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: 9H0

Occupational
Outlook
Handbook
Employment Information
on m a j o r o c c u p a t i o n s
f o r u s e in g u i d a n c e

United States Department o f Labor

•

Bureau of Labor Statistics

in cooperation with the Veterans Administration







Occupational Outlook Handbook
Employment Information on Major Occupations
for Use in Guidance
prepared in cooperation with

VETERANS ADMINISTRATION
OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT ADMINISTRATOR
FOR VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION AND EDUCATION

Bulletin No. 940
UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
Maurice J. Tobin,

S e c r e ta r y

BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS
Ewan Clague, C o m m i s s i o n e r

For sale by the Superintendent o f Documents, U. S. Government Printing Office, Washington 25, D. C.




Price $1.75

Letter of Transmittal
U nited S tates D epartment of L abor,
B ureau of L abor S tatistics,

Washington, I). G.,September 1 ,191^8.
T he S ecretary

of

L abor:

I have the honor to transmit herewith the Occupational Outlook Handbook, pre­
pared in the Bureau’s Occupational Outlook Branch, with contributions by the Bureau
of Agricultural Economics, United States Department of Agriculture, the Women’s
Bureau of the United States Department of Labor, and the Office of Education, Federal
Security Agency.
Young people, veterans, or older workers who are choosing a career or course of
training need current information on employment trends and outlook in the various
occupations. Recognizing this need, the Congress, on a recommendation of the A dvi­
sory Committee on Education, provided for the establishment of an Occupational
Outlook Service in the Bureau of Labor Statistics in 1940. This handbook presents, in
brief form, some of the major results of the Bureau’s first 7 years of research in
occupational trends.
The reports contained in this handbook were originally prepared at the request
and with the financial support of the Veterans Administration, which, under the
provisions of the Servicemen’s Readjustment Act of 1944, was authorized to make
available information respecting the need for general education and for trained per­
sonnel in the various trades, crafts, and professions. They were issued in August
1946 as V A Manual M7-1, “ Occupational Outlook Information.” With the continuing
financial support of the Veterans Administration these reports have been brought up
to date and expanded in the present volume, which accordingly supersedes V A
Manual M7-1.
The handbook is being published in its present form and is being made available
through public sale in answer to many requests, including one from the National
Vocational Guidance Association, expressed in a resolution adopted at its convention
in March 1947. It is designed for use in schools, colleges, Veterans Administration
regional offices and guidance centers, employment service offices, community organiza­
tions, and other agencies engaged in the vocational guidance of young people, veterans,
and workers.
The Bureau wishes to acknowledge with gratitude the cooperation of hundreds of
industrial firms, unions, trade associations, and professional societies, whose officials
gave freely o f their time in discussing employment trends in their respective fields in
supplying information, and in reviewing and commenting upon drafts of the reports.
In the selection of occupations to be studied and the preparation o f the reports
to meet the needs of veterans, the Bureau wishes to acknowledge especially the guid­
ance of the office of the Assistant Administrator for Vocational Rehabilitation and
Education, Veterans Administration, and Donald H. Davenport, consultant to the
Administrator of Veterans’ Affairs.
E w a n C lague, Commissioner.

Hon. M aurice J. T obin,
Secretary of Labor.

ii




Foreword

The material contained in these excellent reports is of the greatest value to
counselors, teachers of classes in occupations, and many other workers inter­
ested in factual data on our occupational life. The reports have been scientifi­
cally compiled and are well organized for counseling use.
No agency except the Bureau of Labor Statistics could so well appraise the
long-term trends, the cyclical fluctuations and their effects, and the influence
of regional conditions and resources.
The information presented will be of inestimable value to individuals con­
templating the investment o f time and money in vocational training courses
and to training institutions planning or revising their curricular offerings.
The publication of these reports marks a high level of achievement in a new
and significant area.




W arren K. L ayton ,
President, National Vocational
Guidance Association.

Contributors

This handbook was prepared in the Bureau’s
Occupational Outlook Branch under the direction
o f Seymour L. Wolfbein, Branch Chief. Harold
Goldstein prepared the introductory sections and
was responsible for the general planning and
organization o f the book. Helen Wood and Bich­
ard H. Lewis supervised the research on employ­
ment opportunities and the preparation of the
occupational outlook reports. The following
members of the staff contributed sections: Caiman
R. Winegarden, Arthur W. Frazer, Cora E. Tay­
lor, Judith Grunfel, Samuel Vernoff, Harold
Wool, Alexander C. Findlay, Robert W. Cain,
Raymond D. Larson, Sol Swerdloff, Frank Dischel, John S. McCauley, Chester F. Schimmel,
Herbert L. Gottlieb, Evelyn W. Farber, Josephine
C. Solomon, Ruth B. Gordon, Cora S. Cronemeyer, Gloria H. Count, Bella D. Uranson, Claire
L. Labbie, Hilda L. Pearlman, Vincent H. Arkell,
Sylvia K. Lawrence, and Doris M. Graham.
The section on Agricultural Occupations was
prepared in the Bureau of Agricultural Econom­
ics, United States Department of Agriculture, by
Robert C. Tetro, with the assistance of A. B.
Genung. The reports were reviewed by C. P.
Heisig, N. W. Johnson, E. L. Langsford, H. L.
Stewart, C. R. Crickman, K. L. Bachman, O. L.
Minuns, Merton S. Parsons, Wesley Middaugh,
and W. D. Goodsell of the Bureau's staff.
The reports credited to the Women’s Bureau,
United States Department of Labor were pre­
pared by Marguerite W. Zapoleon and Mildred
Dougherty.
The chapter on Putting the Handbook to Work
was prepared by Harry A. Jager, Chief, Occupa­

IV




tional Information and Guidance Service, Office of
Education, Federal Security Agency.
The Occupational Analysis Branch, United
States Employment Service, gave advice and as­
sistance in the preparation of the handbook, par­
ticularly on matters of occupational classification
and descriptions of occupations.
The photographs credited to the United States
Department of Labor, most of which were taken
by James B. Lindley of the Visual Services Sec­
tion, Labor Standards Bureau, are by courtesy
of the Washington Institute of Mental Hygiene;
Creel Brothers, Inc., Washington, p . C .; Abbott
School of Fine and Commercial Art, Washington,
D. C .; Washington Refrigeration Co., Washing­
ton, D. C.; Star Radio Co., Washington, D. C .;
Pirrone & Wolter, Washington, D. C .; National
Institute of Cleaning and Dyeing, Silver Spring,
M d.; Kinsman Optical Co., Washington. D. C.;
Hoffman Upholsterers and Interior Decorators,
Washington, D. C.; Holzbeierlein & Sons. Inc.,
Washington, D. C .; Marcliant Calculating Machine
C o.; National Cash Register C o.; Remington Rand,
In c.; Judd & Detweiler, Inc.; Mercury Press, In c.;
and George A. Simonds & Co.
Photographs were also supplied by the Board of
Education, City of New Y ork; Mellon Institute of
Industrial Research. Pittsburgh, P a .; Trans
World Airline; American Airlines; Reni Newsphoto Service; American Hotel Association; May­
flower Hotel, Washington, D. C.; Capital A ir­
lines; American Aviation Associates, Inc.; Nor­
folk & Western Railway; Santa Fe Railway;
Southern Pacific Co.; Central High School of
Needle Trades, New York City; and Common­
wealth Edison Co., Chicago, 111.

Table of Contents
P age

Putting the handbook to w ork________________________________________________________________ 1
Guide to organization and use of han dbook____________________________________________________
H ow the information was obtain ed________________________________________________________
Grouping and definition of occupations____________________________________________________
Interpreting inform ation on number of workers in each occu pation _______________________
Interpreting inform ation on earnings______________________________________________________
H ow to obtain additional inform ation on local em ploym ent opportunities________________
Use of the index to occupational reports classified by broad fields of w ork_______________
H ow to obtain current inform ation______________________
Econom ic and occupational trends_____________________________________________________________
Population and labor fo rce _____________________________ : ___________________________________
Industrial and occupational trends_________________________________________________________
Occupational outlook reports:
Professional, semiprofessional, and administrative occupations____________________________
Teaching field_________________________________________________________________________
M edical-service occu pation s___________________________________________________________
Engineering and other technical fields________________________________________________
Other professional, semiprofessional, and administrative occupations_________________
Clerical, sales, and service occupations____________________________________________________
H otel occupations_____________________________________________________________________
Restaurant occupations________________________________________________________________
Protective service occu pation s______________________________________
Other clerical, sales, and service occu pation s_________________________________________
Trades and industrial occupations_________________________________________________________
Construction trades___________________________________________________________________
Mechanics and repairmen_____________________________________________________________
M achine shop occupations________________________________
Foundry occupations__________________________________________________________________
Forge shop occupations________________________________________________________________
Other metalworking occupations______________________________________________________
Printing occupations___________________________________________________________________
Furniture manufacturing occupations_____________________________: ___________________
_
Fur m anufacturing occupations_______________________________________________________
Railroad occupations___________________ :______________________________________________
Other trades and industrial occupations_______________________________________________
Agricultural occupations:
General outlook for farm ing___________________________________________________________
Northeast States__________________________________________________________________
Corn Belt States__________________________________________________________________
Lake States_______________________________________________________________________
Appalachian States_______________________________________________________________
Southeast States__________________________________________________________________
Mississippi Delta States__________________________________________________________
Oklahoma and Texas_____________________________________________________________
Northern Plains States___________________________________________________________
M ountain States__________________________________________________________________
Pacific States_____________________________________________________________________
Farm service job s_____________________________________________________________________
Index I — Occupational reports classified by broad fields of w ork _____________________________
Index II — Alphabetical index to occu pation s_________________________________________________
Occupations in the armed forces________________________________________________________________




5
6
7
7
8
9
9
10
11
13
18
29
35
43
63
97
119
125
136
143
148
169
174
200
232
249
267
275
291
313
322
329
351
378
384
390
395
400
406
413
418
423
427
431
437
443
447
454

y




List of Occupational Reports
PROFESSION AL, SEM IPROFESSION AL, AND A D M IN ISTR A TIV E OCCUPATIONS
Page

T E A C H IN G F IE L D

College and university teachers_______________
High school teachers__________________________
Kindergarten and elementary school teachersPhysical education instructors________________
M E D IC A L -S E R V IC E

O C C U PA TIO N S

Physicians_____________________________________
Dentists_______________________________________
Pharmacists___________________________________
Registered professional nurses-------------------------Veterinarians__________________________________
M edical laboratory technicians-----------------------Optom etrists__________________________________
Chiropractors__________________________________
M edical X -ra y technicians------------------------------Occupational therapists_______________________
Physical therapists____________________________
M edical record librarians______________________
Dental hygienists______________________________
E N G IN E E R IN G

35
37
38
40

AND

OTHER

43
45
47
49
51
52
53
55
56
57
58
60
61

T E C H N IC AL

FIELD S

Civil engineers________________________________
Electrical engineers____________________________
M echanical engineers--------------------------------------Chemical engineers------------------------------------------M ining engineers---------------------------------------------Metallurgical engineers________________________
Industrial engineers-----------------------------------------Ceramic engineers-------------------------------------------Chemists______________________________________
A rchitects_____________________________________
Industrial designers-----------------------------------------T ool designers_________________________________

63
65
67
68
69
71 .
72
73
74
77
78
79

E N G IN EE R IN G

AND

OTHER

TE C H N IC AL

Page

F I E L D S — Continued

D raftsm en_____________________________________
M eteorologists_________________________________
Weather observers_____________________________
R adio operators (telephone and telegraph
industry)____________________________________
Ship radio operators___________________________
Radio operators (broadcasting)-----------------------Flight radio operators_________________________
Ground radio operators and teletypists (air
transportation)______________________________
Airplane pilots________________________________
N avigators (air transportation)_______________
OTHER

P R O FE SSIO N A L,

S IO N A L,

AND

80
82
84
85
86
87
88
90
92
94

S E M I PROFES­

A D M IN IS T R A T IV E OCCU­

P A T IO N S

A ccou n tants___________________________________
Insurance underwriters________________________
Interior decorators____________________________
Photographers___________________________________
Com mercial artists______________________________
Furniture designers______________________________
Fur designers____________________________________
Lawyers_________________________________________
Social w orkers___________________________________
Personnel workers_____________________________
Librarians_______________________________________
Newspaper reporters and editors______________
Radio announcers_______________________________
Funeral directors and em balm ers_______________
Dispatchers and assistants (air transportation)Airport and air-route traffic controllers_________

96
97
98
100
101
102
103
104
106
107
109
110
111
113
114
116

CLERICAL, SALES, AND SERVICE OCCUPATIONS
HOTEL O C C U PA TIO N S

Front-office clerks (hotels)_________ _
. __
Bellman and baggage porters--------------------------Bell captains and head baggage porters_______
Superintendents of service (hotels)-----------------H otel housekeepers and assistants------------------H otel managers and assistants________________

P R O T E C T IV E S E R V IC E O C C U PA TIO N S

127
128
130
131
132
133

R E S T A U R A N T O C C U PA TIO N S

Restaurant and cafeteria managers----------------Cooks and chefs_______________________________
Waiters and waitresses________________________
Beverage-service workers______________________




135
137
139
140

Policem en_____________________________________
D etectives_____________________________________
Federal police and detectives_________________
F B I agents____________________________________
OTHER

C L E R IC A L ,

SALES,

AND

142
143
144
145

SE R V IC E

O C C U P A T IO N S

Secretaries, stenographers, and typists________
Bookkeepers___________________________________
Stock and stores clerks (air transportation)___
Traffic agents and clerks (air transportation)-,
General-insurance agents and brokers_________

vn

147
148
150
151
152

O C C U P A T IO N A L

VIII

OUTLOOK H A N D B O O K

List of Occupational Reports— Continued
CLERICAL, SALES, AND SERVICE OCCUPATIONS— Continued
OTHER

CL E R IC A L ,

SALES, A N D

S E R V IC E

page

Life-insurance agents____________________________
Autom obile parts salesmen______________________
Filling-station attendants,
managers, and
owners________________________________________
Barbers__________________________________________

SE R V IC E

Page

Beauty operators______________________________
Hospital attendants___________________________
Practical nurses_____________
Airplane hostesses_____________________________
Flight stewards________________________________

159
160
162
163
165

OTHER

C L E R IC A L ,

SALES,

AND

O C C U P A T I O N S — Continued

O C C U P A T I O N S — C o n t in u e d

153
155
156
158

TRAD ES AND IN D U STR IA L OCCUPATIONS
C O N STR U C T IO N

M A C H I N E S H O P O C C U P A T I O N S — Con.

TRADES

Carpenters_____________________________________
Painters_______________________________________
Bricklayers____________________________________
Electricians, construction_____________________
Paperhangers__________________________________
Plumbers and pipe fitters_____________________
Plasterers______________________________________
Sheet-metal w orkers___________________________
Structural and ornamental metal workers_____
Construction machinery operators____________
Glaziers________________________________________
M E C H A N IC S A N D

175
177
179
180
183
185
188
190
192
195
196

R E P A IR M E N

Autom obile mechanics________________________
Diesel mechanics______________________________
Industrial machinery repairm en_______________
Airplane mechanics____________________________
Flight engineers_______________________________
Electrical-household-appliance servicem en____
Electrical repairmen___________________________
Refrigerator servicemen and refrigeration and
air-conditioning mechanics__________________
Radio servicemen______________________________
Electronic technicians (commercial and indus­
trial servicing)______________________________
Electronic technicians (electronics manufactur­
in g)_________________________________________
Radar technicians_____________________________
Typewriter servicemen________________________
Adding machine servicem en___________________
Calculating machine servicem en______________
Cash register servicem en______________________
Accounting-statistical machine servicemen____
Accounting-bookkeeping machine servicemen__
Gunsmiths_____________________________________
Shoe repairm en .______________________________
W atch repairmen______________________________
Jewelry repairmen_____________________________

198
200
201
202
204
206
207
208
210
212
213
214
215
217
218
219
221
222
224
225
226
228

M A C H IN E SH O P O C C U PA TIO N S

All-round machinists__________________________
T ool and die makers__________________________
Engine-lathe operators________________________
Turret-lathe operators________________________
Grinding-machine operators___________________
Milling-machine operators_____________________




234
236
238
239
241
242

Shaper operators______________________________
Set-up men (machine sh op)______________
Lay-out men (machine sh op )__________________

243
244
245

F O U N D R Y O C C U P A TIO N S

Hand molders_________________________________
Machine molders______________________________
Hand coremakers______________________________
Machine coremakers__________________________
Patternmakers_________________________________
Chippers and grinders (fou ndry)______________
Castings inspectors____________________________
Melters (fou n dry)_____________________________
Foundry technicians___________________________

251
253
255
257
258
260
261
262
264

FOR G E SH O P O C C U P A TIO N S

D rop hammer operators_______________________
Hammersmiths________________________________
Forging-press operators___________________
Upsetters (forgin g)_______
Heaters, forge_________________________________
OTHER

266
267
269
270
271

M E T A L W O R K IN G O C C U PA TIO N S

Assemblers, bench (machinery manufacturing) _
Assemblers, floor (machinery m anufacturing)..
Inspectors, machinery parts___________________
Arc and gas welders___________________________
Resistance welders_____________________________
Acetylene burners_____________________________
Boilermakers________________
Riveters, pneumatic (m anufacturing)_________
Blacksmiths___________________________________
M illwrights____________________________________

273
275
276
278
280
282
283
284
285
286

P R IN T IN G O C C U P A TIO N S

Hand compositors and typesetters_____________
Linotype operators____________________________
M onotype keyboard operators________________
M onotype caster operators____________________
Proofreaders. __________________________________
Electrotypers and stereotypers__ _____________
Photoengravers________________________________
Rotogravure photoengravers__________________
Lithographic occupations______________________
Printing pressmen and assistants______________
Bookbinders___________________________________
Bindery workers_______________________________

296
297
298
299
300
301
302
303
304
306
308
309

L IS T

OF

O C C U P A T IO N A L

REPORTS

IX

List of Occupational Reports— Continued
TRADES AND INDUSTRIAL OCCUPATIONS— Continued
F U R N IT U R E

OCCUPA-

Page

TIONS
Cabinetmakers________________________________
W ood turners (furniture)______________________
W ood carvers and spindle carvers_____________
Furniture woodworking machine operators___
Furniture assemblers__________________________
Furniture finishers_____________________________
Furniture finishing-room workers_____________
Upholsterers___________________________________

M A N U FA C T U R IN G

312
313
313
314
315
316
317
318

F U R M A N U F A C T U R I N G O C C U P A T IO N S
Fleshers (fur dressing)-------------------------------------Fur blenders___________________________________
Fur craftsmen (manufacturing)_______________
Furriers, retail trade__________________________

320
321
322
324

R A I L R O A D O C C U P A T IO N S
Locom otive firemen and helpers_______________
Locom otive engineers_________________________
Brakemen (railroads)__________________________
Conductors (railroads)________________________
Train baggagemen_____i ______________________
Hostlers (railroads)____________________________
Switch tenders (railroads)_____________________
Telegraphers and telephoners (railroads)______
Towermen (railroads)_________________________
Station agents (railroads)--------------------------------Clerks (railroads)______________________________

331
332
333
335
336
336
337
338
340
341
342

O C C U P A T I O N S — Continued
Page
Redcaps____________________________
343
Carmen (railroads)______________________________
344
Bridge and building mechanics (railroads)____
346
Signalmen and signal maintainers (railroads) __
347

R A IL R O A D

OTHER

TRADES AN D

IN D U S T R IA L

OCCU­

P A T IO N S

Electroplaters_________________________________
Plastics molding machine operators_____________
Finishing jobs (plastics m oldin g)_______________
Bakers___________________________________________
Meat cutters__________________________________
M old makers (glass)____________________________
M old makers (structural clay produ cts)______
Painters, spray__________________________________
Blasters and pow derm en________________________
Chainmen, rodmen, and axmen_______________
D ry cleaners___________________________________
Spotters (dry cleaning)__________________________
Jewelry workers_______________________________
Dental m echanics_____________________________
Optical mechanics (ophthalm ic)_______________
Precision optical w orkers________________________
W atch and clock factory workers_____________
Linemen, electric light and pow er----------------------Telephone installers, repairmen, and linemen
Central office equipment installers, telephone—
Armature w inders_______________________________

349
351
352
354
355
356
357
358
359
361
362
363
364
366
367
368
370
371
372
373
374

AGRICULTURAL OCCUPATIONS
NORTHEAST STATES

Dairy farm s_____ - --------------------------------------Fruit and berry farm s_________________________
Poultry farm s_________________________________
T obacco farm s________________________________
Vegetable farm s_______________________________
Resort farm s__________________________________
Part-time farm s_______________________________

L A K E S T A T E S — Continue d

382
383
384
385
385
386
837

CORN B E L T S T A T E S

Corn-livestock farm s__________________________
Cash grain farm s__________________
Dairy farm s___________________________________
Fruit and vegetable farm s------------------------------Poultry farm s________ . ------------------------------------General farm s--------------------Part-time farm s_______________________________

388
388
389
390
391
391
392

LAK E STATES

Dairy farm s___________________________________
Crop specialty farm s__________________________
Fruit farm s________________________
Livestock cash grain farm s-----------------------------Poultrv farm s_________________________________




393
393
394
394
395

Vegetable farm s_______________________________
General farm s_________________________________
Part-time farm s_______________________________

396
396
397

A P P A L A C H IA N STATES

T obacco farm s________________________________
Fruit farm s____________________________________
Poultry farm s_________________________________
Livestock farm s_______________________________
Cotton farm s__________________________________
Peanut farm s__________________________
Vegetable farm s_______________________________
D airy farm s___________________________________
General farm s_________________________________
Part-time farm s_______________________________

398
398
399
399
400
400
401
401
402
403

SOUTHEAST STATES

Cotton farm s__________________________________
Peanut and pecan farms_________
General-livestock farm s_______________________
D airy farm s______________________
Fruit farm s____________________________________
Poultry farm s_________________________________
T obacco farm s________________________________

404
405
406
407
408
408
409

O C C U P A T IO N A L

X

OUTLOOK

HANDBOOK

List of Occupational Reports— Continued
AGRICULTURAL OCCUPATIONS—Continued
S O U T H E A S T S T A T E S — Continued

Vegetable farms_______________________________
Part-time farm s_______________________________

Page
409
410

M IS S IS S IP P I D ELTA STA TE S

Cotton farm s__________________________________
Fruit farm s____________________________________
Truck farm s___________________________________
D airy farm s___________________________________
Poultry farm s_________________________________
Rice farm s_____________________________________
Sugarcane farm s_______________________________
Pecan farm s___________________________________
Part-time farm s_______________________________
OKLAHOMA

AND

411
411
412
413
413
414
414
415
415

TEXAS

Cash grain farm s______________________________
C otton farm s__________________________________
Range livestock farm s_________________________
D airy farm s___________________________________
Fruit farm s____________________________________
Peanut and pecan farm s______________________
Poultry farm s_________________________________
Vegetable farm s_______________________________
Part-time farm s_______________________________

416
416
417
418
418
419
419
420
420

N O RTH ERN P LA IN S ST A TE S

Cash grain farm s______________________________
Cash grain-livestock farm s____________________
Range livestock farm s_________________________
D airy farm s___________________________________
General farm s_________________________________
Part-time farm s_______________________________

421
421
422
423
423
424

M O U N T A IN STATES

Cash grain farm s______________________________
Range livestock farm s_________________________
Irrigated farm s________________________________
D airy farm s___________________________________
Vegetable farm s_______________________________
Part-time farm s_______________________________




425
426
427
427
428
428

PACIFIC STATES
P age'
Fruit farm s______________________________________
429
Vegetable farm s_________________________________
429
Irrigated farm s__________________________________
431
Range livestock farm s___________________________
431
Cash grain farm s______________________________
432
D airy farm s_____________________________________
432
Poultry farm s____________________________________
433
Part-time farm s_________________________________
434
F A R M S E R V I C E JOBS
Whitewashing service___________________________
435
Feed grinding____________________________________
435
Fruit spraying___________________________________
435
Fruit caretaker service__________________________
435
Grain elevator jo b s ______________________________
435
M obile blacksmith shop_____________________
436
Garage and repair shop_________________________
436
Electrical service________________________________
436
Artificial insem ination___________________________
436
Cow testers______________________________________
436
Carpenters_______________________________________
436
M obile repair sh op____________________________
437
Custom machine w ork __________________________
437
Livestock trucking______________________________
437
Recreation jo b s__________________________________
437
Well drilling_____________________________________
437
Airplane dusting o f crops________________________
437
M obile grocery store____________________________
438
Chick hatchery__________________________________
438
Small poultry dressing plant____________________
438
Country butcher________________________________
438
Sheep shearing__________________________________
438
Salesman of farm supplies_______________________
438
Livestock trader and bu yer_____________________
438
Kennels__________________________________________
438
Landscape gardening____________________________
439
Farm appraisers_________________________________
439
General farm service____________________________
439

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Page

Trends in tw o occupations, 1870 to 1940____________________________________ ___________________________________
11
Population growth is slowing dow n______________________________________________________________________________
14
Proportion of older people in population is increasing__________________________________________________________
15
Differences in labor force participation by age and sex, M arch 1940___________________________________________
16
Prospective labor force changes, by State, 1940-50_____________________________________________________________
17
Rapid growth of nonfarn occupations__________________________________________________________________________
19
Labor force, employm ent, and unemployment, 1929 to 1947___________________________________________________
20
M ajor industries (em ploym ent, 1947)___________________________________________________________________________
21
M ajor manufacturing industries (em ploym ent, 1947)___________________________________________________________
22
Production workers in manufacturing (em ploym ent, 1929-47)_________________________________________________
23
Employees in major nonmanufacturing industries (1 9 3 9 -4 7 )___________________________________________________
24
M ajor occupation groups (em ploym ent, April 1947)____________________________________________________________
25
Occupational trends, 1910-1940_________________________________________________________________________________
27
M ajor professional occupations (em ploym ent, 1940)____________________________________________________________
28
Growth of professional and semiprofessional occupations_______________________________________________________
30
Em ploym ent in professional occupations (1 9 4 0 -4 7 )_____________________________________________________________
30
M ajor semiprofessional occupations (em ploym ent, 1940)_______________________________________________________
32
Em ploym ent in semiprofessional occupations (1 9 4 0 -4 7 )________________________________________________________
33
Em ploym ent in administrative occupations (1 9 4 0 -4 7 )__________________________________________________________
33
M ajor medical-service occupations (em ploym ent, 1947)________________________________________________________
42
Em ploym ent in clerical occupations (1 9 4 0 -4 7 )__________________________________________________________________
118
M ajor clerical occupations (em ploym ent, 1940)____________________________________________________________ ^___
119
M ajor sales occupations (em ploym ent, 1940)___________________________________________________________________
120
Em ploym ent in sales occupations (1 9 4 0 -4 7 )____________________________________________________________________
121
M ajor service occupations (em ploym ent, 1940)_________________________________________________________________
122
Em ploym ent in service occupations (except domestic) (1940-1947)____________________________________________
123
Em ploym ent in domestic service occupations (1 9 4 0 -4 7 )____________________________________________________________ 123
M ost of the hotel workers are in the few large h otels___________________________________________________________
124
Restaurant and housekeeping employees are largest groups of hotel workers____________________________________
125
M ajor groups o f skilled workers (em ploym ent, 1940)-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------168
Em ploym ent in skilled occupations (1 9 4 0 -4 7 )-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------169
Em ploym ent in semiskilled occupations (1 9 4 0 -4 7 )---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------171
Em ploym ent in unskilled occupations (1 9 4 0 -4 7 )________________________________________________________________
171
M ajor building trades occupations (em ploym ent, 1940)________________________________________________________
172
Metalworking industries have most of the machine shop jobs (em ploym ent, 1947)______________________________
231
Em ploym ent in metalworking is at a peacetime high-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------232
M ajor machine shop occupations (em ploym ent, 1947)___________________________________________________________
232
Six states have three-fifths of the machine shop jo b s ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------233
The number of foundry jobs is far above prewar________________________________________________________________
248
M ajor foundry occupations (em ploym ent, 1947)-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------249
Four States have nearly half of the foundry job s_______________________________________________________________
250
Newspaper and jo b shops em ploy most printing workers_______________________________________________________
288
A general picture of the flow of work in printing_______________________________________________________________
290
M ajor printing occupations (employm ent, 1940)_______________________________________________________________
294
Brakemen, clerks, and section men are largest groups of railroad workers_______________________________________
328
Prices received and paid by farmers (1 9 10 -48)_________________________________________________________________
376
State groupings for reports on agricultural occupations--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------377




XI




Occupational Outlook Handbook
Putting the Handbook to Work
The counselor or teacher who examines this
handbook for the first time may make enthusiastic
plans for its use in his classroom or at his desk.
Yet in employing the handbook primarily either as
a text or as an immediate source of reference, the
teacher, the counselor, or the counselor trainer may
overlook its real value.
Perhaps the two points about the occupational
field which most readily elude the counselor or
teacher concern the extremely fluid character of
occupational factors and the relative nature of all
occupational data.
Many books detailing occupational facts are ob­
solete nearly from the time they appear in print.
Individual occupations may be destroyed in the
wake of a new invention. Whole areas may no
longer offer certain types of opportunity because
o f such unpredictable matters as a change in freight
rates or the invention and promotion of a substi­
tute product. The ebb and flow of prosperity in 6
months can throw scores of thousands of persons
engaged in a luxury trade out of work or can, on
the other hand, create a demand for a skill hereto­
fore perhaps not even known.
The relative nature of occupational information
implies that no bald statement should be made
about the characteristics of a particular job, or the
opportunity presented by a group of occupations.
Such statements are valid only when they have been
related to geography, locale, and above all to the
traits of the individual prospective worker. Mis­
takes arising from ignoring this principle have
plagued the counselor and the counselee ever since
counseling has been a profession.
For these reasons the handbook can be of unique
assistance to the person who is teaching occupations
or who is counseling on vocational problems. The
fact that it describes 288 specific occupations under
diverse headings reveals the special nature of its




occupational treatment. The details o f each occu­
pation must be filled in by the teacher or counselor
from other sources of information about employ­
ment conditions, the local scene, and the individual
who is studying his personal problems. The 288
occupations are keys to nearly 30,000 descriptive
terms which fill the “ Dictionary of Occupational
Titles” and which are representative of the great
bulk of occupations in this country. The two fac­
tors of suggestiveness and comprehensiveness make
the book valuable in helping to fill a known void.
The main value of this handbook for the teacher
or counselor lies in its orientation. For such users
the most important parts of this publication in
many respects are the preliminary chapters and
the introduction to each of its main and subordin­
ate report sections. The brief statements on trends
and interpretations contain the material most lack­
ing in the background of many potential users of
the book, especially those who have not had the
benefit of a comprehensive course in occupational
information. From these statements emerges a
concept o f the fluid nature o f occupational data.
These trends are dependent on many factors in
American life that require hard study if they are
to be understood. At the same time the reader
realizes that certain trends may be seen, and that a
reasonable amount of confidence in the prediction
as to the future of specific occupational fields may
be justified. Because these trends are stated in
guarded terms the reader is constantly referred to
a study of local and specific conditions as a correc­
tive for jumping at conclusions.
For the counselee the value of the handbook lies
in its contribution to his long-term planning. A
common problem for the pupil in high school or
the student in college is that of looking ahead from
3 to 10 years in order to map out a career in which
he can take full advantage of his personal traits
1

2

O C C U P A T IO N A L

OU TLOOK

on the one hand and o f occupational opportunities
on the other. For this purpose an occupational
brief or description has relatively little value. It
is perspective which counts. I f the individual,
therefore, is trying to solve a vocational problem
which includes such things as preliminary training,
apprenticeship, college work, professional training,
internship, an entry occupation, and perhaps mi­
gration, he must be concerned with trends. He
must have an outlook which includes a reasonable
prediction as to what the conditions of employment
in a field of work may be 5 or 10 years ahead.
Whether the handbook may be used directly for
study by the counselee is a question which depends
a good deal upon his maturity and ability to under­
stand abstract ideas. For the counselor who works
with the individual, however, the handbook pro­
vides the basic material from which he can devise
simpler means for presenting the facts. The com­
prehensive series o f charts may help. Some
restatement in terms o f the interests o f young
people in a specific school or the industries found
in their locality may be devised by the counselor
on the basis of the sound principles of the hand­
book. At least it may be said that for career plan­
ning the ideas in the handbook are indispensable.
Such ideas must enter into the counseling interview
or into the study which the counselee may pursue
at the suggestion of the counselor who is helping
him.
The high-school class in occupations is another
potential user of the handbook. Here again the
teacher is limited by the range of ability in the
class and the difficulty which abstract ideas present
to perhaps the majority of high-school pupils. It
it suggested that the principles contained in the
study of trends may be taught best through the
study of some specific problem.
The town itself may be affected by a crucial trend
which is upsetting its entire economy. It may be
a northern city dependent on a textile industry
which is steadily moving south. The high school
may be in a region where some agricultural product
such as cotton is the main source of revenue, and
pupils may then study what is happening already
to cotton-raising in specific communities because
of new machinery, a change in markets, and the
buying habits of the public. The prosperity o f
another city may be tied up with mining or some




HANDBOOK

other industry threatened by depletion or new
processes. A new plant which has the capacity o f
employing a considerable portion of available labor
in the community may come upon the scene. It
may also attract many workers from elsewhere,
with the inevitable effects of increasing the popula­
tion and the opportunities of every nature which
a larger population creates. There may be excel­
lent examples locally of professional specialization
in engineering, for instance, or in medicine. There
can scarcely be any community in which the rapid
increase in the use of deep-freeze cabinets and tele­
vision sets, for example, has not created new em­
ployment opportunities for men skilled in installa­
tion and maintenance.
All of the projects suggested above exemplify
one phase or another of the problems treated in
the handbook. To the person teaching the class
the handbook reveals the important aspects of out­
look information which must be illustrated in the
occupations class if the pupils are to view their
problems with sufficient perspective to get away
from the immediate job and the oversimplified
facts of a job description.
The handbook, of course, also supplies specific
resources. Among these are graphic charts which
may be reproduced in wall size or which may be
used as models for charts about local facts and
trends secured by members of the class or from
local sources. The 288 reports on separate occupa­
tions may serve the double purpose of providing a
reference illustrative of almost every field o f work,
and also a model for some similar attempt to study
the occupational outlook in a phase of local com­
merce or industry.
For the counselor trainer the handbook provides
an indispensable tool. The new stress in counselor
training is on competencies. Competency in the
occupational phase of the counselor’s work includes
his ability to move from the general to the partic­
ular or vice versa. He must be concerned with
trends which are Nation-wide in their significance
and their relationship to any immediate problem
of a counselee. He must on the other hand be able
to help interpret the counselee’s ambitions in terms
of the long view. Brief treatments of such mat­
ters as the ratio of openings in a field of occupa­
tions, the effect of population gain or loss on jobs
available to young people, the ascertainable flow

P U T T IN G

THE

HANDBOOK

of migration suggest projects to the counselor
trainer for individual study. In the field of occu­
pational information it is important to encourage
and develop the concepts that occupational data
are always fluid and always relative in nature, con­
cepts which have already been mentioned as among
the important but too often missing knowledges
in the counselor’s equipment. On page 5 the
handbook disclaims any treatment of a list of many
topics commonly included in the general textbook
on occupations. This fact alone calls attention to
its concentration in the field o f outlook and enables
the counselor trainer to give more definition to his
study of a neglected area.
Occupational data are composed of a fast chang­




TO

W ORK

3

ing stream of facts. Invention, production, migra­
tion, war, peace, the role of women, prosperity, de­
pression, mechanization, obsolescence, legal enact­
ments, management and labor agreements, adver­
tising, birth rate, turnover, and most of all the
ambitions, abilities, and the restless spirit of man—
all those and more are among the elements in this
ceaseless flow. The stream of facts must be ex­
pressed as trends, and the point of view of the
observer as outlook. To these considerations this
volume directs the attention of the professional
guidance worker.
H arry A. J ager, Chief
Occupational Information and Guidance Service
Office of Education, Federal Security Agency




Guide to Organization and Use of Handbook
This handbook is primarily a summary of the
results and conclusions of recent studies of em­
ployment trends and long-range outlook in nearly
300 occupations of interest in vocational guidance.
Following the introduction and a summary of
trends in population, labor force, industries, and
occupations, the major part of the book consists
of individual reports on each occupation. The
reports are grouped into four sections, each pref­
aced by a summary of the major occupation fields:
Professional, semiprofessional, and administra­
tive occupations; clerical, sales, and service occu­
pations; trades and industrial occupations; and
agricultural occupations.
Within these sections, the occupations are fur­
ther grouped by industry or field, with a brief
introduction to each which points out the major
characteristics and significant trends in the in­
dustry. The chapters introducing each major
group show the occupations in perspective and in
relation to each other. The individual reports
summarize recent trends and outlook, together
with the latest available data on earnings, on the
kind of training and preparation required, on
the background of the occupation, on the nature
of the work, and the places in which members of
the occupation are employed. The reports on ag­
ricultural occupations describe the major types of
farms in 10 geographic regions, the kind of work
involved, and the outlook.
The 288 occupations included in this first edi­
tion of the handbook are largely those found by
the Veterans Administration to be o f major in­
terest to veterans requesting guidance. They are
primarily occupations requiring relatively long
periods of training—either formal education or
training on the job— since to young people consid­
ering such occupations the need for information
on the outlook is most acute. The occupations
were selected also for their relative importance
as a source o f employment opportunity. Some

smaller fields are included, however, either be­
cause there was special interest in them among
veterans, or because reports on them could readily
be prepared in the course of the study of the larger
occupations in the same industry.
These 288 occupations represent about 80 per­
cent of the employment opportunities in profes­
sional and semiprofessional occupations in the
United States; 75 percent of those in skilled oc­
cupations; 40 percent in clerical occupations; 30
percent in service occupations; smaller proportions
o f those in administrative, sales, and semiskilled
fields; and the major types o f farming. Thus,
although they represent only a small part of
the total number of different occupations in the
United States, they cover some of the major areas
of interest to veterans or students who are plan­
ning to undertake long courses of training or ap­
prenticeship. This handbook may therefore be of
service as a guide to the bewildering array of occu­
pations in the United States.
Inevitably, many significant occupations could
not be included in the first edition. In future edi­
tions reports on other occupations will be incorpo­
rated as rapidly as studies can be made, and the
original reports will be revised to keep them up to
date.
Certain types of information are not included
in this handbook because they are readily avail­
able from other sources. There is a wealth of
material on job descriptions, labor-market reports,
occupational analysis, and relationships among oc­
cupations ( “ job families” ) in the publications of
the United States Employment Service.1 Counse­
lors will find a description of opportunities for
women and problems of women workers in the
publications of the Women’s Bureau, United States
1
G u i d e t o C o u n s e l i n g M a t e r i a l s , prepared by the U. S. Employ­
ment Service of the U. S. Department of Labor in cooperation
with the U. S. Office of Education of the Federal Security Agency,
30 pp. W ashington, 1946 (2d edition).

5
793996 ° — 49-

-2




6

O C C U P A T IO N A L

OUTLOOK

Department of Labor.2 Information on employ­
ment problems of youth is published by the Child
Labor Branch of the Wage and Hour and Public
Contracts Divisions, United States Department of
Labor.3 Information on opportunities and earn­
ings in each locality may be obtained from regional
offices o f the Bureau of Labor Statistics, commu­
nity occupational surveys, or from occupational
and labor-market reports of local offices of the
State employment services. Apprenticeship stand­
ards in different occupations are presented in pub­
lications of the Bureau of Apprenticeship, United
States Department o f Labor.4 Directories and
guides o f schools or colleges are listed in a recent
publication of the United States Office of Educa­
tion.5
The United States Department of Agriculture
and the various State departments of agriculture
publish information on opportunities in farming.6
For those who are interested in opening a small
business, the United States Department of Com­
merce has published a series of booklets describ­
ing the problems involved in establishing and
operating various types of businesses.7
How the Information Was Obtained
Anyone who is trying to provide information on
which young people can make a decision about
courses of training and lifetime careers must try
to look forward at least several years, and if possi­
ble several decades.
When the Advisory Committee on Education
2 C u rre n t P u b lica tio n s o f th e W o m e n ’ s B u rea u , may be obtained
free of charge from the W om en’s Bureau, U. S. Department of
Labor, W ashington 25, D. C.
3 C hild L a b o r and Y o u th E m p lo y m en t p u b lica tio n s , 3 pp.,
mimeo. M ay be obtained free of charge from the Child Labor
Branch, W age and Hour and Public Contracts Divisions, U. S.
Department of Labor, W ashington 25, D. C.
4 P u b lica tio n s o f th e D e p a r tm e n t o f L a b o r, U. S. Department of
Labor, Office of Publications, Washington 25, D. C., January 1,
1948. Free.
B W h a t S ch o o l o r C olleg e f by W alter J. Greenleaf. Misc. 3276,
4 pp. May be obtained free of charge from the U. S. Office of
Education, Federal Security Agency, Washington 25, D. C.
8 See, for example, S u g g e stio n s to P r o s p e c tiv e F a rm ers and
S ou rces o f I n fo r m a tio n , 22 pp., multilithed, which may be ob­
tained free from the Bureau of Agricultural Economics of the U. S.
Department of Agriculture, W ashington 25, D. C.
7 A copy of a list of the “ Establishing and Operating” Series may
be obtained from the nearest field office of the U. S. Department
of Commerce or from the Department, Washington 25, D. C. The
nearest field office will also be able to supply copies of a series
of small business aids which give information on such subjects
as window displays and other topics of interest to small business
firms.




HANDBOOK

recommended in 1938 that an Occupational Out­
look Service be established, it was recognized that
the analysis of occupational trends and outlook
was a largely unexplored field. It was expected
that it would be some years before results would
be available; much basic work would first have
to be done. Nevertheless, it was pointed out that
the need for facts is great. Each year 1y2 mil­
lion young people enter the labor force. Many of
them choose a vocation on the basis o f no infor­
mation or partial information or even seriously
inaccurate information. I f we can give these
young people the best we have, even though it is
not perfect, it will be of some help to them.
The problems of evaluating employment out­
look are far from solved. From the point of
view of job placement, for example, it would be
extremely useful to be able to forecast changes
in the level o f employment in the course of the
business cycle. Important as this is, it is ex­
tremely difficult and hazardous. However, the
long-run trend is more important than short-run
fluctuations for appraising employment oppor­
tunities in connection with the individual’s choice
of a lifetime occupation.
In the Occupational Outlook research program,
emphasis has been placed on appraising the effect
upon employment opportunities of long-run
changes in the level of employment in each in­
dustry and occupation. For practical purposes
in guidance, the assumption of favorable general
business conditions was made in each case; at the
same time, the effect o f a business depression upon
employment opportunities in the occupation is
brought out. Some occupations suffer severely in
depressions, while others have greater stability.
As a result of the first 7 years of research, the
Bureau has found that it is possible in most
cases to discern the major trends and suggest the
outlook some years in advance. Conclusions are
necessarily far from precise but often accurate
enough to answer satisfactorily the questions in
the minds o f those preparing for a career.
The methods o f appraising future demand and
supply in each occupation which have been worked
out on the basis of present experience differ
greatly among occupations, since the factors af­
fecting the outlook for one are often quite d if­
ferent from those which affect another.

G U ID E

TO

U SE

In general, a number of lines of research are fol­
lowed. Analysis is made of the growth and chang­
ing composition o f the population; trends in
technology; shifts in marketing and in the public’s
demand for different goods and services; the
changing occupational patterns of industries;
trends in employment in the various industries;
developments in industrial relations; provisions of
collective bargaining agreements; wage rates in
various occupations; and industrial hazards.
Trends in the supply of workers in each occupa­
tion are determined by analysis of statistics on the
number of young people in training in colleges or
vocational schools or by apprenticeship for each
occupation, and by study of the losses of workers
to each occupation resulting from death, retire­
ment, or transfer to other occupations.
In the course of each study, trends are discussed
with officials of industry, unions, trade associa­
tions, and professional societies, and the reports
are checked and reviewed by them before publica­
tion, to insure accuracy and to obtain the benefit
of their judgment and intimate knowledge of their
fields.
The field of agricultural occupations is so broad
that only a series of general statements about
major types was prepared by the United States
Department of Agriculture. The Department
points out that even these statements are subject
to wide variations within the areas discussed.
Rapid changes in agricultural technology make it
highly desirable for readers interested in agricul­
ture to check further with county and township
advisory committees, land-grant colleges, and
farm associations.
The studies yielded much information of value
in guidance in addition to the appraisal of the
outlook for employment opportunities—such as
trends in the type of training required by em­
ployers, the relative job security of the craftsman
and the semiskilled worker, trends in licensure re­
quirements, or the steps one must take to assure
that he can practice his profession in more than
one State. This information is incorporated in
the reports.
How can the results of such studies be inter­
preted in the guidance of individuals? Neces­
sarily, conclusions must be stated in general terms:
Employment opportunities will be relatively fa­




OF H A N D B O O K

7

vorable or relatively poor. It is the task of the
individual, aided by the counselor or teacher, to
match his personal interests and abilities against
the demands of the occupation and the competitive
situation which may be expected.
Grouping and Definition of Occupations
The occupational reports in this handbook are
grouped, for the most part, according to the classi­
fications used by the Bureau of the Census and in
the Dictionary o f Occupational Titles. In some
cases, however, an occupation was placed outside
its major group so that it could be included with
the other occupations to which it is most closely
related in practice. For example, railroad con­
ductors are classified as a managerial or official oc­
cupation by both the Census Bureau and in the
Dictionary; but in order to become a conductor one
must be promoted from the occupation of railroad
trainman, and it therefore seemed more suitable
for the purpose of this handbook to place the re­
port on conductors with other railroad occupa­
tions. These departures from the Dictionary and
Census classifications were made only when it
helped to clarify the story from the point of view
o f guidance.
To define what is covered by each occupational
report, the Dictionary of Occupational Titles
(“ D. O. T.” ) code number is given under the title.
In some instances the occupation as it is discussed
here includes more than one occupation as defined
in the Dictionary. This was found to be the best
way to describe the field from the point of view of
guidance because of the close relationship of the
occupations in actual practice.
Often it was found more meaningful to discuss
the semiskilled and the skilled levels in a single
type of occupation together because a worker de­
velops his skill gradually and the transition from
one level to the other is not sudden or clear-cut.
Interpreting Information on Number o f Workers
in Each Occupation
The handbook gives figures on employment in
each field wherever possible, both in charts and
text, because the most useful single clue to the
prospective employment opportunities in each oc­
cupation is the number of workers employed in it.
Some occupations are growing; but rarely does an
occupation grow so rapidly that the number of

8

O C C U P A T IO N A L

OUTLOOK

new positions opening up each year is as great as
the number of vacancies which arise as workers
leave the occupation. Even occupations which are
declining in size offer employment opportunities
to many young people each year because of this
turn-over. The majority of the job openings are
due to the deaths, retirements, and transfers of
workers to other fields.
Death and retirement rates vary among occupa­
tions, depending on many factors, including the
nature of the occupation and the ages of workers
employed in it. Carpenters, for example, are
an older group of workers than automobile me­
chanics, on the average, because carpentry is an
occupation of long standing, in which few young
men were apprenticed in the depression years,
whereas automobile repair work has existed for
only a few decades and has grown rapidly, and
has taken in many young men. As a result of this
difference in the workers’ ages, the rate of death
and retirement for carpenters (of whom there
were 766,000 in 1940) is about 3 percent a year,
while that for the automobile and other mechanics
(of whom there were 974,000 in 1940) is only half
as much; and therefore the number of mechanics
and repairmen who die or retire each year is less
than two-thirds as many as the number of car­
penters.
For most occupations in which men are em­
ployed the death and retirement rate varies from
1 percent to 3y2 percent a year. The rate is usually
somewhat higher in women’s occupations because
so many women leave to get married; for ex­
ample, as many as 6 percent a year leave the nurs­
ing profession, according to a study by the
Women’s Bureau.
To make it possible to estimate the number of
jobs which open up annually in each occupation
because of deaths and retirements, the Occupa­
tional Outlook Service is developing tables of
working life expectancy, similar to the actuarial
life tables used by insurance companies as a basis
for their premium and benefit rates. These tables
have been used wherever possible in preparing the
occupational reports in this handbook.
Jobs in each occupation open up also as workers
transfer to other types of work. Little is now
known about the movement of workers among oc­
cupations, but research is continuing on the prob­




HANDBOOK

lems of measuring this significant aspect of
replacement needs.
Interpreting Information on Earnings
Few people make an occupational choice solely
on the basis of how much money they may be able
to earn, but most people do want to have some idea
o f the earnings to be expected in the various occu­
pations they are considering. For this reason,
earnings information is given, insofar as possible,
for each occupation in this handbook.
Most of the information on earnings comes from
the surveys of the Bureau of Labor Statistics. In
some occupational reports, other government or
private sources were used. The most recent
information available on each occupation is
reported, and the date of the survey is given.
Where the earnings given are on an hourly or
weekly basis, the reader may want to estimate
roughly what the amount would be on a yearly
basis by taking into account the information given
on seasonality or irregularity of work. Similarly,
when the worker receives tips or wages in kind—
such as meals or lodging— or has to pay for uni­
forms, these points are brought out.
The significant thing to remember about the
earnings information that can be given in so brief
a report is that it reflects only an average and that,
like every average, it conceals many variations.
Earnings in an occupation may vary according to
skill level, industry in which the worker is em­
ployed, size of plant, section of the country, and
many other factors. Often earnings are different
for men and women in the same occupation, or for
workers in union shops and shops which do not
have contracts with unions.
Information on earnings in* a particular locality
can often be obtained from the nearest regional
office of the Bureau of Labor Statistics, or from
employers, or union locals. The State employ­
ment service may have information on entry wages
in some occupations.
It is important to bear in mind that for guidance
purposes an individual wishes to know what the
earnings in each occupation will be several years
from now, when he has completed his training and
is ready to enter the occupation. This cannot be
predicted, of course. Wage rates, salaries, and
earnings change rapidly and so does the price level,
which determines what a pay check will buy. The

G U ID E

TO

USE

earnings information we can give on each occupa­
tion is valuable, however, in suggesting the rela­
tive position of the occupation as compared to
others: Is it a low-paying field, or one which pays
about the average, or is it a field in which earnings
have been consistently high? Wherever possible,
trends in earnings are reported, so that the steadi­
ness or variability of earnings in the occupation is
suggested.
Ho w To Obtain Additional Information on Local
Employment Opportunities
While many veterans or students who are inter­
ested in choosing an occupation do not necessarily
expect to find one in which they can work in their
home community, there are some to whom this is
an important consideration. Workers in certain
occupations expect to move occasionally from one
city to another to find employment or to get a
better job. This is true, for example, of engineers,
chemists, business executives, workers in the con­
struction trades and transportation industries, and
many others. On the other hand, there are many
occupations in which the workers are less attached
to their field of work than to the city in which
they live, and would choose an occupation only if
they could be sure that there were local opportuni­
ties for employment.
The occupational reports in this handbook give
information on employment trends and outlook
in the United States as a whole, and also briefly
suggest the geographical distribution of employ­
ment opportunities. To get information on cur­
rent job opportunities and earnings for his own
city or State the counselor should check with local
sources.
The local office of the State employment service
regularly surveys employment opportunities in its
area and often has available complete occupational
briefs for important local jobs. For professional
occupations the local branch of the national pro­
fessional society may be of some help. Similarly,
the local office of a union will usually have infor­
mation on employment opportunities in its field.
Through the chamber of commerce and the classi­
fied section of the telephone directory lists of spe­
cific firms in each type of business may be obtained.
Finally, a more comprehensive source of infor­
mation on local opportunities would be a com­




OF H A N D B O O K

9

munity occupational survey. Information on how
such surveys have been conducted in a number of
cities is contained in a publication o f the United
States Office of Education.8
Use of the Index to Occupational Reports Classi­
fied by Broad Fields o f Work
Someone choosing an occupational field needs
full knowledge o f the wide variety of occupations
which may be open to a person with his specific
interests and abilities. To widen the range of his
choice, the counselor may want to call to his atten­
tion other occupations appropriate to his interests
or abilities as shown in interest inventories, apti­
tude tests, hobbies, school grades, or in discussion
with the counselor. For this purpose the counselor
needs information on the occupations related to
each broad type of work.
As an aid in the counseling and placement of
young workers, the United States Employment
Service devised an Entry Occupational Classifica­
tion structure, published as part IV of the Dic­
tionary of Occupational Titles. This classifies
fields of work, rather than specific occupations.
For example, there are such fields as musical work,
literary work, child care, metal machining, me­
chanical repairing, graphic art work, machine
tending, and so forth. Specific occupations related
to each field o f work are also shown. By using
this information, it is possible to list a wide range
of occupations which may be of interest to a per­
son with a given set of interests or aptitudes.
The user of this handbook may identify the oc­
cupations described in the book which are related
to each field by referring to the Index to Occupa­
tional Reports Classified by Broad Fields of Work,
which begins on page 441. This index serves as a
guide to the occupational reports included in the
handbook, via the entry occupational classifica­
tions of the Dictionary of Occupational Titles.
For example, a person whose ability lies in the
field o f artistic work may be interested in informa­
tion on the occupations of commercial artist, in­
dustrial designer, fur designer, furniture designer,
interior decorator, or photographer. For addi­
tional occupations related to this field of work, the
8 Community Occupational Surveys by Marguerite Wykoff
Zapoleon, U. S. Office of Education, Federal Security Agency,
Washington.
(Out of print.)

10

O C C U P A T IO N A L

OUTLOOK H A N D B O O K

counselor may wish to refer to part IY of the
Dictionary.
How To Obtain Current Information
Revised editions o f the handbook will be issued
from time to time to bring the information up to
date and will include additional occupational re­
ports. Their publication will be announced by the
Bureau o f Labor Statistics. The Bureau will be
glad to place any user o f this handbook on its mail­




ing list to receive announcements of these and
other publications in the Occupational Outlook
series, and current releases summarizing the re­
sults of new studies. Anyone wishing to receive
these announcements should send the request to
the Bureau of Labor Statistics, United States De­
partment o f Labor, Washington 25, D. C. Persons
living in a city in which postal zone numbers are in
use are requested to include the number in the
address.
1

Economic and Occupational Trends
To the student learning about occupations, to
the counselor engaged in explaining their intri­
cacies, or to the person seeking information on
which to base his selection of a course of training
or a career, it is important to understand one thing
fu lly : the rapidly-changing nature of our eco­
nomic life.
Constant change is the most significant aspect
of the occupational and industrial world in which
we live. Technological, industrial, and social
changes increase the need for workers in some oc­
cupations, reduce the demand in others, sometimes
create new occupations and throw old ones into the
discard, and constantly alter the content and
character of every line of work.
The rapidity with which the occupational pic­
ture changes is illustrated in chart 1. In 1870 a

young man may have considered the choice be­
tween apprenticing himself to a cooper or to a
barber. Both were skilled trades, with long his­
torical traditions behind them. There were nearly
twice as many coopers as barbers, indicating a
somewhat broader choice of jobs and the need for
more new workers each year. Yet, within the span
of a man’s life, the number of people who made
their living as barbers increased more than tenfold,
while employment opportunities for coopers
shrank to one-fifth of their previous number.
What happened? With growth in population,
a shift of population to cities, increases in aver­
age income, and changes in styles, the occupation
of barber grew. On the other hand, the occupa­
tion of cooper declined as wooden barrels were dis­
placed for various uses by steel drums, aluminum

C HAR T 1

TRENDS




IN T W O

O C C U P A T I O N S , 18 7 0 TO

THOUSANDS

I940

OF W O R K E R S

11

12

O C C U P A T IO N A L

OUTLOOK

kegs, paper sacks, paperboard boxes, and other
types of containers, and because of the introduc­
tion of factory methods in making wooden barrels.
Thus, because of population growth, technologi­
cal improvements, social change, and the vagaries
of fashion, one occupation grew tremendously,
and the other fell into the discard.
To the young person looking forward to a life­
time of work—and that means nearly half a cen­
tury—the fact that these changes occur is signifi­
cant. T o the best of our ability, we must try to
anticipate the changes and provide as much infor­
mation on trends as is possible. Although we can­
not foresee nearly all that may happen, a real
service will have been performed if young people
are made aware o f the dynamic character of the
economy, and if they are prepared to expect
changes and to adjust to them. This means main­
taining the utmost flexibility and taking the broad­
est kind of training consistent with adequate
preparation for a particular occupation.
To emphasize the changing character of occupa­
tional life, as well as to provide background and
context for the reports on trends and outlook in
each occupation, the growth and changing com­
position of population and the labor force, the
major trends in industry, and their effect on broad
occupational trends will be reviewed in the next
few pages.
It should be noted first, however, that far greater
than the changes shown by the growth of popula­
tion, the labor force, industries, and occupations
are the changes in status of individuals. I f the
labor force increases by one-half million in a




HANDBOOK

single year, it is because a million older workers
died or retired and 1y2 million young people left
the schools and went to work. But this is only a
beginning. The number of changes made by in­
dividual workers from job to job within an indus­
try, between industries, from State to State, or
from one occupation to another are much more
numerous than the movements into and out of the
labor force in any given year.
In 1947 an average of about three-quarters o f a
million manufacturing workers— 1 out of 20—left
their jobs each month.
In a 2^-year period during the war, over 7 mil­
lion civilian workers changed from one major
occupation group to another.
Between 1935 and 1940—in a peacetime period—
more than 3 million workers had moved from one
State to another, and another 4 million had moved
from one county to another within a State.
We have just begun in recent years to be able
to measure the movements of individuals, and to
appreciate the extent and significance of this type
of economic change. These movements represent
the adjustments people make to a changing en­
vironment. Without them the labor market could
not function.
It is likely that most young people in school now
will want to make similar changes in the course of
their working life, either to improve their posi­
tion, or because the change is forced upon them
by loss of a job, poor health, or similar cause. This
suggests once more the importance of flexibility
in preparing for an occupation.

P O P U L A T IO N

AND

LABOR

FORCE

13

Population and Labor Force
Population
A basic factor underlying the occupational out­
look is the trend in population growth. Changes
in the size and characteristics of the population in­
fluence the amount and types of goods which will
be demanded at various times. They also have a
direct bearing on the size of the labor force, and
on the characteristics of the persons available for
work.
Until recent years, our history has been one of
rapid population growth. The heavy influx of im­
migrants prior to World War I, the relatively high
birth rate, and the constant reduction in mortality,
all combined to increase our population rapidly
from year to year. ( See chart 2.)
Population growdh, in the past, was closely asso­
ciated with expanding economic opportunity.
The growing size of our domestic market, com­
bined with the rapid gains in technology, provided
the impetus for large-scale expansion of manufac­
turing, railroads, public utilities, construction, and
other types of business. Employment opportuni­
ties grew apace. Although there were, of course,
great differences in the rate of expansion among
different occupations, there were very few trades
or professions which did not record a substantial
gain in number, from one decade to the next.
In recent decades, however, there has been a
slowing down in the rate of population growth.
Restrictions on immigration as well as the long­
term down-trend in the birth rate have tended to
reduce the net additions to the population. Dur­
ing the depression years of the 1930’s, in particular,
there were sharp declines in the rates of marriages
and births, reflecting the effect of unemployment
and economic insecurity. As a result, the average
annual rate of population increase dropped from
1.5 percent between 1920 and 1930, to only 0.7
percent in the following decade.
The outbreak of World War II interrupted this
down-trend. There was a sharp spurt in births
during the early war years. After a brief slacken­
ing during 1944 and 1945, when millions of young
men were overseas, the birth rate mounted to ex­
tremely high levels during the first two postwar
years.




A large part of the recent increase o f births is
viewed as temporary, resulting from the consum­
mation of many marriages postponed by the de­
pression and the war, or moved ahead by favorable
economic conditions. However, the marriage and
baby “booms” have already had a significant im­
pact on employment trends, and will continue to
influence the future occupational outlook. For
example, the current high level of demand for con­
sumer goods of all sorts, has been due in no small
part to the fact that many more families have had
to be housed and more children fed and clothed.
In the coming years, too, there will be a record
demand for additional school facilities and teach­
ers, as the new generation moves through elemen­
tary schools, then high schools, and colleges. By
1953, the number of children of school-entry age
(the 6-year olds) is expected to mount to 3,300.000,
or two-fifths more than in 1945. The total ele­
mentary school population—those 6 to 13 years of
age—will probably continue to grow till 1956,
while the corresponding peak in high-school en­
tries is expected in the year 1961.
Beyond the horizon of the next few years, the
outlook is still, however, for a continuation of the
long-term decline in population growth. Unless
large-scale immigration is resumed, the size of
the population is likely to level off within a few
decades, and may even begin to decline.
The transition from a period of rapid popula­
tion growth to a stable or even declining popula­
tion will carry with it very important implications
for occupational outlook. It will tend to bring
about significant shifts in our patterns of spend­
ing and saving, and in the distribution of workers
among various industries and occupations. For
example, with continued gains in productivity, a
smaller proportion of our labor force will be
needed for production of basic necessities, such
as staple food items, and a greater proportion will
be engaged in the production of those consumer
goods and services which go with a higher stand­
ard of living. It will therefore become increas­
ingly important to assess the relative trends in
different lines of work.
A more stable population will also mean an

14

O C C U P A T IO N A L

OUTLOOK H A N D B O O K

C HAR T 2

POPULATION

GROWTH

IS

SLOWING

DOWN

M IL LIO N S OF P E R S O N S

1900 19 I 0 '

’ 10'2 0

U N I T E D STATES D EP A RT ME NT OF L A BO R
BU REA U OF L A BO R STATI STICS




'20'3 0

'30'4 0

'4 0 '5 0

'5 0 ’ 60

'6 0 '7 0

'7 0 ‘ 80

'8 0 ‘ 90

!99020 00

Sourc*: U S. BU REA U OF THE C E N S U S

P O P U L A T IO N

AND

older population. The long-run down-trend in the
birth rate will reduce the relative influx of
younger persons, while advances in medicine and
sanitation will enable a greater proportion to live
to older ages. The effect of these changes upon
the composition of the population is shown in
chart 3. By the end of this century more than 1
person out o f 8 will be 65 years or older, as com­
pared to 1 in 15 in 1940 and only 1 in 25 at the
beginning of the century.
As the aged become an increasingly large seg­
ment of the population, we can expect increasing
demands for medical services, for institutions to
care for the aged, and for those types of goods and
services which meet their needs. Problems of social
security and old age assistance will come more and
more to the forefront. And, at the same time, we
can expect increasing efforts to provide more ade­
quate employment opportunities for the older




LABOR

FORCE

15

worker, with emphasis on those occupations which
are less exacting in their physical demands.
The Labor Force
Although the growth of total population has
great importance in occupational outlook, we are
more directly concerned with those persons in the
population who work or seek employment. The
“ labor force,” as we shall refer to it, includes not
only employees, who work for wages or salaries,
but also farmers, businessmen, the armed forces,
and the unemployed.
In the past, the growth of the labor force, from
decade to decade, largely paralleled the increase
of population. It expanded rapidly during the
past half-century, from over 20 million in 1890
to 56 million in 1940. With the slowing down in
population growth, there were corresponding de­
clines in the rate of increase of the labor force.
Thus, during the decade 1920-30, the average an­
nual increase of the Nation’s work force was about
700.000, or 1.6 percent; in the decade of the thirties,
the annual increase had dropped to less than
600.000, or 1.2 percent.
Within the course of the next two decades, popu­
lation trends will play a decisive role in laborforce growth. Relatively small additions to the
population of working age are expected until the
late 1950’s because of the slump in marriages and
births during the depression. In the following
10-year period, however, the very large generation
of youths born during the war and the early post­
war years will join the working population, and
there will be a sharp increase in labor-force
growth. After the decade of the 1960’s the growth
in the population of working age is again expected
to slow down.
The long-term slowing down in labor-force
growth means that an increasing proportion of
the new entrants into the labor market will repre­
sent replacements for those leaving because of
death, retirement, or other reasons. In order to
estimate prospective job openings in different oc­
cupations, the study of the age distribution of per­
sons at present in the occupation, and of other
factors influencing the rate at which workers are
likely to withdraw, will therefore become increas­
ingly important.
Apart from over-all population trends, there
have been significant changes in the extent to

16

O C C U P A T IO N A L

OUTLOOK

which men and women of different ages have
participated in the labor force. Almost all ablebodied adult men between the ages of 25 and 55
normally work or seek work. Over the years,
there has, however, been a steady increase in the
proportion of women working outside the home,
while the proportion of workers among youth and
among older persons has been declining. The
proportion of workers in 1940 in the different age
and sex groups of the population, 14 years o f age
or over, is shown in chart 4.
The movement o f women into gainful employ­
ment has resulted from a combination of forces.
The shift of population to the cities and the in­
creased importance of the white-collar occupa­
tions, for example, resulted in a great expansion
of employment opportunities for women. At the
same time, the decline in the size of families and
the introduction of labor-saving household devices
made it possible for growing numbers of women
to accept jobs outside the home.
However, despite these gains in employment, we
should note that only about one-third of all
women aged 20 to 64 were actually in the labor
force in 1947, and that the great majority of mar­
ried women, particularly those with small chil­
dren, still devote their full time to household work.
With the increased application of science to house­
hold management and to child care, there is in

HANDBOOK

fact a growing need for adequate training in home
economics and related fields, as well as along
strictly vocational lines.
In contrast to the trend for adult women work­
ers, the proportion of youth in the labor force has
been declining. There has been a steady lengthen­
ing in the period of schooling, partly because of
compulsory school-attendance laws, but mainly
because our complex society has required a greater
period of formal training. As a result of the war
and of the high postwar level of job opportunities,
there are currently relatively more teen-aged
youth at work, and fewer in schools, than might
be expected from prewar trends. On the other
hand, large numbers of older veterans, who would
normally be expected to be in the labor force, are
currently attending schools and colleges under the
provisions of the Servicemen’s Readjustment Act
of 1944 (as amended), commonly known as the GI
Bill of Rights. Within the next few years, as most
of the veterans complete their courses, we can ex­
pect a renewal o f the trend toward longer school­
ing among the teen-age group. With the large po­
tential increase in the number of college gradu­
ates, advanced education will, in fact, become more
important than ever before as a means of entry
into the better-paid occupational fields.
The proportion of older people, particularly
those 65 and over, who were in the labor force

C HART 4

D I F F E R E N C E S IN L A B O R F O R C E P A R T I C I P A T I O N
BY AGE A ND SEX, M A R C H 1940
Women

100

25

0

0

P E R C E N T OF T O T A L P O P U L A T I O N

In L o b o r Fo rc e

U N I T E D STATES D E P A R TM E NT OF L A BO R
BU REA U OF L A B O R STATI STI CS




Men

AGE G R O U P

25

1 00

IN E A C H AG E G R O U P

EH

Not in L a b o r Fo rc e

> U S BU REAU OF T HE C E N SU S
:

P O P U L A T IO N

AND

liacl been declining before the war. Modern indus­
try, with its dilution of skills and emphasis on
speed, offered very limited employment oppor­
tunities for the elderly. During periods of depres­
sion, the older workers were frequently the first
to be laid off, and the last to be hired. Public and
private programs for old age pensions and assist­
ance also had the effect of encouraging the retire­
ment of older workers. Although the number of
older workers in the labor force was expected to
increase with the aging of the population, the rise

LABOR

17

FORCE

Two important factors in the prospective labor
force trends for the older wrnrker will therefore be,
first, the general level of job opportunities and,
second, the extent to which provision is made for
more adequate old-age benefits.
Regional Differences
The national trends in population and laborforce growth may not, of course, be indicative of
changes in a particular region or locality. In a
Nation as large and diversified as the United

PROSPECTIVE LABOR FORCE CHANGES, BY STATE
1 9 4 0 -1 9 5 0

INCREASE 25% OR MORE
INCREASE 1 6 -2 4 %
INCREASE 4 -1 5 %
LESS THAN 4%
OiRECTiON)

\///\

was expected to be proportionately much less than
for the population as a whole.
The war, however, brought a sharp increase in
employment opportunities for the older worker.
Many elderly persons reentered the labor market,
while others postponed their retirement. Even
in the postwar period, the proportion of older
workers has continued much higher than indicated
by prewar trends. With jobs still available for
them, large numbers of older men and women have
preferred work to retirement. Moreover, in rela­
tion to current wage levels, old-age benefits pro­
vided under governmental or private pension pro­
grams now offer little financial incentive to retire.




DECREASE 4% OR MORE

States, there are bound to be geographic variations
in the rates of population change, industrial de­
velopment, income levels, and in the many other
factors which influence the growth of the labor
force.
The extent to which prospective labor-force
growth, in each State, is likely to deviate from
national trends for the period 1940-50 is shown
in a recent study.9 It indicates that the working
population on the Pacific Coast is growing at two
or three times the national rate, whereas the labor
9 U. S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics, State
and Regional Variations in Prospective Labor Supply ; Bulletin
No. 893. Price 15 cents. Washington : Superintendent of Docu­
ments, 1947.

18

O C C U P A T IO N A L

OUTLOOK

force in the Great Plains area, stretching from
North Dakota to Oklahoma, is actually beginning
to decline (see chart 5). Between these two ex­
tremes are the South with a rate of growth about
25 percent above the national average and the
great industrial region east of the Mississippi and
north o f the Ohio where the labor force is grow­
ing at a rate about 25 percent below the national
average.
These regional variations are a product of a
large volume of migration between the various
States superimposed on great interstate differences
in the rate of natural population growth. On the
basis o f natural growth, the South with its pre­
dominance of rural areas and high birth rate,
would have the fastest growing labor force in the
Nation, but the actual growth is slowed down by
movement of southerners to other regions where
economic opportunities and income levels are more
favorable. On the other hand, the Pacific Coast
has by far the slowest rate of natural increase, but

HANDBOOK

the great inflow of migrants causes this area to
have the fastest growing labor force. In the Great
Plains States the natural rate of growth is about
on a par with the national average, but the exodus
of migrants from this area has halted labor-force
growth and will probably cause a decline in the
working population over the next few decades.
The great interchange of population among the
various regions of the country means that no one
region, or locality, can attempt to evaluate its
labor-supply prospects without regard to what is
happening in the Nation as a whole. For example,
a rapidly growing area such as the Pacific Coast
must take into account the probability of a con­
tinued heavy in-migration of workers from other
parts o f the country. Depressed conditions in
other regions might accelerate this inflow; on the
other hand, if the ability of the Pacific Coast area
to absorb additional workers were reduced, and its
unemployment increased relative to the national
level, the inflow would probably slow down.

Industrial and Occupational Trends
Industrial Trends
Seventy years ago more than half the people
who worked for a living were employed in agri­
culture. The United States was mainly a country
of farmers; its ways of living and habits of think­
ing were influenced by this fact. Indeed, today,
in any group of students in a city school, there will
very likely be some whose grandparents, or even
parents, lived and worked on a farm.
The significant change that occurred in the last
70 years—the rapid growth of industry, commerce,
and other nonfarming employment—is shown in
chart 6. The number of nonfarm workers grew
from 6 million in 1870 to 51 million in 1947, while
the number of farmers and farm workers increased
from about 7 million in 1870 to a peak of 11%
million around 1910, and since then has actually
declined to about 7.7 million in 1947.
On any farm today one can see some of the rea­
sons why this happened. The farmer has ma­
chinery which makes it possible for him to culti­
vate many more acres than could the farmer years
ago. With tractor and trucks both on the farm and
in the city, much less feed is needed for horses and
mules. About 50 million acres that once grew feed




for work stock is now in food crops or in feed for
cattle, hogs, and poultry. Moreover, farmers use
fertilizer and better seed. Science and experience
have taught them how to get more out of their
farms. In 1944, the average farmer produced
nearly twice as much as did the average farmer
just before W orld War I.
With these improvements in farming and in
storage and transportation of food—canning, re­
frigeration, and warehousing, for example—the
farms of the United States were able to provide
food and other farm products for more and more
people. This made it possible for a larger pro­
portion of the population to take jobs in industry.
The industrialization of the country resulted in
an increasing productivity o f labor because of the
wider use of machinery, better management of pro­
duction, and a better-trained labor force. As a
result o f increased productivity, incomes and the
standard o f living have been rising. With more
purchasing power at their disposal, people have
bought more and more goods and services, and
many new industries have developed. Govern­
ment and private services in such fields as educa­
tion, medical care, public health, and welfare have

IN D U S T R IA L

AND

O C C U P A T IO N A L T R E N D S

expanded. These developments help to explain
the changes in employment noted below.
Recent trends in employment are shown in chart
7, which extends from 1929 through the depres­
sion, the war, and the postwar period. In the top
line is seen the gradual growth of the labor force
and its rapid increase during the war, as students,
CHART 6

RAPID GROWTH OF
N ON F A R M O C C U P A T I O N S
1870-1947
M IL LIO N S

OF W O RKERS

60

1870

'80

'90

1900

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS

‘l 0

*20

'30

‘40

*50

LABOR FORCE 1940
Sourc«.- U. S. BUREAU OF THE CENSUS

women, and older workers came in to meet the de­
mands of the armed forces and civilian industry
for manpower.
The severe drop in employment in nonfarm in­
dustries that marked the onset of the depression—
from 37 million in 1929 to a little less than 29 mil­
lion in 1933— is also shown. As a result of the
drop in employment and the growth of the labor
force, the number of unemployed increased from




19

about iy2 million in 1929 to nearly 13 million
in 1933.
Then began a slow recovery, temporarily set
back by a recession toward the end of 1937. By
1939, the year the war began in Europe, nonfarm
employment had increased by 714 million from
the low in 1933, but was still a million below its
average in 1929. Unemployment had been reduced
by only 3% million from the peak of nearly 13
million, however, since the labor force had con­
tinued to grow. It was particularly difficult for
younger workers and older wmrkers to get jobs.
Those in school today may not remember the de­
pression years and their attitudes are influenced
more by the conditions of relative prosperity since
1910. Yet the thinking of their parents, of their
teachers, of the employers for whom they may
work, of the unions they may join, and of the
leaders in public life is strongly affected by the
experiences of the thirties. It will help in under­
standing much of the information on occupations
given in the reports in this handbook if one has
a realization of the difficnlties of those years.
Among the general effects of the depression
decade upon occupations were these :
1. Young people found it particularly hard to
get jobs. The rate of unemployment was high
among them, despite the fact that many continued
in school and were not classified as unemployed.
Older workers also found it difficult to get jobs.
2. Employers, faced with many job applicants
and the necessity to save money by having only the
most efficient workers, raised their hiring stand­
ards. The best-trained or experienced workers
got the jobs. This hastened a long-term trend
toward a preference for applicants who had more
education. Where grade-school graduation had
been considered adequate, employers began to
specify that they wanted only high-school gradu­
ates ; where high-school graduation had been a re­
quirement employers began to give preference to
the college-trained person.
3. People got jobs where they could, and so there
was a great deal of occupational shifting down the
scale of skills. Many a professionally trained and
experienced worker took a clerical, sales, or semi­
skilled job. Many a craftsman worked in semi­
skilled or laborer jobs. Their skills grew rusty
from disuse.

20

O C C U P A T IO N A L

OUTLOOK

HANDBOOK

4. To preserve the employment security of their
members, and to prevent poorly trained people
from entering their fields, some unions and profes­
sional societies took action to tighten up entrance
requirements. Often this went hand in hand with
the improvement of training. In the professional
fields, particularly, it represented the continuation
of a long-term trend towards raising the standards
of education and training.
5. Earnings, of course, dropped in nearly every
field of work.

production of munitions, nonfarm employment
rose rapidly from 36 million in 1939 to 45 million
in 1944. The armed forces, which had averaged
about 300,000 throughout the decade of the thirties,
added 11 million more men and women within 4
years. As a result, the number of unemployed
dropped from 9y 2 million in 1939 to about threequarters o f a million in 1944.
Hiring standards which had been stiffened dur­
ing the depression were relaxed. Skilled jobs
which had required a long period of training were

6.
In an effort to share what work there was
among as many people as possible, the workweek
in industry was shortened. This was again a con­
tinuation o f a long-term trend. The Fair Labor
Standards Act, which became law in 1938, re­
quired that workers covered by its provisions be
paid time and one-half for work in excess of 40
hours in 1 week. In a number o f industries an even
shorter workweek of 35 or 36 hours was agreed
upon by unions and employers.
Then came the war. As industry swung into

broken down so that the work could be done by a
number of quickly trained workers, often under
the supervision of a skilled worker. Young people
found it easy to get a job, and often at pay that
made their father wonder why he had spent 25
3'ears learning and gaining experience in a trade.
Older workers postponed their retirement because
their skills were needed in industry and they
could earn good pay. Women whose children no
longer needed their care came into the labor
market.




