12 months in the year,
plus many additional hours of practice. The
length of the training period depends on the
student's ability and physical development, but
many dancers begin their professional employ­
ment at age 15 or 16.
The selection of the professional dancing
school is important for two reasons. First, the
school must use expert judgment in setting the
pace of training since permanent damage can
be done to the legs and feet by too early and too
severe exercise. Second, the school's connections
with producers may be helpful in obtaining
employment on the stage, screen, and television.
Because of the strenuous program of training
in the professional schools, the general educa­
tion received by students in these schools is not
likely to exceed the legal minimum. However,
really great performing artists have to be more
than technicians. Many people competent to
judge therefore believe that a dancer's educa­
tion should include such subjects as music, lit­
erature, and history to aid them in their in­
terpretations of dramatic episodes and of music.
The High School of the Performing Arts in
New York City combines technical dance train­
ing with preparation for college, for students

225

THE PERFORMING ARTS

who can meet the academic standards and have
shown talent in one of the performing arts.
In addition, approximately 70 colleges and
universities confer bachelor's degrees on stu­
dents who have majored in physical education
and have concentrated on the dance, and some
give graduate degrees, the M.A. and Ph. D. A
few colleges and conservatories of music also
award degrees (usually in the fine arts) to
qualified students who major in the dance.
Labanotation, which is the method of writing
down dance routines and is comparable to
writing an orchestral score, is one of the ad­
vanced courses taught. Knowledge of this is
especially important to choreographers.
A student who elects a dance major in col­
lege will no doubt have had some prior basic
dance training. College age students are too old
to begin toe dancing, but this is not required
in modern dance. For college graduates, careers
as performers may be shorter because of a later
start, but their college education is an advan­
tage in obtaining employment in teaching pro­
fessional dancing or in choreography.
For teaching in the professional schools, ex­
perience as a performer is usually necessary; in
colleges and conservatories, graduate degrees
are generally required, but often experience as
a performer may be substituted. Maturity and
a broad educational background are also im­
portant for these positions.
Excellent health and unusual physical vitality
are necessary for a dancing career. Height and
body build should not vary much from the
average. Good feet with normal arches are re­
quired. These physical qualifications must be
accompanied by unusual talent for dancing.
For women dancers, employment in ballet
companies is very difficult to obtain after the
age of 30, except in the case of a few outstand­
ing stars, and for many women, such employ­
ment ends even earlier than this. Men who are
ballet dancers, and men and women who per­
form in modern dance productions, can usually
continue somewhat longer. After the employ­
able age as performers has been past, some
dancers teach in schools of the ballet in colleges,
or conservatories, or establish their own schools.
The few who become choreographers or dance



directors can continue working as long as
people in most other occupations.
Employment Outlook

Competition for performing jobs has been
great and employment very irregular in this
profession for many years, and this situation is
likely to persist. The supply of trained
dancers has always exceeded the demand, which
has been decreasing year after year. The num­
ber of stage productions has decreased because
of the competition of the motion picture indus­
try, which in turn has been adversely affected
by television. Very few stage shows have a run
of 26 weeks or more, and many “ fold" after the
first week. Thus, dancers seldom have anything
like full employment. In fact, most of them had
only about 10 to 12 weeks of employment as
performers during all of 1959, and a similar
number in other recent years.
During the 1960's, employment opportunities
for dance performers will probably remain
limited. The number of musical shows produced
for the stage and motion pictures, will probably
continue to decline. Although television will
offer some additional employment opportunities,
technical problems must be solved before this
medium can be fully satisfactory for largescale dance productions. Civic and community
dance groups are increasing in number, but
these still represent only a small field of em­
ployment for professional dancers. Most of the
openings for dance performers in the years
ahead will stem from the need to replace dancers
who leave the field.
The employment outlook for dancers who
have the personal and educational qualifications
for teaching will be much better than for those
trained only as performers. The growing in­
terest in the dance as one of the fine arts is one
of the reasons why the supply of people seeking
to become professional dancers continues to ex­
ceed the number of openings for performers.
On the other hand, it also contributes to the
demand for teachers of dancing and for dance
productions. The increase in college enrollments
will be another factor which will tend to enlarge
teaching opportunities. (See statement on
College and University Teachers.)

226
Men dancers face less competition for em­
ployment than do women dancers, since fewer
men than women seek dancing as a career and
nearly equal numbers are needed.
Earnings and Working Conditions

Dancers who perform professionally are
members of one of the unions affiliated with the
Associated Actors and Artistes of America
(AFL-CIO ). The American Guild of Musical
Artists, Inc., is the union to* which dancers
belong who perform in opera ballets, classical
ballet, and modern dance. Dancers may also
belong to other unions depending upon the field
in which they perform. (See statement on
Singers and Singing Teachers.) Minimum
salary rates, hours of work, and other condi­
tions of employment are spelled out in basic
agreements signed by the unions and the pro­
ducers. In addition, each dancer signs a sepa­
rate contract with the producer of his show
which has to be at least as favorable in the
matter of salary, hours of work, and working
conditions as the basic agreement.
The minimum salary for dancers in ballet
and other stage productions was $100 a week,
as of mid-1960. The minimum rate rehearsal
time was $75 a week. When a show goes on
tour, salaries are increased, since dancers pay
their own hotel bills. The employer pays the
cost of first-class transportation. If a dancer
signs a contract for a brief appearance— for
instance, for a performance on television or a
few days' work in a movie— the minimum rate
is higher, relative to time worked. However,
this difference is offset by the brevity of the
engagement and the long period likely to be
spent waiting for the next one. A few per­
formers, of course, have much higher salaries.
For principals, choreographers, and stars,
salaries in stage production ranged from $200
to over $2,000 per week in 1960.
Because most dancers are employed as per­
formers only a small part of the year, their
annual earnings are much less than would be
expected from these weekly rates. According
to union records, about half of all dancers em­
ployed in 1959 earned less than $2,000 from all




OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

professional performances on the stage, in
motion pictures, and on television. Only about
3 percent earned more than $10,000. Some
dancers qualified to teach in the technical
schools of the ballet are able to combine this
work with engagements as performers. A much
greater number have to supplement their in­
comes by such jobs as office work, waiting on
tables, or babysitting while waiting for a new
contract.
Salaries of teachers in the technical schools
of the ballet vary with the location and prestige
of the school. Dancers employed as teachers in
colleges and universities are paid on the same
basis as other faculty members. (See statement
on College and University Teachers.)
The performing dancer has a normal work­
week of 40 hours, and overtime is paid for any
additional hours. In stage productions, the
number of performances may not exceed eight
in any one week, but the dancers have to spend
some time every day in practice. Most stage
performances are, of course, in the evening,
and rehearsals may require very long hours,
often on weekends and holidays. When shows
are on the road, traveling over the weekend is
often required.
Dancers are entitled to some paid sick leave
and to various health and welfare benefits pro­
vided by their unions and to which the em­
ployers contribute.
Where To Go for More Information

Information on colleges and universities and
conservatories of music which provide for a
major in the dance, or some courses in the
dance, and details on the types of courses, and
other pertinent information may be obtained
from the Dance Directory, 1961-1962, compiled
by the American Association for Health, Physi­
cal Education and Recreation, a division of the
National Education Association, 1201 16th St.,
NW., Washington 6, D.C.
Information on hours, earnings, and working
conditions may be obtained directly from the
unions which organized dancers in the various
entertainment media.

OTHER PROFESSIONAL AND RELATED OCCUPATIONS
Architects
(D.O.T. 0-03.10)

Nature of Work

Architects plan buildings and other struc­
tures and supervise their construction. Their
goal is to design structures which are safe,
useful, and pleasing in appearance.
When an architect receives a commission for
a building, he meets with the client to discuss
the requirements and cost limitations of the
structure as well as the client’s preferences as
to style and plan. Subsequently, the architect
must make hundreds of decisions concerning the
details of the project. For example, if a school
is to be built, the architect must decide,
among other things, the entrances and exits
needed in case of fire; the amount of corridor
and staircase space required to enable students
to move easily from one- class to another; the
type and arrangement of storage space; and
the location, size, and interior arrangements
of the classrooms, laboratories, lunchroom, and
gymnasium.
After studying all the requirements of a
building, the architect draws up preliminary
plans, which are submitted to the client for his
approval. Alterations suggested by the client
are usually incorporated in the final design,
which includes the ground and floor plans as
well as drawings of the exterior of the building.
The final design is then translated into working
drawings, which show the exact dimensions of
every part of the structure and where the
plumbing, heating, electrical, air conditioning,
and other equipment are to be placed. In pre­
paring these working drawings, the architect
must take into account local and State building
codes, zoning laws, fire regulations, and other
ordinances.
Before the working drawings are completed,
consulting structural, mechanical, electrical,




and heating engineers are called in (except on
small jobs where engineers employed by the
plumbing and heating contractors may provide
the engineering services needed). The engi­
neers’ mechanical drawings are then coordi­
nated with the architect’s working drawings,
and additional specifications are prepared list­
ing the materials to be used in construction,
the equipment, and, in some cases, the fur­
nishings.
The building is now “ off the board,” but the
architect’s responsibility is by no means ended.
He prepares a list of the building contractors
to be invited to bid on the job, receives their
sealed bids, and then assists the client in de-

Architect submitting plans of new building for client's
approval.

227

228
riding which bid to accept. The architect also
aids in drawing up the contract between client
and contractor and acts as the client's advisor
and representative in dealings with the con­
tractor. As construction proceeds, the architect
makes periodic inspections of the project to
make certain that the design is not altered and
that the materials specified in the contract are
used in the construction. If problems arise be­
tween his client and the contractor, the archi­
tect may be called on to help settle the dispute.
Not until the project is finished, all required
tests made, and guarantees received from the
contractor is the architect's work completed.
Most architects plan and design a wide vari­
ety of structures, ranging from schools and
churches to hospitals and bus terminals. How­
ever, some architects may become specialists in
the design of one particular class of structure,
such as educational, residential, commercial, or
industrial buildings.
In large architectural firms, or when work­
ing on large-scale projects, architects frequent­
ly specialize in one phase of architectural work,
usually design, specification writing, or con­
struction supervision. Most architects employed
in large architectural firms, however, prepare
working drawings of the various projects, the
scope of their activity and the degree of their
responsibility depending on their ability and
experience.
Where Employed

An estimated 26,000 registered (licensed)
architects were employed in the United States
in 1960. In addition, several thousand people
who had not received a license were working
in positions requiring architectural training.
Although there are some outstanding women
architects, only 1 percent of the registered
architects are women.
Approximately half of all architects are selfemployed, either practicing individually or as
members of a firm of architects. Most of the
others are employees of architectural firms.
Some architects work for engineers, builders,
real estate firms, and other businesses with
large construction programs. A small number
are employed by government agencies. Another



OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

small group are full-time teachers in schools
of architecture. A few architects are employed
in fields related to architecture, such as city
and community planning, urban redevelop­
ment, and sales engineering.
Members of the profession are located in all
parts of the country, primarily in metropolitan
areas. In recent years, more than half of the
registered architects have been in the following
seven States: New York, California, Illinois,
Pennsylvania, Texas, Ohio, and New Jersey.
Training and Other Qualifications

A license for the practice of architecture is
required by law in all States and the District
of Columbia. In general, the purpose of these
laws is to insure that architectural work which
may affect life, health, or property is done by
qualified architects. Requirements for admis­
sion to the licensing examination are set by
the individual States. In general, the require­
ments include graduation from a recognized
professional school followed by 3 years of prac­
tical experience in an architect's office. As a
substitute for architectural school training,
however, most States accept longer periods of
practical experience, usually 10 to 12 years.
Professional training in architecture was of­
fered in 1960 by 71 colleges and universities
in the United States, 51 of which were ac­
credited by the National Architectural Ac­
crediting Board. The great majority of these
collegiate schools of architecture offered a 5year curriculum leading to the bachelor of
architecture degree.
Most schools of architecture admit qualified
high school graduates who meet the entrance
requirements of the liberal arts college with
which the school of architecture is associated.
Some schools, however, require 1 or 2 years of
preprofessional education in a college or uni­
versity, followed by 3 or 4 years of architectural
training. In general, architectural schools pre­
fer that students' preparation include mathe­
matics, science, social studies, language, and
art. Training or ability in both freehand draw­
ing and drafting are important tools for an
architect, though not a requirement for enter­
ing a course in architecture.

OTHER PROFESSIONAL AND RELATED OCCUPATIONS

A typical curriculum in architecture includes
not only architectural courses but also other
subjects— usually English, mathematics, phys­
ics, chemistry, sociology, and economics. Some
examples of technical and professional courses
included in an architectural curriculum are:
Architectural design, working drawings, spe­
cification writing, graphic presentation, free­
hand drawing, the history of architecture, pro­
fessional ethics, and business practices.
Success in the profession requires an unusual
combination of abilities— a capacity to master
technical problems, a gift for artistic creation,
and a flair for business and for human rela­
tions. To determine their interests and poten­
tialities, young people should, if possible, spend
some time in an architect’s office before enter­
ing architectural school. Architectural students
are also encouraged to work for architects or
for building contractors during summer vaca­
tions. Such work gives the student some
knowledge of practical problems and an ad­
vantage over the inexperienced graduate when
he looks for his first regular job.
After completing his architectural school
training, the new graduate usually begins as a
junior draftsman in an architectural firm, as­
signed mainly to making drawings and models
of building projects or to the drafting of details
in the working drawings. As he gains expe­
rience, he is given added responsibility and is
entrusted with more complex work. After about
3 years, he may progress to chief or senior
draftsman, with responsibility for all the major
details of a set of working drawings. He may
become a construction supervisor or a job cap­
tain. As a job captain, he has the responsibility
for a full set of working drawings and the
supervision of other draftsmen and may also
draw up the preliminary plans for a structure.
Some men become designers rather than job
captains or construction supervisors, whereas
others branch off into the field of specification
writing. An employee who is particularly
valued by his firm may be designated an asso­
ciate and may receive, in addition to his salary,
a share of the profits. Usually, however, the
architect’s goal is to establish his own prac­
tice. About half ultimately achieve this goal.



229

Employment Outlook

Employment opportunities for architects are
expected to be favorable through the mid1960’s, and continued growth in their employ­
ment is anticipated over the long run.
Since most architects work on nonresidential
projects— office buildings, stores, schools, hos­
pitals, government buildings— the demand for
architects’ services depends primarily on the
volume of such construction. Nonresidential
construction is expected to increase consid­
erably in the future; by 1970, the volume may
be about 80 percent greater than in 1959. Resi­
dential construction, a relatively small but
growing area of work for architects, is also ex­
pected to increase; in 1970, it may be roughly
40 percent greater than in 1959. Moreover, the
increasing size of modern nonresidential build­
ings and homeowners’ growing awareness of
the value of architects’ services are expected
to bring about a greater amount of architec­
tural planning. City and community planning
projects, another growing area of employment
for architects, are also expected to increase con­
siderably over the next decade. Therefore, the
demand for architectural services should ex­
pand substantially during the 1960’s. In addi­
tion to positions created by the expected in­
crease in demand for architectural services,
more than 500 openings are likely to arise each
year owing to retirements and deaths.
Along with the anticipated growth of em­
ployment in the profession, a rise in the num­
ber of architectural graduates is likely to oc­
cur. Assuming that graduations in this field
follow the trend expected in college graduations
as a whole, the number of architectural de­
grees awarded each year during the 1960’s
should be considerably greater than the 1,700
degrees awarded in 1959. If the construction
industry expands as anticipated, however, new
architectural graduates should have favorable
employment opportunities through the mid1960’s, at least. On the other hand, a long
period of reduced construction activity would
seriously reduce employment opportunities for
architects.
The outlook for women architects is less fa­
vorable than for men. Over the next decade, it
is anticipated that women who are good drafts­

230

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

men will be able to obtain employment readily.
However, the possibilities of advancement are
limited for most women architects, and very
few achieve an associationship or establish
themselves in private practice.
Earnings and Working Conditions

Starting- salaries for architectural school
graduates ranged from $80 to $120 a week in
1960, according to available information.
Draftsmen with 3 or more years’ experience
had salaries ranging from $100 to $150 a week;
job captains, specification writers, and other
senior employees earned up to $200 a week.
Senior employees often receive yearly bonuses
in addition to their salaries.