IN D U S T R IA L

AND

O C C U P A T IO N A L

As the war approached its end, many people,
remembering the depression from which the war
had pulled the country, were afraid of a postwar
recession. They feared the number of unemployed
would skyrocket when the millions of workers
engaged in munitions production were laid off, and
the more than 11 million men in the armed forces
were demobilized, many of whom had had no
experience in civilian occupations.
Although there was a sudden drop in employ­
ment when munitions production stopped, other
industries quickly hired the workers. Stimulated
by rising demand for the products that had not
been available during the war, such as new houses,
automobiles, and washing machines, industry hired
more and more workers until, at the end of 1947,
with the armed forces demobilized from over 11
million to less than 2 million, about 60 million
people were employed. The number of unem­
ployed did not rise above 3 million at any time,
and toward the end of 1947 was less than 2 million.
Thus, the country weathered the period of ad­
justment from war to peace better than many peo­
ple had expected. For the time being, at least, the
Nation had attained, as it entered 1948, conditions
close to a state of full employment. It was rela­
tively easy to get a job, the “ Help Wanted” signs
were up, and most of the unemployed were per­
sons who were out of work for only short periods
between jobs. This did not mean that everyone
could get the job he wanted, but the fear of com­
plete unemployment for long periods was at least
temporarily banished.
Many young people who, according to previous
custom and practice, would have been expected
to be in school, were in the labor force. This may
well continue as long as jobs are so easy to find;
but these young people may later regret not having
finished school. Older workers, too, have re­
mained at work because of the attraction of good
pay, in preference to retirement on pensions that
the increased cost of living has made inadequate,
and because their services were wanted.
In the first half of 1948, employment in the
United States was higher than it had ever been
before. The major industry fields and their rela­
tive importance as a source of employment are
shown in chart 8. In studying this and the fol­
lowing charts, it would be well to bear in mind that
793990°—49


21

TRENDS

the size of each industry or occupation is a clue
to the employment opportunities.
Manufacturing industries employ the largest
number o f people, and offer jobs to many different
kinds of workers—the unskilled laborer, the ma­
chinist, the engineer, the stenographer, the producCHART 8

MAJOR I N D U S T R I E S
EM PLO YM EN T

1947

M IL L IO N S OF WORKERS

0

5

10

15

Factories

Trade

Farms*

Services
Transportation
8i U tilitie s
Government,
State S Local

Government,
Federal

Construction
Domestic
Service *
Finance

Mining

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS

EMPLOYEES ONLY. EXCEPT FOR FARMS.
WHICH INCLUDES SELF-EM PLOYED
*Soure«: U. S. BUREAU OF THE CENSUS

tion manager, and, more than any other type of
worker, the semiskilled machine operator. Four
out o f 10 employees of manufacturing industry
were semiskilled workers in 1940.
The major manufacturing industries are shown
in chart 9. About half the workers are employed
in the durable goods manufacturing industries,
the others in the nondurable goods industries.
Largest among the durable goods industries are

22

O C C U P A T IO N A L

OUTLOOK H A N D B O O K

CH AR T 9

MAJOR M ANUFACTURING IN D U S T R IE S
A V E R A G E E M P L O Y M E N T 1947
M I L L I O N S OF W O R K E R S

D U R A B L E GOODS

2.0

Iron and S te e l
M achinery, except electrical
Automobiles
E le c t r ic a l M achinery
Lum b er
Transportation Equipment,
except autos

Furniture
Stone, Clay and G lass
Nonferrous M etals
N O N D U R A B L E GOODS
Food
Textiles
Apparel
C hem icals
Prin tin g and Publishing
Pa p e r
L e a th e r
Rubber
Petroleum Products
Tobacco
M iscellaneous

U N I TE D STATES D EP A RT ME NT OF L A BOR
BUREAU OF L A BO R STATI STICS




WAGE AN D S A L A R IE D W O R K E R S

IN D U S T R IA L

AND

O C C U P A T IO N A L

the metalworking group. These plants make a
great variety of products, such as steel beams and
pencil sharpeners, automobiles, and hairpins, giant
dynamos which generate electric power, and tiny
incandescent lamps which put the electricity to
work in our homes. During the war, plants mak­
ing consumer goods such as washing machines and
lipstick holders shifted over to the manufacture
of antiaircraft guns and cartridge cases, and the
small aircraft and shipbuilding industries grew to
enormous size. Though they now have fewer work­
ers than during the war, the metalworking indus­
tries are producing far above their prewar levels,
in trying to meet the great demand for their prod­
ucts. This demand is sustained by the generally
high income levels of the postwar period.
CHART 10

PRODUCTION W O R K E R S IN
MAN U F A C T U R I N G
M ILLIO N S

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS

Employment in the woodworking and building
materials industries follows closely that in the
construction industry. More lumber, window
glass, structural tile, and furniture are sold in
years when a large volume of homes and other
buildings are put up.
The major nondurable goods manufacturing in­
dustries are those which make textiles, clothing,
and food. The chemical industries and the print­
ing and publishing industries are also large.
Employment in manufacturing drops severely
during depressions and rises sharply during pe­
riods of good business conditions, as can be seen




TRENDS

23

in chart 10. It is the durable goods industries
which have the greatest ups and downs, because
when people have no money they can postpone
buying homes, automobiles, and washing machines
much longer than they can put off buying food and
clothing. Similarly, businessmen can put off buy­
ing new machinery. Manufacturing employment
dropped by about 35 percent from 1929 to the bot­
tom of the depression, and then began to recover.
During the war, employment shot up by 7 million,
mostly because of the expansion of metalworking
industries. The amount of goods produced in­
creased even more than this, because people worked
longer hours during the war. Since the end of
the war, employment has been lower, but still
far above the prewar level.
When the backlog of demand for automobiles
and other durable goods that could not be bought
during the war is worked through, manufacturing
employment may not be as high as it is now. And
if another depression should come, these indus­
tries and their workers will once again suffer as
they did during the thirties.
Retail and wholesale trade have more than 8
million employees, and in addition provide a liv­
ing to well over a million proprietors. Salesmen
and saleswomen constitute the largest group of
employees in trade, but there are also large num­
bers of clerical workers (who keep the records and
send out the bills), truck drivers and delivery men,
and service workers, such as elevator operators
and porters.
Employment in trade fell during the depression
but recovered quickly and by 1937 was higher than
in 1929 (chart 11). In this can be seen the effect
of the long-term upward trend in this field of
work. Employment increased further before the
war, and since the war has risen to a level more
than 2 million higher than the 1929 peak. One of
the factors in the growth of this industry has been
the increasing amount of services of all kinds pro­
vided for customers.
Farming, though it has lost workers in recent
years, is still one of the largest fields of work. In
addition to nearly 6 million farmers who own and
run their own farms, there are a large number of
people who work as farm laborers. Their num­
ber fluctuates seasonally—about 2 million are em­
ployed in the winter, and well over 4 million farm
laborers are employed in the summer. Many of

24

O C C U P A T IO N A L

CHART 11

EMPLOYEES IN MAJOR
NONMANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES
MILLIO N S

M N IT E D ST A T E S D E P A R T M E N T O F L A B O R
B U R E A U OF L A B O R S T A T IS T IC S




W AG E A N D S A L A R IE D W O R K E R S

OU TLO OK

HANDBOOK

those who work during the peak season are stu­
dents and housewives or are in other occupations
during the rest of the year.
Government employment—local, State, and Fed­
eral—was over 5 million in 1947; more than twothirds of the workers were in local and State
governments, employed largely as teachers, nurses,
engineers, typists, and policemen. In shipyards,
arsenals, and printing plants the Federal Govern­
ment employs many workers in industrial occupa­
tions. Although people often think of the clerical
worker as the typical Government employee, only
one-fifth of the Government workers were in this
category in 1940. One of the largest Federal oc­
cupations is that o f mail carrier.
In line with a long-term trend, employment in
government has been rising fairly steadily since
1929, dropping back only slightly from 1931 to
1933, increasing in the thirties and rising sharply
during the war. Government is providing in­
creased services through the schools, public health
and sanitation, welfare work, and similar fields. A
larger defense establishment, services to veterans,
and a growing amount of research has also in­
creased the number of government employees.
In addition to the civilians employed by the
Federal Government, there were over 1.4 million
men in the armed services at the end of 1947— a
large increase when compared to an average of
345.000 in 1939. The largest branch is the Army,
with a strength o f over 900.000 in December 1947.
The Navy has over 400,000 men, the Marines 89,000
and the Coast Guard 20,000. These figures include
17.000 women who were in the services at the end
of 1947. The armed forces use men and women
with many different kinds of skills, such as ma­
chinists, airplane mechanics, or electricians, and
give courses of training in these fields (see p. 454).
Service industries employ more than 4 million
people in such diverse fields as automobile and
other repair shops, laundries, cleaning and dyeing
establishments, hotels, barber shops, theaters, mo­
tion-picture production, advertising, and many
other categories not commonly thought of as in the
service field. There has been a long-term upward
emplojunent trend which was interrupted for only
a short time in the depression. Recovery was
quick, however, and during the war, workers were
recruited by drawing people partly from the do-

IN D U S T R IA L

AND

O C C U P A T IO N A L

mestic service field and from among persons out­
side the labor force.
In the transportation and public utilities indus­
tries major fields are the railroads, trucking com­
panies, bus and transit lines, telephone and elec­
tric-power companies, and the merchant marine.
Air lines and radio and television broadcasting
are smaller fields, but are of considerable interest
in vocational guidance. These industries employ
about 41/2 million workers with many different
kinds of skills, such as locomotive engineers, truck
drivers, telephone operators, musicians, engineers,
seamen, ticket agents, and pullman porters. The
great majority of the workers are men. By far
the greatest portion of the women employed in
these industries are clerical workers.

25

TRENDS

Employment dropped sharply in the early
thirties, and did not return to the 1929 level until
after the war. During the war, improvements in
efficiency and longer hours o f work made it pos­
sible for the railroads to carry a record amount of
freight with fewer workers than in 1929. The
public utilities were able to reduce employment by
cutting down their installation and service work;
since the war they have expanded a great deal.
The construction industry had an average of
nearly 1% million employees in 1947. This indus­
try is noted for sharp variations in employment;
between 1929 and 1933 employment dropped by
nearly one-half. An unusually high proportion of
this industry’s workers are skilled men (carpen­
ters, plumbers, e tc.); however, there are large

CH AR T 12

MAJOR OCCUPATION G R O U P S
EMPLOYMENT

A P R I L 1947

C lerica l
Service,
except domestic

S a le s
Domestic S e rv ic e
C raftsm en and
Foremen
O peratives,
semiskilled

La b o rers,
except form

Farmers ond
Farm Managers

Women

Farm L a b o re rs
and Foremen
U NI TED STATES DEPA RTM EN T OF L A BOR
BUREAU OF L A BOR STATI STICS




iou /ce:

us

bureau

or t h e

census

26

O C C U P A T IO N A L

OUTLOOK H A N D B O O K

numbers of laborers and of semiskilled workers
such as truck drivers. The few women employed
in this industry are mostly clerical workers.
Finance, as a major field of work, includes prin­
cipally banking, insurance, and real estate. The
most common occupations are clerical. There has
been a long-term upward trend in these indus­
tries ; by 1941 employment had recovered to above
the 1929 level, and, after dropping during the war,
reached a new high in 1946 and advanced further
in 1947. This increase reflects the activity in
building and real estate, increases in the purchase
of insurance, and the expanding use of banking
facilities in the postwar period.
In mining, which includes mainly coal mining,
ore mining, quarrying, and oil and gas extraction,
less than a million workers are employed. The
largest occupation group is, of course, the miners
who dig out the coal or ore by hand, or by machine,
or blast it out by explosives. There are oppor­
tunities for large numbers of other workers in the
industry too.
The long-term employment trend has been down­
ward as machine mining methods have increas­
ingly supplanted pick-and-shovel mining. There
are many mines, however, where hand methods
are still in use because it does not pay to intro­
duce mechanical cutting and loading equipment.
Occupational Trends
While the industrial picture of the United States
shows where people work, the occupational picture
in chart 12 shows the kinds of work they do.
It can be seen that by far the largest group is
the semiskilled workers, of which machine oper­
ators in factories and truck drivers are typical
examples. Skilled workers are the next largest
group, and clerical workers the third largest.
Many young people considering the choice of
an occupation single out one of the professions as
their goal. Not many will be able to enter these




fields, however, for they give employment to only
7 percent of all workers. The whole group of
“ white collar” occupations, which may be broadly
interpreted to include the groups near the top of
chart 12—professional and semiprofessional, ad­
ministrative (proprietors, managers, and offi­
cials), clerical, and sales workers—consisted of
only about 35 percent of all workers.
The principal occupations within each major
group will be described in later sections of this
handbook, together with the trends in eaph broad
field. At this point, only the long-term trends in
the size of each group relative to the others will be
summarized.
Since 1910 the farm, farm laborer, and nonfarm
laborer occupations have been claiming a smaller
and smaller proportion of the workers (chart 13).
As machinery has been introduced in industry and
on the farm, the machine operator who is a semi­
skilled or skilled worker has taken the place of the
unskilled laborer. As a result, the semiskilled
group has been growing rapidly while the laborer
occupations declined. This trend has been further
advanced by developments since 1940.
The skilled occupations just about held their
own over the three decades 1910 to 1940, but since
1940 have increased their share of all workers.
The other fields—clerical, sales, administrative,
professional, and service—have been increasing in
relative size. However, this has not been true of
domestic service (which is not shown separately
in the chart).
These occupational trends arise in part from the
basic industrial changes described above: namely,
the growth of nonfarm industries, and the expan­
sion of trade and service industries which employ
large numbers of workers in clerical, professional,
service, administrative, and sales occupations.
Technological developments and changes in style
or custom also affect the numbers of people em­
ployed in different occupations.

IN D U S T R IA L

AND

O C C U P A T IO N A L

27

TRENDS

OCCUPATIONAL TRENDS, 1910-1940
P E R C E N T OF TOTAL W O R K ER S ENGAGED IN EACH F IE L D

FARM AND UNSKILLED LABOR OCCUPATIONS DECLINED ...

SK IL L E D WORKERS HELD THEIR OWN...

S K IL L E D W O RKERS AND FO R EM EN

ALL OTHER F IE LD S IN CREASED ...

W ORKERS (including salespeople)

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF
BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS




LABOR

AND O F F IC IA L S

Source : U. S. B U R E A U O F T H E CEN S U S

28

O C C U P A T IO N A L O U T L O O K H A N D B O O K

C HART 14

MAJOR

P R O F E S S IO N A L OCCUPATIONS
EM PLO YM EN T

1940

t h o u s a n d s

0

100

200

300

of

workers

400

500

600

700

Teachers,
elemenfary school

Nurses
Teachers,
secondary school

Engineers
Lawyers
Physicians
Clergymen
Musicians
Pharmacists
Teachers,
college

Dentists
Social Workers
Journalists
Chemists
Artists
Librarians
Accountants,
C.P. A.
Architects
Authors
Actors
Veterinarians
Chiropractors
County Agents
Osteopaths
Others

U N IT E D S T A T E S D E P A R T M E N T O F L A B O R
B U R E A U O F L A B O R S T A T IS T IC S




" N U M B E R O F W O M E N TOO FEW TO S H O W O N C H A R T
Source: U. S. B U R E A U O F T H E C E N S U S

Professional, Semiprofessional, and Administrative
Occupations
The three major occupation groups included in
this section are related to each other in a number
of ways. They are in some respects so similar
that it is often difficult to determine whether a
particular occupation falls in one class or the
other. They all require a long period of training
or experience, or both. And, although they some­
times involve manual skill—as, for example, the
occupations of draftsman or surgeon—the out­
standing requirement is a great deal of basic
knowledge and reliable judgment. It should be
remembered, of course, that the qualities just
ascribed to professional, semiprofessional, and ad­

ministrative occupations are not exclusive with
them; many skilled trades and clerical and sales
occupations are closely related to professions or
administrative occupations, and also require abil­
ity, training, experience, and a high order of
knowledge and judgment.
The occupational outlook reports included in
this section are grouped by fields of work repre­
senting areas of interest in vocational guidance.
As soon as studies have been made of occupations
in some of the other major fields of interest, such
as the sciences, additional sections will be added to
future editions of this publication.

PROFESSIONAL OCCUPATIONS

What is a profession ? It is easier to list them—
as in the accompanying chart—than to define
them. Each profession has its societies, some of
which attempt to set up standards for membership
in the profession. Moreover, many professions
are licensed—physicians, dentists, and pharmacists
for example—and in these cases the licensing
board determines the qualifications that a profes­
sional person in the field should have. Very often,
however, there is no clear-cut line drawn between
professional and other types of workers.

not find it easy to enter these fields. They must
complete long periods of training and grinding
study in competition with the very brightest stu­
dents. They must take and pass difficult examina­
tions both in the colleges and professional schools
and before State licensing boards. In many cases
they are not accepted for professional training un­
less their school grades are high; and often em­
ployers will give preference to graduates whose
grades in their professional schools were in the
highest half or quarter of the class.

Difficulty of Entering
Many more young people want to get into pro­
fessional fields than there is room for, even though
professions as a whole are growing in size. This
is partly because the professions have glamour and
prestige and partly because many young people
do not know enough about the many opportunities
for interesting jobs and good careers in nonpro­
fessional fields.
Those who want to be professional workers will

Past Trends
The professions as a group have been growing
rapidly and probably will continue to grow. From
less than half a million workers in 1870, the pro­
fessional and semiprofessional occupations have
grown to nearly 4 million today—a tenfold in­
crease within a lifetime (chart 15). Just after the
Civil War, the leading professions were the tra­
ditional ones of teaching, medicine, the ministry,
and law. Three out of four professional workers




29

30

O C C U P A T IO N A L

OU TLO OK H A N D B O O K

were in these occupations. Many other occupations
which now have full status and recognition as
professions at that time included only a few hun­
dreds or thousands of people, many of whom had
training which, by present standards, was far from
adequate.
CHART 19

GROWTH OF PROFESSIONAL AND
SEMIPROFESSIONAL OCCUPATIONS

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LA BO R
BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTIC S

Recent Developments
During World War II we needed many more
engineers, physicians, nurses, chemists, and other
professional workers than ever before. The needs
were greatest in the technical fields. Training
programs were stepped up—medical training was
accelerated, for example—but it was still not pos­
sible to train as many as were needed by the
armed forces and civilian industries. The em­
ployment of professional workers in civilian jobs
actually decreased during the war as many thou­
sands were taken into the armed forces (chart 16).
An increase in the number of women professional
workers was not enough to offset the loss of the
men. There were shortages in almost every major
professional field.

G A IN FU L WORKERS 1 8 7 0 -1 9 3 0
LABOR FORCE 1940
C IV ILIA N LABOR FORCE 1947
Source U. S. BUREAU OF THE CENSUS

Since that time other professions have grown
greatly. For example, the number of engineers,
draftsmen, designers, and chemists is 50 times
greater than in 1870. O f the “big four” of 1870,
on the other hand, only teaching has kept pace
with the growth of professions as a whole. The
number practicing law has increased to about 41/2
times its size in 1870, the ministry about 3y2 times,
and the number practicing medicine only about
threefold. The number of women in the profes­
sions has grown even more rapidly than that of




men, and in April 1947, one woman in ten who
worked was in this field ( primarily in teaching and
nursing), as compared to only one in seventeen of
the men.
The growth of the professional group was fairly
steady over the seven decades since 1870— some­
what more rapid in the especially prosperous
decade of the twenties; somewhat slower in the
thirties.

As the armed forces were demobilized, the physi­
cians, engineers, lawyers, teachers, and others re­
turned to civilian life and civilian jobs. Employ­
ment of professional workers increased. Never­
theless, shortages continued in many fields. A
peacetime economy of high employment levels de­
manded many more professional workers than
were available. In some fields the shortages were
made worse by the fact that college enrollments

P R O F E S S IO N A L ,

S E M IP R O F E S S IO N A L ,

had dropped during the war. Workers were
drawn out of other fields such as teaching because
of relatively poor pay or working conditions as
compared with those offered by nonprofessional
jobs which were open.
How long will these shortages last? The col­
leges, stimulated by the educational benefits pro­
vided for veterans, enrolled a record number of
students in the fall of 1946 and broke that record
again in the fall of 1947. In some fields, then, the
shortage situation will be alleviated in a few
years, and it may even be hard for a graduate to
find a job. In others, shortages will continue.
In still others, there is no shortage now. This is
brought out in the reports on individual occupa­
tions.
From 1940 to 1947. despite the effect of the draft
upon college enrollments, the average annual
growth was slightly greater than in the previous
decade; but increases in other occupations were
even more rapid, and for the first time the profes­
sional fields declined slightly relative to the total
of all occupations (chart 15). In view of the long­
term trend and the experience of the 1920’s, it
seems likely that the professions will continue to
increase in size in the coming decade. This con­
clusion is borne out by studies of the major in­
dividual professional fields.
Increasing Training Requirements
Young people interested in training for a pro­
fession should take into account a trend toward re­
quiring more and more educational preparation
for professional jobs. In one occupation after
another the history of training has moved in the
same direction over the years: From informal
on-the-job training or apprenticeship with an ex­

A D M IN IS T R A T IV E

31

perienced member of the profession to full-time
institutional study (for a period of years which
has grown longer and longer) followed by some
form of on-the-job training.
This trend has been more pronounced in some
occupations than in others; perhaps in some it
will never get very far. In chemistry, for ex­
ample, graduate training is necessary for a higher
proportion o f the jobs than is the case in engi­
neering. A degree in business administration is
still not the exclusive means of entrance into that
field. Nevertheless as one examines different fields,
the efforts of the professional societies to raise
standards and improve the quality of training
become evident.
This extension of educational requirements has
resulted from the increasing complexity of each
field of science, from increasing emphasis on the
desirability of a broad educational background as
a preparation for work as well as for life, and
from the fact that so many workers do have a col­
lege education, which makes a degree necessary
merely to compete for employment in many fields.
This trend was accelerated to some extent by
the depression of the 1930’s, which gave employers
a chance to raise their hiring standards, and which
at the time induced more young people to go to
college, simply because jobs were not available.
It is believed that these trends will continue:
That employers will require college education as a
minimum qualification for more and more dif­
ferent occupations or, at least, will give preference
to people with such education; and that an in­
creasing amount of education will be required by
employers or State boards of licensure for occupa­
tions in which college education is already con­
sidered necessary.

SEMIPROFESSIONAL OCCUPATIONS

The line between professional and semiprofes­
sional occupations has never been sharply drawn,
and the inclusion of an occupation in one or the
other group is often arbitrary. In general, the
word “semiprofessional” is intended to imply that
the occupation, although similar to professions in




that it demands knowledge, training, and judg­
ment, requires a shorter or more informal period
of training of a more limited nature.
Thus, the professional engineer is given basic
training in higher mathematics and scientific prin­
ciples, which he applies to each new problem.

32

O C C U P A T IO N A L

OUTLOOK

whereas the semiprofessional draftsman is re­
quired merely to have a practical knowledge of
scientific methods and practices, so that he can
translate the engineer’s sketches into blueprints.
In actual practice, the distinctions are not so p a t:
many a draftsman is required to know more than
this implies, and, also, many draftsmen have ad­
vanced to jobs as professional engineers because
o f personal ability and study. On the other hand,
some firms start their new graduate engineers as
draftsmen so that they can learn the work from
the bottom up, and many of these men do not ad­

HANDBOOK

vance beyond the draftsman’s job, particularly
during depressions.
The major semiprofessional occupations are
shown in chart 17. Employment in some of
them—for example, airplane pilots—has increased
substantially since 1940, but draftsmen and labo­
ratory technicians are still the largest occupations
in the group.
The major semiprofessional groups have grown
rapidly in recent years. Scientific and technical
work has been more highly organized, particu­
larly in the laboratories and engineering depart-

MAJOR S E M IP R O F E S S IO N A L O C C U P A T IO N S
E M P L O Y M E N T ,1940
T H O U S A N D S OF W O R K E R S

30

40

50

Draftsmen
Laboratory
Technicians
Morticians
Religious
Workers
Photographers
Designers
Sports
Instructors
Medical Service
Workers, n.e.c.
Surveyors
Dancers
Radio Operators
Optom etrists
Technicians,
exc. lab.

Athletes
Airplane Pilots
Showmen

U N I TE D STATES D EP A RT ME NT OF L A BOR
BUREAU OF L A B O R STATI STI CS




•N U M B E R OF W OMEN TOO FEW TO SHOW ON CH AR T
Source: U S BU R E AU OF TH E C E N SU S

P R O F E S S IO N A L ,

S E M IP R O F E S S IO N A L , A D M IN IS T R A T IV E

33

merits o f large firms, and more semiprofessional
aids have been provided for the professional work­
ers. During the recent war, with a shortage of
engineers and chemists, it was discovered that men
with less training could perform parts of the work
formerly done by engineers or chemists, freeing
the latter for the more difficult tasks.
The number of semiprofessional workers em­
ployed in civilian jobs did not decrease during the
war, unlike the professions, and has increased
sharply since the war (chart 18). Though still
a small group among the major occupation fields,
it has been growing rapidly, and this growth
should continue.

ADMINISTRATIVE OCCUPATIONS

People usually reach administrative positions
by promotion, and most workers in this field got
their start in some other occupation such as en­
gineer, salesman, accountant, skilled worker, or
laborer. Personal ability has been more impor­
tant than special training as a factor in getting
an administrative job. In 1940, only 1 out of 5
administrative workers had any college training,
and only 1 out of 10 had completed college.
Nevertheless, the value of formal training for
this type of job is increasingly recognized. There
has been a marked trend toward the extension of
educational requirements for administrative jobs
and toward preference for college-trained men and
women. The increasing complexity of business or­
ganizations and methods has created new fields
of specialization in business and public adminis­
tration. Formal college-level courses have been
organized in such subjects as business administra­
tion, management, public administration, person­
nel work, industrial relations, insurance, merchan­
dising, traffic management, and marketing—and
these have been gaining acceptance on the part of
employers. It is likely that this trend will con­
tinue, particularly because so many college grad­
uates with this type o f training will be available
for employment, and because business organiza­
tion is likely to continue growing larger and more
complex.
The census group “ proprietors, managers, and
officials, except farm” includes many diverse oc­




cupations : the proprietor of a peanut stand as well
as the president of a large corporation. The small
retail-store proprietor is the dominant occupation
in the group. O f the 3,749,000 administrative
workers employed in 1940,47 percent were in retail
trade, 11 percent in manufacturing, 6 percent in
wholesale trade, 6 percent in government, and 5
percent in finance, insurance, and real estate. More
than half the total (2,082,000) were self-em­
ployed—the majority o f these being in retail trade.
Between 1910 and 1940 the number of workers

34

O C C U P A T IO N A L

OUTLOOK

in these occupations increased by 62 percent while
the total number of workers in all fields rose only
40 percent. Throughout the three decades, whole­
sale and retail dealers constituted about half of the
total in the group. Employment fell off somewhat
early in the war as many small retail stores closed
their doors, but has risen steadily since 1943, and
advanced rapidly since the end of the war, partly
because of the opening of many small businesses.
In April 1947, 5.8 million were employed in these
occupations, as compared to 3.7 million in 1940—
an increase greater than the average for all major




HANDBOOK

occupation groups (chart 19). The growth of this
field both before and since the war suggests a
long-term upward trend which may well continue.
Among the administrative occupations on which
reports appear in other sections of this handbook
are railroad conductors (in the section on railroad
occupations), hotel managers (in the section on
hotel occupations), restaurant and cafeteria man­
agers (in the section on restaurant occupations),
and filling-station managers and owners (in the
section on clerical, sales, and service occupations).

Teaching Field
Teaching is not only the largest single profes­
sional field, but it is also the parent field, in the
sense that it is the teachers who educate and pre­
pare workers for all the other professions. Teach­
ing is also uniquely related in vocational terms to
other professions and to nonprofessional occupa­
tions, since many persons who consider themselves
members of a profession or a trade do part-time
or full-time work as teachers. Thus, many a lead­
ing chemist, engineer, or physician is a teacher in
a college or university, and in many vocational
schools the crafts are taught by practicing mem­
bers of the trades. Teaching, then, is one of the
types of work done by members of other profes­
sions, as well as being a profession in its own right.
The great bulk of the teachers, however, par­
ticularly those in high schools, elementary schools,
and kindergartens, are persons who prepared
themselves primarily for the teaching profession.
The broad divisions of the field are college and
university teaching, high-school teaching, and
kindergarten and elementary-school teaching.
The belief is widespread that the level of ability

required of the teacher increases with the age of
the students; in many parts of the country both
entrance requirements and salaries are greater for
the high-school than for the elementary-school
teacher. More recently, however, many members
of the profession have come to believe that teach­
ers of young children should be as well prepared
as those who teach older children, and to attract
competent teachers to elementary schools, salaries
should be equalized and credit toward higher
salaries given for advanced training.
By far the majority of teachers are public em­
ployees. This is true of 9 out of 10 teachers below the college level, but about half of the college
teachers in 1940 were employed in private colleges
and universities.
Employment in the profession has been rising
rapidly in the long run, having increased nearly
tenfold since 1870. This reflects the growth of
population, the tendency for young people to stay
in school longer, and the increasing enrichment of
the curriculum, particularly at the high-school and
junior high-school level.

College and University Teachers
(D.O.T. 0-11.50)

Outlook Summary
Excellent immediate opportunities for qualified
persons but openings vary considerably by sub­
ject fields. Considerable increase in number of
positions is expected in the long run.
Nature of Work
In 1947-48, the more than 1,700 colleges and
othdr institutions of higher education in the coun­
try had about 155,000 faculty members for 2.3 mil­
lion students. Besides teaching, these faculty
members frequently do research. Some devote all
or part of their time to administrative work.
Most have specialized in a particular subject field.




Where Employed
The great majority of faculty members are in
4-year colleges, universities, and professional
schools; before the war, 84 percent were employed
by such institutions, about 7 percent by teachers’
colleges, 8 percent by junior colleges, and 1 per­
cent by normal schools. Largely because of dif­
ferences in population, the distribution of these
institutions among the States is extremely un­
even. Some Western States have but one or two,
with staffs totaling only a few hundred, while a
few thickly populated States have over 100 col­
leges with more than 10,000 staff members.
35

36

O C C U P A T IO N A L

O U TLO OK H A N D B O O K

Training and Other Qualifications
In general, a doctor’s degree is required for the
better college teaching positions, but requirements
Aary considerably according to institution and
T
type of appointment. Instructors may be ap­
pointed directly from graduate training, especially
when records are outstanding, or they may assist
in teaching undergraduates while still taking ad­
vanced work. Assistant and associate professor­
ships are usually attained only after collegeteaching experience or extensive graduate train­
ing. To reach the position of professor usually
requires 10 to 15 years of experience or outstand­
ing achievement.
Outlook
At present there is a shortage of college-level
teachers. The number of positions has increased
greatly owing to unprecedented enrollments; there
has been an insufficient number of new entrants
from war-depleted graduate schools; and compe­
tition from better-paid fields of employment has
drawn people away from teaching. From 1941 to
1945, the number of men teachers employed
dropped by about 12,000. Many of these men
have not returned to teaching. Shortages are,
therefore, greatest in the subjects for which men
are usually preferred—for example, medicine,
dentistry, pharmacy, business administration, en­
gineering, the physical sciences, and certain spe­
cial and vocational subjects. Opportunities for
women are particularly good in junior colleges and
teacher-education institutions. However, there
has been a long-term trend toward gradually in­
creasing the proportion of woman staff members
in all institutions of higher learning, though the
percent is still relatively low.
While educational benefits granted to veterans
have contributed greatly to present large college
enrollments, it is expected that total enrollments
will continue at high levels. There is a long-run
trend for a larger proportion o f young people to
complete high school and enter college; higher




education is becoming more and more important
both in meeting competition in the labor market
and in social relationships. Growing interest in
extending higher education, particularly at the
junior-college level, is expected to result in a
greater number of institutions, more widely dis­
tributed throughout the country. This will not
only encourage enrollments but make it possible
to have smaller classes than at present. Fur­
thermore, the higher birth rate of the past 10
years will begin to affect college-age population in
the late fifties. All these factors, plus the trend
toward lengthening the period o f college training,
will tend to increase the number o f teachers
needed. The President’s Commission on Higher
Education recommended in 1948 that the num­
ber o f faculty members be increased to 300,000 by
1960.
Earnings
A study of faculty salaries in 158 institutions,
which are considered reasonably typical, showed
the following approximate median salaries in
1947: Professors, $4,000; associate professors,
$3,500; assistant professors, $3,000; instructors,
$2,500. That salaries in many institutions are
higher is shown by the results of another survey
of faculty personnel in 29 institutions in 1947,
which showed the following approximate average
salaries: Professors, $5,350; associate professors,
$4,375; assistant professors, $3,500; instructors,
$2,850. Salaries have risen considerably in the last
few years, and there may be further marked in­
creases. In general, salaries are greatest in large
universities and men’s colleges; somewhat lower in
women’s, teachers’, and junior colleges, and in de­
nominational schools.
Where To Go for More Information
Federal Security Agency,
Office o f Education,
Washington 25, D. C.
American Council on Education,
744 Jackson Place,
Washington 6, D. C.

T E A C H IN G

F IE L D

37

High School Teachers
(D.O.T. 0-31.01 and .10)

Outlook Summary
There are immediate employment opportunities,
but openings vary considerably by locality and
subject field. In the long run, new entrants with
only minimum qualifications will have difficulty
obtaining desirable positions.
Nature o f Work
About 315,000 classroom teachers are employed
(in 1948) in the Nation’s 29,000 public secondary
schools, to teach some 6 million pupils. Besides
classroom instruction, most of these teachers have
other duties, including supervision of extracur­
ricular activities, record keeping and preparation
of reports. Maintenance of good relations with
parents, the community, and fellow teachers are
other important aspects of their jobs.
Opportunities for advancement are by way of
moderate salary increases within the same system,
by moving to larger schools after a few years of
experience, or by promotion to supervisory, ad­
ministrative, or other specialized positions.
Training and Other Qualifications
Typical requirements for teacher certificates are
a bachelor’s degree, with about a half year of pro­
fessional education including student teaching.
The requirements vary considerably from one State
to another, however. A few States will grant cer­
tificates only to people with a year of graduate
work. Many school systems, especially in large
cities, require more preparation for employment
than is needed for certification. The general trend
is toward insisting on a master’s degree or at least
5 years o f college. The more desirable positions
are usually filled by the highest qualified teachers.
Many local school systems require previous suc­
cessful experience which often must be obtained in
small towns or rural schools.
Good teacher-training curricula are offered in
universities with schools o f education; by colleges
with strong education departments and satisfac­
tory practice teaching facilities; and by teachers’
793996°—49

-4




colleges. A student who wishes to specialize in
vocational agriculture, home economics, music,
commercial work, or the like should choose an in­
stitution accredited for work in the specific field
and should take enough hours of education and
practice teaching to meet certification require­
ments. Although the trend is toward specializa­
tion, the greater the number of subjects a person
can teach, the better are his chances for securing
a position. Ability to handle extracurricular ac­
tivities will also improve chances for employment.
Outlook
Qualified teachers are in demand at the present
time, but opportunities vary greatly by locality
and subject field. In general, shortages are great­
est in rural schools, in special subjects such as
music, in vocational subjects such as home eco­
nomics, and in the physical sciences. In most lo­
calities the need for teachers will be met most
quickly in English, history, and foreign languages.
Shortages during the war were partly the re­
sult of selective-service withdrawals, since about
a third of the teachers in secondary schools are
men. In addition, many people left the profes­
sion for higher paying jobs in other fields. The
number taking teacher education also dropped
sharply. There is now a trend toward increasing
salaries; this will influence qualified teachers to
remain in or return to the profession and will in­
terest more students in preparing for it. It is
likely that competition for the more desirable jobs
will gradually increase and that applicants will
eventually outnumber openings. In this event,
education and experience requirements will prob­
ably be raised, in line with the prewar trend. New
entrants should plan to secure a master’s degree for
best employment opportunities.
Although the high school age population will
decrease for the next several years, the increasing
proportion attending school will probably prevent
a drop in enrollment and in the need for teachers.
About 1950, the rising birth rate of the past 10

38

O C C U P A T IO N A L

O U TLO OK H A N D B O O K

years will begin to raise enrollments in the sec­
ondary school grades, and the number of high
school teachers will need to be increased. In the
next decade, the trend toward enriching the cur­
riculum and offering special subjects will also tend
to create employment for more teachers.

subjects. Salaries in rural schools are below those
in small towns; highest salaries are usually in the
largest cities. Constant increases in teachers’ sala­
ries are now taking place throughout the country.

Earnings

General information on teaching may be ob­
tained from :

In 1946-47 high school teachers had a median
salary of about $3,600 in cities of over 100,000
population; $2,775 in cities of 30,000 to 100,000;
$2,600 in those of 10,000 to 30.000; $2,375 in towns
of 5,000 to 10,000; and $2,275 in those of 2,500 to
5,000. Median salaries of principals in communi­
ties o f the above sizes were about $5,750, $4,700,
$4,075, $3,500, and $3,200, respectively. Median
salaries of superintendents ranged from $10,000
to $4,225, depending on size of city.
Teachers in some special fields such as vocational
education and physical education sometimes re­
ceive higher pay than classroom teachers of other

Where To Go for More Information

Federal Security Agency,
Office o f Education,
Washington 25, D. C.
National Education Association,
1201 16th St. N W ,
Washington 6, D. C.

Information on schools and requirements in a
particular State may be obtained from any de­
partment of education at the State capital.
/See also Kindergarten and Elementary School
Teachers, page 38; College and University Teach­
ers, page 35; Physical Education Instructors, page
40.

Kindergarten and Elementary School Teachers
(D.O.T. 0-30.02 and .11)

Outlook Summary

Training and Other Qualifications

Excellent immediate employment opportunities.
Shortages of teachers for elementary grades will
continue longer than at higher grade levels.

In every State except Massachusetts, a State cer­
tificate is required for teaching in public schools.
The educational qualifications needed for certifi­
cates vary considerably from one State to another.
Fifteen States and the District of Columbia re­
quire 4 years o f college as minimum for the lowest
regular certificate; 23 States require 2 or 3 years
of college training; other States have even lower
minimum requirements. During and since the
war, many thousand emergency certificates were
issued to persons unable to meet regular qualifi­
cation requirements. Since the general trend is
toward raising requirements, all prospective teach­
ers should plan to secure the bachelor’s degree.
There are about 1,200 institutions approved by
different State departments of education from
which graduates are granted State certificates
without examination. However, some local dis­
tricts have their own standards and examinations,
in addition to the State requirements. Prerequi­

Nature of Work
Kindergarten and elementary school teachers
make up over half the entire teaching profession.
In the school year 1947-48, about 570,000 of them
were employed in public schools.
Teaching in the elementary grades usually in­
volves working with one group of pupils during
the entire day, thus covering a wide range of sub­
jects and activities. Some schools have depart­
mentalized instruction in the upper elementary
grades, in which case teachers usually handle two
or three subjects with several different groups of
pupils during the school day. Teachers in rural
schools may have to teach all subjects in several
grades.




T E A C H IN G

site for training is usually graduation from an ac­
credited high school. Most States have a mini­
mum age of 18 years, but appointing officials usu­
ally prefer somewhat older teachers. Some school
systems do not employ married women; over half
the States make proof of good health a prerequi­
site ; some have citizenship and other special stand­
ards. A prospective teacher should acquaint him­
self with the specific requirements in the State in
which he plans to teach.

F IE L D

39

or appointment to supervisory, administrative, or
other type of specialized work. Many women hold
principalsliips in elementary schools. Require­
ments were being raised before the war, and this
trend can be expected to be resumed as soon as
present shortages are relieved. The best oppor­
tunities will go to those having more than mini­
mum qualifications.

Outlook
There is a serious shortage of teachers at the
present time. Generally, throughout the Nation,
shortages are greatest in kindergartens and other
primary grades in the cities and in rural elemen­
tary schools. The extent of the shortage varies
considerably from one State to another and also
within States; but it tends to be most acute in areas
where teachers’ salaries are lowest or where there
are better-paying employment opportunities.
There are always many openings for new en­
trants due to the high rate of turn-over (prewar
rate was about 10 percent), caused for the most
part by young women leaving their jobs for mar­
riage. Replacements are needed for teachers
holding emergency certificates; the great majority
of the 100,000 with such certificates in 1947-48 are
employed in elementary schools. Kindergarten
and nursery school teachers will find an increasing
demand for their services. Not only is there a
trend toward extending public school training to
the younger groups, but the rising birth rate of the
past 10 years has already increased the number
of teachers needed in kindergartens and primary
grades. As the greater school population moves
through the system, the need for teachers in the
succeeding grades will be increased, especially
since each year a higher proportion of children
completes elementary school and high school.
Shortages of teachers for elementary grades,
especially in rural schools, are expected to con­
tinue longer than at higher grade levels. Propor­
tionately fewer trainees are specializing in this
field of teaching, where the need is greatest.
Opportunities for advancement are by way of
small salary increases in the same position, shifting
to larger school systems or better-paying localities,




Shortages of teachers are greatest in kindergarten and primary grades

Earnings
In 1946-47 median salaries for elementary class­
room teachers were approximately as follow s:
$2,900 in cities with populations of 100,000 or
more; $2,300 in cities of 30,000 to 100,000. $2,125
in cities of 10,000 to 30,000; $1,950 in cities of
5,000 to 10,000; $1,875 in towns of 2,500 to 5,000.
Supervising principals in elementary schools in
cities of the sizes shown above received median
salaries of about $4,325, $3,325, $3,025, $2,950, and
$2,900, respectively. Rural school salaries, espe­
cially those in one-teacher schools, are consider­
ably below those in small towns. Constant in­
creases in salaries are now taking place throughout
the country. There is a trend toward establish­

40

O C C U P A T IO N A L

OU TLO OK

ing salary scales for elementary teachers as high
as those for secondary teachers.
Wh ere To Go for More Information
General information on teaching may be ob­
tained from :
Federal Security Agency,
Office o f Education,
W ashington 25, D. C.

HANDBOOK

National Education Association,
1201 10th St. N W „
Washington 6, D. C.

Information on schools and requirements in a
particular State may be obtained from any depart­
ment of education at the State capital.
See also High School Teachers, page 37; College
and University Teachers, page 35; Physical Educa­
tion Instructors, page 40.

Physical Education Instructors
(D.O.T. 0-57.21 and .41)

Outlook Summary
Good opportunities at present, especially for
women. In the long run, the field will probably
continue to expand, but people with minimum
qualifications will face increasing competition.
Nature of Work
Physical education instructors give individual
or group instruction in a great variety of physical
activities and games, and coach teams in various
sports. They also teach classes in health educa­
tion, supervise school health-education programs,
and direct school and community recreational ac­
tivities. In small high schools, the teaching of
physical education is often combined with the
teaching of other subjects. In elementary schools,
it is usually done by the regular classroom teacher.
How to Enter
In most States, the minimum requirement for a
high-school teaching certificate is a 4-year college
course, including 15 to 24 semester hours in phys­
ical education and 15 to 20 hours in general pro­
fessional education, including teaching methods.
The employment requirements of individual
schools may be somewhat higher. Courses in bio­
logical sciences, social sciences, and health educa­
tion are helpful. Educational requirements for
teaching in colleges or universities vary consider­
ably, but graduate training is generally preferred.
Experience in physical education with the armed
forces is valuable when combined with formal
education.
The usual method o f entry for people without




graduate training is by way of a small school,
though successful athletes sometimes start as as­
sistant coaches in colleges or universities. Posi­
tions in colleges or large high schools usually re­
quire several years’ experience or graduate train­
ing, or both. Experienced instructors may ad­
vance to physical- or health-education supervisor
for a city school system or State department of
education or transfer to related recreational and
health activities.
Outlook
A t present there are good opportunities, espe­
cially for women, in this expanding field, which
employs around 60,000 professional workers, ac­
cording to one estimate. A severe shortage de­
veloped in the occupation during the war, since
many instructors went into the armed forces or
war jobs and the number of new entrants coming
into the field was small. The shortage of qualified
instructors is no longer acute but has not been
entirely relieved; some teachers have not returned
to the field, and most of those whose training was
interrupted or who have entered training since
the war have not yet been graduated. Moreover,
the demand for instructors is expanding. The
need for greater emphasis on health and physical
education was dramatized by selective service re­
jections. As a result, more communities are plan­
ning additional physical education and recreation
facilities. Some of these plans are now being
put into effect, but many are being held up—chiefly
because of construction difficulties. There is a
greater shortage of qualified women instructors
than of men; many women have left the occupation

T E A C H IN G

to marry or for other reasons and there are not
enough replacements.
Employment will probably continue to rise in
the long run. The number of school positions is
expected to increase, especially in rural areas, ow­
ing to greater State support of health and physical
fitness programs, the trend toward smaller classes,
the increase in school-age population, the tendency
for young people to stay in school longer, and other
factors which are expected to raise enrollments
in high schools. There will also be increased em­
ployment in such related fields as employeerecreation programs conducted by private business
or Government departments, and recreational ac­
tivities and camps sponsored by churches and
youth-serving agencies. Large numbers of open­
ings will also arise owing to turn-over. This is
high among women instructors; it is also consid­
erable among men, since older men often have to
transfer to other occupations.
The supply of qualified workers is expected to
increase more rapidly than the demand, however.
At present the proportion of prospective teachers
studying physical education is much larger than
usual. The number of schools offering such train­
ing has increased considerably in the past few
years. Current shortages are likely to be met in
the near future. As soon as the supply permits,
the prewar trend toward higher requirements will
no doubt be resumed, and people with inadequate
training will face stiff competition. New entrants




F IE L D

41

should therefore plan to secure a year or two of
graduate training. It will be advantageous to
have both physical- and health-education training,
since many combination jobs are opening up.
Earnings
Starting salaries ranged from about $1,600 to
about $3,300 for high school instructors without
experience in 1947-48, depending on individual
qualifications, size of school, geographic location,
and other factors. A man with a strong back­
ground in varsity athletics nearly always receives
a larger beginning salary. Directors, assistant
directors, and supervisors of physical education
had median salaries of about $2,600 to $4,600, de­
pending on the size of the city or town. In many
school systems, athletic coaches receive additional
amounts above their regular salaries because of
extra duties. It is often possible to supplement
earnings for the school year by taking a position
in a summer camp.
Where To Go for More Information
American Association for Health, Physical Education,
and Recreation,
1201 16th St. N W „
Washington 6, D. C.
Federal Security Agency,
Office o f Education,
Washington 25, D. C.

/See also: High School Teachers, page 37; Kin­
dergarten and Elementary School Teachers, page
38; College and University Teachers, page 35.

42

O C C U P A T IO N A L

O U TLO OK

HANDBOOK

MAJOR MEDICAL SERVICE OCCUPATIONS
EMPLOYMENT IN 1947
THOUSANDS OF

WORKERS

P R O F E S S IO N A L AND
STU D EN T N U R SES
P R A C T IC A L N U R S E S AND
H O S P IT A L ATTENDANTS-^
P H Y S IC IA N S
P H A R M A C IS T S
D E N T IS T S
M EDICAL LA BO RA TO R Y
T E C H N IC IA N S
P H Y S IC IA N S ' A S S IS T A N T S ^ 7
X-RA Y TEC H N IC IA N S

O P T O M E T R IS T S

D E N T IS T S ' ASSISTANTS-^7
V E T E R IN A R IA N S
C H IRO PR A C T O R S^7

f

MEN
t NUMBER OF MEN TOO FEW
TO SHOW ON CHART

WOMEN
^NUM BER OF WOMEN TOO FEW
TO SHOW ON CHART

D EN T A L H Y G IE N IS T S

O STEO PATH S^7

P H Y S IC A L

I

T H E R A P IS T S

M E D IC A L RECORD
L IB R A R IA N S - 1
7
O C C U PA T IO N A L
T H E R A P IS T S

E M P L O Y M E N T IN 1946
■ ^ E M P LO Y M E N T IN 194 0

Source-. U. S. WOMENS BUR EAU
UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS




U. S. B U R E AU O F L A B O R S TA TIST IC S
U S . B U R E A U OF T H E CEN S U S

Medical-Service Occupations'
Engaging more than 1 million persons in 1940,
medical and other health service is not only vital
to public welfare, but important as a source of
employment opportunity. With its more than half
a million women workers, it ranks as a major voca­
tional field for women. It is second only to teach­
ing as a field of employment for professional and
semiprofessional workers.
Medical services of one kind or another are
given in a wide variety of workplaces, including
hospitals and sanitariums, clinics, laboratories,
pharmacies, nursing homes, health and hygiene
agencies, industrial plants, offices of physicians,
dentists, osteopaths, chiropractors, veterinarians,
and chiropodists, and in private homes. Work in
these fields is to be found in every State, and in
the smallest of towns— wherever there are people
to be served—but of course employment oppor­
tunities are concentrated in the most populous and
wealthy sections of the country.
To some, occupations in the medical services
present opportunities for independent profes­
sional practice and self-employment. More than
half the men in these fields are self-employed, but
less than one-tenth of the women are so engaged.
About one-fiftli of the workers are employed by
local, State, or Federal Government agencies.
The major occupations in the field are shown in
chart 20. Nursing, the largest field, is also the

second largest profession for women. The occu­
pation of physician follows engineering, teaching,
and law as a major profession for men. There is
close working relationship among the occupations
in the medical-service field; such semiprofessional
persons as dental hygienists and medical X-ray
technicians are often employed directly by the
dentist and the physician.
The trends in medical-service employment have
been upward. The need for expansion in serv­
ices is a result of an increasing population, rising
income levels, better education in the need for med­
ical care, the growth of preventive medicine, hos­
pitalization insurance plans, progress in medical
science itself, and the provision of medical care
for veterans. More hospitals are being built too,
and there is growing interest in plans to make
medical care more available to low-income groups.
Therefore, there will be increasing employment
opportunities in this large field. Moreover, be­
cause of the large number of women in some of
these occupations, the replacement rate is high, and
many new workers will have to be trained each
year*
3
0
2
1This introductory section is based on The O
utlook for W en
om
in O
ccupations in the M
edical and O
ther Health Services: Trends
and Their Effect U
pon the D and for W en W
em
om
orkers, Bulletin
203, N 12 (1946), published by the W en’s B
o.
om
ureau, U S
. .
Departm of Labor, W
ent
ashington 25, D C
. .

Physicians
(D.O.T. 0-26.10)

Outlook Summary
Excellent opportunities for those able to gain
admission to medical school and complete require­
ments for practice.
Nature of Work
Most physicians are engaged in private practice,
either as individuals or in a group of doctors.
Others have full-time positions on hospital staffs,




with private firms, or in governmental agencies
such as the United States Public Health Service,
the armed forces, and the Veterans Administra­
tion—caring for patients or giving medical exami­
nations. Some combine private practice with a
part-time position in a hospital or industry.
Physicians also teach in medical schools: do re­
search on causes of disease and development of
new methods of treatment; hold administrative
43

44

O C C U P A T IO N A L

OU TLO OK H A N D B O O K

positions in hospitals, clinics, laboratories, and
other organizations; and write and edit medical
books and magazines. A few devote their full
time to these activities, but most care for patients
as well.
O f the 165,000 employed physicians reported by
the census in 1940, about a half were general prac­
titioners ; nearly a third were general practitioners
with an interest or training in a specialty; the re­
mainder (slightly over one-fifth) limited their
practice to their specialty. The recognized spe­
cialties are, in descending order of numbers prac­
ticing : otolaryngology, internal medicine, surgery,
ophthalmology, pediatrics, radiology, obstetrics
and gynecology, neurology and psychiatry, pathol­
ogy, urology, orthopedic surgery, dermatology and
syphilology, anesthesiology, plastic surgery, neu­
rosurgery, public health, industrial medicine, and
physical medicine.

cialized training and practice in the selected field.
Residencies of varying lengths in approved insti­
tutions are required for most specialties as part of
the training. In addition, physicians intending to
become general practitioners often serve as resi­
dents for a year or two after completing their
internship to obtain additional training and
experience.

Training and Qualifications
For practice as a physician in any State or the
District of Columbia, one must be licensed by a
State board of medical examiners and register
annually with this board. With rare exceptions,
it takes 7 to 9 years after high school to complete
the educational and experience requirements for
licensure. Candidates must be graduates of ap­
proved medical schools, which give 4-year courses
and require students to have completed 3 or more
years of premedical study in college. A few schools
require only 2’ years of premedical study, whereas
others require a bachelor’s degree. At all schools,
this degree is an advantage in competing for ad­
mission—an important consideration in view of
the present waiting list for entrance into most
schools. After completing medical school, grad­
uates generally serve at least a year’s internship in
a hospital; 1 year is legally required in about half
o f the States. Finally, they have to pass a licens­
ing examination given by the State board of mediical examiners.
To be recognized as a specialist, a doctor must
meet standards established by one of the 16 spe­
cialty boards set up by the American medical
profession (except for public health or industrial
medicine, for which there are no specialty boards
as yet). These standards include: graduation
from an approved medical school, completion of an
approved internship, and generally 5 years of spe­




COURTESY

OF

U. S.

P U B L IC

H EALTH

S E R V IC E

Surgeon and assistant during a tense moment in an operating room
of a hospital

Outlook
The demand for physicians’ services is much
greater now than before the war. The rise in na­
tional income and the development of prepay­
ment plans for medical care and hospitalization
are making it possible for many more people to
obtain doctors’ services. Among the other factors
which will tend to increase the demand for their
services are the increase in population (particu­
larly of older persons) ; Government provision of
medical care for veterans and for members of the
armed forces and their families; and the planned
large-scale program for construction of hospitals
in areas which have no modern facilities. Under­
lying these factors is the general trend toward
higher standards of medical care and public health.
In addition, about 4,000 new physicians are needed

M E D IC A L -S E R V IC E

each year to meet replacement needs, owing to
deaths, retirements, and lowered service capacity
among the many older physicians.
Acceleration of training during the war will
make possible the graduation of nearly 60,000 med­
ical students from accredited schools between 1940
and 1950, more than in any previous decade. How­
ever. the total number of physicians is not ex­
pected to increase proportionately faster than the
population over the decade. It is therefore likely
that with the present level of output of medical
graduates, the supply o f physicians will not be suf­
ficient to meet the increased demand. However,
planned expansion of medical education facilities
will probably provide an additional number of
physicians in the future. The outlook is excellent
for young persons who can gain admission to
medical school and complete the requirements for
practice.
The need for physicians’ services is greater in
some sections of the country than in others. Even
before the war, over half of all the States did not
get enough new physicians to replace those who
died or retired. The greatest need exists in rural
areas, since physicians naturally tend to concen­

O C C U P A T IO N S

45

trate in and around highly populated and highincome areas.
Earnings
The average physician was in the top 3 percent
o f the population with respect to income in 1947—
with an average net income (after business ex­
penses) of nearly $9,900, more than twice as much
as in 1939, according to a survey by Medical Eco­
nomics Magazine. Average gross incomes over this
same period also more than doubled, rising from
about $7,400 in 1939 to nearly $17,500 in 1947. In
1947, there was a wide difference in the net income
of the independent physician and the salaried phy­
sician; then the former averaged $11,300 and the
latter about $7,900. Incomes tend to be higher in
large cities than in smaller communities. It
should be emphasized that earnings of individual
doctors vary widely—with length of professional
experience, field of specialization and personal
ability, as well as size of community and region of
the country.
Where To Get More Information
American Medical Association,
535 N. Dearborn St.,
Chicago 10, 111.

Dentists
(D.O.T. 0-13.10)

Outlook Summary
Excellent opportunities for persons able to
obtain admission to dental school and complete
the requirements for practice.
Nature of Work
Most dentists (about 85 percent) are engaged
in general practice. Only about 15 percent spe­
cialize in some particular branch of dentistry;
and of this small group, only a fourth specialize
on a full-time basis, the rest spending part of their
time in general practice. The recognized spe­
cialties are oral surgery, orthodontics (teeth
straightening), periodontics (treatment of dis­
ease), prosthodontics (making of artificial teeth
or plates), pedodontics (children’s dentistry),




and radiodontics (taking X-ray pictures and
making diagnoses from them).
The vast majority of dentists are independent
practitioners. However, sizable numbers are em­
ployed by the United States Public Health Serv­
ice, the Veterans Administration, the armed
forces, and other Government agencies; some are
assistants to other dentists; and some work for in­
dustrial plants and other private organizations.
Training and Qualifications
For practice as a dentist in any State or the
District of Columbia one must be licensed by the
State board of dental examiners and in some States
must be registered annually. The main require­
ment for admission to the examination for licen­
sure is 4 years of professional dental training in

46

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

one of tlie 40 recognized schools of dentistry, lead­
ing to the degree of doctor of dental surgery or
doctor of dental medicine. One State, Delaware,
requires a year’s internship before a dental grad­
uate may be admitted to the licensing examination.
At least 2 years of predental study in college is
required for admission to dental school.

COU RTESY

OF

U.

S.

P U B L IC

H EALTH

S E R V IC E

Regular examinations by a dentist are recognized more and more as a
necessity for maintenance of good health.

Outlooh
There is a current need for additional personnel
in this profession. At the beginning of the war,
there were about 70,000 employed dentists and a
few hundred seeking work according to the 1940
census. The number available was not sufficient
to care for the health needs of the American peo­
ple. During the war, a backlog of oral defects
piled up, owing to an acute shortage of civilian
dentists. Wartime conditions also helped to
arouse a national interest in more and better
dental care. In addition, the proportion of the




population which can afford dental services has
increased greatly, owing to higher income levels.
The shortage of dentists is likely to continue and
may even become more acute. The number needed
to replace those who die or retire each year is be­
tween 1,700 and 1,900 yearly. Annual graduations
from dental schools will be several hundred higher
than this, on the basis of present enrollments.
But net increase in the profession indicated by
these figures will not be as rapid as the anticipated
growth in population.
The annual output of
graduates must be raised, in order to maintain even
the existing ratio of dentists to population. Fur­
thermore, there is a long-run trend toward better
oral health care for the general population, par­
ticularly school children, and the Veterans A d­
ministration expects to need an increasing number
of dentists for care o f ex-servicemen and women.
For all these reasons, the outlook for young per­
sons having the proper qualifications and interest
in the work is exceptionally bright. Dental
schools, however, are at capacity now, and many
have waiting lists.
All parts of the country will need dentists, but
the need is less in some sections than in others.
Ten States (New York, Illinois, Pennsylvania,
California, Ohio, Massachusetts, New Jersey,
Michigan, Minnesota, and Wisconsin) with half
the Nation’s population had three-fifths of all ac­
tive dentists in 1940. In all States, dentists are
concentrated to a great extent in and around
highly populated sections, where earnings tend to
be highest. Rural areas therefore have fewer
dentists in relation to population than do urban
ones.
Earnings
In 1941, average net income was $3,773. Inde­
pendent practitioners (the great majority) aver­
aged $3,782; salaried dentists averaged $3,493.
By the end of the war, dentists’ average income
had more than doubled, owing to the increased pa­
tient load. Individual earnings vary with length
of experience, type of specialization, and size of
community.
Where To Find Out More About Dentistry
Information on schools, requirements, practice,
and earnings may be obtained from the Council on

MEDICAL-SERVICE OCCUPATIOXS

Dental Education of the American Dental Asso­
ciation, 222 East Superior Street, Chicago, 111.
This Council has published an informative

47

pamphlet, Dentistry as a Professional Career,
which may be obtained from local libraries or by
writing directly to the Association.

Pharmacists
(D.O.T. 0-25.10)

Outlook Summary

How to Enter

Very good employment prospects for several
years. Possible overcrowding in some areas in
long run if enrollments in pharmacy colleges con­
tinue at present high levels.

Entrance into this profession is governed by
State licensing requirements. Most State laws
specify that applicants for licenses must be citizens
of the United States and at least 21 years of age.
In every State except Vermont, graduation from a
college of pharmacy is a prerequisite for obtain­
ing a license, and most States require at least a
year of practical experience under the supervision
of a registered pharmacist. In a number of States,
a specified amount of experience must be gained
in retail pharmacy; however, most States allow
full credit for hospital experience, and the number
doing so may increase in the near future. All
States except New York and California will grant
a license without examination to a pharmacist al­
ready registered in another State, provided that
at the time of original licensure he had the quali­
fications required by the State in which he is pres­
ently seeking a license.

Nature of Work
Pharmacy is the science of drugs. A qualified
pharmacist must understand the composition,
chemical properties, manufacture, and uses of
drugs, and be able to test them for purity and
strength. He must also be able to compound medi­
cines as called for by physicians' prescriptions and
he may advise doctors concerning the use and
availability of drugs.
About 85,000 registered pharmacists were em­
ployed in the Nation’s 50,000 drug stores at the end
of 1916, or about 90 percent of all those in the
profession. Most State laws require that, in every
pharmacy, there shall be a registered pharmacist
in attendance at all times. The essential function
performed by the pharmacist in drug stores is fill­
ing prescriptions; particularly in small stores,
however, he may perform a variety of sales and
managerial duties—such as purchasing supplies
and goods, arranging window displays, and hiring
employees. Many retail pharmacists own and
manage their own stores.
Drug manufacturing and wholesaling firms em­
ployed about 5,000 registered pharmacists at the
end of 1946. Some of these men did research or
supervised drug production or packaging. Others
were sales representatives or detail men, who visit
physicians and retail druggists to tell them about
the merit of new medicinal preparations.
There were only about 2,500 registered phar­
macists in the Nation's 6,282 hospitals at the end
of 1946. Still smaller numbers teach in colleges of
pharmacy, write for pharmaceutical publications,
or are employed by State and Federal Govern­
ment agencies.




Outlook
The outlook for the entire pharmaceutical pro­
fession is dominated by the prospects in retail drug
stores, where a moderate upward long-term trend
in employment is expected. In view of the steady
increase in drug sales and the trend toward shorter
working hours in the profession, it seems probable
that many drug stores will have to take on addi­
tional pharmacists. It is also expected that there
will be some increase—though not a large one—
in the number of drug stores in the country. In
recent years the tendency in cities has been away
from many small stores toward fewer and bigger
ones, but some new stores will be needed, particu­
larly in new residential areas.
Employment in hospital pharmacies is expected
to increase rapidly during the next few years.
There will also be increased opportunities in man­
ufacturing and wholesaling, in the armed forces
and the public health services, and as teachers, law-

48

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

enforcement officials, and writers for pharmaceuti­
cal publications. In addition, around 2.500
pharmacists will be needed each year to replace
those who die, retire, or transfer to other fields
of work.
There is now a shortage of registered personnel
in many parts of the country, because of the sharp
drop in graduations during the war and the ex­
panding employment needs. Record numbers of
students have enrolled in pharmacy colleges since
VJ-day (approximately 18,000 in the 65 accredited
colleges in the academic year 1947-48, compared
with about 8,000 in the immediate prewar years).
Several new colleges have been organized and are
already admitting first- and second-year students.
Nevertheless, the shortage will probably not be reThe pharmacist must exercise great care in filling a physician's
prescription




lieved before the 1950's. After that, there may be
a tendency toward overcrowding in some areas,
particularly big cities, if enrollments continue at
the present high level.
Earnings and Working Conditions
Pharmacists working for others usually earned
$70 to $80 per week during 1947, according to
scattered reports from various parts of the coun­
try. Those in beginning positions with the Fed­
eral Government start at $2,974 per year, are usu­
ally raised to $3,727 after a year’s experience, and
may advance still further thereafter. Owners of
successful drug stores may have considerably
higher net incomes.
Hours of work are long in many drug stores,
since such stores are usually open in the evenings
and on Sundays. The work requires the phar­
macist to be on his feet a great deal.
In drug manufacturing, teaching, publications
work, and Government service hours tend to be
shorter. Sales representatives spend a lot of their
time going from one doctor’s office or retail drug
store to another and may work irregular hours.
Where To Go for More Information
For general information on the profession, one
may write t o :
American Pharmaceutical Association,
2215 Constitution Are. NW.,
Washington 7, D. C.

Information on schools and scholarships is avail­
able from the Dean of any college of pharmacy or
from :
American Association o f Colleges o f Pharmacy,
College Station,
Brookings, S. Dak.

Current regulations on education, training, and
other requirements for licensure in a particular
State may be obtained from the board of pharmacy
at the State capitol. Persons interested in entering
the profession should find out about these regula­
tions before enrolling in pharmacy colleges or
arranging to obtain practical experience.

MEDICAL-SERVICE OCCUPATIONS

49

Registered Professional Nurses 2
(D.O.T. 0-33)

Registered nurses (R. N.’s) are the second larg­
est group of professional women in the country.
In 1947, there were over 300,000 registered pro­
fessional nurses, and over 100,000 student nurses.
According to an estimate in 1946, about 60 percent
of the employed nurses were in hospitals, schools
o f nursing, or other institutions; about one-fourth
were in private practice; the remainder were pub­
lic health, industrial, or office nurses. In 1940 only
2 percent were men; only 2 percent were Negroes.

The opportunity for women to advance to posts
of responsibility is good, because of the large
number of supervisory positions in this large pro­
fession and the lack of competition from men.
Teaching and administrative positions, particu­
larly in schools of nursing, usually go to those who
have college degrees as well as the necessary pro­
fessional preparation and who combine success­
ful experience with aptitude for teaching or ad­
ministrative work. Advancement is also possible
through specialization in such fields as anesthesia,
midwifery, industrial hygiene, and orthopedic,
pediatric, maternity, or psychiatric nursing, where
the demand for nurses is expanding and pay tends
to be higher. Public health nursing also offers
many opportunities for advancement.

Training and Other Qualifications

Outlook

To be a registered nurse, one must have a license
issued by the State board of nurse examiners or
other authorized agency. In practically all States,
applicants for licenses must have high school
diplomas and be graduates of schools of nursing
approved by the State board. The basic course
in nursing education usually consists of 3 years
of combined study and supervised experience in
one or more hospitals. Most States specify that
applicants must be at least 21 years old, and all
require them to pass an examination given by the
board. Provision is made by most States for
granting of licenses or certificates without exami­
nation to registered nurses from other States.
Educational preparation beyond the minimum
required for licensing is an asset in competing for
professional advancement. Almost 2*00 schools
offer college-level nursing programs leading to
a degree. Nurses with the United States Public
Health Service must have had at least a year of
postgraduate study in public-health nursing at
a college or university approved by the National
Organization for Public Health Nursing.

The present shortage of nurses, estimated to be
somewhere between 40,000 and 60,000 is caused by
an unprecedented demand for nursing service at
a time when many nurses are leaving the field and
insufficient numbers are entering nursing schools.
Although the supply increased rapidly during the
war, owing to Cadet Nurse Corps training, new en­
rollments decreased greatly after VJ-day, but were
higher in 1947 than in 1946. At the same time,
more nurses than usual have been dropping out be­
cause of marriage and family responsibilities, re­
tirement, desire for additional training, or trans­
fer to other lines of work. The need for nurses
continues to increase. Civilian hospitals have
larger patient loads. Meanwhile, the postwar
drop in the number of volunteers who helped care
for patients during the war has been very great.
More private duty nurses are needed to take care
of people who still cannot be accommodated in hos­
pitals. Additional public-health nurses are also
needed. Because of the tendency of nurses to con­
centrate in large cities, the greatest shortages are
in small towns and rural areas.
In the long run, the shortage of nurses is ex­
pected to continue; it may become even more acute.

Outlook Summary
Excellent opportunities both in the immediate
future and in the long run, but openings vary con­
siderably by locality.
Nature of Work

2P
repared by the B
ureau of Labor Statistics in cooperation
w the W en’s B
ith
om
ureau.




50

O C C U P A T IO N A L

O U TLO OK H A N D B O O K

The trend toward greater use of nursing service,
which has been evident for the past quarter cen­
tury, has been accelerated by recent developments.
The Federal Government has become more active in
meeting health needs. Recently enacted bills and
pending legislation will mean employment for
many thousands of nurses. Veterans’ hospitals
will have increasing numbers of patients, with the
peak expected about 1975. Hospital insurance

hand, a fourth earned more than $195. Median
earnings in different fields of nursing ranged from
$153 a month for private duty work to $207 for
nurse educators. Because of differences in the
number o f days worked during the month, earn­
ings of individual private-duty nurses varied
widely; one out of four earned less than $95 and
another fourth received at least $200. There was
also variation by regions, from a median of $144
in New England to $202 in the Pacific States. An
8-hour day and a workweek of 40 to 48 hours has
become the generally accepted schedule in nursing,
but there are many deviations, especially in pri­
vate-duty nursing.
Where To Go for More Information
Additional information on the outlook for
women as professional nurses is given in the fo l­
lowing publication:
U. S. Department of Labor, Women’s Bureau—
Professional Nurses. Bulletin 203, No. 3. 66 pp.
Washington, 1946. Price 15 cents.

Co urtesy

of

U.

S.

P u b l ic

H ealth

S e r v ic e

During an operation the surgical nurse is depended upon for her
alertness and coordination in assisting the surgeon

plans are enlarging hospital patient loads. The
field of public-health nursing is growing. The
general growth in population, with a larger pro­
portion of older persons, will also increase the
need for nursing service. Turn-over will continue
to create many job openings each year. It is esti­
mated that about 500,000 nurses will be required
by 1960 to maintain current standards of nursing.
Earnings and Hours o f Work
In October 1946, median monthly earnings of
registered nurses who were not provided with liv­
ing quarters were between $170 and $175. About
one in four earned less than $145; on the other




Additional information on earnings and work­
ing conditions is given in the following publica­
tion :
U. S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor
Statistics. Economic Status of Registered Pro­
fessional Nurses. Bulletin No. 931. 69 pp. Su­
perintendent of Documents, Washington 25, D. C.
(1947). Price 30 cents.
Information may also be obtained from :
American Nurses’ Association,
1790 Broadway,
New York 19, N. Y.
National Committee on Careers in Nursing,
11th Floor,
1790 Broadway,
New York 19, N. Y.
National League o f Nursing Education,
1790 Broadway,
New York 19, N. Y.
National Nursing Council,
1790 Broadway,
New York 19, N. Y.

Information on State registration requirements
may be obtained from the board of nurse examin­
ers from any State capital or from the Counselor of
any State Nurses’ Association (a directory of these
counselors is available from the American Nurses’
Association).

M E D IC A L -S E R V IC E

O C C U P A T IO N S

51

Veterinarians
(D.O.T. 0-34.10)

Outlook Summary
Very good opportunities in immediate future.
In the long run the greatly increasing number of
new entrants may cause some overcrowding.
Nature of Work
Veterinarians study and treat diseases of ani­
mals, serve as counsel on matters relating to the
care and breeding of animals, and inspect animal
products intended for human consumption.
Most of the 14,000 veterinarians in the United
States are general practitioners; among those who
specialize, the majority work with cattle or small
animals. About 65 percent are in private practice;
most of the remainder are employed on a salary
basis by Federal and State agencies for meat in­
spection, disease control, and research. About 400
are now in the Army Veterinary Corps, in which
2,200 served during the war. Some are employed
as teachers, and a few work for commercial manu­
facturers of products used in veterinary medicine.
Where Employed
Veterinarians are found chiefly in States where
a large percentage of the Nation’s livestock is
raised. States in which veterinary service is now
in use on a large scale are New York, Illinois, Iowa,
California, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Indiana, Mich­
igan, Minnesota, Wisconsin, Texas, Missouri, and
Kansas. Most of the private practice, except pet
practice, is in rural areas.
Training and Other Qualifications
A license is required to practice in all States and
the District o f Columbia. Generally, applicants
must be graduates of veterinary schools and must
pass an examination to obtain a license. A few
States accept diplomas from approved schools in
lieu of the examination; some do not specify grad­
uation, but few except graduates could pass the
required examinations. At least 1 year of preveterinary work and 4 years of professional study




in a veterinary college are required for the doctor
of veterinary medicine degree. Further training
can be taken in specialized fields such as pathology
or bacteriology. There are 10 accredited schools in
the United States and 7 new schools not yet eligi­
ble for recognition. Only graduates of accredited
veterinary colleges are admitted to examination
for Federal civil-service employment.
Outlook
There is a current shortage of veterinarians for
private practice work, due largely to the increased
demand for their services as a result of the present
high value of livestock. There are also many
openings in salaried positions, particularly with
the Bureau of Animal Industry of the United
States Department of Agriculture, for inspectors
of meat products and for work in disease eradica­
tion and control. Teachers are needed to staff
the several new schools which have opened. Be­
cause there are many men in this occupation who
are at or nearing the retirement age, there will be
above-normal replacement needs in the years im­
mediately ahead.
In the long run, some growth in the field is ex­
pected. Principal fields for future expansion are
public-health work and research on livestock dis­
eases, the former being concerned mainly with food
inspection and control of diseases transmissible to
man. Some expansion also is expected in oppor­
tunities in private practice. The trend is toward
more scientific attention to the raising of livestock
and poultry—to produce more and better meat,
milk, wool, and other products with the same
amount of feed and care. However, in this field
the demand for veterinary service depends largely
upon economic conditions, as the market value of
an animal usually determines the professional care
that can be afforded. Practice with pet animals
has grown greatly in recent years and can be ex­
pected to make further gains.
The increased need for replacements together
with greater demand for veterinary services in

52

O C C U P A T IO N A L

OUTLOOK

HANDBOOK

numerous fields will create job opportunities above
the normal rate for a number of years. However,
this is a small profession and the number of new
entrants that can be accommodated is limited.
Beginning in 1949, graduating classes will exceed
prewar figures. New schools now being estab­
lished will make possible an even larger number
of graduates. In the long run, it may become more
and more difficult for new entrants to find desirable
locations for establishing independent practices,
and the competition for salaried jobs will increase.

come of over $5,000 a year. However, most prac­
titioners live in rural areas where living costs are
comparatively low. The two fields which usually
bring highest incomes are pet practice in metro­
politan areas and specialized practice with thor­
oughbred horses and other purebred animals, such
as fine dairy cattle. Veterinarians employed by
the Federal Government earn $2,974 to $4,479 in
most types of jobs; salaries of veterinarians em­
ployed by State and municipal governments are
generally lower.

Earnings

Where To Go for More Information
American Veterinary Medical Association,
600 S. Michigan Ave.,
Chicago 5, 111.

Income from private practice varies greatly
according to location and length of time in prac­
tice, with the range being about $2,500 to $10,000
or higher. Only a small percentage have a net in­

United States Department of Agriculture,
Bureau o f Animal Industry,
W ashington 25, D. C.

Medical Laboratory Technicians 3
(D.O.T. 0-50.01)

Outlook Summary
Expanding demand and good employment op­
portunity for graduates from approved schools
and for all-round experienced workers with col­
lege background. Higli-school graduates with
laboratory experience as helpers or routine work­
ers will not have much chance in competition with
well-trained personnel.
Nature of Work
About two-thirds of all medical laboratory
technicians are employed in hospital laboratories,
where they make blood and urine analyses on all
patients and, as directed by a physician, special
analyses and laboratory tests (metabolism,
sputum, serology) on particular patients. Others
work in physicians’ laboratories, in public-health
laboratories, in clinics, and in medical schools.
Training and Other Qualifications
One may qualify for registration with the
Registry^ o f Medical Technologists of the Amer­
ican Society of Clinical Pathologists by graduat­
ing from one of the 294 hospital schools for clinical
3 Prepared by the W omen’ s Bureau, U. S. Department o f Labor.




laboratory technicians approved by the American
Medical Association. The length of the course at
an approved school ranges upward from the re­
quired minimum of 12 months. For entrance, 2
years of accredited college work, which may be
raised to 3 years in the near future, are required.
Certain credits in specified subjects, or graduation
from a recognized school of nursing plus 30
semester hours of college work including chemistry
and biology, are required. Painstaking accuracy,
dependability, and ability to follow directions are
some of the most important personal traits for
advancement. The advancement opportunity for
even thoroughly trained medical technicians also
depends on the size of the organization.
Outlook
The demand for registered technologists and
for adequately trained technicians will continue
to increase with the extension of hospitals for vet­
erans and for the civilian population, and of pub­
lic-health services and clinics. With the spread of
hospitalization insurance, the number of patients
served in hospitals will continue to rise. Labora­
tories in public-health facilities are also gradually
increasing in number.

M E D IC A L -S E R V IC E

Many practicing physicians are forming small
groups, hiring a medical laboratory technician,
and maintaining a laboratory to service the group.
Most specialists in internal medicine employ a
full-time technician because of the large number
of routine and special laboratory tests involved in
the diagnosis and treatment of diseases of the
internal organs. Industrial medical laboratories
are also growing in number with the emphasis on
industrial hygiene. The growing use of powerful
drugs such as the sulfa group, requiring labora­
tory checking, also tends to increase the need for
the laboratory technician. Opportunities in re­
search are usually limited to those who have de­
grees in science or medicine. Poorly or partially
trained technicians who entered the field because
of wartime emergency will have difficulty in com­
peting with well-trained personnel because of high
peacetime standards of skill and competence.
In 1917 there were approximately 13,000 reg­
istered medical technologists and another group of
about 12,000 to 13,000 without approved training
who were working as technicians in medical lab­
oratories. According to the American Society of
Medical Technologists, from 1,000 to 2,000 newly
trained medical technologists should be available
yearly to keep abreast of the demand for the next
15 years. About 1,000 were graduated in 1946
from approved schools. It is estimated that 45,000
will be needed by 1960. During the war approved
hospitals employed nonregistered technicians,
many of whom had been trained for only a few
weeks or months in schools that offered substand­

O C C U P A T IO N S

53

ard courses. But poorly trained persons cannot
obtain jobs when well-trained persons are avail­
able. The vast majority of medical technicians
are women. Some of the men who had received
laboratory training in the Army and Navy, how­
ever, may find opportunity as laboratory workers
by acquiring additional skills required by peace­
time standards established in the profession.
Earnings
In 1946, a study of 1,153 technologists showed
that 1 percent received less than $1,200 and 4 per­
cent received more than $3,600, in both cases with­
out maintenance. The largest group of medical
technologists were paid from $2,400 to $2,700 with­
out maintenance. Medical laboratory technicians
in hospital laboratories usually receive higher sala­
ries than those in university laboratories and in
physicians’ offices; but their salaries are lower than
those in public-health laboratories and commercial
clinical laboratories.
Where To Go for More Information
Additional information on the outlook for
women as medical laboratory technicians is given
in the following publication:
U. S. Department of Labor, Women’s B ureauMedical Laboratory Technicians. Bulletin 203,
No. 4. 10 pp. Washington, 1945.
Information may also be obtained from :
American Society o f Medical Technologists,
Medical Center Bldg.,
Lafayette, La.

Optometrists
(D.O.T. 0-53.10)

Outlook Summary
Good opportunities at present and in immediate
future. Some expansion in field expected in long
run, but increasing number of new entrants will
create considerable competition for desirable lo­
cations.
Nature of Work
Optometrists specialize in examining the eyes
and conserving and improving the vision. They
administer a series of tests to determine visual effi­
793996°—49-

5




ciency and prescribe lenses or corrective exercises
when needed. They do not treat diseases of the
eye but refer patients to doctors of medicine for
such care. Some optometrists fill the prescrip­
tions for eyeglasses in their own laboratories.
Optometrists use various instruments for eye
measurement and examination. The ophthal­
mometer or keratometer may be used to measure
the degree of astigmatism; the retinoscope and
refractometer, to determine the degree of near­
sightedness or far-sightedness; the ophthalmo-

54

O C C U P A T IO N A L

OU TLO OK

scope, to examine the interior of the eye. Op­
tometrists also give subjective examinations, using
a series of lenses and prisms to assist in determining
the one or combination which gives the patient
greatest clearness, comfort, and efficiency of vision.
Optometrists should not be confused with ocu­
lists or opticians. The oculist (or ophthalmol­
ogist) is a duly licensed doctor of medicine who is
a specialist in the medical and surgical care of the
eyes and is qualified to prescribe lenses or any
other form of treatment. The optician fills pre­
scriptions for eyeglasses written by oculists or
optometrists; he does not examine eyes nor pre­
scribe treatment.
Where Employed
Most optometrists are engaged in private prac­
tice,and maintain offices in professional buildings
or in their homes. Many, especially new entrants,
are employed by established practitioners or are
associated with clinics or industrial organizations.
The greatest number of optometrists are in
urban areas. The ratio of practitioners to popu­
lation varies greatly from one State to another.
For example, California, Oregon, and Illinois
have 1 optometrist for about every 5,000 per­
sons, while in some Southern States the ratio is
1 to every 20,000 persons.
Training and Other Qualifications
A license is required in all States and the Dis­
trict of Columbia for the practice of optometry.
Graduation from a 4- or 5-year course in a college
of optometry which has been approved by the
American Optometric Association is necessary for
admittance to a State board examination. The
10 accredited schools and colleges of optometry,
all of which require high-school graduation for
admittance, award the degree of doctor of op­
tometry or the degree of bachelor of science in
optometry. Young people planning to enter such
colleges should take as many classes as possible in
mathematics and science.
Outlook
Optometrists who are already trained or who
enter practice in the near future will find good op­
portunities. There is room for new entrants to
replace those lost because of death and retirement
and to make up for curtailment of training during




HANDBOOK

the war. At present, there are only about 17,000
registered optometrists and only a relatively small
number of physicians who are specialists in eye
health, to take care of the visual requirements of
the entire population.
In the long run, there will be an increasing
number of employment opportunities, owing to
population increase and the extension of eye care.
There is a growing awareness of the need for such
care, brought about largely by school health ex­
aminations, expansion of health facilities in rural
communities, emphasis on safety through proper
vision, and the importance of vision in modern
industry. However, the present number of stu­
dents of optometry is three times the prewar num­
ber. I f such increased enrollments continue for
several years, it may become difficult for new en­
trants to find desirable opportunities for practice.
The need for practitioners is greatest in rural
communities and small towns. Those choosing a
location should take into consideration the fact
that the demand for optometric services depends
not only on the number of people in the locality
and their income level but also on the occupations
in which they are employed. For example, the
proportion of people using eyeglasses is less among
farmers than office and factory workers.
Earnings
Self-employed optometrists had the following
approximate median net incomes in 1944 according
to a survey o f members of the American Optom­
etric Association : $1,720 for the first year o f prac­
tice; $2,825 for the third year; $3,675 for the fifth
year; $4,970 for the tenth year. The median net
incomes of optometrists with the same amount o f
experience who were working for others were ap­
proximately $1,900, $2,510, $2,940, and $3,410 re­
spectively. In general, incomes were highest in
cities with populations of from 10,000 to 50,000.
Where To Go for Further Information
General information on optometry may be ob­
tained from :
American Optometric Association,
518 W ilm ac Bldg.,
Minneapolis 2, Minn.

Information on State requirements for licensing
optometrists is available from the State board of
examiners in optometry in any State capital.

M E D IC A L -S E R V IC E

O C C U P A T IO N S

55

Chiropractors
(D.O.T. 0-42.10)

Outlook Summary
Employment opportunities vary widely from
one part of the country to another. New entrants
with the highest qualifications will have greatest
opportunities.
Nature of Work
Chiropractic is a system of treatment based on
the premise that the nerve system controls the
physiological functions of the human body, and
that interference with the nerve system impairs
normal functions and induces disease by rendering
the body less resistant to infection or other causes
of disability. The chiropractor treats by specific
adjustment and manipulation the structures of the
body, especially those of the spinal column. He
makes use of such supplementary measures as diet,
rest, light, water, heat, and exercise. Most prac­
titioners enter independent private practice which
is limited almost entirely to office calls.
How To Enter
High school graduation or its equivalent is pre­
requisite for training in all States issuing licenses,
and one or more years of preparatory college work
is required in some States. With the exception of
a few States, 4 years of training in 1 of the 26
chiropractic colleges is necessary for admission to
examinations; the degree of D. C. (doctor of
chiropractic) is awarded upon completion o f this
course. The make-up of the examining boards
differs among the States; some are composed of
medical members only, chiropractic members only,
or basic science members only, while other boards
have combinations of these. As a result, examina­
tions given bv some boards are considered much
more difficult than those given by others.
Chiropractic is licensed in 43 States, Hawaii,
Alaska, and the District of Columbia, but is not




legalized in Louisiana, Massachusetts, Mississippi,
New York, and Texas.
Outlook
The success of the new entrant will depend in
large part on proper selection of a location; since
the principles of healing by chiropractic are not
as yet universally accepted, community attitudes
and State regulations vary widely.
Employment opportunities will be greatest for
new entrants who are able to meet the highest
State licensing requirements, including gradua­
tion from a 4-year course of 3,600 or more hours.
It will become increasingly important to be able
to qualify for any State examination in order to
have a wide choice of locations.
Opportunities for women appear to be good, as
many women prefer to go to members of their own
sex for treatment. In 1940, 18 percent of the
11,000 chiropractors reported in the census wgre
women.
There are some opportunities for chiropractors
as teachers and in X-ray work (taking and inter­
preting X-ray pictures for other chiropractors).
Earnings
As in other types of independent practice, in­
come of chiropractors varies according to such
factors as ability, personality, length of experience,
location, and economic conditions. Average net
income before the depression was about $2,500. A
survey made just before the war showed that aver­
age net income ranged from about $1,500 in the
first year of practice to a peak of $7,500 after 10 to
15 years of practice. Incomes are known to have
risen considerably in the last few years.
Where To Find Out More About Chiropractic
National Chiropractic Association,
National Bldg.,
Webster City, Iowa.

56

O C C U P A T IO N A L

OUTLOOK

HANDBOOK

Medical X -R ay Technicians 4
(D.O.T. 0-50.04)

Outlook Summary
Good employment opportunities for registered
technicians or those with comparable training and
experience. Limited opportunities for those who
have received only short, specialized training in
the armed services.
Nature of Work
The medical X-ray technician operates X-ray
equipment for the purpose of photographing parts
of the body or treating patients by means of
X - rays. He usually works under the direction of
a physician. His job may include various related
duties such as developing and drying the films, or
office work of an unrelated nature. X-ray techni­
cians employed in industry for the examination
of materials are not included in this discussion.

X-rays for medical purposes. The technician may
specialize in X-rays of certain parts of the body,
such as the chest, abdomen, or feet.
Outlook
The general trend in the medical services is
toward an increasing need for X-ray technicians.
The total number of X-ray technicians in 1947 was
estimated at 19,000 as compared to about 15,000 be­
fore the war. About 78 percent were women but
the number of male technicians was increasing.
Hospitals graduate from 500 to 700 X-ray tech­
nicians each year. Many others are trained in­
formally by the radiologists for whom they are
working. Since X-ray work is still incidental in
many medical services, there is often a preference
for persons who have related training or experience

Training and Other Qualifications
X-ray technicians are trained principally in ap­
proved training courses at various hospitals. In
general, high school graduation is required for
entrance to a 12-month course of training. Prefer­
ence is given to graduate nurses, those with some
training in nursing, and those with college work
in science. In order to become registered by the
American Registry o f X-ray Technicians, it is
necessary to have completed high school or the
equivalent, to have at least 2 years of experience
and training under a recognized radiologist, and
to pass an examination given by the board of trus­
tees. There were about 6,000 registered X-ray
technicians in 1947.
Good health is an important consideration in
this occupation, since those who work with X-rays
and radium are subject to the effects of radiation
which may make them anemic.
About half of all medical X-ray technicians are
employed in hospitals; some work in the offices of
radiologists and of dentists or in laboratories
which serve physicians, dentists, and others using

4 Prepared by the Women’s Bureau, U. S. Department of Labor.




X-ray technician taking X-ray film in a hospital
COU RTESY

OF

U.

S.

P U B L IC

H EALTH

S E R V IC E

M E D IC A L -S E R V IC E

in nursing, in medical laboratory work, or in secre­
tarial work.
Originally used for diagnosis in bone work and
in the location of foreign bodies, the X-ray is now
employed widely in such fields as examination for
detecting tuberculosis, and defects of the teeth
and in the treatment of cancers, tumors, sinusitis,
and certain skin conditions. Industrial establish­
ments, health departments, tuberculosis hospitals
and associations in many parts of the country are
organizing for the routine X-raying of large
groups. Many insurance companies are beginning
to include a chest X-ray as a part of the physical
examination.
Expansion in the use of X-ray
should create ample opportunities for those who
will be graduated from approved schools. But
those who received only partial training in the
armed services may have difficulty in qualifying
for positions in civilian medical services. It is
estimated that 35,000 medical X-ray technicians
will be needed by 1960 to fill anticipated needs.

O C C U P A T IO N S

57

Earnings
Annual earnings of X-ray technicians ranged
from $1,800 to $3,600 in 1947. Civil-Service sal­
aries for X-ray technicians begin at $2,498. Op­
portunities for advancement are relatively few but
there are some supervisory jobs in large hospitals,
institutions, laboratories, or public health agencies
where a number of technicians are employed.
Where To Go For More Information
Additional information on the outlook for
women as medical X-ray technicians is given in the
following publication:
U. S. Department of Labor, Women’s Bureau—
X -R ay Technicians. Bnlletin 203, No. 8. 14 pp.
Washington, 1945. Price 10 cents.
Information may also be obtained from :
The American Registry of X -R ay Technicians,
Alfred B. Greene, B. Sc. It. T.
2900 E. Minnehaha Parkway,
Minneapolis 6, Minn.

Occupational Therapists 5
(D.O.T. 0-32.04)

Outlook Summary
Good employment opportunities for persons al­
ready trained and for a steady flow of new entrants.
Nature o f Work
The occupational therapist conducts programs
for patients in hospitals and other institutions to
provide them with directed activity which will
help in their rehabilitation; he supervises workers
who teach such activities as arts and crafts. Occu­
pational therapy is a type of treatment prescribed
by a physician to hasten a patient’s recovery from
disease or injury or to help him adjust to hospitali­
zation. Among the activities taught are: weav­
ing, leatherwork, woodwork, photography, metal­
work, ceramics, plastics, printing, and gardening.
Most occupational therapists work with mental
or orthopedic patients; many are employed in
tuberculosis or children’s hospitals or wards; still
others specialize in work with the blind or with

5 Prepared by the Women's Bureau, U. S. Department of Labor.




patients who are chronically ill. Almost all the
work done in the past has been in hospitals and
institutions, but recently there has been a trend
toward the development of community workshops
to which those who need occupational therapy may
come from their homes or places of employment.
A t present the largest field is in the rehabilitation
o f veterans. Most of the tuberculosis and neuro­
psychiatric veterans’ hospitals, as well as some of
the general veterans’ hospitals caring for large
numbers of chronic patients, have occupational
therapy departments.
Training and Other Qualifications
Graduation from an accredited school of occu­
pational therapy is generally required to qualify
as an occupational therapist. There are 26 such
schools in the United States, 4 of which have not
been in existence long enough to obtain accredita­
tion. Requirements for entrance vary with the
course subsequently taken. A 5-year degree or
a 4-year diploma course is available to high-school

58

O C C U P A T IO N A L

OU TLO OK

graduates. A 3-year diploma course is offered
persons with 1 year of college, and advanced stand­
ing is given for additional college work. Prefer­
ence is given to students interested in degree
courses; enrollments in the diploma courses are
decreasing and these courses may ultimately be
dropped. To become a registered occupational
therapist, it is necessary to graduate from an ac­
credited school and to pass the national registra­
tion examination given by the American Occu­
pational Therapy Association.

HANDBOOK

dictable future; however, at a later date the par­
tially trained wartime assistant and junior aide
may find difficulty in competing with the more
completely trained person.
The greatest number of occupational therapists
were formerly along the eastern seaboard and in
the Midwest; however, future employment oppor­
tunities may tend to be more widespread, because
veterans’ hospitals, where so many will be em­
ployed, are located in many States.
Earnings

Outlook
There is an increasing need for capable persons
in this small, but growing field. The American
Occupational Therapy Association believes that
a minimum total of 5,000 will be needed in this
occupation by 1960. A t present there are short­
ages especially of those qualified for administra­
tive jobs. There will continue to be good oppor­
tunities for new entrants because of expansion of
veterans’ hospitals, civilian health programs, and
the increasing use of occupational therapy for
mental patients, crippled children, tuberculous
patients, and convalescents. There is likely to be
considerable turn-over because of the retirement
of the many young women in the occupation who
marry.
There were approximately 3,000 persons, mostly
women, in the occupation in 1947, of whom about
2,500 were registered. In spite of the special war­
training programs, the need is so great that no
oversupply in this field is anticipated in the pre­

Salaries for beginners range from $1,500 to
$2,000. In institutional work, $75 to $100 per
month, plus maintenance, is the usual salary.
Heads of departments or of schools may earn as
high as $3,500 to $5,000 a year, the average falling
between $2,500 and $3,500. Federal civil service
pays $2,974.80 per annum for qualified entrants
as occupational therapists.
Where To Go for More Information
Additional information on the outlook for
women as occupational therapists is given in the
following publication:
U. S. Department o f Labor, Women’s Bureau—
Occupational Therapists. Bulletin 203, No. 2.
15 pp. Washington, 1945. Price 10 cents.
Information may also be obtained from :
American Occupational Therapy Association,
33 W. 42d St.,
New York 18, N. Y.

Physical Therapists
(D.O.T. 0-52.22)

Outlook Summarg
Excellent opportunities for persons already
qualified. New entrants from approved schools
should readily be absorbed for several years to
come.
Nature of Work
The physical therapist administers treatment
only as prescribed by a physician. Physical
s Prepared by the W om en’ s Bureau, U. S. Department o f Labor.




therapy includes treatment by means of massage,
exercise, heat, light, water, and electricity, for
poliomyelitis, arthritis, cerebral palsy, and for
neuropsychiatric and other patients.
Most physical therapists work in hospitals, but
some are employed by orthopedic surgeons, by
physiatrists (physicians specializing in physical
medicine) or in public health or social service
agencies serving crippled children, injured indus­
trial workers, and others who need physical
therapy treatments. Those employed in hospitals

M E D IC A L -S E R V IC E

usually have access to a wider variety of equip­
ment and tend to be less specialized than those
working with a particular physician or agency.
Training and Other Qualifications
Graduation from an approved school of physical
therapy is requisite for registration with the Amer­
ican Registry of Physical Therapy Technicians;
admission requires graduation from a school of
nursing, a school of physical education, or 60 col­
lege semester hours, including courses in the phys­
ical and biological sciences.
The American
Physiotherapy Association reports that an in­
creasing percentage of the 25 training schools in
this field will soon require 3 years of college edu­
cation. The length of the approved physical
therapy course ranges upward from a minimum of
10 months. Good health is essential. More than
90 percent of physical therapists are women.
Outlook
There was an acute shortage o f trained physical
therapists during the war and the demand is still
greater than the supply. Although graduating
classes increased from about 150 in 1941 to 507
in 1946 and there were approximately 250 addi­
tional graduates of emergency war courses, the
needs still have not been met. The additional
numbers trained under the Army program and
those who will be graduated annually from ap­
proved schools will be absorbed for several years to
come. Applications for training are now exceed­
ing training capacity so that only the best qualified
are selected.
Veterans’ hospitals will continue to need most of
the physical therapists. A marked increase is
expected in the number of veterans who need treat­
ment but do not require hospitalization. They
will be given physical-therapy treatment as out­
patients. Expanding civilian rehabilitation and
crippled-children programs, in which States are
aided by Federal funds, also have encouraged the
use of physical therapy in the rehabilitation of
both adults and children. The clinical and lab­
oratory research of the National Foundation for
Infantile Paralysis has found that prompt physi­
cal-therapy treatment is of great value in polio­




O C C U P A T IO N S

59

myelitis. As techniques and equipment continue
their development, more physicians will recom­
mend physical therapy for patients.
There were 3,391 full-time physical therapists
in 1946 in all hospitals in the United States. In
1947, there were 4.400 registered physical thera­
pists, of whom about 3,900 were working. A p ­
proximately 1,100 additional workers were not
registered. Six-month’s emergency courses in
Army hospitals were given for selected college
graduates during the war, and enlisted men and
women in the Navy were trained to serve as assist­
ants under the supervision of a physical therapist
or a medical officer. The assistants were not qual­
ified for registration as physical therapists and
could not practice as such without additional train­
ing. The rate of withdrawal from the occupation
may be high if many of the recently trained young
women marry and retire fully or partially from
practice after only a few years of service. It is
estimated by the American Physiotherapy Asso­
ciation that altogether 15,000 physical therapists
will be needed by 1960.
Earnings
Before the war beginners received about $1,500
annually, but in 1947 graduates of approved
schools started at $2,200 to $2,400. Except for
small annual increases, advancement is mainly
through the addition of supervisory or instruc­
tional duties at salaries ranging upward to $4,000.
Civil-service entrance salary for physical ther­
apists is $2,974. Allowance for maintenance is
sometimes given by hospitals.
Where To Go for More Information
Additional information on the outlook for
women as physical therapists is given in the fol­
lowing publication:
U. S. Department of Labor, Women’s Bureau—
Physical Therapists. Bulletin 203, No. 1. 14 pp.
Washington, 1945.
Price 10 cents.
Information may also be obtained from:
The American Physiotherapy Association,
1790 Broadway.
New York 19, N. Y.

60

O C C U P A T IO N A L

OUTLOOK

HANDBOOK

Medical Record Librarians
(D.O.T. 0-23.25)

Outlook Summary
Good employment opportunities for graduates
of approved schools in this relatively small but
growing occupation. New entrants will encounter
considerable competition unless specially trained.
Nature of Work
The medical record librarian is in full charge of
the medical or clinical reports o f a hospital.
Duties consist of planning, organizing, and man­
aging the records department, as well as catalog­
ing, filing, and compiling medical and surgical
statistics, and assisting physicians in using them
for research. The medical record librarian should
not be confused with medical librarians who have
charge of a library in a hospital or medical institu­
tion and have nothing whatever to do with the
patients’ records.
Medical record librarians are employed in hos­
pitals or other medical institutions throughout the
country. Both men and women are employed in
this occupation, although women predominate.
Training and Other Qualifications
Only a small proportion of those engaged in
this occupation at present are graduates of the
12 approved schools. Two years of college or
graduation from a recognized school of nursing
is usually required for entrance to an approved
course, which lasts 12 months. Three schools
whose courses lead to a degree require only a high
school education. A ll students must be proficient
in typing and shorthand. Regular courses include
at least 208 hours on medical fundamentals and
terminology. Because of insufficient personnel a
short in-service training program, financed by the
National Foundation for Infantile Paralysis, has
been established by the American Association of
Medical Record Librarians. Institutes are also
being conducted jointly with the American Hos­
7 Prepared by the W omen’s Bureau, U. S. Department o f Labor.




pital Association. These two types of educational
programs are being sponsored to assist those now
working in medical record libraries who are un­
able to attend an approved school.
Less than a third of the medical record librar­
ians employed full time in registered hospitals
are registered by the Registry of the American
Association of Medical Record Librarians. Re­
quirements for registration include: Graduation
from an approved school or a high-school gradua­
tion plus 3 to 5 years’ experience in this work;
minimum age o f 21 years; active employment in
this occupation; the passing of an examination
covering pertinent subject matter.
Outlook
There is a steadily increasing need for medical
record librarians due to increases in the number
o f hospitals for veterans and civilians. More and
more persons are seeking hospital care during ill­
ness. As the science of medicine progresses, as
new treatments develop, the record-keeping func­
tion becomes more significant. Hospital records
supply much of the raw material on which medical
research and further progress depend. They also
furnish a basis for evaluating the effectiveness o f
the hospital and its staff and the extent o f their
progress.
There were 3,819 persons employed in full-time
work of this type in registered hospitals in 1946
and another group of more than 1,000 engaged in
part-time work. The combined capacity enroll­
ment of the 12 schools approved by the American
Medical Association is only 140 students. In 1946,
25 students were graduated from approved
courses, and an additional 18 completed special
courses for experienced but untrained librarians.
The several thousand nonschooled workers em­
ployed should have no difficulty in retaining their
posts, especially if they supplement their train­
ing by special short courses in approved schools.
However, untrained persons will find it increas­
ingly difficult to enter this field.

M E D IC A L -S E R V IC E

Earnings
Annual salaries for medical record librarians
throughout the United States in 1947, ranged from
$2,400 to $5,000, according to the American Asso­
ciation of Medical Record Librarians. Advance­
ment opportunities lie in supervisory work, espe­
cially in large hospitals.

O C C U P A T IO N S

61

women as medical record librarians is given in the
following publication:
U. S. Department of Labor, Women’s Bureau—
Medical Record Librarians. Bulletin 203, No. 6.
9 pp. Washington, 1945. Price 10 cents.
Information may also be obtained from :

Where To Go for More Information

American Association o f Medical Record Librarians,
18 E. Division St.,
Chicago, 111.

Additional information on the outlook for

Dental Hygienists 8
(D.O.T. 0-50.07)

Outlook Summary
Good opportunities for those trained in ap­
proved schools. There are increasing opportuni­
ties in public-health work, where qualifications and
requirements are comparatively high.
Nature of Work
The dental hygienist cleans teeth and performs
other preventive services consistent with the respec­
tive State dental laws or promotes dental health
through educational activities in schools, clinics,
and institutions.
Most dental hygienists are employed in dentists’
offices, but in 1941 there were only 4.2 hygienists
for every 100 dentists. A large number are em­
ployed in public-health programs conducted by
public-school systems or by State or local health
departments. Hospitals, clinics, and dental hy­
giene training schools represent the other major
employers in this field. This occupation should
be distinguished from that of the dental assistant
who performs X-ray and laboratory work and
clerical duties. A dental hygienist may also be
trained to perform these duties, but, for her, they
are a secondary function. All persons in this oc­
cupation are women.
Training and Other Qualifications
A minimum requirement for entrance to a school
for training dental hygienists is high-school grad­
uation in a college preparatory curriculum. Stu­

8 Prepared by the Women's Bureau, U. S. Department of Labor.




dents must be 18 years o f age and in good health.
The length of the course in an approved school is
2 years. Graduation from an approved school of
dental hygiene and the successful passing of an
examination given by a State board of dental ex­
aminers are requirements for licensure in 39 States,
the District of Columbia, and Hawaii.
Dental hygienist gives treatment to aid in prevention of tooth decay
C OU RTESY

OF

U.

S.

P U B L IC

H EALTH

S E R V IC E

62

O C C U P A T IO N A L

OUTLOOK

HANDBOOK

Outlook

Earnings

There is general agreement that the opportu­
nities for dental hygienists in public-health and
institutional work are gradually increasing. There
is a difference o f opinion about the future demand
for those who work in dentists’ offices. This d if­
ference arises out of the fact that both the dental
hygienist and the dental assistant who is essen­
tially a clerical worker are valuable to a dentist.
In 1941 dental assistants outnumbered dental hy­
gienists more than 10 to 1. There is a definite
trend toward the employment by dentists of at
least one person, since it increases the number of
patients a dentist can serve. There also has been
more and more emphasis placed upon group prac­
tice by several dentists which often results in their
joint employment of one dental hygienist.
In 1945, the number of licensed dental hygienists
in the United States totaled more than 7,000. In
1947 all schools were full and had to turn down
applicants. Preference was given to those with
previous college work. The number of dental
hygienists graduating annually from the 14 ap­
proved schools was 350 in 1947. By 1950, with
the opening of 3 additional schools, the output
will be 450. It has been estimated that more than
twice this number could be used annually.

There is a wide range in salaries due to differ­
ences in the income levels of the dentists and to
the sizes o f communities and, in part, to the wide
variation in background and personal qualifica­
tions of those practicing dental hygiene. In 1945
most dental hygienists, however, were earning be­
tween $2,000 and $2,500 a year. The beginning
yearly Federal civil-service salary for dental hy­
gienists in 1947 was $2,394. Only a small propor­
tion of the dental hygienists work for the Federal
Government, however. There are very few oppor­
tunities for supervisory work except in very large
institutions.




Where To Go for More Information
Additional information on the outlook for
women as dental hygienists is given in the follow­
ing publication:
U. S. Department of Labor, Women’s Bureau—
Dental Hygienists. Bulletin 203, No. 10. 17 pp.
Washington, 1945. Price 10 cents.
Information may also be obtained from :
American Dental Hygienists Association,
1704 N. Troy St., Apartment 824,
Arlington, Va.

Engineering and Other Technical Fields
The dramatic economic and social changes re­
viewed in the introduction to this handbook have
been caused mainly by technological develop­
ments—the invention of new machines and proc­
esses, o f more efficient ways of getting things done.
At the forefront of economic change, therefore, are
the engineer and the scientist.
By far the largest technical group is the engi­
neering profession, in which a quarter of a million
were employed before the war. Next largest is the
profession of chemistry. Draftsmen constitute the
largest semiprofessional occupation, with labora­
tory technicians close behind. Important, but rel­
atively small in size, are such occupations as phys­
icist and mathematician.
Few occupational fields have grown as rapidly
as the technical fields in the past few decades. In
1880 there were only about 7,000 engineers. The
profession expanded rapidly, branching out into
its major divisions—civil, mechanical, electrical,
mining and metallurgical, and chemical engineer­
ing. By 1940 the number of engineers employed
was 35 times higher than in 1880. A similar rapid
expansion took place in some of the other fields
in the physical sciences.
During the war the need increased greatly for
these technical men. for research and development
of new products and weapons, and for supervision
over production. After the war expenditures on
research and development increased, and construc­
tion activity boomed. The number of engineers
employed increased from about 245,000 in 1940 to
well over 300.000 in 1947. Physicists, mathemati­
cians, and other scientists whose main work had

been in the classroom and the university laboratory
suddenly found themselves very much in demand
in industry and government. At the same time,
the number of scientists being trained was reduced
by the withdrawal o f college students by selective
service. In the war years, 1942 to 1945, the num­
ber of Ph. D. degrees granted was nearly onequarter less than in the preceding 4-year period.
Since the war, however, enrollment in these
courses in the engineering schools and the colleges
has increased greatly, and it is likely that the
shortages of trained men will be alleviated in a few
years. This suggests that competition will become
keener, and that the young man or woman who
plans to enter one of the engineering, physical
science, or technical fields should get the best pos­
sible preparation.
Employment opportunities for women in the
scientific and technical fields are described in Bul­
letin 223 of the Women’s Bureau, United States
Department of Labor. The bulletin was pub­
lished in the latter half of 1948 in eight separate
pamphlets. The bulletin numbers and the fields
covered by each are as follows: No. 223-1, The
Outlook for Women in Science—Introduction;
No. 223-2, Chemistry; No. 223-3, Biological Sci­
ences; No. 223-4, Mathematics and Statistics; No.
223-5, Architecture and Engineering; No. 223-6,
Physics and Astronomy; No. 223-7, Geology,
Geography, and Meteorology; No. 223-8, Occu­
pations Related to Science. Information on this
series may be obtained from the Women’s Bureau,
United States Department of Labor, Washington
25, D. C.

Civil Engineers
(D.O.T. 0-16.01)

Outlook Summary

Nature o f Work

Good prospects for the next several years for
those already trained. Persons who start train­
ing now (early 1948) or in the near future may be
confronted with keen competition for jobs.

A civil engineer plans, designs, and supervises
the construction o f roads, bridges, buildings, dams,
tunnels, transportation facilities, and other proj­
ects for public, industrial, or commercial use.




63

64

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

M o st c iv il en g in eers w o rk in tech n ica l a d m in is tra ­
tiv e-m a n a g em en t, d esig n , o r co n stru ctio n su p e r­
v ision .

O th ers are e m p lo y e d as co n s u ltin g e n g i­

neers, co lle g e teach ers, in research o r d evelop m en t
w o rk , o r in sellin g .

T h e m a jo r sp ecia lized fields

o f c iv il e n g in e e rin g a r e : stru ctu ra l, h ig h w a y , h y ­
d ra u lic, ra ilr o a d , sa n ita ry and p u b lic h ea lth , and
a g ricu ltu ra l.

engineering—such as city engineering positions—
in which there is virtually no traveling at all.
Training and Qualifications
A bachelor’s degree in civil engineering is usu­
ally the minimum requirement for new entrants.
A better-than-average aptitude for mathematics,
physics, and mechanics is indispensable for stu­
dents. A great many students admitted to engi­
neering schools fail to complete the course and
many of those who complete their schooling take
more than 4 years to do so.
Registration is required in practically all States
for the legal right to practice “ professional engi­
neering” if public welfare or safeguarding of
health and property are concerned. Many civil
engineers, however, are engaged in work which
does not require registration. Requirements for
registration as a professional engineer as a gen­
eral rule are: graduation from an approved engi­
neering college, plus 4 years of experience and
passing a State board examination.
Outlook

Cou rtesy of Bureau

of

R e c l a m a t io n ,

U. S . D e p a r t m e n t

of

In t e r i o r

Frequently, the civil engineer is called upon to supervise construction
jobs on site— sometimes in remote locations

Where Employed
About half of all civil engineers are employed
in local, State, or Federal Government agencies.
The private construction industry is a large em­
ployer. Many are also employed in the railroad
industry and public utilities. Some are found in
the iron and steel industry, petroleum refinery,
and other industries.
Civil engineers are em­
ployed in all parts of the country; there are jobs
in every State and city. Frequently the engineer
is called upon to work at the construction site,
which is sometimes in a remote location. Some
civil engineers from the United States work in for­
eign countries. In general, the occupation may
require a good deal of moving from one place to
another, although there are many jobs in civil




Growth in this branch of engineering has not
been so rapid in general as in the other major
engineering fields in recent decades, partly because
the construction industry has not grown as rapidly
as some of the newer industrial fields. Like the
construction industry as a whole, this occupation
has wide swings in employment opportunities be­
tween periods of prosperity and depression.
In 1940, civil engineers were the largest group
of engineers, numbering over 89,000. Nearly 10
percent were unemployed, and manj fnen with civil
engineering degrees were unable to get any job
better than a subprofessional position as drafts­
man or surveyor.
The demand for civil engineers will be very
high during the next several years, owing to the
large backlog of civilian construction piled up
during the war and the previous decade, when
building activity was low. After this demand has
been satisfied somewhat, the level of construction
activity may drop. It will, however, remain sub­
stantially above prewar levels providing general
business conditions remain high.
Total enrollment in engineering schools is at
record levels, about three times as high as prewar
enrollments. Civil engineering enrollment is also

65

ENGINEERING AND OTHER TECHNICAL FIELDS

very high. In a few years, the number of stu­
dents graduating will exceed those needed for the
expected expansion in employment and for re­
placement needs owing to death and retirement
(which average about 2,000 a year). Thus, al­
though the demand for civil gngineers will be
unusually high for the next several years, keener
competition may again be experienced in the pro­
fession in the next decade, unless there is careful
counseling and selection of persons who start train­
ing now.
Persons now in training and those entering in
the future would be well advised to get the best
possible, all-around training to meet this competi­
tion for jobs.

$350; with 20 years’ experience, about $390. Sala­
ries have probably increased somewhat since 1946.
Salaries of $10,000 per year and over are not un­
common in this field, especially in positions involv­
ing management in addition to technical functions.
Individual earnings vary with length of experi­
ence, education, type of work, and personal com­
petence. Engineers with advanced degrees usually
earn more than those at the same age and experi­
ence levels with less academic training.
Where To Get More Information
American Society o f Civil Engineers,
33 W. 39th St.,
New York 18, N. Y.

I n fo r m a t io n on ea rn in g s is g iv e n in the f o ll o w ­
in g p u b lic a t io n :

Earnings
In 1946. beginners had a median monthly salary
o f around $240; those with 5 years’ experience
made about $60 more. After 10 years in the pro­
fession, the median monthly salary was around

The Engineering Profession in Transition. En­
gineers Joint Council, 33 West Thirty-ninth Street,
New York 18, N. Y. 1947, price $1. Data are from
a survey covering only members o f six professional
societies.

Electrical Engineers
(D.O.T. 0-17.01)

Outlook Summary
Expanding field; good prospects for those al­
ready well trained. However, those completing
training and those entering college will probably
meet intense competition for jobs.
Nature o f Work
The electrical engineer is concerned with the
generation, transmission, and utilization of elec­
tricity. Among the major branches of electrical
engineering are: Power generation, transmission,
and distribution; illuminating engineering; wire
communications; radio and electronics engineer­
ing; transportation engineering; and electrical
machinery and equipment. The most important
fields of functional specialization are: Research
and development, operation or application, design,
teaching, and selling.
Where Employed
About two-thirds of all electrical engineers are
employed in the following industries: Electrical




machinery manufacturing, electric utilities (gen­
eration, transmission, or distribution), communi­
cations (telegraph, telephone, radio), or elec­
tronics manufacturing.
While employment is heavily concentrated in the
industrial centers where electrical equipment is
manufactured, over 65 percent of the engineers
are in the States of New York, Pennsylvania, New
Jersey, Ohio, Illinois, Massachusetts, and Cali­
fornia. There are jobs with electric light and
power companies, telephone companies, and radio
stations in every State and in small cities through­
out the country. Some American electrical engi­
neers are also employed in foreign countries.
Training and Qualifications
G r a d u a tio n f r o m a re c o g n iz e d e n g in e e rin g c o l­
lege is the m in im u m ed u ca tio n a l requ irem en t f o r
e le ctrica l

e n g in e e rin g

w ork .

P e rso n s

con tem ­

p la tin g an e le ctr ic a l e n g in e e rin g career sh ou ld
rate w ell above a vera ge in m ath em atics a n d sci­
en ce cou rses in h ig h school.

A la rg e p a r t o f those

66

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

who enter engineering schools fail to graduate,
and successful engineers are mostly found among
those with high scholastic records. A broad but
intensive fundamental training is thought by
many to be preferable to specialization for college
students. Larger electrical manufacturing es­
tablishments have training courses of from 1 to 2
years for college graduates, thus supplementing
college instruction by training within industry.
Registration is required by practically all States
for the legal right to practice “ professional en­
gineering” if public welfare or safeguarding of
life, health, and property are concerned. Many
electrical engineers, however, are engaged in work
which does not require that they be registered.
Those without certificates of registration may
work under engineers who have such certificates
and who thereby assume the public responsibility
contemplated in the registration laws. Require­
ments for registration as professional engineer
are: Graduation from an approved engineering
college, plus 4 years o f experience and passing of
a State examination. Examining boards may
accept a longer period of experience as a substitute
for a college degree.
Advancement depends upon engineering ability,
competence, and persistent hard work. After
some years of accomplishment, an executive posi­
tion may be obtained.
Outlook
This field has grown rapidly in recent decades,
and in 1940, with about 56,000 members, it was
the third largest engineering field. Initial growth
was caused by the development of the electric
utility industry; more recently the development
of radio and electronics has been the main cause
of expansion.
The demand for electrical engineers will in­
crease in the future because of the expanding use
o f electricity in industry, transportation, commu­
nication, in homes, on farms, in therapeutic work,
and because of new developments in the field of
electronics, such as radar and television. Con­
templated public and private power developments
should provide openings for additional men. In­
dustry also needs engineers who are familiar with
the technology and possibilities of new materials
to be used in the manufacture and use of electrical




equipment. There will also be some opportunities
in teaching and in other fields.
However, total enrollment in engineering schools
is more than three times as high as average prewar
enrollment. The number of electrical engineering
students is exceedingly high, probably more than
enough to provide for replacement of deaths and
retirements—estimated at 1,000 annually— and the
expected expansion of the occupation. Due to the
contacts many men in the services had with radar,
radio, and other phases of electrical engineering,
large numbers were attracted to this field. It is
likely that many of the graduates within the next
few years will be unable to find jobs in the field,
particularly if enrollments continue at the present
high levels. Therefore, persons entering school
now would be well advised to get the best possible,
all-round training.
Earnings
In 1946, beginners had a median monthly salary
of about $235; those with 5 years’ experience made
about $80 more. After 10 years in the profession,
the median monthly salary was around $370, and,
at 20 years’ experience, about $460. Salaries have
probably increased generally since 1946. Salaries
of $10,000 to $15,000 a year and over are not un­
common in electrical engineering.
Individual earnings depend on length of expe­
rience, education, personal competence, and type
of work. Electrical engineers with doctors’ de­
grees earn a great deal more than those at the same
age and experience levels with only masters’ or
bachelors’ degrees.
Where To Get More Information
Institute of Radio Engineers,
1 E. 79th St.,
New York, N. Y.
American Institute o f Electrical Engineers,
29 W. 39th St.,
New York, N. Y.

Information on earnings is given in the follow­
ing publication:
The Engineering Profession in Transition. En­
gineers Joint Council, 33 West Thirty-ninth Street,
New York 18, N. Y. 1947, price $1. Data are from
a survey covering only members of six professional
societies.

ENGINEERING AND OTHER TECHNICAL FIELDS

67

Mechanical Engineers
(D.O.T. 0-19.)

Outlook Summary
Good prospects for those already well trained.
Increasing competition for new entrants within
the near future.
Nature of Work
Mechanical engineers design and supervise the
production of machinery and other equipment
which produces, transmits, or uses mechanical
energy. The major specialized fields are: Aero­
nautical, automotive, marine, railway, heating,
ventilating and air-conditioning engineering, and
power generation and production. Major func­
tions are design, development, construction, man­
ufacture, operation, or sales.
Where Employed
Many industries employ mechanical engineers.
More than half are in the metalworking indus­
tries—principally in the manufacture of iron and
steel and their products, machinery, and transpor­
tation equipment. Jobs are concentrated in the
areas in which this type of manufacturing is lo­
cated. Though they may be found in all States,
about 70 percent are employed in the following
eight States: New York. Ohio, California, Penn­
sylvania, Illinois, New Jersey, Michigan, and
Massachusetts.
Training and Qualifications
Graduation from a recognized engineering col­
lege is the minimum educational requirement. In­
troduction of a 5-year undergraduate course, or
the establishment of professional engineering edu­
cation on a graduate basis is being discussed by
some educational authorities. A better-thanaverage ability in mathematics and physics is es­
sential for graduation and advancement. Before
the war, a high proportion of those who entered
engineering school failed to graduate, and many
took longer than the regular 4 years to graduate.
Some industrial experience prior to graduation,
supplementing formal work in college, is recom­




mended. Most large concerns have training pro­
grams where graduates are put in turn through
various departments; drafting room, shop, engi­
neering department. Advancement depends on
persistent study after graduation to keep abreast
of new discoveries and methods. After several
years of experience in positions of responsibility
an executive position may be achieved.
Registration is required in practically all States
for the legal right to practice “ professional engi­
neering” if public welfare or safeguarding of life,
health, and property are concerned. Many me­
chanical engineers, however, are engaged in work
which does not require their registration.
Outlook
Prospects are good for persons already well
trained and experienced. The second largest engi­
neering group before the war (with about 86,000
members in 1940), mechanical engineers are now
the largest. Many persons entered the field during
the war without engineering degrees. In addition,
many o f those who were in the armed forces have
returned to civilian jobs. Mechanical engineers
are being used in increasing numbers by many
varied industries. In addition, research oppor­
tunities are expanding, and there is great need in
educational institutions.
Employment in mechanical engineering will
continue to expand over the long run, although at
a slower rate than during the last 10 years. As
mentioned above, a large proportion of mechani­
cal engineers are employed in the metalworking
industries. These industries will probably expand
for several years, although it will be some time
before they reach the peaks attained during the
war.
New entrants, however, will soon meet increas­
ing competition. Enrollments in engineering
schools are at record levels, mechanical engineer­
ing being the largest group. Within a few years,
the number of graduates will exceed those needed
each year for replacement needs (estimated at

68

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

about 2,000 annually) and for the expansion ex­
pected in employment. In some branches of me­
chanical engineering, such as aeronautical, new
graduates are already having difficulty in obtain­
ing positions in their field. Persons who are able
to get advanced schooling and a well-rounded
background will have an advantage in securing
positions.

Individual earnings vary with education, length
of experience, personal competence, and type of
work.
Where To Find Out More About Mechanical
Engineering
American Society o f Mechanical Engineers,
29 W. 39th St.,
New York, N. Y.
Engineers Council fo r Professional Development,
29 W. 39th St.,
New York, N. Y.

Earnings
In 1946 beginners had a median monthly salary
of about $225; those with 5 years’ experience made
approximately $340. The median monthly salary
of those with 10 years’ experience was about $405,
and it was $495 for those with 20 years’ experience.
Salaries have probably increased somewhat since
that time. Monthly salaries of $800 to $1,000 and
over are frequent in mechanical engineering.

Information on earnings may be found in the
following publication:
The Engineering Profession in Transition. En­
gineers Joint Council, 33 West Thirty-ninth Street,
New York 18, N. Y. 1947, price $1. Data are from
a survey covering only members of six professional
societies.

Chemical Engineers
(D.O.T. 0-15.01)

Outlook Summary

Training and Other Qualifications

Expanding field, offering good employment
prospects for those already trained or who will
complete their training in immediate future.
Competition will become increasingly keen as re­
sult of present record enrollments in engineering
schools.

Training in physics and mathematics, as well
as in chemistry and engineering, is important. A
bachelor’s degree is the minimum requirement for
new entrants. Some universities require 5 or 6
years of study for a B. S. degree in chemical en­
gineering, but most require only 4. Graduate
training is desirable. It is important to select a
properly accredited school of engineering, since
persons trained at such schools generally have the
best employment opportunities.
Extremely few chemical engineers (only a frac­
tion of 1 percent of all those employed) are women.

Nature o f Work
The chemical engineer is concerned mainly with
carrying out chemical processes on an industrial
scale. He may direct every step from the design
of the plant and equipment to its actual operation.
Largest numbers are engaged in technical admin­
istration, development, applied research, design,
and production work.
Where Employed
A great many industries employ chemical engi­
neers, with the majority in production work.
More than half are in the chemical industries and
petroleum refining. The following States fur­
nish employment for about 60 percent of all these
engineers: New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania,
Ohio, Texas, Illinois, and California.




Outlook
Prospects are very good for those already
trained. The number o f chemical engineers
(probably around 30,000 in 1948) has doubled
since 1940. Despite this fact, there is a shortage
in this field, owing to the growth of chemical in­
dustries over prewar size, the increasing use of
chemical engineers in other industries, and ex­
panding research and teaching needs.
Employment in the profession will probably
continue to expand. However, new entrants will

ENGINEERING AND OTHER TECHNICAL FIELDS

soon meet increasing competition since enrollments
are now at an all-time high. The numbers needed
to replace those retiring or dying will be small,
as tlie average age o f chemical engineers is low.
Best opportunities will be for those with advanced
training; the proportion of people with graduate
training is higher among chemical engineers than
in most other branches of engineering.
Earnings
In 1946, beginners had a median monthly salary
of about $240; those with 5 years’ experience made
about $100 more. After 10 years in the profession,
the median salary was around $400, and about $500
at 20 years’ experience. There is some evidence
that salaries have increased since 1946. Monthly
salaries of $800 to $1,000 and over are not uncom­
mon in this field.
Earnings depend not only on length of expe­
rience but on type of work done, amount of edu­
cation, and individual ability. In general, ad­
ministrative jobs pay the highest salaries; devel­
opment and testing jobs pay considerably less.
Engineers with doctors’ degrees earn considerably
more than those at the same age and experience
levels with only masters’ or bachelors’ degrees.

69

Where To Find Out More About Chemical Engi­
neering
Information on schools, scholarships, and other
subjects may be obtained from :
American Institute o f Chemical Engineers,
120 E. 41st St.,
New York 17, N. Y.

Information on the general fields of chemistry
and chemical engineering may be obtained from :
American Chemical Society,
1155 16th St. N W ,
W ashington 6, D. C.

Information on earnings is given in the follow­
ing publications:
Factors Affecting Earnings in Chemistry and
Chemical Engineering. Bulletin No. 881. U. S.
Bureau of Labor Statistics, 1946. Price 10 cents.
Superintendent of Documents, Washington 25,
D. C.
The Engineering Profession in Transition. En­
gineers Joint Council, 33 West Thirty-ninth Street,
New York 18, N. Y. 1947, price $1. Data are from
a survey covering only members of six professional
societies.
See also: Chemists, page 74.

Mining- Engineers
(D.O.T. 0-20.)

Outlook Summary
G o o d p rosp ects in n ext fe w yea rs f o r en gin eers
a lrea d y tra in ed an d in tr a in in g .
P erson s w h o
start tra in in g m ay be c o n fr o n te d w ith difficulties
in fin d in g p o sitio n s b y the tim e th ey enter the
p ro fe ssio n .

ment. and electric light and power facilities and
are responsible for mine safety. Other major
functions are: prospecting (search for deposits),
development (opening the mine and extending it),
and operations. Major specialties in the field
are: coal, natural gas, petroleum, metal and min­
eral mining, and mine-safety engineering.

Nature of Work
M in in g en gin eers are re sp on sib le f o r lo c a tin g
and m in in g coa l, p etroleu m , m eta llic ores, and n on m eta llic m a te r ia ls ; p la n n in g co n s tru ctio n o f sh a fts
and tu n n els, d e v is in g the m eans o f e x tr a c tin g the
m in erals, the m eth od s to be used in tr a n s p o r tin g
them to the su rfa ce, an d , in the case o f ores, the
m eth od s to be used in se p a ra tin g th em fr o m w o r th ­
less earth, ro ck , o r oth er m in erals.

T hey m ay

also be con cern ed w ith the d esig n , co n stru ctio n ,
and in sta lla tio n o f w a ter su p p ly , v e n tila tio n e q u ip ­

793996°—49

-6




Training and Qualifications
A bachelor’s degree for 4 years’ work in engi­
neering college (mining, petroleum, geological
engineering) is the minimum requirement for new
entrants. There is a trend toward requiring 5
years’ work for a bachelor’s degree. Before the
war, a high proportion of those who entered engi­
neering school failed to graduate, and many took
longer than the regular 4 years to graduate. In­
dustrial experience prior to graduation, supple-

70

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

meriting formal work in college, is recommended.
Graduate degrees (master or doctor of engineer­
ing in mining, geology, geophysics, or other fields)
may be obtained after a specified number of years
of experience subsequent to earning a B. S. de­
gree, plus submission of an approved thesis.
During the first years after graduation, prac­
tical experience in mining engineering is usually
acquired at some simple work such as mine survey­
ing, elementary design work on mine construction,
mine sampling, or as junior geologist.
Registration is required in practically all
States for the legal right to practice “ professional
engineering” if public welfare or safeguarding of
life, health, and property are concerned. Re­
quirements for registration as professional engi­
neer are: Graduation from an approved engineer­
ing college, plus 4 years of experience and passing
of a State examination. Those without certifi­
cates of registration may work under engineers
who have such certificates.
After years of progressive experience, persons
with administrative ability may achieve mana­
gerial positions. Research, teaching, and consult­
ing also provide advancement opportunities.

careful counseling and selection of persons who
start training now. Most opportunities are in
metal mining, crude petroleum and natural gas
production, while comparatively small numbers
are engaged in coal mining and in nonmetallic
mining and quarrying. Job opportunities for
mining engineers are found at the location of
mineral deposits—often in out-of-the-way places
in mountains or deserts.

Outlook

Where To Find Out More About Mining
Engineering

Demand for mining and metallurgical engi­
neers will exceed prewar levels because of search
for oil pools at greater depths, development of
new scientific methods in order to reduce costs,
and greatly increased research budgets. However,
opportunities for new entrants are comparatively
few, as mining and metallurgical engineers con­
stitute the smallest group among the major lines
o f engineering. In 1940, they numbered about
10,000; nearly 10 percent were unemployed. A l­
though the demand for mining and metallurgical
engineers will be higher for the next several years
than before the war, keener competition may again
be experienced in the profession, unless there is




Earnings
In 1946, beginners in mining and metallurgical
engineering combined had a median monthly
salary of about $240; those with 5 years’ experi­
ence made about $80 more. After 10 years in the
profession, the median monthly salary for both
fields was around $410, and with 20 years’ experi­
ence, about $520. Monthly salaries of $800 to
$1,000 and more are frequent in this field.
Individual earnings depend upon length of ex­
perience, education, ability, and type of work done.
Engineers with advanced degrees earn consider­
ably more than those at the same age and experi­
ence levels with lesser training.

American Institute
Engineers,
29 W est 39tli St.,
New York 18, N. Y.

of

Mining

and

Metallurgical

Engineers Council for Professional Development,
29 W est 39th St.,
New York 18, N. Y.

Information on earnings may be found in the
following publication:
The Engineering Pro fession in Transition. En­
gineers Joint Council, 33 West Thirty-ninth Street,
New York 18, N. Y. 1947, price $1. Data are from
a survey covering only members of six professional
societies.

ENGINEERING AND OTHER TECHNICAL FIELDS

71

Metallurgical Engineers
(D.O.T. 0-14.)

Outlook Summary

Outlook

Good prospects for engineers already well
trained. Those who start training now (early
1948) may be confronted with keen competition
by the time they enter the profession.

The demand for qualified metallurgical engi­
neers will exceed prewar levels because of indus­
trial expansion and new production lines which
tend to increase the demand for metals or alloys
to serve specific purposes. This requires metal­
lurgical work on problems concerning alloys and
development of metals adaptable to various uses.
While students with high scholastic records will
be sought after, opportunities for new entrants
are comparatively few, since the profession is
relatively small. In 1940, mining and metallurgi­
cal engineers together numbered about 10,000, and
nearly 10 percent were unemployed. Although the
demand for metallurgical engineers will be higher
for the next several years than before the war,
keener competition may again be experienced in
the profession, unless there is careful counseling
and selection of persons who start training. In
addition to the mining and basic metal industries,
there are also some opportunities in other indus­
tries making finished products from metals which
may require the special knowledge of metallurgists
in solving manufacturing or marketing problems.

Nature o f Work
A metallurgical engineer analyzes ores; designs
processes to eliminate worthless minerals before
the ore goes to the smelter; directs industrial proc­
essing of ores and the treatment and alloying of
metals; performs research in order to improve
production methods or develop new products; as­
sumes responsibility for the design, construction,
installation, and operation of pilot plants, and for
coordination of research. The majority are em­
ployed in the following industries: Iron and steel
and their products, machinery, transportation
equipment, and mining.
Training and Qualifications
A bachelor’s degree for 4 years of work in an
engineering college (metallurgical engineering,
chemistry, or related branch of engineering), or a
bachelor’s degree with a major in metallurgy, engi­
neering sciences, or chemistry is the minimum re­
quirement for new entrants.
During the first years after graduation experi­
ence in metallurgical engineering is usually ac­
quired in assaying and analyzing samples of ore,
or in assisting in the operation of furnaces or
equipment.
After years of progressive experience, persons
with administrative ability and general metal­
lurgical knowledge may achieve managerial posi­
tions, while those with advanced knowledge of
pure and applied science may achieve responsible
research positions.




Earnings
In 1946, beginners in both metallurgical and
mining engineering had a median monthly salary
of about $240; those with 5 years’ experience made
about $80 more. After 10 years in the profession,
the median monthly salary for both fields of engi­
neering w as around $410, and at 20 years’ experi­
T
ence, about $520. Monthly salaries of $800 to
$1,000 and more are frequent in this field.
Individual earnings depend upon length of ex­
perience, education, ability, and type o f work done.
Engineers with advanced degrees earn consider­
ably more than those at the same age and experi­
ence levels with lesser training.

72

OCCUPATIOXAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

1Vh ere To Find Out More About Metallurgical
Engineering
American Institute
Engineering,
29 W. 39th St.,
New York, N. Y.

of

Mining

and

Metallurgical

Engineers Council for Professional Development,
29 W. 39th St.,
New York, N. Y.

Information on earnings is given in the follow­
ing publication:
The Engineering Profession in Transition. En­
gineers Joint Council, 33 West Thirty-ninth Street,
New York 18, N. Y. 1947, price $1. Data are from
a survey covering only members of six professional
societies.

Industrial Engineers
(D.O.T. 0-18.01 and .03)

Outlook Summary
Expanding field. Good prospects for engineers
already trained, but persons who start training
now (early 1948) are likely to face keen competi­
tion by the time they enter the profession.
Nature o f Work
Industrial engineers are concerned with plan­
ning, organization, methods, and control of pro­
duction. They often specialize in one or more
branches of the profession, such as factory lay-out;;
time, motion, and incentive studies; or safety engi­
neering. Other major branches are: Production
and material control, production cost control,
training of production personnel, and develop­
ment of wage-payment plans. The terms “ indus­
trial engineering” and “ management engineering”
are sometimes used interchangeably, but the ten­
dency is to apply the former to positions concerned
with production problems only, the latter to posi­
tions of broader responsibility or to independent
consultants dealing with problems of company or­
ganization and policy, marketing, finance, and per­
sonnel, as well as production.
Training and Qualifications
There is a trend toward requiring a bachelor's
degree in industrial engineering for new entrants,
though some men with mechanical engineering or
other related training may be able to enter the
profession. An industrial-engineering curriculum
comprises not only engineering courses but also
economics, statistics, marketing, production, man­
agement, accounting, and personnel administra­




tion. Courses in English composition and psy­
chology are also important. Industrial experience
prior to graduation is recommended. Larger com­
panies put graduate engineers through training
programs covering all aspects of the plant’s
operations.
Registration is required in practically all States
for the right to practice professional engineering
if public welfare or safeguarding of life, health,
and property are concerned. Many industrial
engineers, however, are engaged in work which
does not require registration.
Outlook
The demand for industrial engineers will ex­
ceed prewar levels in the immediate future be­
cause of greater industrial activity and the need to
speed up production and lower costs. There will
also be expanding opportunity in the long run,
owing to the increasing importance of scientific
management and safety engineering. In 1940,
industrial engineers numbered only about 10,000,
of whom over 5 percent were unemployed. Dur­
ing the war, many persons with incomplete col­
lege education or with degrees in related fields
were given some training in industrial engineer­
ing, to meet the shortage of qualified men. In
addition, many students are enrolled in industrial
engineering. After several years, when these
students are graduated, keen competition may
therefore be experienced in the profession, de­
spite the increased demand. There is need for
careful counseling and selection of persons who
start training. Good scholastic records and rec­

ENGINEERING AND OTHER TECHNICAL FIELDS

ommendation by one’s college teachers will become
increasingly important in securing a position, par­
ticularly with one of the larger companies.
Earnings
In 1946, beginners earned between $220 and $240
per month. After 5 years’ experience they re­
ceived around $350 and after 10 years’ experience
around $410. Salaries have probably increased
since 1946 to some extent. Monthly salaries of
$800 to $1,000 are not uncommon, particularly in
consulting and executive positions.

73

Wh ere To Find Out More About Industrial
Engineering
Society for the Advancement o f Management, Inc..
84 W illiam St.,
New York, N. Y.
American Society o f Safety Engineers,
Engineering Section,
National Safety Council,
20 North W acker Drive,
Chicago 6, 111.
Association o f Consulting Management Engineers, Inc.,
347 Madison Ave.,
New York 17, N. Y.
American Society of Mechanical Engineers,
20 W. 30th St.,
New York, N. Y.

Ceramic Engineers
(D.O.T. 0-15.11)

Outlook Summary
Small but expanding field. Good prospects for
persons already trained but those who start train­
ing may face keen competition by the time they
enter the profession.
Nature of Work

vate firms, organizations or institutions, while
only about one-tenth worked for some public au­
thority—primarily the Federal Government.
Nearly two-thirds of all ceramic engineers are em­
ployed in five States—Ohio, Pennsylvania, New
York, New Jersey, and Illinois. Almost onequarter are found in the State of Ohio.
Training and Qualifications

Ceramic engineers are concerned with the min­
ing and processing of clay, silicates, and other nonmetallic minerals and the manufacture of products
from these raw materials; also with the design and
construction of plant equipment and structures.
They may work in research or sales. Specializa­
tion is usually by type of product—for example,
structural materials (such as brick, tile, and terra
cotta), pottery, glass, enameled metals, abrasives,
refractories (fire and heat-resistant materials,
such as fire brick), limes and plasters, cements,
and many others.

Trend is toward requiring a bachelor’s degree
in ceramics or ceramic engineering or some related
branch such as chemical, mechanical, or mining
engineering, preferably from an accredited school
of engineering. Some persons without formal
engineering training may enter the profession by
acquiring many years of progressive industrial ex­
perience. Courses in ceramics or ceramic engineer­
ing are offered by relatively few schools; they
are usually of 4 years’ duration. Graduate train­
ing is desirable for some types of work.

Where Employed

Outlook

More than half of all ceramic engineers are em­
ployed in the stone, clay, and glass industries.
Others are found in iron and steel and their prod­
ucts, electrical machinery, chemicals and their
products, and in other industries. Also, some are
employed by educational institutions and by other
organizations.
More than three-quarters are employees of pri­

Employment will probably grow rapidly for
several years and more slowly thereafter. At the
present time (early 1948), it is estimated that
around 3,000 ceramic engineers are employed.
Many technological improvements are expected in
the ceramics industries in the next few years; ad­
ditional engineers will be needed to bring about
those improvements. Other factors which will




74

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

tend to increase the number employed are the new
uses to which nonmetallic minerals are being put
and the trend toward expansion in industries using
these materials. Greater use of glass, enameled
metals, abrasives, and other ceramic products will
require research and design for adaptation of
products to various uses and thus will contribute to
the increasing demand for engineers. In addi­
tion. the expected growth in construction, which—
particularly in residential projects—is depending
more and more on the use of cement and structural
clay products, will provide for greater oppor­
tunity. Since the field is so small, however, open­
ings will be few in any one year.
At present, the profession is not overcrowded
but it may become so within the next few years.
During the war, the shortage of engineers was
acute, and many people entered the profession with
incomplete college training or with degrees in re­
lated fields. Since VJ-clay, the shortage has de­
creased somewhat and more students are enrolled
in ceramic engineering than before the war. This
is also true in fields of engineering which are
closely related. Enrollments are expected to be
high also in the academic year 1948-49. There­
fore, keen competition may be experienced in the
profession, despite the increased demand for
ceramic engineers, unless there is careful selection
and counseling of persons who start training now.
Recommendation by one's college teachers and
good scholastic records will become more and more
important in getting jobs, as the supply of ceramic
engineers overtakes the demand.

Earnings
A survey of members of the Institute of Ceramic
Engineers for the year 1947 reports the following
earnings data: Ceramic engineers with between 5
and 9 years’ experience had a median monthly sal­
ary of $390; those with 10 to 14 years’ experience
made about $440; and those with between 15 and
19 years’ experience received nearly $510. Those
with 25 or more years in the profession had a
median monthly salary of $700. Many engineers
in this field received considerably more—some
making $1,000 per month or more.
Individual earnings varied particularly with
experience (increasing by an average of $15 per
month each year) and to a lesser extent with
amount of education. Earnings were not signifi­
cantly affected by field of specialization, industry
in which engineers were employed, or geographical
location. In general, administrative positions pay
the highest salaries; production, research, and
plant control pay less.
Surveys of other professions indicate that the
earnings of members of profesisonal societies tend
to be higher than those for the profession as a
whole. Therefore, the above earnings data do not
represent the status of all ceramic engineers, al­
though they do reflect the general pattern in the
profession.
Where To Get More Information on Ceramic
Engineering
American Ceramic Society,
2525 N. High St.,
Columbus, Ohio.

Chemists
(D.O.T. 0-07.)

Outlook Summary
Good employment opportunities at present. In
long run, opportunities will continue to be good
for chemists with graduate training; those with
only bachelor’s degree may have difficulty obtain­
ing professional jobs.
Nature of Work

ica l a n d p h y sica l ch a n ges in m a teria ls a n d p r o d ­
ucts.

T h o s e w h o g o in to g ra d u a te w o r k u su a lly

sp e cia lize in one o f five m a in b ra n ch es o f ch e m is­
tr y and even in som e field w ith in a b ra n ch .

O r­

g a n ic ch e m istry is th e b ra n ch e m p lo y in g m ost
p e o p le in the p r o fe s s io n ; it is co n ce rn e d w ith th e
b ro a d field o f th e ca rb o n co m p o u n d s.

I n o r g a n ic

ch e m istry deals w ith co m p o u n d s n o t c o n ta in in g
ca rb o n , such as m ost o f the m in e ra ls a n d m etals.

Chemists are trained primarily for laboratory
research and development work relating to chem­




P h y s ic a l ch e m istry , w h ich d eals in re la tio n sh ip s
b etw een ch em ica l a n d p h y sica l p ro p e rtie s in ch e m ­

ENGINEERING AND OTHER TECHNICAL FIELDS

ical compounds and mixtures, requires specific
training also in physics and mathematics. Bio­
chemistry is chiefly concerned with the effects of
foods, drugs, and chemicals on plant and animal
tissue. Analytical chemistry is the study of the
methods, and the practice, of analyzing chemical
compounds.
There are (in 1948) about 80,000 chemists in the
country; 4 percent are women. The types of work
in which the greatest numbers are engaged are
analysis and testing, industrial research, teaching,
and technical administration. Other major fields
are production, development, research in basic
science, and technical service.

75

ployed, there are good opportunities for those with
advanced degrees or specialized experience.
There are also employment opportunities at
present for new entrants holding only the bache­
lor’s degree. Entrance jobs are mainly in analy­
sis, testing, and certain production jobs in manu­
facturing, and as laboratory assistants in research.

Where Employed
By far the largest number of chemists is em­
ployed in industry. Government, including Fed­
eral, State, and local, employs large numbers as
do educational institutions, research institutes,
public utilities, and consulting laboratory firms.
Training
A bachelor’s degree is usually the minimum re­
quirement for new entrants. Advanced degrees
are held by more than 40 percent of all employed
chemists and are almost essential for research. In
the period 1940-45, more than two-tliirds of all
the Ph. D. degrees granted in the physical sciences
were awarded in chemistry. Over half the chem­
ists teaching in colleges and doing basic research
have the doctor’s degree. Thorough training in
a college or university o f recognized standing is
important in securing desirable employment.
Outlook
Opportunities for properly trained chemists are
very good. There. is a shortage of scientists
for basic and background research, develop­
mental and applied research, and teaching. This
shortage is chiefly the result of an increased de­
mand brought about by the shifting of the main
center of basic research to this country from Eu­
rope, the backlog of projects postponed during the
war, and the greatly increased enrollments in col­
leges and universities. In industrial laboratories,
where chemists represent 38 percent of the total
number of scientists and research engineers em­




The chemist usually qualifies for basic research only after specialized
experience or graduate training

There are good chances of advancement for those
who take additional training or show unusual ap­
titude, but those without initiative often remain in
routine jobs at low pay. There are some oppor­
tunities as graduate assistants in universities,
where one may give part-time instruction to under­
graduates at a monthly stipend of about $100,
while taking graduate work. Also numerous fel­
lowships are available for those who wish to en­
gage in graduate study.
Owing to the large number of young people tak­
ing training in chemistry, it will become increas­
ingly difficult for those with only the bachelor’s
degree to secure jobs at the professional level.
Present enrollments indicate that the annual num­
ber of graduates with the bachelor’s degree in
chemistry may be nearly double the prewar num­

76

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

ber during at least the next few years. While
many of these graduates will go into other fields,
such as the study of medicine, it still appears likely
that competition for beginning positions as chem­
ists will be very great.
In the long run, there will be expanding oppor­
tunities in the profession, particularly for chemists
with advanced degrees or successful experience—
assuming that general business activity continues
at a high level. Industries have plans for further
expansion of research facilities. National expend­
itures for research and development increased
tremendously during the war and are still three
times as high as prewar. There is evidence that
there will be considerable further increase in Gov­
ernment-sponsored research. Total employment
in the chemical manufacturing industries is also
expected to remain well above prewar levels.
Teachers will continue to be in demand, particu­
larly those qualified to direct graduate work. In
addition, there will be some openings each year
owing to deaths and retirements, though the num­
ber of such vacancies is not large in this profession
(about 1,000 a year).
The greatest number of employment opportuni­
ties will continue to be found in the Middle A t­
lantic and East North Central States where the
chemical manufacturing industries are concen­
trated. New York employs the greatest number
of chemists, with Pennsylvania and New Jersey
next.
Earnings
Chemists’ income depends on the type of work
in which they are engaged, the amount and quality
of their educational background, and the amount
of professional experience they have had, as well
as their individual abilities. In general, adminis­
trative jobs pay the highest salaries; technical




service and industrial research pay more than
analysis and testing or secondary school teaching.
In 1943, according to a survey, holders of doctors’
degrees typically earned 20 to 35 percent more than
chemists with the same number of years in the pro­
fession who had only masters’ or bachelors’ de­
grees. Most beginners had monthly salaries of
about $170 to $200 and earned about $30 to $50
extra for overtime work. Earnings of men with
10 to 12 years of experience averaged from $230 to
$310 a month, depending on their educational
background; earnings of those with 21 to 25 years
in the field also varied widely with amount of
education, averaging from $300 to $400 a month.
Starting salaries in early 1948 were approximately
as follows: With the bachelor’s degree, $200 to
$250; master’s degree, $250 to $300; doctor’d
degree, $350 to $500.
Where To Go for More Information
I n fo r m a t io n on sch ools, sch ola rsh ip s, a n d o th e r
su b jects m a y be o b ta in e d f r o m :
American Chemical Society,
1155 16th St. NW.,
W ashington 6, D. C.

I n fo r m a t io n on ea rn in g s is g iv e n in the f o ll o w ­
in g p u b lic a t io n :

U. S. Department o f Labor, Bureau of Labor
Statistics. Factors Affecting Earnings in Chem­
istry and Chemical Engineering. Bulletin No.
881, 1946.
U. S. Government Printing Office,
Washington 25, D. C. Price 10 cents.
E m p lo y m e n t o p p o r tu n itie s f o r w om en are d is­
cussed in the fo llo w in g p u b lic a t io n :

U. S. Department of Labor, Women’s Bureau,
The Outlook for Women in Chemistry. Bulletin
223, No. 2, 1948. U. S. Government Printing
Office, Washington 25, D. C. Price 20 cents.
See also: C h em ica l E n g in e e rs, p a g e 68.

ENGINEERING AND OTHER TECHNICAL FIELDS

77

Architects
(D.O.T. 0-03.10)

Outlook Summary

Training and Qualifications

Good prospects for fully trained and experienced
persons in near future. Also some openings for
new entrants, though competition for beginning
jobs is likely to increase.

A bachelor’s degree from one of the recognized
architectural schools is generally a minimum re­
quirement for entrance into the profession. Most
of these schools have 5-year courses. After ob­
taining a degree, the beginner usually starts as a
draftsman in an architectural office and works up
as his ability becomes recognized. A few people
without formal training may enter the profes­
sion by acquiring many years of experience in
architectural offices.
Licensure is required in practically all States
for practice as an architect, where safety of life,
health, and property is involved. Requirements
for admission to the licensing examination vary
from one State to another but generally include
graduation from a recognized professional school
followed by 3 or 4 years of practical experience
(most States accept a very long period of experi­
ence as a substitute for graduation from an archi­
tectural school).

Nature of Work
Most architects plan and design all types of
buildings. However, some specialize in one or
more of the major fields of architecture: Domestic
(private residences, apartments, group housing,
farm buildings), industrial (factories, power­
houses), commercial (banks, hotels, office build­
ings, clubhouses), institutional and public, trans­
portation buildings, and miscellaneous structures.
Before designing a building, the architect first
consults with his client on the purpose to be served,
general style, size, location, cost range, materials
criteria, and other characteristics desired. In
planning the building he takes into consideration
economy of lay-out and construction as well as
appearance and efficiency. After preliminary
drawings have been made and approved by the
client, he prepares detailed working plans, speci­
fications, and obtains estimates of cost. In addi­
tion, he usually arranges the construction contract,
supervises the progress of the work, and certifies
to the completion of the building.
Where Employed
Most architects are in business for themselves
or are employed by architectural firms. A few
work for government agencies, construction con­
tractors, and engineering firms, and teach in col­
leges and universities.
Members of the profession are found in all
regions of the country, mainly in large cities. In
1940. over one-lialf were employed in the follow­
ing seven States: New York, California, Illinois,
Pennylvania, Ohio, New Jersey, and Massachu­
setts.




Outlook
The demand for architects’ services is much
greater than before the war and will probably re­
main so in the near future—owing to the great
amount of residential building and other construc­
tion which is being planned. In contrast, the sup­
ply of new graduates entering the field was far
below the prewar level during and immediately
after the war. Some of the large reserve of archi­
tects who left the profession before the war have
re-entered since VJ-day, but not enough to fill the
need. The outlook is therefore promising for
trained personnel for some years to come. How­
ever, enrollments in architectural schools are now
high. I f they continue at present levels, future
graduates will be confronted with increasing com­
petition for jobs. New entrants should get the
best possible training and experience to aid them
in meeting the expected competition.

78

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

The long-run employment trend in the profes­
sion appears to be slowly upward. However, the
demand for architects’ services is dependent
largely on the volume of building activity, and the
construction industry has in the past been subject
to marked ups and downs. In the thirties, when
construction was at a low ebb, there was more un­

employment among architects than in many other
professional groups.
Where To Go for More Information
American Institute of Architects,
1741 New York Ave. NW.,
Washington, D. C.

Industrial Designers
(D.O..T. 0-46.88)

Outlook Summary
Good employment opportunities for experienced
and well-qualified persons; some openings for welltrained beginners. Field likely to expand in longrun, but competition for jobs may become keener.
Nature o f Work
Workers in this occupation design the form or
structure of a great variety of products, so that
they will appeal to consumers and meet their
needs. Products designed include automobiles,
furniture, machinery, electrical appliances, ash­
trays, fountain pens, and many others. The design
is usually submitted in the form of a drawing or
model, which is made according to a specific order
or request.
Most designers either are in business for them­
selves, doing work for several manufacturers, or
are employed by independent designing firms. In
either case, one man may design widely different
products, ranging even from toothbrushes to loco­
motives. Industrial designers may also be em­
ployed by big manufacturing plants, and as mer­
chandising consultants or buyers for large retail
or wholesale houses. Experienced persons can
transfer fairly easily from one field or product to
another.
Personal Qualifications and Training
The industrial designer must have artistic abil­
ity, a knowledge of merchandising, and the tech­
nical skill to create products suited to modern pro­
duction methods. A proper educational back­
ground, including training in applied art, the
main branches of factory technology, mathematics
and other technical subjects, business economics,
and consumer psychology, is extremely important.




A few universities and technical schools have com­
bined these courses into programs of study which
may be completed in 3 or 4 years and lead to a
degree or certificate in industrial designing.
A less frequent method of entry is through onthe-job training with established designers. In
addition, men enter the field by transfer from
drafting, commercial art, commercial designing,
engineering, or other allied fields. However, in
view of the variety of skills and knowledge essen­
tial for success, an integrated course of study at a
college level is recommended. Before the begin­
ner can get recognition as a full-fledged designer,
he must have created design ideas that have proved
successful.
Outlook
Employment opportunities are likely to be good
for qualified and experienced persons for at least
the next few years. There will also be more open­
ings than usual for beginners with good education
and ability. One reason for this is that the num­
ber of well-trained persons entering the field de­
creased during the war; though the need for de­
signers in war industries was great and many new­
comers were therefore taken into the occupation,
most of these had inadequate training and experi­
ence. In addition, the immediate future should
bring an increased demand for the services of the
industrial designer. Manufacturers are beginning
to face a highly competitive market, and design
will play an important part in this competitive
selling.
T h e field is also lik e ly to e x p a n d o v e r th e lo n g
run. It has d e v e lo p e d as a sepa ra te o cc u p a tio n
o n ly w ith in the p ast 20 yea rs, an d , d esp ite r a p id
g r o w th , is s till ra th er sm all.

A m o n g the fa c to r s

ENGINEERING AND OTHER TECHNICAL FIELDS

w h ich p o in t to con tin u e d g r o w th in o p p o r tu n itie s
f o r in d u stria l d esig n ers is the p rosp ect that w a r ­
tim e te ch n o lo g ica l d ev elop m en ts w ill be a d a p ted
m ore and m ore to p eacetim e uses and th a t n ew
in d u stries w ill s p r in g up. E m p lo y m e n t o p p o r ­
tunities, h ow ev er, v a ry co n s id e r a b ly w ith ch an ges
in business a ctiv ity .

A t the sam e tim e, co m p e ti­

tio n f o r jo b s m ay becom e keener i f , as exp ected ,
m ore an d m ore p e o p le take co lle g e tr a in in g in
in d u stria l d esig n in g .
E m p lo y m e n t

o p p o r tu n itie s

w ill

u su a lly

be

fo u n d in larg e m e tro p o lita n areas, w h ere m ost d e ­
s ig n in g firm s and in d u s tria l p la n ts are loca ted .

79

In 1940, the majority of industrial designers was
employed in the Northeastern States.
Earnings
Beginners, after training and some experience,
generally received around $50 per week in early
1947. A wide range of earnings exists among
established designers; some working on a free­
lance basis make upward of $25,000 yearly.
Where To Get More Information
Society o f Industrial Designers,
48 E. 49th St.,
New York, N. Y.

Tool Designers
(See D.O.T. 0-48.41)

Outlook Summary
Favorable employment prospects both in the
next several years and over a longer period for this
relatively small occupation.
Nature of Work
The tool designer originates and prepares
sketches of the designs for special fixtures, cutting
tools, and other attachments used on machine
tools. These sketches are made into detailed
drawings by draftsmen under the direction of the
tool designer. The tool designer must have a
practical and detailed knowledge of machine-shop
practice, drafting, and the characteristics of the
materials of which tools and fixtures are made.
His duties include the developing of new tools as
well as the redesigning and improving of tools
currently in use. Particularly in the smaller
shops, often the tool and die makers and machin­
ists design and make new accessories for machine
tools as part of their regular duties. Larger es­
tablishments, whose operations require frequent
and complicated design of machine-tool acces­
sories, employ tool designers who specialize in
preparing the specifications which are followed
in the machine shop.
Training and Qualifications
There are several different ways in which to
qualify as a tool designer. The most frequent




practice has been for tool and die makers and
machinists to supplement their experience by spe­
cial training in tool design, drafting, and mathe­
matics, and then advance into tool design work.
To move from machine-shop and tool-room work
to tool design requires the ability to conceive the
idea for a new tool that will fill a definite need in
the machining operations and the knowledge of
how to prepare a working design for its construc­
tion. Another method of qualifying is to serve
a 4-year apprenticeship in tool designing of which
machine-shop training should comprise at least
2 years. Another way is the completion of a
4-year college course in mechanical engineering
plus additional practical experience in machineshop work. Fewer persons have qualified by this
method than by the other two. However, engi­
neering graduates, with specialization in subjects
related to tool designing, are likely to have greater
opportunities to advance to broader and more re­
sponsible jobs in the field of tool engineering,
which includes the selection, planning, and pro­
duction of tools, as well as designing.
S om e to o l d esign ers h a v e started as d ra ftsm en
and a cq u ired sufficient k n o w le d g e o f m a ch in e-sh op
p ra ctice to a d va n ce to to o l-d e s ig n w ork .