Architects in private practice generally earn
considerably more than high-paid salaried em­
ployees of architectural firms. The range in
their incomes is very wide, however. Some
architects with many years of experience and
good reputations earn well over $25,000 a year,
while many architects who have only recently
entered private practice have very low in­
comes. Young architects who start their own
practices often go through a period when their
expenses are greater than their income and
need a financial reserve to tide them over the
first years of independent practice.
Where To Go for More Information
The American Institute of Architects,
1735 New York Ave. N W ., Washington 6, D.C.

Commercial Artists
(D.O.T. 0-44)

Nature of Work

Illustrations designed to catch the eye of the
reader and to stimulate interest in a particular
product are found in most newspapers, mag­
azines, and other publications. These drawings
are prepared by commercial artists who also
create television and movie cartoons, fashion
illustrations, greeting card illustrations, pack­
aging and wallpaper designs, as well as many
other kinds of artwork.
Commercial art includes work at different
levels of skill. Some artists do routine but
essential tasks such as “ pasting-up”— cutting
and pasting together the basic parts of an ad­
vertisement or other artwork. The majority
are “ general boardmen” who spend nearly all
their time over the drawing board— sketching,
lettering, retouching photographic prints, pre­
paring charts and maps, cartooning, or per­
forming other art assignments. Other artists,
called layout men, carry out art projects,
planning the selection and arrangement of
illustrations and lettering and determining color
and other elements of design. Still other artists
work as letterers, executing appropriate letter­
ing either freehand or with the use of mechani­
cal aids, or as illustrators who make sketches



Commercial artist painting magazine cover with oil
paints.

and drawings. Art directors
velop ideas for art programs.
buy and sell the artwork of
their programs and supervise

and designers de­
Art directors also
others for use in
an office staff.

Where Employed

At least 50,000 commercial artists were em­
ployed in this country in 1960. About onefourth of these were women. Many commercial

OTHER PROFESSIONAL AND RELATED OCCUPATIONS

artists work as freelance artists, selling* their
artwork to any available customers— chiefly ad­
vertising agencies, commercial art studios,
printing and publishing firms, television and
motion picture studios, and department stores.
In addition, some commercial artists are em­
ployed as staff artists on a regular salaried
basis by each of these types of organizations
and also by sign shops, mail-order houses,
greeting card companies, and a variety of other
business establishments. A number work for
Federal Government agencies, principally the
Departments of the Army, Navy, and Air Force.
Commercial artists teach in art schools. Some
commercial artists who hold salaried positions
also do freelance work.
Most commercial artists are employed in big
cities, such as New York, Chicago, Philadelphia,
Los Angeles, and Detroit, where the largest
users of commercial art are located. Some are
employed, however, in nearly every city.
Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement

Artistic ability is the most important quali­
fication for work in the field of commercial art,
but training in its techniques is also essential.
Extensive educational training in the fine
arts— painting, sculpture, or architecture— and
also in academic studies provides a good founda­
tion not only for obtaining employment as a
commercial artist but especially for qualifying
for promotions to higher level jobs. Training in
these subjects, however, should be supple­
mented by specialized courses in commercial
and applied art.
The most widely accepted training for com­
mercial art is the instruction given in art
schools or institutes that specialize in commer­
cial and applied art. To enter art school, a high
school education is usually, but not always,
required. Some schools admit only those appli­
cants who demonstrate talent by submitting
acceptable work samples. The course of study,
which may include some academic work, gen­
erally takes 2 or 3 years, and a certificate is
awarded on graduation. A growing number of
art schools, particularly those in or connected
with universities, require 4 or more years of
study and confer a bachelor's degree— com­



231

monly the bachelor of fine arts (B.F.A.) de­
gree. In these schools, commercial art instruc­
tion is supplemented by courses in such liberal
arts subjects as English and history. Some
training in commercial art may also be obtained
through courses offered by public vocational
high schools and through practical experience
on the job.
The first year in art school may be devoted
primarily to the study of fundamentals— per­
spective, design, color harmony, composition,
and use of pencil, crayon, pen and ink, and
other art media. Subsequent study generally
includes drawing from life, advertising layout,
lettering, typography, illustration, and highly
specialized courses in the student's particular
field of interest.
Accomplished draftsmanship, creative imagi­
nation, and artistic judgment concerning the
harmony of color and line are basic require­
ments for a successful career in commercial
art. The various specialties, however, differ
in some of the specific abilities required. For
example, letterers and retouchers must be able
to do precise and detailed work requiring ex­
cellent coordination, whereas illustrators and
designers need imagination, a distinctive art
style, and, in most cases, the ability to draw
well. Some experience with photography is use­
ful to those interested in design jobs. For com­
mercial artists engaged in freelance work, the
ability to sell both ideas and finished work to
employers or clients is very important. Art
directors need a strong educational background
not only in art and business practices, but also
in general liberal arts subjects.
Beginning commercial artists usually need
some on-the-job training before they can
qualify for other than strictly routine work.
Advancement is based largely on the individ­
ual's artistic talent, creative ability, and educa­
tion. After a few years of experience, many
commercial artists leave salaried employment
for freelance work.
Often commercial artists assemble their best
artwork into a folder, or “ portfolio," to use
in displaying their work to others. A good
portfolio is of great importance to both begin­
ning and experienced artists in obtaining initial

232

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

employment and freelance assignments as well
as in changing jobs.

card companies, advertising agencies, commer­
cial art studios, and government agencies.

Employment Outlook

Earnings and Working Conditions

Employment and advancement opportunities
for talented and well-trained commercial artists
are expected to be good through the mid-lOGO’s.
Young people with only average ability, how­
ever, will encounter competition for beginning
jobs and will have limited opportunity for ad­
vancement. Jobs as illustrators, designers, and
art directors will continue to be few in num­
ber, much sought after, and open only to the
talented, creative, and experienced artists.
A moderate increase in employment of com­
mercial artists is expected over the long run.
The upward trend in business expenditures for
all kinds of visual advertising will be reflected
in a growing demand for commercial artists;
television animations and packaging design are
expected to offer expanding areas of employ­
ment; and other forms of art such as poster
and window displays, greeting cards, and
movie cartoons will probably offer employment
for an increasing number of artists. In addi­
tion, the growing field of industrial design is
expected to need more artists who are qualified
to work with engineering concepts. Although
the greater use of photography may continue
to displace illustrators in a few types of work,
a growing demand for illustrators’ services is
expected in television and other fields.
Generally, the effect of a serious economic
downturn would be a reduction in advertising
budget and a decrease in employment of com­
mercial artists. However, during minor busi­
ness recessions, the policy of many companies
is to push their products more vigorously
through the use of advertising art.
Women with exceptional artistic talent will
continue to find employment in all aspects of
commercial art work. The textile industry
will offer many opportunities, since it hires
women almost exclusively for designing. Work
as fashion illustrators in department stores will
continue to be another major source of em­
ployment for women artists. Some will do free­
lance work, and others will obtain positions
with printing and publishing houses, greeting

Inexperienced commercial artists typically
earned between $50 and $80 a week, in 1960,
according to limited data available. Talented
artists with strong educational backgrounds
and a good “ portfolio,” however, sometimes
started at higher salaries. After a few years
of experience, qualified artists may expect to
earn $100-$125 or more a week. Art directors,
designers, executives, well-known freelance
illustrators, and others in top positions gen­
erally have much higher earnings, many beyond
$15,000 a year.
The earnings of freelance artists have an
especially wide range, since they are affected
by such factors as the amount of artwork sold,
the price that the individual artist receives
for his work, and the nature of the work he
performs. For example, a recent private survey
indicates that a freelance illustrator may re­
ceive from $25 for a single fashion sketch to
$750 for a color figure with a background; from
$1,000 to $4,000 for a color cover for a national
magazine; or from $75 to $250 for a book jacket.
Sometimes freelance artists are paid for their
services by the hour; letterers may be paid by
the word.
Salaried commercial artists generally work
35 to 40 hours a week, but sometimes they
must work long hours under a considerable
amount of pressure in order to meet deadlines.
Freelance artists usually have irregular work­
ing hours.




Where To Go for More Information

Information on art training and employment
trends is available from :
National Society of Art Directors,,
115 East 40th St., New York 16, N .Y.

A list of schools offering highly specialized
education in art and design is available from :
National Association of Schools of Art,
50 Astor PL, New York 3, N .Y.

OTHER PROFESSIONAL AND RELATED OCCUPATIONS

233

Draftsmen
(D.O.T. 0-48)

Nature of Work

In making an airplane or a house, a ship or
a television set, a bridge or an electric iron,
manufacturing and construction companies need
detailed plans giving dimensions and speci­
fications for the entire object and each of its
parts. The workers who draw these plans are
draftsmen. Their drawings translate the ideas
and calculations of engineers into complete and
accurate working plans which are used by
skilled craftsmen in making the desired object.
Draftsmen in high-grade positions, such as
that of design draftsman or senior draftsman,
generally work from rough sketches, specifica­
tions, or field notes furnished by an engineer,
architect, or designer. Their job is to trans­
form ideas into precise drawings, generally
called layouts. They must have enough back­
ground in engineering, architecture, and science
so that the desired design, as outlined in rough
sketches by an engineer or others, will be ac­
curately represented in their drawings. They
may be required to make calculations concern­
ing the strength, reliability, and cost of ma­
terials ; to use engineering handbooks and tables
for computations; and to have still other skills,
including facility with drafting instruments
and devices. In addition, draftsmen in high-level
jobs must be able, through their drawings* and
specifications, to describe exactly what ma­
terials and processes skilled craftsmen are to
use on a particular job. Some draftsmen in
top positions do independent designing or act
as supervisors.
From the layouts prepared by design drafts­
men, working drawings are made of details or
parts of the machine or article to be manu­
factured or structure to be built. Draftsmen
who do this work are usually known as detailers. Their job also requires considerable ex­
perience and' training. Other experienced
draftsmen designated as checkers carefully ex­
amine each drawing for errors. A less skilled
group of workers are the tracers who may be
employed, often in beginning jobs, to make cor­
rections and to prepare drawings for reproduc


Draftsmen translate engineers’ sketches into exact
drawings.

tion by tracing them on transparent cloth,
paper, or plastic film. However, in recent years,
photoreproduction has been rapidly eliminating
the need for tracing.
Practically all draftsmen specialize in some
particular field of work. The largest fields are
mechanical, electrical, electronics, aeronauti­
cal, structural, architectural, naval architec­
tural, and topographical drafting.
Where Employed

An estimated 225,000 draftsmen were em­
ployed in the United States in 1959. More than
85 percent of these workers were employed in
industry, chiefly in manufacturing. The manu­
facturing industries which employ the largest
numbers of draftsmen include machinery, elec­
trical equipment, aircraft and parts, fabricated
metal products and ordnance, primary metals,
petroleum products and extraction, professional
and scientific instruments, and chemicals and
allied products. Substantial numbers are also
employed by engineering and architectural con-

234
suiting firms, construction companies, and
transportation and other public utilities.
Sizable numbers of draftsmen work for
Federal, State, and local governments. Of those
employed by the Federal Government, the large
majority work for the Departments of the
Army, Navy, and Air Force.
Training and Other Qualifications

A person can acquire the specialized training
needed to become a draftsman from a number
of sources, including technical institutes, jun­
ior colleges, extension divisions of universities,
colleges offering special 2-year programs, tech­
nical high schools, correspondence schools, and
vocational and trade schools. It is also possible
to become a draftsman by serving a 3- or 4year apprenticeship or by some other type of
on-the-job training combined with part-time
schooling. In any case, the training should in­
clude mathematics and physical sciences, as
well as mechanical drawing.
Because many of the higher level drafting
jobs require a knowledge of manufacturing or
construction methods, instruction in shop prac­
tices and even the actual acquisition of some
shop skill are advantageous to the person in­
terested in a drafting career. Many technical
schools offer training in various areas of tech­
nology, which includes shop practice and courses
in engineering and science as well as instruction
in drafting.
Draftsmen should have aptitude for detail
and for visualizing objects of two or three di­
mensions. Artistic ability is not generally re­
quired, but may be very helpful in some special­
ized fields. Good eyesight is important, since
drafting involves close work.
Employment Outlook

Employment opportunities for well-trained
draftsmen are expected to be favorable during
the mid-1960’s. Although photoreproduction of
drawings and newly developed electronic equip­
ment may eliminate some routine tasks done by
draftsmen, continued expansion in the employ­
ment of well-qualified draftsmen is anticipated
over the long run. As the engineering and sci­
entific occupations grow, more draftsmen will



OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

be required as supporting personnel. Moreover,
the industries employing most draftsmen are
expected to expand further. With the increas­
ing complexity of industrial operations, design
problems will become more and more involved,
adding to the need for well-trained draftsmen.
In addition to draftsmen needed to fill new posi­
tions, many will be required each year to re­
place those who retire, die, or move into other
fields of work. Losses to the occupation from
retirements and deaths alone were estimated
to be about 2,000 during 1960 and will rise
slowly in the future.
This analysis, like that for most technician
jobs, assumes a continued high level of employ­
ment and of business activity in the country as
a whole. It also assumes that Government-spend­
ing for defense— a major factor affecting de­
mand for draftsmen— will remain high. A sub­
stantial cut in defense spending or a sharp
drop in business activity in the metalworking,
electrical equipment, or construction industries
would reduce the demand for draftsmen. On
the other hand, a substantial increase in de­
fense expenditures or an acceleration in high­
way or other public works programs would in­
tensify the demand.
Earnings

Weekly earnings averaged $72.50 for tracers
and $90 for junior draftsmen in metropolitan
areas in the winter of 1959-60. For senior
draftsmen, the average was $120 and for lead
draftsmen, $146.
In the Federal Civil Service, the entrance
salary in trainee draftsman positions was $3,500
in 1960 for high school graduates without work
experience. For those with post-high-school
education or experience in drafting, entrance
salaries were higher. The majority of exper­
ienced draftsmen working for the Federal Gov­
ernment earned between $4,300 and $6,400 in
1960, and some earned still higher salaries.
Where To Go for More Information
American Federation of Technical Engineers,
900 F St. N W ., Washington 4, D.C.

See also section on Where To Go for More
Information in the chapter on Technicians.
(Refer to index for page number.)