Where Employed
M o st jo b s f o r to o l d esign ers are in the e n g in e e r­
in g a n d d e sig n in g d epa rtm en ts o f la rg e m a n u fa c­
tu r in g p la n ts, e sp e cia lly those in the a u tom obile,

80

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

machine tool, machinery, electrical equipment, and
aircraft industries. Many of the companies in
these industries have entire sections of their engi­
neering departments devoted to tool design. An­
other frequent source of employment for tool de­
signers is in the tool and product engineering com­
panies which specialize in tool designing for other
firms on a contract basis. These companies serv­
ice mainly the automobile industry. A third and
less important field of employment is in the inde­
pendent tool and die shops. Many of these are
relatively small and in them much of the designing
may be performed by the tool and die makers or
machinists. Where there is sufficient work to re­
quire specialized tool designers, only a small num­
ber of tool designers are usually employed in each
shop. Tool designers are also employed in gov­
ernment-operated military and naval manufac­
turing establishments.

which service them. During the next few years,
the automobile, machinery, and other metal work­
ing industries are expected to increase their ma­
chining operations in order to satisfy the strong
demand for their products. The high level of
machine-shop activity and the general trend to­
ward more extensive tooling in machining opera­
tions will provide new opportunities for tool de­
signers over a long period. In addition to the
long-range trend toward greater use of special
tools, jigs, and fixtures in machining operations,
more and more plants that did not previously hire
specialized tool designers have recognized their
value and are beginning to employ them. The in­
troduction of new products, as well as modification
of older ones, frequently requires extensive retool­
ing. This operation will also contribute to the
demand for tool designers in the coming years.

Outlook

No general recent data on the earnings of tool
designers are available but earnings of fully quali­
fied tool designers usually start around the rates
for class A tool and die makers and range upward
depending on the degree of skill and responsibility.

The employment outlook for tool designers is
related mainly to trends in those metalworking
industries which use mass production methods and
in the tool and die shops and engineering firms

Earnings

Draftsmen
(D.O.T. 0-48.)

Outlook Summary
Good prospects for well-trained and experienced
persons; limited opportunities for beginners.
Keen competition after several years, owing to
large number in training.
Nature of Work
Draftsmen make working plans and detailed
drawings for engineering, construction, or manu­
facturing purposes. They generally work from
sketches, specifications, or field notes furnished by
an engineer, architect, or designer. Many types
of drafting instruments are used, including com­
passes, T-squares, triangles, scales, and special
drafting pencils and lettering pens.
A new draftsman usually starts as a tracer or
copyist. From there, he may advance to detailer,
junior draftsman, senior draftsman, and possibly
head or chief draftsman. Workers in the higher




grade positions are required to make calculations
concerning the strength, quality, or cost of mate­
rials ; to use engineering handbooks and tables for
computations; and to have still other skills.
From top drafting jobs, it is possible to advance
to design and engineering positions, especially for
men who obtain additional training in mathe­
matics and science.
Many graduates of engi­
neering and architectural schools start their ca­
reers in the drafting room and can advance rapidly
because of superior training. However, some of
these graduates never achieve professional status.
Most draftsmen specialize in some particular
field of work. The largest fields are architectural,
structural, mechanical, aeronautical, electrical,
marine, and topographical drafting.
Where Employed
In the main, draftsmen are employed in the con­
struction, machinery, iron and steel, automobile,

ENGINEERING AND OTHER TECHNICAL FIELDS

aircraft, and shipbuilding industries; by private
engineering and architectural consulting firms;
and in Federal, State, and local government agen­
cies. Draftsmen are to be found in every State,
even in small cities, but the greatest number work
in the Northeastern and North Central States
where most of the above-mentioned industries are
concentrated.
Qualifications and Training
Usually a person becomes a draftsman either by
studying at a trade or vocational school and later
acquiring practical experience, or by serving a
3- or 4-year apprenticeship, or by some other type
of on-the-job training plus part-time schooling.
In any case, the training received should include
mathematics, physical sciences, mechanical draw­
ing, standard methods of lettering, and tracing.
Many of the higher grade jobs require knowledge
of the techniques of the particular industry
involved.
A draftsman must have certain personal quali­
fications, such as neatness, accuracy, good eyesight,
manual skill, and a talent and liking for drawing
in addition to technical knowledge.
M any of the top drafting jobs require knowledge of the techniques
of the particular industry involved




81

Outlook
Employment of draftsmen is expected to remain
above the prewar level indefinitely but will prob­
ably not go as high as during the war for some
years. The number employed in war industries,
such as aircraft, shipbuilding, and machinery,
have dropped sharply since VJ-day, but the num­
ber in the construction industry and with engineer­
ing and architectural firms have been rising.
Owing to the large demand for all types of build­
ings, construction activity will probably continue
to expand for several years and then remain at or
near the peak level, unless there is a severe busi­
ness depression.
Prospects are good for well-trained and experi­
enced draftsmen in most parts of the country for
the near future. Those with architectural or con­
struction experience will have the best opportuni­
ties. However, the occupation tends to be over­
crowded with inadequately trained workers. This
is particularly true in war-production centers,
where a great many sketchily trained workers were
taken into drafting jobs during the war and laid
off after YJ-day.
The occupation will probably tend to become
overcrowded during the next few years, as the
large number of persons now in training complete
their apprenticeship or other training programs.
Enrollments in closely allied professional fields,
such as engineering, are also very high; the ten­
dency toward overcrowding in these professional
occupations will add to the competition for jobs
over the long run. In addition, the construction
industry has in the past been subject to marked ups
and downs: I f repeated in the future, these fluc­
tuations will mean periods of reduced employment
for draftsmen. Transfer to industries where op­
portunities exist will be easiest for persons with
long experience and broad technical knowledge.
Where To Go for More Information
American Institute o f Architects,
1741 New York Are. NW.,
Washington, D. C.
International Federation o f Technical Engineers,
Architects, and Draftsm en’s Unions, A. F. o f L.,
900 F St. NW.,
Washington, D. C.

See also: Architects, page 77; Civil Engineers,
page 63; Mechanical Engineers, page 67.

82

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

Meteorologists
(D.O.T. 0-35.68)

Outlook Summary
Current shortage of qualified meteorologists,
which is likely to become less in next few years.
Some expansion in employment in long run, but
this will never be a large profession.
Nature o f the Work
Meteorologists study and prepare reports on
weather conditions. They make weather fore­
casts covering particular localities or regions, for
the use of aviation and other transportation in­
dustries, manufacturers, and farmers, as well as
the general public. They may also do research on
weather conditions in a particular area over a long
period of time and on such problems as causes of
thunderstorms or hurricanes, creating artificial
rain or snow, long-range forecasting, or new types
of recording instruments. Those men concentrat­
ing on forecasting work are frequently known as
weather forecasters. In small stations, the meteor­
ologists may make the weather observations, be­
sides handling other duties.

or two courses in meteorology, but there are only
about half a dozen which offer the opportunity to
major or obtain graduate degrees in meteorology.
O f those men trained by the armed forces during
the war, the ones who completed certain college
courses (the “A ” course or its equivalent) as part
of their training are generally considered best pre­
pared. For workers already employed by the
Weather Bureau, there is an in-service training
program which offers every year a few scholar­
ships at certain universities to help outstanding
workers complete their professional education.
In addition to academic training, practical work
experience as a weather observer (see p. 84) will
be valuable to the young meteorologist. Some
promising meteorology students can obtain jobs
with the United States Weather Bureau during
the summer after their junior year under the stu­
dent-aid program; those accepted under this pro­
gram are guaranteed professional jobs with the
Weather Bureau upon graduation.
Outlook

Where Employed
The United States Weather Bureau is the prin­
cipal employer o f meteorologists in this country;
about 1,200 of the total of 1,500 civilian meteor­
ologists employed at the beginning of 1948 were
on its staff. Others are or work for private
weather consultants, teach or do research in the
universities, or work for the commercial air lines.
In addition, a considerable number are in the
armed forces. There are very few women in the
profession.
Training
For a position as a professional meteorologist,
a college degree in meteorology, along with con­
siderable work in mathematics and physics, is in­
creasingly important, though many present mete­
orologists gained their skill mainly through ex­
perience. Graduate work is also becoming more
and more helpful. Many universities give one




Job prospects for the trained men are good now.
Although thousands of men received some train­
ing in meteorology while in the military service,
only a small proportion continued in the field.
Even so, hundreds applied for jobs immediately
after the war, but most of them could not be
absorbed immediately by either the Government
or other employers. Those not hired generally
turned to other kinds of work; some went to the
universities for further training. As a result, the
labor surplus dwindled away. By the end of 1947
there was some shortage of qualified workers.
This shortage will be relieved to a considerable
extent in the next few years as the 300 people now
taking undergraduate or graduate training com­
plete their courses, but the profession does not
anticipate any problem of overcrowding.
In the long run, total employment will rise
slowly, assuming a continuing high level of busi­
ness activity, though this will remain one of the

ENGINEERING AND OTHER TECHNICAL FIELDS

smaller professions. Tlie expected gradual ex­
pansion of civil aviation will tend to raise the
number of meteorologists needed by the Weather
Bureau and the air lines. In addition, the air
lines will probably employ slowly increasing num­
bers of men with some meteorological training in
dispatcher or other jobs. Private consultant serv­
ices furnishing weather data to meet the client’s
particular business needs offer another new and
growing field of opportunity for enterprising
meteorologists. Other scientific fields—such as
radio physics, particularly television— are requir­
ing more and more meteorological information.
The expanding demand for meteorologists will in
turn stimulate some slight growth in the teaching
and research staffs at the universities. In the long
run, there will be some openings owing to turn-over
in personnel, but the main source of new jobs will
result from expansion of the profession, since
meteorology is relatively new as a formalized
science and the people in the field are predomi­
nantly younger men.
Opportunities for women in this work will prob­
ably continue to be rather limited. Best chances
for employment are likely to continue to be at
women’s colleges, teaching courses in meteorology
Meteorologist interprets data which has been picked up by the
receiving apparatus of the radiosonde




Co u rtesy

of

u

. S.

w e a th e r

bureau

83

along with other scientific subjects. A few posi­
tions in the Weather Bureau are especially suited
to women.
Earnings and Working Conditions
In the Weather Bureau, salaries of professional
meteorologist start at about $2,950 a year. Most
experienced men earn between $3,730 and $5,230 a
year. Those with supervisory, administrative, or
executive duties get annual salaries ranging from
$5,000 up to $10,000. Overseas jobs carry a 25percent bonus.
Meteorologists working for the commercial air
lines earn between $2,400 and $5,500; those work­
ing in overseas stations get additional bonuses;
those who have advanced to executive positions
may get anywhere from $4,000 to $10,000 a year.
At the universities, salaries for teachers range
from $2,400 to $7,000; administrative or executive
officers earn from $5,000 to $10,000. Meteorolo­
gists who run their own consulting services appear
to have the widest range of earnings— anywhere
from $2,400 to $12,000 a year.
Many Weather Bureau jobs involve night work,
frequently on rotating shifts, since stations are
operated on a 24-hour basis. Although most sta­
tions are located at airports or other places in or
near large cities, there are some posts in very re­
mote and isolated spots. Some civilian jobs are
located outside continental United States of Amer­
ica in such places as Alaska, Wake Island, Guam,
Hawaii, the Philippines, Puerto Rico, or Iceland.
These people have unusually steady employ­
ment and stable earnings, paid vacations, sick
leave, better-than-average pensions, and other
benefits.
Where To Go for More Information
For general information on the profession, one
may write t o :
American Meteorological Society,
5 Joy St.,
Boston 8, Mass.

This organization has published a pamphlet,
Weather Horizons, which gives a detailed sum­
mary of job opportunities.
The United States Weather Bureau, Washing­
ton 25, D. C., should be consulted directly for in­
formation on positions with that agency, as well
as on the student-aid program.

84

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

Weather Observers
(D.O.T. 0-66.88)

Outlook Summary
Employment prospects good for next few years.
Some expansion in employment likely in long run.
Nature o f Work
These workers’ main job is to make weather
observations, using instruments which measure
temperature, humidity, atmospheric pressure,
wind direction, or wind velocity. They may also
plot the data on weather maps, draw weather
charts, and keep weather records. Often they an­
swer inquiries as to the weather and handle other
duties, under the direction of the professional
meteorologists at the station.
O f the 2,700 weather observers employed at the
end of 1947, about 2,300 were in the United States
Weather Bureau. The others worked for uni­
versities and private forecasting services. A few
employees of the Civil Aeronautics Administra­
tion take weather observations in addition to their
other duties; these people must pass an examina­
tion in meteorology given by the Weather Bureau.
How To Enter
High school graduation, with courses in mathe­
matics and science, or 1 year of experience in
weather observing is the minimum requirement for
jobs in the Weather Bureau. Some college train­
ing in the physical sciences is desirable. Some
newly graduated persons with degrees in meteorol­
ogy take weather-observer jobs at first, to gain
valuable practical experience. Veterans who have
had weather-observer training in the armed forces
receive special preference for jobs.
The United States Weather Bureau operates an
in-service training program for its employees and
also offers a few scholarships each year at leading
universities to help outstanding workers complete
their professional education.
Outlook
Job opportunities are good in this occupation at
the present time (early 1948) and are expected to




remain so in the near future. For some months
after VJ-day, there were a tremendous number of
veterans and others seeking work, trying to make
use of the weather training they had received dur­
ing the war. At that time, there was room for only
a few of these people in civilian weather-observer
jobs. The rejected applicants soon went into other
types of work, and by late 1947, a labor shortage
had developed which is expected to continue for a
short time. A considerable number of openings
have arisen owing to expansion in Weather Bureau
employment and to turn-over, which has been
higher than usual because of the termination of
temporary wartime appointments.
Over the long run, there will be a moderate in­
crease in employment, reflecting expansion of
Weather Bureau services, especially to aviation.
This will never be a large occupation, however.
Opportunities for women in this occupation are
not numerous. During the war a good many were
employed by the Weather Bureau, but the num­
ber has dropped considerably since then.
Earnings
In the Weather Bureau, observers with minimum
qualifications start at about $2,500 per year.
People with more training or experience may begin
at somewhat higher rates. Overseas jobs carry a
25-percent bonus.
Many of the Weather Bureau jobs are located
in or near large cities, often at the local airport.
However, some of the weather observatories are
in remote and isolated spots; a few are outside con­
tinental United States in such places as Alaska,
Iceland, Puerto Rico, Hawaii, Wake Island, Guam,
or the Philippines.
Since weather stations operate on a 24-hour basis,
observers often have to do night w ork; frequently
they are on rotating shifts. These people have
unusually steady employment and stable earnings,
paid vacations, sick leave, better-than-average
pensions, and other benefits.

ENGINEERING AND OTHER TECHNICAL FIELDS

Where To Go for More Information
For general information write to:
Am erican M eteorological Society,
5 Joy St.,
Boston 8, Mass.

This organization has published a pamphlet en­
titled “Weather Horizons,” which gives a detailed
resume of job opportunities in both the Federal
Government and private industry.
People interested in employment with the
United States Weather Bureau should get in touch

85

with the nearest of the seven Weather Bureau
regional offices, which are located in New York,
N. Y . ; Atlanta, G a.; Chicago, 111.; Kansas City,
Mo.; Fort Worth, Tex.; Los Angeles, Calif.; and
Seattle, Wash. For employment outside conti­
nental United States, the Weather Bureau office in
Washington, D. C., should be consulted. Infor­
mation on employment opportunities for meteor­
ology students, through the Student Aid Program,
may also be obtained from the United States
Weather Bureau in Washington.

Radio Operators (Telephone and Telegraph Industry)
(D.O.T. 0-61.25, .33, and .36)

Outlook Summary
Small field of employment.
ings expected.

Very few job open­

Nature of IFork
A few major companies which specialize in pro­
viding the public with radiotelegraph and radio­
telephone service and which operate shore stations
for communicating with ships at sea employ most
o f the workers covered in this statement. There
are also a number of smaller companies in this field.
There are two main groups of workers, radio op­
erators and radio operating technicians. The
radio operators transmit and receive radiotele­
graph messages in continental Morse international
code, mostly to and from overseas points and ships
at sea. They use both semiautomatic and manu­
ally operated equipment and must meet the com­
pany’s minimum requirements with regard to
speed in receiving and transmitting messages.
They need little technical knowledge of radio.
The Federal Communications Commission does
not require licenses for this group.
The radio operating technicians adjust, main­
tain, and repair the actual transmitting and re­
ceiving equipment. Their jobs are similar to those
of transmitter operators in the radio broadcasting
industry. They must have first or second class
radiotelephone or radiotelegraph licenses issued by
the FCC. ^Requirements for licenses include
793996°—49-

-7




United States citizenship; passing a written ex­
amination on communications law, radio theory,
and related subjects; and, for radiotelegraph li­
censes, passing a speed test in receiving and send­
ing code messages.
Outlook
This is a small field, offering extremely limited
employment opportunities. About 1,000 radio
operators and about 500 radio operating techni­
cians were employed in early 1917, including those
working outside the continental United States.
Employment of high-speed manual operators
will probably decline. The volume of radiotele­
graph and radiotelephone traffic is increasing, but
teletype, multiplex, and other automatic machines
are gradually replacing manually operated equip­
ment. With the shift to automatic equipment,
fewer and less-skilled workers will be needed to
handle the same amount of traffic.
Opportunities for radio operating technicians
will be somewhat better than for high-speed man­
ual operators.
Even for technicians, however,
there will be little expansion in employment and
few openings owing to turn-over.
Earnings and Working Conditions
For radio operators in continental United States
hourly wage rates in late 1947 ranged roughly be­
tween $1.20 and $2. The range was even wider

86

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

for radio operating technicians—$1.20 to $2.25 per
hour. Hours of work for both groups averaged
a little less than 40 per week.

Most workers in these occupations are members
of the American Communications Association,
CIO.

Ship Radio Operators
(D.O.T. 0-61.33)

Outlook Summary
Job prospects poor. Employment higher than
prewar but far below wartime levels and still de­
clining.
Nature o f Work
Ship operators stand watch in the radio room,
to receive incoming messages in Morse code and
transmit any outgoing ones. They keep records
of messages handled and must be familiar with
code books and radio channels. They also make
adjustments in the receiving and transmitting
equipment to give the clearest possible reception,
and take care of routine repairs. In addition,
operators are responsible for other types of elec­
tronic equipment aboard, such as radio direction
finders. On a minority of ships and for extra
pay, they perform clerical tasks not related to their
regular duties. Like other members of the crew,
they take part in shipboard emergency drills. •
Where Employed
Oceangoing vessels of more than 1,600 tons, in­
cluding those engaged in coastwise traffic, all carry
radio operators. The great majority of ship op­
erators are on cargo vessels, but a hundred or so
are on oceangoing passenger ships. A much
smaller number still are on Great Lakes passenger
vessels. Cargo vessels operating exclusively on
the Great Lakes do not usually have radio op­
erators ; these ships have only radiotelephone
equipment, which is usually operated by the cap­
tain or other ship’s officer.
Qualifications
Men serving as ship operators must hold firstor second-class radio telegraph licenses issued by
the Federal Communications Commission.




Ik) qualify for a second-class license, an appli­
cant must pass a written examination covering
basic communications law and radiotelegraph
theory and practice, and must demonstrate ability
to transmit and receive Morse Code at the rate of
16 code groups per minute. For a first-class li­
cense, an applicant must have more advanced
knowledge and be able to transmit and receive 20
code groups per minute and 25 words per minute,
plain language. In addition, to obtain a firstclass license, one must be at least 21 years of age
and have had at least 1 year of experience.
To serve on a ship carrying only one operator or
act as chief operator, holders of second-class li­
censes must have had at least 6 months’ experi­
ence. Occasionally, when men qualified to be sole
operators are not available at certain ports for
ships ready to sail, the Federal Communications
Commission waives the latter requirement.
Hiring is most often done through the Marine
Engineers Beneficial Association (C IO ) or the
Radio Officers Union (A F L ) ; practically all ship
operators belong to one of these two unions.
Outlook
Employment prospects are poor. At the peak
during the war, there were about 3,900 ships with
radiotelegraph licenses, most of which carried at
least two radio operators. In early 1948 there
were fewer ships (around 2,200), and the large
majority carried only one operator (passenger
ships carried enough to maintain a continuous
watch). It is expected that the number of opera­
tors employed will continue to decline as the num­
ber of active ships decreases, unless measures are
taken to maintain or enlarge the merchant ma­
rine. Eventually, many men who consider them­
selves ship radio operators will have to seek other
fields of employment.

ENGINEERING AND OTHER TECHNICAL FIELDS

Earnings and Hours o f Work
Operators on cargo ships, by far the largest
group, receive base pay of around $280 per month,
plus overtime for holiday and Sunday work.
Additional overtime work is common, so most
operators earn more than the base rate. In gen­
eral, operators on the relatively few passenger

87

ships are paid higher base rates. Operators re­
ceive board and room free of charge aboard ship
and are given paid vacations.
See also: Flight Radio Operators, page 88;
Ground Radio Operators (Aviation), page 90;
Radio Operators (Broadcasting), page 87; Radio
Operators (Telephone and Telegraph Industry),
page 85.

Radio Operators (Broadcasting)
(D.O.T. 0-61.10, .16, .17, .30, .40, aud .50)

Outlook Summary
Expanding field of employment; many openings
expected in near future. More licensed personnel
seeking work than there are jobs in many urban
areas. Best chances for jobs in small communities.
Excellent prospects for men especially trained in
television.
*

Nature of Work
Groups covered are (1) transmitter operators
employed by radio networks and individual broad­
casting stations to operate and maintain trans­
mitters and related equipment; (2) studio opera­
tors who are responsible for the arrangement and
operation of studio equipment, including operation
of volume controls during broadcasts; and (3)
maintenance men.
Training and Qualifications
Transmitter operators and maintenance men are
required to have first-class radio-telephone licenses
from the Federal Communications Commission.
No license is needed for studio-operator work, but
many men in this job have licenses, since they often
have to handle transmitter or maintenance work.
To obtain a license, one must be a citizen and must
pass an examination requiring knowledge of
mathematics, basic radio theory, advanced radio
telephony, and FCC regulations. Employers
often set up additional requirements with regard to
experience and formal education.
Television operators must have an unusually
high degree of skill and technical knowledge and
must undergo on-the-job training. Some trainees
are selected from among the AM and FM men;




others come directly from the better radio and
television schools.
Outlook
By early 1948 about 2,000 AM and FM stations
were operating and around 1,000 more had been
authorized. When the authorized stations are
completed it is estimated employment of licensed
operators will be around 15,000, as compared with
around 10,000 presently employed. This means
that there will be several thousand job openings at
new stations in the near future, in addition to open­
ings at established stations. Operators custom­
arily move from low-power to high-power stations
as they gain experience, thus creating openings for
new men at the small stations. Men will also tend
to move from AM-FM to television jobs.
Television is in its infancy but appears to be
entering a period of rapid growth. In early January 1948 only 17 television stations were operating,
but about 60 more had been authorized and this
number was expected to increase steadily. Since a
station of this type required a sizable number of
operators (many more than the average AM or
FM station), hundreds of specially trained tele­
vision men are likely to be needed within the next
year or two.
Over the long run, a continued upward trend
in employment of technicians is expected. The
number of television and FM stations will go on
rising for many years. In urban areas, AM broad­
casting will probably give way increasingly to FM.
But sparsely settled regions will no doubt con­
tinue to be served by AM stations, unless methods
are discovered for extending television and FM
reception beyond the present limit of about 50

88

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

miles (the distance from the antennae to the hori­
zon). In any case, losses in employment which
may occur as AM channels go off the air will prob­
ably be offset by gains in television and FM. unless
there should be a depression. Even in that event,
employment would be likely to decline less in this
occupation than many others.
Despite expanding employment, the number of
licensed men seeking work is greater than the num­
ber of openings in many areas, especially large
cities. At the same time, there are good oppor­
tunities in other areas, particularly in small com­
munities. Highly skilled television men are
needed in cities with television stations and will
be in demand in many additional cities in the near
future.
The number of men seeking operator jobs may
be further increased if the FCC should make cer­
tain proposed changes in its licensing require­
ments. These changes would permit many small
AM and FM stations to hire operators for lionsupervisory jobs who had passed a less difficult ex­
amination than is now required for licenses.
Earnings and Working Conditions
Average earnings of full-time transmitter oper­
ators at stations with 15 or more employees were
about $66 a week in October 1947, according to an
FCC survey. Studio operators without licenses
averaged about $77 a week; those with licenses
about $80; chief engineers and supervisors of en­
gineers $101. Supervisory and nonsupervisory
technical employees of stations with less than 15
employees averaged $54 per week, much less than
any of the groups employed by the bigger stations.
Operators and engineers were scheduled to work
an average of between 40 and 41 hours per week
in the stations with 15 or more employees. Aver-

Left, radio operator controls television transmission; right, sound
operator

age hours of work in the smaller stations were
longer, about 43 per week. Principal unions or­
ganizing operators are the International Brother­
hood of Electrical Workers (A F L ), the National
Association of Broadcast Engineers and Techni­
cians (independent), and the American Com­
munications Association (C IO ).
Where To Go for More Information
Local unions of radio operators can provide in­
formation on employment opportunities, wages,
and working conditions. Some broadcasting
trade magazines carry advertisements asking for
radio operators.
See also Flight Radio Operators, page 88;
Ground Radio Operators (Aviation), page 90;
Ship Radio Operators, page 86; Radio Operators
(Telephone and Telegraph), page 85.

Flight Radio Operators
(D.O.T. 0-61.32)

Outlook Summary

Duties

Few job opportunities expected in this small
occupation. Oversupply of experienced workers
is great and will continue to be so indefinitely.

Flight radio operators (also known as flight
communications officers or flight radio officers) are
now employed almost exclusively in airline opera­




ENGINEERING AND OTHER TECHNICAL FIELDS

tions over international routes. Their duties may
include obtaining radio bearings, sending and re­
ceiving weather information and other messages
in International Morse Code, operating radionavigational equipment, and listening in on the
international distress-signal frequency twice an
hour at the prescribed times. They make all
needed adjustments and emergency repairs on
radio equipment while in flight or at stops where
no radio maintenance man is available. They also
inspect and test the equipment between flights.
Qualifications
Every flight radio operator is legally required
to have a Federal Communications Commission
radiotelegraph operator license of second class or
higher and a Civil Aeronautics Administration
airman certificate. To obtain the former, one
must show a comprehensive technical knowledge
of radio and meet other requirements. The latter
certificate is issued to persons demonstrating
ability to perform the duties of the occupation.
As in the case o f other members of flight crews,
appearance and personal characteristics of appli­
cants are emphasized in filling vacancies, and
strict physical examinations must be passed to
enter and stay in the occupation. Frequently,
job openings are filled by promotion of ground
radio operators.
Outlook
This is a very small occupation. No more than
two or three hundred were employed in early
1918. Expanding overseas air-line operations and
other developments may lead to some openings,
especially if general business activity remains at
a high level. Under the most favorable condi­
tions, however, employment is not likely to in­
crease by much between now and 1950 and open­
ings due to turn-over will be very few. In the long
run, the numbers employed will not rise as fast
in this occupation as air-line jobs generally; they
may even decrease. Among the factors which
will tend to keep down the number of flight radio
operators are the prospective establishments of
more and more international airways with radio­
range beams and other aids to navigation like those
now used in this country and the increasing appli­
cation of radar to civilian air transportation. On




89

the favorable side is the fact that the utmost con­
sideration will always have to be given to adequate
ground maintenance, servicing, and repair of
whatever electronic equipment is used on planes.
However, it is more accurate to view this as a
factor in providing substitute employment rather
than one affecting employment of flight radio
operators as such.
First in line for any vacancies which may oc­
cur in the near future are the experienced operators
whom the air lines have had to lay off during the
past year and who are now on furlough. Next
come the ground radio operators who are eligible
for promotion. In addition, some of the great
number of men who were flight radio operators in
the armed services continue to seek comparable
civilian jobs. Persons trained for other kinds of
radio operator work make up a still greater num­
ber of potential eligibles. All in all, there tend
to be more interested and qualified men available
than there are job opportunities; newcomers have
practically no chance for employment. This will
continue to be the picture for some time to come,
despite the planned Air Force expansion. But
men qualified for this work may be able to com­
pete successfully for jobs in a great variety of
expanding fields involving their basic skills.
Working Conditions
Flight radio operators are paid monthly sal­
aries. A very rough estimate suggests that their
annual take-home pay averages in the neighbor­
hood of $5,000; that most men are paid between
$300 and $500 monthly. Factors affecting earn­
ings include length of service and whether the
employee is a junior or senior operator.
Flight-time averages under 85 hours a month
and probably never exceeds 255 hours a quarter.
However, a few additional hours monthly must
always be spent in ground duties. A month’s vaca­
tion with pay is commonly given.
As a rule, flight radio operators are on duty
away from base about half the time. When they
are working away from home their living expenses)
are paid by the employing air line.
Where To Get More Information
Additional information on the occupation of
flight radio operator is given in :

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

90

U. S. Department of Labor. Bureau of Labor
Statistics. Employment Opportunities in Avia­
tion Occupations, Part I—Postwar Employment
Outlook; Part 2—Duties, Qualifications, Earnings,
and Working Conditions. Bulletins Nos. 837-1
and 837-2. (1945 and 1946.) U. S. Government
Printing Office, Washington 25, D. C. Price 10
cents and 20 cents.

Inquiries in regard to job openings should be
sent to the personnel managers of the lines. A d ­
dresses are listed in part II of the bulletin just
mentioned, or may be obtained from the Air Trans­
port Association of America, 1107 Sixteenth Street
NW., Washington, D. C.
See also Ground Radio Operators, page 90;
Ship Radio Operators, page 86.

Ground Radio Operators and Teletypists (Air Transportation)
(See D.O.T. 0-61.33 and 1-37.33)

Outlook Summary
Only limited numbers of openings each year for
some time to come; total new hires will probably
not exceed a few thousand between 1948 and the
early 1950’s. Marked competition for jobs in some
areas. Long-run employment trend upward for
group as a whole.
Nature of Work
Ground radio operators and teletypists are em­
ployed both by air lines, domestic and interna­
tional, and by the Federal Airways Service of the
Civil Aeronautics Administration.
Radio operators working for air lines send and
receive messages between flight crews and ground
personnel and between different points on the
ground, using radiotelephone, radiotelegraph, or
both. Air-line ground communications are also
handled by teletypists, who operate a machine with
a keyboard much like that of a typewriter. The
radio operators and teletypists employed as air­
craft communicators by CAA collect and relay
information on weather conditions and other mat­
ters affecting flights.
The jobs are widespread geographically, with
some workers located in the Territories and for­
eign countries. Air-line personnel work mostly
at airports near metropolitan areas; CAA com­
municators are at stations scattered along the air­
ways, often in remote places.
Qualifications and Advancement
For radio-operator positions with air lines, ap­
plicants must usually have at least a second-class




radio-telephone or -telegraph license from the Fed­
eral Communications Commission, be able to type,
and have specified educational and other quali­
fications.
To qualify for trainee positions as C A A aircraft
communicators, applicants must meet Civil Service
requirements, including at least 1 year in aero­
nautical communications work or other specified
experience. A ll permanent appointments to
CAA jobs are made on the basis of competitive
civil-service examinations. Pending the holding
of such examinations, hiring is done directly by
CAA, and successful applicants are given only
temporary appointments.
Outlook
Radiomen and teletypists together make up a
fairly large occupational group, as aviation occu­
pations go. The number on public or private pay
rolls may now (early 1948) be as high as 10,000
or more. Gains in air-line employment were heavy
during 1946 and early 1947, but there was a
“ shake-down” in domestic operations during the
rest of the latter year. Only moderate rises
in private employment may be expected for the im­
mediate future at least; even such growth depends
upon continued vigor in the economy as a whole.
CAA communications activity has increased
sharply in the postwar period, but employment has
not risen proportionately. At the end of the war,
August 1945, there were about 3,700 aircraft com­
municators working for C A A ; a year later, 4,500
or thereabouts; in early 1948 only 4,200 or so.
Future employment levels will depend on congres­
sional appropriations for this activity; there is

ENGINEERING AND OTHER TECHNICAL FIELDS

reason to believe that more communicator jobs may
be authorized. At present, job chances are par­
ticularly good for persons willing to work in
Alaska and other places outside continental United
States.
In the field as a whole, both public and private,
job openings are not expected to exceed a few
thousand through the early 1950’s, including va­
cancies arising from quits, discharges, retire­
ments, and deaths. Longer-run prospects differ
as between radiomen and teletypists.
Although great strides have already been made
in the substitution of teletype and related types of
automatic equipment for radio facilities, this
tendency is likely to continue, as are efforts at other
technological improvements. One of the resulting
developments is to decrease the need for radio op­
erators (generally men) and increase the relative
need for teletypists (usually women). On the
other hand, the best of the former tend to gain in
opportunities for promotion (to supervisory posi­
tions, for example) as communications activity
and staffs grow and spread out from the present
centers. Another factor favorable to the pros­
pects for advancement of radiomen is the increas­
ing complexity of communications systems, tech­
niques, and equipment and the vital role which
communication development— for instance, ra­
dar—plays in the drive for all-weather flying,
safety, and economy.
On the labor-supply side, the potential surplus
of qualified applicants, especially radio operators,
is large, and hiring of newcomers is very spotty.
During the war, well over 100,000 men and some
women had varying amounts of radio-operator
training and experience in the military and naval
air forces alone. Relatively few of the wartime
trainees have applied for jobs in this field.
Nevertheless, the number of interested eligibles
has been great enough to make for marked com­
petition, at least in some parts of the country.
This situation is likely to persist indefinitely de­
spite the planned Air Force expansion. But some
o f the more skilled and experienced radiomen may
be able to compete successfully for jobs in a great




91

variety of expanding fields involving their basic
skills.
Earnings and Working Conditions
For air-line radio operators, typical earnings
range from $170 to $270 a month; for teletypists,
about $145 to $215 a month. The salaries of CAA
aircraft communicators range from $2,498 to $4,480
and better a year. Air-line personnel usually get
2 weeks’ paid vacation. CAA employees receive
26 days o f paid annual leave. The basic work­
week is 40 hours both with the air lines and with
CAA.
A number o f lines have union agreements cover­
ing radio operators and teletypists. Organiza­
tions involved include the Air Line Communica­
tions Employees Association (American Commu­
nications Association, C IO ), and the Radio Offi­
cers Union (Commercial Telegraphers Union,
A F L ).
Where To Get More Information
Additional information on the occupations of
ground radio operators and teletypists is given in :
U. S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor
Statistics, Employment Opportunities in Avia­
tion Occupations, Part I—Postwar Employment
Outlook and Part 2—Duties, Qualifications, Earn­
ings, and Working Conditions. Bulletins No.
837-1 and 837— (1945 and 1946). U. S. Govern­
2.
ment Printing Office, Washington 25, D. C. Price
10 cents and 20 cents.
Inquiries in regard to job openings on air lines
should be sent to the personnel managers of the
lines. Addresses are listed in part II of the bul­
letin just mentioned, or may be obtained from the
A ir Transport Association of America, 1107 Six­
teenth Street NW., Washington, D. C.
For information regarding CAA positions, ad­
dress the Civil Aeronautics Administration or the
Civil Service Commission, Washington 25, D. C.,
or any regional office of either agency.
See also Flight Radio Operators, page 88; Ship
Radio Operators, page 86.

92

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

Airplane Pilots
(D.O.T. 0-41.10)

Outlook Summary

Qualifications and Advancement

Overcrowded occupation; only most highly ex­
perienced and qualified men likely to get jobs for
some years. Continued growth in employment ex­
pected in long run.

Every person who pilots a plane for pay is
legally required to hold a CAA pilot certificate
with a rating of commercial grade or higher. A
pilot doing instrument flying must have an instru­
ment rating. To operate a voice radio transmitter,
he must ordinarily have an FCC aircraft radio­
telephone operator authorization. Finally, an air­
line captain must have a CAA air-line transport
pilot rating. For all ratings, there are strict re­
quirements regarding physical condition, which is
checked periodically. Pilots serving also as flight
engineers must meet the separate standards set for
this position (see p. 204).
In hiring pilots, employers—especially the air
lines— insist on far more flying time than is speci­
fied in the legal requirements. They generally de­
mand a liigh-school education or better (heavy
preference is given men with college credits), and
will hire only young men. Personality, tempera­
ment, appearance, and height (tall men are pre­
ferred) are also considered. For CAA positions,
long and varied flying experience, as well as speci­
fied pilot ratings, is required.
The scheduled air lines hire only men as co­
pilots. Those who make good are given a chance,
on a seniority basis, to qualify for promotion to
captain. A t least 2 years’ experience is generally
needed to qualify for such upgrading; it may be
4 or 5 years or longer before a copilot is actually
reached for promotion. Men failing to qualify
as captains within a reasonable time are not re­
tained as copilots. Captains may be promoted
to chief pilot, assistant superintendent of flight
operations, and other executive positions on up the
ladder.
A ll C A A positions are civil-service jobs. At
present (early 1948), they are being filled on a
temporary basis only, without competitive exam­
inations.

Nature o f Work
Practically all pilots work either for the sched­
uled air lines or in general flight operations (nonscheduled flying and related activities). Those
with the air lines fall into twT main groups, cap­
o
tains and copilots.
Besides operating the controls of the plane, air­
line pilots have to keep close watch on a multitude
o f instruments, operate the voice radio, and handle
other flight duties. They also have extensive
ground duties—among them, studying weather
reports, preparing flight plans, making a preflight
check of the condition of plane, and filling out
reports. The captain decides how work shall be
divided between himself and the copilot, who acts
as his assistant, and is regarded as a “ captain in
training.” On a small but growing number of
flights, particularly on international routes, two
pilots are carried in addition to the captain. In­
creasingly, pilots, are also serving as flight engi­
neers (see p. 204).
Outside the air lines, pilots have a wide variety
of jobs. Large numbers work for flying schools
and commercial flying businesses (charter trans­
portation, aerial photography and advertising,
crop dusting and spraying, demonstration selling,
and other activities). Some are employed by oil
companies and other firms using planes for busi­
ness purposes; a few by Government agencies
(chiefly the Civil Aeronautics Administration)
and by aircraft manufacturers. Many operate
their own businesses, with or without paid help.
Air-line pilots are stationed at a limited number
of “ division” points throughout the United States;
a few are based in foreign countries. Other pilots
are located in all parts of the country where there
are airports.




Outlook
Employment of pilots is likely to rise moderately
both in the near future and over the long run.

ENGINEERING AND OTHER TECHNICAL FIELDS

Around 10,000 pilots held jobs at VJ-day or
about the same number as in 1940. A sharp war­
time increase in the number on air-line pay rolls
(from 2,300 at the end of 1940 to 4,500 or more
by mid-1945) was offset by declining employment
in other aviation services. During the first year
after the war, employment increased rapidly on
the air lines and elsewhere, only to fall off in 1947,
particularly in scheduled domestic operations.
The scheduled air lines started 1948 with a staff
of about 7,000 pilots and copilots; the number em­
ployed in other fields was maybe half again as
great.

93

be handled by fewer planes and pilots. In both the
short and long run, growth in air traffic and em­
ployment will depend on continued high levels of
general business activity.
Considerable competition for any pilot jobs
(but not necessarily pilot-engineer positions) that
arise is anticipated for some years. There were
many pilots on furlough as 1947 came to a close.
Although only a small proportion of the host of
pilot veterans have sought flying jobs, the number
doing so has been much greater than the number
of openings—and there are other men with flight
training and experience in the market for jobs.
CAA commercial license approvals have dropped
sharply since the first postwar year, but the num­
ber of men getting these ratings is still much
greater than the number of openings. Even highly
qualified applicants will be more numerous than
vacancies for a year or two, and probably longer.
Men with no flying history will have great diffi­
culty getting into the field for several years. The
70-group Air Force program will scarcely affect the
picture.
Earnings and Working Conditions

Captain

and

copilot

making a preflight cockpit check on a fourengine plane.

Continued growth in air-line traffic, notably
freight traffic, and in a great variety of other avia­
tion businesses— some already established, some
new and untried— may be expected to lift employ­
ment only moderately in the immediate future.
The net increase is not likely to be more than sev­
eral hundred, at best, during any one year through
1950. The really great expansion in air-line em­
ployment would appear to be still some years
ahead, waiting on the development of regular, allweather flying. On the other hand, the increased
size and speed of new planes, used as replacements
and additions, permit given volumes of traffic to




Highest paid are air-line captains, with monthly
earnings ranging from about $700 to $1,000 or
more, depending on flight time, size of plane,
length of service, and whether the flying done is
domestic or overseas. Air-line copilots make about
half that much. At least one line pursues a policy,
by union agreement, which tends to set a floor on
pilot earnings; it guarantees 70 hours of flight
time a month.
The average flight time of pilots with the sched­
uled air lines is somewhat greater than this mini­
mum, though not more than 80 hours or so a month.
The permissible maximum is 85 hours a month in
domestic flying, 255 per quarter in international.
Many hours of ground time substantially lengthen
these work schedules.
The Air Line Pilots Association, A F L (the only
collective-bargaining agency for pilots) states that
“ while earnings are in upper-earnings brackets,
the earning period of an air-line pilot is compara­
tively short.” This it attributes to “the slowing up
of physical and mental reflexes, coupled with
stringent periodic physical examinations” which
tends to ground most men before they reach the
age of 45 years.

94

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

Pilots in other types of private employment
have earnings nearer to those of copilots than to
those of captains. They tend to have many more
flight hours and irregular work schedules. CAA
inspectors start at an annual salary of $4,855, for
a 6-month training period. After several promo­
tions and many years of service, their salaries may
reach as high as $6,200 or more. The basic work­
week is 40 hours, but actual work time is irregular.
In domestic air-line flying, a 2 weeks’ vacation
with pay is generally allowed; in international
operations, a month’s paid vacation. CAA pilots,
like most other Federal employees, receive 26 days
of paid annual leave per year.
As a rule, air-line pilots are on duty away from
their base about half the time. When away, they
have their living expenses paid by the air line.
Virtually all air-line—but few, if any, other—
pilots belong to the Air Line Pilots Association.
Where To Get More Information
Additional information on the occupation of pi­
lots is given in :
U. S. Department of Labor. Bureau of Labor
Statistics. Employment Opportunities in Avia­
tion Occupations, Part I—Postwar Employment
Outlook: Part 2— Duties, Qualifications, Earn­
ings, and Working Conditions. Bulletins Nos.
837-1 and 837-2 (1945 and 1946). Price 10 cents

and 20 cents. U. S. Government Printing Office,
Washington 25, D. C.
To find out about openings with air lines and the
exact qualifications needed, one should write to
the personnel managers o f the lines. Addresses
are listed in part II of the bulletin just mentioned
or may be obtained from the Air Transport Asso­
ciation of America, 1107 Sixteenth Street NW,,
Washington, D. C.
Men interested in setting up their own aviation
businesses should consult State aviation commis­
sions and local chambers of commerce; also the
following publication:
Department of Commerce, Bureau of Foreign
and Domestic Commerce. Opportunities for Es­
tablishing New Businesses in Aviation, Superin­
tendent of Documents, Washington 25, D. C.
(1948). Price 40 cents.
Information as to locations of air fields, repair
stations, and flying schools can be obtained from
the Office of Aviation Information, Civil Aeronau­
tics Administration, Washington 25, D. C. For
information regarding Federal Government posi­
tions, address the United States Civil Service
Commission, Washington 25, D. C., or any re­
gional office of this agency.
/See also Dispatchers and Assistants, page 114;
Airport and Airway Traffic Controllers, page 116.

Navigators (Air Transportation)
(D.O.T. 0-41.60)

Outlook Summary
Few opportunities expected in this small oc­
cupation. Oversupply of experienced workers is
great and will continue indefinitely.
Nature o f W ork
A navigator is carried only on international
commercial air-line flights. Before each flight, he
prepares the flight plan for the captain’s approval
and sees to it that all needed navigational equip­
ment is in good condition and aboard the plane.
In the air, he is responsible for knowing at all
times whether the flight is progressing according
to plan and advising the captain as to revisions in




routing made necessary by changing weather con­
ditions or other unforseen circumstances. He uses
all available navigational methods— dead reckon­
ing, celestial navigation, radio bearings, and pi­
lotage. Another of his duties is keeping the flight
log.
Navigators are stationed mainly in coastal cities,
where activities employing them are commonly
based.
Qualifications
Every navigator is legally required to have a
Civil Aeronautics Administration certificate.
Among the qualifications which an applicant must
have to be certified is a comprehensive knowledge

ENGINEERING AND OTHER TECHNICAL FIELDS

o f air navigation and related subjects. This train­
ing has been obtainable so far mainly in the mili­
tary and naval air services. Employers greatly
prefer men with college education; a higli-school
diploma is virtually always a minimum require­
ment. Flight experience as a navigator and per­
sonal characteristics, such as height, appearance,
and personality, are emphasized in hiring. Strict
physical examinations must be passed to enter
and stay in the occupation.
Outlook
This is a very small field; in early 1948 employ­
ment was no more than 200 or 300. Expanding
overseas air-line operations and other develop­
ments may lead to some openings, especially if
general business activity remains at high levels.
However, employment is not likely to increase as
fast in this occupation as in most other air-line
jobs.
In the long run, employment of navigators will
probably decline; technological and other factors
may cause the elimination of these flight-crew
members on a number of routes. There is, for
example, continued striving for international air­
ways with radio-range beams and other aids in
navigation like those used on domestic airways,
though the establishment of such airways on a
scale comparable with our own Federal Airways
System is probably still a long way off. The in­
creasing application of radar to civilian aviation
may also make navigators unnecessary on a grow­
ing number of flights. The chances for continued
and accelerated advancement along these lines
have been enhanced by the interest in these matters
shown by the President’s Air Policy Commission,
the Congressional Aviation Policy Board, and
other bodies.
Under the best conditions foreseeable, it is
likely to be difficult even for experienced men to
obtain navigator positions. At the beginning of
1948, the air lines had many furloughed navigators
with first claim on any openings. In addition,
applicants with navigator experience in the armed
forces have tended to outnumber openings, though
only a very small percentage of the host of former
military and naval Air Force navigators have
sought civilian jobs in the occupation. Newcom­
ers have practically no chance for positions. This




95

will almost certainly continue to be the case for
several years at least—the oversupply may even
grow—despite the Air Force expansion (the 70group program) legislated in May 1948.
Earnings and Working Conditions
Salaries are on a monthly basis. A very rough
estimate suggests that average annual pay in early
1948 was in the neighborhood of $5,000, with some
men earning as low as $3,000 and others making
as much as $6,000 and more. How much an indi­
vidual navigator actually makes is dependent upon
his grade (junior or higher), his length of service,
and other factors.
When navigators are away from base on duty
(as they are about half of the time), their living
expenses are paid by their employer. Often they
also get $1 or more a day while on land for inci­
dental expenses.
Flight time is generally not more than 255 hours
a quarter, more or less equally divided between the
3 months. However, a few additional hours each
month must always be spent in ground duties.
One month’s vacation with pay is usually given.
Navigators are covered by union contracts on
almost all lines where they are employed. They
are represented by the Air Line Navigators Asso­
ciation (a branch of the Transport Workers Union
o f America, CIO) on most of these lines, and by
the Association of Airline Navigators (independ­
ent) on one.
Where To Get More Information
Additional information on the occupation of
navigator is given in :
U. S. Department of Labor. Bureau of Labor
Statistics. Employment Opportunities in Avia­
tion Occupations, Part I—Postwar Employment
Outlook; Part 2—Duties, Qualifications, Earn­
ings, and Working Conditions. Bulletins Nos.
837-1 and 837-2. (1945 and 1946.) U. S. Gov­
ernment Printing Office, Washington 25, D. C.
Price, 10 cents and 20 cents.
Inquiries in regard to to job openings should
be sent to the personnel managers of the lines.
Addresses are listed in part II of the bulletin just
mentioned, or may be obtained from the Air
Transport Association of America, 1107 Sixteenth
Street NW., Washington, D. C.

Other Professional, Semiprofessional, and
Administrative Occupations
Accountants
(D.O.T. 0-01.)

Outlook Summary
Good employment prospects for Certified Pub­
lic Accountants (C. P. A.) and others with con­
siderable experience, at least in next few years;
keen competition among the inexperienced. Con­
tinued upward trend in employment in long run.
Fields of Employment
There are many types of accounting work, rang­
ing from partnerships in accounting firms and
controllerships in corporations to jobs at the cleri­
cal level. Accountants may engage in either pub­
lic or private practice. Public accounting firms
are usually headed by C. P. A .’s although they
often employ other accountants; they render serv­
ice to a number of clients on a fee basis. Private
accountants work on a salary basis either for a
single business establishment, keeping accounts* of
that business, or for Government agencies in such
jobs as auditor, bank examiner, or tax examiner.
In early 1948 there were about 30,000 C. P. A .’s,
but altogether probably eight or nine times that
number of persons were engaged in accounting
work. Less than 10 percent were women, and
many of these were in teaching positions; about
400 women were C. P. A .’s.
How To Enter
Employment requirements vary with the type
of work. A bachelor’s degree with a major in ac­
counting or a related field, or a diploma from a
school of accounting is usually required for the
better jobs, though experience may be substituted
for part of the formal education. To qualify as a
96




certified public accountant and receive the certifi­
cate from a .State board, one must meet certain
educational and experience requirements and pass
a rigid examination. Eighteen States have regu­
latory accountancy laws under which only regis­
tered accountants or certified public accountants
can practice public accounting. Only one of these
now allows registration of noncertified public ac­
countants, although the other IT formerly did so.
The accountant usually begins in a minor job—
compiling data, preparing invoices, or as a junior
assistant on the staff of a C. P. A. Advancement
may be rapid for able accountants with sufficient
educational preparation, but inadequate training
often results in routine jobs with little opportunity
for promotion—except in cases of unusual ability.
Experience in accounting is an excellent back­
ground for many types of jobs such as credit
manager, controller, purchasing agent, budget
officer, and many executive positions.
Outlook
There is a shortage o f qualified accountants
(early 1948), which is more pronounced in some
localities than in others. Employment oppor­
tunities have increased in recent years because o f
such factors as complex tax systems and a growing
emphasis on scientific management in industry.
The war greatly increased the demand for ac­
counting services, especially in the Government.
While Government personnel requirements have
fallen off, the upward trend in private industry
still continues. Many employers, newly intro­
duced to the value of accounting services during
the war, now see the advantage of maintaining

OTHER

P R O F E S S IO N A L ,

S E M IP R O F E S S IO N A L ,

production control systems, regular auditing serv­
ices, and a variety of other accounting practices.
Teachers are now badly needed to instruct the
greatly increased number of students in schools of
business administration and accounting.
Public accounting firms in some areas are now
obliged to turn away business because o f a shortage
of experienced accountants. This in turn has
created surpluses of inexperienced workers, who
cannot be employed without senior accountants to
supervise them. The shortage of experienced ac­
countants will soon be relieved, since many of the
veterans now being trained are mature enough to
be given responsibilities after a relatively short
period of experience. Even so, the surplus of in­
experienced workers is likely to become greater
because of the large number now in training.
There are some employment opportunities for
accountants in every community and in nearly all
industries, but the greatest number of jobs, as well
as the keenest competition, will continue to be in
industrial centers such as New York and Chicago.
However, the decentralization of industry has in­
creased the demand for accountants in the smaller
industrial communities. Throughout the country,
the trend toward increased use of accounting serv­
ices can be expected to persist over the long run,
provided that general business activity remains
at a high level.

A D M IN IS T R A T IV E

97

Earnings
Salaries for beginners were typically from
$1,800 to $2,400 in 1947, according to one estimate.
Salaries of staff employees of public accounting
firms ranged from $1,800 to $10,000 per year, with
a very few running higher. Incomes of partners
or heads of firms may be much greater. Prewar
average net annual income of those in independent
practice was about $5,300 for C. P. A .’s and about
$3,000 for others; present incomes are probably
considerably higher.
Federal civil-service entrance salary for junior
accountants and auditors is $2,724; assistant ac­
countants and bank examiners begin at $2,974;
accountants and auditors, who must meet higher
qualifications, start at $3,351 a year. More re­
sponsible positions at higher pay are usually filled
through promotion.
Where To Go for Further Information
Information, particularly on C. P. A .’s, may be
obtained from :
Am erican Institute o f Accountants,
13 E. 41st St.,
New York 17, N. Y.

Information on the field of cost accounting may
be obtained from :
National Association o f Cost Accountants,
385 Madison Ave.,
New York 17, N. Y.

Insurance Underwriters
(D .O .T . 1-57.30)

Outlook Summary
Openings in this small occupation almost always
filled by promotion of experienced personnel. Op­
portunities for such advancement somewhat lim­
ited.

reports on applicants by doctors and other inves­
tigators. The work often involves considerable
responsibility and judgment, especially in general
insurance. Most underwriters are employed in the
home offices of companies writing policies. A few
work for large agencies.

Nature of Work

How to Enter

Underwriters decide on the insurability o f ap­
plicants for life or other insurance, in line with
company policy. They usually specialize in life
insurance, in some branch of general insurance
(fire, casuality, marine, suretyship, or other), or
in a subdivision of one of these branches. Duties
include analyzing applications for insurance or

The usual way of entering the occupation is
through promotion from clerical jobs in under­
writing departments. A number o f colleges and
special insurance schools offer helpful courses in
insurance, but few if any give training in under­
writing.
Even college-educated people must
therefore obtain their skills largely through sev­




98

O C C U P A T IO N A L

OUTLOOK

eral years of practical experience in subordinate
positions.
Outlook
There will be a number of openings in this oc­
cupation during the next year or two. Altogether,
only a few thousand underwriters were employed
in early 1947, most o f them men. An unusually
large number o f promotions were made during
the war, to fill vacancies due to the draft and other
causes. Since YJ-day, a good many veterans and
other former employees have come back to their
jobs; some who were not previously full-fledged
underwriters were advanced to this status on their
return. Employment now exceeds the prewar
level. In all likelihood, it will tend to increase
somewhat over the long run, but not as fast as
during the last year or two. Although insurance
business is expected to expand, the number of un­
derwriters employed will not rise proportionately.
It would be surprising if they numbered 5,000 by
1960, even assuming continued high levels of eco­
nomic activity.
Competition for promotion is keen among the
thousands of eligibles. Only those with the best
qualifications are selected to fill the vacancies.
Most openings in entry jobs and opportunities for
advancement will be in the East, especially the
New York City area and in Hartford, Conn.,

HANDBOOK

where the home offices o f the major insurance com­
panies are concentrated. On the other hand, com­
petition for beginning jobs and promotions may
well be less in other parts of the country.
Earnings
Underwriters are paid regular salaries. In gen­
eral, earnings are highest in the Middle Atlantic
and Pacific regions. Men’s earnings tend to be
considerably higher than women’s. In January
1947, male underwriters in home offices of lifeinsurance companies had average straight-time
weekly earnings of about $72, as compared with
$49 for female underwriters. Underwriter clerks,
of course, had considerably lower earnings— about
$41 a week for men and $33 for women.
Where To Get More Information
Questions on employment opportunities, how to
prepare for underwriting work, earnings, and
other matters may be addressed to home offices of
the big insurance companies or trade associations
in the insurance industry, including the follow ing:
Life Insurance Agency Management Association,
115 Broad St.,
H artford, Conn.
Life Office Management Association,
110 E. 42d St.,
New York 17, N. Y.

See also Life Insurance Agents, page 153; Gen­
eral Insurance Agents and Brokers, page 152.

Interior Decorators
(D .O .T . 0-43.40)

Outlook Summary
Expanding field. Good employment prospects
for well-qualified persons. Some openings for new
entrants, especially in suburban areas.
Nature o f Work
Decorators design interiors for homes, hotels,
ships, theaters, business offices, and other places.
They estimate costs and, in most cases, purchase
furnishings and supervise their installation. They
may also plan displays and model rooms and pro­
mote current decorating fashions in other ways.
A good many sell draperies, upholstered furniture,
and other small furnishings and have their own




w o rk sh o p s w h ere these a rticle s are m ade. M a n y
are e m p lo y e d b y la r g e d e c o r a tin g firm s o r d e p a r t­
m ent stores o r are in business f o r them selves.
p resen t, th e m a jo r it y are w om en .

At

Personal Qualifications and Training
A g o o d in te r io r d e c o r a to r com b in es the a b ilitie s
o f the a rch ite ct, d esig n er, a n d artist.

H e m u st

have a k n o w le d g e o f d r a w in g , m a teria ls, c o lo r ,
in te r io r co n str u c tio n , fu r n itu r e d e sig n a n d a r ­
ra n gem en t, fine

arts, lig h tin g , a n d

e stim a tin g .

S a lesm a n sh ip a n d a p le a sin g p e rs o n a lity a n d a p ­
p ea ra n ce are a m o n g th e p e rso n a l q u a lifica tio n s
needed.

OTHER

P R O F E S S IO N A L ,

S E M IP R O F E S S IO N A L ,

A good educational background is very im­
portant. It is helpful to begin preparing while in
high school by studying such subjects as mechan­
ical drawing, art, and business administration.
Two years of college are considered desirable be­
fore entrance into one of the specialized schools
o f interior decoration, which offer a 3- or 4-year
professional course. Some persons get their train­
ing at trade and vocational schools, but they are
likely to meet keen competition later on from per­
sons with more advanced training.
A f t e r co m p le tio n o f s ch o o lin g , o n -th e -jo b tr a in ­
in g w ith an establish ed d e c o r a tin g firm o r d e p a r t­
m en t store is in v alu ab le.

A b e g in n e r m a y h a v e

su ch d u ties as k e e p in g stock in o rd e r, s e llin g h om e
fu r n is h in g s, o r

a ctin g

as assistant d ra fts m a n .

F r o m these en try jo b s one m a y a d va n ce to d e c o ­
r a to r ’s s h o p p e r ; th en to assistant d e c o r a to r ; and
fin a lly to d ecora tion con su lta n t o r oth er to p p o s i­
tion .

P r a c tic a l ex p erien ce is p a r tic u la r ly neces­

sary f o r person s p la n n in g to g o in to business f o r
th em selves.

Outlook
Employment prospects are good for well-trained
persons in this relatively small but expanding
field. Opportunities have increased since the end
of the war, as a greater amount and variety of dec­
orating materials have become available. Some
additional openings are expected, in the near fu­
ture, provided that general business activity con­
tinues at a high level. The large number of new
homes being built will tend to create an increased
demand for the services of the interior decorator.
There is also a large demand for redecoration,
since interiors have grown worn and shabby in the
past few years. Persons with insufficient training
and experience are available, but the supply of
new entrants who are qualified to advance to top
positions has not kept up with the growing de­
mand.




A D M IN IS T R A T IV E

99

Opportunities are likely to be very good in areas
adjacent to large cities and in cities with popula­
tions between 50,000 and 150,000. However, per­
sons employed in these cities must usually be con­
tent with small businesses and may have difficulty
in securing materials. In a few large cities, where
most of the specialized schools of decoration are
located and where furnishings are easiest to obtain,
an oversupply of decorators may exist. Oppor­
tunities for beginners in these areas are therefore
limited.
The demand for interior decoration should tend
to increase over the long run. Formerly, this was
considered a luxury service, but in recent years,
there has been more and more professional dec­
orating of moderately priced homes and offices.
Construction of new houses, schools, hospitals, and
other buildings should also provide an increasing
demand for the service. However, this occupation
is far more affected by declines in business activity
than many others. Only if general economic con­
ditions continue to be good may the great majority
of decorators look forward to continued employ­
ment over a long period of time.
Earnings
Typical earnings of beginners in entrance jobs
were around $30 to $40 per week in some large
cities at the beginning of 1947. A wide range of
earnings existed among established decorators, de­
pending on size of establishment, size of city, in­
come o f clientele, and other factors; some earned
upward of $10,000 or even $20,000 per year. Most
of those in the upper income brackets were in
business for themselves, although high salaries
were often paid by large establishments to depart­
ment heads and others.
Where To Get More Information
American Institute o f Decorators,
41 E. 57th St.,
New York, N. Y.

100

O C C U P A T IO N A L

OUTLOOK

HANDBOOK

Photographers
(D .O .T . 0 -5 6 .0 1 ; 0-56.31)

Outlook Summary
Limited number of openings for highly quali­
fied persons in next few years; keen competition
among new entrants. Long-run trend in employ­
ment slowly upward.
Nature o f Work
Photographers usually specialize in portrait,
commercial, news, or aerial work. They must be
able to use cameras, lenses, filters, and other equip­
ment and have knowledge of lighting. They must
also be able to do such work as developing, finish­
ing, printing, enlarging, and retouching, much of
which requires the knowledge and use of chemicals.
In small shops, the photographer himself may do
all this work. Even in large studios employing
photographic technicians, he often develops and
prints his own pictures.
Where Employed
Most photographers are employed in studios
handling portrait or commercial work. Others
work for newspaper and magazine publishers, ad­
vertising agencies, manufacturing plants, and Fed­
eral, State, and local governments, Many are in
business for themselves.
There are photographers in all parts of the
country, in small towns as well as large cities.
However, in 1940, over half were employed in only
six States—New York. Illinois, California, Penn­
sylvania, Ohio, and Michigan.
How to Enter
Usual method of entering the occupation is by
training on the job. This usually takes 2 or 3 years
and covers all phases of photography, the trainee
advancing through the various operations. Some
employers have formal apprenticeship programs.
Persons may also enter the occupation by attend­
ing a school of photography. However, comple­
tion of a school course cannot substitute for onthe-job training,’ though it may shorten the
training period. Selection of a reputable school is




very important. Veterans whose only experience
in photography was obtained in the armed forces
will need additional training for civilian work.
High-school education, with emphasis on chem­
istry, physics, and art, is recommended for all
prospective photographers. They should also have
artistic ability, a pleasing appearance and person­
ality, and a good business sense, if they expect to
go into business for themselves.
Outlook
Openings will not be numerous in the next few
years. In 1940, there were 37,600 photographers;
3,900 were unemployed. Employment rose sharp­
ly during the war, mainly because of increased de­
mand for portrait work. Since VJ-day, this de­
mand has fallen off. The number o f portrait
studios and of photographers employed have
therefore decreased. However, employment is
likely to remain above the prewar level. There
will be a limited number of openings for highly
qualified persons, particularly in commercial
work, but competition for training positions and
beginning jobs is likely to be keen in the near fu­
ture. Veterans and others should be very cautious
about taking over a portrait studio, in view of the
drop in this type o f business.
Employment will probably rise slowly in the
long run, though it is not likely to reach the war­
time level for a number of years. In addition,
there will be some openings because of deaths and
retirements. Best opportunities may be expected
in commercial work, owing to expanded use o f
photography in advertising, record keeping, med­
icine, and other fields. Commercial photogra­
phers will also have a better chance of steady em­
ployment over a long period of time than those
doing portrait work, which is the branch likely to
be most affected by declines in business activity.
Earnings and Working Conditions
Typical salaries for experienced portrait pho­
tographers ranged from about $50 to $100 per
week in some large cities in early 1947. Those

OTHER

P R O F E S S IO N A L ,

101

S E M IP R O F E S S IO N A L , A D M IN IS T R A T IV E

with established reputations earned much more
in many instances. Salaries of commercial pho­
tographers were about the same; many working
on a job basis. News photographers usually aver­
aged about $40 per week, with some receiving as
high as $90 or more, at the beginning of 1947, de­
pending on the circulation of the newspaper or
magazine. Aerial photographers typically earned
from $40 to $50 per week, plus any traveling ex­
penses they may have incurred. In Federal Gov­

ernment jobs, base salaries ranged from $2,284 to
$4,480 per year depending on the grade of job.
Commercial and news photographers often
work nights and Sundays. Portrait photogra­
phers have rush seasons and may work long hours
at these times.
Where To Go for More Information
The Photographers’ Association of America,
520 Caxton Bldg.,
Cleveland 15, Ohio.

Commercial Artists
(D .O .T . 0-44.11, 13, and 21)

Outlook Summary
Expanding field. Good prospects for welltrained and experienced persons in next few years,
but keen competition among new entrants.
Nature of Work
Commercial artists design and draw illustra­
tions for advertising copy, books, magazines, and
newspapers. They also create posters for bill­
boards and other uses. Preparation of charts and
maps for exhibition or publication is another type
of work handled. Experienced artists usually
specialize in a particular product or field—for
example, fashion or industrial illustrations, fur­
niture advertising, or story illustrations.
Where Employed
The largest employers of commercial artists are
advertising concerns, department stores, news­
paper and magazine publishers, mail-order houses,
and calendar and greeting-card companies. Some
people work as free-lance artists on an independent
basis or own a commercial art studio employing
several other artists. Most are employed in or near
metropolitan areas where the largest users of com­
mercial art are located.
How To Enter
Most commercial artists begin their training in
high-school art classes or at vocational art schools
and later acquire practical experience. However,
some enter through on-the-job training periods of
varying lengths, combined with part-time scliool793996°—49---- 8




P hotograph

by

u

. S.

D epartm ent

of

labor

Experienced commercial artists usually specialize in a particular
product or field— example, theater poster advertising.

ing. Still others enter by obtaining certificates
from schools of fine and applied arts; the courses
of study offered by such schools usually take 3
years and cover all phases of art work.
Selection of a reputable school is very impor­
tant. The basic education received should include

102

O C C U P A T IO N A L

OUTLOOK

art courses, mathematics, science, and history. A
knowledge of lettering and typography, as well as
drawing, is essential.
Beginners must be content to start at the bottom,
performing routine jobs, and work up until their
ability is recognized. Artistic talent, originality,
resourcefulness, and salesmanship are among the
personal qualifications needed for success.
Outlook
Good employment opportunities for welltrained and experienced persons are expected in
the next few years. There will also be some open­
ings for new entrants possessing exceptional abil­
ity and good training. Highly qualified com­
mercial artists are needed because the number of
such persons entering the field decreased during
the war. Moreover, manufacturers and retailers
are beginning to face or are looking forward to a
highly competitive market for their goods; ad­
vertising and therefore commercial art will play
an important part in this competitive selling. At
present (early 1948), large numbers of partially
trained persons with only average artistic ability
are seeking work and enrolling in art schools, but
many of these people who are attempting to enter

HANDBOOK

the occupation will never succeed because o f their
lack of talent.
The demand for commercial art is likely to ex­
pand over the long run also. The growth of this
field has been rapid in the past and further growth
is expected. Visual advertising, especially in
magazines and newspapers, should continue to de­
velop rapidly, as it has in the past 10 years. Other
forms of commercial art, such as poster and win­
dow displays, greeting cards, calendars, and use of
visual aids in education should continue to employ
an increasing number of artists. However, com­
petition for beginning jobs is usually rather keen.
In depression periods even the experienced artists
are likely to have less work and lower earnings,
though the occupation tends to be less affected
than many others by declines in general business
activity.
Earnings
Beginners received about $30 or $40 per week
in entrance jobs such as tracer or copyist in early
1947. Experienced artists had a wide range of
earnings; those with established reputations made
upwards o f $10,000 yearly—sometimes much more.
See also Interior Decorator, page 98; Industrial
Designers, page 78.

Furniture Designers
(D .O .T . 0-46.12)

Outlook Summary
Outlook good for those already in the field and
for a very few new entrants who show exceptional
talent.
Nature o f W ork
Furniture designers develop and sketch de­
signs— work requiring skill, originality, and good
taste in addition to a knowledge of design, mate­
rials, and period styles. The furniture designer,
though essentially an artist, must have the tech­
nical ability to create models adaptable to con­
sumer needs and to modern methods of factory
production as well. After sketching the broad
central idea, some designers build and finish their
own models, often to full scale. Usually, however,




their work is confined to making drawings and
diagrams which are translated into working plans
by draftsmen, patternmakers, and model makers.
T raining
Furniture design is one o f the specialized fields
in the broader field of industrial designing. As
part of their necessary formal training, designers
study fine arts and industrial design in an art,
trade, or technical school. The specialist in fur­
niture design acquires, in addition, a well-rounded
knowledge of furniture history, architectural
trends, and classical furniture style.
Where Employed
Furniture designers are employed by individual
firms in furniture centers such as High Point,

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S E M IP R O F E S S IO N A L ,

N. C .; Jamestown, N. Y . ; Rockford, 111.; Grand
Rapids, Mich.; and Gardner, Mass. But most in­
dustrial designers work in large industrial cities,
such as New York, Chicago, and Los Angeles.
Outlook
Current sales show that purchasers prefer fur­
niture which is original and attractive in design.
Manufacturers are anxious to stimulate style con­
sciousness because it leads to the replacing of fur­
niture which, though not worn out, has an out­
moded appearance. To create models which will
stimulate the buyer’s desires, manufacturers are

A D M IN IS T R A T IV E

103

turning more and more to the designer for ideas.
For the most part, furniture manufacturers ob­
tain their designs from consultants. These con­
sultants, members of industrial designing firms,
develop such diverse products as chinaware, fur­
niture, vanity accessories, and department-store
interiors. However, a small number of furniture
manufacturers retain a full-time specialized de­
signer. Because so few manufacturers maintain
their own designing departments, the profession
of furniture designer is small and may easily be­
come overcrowxlecl. Although not entirely closed
to the exceptionally talented specialist, opportuni­
ties for new entrants are very limited.

Fur Designers
(D .O .T . 0-46.06)

Outlook Summary
Only a few prospective designers with excep­
tional talent will be able to enter this field. A l­
though the occupation is a growing one, it is still
very small.
Nature o f Work
Fur designers create original designs for fur
garments and invent new variations in basic de­
signs. Since there is a limited number of things
which can be done to a fur coat (such as attention
to sleeves, collars, shoulders, etc.) there is really
no such thing as a completely original design.
Considerable imagination and ingenuity is neces­
sary to develop styles that appear noticeably d if­
ferent from last year's models. In addition to
creating the styles, fur designers may make, or
supervise the making of, canvas models from the
patterns, and they often draw lay-outs showing
how the skins are to be used in making a particu­
lar fur garment.
The nature of a designer’s work varies some­
what depending on the place of employment.
Some work in patternmaking houses, where ideas
are sketched and drafted into patterns to sell to
fur garment manufacturers and retail furriers.
Others are employed by manufacturing firms and
by a few of the larger retail fur shops which keep




a designer on the staff to sketch models and draft
patterns exclusively for them.
There are furriers in retail shops all over the
country who do some designing now and then as a
part of their regular job of making or remodeling
fur coats. But nearly all of the full-time design­
ers work in New York City, where most of the
patternmaking and wholesale manufacturing
houses are located.
How To Qualify as a Designer
Many fur designers break into the field by get­
ting experience in patternmaking houses. They
advance from patterncutting and patternmaking
to designing as they become more proficient. Fur­
riers in fur shops and designers of cloth coats and
dresses occasionally take up fur designing. A l­
though courses in sketching, patternmaking, cos­
tume designing, and other related subjects are
helpful to the would-be designer, probably no fur
designer has ever come directly out of a school.
There are no apprenticeship programs. Design­
ing requires artistic and creative ability which,
while doubtless stimulated under supervised
training, cannot be acquired.
Outlook
Even if the fur business should expand in the
next few years—which at this point (early 1948)

104

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OUTLOOK H A N D B O O K

does not seem likely—very few additional de­
signers would be needed. The occupation is very
small; there are probably not over 200 full-fledged
fur designers. As long as times are prosperous,
however, those already in the field will be steadily
employed.
Designing is an occupation that has become in­
creasingly important to the fur industry. It is
only within the past 20 years that manufacturers
of fur garments have become style conscious.
Formerly all fur coats were made over the same
basic pattern. Now style is as essential to fur
coats as it is to dresses, cloth coats, and other
clothing.

Earnings
Designers employed in ready-made fur gar­
ment plants in New York City are guaranteed at
least $90 per week by union contract. On the
whole, designers regularly employed by a firm
usually make anywhere between $5,000 and
$10,000 a year if they have a steady job as a sal­
aried worker. Some are partners in designing
and patternmaking houses which sell their pat­
terns to manufacturers on a fee basis. Pattern­
cutting and patternmaking, occupations through
which many fur designers get their start, pay beties for new entrants are very limited.

Lawyers
(D .O .T . 0-22)

Outlook Summary
Profession somewhat overcrowded at the lower
levels and likely to become more so in next few
years. Continued expansion in demand for legal
services likely in long run.
Nature of IYork
A large portion of lawyers’ work consists in ad­
vising clients on their legal rights and obligations
and in negotiating settlement out of court. In
addition, lawyers prosecute or defend both civil
and criminal law suits in the courts. They also
represent clients before semi judicial or adminis­
trative agencies o f the Government; draw up legal
documents; often act as trustee, guardian, or ex­
ecutor, and do other legal work.
It is roughly estimated that there are over 180,000 lawyers and judges in the United States, in­
cluding 4,000 women. About two-thirds are selfemployed. Most of the remainder are either in
Government service or on the legal staffs of big
corporations.
IIow To Enter
To be admitted to the bar, it is usually necessary
to pass a State examination, besides meeting cer­
tain educational requirements. Most States re­
quire graduation from a law school approved by




the State or the American Bar Association (about
110 of the Nation’s 163 schools are approved by
the A. B. A .). A few States admit graduates of
their own State university law schools and occa­
sionally o f other specified schools to the bar with­
out examinations. Several States require 6 to 12
months’ clerkship in a law office, in addition to the
specified education and bar examinations. Reci­
procity arrangements which exempt persons with
3 to 5 years’ practice elsewhere from further ex­
aminations are in effect in most States. To be
admitted to an approved law school 2 or more
years o f pre-law college work are generally neces­
sary. Some States and many law schools have
higher requirements and the trend is toward still
higher ones.
Young lawyers usually start as junior assistants
in an established office. Many stay on with these
firms and, in time, may become partners. After
gaining some experience, others open their own
offices and are then faced with a “ starvation pe­
riod” of several years. A ll States and bar asso­
ciations forbid lawyers to advertise or solicit busi­
ness; therefore, to become known, it is important
to participate in community affairs and to get on
national commercial law lists and on the lawyers
reference list, if one exists in the area. A neigh­
borhood law office is often a good way of attract­
ing clients in large cities.

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Outlook
The legal profession is already somewhat over­
crowded at the lower levels and is likely to become
much more so during the next few years. Enroll­
ment in law schools in the fall of 1947 was over
50,000, the highest ever reached. It will remain
very high for several years, but will probably
drop somewhat thereafter, as the great number
of veterans now enrolled complete their training.
Top-ranking students will continue to find jobs
with little difficulty. The average graduate of
the next few years may expect increasingly stiff
competition, however, and will need the best prep­
aration possible. Opportunities for teaching are
now exceptionally good. Prospects for Negro
lawyers are relatively favorable, particularly in
urban areas with a large Negro population (ex­
cept Chicago, Washington, and New Y ork).
The profession is expected to go on expanding
over the long run, owing to the growing popula­
tion and various economic and social trends which
will increase the need for legal services. Deaths
and retirements will also create a considerable
number of openings. The tendency toward over­
crowding in the profession will probably continue,
however, unless ways are found to make legal serv­
ices available to greater numbers of lower income
people. Legal aid societies have for many years
been offering free services to those who could not
afford to pay anything; many people who can af­
ford small fees do not use the legal services they
need, largely because the charges are beyond their
means. Attempts have been made to provide com­
petent low-cost legal services through such plans
as the Legal Service Bureau and neighborhood law
offices. I f services of this nature become wide­
spread and well known, the new legal business
opened up will help absorb the surplus of young
lawyers.
Opportunities for specialists are usually better
than for lawyers in general practice; many of the
larger law firms have such specialists on their
staffs. Specialties with relatively good prospects
in the long run are: Tax law (thorough knowledge
of accounting is necessary and government experi­
ence helpful), patent law (scientific or engineer­




A D M IN IS T R A T IV E

105

ing training is often required), administrative
law, admiralty law, and international law. Legal
training is becoming increasingly useful for many
types of business and is a great asset to people
seeking public office.
Best opportunities usually lie in medium-size
and small cities, especially those with prospects
of economic expansion. State capitals and county
seats may also offer good opportunities. The pro­
fession is especially overcrowded in the very larg­
est cities and in Washington, D. C.
Earnings
According to a 1911 survey, average net income
of lawyers in private practice was then around
$4,800; half made under $3,000. In New York
City, incomes averaged about $5,900, but half
made under $2,800. In other cities of over 500,000,
the average income was $6,700, with half making
less than $3,300. Highest incomes were reported
in the far West and the Middle Atlantic States.
There have been substantial increases in earnings
since 1941.
Lawyers’ operating expenses are high, absorb­
ing, on the average, about one-tliird of gross earn­
ings. Frequently, two or more lawyers share the
same offices to reduce overhead costs. Many of
them, particularly in small towns, have to have
some other source of income such as a farm, real
estate, or other business.
Where To Go for More Information
Information on such matters as law schools,
their entrance requirements, and employment op­
portunities in a particular locality may be ob­
tained from the main headquarters or from the
local chapters o f :
(1) American Bar Association,
1140 North Dearborn St.,
Chicago, 111.
(2) National Lawyers Guild,
902 20th St. N W „
Washington, D. C.

Specific information on requirements for admis­
sion to the bar may be obtained from the clerk of
the State supreme court at any State capital.

106

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O U TLO OK

HANDBOOK

Social Workers
(D .O .T . 0-27)

Outlook Summary
Excellent immediate opportunities in all types
of positions. Long-run outlook good for work­
ers with graduate training; those with only under­
graduate training will face increasing competition.
Nature of Work

social service and the inability of the professional
schools to keep pace with the demand. School
enrollments have increased since VJ-clay, espe­
cially in the number of men students, and the
schools have waiting lists of applicants. War
services which used great numbers of social work­
ers are continuing, though on a smaller scale; the

Principal types of social work are case work,
including family social work, child-welfare work
services, and work with delinquents; group w ork;
community organization; social research; and
social administration. The majority of social
workers are employed by Federal, State, and local
governments; most of the remainder by private
social agencies; a few by private industry. They
are to be found in all parts of the country, in both
urban and rural areas.
How To Enter
There are 47 accredited schools which give grad­
uate training in social work. Such training is
usually considered necessary for positions involv­
ing advanced case work and is desirable for all
jobs. Qualifications for most Federal civil-service
positions can be met either by certain types of
social work experience or by a combination of
training and experience. Entrance requirements
for graduate schools include undergraduate courses
in social and biological sciences and, usually, a
certain level of scholastic achievement. For those
who must enter the field with only a B. A. degree,
some colleges and universities oiler preprofes­
sional courses in social work. Some positions,
especially in public-assistance work, can be entered
with still less academic training.
It is roughly estimated that there are at least
100,000 social workers at present. The majority
(approximately 65 percent in 1940) are women.
The proportion of Negroes employed is small, but
greater than before the war.
Outlook
There is an acute shortage of social workers
(early 1948), due largely to the increased use of




ph o to g raph

by

U.

S.

d e p a r t m e n t

of

l a b o r

.

Social work requires tact and understanding in helping people deal
with their problems.

Veterans Administration needs more trained
workers than can be found in many areas; new
projects, such as the Mental Health Act, also re­
quire trained workers; and older programs, such
as child welfare and public assistance in the Social
Security Administration, have increasing need
for professionally trained workers. Experienced
workers are advancing rapidly to better positions,
leaving openings in the lower-paid jobs. Short­
ages are most severe in rural areas, though the
greatest numbers are employed in cities.
Workers with graduate training will probably
find good employment opportunities in the long
run, as well as in the immediate future. Only a
small proportion of social workers now have this
training. Before the war there was a definite trend

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toward higher training requirements, which may
be expected to be resumed as soon as shortages are
less severe. Workers without graduate training
will therefore find it increasingly difficult to meet
the competition. How many people will be em­
ployed in the field as a whole will depend largely
on the appropriations for public social work by
Federal, State, and local governments; to a lesser
extent on community support of private agencies.
In any case, many openings will arise owing to
turn-over, which is high because many women
leave the field to marry (though marriage is not
necessarily a barrier to employment).
Opportunities for men will be particularly good.
The number of administrative jobs is increasing
and men are frequently preferred for these posi­
tions ; also, men have been entering other types of
social-work positions in greater and greater num­
bers since the war, when many of them gained
experience in medical and psychiatric services.
Social workers are not likely to be as much
affected by declines in business activity as are
many other occupations, though there may be a

A D M IN IS T R A T IV E

107

shift from specialized services to dispensing of
relief.
Earnings
Salaries vary greatly according to type of work,
size of agency, location, training, experience, sex
of worker, and other factors. At the present time
earnings are increasing rapidly. In the publicassistance field salaries in beginning positions
ranged from about $900 to $2,200 per year in 1946.
In large cities experienced case workers in most
fields typically made from about $2,000 to $2,600;
those in small cities and rural areas made some­
what less. Typical salaries for administrators
varied from about $3,600 to $13,000, depending
on the size of the agency. Entrance salary for
most social-work jobs in the Veterans Adminis­
tration is $3,727.
Where To Find Out More About Social Work
American Association o f Social Workers,
130 E. 22d St.,
New York 10, N. Y.

Personnel W orkers 1
(D .O .T . 0-39.82 and 8 3 ; 0-68.71, 72, and 73)

Outlook Summary
Field overcrowded at present. Long-run em­
ployment trend slowly upward, but keen competi­
tion for entry jobs likely to continue for several
years.
Nature of Work
Personnel workers maintain personnel records,
and assist in recruiting, placing, training, rating,
disciplining, and discharging employees. They
may also be responsible for job standardization
and classification and wage setting; for employee
welfare services, health, and safety; for compli­
ance with Federal and State labor laws; and for
an employee-information service. Labor relations
is becoming one of the most important parts of
their work. In a small company, one man may
handle all this work; in the largest ones, the per­
sonnel manager is a top-ranking executive who ad­
vises in setting of personnel policies and has under




him hundreds o f personnel-department employees.
Professional personnel workers in late 1946
totaled no more than 30,000, according to one
rough estimate. Directors or managers make up
only a small proportion of this total. Personnel
workers are employed in all industries; about
5,000 work for Federal, State, and local govern­
ments ; some are employed by schools and colleges.
Men with long and varied experience may work
independently as private consultants or laborrelations experts.
About three out o f every four people in the pro­
fession are men. Very few women have top
managerial positions, but many are in technical
personnel jobs such as classification and place­
ment, in interviewing and counseling, and in per­
sonnel research—particularly in government and
industries with large numbers of women workers.1
1Excludes student personnel w
orkers in schools and colleges.

108

O C C U P A T IO N A L

OUTLOOK

IIow to Enter
Requirements for positions usually include a
bachelor’s degree, with courses in personnel and
public administration, psychology, statistics, busi­
ness management, economics, sociology, and
political science. Graduate study is becoming in­
creasingly useful.
Work experience is very important, particularly
for positions in private industry, which are usu­
ally filled from within. The best place to start
out is in a production job. Other good places are
subprofessional jobs in time study, job analysis, or
wage setting, or, in the case of women, clerical
work in the personnel department. Psychological
testing is one o f the few branches of industrial
personnel work which can be entered directly from
college; it usually requires a graduate degree.
Outlook
At present (early 1948), there are a few open­
ings at top managerial levels for experienced men,
but competition for lower-grade positions is very
keen. During the war, many inadequately pre­
pared people gained some experience in personnel
work in civilian industries and the armed forces.
The number of these partly qualified workers who
are seeking jobs now greatly exceeds the number
o f available openings. Totally inexperienced per­
sons will find it very difficult to enter the field in
the next few years.
In the long run, the profession will probably
grow slowly. Openings will not be many, how­
ever, because the field is still relatively small and
turn-over is low. Not only is the profession staffed
mainly by young men, but people who succeed in
making headway in it seldom transfer to other
occupations. In general, promotions will be slow.
Best opportunities for jobs will be with small and
middle-size companies. Fields in which increas­
ing employment is expected include wholesale and
retail trade, especially department stores, insur­
ance and finance, and State and local govern­
ments.
Employment in the Federal Government has
dropped since the war but is expected to stabilize




HANDBOOK

at a point close to present levels; little expansion
is likely in the near future. Nevertheless, many
personnel workers will always be employed by the
Federal Government. Veteran’s preference will
be observed in any entry jobs that do arise.
A very few outstanding men will continue to
find opportunities as labor arbitrators or inde­
pendent personnel consultants. There will also
continue to be numerous openings for people with
graduate degrees to teach personnel administra­
tion.
Most jobs, along with the keenest competition,
will be in highly industrialized parts o f the coun­
try, principally New York, New Jersey, Pennsyl­
vania, Ohio, Illinois, and the west coast.
Earnings
Starting salaries for personnel clerks in the
Federal Government are usually about $2,730 or
$2,980 per year. Personnel specialists start at
about $2,980 while personnel directors earn from
$6,000 to $10,000. State and local governments
pay salaries that are generally somewhat lower.
In private industry, starting rates are lower than
in the Federal Government but top salaries are
much higher; earnings depend both on the gen­
eral salary level of the company and on the degree
of recognition given to personnel work. Begin­
ning positions such as job analyst, time-study
man, and interviewer generally pay from $1,800 to
$2,600 per year. The most usual salary for a per­
sonnel manager is apparently between $6,000 and
$8,000 per year. However, small companies may
pay as little as $5,000 and giant corporations as
high as $30,000 or more to a vice president in
charge of personnel.
Where To Go For Additional Information
Society for the Advancement o f Management,
84 W illiam St.,
New York 7, N. Y.

Information may also be obtained from the local
chapters of this organization and from the deans
of any of the major colleges of business adminis­
tration.

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109

Librarians
(D . O. T. 0-23.20)

Outlook Summary
Immediate employment opportunities are very
good for professionally trained librarians. New
entrants should find employment readily for the
next several years at least.

rule, only large schools have specially trained li­
brarians. College and university libraries (num­
bering about 1.700) employ nearly 18 percent. The
remainder work in approximately 1,500 special
libraries and 230 Federal and State libraries.

Nature o f Work

Outlook

The major divisions ol the work of every library,
large or small, general or specialized, are adminis­
tration, book selection and order work, cataloging
and classification, circulation work, and reference
service. In a small library the librarian may per­
form the duties involved in all or several of these
functions. In a large organization, different li­
brarians handle each function and there are addi­
tional positions such as children’s librarian, read­
ers’ adviser, public-relations director, subject spe­
cialists, personnel director, and positions of a
strictly administrative nature.

Employment opportunities for trained librari­
ans are very good (in 1948), and there will be
good opportunities for new entrants for several
years. Growth in this field has been rapid in the
past and there are indications of further expan­
sion. Even before the war the annual placement
of library-school graduates reached 100 percent.
A shortage of librarians was intensified during the
war when library-school enrollments dropped
steadily. There is considerable turn-over in this
field because many young women marry and leave
their jobs, and both men and women find positions
in other fields in which knowledge of librarianship
is an asset. A return to library-school enrollments
of prewar size (about 1,500 were graduated each
year) will not meet the needs of libraries for re­
placements and new positions created by expand­
ing facilities in the next few years.
The greatest number of opportunities will con­
tinue to be in positions now found in most librar­
ies—reference and circulation librarians, catalogers, librarians for service to children and young
people, and school librarians. A smaller number
of librarians will be needed for positions which
require special competence and preparation—ad­
ministrators, subject specialists, extension librari­
ans, librarians in adult education, public-relations
specialists, hospital librarians, and librarians to
develop the use of audio-visual materials. There
is need for librarians who can administer and at
the same time perform most of the routine work
in small libraries, since these libraries far outnum­
ber the large ones.

Training
To obtain a position as librarian, one must be a
college graduate and have completed a year in one
of the 34 accredited library schools either before
or after obtaining the bachelor’s degree. Twothirds of these schools give graduate training only.
The other third include the curriculum in library
science within the undergraduate 4 years. Several
library schools enroll students at the beginning
of the third college year for 2 or more years of
combined study in library science and subject
fields. Undergraduate study should include his­
tory, literature, at least one modern foreign lan­
guage, and research methods.
Considerable
knowledge of the physical or the social sciences is
particularly important in library service today.
Where Employed
There are about 30,000 trained librarians (early
1948), of whom 90 percent are women. The 7,400
public libraries employ slightly more than 40 per­
cent of these people. Centralized libraries in ele­
mentary and secondary schools (numbering some
20,000) employ about 30 percent, although, as a




Earnings
Inexperienced library-school graduates for 1947
had a minimum entrance salary of $2,300 with an

110

O C C U P A T IO N A L

OU TLOOK

average of $2,500. Salaries vary considerably witli
type of work, training, experience, and size and
location of library. A survey of library personnel
in 31 cities of over 200,000 population in 1947
showed that department heads had a median min­
imum salary of $2,967 and a median maximum sal­
ary of $3,870; branch librarians (not including
sub-branch librarians) had median minimum and
maximum salaries of $2,300 and $2,800, respec­
tively; and catalogers (exclusive of first assistants
and department heads), $2,100 and $2,660. With
the Federal Government, the basic entrance salary
for qualified professional librarians is $2,974 a
year. Salaries are usually somewhat higher in
special libraries than in general libraries,.

HANDBOOK

Where To Go for Further Information
Information, particularly on schools, require­
ments, and placement, may be obtained from :
American Library Association,
50 E. Huron St.,
Chicago 11, 111.

Information on special libraries may be obtained
from :
Special Libraries Association,
31 E. 10th St.,
New York City 3, N. Y.

Statistics of library systems and other informa­
tion will be furnished b y :
Federal Security Agency,
Office o f Education,
W ashington 25, D. C.

Newspaper Reporters and Editors
(D .O .T . 0-0G.43, .44, .45, .47, .48, .51, .52, and .71)

Outlook Summary
Occupation somewhat overcrowded at present.:
In long run, opportunities in newspaper work will
probably continue to be limited, but some expan­
sion in related fields is expected.
Nature of Work
Newspaper reporters gather facts for news
stories which may be written either by them or by
a rewrite man. There are many types of editors,
with varying degrees of responsibility. Depart­
ment editors handle a particular kind of news such
as sports or society. City editors assign reporters,
photographers, and rewrite men to local news
stories and may edit stories and headlines. Man­
aging editors have complete charge of the editorial
department and, with the publisher, set the general
policy of the paper. Editors are usually recruited
from reporters. Taking both groups together,
about 58,000 were employed in 1940; approxi­
mately one-fourth were women.
Qualifications, Training, and Advancement
Talent for writing is essential and often out­
weighs academic training in getting jobs and pro­
motions. A general college education is desirable,
however. More and more, employers are giving
preference to people with formal training in jour­




nalism, history, and economics.
People usually get into the occupation by start­
ing as a “ cub” reporter on a small newspaper or
a trade-association paper or by working up from
the job of copy boy (where they begin as messen­
gers and advance to routine reporting assign­
ments) . Small country and suburban papers pre­
fer local men who know the community and have
related skills, such as photography or printing.
Trade associations prefer people with a knowledge
of their particular field. Many large papers and
syndicates hire college graduates as copy boys and
give them a chance at reporting after several
months.
Reporters may advance to positions as copy
readers or to editorships, get reporting jobs on
larger papers or with syndicates, or transfer to a
variety of better paying, related jobs. They may
also do free-lance reporting for more than one
newspaper or magazine.
Outlook
The reporting field is now (in the early part of
1948) somewhat overcrowded, though the surplus
o f reporters that followed the return of ex-news­
papermen from the armed forces is declining.
Newspapers are making occasional lay-offs, to cut
costs or for other reasons, but the workers dis­
placed are often able to find other reporting jobs.

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Some men are also finding jobs in related fields.
New entrants will probably continue to have a
hard time obtaining positions in large cities, where
there are generally experienced reporters and edi­
tors available for employment. The best chance
of jobs for inexperienced people will be with small
country papers.
Employment of reporters and editors on news­
papers is not likely to increase much in the long
run, though there will always be some openings
owing to turn-over. The trend toward fewer
papers will probably continue and lead to lay­
offs. Technological developments and the greater
interest of the reading public in national and
international affairs point toward increased use of
syndicated material—which would mean less need
for reporters on the papers using the service.
Competition for reporting jobs will probably con­
tinue to be great since many young people are at­
tracted by the reputed glamour of the work; how­
ever, talented people with little formal training
have a chance of breaking into this profession.
There will be some opportunities, mainly for
experienced workers, in fields related to newspaper
work. There are plans to start many more new
magazines as soon as enough paper is available.
Book publication is increasing; so are the public
relations and radio fields. Advertising agencies
may also be able to use some additional newspaper­
men.
Earnings
American Newspaper Guild minimum rates for
cub reporters with no previous experience were

111

$35 to $50 a week in early 1948. Minimums for
experienced reporters ranged between $70 and
$100 with actual going rates considerably higher.
There are no set salary standards for editors;
some may make as little as $60 a week, while the
managing editor of a large metropolitan daily
may earn as much as $50,000 a year. Salaries vary
with size of the paper, type of job, experience, and
other factors.
Where To Go for Additional Information
Information, especially on union wage rates, is
available from :
American Newspaper Guild,
Research Department,
63 Park Row,
Room 905,
New York 7, N. Y.

Information about opportunities with small­
town papers may be obtained from :
American Press Association,
225 W. 39th St.,
New York, N. Y.

Names and locations of all daily newspapers are
published in the Editor and Publisher’s Interna­
tional Yearbook, available in most large news­
paper offices.
People interested in operating a small news­
paper will find valuable information in the fol­
lowing publication:
U. S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of
Foreign and Domestic Commerce. A Weekly
Newspaper. U. S. Government Printing Office,
Washington 25, D. C. 1946. Price 15 cents.

Radio Announcers
(D .O .T . 0-69.21)

Outlook Summary
A good many openings for announcers in the near
future, but competition for openings likely to be
keen, particularly in large cities. Opportunities
for newcomers generally limited to small stations.
Long-run employment trend upward.
Nature of Work
Announcers act as masters of ceremonies on
radio programs of various kinds, read commercials




and news flashes, give station identifications, de­
scribe sporting events, and do announcing of other
types. Especially in small stations, they may also
have a variety of other duties—playing phono­
graph records and other transcriptions which are
being broadcast, operating some of the controls on
the broadcasting equipment, writing script, even
acting as station manager. - Most are on the staffs
of single stations or radio networks; some work i
for large advertising agencies. Others are not

112

O C C U P A T IO N A L

OUTLOOK

connected with any company, but free-lance, hir­
ing themselves out for a single job or a series o f
programs. A few have their own stations.
How To Enter
A well-rounded education, preferably including
a college degree, is important for this occupation.
Good knowledge of the English language is neces­
sary. Other essential qualifications are a good
voice and ability to deal readily with unusual situ­
ations. For jobs in telecasting, announcers must
meet particularly rigid standards as to personal
appearance.
Practically all new announcers begin at small
radio stations. I f successful there, they have a
good chance of being hired by a larger station or
one o f the radio networks. Those who can also
qualify as radio operators through holding Fed­
eral Communications Commission first-class radio­
telephone licenses have an advantage in getting
jobs. A few announcers become well-known and
highly paid radio personalities; some advance to
executive positions in the broadcast industry.
Outlook
The broadcasting industry is growing rapidly.
In April 1948, there were over 1,700 standard
broadcasting stations on the air, as compared with
about 900 in 1945. By the end of the year, this
figure will have risen to more than 2,000, and
hundreds of FM stations and perhaps 50 television
stations will be on the air full-time.
Around 7,000 announcers and staff program
employees who did some announcing were em­
ployed in the spring of 1948. Many hundreds of
additional announcers will be needed in the near
future to man new stations and those established
stations which are expanding their facilities, as
well as to fill vacancies due to turn-over.
E m p lo y m e n t o f an n ou n cers w ill n o t increase d i­




HANDBOOK

rectly with growth of FM stations, however. Most
FM stations are operated in conjunction with AM
stations, and the same announcers can be used for
both channels. In the long run, the number of
announcers employed will continue to rise. It may
reach a figure several thousand higher than the
current one. The greatest expansion is expected
in FM and television stations, though the number
o f AM stations may continue to increase for at
least a few more years.
Although there will be a good many openings
for announcers, there is likely to be a surplus of
jobseekers. As in the past, broadcasting compan­
ies, particularly in large communities, will gener­
ally be able to choose the best of many applicants.
In small communities, where most announcers get
their first jobs, competition for openings is likely
to be much less keen than in big cities.
Earnings
According to a survey made by FCC in October
1947 regular staff announcers at stations with 15
or more employees were paid an average of about
$69 per week. Staff program employees at smaller
stations (announcers were not listed separately)
averaged much less, about $46 per week. Many
announcers receive talent fees in addition to regu­
lar salaries. At larger stations average hours
worked per week were 41, at smaller stations
about 42.
1 here To Go for Additional Information
1
Employment offices of local broadcasting com­
panies may be able to furnish data on job pros­
pects, qualifications, and earnings. The magazine,
Broadcasting, carries help-wanted and situationwanted classified advertisements for radio an­
nouncers.
See also
page 87.

Radio

Operators

(Broadcasting),

OTHER

P R O F E S S IO N A L ,

S E M IP R O F E S S IO N A L , A D M IN IS T R A T IV E

113

Funeral Directors and Embalmers
(D.O.T. 0-65)

Outlook Summary
N ew en tran ts seek in g a p p re n tice sh ip o p p o r t u ­
n ities ou tn u m ber op en in g s.

S lig h t e x p a n sion o f

field ex p ected in lo n g run.

Nature of 1Vork
T h e fu n era l d ire cto r , w h o m a y also be r e fe r r e d
to as m o rticia n o r u n d erta k er, m akes a rra n g e ­
m ents f o r and con d u cts fu n erals. H e in terv iew s
the fa m ily to ob tain data abou t the deceased, so
that legal requ irem en ts can be m et, and h elp s p la n
the details o f the fu n e ra l service.
acts as em balm er.

F re q u e n tly he

T h e em balm er p rep ares b od ies f o r final d is p o ­
s itio n , in c o n fo r m it y w ith State law s a n d lo ca l
ord in an ces. P r e p a ra tio n in clu d es s te riliz in g and
p reserv in g th e b o d y b y in je c tin g e m b a lm in g flu id
o r b y oth er m eans. E m b a lm e r m a y also dress the
b o d y , a p p ly cosm etics to g iv e a n a tu ra l a p p e a r­
ance, and restore m aim ed o r d isfig u re d bodies.

In 1940, there were about 38,000 employed fu­
neral directors and embalmers; 2,000 were women.
Mortuary establishments numbered about 18,000
in 1939; 1,500 were Negro-operated. Most were
very small, nearly half having only one or two
employees. Many funeral directors operate their
own establishments with help only of family mem­
bers or part-time workers.
How To Enter
In all States embalmers must be licensed. Some
States have a separate funeral director’s license while others have a common license for both em­
balming and funeral directing. Most people now
entering these occupations obtain the licenses
needed for both types of work.
F o r em balm ers’ licenses, the usual req u irem en ts
a r e : M in im u m age o f 2 1 ; g o o d m ora l c h a ra cte r ;
residen ce in S tate f o r p re scrib e d n u m ber o f y e a r s ;
h ig h -s ch o o l g ra d u a tio n (a n in cre a sin g n u m ber o f
S tates requ ire co lle g e cr e d its ) ; c o m p le tin g an em ­

before, after, or concurrently with the required
school course) ; and passing an examination given
by the State. Requirements for funeral directors’
licenses are about the same, except that the course
in embalming is not required in most States and
only 1 year o f apprenticeship is usually specified.
There are about 25 schools of embalming, most of
which give a 9- to 12-month course. Three uni­
versities offer courses in mortuary science.
Outlook
Employment opportunities will be limited in the
immediate future. There will be some opportuni­
ties to replace those who retire, or to go into part­
nership with older men. 'However, more people
are seeking apprenticeship opportunities than
there are openings. Embalming schools have been
filled to capacity since the end of the war; thou­
sands of veterans are taking training under the
GI bill of rights. Many students have connections
with established funeral homes run by friends or
members of their families; those who do not are
likely to have a hard time entering the field.
In the long run, the volume of business handled
by funeral homes is likely to increase slowly. The
number of deaths is expected to go on rising slowly
for about the next 40 years, owing to increasing
population. A few men will find opportunities to
start new funeral homes, though in most localities
competition from established firms will be great.
Openings with the older firms will be created
mainly by retirements and deaths of proprietors
or employees. Since embalming schools will prob­
ably be filled for at least the next few years, out­
siders may continue to have a hard time finding
apprentice openings. Men who manage to find
such openings and obtain licenses will have a good
chance of holding their jobs over a long period of
time, since declines in business activity tend to
have less effect on these occupations than on many
others.
J o b s are to be fo u n d in sizable com m u n ities

b a lm in g co u r se ; c o m p le tin g a p p re n tice sh ip (u s u ­

th ro u g h o u t the co u n try .

a lly a 2 -y ea r p e rio d , w h ich m a y have to be served

business, sele ctio n o f a g o o d lo ca tio n is v ery im -




F o r m en sta r tin g a new

114

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

portant. Factors to be considered include the
number of people in the locality, death rates, per
capital income, and competition from established
businesses.

In small establishments, earnings of owner-oper­
ators are often supplemented by income from other
businesses such as furniture sales.

Earnings

Where to Get Additional Information

Average earnings are not high. Nearly onethird o f all mortuary establishments in 1939 had
annual receipts, before deduction of any expenses,
of less than $5,000; only about 15 percent had
receipts of $25,000 or more. Typical weekly earn­
ings o f licensed embalmers now range from about
$35 to $100; those of apprentices from $17 to $50.

National Funeral Directors Association,
111 W. W ashington St.,
Chicago 2, 111.
National Selected Morticians,
520 N. Michigan Aye.
Chicago 11, 111.
The State Board o f Embalmers and Funeral Directors
at any State capital.

Dispatchers and Assistants (Air Transportation)
(D .O .T . 0-61.61)

Outlook Summary

Where Employed

No dispatcher opportunities for outsiders; va­
cancies filled only by promotions or transfers from
within the company, and no change in this policy
foreseen. Job chances for outsiders as assistants
poor in both short and long run.

Dispatchers and assistants are employed mainly
by air lines certified by the Civil Aeronautics
Board for scheduled operations. A few work for
the largest nonscheduled lines. They are stationed
principally at large airports in different parts of
the United States. Some few are stationed
abroad.

Duties
An air-line dispatcher (or flight superintend­
ent) has control over all of his company’s flights
within his sector. He approves flight plans, au­
thorizes take-offs, follows the progress of flights
as reported by radio, and keeps captains informed
of changing weather conditions and other develop­
ments affecting their flights. In addition, the dis­
patcher is responsible for keeping records on the
aircraft and engines available, on the amount of
time logged by each, and on the number of hours
flown by flight personnel based at his station. He
also sees to it that crew members are notified when
to report for duty.
Assistant dispatchers and various grades of
clerical employees aid in this work. Assistants as­
sume such duties as securing weather information,
helping to keep track of the progress of aircraft
in the sector, and handling communications with
the planes.




Qualifications
A Civil Aeronautics Administration certificate
is legally required for work as an aircraft dis­
patcher, though not for work as an assistant. To
qualify for certification, an applicant must have
been employed for at least 90 days in the 6 months
prior to certification in work connected with dis­
patching of air-line planes under supervision of
a certificated dispatcher and must meet other ex­
perience requirements. He has to pass a written
examination on such subjects as the civil air regu­
lations, aircraft characteristics, weather data and
weather analysis, air-navigation facilities and
principles, and airport and airway traffic proce­
dures. He also has to demonstrate his skill in
weather forecasting and certain other functions
involved in dispatching.

OTHER PROFESSIONAL, SEMIPROFESSIONAL, ADMINISTRATIVE

115

It is air-line policy to fill dispatcher positions
by promotions or transfers from within the com­
pany. Most present dispatchers were formerly
employed as station managers or meteorologists
by the same line and were selected as particularly
adapted to dispatching work. However, outsiders
are sometimes hired as assistant dispatchers and
may be promoted to regular dispatcher jobs after
they have had a training period of 1 to 3 years
and have obtained their certificates.
For assistant jobs, 2 years of college is generally
insisted on by the carriers, and men who have
completed a 4-year college course—including
training in mathematics, physics, chemistry, me­
teorology, and related subjects—are likely to re­
ceive preference. Experience in flying, weather
forecasting, and business administration is par­
ticularly advantageous. Personality factors also
count heavily.
Outlook
Slowly rising employment of both dispatchers
and assistants is expected both in the near future
and over the long run, provided that general bus­
iness conditions remain good. Nevertheless, dis­
patchers and assistants will together number only
in the hundreds for many years to come. There
appears in early 1948 to be no prospect of a change
in the policy of filling of vacancies by promotions
or transfers from within. For the occasional hir­
ing of outsiders as assistants, employers have had
at their disposal more than enough qualified appli­
cants (from among former air-force operations
officers and pilots, for example). Despite the
planned air-force expansion, the potential number
of such job seekers will continue to be so great
relative to the probable number of openings that
job chances for outsiders are almost certain to re­
main poor indefinitely.
Earnings and Working Conditions
The monthly salaries of the bulk of dispatchers
fall within a range of about $325 to $600 a month.
Assistants generally earn less, of course—about
$250 to $350 a month in most cases. The normal
workweek is usually 40 hours. Daily hours are
irregular and, on occasion, very long. Two weeks’
vacation with pay is usually given to both dis­
patchers and assistants.




Assistant dispatchers at work in an air line dispatchers office—
telephoning a CAA airways traffic-control center, entering the esti­
mated time of arrival of a plane, and reading a teletype report on
weather conditions.

The Air Line Dispatchers' Association (A F L )
is the only labor organization with contracts cov­
ering dispatchers and related workers. It has
negotiated agreements with 11 air lines.
Where To Get More Information
Additional information on the occupation o f
dispatchers and assistants is given in :
U. S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor
Statistics. Employment Opportunities in Avia­
tion Occupations. Part I—Postwar Employment
Outlook, and Part II—Duties, Qualifications,
Earnings and Working Conditions. Bulletins
Nos. 837-1 and 837-2, (1945 and 1946), Govern­
ment Printing Office, Washington 25, D. C. Price
' 10 cents and 20 cents.
Inquiries regarding job openings should be sent
to the personnel managers of the lines. Addresses
are listed in part II of the bulletin just mentioned
or may be obtained from :
Air Transport Association o f America,
1107 16th St. N W „
Washington, D. C.

See also Pilots, page 92; Meteorologists, page 82.

116

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

Airport and Air-Route Traffic Controllers
(D .O .T . 0-61.60)

Outlook Summary

Where Employed

Some openings expected in both occupations in
next few years, but probably not enough for all
qualified applicants. Any significant rise in em­
ployment in the immediate future may be followed
by a period of relative stability. Over the longer
run, however, a slow but steady rise in jobs is
virtually assured.

Most airport traffic controllers work in the 140
or more towers operated by the Federal Airways
Service, a division of the Federal Government’s
Civil Aeronautics Administration. The balance
are on the pay roll o f about 40 airports, which
operate their own towers. The airports with
towers, CAA or non-Federal, are the large fields
in different parts of the country (some few outside
the United States) where traffic is heavy enough
to require control towers.
The Federal Airways Service is the only em­
ployer of air-route controllers. These workers
are located at the various traffic-control centers
scattered throughout the country.

Duties
Airport traffic controllers supervise all flights
within a carefully defined flight-control area
around their airport. They issue directions (by
radio or other means) to planes taking off, landing,
and flying within the area, including instructions
as to course and flying levels as vr as when to
ell
take off and land. Other tasks include giving
weather and position information to planes in the
vicinity and keeping records of messages.
Senior controllers have responsibility for all
aspects of the work. Controllers (considered to be
in training for senior positions) assist them in
specific duties. In their supervisory capacity, the
senior controllers are also responsible for seeing
that all airport lighting and all communications
and other facilities are kept in good condition
and that information regarding flights is regu­
larly obtained from and relayed to airways trafficcontrol centers in the vicinity.
Air route (or airway) traffic controllers operate
air-route traffic-control centers, which regulate air
traffic on civil airways. The controllers do not
communicate directly with planes but constantly
receive information regarding the progress of
flights and related matters from air-line dispatch­
ers, airport traffic controllers, other control cen­
ters, and CAA communications stations. In
return, instructions, advice, and information are
given as to the conditions under which flights may
be commenced or continued and as to the progress
o f flights under w ay. Telephone, interphone, and
T
teletype equipment is used in transmitting these
messages.




Qualifications
Entry into either of the occupations under dis­
cussion is almost always as a trainee. A ll perma­
nent appointments to CAA jobs are made on the
basis of competitive civil-service examinations.
Pending the holding of such examinations, hiring
is done directly by CAA, and successful applicants
are given only temporary appointments. For the
most part, the minimum standards for admission
to civil-service tests for the trainee classification
have been adhered to by CAA in its hiring prac­
tices. These include at present such alternative
minimum experience or education as (1) 1 year’s
service in military aeronautical meteorological or
communications work or as an air-crew member in
the armed forces; (2) 9 months as a dispatcher
at a military base; (3) 200 hours of flying time,
plus a currently effective pilot certificate (except
when the flying time was acquired in the armed
services); or (4) 1 year of college credits. Posi­
tions above the level of trainee are filled mainly
by promotion from within, but only CAA-certificatecl persons are eligible for such advancement in
airport work. Kigid criteria are applied to deter­
mine fitness for the higher grades, and an airport
certificate is good only for duty at a specified field.

117

OTHER PROFESSIONAL, SEMIPROFESSIONAL, ADMINISTRATIVE

Outlook
In August 1948 about 1,650 airport controllers
and about 1,150 air-route controllers were em­
ployed (or authorized). These totals represent
substantial increases over the end-of-war levels,
and the rising volume of airport construction and
increasing airport and airway utilization promise
further gains over the long run. Employment in
these occupations is, of course, governed largely by
the size of the appropriations made by Congress
for the Federal Airways Service. Several recent
reports by congressional and other bodies have
recommended that such expenditures be increased.
The planned Air Force expansion will be a favor­
able factor. Therefore, if general business activity
and hence air traffic remain in high gear, it may be
reasonable to expect a doubling of the airport and
air-route staffs over the next 5 to 10 years, and
further modest but steady growth thereafter.
With respect to the extensiveness of the labor
supply, the flexible qualifications for the positions
make it possible for the Federal Government and
other employers to draw upon a wide variety of
military experienced persons to meet their man­
power needs: Meteorologists, communication
specialists, air-crew men, and dispatchers; also
upon many men and women without a military
background. Considering the large numbers of
persons involved in these categories and the inter­
est shown in traffic-control jobs, fairly stiff com­
petition can be expected for most openings.
Earnings and Working Conditions
Like Federal workers generally, CAA employ­
ees have a basic 40-liour week. However, air-route
traffic controllers often have to work 4 or 5 hours
overtime in a week, which is compensated for by
time off or premium pay.
Minimum salaries of CAA airport traffic con­
trollers range from $2,975 to $4,480 a year, de­
pending on the grade of job. The minimum rates
for air-route controllers range from $2,975 to
$4,526 a year. In addition, within-grade increases
are given every 12 or 18 months. Other benefits
of these Government jobs include 26 days of an­
nual leave, 15 days of sick leave, and 8 holidays a
year, all with pay. On the other hand, both air-

793996°—49— -9



COURTESY

OF

C IV I L

A E R O N A U T IC S

A D M IN I S T R A T IO N .

An airport traffic controller giving instructions to a pilot by radio­
telephone.

port and air-route controllers may have to work
at night.
Where To Get More Information
Additional information on these occupations
is given in :
U. S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor
Statistics, Employment Opportunities in Avia­
tion Occupations, Part I—Postwar Employment
Outlook; Part 2—Duties, Qualifications, Earn­
ings, and Working Conditions. Bulletins Nos.
837-1 and 837-2 (1945 and 1946). U. S. Govern­
ment Printing Office, Washington 25, D. C. Price
30 cents and 20 cents.
To find out more about opportunities with CAA
and the exact qualifications needed, one should
write to the United States Civil Aeronautics A d ­
ministration, Washington 25, D. C., or to any
regional office of this agency or of the United
States Civil Service Commission.
See also Ground Radio Operators and Tele­
typists, page 90; Dispatchers and Assistants,
page 114.

Clerical, Sales, and Service Occupations
CLERICAL OCCUPATIONS

Seventy years ago very few people were en­
gaged in clerical work! In those days business
records were kept to a minimum; letters had to
be written and copied by hand and bookkeeping
involved laborious copying of figures from one
sheet or ledger to another.
Since then the typewriter has been introduced
widely, speeding up the writing of letters and pro­
viding copies easily; adding and calculating ma­
chines, now widely used, speed up figuring; ac­
counting machines make record-keeping easy;
statistical punch-card equipment performs mira­
cles of accuracy and speed in sorting, counting,
adding, computing, and printing a vast amount
of information.
One would think that such labor-saving, techno­
logical improvements would have reduced the
number of clerical workers. Nevertheless, despite
the introduction of these machines—perhaps even
because of it—the number of clerical workers has
increased more rapidly than that of any other
major occupation group. Only 1 in 160 was a
clerical worker in 1870; in 1930 1 in 12 was en­
gaged in this type of work. As shown in chart
21, employment in clerical jobs gained steadily
during the war, and this growth continued with­
out interruption in the postwar period; in 1947
one employed worker in eight was engaged in a
clerical occupation.
Underlying this growth has been the increasing
complexity of business and Government organiza­
tion. The further introduction of labor-saving
business machines and more efficient procedures,
118




induced by the growing burden of clerical costs,
may affect the future trends in this field, particu­
larly in routine bookkeeping and clerical jobs, just
as the dial telephone has cut down the employment
of telephone operators and the teletype has reduced
the numbers of jobs for telegraph operators. These
developments may well slow down the rapid
growth of the clerical occupations, but in view of
their past gains and the increasing complexity of
the economy it seems likely that they will continue
to gain in importance for some time to come.

CLERICAL,

119

SALES, AND SERVICE OCCUPATIONS

keepers in census statistics, and an accurate esti­
mate of their number is not available.
From the point of view of a young woman
considering a vocational choice, the clerical field
is an important area of employment opportunity.
More than a quarter of the working women are in
clerical jobs—more than in any other single field—
and the number of new job openings available each
year is large because of turn-over. During the war
there were 2,400,000 more women in clerical occu­
pations than in 1940, while the number of men de­
creased. As the veterans returned to industry, the
number of men in clerical occupations increased
and the number of women fell, but by 1947 there
were still 1,600,000 more women clerical workers
than in 1940, and only about 700,000 more men.
Reports on a few occupations usually classified
as clerical are included in other sections of this
handbook—railroad clerks and baggagemen with
the other railroad occupations, hotel clerks with
the hotel occupations, and proofreaders with the
printing occupations.

The major occupations in the field are shown in
chart 22. Largest groups are stenographers, typ­
ists, and secretaries, and bookkeepers, accountants,
and cashiers. A large number of people are also
employed as shipping clerks, telephone operators,
and mail carriers. Many clerical workers perform
miscellaneous jobs and are not classified separately
by the Bureau of the Census.
Looking at the chart, one can clearly see the
wide variations in skill to be found among the
occupations classified by the census as clerical.
They range from accountants, who usually have
several years of college or business-school training
and often hold responsible positions in large firms,
to messengers and office boys. Actually, account­
ants are often considered professional workers;
certified public accountants (of whom there were
about 20,000 in 1940) have been included with the
professions, but the balance of accountants—per­
haps as many as 200,000—were not shown sepa­
rately because they are grouped with the book­

MAJOR C LER IC A L O C C U P A T IO N S
EMPL OY MENT, 1940
T H O U S A N D S O'F W O R K E R S

200

400

600

800

000

1200

Stenographers,Typists,
and Secretaries
Bookkeepers, Accountants,
and Cashiers
Shipping and
Receiving Clerks
Telephone Operators
Mail Carriers
Office Machine
Operators
Messengers and
Office Boys
Bill Collectors
Telegraph Operators
Ticket Agents




Sourc*. U. S B U R E A U OF T H E C E N S U S

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

120

MAJOR

S A L E S OCCUPATIONS
E M P L O Y M E N T . 1940
THO U SANDS

OF

W ORKERS

600

TY PE OF S A LES PERSO N

Traveling Salesmen and
Sales Agents
Food Store
Department and Generali
Merchandise Store
Insurance Agents and
Brokers
Clothing and
Accessories Store
Automobile and
Auto Parts
Real E s ta te Agents
and Brokers
Canvassers and
Solicitors
Drug Store
Limited Price
Variety Store
Hardware Store

Men

W om en

Newsboys

Furniture Store
Hucksters and
Peddlers
Shoe Store

U N IT E D STATE S DE P A R T M EN T OF L A B O R
B U R EA U OF L A B O R S TATISTICS




♦ N U M B ER OF MEN TOO FEW TO SHOW ON C HAR T
• N U M B E R OF WOME N TOO FEW TO SHOW ON C HAR T
S o u r c . U. S BU REAU OF T HE C E N SU S

C L E R IC A L ,

SALES, AN D

S E R V IC E

O C C U P A T IO N S

121

SALES OCCUPATIONS

To those who enjoy meeting people, sales work
offers a broad choice of opportunities. Sales occu­
pations usually require no special training for en­
trance (there are important exceptions to this,
however), and, while one’s first job may not pay
so well, experience and ability may lead to betterthan-average earnings in some selling fields.
Salesmen are sometimes promoted to administra­
tive jobs, such as sales manager or departmentstore buyer, and can then move on up the ladder
to higher executive positions.
Sales workers may be classified as “ inside” and
“ outside” salesmen. The first group is typically
employed in stores and sometimes in wholesalers’
or manufacturers’ sales offices. “ Outside” sales­
men, such as insurance agents and manufacturers’
sales representatives, visit the homes or offices of
prospective buyers. Some of the major sales occu­
pations are shown in chart 23.
While special training is not required for many
sales jobs, the good salesman is expected to know a
great deal about his “ line”—whether this be shoes,
furniture, paints, hardware, or automobile parts.
Experience is often the only way this knowledge
can be acquired.
There has been moderate growth in employment
in sales occupations in recent years. By 1940, after
nearly a decade of depression, there were many
people working in sales occupations simply be­
cause they had no other job.
During the war the employment of men in the
selling field dropped by a million or about half,
and by 1947 had not yet fully recovered to 1940
levels (chart 24). A wartime increase of a half
million women was maintained in the postwar pe­
riod. The exodus of men was caused in part by
selective service withdrawals, but even more by
the fact that in the war economy, production of
furniture, automobiles, and other consumer dura­
ble goods was curtailed or eliminated; manufac­




turers with Government contracts found it unneccessary to maintain large sales staffs, while
manufacturers of consumers’ goods, instead of
having to make an effort to sell, often found buy­
ers eagerly beating a path to their doorsteps.
Moreover, difficulties in recruiting workers in some
relatively low-paid sales jobs hastened the prewar
trend toward self-service stores, which employ
many clerical workers—such as checkers, weigh­
ers, and stock clerks—but few salespeople. Em­
ployment in sales occupations has increased only
half as much since 1940 as total employment in
wholesale and retail trade.
In the long run, the field of sales occupations
will probably continue to grow. With the return
of keener competition, additional salespeople may
be hired by both manufacturers and stores. In
the large field of insurance selling, a continued
rise is probable with the growth of population and
purchasing power. In view of the moderate
growth of sales occupations in the past, however,
and the continued extension of self-service stores,
it does not seem likely that the number of jobs in
selling will increase as much in the future as will
some of the other occupational fields.

O C C U P A T IO N A L

122

OUTLOOK H A N D B O O K

C H AR T 25

MAJOR

S E R V IC E OCCUPATIONS
E M P L O Y M E N T , I 9 4 0 J/

Waiters and
W aitresses %
Ja n ito rs and
Sextons
S e rv a n ts ^
C ooks^
Guards and
Watchmen
Barbers
Beau tician s and
M a n icu ris ts
Policemen,
Detectives, etc
P o rte rs
B a rte n d e rs
Boarding-and Lodginghouse Keepers
Attendants,
hospital, etc.

P ra ctica l Nurses
and Midwives
Housekeepers, Stewards,
Hostesses^/
Firem en, fire departm ent
Ele va to r Operators
Cleaners and
Charwomen
Attendants,
amusement, etc

Attendants,
services, n e c

Ushers
n e C * NOT E L S E W H E R E C L A S S I F I E D

Bootblacks

UN IT ED S TATE S D E P A R T M E N T OF LA B O R
BUR EA U OF L A B O R S TATISTICS




• N U M B E R OF WOMEN TOO FEW TO SHOW ON C HAR T
^ D OMEST IC S E RV AN TS OR M E M BE RS OF A RM ED
F ORCES NOT I N C L U D E D
^ E X C E P T T HOSE EMPL OYE D BY PRI VAT E F A M IL I ES
Sour c* U S BU REA U OF T HE C EN SU S

C L E R IC A L ,

SALES, AND

S E R V IC E

O C C U P A T IO N S

123

SERVICE OCCUPATIONS

Service occupations are often referred to in
glowing terms as a great and promising field of
employment. This is true to some extent of service
industries, as pointed out in the discussion of in­
dustrial trends (p. 24). But service occupations
and service industries are not the same thing:
Workers in many other types of occupations, in­
cluding skilled, clerical, and professional, are em­
ployed in service industries (automobile mechanics,
radio actors, and stenographers, for example),
while people in service occupations are employed
in many other industries (such as janitors in fac­
tories, or porters on railroad trains). The fact is
that while the service industries are growing rap­
idly, employment in service occupations is in­
creasing more slowly.
The major fields include domestic service, pro­
tective service, personal service, and institutional
service. The occupations are shown in chart 25,
and the recent trends in chart 26.
Domestic service as an occupation has been grow­
ing more slowly than the labor force as a whole.
Whenever other jobs were easy to get, employment




in this field declined. This was true during the
recent war, as can be seen in chart 27.
The protective service occupations include
mainly policemen, detectives, firemen, guards, and
watchmen. Most of these are Government jobs.
Largest single group is members of the armed
forces, who in 1947 numbered about 1y2 million.
In the civilian protective service occupations the
long-run employment trend is upward.
CHART 27

EMPLOYMENT IN
DOMESTIC SERVICE OCCUPATIONS
M I L L I O N S OF WORKERS

The other service occupations include personal
services, such as barbers, beauty operators, and
practical nurses; and institutional service occupa­
tions such as janitors, waiters, cooks, and elevator
operators. Some involve a great deal of skill and
training; others are comparatively unskilled.
Here, too, the long-run trend is slowly upward.
With higher income levels and a rising population,
restaurants, hotels, barber and beauty shops, and
theaters and other places of amusement should
continue to furnish increasing employment oppor­
tunities. As more hospitals and large commercial
and public buildings and apartment houses are
built, more jobs will open for janitors, charwomen,
elevator operators, and hospital attendants.
It seems likely that the service occupations as a
group will grow moderately in the long run, but
they are not the great and promising field of the
future, as they are sometimes described.

Hotel Occupations
The typical modern hotel in this country is not
simply a lodging place but a complex organization
offering many kinds of service to its guests—from
providing them with food and doing their laundry
to helping them get theater tickets and make travel
arrangements.
To furnish these many different services, hotels
employed about half a million workers in 1947.
A great many different kinds of workers are em­
ployed, such as managers, clerks, skilled mainte­
nance men, restaurant and kitchen workers, house­
keepers, maids, and porters. The qualifications
for these jobs are so varied that men and women
with very different educational backgrounds, per­
sonalities, and skills can find jobs in the hotel
industry.

make up less than one-tenth of all hotels, let most
of their rooms for relatively long periods. Com­
mercial and residential hotels together employed
about 322,000 workers during 1939— 95 percent of
the average annual employment figure for the
entire industry.
Resort hotels—about one-sixth of the total—
cater to vacationers and are open for business
only part of the year. The number of people
employed varies greatly from one season of the
year to another: For example, in 1939, employ­
ment in such hotels was 13,000 in February—the
busiest month of the southern season; it fell to
8,000 in May, rose to 38,000 in August— the month
when there are the most vacationers— and then
dropped to a low of 4,000 in November.

The Hotel Industry

Hotel Occupations

The 28,000 hotels in the country are of three
main types—transient (or commercial), residen­
tial, and resort. Commercial hotels are by far the
most numerous and comprise about threefourths of the total. Residential hotels, which

There are a number of different departments in
large hotels. The executive department is likely
to include a general manager, personnel director,
publicity director, sales and advertising managers,
and other executive and junior executive workers.

M O S T OF T H E H O T E L W O R K E R S A R E
IN T H E F E W L A R G E H O T E L S
P E R C E N T D I S T R I B U T I O N , 1939
P E R C E N T OF W O R KERS

40

30

20

U N I T E D STATES D E P A R TM E N T OF L A BOR
BU REA U OF L A B O R ST ATI ST IC S

124




10

0

S o u r c C E N S U S OF B U S I N E S S

HOTEL

125

O C C U P A T IO N S

CHART 29

RESTAURANT AND HOUSEKEEPING EMPLOYEES
ARE LARGEST GROUPS OF HOTEL WORKERS
PERCEN T

D IS T R IB U T IO N OF E M P L O Y E E S IN Y EA R -R O U N D
BY M A JO R O C C U P A T IO N A L G R O U P S, 1939

RESTAURANT

OFFICE

AND

CLERICAL

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF
BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS




H O TELS,

36.7

11.0

LABOR

Sou rces:

CENSUS OF BUSINESS, SERVICE ESTABLISHM ENTS, VOLUME 111,1939
"HOTEL B U S IN E S S "- BY R T HUNTINGTON, 1940

126

O C C U P A T IO N A L

OUTLOOK

The front office employs such workers as mail
clerks, room clerks, reservation clerks, and the
front-office manager. In the accounting depart­
ment are auditors, bookkeepers, office-machine
operators, cashiers, and other clerical workers.
The housekeeping department includes not only
the housekeeper and her assistants and the cham­
bermaids but also housemen (who do heavy clean­
ing) . furniture polishers, seamstresses, decorators,
upholsterers, and others.
Headed by the superintendent of service, the
service department employs such workers as bell­
men, baggage porters, elevator starters and oper­
ators, and doormen.
The restaurant department includes chefs, cooks
of various kinds, and kitchen helpers; the steward
and his staff—pantrymen, storeroom employees,
dishwashers; and waiters, bartenders, and other
food and beverage service workers.
In the maintenance department one finds such
workers as stationary engineers, electricians,
plumbers, carpenters, and painters.
In addition, there may be auxiliary depart­
ments which employ, for example, laundry work­
ers. barbers, valets, and tailors.
Though small hotels do not have nearly as many
separate occupations as this, practically all of
them employ front-office, housekeeping, and main­
tenance workers, and some have restaurant work­
ers and service employees such as bellmen.
Restaurant and barroom employees are the
largest occupational group in hotels, as shown in
chart 29.
Young people interested in a career in hotel
work usually have to begin at the bottom of the
ladder— in a job such as that of bellman, elevator
operator, clerk, or maid. From these entry jobs,
they may be promoted to supervisory positions, if
they have the needed personality and ability. Ex­
ceptionally able and well-qualified men may ad­
vance eventually to managerial jobs, which are
almost always filled by promoting workers with
many years of hotel experience.
Trend o f Employment
Employment in hotels will probably tend to re­




HANDBOOK

main at about the present level in the near future,
unless there should be a major business recession.
The labor shortages which developed during the
war in almost all hotel occupations have been
greatly reduced but there are still openings for
some types of work in some hotels as is indicated
in the following occupational reports.
Additional opportunities will arise continually
owing to turn-over, which is especially high among
the less skilled and lower paid workers such as
maids and kitchen help.
In the long run, a slow upward trend in employ­
ment in practically all hotel occupations is to be
expected as population and travel increase.
Tourist camps and other lodging places will
take some business away from hotels, as they were
doing before the war, but the growing demand for
lodgings should offset this competition in most
localities as long as general business conditions
continue to be good. Declines in business activity
have led to sharp declines in hotel employment in
the past, however, and would probably do so in
the future; some occupational groups would be
affected more than others. How stable employ­
ment is likely to be in different types of hotel work
is one of the points discussed in the reports on
individual occupations.
Where To Get More Information
More information on the hotel industry, hotel
occupations, and working conditions is given in:
Employment Outlook in Hotel Occupations.
Bulletin No. 905. U. S. Department of Labor,
Bureau of Labor Statistics, 1947. 13 p p .; illus.
Price 10 cents. Superintendent of Documents,
Washington 25, D. C.
Information on employment opportunities in
different parts of the country may be obtained
from the larger hotel chains, from big city hotels,
or from State hotel associations. These associa­
tions can also supply information on schools and
colleges offering courses in hotel work. Addresses
of the secretaries of State associations and of all
hotels and hotel chains are given in the Official
Hotel Red Book and Directory, which is available
at most hotels and libraries.

HOTEL

127

O C C U P A T IO N S

Front-Office Clerks (Hotels)
(D. O. T. 1-07)

Outlook Summary
Some job openings for experienced workers and
also for qualified newcomers expected in near fu­
ture. Long-run trend in employment slowly
upward.
Duties
The duties of front-office clerks in hotels include
renting rooms to incoming guests; acknowledging
room reservations received by telephone or mail
and filing reservation cards; handling guests' com­
plaints; issuing and receiving room keys; supply­
ing information about arrivals and departures of
guests and about local points o f interest; receiving
and delivering messages; and taking care of in­
coming mail.
In small hotels with few employees, one clerk
may do all this work by himself or with the help
of one or two assistants. Where there is a large
staff, however, employees usually specialize in d if­
ferent types of work. In such cases, beginners
are assigned routine jobs such as those of key
clerk, information clerk, or mail clerk, and there
are also higher-grade clerks with such titles as
room clerk, desk clerk, or front-office manager,
who supervise other clerical workers in addition
to handling the more difficult and responsible
work.
Hoio To Enter
Men are generally preferred for front-office
clerical jobs. Openings in beginning jobs are
filled sometimes by hiring inexperienced outsiders,
sometimes by promoting bellmen, switchboard op­
erators, or other workers already employed by the
hotel. Positions of higher grade are usually filled
by promotion from within but, in some instances,
by hiring experienced clerks from other hotels.
A supervisory clerk may be promoted to assistant
manager and, after becoming familiar with the
operation of other departments of the hotel, may
possibly become general manager.
As a rule, applicants should have at least a high




school education. Completion of a 2- or 4-year
college course in hotel work is becoming increas­
ingly helpful in obtaining front-office jobs and,
later, securing promotions to managerial posi­
tions. In the case of men without college training,
a course in hotel work in the public schools where
one is offered, is likely to be an aid in getting a job.
Outlook
There will be some job opportunities in the near
future, not only for experienced workers but also
for newcomers who have the desired qualifications.
During the war, about half of the many thousands
of men employed in these occupations left for the
armed forces and war industries. Although a
large number of new clerks were hired, including
many women, there was a shortage of help in both
supervisory and lower-grade jobs. Since the end
of the war, the shortage has been filled in most
places, but many hotels have been anxious to reA room clerk helping a guest to register.

128

O C C U P A T IO N A L

OUTLOOK

place some of the clerks hired during the war. In
addition, there are always a considerable number
of vacancies each year owing to turn-over. The
best chance of jobs for inexperienced workers will
generally be found in the bigger commercial
hotels, where beginners can be assigned to special­
ized jobs. At least in the next few years, a large
proportion o f the openings will probably go to
graduates of college courses in hotel work (which
now have much greater enrollments than ever
before).
The long-run trend in employment is slowly
upward and is likely to be only slightly affected
by declines in general business activity. Most of
those who find jobs and prove satisfactory may
therefore look forward to continued employment
over a long period of time.
Although there are some jobs in all sections of
the country, the greatest number are concentrated
in only 10 States. Nearly one-fifth of the workers
are employed in New York; another two-fifths in
the following nine States: Illinois, California,

HANDBOOK

Pennsylvania, Ohio, Texas, Michigan, New Jer­
sey, Missouri, and Florida.
Earnings and Hours of W ork
No up-to-date statistics on earnings in different
hotel occupations are available. However, scat­
tered information for a few large cities suggests
that typical weekly salaries in beginning frontoffice jobs were roughly $25 to $35 in the early part
of 1946; in higher-grade jobs, about $35 to $45.
Earnings of head clerks tended to be somewhat
higher, especially in large hotels. Generally, pay
is highest in the large hotels in metropolitan cen­
ters and on the west coast.
Front-office clerks usually work 8 hours a day,
5y2 or 6 days a week. Owing to the fact that hotels
provide service 24 hours a day, some employees
work at night.
/See also Hotel Managers, page 133; Bellmen and
Baggage Porters, page 128; Bell Captains and
Head Baggage Porters, page 130; and Superin­
tendents of Service, page 131.

Bellmen and Baggage Porters
(D.O.T. 2-22.1 and 2-92.10)

Outlook Summary
Limited number o f openings in a few localities
but, taking the country as a whole, occupations
tend to be overcrowded. Long-run trend in em­
ployment is slowly upward.
Duties
Bellmen’s work includes ushering guests coming
into the hotel up to their rooms and carrying their
baggage, running errands, delivering messages and
packages, and supplying various types o f infor­
mation to guests. In large hotels a separate group
of employees known as baggage porters, handle
the suitcases and other baggage of guests who are
leaving. They also help to set up sample rooms
for salesmen, supply travel information and buy
transportation tickets, and arrange for shipment
of express articles. The duties of bellmen are
frequently combined with those of baggage por­
ters, except in large hotels, and the worker in such




cases is generally known as a bellman. In some
instances bellmen and baggage porters act as relief
men in such jobs as elevator operator and switch­
board operator.
How To Enter
The way of entering these occupations differs
from one hotel to another. Some hotels fill open­
ings only by promoting workers already employed
by the hotel—most often elevator operators and
starters—whereas some hire workers with expe­
rience in other hotels. A good many hotels, espe­
cially the smaller ones, hire outsiders without pre­
vious hotel experience. In a few* localities train­
ing courses for bellman jobs are given by the public
schools; completion of such a course is generally
helpful in obtaining work.
Lines o f Promotion
A man w*ho wishes to advance from the job of

HOTEL

O C C U P A T IO N S

bellman may aspire to be bell captain. A baggage
porter may advance to head baggage porter.
From either position, the second step up is to
become superintendent of service. Some workers
have a chance to transfer to front-office clerical
jobs, which may enable them to advance eventu­
ally to managerial positions. Moreover, both
bellmen and baggage porters may increase their
earnings by moving to jobs of the same kind in
better-grade hotels.
Outlook
These occupations tend to be overcrowded, tak­
ing the country as a whole, although there are a
limited number of openings in some localities. As
former workers have returned from the armed
forces and war industries, many of the men hired
during the war have been down-graded, usually
to elevator-operator jobs, or have been laid off.
Hiring standards have become much more strict.
During the next few years inexperienced men
may find it difficult to get positions as bellmen or
baggage porters. In general, competition for jobs
will be keenest in large commercial hotels in metro­
politan centers. The chance of entering the occu­
pations will probably be best in resort hotels, and
experience gained there may enable men to trans­
fer to commercial or residential hotels. It may
also be possible for beginners to find jobs in occu­
pations such as elevator operator or houseman
in which there are still shortages o f workers in
some areas. These jobs may lead to positions as
bellmen or baggage porters in the future. The
length of time it will take to be promoted will vary
greatly, however, depending upon the rate of turn­
over in the particular hotel and the number of
employees with greater seniority.
Though the long-run trend is upward, employ­
ment in these occupations is very much affected by




129

declines in business activity. Whether all bellmen
and baggage porters will have steady employment
over a long period of time will therefore depend
on whether or not general business activity con­
tinues at a high level.
Jobs are found in all sections of the country, but
the greatest number are in New York, where al­
most one-fifth of these workers are employed.
Another two-fifths o f the workers are employed in
the following nine States: Illinois, California,
Pennsylvania, Ohio, Texas, Michigan, New Jer­
sey, Missouri, and Florida.
Earnings and Working Conditions
Wages in union hotels were about $12 to $16 per
week in early 1946, according to scattered data for
some large cities.
Including tips, the total
amount received by many bellmen was reported to
be roughly $45 to $60 a week; some bellmen and
baggage porters who worked in very large tran­
sient hotels made as high as $85. Earnings vary
with the region, size and type of hotel, and skill
of the individual worker. Generally, they are
highest in very large hotels in metropolitan cen­
ters and on the west coast.
The usual work schedule is 8 hours a day, 6 days
a week. Some men are on duty at night, since
hotels provide service 24 hours a day.
A fairly large number of bellmen and baggage
porters belong to unions. The union members are
mostly in large cities outside the South. They
are represented by the Hotel and Restaurant Em­
ployees' Alliance and Bartenders’ International
Union, AFL, and in a few places by the Building
Service Employees’ International Union, AFL.
See also Hotel Managers, page 133; Bell Cap­
tains and Head Baggage Porters, page 130: Super­
intendents of Service, page 131; and Front-office
Clerks, page 127.

130

O C C U P A T IO N A L

OU TLOOK H A N D B O O K

Bell Captains and Head Baggage Porters
(D.O.T. 2-22.01 and 2-92.20)

Outlook Summary
Positions practically always filled by promoting
experienced bellmen and baggage porters. Op­
portunities for such promotion likely to be limited
in near future. Long-run trend of employment
slowly upward.
Duties
These supervisory employees are to be found in
almost all medium-sized and large hotels, though
seldom in small hotels with only a few service
workers. It is the bell captain’s job to assign
work in rotation to bellmen and to keep time rec­
ords; the head baggage porter has the same re­
sponsibilities with respect to the workers in his
department. Both are responsible for instructing
new employees, interviewing job applicants, in­
vestigating and adjusting guests’ complaints re­
lating to the work of their departments, and de­
ciding what action should be taken on unusual
requests for service. The head baggage porter is
sometimes called a transportation clerk because of
his expert knowledge o f train and airplane sched­
ules. The bell captain, in addition to his other
duties, may occasionally perform bellman’s work.
How To Enter
Bell-captain positions are usually filled by pro­
moting one of the bellmen employed by the hotel;
head baggage-porter jobs, by promoting one of the
porters. Although a man may advance to the job
o f superintendent of service from either position,
bell captains are more likely to receive this pro­
motion than head baggage porters.
Outlook
Both these occupations are small ones, employ­
ing only a few thousand workers. In both, the
number of men employed declined slightly during




the war. Vacancies created by withdrawals to
the armed forces and war industries could not al­
ways be filled and, often, part or all of the duties
were taken over by other employees such as the
superintendent of service, room clerk, or assistant
manager. Most of the men who left are now back
on the job, and the shortage of qualified workers
has largely been met. Openings that arise in the
near future will be due mainly to turn-over and
will, as usual, be filled in most instances by pro­
moting the most qualified bellmen and baggage
porters. Men who obtain such promotions in yearround hotels will have a good chance of holding
their positions indefinitely, since employment in
these occupations is not affected very much by de­
clines in general business activity and will prob­
ably tend to rise slowly over the long run.
The greatest number o f jobs are found in New
York. A large proportion o f the remaining work­
ers are employed in the following nine States:
Illinois, California, Pennsylvania, Ohio, Texas,
Michigan, New Jersey, Missouri, and Florida.
Earnings and Hours of Work
Typical weekly wages of both bell captains and
head baggage porters were roughly $35 to $45 in
the early part of 1946, according to fragmentary
data for a few large cities. Total earnings were
higher, however, because of tips. The amount of
money earned through tips varies considerably
from one hotel to another. In general, head bag­
gage porters make more than bell captains, because
they receive larger and more frequent tips—mainly
for making travel arrangements and purchasing
tickets. The usual work schedule is 8 hours a day,
6 days a week.
See also Hotel Managers, page 133; Bellmen and
Baggage Porters, page 128; Superintendents of
Service, page 131; and Front-offfce Clerks, page
127.

HOTEL

O C C U P A T IO N S

131

Superintendents of Service (Hotels)
(D.O.T. 2-25.11)

Outlook Summary
Positions in this small occupation generally
filled by promotions from within. Opportunities
for such promotions will be very limited in near
future. Long-run trend of employment slowly
upward.
Nature of Work
Hotel service departments include such em­
ployees as bellmen and baggage porters, elevator
operators and starters, doormen, and washroom
attendants. At the head of the service department
in some large hotels is the superintendent of serv­
ice. He hires, instructs, disciplines, and discharges
employees in his department. In addition, he con­
fers and cooperates with the people in charge of
other departments— for example, the chief clerk
and the housekeeper—and he may also make out
the pay roll for his department. In smaller hotels,
these duties are performed, as a rule, by the assis­
tant or general manager, the room clerk, or the bell
captain (who may be called working superintend­
ent of service).
How To Enter
X

Most superintendents of service attain this posi­
tion by promotion from the job of bell captain or,
less often, from that of head baggage porter. Tgn
years of hotel experience is necessary in many cases
to become a superintendent of service. Occasion­
ally, men transfer from this position to a frontoffice clerical job, with the aim of advancing
eventually to a managerial position. It has also
been possible in a few instances for a superintend­
ent of service to move to a better-paying position
of the same type with a larger hotel.




Outlook
Employment is likely to rise slightly above the
present figure, which is in the hundreds, during
the next few years. During the war, a small num­
ber of men left the occupation for the armed
forces and war industries. As in the case of bell
captains and head baggage porters, vacancies were
not always filled and employment therefore de­
clined somewhat. With the return of most of the
men who left, employment has risen again, and
there is a tendency toward overcrowding in the
occupation in most parts of the country. A few
openings may be expected, mainly as a result of
turn-over; these will, as usual, be filled in most
instances by promotions from within.
The long-run trend of employment is slowly up­
ward in the occupation, as in the hotel industry
as a whole. In addition, this occupation is little
affected by declines in general business activity.
The small group of men who succeed in obtaining
positions in year-round hotels should therefore
have steady employment for many years.
The greatest number of jobs are found in New
York. A large proportion of the remaining work­
ers are employed in the following nine States:
Illinois, California, Pennsylvania, Ohio, Texas,
Michigan, New Jersey, Missouri, and Florida.
On the basis of scattered data for some large
cities, it appears that typical wages were approxi­
mately $40 to $60 a week in this occupation in the
early part of 1946. A few men who worked in very
large hotels earned more. Tips are seldom re­
ceived, but meals may be provided by the hotel.
The number of hours of work per day and per week
vary greatly, depending upon pressure of work.
See also Hotel Managers, page 133; Bellmen and
Baggage Porters, page 128; Front-Office Clerks,
page 127; and Bell Captains and Head Baggage
Porters, page 130.

132

O C C U P A T IO N A L

O U TLO OK

HANDBOOK

Hotel Housekeepers and Assistants
(D.O.T. 2-25.21)

Outlook Summary

Outlook

Some opportunities in near future, especially in
lower-grade jobs. Competition for better paying
jobs likely to be keen. Long-run trend of employ­
ment slowly upward.

Many thousands of housekeepers and assistants
are employed in the industry as a whole, and their
number is likely to increase slowly, both during
the next few years and in the long run. The short­
age of workers which developed during the war
has been much reduced since VJ-day, but there

Nature of Work
The hotel housekeeper is responsible for keeping
the furnishings, rooms, and halls clean and attrac­
tive. She supervises ‘the work of room maids,
linen maids, wall and window washers, furniture
polishers, housemen (who do heavy cleaning), and
seamstresses. Generally, she hires and discharges
employees in her department. In addition, she
buys or assists in the buying of supplies, reports
expenditures to the manager, makes out the pay
roll for the department, takes periodic inventories
of supplies, and trains new employees.
Large hotels have an executive or head house­
keeper and also one or more assistant housekeepers
and floor housekeepers or inspectresses. In small
hotels, on the other hand, there is only one house­
keeper (often called a working housekeeper) who
not only handles all the supervisory duties by her­
self but may, in addition, do some of the work of a
maid.
How To Enter
Openings for housekeepers are usually filled by
promotions from within the hotel or by hiring
women who have performed similar work in an­
other hotel. Positions as inspectresses or assistant
housekeepers in large hotels are filled sometimes
by hiring inexperienced women and giving them
on-the-job training; sometimes by promoting
chambermaids, linen maids, and seamstresses.
From these assistant supervisory jobs, promotion
to the position of housekeeper is possible. Train­
ing courses for housekeeping jobs are given by the
public schools in some localities and are likely to
be helpful to girls wishing to enter the occupation.




Photograph

by

U.

S.

d e pa r tm e n t

of

l a b o r

.

Hotel housekeeper supervising a houseman in hanging drapes.

are still some vacancies, especially in small hotels
and in lower-grade jobs. In addition, there will
be hundreds of openings a year owing to turn-over.
As already indicated, however, inexperienced
women will be able to find jobs only as maids or,
if they have the desired personal qualifications, as
assistant housekeepers or inspectors. Moreover,

HOTEL

competition for the better paying jobs in large
hotels is likely to be keen, as it was before the war.
The long-run trend of employment is upward.
Women who obtain promotions to housekeeper
jobs in year-round hotels should have a good
chance of holding them indefinitely. Assistant
housekeepers and inspectors, however, have less
assurance o f steady employment, since declines in
general business activity affect the number of as­
sistants needed to a much greater extent than the
number of top jobs. The number of maids em­

O C C U P A T IO N S

133

ployed' is likely to be still more affected by chang­
ing business conditions.
Earnings
Earnings of housekeepers, according to limited
data for a few large cities, were about $150 to $350
a month in large hotels and $75 to $100 in small
hotels in early 1946. Besides their cash pay,
housekeepers and assistants are often given their
meals and, sometimes, lodging. Assistant house­
keepers and inspectors made less.

Hotel Managers and Assistants
(D.O.T. 1-71.13)

Outlook Summary
Some opportunities for qualified persons in the
next few years, but competition for jobs will be
keen. Long-run trend of employment slowly
upward.
Nature of Work
Over-all responsibility for the operation o f a
hotel rests with the manager. It is his job to see
that the different departments function efficiently,
so that the guests are satisfied and the greatest
possible profit is made. The manager has many
duties to perform, such as hiring personnel, buy­
ing or supervising the purchase o f supplies, direct­
ing publicity, introducing improvements in serv­
ice, and determining rates and credit policies. In
large hotels, some of these duties are delegated to
assistant managers. In small hotels, on the other
hand, the manager—who is frequently the owner—
may also do front-office clerical work.
How To Enter
Advancement to the position of manager is pos­
sible from many hotel jobs, including bellman,
bookkeeper, and cook, but the most common line
of promotion is from the front office. To qualify
for promotion to manager, it is often necessary to
have a high-school education and very helpful to
have college training, especially in hotel manage­
ment. College-trained persons often start in such
positions as room clerk, salesman, accounting
clerk, store-room clerk, or, in a small hotel, as­
793996°—49



10

sistant or night manager. It is possible for highschool and college-trained people to start in kit­
chen jobs; experience in the kitchen and steward’s
department is extremely valuable in qualifying for
future managerial positions.
People who want to go into business for them­
selves as owner-operators of small hotels need
good experience in hotel management and also
considerable capital.
Outlook
There are about 28,000 hotels in the country,
the large majority of which have fewer than 50
rooms. Each of these hotels has one manager;
the big hotels also have one or more assistant man­
agers. A t the present time there is a tendency
toward overcrowding in these occupations. As
former workers returned to their jobs from the
armed forces and war industries, some o f the men
who had been placed in managerial positions dur­
ing the war were down-graded or laid off. Men
without experience in hotel management may
therefore have difficulty entering the occupations
in the immediate future.
In the next few years, some job opportunities
will be created by the building of new hotels. In
addition, there will be hundreds of job openings
a year, owing to deaths, retirements, and trans­
fers to other fields. Competition for managerial
positions is keen. Therefore, only men with ex­
ceptional ability and many years of experience
will be able to obtain such positions, especially in

134

O C C U P A T IO N A L

OUTLOOK H AN D B O O K

large hotels. In general, the trend is toward fill­
ing openings by promoting college-trained persons
with hotel experience, but it will still be possible
for some men without such education to rise very
slowly to the top jobs.
Most managers and assistant managers may
look forward to continued employment over a
long period of time. The long-run trend o f em­
ployment is upward in these occupations. More­
over, they are relatively little affected by declines
in general business activity; men in top positions
have greater assurance o f steady employment than
do assistants.
Jobs are found in all parts of the country—in
small towns as well as large cities, though mainly
in the latter. About one-half of all hotel mana­
gers in the country are employed in the following




10 States: California, New York, Texas, Florida,
Illinois, Pennsylvania, Washington, New Jersey,
Michigan, and Missouri. Over one-third are em­
ployed in the first five of these States.
Earnings
Earnings o f managers have an extremely wide
range and largely depend upon the size of the
hotel. In addition to a fixed salary, many man­
agers receive a percentage of the profits and fre­
quently living accommodations and meals for
themselves and their families.
See also: Bellmen and Baggage Porters, page
128; Superintendents of Service, page 131; FrontOffice Clerks, page 127; and Bell Captains and
Head Baggage Porters, page 130.

Restaurant Occupations
The custom of “ eating out” has created one of
this country’s largest industries. During 1946,
people spent more than 12 billion dollars for meals
and beverages, which they ate in restaurants, ho­
tels, dining cars, cafeterias, clubs, and a great va­
riety of other eating and drinking places. This
was about one-third of the amount spent for food
consumption at home.
To serve these meals and beverages requires a
great army of workers. In restaurant dining
rooms are waiters and waitresses, head waiters,
hostesses, bus boys, and cashiers. The kitchens
have not only cooks and chefs but vegetable clean­
ers, dishwashers, and a variety of other kitchen
helpers. Also employed in the industry are res­
taurant and cafeteria managers, dietitians, stew­
ards, bartenders, countermen, and many others.
For several decades the tendency to eat meals
outside one’s home has been growing, and this
has been reflected in an upward trend in restaurant
employment. The increase in restaurant sales was
greatly accelerated during the war, by rationing
and food shortages and the fact that many work­
ers who had migrated to other cities for war jobs
were without cooking facilities. During the first
postwar year, restaurant business continued to in­
crease, but since then there has been a decrease in
restaurant sales. However, assuming that general
economic conditions remain good, there is every

reason to anticipate that the upward trend in res­
taurant business will be resumed and that, over the
long run, this will be a slowly expanding field of
employment.
The following statements describe employment
opportunities in four of the industry’s largest oc­
cupations: Restaurant and cafeteria managers,
cooks and chefs, waiters and waitresses, and bev­
erage-service workers.
Additional information on training, employ­
ment opportunities, earnings, and other subjects
may be obtained from large hotel and restaurant
chains, State hotel associations, and:
Educational Director,
National Restaurant Association,
666 Lake Shore Drive,
Chicago, 111.

The Official Hotel Red Book and Directory,
which is available at most hotels and libraries,
gives addresses o f the secretaries of State hotel
associations and of all hotels and hotel chains.
People interested in opening their own restau­
rants would do well to consult:
Establishing and Operating a Restaurant. U.
S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of Foreign
and Domestic Commerce, 1946. Price 45 cents.
Superintendent of Documents, Washington 25,
D. C.

Restaurant and Cafeteria Managers
(D.O.T. 0-71.21 and 23)

Outlook Summary

Duties

Fairly good employment prospects for experi­
enced managers in near future. Outlook less good
for people without managerial experience, though
there are trainee openings in some areas. Longrun trend of employment slowly upward.

The manager has over-all responsibility for the
operation of a restaurant, cafeteria, or lunchroom.
His duties include hiring personnel, supervising
and assigning duties to employees, estimating
amounts of food needed, keeping records on in­




135

136

O C C U P A T IO N A L

OU TLOOK H A N D B O O K

ventories, cooperating with the chef in planning
menus, handling customers’ complaints, and buy­
ing equipment. In large eating places, some of
these duties are delegated to one or more assistant
managers. In small eating places, on the other
hand, the manager may also serve as cashier or
head waiter. Many restaurant owners act as man­
agers, sometimes employing an assistant.
Qualifications and Training
The minimum experience required to become a
manager is generally 1 to 3 years as an assistant
manager, or in some other type of restaurant work.
In some o f the larger restaurants, 3 to 5 years’
experience is required. Some establishments hire
prospective managers and assign them for brief
periods to a series of different jobs, to give them a
chance to learn all aspects of the business.
It is sometimes necessary to have high-school
training and very helpful to have a 2- to 4-year
college course in foods and restaurant manage­
ment. College-trained persons often start as as­
sistant managers in the larger eating places. A
thorough knowledge of food buying and storing,
food preparation, menu making, and cost account­
ing is essential for success. In addition, managers
must understand sanitation and be qualified to
make daily sanitary inspections and to fill out the
required reports. General business ability is very
important also.
Outlook
Employment of restaurant and cafeteria mana­
gers has been rising since the end of the war. as
the number o f eating places has increased. Before
the war (in 1939), there were almost 100,000
restaurants, cafeterias, and lunchrooms in the
country, in addition to numerous other eating
places in hotels, department stores, and industrial
establishments. Despite a marked increase in
restaurant business during the war, the number of
eating places declined, and so did the number of




managers and assistant managers employed. Be­
ginning in early 1944, however, new restaurants
began to be opened in sizable numbers; many have
been started since the end of the war. Though
some have gone out of business, the total number
of eating places in operation was higher in early
1948 than ever before. Competition for jobs has
developed, however, as many former workers have
returned from the armed forces and other indus­
tries and newcomers have entered the field. In ­
experienced workers are therefore likely to have a
hard time finding managerial positions in the im­
mediate future. However, there may be some
openings for trainees and also some opportunities
for experienced managers.
Long-run trend of employment is slowly up­
ward. Furthermore, there will be numerous open­
ings each year owing to deaths, retirements, and
transfers to other fields. Employment is, however,
very much affected by declines in general business
activity; many eating places are forced out of
business during bad times.
Best opportunities to become managers will be
found in chain restaurants and in the large inde­
pendent eating places. In general, the trend is
toward hiring and promoting men with schooling
in restaurant management, but it will still be pos­
sible for w aiters, cooks, and others without such
T
education to qualify for this position.
Jobs are found in all parts of the country, in
small towns as well as large cities, though mainly
in the latter. Over one-half of the restaurants,
cafeterias, and lunchrooms in 1939 were located in
the following eight States : New York, California,
Texas, Pennsylvania, Illinois, Ohio, Michigan, and
Massachusetts.
Earnings
E a r n in g s , as w o u ld be e x p e cte d , v a r y c o n s id e r ­
a b ly , d e p e n d in g on the ty p e , size, and lo c a tio n o f
an estab lish m en t.