235

OTHER PROFESSIONAL AND RELATED OCCUPATIONS

Foresters
(D.O.T. 0-35.07)

Nature of Work

Forests are one of America’s greatest nat­
ural resources, covering more than one-fourth
of the land area of the country. Foresters pro­
tect, manage, and develop these valuable prop­
erties. Safeguarding forests from fire, destruc­
tive insects, and diseases is one part of their
work. Other important duties include reforesta­
tion, estimating the amount of timber in a
forest area and appraising its value, selling or
buying timber, and planning and supervising
the cutting of timber so that mature trees are
removed and younger ones left for future log­
ging operations. Some foresters, called forest­
land managers, are also responsible for addi­
tional resources and activities, such as camps
and parks, wildlife, and grazing land.
Because the work of the forester covers such
a wide range of activities, numerous specialties
have developed. Included among these are
wildlife management, range management, for­
est economics, and recreation work. Foresters
may also specialize in such activities as re­
search, writing and editing, extension work
(providing information about scientific forestry
practice to farmers, logging companies, and the
public), and teaching at the university level.
Some of the specialties are increasingly be­
coming recognized as distinct professions. For
example, wood technologists study the physical
and chemical properties of wood, develop new
uses for wood, &nd bring about better utiliza­
tion of wood and its byproducts.
Where Employed

An estimated 19,000 foresters were employed
in forestry and closely allied fields in the United
States in 1960. About half of these were in
private industry, working mainly for pulp and
paper, and logging, lumbering, and milling
companies. Some were in business for them­
selves as consultants or as managers of their
own land. Although there were only a few
hundred forest consultants, this field repre-




Courtesy of U.S. Forest Service

Forester measuring tree marked for cutting.

sents a growing source of employment for pro­
fessional foresters.
About one-third of the foresters were em­
ployed by the Federal Government, mainly in
the Forest Service of the U.S. Department of
Agriculture. Some were employed by the De­
partment of the Interior, and a few by other
Federal agencies, including the Tennessee Val­
ley Authority and the Department of Defense.
Approximately 2,000 foresters worked for State
governments, and the remainder were employed
chiefly by educational institutions and local
governments.
Training and Other Qualifications

A bachelor’s degree in forestry is usually the
minimum educational requirement for begin­
ning positions in forestry. Training in forestry
leading to a bachelor’s or higher degree was
offered in 1960 by 43 colleges or universities,
28 of which were accredited by the Society of
American Foresters. The curriculums in most

236
of these schools include specialized forestry
courses in five essential areas: (1) silviculture
(methods of growing and improving forest
crops) ; (2) forest protection (primarily from
fire, insects, and disease); (3) forest manage­
ment (the application of business methods and
technical forestry principles to the operation
of a forest property); (4) forest economics
(study of the factors affecting the supply of
and the demand for forest products); and (5)
forest utilization (the harvesting and market­
ing of the forest crop and other forest re­
sources). In addition to these forestry courses,
the curriculums also include courses in science,
engineering, economics, and the humanities.
The great majority of colleges require that stu­
dents spend one summer in summer camps op­
erated by the college. Forestry students are
also encouraged to work other summers in or­
der to gain firsthand experience in forest or
conservation work.
Most schools of forestry offer an additional
year of training leading to the master's de­
gree and some offer doctoral training. Al­
though graduate training is not essential for
entrance into the profession, the master's de­
gree is generally required for teaching or re­
search positions and the doctorate is highly
desirable for such posts.
A small number of foresters have entered
the profession with training primarily in a re­
lated field such as horticulture, botany, agron­
omy, or other biological sciences. Also, special­
ists in forest engineering have entered with
engineering degrees, and forest product tech­
nologists and specialists in the utilization of
wood and wood products have entered the field
with degrees in chemistry, physics, or engi­
neering. However, the attainment of profes­
sional status without a degree in forestry is
becoming more and more difficult.
In addition to adequate training, qualifica­
tions for success in forestry include the ability
to meet and deal effectively with people. Many
jobs also require the ability to endure vigorous
physical activity, and a willingness to work in
isolated areas.



OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

Employment Outlook

Employment opportunities for forestry grad­
uates are expected to be favorable through the
mid-1960's. As in recent years, there will prob­
ably be particular need for well-qualified per­
sonnel with advanced degrees for research and
teaching positions.
The longrun outlook is for fairly rapid ex­
pansion of employment in forestry. The coun­
try's growing population and rising living
standards will tend to increase the demand for
lumber, paper, and other major forest prod­
ucts, although the demand for these products
will also be influenced by any changes in the
general level of business activity affecting con­
struction and other major wood-using indus­
tries. In addition, the large-scale application
of scientific forestry practices to forest lands,
both public and private, is expected to increase
over the next decade. Moreover, fields closely
allied to forestry— such as wildlife manage­
ment, wood utilization, watershed manage­
ment, forest recreation, and range manage­
ment— have grown rapidly in the past and
should continue to provide many new positions
in both government and private industry.
Private and industrial owners of timberland
are expected to offer numerous employment
opportunities to foresters during the next dec­
ade, primarily because of the expected increase
in the demand for wood and wood products.
The forest products industries are becoming
increasingly aware of the profitability of im­
proved forestry and logging practices and are
making use of new technical developments for
utilizing the entire forest crop. Technical de­
velopments are also expected to make it pos­
sible to cut timber in forests now regarded as
unprofitable for timber operations. In addition,
competition from metal, plastics, and other ma­
terials is expected to stimulate further research
and development in wood utilization and tech­
nology to reduce costs and develop new and
improved products.
Employment of foresters in the Federal Gov­
ernment is also expected to grow in the next
decade. The Forest Service of the U.S. De­
partment of Agriculture anticipates that its
employment of foresters will grow at a rapid
rate in the future. Among the major factors

237

OTHER PROFESSIONAL AND RELATED OCCUPATIONS

which are expected to bring about this growth
are the increasing volume of timber cut on
Federal lands, and the trend toward more sci­
entific management of these lands.
State Government agencies are also expected
to expand their employment of foresters. For­
est fire control and other Federal-State coopera­
tive programs, such as providing technical ad­
vice to owners of private forest lands, are being
channeled more and more through State or­
ganizations. Growing demands for recreation
facilities in forest lands are likely to result in
expansion of State parks and other recreation
areas.
In addition to openings created by the grow­
ing need for professional foresters, some va­
cancies will occur as a result of retirements
and deaths. However, such openings will not
be numerous during the 1960’s, since foresters
are a relatively young group.
Along with the anticipated growth of employ­
ment in the profession, a rise in the number of
forestry graduates is likely to occur. If young
men with degrees in forestry continue to rep­
resent the same proportion of all college grad­
uates as in recent years, by 1970, the number
of bachelor’s degrees granted in forestry may
be almost twice the number conferred in 1959.
Graduating classes of this size may encounter
competition for the better paying professional
entry jobs in forestry.
Opportunities for women in the profession
of forestry are and probably will continue to
be limited, largely because of the necessary
field work, much of which is rigorous and in
isolated places. The few women presently em­
ployed in forestry are engaged chiefly in re­
search, and future opportunities for women are
also likely to be primarily in this field.

In Federal Government positions in late
1960, foresters with bachelor’s degrees and no
experience could begin at either $4,345 or $5,355 a year, depending on their college record.
Inexperienced foresters with 1 full year of
graduate study could begin at $5,355; those
with 2 full years of graduate study at $6,435.
New graduates with the Ph. D. degree were
eligible to start at $7,560 or $8,955.
Within a particular field of employment,
foresters with Ph. D. degrees usually have high­
er starting salaries than those with bachelor’s
or master’s degrees. Furthermore, throughout
their working life, foresters with the doctor’s
degree tend to have higher average earnings
than those with bachelor’s or master’s degrees.
Regardless of the field in which they are em­
ployed, most foresters can look forward to a
marked increase in earnings as they gain ex­
perience. For example, in private industry in
1959, the average salary of foresters with be­
tween 21 and 25 years of experience was more
than double that of beginning foresters.
As part of his regular duties, the forester
must spend considerable time out of doors un­
der all kinds of weather conditions. Many for­
esters put in extra hours in travel and in
emergency duty such as firefighting. Beginning
foresters, in particuliar, are often required to
travel for extended periods of time. The young
forester is also likely to be shifted frequently
from one headquarters to another. With ad­
vancement to more responsible positions, he can
expect a more permanent assignment.
Where To Go for More Information
Society of American Foresters,
425 Mills Bldg., 17th and Pennsylvania Ave. N W .,
Washington 6, D.C.
Forest Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture,
Washington 25, D.C.

Earnings and Working Conditions

The average (median) salary of beginning
foresters employed by private industry was
about $5,300 a year in 1959, according to the
Society of American Foresters. In State Gov­
ernment positions, beginning salaries averaged
about $4,800 a year. Starting salaries for for­
estry teachers in colleges and universities av­
eraged about $5,100 a year.



American Forest Products Industries, Inc.,
1816 N St. N W ., Washington 6, D.C.
National Lumber Manufacturers Association,
1319 18th St. N W ., Washington 6, D.C.

The U.S. Civil Service Commission, Wash­
ington 25, D.C., will furnish information on
positions available in Federal Government
agencies. (For further information on such
positions and how to apply for them, see chap­
ter on Government Occupations.)

238

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

Geographers
(D.O.T. 0-36-93 )

Nature of Work

Geographers seek knowledge about the dis­
tribution throughout the world of people and
natural resources. They study the physical
characteristics of the earth, such as its terrain,
minerals, soils, water, vegetation and climate.
They also study the activities of people— where
they live, why they are located there, and how
they earn a living.
Most geographers specialize in one of the
several main branches of geography. Those
working in economic geography deal with the
geographic distribution of economic activities—
including manufacturing, mining, farming,
trade, and communications. Regional geogra­
phers are concerned with all the physical,
economic, political, and cultural characteristics
of a particular region or area. The area under
analysis may range in size from a river basin
or an island, to a State, an entire country, or
even a continent. Those specializing in physical
geography study the earth’s physical charac­
teristics. Geographers in the field of cartog­
raphy are concerned with the planning and
construction of maps, as well as the compilation
of data for them.
Most geographers are engaged in college
teaching or in research, and many do both.
Their research may include the study and
analysis of the distribution of soils, vegetation,
land forms, climate, and mineral and water
resources, sometimes utilizing surveying equip­
ment and meteorological instruments. They
also analyze political organizations, transporta­
tion systems, and economic activities. Some
geographers spend much time in field study and
in interpreting statistics, preparing statistical
tabulations, and analyzing aerial photographs
and data collected in the field. They often con­
struct and interpret maps, graphs, and dia­
grams.
Except for those in university positions,
relatively few professional workers in the field
of geography have the title of geographer.
Many have job titles which describe their spe­
cialization, such as map cataloger, cartographer,
or regional analyst. Others have titles relating



to the subject matter of their study, such as
photointelligence specialist or climatological
analyst. Still other geographers have general
job titles, such as community planner, market or
business analyst, or intelligence specialist.
Where Employed

Geography is a relatively small field of em­
ployment. Only about 2,000 geographers, less
than 10 percent of whom were women, were
employed in the United States in 1960.
Well over half of all geographers are employed
by colleges and universities. Some teach in
institutions which do not have a separate de­
partment of geography and so are assigned to
departments of geology, economics, or other
physical or social sciences.
The second largest field of employment is the
Federal Government, which employs about onefourth of all geographers, mostly in the Wash­
ington, D.C. area. Among the major Govern­
ment agencies employing these workers are the
Departments of Defense, Commerce, Agricul­
ture, the Interior, and State; and the Central
Intelligence Agency. State and local govern­
ments also employ a number of geographers,
mostly on city and State planning and develop­
ment commissions.
Most of the small but growing number of
geographers employed by private industry work
for map companies, textbook publishers, travel
agencies, manufacturing firms, chain food
stores, and marketing research organizations.
A few geographers work for nonprofit or­
ganizations, institutes, and scientific founda­
tions.
Training and Other Qualifications

A bachelor’s degree with a major in geography
is the minimum educational requirement for
young people seeking careers as geographers.
For many positions, particularly in research
and teaching, a graduate degree is highly im­
portant.
Undergraduate training in geography is of-

OTHER PROFESSIONAL AND RELATED OCCUPATIONS

fered by many colleges and universities. In 1958,
according to the U.S. Office of Education,
bachelor's degrees in geography were awarded
by about 150 institutions. Undergraduate
studies usually provide a general introduction
to geographic knowledge and research methods
and often include some field studies. Typical
courses offered are principles of geography,
climatology, economic geography, physical geog­
raphy, political geography, urban geography,
cartography, map interpretation, and regional
courses, such as geography of North America,
Western Europe, the U.S.S.R., and Asia. The
studies of the geography student may also in­
clude courses such as mathematics, botany,
chemistry, physics, geology, economics, political
science, and foreign languages.
Advanced degrees in geography are offered
by a relatively small number of schools; in
1958, master's degrees were awarded by about
50 institutions; and Ph. D. degrees, by about 25.
A bachelor's degree with a major in geography
is the usual requirement for admittance to grad­
uate school. However, some schools will admit
students with bachelor's degrees in fields other
than geography, such as economics, forestry,
geology, or history. Requirements for the
master’s or doctor's degree include geographic
field and laboratory work, as well as classroom
studies, library research, and the preparation
of a thesis.
New graduates with bachelor's degrees in
geography find employment mainly in positions
connected with mapmaking, either in govern­
ment or private industry. Some obtain positions
as research or teaching assistants in educational
institutions while studying for advanced de­
grees. Those with advanced degrees usually
qualify for teaching and research positions in
colleges and universities and for research posi­
tions in government and private industry. The
Ph.D. degree is usually essential for high-level
posts in college teaching and for research and
may be important for advancement to top-level
positions in other activities.
Employment Outlook

The outlook is for a moderate growth in em­
ployment of geographers, both in the near



239

future and over the long run. The major need
will be for geographers with graduate degrees
to fill research and teaching positions in col­
leges and universities and research jobs in in­
dustry and government.
Colleges and universities are expected to offer
the greatest number of employment opportuni­
ties during the next decade, primarily owing to
increases in total college enrollments antici­
pated during the mid-1960's. With expanding
interest in foreign countries there is a growing
awareness of the value of geographical training
in other fields of work, such as in the foreign
service. This should also result in increased
enrollments in geography and in a need for ad­
ditional geography teachers.
Employment of geographers in government
positions is expected to increase slowly during
the next decade. The Federal Government will
need additional personnel in positions related
to area development; resource management;
planning, construction, and interpretation of
maps; and in intelligence work. State govern­
ment employment of geographers will probably
expand also, particularly in such areas as con­
servation ; highway planning; and city, commu­
nity and regional planning and development.
The number of geographers employed in
private industry is also expected to increase.
Market research work, in which many of these
geographers are engaged, should continue its
rapid growth. Opportunities should also in­
crease in area planning and development work,
often done by private industry in cooperation
with State and local governments.
Since geography is a relatively small pro­
fession, the number of job openings in any one
year will not be numerous. In addition, the
total number of graduates receiving degrees in
geography each year is expected to increase
during the next decade, well beyond the 900
bachelor's degrees, 180 master's degrees, and 51
doctorates awarded in 1959. Thus, there may
be increased competition for the more desirable
beginning positions in geography. On the other
hand, unless the annual number of new grad­
uates with advanced degrees in geography rises
far above anticipated levels, employment op­
portunities for these well-trained geographers
are expected to be good over the next few years.

240

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

For women geographers, the most favorable
opportunities will be in teaching positions,
particularly in women’s colleges and in the
larger coeducational institutions. Government
agencies should also offer some opportunities,
mainly in mapping work. Because of the field­
work required for some geographic positions,
however, overall opportunities for women will
be somewhat less favorable than for men.
Earnings and Working Conditions

In the Federal Government, in 1960, the usual
starting salary for geographers with the bach­
elor’s degree and no experience was $4,345 or
$5,355 a year, depending on the individual’s
college record. Inexperienced geographers with
1 year of graduate training could start at
$5,355; those with 2 years of graduate training,
at $6,435; and those with the Ph. D. degree, at
$7,560. In addition, the Federal salary schedule
provides for periodic increases above these basic
salaries.
In colleges and universities, starting salaries

for fully trained geographers— those with the
Ph.D. or with all the requirements for the
doctorate except the thesis— were usually be­
tween $6,000 and $7,000 a year in 1960, ac­
cording to the limited information available.
Many experienced geography professors were
earning from $9,000 to $15,000 a year in 1960.
Geographers in educational institutions often
have an opportunity to add to their teaching
salaries through consulting work, special re­
search projects, and publication of books and
articles.
Geographic research sometimes requires ex­
tensive travel, in foreign countries as well as
the United States. Geographers thus engaged
are frequently away from home for long periods
of time, sometimes under somewhat primitive
living and working conditions. However, young
people who like to travel may find this aspect
of geographic work very satisfying.
Where To Go for More Information
Association of American Geographers,
1785 Massachusetts Ave. N W ., Washington 6, D.C.

Home Economists*
(D.O.T. 0-12.10 through .36)

Nature of Work and Where Employed

Persons trained in home economics are em­
ployed in a variety of occupations. They may
teach home economics; become dietitians or
extension service workers; or serve as home
economists in business, research, or welfare
work. In addition to their similar basic training,
these occupational groups have a common in­
terest in improving home products, services,
and activities. Many specialize in foods, cloth­
ing and textiles, home equipment, household
management, or child care. Those who do not
specialize include some teachers, home demon­
stration agents, consultants, or counselors—
whose work often requires a broad knowledge
of many homemaking activities. In performing
their work, home economists draw upon perti­
nent knowledge and skills from many other
fields as, for example, chemistry, physics,
* Prepared by the Women’s Bureau, U.S. Department of Labor.




bacteriology, art, economics, psychology, jour­
nalism, and teaching.
About 80,000 persons with home economics
training were employed in home economics oc­
cupations in 1959. The largest group, about
44,000, were home economics teachers. Of
these, approximately 27,000 were teaching in
public secondary schools, about 500 in private
and parochial schools, nearly 3,000 in colleges
and universities, and about 13,000 in adult
education programs. (Information on teaching
is contained in the statements on Secondary
School Teachers and on College and University
Teachers. See index for page numbers.) About
250 home economists specializing in child de­
velopment or family relations were employed
as teachers in nursery schools, kindergartens,
recreation centers, or institutions caring for
children.
Others who have received home economics
training, and who were employed in 1959, in-

OTHER PROFESSIONAL AND RELATED OCCUPATIONS

Courtesy of U.S. Department of Agriculture

Home economist experimenting to determine the best
roasting temperatures for frozen turkeys.

eluded about 25,000 dietitians (see statement
on Dietitians), a small number of nutritionists
(engaged primarily in the study and promotion
of good nutrition practices), and about 5,000
extension service workers. (See statement on
Agricultural Extension Service Workers.)
Home Economists in Business. Of the re­
maining number in home economics occupations
in 1959, probably between 5,000 and 6,000 were
specialists employed by private business firms
and associations to help promote the develop­
ment, use, and care of specific home products.
Home economists in this group work not only
for companies which manufacture or distribute
products or provide services in the home, but
also for magazines, newspapers, radio, and
television.
The largest group of home economists in busi­
ness, possibly over 2,000 in 1959, were employed
by food manufacturers to study consumer needs,
to help manufacturers translate these needs
into desirable products, and to provide miscel­
laneous consumer services. An important part
of their work is done in test kitchens— develop­
ing new recipes, improving present products,
or helping to create new products. They usually
write directions for food packages; prepare
booklets, leaflets, or cookbooks; and answer




241

customers’ inquiries. Sometimes, they also give
food demonstrations or lectures and prepare
materials for television programs or film strips.
Another large group, perhaps almost 2,000,
were home-service workers employed by gas or
electric utility companies, including coopera­
tives. In talks before clubwomen, youth groups,
or retailers and in private visits, these home
economists often give advice on kitchen planning
and laundry problems, in addition to describing
the operation and benefits of their products and
services. They may visit customers’ homes on
request or to demonstrate the operation of
newly installed equipment, such as that used
in cooking, heating, refrigeration, or laundering.
To promote public understanding of their
company’s products and services, they may also
answer inquiries, write newspaper articles or
pamphlets, broadcast company-sponsored pro­
grams on radio or television, or conduct classes
for salesmen and servicemen.
About 500 home economists, known as equip­
ment workers, were employed by manufacturers
of such household equipment as ranges, refrig­
erators, kitchen cabinets, cooking utensils, and
laundry equipment. One of their major duties
is to prepare or supervise the preparation of
instructional material relating to the use and
care of the manufacturer’s products. They work
with engineers on product development and also
devise plans for product uses. Equipment work­
ers spend a good deal of time training others—
especially home-service workers, salesmen, and
servicemen— concerning the characteristics of
products. To do this, they sometimes travel
out of town to confer with dealers and distribu­
tors. Their work may also include preparing
press releases and radio and television pro­
grams.
About 400 more home economists worked ex­
clusively in journalism, radio, and television.
Gathering information from a variety of
sources, they interpret trends and prepare
stories on food, clothing, or other topics of in­
terest to homemakers. They may test products
themselves or evaluate the tests of others. Some
regularly write food preparation or homemaking
columns; others edit the home economics sec­
tion of a newspaper or magazine. Those em­
ployed by radio and television stations may con­

242
duct their own programs or act as consultants
for others. Home economists who specialize in
foods may also conduct cooking courses.
Possibly over 250 other home economists
were engaged in advertising and public rela­
tions work, serving on the staffs of agencies in
these fields or with companies producing or
distributing food products, textiles, homefurnishings, and household supplies or services.
They may secure background material for ad­
vertising campaigns, test consumer products
in research laboratories or test kitchens, pre­
pare newspaper articles and photographic dis­
plays, conduct homemaking courses, or speak
before various groups.
In the field of textiles and clothing, about
100 home economists held a variety of positions
with dress-pattern companies, textile and cloth­
ing manufacturers, laundry and dry-cleaning
establishments, and a few chain clothing and
department stores. They may conduct consumer
surveys or laboratory tests and report on the
functional and economical characteristics of
fabrics and fibers used in clothing and house­
hold furnishings. They may work as fashion
coordinators, personal shoppers, or fashion de­
signers. Those specializing in interior decora­
tion arrange displays for business establish­
ments or give advice on home decoration. Some
enter the retail clothing field and become buyers
or work up to other executive positions.
A few experienced home economists work as
freelance consultants. Usually they are em­
ployed by several clients whose businesses do
not require the services of a full-time home
economist. Their duties may include such tasks
as preparing photographic displays, doing back­
ground research for an advertising campaign,
developing instructions for the use of a new
product, or acting as technical adviser in the
preparation of radio and television commer­
cials.
Home Economists in Research. About 500
home economists perform research work in
laboratories and offices of the Federal Govern­
ment, State agricultural experiment stations,
colleges, universities, and private organizations.
The largest single group in home economics
research, about 100, work for the Institute of



OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

Home Economics in the U.S. Department of
Agriculture. Engaged in research on food and
nutrition, textiles and clothing, housing, house­
hold equipment, or household economics, these
home economists utilize skills of a variety of
fields, including chemistry, physics, biology,
statistics, economics, and psychology. For ex­
ample, some make farm family surveys to de­
termine the amounts that farm families spend
for such items as food, clothing, housefurnishings, and medical care. From these findings,
they develop budget guides needed by home
economists in teaching, family counseling,
social welfare, and extension work. Other home
economists perform laboratory tests to deter­
mine the effect of different methods of cooking
on nutritive value, flavor, tenderness, or
volume of a food. A few home economists are
engaged in research on space travel, working,
for example, on problems of food needs in outer
space.
Other Related Fields of Work. About 300
home economists were employed on socialwelfare programs by State, county, city, and
voluntary welfare agencies. They act chiefly
as advisers and consultants in the development
of budget standards for needy families, helping
to determine the amount of financial assistance
necessary to provide minimum healthful living
standards. Other home economists in welfare
agencies supervise or train workers engaged in
homemaker services which provide temporary
or part-time help to households disrupted by
illness or old age.
Training in home economics is useful in a
number of other fields. Some home economists
specialize in housing, advising architectural
firms on home planning, equipment arrange­
ments, and the selection of household appliances.
A few are employed in such businesses as
financial institutions, giving customers advice
on spending and saving; moving companies,
studying household moving problems; and food
chain stores, providing food and household in­
formation to consumers.
A fairly new field for home economists is
rehabilitation, in which they work as home­
making counselors and consultants, helping
handicapped homemakers and their families ad­

OTHER PROFESSIONAL AND RELATED OCCUPATIONS

just to the homemaker’s handicap by changing
physical arrangements in the home and revis­
ing methods of work.
Some experienced home economists are also
employed abroad by the Federal Government,
foundations, international organizations, col­
leges, and American businesses with foreign
subsidiaries— primarily to work as teachers or
consultants on programs aimed at promoting
good practices in homemaking and contributing
to higher living and educational standards.
Although home economics is generally con­
sidered a woman’s field, a growing number of
men are entering various home economics posi­
tions. Some men are engaged in teaching, re­
search, merchandising, interior designing, and
family counseling, but most specialize in foods
and institution management.
Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement

Four years of college study leading to a
bachelor’s degree in home economics is the
minimum requirement for professional work in
home economics. Some fields, such as nutrition,
college teaching, and certain kinds of research
and supervision, require a master’s or a doctor’s
degree.
Approximately 500 colleges and universities
in the country offer home economics training
and grant a degree with a major in home eco­
nomics. In addition to such liberal arts courses
as English, psychology, economics, physiology,
and chemistry, the basic courses for home eco­
nomics undergraduates generally provide an
introduction to all phases of home economics.
The curriculum includes courses in clothing and
textiles, foods and nutrition, home management,
and household equipment, as well as courses in
art and design, child development, and family
relations. Undergraduates are advised to elect
additional courses in the field of their special
interest. For those wishing to specialize in
foods, advanced courses in chemistry and nutri­
tion are essential, as are science and statistics
courses for research work and journalism
courses for advertising and public relations
work. In order to teach home economics, it is
necessary to take the professional education
courses required for a teacher’s certificate.



243

During the school year 1959-60, 8,354 bache­
lor’s degrees, 836 master’s degrees, and 50 doc­
torates were earned in home economics or home
economics education. Six percent of all bac­
calaureate degrees granted to women in that
year were in these two subjects.
Financial assistance available to home eco­
nomics undergraduates is virtually the same as
that for all undergraduate students in the coun­
try, although there are some scholarships
especially designated for students in this field.
Significant numbers of scholarships, fellow­
ships, and assistantships, however, are avail­
able for graduate study in home economics.
Announcements for the school years 1960-61
and 1961-62 list 557 assistantships, 89 fellow­
ships, and 36 scholarships open to graduate
home economics students, according to a study
by the American Home Economics Association.
The typical assistantship ranged between $1,500
and $2,000 and required 20 hours of service a
week during the school year. Fellowships for
graduate students frequently ranged between
$1,000 and $3,000 a year. Although colleges
and universities offer most of these financial
grants, some are provided by government
agencies, research foundations, businesses, and
the AHEA itself.
Besides having adequate training, home econ­
omists must be able to work with people of
various living standards and backgrounds and
should have a capacity for leadership with abil­
ity to inspire cooperation. Good grooming,
poise, and an interest in people are also essen­
tial, particularly for those dealing with the
public.
Employment Outlook

The number of home economists needed in
many fields of employment is expected to con­
tinue increasing during most of the 1960’s. In
addition to expansion needs, a considerable
amount of the demand stems from the replace­
ment needs. Job turnover because of marriage
and family responsibilities is particularly heavy
among these workers, many of whom studied
home economics as preparation for homemak­
ing.
An American Home Economics Association

244
study has indicated that by 1965 about 10,500
additional positions for home economists will
exist in education, business, extension service
work, and social welfare. At the time of the
study (1959), there were about 1,300 vacancies
for home economists, including* about 500 in
public secondary schools, 320 in extension serv­
ice work, 220 in colleges and universities, 130
in social welfare and public health agencies, and
100 in business.
In the field of education, the shortage of
home economics teachers is especially critical
in public secondary schools. More teachers are
needed because of the rising enrollments in
secondary schools throughout the country, the
introduction of home economics courses in
schools which have been consolidated from
small schools previously without a home eco­
nomics department, and the expansion of these
departments in other schools. Moreover, it has
been estimated that as many as 5,000 home
economics teachers must be recruited annually
as replacements.
The need for more home economists in re­
search is expected to increase with the con­
tinued interest in using scientific methods for
improving various home products and services.
Similarly, in many business establishments,
employers are becoming increasingly aware of
the contributions of professionally trained home
economists and are hiring an expanding num­
ber.
Shortages of home economists are most acute
at two levels: In administrative positions
(where advanced education and experience are
essential) and in entrance positions. Not
enough home economics graduates are entering
and remaining in home economics occupations
to satisfy current demand.
Earnings and Working Conditions

In urban districts with 500,000 or more
population, the average (median) salary of
beginning teachers with a bachelor’s degree
was $4,375 for the school year 1960-61, ac­
cording to a National Education Association




OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

survey; in districts with 100,000 to 499,999
population starting salaries averaged $4,200,
and in districts with 30,000 to 99,999 popula­
tion, $4,250. Home economics teachers gen­
erally receive the same salaries as other teach­
ers, as most school districts have a single-salary
schedule based on education and experience.
The average (mean) salary of all secondary
school teachers (including both beginning and
experienced teachers) was $5,500 in 1960-61.
Average salaries of home economists in 1960
approximated $6,000 in business and in college
and university teaching, and $4,600 in social
welfare work. In the cooperative extension serv­
ice, county home demonstration agents aver­
aged about $6,200 per year and State special­
ists, $7,500 per year.
In the Federal Government, the entrance sal­
ary for inexperienced workers with a bachelor’s
degree in home economics was $4,345 in 1961.
For those with additional education and expe­
rience, salaries ranged from $5,355 to $15,030
a year, depending upon the type of position
and level of responsibility involved.
Most home economists work a regular 40hour week or less. Those engaged in promo­
tional and advertising work, however, may work
irregular hours, as they are usually expected
to be available for evening demonstrations or
other nightwork. Most home economists re­
ceive such fringe benefits as paid vacation,
sick leave, retirement pay, and insurance bene­
fits.
Where To Go for More Information

A list of schools granting degrees in home
economics is available from the U.S. Depart­
ment of Health, Education, and Welfare pub­
lication, Home Economics in Degree-Granting
Institutions. Misc. 2557. Revised. Washington,
D.C., 1960.
Additional information about home econo­
mists and available graduate scholarships,
may be obtained from :
American Home Economics Association,
1600 20th St. N W ., Washington 6, D.C.