I n a sm all p erce n ta g e o f resta u ­

ra n ts and ca fe te ria s, the m a n a gers are p a id o n a
co m m issio n basis.

RESTAU RAN T

O C C U P A T IO N S

137

Cooks and Chefs
(D.O.T. 2-26)

Outlook Summary
Good prospects for skilled, all-round cooks in
near future; also some openings for beginners,
though demand for such workers varies consider­
ably from one locality to another. Long-run em­
ployment trend slowly upward.
Nature of Work
Cooks and chefs are employed not only in res­
taurants and cafeterias but in hotels, boarding
houses, railroad dining cars, passenger ships, hos­
pitals, clubs, and many other places. Those work­
ing in private homes are not covered by this
report.
In eating places with a large staff, cooks usually
specialize in preparing different types of food.
At the head of the'kitchen staff is the chef, who
supervises the other cooks, often plans the menus,
and sometimes buys the foodstuffs. Other work­
ers have such titles as fry cook, roast cook, vege­
table cook, sauce cook, broiler cook, dessert cook,
and cold meat cook; some or all of these employees
may be assisted by helpers or apprentices. In
smaller establishments, however, each cook is like­
ly to handle many different types of w ork; in some
places, a working chef or general cook does all the
work, with the help of one or two assistants. Be­
cause o f the many differences in kinds o f dishes
served, it is not always possible for workers to
transfer from one sort of eating place to another
without additional training.
IIow To Enter
An apprenticeship or equivalent on-the-job
training lasting at least 3 years is generally needed
to become a skilled, versatile cook. As a rule, it
takes a number of additional years of training and
experience to become a chef or head cook, especi­
ally in the larger and higher-grade places. The
training period for the various cook specialty jobs
is usually 1 to 2 years. Many people enter the



trade after serving for varying lengths o f time in
other kitchen jobs, such as vegetable cleaner, pot
washer, and dish washer.
Preparatory training in one of the large num­
ber of vocational schools which give courses in this
work is helpful. Most schools offer both full-time
day courses and part-time night classes. Comple­
tion of the eighth or ninth grade is generally re­
quired for entrance, though this prerequisite may
be waived in the case o f veterans. Sometimes a
health certificate is required.
Veterans who acquired their first experience in
food preparation while in the armed forces gener­
ally have to start as lower grade cooks or helpers.
Because of their experience, however, they may be
able to advance more rapidly than other workers.
Both men and women can find jobs as cooks. Of
all cooks, chefs, and assistants employed in 1940,
three-fifths were men, two-fifths women. Men
hold most of the top jobs, however.
Outlook
Skilled, all-round cooks are likely to have good
employment opportunities in the near future. Be­
ginners will also find some openings, but the out­
look for them varies considerably from one local­
ity to another.
A marked labor shortage developed in this oc­
cupation during the war, although shortly before
(in 1940) nearly one-sixth of the 336,000 chefs,
cooks, and assistants in the country were unem­
ployed. The wartime increase in restaurant busi­
ness was great; while the number of cooks
employed rose also, not enough were available to
keep pace with the need. Since VJ-day, many
veterans and other former workers have returned
to their jobs and some newcomers have entered
the occupation. Moreover, the volume of restau­
rant business has declined from the all-time peak
reached in early 1946. The labor shortage has
thus been relieved to a great extent: but skilled
chefs with all-round training and experience are
still in demand in most communities.

138

O C C U P A T IO N A L

OU TLOOK H A N D B O O K

For inexperienced persons, there are some open­
ings as helpers or trainees, or in other unskilled
kitchen jobs from which it may be possible to enter
the trade o f cook. The chance of finding such
openings will be much better in some areas than
others in the immediate future. In all parts of
the country, opportunities for apprenticeship pro­
viding the all-round training needed for top posi­
tions are very scarce. However, the number of
employers with apprentice-training programs may
increase somewhat in the next few years, since the
need to prepare young men to fill the places which
will be left vacant by aging first cooks and chefs
is becoming more and more acute.
Deaths and retirements of cooks, chefs, and as­
sistants of all grades create around 5,000 to 6,000
vacancies each year. Additional openings arise
owing to transfers to other fields of work. Fur­
thermore, employment will probably tend to in­
crease slowly over the long run in this as in other
restaurant occupations, assuming that general
economic conditions remain good. Past experi­
ence indicates, however, that restaurant business
and therefore employment of cooks would be
sharply affected by any major decline in general
business activity.
Jobs are found in all parts of the country, in
small towns as well as in big cities. However, the
greatest number— about half—are in the following
eight States: New York, California, Illinois,
Texas, Pennsylvania, Ohio, Massachusetts, and
Michigan.
Earnings and Working Conditions
There are w
ride differences in earnings, depend­
ing upon such factors as the worker's skill, the
type of eating place, and the part of the country
in which it is located. According to one estimate
for late 1947, most cooks earned between $35 and




Ph otograph

by

U.

S.

Departm ent

of

Labor

Specialty cooks in a large hotel kitchen

$75 a week: executive chefs typically made from
$60 to $100, though a few men earned considerably
more. Besides their cash pay, these employees
often receive one or more free meals.
Most cooks are on a 40- to 48-hour week,
though working hours range from less than 40 to
as many as 70 a week. In some eating places, em­
ployees are on a split shift. Unionization of cooks
is most common in the larger establishments in big
cities outside the South. The major union in this
field is the Hotel and Restaurant Employees’ and
Bartenders’ International Union, AFL.
See also: Restaurant and Cafeteria Managers,
p. 135.

RESTAU RAN T

O C C U P A T IO N S

139

Waiters and Waitresses
(D.O.T. 2-27.01— .12)

Outlook Summary
Good employment prospects for competent ex­
perienced workers in most localities in near future;
also some openings for newcomers, particularly as
bus boys and bus girls. Turn-over creates a good
many thousand openings yearly in this large oc­
cupation. Long-run employment trend slowly
upward.
Nature of Work
Waiters and waitresses are employed in many
different types o f eating places, including restau­
rants, hotels, bars, night clubs, boarding houses,
passenger ships, and railroad dining cars. In
addition to taking guests’ orders and serving food
and beverages, they set tables, make out checks,
sometimes collect payments, and handle other
duties. In many eating places which do not have
bus boys they also clean off the tables. Generally,
higher grade establishments employ the more
skilled and experienced workers. Many restau­
rants employ captains or hostesses, head w aiters or
T
head waitresses, who supervise the other dining­
room employees and conduct guests to tables.
How To Enter
One way to enter the occupation is to start as
a bus boy or bus girl. Some restaurants fill waiter
and waitress jobs only by promoting people from
these beginning positions or hiring workers with
experience in waiting on table. However, some
places will take on workers without any restau­
rant experience, give them a few weeks’ training,
and then start them out waiting on a small num­
ber of guests. Still other restaurants, usually the
expensive places, prefer to hire only waiters and
waitresses with at least a year of experience.
Openings in supervisory jobs are usually filled
by promoting or hiring experienced waiters or
waitresses. Supervisory workers may sometimes
advance to managerial positions.
Two-thirds o f those employed in the occupation




in 1940 were women. In certain types of eating
places, however, men outnumber women workers.
Outlook
This is a very large occupation, employing about
525,000 men and women in 1940. Employment
rose somewhat during the war, but not fast enough
to keep pace with the soaring restaurant business.
A shortage of waiters and waitresses therefore
developed.
Since the end of the war, many former workers
have returned to their jobs, and the labor shortage
has diminished. Restaurants in many localities
are still having difficulty finding satisfactory ex­
perienced workers, however. The need for such
workers is reported to be less in New York City
and on the west coast than in most other parts o f
the country. Openings for women are and will
probably continue to be more numerous than those
for men.
Inexperienced persons are in much less demand
as waiters or waitresses than experienced workers,
but should be able to find jobs in the occupation in
some places. There are also likely to be openings
for bus boys and girls in most localities and, as in
the past, inexperienced workers may be able to
enter the trade through these jobs.
The long-run trend of employment is slowly
upward. In addition, deaths, retirements, and
transfers to other occupations create a good many
thousands of vacancies each year. However, em­
ployment of waiters and waitresses, as of other
restaurant workers, is sharply affected by declines
in general business activity.
Jobs are found in all parts o f the country, in
small towns as well as large cities. However, the
majority of these workers are employed in the
following nine States: New York, California, Illi­
nois, Pennsylvania, Ohio. Texas, Michigan, Mass­
achusetts, and New Jersey.
Earnings and Working Conditions
Earnings in this occupation depend not only on

140

O C C U P A T IO N A L

OUTLOOK H A N D B O O K

the wages received blit also on tips, which vary
considerably, depending on such factors as the skill
o f the worker and the type and location of the
restaurant. Bus boys and girls, who ordinarily
do not receive tips, are often paid slightly higher
wages than the waiters and waitresses they assist.
Both groups of workers receive one or more free
meals a day in many cases.
Many of these employees work 48 hours a week,

though some have shorter hours and others much
longer ones. Split shifts are fairly common. The
work requires employees to be constantly on their
feet.
Unionization is most frequent in the larger es­
tablishments in big cities outside the South. The
major union in the field is the Hotel and Restau­
rant Employees’ and Bartenders’ International
Union, AFL.

Beverage-Service Workers
(D.O.T. 2-21.10)

Outlook Summary
Field overcrowded and likely to remain so at
least in near future.
Nature of Work
These workers are employed in hotels, restau­
rants, and other places, such as bars, taverns, night
clubs, tap rooms, and cabarets, which sell alcoholic
beverages. The group includes bartenders, bar
boys, cellarmen, wine stewards, and bar waiters
and waitresses.
Bartenders mix and serve many types o f alco­
holic beverage to order. In service bars, drinks
prepared by the bartender are served by waiters.
In public bars, bartenders also serve drinks directly
to patrons and often collect payments. Bar boys
perform such duties as carrying in supplies, tak­
ing out empty bottles and trash, chipping ice,
washing and drying glasses, and sometimes mix­
ing simple drinks. Wine stewards—employed
only in large or high-grade establishments— are
in charge of the ordering, storing, and issuing of
wines and liquors; they are assisted in this work
by cellarmen.
Hoiv To Enter
Most bartenders learn the trade through on-thejob experience. Bar boy is a beginning job, which
after six or more months may lead to promotion
to bartender work as helper or assistant to an ex­
perienced man; then, after perhaps another 6
months, to a regular bartender job. Sometimes
a bar boy may be promoted to cellarman or bar
waiter and thereafter to bartender. Schools




which give courses in this work, usually of 3 or 4
weeks’ duration, are sometimes helpful; such
training may enable one to start as assistant bar­
tender.
In some o f the larger establishments, a bar­
tender may advance to head bartender and to wine
steward.
Outlook,
The number of people seeking jobs as bartend­
ers has been greater than the number of openings
during the past 2 years. Before the war, in 1940,
there were 128,000 bartenders, of whom 15,000 were
unemployed. During the war, about 20 to 30
percent of the employed workers left for the
armed forces and war industries. However, a still
greater number of other workers, including some
women, entered the occupation; consequently, em­
ployment rose. With the return of most workers
who had left, the occupation has again become
overcrowded; many workers hired during the war
have had to be laid off. even though employment
has remained above prewar levels.
There will be some openings each year, owing to
deaths, retirements, and withdrawals to other
fields. A t least in the immediate future, however,
most of these jobs will be filled by hiring experi­
enced bartenders who are out of work. Generally,
the best chance of jobs for less skilled bartenders
will be in service bars, since highly skilled men
with many years of experience are preferred in
public bars, especially in the better-grade estab­
lishments. Jobs for assistant bartenders will gen­
erally be found only in the larger establishments.

RESTAU RAN T

S om e exp erien ced b arten d ers m a y be able to op en
and su cceed in th e ir ow n business.

There are some openings as bar boys, but ad­
vancement to bartender will generally be very
difficult at least in the next 3 to 5 years. The best
chance of finding employment as bar boys will be
in the larger establishments. There will be few
job opportunities for cellarmen and wine stewards,
since both of these occupations are very small.
The long-run trend of employment in eating and
drinking places is slowly upward. However, em­
ployment of beverage service workers is sharply
affected by economic conditions as well as many
other factors.
Jobs are to be found in many sections of the
country, in small towns as well as large cities, but
the greatest number are in New York. Other
States with large numbers of employees are Illi­
nois, Pennsylvania, California, and New Jersey.
Together, these five States employ roughly half
of the workers in this field. Serving o f alcoholic




O C C U P A T IO N S

141

beverages is prohibited in numerous counties
throughout the country.
Earnings and Working Conditions
Typical wages of bartenders were about $40 to
$60 a week in some large cities in early 1946; those
o f assistant bartenders about $30 to $40 and those
o f bar boys around $20 to $25. Wage increases
since 1946 have been slight in most cases. Total
earnings of bartenders employed in public bars are
sometimes much above these figures, because of
tips. The amount of money earned through tips,
however, varies considerably from one establish­
ment to another. Meals and uniforms are fur­
nished by the employer in many establishments.
The usual work schedule is 8 hours a day, 6 days a
week.
Unionization is fairly common except in the
South, the major union organizing these workers
is the Hotel and Restaurant Employees’ and Bar­
tenders’ International Union. AFL.
See also: Waiters and Waitresses, page 139.

Protective Service Occupations
Policemen
(D.O.T. 2-66.20 to .29)

Outlook Summary
Expanding field. Room for several thousands
o f newcomers each year.
Nature o f Work
Most policemen are city employees, though many
work for counties and States. Those employed by
the Federal Government are not covered by this
statement but are discussed separately (see p. 144).
Policemen usually wear uniforms. In large
cities, they are assigned to a particular type of
work, such as walking a beat, accident or crime
prevention, dance- or pool-hall inspection, traffic
patrol, motorcycle or mounted patrol, harbor pa­
trol, homicide squad, or radio operation. Police­
women are assigned mainly to crime prevention
and detection work among women, young people,
and children. County and State police and those
in smaller communities usually have more diversi­
fied work.
Qualifications, Training, and Advancement
In many cities, especially large ones, the jobs
are filled on the basis of competitive examinations.
In such cities, job seekers may have to meet very
rigid requirements, especially with respect to age,
height, health, strength, agility, and physical en­
durance. Applicants must have sufficient educa­
tion to meet basic requirements. There lias been
and will probably continue to be a strong tendency
to raise hiring standards for police jobs, and ex­
aminations are becoming increasingly difficult.
Veterans, especially those with military police
training and experience, are likely to have an ad­
vantage over other applicants. For most police
jobs, applicants must meet residence requirements.
Many police departments have training pro­
grams for new recruits and also provide in-service
training for men already on the force. The num­
142




ber o f communities with such programs is grow­
ing, as a result, mainly, of increasing emphasis on
crime prevention and traffic control.
From beginning police jobs, opportunity for ad­
vancement to sergeant or detective is fair—better
in large and medium-sized cities than in small
communities. From either of these positions, ad­
vancement to lieutenant, then to captain, is possi­
ble, and on up the ladder. In most large cities,
promotions up to the rank o f captain are made on
the basis of competitive examinations. Appoint­
ment to a higher grade (inspector, deputy chief,
chief, and commissioner) is usually made without
examination.
Outlook
Police work is an expanding field. Early 1948
employment was estimated to be about 10 percent
above the immediate prewar (1940) level, when
about 96,000 nonranking policemen, including
about 1,000 women, held jobs. During the war,
police departments lost thousands of men to the
armed forces and war industries and were unable
to get enough replacements. Although many vet­
erans and others have now returned to their jobs,
some departments still have shortages of qualified
applicants. In addition, the shorter workweeks
which are being put into effect in more and more
cities are making it necessary to increase person­
nel. To meet these needs, make replacements for
normal turn-over, and cope with the rising crime
rate, several thousand newcomers will be required
each year for several years. However, many de­
partments already have people in line for ap­
pointment or have applications on file.
Over the long run, there will probably continue
to be sizable numbers of openings, owing to turn­
over and the upward trend in employment. But
competition for jobs is likely to be keen in many
localities.

P R O T E C T IV E

S E R V IC E

O C C U P A T IO N S

143

Geographically, opportunities are widespread.
All but the smallest communities will probably
have at least a few openings each year. Most op­
portunities are in big cities, where there are not
only more policemen in proportion to population
than in small cities but also higher turn-over rates.
On the other hand, competition for the available
jobs is likely to be stiffer in large than in small
communities.

The predominant work schedule for city police
is 8 hours a day and 48 hours a w eek. In several
T
large cities the workweek has recently been cut to
40 hours. State police generally live in barracks,
are on call 24 hours a day, and often work more
than 60 hours a week. Policemen have unusually
secure jobs and stable earnings, paid vacations,
better-than-average retirement pensions, and other
benefits.

Earnings and Working Conditions

Where To Go for More Information

Base starting salaries of city policemen are gen­
erally over $2,000 per year; they range up to
$3,200 in a few large cities. In many places, extra
compensation has been awarded, usually in the
form of a cost-of-living adjustment. Earnings
vary not only with the size of the community but
with the region o f the country. Automatic pay
raises are frequently provided. In large cities,
these usually amount to $500 to $700 over a period
of about 5 years; thereafter, advancement in earn­
ings is almost always through advancement in
rank only.

Information on employment opportunities and
requirements in a particular locality may be ob­
tained from the chief or personnel officer of the
local police department or, where there is a local
civil-service commission, from this commission.
Inquiries with regard to opportunities in the Met­
ropolitan Police force of Washington, D. C.,
should be addressed to United States Civil Service
Commission, Washington 25, D. C.
See also Federal Police and Detectives, page 144;
F B I Agents, page 145; and Detectives, page 143.

Detectives
(D.O.T. 2-66.11)

Outlook Summary

How To Enter

Detective positions practically always filled by
promotion or transfer of uniformed policemen.
A good many opportunities for such promotions
expected in next couple of years. Long-run em­
ployment trend slowly upward.

Detective positions are practically always filled
by promotions or transfers of uniformed police.
Both personal qualifications and length of service
in uniform are considered in selecting personnel
for detective positions. In many places, especially
large cities, the positions are covered by a merit
system, and in most of these cities written exami­
nations are given. Some police departments have
apprenticeship periods for new detectives, though
many provide no introductory training.

Mature of Work
Detectives are plain-clothes men and women.
The large majority are city employees, though
many work for States and counties. Men are
usually assigned to investigate crimes o f a par­
ticular type, such as homicides, burglaries, rob­
beries, illegal use and sale of narcotics, forgeries,
illegal pawn shop activities, or pocket-picking.
Women detectives—of whom there are very few—
generally do crime prevention and detection work
among women, young people, and children.




Outlook
There will be a considerable number of oppor­
tunities for appointment to detective jobs in the
next couple of years. Before the war, in 1940,
there were about 10,000 detectives in the fields
covered by this statement. During the war, many

144

O C C U P A T IO N A L

OU TLOOK H A N D B O O K

entered the armed forces, but more promotions and
transfers than usual were made to provide replace­
ments. In the country as a whole, employment
remained at about the prewar level through VEday and then began to rise as former employees
returned from the armed services. The total
number of detectives employed is now greater than
ever before and will probably continue to increase
for another year or two because of the trend to­
ward a shorter workweek and needs created by the
mounting crime rate and increasing emphasis on
crime prevention and scientific detection. How­
ever, as already indicated, practically all person­
nel will be obtained from the uniformed forces.
After 1949 employment may level off tempo­
rarily, but eventually it will, in all likelihood,
resume its long-run upward trend. On the other
hand, hiring standards will probably become
stiffer and competition for detective positions will
remain sharp. Geographically, opportunities are

widespread, with big cities likely to have propor­
tionately more openings than small ones.
, Earnings and Working Conditions
Detectives usually have the same salary rates as
uniformed men at the same grade levels. Their
starting salaries are over $2,000 per year in most
cities and range as high as $3,200 a year in a few
large ones. In many places extra compensation
has been awarded, usually in the form of a costof-living adjustment. Detectives in some locali­
ties are allowed expense accounts for extra costs
incident to their work.
Opportunities for advancement to higher grade
positions are excellent for men with the needed
experience, efficiency, and other qualifications.
Detectives have unusually steady employment
and stable earnings, paid vacations, better-thanaverage retirement pensions, and other benefits.
See also Policemen, page 142; Federal Police and
Detectives, page 144; and F B I Agents, page 145.

Federal Police and Detectives
(D.O.T. 2-66.99)

Outlook Summary
Some few openings in prospect. Civil-service
examinations to be given in 1948 or soon thereafter
will determine eligibility of applicants for several
years.
Nature of Work
Police and detectives referred to in this state­
ment are employed by the Bureau of Customs,
United States Secret Service, Bureau of Internal
Revenue, and Bureau of Narcotics, all of which are
in the Treasury Department; by the national de­
fense agencies; and by some other Federal agen­
cies. Excluded from the statement are F B I agents
(see p. 145), ordinary building guards and watch­
men, and unarmed investigators.
Some Federal police are uniformed; others are
plain-clothes men. Their duties depend on the
agency in which they are employed and their
particular assignment. Some guard the borders
and ports of the United States (Bureau of Cus­
toms, and Immigration and Naturalization Serv­
ice) ; protect the President and President-elect




and their families and property and visiting for­
eign dignitaries (Secret Service) ; or guard Gov­
ernment property, especially military and naval
establishments (Army and Navy Departments).
Other groups enforce certain Federal laws— for
example, those regarding counterfeiting (Secret
Service), narcotic trade (Bureau of Narcotics),
and tax collection (Intelligence and Alcohol Tax
Units of the Bureau of Internal Revenue). The
work often involves tracking down criminals and
making arrests. Job titles include border patrol­
man, customs agent, port patrol officer, secret serv­
ice agent, customs patrol inspector, special agent,
patrolman, and narcotics agent.
How To Enter
A ll these positions are in the Federal civil serv­
ice. Permanent appointments of people who do not
already have civil-service status are made only
from registers established on the basis of com­
petitive examinations given by the United States
Civil Service Commission.
To be admitted to examinations for agent posi-

P R O T E C T IV E

S E R V IC E

tions in the Treasury Department, applicants must
have some college training or experience in in­
vestigative work. Veterans are given 5 or 10
points’ preference in the grading of all examina­
tions. In addition, there are restrictions on ap­
pointment of nonveterans to certain classes of posi­
tions. Physical requirements are strict—more so
for some kinds of jobs than others.
Newly hired employees receive on-the-job train­
ing and classroom instruction for periods varying
from several weeks to about a year.
Outlook
This is not a large field of employment. The
Treasury Department has some 3,000 agents, and
around the same number are employed by other
agencies.
During 1948, or soon thereafter, the Civil Serv­
ice Commission will give examinations for Treas­
ury Department positions and those in other
agencies. From the resulting registers of qualified
persons appointments will be made to fill the small
number of current vacancies. At the same time,
the positions now held by war-service appointees
will be filled on a permanent basis, but it is ex­
pected that many of the present employees will
qualify for appointment.
Not much expansion in employment is antici­
pated. Though the long-run trend in employ­
ment has been upward, the peak may have been
reached during the war. There will, however, be a
few job opportunities each year as a result of nor­
mal replacement needs. These vacancies will of
course be filled from the civil-service registers.
Veterans will generally have much the best chance
for appointment; those with experience in

145

O C C U P A T IO N S

military intelligence work will have a special
advantage.
Earnings
The starting salary is generally a little over
$3,200 a year for men without experience and
about $4,000 a year for those with related experi­
ence. Within-grade pay increases are given at
regular intervals, as in other Federal jobs. A sal­
ary of about $4,700 a year is considered the “ jour­
neyman” rate for Treasury agents. Opportunity
for advancement to supervisory positions with
still higher pay usually comes only after many
years of experience.
These men have unusually steady employment
and stable earnings, paid vacations, sick leave,
better-than-average pensions, and other benefits.
II"here To Go for More Information
In q u irie s abou t e x a m in a tion s and a p p o in tm e n ts
sh o u ld be m a de at re g io n a l offices o f the U n ite d
States C iv il S e rv ice C om m ission , b u t o n ly w hen
r e c r u itin g o r e x a m in a tio n ann ou n cem ent has been
m ade.

S u ch ann ou n cem en ts are p u b lish e d in the

n ew sp a p ers a n d p o ste d in C iv il S e rv ice C o m m is ­
sion offices, p o st offices, and o th e r places.

The

C o m m issio n has r e g io n a l offices in th e fo llo w in g
citie s :
Boston, Mass.
New York, N. Y.
Philadelphia. Pa.
Washington, D. O.
Atlanta, Ga.
Cincinnati, Ohio
Chicago, 111.

St. Paul, Minn.
St. Louis, Mo.
New Orleans, La.
Seattle^ Wash.
San Francisco, Calif.
Denver, Colo.
Dallas, Tex.

See also FBI Agents, page 115; Policemen,
page 142; and Detectives, page 143.

FBI Agents
(D.O.T. 2-66.99)

Outlook Summary

Nature of Work

S om e o p e n in g s each y e a r o w in g to tu rn -o v e r ,
th o u g h n ot n e a rly en o u g h f o r all jo b seekers.

Ap­

p lica tio n s are w elcom e d , e sp e cia lly fr o m q ualified
veterans.




F B I (Federal Bureau of Investigation) agents
are plain-clothes men. They investigate all types
of violations of Federal law not specifically as­
signed to other agencies, including antitrust vio-

146

O C C U P A T IO N A L

OU TLOOK H A N D B O O K

la tio n s, b rib e r y , fr a u d a g a in st th e G o v e rn m e n t,
b a n k ro b b e ry , k id n a p in g , w h ite-sla v e traffic, m o ­
to r -v e h icle th e ft, e s p io n a g e , and sabotage.

How To Enter
The FBI, part o f the United States Depart­
ment of Justice, hires its agents directly (not
through the U. S. Civil Service Commission).
Applicants must be (1) graduates o f accredited
law schools, or (2) graduates of accredited ac­
counting schools. They must also be male citizens
of the United States, between the ages of 25 and
41 years, and willing to serve anywhere in the
United States or its Territories. Furthermore,
they must be at least 5 feet T inches tall; have un­
impaired hearing, excellent vision, and normal
color perception; be capable of strenuous exer­
tion; and have no physical defects which would
prevent use of firearms or participation in dan­
gerous assignments.
W r itte n an d ora l ex a m in a tion s are g iv e n , c o v ­
e r in g law , a cco u n tin g , and a p titu d e f o r m eetin g
th e p u b lic an d c o n d u c tin g in v e stig a tio n s.

E x­

h au stive b a c k g ro u n d a n d ch a ra cter in v e stig a tio n s
are co n d u cte d o n a p p lica n ts p r io r to a p p o in tm e n t.

Outlook
Employment in early 1948 was about 3,500. At
least this many men will doubtless be needed in
the next few years to combat the sharply increased
crime rate and to discharge the Bureau’s vari­
ous responsibilities. Turn-over, although small,
should make some vacancies, and if prewar ex­
perience is any indication, the number of agents
employed will rise slowly in the long run. How­
ever, the number of interested applicants will prob­




ably far exceed the number of available jobs. The
F B I nevertheless, welcomes applicant inquiries,
particularly from qualified veterans and inter­
views plus the opportunity to file applications are
afforded.
Earnings and Working Conditions
All agents start at $4,856 a year. Periodic
within-grade pay increases are given, as in all Fed­
eral agencies. Opportunities for advancement to
higher-grade positions are excellent for men with
the needed experience, efficiency, and other qualifi­
cations. Top pay for regular field agents is $7,193
a year.
The basic workweek is 40 hours, but all agents
are on call 24 hours a day, 7 days a week. Though
assigned to one o f the many F B I offices in differ­
ent parts of the country, agents may be called upon
at any time to handle jobs requiring travel outside
their headquarters city. A subsistence allowance
of $6 per day is paid for work away from this city.
Transportation of families and shipment of
household effects are at Government expense on
official transfers.
F B I men have paid vacations and sick leave,
relatively secure employment and stable earnings,
and pensions on retirement.
Where To Go fo r More Information
Additional information and application forms
may be obtained by writing t o :
Personnel Office, F B I
Room 7204
U. S. Department o f Justice Bldg.
W ashington 25, D. C.

See also Policemen, page 142; Detectives, page
143; and Federal Police and Detectives, page 144.

Other Clerical, Sales, and Service Occupations
Secretaries, Stenographers, and Typists
(D.O.T. 1-3 3 ; 1-37.12, .14, .18, and .32)

Outlook Summary
Good employment prospects in immediate future
for well-trained workers. Long-run employment
trend upward.
Nature of Work
Typists’ work ranges from simple copying to
reproducing complicated statistical tables and
manuscripts. Stenographers, besides typing, take
dictation in shorthand or on a stenotype machine.
Some become specialists in public or court stenog­
raphy, foreign languages, or legal or police work.
Secretaries usually handle stenographic duties
along with business details which do not need
their employer’s personal attention. Some spe­
cialize in legal, medical, private, social, or other
types of secretarial work.
Over 1,000,000 persons were employed in these
occupations in 1940. The number increased
greatly during the w ar; it may now be as high as
2,000,000, according to a rough estimate. The
great majority of the workers (94 percent in 1940)
are women. Nevertheless, a good many men are
employed (about 69,000 in 1940) in stenographic
jobs with finance, insurance, and real-estate com­
panies. Court stenographers are usually men,
although some women stenotypists are employed.
How To Enter
At least a high-school diploma and preferably
also one from a business school or college are
needed to enter these occupations. Typists need
good training not only in typing but in spelling,
vocabulary, punctuation, grammar, and corre­
spondence procedures; stenographers must also be
able to take dictation quickly and accurately; court
stenography requires exceptionally high speed.
Ability to use other office machines and courses
in business administration are helpful for many
jobs. The better-paid positions often require




knowledge o f the fundamentals and terminology
o f a particular field, such as law, medicine, engi­
neering, or foreign languages.
Starting out as a typist, a person with ability
and training can advance to stenographic, secre­
tarial, and administrative assistant positions.
Specialized knowledge of the particular industry
where one is employed is most helpful for advance­
ment.
Outlook
Employment prospects are good for welltrained secretaries, stenographers, and typists. In
early 1948 there was a shortage of such workers,
owing to the withdrawal of many young women
from the labor force since VJ-day, to the fact that
the number of young people completing training
was less than usual during the war, and to the
continuing high levels of business activity. How­
ever, the shortage is likely to become less acute as
the great numbers of young people currently en­
rolled in business courses complete their training.
Poorly trained people will therefore find it in­
creasingly difficult to get jobs. Since the end of
the war, employers have become more insistent
upon hiring only those people with thorough
stenographic training. Veterans’ preference will
generally be a great help in obtaining Govern­
ment jobs.
In the long run, employment will probably tend
to rise slowly. In addition, high turn-over rates,
usual in occupations where young women pre­
dominate, will continue to create many job open­
ings. Since these workers are needed in every
industry and profession, they are likely to be less
seriously affected by declines in economic activity
than those in occupations found in only one in­
dustry. Well-trained stenographers and secre­
taries have a better chance o f holding their jobs
than typists with only one skill to offer.
J o b s w ill be fo u n d in m ost section s o f the c o u n ­
147

148

O C C U P A T IO N A L

OUTLOOK H A N D B O O K

try, in small towns as well as large cities. The
greatest number of openings, but also keenest com­
petition for jobs, will be in large industrial and
population centers. About three-fifths o f the
workers in 1940 were employed in 8 States: New
York, Illinois, Pennsylvania, California, Ohio,
New Jersey, Massachusetts, and Michigan.

vance to secretarial and administrative assistant
jobs, which pay higher salaries. Court stenog­
raphers in the Federal service begin at $3,351.
State and local governments generally have some­
what lower salary scales than the Federal Gov­
ernment.
Where To Go for Further Information

Earnings
More data on schools may be obtained from :
At the beginning of 1948, average weekly salaries
o f women general stenographers in private indus­
try ranged from $37 in Boston to $48 in San Fran­
cisco, with an average for all cities of about $40,
according to a survey of 11 large cities. Earnings
o f the small number of men engaged in this work
were somewhat higher, as were earnings of tech­
nical stenographers working in such specialized
fields as law or medicine. Junior typists had an
average of $30 to $42 a week depending on the city
where employed. For senior typists the median
salaries ranged from $37 to $47 weekly.
In the Federal civil service, typists have an
annual starting salary of $2,086 or $2,284; stenog­
raphers start at $2,284. Stenographers may ad­

National Council o f Business Schools,
839 17th St. NW.,
Washington, D. C.

Information on salaries, hours of work, and sup­
plementary benefits for office workers in 11 lar^e
cities are available from :
U. S. Department o f Labor,
Bureau o f Labor Statistics,
W ashington 25, D. C.

Information on Government jobs may be ob­
tained from State or municipal civil-service au­
thorities or the United States Civil Service Com­
mission, Washington 25, D. C.
Notices o f civil-service jobs and examinations
are very frequently posted in local post offices.

Bookkeepers
(D.O.T. 1-01.02, 1-01.03; 1-02.01, .02, .03)

Outlook Summary
Many openings at present for bookkeeping clerks
and machine operators; some opportunities at
higher levels. Keen competition probable in long
run.
Nature o f Work
Jobs in bookkeeping range from entry positions
as clerk or machine operator up to head book­
keeper. Bookkeeping clerks perform routine tasks
such as recording and posting items by hand; in
small businesses, they may also perform related
duties such as typing, filing, answering the tele­
phone, and mailing statements. Bookkeepingmachine operators may use relatively simple ma­
chines to record only one type of data or may per­
form involved computations on special machines.
General bookkeepers keep complete and system­




atic sets of records o f their employers’ business
transactions, recording items in proper journal
and on special forms, balancing books and com­
piling reports. In large establishments which em­
ploy many office workers, a bookkeeper may be
assigned to work with one phase or section of a
complete set of records, as accounts payable or
accounts receivable. The head bookkeeper in a
large office has full responsibility for his depart­
ment.
T raining
Most employers require graduation from a high
school, business or vocational school, or junior col­
lege. However, many employers prefer not to hire
college-trained persons for routine bookkeeping
jobs. A commercial course which includes train­
ing in many office functions such as typing, short­
hand, and use of various office machines, as well

OTHER

C L E R IC A L ,

SALES, AND

as bookkeeping procedures, will usually be of
greatest value in obtaining a job in this field.
Head bookkeepers usually qualify either by edu­
cation in accounting or extensive experience,.
Where Employed
Bookkeepers are employed in all industries, with
by far the greatest numbers in wholesale and retail
trade. Many employment opportunities are found
with banks, insurance companies, railroads, and
utility companies.

S E R V IC E

O C C U P A T IO N S

149

great because of the low training requirements for
entrance in the occupation.
The greatest source of job openings for book­
keepers will continue to be the result of turn-over
which is considerable in this large field. The num­
ber of persons employed in bookkeeping jobs prob­
ably exceeds 700,000. Nearly half of these jobs
are filled by women, about 50 percent of whom are
under 30 years of age. Many of these women leave
their jobs each year, thus creating openings for
new employees.
Earnings

Outlook
There are a large number of openings in book­
keeping jobs at the present time (early 1948),
owing chiefly to the high level of business activity
and the high rate o f turn-over within the occupa­
tion. There is a trend, especially in large offices,
toward breaking down bookkeeping functions into
office-machine operator and other routine clerical
jobs. The vast majority of openings in the book­
keeping field are of this nature. While there are
plenty of people with the qualifications to fill such
positions, many are loath to accept them because
of the low salaries usually paid. Openings for
bookkeepers who are required to assume responsi­
bility for a complete set of books are few; even so,
there is now a shortage of workers with the neces­
sary training and experience to qualify for these
jobs. However, there are large numbers now tak­
ing business courses and accounting training, and
it is likely that the supply will soon exceed the
demand.
The long-run outlook for bookkeepers depends,
in the main, on the level of business activity and
the number of individual businesses. It is likely
that, if general business conditions remain good,
there will be some increase in the need for book­
keepers, because the growth of scientific manage­
ment in industry, complex tax systems, and the
general complexities of the economy necessitate
more record keeping. In the event of a slump in
business activity the competition for jobs will be

79399(5°—49-----11



Earnings vary greatly, depending on the indus­
try, type and location of office, and grade of job
performed; also with the education, experience,
age, and sex of the worker. In general, earnings
are highest in large cities and in the Pacific and
Middle Atlantic States. Men usually receive
higher pay than women in the same offices.
In the early part of 1948, average weekly earn­
ings of women hand bookkeepers in private in­
dustry ranged from $44 in Buffalo and Atlanta to
$55 in New York City and San Francisco accord­
ing to a survey of office workers in 11 large cities.
In nearly all cities, hand bookkeepers received
higher pay than workers in any other office occupa­
tion. Women bookkeeping machine operators
with highest skills averaged from $42 to $52 weekly,
while operators with less responsibility had aver­
age salaries of $34 to $44, depending on city in
which employed.
Wh ere To Go F or Additional Information
Information on salaries, hours of work, and sup­
plementary benefits for office workers in 11 large
cities are available from :
U. S. Department o f Labor,
Bureau o f Labor Statistics,
Washington 25, D. 0.

Information, particularly on private business
schools, may be obtained from :
National Council o f Business Schools,
839 17th St. NW.,
W ashington 6, D. C.

150

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OUTLOOK H A N D B O O K

Stock and Stores Clerks (Air Transportation)
(D.O.T. 1-38.99)

Outlook Summary
Some openings each year. Competition for jobs
usually considerable but likely to decrease during
next few years. Long-run employment trend up­
ward.
Nature of Work
Most stock and stores clerks employed by the
air lines are in the storerooms at the main over­
haul bases and, to a less extent, at the smaller
service stations where day-to-day line maintenance
work is done. Duties include receiving and un­
packing the tremendous number of different parts
and supplies, issuing these to the mechanics and
other personnel, packing and shipping materials
and equipment, and keeping records and inven­
tory controls. In the larger stockrooms, different
groups of clerks may specialize in different phases
of the work.
There are also a few stock clerks in the larger
nonscheduled flying services and other fixed-base
operations. The general nature of the work is
very similar to that in air-line stockrooms, but
since the operations are on a much smaller scale,
there is likely to be little, if any specialization
of work or distinction between grades of clerks.
Often only one clerk is employed, and in many
such instances he may be required to perform
mechanical duties in order to keep himself fully
occupied.
Qualifications and Advancement
There are no legal requirements for work in this
occupation, and the standards used in hiring jun­
ior clerks vary considerably from one carrier to
another. Some air lines may or may not require
even a high-school diploma; others prefer appli­
cants with some college or business-school educa­
tion. Ability to read and to write legibly is
always essential. The minimum age limit is usu­
ally 18; the maximum may vary from 35 to 50.




On a few air lines, passing of a physical examina­
tion is necessary. Previous clerical experience,
especially in aircraft or automotive stock and
stores work, is always an asset, sometimes a pre­
requisite for the job. In general, positions above
the level of junior clerk are filled by promotions
from within the company.
Outlook
Expansion in employment may be expected over
the long run in this as in most other occupations
in air transportation. Since the end of the war,
however, the number of stock and stores clerks
employed by the air lines and in related activities
has not risen significantly; it was between 2,000
and 3,000 in round figures on VJ-day and is still
within this range. There is little likelihood that
more than double the present number will be on
pay rolls at the end of the next 5 years, however
vigorous general business activity may continue
to be.
The pool of qualified job applicants from among
persons with and without experience in the field
is expected to be ample to meet hiring needs in the
immediate future. Since entrance into the occu­
pation is easy and the work fairly interesting and
pleasant, competition for employment is usually
strong. However, the 70-group air force program
legislated in May 1948 is expected to mean ex­
panding job opportunities in aircraft manufactur­
ing and related activities and therefore de­
creasing competition for stock-clerk jobs in air
transportation.
Most jobs will be found in the 55 city areas
where the air lines’ main overhaul bases are lo­
cated. However, there will be some openings at
large airports in other localities.
Working Conditions
The usual work schedule with the air lines is a
40-hour week and an 8-liour day. Typical start­

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ing rates o f pay of nonsupervisory clerks range
from 90 cents to as high as $1.25 an hour. A d­
vancement is possible to rates as high as $1.45. A
2-week vacation with pay is usually given.
Stock clerks are widely organized for collective
bargaining. They are represented by several dif­
ferent unions.
Where To Get More Information
Additional information on the occupation of
stock and stores clerks is given in :
Employment Opportunities in Aviation Occu­
pations, Part I—Postwar Employment Outlook;
Part I I —Duties, Qualifications, Earnings and
Working Conditions. (Bulletins Nos. 837-1 and
837-2.) U. S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, 1945
and 1946. 36 pp. and 45 pp., illus. Price 10 cents

S E R V IC E

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151

and 20 cents. Superintendent of Documents,
Washington 25, D. C.
To find out about openings with air lines and the
exact qualifications needed, inquiry should be made
to the personnel managers of the lines. Addresses
are listed in part II of the bulletin just mentioned
or may be obtained from the Air Transport Asso­
ciation of America, 1107 Sixteenth Street NW.,
Washington, D. C.
Information as to locations of air fields, repair
stations, and flying schools can be obtained from
the Office of Aviation Information, Civil Aero­
nautics Administration, Washington 25, D. C.
For information regarding Federal Government
positions, address this agency or any regional office
of the United States Civil Service Commission.
See also Automobile-Parts Salesmen, p. 155.

Traffic Agents and Clerks (Air Transportation)
(D.O.T. 1-44.12, .27, and .32)

Outlook Summary
Job opportunities for newcomers likely to be
limited in the immediate future. Long-run em­
ployment trend slowly upward in occupational
group as a whole; more rapidly in positions con­
cerned with cargo traffic than in other types of
work.
Nature of Work
These workers are employed mainly in air-line
traffic departments. They include ticket agents,
passenger agents, reservation clerks, and, at a
somewhat higher level of responsibility, traffic
representatives. Still further up the ladder are
city and district traffic and station managers.
Traffic staffs are located principally in down­
town offices or at airports in or near large cities—
the primary source of air-line customers. How­
ever, some are in smaller communities where air
lines have scheduled stops. A few are stationed
in foreign countries.
Qualifications
There are strict hiring standards with respect
to appearance, personality, and education—to
qualify employees for the constant contact with




the public which is involved in most traffic jobs.
High-school graduation is generally required;
some college training is considered desirable. Ex­
perience in connection with freight or express
traffic in other branches o f transportation will be
increasingly valuable. Aviation background and
sales experience are helpful for higher-grade jobs.
Women are commonly employed as reservation
and ticket agents; some few are passenger agents.
The occupations covered in this statement are
among the best in the industry from the point
o f view of advancement.
Outlook
Employment in traffic jobs is expected to increase
both in the near future and over the long run. In
early 1948, more than 10,000 people were employed
in such jobs by the air lines. Five years hence, the
number should be substantially greater, if general
business activity continues high. The largest
numbers of openings will probably be for ticket
and reservation clerks. However, relative growth
may well be most rapid in jobs connected with
cargo traffic, which now employ far fewer people
than are in the passenger end of the business. In­
creasing emphasis is being placed on cargo traf­

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OUTLOOK

fic; it lias barely been tapped by the air-transport
industry. The United States Department of Com­
merce (Domestic Trade Digest, December 1947)
says: “ Air freight traffic may be expected to ex­
pand at a more rapid rate in 1948 than any other
form o f transportation, passenger or freight.”
During 1947, cut-backs in domestic operations
and improvements in the handling of traffic led to
a good many lay-offs in air-line traffic departments.
By now, however, probably all furloughed person­
nel who desired to do so have been able to return to
their own jobs or to take other air-line positions
for which they qualified. Job chances o f new­
comers should be perceptibly better before long,
bolstered by the general upward trend in employ­
ment and other factors. The planned air-force
expansion, however, will have a negligible effect.
Earnings and Unionization
Earnings vary widely, depending on the degree
o f responsibility of the job. A representative sal­

HANDBOOK

ary range for agents and clerks was $150 to $250
or more per month in early 1948. Station man­
agers and district traffic managers in large cities
sometimes made as high as $400 or better a month.
Reservations and transportation agents are cov­
ered by a union contract on only one line, where
they are represented by the Brotherhood of Rail­
way and Steamship Clerks, AFL.
Where To Get More Information
In q u irie s r e g a r d in g jo b o p e n in g s sh ou ld b e sent
t o th e p e rso n n e l m a n a gers o f th e a ir lines. A d ­
dresses are liste d i n :

Employment Opportunities in Aviation Occu­
pations, Part 2— Duties, Qualifications, Earnings
and Working Conditions. (Bulletin No. 837-2.)
U. S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, 1947. 45 pp.,
illus. Price 20 cents. Superintendent o f Docu­
ments, Washington 25, D. C.
They may also be obtained from Air Transport
Association of America, 1107 16th St. NW., Wash­
ington, D. C.

General-Insurance Agents and Brokers
(See D.O.T. 1-57.10)

Outlook Summary
Many opportunities each year for experienced
men; some for women. Training courses avail­
able for inexperienced persons. Long-run trend
in employment upward.
Nature of Work
Agents sell one or more kinds of general insurance (fire, casualty, marine, surety, and other) as
representatives of underwriting companies or of
brokerage firms. Brokers give service to individ­
uals and firms seeking insurance and may have pol­
icies written on behalf of clients by any insurance
company. Agents as well as brokers are consid­
ered independent contractors.
IIoio To Enter
Little or no capital is needed to enter the field.
Anyone who can meet the training and licensing
requirements of the State or States where he wishes




to operate may become a broker. The tendency
is for States to require licensing standards of com­
petence, and about half give examinations. New
York State gives written examinations covering
insurance laws and other matters relating to the
business. To become an agent, one must first ob­
tain a contract with a company or a general agent
of a company and then secure the necessary State
license or licenses.
An expert knowledge of the chosen branch of
insurance is necessary for the newcomer’s success.
Therefore, to prepare for work as an agent or
broker, one should take courses in insurance and
related subjects in a college, evening high school,
or correspondence school, or with a trade associa­
tion or insurance company. New agents some­
times have periods of on-the-job training when
they are first hired and, in any event, usually work
under close company supervision for a fairly long
time. Since the broker is on his own once he starts
in business, it is particularly important for men

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planning to enter this type of work to get the best
education and training.
Outlook
There will be many opportunities for both ex­
perienced and inexperienced men in these fields
during the next few years; also some openings for
women. Of the quarter of a million or so agents
and brokers in all branches of insurance, roughly
one-third are in general insurance; almost all of
the brokers are in this field. Employment is be­
lieved to be higher now than before the war.
Additional workers continue to enter the field,
however. The ease with which people can enter
it encourages them to do so, and competition for
business is always keen; large brokerage firms get
most of the important accounts that are placed.
Many people are forced out of the field, especially
during the first year or two, because their earn­
ings are so low. It generally takes 5 years or even
longer for an agent or broker to establish himself.
The number of successful agents and brokers in
business has so far had an upward trend and will
probably continue to increase. The volume of
surety and general insurance business is deter­
mined largely by population and property values;
population is expected to go on growing until
about the end of this century, and property values
will probably continue to rise over the long run.
While the number o f agents Rnd brokers does not
change in direct proportion to changes in the
amount of insurance business, it tends to move in
the same direction, especially when business is in­
creasing. Because o f the expected growth in in­
surance activity and other factors, the chances of
successful employment as an agent or broker are
likely to improve in the long run.

S E R V IC E

O C C U P A T IO N S

153

Openings for agents will be found throughout
the country. Brokerage opportunities, however,
will be mainly in large cities, such as New York,
Philadelphia, Chicago, San Francisco, Los A n­
geles, and Washington, D. C. The best place to
start is generally in one’s own community, where
one has the widest contacts. Other things being
equal, however, it is considered easier to build up
a business in the West than in the East. Oppor­
tunities in many parts of the South have improved
considerably during the last few years. Texas is
a promising area. In general, places which have
had recent increases in population and income are
likely to offer more favorable opportunities than
other localities, but there may be offsetting factors.
California, for example, has had very great popu­
lation and income growth, but it already has many
more agents and brokers than ever before.
Where To Go for More Information
General agents or managers of insurance com­
pany branch offices can supiply information not
only on employment opportunities in the particu­
lar locality but on their companies’ methods of
selecting, training, and compensating agents.
Questions on how to prepare for general insur­
ance work may be addressed to the National Asso­
ciation of Insurance Agents, 80 Maiden Lane, New
York 7, N. Y., or to State or local associations
of insurance agents. Information on training
courses is available from N A IA educational divi­
sion at the above address.
For information about securing a license, one
may write to the Department of Insurance at any
State capital.
See also Insurance underwriters, page 97; and
Life-Insurance Agents, page 153.

Life-Insurance Agents
(See D.O.T. 1-57.10)

Outlook Summary

Nature of Work

Several thousand opportunities each year for
experienced and inexperienced men; some open­
ings for women. Long-run trend in employment
upward.

Most life-insurance agents specialize either in
ordinary insurance (policies with face values of at
least $1,000 and premium payments made directly
to the general agent or company home office); or




154

O C C U P A T IO N A L

OU TLOOK H A N D B O O K

in industrial insurance (low-premium policies
with small face values and premiums collected by
the agent in person) ; or in group insurance (poli­
cies covering a group of people, usually the em­
ployees of a particular company).
The work is much more highly personalized
than most other sales jobs. An insurance agent
often becomes the family financial adviser, build­
ing up a relationship with clients like that of the
family lawyer or doctor. He is primarily a repre­
sentative o f a single company, although he may
occasionally place new policies with other com­
panies. The ordinary agent is generally an inde­
pendent contractor, the industrial agent an em­
ployee.
How To Enter
To become an agent, one must first obtain a con­
tract with a company (usually through a general
agent). A license must then be obtained from
each State in which the agent is to operate. In
some States, about all that has to be done is to
apply for a license and pay a nominal fee; usually
the company makes the application and pays the
fee. In many States, however (New York, for
example), written examinations are given cover­
ing life-insurance principles, State laws, and other
matters relating to the business.
An expert knowledge of the field is necessary
for success. Therefore, to prepare for work as an
agent, one should take courses in insurance and re­
lated subjects in a college, evening high school, cor­
respondence school, or with a trade association or
insurance company. In any event, the agent goes
through a period of on-the-job training when he
starts out with a company and works under close
supervision for a fairly long time. All else being
equal, the greatest success comes to men who like
people and find it easy to deal with them.
Outlook
There will be several thousand opportunities
each year for both experienced and inexperienced
men to enter this large occupation; also some open­
ings for women. O f the quarter of a million or
so agents and brokers in all branches of insurance,
including suretyship and general insurance,
roughly two-thirds are life agents. O f these,
slightly more than half are industrial agents.




Employment is higher now than before the war.
Additional workers continue to enter the field,
however. General agents rarely turn down quali­
fied applicants and few States are attempting to
restrict the number of agents. The ease with
which people can enter the field encourages them
to do so, and competition for business is always
keen. Many ordinary agents are forced out of
business, especially during the first year or two,
because of low earnings; it generally takes 5 years
or even longer for an agent to establish himself
firmly. However, many companies which write
ordinary insurance now give new agents financial
assistance during the apprenticeship period. All
industrial agents receive a salary from the start.
The number of successful agents in business has
so far had an upward trend and will probably
continue to increase. The volume of life insur­
ance business is determined largely by population
and purchasing power; population is expected to
go on increasing until about the end of this cen­
tury, and national income will probably continue
to rise over the long run. While the number of
agents does not change in direct proportion to
changes in the amount o f insurance business, it
tends to move in the same direction, especially
when business is increasing. Because o f the ex­
pected growth in insurance activity and other fac­
tors, the chances of successful employment as an
agent are likely to improve in the long run.
Opportunities for life agents will be found
throughout the country. They are now more
widespread than opportunities for other types of
insurance salesmen. The best place to start is gen­
erally in one’s own community, where one has the
widest contacts. Other things being equal, how­
ever, it is considered easier to build up a business
in the West than in the East. Areas where popu­
lation and income have risen in the last few years
are also likely to offer more favorable opportu­
nities than other localities. Opportunities in many
parts of the South have improved considerably.
Texas is a promising area. In general, places
which have had recent increases in population and
income are likely to offer more favorable oppor­
tunities than other localities, but there may be off­
setting factors. California, for example, has had
very great population and income growth, but it
already has many more agents than ever before.

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155

Institute o f Life Insurance,
60 W. 42d St.
New York 17, N. Y.

Where To Go for More Information
General agents or managers of life insurance
company branch offices can supply information
not only on employment opportunities in the par­
ticular locality but on their companies’ methods
o f selecting, training, and compensating agents.
Other questions, including how to prepare for life
insurance work, may be addressed to the following
organizations:

O C C U P A T IO N S

L ife Insurance Agency Management Association,
115 Broad St.,
H artford 5, Conn.

F o r in fo r m a tio n a b ou t se cu rin g a license, one
m a y w r ite to the d ep a rtm e n t o f in su ra n ce at a n y
S ta te ca p ita l.

See also: Insurance underwriters, page 97, and
General Insurance Agents and Brokers, page 152.

Automobile-Parts Salesmen
(D.O.T. 1-75.22)

Outlook Summary

Outlook

Good employment prospects for experienced
workers in the next few years; also a considerable
number of openings in entry occupations. Longrun trend of employment upward.

Employment is now increasing and will prob­
ably continue to do so during the next few years.
Since the end of the war, many veterans and other
former parts salesmen have returned to their jobs.
The wartime shortage of salesmen has thus been
somewhat relieved, but more workers are still
needed. Sales of auto parts and accessories are
setting new records; in 1946, sales were more than
double those in 1941; in 1947, they were still
higher. In the next few years, the number of new
cars manufactured is not expected to be sufficient
to meet the backlog of replacement demand, and
the average age of cars on the road will con­
tinue to be high. This factor, plus the growing
number of cars in use, will keep the demand for
parts at a high level and will probably create some
further employment oportunities for salesmen.
In addition, there will be openings owing to
deaths, retirements, and transfers to other fields of
work. Experienced workers should therefore
have no trouble finding jobs.
Newcomers will find a considerable number of
opportunities as stock and receiving clerks, from
which they may advance to jobs as counter sales­
men ; also some openings in the small but growing
number of formal training programs. Veterans
with related stock-clerk experience in the armed
forces generally receive preference for entry jobs,
and advancement may be quicker for them than
for inexperienced persons. In some areas, particu­
larly in small towns, experienced automotive parts

Mature of Work
There are tens of thousands of automobile-parts
salesmen in the country, working mostly for auto­
mobile dealers, parts jobbers, and parts distribu­
tors. Occupation includes both counter and out­
side salesmen, the former being the larger group.
For either type of job, knowledge o f a great num­
ber of automotive parts, often for various makes
of cars, is necessary. Salesmen must identify
parts, using micrometers, calipers, and other
measuring instruments when necessary. They fill
orders, quote prices, and give other information,
using catalogs as a source. Some jobs involve ex­
amining faulty parts to determine what has to be
replaced. Outside salesmen also visit retailers to
solicit sales.
How To Enter
Men usually enter this field as stock or receiving
clerks. After 6 months to a year at this type of
work, they advance to the job of junior counter­
man. Altogether, about 3 years’ experience is usu­
ally necessary to qualify as counter salesman.
Several more years in the latter job are required
for advancement to outside salesman.




156

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OUTLOOK H A N D B O O K

salesmen, with general business ability and suffi­
cient capital, will find favorable opportunities to
open their own parts stores.
Long-run trend of employment is upward. In
addition, employment in this occupation is rela­
tively little affected by declines in general busi­
ness activity. Most people who find jobs may
therefore look forward to continued employment
over a long period of time.
Jobs are to be found in all parts of the country,
in small towns as well as in large cities. The
greatest number o f jobs are in States with the
highest number of motor vehicles—California,
New York, Pennsylvania, Ohio, Illinois, Texas.
Michigan, and New Jersey.
Earnings
Ph otograph

Countermen are usually paid on an hourly basis,
while the majority of outside salesmen are on a
combination salary and commission basis. In
some large cities, typical weekly earnings of ex­
perienced counter salesmen working for others
were roughly $40 to $55 in 1946, depending on such
factors as the size of shop and its location. Yearly
earnings of outside salesmen in these cities were
generally in the neighborhood of $4,000 to $6,000.

by

U. S.

d e pa r tm e n t

of

labo r

Auto parts salesman fills an order for a customer.

Since 1946, the earnings of both groups have
tended to increase.
Where To Find Out More About This Occupation
National Standard Parts Association,
S S. Michigan Ave.,
Chicago 3, 111

Filling-Station Attendants, Managers, and Owners
(D.O.T. 0-72.12 and 7-60.500)

Outlook Summary
Job and business prospects fairly good in early
1948. Once labor shortages are met, employment
will probably show little further increase for at
least a few years. Many openings each year owing
to turn-over.
Nature of Work
Attendants work in filling stations owned or
controlled by oil companies and in independent
stations. They have a variety of duties—supply­
ing passenger cars, trucks, and busses with gaso­
line, oil, water, and air; changing oil and doing
lubrication jobs; installing accessories; changing
tires and repairing inner tubes. Since filling sta­
tions generally have many supplies for sale—for
example, batteries, spark plugs, light bulbs, and




tires—selling these makes up an important part
of the attendant’s duties.
Short training programs are conducted by many
oil companies for employed attendants, some of
whom become managers, operators (who lease a
station, usually from an oil company), or owners.
Except in some very large stations, managers,
operators, and owners perform many or all of the
duties of attendants, in addition to buying sup­
plies, supervising their employees, and handling
other business duties. The most common method
of going into business for one’s self in this field
is to lease a station from an oil company; previous
experience as an attendant is highly desirable.
Outlook
Employment in filling stations has been rising
steadily since YJ-day. It dropped sharply dur­

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ing the war, but in early 1948 it was higher than
in 1940, when about 200,000 attendants and 180,000
managers, operators, and owners Tvere employed.
There has been a tremendous increase in fillingstation business. More cars were on the road in
early 1948 than before the war; this has not only
raised gasoline sales but also sales of automobile
accessories and the amount of repair work, greas­
ing, and washing. In addition, gasoline consump­
tion per car was greater than ever before. While
business has soared, employment has increased' at
a much slower rate, and at the start of 1948 there
were still a great many stations with insufficient
help. Qualified men should therefore have little
difficulty finding employment. Persons with pre­
vious experience will generally have the best
chance of finding jobs.
O n ce the la b o r sh orta ges are reliev ed , e m p lo y ­
m ent is lik e ly to sh ow little i f a n y fu r th e r in ­
crease in the n ear fu tu re.

G a solin e co n s u m p tio n

is n ot ex p ected to rise a p p re c ia b ly above its p re s­
ent p eak f o r som e tim e to com e a n d m a y even d r o p
a little, since th e sh orta g e o f re fin in g a n d tra n s­
p o rta tio n equ ip m en t lim its th e s u p p ly .

I t w ill

p ro b a b ly be several yea rs b e fo r e th ere is en o u g h
g a solin e availa b le th ro u g h o u t th e co u n tr y to fill
the e v e r -g ro w in g d em an d f o r m o to r fu el.

People interested in purchasing or leasing gaso­
line stations found in early 1948 that only a lim­
ited number of stations were available; a great
many veterans, as well as other people, have gone
into this business since the war. Stations selling
the most popular brands o f gasoline are now, as
always, the hardest to get. The amount of capital
needed to buy or build a station has been increas­
ing somewhat with the rise in prices. A minimum
of $2,000 to $3,000 at that time was necessary in
most cases, the exact amount depending on the size
and location of the station. At least one large oil
company requires its prospective distributors to
have capital of $3,000 or more.
O v er the lo n g run, to ta l e m p lo y m e n t w ill ten d
to rise s lo w ly , sin ce a co n tin u e d u p w a r d tre n d in
m o to r -v e h ic le reg istra tio n s and m ile a g e is a n tic i­
p ated — a ssu m in g th a t gen era l business a ctiv ity
con tin u es at a h ig h level.




I n a d d itio n , th ere w ill

S E R V IC E

O C C U P A T IO N S

157

be several thousand job openings for attendants
each year, owing to the high turn-over rate which
is characteristic of this occupation. Opportuni­
ties for going into business for one’s self will prob­
ably continue to be fairly numerous, since there is
also considerable turn-over in ownership of filling
stations.
Jobs are to be found in all parts o f the country,
including small rural communities. Employ­
ment of attendants is greatest, however, in States
with the largest number of motor vehicles—Cali­
fornia, New York, Pennsylvania, Ohio, Illinois,
Texas, Michigan, and New Jersey.
Wages and Working Conditions
Wages in early 1948 were almost double what
they were before the war. The average attendant
earned around $45 or $50 a week in many large
cities, while the manager got around $60. Hourly
wage rates for attendants seldom went above $1
an hour, the higher weekly earnings coming as a
result of longer working hours; often men work
more than 10 hours a day. I f consumption of
gasoline should be curtailed, there may be a tend­
ency to shorten the workweek, thereby also reduc­
ing earnings. In addition to their wages, some
attendants and managers get commissions on
sales. Earnings of operators and owners depend
upon the location and size of the station and the
volume of business, and therefore vary a good
deal.
Where To Go fo r More Information
People interested in going into business for
themselves will find valuable information in :
Establishing and Operating a Service Station.
Industrial (Small Business) Series No. 22. U. S.
Department of Commerce, Bureau of Foreign and
Domestic Commerce (1945). Price 45 cents. Su­
perintendent of Documents, Washington 25, D . C.
Information on job and business opportunities
in a particular locality can be obtained from local
distributors of the large oil companies.

158

O C C U P A T IO N A L

OUTLOOK

HANDBOOK

Barbers
(D.O.T. 2-32.01)

Outlook Summary
G o o d jo b p ro sp e cts f o r sk ille d barbers, esp e cia lly
d u r in g n ext y e a r o r t w o ; f a ir ly g o o d p ro s p e cts f o r
learners.

Nature of Work
B a rb e rs g iv e a v a rie ty o f p erson a l services such
as h a ircu ts, sh am p oos, sca lp tr e a tm e n ts ; f o r th e ir
m ale p a tro n s th ey m a y also g iv e shaves a n d fa c ia l
m assages.

Both learners and skilled men are still in demand
in most parts of the country. The shortages are
less acute in some areas than others, however, and
are slowly but steadily diminishing. Newcomers
may have difficulty getting the needed school train­
ing, since many barber courses are now full and
some even have waiting lists.
A f t e r the la b o r sh orta g e has been m a d e u p , e m ­
p lo y m e n t is lik e ly to level o ff a n d o p e n in g s w ill be
fe w e r.
tio n s

B u t so lo n g as ge n e ra l e co n o m ic c o n d i­
con tin u e

to

be

good,

th ou sa n d s

of

n ew

Training and Advancement

b arb ers w ill be n eeded each y e a r to fill v a ca n cies
due to d eath s, retirem en ts, a n d tr a n sfe r s to o th e r

The most frequent method of entering the occu­
pation is by taking a trade course in a public voca­
tional school or a 6- to 9-month course in a commer­
cial barbers’ college. Graduates of such courses
must usually serve 18 months as apprentices (or
learners) before qualifying as journeymen, A p ­
prentices must meet minimum-age requirements
(generally 16 or 18 years) ; must, as a rule, have a
grade-school education or its equivalent; and must
be able to pass health examinations. In all States
except Virginia, both apprentices and master bar­
bers must have licenses.
Experienced barbers can advance by going into
shops where customers spend more money on such
services as facial massages, shampoos, and scalp
treatments, or by opening their own shops. In
some shops which are not managed by the owner,
there is opportunity for promotion to manager.
The majority of barbers are self-employed.

fields.

Outlook
The employment outlook is good in this occupa­
tion especially for the next year or two, that is,
for 1918 and 1949. In 1940, there were about 200,000 employed male barbers, and probably more
than 10,000 unemployed. During the war, many
went into war industries and the armed forces and
few men were trained. As some veterans and other
former employees have returned to the occupation,
employment has gone up again to some extent.




M o r e o v e r , declin es in g e n e ra l b usiness a c­

t iv it y d o n o t red u ce the n u m b er o f m en e m p lo y e d
in th is o c c u p a tio n as m u ch as in m a n y o th e rs— o w in g la r g e ly to the g re a t n u m b er o f s e lf-e m ­
p lo y e d b a rbers, w h o o fte n m a n age to sta y in b u s i­
ness even i f th e ir ea rn in g s are m u ch red u ced .

Jobs are to be found in all parts of the country,
in large cities and small. The greatest numbers
are, however, in New York. Pennsylvania, Illinois,
California, Texas, Ohio, and New Jersey.
Earnings and Working Conditions
Most barbers are paid a fixed salary plus a com­
mission, although some are paid either one or the
other. Guaranteed weekly wages typically ranged
from about $25 to $45 in many parts of the country
in micl-1946, and have not changed very much
since that time. Earnings from commissions have
risen, however; this has meant an average increase
o f about 10 percent in total earnings, according to
a rough estimate for early 1948. The earnings of
individual workers vary, depending on such fac­
tors as type and location of shop and custom of
the community regarding tips, as well as on skill
and personality. They tend to increase as the
barber establishes a personal following. The em­
ployee usually pays for his uniforms, razors,
combs, and scissors.
Hours are long—at least 46 or 48 per week and
many union contracts provide for a 51-hour week.

OTHER

C L E R IC A L ,

SALES, AND

In a few shops, workers receive a 1-week paid
vacation after a year of service.
The majority of organized barbers belong to
Journeymen Barbers, Hairdressers, and Cosme­
tologists International Union of America, A F L ;
some to the Barbers and Beauty Culturists Union
of America, CIO. Those who are shop owners or
managers may belong to Associated Master Bar­
bers and Beauticians of America.
Where To Go for More Information
The following organizations can provide addi­

S E R V IC E

159

O C C U P A T IO N S

tional information on such subjects as earnings,
working conditions, training requirements, and job
opportunities:
Barbers and Beauty Culturists Union o f America,
CIO,
330 Flatbush Ave.,
Brooklyn 17, N. Y.
Journeymen Barbers, Hairdressers, and Cosmetolo­
gists International Union o f America, AFL,
12th and D elaware Sts.,
Indianapolis 7, Ind.
National Education Council,
Associated Master Barbers
America,
537 S. Dearborn St.,
Chicago 5, 111.

and

Beauticians

of

Beauty Operators
(See D.O.T. 2-32.11-14, .21, .22, .31)

Outlook Summary
Prospects fairly good for experienced workers,
but inexperienced operators will find fewer and
fewer openings. Long-run employment trend
slowly upward.
Nature o f Work
The majority of workers are all-round opera­
tors who give a variety of services such as sham­
poos, hair cuts, hair setting, permanent waves,
hair dyeing, face and scalp treatments, and mani­
cures. There are, however, some less-skilled oper­
ators who can do manicuring only; also some with
all-round training who specialize in other services.
The few men in the occupation are mainly stylists
specializing in hair cutting, setting, and perma­
nent waving. Many operators are self-employed.
Training and Advancement
In all States except Delaware, Mississippi, and
Virginia, there are now licensing requirements.
To qualify for licenses, operators must have
reached a specified age (generally 16 or 18 years) ;
they must pass health examinations; in most States
they must have at least a grade-school (in some
a high-school) education; and they must have com­
pleted satisfactory training courses. Usually,
prospective operators take a 6- or 8-month course
in a commercial beauty school or a trade course in
a public vocational school. In the District of Co­
lumbia and the 45 States which require licensing,




there are about 1,130 schools offering beauty-cul­
ture courses approved by the State boards of exam­
iners; there are schools in every State, in both
small towns and large cities. Learning on the job
is not common, although some States accept this
kind of training in lieu of trade courses.
After completing a beauty course and obtaining
a license, an operator ordinarily starts out in a
small neighborhood shop, although especially skill­
ful girls are sometimes able to go directly into
higher-grade shops. A few women who are al­
ready licensed operators may work into positions
with chain organizations by selling the firm’s cos­
metics in department stores and then taking ad­
vanced beauty courses at the company’s training
centers.
Experienced operators may advance by moving
to a better shop or becoming specialists. A few,
employed in large salons, may be promoted to
positions as managers. Those who have skill,
business ability, and some capital may be able to
succeed in business for themselves.
Outlook
Employment opportunities are expected to be
fairly good for experienced beauty operators, less
and less good for newcomers, in the next few years.
During and immediately after the war, there was a
labor shortage in this large occupation, which em­
ployed more than 200,000 women (including own­
ers, managers, and specialists such as manicurists

160

O C C U P A T IO N A L

OU TLOOK H A N D B O O K

and electro]ogists) and roughly 10,000 men in 1940.
Both experienced and inexperienced operators
could find plenty of jobs. The situation has been
changing gradually, however, as former workers
have returned to the occupation from war jobs and
newly trained people have begun to enter the field
in increasing numbers. Skilled workers can still
find jobs fairly easily, especially in small towns.
However, newcomers may expect more and more
difficulty in findings openings and may have to ac­
cept relatively low pay or long working hours.
Prospective students may also encounter obstacles
in enrolling in courses, since some schools have
waiting lists. Opportunities for men will prob­
ably continue to be limited in number and will
most frequently be found in the larger shops in big
cities.
The long-run employment trend will probably
continue to be upward, assuming that general eco­
nomic conditions remain good. However, the in­
crease is likely to be slower than before the war.
There will also be many openings owing to turn­
over.
Jobs are to be found in every State, in large
cities and small. The greatest numbers are in Mew
York, California, Illinois, Pennsylvania, Ohio,
Texas, Michigan, and Massachusetts.
Earnings
Earnings are influenced by length of experience,
personality, and ability, as well as the type of shop
and its location. They therefore vary widely.
Median hourly earnings, excluding tips, of women
operators in New York State early in 1947 were
about 86 cents; men operators had a median of
$1.14 an hour. Manicurists earn less than all­
round operators.

Many operators throughout the country are on
a 48-hour week; a few are on a 40-hour week.
However, a considerable number, especially in
small shops, have extremely long hours. Some
shops give 1 week's vacation with p a y ; a few give
2 weeks.
Where To Go for More Information
The following organizations may be helpful in
supplying information on such topics as job op­
portunities, training requirements, and working
conditions:
Barbers and Beauty Culturists Union o f Am erica, CIO,
330 Flatbush Ave.,
Brooklyn 17, N. Y.
Journeymen Barbers, Hairdressers and Cosmetolo­
gists, International Union o f America, AFL.
12th and Delaware Sts.,
Indianapolis 7, Ind.
National Council o f Boards o f Beauty Culture,
17 N. State St.,
Chicago 2, 111.
National Education Council,
Associated Master Barbers
America,
537 S. Dearborn St.,
Chicago 5, 111.

and

Beauticians

of

National Hairdressers and Cosmetologists A ssocia­
tion,
212 5th Ave.,
New York 10, N. Y.

To people interested in opening a beauty shop
of their own, the following pamphlet will be of
assistance.
Establishing and Operating a Beauty Shop.
Industrial (Small Business) Series No. 25. U. S.
Department of Commerce, Bureau of Foreign and
Domestic Commerce, Superintendent of Docu­
ments, Washington 25, D. C. Price 30 cents.

Hospital A tten dan ts 910
(D.O.T. 2-42)

Nature of Work

Outlook Summary
G ood

im m ed ia te

em p lo y m e n t

o p p o r tu n itie s.

T h e y assist the n u rsin g staff in h o sp ita ls b y p e r ­

T h e n eed in th e fu tu r e w ill co n s id e ra b ly exceed

fo r m in g ro u tin e o r less sk ille d tasks in th e care

th a t o f th e p re w a r years. 9
0
1

o f p atien ts.

9 See Statement on Practical Nurses.
10 Prepared by the W om en’s Bureau, U. S. Department of Labor.




S u ch services u su a lly in c lu d e b a th ­

in g a n d d re ssin g p a tien ts, a n sw e rin g ca ll b ells,
m a k in g beds, s e rv in g fo o d , a ssistin g the p a tie n t

OTHER

C L E R IC A L ,

SALES, AND

in walking, giving alcohol rubs, and possibly clean­
ing rooms and equipment. There is a trend to­
ward standardizing their training and duties.
Many are employed in hospitals for mental
patients.
Training and Other Qualifications
Preparation for practice varies considerably.
Many persons qualify for jobs as attendants
through experience only and obtain jobs without
being licensed. Veterans trained in such work in
the Army or Navy will qualify for most jobs as
attendants in hospitals. Two years of high school
are preferred though not required for entrance to
an approved course for training attendants.
About half the States have made provision for
licensing and requirements vary, but usually call
for graduation from an approved course o f 9 to 18
months, or the passing of an examination. In
1946 there were more than 96,000 attendants and
practical nurses and almost 37,000 orderlies em­
ployed in approved hospitals. O f this number,
over half were men. These men worked for the
most part in veterans’ hospitals or hospital depart­
ments in which all the patients were men, and par­
ticularly with male patients who were mentally ill.
Outlook
Employment outlook for the trained hospital
attendant is good; however, it will become in­
creasingly difficult for those without training to
obtain desirable employment as the trend is to­
ward licensing to protect both patients and quali­
fied personnel. Schools trained very few attend­
ants during the war, and poorly qualified persons
often obtained jobs as attendants. Those trained
in special courses such as were given by the Army
and Navy should have no difficulty in obtaining
employment either in veterans’ or in other hos­
pitals. The Federal civil service restricts positions
as hospital attendants to veterans as long as such
applicants are available.
There is a growing tendency toward the use of
attendants to perform many of the functions




S E R V IC E

O C C U P A T IO N S

161

formerly performed by the professional nurse.
As new treatments are developed, more assistants
are required to aid the nurse or physician during
the treatment and also with the preparation of the
patient for it. Trained attendants or assistants
usually are needed for this purpose as, for example,
the hot packers who are used in the application
of moist heat under the Kenny treatment for po­
liomyelitis. The war greatly increased the num­
ber of veterans who will require long-time hos­
pitalization and the services of attendants. The
increasing hospitalization of those suffering from
mental or nervous conditions adds to the demand
for trained attendants in mental institutions, as
does the growing hospitalization of tuberculous
and other patients with chronic illnesses. There
is a growing trend toward merging the hospital
attendant and practical nurse groups so that basic
training and requirements for licensing will be
similar.
Earnings
The basic annual beginning salary for hospital
attendant jobs under civil service in 1947 was
$1,954. Recent Nation-wide information is not
available on other hospital attendants. In one
Midwest State, recommendation was made in 1947
to raise the base pay of attendants in State hos­
pitals from $75 a month to $115 a month.
Where To Go for More Information
Additional information on the outlook for
women as hospital attendants is given in the fol­
lowing publication:
Practical Nurses and Hospital Attendants.
Bulletin 203, No. 5. United States Department
of Labor, Women’s Bureau, 1945. 20 pp. Price 10
cents. Superintendent of Documents, Washing­
ton 25, D. C.
Information may also be obtained from:
American Hospital Association,
18 E. Division St.,
Chicago, 111.

162

O C C U P A T IO N A L

OUTLOOK

HANDBOOK

Practical N u rses 1
1
(D.O.T. 2-38.20)

Outlook Summary
Very good employment opportunities at present
and in near future, particularly for those with
training. It will become increasingly difficult for
those without training to obtain the most desirable
employment.
Nature o f Work and Where Employed
Practical nurses work in institutions, as visiting
nurses with visiting nurse associations, and in
homes. They work under the general direction of
a licensed physician or the supervision of a regis­
tered professional nurse. They perform a combi­
nation of nursing and housekeeping duties.
Training and Other Qualifications
Preparation for practice varies considerably.
Two years of high school are preferred though not
required for entrance to an approved course for
training nurses. Courses are often available in
public vocational schools, requiring no tuition fee.
In the approximately 49 approved schools of prac­
tical nursing, located mostly on the east and west
coasts, tuition ranges up to $110. Hospital expe­
rience is required as part of the training. Main­
tenance may be provided by the hospital and a
stipend for service is accepted practice.
Licensing of practical nurses is recommended by
the American Nurses Association, but there is
mandatory legislation of this kind at present only
in New York (.where it was suspended during the
war and was not yet in effect in 1947), Arkansas,
and Hawaii. Twenty-five additional States have
made provision for licensing. Requirements vary
but usually call for graduation from an approved
school where courses are 9 to 18 months in length,
and passing an examination covering such sub­
jects as care of children and of the aged, care of 1
11 Prepared by the W om en’s Bureau, U. S. Department of Labor.




convalescents, care of medical and surgical pa­
tients, care of the mentally ill, dietetics and food
preparation, hygiene, elementary anatomy, and
nursing methods. A great many persons in this
work obtain employment through experience only,
but in States with licensure laws, those licensed are
given preference.
Outlook
In 1946 there were more than 96,000 practical
nurses and attendants employed in approved hos­
pitals in the United States in addition to almost
37,000 orderlies. At least an equivalent number
of 133,000 are believed to be employed in private
homes or by visiting nurse associations. More
than half the hospital group are men whereas
more than 95 percent of the noninstitutional group
are women. The employment outlook for both
groups is good. Because of a slowly growing in­
sistence on licensing it will become increasingly
difficult for those without training to obtain the
most desirable employment. During the war, the
needs of hospitals, public-health agencies, and in­
dustry, as well as an increased number of patients
cared for at home, created a demand for practical
nurses w hich was far greater than the supply.
T
This demand is continuing because of the increas­
ing use of hospital facilities brought on by Gov­
ernment programs, insurance, and preventive
medicine.
The trained practical nurse performs many of
the functions formerly performed by the profes­
sional nurse, such as the taking o f temperatures
and the giving of certain routine treatments. The
earlier discharge of patients from hospitals after
surgery or childbirth lengthens the convalescent
period at home during which some nursing is re­
quired. Visiting nurse service and practical
nursing at home will continue in high demand be­
cause of the increased number of chronically ill
persons due to the larger proportion of older
people in the population.