OTHER PROFESSIONAL AND RELATED OCCUPATIONS

245

Interior Designers and Decorators
(D.O.T. 0-43.40)

Nature of Work

Where Employed

Designing and decorating the interiors of
homes and other buildings was the principal
activity of about 10,000 people in 1960. In­
terior decorators plan the selection and ar­
rangement of furniture, draperies, floor cover­
ings, and other decorations in private homes,
so as to achieve both an artistic and functional
effect. In addition, they plan the decorations
of the interiors of many other structures— in­
cluding offices, stores, theaters, schools, and
even ships and airliners. They may also work
on interiors used in theater, motion picture,
and television sets. Many decorators have their
own establishments, where they sell upholstery
and drapery materials, furniture, and decora­
tive accessories. Some work alone, or with one
assistant; others have a large staff, sometimes
including salespeople.
As a rule, decorators work directly with
clients to determine their preferences and
needs in furnishings; on some assignments,
they may submit sketches or water color paint­
ings of their decorating schemes, along with
cost estimates. After their plans have been
approved and cost estimates agreed upon by
their clients, decorators arrange for the pur­
chase of the furnishings; supervise the work
of painters, floor finishers, cabinet makers, car­
pet layers, and other craftsmen; and take care
of the installation and arrangement of fur­
nishings.
At the top of this profession are about 300
interior designers who not only plan the fur­
nishings and decorations for a building, but
also design the complete layout of the rooms,
within the space allowed by exterior walls and
other framework of the structure. When these
interior plans have been drawn up, the archi­
tect who planned the structure usually checks
the blueprints to assure compliance with build­
ing requirements and to solve structural prob­
lems. Some interior designers design the furni­
ture and accessories to be used in interiors,
which they plan, and arrange for their manu­
facture.

The majority of decorators are located in
large cities and their suburbs— areas in which
decorating services are widely used. In recent
years, large retail stores have become increas­
ingly important as a source of employment for
professional decorators. Many of the larger
department and furniture stores have decorat­
ing departments. One of the main functions
of such departments is to help sell the stores’
merchandise, although the decorators are usu­
ally permitted to use materials not carried by
the stores when this is essential to their deco­
rating plans. Department store decorators may
advise the stores’ buyers and executives con­
cerning style and color trends in homefurnishings; this function is expected to become in­
creasingly important. Some decorators have
regular jobs with hotel and restaurant chains.
Others are employed by architects, antique
dealers, office furniture stores, industrial de­
signers, furniture and textile manufacturers or
other manufacturers in the homefurnishings
field, or by periodicals that feature articles on
homefurnishings.




Interior decorator discussing decorating plan with client.

246
Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement

Formal training in interior decoration is be­
coming increasingly important for entrance
into this field of work, although many present
members of the profession achieved success
without such training. Most department stores,
well-established decorating firms, and other
major employers will accept only well-trained
people for beginning jobs. Usually, the mini­
mum educational requirement is completion of
a 2- or 3-year course at a recognized art school
or institute specializing in interior decorating
and design or a 4-year college course leading
to a bachelor of fine arts degree, with a major
in interior design and decoration. The course of
study in interior design and decoration usually
includes the principles of design, history of
art, freehand and mechanical drawing, paint­
ing, and study of the various materials, such
as woods and fabrics, with which the decorator
works. In addition, courses in salesmanship,
business arithmetic, and other business sub­
jects are of great value.
Membership in the American Institute of
Decorators is a recognized mark of achieve­
ment in this profession. To become a member
of the Institute, a decorator must usually have
completed at least 4 years of education beyond
high school, with major emphasis on training
in design, and also have had 4 years of expe­
rience, including responsibility for supervision
of all aspects of decorating contracts; decorat­
ing experience in excess of the 4-year minimum
may be substituted for the required education.
New graduates with art training usually
serve a training period in the field, either with
decorating firms, in department stores, or in
the firm of an established designer. The trainee
may act as a receptionist, as a shopper with
the task of matching materials or finding ac­
cessories, or as a stockroom assistant, assistant
decorator, or junior designer. In most instan­
ces, from 1 to 3 years of on-the-job training is
required before a trainee is considered eligible
for advancement to a senior decorator job. New
graduates who do not obtain such on-the-job
training will find work as salespeople in fabric,
lamp, or other homefurnishings stores or de­
partments, useful experience both in dealing
with customers and becoming familiar with the



OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

merchandise. This experience often makes it
easier to obtain trainee jobs with a decorating
firm or department; it may also lead to a career
in merchandising.
Decorators with ability and considerable ex­
perience may advance to head of a decorating
department or other supervisory position as
openings occur. Experienced decorators may
open their own decorating establishments or
move into positions as homefurnishings coordi­
nators in department stores.
Artistic talent and creative imagination are
probably the personal qualities most important
for success in this field. In addition, prospective
decorators should possess a business sense and
sufficient physical stamina to be able to work
under presure.
Employment Outlook

Well-qualified graduates who have majored
in interior design and decoration will probably
have good opportunities for employment during
the 1960’s. Young people without formal train­
ing or real aptitude for the work will, however,
find it increasingly difficult to gain a foothold
in the field.
A slow but steady increase in employment
of interior designers and decorators is antici­
pated over the long run. Factors that will
contribute to this expansion are the growing
population, increasing expenditures for home
and office furnishings of all kinds, the growing
availability of well-designed furnishings at
moderate prices, and growing recognition of
the value of decorators’ services. In addition,
some vacancies will arise each year as workers
retire, die, or leave the occupation for other
reasons.
Department and furniture stores will con­
tinue to employ an increasing number of trained
decorators. These stores are also expected to
share in the growing volume of decorating
work for commercial establishments and public
buildings, formerly handled almost entirely by
independent decorators. This development will
result in increased opportunities for salaried
employment of decorators. As in the past,
however, a sharp downturn in general economic

247

OTHER PROFESSIONAL AND RELATED OCCUPATIONS

conditions would adversely affect employment
opportunities in this field.
Many women will continue to find employ­
ment opportunities in this field. Mature women
with suitable educational and personal quali­
fications should be able to compete successfully,
since some clients do not have confidence in
youthful appearing decorators.
Earnings and Working Conditions

Beginning salaries ranged from $60 to $75
a week in 1960 for art school or college gradu­
ates with formal training in interior design
and decoration, according to limited data avail­
able.
Many experienced interior decorators earn
only moderate incomes— from $4,000 to $5,000
a year. Others, usually interior designers, earn
more than $25,000 yearly.

Earnings of decorators in business for them­
selves have an especially wide range, depend­
ing on the profit from their operations. Most
other experienced decorators also have rather
variable earnings, since few of them are paid
straight salaries. Some receive salaries plus
commissions which usually range from 5 to 10
percent of the value of their sales; others re­
ceive commissions only, which may be as much
as one-third of the value of their sales.
Hours of work for decorators and designers
are sometimes long and irregular. They usually
adjust their workday to suit the needs of their
clients, sometimes meeting with them during
the evenings or on weekends.
Where To Go for More Information
American Institute of Decorators,
673 Fifth Ave., New York 22, N .Y.

Lawyers
(D.O.T. 0-22.)

Nature of Work

Lawyers take care of many kinds of legal
problems for individual clients, and for business
firms and other organizations. For example,
they may help with tax problems, property
transactions, and accident and other claims.
Lawyers (attorneys) advise clients on their
legal rights and obligations and, when necessary,
represent them in courts of law. In addition,
they negotiate settlements out of court and
represent clients before quasi-judicial or admin­
istrative agencies of the government. They may
act as trustees, guardians, or executors. Govern­
ment attorneys play a large part in developing
and administering Federal and State laws and
programs; they prepare drafts of proposed
legislation, establish law enforcement proce­
dures, and argue cases. Some lawyers serve
as judges in Federal, State, and local courts.
Others are primarily engaged in teaching, re­
search, writing, or administrative activities.
The great majority of lawyers are in general
practice, handling all kinds of legal work for
clients. However, an increasing number prac­
tice in a particular branch of the law— for



example, corporation, criminal, labor, patent,
real estate, tax, or international law. Some at­
torneys devote themselves entirely to trying
cases in the courts. Others never appear in
court but spend all their time in such activities
as drawing up wills, trusts, contracts, mort­
gages, and other legal documents, conducting
out-of-court negotiations, and doing the inves­
tigative and other legal work necessary to pre­
pare for trials.
Many people with legal training are not em­
ployed as lawyers but are in other occupations
where they can use their knowledge of law.
They may, for example, be FBI agents, in­
surance adjusters, tax collectors, probation of­
ficers, credit investigators, or claims examiners.
A legal background is also a valuable asset to
people seeking public office.
Where Employed

Eighty percent of the approximately 240,000
lawyers listed by the American Bar Association
as employed in 1960 were in private practice.
Approximately 60 percent of the private prac­

248
titioners were in practice by themselves; about
30 percent were in partnerships; and the re­
mainder— less than 10 percent— worked for
other lawyers or law firms.
The greatest number of salaried attorneys
are employed by government agencies. In 1960,
the Federal Government employed approxi­
mately 13,000 attorneys, chiefly in the Depart­
ment of Justice, the Department of Defense,
and the Veterans Administration. About 8,000
attorneys held positions with city or county gov­
ernments, and 4,000 were employed by State
governments. Nearly 8,000 held judicial posi­
tions.
The second largest number of salaried law­
yers are employed by private companies, in­
cluding large manufacturing firms, banks, in­
surance companies, real estate firms, and public
utilities. Most of the remainder teach in law
schools. Some lawyers in salaried legal positions
also have an independent practice; others do
legal work on a part-time basis while primarily
employed in another occupation.
Although lawyers practice in all parts of the
country, most of them are in cities and in the
States with the greatest population. In 1960,
for example, nearly 30 percent of all lawyers
were in New York City, Chicago, Washington,
D.C., Los Angeles, Boston, Detroit, Philadel­
phia, and Cleveland. About half were located
in the District of Columbia and the following
six States: New York, California, Illinois,
Ohio, Texas, and Pennsylvania.
Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement

Before a lawyer can practice in the courts
of any State he must be admitted to the bar
of that State. In all States applicants must
pass a written examination; a few States waive
this requirement, however, for graduates of
their own in-State law schools. If a lawyer
has been admitted to the bar in one State, he
can usually be admitted to practice in another
State without taking an examination, provided
he meets the State's standards of good moral
character and has a specified amount of legal
experience. The right to practice before Federal
courts and agencies is controlled by special rules
of each court or agency.



OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

To qualify for the bar examinations in most
States, an applicant must have completed 2 or
3 years of college work and, in addition, must
be a graduate of a law school approved by the
American Bar Association or the proper State
authorities. A few States permit graduates of
correspondence law schools to take the bar ex­
amination, and some will accept study in a law
office instead of, or in combination with, study
in a law school— though this method of train­
ing is now rarely used. A number of States
require registration and approval by the State
Board of Examiners before students enter law
school. In two States (New York and Pennsyl­
vania), candidates must complete a period of
clerkship in a law office after graduation from
law school before they are admitted to the bar
examination.
As a rule, it takes 6 years of full-time study
after high school to complete the required col­
lege and law school work. The most usual
preparation for becoming a lawyer is 3 years
of college study followed by 3 years in law
school. Law schools that have a 4-year, full­
time curriculum may accept students after 2
years of college work. On the other hand, some
law schools require applicants to have a college
degree. Law schools seldom specify the college
subjects which must be included in students'
pre-legal education.
However, courses in
English, history, economics, and other social
sciences, logic, and public speaking are all im­
portant for prospective lawyers. In general,
their college background should be broad enough
to give them an understanding of society and its
institutions. Students interested in a particular
aspect of the law may find it helpful to take
related courses; for example, engineering and
science courses would be useful to the prospec­
tive patent attorney, and accounting would be
useful to the future tax lawyer.
Of the 158 law schools in existence in 1960,
132 were approved by the American Bar
Association and the others— chiefly night
schools— were approved by State authorities
only. A substantial number of full-time law
schools have night divisions designed to meet
the needs of part-time students; some law
schools have only night classes. Four years of
part-time study is usually required to complete

OTHER PROFESSIONAL AND RELATED OCCUPATIONS

the night-school curriculum. In 1960, more than
one-third of all law students were enrolled in
evening classes.
Although qualified young people interested in
a legal career can usually obtain admission to
a law school, they may not always be able to
enroll in the school of their choice. Some of
the better known schools have more applicants
than they can accept. In selecting students,
law schools consider college grades, amount of
college education, the particular college at­
tended, and recommendations made by college
professors. A growing number of law schools
require applicants to take the standard law
school admission test, and several give their
own aptitude tests.
The first 2 years of law school are generally
devoted to fundamental courses such as con­
tracts, criminal law, and property. In the third
year, students may elect courses in specialized
fields such as tax, labor, or corporation law.
Practical experience is often obtained by par­
ticipating in legal aid activities sponsored by
the school, in the school's practice court where
the students conduct trials under the supervision
of experienced lawyers, and by writing on legal
issues for the school's law journal. Upon grad­
uation, the degree of bachelor of laws (LL.B.)
is awarded by most schools, although a few
confer the degree of juris doctor (J.D.) to grad­
uates with high scholastic standing. Advanced
study is often desirable for those planning to
specialize in one branch of the law or to engage
in research and law-school teaching.
Most beginning lawyers start in salaried posi­
tions, although some go into independent prac­
tice immediately after passing the bar exam­
ination. Young salaried attorneys usually act
as assistants (law clerks) to experienced law­
yers. Initially, their work is limited to research
such as checking points of law ; they rarely see
a client or argue a case in court. After several
years of progressively responsible salaried em­
ployment, during which time they can obtain
experience and funds and become well known,
many lawyers go into practice for themselves.
Employment Outlook

Graduates from widely recognized law schools
and those in the top 10 percent of their classes



249

will have favorable employment prospects
through the mid-1960's. They are expected to
have good opportunities for obtaining salaried
positions with well-known law firms, on legal
staffs of corporations and government agencies,
and as law clerks to judges. Graduates of the
less well-known schools and those who grad­
uate with lower scholastic ratings are likely to
experience some difficulty in finding salaried
positions as lawyers. However, numerous op­
portunities will be available for law school grad­
uates to enter a variety of salaried positions
requiring a knowledge of law. Law graduates
will also be in demand as commissioned officers
in the Armed Forces who are assigned to legal
positions. Young attorneys who open their own
law offices after being admitted to the bar will,
as in most other independent professions, gen­
erally face a period of low earnings while they
build up their practice.
Prospects for establishing a new practice will
probably continue to be best in small towns and
expanding suburban areas. In such communi­
ties, competition with other lawyers is likely to
be less than in big cities; also, office rent
and other business costs may be somewhat
lower, and young lawyers may find it easier
to become known to potential clients. On the
other hand, opportunities for salaried employ­
ment will be limited largely to big cities where
the chief employers of legal talent— government
agencies, law firms, and big corporations— are
concentrated. For able and well-qualified law­
yers, good opportunities to advance will be
available in both salaried employment and pri­
vate practice.
Although the majority of employment oppor­
tunities for new lawyers will continue to arise
fro mthe need to replace those who retire, die,
or otherwise leave the field, a gradual increase in
the legal profession is expected over the long
run. Most of the growth will result from the
continuing expansion of business activity and
population. In addition, the increased use of
legal services by low- and middle-income groups
will add to the long-term growth in demand for
lawyers. The growing complexity of business
and government activities is expected to create
a steadily expanding demand for lawyers who
are specialists in such fields as corporation,
patent, administrative, labor, and international
law.

250

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

Opportunities for women lawyers, who com­
prised less than 3 percent of the profession in
1960, will probably continue to be limited for
some time to come. Although more than half
of all women lawyers are employed in salaried
positions, a substantial number are in practice
for themselves. Many women lawyers hold posi­
tions, not as attorneys, but in occupations re­
quiring a knowledge of law.
Earnings and Working Conditions

In the Federal Government, the annual
starting salary for attorneys who had passed
the bar was either $5,355 or $6,435 in early
1960, depending on the applicant's qualifica­
tions. Attorneys employed in beginning salaried
positions with manufacturing and other busi­
ness firms had an average salary of approxi­
mately $6,000 a year in early 1960.
Beginning salaries for young lawyers are
generally highest in large law firms and Federal
agencies. Those working for small law offices
or engaged in legal-aid work usually receive
the lowest salaries. The beginning lawyer in
practice for himself may make little more than
his expenses during the first few years and may
add to his total income by engaging in other
part-time employment.