OTHER

C L E R IC A L ,

SALES, AND

Earnings and Hours of Work
Salaries vary greatly according to the place of
employment, the hours worked, the amount of re­
sponsibility assumed and general economic condi­
tions. During the depression period many prac­
tical nurses worked for wages amounting to lit­
tle more than subsistence. On the other hand,
during the war some practical nurses in com­
munities where the shortage was critical earned as
much or more than some professional nurses re­
ceived. In 1943, salaries, according to one survey,
ranged from $4 to $7 a day plus meals. In 1945,
earnings varied from around $10 a day in one city
to $25 a week in another. In some States, prac­
tical nurses and professional nurses have agreed
that 75 percent o f the usual professional nurse’s
salary is an acceptable salary for the practical
nurse in any given area in the State.

S E R V IC E

O C C U P A T IO N S

163

Resident duty hours vary from 8 to 20 a day.
In hospitals, 8 hours is often the rule, but there is
wide variation of schedules and hours.
Where To Go for More Information
Additional information on the outlook for
women as practical nurses is given in the following
publication:
United States Department of Labor, Women’s
Bureau— Practical Nurses and Hospital Attend­
ants. Bulletin 203, No. 5. United States Depart­
ment of Labor, Women’s Bureau, 1945. 20 pp.
Price 10 cents. Superintendent of Documents,
Washington 25, D. C.
Information may also be obtained from:
National Association for Practical Nurse Education.
654 Madison Ave., Suite 407,
New York 21, N. Y.

Airplane Hostesses
(D.O.T. 2-25.37)

Outlook Summary

Qualifications and Advancement

A good many openings for qualified applicants
each year, but considerable competition for these
jobs. Occupation will remain small for many
years to come, despite rising employment.

Entry into the occupation is usually as a “ stu­
dent” stewardess, for training by the employing
air line. Frequently, however, girls trained in
special private schools are hired through the place­
ment facilities provided by such institutions for
their own graduates. In either case, applicants
must be in excellent physical condition; have a
pleasing personality and appearance; be in their
twenties or within even narrower age limits; and
also be within specified height and weight limits.
As a general rule, only single women (or widowed
or divorced women without children) are eligible
for jobs, and their continued employment is con­
ditioned upon their remaining unmarried. A p ­
plicants who are registered nurses are strongly
preferred, but not nearly enough are available to
fill all openings; about 1 out of 10 of all present
stewardesses are nurses. Girls without this
qualification must, as a rule, have at least 1 or 2
years of college education. For international
flying, knowledge of a foreign language is an­
other requirement. Experience in handling food
may be considered.

Duties
Hostesses (also known as flight stewardesses)
are carried on most air-line passenger flights with­
in this country; also on some international flights.
They are responsible for attending to passengers’
needs and comfort while in flight—by serving
meals, giving minor medical aid, helping to ad­
just seats, answering questions, supplying passen­
gers with reading matter, and in other ways.
They also have to keep some records. When a
hostess and steward work together, as is often the
case on big planes, the former tends to specialize
in service to the women and children aboard.
Hostesses are stationed mainly in the few sea­
board cities where international and transconti­
nental flights originate and inland at a number of
air-line division points. A few are based in for­
eign countries.




164

O C C U P A T IO N A L

O U TLO OK H A N D B O O K

From the position of hostess, the line of promo­
tion is to instructor and division chief hostess.
Outlook
Employment in this occupation is now (early
1918) much higher than at the war’s end, when
the air lines had about 1,000 hostesses on their pay
rolls. Since VJ-day, several thousand new host­
esses have been hired. Some of these new re­
cruits were needed to staff the many additional
larger planes put into service. Others filled va­
cancies owing to turn-over, which is always heavy
in this occupation, but has been greater than usual
since the war— as a result of an exceptionally high
marriage rate and the fact that other types of jobs
have been relatively easy to obtain. During 1917,
the air lines had to make some nonseasonal lay­
offs, but at the end of the year employment totaled
over 3,500. By 1950, it may well be in the neigh­
borhood of 5,000, assuming continued high levels
of general business activity. The long-run em­
ployment trend, too, is almost certainly upward.
The high turn-over rate, combined with the
steadily increasing need for stewardesses, make
the job prospects in this field more favorable than
in many other aviation occupations. The recent
furloughs, largely temporary in character, will
have only a slight effect on the job chances of new­
comers even in the immediate future. Competi­
tion for jobs is likely to be keen, however. Despite
the air lines’ strict hiring standards, the interest
in the occupation is so great that there are prac­
tically always qualified applicants competing for
positions. In addition, some lines are as willing
to hire stewards as they are to take on hostesses
for many runs.

An air-line hostess serving lunch.

working away from home, their living expenses
are paid by the employing air line; they may also
be allowed $1 or more a day while on land for inci­
dental expenses.
Many hostesses belong to unions. Most of those
organized are represented by either the Airline
Stewards and Stewardesses Association (a branch
of the Air Line Pilots Association, A F L ), the Air
Line Stewardesses Association (independent), or
the Flight Pursers and Stewardesses Association,
AFL.

Earnings and Working Conditions
Where To Get More Information
Earnings on domestic lines range from $170 to
$235 or more per month for most stewardesses.
They are considerably higher on international
lines, especially for registered nurses.
Working time averages well over 100 hours a
month. Most of this time (as high as 85 hours a
month) is spent in flight. Domestic lines gener­
ally give 2 weeks’ vacation with pay each year; in­
ternational lines, 1 month.
As a rule, airplane hostesses are on duty away
from base about half the time. When they are




Detailed information on the occupation of
hostess is given in—
U. S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor
Statistics. Employment Opportunities in Avia­
tion Occupations, Part I—Postwar Employment
Outlook; Part 2—Duties, Qualifications, Earnings
and Working Conditions. Bulletins No. 837-1
and 837-2. (1945 and 1946.) U. S. Government
Printing Office, Washington 25, D. C. Price 10
cents and 20 cents.

OTHER

C L E R IC A L ,

SALES,

Inquiries in regard to job openings should be
sent to the personnel managers of the lines. A d­
dresses are listed in part II of the bulletin just
mentioned, or may be obtained from the Air

AND

S E R V IC E

165

O C C U P A T IO N S

Transport Association of America, 1107 Sixteenth
Street NW., Washington, D. C.
See also
page 19.

Registered

Professional

Nurses,

Flight Stewards
(D.O.T. 2-25.32)

Outlook Summary

Outlook

A small but growing occupation in which va­
cancies occur frequently, owing largely to a high
turn-over rate.

Employment in this very small occupation is
now (early 1948) considerably higher than at the
war’s end, when the two air lines then doing over­
seas flying on a commercial basis together em­
ployed only a hundred or so stewards, nearly all
in this work at the time. Since VJ-day, a thou­
sand or so new stewards have been hired, because
of the rapid growth in international traffic, rising
domestic traffic accompanied by increased use of
stewards in home operations, and the high turn­
over rate in the occupation. Despite some lay­
offs in the last half year or so, employment
remains several times the end-of-war figure,
although it is probably under 1,000. By 1951 or
1952, it may well double, assuming continued high
levels of general business activity. The longrun trend, too, is almost certainly upward.
The high turn-over rate, combined with the
steadily increasing need for stewards, makes the
job prospects in this field more favorable than in
many other aviation occupations. The recent fur­
loughs, largely temporary in character, will have
only a slight effect on the job chances of new­
comers even in the immediate future. Competi­
tion for jobs is likely to be keen, however. De­
spite the air lines’ strict hiring standards, the
interest in the occupation is so great that there are
practically always qualified applicants competing
for positions. In addition, hiring policies are
generally not so rigid nor stewardesses so hard to
get, that difficulty in filling a steward opening may
not be readily overcome by the hiring of a quali­
fied woman instead. The general picture outlined
above would be little affected by the planned air
force expansion.

Duties
Stewards are carried on most international air­
line flights and an increasing proportion of sched­
uled domestic runs—especially on large planes
making long-distance trips. Their work includes
serving meals while aloft, attending to the com­
fort of the passengers in other ways, and keeping
records. With increased use of larger planes,
stewards will be more and more assigned ticketcollecting and related tasks usually identified with
the job designation of purser. When a steward
and hostess work together, as is often the case on
large planes, the former tends to handle the
heavier work; the latter, to specialize in service to
the women and children aboard.
Stewards are stationed mainly in the few sea­
board cities where international and transconti­
nental flights originate, but some are located inland
at a limited number of air-line division points. A
few are based in foreign countries.
Qualifications
High -school education is a minimum require­
ment for this occupation; some college education
is preferred. Knowledge of a foreign language
is required for international flying. Excellent
physical condition is a must, as are a pleasing
personality and good appearance. In addition, ap­
plicants may not be above a specified height and
weight. Also important is experience in handling
food; many of the flight stewards now employed
were formerly restaurant cooks or waiters.
793996°—49

12




166

O C C U P A T IO N A L

OUTLOOK

HANDBOOK

Earnings and Working Conditions

Where To Get More Information

Earnings on domestic lines range from $175 to
$240 or more per month for most stewards; they
are considerably higher on international lines.
Working time averages well over 100 hours a
month. Most of this time (as high as 85 hours a
month) is spent in flight. Domestic lines gener­
ally give 2 weeks’ vacation with pay each year;
international lines, 1 month.
As a rule, flight stewards are on duty away
from base about half the time. When they are
working away from home, their living expenses
are paid by the employing air line; they may also
be allowed $1 a day while on land, for incidental
expenses.
Many stewards belong to unions. Most of those
organized are represented by either the Airline
Stewards and Stewardesses Association (a branch
o f the A ir Line Pilots Association, AFL, or the
Flight Pursers and Stewardesses Association,
AFL.

Additional information on the occupation of
steward is given in—
U. S. Department of Labor. Bureau of Labor
Statistics. Employment Opportunities in Avia­
tion Occupations, Part I—Postwar Employment
Outlook; Part 2—Duties, Qualifications, Earnings
and Working Conditions. Bulletins Nos. 837-1
and 837-2. (1945 and 1946.) U. S. Government
Printing Office, Washington 25, D. C. Price 10
cents and 20 cents.
Inquiries in regard to job openings should be
sent to the personnel managers o f the lines. A d­
dresses are listed in part II of the bulletin just
mentioned, or may be obtained from the A ir
Transport Association of America, 1107 Sixteenth
Street, NW., Washington, D. C.




See also: Traffic Agents and Clerks (A ir Trans­
portation), page 151; and Railroad Clerks, page
342.

Trades and Industrial Occupations
The trades and industrial occupations—skilled,
semiskilled, and unskilled— are the largest of the
broad groupings of fields of work. They offer
employment to 4 out o f 10 workers in the United
States today. These workers are of prime impor­
tance to the economy because they are the men and
women who produce the goods; they mine the coal
and ore, run the railroads, build the houses, bake
the bread, make the clothes, and keep our mechani­
cal civilization in running order.
To the many young people whose interests and
abilities lie in the mechanical or manual spheres,
the trades and industrial occupations offer the bulk
o f employment opportunities. Within this area
is offered a wide range of occupations varying in
skill and earnings from the tool and die maker to
the unskilled laborer.
While most of the jobs fall clearly into either
the skilled, semiskilled or unskilled groups, dis­
tinctions cannot always be finely drawn. This is
particularly true because the nature of the work
in the occupations often changes as new machines
or methods are introduced. Thus some o f the
types of work formerly done by allround crafts­
men are now broken down into several different
steps, each requiring a shorter period of training
than was originally demanded of the craftsman.
These are usually classified as semiskilled occupa­
tions, but in some cases the skilled designation has
been kept. In the same way it is often difficult to
distinguish between unskilled occupations and the
simpler machine-tending jobs in the semiskilled
group.
For practical purposes in guidance, informa­

tion on the outlook in each of the various unskilled
and semiskilled occupations is not of major impor­
tance. For the most part a worker can move
fairly easily from one to another, since training
for most semiskilled occupations is given on the
job in a few weeks or months at the most. To
qualify for a skilled occupation, on the other hand,
requires either a formal apprenticeship or a long
period o f experience and training in semiskilled
jobs which gives the worker a chance to learn all
the different phases of the craft.
The introduction of machinery and new, efficient
processes over the last two centuries has slowly
changed the relationship of the skilled, semi­
skilled, and unskilled occupations. In the old
days the all-round craftsman, who made the entire
product, and the unskilled laborer were the pre­
dominant occupations. As machinery came in
and the process was broken down into a number of
steps, each handled by a different worker, the semi­
skilled group gained in importance at the expense
of both skilled and unskilled workers. In recent
years the semiskilled have increased rapidly, the
skilled have just about held their own, and the
unskilled have declined. It has been easier to de­
vise machines to do the lifting, carrying, digging,
and other jobs in the province of the unskilled
laborer than to find mechanical substitutes for the
craftsmen.
The occupational reports in this section are
grouped by industry or field of work, rather than
by level of skill, since from the point of view of
practical guidance that is the most useful
grouping.

SKILLED OCCUPATIONS

Skilled workers or craftsmen are a key group in
our economy. They make the machines for our
machine age, and the patterns, models, working
samples, tools, dies, templates, or jigs without




which industrial processes could not be carried out
by semiskilled or unskilled workers. They keep
things running, too, since they are the repairmen,
not only for equipment used in industry but also
167

O C C U P A T IO N A L

168

OUTLOOK H A N D B O O K

for the large amount of mechanical equipment
and appliances used by consumers— automobiles,
household appliances, radios, and many other
items.
These functions suggest why the skilled occupa­
tions have continued to grow, and why they offer
good employment opportunities to a large number
of young people. Moreover, because so many
skilled workers are older men, a large number of
jobs will open each year as men in the field die or
retire.
The relative importance o f the various skilled
groups has been changing. While the artisan has
in some cases been displaced by semiskilled work­
ers, the repairmen occupations have been growing
as the amount of mechanical equipment in use
increases. Chart 30 shows that the occupations

which characteristically do repair work—the
largest single one of which is automobile me­
chanic— are the second largest group of skilled
workers, exceeded only by the building trades.
Moreover a great many of the skilled workers in
other fields do repair work as their major func­
tion ; this is true, for example, of machinists, up­
holsterers, and plumbers, carpenters, and other
building-trades workers.
The end o f the decade of the thirties found the
skilled occupations, many of which are employed
in the construction and durable goods industries,
severely hit by the depression. Fully 900,000
skilled workers—or 1 out of 7—were unemployed,
and another 460,000 were employed in semiskilled,
unskilled, and other occupations. In contrast to
the situation in the professions, training of new

C HAR T 30

M A J O R G R O U P S OF S K I L L E D

WORKERS

E M P L O Y M E N T , 1940

U N I T E D STATES D EP A RT ME NT OF L A BOR
BU REA U OF L A BO R STATI STICS




n.e.C.sNOT E L S E W H E R E C L A S S I F I E D
« U S BUREAU OF THE C E N SU S

TRADES AND

I N D U S T R IA L

workers in many skilled trades had slowed down
to a trickle. Moreover, immigration laws adopted
in the twenties had cut off one of the major sources
o f the skilled labor supply. By 1940, half of the
craftsmen employed were over 41 years of age,
and relatively few young men were being trained
in all-round skills.
War production required great numbers of
skilled workers. Employment of craftsmen, fore­
men and kindred workers increased by over 2
million in the early years of the war at the height
o f the factory and cantonment construction pro­
gram, and then fell off somewhat, emphasis shift­
ing to the metal trades as munitions production
hit its peak (see chart 31). This rapid expan­
sion of employment—at a time when many skilled

men were being called to the armed forces— is re­
markable in view of the long period required to
train craftsmen. It was made possible by recruit­
ment from among the 1,360,000 skilled workers
who were unemployed or engaged in other occupa­
tions in 1940, by temporary upgrading to craft
or foreman jobs of semiskilled and other workers
who already had partial training or qualifying
experience, and to some slight extent by expansion
of apprentice training in the metal trades begin­
ning at the start of the lend-lease program. As a




O C C U P A T IO N S

169

result, many of those employed in skilled occupa­
tions during the war did not have a fully rounded
background in their craft. In some crafts such
as tool and die maker and machinist, it was sim­
ply not possible to expand employment so rapidly
and many men in these trades worked extraordi­
narily long hours during the war.
Recruitment of skilled workers for war indus­
tries was also facilitated by the movement of
craftsmen from other industries. Employment
of automobile mechanics dropped by about 150,000
during the war, many of them moving to factory
jobs where their mechanical background could be
utilized in skilled jobs. After the construction
peak of 1942 many building craftsmen also moved
into factory jobs.
In the postwar period, as construction activity
increased, employment of skilled workers sur­
passed the wartime peak by half a million. A p ­
prenticeship programs received great impetus as
a result of the desire of veterans for thorough
training leading to a skilled trade. From about
20,000 at the end of the war, the number of ap­
prentices in programs registered with the Bureau
of Apprenticeship of the United States Depart­
ment o f Labor shot up to more than 220,000 by the
summer of 1948. More than half the apprentices
in mid-1948 were in the building trades, and more
than two-thirds of them were veterans.
In the long run the place of some craftsmen will
be taken by semiskilled workers. But as mechan­
ical equipment becomes more widely used—in in­
dustry, on farms, in the home—the need increases
for the rapidly growing repairmen occupations.
Furthermore, the small nucleus of all-round skilled
craftsmen used in developing new equipment
should increase in size somewhat as technology
advances. In machine shops and printing—two of
the major fields for skilled workers in manufac­
turing—moderate increases in employment seem
likely in the long run. Railroad occupations and
foundry occupations may not show any significant
rise over present high levels. The model-making
occupations in industry—tool and die makers, pat­
tern makers, sample makers in apparel plants,
etc.—will, in general, gain in employment only
slightly, since a large increase in production and
plant employment can usually be achieved with
only a small expansion in this type of work. With

170

O C C U P A T IO N A L

OU TLOOK

greater use o f semiskilled workers in industry,
the number of skilled workers serving as foremen,
leadmen, set-up men, lay-out men, inspectors, and
similar workers should increase. Finally, with
a great backlog of demand, construction employ­
ment may well remain high for several years, but
is not likely to increase significantly above these
levels in the long run.
The skilled trades offer certain advantages young
men should consider seriously. With training and

HANDBOOK

experience in a craft, a man often has a wider
choice of jobs; he may work in different cities or
industries; he is able to handle not only the skilled
job in the plant but also, if necessary, one requir­
ing less skill, and he is therefore more valuable to
his employer than the one-machine man. This pays
off in job security, and usually in earnings as well.
Moreover in many plants the skilled man, who un­
derstands the whole process, is given preference in
promotion to a foreman’s job.

SEMISKILLED AND UNSKILLED WORKERS

More than one-fifth of the workers in the United
States are “ operatives,” the census designation for
what are often called semiskilled workers.
Like all broad occupational classifications this
one has within it jobs varying widely in nature of
the work, in earnings, and in levels of skill. For
example, truck driving, one of the largest occupa­
tions in the group, calls for skill in driving, knowl­
edge of routes and traffic rules, ability to make
minor repairs, some clerical work, and independent
responsibility and judgment. On the other hand
some machine operator jobs in industry require
only the repetition of a half-dozen different mo­
tions all day long— reach for a metal blank and put
it in the machine, pull the lever, press the button,
push the lever, take out the piece of metal, which
now has been stamped or cut, and place it on a
pile, reach for another metal blank. Such a routine
can be picked up in a day and mastered in a few
weeks.
With some exceptions, such as the truck driver’s
occupation, these jobs are generally fairly routine
and repetitive. Often they pay fairly well, how­
ever, particularly when an incentive system based
on the amount of production a worker achieves is
in use. Frequently semiskilled workers in a large,
efficient plant, or one that is represented by a
strong union will earn more than skilled workers
in inefficient or unorganized plants.
The semiskilled worker does not need to invest
years of his life in learning his trade. This is a
disadvantage in some ways, as was pointed out in
the discussion of skilled workers—the worker with
less training has less flexibility and is not so valu­
able to his employer. On the other hand, the semi­
skilled worker is not wedded to any one occupa­
tion because of long years he has spent in training




for it, and he is therefore more ready to adapt to
new opportunities as they arise.
Should the
chances for employment disappear in one field of
work, as often happens when some new process
displaces an existing one, it is usually the semi­
skilled man who most readily writes off his in­
vestment of time and experience in that field, gets
himself another job, and, in a brief period of train­
ing, learns the new occupation. Too often the
craftsmen hang on in the outmoded occupation as
long as they can, and longer than they should.
In the guidance and education of those who may
become semiskilled workers it is important to
stress flexibility. In a sense, many a semiskilled
worker has a job or a series of jobs, rather than
an occupation. His skill should consist not so
much in doing one kind of work as in readily
learning new kinds in response to his own need to
find a new or better job or the needs of industry for
an adaptable labor force. Rather than extensive
training in a vocational school in one type of work,
this person needs some familiarity with many
different types—machine shop, woodworking shop,
welding, electrical work, etc. He does not need
to attain proficiency in any one of these fields, but
does need an industrial literacy—a familiarity
with the different types of processes and machines
so that he can adapt readily to them.
The need for adaptability in the semiskilled
worker is illustrated by the great increase in em­
ployment in this field in a short period in response
to the needs of the war production program.
During the war, manufacturing employment in­
creased and more new and heavily mechanized
industrial plants were built. More semiskilled
workers were needed, and over 4,000,000 were
added—half as many as were employed in 1940

TRADES

AND

IN D U S T R IA L

O C C U P A T IO N S

171

chine-tool operators. Nevertheless, employment
in the semiskilled group, though not as high as at
the peak o f war industry employment, is far above
prewar levels, and this group of occupations has
increased its share of the working population.
In view of the long-term trends and the recent
developments, it seems likely that these occupa­
tions will continue to grow, both in numbers and
in relative importance. There are still large areas
of work in which further mechanization holds the
promise of additional employment opportunities
for semiskilled workers. These include farming,
the movement and handling of material in indus­
try, and construction.
The increase in employment of semiskilled
workers will mean relatively fewer jobs for un­
skilled workers. There are now over 3 million
people engaged in unskilled jobs in industry. The
long-term trend in this group has been downward
relative to other occupation groups, and this trend
continued during the war. Workers were drawn
out of these jobs by the better pay in other occu­
pations. Rapid strides in the use of machinery
are displacing laborers from the principal work
they are called upon to do in many industries:
moving materials, loading, unloading, digging and
shoveling, etc.
Employment in these occupations dropped dur­
ing the war and increased after the war to above
prewar levels partly because of the great amount
of construction work being done (see chart 33).
The long-term downward trend in relative impor­
tance will probably continue.
(see chart 32). Great numbers of hastily trained
welders, riveters, machine tool operators, and as­
semblers, the largest part of whom were semi­
skilled, went to work in shipyards, aircraft fac­
tories, and munitions plants. The number of
welders and machine tool operators nearly tripled
from 1910 to 1943.
After a sharp drop when the war ended, employ­
ment in semiskilled jobs has again climbed nearly
to peak wartime levels. Some workers had to
learn new skills in the postwar period; more than
100,000 welders, for example, had to shift to other
occupations. In many machine shops where some
form of mass production had been introduced
during the war, a return to prewar products and
methods has meant need for fewer semiskilled men
and more all-round machinists and skilled ma­




Construction Trades
Construction work employs the largest group of
skilled workers in all industry. In March 1910,
over 1,600,000 persons were employed in the major
construction trades; in addition a large number of
workers were unemployed. As shown in chart 64,
carpenters constituted the largest construction

trade, followed by painters, plumbers and steam
fitters. Most construction workers are employed
on new building, but a considerable number
work on maintaining and repairing existing
structures. I t is easy to see, for example, that
many more painters and paperhangers are needed

C HAR T 34

M AJOR BUILDING T R A D E S OCCUPATIONS
E M P L O Y M E N T , 1940
T H O U S A N D S OF W O R K E R S

600

Carpenters
Painters
Plumbers,Gas and
Steam Fitters
Construction Machinery
Operators
Bricklayers, Masons, etc
Electricians,
construction

Sheet Metal Workers, etc.
Construction Foremen
Plasterers
Structural Metal
Workers,etc.
Paperhangers
Roofers and Slaters
Cement Finishers, etc.
Stonecutters and
Stone Carvers
Glaziers

UNITED STATES D E P A R T M E N T O F L A B O R
BU R E AU OR L A B O R STATISTICS

172




Sm i h : U. S. BU R E AU O F TH E C E N S U S

C O N S T R U C T IO N

for repairing and. redecorating than for new
buildings, since most houses and apartments are
redecorated every few years. Because they are
engaged in maintenance work, many of the work­
ers in the construction trades find jobs in other
industries. Thus, in 1940 over 20 percent of the
carpenters were employed outside the construc­
tion field in manufacturing, transportation, and
Government.
While most construction workers are employed
by building contractors, or by other firms for
maintenance work, a large number are self-em­
ployed, working directly for property owners on
small jobs. Most of these jobs involve maintenance
and repair work, but minor alterations and addi­
tions and small new buildings such as garages are
frequently undertaken by individual construction
workers. These jobs last from an hour or so to a
few weeks. Payment may be by the hour or day,
or an agreed amount for the job, with materials
provided by the owner, or it may be an over-all
price including the cost of all materials. Self-em­
ployment is most common in painting, decorating
and paperhanging, and in carpentry, but is also
found in plastering (for repairs on ly), in masonry
repairs, and (to the extent permitted by State and
municipal licensing requirements) in plumbing
repairs. It is impractical for all types of work
requiring extensive shop facilities or field equip­
ment.
There are many different types of new construc­
tion and each has a different set of employment
needs for the various construction trades. Resi­
dential building uses many carpenters, but this
trade is less important in industrial plant con­
struction. The building of roads, airports, and
dams may call for many men of certain trades and
practically none of others. During 1947, resi­
dential building ranked first in amount o f new
construction, followed by industrial plants and
public utilities. However, the relative importance
of any type of construction varies from year to
year.
Like activity in most other durable goods fields,
construction work has had its ups and downs,
rising sharply in good times, but falling off se­
verely when business slumps occur. Declines in
construction work in bad times may be partially
offset by increased expenditures for public works in
such periods. During the depression of the 1930’s




TRADES

173

construction activity would have been much lower
than it was except for the public funds spent on
various projects.
Construction workers have lay-offs more often
than the workers in many other occupations. To
a large extent this results from changes in the em­
ployment needs of individual contractors, since
the workers are usually laid off as soon as their
particular jobs are finished at a specific building
project. Sometimes the worker can get another
job at once, but at other times, especially in winter,
it may take a while before a new job is found.
Construction employment is also affected by
seasonal slumps resulting mainly from weather
conditions which interfere with outside building
work, especially in northern areas. During most
years, a good share of the construction workers
are unemployed for as much as several months out
of the year, and even when employed, frequently
have days off. Although workers in construction
trades receive relatively high hourly pay, seasonal
work and time lost between jobs reduce substan­
tially their annual earnings.
As can be seen in chart 11, page 24, employment
on contract construction declined considerably
during the 1930’s after averaging 1,500,000 in 1929,
and did not regain the 1929 level until the defense
boom of 1941. Even though residential construc­
tion had already been curtailed, the program of
war construction for military installations and
war-plant facilities carried the volume of con­
struction in 1942 higher than any previous year,
and contract construction employment showed a
corresponding increase, reaching a high point of
2.577.000 and averaging 2,170,000 over the year.
Following this peak year, construction activity
steadily declined during the war.
Since the war, there has been a great upsurge
in the volume of construction work, although the
increases have not come up to some expectations,
because of material shortages and other limita­
tions. The amount spent on construction was at
an all-time high in 1947, although the physical
volume was below that of previous peak years.
The number of workers employed averaged
1.921.000 and reached 2,107,000 in September,
the peak month. Despite the retarding effects of
higher construction costs, the strong demands for
all types of construction should take construction
work even higher in the next several years and hold

174

O C C U P A T IO N A L

OUTLOOK H A N D B O O K

it at a high level for some time to come, unless
there is a marked decline in general business con­
ditions.
Over the long run, changes in design and tech­
nological changes should continue to affect the
relative needs for the different construction trades.
Developments in design, materials, tools, and
equipment will also change the nature of work
done by individual trades. During the past 75
years, occupations such as carpenters, bricklayers,
and plasterers have declined in relative import­
ance, although actual employment has increased
along with increases in total construction activity.
On the other hand, newer trades such as plumbers
and electricians have grown rapidly since 1900,
since most structures built before that time had
little in the way of plumbing or electrical installa­
tions.
The individual statements on the various con­
struction occupations describe the way that an
occupation is usually carried on, but because of
differences among localities in customary prac­
tices and in the terms of union agreements they
may not present a completely accurate picture of
the situation in any given city. On the whole,
lines of distinction between the work of the various
crafts are most sharp, and specialization within
crafts is greatest in large cities and the nearby




suburbs, and least in rural localities. In a city or
village of 2,500 in a farming community for ex­
ample, glazing is done by painters, or sometimes
by carpenters, rather than by glaziers, and the local
bricklayers commonly do cement finishing and
sometimes plastering as well. In such places,
any uncommon job requiring skill which cannot
be picked up while doing roughly related work
(such as installation of an elevator, or building
of a structural steel bridge) is necessarily per­
formed by workmen brought in from a larger city.
Because of the development of new materials
and of new uses for old materials, distinctions be­
tween the fields of individual trades are in some
cases quite detailed and in a few cases have not
yet been established to the full satisfaction of all
parties. The sections on individual occupations
which follow are intended to give a general pic­
ture of the field of each, but no more; these are not
intended as, and are not suitable for use as, a de­
tailed description or a recommendation of the
range or jurisdiction o f any trade. A careful
effort has been made to avoid error, but since there
are some geographical differences in the distinc­
tions between trades, it is possible that usage in
some localities may differ from that indicated by
the examples of work done.

C O N S T R U C T IO N

TRADES

175

Carpenters
(D .O .T . 5-25.110 to .830)

Outlook Summary
Outlook excellent for at least tlie next several
years and probably favorable thereafter.
Nature of Work
Carpentry is the basic trade in almost all con­
struction. Carpenters have the biggest share of
work in residential building. They play an im­
portant part in all other buildings such as offices
and factories and are used to some extent on many
other kinds of construction (bridges, dams, sewers,
etc.). Carpenters likewise do a wide variety of
less obvious jobs such as building temporary struc­
tures, concrete forms, scaffolds and platforms,
chutes for materials or rubbish, safety barricades,
etc. Many carpenters are used for alteration, re­
pair, and maintenance work, particularly on resi­
dential buildings.
Although a carpenter is customarily thought of
as working with wood, he also uses many other
materials nowadays. In recent years numerous
materials have taken the place of wood in uses
where their special nature (insulating quality,
lighter weight, or lower cost, etc.) makes them
preferable. So the carpenter today finds himself
working with insulating board, gypsum board,
linoleum, wallboard, plywood, and other such
materials.
The kinds of work that fall under the heading of
carpentry are so varied that although a journey­
man carpenter may be able to do them all, most
carpenters specialize in some particular branch of
the trade. The most common are house carpen­
ters who build the wooden structure for frame
and combination masonry and frame buildings.
Other specialists, called trimmers or finish
carpenters, may do nothing but install millwork
(doors, sash, casings, and moldings, cabinets,
etc.), and apply finish hardware. In many locali­
ties, laying hardwood flooring is a recognized
specialty. Still another specialization is the con­
struction of wooden forms for concrete work.




Job specialization is most prevalent around
larger towns and cities where big building projects
are common. In smaller places, the carpenter is
more likely to be an all-round craftsman. In
fact, in rural areas, it is not unusual for carpenters
to do all sorts of building work, including opera­
tions which in larger places are done by the other
building trades.
A comparatively large number of carpenters do
repair and jobbing work on existing structures,
including minor additions and alterations. Such
men must have a wide range of skills because of
the variety of conditions encountered and the dif­
ferent types of work to be done. Much of this
work is done by individual carpenters working
directly for property owners.
Where Employed
Most carpenters work in the construction in­
dustry. Others are employed—mostly as mainte­
nance men—in other fields, such as shipbuilding,
aircraft manufacturing, motion-picture produc­
tion, mining, metal products manufacturing, and
hotels.
Quite a few go into business for themselves,
mainly for repairs and remodeling work. Such
workers, commonly paid by the job rather than by
the day, are much like small contractors. Some
in fact, eventually expand their operations and
hire other carpenters for new building construc­
tion. Others work on their own account only part
of the year, hiring themselves out to contractors
during the busy season.
Training and Qualifications
The trade of carpentry is made up of many
elements. Among the things that a fully qualified
man should know are skillful use of a wide variety
of tools; the characteristics of materials, particu­
larly the commoner woods; and an elementary un­
derstanding of structural design. He must also
possess a thorough knowledge of construction

176

O C C U P A T IO N A L

OUTLOOK

operations including the relationship between the
work of the different trades, and a knowledge of
simple mathematics sufficient for laying out of
angled cuts for roof, dormers, and similar fram­
ing. Also required is the ability to read blueprints,
make clear sketches of work to be done, and, when
necessary, to work without drawings in making re­
pairs or additions to existing work. Obviously
there is much a carpenter must know, and while a
person' reasonably skillful with the basic tools can
work efficiently on simple operations, a fully com­
petent carpenter is a highly skilled man.
The customary way to become a journeyman
carpenter is to serve a 4-year apprenticeship. An
apprentice signs a contract with an employer cov­
ering his wages, training, and duties. However,
it is the union rather than the employer which
guarantees his training. The contractor is often
unable to give an apprentice steady work. The
union, on the other hand, can shift him to another
contractor with whom it has an agreement so that
his training and wages will not be interrupted.
Most contracts provide for at least 144 hours of
classroom work a year, covering such subjects as
shop arithmetic, simple algebra, and woodworking
shop practice. A few training programs enable
an apprentice to earn a high-school diploma while
lie is completing his apprenticeship.
The usual on-the-job part of the apprentice’s
training includes learning to use all of the stand­
ard tools, and the measuring and lay-out devices
such as the rule, square, steel square, level, and
chalk line. His assignments progress in difficulty
from rough simple jobs, such as laying subflooring
or simple framing operations, to more complicated
work such as making the frame for a complex
roof. When his skill is sufficient, the learner ad­
vances to “ trimming” (the installation of millwork and hardware and the laying of floors). At
any stage he has a chance to observe the work of
journeymen on more difficult operations, and to
see how the individual pieces go together to make
up framework of a structure. Emphasis in the
training and, to some degree, the sequence in which
various parts of the job are learned are of course
affected by the types of work which the employer
has on hand from time to time.




HANDBOOK

Although a 4-year apprenticeship is customarily
required, many men learn the trade through the
“pick-up” method and some eventually become
journeymen. However, the union (most carpen­
ters are union members) does not authorize the
use o f “ helpers.”

Photograph

by

U.

S.

d e pa r tm e n t

of

La b o r .

Carpenter apprentices learn the trade through actual work
experience.

V e te ra n s w ith c a rp e n tr y ex p erien ce in the serviv e m a y be e lig ib le f o r a d m ission as a d v a n ce d a p ­
p ren tices, o r even as jo u rn e y m e n p r o v id e d th e ir
e x p e rie n ce has been sufficient to enable them to d o
s a tis fa c to r y w o r k a n d pass the ex a m in a tio n cu s­
to m a r ily g iv e n b y the lo ca l u n io n at the c o m p le ­
tio n o f the a p p re n tice sh ip p e rio d .

S u ch p r o v i­

sions r e g a r d in g “ p r o v e r s ,” as th ey are o fte n ca lle d ,
v a ry a c c o r d in g to the p o lic y o f the lo ca l u n ion .

Outlook
O p p o r tu n itie s f o r n ew com ers to lea rn the tra d e
are ex cellen t f o r the n e x t several years, a n d w ill
p r o b a b ly co n tin u e to be rea son a b ly g o o d f o r som e
yea rs th e re a fte r.

T h e d em a n d f o r resid en tia l c o n ­

stru ctio n has crea ted a g re a t need f o r ca rp en ters,

C O N S T R U C T IO N

who are especially important on this type of work.
Other types of new construction which use car­
penters are also expected to be at very high levels.
In addition, there is a large accumulation of re­
pair work and remodeling to be done. Now that
supplies of lumber and other critical building
materials show signs of becoming more plentiful,
the demand both for skilled men and apprentices
will be greater than at any time since the war.
The supply of skilled carpenters is still low
in many localities. By the time construction ac­
tivity reaches its expected peak, the need for ad­
ditional carpenters (new workers) may be well
over a hundred thousand. This does not mean,
however, that there will be openings for addi­
tional workers in all localities throughout the
country. In some areas the number of available
carpenters is adequate for local expected needs;
in others, even though more workers may even­
tually be needed, as many trainees as can be han­
dled for the time being have already been ap­
prenticed. Taking the country as a whole, how­
ever, additional apprentices are still needed in
considerable numbers if construction is to reach its
expected volume.
After the anticipated period of high activity,
construction is likely to decline somewhat, reduc­
ing the need for carpenters, but normal drop-outs
from the trade resulting from retirements, deaths
(nearly half of the carpenters in 1910 were over
50 years o ld ), and transfers to other kinds of work,
will take up most of the slack. This will assure
continued employment for those who are already
established in the trade.
The demand for carpenters exists in all parts
of the country. The greatest opportunities, how­

TRADES

177

ever, are concentrated in large cities and in indus­
trial areas, primarily in the Northeastern and
North Central States.
Earnings
Because they work in so many different locali­
ties, there is a wide variation in carpenters’ wages.
In April 1948, the minimum wage rate for union
carpenters in construction averaged $2.09 an hour
in 75 cities throughout the country, but it ranged
from as low as $1.50 an hour to $2.90 an hour, de­
pending on where the carpenter worked. The
minimum rates for some of the representative
cities are shown below. (In this table and those
that follow hourly rates are shown rounded to the
nearest cent:)
Atlanta, Ga________ $1. 65
Baltimore, Md______ 1. 95
Birmingham, A la___ 1. 80
Boston, M ass_______ 2.10
Buffalo, N. Y _______ 2. 00
Chicago, 111_________
2.15
Cincinnati, Ohio____ 1. 98
Cleveland, Ohio_____ 2.18
Denver, Colo_______
1.88
Houston, T ex _______ 2. 00
Indianapolis, Ind___ 1. 98
Jackson, Miss_______ 1. 75
Kansas City, Mo____ 2. 05
Little Rock, Ark____ 1. 63
Los Angeles, C alif___ 1. 90

Milwaukee, W is____$1. 80
Minneapolis, Minn__1. 80
Nashville, Tenn_____ 1. 60
New Haven, Conn___ 2. 10
New Orleans, L a____ 1. 70
New York City, N. Y_ 2. 75
Omaha, Nebr_______ 1. 95
Philadelphia, Pa____ 2. 00
Pittsburgh, Pa______ 2. 25
Portland, Oreg______ 1. 93
Richmond, Va______ 1. 65
St. Louis, M o_______ 2. 20
San Francisco, Calif_ 2. 00
Seattle, W ash______ 2. 07
Springfield, Mass___ 1. 88

Apprentices’ rates are figured at a percentage
of the journeyman’s rate, and are increased peri­
odically so that over the entire period of appren­
ticeship they average at least 50 percent of the
journeyman’s rate.

Painters
(D .O .T . 5-27.010)

Nature of Work

Outlook Summary
F ie ld is o v e r cr o w d e d a n d o p p o r tu n itie s f o r new
w ork ers are lim ited .

C o m p e titio n w ill be espe­

c ia lly keen in re d e c o ra tin g w ork .




The painter is a skilled craftsman who paints or
repaints houses, apartments, and other buildings.
Repainting or redecorating apartments and other

178

O C C U P A T IO N A L

OUTLOOK

buildings which need periodic overhauling and
maintenance make up most of his work. In the
redecorating of interiors, the painting work is
usually done by men who do both painting and
paperhanging. (See statement on Paperhangers,
p. 183.)
The painter sets up a scaffold of ladders, trestles,
or planks; he then washes or scrapes and sand­
papers the surface to be painted, using a blow­
torch, scrapers, and other equipment. He mixes
the paint from the basic ingredients, or re-mixes
prepared paint, when necessary adding coloring to
match a color sample or adding thinner. With a
brush or spray-gun he applies one or more coats of
the paint. He must have a knowledge of the
drying speed, toughness, water resistance, and
coloring of different paints, enamels, varnishes,
and shellacs. I f he runs his own business, he must
obtain contracts, buy supplies, keep records, and
figure costs.
Where Employed
About 80 percent of the painters described in
this statement work in the construction industry.
The remaining 20 percent are employed in main­
tenance work in such places as hotels and office
buildings or they may work for manufacturers,
and do maintenance painting of the plant and
equipment.
Training and Qualifications
A man may learn to be a construction painter
through a 3-year apprenticeship. In that case
he signs an agreement with an employer concern­
ing wages, training, and work, and receives a
planned program of all-round training while on
the job, including at least 144 hours of related in­
struction in class. Sometimes the painter learns
his job by taking courses in a public trade school.
Although many workers in the past have picked
up the trade in a casual fashion while working as
helpers, such a method may not give adequate
training.
Under an apprenticeship program most of the
training is done on the job. In large cities, out­
side courses are given in either union-sponsored
or union-approved schools. In small cities and




HANDBOOK

towns, local trade schools or correspondence
courses are frequently used to fulfill the appren­
tice’s educational requirements. The usual order
of the training on the job includes sandpapering ;
preparing and sizing walls; priming of wood­
work ; outside painting; removing old paint, and
preparing surfaces to receive the first coat; match­
ing, mixing, and harmonizing colors; paint
formulas; scaffolding; and the care and use of
brushes, scrapers, sanding machines, and other
tools and equipment connected with the trade.
Outlook
The amount of painting to be done on new
construction is expected to increase for the next
several years. But the largest volume o f painting
required will be the redecorating and maintenance
work on apartments, hotels, homes, and factories
which have already been built. This work, during
the next few years, will also be considerably great­
er than before the war.
Despite the prospect of such a large amount o f
work, the long run outlook for new workers, con­
sidering the country as a whole, is not favorable.
Taking into account both the qualified journey­
men and the many workers who entered the trade
without thorough training there are a great many
painters already in the trade. In the field o f redecorative painting, a large proportion of the
painters are self-employed and the scramble for
work is very keen. In addition, it is possible that
many of the less-skilled painters who were em­
ployed in shipyards and factories during the war
will attempt to set themselves up in the redecorat­
ing trade, although most are not qualified for such
work without additional training. This would
further limit opportunities in an already over­
crowded field. The few painters who have regular
work with the hotels, manufacturing plants,
railroads, Government departments, and similar
organizations have the best chances for employ­
ment the year-round.
Earnings
Minimum wage rates specified in union con­
tracts for journeymen painters in 75 cities
throughout the country averaged $2.02 in April
1948, ranging from as low as $1.25 to $2.30 an

C O N S T R U C T IO N

hour in various localities. The rates in some of
the representative cities are shown below:
Atlanta, Ga__________$1. 75
Baltimore, Mtl______ 1. 78
Birmingham, A la___ 2. 00
Boston, Mass_______ 2. 00
Buffalo, N. Y _______ 1. 88
Chicago, 111_________
2.15
Cincinnati, Ohio------ 1. 88
Cleveland, Ohio_____ 2.13
Denver, Colo_______ 1. 75 .
Houston, T ex_______ 1. 88
Indianapolis, Ind___ 2. 00
Jackson, Miss______ 1. 50
Kansas City, Mo____ 2. 05
Little Rock, Ark____ 1. 50
Los Angeles, C alif___ 1. 85

Milwaukee, W is____$1. 80
Minneapolis, Minn_1. 80
Nashville, Tenn_____ 1. 63
New Haven, Conn___ 2. 00
New Orleans, L a____ 1. 63
New York City, N. Y_ 2.30
Omaha, Nebr----------- 1. 50
Philadelphia, Pa____ 1. 00
Pittsburgh, Pa______ 2. 00
Portland, Oreg______ 1. 88
Richmond, Y a______ 1. 63
St. Louis, Mo_______ 2. 07
San Francisco, Calif_ 2. 00
Seattle, W ash______ 2. 07
Springfield, Mass___ 1. 88

These earnings represent work principally on
new construction. In redecorative painting,
where the extent of unionization is not so great,

TRADES

179

hourly rates are usually somewhat lower. On
many redecorating jobs the painter is self-em­
ployed and quotes a price for the entire job.
Annual earnings for painters are usually among
the lowest in the building trades, since they reflect
both the overcrowded conditions in the trade and
the seasonal fluctuations in employment. Adverse
weather conditions may interfere with painting on
new construction, and redecorating work is usually
concentrated in the spring and fall renting seasons.
Where To Learn More About the Trade
Additional information may be obtained from
the Brotherhood of Painters, Decorators, and
Paperhangers of America (A F L ), Painters Build­
ing, LaFayette, Ind., or from the Painting and
Decorating Contractors Association of America,
12 South Twelfth Street, Philadelphia 7, Pa.

Bricklayers
(D .O .T . 5-24.010 to .140)

Outlook Summary
Anticipated expansion in new construction and
repairs makes the outlook very good for several
years. Over the longer run openings will be lim­
ited mainly to replacement needs.
Nature of Work
Bricklayers are skilled craftsmen whose main
work is the construction of walls, partitions, fire­
places, chimneys, piers, and other parts of build­
ings from brick, structural tile, concrete and cin­
der block, and other masonry materials. They
also build blast furnaces and coke ovens, do re­
fractory work such as lining kilns and industrial
furnaces, build manholes for sewers, and build
manholes and clay conduit lines for underground
utility cables.
Bricklaying is precise work. Masonry joints
must be planned and laid out so that the courses
or rows of brick will come out even with the story
heights, the tops of windows, door heads, sills,
etc. In addition there must be proper lengthwise
allowances for various openings for doors and
windows. The bricklayer first spreads a layer or




“bed” of soft mortar, then sets the brick (or part
of a brick depending on the size of the space) and
gently taps it into place so that it will be precisely
straight and true. Next, he cuts, or scrapes off
excess mortar and applies it to the exposed end or
back of the brick. As each row of brick is laid the
bricklayer uses a gage line (tightly stretched cord)
to be sure that the top and front surfaces of the
brick are in line. A t intervals he checks the work
for trueness with a mason’s level.
Where Employed
About 80 percent of all bricklayers work in the
construction industry both in new building and
repair work. The rest are employed in a wide
variety of other industries which require con­
struction or repair work from time to time. In­
dustries using furnaces, kilns, etc., which have
fire-brick linings require a considerable amount of
work to maintain them. Coal mining, iron and
steel, crude petroleum and natural gas production,
public utilities, glass, furniture and lumber prod­
ucts, the chemical industries, and Government
agencies all use bricklayers to some degree.

180

O C C U P A T IO N A L

OUTLOOK

Although public construction programs tend to
spread the demand for bricklayers throughout
most States, the largest number are located in the
northeastern and north central regions.
Qualifications and Training
A good bricklayer needs a good eye for straight
lines and proportions, and a knack for using his
hands. He should be able to picture in his mind
how the parts of a structure fit together. He needs
the ability to understand general science and
simple arithmetic, to make rough sketches and
drawings, to read blueprints, and to make measure­
ments. The bricklayer’s trade requires physical
endurance to spread mortar and lay bricks hour
after hour.
Generally, a man learns bricklaying through a
formal apprenticeship, and usually 3 to 4 years
are required for him to qualify as a journeyman
bricklayer. The apprenticeship contract he signs
with an employer contains an agreement about
w ages, training, and work. But it is the union
T
which guarantees his training because the indi­
vidual contractor is often unable to give appren­
tices a full year’s work. The union, on the other
hand, can shift him to another contractor with
whom it has an agreement so that his training and
wages will not be interrupted.
In some areas the training program has been
accelerated greatly by brief trade-school courses
in the manipulation of tools and materials. The
courses have been encouraged by the Structural
Clay Products Institute and endorsed by some
locals of the bricklayers' union as well as by the
masonry contractors’ associations. They are de­
signed to give within a few weeks’ time, sufficient
skill so that the beginner will be useful from the
very start of the on-the-job training. Such
courses, in addition to their other advantages, may
speed up the progress of the apprentice in his
apprenticeship training.
The apprentice-training program adopted in
some cities calls for a definite amount of classroom
work—usually from 4 to 8 hours a week—in gen­
eral vocational and related technical subjects.
Such schools are run either by the union or by the
local school board. The subjects taken in class
include the history o f the trade; the study of brick,
terra cotta, and other building blocks; the tools




HANDBOOK

and equipment of the trade such as trowels,
squares, and levels; the characteristics of different
kinds of mortar; making various types of meas­
urements; and making and reading working
sketches. Sometimes the student practices mixing
mortar, cutting brick, and building walls, or
watches such demonstrations in class. In most
towns and small cities where there is no classroom
instruction an apprentice is dependent for the
related technical knowledge on training obtained
at the job, or through correspondence courses.
Outlook
Although many men have entered training for
the trade since the end of the war, opportunities
will continue to be good for several years.
The prospect is for a high level o f construction
employment for several years, unless a severe
business depression interferes. Eventually, con­
struction activity will fall off somewhat, just as it
always has in the past when the demands for new
housing, industrial plants, and public works have
been met.
Despite the expected drop in the total number
of jobs, those who enter the trade should have
continued employment, because many of the ex­
perienced men in the trade are nearing the ages
when vacancies because of death or retirement be­
come numerous. The average age of the brick­
layers in 1940 was much higher than for many
other occupations. The vacancies caused by those
leaving the trade will take up any slack resulting
from a decline in the need for bricklayers.
Although currently there are many job openings
for experienced bricklayers, it may be difficult at
any particular time to find an opening as an ap­
prentice in some areas. Only a limited number of
persons can be given training at any one time, and
in certain localities the industry may already have
taken on all the apprentices it can handle for the
time being.
Earnings
Bricklayers’ wages are among the highest in the
building trades. Minimum wage rates for union
bricklayers in 75 cities throughout the Nation av­
eraged $2.43 an hour in April 1948, but varied
from $1.75 to as much as $3.15 in different locali­
ties. Bonus payments, now prevalent in many

C O N S T R U C T IO N

localities, make hourly earnings much higher in
many instances. The minimum rates for some of
the representative cities are shown below.
Atlanta, Ga_________ $2. 00
Baltimore, Md______ 2. 50
Birmingham, A la___ 2.25
Boston, Mass_______ 2.15
Buffalo, N. Y _______ 2. 25
Chicago, 111_________
2. 20
Cincinnati, Ohio____ 2. 25
Cleveland, Ohio_____ 2. 38
Denver, Colo_______ 2. 50
Houston, T ex_______ 2. 50
Indianapolis, Ind___ 2. 23
Jackson, Miss_______ 2. 00
Kansas City, M o------ 2. 50
Little Rock, A rk____ 2. 50
Los Angeles, C alif___ 2. 38

Milwaukee, W is____$2. 20
Minneapolis, Minn__2. 08
Nashville, Tenn_____ 2. 25
New Haven, Conn___ 2. 40
New Orleans, L a____ 2. 05
New York City, N. Y_ 2. 75
Omaha, Nebr_______ 2. 25
Philadelphia, P a____ 2. 50
Pittsburgh, P a______ 2. 45
Portland, Oreg______ 2. 50
Richmond, V a______ 2. 25
St. Louis, M o_______ 2. 50
S’an Francisco, C a lif- 2. 81
Seattle, W ash______ 2. 37
Springfield, Mass____ 2. 33

In the past bricklayers have experienced
considerable unemployment during the winter
months. Outdoor masonry work can be severely
damaged by freezing weather or heavy rain before
the mortar has set and when construction is car­
ried on in the winter there are usually many days
when no bricks can be laid. With the use of pro­
tective devices such as tarpaulins, contractors can
carry on brick work in unfavorable weather,

TRADES

181

although at some added expense. In recent years
contractors have made increasing use of such
equipment and have developed new methods.
However bricklayers in northern areas are likely
to continue to lose a substantial amount of working
time during the winter months in most years and
this will affect their total annual income.
Apprentices’ wages usually start at 50 percent
of the journeyman’s rate and increase gradually
during the apprenticeship, reaching 90 percent
during the final 6 months.
How To Get Additional Information
I f you want the address o f a local union which
sponsors apprentice training in your locality
write the Bricklayers, Masons, and Plasterers In­
ternational Union (A F L ), 815 Fifteenth Street
NW., Washington, D. C.
Additional information may be obtained by
writing the Apprenticeship Committee of the As­
sociated General Contractors, 1227 Munsey Build­
ing, Washington 4, D. C., and the Mason Training
Promotion Department o f the Structural Clay
Products Institute, 1756 K Street NW., Washing­
ton 6, D. C.

Electricians, Construction
(D .O .T . 4-97.010)

Outlook Summary
There will be continued opportunities for addi­
tional construction electricians during the next
several years. Over the longer run, opportuni­
ties will be limited mostly to replacement of those
who leave the trade.
Nature of Work
A construction electrician installs electric wir­
ing and fixtures and hooks up equipment that is
run or controlled by electricity such as electric
ranges, the controls on heating systems, air con­
ditioning equipment, industrial machinery, etc.
793996°—19-----13




On a large job, he is given specifications concern­
ing the materials to be used and drawings which
indicate various circuits and the approximate
location of panel boards, load centers, etc. On
less complicated jobs, such as wiring a small house,
the electrician may work from verbal instructions
or a simple sketch, along with information on the
type and grade of installation wanted.
Whether the job is large or small, the electrician
must follow the electrical laws of the State, and,
unless it is in a small community, the municipal
electrical ordinances. For example, under most
codes he installs metal boxes wherever there is to be
an outlet or switch. I f a conduit system is used,

182

O C C U P A T IO N A L

OUTLOOK

the wiring is enclosed in metal pipes (or conduits)
connecting the metal boxes. Frequently, instead
of conduit systems, wires wrapped with a contin­
uous strip of steel (“ B X ” ) or with a flameproof
fabric are used, but the codes (laws and ordi­
nances) specify that certain minimum require­
ments must be met both in the material and the
way it is utilized. In such cases he must use his
own judgment in placing the outlets and the wir­
ing and in properly arranging them on the differ­
ent circuits so that the loads will be evenly dis­
tributed. Then he installs the fixtures, switches,
and various electrical controls.

HANDBOOK

ants, factories, etc., means extension of existing
circuits or installation of new circuits to provide
the necessary current and avoid overloading the
old circuits. Even the smallest portable items,
such as drink mixers at soda fountains, require
nearby outlets, and if these are not already in
place, they must be provided.
Not included among the construction electricians
are stage and motion picture electricians, electrical
equipment repairmen, linemen, and men working
on telephone equipment.
Where Employed
Construction electricians are principally em­
ployed along with the other building trades in the
construction of residences, apartments, stores, o f­
fice buildings, and industrial plants, and in re­
modeling work. Some, however, work for electric
utility systems, city or Federal Government de­
partments, or work in coal and metal mines, manu­
facturing plants, and large buildings, where they
install, change, and maintain wiring systems and
electrical equipment. There are also various types
of specialists, such as those who restrict their
work to the construction and installation of elec­
tric signs.
Employment is naturally greatest in densely
populated areas, partly because of the large
amount of commercial and industrial wiring.
However, small cities, towns, and villages, and
even rural areas, are offering more new opportuni­
ties than previously, and electric service is being
extended to more farms.
Training and Qualifications

Ph otograph

by

U.

S.

d e pa r tm e n t

of

l a b o r

.

A big part of the electrician’s job is installing electrical wiring.

Remodeling work provides a considerable part
of total employment, as does also the installa­
tion of additional business or factory equipment
in existing buildings. Commercial remodeling
usually means substantial changes in the elec­
trical system, especially in store modernization.
Residential remodeling and modernization also
affect the electric wiring. The installation or
shifting of electrical equipment in stores, restaur­




A 4-year apprenticeship or, in some cases, sev­
eral years as electrician’s helper, is necessary to
learn the trade. Picking up the trade informally
through employment as a helper was fairly com­
mon at one time, but is much less prevalent now­
adays. The union does not recognize helpers;
they are, however, still employed in some cases on
nonunion jobs. In many localities an electrician is
required to have a journeyman’s license for which
he must pass an examination showing a wellrounded knowledge o f the job and of State and
local regulations. Men who held ratings as elec­
tricians in the armed forces usually will not qual­
ify as journeymen without further training, but

C O N S T R U C T IO N

their past experience may afford an opportunity
to enter the trade as advanced apprentices.
Outlook
For the next several years the outlook is good.
The expected high level of construction activity
will create jobs for many more construction elec­
tricians than were employed before the war.
Many apprentices have entered training since the
war but more workers are still needed for the time
when construction reaches its peak.
After construction reaches its postwar peak and
continues at high levels for a number of years, the
rate of activity is likely to decline somewhat and
this would reduce the total need for electricians.
However, most if not all of the slack will be ab­
sorbed because workers die or retire from the trade
each year.

183

TRADES

some of the representative cities are shown be­
low.
Atlanta, Ga------------Baltimore, M d______
Birmingham, A la___
Boston, Mass_______
Buffalo, N. Y _______
Chicago, 111________
Cincinnati, Ohio____
Cleveland, Ohio-------Denver, Colo_______
Houston, T ex _______
Indianapolis, Ind___
Jackson, M iss______
Kansas City, M o____
Little Rock, Ark____
Los Angeles, C alif___

$ 2.

00
2. 25
2.00
2.15
2. 15
2. 35
2. 13
2. 25
2. 05

2. 00
2. 10
2. 00
2.15
1. 88
2. 25

Milwaukee, W is____$2. 00
Minneapolis, Minn_2. 06
Nashville, Tenn-------- 2. 00
New Haven, Conn—
2. 00
New Orleans, La------ 2. 00
New York City, N. Y_ 2. 50
Omaha, Nebr_______ 2.10
Philadelphia, P a____ 2. 38
Pittsburgh, Pa______ 2. 38
Portland, Oreg______ 2. 00
Richmond, Y a______ 2. 00
St. Louis, M o_______ 2.25
San Francisco, Calif_ 2. 25
Seattle, W ash______ 2. 27
Springfield, Mass___ 2.10

Apprentice wages, based on a graduated scale,
are designed to average at least 50 percent of the
journeymen’s rate over the 4-year period.
Where To Get Additional Information

Earnings
In April 1948, minimum wage rates specified
in union contracts for journeymen electricians in
75 cities throughout the country averaged $2.24
an hour. In some localities the rates were as low
as $1.50; in others they amounted to as much as
$2.50 per hour. The minimum wage rates in

Additional information on apprenticeship may
be obtained from the International Brotherhood
of Electrical Workers o f America, 1200 Fifteenth
Street NW., Washington, D. C., or from the Na­
tional Electrical Contractors Association, Ring
Building, 1200 Eighteenth Street NW., Washing­
ton, D. C.

Paperhangers
(D .O .T . 5-28.100)

Outlook /Summary
Considerable amount of paperhanging to be
done during the next 5 years. However, opportu­
nities for new workers are limited by the great
number of self-trained workers who, while they
may be less skilled than journeyman paperhangers, still obtain much of the redecorating work.
Nature of Work
Paperhangers do decorating of new buildings
and redecorating in existing buildings. In re­
decorating work paperhanging is often combined
with interior painting into a single job. In new
buildings men usually do only paperhanging.
(See statement on Painters, p. 177.)




The basic steps in hanging wallpaper are famil­
iar to anyone who has watched a paperhanger
brush paste onto the back of a strip of paper, fold
and carry it to the wall, then aline the top edge
of the strip and smooth the entire length into place
with a dry brush. The less obvious parts of the
work are bringing the edges together exactly and
matching patterns. In some cases old wallpaper
must be removed and repairs made to the wall be­
fore the paper is hung. Sometimes fabric is used
instead of wallpaper.
Training and Qualifications
It has been customary for a worker to serve a
3-year apprenticeship, or to get equivalent experi­
ence as a helper, before he can qualify as a journey-

184

O C C U P A T IO N A L

OUTLOOK

man paperhanger. However, many workers,
entering the trade with little previous training or
experience, have set themselves up in business—
the amount of capital required is small—or have
found employment with smaller contractors with
less rigid work standards. Recognizing such
practices, some union locals have become lenient
regarding the admission of workers with limited
experience and often admit new workers subject
to oral examination and approved workmanship
on the job. Such policies, however, vary from one
local to another.
Sometimes the paperhanger learns the me­
chanics of painting while he is in training as a
paperhanger or he may pick it up later. Local
unions frequently offer night classes where jour­
neymen in one trade learn the applied techniques
of the other. Knowledge of such things as color
harmony and decorative theory are common to
both trades.

HANDBOOK

jobs, to restrict entrance to fully qualified me­
chanics. As a result, competition is likely to be
most keen in redecorating work.
In the long run, the increasing popularity of
painted walls in place of wallpaper may mean less
work for paperhangers and further encourage the
combining of the trade with that of painting.
Furthermore, it has become common for house­
holders to apply so-called water emulsion paints
over old wallpaper instead of having new paper
put on.
Earnings
In July 1947, minimum wage rates for union
paperhangers in 75 cities throughout the country
averaged $1.92 an hour, ranging from as low as
$1.25 in one locality to $2.15 in another. Mini­
mum wage rates in some of the representative
cities are shown below.

Outlook

Atlanta, Ga________ $1. 75
Baltimore, M d______ 1. 78
Birmingham, A la___1. 75
Buffalo, N. Y _______ 1. 88
Chicago, 111________
2.15
Cincinnati, Ohio____ 1. 88
Cleveland, Ohio_____ 2. 00
Denver, Colo_______ 1. 75
Houston, T ex _______ 1. 75
Indianapolis, In d___ 1. 88
Jackson, Miss______ 1. 50
Kansas City, M o____ 1. 83
Little Rock, A rk____ 1. 63
Los Angeles, C alif___ 1. 88

The high level of construction activity will cre­
ate a substantial increase in the demand for paperhangers to work on new homes for the next several
years. In addition, a large backlog of redeco­
rating work, accumulated as a result of wartime
shortages of labor and material, will mean a con­
siderable increase over prewar requirements for
maintenance and repair work.
But the outlook for new workers entering the
trade is not good in spite of the fact that in some
areas there are only a few fully qualified paperhangers. The field as a whole is already over­
crowded with less-skilled workers who have set
thenjselves up in the trade before they acquired
the training and experience necessary to qualify as
journeyman paperhangers. More of such workers
are likely to enter the trade since there is no means,
particularly in the countless small redecorating

In many localities most paperhangers, particu­
larly those working on redecorating jobs, are not
union members, and their wages would tend to be
lower than the rates shown above. The earnings
of those in business for themselves depend upon
the prices they are able to obtain for redecorating
jobs.
Paperhangers, like painters, usually do not have
regular year-round employment. Although they
do a large amount of redecorating, the peak de­
mand for this work usually occurs during and
following the spring and fall renting seasons
rather than during the winter— the off season for
new construction. Paperhangers have compara­
tively full employment now, but after the present
backlog of redecorating jobs is completed it is
unlikely that most of them will have year-round
work.

Where Employed
Paperhangers find work on new buildings—
houses, apartment buildings, or hotels— and in the
periodic redecoration o f existing buildings. Since
a house or apartment may be repapered or painted
as often as 20 times or more during its lifetime,
the amount of work in redecorating far exceeds
that on new construction.




Minneapolis, M inn__$1. 80
Nashville, Tenn_____ 1. 50
New Haven, Conn.*__1. 80
New Orleans, L a____ 1. 50
Omaha, Nebr_______
1. 50
Philadelphia, P a____ 1. 75
Pittsburgh, Pa______ 2. 00
Portland, Oreg______ 1. 90
Richmond, Va______ 1. 50
St. Louis, M o_______ 1. 80
San Francisco, Calif_ 2. 00
Seattle, W ash______ 1. 94
S'pringfield, M ass___ 1. 75

C O N S T R U C T IO N

Where To Learn More About the Trade
Additional information may be obtained from
the Brotherhood of Painters, Decorators, and

TRADES

185

Paperhangers of America ( A F L ), Painters Build­
ing, La Fayette, Ind., or from the Painting and
Decorating Contractors Association o f America,
12 South Twelfth Street, Philadelphia 7, Pa.

Plumbers and Pipe Fitters
(D .O .T . 5-30.010 to .410)

Outlook Summary
Substantial number of openings for apprentices
for at least the next several years. Replacement
needs will continue to create opportunities there­
after.
Nature of Work
Journeymen in the plumbing and pipe-fitting
industry install, alter, and repair the piping sys­
tems (including fixtures and similar parts) for
household and other water use, and for heating,
steam power, refrigeration, fire sprinklers, indus­
trial processing, and numerous other purposes.
This broad field has been divided among several
trades, but about 2 years ago the international
union representing all of them adopted the policy
o f combining the entire pipe field into a single
trade. The carrying out of this policy in any
particular locality is decided by vote of the mem­
bers of the union’s locals there, and in many places
(including many large cities) the craft distinc­
tions are observed by journeymen as fully now as
in the past.
The plumbing field includes water supply and
waste piping with the fixtures themselves and their
“ trimmings” for houses, for other buildings and
elsewhere (outdoor drinking fountains, for
example). It includes many items for special uses
such as hospital plumbing fixtures, restaurant
sinks, dishwashers, commercial and nonportable
domestic washing machines, etc.; gas piping; the
public water-supply lines under streets and else­
where; and a variety of infrequent installations
(swimming pools, ornamental fountains, etc.).
The general pipe-fitting field takes in hot water
and steam heating systems' (including vapor and
vacuum systems), high-pressure steam plants for
power generation and for steam used otherwise
(as for heating of materials in manufacturing op­
erations), sprinkler systems for fire protection, re­




frigeration systems for processing and storage of
perishables and for air conditioning (but not the
ventilating work connected with air condition­
ing) , lines for compressed air and industrial gases,
and piping for industrial processing. This last
type of work is used most extensively in oil
refineries, chemical plants, and food-processing
plants, but occurs to some degree in many other
industries.
This is a field where adeptness in the Use of tools
and in handling of materials, although necessary,
is less important than thorough knowledge. A
truly skilled workman must be familiar with a
wide variety of materials and an extremely wide
variety of fittings and specialties, including their
particular uses, their limitations or disadvantages,
and the proper methods of handling. He must
know the operating principles for different kinds
o f systems and the operating relationships be­
tween the different parts. He must be able to lay
out the system so that it fits the building where it
is being installed, and able to avoid unnecessary
damage to other work in any cutting that is needed.
For plumbing, he must know the State laws and
city ordinances so that his work will pass inspec­
tion.
For a major installation there are separate pip­
ing drawings showing where all the pipes are to be
placed with sizes and the location of valves and
other special items, thus giving a complete picture
of the installation. A t the other extreme there
may be no more than a verbal statement o f the
fixtures wanted and their approximate locations.
From such information plus measurement o f the
building, the journeyman or foreman decides
where and how the pipes will go. Then the nec­
essary pieces are cut to length and assembled with
necessary fittings, valves, and other parts. At the
end of this “ roughing-in” stage there is usually an
inspection for plumbing by the city or State in­

186

O C C U P A T IO N A L

OU TLOOK H A N D B O O K

spector, including a test under water pressure.
When carpentry, plastering, and the other trades
are far enough advanced, the job is finished by in­
stallation of the plumbing fixtures with their
“ trimmings” (faucets, drains, traps, etc.) or the
corresponding parts of the heating system (radi­
ators, etc.).
Examples of changes in the work within recent
years are the rapid adoption of copper pipe with
brass fittings for plumbing, the very recent growth
o f radiant hot-water heating, and quite interest­
ingly the use of copper pipe for some o f the radiant
heating installations. Many others could be cited.
It is because such changes occur that an over-all
knowledge of the field and an understanding of
principles are particularly important.
Where Employed
Most journeymen work in the construction in­
dustry, primarily on buildings but on other con­
struction as well. Others work for municipal
water departments, other utilities, and in ship­
building. Commercial and industrial establish­
ments also employ plumbers and pipe fitters for
maintenance work and alterations, and some com­
panies use them when they carry on their own
construction work. They are found in almost
every locality; although they are most numerous
in large cities, opportunities have been increasingly
good in small places because of rising standards
in village and farm sanitation.
There is at all times a considerable amount of
alteration and improvement work, in addition to
new construction. This includes home moderni­
zation, store and office modernization, alterations
and installation of new equipment in industrial
plants, and preparing business property for new
occupants. Soda fountains, restaurants, even
dental offices, use equipment which must be con­
nected to water-supply pipes and waste lines.
Since these are usually not at the locations where
the equipment is to be placed, they must be
extended.
Repairs and replacements are more important in
plumbing than in many other types of work, and
help greatly in providing a sufficient volume of
business in small localities. They are the main­
stay of many o f the small plumbing establish­
ments.




Opportunities for the heating and industrial
piping part of the work are more limited geo­
graphically than opportunities for plumbing.
Steam and hot-water heating systems are natu­
rally uncommon in the warmer parts of the coun­
try, and in the north are used most in cities having
many apartment buildings and nonresidential
buildings. Industrial piping is greatest where
the industrial operations include processing of
fluids. Refrigeration and fire-sprinkler system
work is done in industrial and commercial build­
ings of many different types.
Qualifications and Training
A person interested in becoming a journeyman
should have an interest in and the ability to master
elementary physical science, and be skillful at
using his hands. He must learn to make clear
working drawings, to read architectural and
piping blueprints, and to take measurements for
laying out his work. Average physical strength
is needed, but no more than for several other
trades. As in other building trades, at times it is
necessary to work under inconvenient and uncom­
fortable conditions.
Generally, the trade is learned through a 5-year
apprenticeship. The apprentice signs an agree­
ment, commonly with a joint committee represent­
ing the union and the local employers, about train­
ing, related school instruction, and wages and
hours. Under the usual program, all-round train­
ing is given on the job and an apprentice is likely
to be transferred to several employers in order to
get experience in different kinds of work.
At least 144 hours of classroom work are given a
year, including mathematics applicable to pipe
w ork; physics, with special attention to liquids and
gases, the elements of hydraulics, and heat; me­
chanical drawing; and theory, which includes ma­
terials, sanitation and elements o f bacteriology,
and piping systems. Also covered in school courses
are piping drawing, shop work, and acetylene and
electric welding. A new training course covering
the entire piping field has been prepared by the
international union, and is scheduled for publica­
tion in the near future. In localities where ap­
prenticeship is for the separate trades (plumbing,
steam fitting, sprinkler fitting, refrigeration fit­
ting) rather than for the entire plumbing and

C O N S T R U C T IO N

pipe-fitting field, the classroom training for any
o f these is likely to omit the material dealing al­
most entirely with the other trades. It seems like­
ly that in localities where the apprenticeship is
for the entire pipe field, many of the apprentices
on reaching journeymen status will prefer to
specialize in a particular type of work whenever
such jobs are available.
In some localities a journeyman’s license is re­
quired for plumbing work, obtainable after satis­
factory completion o f apprenticeship. A master’s
license is very commonly required for those in­
tending to engage in plumbing contracting.
Outlook
Prospects for the next several years are excel­
lent, and thereafter the outlook for those already
in the trade will continue to be good. A larger
than usual number of replacements will be needed
during the next 5 to 10 years, to fill openings left
by those who leave the trade because of death or
retirement. A large part of the journeymen
plumbers and pipe fitters are in the older age
groups where drop-outs for these reasons are fre­
quent. By the time construction activity reaches
its expected postwar peak, many more plumbers
and pipe fitters will be employed in new construc­
tion than were needed just before the war. There
will also probably be a large volume of repairs
and remodeling work to bring old installations up
to present day standards. Many manufacturing
and other industries normally employing plumbers
and pipe fitters were shorthanded during the war
and need more men.
In some localities at any particular time, all the
new workers (apprentices) that the industry can
handle have already been taken on. In such cases,
applicants for apprenticeships must wait until
openings again are available, even though at the
same time skilled journeymen are in demand in
the community.
Earnings
Minimum wages for union plumbers in 75 d if­
ferent cities throughout the country averaged
$2.20 per hour in July 1947, and ranged from $1.75
to $2.85 depending on the locality. Steam fitters
averaged $2.11 an hour and the minimum rates in
the various localities ranged from $1.65 to $2.34.




187

TRADES

The rates for plumbers and steam fitters in some
of the representative cities as of July 1, 1947, are
shown in the following table.
S team
fitte r s

P lu m b ers

$2. 00
2. 00
2.00
2.00
2. 15
2. 15
2. 13
2.13
2. 05
2.13
2. 10
1. 75
2.13
1.88
2.25
2.00
2.00
1.90
1.90
2.05
2.81
2.00
2.25
2. 25
2. 13
1. 88
2. 25
2.25
2.34
1 93

Atlanta, Ga
Baltimore. Md
Birmingham. Ala
Boston, Mass
Buffalo, N. Y
Chicago, 1 1
1
Cincinnati, Ohio
Cleveland, Ohio
Denver, Colo
Houston, Tex
Indianapolis, Ind
Jackson, Miss
Kansas City, Mo
Little Rock, Ark
Los Angeles, Calif
Milwaukee, W is
Minneapolis, Minn
Nashville, Tenn
New Haven, Conn
New Orleans, La
New York City, N. Y
Omaha, Nebr
Philadelphia, Pa
Pittsburgh, Pa
Portland. Oreg
Richmond, Va
St. Louis, Mo
San Francisco, Calif
Seattle, Wash
Springfield, Mass

$2. 00
2. 00
2. 00
2.00
2.15
2. 15
2.13
2.13
2. 05
2. 00
2. 10
1.75
2.13
1. 88
2. 20
2. 00
2. 00
1. 90
1. 90
2. 05
2. 30
2.00
2. 25
2. 15
2. 13
1. 88
2.13
2. 25
2. 34
1.93

Apprentices’ wages are increased periodically,
Repair work keeps many plumbers busy, even during the slack
seasons for new construction.
Photograph

by

U.

S.

Departm ent

of

La b o r .

188

O C C U P A T IO N A L

OU TLOOK H A N D B O O K

and over the apprenticeship period, average about
half of the journeyman’s rate.
Although plumbing work on construction is
seasonal, considerable repair and maintenance
work makes for more regular year-round employ­
ment than in most other building trades.
Where To Find Out More About the Trade
For information on where to apply for appren­

ticeship in a given locality, write to the United A s­
sociation of Journeymen and Apprentices of the
Plumbing and Pipe-Fitting Industry, Ring Build­
ing, Eighteenth and M Streets NW., Washington
6, D. C .; to the Heating, Piping and Air Condi­
tioning Contractors National Association, 1250
Sixth Avenue, New York 20, N. Y., or to the Na­
tional Association of Master Plumbers, 1105 K
Street NW., Washington 5, D. C.