Lawyers' earnings usually rise with increased
experience. Those employed on a salaried basis
receive increases as they demonstrate their
ability to assume greater responsibilities. In­
comes of lawyers in private practice usually
grow as their practices develop. Private prac­
titioners who are partners in law firms generally
have greater average incomes than those who
practice alone.
Lawyers often work long hours and under
considerable pressure when a case is being
tried. In addition, they must keep abreast of
the latest laws and court decisions. However,
since lawyers in private practice are able to
determine their own hours and workload, many
stay in practice until well past 70 years of age.

Where To Go for More Information

The specific requirements for admission to the
bar in a particular State may be obtained from
the clerk of the Supreme Court or the secre­
tary of the Board of Examiners at the State
capital. Information on law schools and on law
as a career is available from :
The American Bar Association,
1155 East 60th St., Chicago 37, 111.

Librarians *
(D.O.T. 0-23.20)

Nature of Work

A library is an information center in which
books, pamphlets, manuscripts, periodicals,
clippings, and reports are housed and made
available to readers. Many libraries also include
phonograph records, maps, slides, pictures,
tapes, films, and film strips. Librarians select,
purchase, and maintain these materials and as­
sist the public in their use. They classify and
catalog books and other loan items, publicize
library services, study the reading interests of
people served by the library, do research to
secure information requested, and provide ref­
erence service to various groups of readers.
* Prepared by the Women’s Bureau, U.S. Department of Labor.




Librarians may also collect, review, and ab­
stract published and unpublished materials to
prepare bibliographies and book reviews. Some
advise schools or business organizations on
sources of information for research. Others
provide library services for community projects.
In a small library, a librarian may perform
a great variety of tasks. In a large organization,
a librarian may perform only a single function
or may specialize in a subject-matter area, such
as science, business, the arts, or medicine.
Librarians may be classified by the type of
library where they are employed: public librar­
ies, school libraries, college and university
libraries, and special libraries. In each of these
four types of libraries there are two principal

OTHER PROFESSIONAL AND RELATED OCCUPATIONS

Librarian providing reference materials to a student.

kinds of library work— reader services and
technical services. Reference librarians, chil­
dren’s librarians, and others who perform
reader services work closely with the public.
Librarians who perform technical services, in­
cluding those who process books, such as
catalogers or order librarians, are often remote
from public contacts.
Public Librarians. These librarians, unlike
those whose services are limited to readers with
particular interests, serve all kinds of readers—
children, adults, students, teachers, research
workers, and others. The professional staff of
a large public library system may include a chief
librarian, an assistant chief, and several division
heads, such as head of children’s services or
adult services. Persons in these positions plan
and coordinate the work of the entire library
system. Each branch library has a head librar­
ian and several professional assistants. Each
member of the professional staff may perform
a specialized service. The duties of some of
these specialists are described below.
An order librarian purchases books and other
library materials selected by staff members;
keeps a well-balanced library in quantity and
quality, within budget limitations; makes sure
that the library receives what it orders; and
maintains close contact with book jobbers and
publishers.
A cataloger organizes library materials. One




251

important duty is to maintain an accurate and
up-to-date card catalog; another is to classify
books under various subjects according to the
particular system used.
A reference librarian works directly with the
public, and aids them in their search for ref­
erence materials. This work requires a thorough
understanding of bibliographic material and a
general knowledge of library materials in var­
ious subject fields.
A children’s librarian plans and directs a
special program for children of various age
groups. Some of the duties include selecting and
evaluating new books, instructing children in
the use and content of the library, selecting
books for display, talking with members of the
community interested in children, giving talks
on books, and maintaining contact with schools.
The children’s librarian often conducts a reg­
ular story hour at the library and sometimes has
a story hour on radio or television.
An adult services librarian may act as the
liaison between the library and the public and
render services to both young and older adults.
By anticipating their readers’ needs and in­
terests, these librarians attempt to provide them
with appropriate materials. They are often
called upon to plan and conduct educational
programs on such topics as community develop­
ment, public affairs, creative arts, human re­
lations, problems of the aging, or home and
family life.
A young adult services librarian may select
books and materials for young people, and guide
them in the use of these materials. She may
arrange book discussion groups, hours for listen­
ing to recordings of popular and classical music,
and other programs related to young adult
interests.
A bookmobile librarian brings the library to
the people by means of a truck equipped with
shelving and various library materials. These
“ extension-service” librarians work toward set­
ting up library facilities where they are non­
existent and improving library services where
they are inadequate. They may serve the needs
of urban as well as rural residents where there
is no permanent library. The bookmobile librar­
ian must select the 1,500 to 3,000 volumes
carried in the vehicle and advise both adults

252
and children in their reading* selections. The
bookmobile staff may include several profes­
sional librarians, a clerical helper, and the
driver, but in some cases one person serves in
all these capacities.
School Librarians. These librarians work with
parents and teachers as well as with students,
may operate one school library or several librar­
ies within a school system, and may teach one
or more classes. Their duties may include pre­
paring supplementary reading lists in certain
subjects; instructing students in the content
and use of the library; setting up library ex­
hibits ; meeting with faculty members to discuss
school programs; supervising and training stu­
dent library assistants; and selecting, ordering,
classifying, and cataloging library materials.
College and University Librarians. In higher
institutions, these librarians work with students,
faculty members, and research workers, in
general reference or in a particular field of
interest, such as law, economics, or music. In
addition, the college librarian may teach one
or more classes in the use of library facilities.
Special Librarians. These librarians are em­
ployed by all types of trade and service estab­
lishments, industrial organizations, museums,
government agencies, research laboratories,
labor unions, hospitals, and other groups. Many
of these libraries are small, both in terms of
staff and book collections, but they often con­
tain a wide selection of periodicals, newspaper
clippings, technical reports, maps, pamphlets,
patents, slides, and the like. The special librar­
ian's main responsibility is to obtain material
the library's clientele is most likely to need and
to keep them up to date on new material perti­
nent to their interests. The value of such a
library depends to a large extent on the librar­
ian's skill, knowledge, and initiative. There­
fore, this librarian needs special competence in
the subjects of interest to the employer.
Where Employed

Librarians are employed in public libraries
(municipal, county, and State) and in libraries




OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

maintained by public and private schools, col­
leges and universities, government agencies,
educational and research associations, medical
institutions, and business and industrial firms.
Some librarians work as teachers and admin­
istrators in schools of library science. Ap­
proximately 85 percent of all librarians are
women, and most of them are employed in
public libraries or in the libraries of public
schools.
Over the past decade, nearly one-third of the
graduates of accredited library schools were
placed in public libraries and almost one-third
in college and university libraries, according
to a survey made in 1959 and published in the
Library Journal for June 15, 1960. Public
school libraries employed about one-fifth of
these graduates, and special libraries employed
the remainder.
Nearly 25 percent of the graduates who
earned a bachelor's, master's or Ph. D. degree
in library science in 1959 were men. More
men have entered this field in recent years be­
cause of higher salaries, the need for more
librarians in such fields as science and technol­
ogy, and improved opportunities for advance­
ment to administrative positions due to the
growing size and complexity of individual
library systems.
An estimate based on data from a number of
sources indicates that about 64,000 librarians
were employed in 1960. Approximately 45 per­
cent were employed in school libraries, about
30 percent in public libraries, nearly 15 per­
cent in colleges and universities, and the re­
mainder in special libraries and in government
agencies.
Most librarians work in cities and towns.
Others, attached to bookmobile units, serve
widely scattered population groups, mostly in
suburban or rural areas. More than 1,000 book­
mobiles were in use in 1960.
Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement

To quality as a professional librarian, one
must have completed a course of study in an
accredited library school. This ordinarily means
5 years of college— 4 to meet requirements for
a bachelor's degree and a fifth year or more

OTHER PROFESSIONAL AND RELATED OCCUPATIONS

of specialized study in library science, after
which the master's degree is conferred. A grow­
ing proportion of the persons in administrative
and other high-level library positions have such
training.
A Ph.D. degree is a real advantage to per­
sons who plan a teaching career in library
schools or who aspire to a top administrative
post in a college or university library. In some
instances, this degree is a requisite for such
jobs.
A graduate school which confers the master's
degree in library science is called a library
school. Entrance requirements commonly in­
clude: (1) graduation from an accredited 4year college or university, (2) a good under­
graduate record, and (3) a reading knowledge
of a foreign language. Most library schools
emphasize the importance of a liberal arts un­
dergraduate program with a major in the social
sciences, physical and biological sciences, the
arts, or comparative literature. Certain schools
allow credit for introductory undergraduate
courses in library science; others do not. Skill
in typing is regarded as a useful tool for
library students.
Graduate programs'■generally concentrate on
the principles of librarianship, the organization
and administration of libraries, and the history
and function of libraries in society. A student
is allowed considerable latitude in the fulfill­
ment of course requirements, but he ordinarily
specializes in one major area of librarianship,
such as the administration of public libraries,
school libraries, or college libraries; history of
books and libraries; or the use of audio-visual
media in the library.
Certain positions for special librarians re­
quire completion of courses in the subject matter
with which the librarian will work. A business
librarian, for example, might study economics,
accounting, business management, and finance.
To complete work for the master's degree in
library science, most schools require either two
full semesters and one summer session or three
full semesters. In 1960, there were 32 grad­
uate schools in the United States and Canada
which were accredited by the American Library
Association.
Some scholarships for training in library




253

science are available from State and Federal
funds made available under the terms of the
Library Services Act passed by Congress in
1956. This Act provides Federal funds for the
extension and improvement of rural public
library service, and calls for State and local
participation. Library schools offer scholar­
ships, and persons interested in library science
are usually eligible to compete for general
scholarships offered by many colleges and
universities.
Some students attend library schools under
cooperative work-study programs, combining
their academic program with practical work
experience in a library. In order to aid the
student in arranging his work-study schedules,
many schools have adopted the policy of offer­
ing all courses every semester.
School librarians must be certified in all
States and must also be certified as teachers
in all States except one. Therefore, in addition
to a general liberal arts program, persons who
wish to become school librarians must take
courses in professional education as well as in
librarianship. Since the number of semester
hours required in education courses varies from
State to State, information on this topic should
be secured from the certifying officer in the
appropriate State department of education.
At least 24 States require certification of
public librarians; in 5 of them, librarians in
colleges and universities must also be certified.
Other requirements, based on different combi­
nations of education and experience, are some­
times established by local, county, or State au­
thorities. Information on the requirements
governing certification of librarians can be ob­
tained from the American Library Association.
In addition to an appropriate educational
background, a person interested in the field of
librarianship should have above-average intelli­
gence, an attraction to books, an interest in
people, intellectual curiosity, an ability to ex­
press himself clearly through the written and
spoken word, a desire to search for and use
recorded materials, and an ability to work
harmoniously with others.
Advancement for the librarian may come by
obtaining a higher grade position in the same
library or in another library. Promotion to

254
administrative positions or to specialized work
is also possible on the basis of additional library
training’ or experience. For example, over onehalf of all State departments of education utilize
school library supervisors who direct in-service
training, provide consultative services on li­
brary development, and work with curriculum
supervisors to improve instruction. Advance­
ment to these higher positions may be limited,
however, to “ professional librarians” who have
completed graduate training in an accredited
library school or to those who have had special­
ized training and experience.
Employment Outlook

The employment outlook for trained librarians
is expected to be excellent during the 1960's.
The nationwide shortage of trained librarians
reported by library schools, associations, and the
U.S. Office of Education in 1960 is expected
to grow worse during the decade, partly as a
result of the overall population increase in the
United States and the passage of the Library
Services Act of 1956 with its subsequent exten­
sion to 1966. Improved standards for school
and college libraries and the expanding school
and college population will also necessitate the
employment of a growing number of fully
trained librarians. Many additional openings
will be created by turnover among young women
in the field who leave their jobs for marriage
and other reasons. By 1970, as many as 80,000
trained librarians may be needed.
Since there is a shortage of fully trained
librarians, many positions will continue to be
available for persons who have only a bachelor's
degree with a major in library science. Some
positions will also be open to college graduates
who have had little or no library training.
The number of degrees granted in library
science has remained relatively constant for
some time (averaging about 1,900 a year), de­
spite the rising number of job openings. Job
opportunities exist in all parts of the country
and in all types of libraries. For those who
like to travel, have had considerable experience
in special library work, and are competent in
public affairs, there are opportunities in Ameri­
can libraries overseas, such as those run by




OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

the United States Information Agency and the
Armed Forces. Among the greatest shortage
areas are cataloging, children's work, and spe­
cial library services in science and technology.
Graduates of some of the larger schools are
currently being offered from 10 to 20 different
jobs; a number of schools have as many as 40
requests for each graduate.
Part-time positions will be available at an
increasing rate for trained persons interested
in library work. Approximately 4,000 librar­
ians are now working part time in public li­
braries. Older workers trained in librarianship
may find shortrun work as library consultants,
as substitutes during vacations, or may help
in setting up new libraries. Some semiprofessional work is also available for college
students or other persons interested in gaining
library experience before deciding upon a
career in this field.
Earnings and Working Conditions

Starting salaries of library school graduates
generally range from $4,400 to $5,000 yearly.
Specialists with extensive experience can earn
up to $12,000 annually; a few may go as high
as $20,000. In 1959, the average annual salary
of new graduates with a master's degree from
an accredited library school was $4,862. Geo­
graphical location, size of city, size and type of
library, and degree of responsibility and tech­
nical skill required are important factors in­
fluencing librarians' salaries.
In the Federal Government, the entrance
salary for librarians was $4,345 or $5,355 in
1960, depending on the extent of education and
experience. A number of supervisory positions
offered salaries up to $10,000 and a few as high
as $15,000. The average salary for professional
librarians in 1959 was $6,545.
The average salary for all special librarians
was about $6,100, according to a 1959 survey
by the Special Libraries Association. Special
librarians with 2 years or less experience had
an average salary of $5,100. Top salaries were
over $10,000. An analysis of librarians' salaries
by type of organization or business showed that
the highest salaries were in the fields of nuclear

255

OTHER PROFESSIONAL AND RELATED OCCUPATIONS

and atomic energy, petroleum, aircraft, and
chemicals.
School librarians are usually on the same pay
scale as teachers, with the salary determined
by the amount of education and experience.
In schools employing more than one librarian,
the head librarian usually has the rank of de­
partment head.
The typical workweek for librarians is 5 days
and from 35 to 40 hours. The work schedule of
public and college librarians may include some
Saturday, Sunday, and evening work. School
librarians generally have the same workday as
classroom teachers. A 40-hour week during
normal business hours is common for govern­
ment and special librarians.
The usual paid vacation after a year’s service
is 3 to 4 weeks. Vacations may be longer in
school libraries and somewhat shorter in
those operated by business and industry. In
addition to paid vacations, most librarians re­
ceive several paid holidays each year. Many

librarians are covered by sick leave; life, health,
and accident insurance; and pension plans.
Where To Go for More Information

Additional information, particularly on ac­
credited schools, requirements for librarianship,
and scholarships or loans, may be obtained from :
American Library Association,
50 East Huron St., Chicago 11, 111.

Information on requirements and placement
of special librarians may be secured from :
Special Libraries Association,
31 East 10th St., New York 3, N .Y.

Information about library services may be
secured from :
Office of Education, Library Services Branch, U.S.
Department of Health, Education, and Welfare,
Washington 25, D.C.

Individual State library boards can furnish
information on scholarships available through
their offices and on requirements for certi­
fication.

Newspaper Reporters
(D.O.T. 0-06.71)

Nature of Work

Reporters gather information and write news
stories for publication in daily or weekly news­
papers. They interview people, review police
and public records, observe events as they hap­
pen, and do research in libraries and other
places. As a rule, reporters take brief notes
while collecting facts and write their stories
upon return to the office. Sometimes, to meet
deadlines, they telephone their stories to “ dictationists” or give the information by phone to
other staff members known as “ rewrite men,”
who write the stories for them.
Large dailies frequently assign some report­
ers to “ beats,” such as police stations or courts,
to cover news originating in these places,
whereas other local news is handled by general
assignment reporters. News on certain subjects,
such as sports, politics, and religion, is often
dealt with by specialists in these fields. Report­
ers on small newspapers often get broader ex­
perience; they not only cover all aspects of




local news but may also take photographs, write
headlines, lay out inside pages, and even write
editorials. On the smallest weeklies, they may
also solicit advertisements, sell subscriptions,
and perform general office work.
Newspaper reporting is only one of several
occupations open to young people trained in
journalism. Persons with this background may
also work for magazines, trade, business and
labor publications, and other periodicals; for
radio and television stations, advertising
agencies, and public relations firms; and for
government agencies. These related activities
are not covered in this statement.
Where Employed

About 25,000-30,000 newspapers reporters
were employed in the United States in 1960.
The majority worked for daily newspapers;
most of the others worked for weekly papers.
In addition, some reporters were employed by

256

Reporters in the city room preparing news stories.

press services and newspaper syndicates.
Reporters work in cities and towns of all
sizes throughout the country. Of the approxi­
mately 1,800 daily and 9,000 weekly newspapers,
the great majority are in medium-sized towns,
often in the suburbs of large cities. Large num­
bers of reporters, however, are in cities, since
big city dailies employ many reporters, whereas
a small-town paper generally employs only a
few.
Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement

Although talented writers with little or no
academic training beyond high school some­
times become reporters, an increasing number
of newspapers will consider only applicants with
a college education. Some editors prefer those
with a degree in journalism; others consider
a degree in liberal arts equally desirable.
Professional training leading to a bachelor’s
degree in journalism can be obtained in more
than 150 colleges; about 100 of these have sep­
arate departments or schools of journalism.
The typical undergraduate journalism curricu­
lum is offered during the junior and senior
years of college and is divided about equally
between cultural and professional subjects.
Students preparing to become newspaper re­
porters take professional subjects such as re­




OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

porting, copyreading, editing, feature writing,
and the history of journalism. A number of
schools also award the master’s degree in jour­
nalism, but only a few offer programs leading
to the doctor’s degree in this field. Most schools
and departments of journalism are not over­
crowded, and qualified applicants have an ex­
cellent chance of admittance.
Young people who wish to prepare for news­
paper work through a liberal arts course should
take English and specialized courses in writing,
as well as such subjects as sociology, political
science, economics, history, and psychology.
Those without college training usually qualify
by gaining experience on rural, small-town, or
suburban papers.
Writing ability is fundamental to success in
this field. Other personal characteristics of
importance are a “ nose for news,” persistence,
initiative, resourcefulness, an accurate memory,
and the physical stamina necessary for an ac­
tive and often fast-paced life. Skill in typing
is useful since reporters often type their own
news stories. In beginning jobs on small papers,
a knowledge of news photography is also
valuable.
Many beginners start on weekly or small
daily newspapers. Some outstanding college
graduates, however, are hired directly for re­
porting positions by papers that prefer to train
them on-the-job. Others, also usually college
graduates, start on large city papers as copy
boys, acting as messengers or office boys. They
may be promoted to reporting jobs as they gain
experience and as openings arise.
In competing for regular positions, it is help­
ful to have had experience as a “ stringer”—
one who covers the news in a particular area
of the community for a newspaper and is paid
on the basis of the stories printed. Experience
on a high school or college newspaper may also
be helpful in obtaining employment.
Beginning reporters are first assigned to
such work as summarizing speeches, covering
civic and club meetings, writing obituaries,
interviewing visitors to the community, and
covering police court proceedings and minor
news events. As they gain experience, they
may advance to covering more important de­
velopments or to a “ beat” or special subject.

OTHER PROFESSIONAL AND RELATED OCCUPATIONS

Reporters with extensive experience may be­
come rewrite men or copy editors. Newspaper­
men also progress to reporting jobs with larger
papers or with press services and newspaper
syndicates. Some experienced reporters ad­
vance to positions such as columnists, corre­
spondent, editor, or to top executive positions or
become publishers, but these positions represent
the top of the field and competition for them
is keen. Other reporters transfer to related
fields such as advertising, radio, television, or
public relations.
Employment Outlook

Well-qualified beginners with writing talent
will have good employment opportunities
through the mid-1960,s. In 1961, newspaper
editors were actively seeking more young re­
porters with exceptional talent. People with
only average ability, however, were facing keen
competition for jobs, especially on large city
dailies, and will probably continue to do so.
Weekly or daily newspapers located in small
towns and suburban areas will continue to offer
the most opportunities for beginners to enter
newspaper reporting. Openings continually
arise on these papers as young people gain ex­
perience and transfer to reporting jobs on
larger newspapers or to other types of work.
Moreover, the number of newspapers in subur­
ban areas is increasing, and many of the
existing ones are expanding their staffs to
satisfy the need for more detailed community
news. Preference in employment on small
papers is likely to be given to beginning re­
porters who are able to help with photography
and other specialized aspects of newspaper work
and who are acquainted with the community.
Large city dailies will also provide openings
for inexperienced people with a good educa­
tional background as well as a flair for writing
to enter as reporter trainees, and a number of
opportunities will continue to be available for
young people to enter as copy boys and advance
to reporting jobs.
In addition to jobs in newspaper reporting,
new college graduates with journalism training
will find numerous openings in related fields,
such as advertising, public relations, trade and



257

technical publishing, radio, and television. The
broad field of mass communication, which has
grown rapidly in recent years, will continue to
expand in the 1960 decade. Factors pointing
toward continuing expansion include rising
levels of education and income; increasing ex­
penditures for newspaper, radio, and televi­
sion advertising; a growing number of trade
and technical journals and various types of com­
pany publications. Newspapers will share in
this growth. Employment of reporters is ex­
pected to increase, although not as fast as em­
ployment in some related areas. The greatest
number of job openings will continue to arise
from the need to replace reporters who are
promoted to editorial or other positions, trans­
fer to other fields of work, retire, or leave the
profession for other reasons.
Special opportunities for women will con­
tinue to be found in reporting on such subjects
as society news, food, fashions, clubs, and
beauty culture for the women's section of news­
papers. Many women reporters, however, have
the same types of job assignments as men.
Earnings and Working Conditions

Many daily newspapers have negotiated con­
tracts with the American Newspaper Guild
which set minimum wages based on experience
and provide for annual salary increases. Papers
with Guild contracts, however, often pay
salaries higher than the minimum rates called
for in their contracts. Particularly successful,
experienced reporters on city dailies may earn
more than $200 a week. In mid-1960, the mini­
mum starting salaries on most daily newspapers
with Guild contracts ranged from $55 to $90
a week for reporters with no previous experi­
ence. On a few small dailies, the Guild mini­
mum starting salaries were less than $55 a
week; on a few large dailies Guild minimum
rates for beginning reporters ranged between
$85 and $100 a week. Young people starting
as copy boys earn less than new reporters—
minimum Guild rates for copy boys with some
experience ranged from about $40 to slightly
more than $75 a week.
On most dailies, minimum Guild rates for
reporters with some experience (usually for

258

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

those with 4 to 7 years) ranged from about
$108 to $150 a week in mid-1960. Contract
minimums for experienced reporters on a few
small dailies were less than $100 a week; on a
few large dailies they were more than $150 a
week.
According to a private survey, based pri­
marily on large city papers, the average income
of reporters with at least 6 years of experience
was $7,075 a year in 1960: average yearly
earnings were $8,705 on papers with a circu­
lation of over 150,000; $6,256 on papers with a
circulation between 50,000 and 150,000; and
$5,999 on those papers with a circulation of
less than 50,000.
Newspaper reporters on big city papers fre­
quently work 71 hours a day, 5 days a week;
/)
other reporters generally work an 8-hour day,
40-hour week. Many of those employed by
morning papers start work in the afternoon
and finish about midnight. City papers pay
overtime rates for work performed after the
regularly scheduled workday or for more than
40 hours of work a week; they often provide

various employee benefits such as paid vacations,
group insurance, and pensions.
Where To Go for More Information

Information about opportunities with daily
newspapers may be obtained from :
American Newspaper Publishers Association,
750 Third Ave., New York 17, N .Y.

Information on opportunities in the news­
paper field may be obtained from :
The Newspaper Fund, Inc.,
44 Broad St., New York 4, N.Y.

Information on union wage rates is available
from :
American Newspaper Guild, Research Department,
1126 16th St. N W ., Washington 6, D.C.

Names and locations of all daily newspapers
and a list of departments and schools of jour­
nalism are published in the Editor & Publisher
International Yearbook, available in most large
newspaper offices and public libraries.

Photographers
(D.O.T. 0-56.01 through .31)

Nature of Work

Photography is both an artistic and a tech­
nical occupation, involving much more than
taking clear pictures of people and views. Some
photographers produce pictures which are so
beautifully composed, otherwise artistic, and
striking that they are recognized as works of
fine art. Skillful portrait photographers take
pictures which are not only natural looking and
attractive, but express the personality of the
individual. In taking pictures for advertising
and other commercial purposes, the photog­
rapher has to understand how the picture is
to be used and plan to take it in such a way
as to achieve the desired effect. Photographing
sports and other news events also calls for spe­
cial photographic skills, as to other branches
of photographic work.
In taking pictures, photographers use a vari­
ety of cameras— miniature (85 mm.), still,
motion picture, and others. The cameras may




be equipped with telescopic, wide-angle, or
other special lenses and with different types of
light filters, to enable the photographer to get
the particular effects desired in each picture.
Photographers also utilize many kinds of film
and must know which to use for each type of
picture, different lighting conditions, cameras,
and filters. When taking pictures indoors or
after dark, they use lighting equipment— flash
bulbs for some pictures, flood and other special
lights and reflectors for others. In addition,
photographers must understand and be able to
carry through the chemical and other proces­
sing by which pictures are developed, en­
larged, and printed. In small shops and
photographic departments, the photographer
often has to do all this technical work. This
may be required also in large studios, but, as a
rule, such studios employ photographic techni­
cians to do the needed technical work. The
techniques involved in taking motion pictures

OTHER PROFESSIONAL AND RELATED OCCUPATIONS

259

raphy, taking pictures for use in scientific
research or technical journals. In addition,
some photographers write for trade and tech­
nical publications, teach photography in schools
and colleges, act as representatives of photo­
graphic equipment manufacturers, manage
photofinishing establishments, sell photographic
equipment and supplies, produce documentary
films, or do freelance work.
Where Employed

Photograph by U.S. Department of Labor

Photographers carefully pose models for effective
pictures.

differ greatly from those used in still photog­
raphy and, therefore, most photographers work
in only one field.
Professional photographers may either spe­
cialize in one kind of work or engage in almost
all kinds of photography. The most common
photographic specialties are portrait work, com­
mercial photography, and industrial photog­
raphy. Portrait photographers work mostly in
their own studios, though they sometimes go to
people’s homes or other places to take pictures.
Commercial photographers generally take pic­
tures for use in advertising real estate, furni­
ture, food, apparel, and other items, but they
may also do other kinds of photographic work.
Industrial photographers work for a single firm
or company, mainly taking pictures that are
used in company publications and for advertis­
ing company products or services. They may
take motion pictures of workers on the job and
of equipment and machinery operating at high
speed to simplify work methods or to improve
the production process. Other photographic
specialties include press photography (combin­
ing a “ nose for news” with photographic abil­
it y ) ; aerial photography; educational photog­
raphy (preparing slides, film strips, and movies
for use in the classroom); and scientific photog­




About 60,000 photographers were employed
in mid-1960. Roughly half of them worked in
portrait or commercial studios— many in busi­
ness for themselves, the rest as salaried em­
ployees. In addition, sizable numbers were em­
ployed in industry; some worked for Federal,
State, and local government agencies; and oth­
ers operated camera stores or worked on the
staffs of newspapers and magazines. Still
others worked as freelance photographers, tak­
ing pictures of many kinds and selling them to
advertisers, magazines, and other customers.
Photographers work in all parts of the coun­
try, in small towns as well as large cities. They
are, however, mainly concentrated in States
which are heavily populated— New York, Penn­
sylvania, California, Ohio, and Illinois— and
which also have great numbers of businesses
and industrial establishments.
Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement

After graduating from high school, young
people may prepare for work as professional
photographers through 2 or 3 years of on-thejob training in a portrait or commercial studio.
A trainee generally starts by working in the
darkroom, where he learns how to develop and
print film and to do other related work such as
making enlargements. Later, the trainee may
set up lights and cameras or otherwise assist
an experienced photographer in taking pictures.
Photographic training can also be obtained in
many colleges and universities, trade schools,
and technical institutes, or by taking corre­
spondence school courses. Several colleges and
universities offer 4-year curriculums leading to
a bachelor’s degree with a major in photog­

260
raphy. These curriculums include liberal arts
courses as well as courses in professional
photography. A few institutions have 2-year
curriculums leading to a certificate or an asso­
ciate degree in photography.
The kind and amount of training obtained
greatly influence the kind of photographic work
for which a young person can qualify. For
example, considerable formal training, plus
some photographic experience, is usually needed
to enter the fields of industrial, news, or scien­
tific photography. Amateur photographic ex­
perience may be helpful to the young person
considering a career in this field.
The prospective photographer should have
manual dexterity and some artistic ability. In
addition, a pleasant personality, the ability to
put people at ease, and a good business sense
are needed by photographers who expect to go
into business for themselves. Imagination and
originality are particularly important for those
aspiring to careers in commercial photography
or freelance work. For news or press photog­
raphy, a knowledge of news values and the
ability to act quickly are important.
Beginning photographers often work in
established studios until they accumulate the
capital and experience needed to start their
own businesses, although some open their own
portrait or commercial studios immediately
after completing their training.

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

in other occupations but who take pictures in
their spare time. Less competition is likely in
industrial photography and other fields which
require a thorough knowledge of photography
as well as other technical or scientific training.
Over the long run, a moderate increase in
employment of photographers is expected, with
the growth in population. The movement of
families to the suburbs will create some op­
portunities for photographers to open portrait
studios in the new shopping centers. Other
factors which point toward an increase in the
employment of photographers are the increas­
ing use of photographs in advertising, the ex­
pected growth in the number of film strips and
motion pictures produced for use of business
and industry, civic organizations, and govern­
ment ; and continued research and development
in the missiles field. Since a large part of this
work will be done by people on the staff of
manufacturing firms, employment of industrial
photographers is likely to rise at a more rapid
rate than that of either portrait or commercial
photographers. Nevertheless, as in the past,
it is likely that the greatest number of job
openings will continue to be in the much larger
fields of portrait and commercial photography
because of the need to replace those photog­
raphers who transfer to other fields of work,
retire, or die.
Earnings and Working Conditions

Employment Outlook

Employment opportunities are expected to
be favorable through the mid-1960’s for tal­
ented and well-trained photographers. Such
photographers should find work readily in most
parts of the country. People with less ability
and training are likely to encounter keen com­
petition and also to have limited chances of
advancement.
The portrait and commercial fields of photog­
raphy were crowded in 1960, and this situation
is likely to persist. These fields may be easily
entered, since a photographer can go into busi­
ness for himself without a large financial in­
vestment. Moreover, the available supply of
portrait and commercial photographers is con­
tinually enlarged by people who are employed




Beginning photographers generally earned
from $60 to $80 a week in mid-1960, according
to limited information from various private
sources. Many photographers with established
reputations earned much more. For newspaper
photographers without previous experience and
employed on daily newspapers having contracts
with the American Newspaper Guild, minimum
salaries were usually between $50 and $80
weekly. Minimum rates for photographers
with some experience (usually 4 to 6 years)
ranged from $105 to $150 a week on most
dailies organized by the Guild. The entrance
salary for inexperienced photographers in the
Federal Civil Service was $3,500 a year; for
those with at least 1 year of routine photo­
graphic experience, it was $3,760 a year. In

261

OTHER PROFESSIONAL AND RELATED OCCUPATIONS

addition, the salary schedule provides for pe­
riodic increases above this amount. Most ex­
perienced photographers in the Federal Govern­
ment earn $4,345 or more a year; only a few
earn over $10,000 annually. Self-employed
photographers generally earn more than sal­
aried workers, but their earnings are greatly
affected by business conditions, their work­
week, and many other factors.
Photographers with salaried jobs usually
work the standard 5-day, 40-hour week and
receive benefits such as paid holidays, vaca­
tions, and sick leave. Photographers in busi­

ness for themselves frequently work longer
hours, especially during their busy seasons.
Working conditions are generally pleasant.
Freelance, press, and commercial photographers
may be required to travel frequently.
Where To Go for More Information

Information about photography as a career,
as well as a list of schools of photography, is
available from :
Professional Photographers of America, Inc.,
152 West Wisconsin Ave., Milwaukee 3, Wis.

Programmers
(D.O.T. 0-69.981)

Nature of Work

The occupation of programmer is one of the
very newest— as new as the electronic com­
puter. Computers, even though sometimes called
"mechanical brains,” can only follow carefully
prepared instructions about what they are to do
on each job. It is the programmer who pre­
pares these step-by-step instructions.
A computer not only makes mathematical
calculations at the fantastic speeds of elec­
tronic impulses, but it has a “ memory” in
which many thousands of facts can be stored
and later used by the machine in carrying out
its work. Because of their enormous speed and
other capacities, computers can take over a
great deal of work (or “ data-processing” ) which
might otherwise require the time of many em­
ployees. They handle such varied assignments
as making up payrolls, regulating automatic
production lines in factories, and controlling
the movement of trains. They have been used
for work which otherwise would not be at­
tempted on the same scale because of the time
involved— analyzing masses of information
about operating costs and potential markets,
for example, in order to enable business firms
to decide on the most advantageous location
for a new plant; and they have accomplished
things that would otherwise be impossible—
such as controlling the flight of a missile by
instantaneously correcting deviations from the
planned course. Still other “ problems” for



which computers have been used include study­
ing the structure of chemical compounds,
analyzing radioactive fallout, doing legal re­
search, and translating books into Braille for
the blind.
Every problem that is processed on a com­
puter must first be carefully analyzed so that
plans can be made for processing the data in
the most efficient manner. There are usually
several possible ways of obtaining the correct
answer to any given problem, some of them
more direct than others; and there are often
valuable “ byproducts” of information which can
be produced by the computer in the course of
solving a problem. In many offices, a program­
mer does this preliminary analysis and plan­
ning; in other offices, this work is done instead
by specialists known as methods analysts, proj­
ect planners, or systems analysts.
Once the general plans have been completed,
the programmer is ready to start his job of writ­
ing the “ program,” or detailed plan for process­
ing the data on the computer. Exactly how he
does this depends a good deal on the kind of
computer used and the nature of the problem
being programmed. The mathematical calcula­
tions involved in preparing a payroll, for exam­
ple, are very different from those required in
most kinds of scientific and technical work and
the programming techniques are also very dif­
ferent. Furthermore, special techniques such
as “ linear programming” and numerical anal­

262
ysis may be called for in working out solutions
to some kinds of business and scientific prob­
lems. For these reasons, most programmers
specialize in specific types of problems.
Regardless of the nature of the problem, the
programmer usually starts his job by conferring
with professional staff members and other offi­
cials in his organization who are in a position
to furnish him with detailed information about
the subject matter of the problem. If the com­
puter is to be used to make up a payroll, for
example, he first determines which facts must
be used in order to produce each employee’s
paycheck and he finds out the exact form in
which these facts— wage rates, hours worked,
and other payroll information— are entered on
the company’s records. This done, he makes a
flow chart, or diagram, showing the order in
which the computer must perform each oper­
ation, and for each operation he prepares de­
tailed instructions, or “ routines.” These rou­
tines, once they have been transferred to the
computer’s memory, tell the machine exactly
what to do with all of the facts and figures
associated with the problem. Usually the rou­
tines must be translated into a sort of code—
the machine language to which the computer
can respond— and often the coding is done by
the programmer. He is also responsible for mak­
ing a detailed record of the reasoning he has
followed in developing each routine, and for
preparing an instruction sheet for the console
operator to follow when the program is run
on the computer. (The work of the console
operator is described in the chapter on Clerical
and Related Occupations. See index for page
number.)
The final step in programming is “ debugging”
— that is, checking on whether the instruc­
tions have been correctly written and will pro­
duce the desired information. This may take
only a little time or, if trouble spots develop,
become a tedious and long-drawn-out process.
A program is usually debugged in two steps.
First, the programmer takes a sample of the
data to be processed and reviews step by step
just what will happen as the computer follows
the series of instructions which make up the pro­
gram. Then, after he has revised the instruc­
tions to take care of any difficulties that arise,




OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

Photograph by U.S. Department of Labor

Programmer using a computer console to “debug” a
program.

he tests out the “ trial routine” on the computer.
Sometimes the console operator helps with this
part of the debugging process. If all goes well,
the computer will produce a solution to the
trial routine which is identical with a solution
worked out by other means. If the two answers
are not the same, or if the computer simply
stops running midway through the trial routine
(as may happen if a situation arises which is
not provided for in the program), it is the
programmer’s job to locate any further sources
of trouble and make the necessary program
changes.
A comparatively simple problem can be pro­
grammed for a computer within a few hours. A
program which deals with a complex problem
or is designed to produce many different kinds
of information may require thousands of rou­
tines and a year or more of preparation. On
involved problems, several programmers at dif­
ferent levels of responsibility often work as a
team, under the supervision of a senior
programmer.
Where Employed

No exact figures are available on the number
of programmers. Industry spokesmen estimated
the total employed full time in this work in

OTHER PROFESSIONAL AND RELATED OCCUPATIONS

early 1961 at around 40,000. In addition, a
great many workers spend part of their time
in programming. A considerable number of
these are engineers, scientists, economists, ac­
countants, and other professional workers,
whose programming duties are incidental to
other major job responsibilities.
Programmers are employed chiefly in metro­
politan. centers where the offices of large busi­
ness organizations and Government agencies
are located. A great many work for insurance
companies, public utilities, wholesale and retail
establishments, and large manufacturing firms
of almost every kind. A considerably smaller
number are Government employees doing work
related either to scientific and technical prob­
lems or to the processing of the vast amount of
paperwork which must be handled in many
government offices. In addition, a growing
number of programmers are employed in service
centers which furnish computer and program­
ming services to business firms and other or­
ganizations on a fee basis.
Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement

Most programmers are chosen for their jobs
because they are judged to have an aptitude for
the work and have had training or experience
related to the problems to be programmed. As a
rule, they learn the programming techniques
they will need only after they are hired for this
work. The special abilities most sought after
are similar in all kinds of programming, but
requirements with respect to education and ex­
perience may be very different, depending on
the nature of the problems with which the
programmer will be dealing. For example, some
people in this occupation are college graduates
with degrees in engineering, whereas others
have had years of experience in such work as
accounting or inventory control.
Young people interested in programming jobs
can begin to acquire the necessary skills by tak­
ing courses in programming techniques and the
logic of computers now offered in a small but
steadily increasing number of colleges and uni­
versities. Many other colleges give helpful
courses in the general field of electronic data
processing, and a few city high schools are ex­



263

perimenting with courses in computer pro­
gramming which are open to small groups of
students. It is likely that training programs
such as these will be extended and improved as
greater use is made of computers in the future.
However, the courses so far available by no
means eliminate the need for on-the-job train­
ing. Since technological changes are contin­
ually taking place in this field and each type of
computer has its own special programming re­
quirements, such training is usually necessary
even in the case of experienced “ oldtimers”
who change from one job to another.
In selecting programmers, employers look for
people with an aptitude for the exacting kind
of analysis which is part of the job. Prospec­
tive programmers are often required to take
special tests which indicate whether they
possess the high degree of reasoning ability
required. In addition, programmers should have
a great deal of patience and persistence and be
able to work with extreme accuracy, follow in­
structions carefully, and express themselves
clearly in writing and orally. Ingenuity and
imagination are very desirable traits, since
programmers often have to work out new ways
of arriving at solutions to problems.
Most organizations which use their com­
puters for scientific and engineering work also
require that their programmers be college grad­
uates. The technical knowledge needed for some
of this work is such that employers take people
with the necessary academic background and
then train them in programming, in preference
to hiring experienced programmers who have no
knowledge of science or engineering. Graduate
degrees may be required for some positions; for
practically all positions, an applicant who has
no college training at all is at a severe dis­
advantage. Most programmers working on sci­
entific and engineering problems are college
graduates with degrees in engineering, phys­
ics, or mathematics.
Employers who use computers to process
business records generally place less emphasis
on educational requirements. Many of them re­
gard previous experience in related work— in
machine tabulation, for example, or in payroll
work or accounting— as more important than
formal schooling. They fill as many of their

264
programmer positions as possible by promoting
qualified employees with such experience. When
they find it necessary to hire outsiders— as they
often do— some of them accept high school
graduates who appear to have the special qual­
ifications desired, whereas others require edu­
cation beyond high school. College courses in
the general field of electronic data processing,
or in accounting, business administration, en­
gineering, and mathematics are regarded as
especially good preparation for programmers
who will be working with business records.
Entrance requirements for Government jobs
are similar to those in private industry. For
practically all entry programmer positions in
the Federal Government, persons hired must
have a college degree, preferably with training
in mathematics, or else they must have had the
equivalent of such preparation in previous work
experience. As in private industry, college
training in specialties such as physics or mathe­
matics may be required for programming some
technical problems.
A programmer starting out on his job usually
attends training classes for a period of 5 or 6
weeks. The training period may be somewhat
longer than this if the instruction includes spe­
cial techniques such as numerical analysis, and
somewhat shorter for the limited number of in­
dividuals who have had an opportunity to learn
something about the field of electronic data
processing in high school or college. Trainees
who demonstrate their aptitude of programming
during this initial period of instruction usu­
ally continue with further specialized training
while they are working on minor programming
assignments.
A year or more of experience is usually nec­
essary before a programmer can learn to handle
all aspects of his job without close supervision.
Once he becomes skilled at it, his prospects for
further advancement are good. An experienced
and capable programmer in an organization em­
ploying several people in this occupation may
move up to a senior job with supervisory re­
sponsibilities. Promotion may be possible also
to a position as methods analyst. Still other
programmers advance to management positions
with their firms.




OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

Employment Outlook

Employment opportunities for programmers
are expected to remain very good throughout
the 1960’s. There will be thousands of new
jobs each year, particularly in firms which use
their computers to process business records and
control manufacturing processes. Employment
will also rise in the scientific and engineering
field, but somewhat less rapidly.
The employment increase during the next 10
years will continue a trend which has been un­
derway for several years, and the factors un­
derlying it will be much the same as in the
past. The first program was written and the
first computer put to work fewer than 20 years
ago, and only since the mid-1950’s have com­
puters ceased to be a rarity. During the past
5 years or so, as equipment has been contin­
ually changed and improved, thousands of
computers have been installed and put to hun­
dreds of different uses in private and public
organizations of all kinds. With further de­
velopment in computer technology, the number
of computers will increase still further and
unquestionably there will be a need for many
more programmers. There are likely to be more
opportunities, also, for young people to obtain
advanced training for this occupation.
Other changes already underway or in pros­
pect may affect the occupation of programmer

in ways which are more difficult to foresee.
During the years ahead, advances in computer
technology' can be expected to continue and
computers will undoubtedly be put to an ever
increasing number of new uses— with the result
that important changes may well take place in
the nature of the work to be done by program­
mers. It appears likely that eventually much
of the time-consuming and routine work asso­
ciated with writing a program may be elimi­
nated and, as more programs are developed for
processing new kinds of problems, the job of
getting a problem ready for processing on a com­
puter will involve more analytical work and
less that is routine. Programmers may thus have
to spend more of their time on preliminary
analysis than is now the case; or, as an alterna­
tive, it may become much more common for
two types of workers to share the job— one to
handle the preliminary analysis and planning

265

OTHER PROFESSIONAL AND RELATED OCCUPATIONS

which is now sometimes done by methods
planners and systems analysts, and the other
to work on the detailed machine instructions
which comprise the program.
Even though the net effect of these develop­
ments may be to reduce somewhat the amount
of time a programmer spends in preparing work
for a computer, a very rapid increase in the
number of programmers is likely to take place
during the next decade— an increase which
some industry spokesmen think may bring the
total to more than 200,000 by 1970. Although
this expansion in employment will undoubtedly
be the main source of job openings in the years
ahead, there will also be a good many openings
as programmers leave their jobs to take other
types of positions. Because this is still a small
occupation which includes many comparatively
young workers, relatively few positions are
likely to become vacant because of retirement
or death.
Earnings and Working Conditions

Salaries for programmers employed by busi­
ness firms ranged from '$4,000 a year for some
beginners in 1960 to more than $13,000 for a
few employees in top supervisory positions, ac­
cording to a private survey which covered
nearly 500 companies in all parts of the coun­
try. Most trainees working under very close
supervision earned from $5,000 to $6,000 a
year; for most programmers with sufficient ex­
perience to work without close supervision,
salaries were between $5,500 and $6,500; and
for senior programmers and others doing tech­
nical work and carrying supervisory respon­
sibilities, salaries were usually between $7,000
and $9,000. The majority of programmers in top
supervisory jobs earned from $8,000 to $11,000
a year. These salary levels apply only to em­
ployees classified as programmers; those respon­
sible primarily for systems analysis generally
earned from $500 to $1,000 a year more than
programmers.
The survey indicated substantial differences




in the salaries of the lowest and highest paid
individuals in the same kinds of positions.
Within almost every group, there were a few
earning almost twice as much as others. These
salary differences were probably due to dif­
ferences in the kind of data processed and
computer used, the industry involved, and the
part of the country where the worker was
located. Also, experienced and skilled pro­
grammers are as yet so few in number that they
can sometimes command salaries considerably
above the average.
Salaries paid by the Federal Government are
roughly comparable with those in private in­
dustry. The minimum entrance salary for be­
ginners was $4,345 a year in 1960 and top
salaries paid experienced programmers respon­
sible for complex programming or supervisory
and administrative work were about $11,000
or, in a few cases, $14,000 or more a year.
The great majority of programmers in the Fed­
er