Plasterers
(D .O .T . 5-29.100 and .200)

Outlook Summary
Job opportunities for plasterers during the next
few years are excellent and additional workers
must be trained. Plastering will always be an im­
portant part of building construction, as far as
can be seen at the present time, although there will
probably be changes in the relative importance of
the different kinds of work.
Nature of Work
The principal work of the plasterer is the appli­
cation of several coats of plaster to a suitable base,
to produce wall and ceiling surfaces and stucco
exterior wall surfaces. In some interior work he
produces textured surfaces which get no further
decorative treatment, and in more elaborate work
he produces surfaces in imitation of stone, marble,
or other materials. In some types of buildings he
produces curved ceilings and in ornamental work
obtains a great variety o f architectural effects
using cornices, pilasters, vaulted and groined ceil­
ings, arches, and relief ornamentation.
This occupational statement includes the work
of plasterers only, exclusive o f modelers, model
makers, casters, and sculptors (engaged mainly in
the shop production of relief plaster pieces for
building' and other uses). While engaged in
closely related work, these are distinct occupations.
Employment is primarily in the construction
industry, and almost exclusively at the construc­
tion site. Most of this is in new construction, but
plastering is usually needed in extensive alter­
ations and has become particularly important as a
means of obtaining architectural and lighting
effects in commercial modernization. Repair jobs




in old buildings are restricted in both number and
size by the inherent durability of plaster.
Training and Qualifications
A 4-year apprenticeship, or its equivalent, is
needed for qualification as a journeyman. During
this period the apprentice is trained in a wide va­
riety of skills, of which manipulation of the tools
is only one part. He must learn the properties and
appropriate handling of the different kinds of ma­
terials and the different mixtures; the characteris­
tics o f the various backing materials or bases to
which the plaster is applied; and procedures for
getting true vertical and horizontal surfaces. He
must also acquire ability to lay out curved, arched,
vaulted, and other ornamental work which (when
elaborate) presents difficult geometrical problems.
He must learn methods of forming cornices and
mouldings in place; of installing shop-made or­
namental pieces and fastening them securely; and
of applying and forming wet plaster onto orna­
mental pieces to join them smoothly or to add
small repetitive figures which cannot be put on
conveniently at the shop. The apprentice should
become familiar with the work of other trades,
such as proper means for supporting overhead and
suspended plastering.
Standard apprenticeship includes 144 hours of
classroom instruction each year, with particular
attention to drawing, blueprint reading, and
mathematics applicable to lay-out work.
Outlook
The large volume of construction, which will
reach its peak during the next few years, is ex-

C O N S T R U C T IO N

pected to require many more plasterers than the
number employed just before the war. During
recent decades the number of apprentices trained
was comparatively small, but more than 7,000
have been registered by the Operative Plasterers’
and Cement Finishers’ International Association
since the beginning of 1946.
The long-range outlook is affected by several
conditions, some favorable and others not. Many
attempts have been made to get less expensive
surfacing materials for ordinary walls and ceil­
ings, and some of the products available in sheet
form have been used extensively. It is likely,
however, that alleviation of the shortage of plas­
terers will cut down the use of these other ma­
terials to at least some degree.
Public taste and architectural usage have
changed, so that ornamental plastering in large
metropolitan buildings (banks, the lobbies and
public rooms of major hotels, the lobbies of lead­
ing office buildings, etc.) is used much less exten­
sively than prior to the depression. It was in such
buildings, in churches, in downtown movie the­
aters, and in larger Government buildings, that
ornamental plastering had its chief market.
There is little doubt that such work will always
be used to some degree in certain types of build­
ings, and it seems likely to be used extensively in
a few types, particularly some churches. For nonresidential buildings as a whole, however, the trend
has been toward simpler lines.
While the demand for plastering has been re­
duced in these directions, it has been increased m
others. Within the last 20 years acoustical treat­
ment has had widespread adoption, and plastering
is one of the means by which such treatment is ob­
tained. During the same period extensive atten­
tion has been given to lighting, including the effect
of ceiling design. This has been most pronounced
for retail stores, restaurants, and similar establish­
ments, but by no means confined to such places.
The result here has been a marked trend toward
curved ceilings, commonly with recesses for con­
cealed lighting fixtures or with flush fixtures fitting
into, rather than protruding from, the ceiling.
This work obviously required many more man­
hours than would an ordinary flat ceiling for a
room of the same size. Curved surfaces as a form
o f architectural or decorative treatment, without




TRADES

189

special consideration for lighting effects, have also
come into increasing use.
The use of mechanical equipment in large build­
ings (especially ventilating equipment, with or
without air conditioning) has increased, and
seems likely to continue. This means a more diffi­
cult plastering job, and hence more man-hours,
than would be required otherwise. There has also
been increasing use of concrete structural floors in
small nonresidential buildings where formerly
ordinary construction would have been customary.
This likewise means a more difficult plastering job
on the ceilings than is the case with nonfireproof
construction. This trend may be expected to con­
tinue, and there are already some signs that it is
beginning to spread to other types of buildings.
Stucco finish on exterior walls has been used
widely in certain parts o f the country, and used to
at least some degree almost everywhere. Greater
use may be expected because of an increased range
of finishes and colors that can be provided, suitable
to almost any architectural style.
Earnings
The average of the minimum rates specified in
union contracts for plasterers in various localities
throughout the country was $2.36 per hour in April
1948. Rates ranged from as low as $1.75 an hour
in one locality to as high as $3.15 an hour in an­
other. The minimum rates for some of the repre­
sentative cities are shown:
$2. 00
Atlanta, Ga
Baltimore, Md
2. 25
Birmingham, Ala___ 2. 00
Boston, Mass
2. 25
Buffalo, N. Y
2. 15
Chicago, 111_________
2. 23
Cincinnati, Ohio____ 2. 13
Cleveland, Ohio
2. 38
Denver, Colo
2. 25
Houston, Tex
2. 50
Indianapolis, Ind___ 2. 15
Jackson, Miss
2. 00
Kansas City, M o____ 2. 50
Little Rock, A rk____ 2. 00
Los Angeles, C alif___ 2. 25

Milwaukee, W is____$2. 00
Minneapolis, Minn_2. 25
Nashville, Tenn_____ 2. 25
New Haven, Conn___ 2. 40
New Orleans, L a____ 1. 88
New York City, N. Y_ 3. 00
Omaha, Nebr________
2.25
Philadelphia, Pa------ 2. 50
Pittsburgh, P a______ 2. 25
Portland, Oreg______ 2. 35
Richmond, V a______ 2. 00
St. Louis, M o________
2.25
San Francisco, Calif_ 2. 25
Seattle, W ash______ 2. 37
Springfield, Mass___ 2. 33

Whereas hourly wage
nual earnings prior to the war were comparatively
low. In part this was caused by a wmrkday
usually shorter than was common for other trades
(in some localities a 6-hour day in comparison with

190

O C C U P A T IO N A L

O U TLO OK

an 8-hour day for most of the trades) and in part
by seasonal unemployment. Plastering in a small
building is a comparatively brief job, and such
jobs tend to be seasonal because of concentrated
rental and sales seasons for new apartments and
bouses. Work on nonresidential buildings is less
seasonal, and when these are sufficiently large the
plastering extends over several months. Almost
three-fourths of the plasterers working in 1939
had at least 6 months of work, but only a third
had work for 9 months or more during the year.

HANDBOOK

Ho tv To Get Additional Information
To obtain the address of a local union which
sponsors apprentice training in your locality,
write the International Association of Operative
Plasterers and Cement Finishers, Fidelity Build­
ing, Cleveland 14, Ohio.
Information on apprenticeship may also be ob­
tained from the Contracting Plasterers Interna­
tional Association, 1327 Majestic Building, Detroit
26, Mich.

Sheet-Metal Workers
(D .O .T .

Outlook Summary
Substantial number o f openings for appren­
tices in next several years. Some replacement
needs thereafter.
Nature o f Work
Sheet-metal workers are highly skilled crafts­
men who make, install, and repair equipment and
units fashioned from lightweight metal sheets.
Most of the work is for new buildings. This trade
should not be confused with the jobs performed by
certain types of semiskilled factory workers who
produce a wide variety o f articles from sheets or
strips of metal, usually by stamping or die-form­
ing. Most sheet-metal work is making and install­
ing ducts to be used with ventilating equipment,
and more especially with heating and air-condi­
tioning apparatus.
While a considerable number of homes use hot
air heating systems which require a system of air
ducts, and some houses are equipped for air-cool­
ing, the great bulk of the work with sheet-metal
air ducts is in stores, offices, and other public
places and in some industries where ventilating or
air-conditioning equipment is essential to the man­
ufacturing process.
Sheet-metal workers also lay roofing—when
metal roofing materials are used—and install gut­
ters and downspouts for rainwater. Metal strips
(called flashings) are installed by sheet-metal
workers around chimneys and at certain other
places, such as those where some part o f the build-




1- 80- 010 )

ing extends above the roof line. Such installa­
tions, while they are not a major part of what the
sheet-metal worker does on new construction, need
periodic repairs and replacements because they
are exposed to the weather. Some sheet-metal
workers specialize in roofing and related work
(just as others may specialize in ventilating and
heating).
Air-conditioning is doubtless the most important
current development in the sheet-metal trade, but
Most sheet-metal work consists of making ducts for heating and
air-conditioning systems.
PH OTOGRAPH

BY U . S .

DEPARTM ENT OF

LABOR

C O N S T R U C T IO N

other products, either introduced or more widely
used in recent years, have also increased employ­
ment. For example, factory-made doors, window
sash, frames, partitions, etc., made with sheet
metal are being increasingly used in homes and
also in public buildings and factories. Sheetmetal workers frequently install such products.
Another example is the more specialized sheetmetal work on commercial signs, marquees, and
the like for theaters, stores, and restaurants.
In many cases the sheet-metal products (air
ducts and other units) are made right on the job
where they are to be installed. In other cases they
are made to order at the contractor’s shop from
drawings and measurements taken back on the job
site. Large contractors commonly have separate
shop crews and field crews. In any case, however,
the shop work is a basic part o f the trade. The
reason sheet-metal work (especially heating and
ventilating) calls for so much custom work rather
than factory-made units is that nearly every in­
stallation requires special lay-outs, and different
dimensions for the particular job.
Where Employed
The majority of the sheet-metal workers are em­
ployed in making and installing equipment on new
buildings, or new installations in existing build­
ings. A very small number specialize in repair
work. Apart from this work on buildings, sheetmetal workers employed in small shops, manufac­
ture (and install), often to special order, a variety
of kitchen equipment such as steam tables, dish
racks, canopies, sinks, steel or copper kettles, and
similar products for hotels and restaurants. A n­
other specialization is the coppersmith work in
constructing vats and stills for breweries and dis­
tilleries and hand-made fittings for marine work.
But the number so employed is quite small.
Sheet-metal workers are also employed in a
fairly wide range o f manufacturing industries
though there are only a comparatively small num­
ber in each. Probably the largest number are em­
ployed in the machinery industries, particularly
those making blowers, exhausts, electrical generat­
ing and distributing equipment, food products
machinery, and steam engines and turbines. Here
they make and assemble sheet-metal parts on an
individual order basis—enclosures and parts for
special machinery, industrial ovens, and a great




TRADES

191

many other items. This work requires the same
skills, tools and equipment as does sheet-metal
work for buildings, and is totally different from
repetitive operations found in many factories,
where one worker stamps out thousands of identi­
cal parts. During the war, the aircraft and ship­
building industries employed large numbers of
sheet-metal workers. Many o f them were highly
specialized and their skills did not, as a rule, com­
pare to the all-round sheet-metal worker.
Training and Qualifications
An apprenticeship of 4 or sometimes 5 years is
required, including a minimum of 144 hours per
year of classroom instruction in pattern drafting,
mathematics, blueprint reading, estimating, basic
principles of heating and ventilating, and re­
lated subjects. Workers with several years’ expe­
rience as helpers sometimes become journeymen,
or their equivalent, without serving a formal ap­
prenticeship.
Apprentices must be at least 16 years of age and
have an eighth-grade education. However, com­
pletion of high school or trade school is strongly
recommended. Good health, average strength,
and agility in working on ladders and scaffolding
are necessary, together with a high degree of man­
ual dexterity, and a strong aptitude for mechan­
ical work.
While it is necessary to acquire skill in the use
of tools and to become adept at working from diffi­
cult positions, these qualities alone are not enough
to make a person a thoroughly capable workman.
This is a trade where rounded knowledge of the
work being done and good elementary knowledge
o f the principles being followed are particularly
important.
Outlook
Prospects for sheet-metal workers are excellent
during the next several years. By the time the ex­
pected peak of building activity is reached, there
should be jobs both on the construction site and
in the shops for many more sheet-metal workers
than were employed at the end of the war. In
addition, a number of skilled all-round sheet-metal
workers will be needed in the other industries men­
tioned above. For a number of years, both before
and during the war, there were not enough ap­
prentices in training. As a result the present sup­

192

O C C U P A T IO N A L

OU TLOOK H A N D B O O K

ply of skilled workers is considerably below the
expected demands and many new workers must
be trained if these demands are to be met.
During the past several years the volume of
sheet-metal work has been limited by inadequate
supplies o f metal sheets. As a result, in some areas
the number of jobs has not been up to expecta­
tions. Such localities will not be able to use new­
comers until the sheet-metal situation eases.
The long-range outlook is for a continued high
level of employment, principally because of the in­
creased use of sheet-metal work in construction.
The rapid growth of air-conditioning is the major
development creating a demand for sheet-metal
work. The use o f ventilating systems in factories
is also expected to expand considerably.
Earnings
Minimum hourly wage rates specified in union
contracts for journeymen working on construction
in 75 principal cities throughout the country aver­
aged $1.99 per hour in July 1947, but they ranged
from as low as $1.37 in one locality to $2.50 in an­
other. Wage rates in some o f the representative
cities are shown in the following statement.

$1. 65
Atlanta, Ga
2. 00
Baltimore, Md
Birmingham, A la—
1. 73
Boston, Mass
1. 90
2. 00
Buffalo, N. Y
Chicago, 1 1
1
2. 15
Cincinnati, Ohio____ 1. 90
2. 00
Cleveland, Ohio
Denver, Colo
1. 88
Houston, Tex
2. 13
Indianapolis, In d ___ 1. 88
Jackson, Miss
1. 60
K ansas City, M o____ 2. 03
Los Angeles, C a lif__ 1. 94
M ilwaukee, W i s ____ 1. 85

Minneapolis, M in n __ $1. 90
Nashville, Tenn
1. 60
New Haven, Conn___ 2. 00
New Orleans, L a____ 1. 60
New Y ork City, N. Y_ 2. 30
Omaha, Nebr
1. 75
Philadelphia, P a------ 2. 25
Pittsburgh, Pa
1. 88
1. 83
Portland, Oreg
Richmond, Va
1. 63
2. 13
St. Louis, Mo
San Francisco, Calif. 2. 00
2. 09
Seattle, W ash
Springfield, M ass___ 1. 93

The hourly rates are not among the highest in
the building trades, but annual earnings are good
because sheet-metal workers are more steadily em­
ployed than most other construction workers.
Maintenance and repair work helps to take up the
slack during the new construction off-season.
Apprentices average at least half the journey­
man’s rate throughout the apprenticeship period.
In other industries where sheet-metal workers
are employed, hourly earnings are somewhat lower
than in construction. Outside the construction in­
dustry, however, the work is usually not subject to
much seasonal fluctuation.

Structural and Ornamental Metal Workers
(D .O .T . 4 -8 4 .0 1 0 , .020, .040, and .060)

Outlook Summaiy
Opportunities are good for at least the next
several years for those who want to enter as
apprentices.
Nature o f Work
Structural-steel workers erect the steel frame­
work for buildings. Best known are the tall
buildings common in downtown locations, but
structural-steel columns and roof framing are used
frequently in one-story factory buildings, and to
some extent in other types of buildings. Factories
may also require steelwork for crane runways and
to support heavy equipment. The men in this
trade also put up steel bridges and towers, and in­
stall or erect certain types of tanks. In some
cases they set structural-steel members in place
when they occur in buildings not of steel frame




design, such as beams over wide doors and windows
in masonry walls to support the brickwork above.
Structural-metal workers erect steel scaffolding
and sidewalk canopies for use by other construc­
tion trades and for protection of the public, both
for new buildings and repair work. The steel
scaffolding for exterior repairs to a tall building
can be a fairly large job in itself. Other work in­
cludes the placing of vault doors with their frames,
and installing the steel plate work covering the
exterior of burglar-resistive vaults.
In erecting a steel framework or structure they
first take the steel shapes already fabricated by
other workers and hoist them into place in the
proper order. They then connect them tempo­
rarily with bolts, accurately aline the structure as
necessary, and rivet or weld the parts together.
Ornamental iron workers typically handle light­

C O N S T R U C T IO N

er materials, such as those not making up the
basic framework o f a building. The name “ orna­
mental iron” is historical, and is likely to be mis­
leading. Within recent years a large part of the
work, probably more than half, has dealt with
other metals than iron and steel—mainly alumi­
num alloys, brass, and bronze. In some cases the
installations are highly decorative, although along
much simpler lines than 20 or 30 years ago, while
other installations are strictly utilitarian.
Ornamental iron workers install all metal parts
used in buildings, excluding structural work, re­
inforcing rods, sheet-metal work and, of course,
the metal used in plumbing and pipe fitting and in
electrical work. They install metal stairways
(which are much commoner than they seem, be­
cause the treads and platforms are commonly filled
with concrete) and the railings and handrails at
stairways, balconies, and elsewhere. They put in
place solid metal sash and doors and their frames,
including the common steel sash used in many
kinds of buildings; swinging and revolving metal
doors with their frames, and vestibules at the
street entrances to office buildings, hotels, etc.
Other work done includes doors, grilles, and
screens, such as used at bank tellers’ compartments
and elsewhere; gratings, metal cabinets of many
types, such as display cases and safety deposit
Structural-metal workers must often work in high places.




Photograph

by

u

. S.

d e pa r tm e n t

of

labo r

TRADES

193

boxes; window and door guards, and a very wide
variety of other installations.
Where They Work
Structural and ornamental iron workers are en­
gaged largely on new construction. They are also
employed on alteration work such as insertion of
a mezzanine floor in steel-frame buildings,-instal­
lation of steel stairs during modernization of an
old apartment or commercial building, or the ad­
dition of window guards to an existing building
for burglary protection. There is even a little
repair work, despite the durability of the mate­
rials—replacement of members weakened by long
neglect of painting, replacement of bridge parts
damaged by bad traffic accidents, etc.
The structural workers do no fabrication of
their materials, beyond reaming out of mispunched rivet holes and other small corrections of
shop errors. In general the ornamental workers
likewise do no fabrication, although some of the
smallest contractors (especially in small commu­
nities) do not distinguish sharply between shop
crews and field crews. Occasionally larger con­
tractors use some of their erecting crews for shop
work to handle peak loads, but this practice is not
prevalent because of the substantially higher wage
scale for the erecting men.
Ornamental iron workers are commonly em­
ployed within commuting distance of home be­
cause establishments capable of doing a wide va­
riety of work can be maintained on a fairly low
volume of business and hence are found in many
localities. Ornamental metal for an occasional
elaborate building in a small city is likely to be
provided by a contractor from a larger city, who
ordinarily either sends his own crew or sends a
partial crew and hires other workers locally. On
the whole, more traveling is involved for struc­
tural iron workers, because most localities have
insufficient structural business to support an
erection contractor or local crew.
Consequently, workers must be brought in from
outside to handle the occasional structural work
that occurs, such as a steel-frame office or factory
building. Workers living in the largest metro­
politan centers and preferring employment there
are likely at times to find that the only vacancies
are for out-of-town jobs.

194

O C C U P A T IO N A L

OU TLOOK H A N D B O O K

Training and Qualifications
Ornamental-metal work is a highly skilled craft
usually requiring 4 years of apprentice training.
In structural-steel work—which calls for less
skill— a 2-year apprenticeship is all that is cus­
tomarily required. Men with several years of ex­
perience as helpers sometimes become journeymen,
but, as the trade is highly unionized, few enter
without serving a formal apprenticeship.
Outlook
Employment prospects for the next several
years are very good, and although not many addi­
tional workers will be needed thereafter, the out­
look will continue to be good for those already at
work in the trade.
The prospects for structural workers are im­
proved by developments in the use of steelwork
intended for buildings with light floor loads.
There has also been increased recognition of ad­
vantages o f steel construction in some kinds o f
one-story nonresidential buildings. The possibili­
ties of a fairly new type of unconventional design
(“ rigid frames” ) are likely to be realized much
more fully than in the past.
For ornamental metal work the prospects are
likewise good. It is admirably suited to recent
trends in architectural design; there has been
steady progress in its fabrication; and it is likely
to be used more extensively in buildings where
cost is a leading consideration, because the building
can get a greater range of stock and semi-stock
parts (such as extruded mouldings). Strictly
utilitarian uses are likely at least to be sustained, if
not to increase.
Some workers will also be needed to replace
those who leave these trades because o f death,
retirement, or shifting to other kinds o f jobs.
Earnings and Working Conditions
In July 1947, wage rates specified in union con­
tracts for structural and ornamental workers (con­
struction) in various localities throughout the
country averaged $2.12 an hour. The wage rates
ranged from as 1o w t as $1.67 in some localities, to
as high as $2.50 in others. Minimum wages in
some of the representative cities for structural
workers as o f July 1947 are shown here. In




general the rates were the same or only a few cents
lower.
Atlanta, Ga________ $1. 75
Baltimore, M d______ 2.15
Birmingham, A la___ 1. 90
Boston, Mass----------- 2. 00
Buffalo, N. Y _______ 2.15
Chicago, 111________ 2.20
Cincinnati, Ohio____ 2.10
Cleveland, Ohio_____ 2. 25
Denver, Colo_______
1. 88
Houston, T ex _______
2. 00
Indianapolis, In d___ 2.13
Jackson, M iss______ 1. 75
Kansas City, M o____ 2. 05
Little Rock, A rk____ 1. 88
Los Angeles, C alif___ 2.10

Milwaukee, W is____$1. 85
Minneapolis, Minn__2. 00
Nashville, Tenn_____ 1. 88
New Haven, Conn__2. 25
New Orleans, L a____ 1. 88
New York, N. Y _____ ' 2. 50
Omaha, Nebr_______ 1. 93
Philadelphia, P a------ 2. 40
Pittsburgh, P a______ 2. 25
Portland, Oreg_____ 1.95
Richmond, Va______ 2. 00
St. Louis, M o_______ 2. 25
San Francisco, C a lif- 2. 25
Seattle, W ash______ 2.14
Springfield, Mass___ 2. 03

Except for the New York area (where the struc­
tural wage rate is 25 cents per hour above the orna­
mental rate), hourly wage rates for structural and
ornamental workers are the same or differ by only
a few cents.
Workers in the erection crews receive much
higher wages than do shop workers. However,
structural and ornamental workers in construction
are not as steadily employed throughout the year
as shop workers. Since there is little mainte­
nance and repair work that they can do during
the dull building season, annual earnings usually
are low relative to the hourly wage rates.
Accidents are infrequent, but in structural work
are likely to be quite serious. Safety standards
have been greatly improved over those prevalent
25 years ago, and safety measures such as nets and
scaffoldings are used much more. Nevertheless, it
cannot be expected that accidents will be com­
pletely prevented. There are occasional falls from
high places, likely to be fatal unless stopped by a
safety net, occasional accidents from falling ob­
jects, and once in a long while in past years there
has been a catastrophe such as collapse o f the
structure.
Where To Get Additional Information
•
For further information about apprenticeship
for either o f these trades, write to the Interna­
tional Association of Bridge, Structural and Orna­
mental Iron Workers, Syndicate Trust Building,
St. Louis 1, Mo., or regarding structural metal
work, write to the National Erectors’ Association,
33 W. 42d St., New York 18, N. Y.

C O N S T R U C T IO N

TRADES

195

Construction Machinery Operators
•

(D .O .T . 5-23.010 to .6 2 0 ; 5-73.010 to .320 and .510 and .520)

Outlook Summary
Some job openings during next several years for
additional workers. Thereafter, continued em­
ployment for qualified workers.
Nature of Work
Construction machinery operators (frequently
known as operating engineers in the construction
industry) include cranemen, derrickmen, hoistmen, and shovelmen and workers on a wide range
of other machinery such as excavators, graders,
pile drivers, concrete mixers, paving machines,
etc. Much of such equipment is used to lift and
move heavy and bulky materials on construction
sites, but other machinery performs special jobs
which in the past were done by hand labor. For
example, in building a highway, bulldozers, pow­
er shovels, scrapers, and graders do a much faster
job of clearing, excavating, and grading the rightof-way than the gang of common laborers for­
merly used. Likewise the concrete is mixed,
placed, leveled and smoothed by machine. I f a
sewer is to be installed, a trench-excavating ma­
chine or ditch digger may be used to scoop out
the dirt, the sewer tile lowered into place by a
crane, and the dirt filled back in by dragline or a
bulldozer.
The workers are often called after the machines
which they operate such as cranemen, hoistmen,
shovelmen, bulldozer operators, etc. The name
does not mean that the worker cannot handle other
construction machinery, even though he is gen­
erally specially skilled and prefers to work on
one or two kinds of equipment. A capable oper­
ator during the course of his experience becomes
efficient in handling several kinds and can learn
to operate others within a rather short time.
Where Employed
Some of the same machinery used in construc­
tion is also employed in other industries, such as
metal mining, strip mining o f coal, quarrying, and
shipbuilding. These operations are possibly the




most frequent users— outside of the construction
industry—o f power shovels, hoists, cranes, der­
ricks, and other similar equipment. But equip­
ment of this general type is also used in many
mills, foundries, and factories where heavy and
bulky materials need to be moved. I f the installa­
tion is more or less permanent, the machinery, such
as a derrick or crane, often operates on perma­
nently installed rails.
While the machinery used in other planes is
quite similar and often identical to that used on
construction, it may differ in some features, being
specially designed for the specific work. Most im­
portant, however, is the fact that the kind of work
going on in a steel mill or a factory is entirely
different from construction activity, and the ma­
chinery operator must know enough about the
nature of the work where he is employed to carry
out his part of the job without delay and con­
fusion. Thus a man experienced in operating
construction machinery could not step into a job
operating an overhead crane in a foundry until he
had a chance to learn how cranes were used in the
foundry processes.
Training
Learning how to operate such equipment is
usually quite informal and generally accomplished
on the job. Because of wide differences in com­
plexity of operation and degree of responsibility,
the newcomer on some equipment can learn to take
over entirely on his own in a few weeks or months
while other types of equipment require a much
longer time. Apprentice programs have been in­
augurated in some localities in the past few years,
but apprentice training for most types of construc­
tion-machinery operators has not been widely
utilized.
Many veterans received training on such equip­
ment in the armed forces and may find their skills
directly transferable to civilian jobs. Additional
on-the-job training may be necessary, in some in­
stances.

196

O C C U P A T IO N A L

OUTLOOK H A N D B O O K

Outlook
A large number of power-equipment operators
will be needed for the next several years. Most of
the demand will come from the construction indus­
try where activity will call for many more workers
than are available at present. In addition, the
producers of iron and steel, machinery manufac­
turers, foundries, sawmills, mines, and other heavy
industries which employ cranemen, derrickmen,
hoistmen, and shovelmen must be considered.
While these other industries are expected to em­
ploy a few more operators than they now have,
some openings will continue to occur.
After a number of years at peak rates of ac­
tivity, the demand for power-equipment oper­
ators on construction may drop somewhat, but re­
main at a relatively high level. An encouraging
feature of the outlook is the rapid development
over a number of years, of machines intended
especially for comparatively small jobs. This
technological advancement, which made rapid
strides during the war, has meant the use of ma­
chinery and employment of operators for work
which would have been done by hand not many
years ago. Other industries using such operators
will continue to need about as many as at present.
Earnings
The minimum wage rates for union workers on
construction equipment in 75 selected cities, dur­

ing July 1947, ranged from $1.63 to $2.88 an hour
for cranemen and derrickmen; from $1.25 to $2.75
an hour for hoistmen, and from $1.50 to $2.88 an
hour for shovelmen. The operators on less com­
plicated machinery and equipment usually have
lower wage rates than the ones listed above. How­
ever, because of the large difference in wages from
city to city, a worker on a piece of equipment which
pays the highest wages in that area may earn less
than a worker on one of the lower paying jobs in
another vicinity. For example, bulldozer oper­
ators working under union contracts in Cleve­
land, Houston, and Milwaukee made at least $2
an hour, while shovel operators in Tampa had a
minimum o f only $1.50. Then too, wages often
vary even for the same job depending on the size
of the machinery. To illustrate, in many locali­
ties operators o f concrete mixers are paid differ­
ent rates according to whether the mixer capacity
was under or over five bags. It is evident then that
many factors such as the locality, the kind of
equipment, and its size, and frequently the experi­
ence of the operator, go into the determination of
the wage rate.
Operating similar equipment on jobs in other
industries, usually does not pay as much per hour
as it does in construction, but steadier work on
such jobs often makes the annual income con­
siderably higher.

Glaziers
(D .O .T . 5-77.01C)

Outlook Summary
Job openings in the next several years for only
a few additional workers. Long-range oppor­
tunities are limited to replacement needs.
Nature of Work
Glaziers install all types of glass,, although not
in all places where glass is used. In many local­
ities the largest single part of their work has
been the installation o f plate glass in store windows
and for other uses. They also install ordinary
window glass (sheet glass) in the windows and
doors of houses, apartments, and business or fac­




tory buildings, put wire glass in skylights and
fire-resistant windows, set in mirrors when these
are not already mounted in a frame, and install
any unusual items such as preassembled stained
glass or leaded glass panels.
Since it became available about 25 years ago,
the glazier has installed structural glass (a non­
transparent plate glass, usually polished on one
surface only, made in a number of colors) as an
ornamental surfacing on the exterior of buildings
(usually for stores, above and below their display
windows).
Glaziers install glass block under some condi­
tions, but these are used mainly in exterior walls,

C O N S T R U C T IO N

where they are set in mortar by bricklayers.
Ordinary glazing work consists of cutting the
glass to size (except where stock sizes fit without
cutting, which is commonly the case with steel
sash),.spreading a bed o f putty around the edges
o f the opening, pressing the glass into place, fast­
ening it with wire clips pressed into small holes
in steel sash or with triangular metal points driven
into the edge o f wood sash, and then placing and
beveling a strip of putty on the outside to keep out
moisture. Plate glass, commonly cut to size at
the shop rather than on the job, is held in a special
supplementary frame built into the store front
and partially disassembled for the removal and
replacement of glass.
In many localities the wood sash and doors used
in ordinary residential building are glazed at the
millwork factory, by factory workers rather than
glaziers. This is much less practical for steel
sash, because of greater difficulty in protection
during transportation, handling, and installation.
Even when both are glazed at the site, steel sash
is likely to mean more work for glaziers than wood
sash because of the customary division into a num­
ber of small openings. While each of these can be
glazed rapidly, in total they require more time
than would a two-pane wood window having the
same total glass area.
In small communities glazing work is frequently
handled by “ combination” men who also do paint­
T
ing and paperhanging. But in large cities it is
the custom to use separate men for glazing, espe­
cially for plate glass and structural glass installa­
tions, which require much more skill than the
usual glazing of windows, skylights, etc.
Training
Glazing is a skilled craft customarily requiring
3 years of apprentice training. In most areas the
trade can be entered only by way of formal ap­
prenticeship but in some localities helpers with
several years of experience may qualify and be
admitted to the trade as journeymen.
Where Employed
A few glaziers are employed in the manufacture
of glass, and in various industries as maintenance
workers. The great majority, however, work in
793996°—49---- 14



TRADES

197

new construction or for contractors who install or
replace commercial glass (store fronts, etc.).
Outlook
The high level o f construction activity which
is expected to continue for at least the next fewr
years will mean a substantial increase in the de­
mand for glazed products. There is a definite
trend toward the use of more glass in residential
building. To the extent that the sash comes pre­
glazed from the factory this will not increase the
demand for glaziers. Where steel sash is used or
where large plate glass windows are to be installed
glaziers will be needed. There has been, in recent
years, a very marked development of the use of
glass in commercial buildings, especially retail
stores. Store modernization has often been cen­
tered around improved store windows which in­
volves a completely new glass installation.
Structural glass will also be used more widely than
before. Keplacement o f store windows broken by
windstorms or other accidents is, of course, a yearround employment source for glaziers. There is a
present need for additional skilled workmen, be­
cause only a few apprentices have been trained
within recent years to make up for those who died
or retired. In the longer run a few additional
workers may be added to this relatively small oc­
cupation, but most o f the job openings will be to
replace workers who drop out of the trade.
Earnings
The minimum wage rates for union journey­
man glaziers in 75 cities throughout the country
averaged $1.90 an hour in July 1947, ranging from
as low as $1.25 in Jackson, Miss., to $2.50 in New
York City. Minimum wage rates for some o f the
representative cities are shown below:
Atlanta, Ga__________$1. 63
Baltimore, M d______ 1. 75
Birmingham, A la___ 1. 63
Buffalo, N. Y ________
1.70
Charleston, W. Y a___ 1. 68
Chicago, 111_________
2.25
Cincinnati, Ohio____ 1. 90
Cleveland, Ohio_____ 2. 00
Houston, T ex ________
1.75
Indianapolis, In d___ 1. 88
Jackson, Miss_______
1. 25
Kansas City, Mo____ 2. 00
Little Rock, A rk____ 1. 50
Los Angeles, C alif— 1.84

Milwaukee, W is____ $1. 85
Minneapolis, Minn__1. 55
Nashville, Tenn_____ 1. 43
New Orleans, La____ 1. 50
New York City, N. Y_ 2. 50
Omaha, Nebr________
1.55
Philadelphia, Pa___1.93
Pittsburgh, P a______ 1. 82
Portland, Oreg_____ 1. 82
Richmond, Y a______ 1. 60
St. Louis, M o________
2.04
S’an Francisco, Calif_ 1. 88
Springfield, M ass___ 1. 88

Mechanics and Repairmen
Automobile Mechanics
(See D .O .T . 5-81.010, .120, .420 and .510)

Outlook Summary
Opportunities for skilled mechanics very good
now and likely to remain so for next few years.
Apprenticeship and other training opportunities
decreasing. Long-run employment trend slowly
upward.
Nature o f Work
Automobile mechanics do repair work on pas­
senger cars, busses, and trucks. They may be
either general mechanics or specialists such as
auto electricians, carburetor experts, and body
repairmen. Specialists other than body repair­
men are usually mechanics with all-round knowl­
edge of automotive repair who have concentrated
upon one aspect of the work. Body repairmen, as
a rule, are skilled only in reconditioning of fend­
ers and bodies; they do not need and generally do
not have knowledge of the engine and related
parts.
Where Employed
Most mechanics work in service departments of
car and truck dealers or in independent repair
garages. Smaller numbers are employed in ga­
rages of transportation companies and other large
firms which service their own fleets, or in shops
specializing in such work as battery and ignition,
wheel and axle, and brake repair. Some are em­
ployed in gasoline filling stations. Many are in
business for themselves, usually with the help of
one or more hired mechanics.
There are auto mechanics in all parts o f the
country, including small rural communities. The
greatest concentration, however, are in States with
the highest numbers of motor vehicles— Califor­
198




nia, New York, Pennsylvania, Ohio, Illinois,
Texas, Michigan, and New Jersey.
How To Enter
The best way to learn the trade is to serve a
3- or 4-year apprenticeship. Such apprentice­
ships and also other on-the-job training plans pro­
viding less thorough preparation have become
fairly common since the war. Before that, new
workers generally had to start out in such jobs as
helper, greaser, or washer, and gradually pick up
a knowledge of the trade. Many people still enter
the trade in this way. Those who do so should,
if possible, supplement their work experience with
trade-extension training in related technical sub­
jects. They should also try to get a broad knowl­
edge of the construction and function of all parts
of a car and of different types and makes of motor
vehicles, to help in competing for jobs or business
later on.
Veterans introduced to the trade in the armed
forces generally need further training for civilian
jobs, since most armed-forces experience in auto­
mobile maintenance is limited to one narrow spe­
cialty. Often, these men can obtain advanced
status as apprentices.
Young people under 18 should, if possible, com­
plete at least 2 years of high school before begin­
ning on-the-job training or entering a voca­
tional school. Courses in English, general sci­
ence, physics, and mathematics are particularly
valuable.
Outlook
Employment of auto mechanics has been rising
sharply during the past 2 years, as experienced

M E C H A N IC S

AND

workers have returned to the trade from the armed
forces and war industries and some new mechanics
have completed their training. The number
working today is greater by a good many thousand
than in 1940, 'when about 377,000 were employed.
Demand for repair services has gone up still more
rapidly, however; not only is the average age of
cars much higher (in 1946, it was 9 years, as
against 5.5 years in 1941) but the number of motor
vehicles in use exceeds prewar levels. Skilled all­
round mechanics are in great demand, and those
with business ability may still find favorable op­
portunities to open their own shops. However, so
many workers, especially veterans, have recently
entered training that apprenticeship and other
training opportunities are becoming less and less
plentiful.

Ph otograph

Automobile

mechanics doing a

by

U. S .

d e pa r tm e n t

major overhaul job
block.

o f

labo r

199

slow. Most job openings will come from turn­
over, which creates thousands o f vacancies in the
trade each year.
Earnings and Working Conditions
Class A mechanics had average straight-time
pay of about $1.60 an hour in July 1947, accord­
ing to a survey of independent general repair shops
and dealer-service departments in 32 large cities.
Average hourly pay ranged from $1.24 in Provi­
dence, to $2.05 in Detroit. For less skilled, class B
mechanics, average straight-time hourly earnings
were $1.15 in the 32 cities, ranging from 78 cents
an hour in NewT Orleans to $1.62 in Cleveland.
Automobile electricians earned more than the class
A men ($1.75 an hour, on the average); body re­
pairmen made still more (about $1.80 an hour).
In general, wage rates were substantially higher in
the Pacific coast and Great Lakes cities than in
other regions. Within cities, pay varies widely, de­
pending upon the individual’s skill, the size and
location of the shop and, especially in* shops hav­
ing incentive wage plans, the volume of business
done. Earnings in small rural towns tend to be
considerably lower than in cities.
In the southern cities surveyed in mid-1947, the
usual workweek was 48, 50, or 54 hours. In prac­
tically all the cities in other parts of the country,
it was 40 or 44 hours. Most repair shops in large
cities give their mechanics vacations with pay.
Many pay them for holidays. Work is fairly
steady throughout the year.
Unionization is not very widespread among me­
chanics, taking the country as a whole. The re­
gion where they are most highly organized is the
west coast, but there is some unionization in other
parts of the country, particularly in large cities.

on a cylinder

In the next few years, the number o f new
cars manufactured is not expected to be suffi­
cient to meet the backlog of replacement demand,
and the average age of cars in use will continue to
be high. This factor, plus further growth in the
number of cars on the roads, will keep demand for
repair work at a high level and will probably cre­
ate some further employment opportunities for
mechanics. Over the long run, employment will
probably continue to rise, assuming continuing
high levels of business activity, but the gains will be




R E P A IR M E N

Where To Go for Further Information
Employment Outlook for Automobile Mechan­
ics. Bulletin No. 842. U. S. Department of La­
bor, Bureau of Labor Statistics, 1945. Washing­
ton : U. S. Government Printing Office, 1945.
Price 10 cents.
U. S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce. Establishing and
Operating an Automobile-Repair Shop. Indus­
trial (Small Business) Series No. 24. Washing­
ton : U. S. Government Printing Office, 1946.

200

O C C U P A T IO N A L

OUTLOOK H A N D B O O K

Diesel Mechanics
(D.O.T. 5-83.931)

Outlook Summary
Employment opportunities for new workers or
those who have only specialized Diesel-engine
training will be greatly limited because most job
openings go to mechanics with general experience
in engine servicing. Prospects for experienced
engine mechanics with knowledge of Diesel main­
tenance are highly favorable, both during the next
few years and over a longer period.
Nature of Work
Diesel-engine mechanics maintain and repair
Diesel engines. Their duties include diagnosing
engine trouble, disassembling the engine, replac­
ing or repairing defective parts, reassembling the
engine, and adjusting the fuel and air valves.
The Diesel engine, which is almost always oilfueled, is similar to the gasoline (or carburetor)
engine in many respects. From the point of view
of the mechanic, the essential difference between
the carburetor engine and the Diesel engine lies in
their different methods of ignition. The Diesel
engine has no electric ignition system or carbu­
retor such as is found in the gasoline engine, but
has an oil-injector system and fuel pumps, with
which the mechanic must be familiar. However,
the basic stationary and working parts are similar
in both engines. As a result, Diesel-engine main­
tenance is usually carried on by workers who are
employed as engine mechanics rather than as spe­
cialized Diesel mechanics. For example, Dieselpowered busses, trucks, tractors, and construction
machinery are usually maintained by automobile
or tractor mechanics, and railroad machinists
generally repair Diesel locomotives.
Training and Qualifications
Most mechanics who repair Diesel engines have
had training and experience on other engines.
Qualifications for Diesel maintenance jobs vary
among industries. Mechanics employed in serv­
icing and repairing Diesel locomotives are drawn
from among railroad machinists, who are usually




required to serve a 4-year apprenticeship. Ma­
rine engineers, who are in charge of the operation
and maintenance of Diesel engines on ships, must
be licensed by the United States Bureau of Marine
Inspection and Navigation. Experience in the
engine departments of ships and a written exami­
nation are among the chief requirements for a
marine license. Mechanics who service Diesel
engines in the vehicular field, including trucks,
busses, tractors, and construction machinery, gen­
erally are gasoline-engine mechanics who have
learned how to repair Diesel engines. There are
a number of schools which provide instruction in
Diesel engine repair and maintenance. Such
training is most valuable when it supplements ex­
perience in gasoline-engine maintenance. Those
without actual experience who take courses in
Diesel theory and practice will find it difficult to
qualify directly for a job as Diesel mechanic.
Where Employed
Diesel maintenance jobs are found in a wide
variety of fields that use Diesel engines. Among
the more important sources of employment are bus
lines, trucking companies, railroads, ships, electric
power plants, large farms, logging camps, marineengine repair establishments, and large buildings
and factories. Garages and firms that service
Diesel tractors and construction machinery also
have Diesel repair jobs.
Outlook
D ie se l-e n g in e p r o d u c tio n in crea sed g r e a tly d u r ­
in g th e w a r, a n d all in d ica tio n s are th a t D iesels
w ill b ecom e even m o r e w id e ly used.

M o s t o f th e

n ew lo co m o tiv e s o rd e r e d b y th e ra ilr o a d s are D ie ­
sels ; m o re D ie se l tru ck s a n d busses are o n th e h ig h ­
w a y s ; a n d th ou sa n d s o f D ie se l tr a c to rs are s o ld to
fa r m e rs a n n u a lly.

T h is p o in ts to a co n tin u e d in ­

crease in th e n u m ber o f D ie se l m a in ten a n ce jo b s,
w h ich w ill g o to m ech a n ics, f o r a n u m b er o f y e a rs
at least, w h o a lre a d y h av e ex p e rie n ce in r e p a ir in g
o th e r ty p e s o f engines.

F o r e x a m p le , a co m p a n y

M E C H A N IC S

AND

changing over to use of Diesel engines will usually
assign experienced mechanics already on its pay
roll to service the Diesel equipment, and give them
the slight retraining necessary. Other companies
who are filling expansion needs with Diesel en­
gines will hire experienced engine mechanics
wherever possible. Those with specialized Diesel
training acquired in schools, but without engine
repair experience will be at a disadvantage. In ad­
dition there are many fields in which Diesel em
gines are used where seniority rules are observed
so that engine mechanics with the longest work
experience have the first choice when Diesel
maintenance job openings appear.
Eventually, as Diesels come into greater use, on*the-job training opportunities for inexperienced
applicants may become more common. Diesel en­
gines are likely, however, to continue to be but a
very small proportion of all engines in use. Un­
less unexpected developments occur, they will not

R E P A IR M E N

201

be used to any appreciable extent in passenger
automobiles.
Earnings
Because Diesel servicing is usually considered as
part of a broader job, and not a separate and dis­
tinct field, information on the earnings of Diesel
mechanics as such is generally not available. The
earnings of automobile mechanics are probably
typical o f those of many Diesel mechanics. In
July 1947, class A automobile mechanics employed
in large cities, had average earnings of about $1.60
an hour, excluding premium pay for overtime
work.
Where To Get Additional Information
Employment Opportunities for Diesel-Engine
Mechanics (Bulletin No. 813). U. S. Department
of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics, 1945. 10 pp.
5 cents. Superintendent of Documents, Washing­
ton 25, D. C.

Industrial Machinery Repairmen
(D.O.T. 5-83.641)

Outlook Summary

Where Employed

Long run prospects are for the gradual increase
in employment. Replacement needs, however,
will provide most of the openings for new workers.

These workers are employed in almost every
type of industrial plant which uses any great
amount of machinery or equipment. Many indus­
trial machinery repairmen are employed in metal­
working establishments including plants making
automobiles, electrical equipment, iron and steel
products, and machinery. Other groups work in
non-metal-manufacturing industries such as textile
mills, chemical plants, and paper and pulp m ills;
several thousand are employed in coal and metal
mining.
Because industrial machinery repairmen do
maintenance work in such a wide variety of indus­
tries, they are employed in every section of the
country. These workers are concentrated, how­
ever, in the principal industrial regions including
Michigan, Pennsylvania, Ohio, Illinois, New
York, and California.

Nature of Work
Industrial machinery repairmen, often called
maintenance mechanics, maintain and repair
machinery and other mechanical equipment in all
types of industrial plants. Their duties include
examining the machinery to determine cause of
trouble, dismantling machinery, repairing or re­
placing defective parts, reassembling machinery,
and making necessary adjustments for efficient
operation. Often some of the duties of the mill­
wright in the moving and assembling of machin­
ery and equipment are included. Maintenance
mechanics usually specialize in the type of machin­
ery or equipment used in the industry in which
they are employed, and generally are required to
have a knowledge of the operation of the machines
which they repair.




Training and Qualifications
The amount o f skill and training required for
industrial machinery repairmen varies widely

202

O C C U P A T IO N A L

OU TLO OK

with the type of machinery and equipment in the
plant. Training is usually obtained on the job,
particularly since workers often specialize on one
type of equipment. In many plants, machinists
or machine operators are transferred to the main­
tenance department to do this job; in other plants
inexperienced workers are hired as helpers and
learn the job while working. A 3- or 4-year ap­
prenticeship may be required by some firms.
Outlook
During the next few years and also in the longer
run there should be a small number of opportu­
nities each year for new workers to enter this field.
The growing mechanization of industry is expected
to gradually increase the need for maintenance
mechanics to keep production equipment in work­
ing order. However, most of the openings for

HANDBOOK

new workers will result from the need to replace
persons who switch to other jobs, retire, or die,
rather than from any increase in employment.
Earnings
Industrial machinery repairmen are generally
among the best paid maintenance workers. Earn­
ings for these workers vary considerably among
industries. In October 1946, maintenance me­
chanics employed in the machinery industries
(except electrical machinery, machine tools, and
machine tool accessories) in large cities had aver­
age straight-time hourly earnings of $1.37. In
independent ferrous foundries during the same
period they averaged $1.25 an hour. Since the
latter part of 1946, industrial machinery repair­
men have had wage increases in many plants.
See also Millwrights, page 286.

Airplane Mechanics
(D.O.T. 5-80.120 and .130)

Outlook Summary
Employment prospects good for skilled mechan­
ics between now and 1950; also rising number of
openings for apprentices. Outlook still more fa­
vorable in longer run, on basis of present de­
fense plans.
Duties
Air-line mechanics are assigned either to line
maintenance or to overhaul work. Line-main­
tenance men are mostly all-round aircraft and en­
gine mechanics. They service and inspect the air
liners and their power plants and instruments, and
make minor repairs and adjustments. When an
engine or other part has to be sent to the main over­
haul base for major repairs, they remove it from
the plane and install new or overhauled equipment
in its place.
Mechanics at the main base usually specialize in
engine or airplane overhaul or in some other di­
vision of the work, such as overhaul of electrical
equipment, radio servicing, instrument work,
painting, or upholstering. In general, the larger
the base, the greater is the specialization of work.




Outside the air lines, most mechanics do servic­
ing and inspection work roughly comparable to
that of the air-line line-maintenance men; few are
in shops which handle overhaul work. The planes
which these mechanics service are, as a rule, very
much smaller than air liners; often they have only
a few comparatively simple instruments, no radio,
and no elaborate propeller mechanism. However,
a single mechanic usually has to do the entire serv­
icing job with little supervision, and has to be able
to work with many different types of planes and
engines. It is estimated that one good mechanic
and a helper can take care of the line-maintenance
requirements of 8 to 10 light planes, if the work
is properly organized.
Where Employed
Easily half of all mechanics work for the 28
scheduled air lines engaged in interstate and
foreign commerce. Of the remainder, by far the
greatest number are employed in fixed-base oper­
ations (a term which is often used to refer to the
great variety of commercial and industrial flying
services, flying and ground schools, and independ-

M E C H A N IC S

AND

R E P A IR M E N

203

when not a definite requirement. Experience in
automotive repair or other mechanical work is also
helpful. In addition, it is customary for ap­
prentices to own a sizable kit of tools. Mechanics
coming out of the armed forces generally need
some retraining for licenses and for jobs above the
apprentice or helper level. Most air lines require
a generally rigid jjreemployment physical exam­
ination, though waivers are allowed in some*
instances.
The line of advancement is to such positions as
lead mechanic, crew chief, shop foreman, chief
mechanic, and, finally, supervisory and execu­
tive positions in maintenance departments. After
some additional training, radio specialists may
become ground or flight radio operators and ad­
vance in these fields.
Outlook

An engine mechanic reassembling an air-line engine which had
been torn down for overhauling.

ent repair shops) of which there are about 5,000 in
all parts of the country. Some men operate their
own small repair shops, with or without the help
of hired mechanics. Other employers are Gov­
ernment agencies and aircraft factories.
Mechanics are employed in more different parts
of the country than most other types of aviation
workers. However, large numbers of all-round
mechanics and almost all specialists work at the
main overhaul bases located in 55 different cities.
Qualifications
To qualify as a skilled mechanic or specialist, a
4-year apprenticeship or its equivalent is usually
involved. For many jobs, a CAA mechanic cer­
tificate with an aircraft mechanic “ A ” or aircraft
engine “ E ” rating or both is legally required. The
certificate system may be extended to provide for
special ratings for radio and electronics mechanics
and possibly other types of specialists not at
present covered.
In competing for apprentice jobs, applicants
will find higli-school or trade-school education—
including such subjects as mathematics, physics,
chemistry, and machine shop—a great advantage,




Continued growth of air-line traffic and in- creased activity in other branches of aviation will
make for expanding employment of mechanics
both in the near future and over the long run. In
early 1948, well over 20,000 mechanics were em­
ployed, exclusive of those in aircraft plants, ac­
cording to a rough estimate. By 1950, jobs may
be half again as numerous in the transport seg­
ment of the industry alone, provided that general
economic activity remains at a high level. A far
greater expansion will occur in aircraft construc­
tion and related activities, stemming from the 70group A ir Force program legislated in May 1948.
Hiring will soon become sufficiently heavy to cut
down considerably or even wipe out the surplus
of applicants which has existed in many parts of
the country during the last 2y2 years.
There is, however, a great reservoir of potential
apprentices and journeymen, including men now
working as helpers, some of the tremendous num­
ber of veterans who did mechanics’ work in the
military and naval air forces, and other groups.
In 1947 alone, more than 3,000 men finished me­
chanic training in CAA-approved schools, and
upward of 10,000 were taking courses at the end
of the year. Large numbers will continue to be
trained each year. For these and other reasons,
serious shortages of full-fledged mechanics and
apprentices may not develop at least in the next
year or two.

204

O C C U P A T IO N A L

OU TLOOK H A N D B O O K

In the longer run, virtually all qualified jour­
neymen and peak peacetime numbers of appren­
tices should be able to obtain positions, until de­
fense plans affecting air power are significantly
altered. Highly experienced and skilled men will
be in an extremely favorable position reminiscent
of wartime, with no competition in job seeking and
excellent chances for advancement. Specialists,
motably those who are also qualified for general
“ A ” or “ E '5 work, will be in particular demand,
especially as the manpower situation begins to
tighten.
Earnings and Working Conditions
For most newly hired air-line mechanics and
specialists, the starting rate of pay was upward
of $1.35 an hour in early 1948. Wages went as
high as $1.80 or more for men with several years’
service. Mechanics in fixed-base operations tend
to make as much as or more than air-line me­
chanics, according to very limited data; the pro­
portion of licensed men, particularly “A ” and “ E ”
men, is much higher in fixed-base operations than
with the air lines. Salaries of CAA inspectors
range from about $2,800 to well over $6,000 a year.
The air lines usually give their men 2 weeks’
vacation with pay. CAA employees, like most
other Federal personnel, receive 26 days of paid
annual leave per year.
Mechanics are covered by union agreements on
practically all air lines. Several different unions
are involved—the International Association of
Machinists (Independent ) ; the United Automobile
Workers (C IO ) ; and the Transport Workers
Union (C IO ).

Where To Get More Information
Detailed information on the occupation of air­
plane mechanic:
U. S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor
Statistics. Employment Opportunities in Avia­
tion Occupations, Part I—Postwar Employment
Outlook; Part 2—Duties, Qualifications, Earn­
ings, and Working Conditions. Bulletins No.
837-1 and 837-2. Washington: U. S. Government
Printing Office, 1945 and 1946./ Price 10 cents
and 20 cents.
To find out about openings with air lines and
the exact qualifications needed, one should write
to the personnel managers of the lines. Addresses
are listed in part 2 of the bulletin just mentioned
or may be obtained from the Air Transport Asso­
ciation of America, 1107 Sixteenth Street N W „
Washington, D. C.
Men interested in setting up their own aviation
businesses should consult State aviation commis­
sions and local chambers of commerce; also the
following publication:
Department of Commerce, Bureau of Foreign
and Domestic Commerce. Opportunities for Es­
tablishing New Businesses in Aviation. Washing­
ton : U. S. Government Printing Office, 1946.
Information as to locations of air fields, repair
stations, and flying schools can be obtained from
the Office of Aviation Information, Civil Aero­
nautics Administration, Washington 25, D. C.
For information regarding Federal Government
positions, address this agency or any regional
office of the United States Civil Service Commis­
sion.
See also: Automobile Mechanics, page 198.

Flight Engineers
(D.O.T. 5-80.100)

Outlook Summary

fa r , m a in ly in overseas fly in g .

S om e ty p e s o f

p la n es h av e sp e cia l station s f o r these airm en .
O p e n in g s w ill be fe w at best b oth in n ear fu tu r e
a n d o v e r the lo n g ru n a n d w ill be filled p r in c ip a lly
b y p r o m o tio n fr o m w ith in .

Nature of Work
P r a c tic a lly all flig h t en gin eers are e m p lo y e d b y
s ch ed u led a ir lines on fo u r -e n g in e p la n es and, so




A

recen t d e v e lo p m e n t in v o lv e s th e use o f a p ilo t in a
d u a l c a p a c ity o f p ilo t-e n g in e e r.
F lig h t en gin eers are resp on sib le f o r th e p r o p e r
fu n c tio n in g o f the a ir c r a ft a n d en gin es in flig h t,
p e r m ittin g the ca p ta in a n d c o p ilo t to co n ce n tra te
m o r e f u l l y on p ilo t in g th e a ir c r a ft.

I n the air,

th e ir d u ties in clu d e w a tc h in g a n d k e e p in g lo g s on

M E C H A N IC S

AND

205

R E P A IR M E N

en gin e p e rfo rm a n ce , o p e r a tin g certa in co n tro ls
u n d er the d ire ctio n o f th e ca p ta in , a n d m a k in g

tically always need experience in air-line ground
maintenance to qualify for flight jobs.

em ergen cy rep a irs. A t stop s w h ere th ere are n o
m echan ics, th ey d o n eed ed m a in ten a n ce w o r k

Outlook

them selves (u n less a re g u la r m e ch a n ic is ca rr ie d
a lo n g f o r th is p u r p o s e ) ; at oth er stops, w h ere
there are m ech an ics, th e y d ire ct th e s e rv icin g o f
th e p lan e.
M o st en gin eers are sta tion ed in o r n ear coastal
cities w h ere the overseas o p e ra tio n s are based.
S om e fe w are station ed elsew here in the U n ite d
States an d overseas.

Employment will rise somewhat over the years
with increased use of larger planes and lengthening
of nonstop flights. Federal action affecting the
carrying of flight engineers (such as C A A ’s recent
ruling that it would not certificate a specified type
of aircraft without a flight engineer’s station) may
also tend to increase employment in this occupa­
tion, depending on the extent to which pilots are
used to meet the new requirements instead of non­
pilot engineers (see p. 92). But the total will
remain small. At the war’s end there were no
more than a few hundred men working as flight
engineers; the occupation is still of this general
magnitude. Under the most favorable circum­
stances it should be several years before the number
employed exceeds 1,000, even if general business
activity remains at high levels.
There are certain to be thousands of candidates
to fill these jobs from the air lines’ ground mainte­
nance staffs, and from the great number of former
flight engineers and ground mechanics o f the mili­
tary and naval forces. There is now an oversup­
ply of qualified applicants for flight-engineer posi­
tions, and the condition is likely to persist indefi­
nitely. The surplus will be only moderately
reduced by the planned air-force expansion.
Earnings and Working Conditions

The flight engineer of an overseas air liner noting dial readings on
his log.

Qualifications
Every engineer (including pilot-engineers) is
legally required to have a Civil Aeronautics A d­
ministration Flight Engineer certificate. This
calls for a broad knowledge o f such subjects as
flight theory, aircraft performance, fuel con­
sumption, and aircraft loading. Written and
practical tests are given to determine not only the
adequacy of the engineer's grasp of these and re­
lated subjects, but also his skill in repair work.
Rigid physical examinations, repeated at intervals,
must be passed. In promoting ground mechanics
(the principal method of filling flight-engineer
openings), or hiring from outside, the air lines
frequently emphasize specified personal character­
istics and education. Air Force veterans will prac­




Typical earnings of fully qualified flight engi­
neers range from $300 to $600 a month, depend­
ing mainly on length of experience. For some
men, higher earnings can come with promotion
to copilot and higher positions or to chief engi­
neer. Eighty-five flight-hours a month (or 255
a quarter, in international flying) is a maximum
schedule, with some added time spent in ground
duties.
Men in international operations generally get
a month’s paid vacation each year; those in do­
mestic flying, 2 weeks.
A s a ru le, flig h t en gin eers are on d u ty a w a y
fr o m base a b ou t h a lf th e tim e.

W h e n th ey are

w o r k in g a w a y fr o m h om e, th e ir liv in g expenses
are p a id b y the e m p lo y in g a ir lin e ; o fte n th ey
are also a llo w e d $1 a d a y w h ile on la n d , f o r in c i­
d en tal expenses.

O C C U P A T IO N A L

206

OUTLOOK

Most flight engineers belong to and are repre­
sented by an American Federation of Labor union,
the Air Line Flight Engineers Association. How­
ever, there is also an independent union, Flight
Engineer’s Officers Association, with a contract on
at least one line.
Where to Get More Information
Detailed information on the occupation of flight
engineers is given in :
U. S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor
Statistics. Employment Opportunities in Avia­
tion Occupations, Part I—Postwar Employment

HANDBOOK

Outlook and Part 2—Duties, Qualifications, Earn­
ings, and Working Conditions. Bulletins No.
837-1 and 837-2. Washington: U. S. Govern­
ment Printing Office, 1945 and 1946. Price 10
cents and 20 cents.
Inquiries in regard to job openings should be
sent to the personnel managers of the lines. A d­
dresses are listed in part 2 of the bulletin just
mentioned, or may be obtained from the Air Trans­
port Association of America, 1107 Sixteenth Street
NW., Washington, D. C.
See also: Airplane Mechanics, page 202 and A ir­
plane Pilots, page 92.

Electrical-Household-Appliance Servicemen
(D.O.T. 5-83.04)

Outlook Summary
Good prospects for experienced men during next
few years; also a limited number of openings
for newcomers. Long-run trend of employment
upward.
Nature o f Work
Main duties of servicemen are to install, main­
tain, and rebuild large appliances such as ranges,
stoves, and washing machines, and to repair
smaller ones such as irons and toasters. These
workers may also install and service refrigerators
and radios, though they are seldom expected to
handle major repairs on these types of equip­
ment. Many sell appliances and replacement
parts and give instructions to customers on their
proper use and care. They use hand tools, such
as screw drivers, pliers, wrenches, files, and hack
saws; also a few machine tools, such as small drill
presses and buffer-grinders.
These repairmen are employed mainly in service
departments of stores and other concerns selling
electrical household appliances and in shops spe­
cializing in the repair of such appliances. A good
many men have their own shops; a few work for
appliance manufacturers and electric companies.
Training
On-the-job training is one of the best ways of
entering the trade. Many employers offer oppor­
tunities for this. Hundreds of trade, correspond­




ence, and other schools also give courses in funda­
mentals o f electricity and in operation and con­
struction of various types and makes of appliances.
To be considered fully qualified, however, a worker
must have had practical work experience; it takes
several years’ experience to become a skilled
mechanic.
Outlook
There will be many openings in this expanding
field during the next few years. The number of
mechanics now employed may be as high as 50,000,
not counting those who have their own service
shops or dealers who themselves do service work.
Employment is no doubt thousands greater than
at the end of the war; not only have many vet­
erans returned to their jobs, but considerable
numbers of newly trained men have entered the
field. The serious wartime shortage of mechanics
has thus been much relieved, but more workers
are still needed. Sales of appliances are expected
to be high during the next few years; this will
mean much work for servicemen, especially in view
of the guaranties given on new appliances. Manu­
facturers and power companies are urging dealers
to set up high-quality service departments or
arrange for reliable service work. Besides numer­
ous openings in skilled jobs, there will also be
some opportunities in beginning positions. A
limited number of men with good experience and
business ability will find favorable opportunities
to go into business for themselves, although many

M E C H A N IC S

AND

new dealer service departments and independent
shops have already been started.
The occupation is likely to go on expanding over
the long run, since the future is promising for elec­
trical household appliances. About a quarter of
a billion are now in use; most homes have at least
one appliance; many, two or more. It is expected
that the total number will continue to increase.
In addition, replacement needs will remain high.
Competition for jobs and business is likely to
become keener, however. More and more, men
seeking jobs or wanting to go into business for
themselves will need good personal qualifications
and training. Whether they find openings will
also depend increasingly on the types and makes
o f appliances on which they specialize.
Opportunities are to be found in all parts of
the country. Some regions—the Pacific North­
west and Tennessee Valley, for example—use more

R E P A IR M E N

207

appliances than others in proportion to popula­
tion. In general, prospects are likely to be best in
such areas, at least in the immediate future. The
particular city and neighborhood where one locates
will probably become a more and more important
factor in success in business or in finding a job.
Where To Go for Additional Information
Servicemen interested in going into business for
themselves will find valuable information in :
U. S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of For­
eign and Domestic Commerce, Establishing and
Operating an Electrical Appliance and Radio
Shop. Industrial (Small Business). Series No.
28. Washington: U, S. Government Printing
Office, 1946. Price 35 cents.
See also: Radio Servicemen, p. 210, and Refrig­
erator Servicemen and Refrigeration and AirConditioning Mechanics, page 208.

Electrical Repairmen
(D.O.T. 4-97.420)

Outlook Summary
More apprentices will be needed during the next
3 to 5 years. Long-range outlook good.

helpers for several years. A veteran with ex­
perience in electrical work in the service may be
eligible for admission to the trade as an advanced
apprentice.

Nature of Work

Outlook

It is the electrical repairman’s job to keep wir­
ing. motors, switches, electrical mechanisms, and
other electrical equipment in operating condition,
and to make repairs when equipment breaks down.
Sometimes they make connections, adjustments,
etc., to new electrical machinery and equipment
that is being installed, but such work is usually
handled by regular electricians. Electrical repair­
men are employed in all kinds of industries, but
most of them work in transportation—railways,
streetcars, and busses—in communications, such
as telephone and telegraph, and in other public
utilities. The remainder work mostly in retail
stores, in manufacturing plants, or for the
Government.

Both the immediate and long-range outlook are
very good. During the war there was a substan­
tial demand for more electrical repairmen to take
care of the extra work load on communications,
transportation, etc., and to replace those going into
the armed forces. However, the number of ap­
prentices trained and new helpers employed was
quite small—not nearly enough to fill existing
needs.
The industries which employ most of the electri­
cal repairmen are expected to continue at high
rates o f activity for several more years. The large
amount o f new industrial plant capacity added,
both during the war and since the end of the war,
means more electrical equipment to be maintained.
In addition new technological developments call
for installations of electrical machinery, controls,
and other equipment which require repairmen to
service them. This means that in the long run
there will be increasing opportunities in this
occupation.

How to Qualify
Although a 4- or 5-year apprenticeship is usu­
ally considered necessary to qualify a man as a
journeyman electrical repairman, some get the
necessary experience and training by working as




208

O C C U P A T IO N A L

OU TLO OK

HANDBOOK

Refrigerator Servicemen and Refrigeration and
Air-Conditioning Mechanics
(D.O.T. 5-83.031 and .941)

Outlook Summary
Employment prospects only fair for servicemen
in near future; some opportunities for top-notch
men but few for the less skilled. Good oppor­
tunities for journeymen mechanics, but appren­
ticeship openings scarce. Long-run employment
trend slowly upward in both fields.
Refrigerator servicemen work on domestic elec­
tric refrigerators, deep freezers, small room airconditioners, and small commercial units like dis­
play cases, beverage coolers, and reach-in boxes.
They have such tasks as inspecting equipment,
cleaning condensors, adding or removing refriger­
ant, and taking out freezing units for repair.
Some also do repairs on other types o f electrical
household appliances.
Refrigeration and air-conditioning mechanics
may also do repair work on small equipment, but
typically they install and repair larger refrigera­
tion and air-conditioning units and central systems
in such places as factories, stores, theaters, taverns,
restaurants, hotels, and office buildings. Their
duties include assembling and connecting pipes
and ducts, especially on installation jobs, and
overhauling and repairing pumps, compressors,
condensors, and other parts.
Where Employed
Servicemen are usually employed by shops spe­
cializing in refrigerator repair or by retail stores
and distributors who handle domestic refriger­
ators. Many servicemen are self-employed.
Mechanics usually work for heating, refrigera­
tion, or air-conditioning contractors. Many are
in business for themselves as contractors. Some
mechanics are employed by manufacturers of re­
frigeration and air-conditioning equipment, and
still others work for companies that use much
equipment of these types.




Ph otograph

by

u

. S.

d e pa r tm e n t

of

la b o r

Mechanic repairing an air conditioner.

How To Enter
On-the-job training is needed to qualify one as
a skilled serviceman; a course at a public trade
school or commercial refrigeration school may be
helpful as preparation for such training. The
usual way o f becoming a mechanic is to serve an
apprenticeship. Where the trade is not organ­
ized, servicemen sometimes learn to repair larger
equipment through on-the-job training and then
advance to mechanic positions. Young men are
usually preferred for apprenticeships and other
beginning jobs, but age requirements are generally
waived for veterans.
In a few cities (including Oklahoma City, Okla.
and Long Beach, Calif.) mechanics are required
to have licenses. A larger number of cities re­
quire that refrigeration contractors be licensed.

M E C H A N IC S

AND

Outlook
Servicemen: For the near future, job prospects
are not good in most communities. Work volume
is higher than before the war, but there are thou­
sands more men in the occupation. Not only have
many veterans returned to their jobs, but consid­
erable numbers of newly trained men have en­
tered the field. Many more are now being trained
in schools or on the job. Further opportunities
for on-the-job training will therefore be limited
for at least the next year or two, and competition
for these openings is expected to be keen. In
the case of experienced men, only those with top
skills are likely to have a good chance of getting
jobs or of establishing successful new repair shops.
Though there seems to be little likelihood of a
shortage of men in this field, employment will
probably tend to increase slowly over the long
run, owing to the growing numbers of domestic
refrigerators and other small units. Demand for
repair services will not expand as fast as the
amount of equipment in use, however, since tech­
nological improvements are reducing the amount
of servicing required per unit. Men well estab­
lished in the field should have good chances of
keeping their jobs or businesses over the long run;
the amount of work for servicemen is less affected
by declines in general business activity than that
for many other occupational groups.
Mechanics / Journeymen refrigeration mechanics *
will probably have good job prospects in the near
future, particularly in larger towns and cities.
Currently, material shortages are impeding new
installations and major overhaul work. When
these shortages no longer exist, many communi­
ties expect increased demand for mechanics. A p­
prenticeship opportunities are likely to be limited
in the near future, however, since relatively large
numbers are already in training.
Over the long run, the total number of men
employed as mechanics will increase, owing to ex­
panding use of commercial and industrial refrig­
eration and air-conditioning equipment. An in­
creasing number of mechanics will be needed to
install and repair air-conditioning equipment—
mostly for commercial users, such as stores,
taverns, and office buildings. Domestic systems




R E P A IR M E N

209

are still too costly for all except the comparatively
small numbers of high-income families. Indus­
trial process air-conditioning and refrigeration
will also employ more and more men. Employ­
ment on commercial refrigeration, ranging in size
from walk-in boxes to cold storage warehouses,
will have an upward trend for many years to
come.
To a considerable extent, employment of me­
chanics depends on the rate of new installations.
I f installations are curtailed in the event of a
depression, the number employed on large-scale
refrigeration and air-conditioning work will drop,
but many who lose their jobs may be able to shift
to refrigerator servicing.
Earnings and Working Conditions
Typical straight-time hourly rates for mechanics
working under union agreements ranged from
about $1.75 to $2.25 in late 1947. Kates for serv­
icemen were generally somewhat lower and tended
to vary according to such factors as experience and
size of community.
Many mechanics, especially in large cities, are
represented by the United Association of Plumbers
and Steam Fitters or the International Brother­
hood of Electrical Workers. Unionization is
much less extensive among refrigerator service­
men.
Except in the southernmost regions of the
United States the demand for repair services and
new installations is seasonal, but most mechanics
and servicemen work all year. During peak sum­
mer months overtime work is customary for both
groups. In the winter many mechanics work on
heating equipment, and servicemen often repair
other types of electrical appliances.
Where To Go for Additional Information
Further information on the nature of the work,
apprenticeship and other training opportunities,
earnings, and other subjects may be obtained from :
Local unions of the United Association of
Plumbers and Steam Fitters and the International
Brotherhood of Electrical Workers.
Local air-conditioning and refrigerating con­
tractors associations.

O C C U P A T IO N A L

210

O U TLO OK

Those interested in going into business for them­
selves will find valuable information in :
U. S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of For­
eign and Domestic Commerce, Establishing and
Operating an Air Conditioning and Refrigera­

HANDBOOK

tion Business. Industrial (Small Business)
Series No. 59. Washington, U. S. Government
Printing Office, 1946. Price 20 cents.
See also: Electrical Household Appliance Serv­
icemen, page 206.

Radio Servicemen
(D.O.T. 5-83.411)

Outlook Summary
Some openings for highly skilled AM-FM men,
but occupation overcrowded with less skilled men
in most areas. Excellent opportunities for men
thoroughly trained in television expected in many
cities. Long-run employment trend upward.
Nature o f Work
Radio servicemen mainly repair home radios.
They may also install and service other electronic
equipment such as interoffice communication and
public-address systems and warning devices. A
growing number specialize in work on television
Radio repairman locating “ trouble” in a home receiver.




P H O ’T'O G R A PH

by

U.

S.

d e pa r tm e n t

o f

LABOR

sets. Sometimes radio repairmen sell and service
other electrical appliances.
A majority of those working on AM-FM sets are
self-employed; some repair radios during their
spare time only. Other AM-FM men are em­
ployed by large repair shops, radio stores, garages,
wholesale distributors, manufacturers of electronic
equipment, and other types of concerns. Tele­
vision servicemen are so far employed mainly by
manufacturers, distributors, and some large retail
dealers.
How To Enter
Most AM-FM radio repairmen receive their
early training from correspondence courses, at
technical schools, in the armed forces, as appren­
tices, or through “ham” radio activities. The
quality of the initial training varies greatly; as a
consequence there is a wide range in degree of
skill among new entrants in this occupation.
Television repairmen need much more basic
training and knowledge of radio theory than
AM-FM men. Because there are at present so few
men who can repair television sets, one of the lead­
ing manufacturers is assisting its distributors and
dealers to train topnotch AM-FM servicemen in
television by furnishing training materials and,
where necessary, instructors. Another large com­
pany, which employs television servicemen di­
rectly, trains its men through a combination of
factory classroom work and on-the-job training.
It is also possible to obtain training in television
work at the better radio schools.
Men going into business for themselves as AM
or FM repairmen must have at least $500 for
tools and equipment. The additional equipment
needed to service television sets costs several
hundred dollars.

M E C H A N IC S

AND

Outlook
Highly skilled, experienced AM-FM men
should be able to find job openings in most areas
in the near future, but the field as a whole is over­
crowded. In most parts of the country there is a
surplus of inexperienced and inadequately trained
radio repairmen.
The number now in business for themselves full
time is roughly estimated at 50,000, about twice
the prewar figure. Many of the newcomers are
veterans who were trained in the armed forces;
others were employed as technicians in electronics
manufacturing plants during the war. Because
there are already more than enough repair shops
in most areas, favorable opportunities to start new
shops are rare. To succeed in a new business,
servicemen will need a high degree of skill and
business ability as well as an unusually good
location.
Television specialists will find good opportuni­
ties in areas reached by telecasts (anywhere with­
in about 50 miles from a television station). By
December 1, 1947, there were 17 operating tele­
vision stations in 11 large cities. The Federal
Communications Commission had issued construc­
tion permits or had applications pending for 97
more stations which would provide service to a
total o f 54 cities and their environs; it is expected
that the number of construction permits will in­
crease greatly within a few months. Though less
than 200.000 television sets were in use in early
1948, their number is increasing rapidly, as is the
need for men to install and service them.
Over the long run, employment of radio repair­
men is likely to rise slowly. About 90 percent of
all families in the Nation already have radios, but
the proportiqn is still rising and the number of
sets per family is increasing. In the 3 years be­
tween 1944 and 1947, the proportion of families
with two or more radios rose from 18 percent to
34 percent, according to one estimate. Radio
ownership and the total demand for repair serv­
ices will be further increased by the anticipated




R E P A IR M E N

211

growth in population and number of families. As
television sets multiply, they will increase the need
for repairmen; television receivers are much more
complicated than AM -FM radios and require more
servicing. Servicemen with television training
will have a greater and greater advantage over
those with knowledge of AM and FM only, both
in competing for jobs and in trying to make a go
of their own repair businesses.
Earnings and Working Conditions
AM -FM repairmen have lower wage rates than
many other groups of skilled workers. Typical
weekly wages were between $40 and $60 in mid1947 for servicemen in many metropolitan areas.
Men who have their own shops often have low
incomes; those who combine radio repair with
sales of radios and other appliances usually earn
more than those who do repair work only.
Repairmen employed by others usually work
between 44 and 48 hours per week. Taking the
country as a whole, only a small proportion of ra­
dio servicemen are union members; most of those
organized are in large cities.
Where To Go for More Information
Some communities have radio servicemen’s or­
ganizations that can provide information on em­
ployment opportunities, wages, and working
conditions. Servicemen interested in going into
business for themselves will find valuable informa­
tion in :
U. S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of For­
eign and Domestic Commerce. Establishing and
Operating an Electrical Appliance and Radio
Shop. Industrial (Small Business) Series No.
28. Washington : U. S. Government Printing O f­
fice, 1946. Price 35 cents.
See also: Electronic Technicians (Commercial
and Industrial Servicing) ; page 212, Electronic
Technicians (Electronics Manufacturing); page
213; Radar Technicians, page 214; and Radio Op­
erators (Broadcasting), page 87.

O C C U P A T IO N A L

212

OU TLOOK

HANDBOOK

Electronic Technicians (Commercial and Industrial Servicing)
(D.O.T. 5-83.449)

Outlook Summary
Technician jobs in industrial servicing generally
filled by promotion of electricians. Commercial
servicing is small but expanding field with more
job seekers than openings for the present.
Nature o f Work
The main duties of technicians in these fields of
work are installing, servicing, and repairing elec­
tronic equipment.
Technicians in manufacturing plants maintain
and repair such devices as electric current controls,
electronic precipitators, counting mechanisms, and
certain types of welding and heating equipment.
When an engineer installs a new electronic device,
he usually instructs plant electricians in main­
tenance and simple repairs. Later, when there are
enough electronic instruments in the plant to war­
rant having a full-time electronic technician, the
man chosen for the job is likely to be the electrician
who has been working with the equipment and
studying electronics. In smaller plants or those
using few electronic devices, minor maintenance
and repair work may be handled by general main­
tenance mechanics, the distributor’s engineers, or
commercial servicemen; when major repairs are
needed, the distributor’s engineers are called in.
Office buildings, hotels, stores, and other com­
mercial structures use devices such as wire re­
corders, office intercommunications systems, and
warning equipment. These are serviced by several
different groups. Much of the work is still being
done by the distributor’s engineers, because the
instruments employ principles with which regular
electrical repairmen are not familiar. Sometimes,
when electronic devices have been incorporated in
machinery (for example, when electronic floor­
leveling mechanisms became part of elevator
equipment), the regular repairmen have expanded
their training to enable them to service the new
electronic features. Also, there are commercial
servicing organizations which often employ tech­
nicians, as well as engineers, to take care of the
wide variety of new electronic instruments. In




addition, radio shops and individual repairmen
often service some types of electronic equipment.
T raining
Electronic technicians in commercial servicing
are expected to have sound backgrounds in elec­
tronics and fundamentals of electricity. Usually
those hired must show evidence of study in the
field of electronics at one of the reputable technical
schools or certain Army or Navy schools, or have
had equivalent training. Applicants must also
prove their ability on actual repair jobs.
Outlook
Few men trained primarily in electronics will
find openings as technicians in manufacturing
plants, though the use of electronic devices in sucii
plants is expanding and industrial concerns are
doing more and more of their own servicing (in­
stead of having it done by the distributor’s engi­
neers). The additional technicians needed in
factories will continue to come mostly from the
ranks of electricians already on the company pay
roll. Electricians’ unions are encouraging mem­
bers to prepare themselves for taking over the
servicing of electronic devices.
Servicing of electronic equipment in commer­
cial establishments provides a long-term expand­
ing field for electronic technicians. An increas­
ing share of the work will probably be done by
technicians employed by radio and commercial
repair organizations. For the present, however,
there is an oversupply of jobseekers with some
training in electronics. Many of those who might
hold jobs in less exacting electronic occupations
such as routine testing in radio manufacturing
will not be qualified for commercial work, since it
often demands a high degree of skill and knowl­
edge of electronics.
Earnings
In industrial servicing, wage rates are generally
just above those of regular maintenance elec­
tricians in the same plants. Wage rates for tech­

M E C H A N IC S

AND

nicians in commercial servicing have not yet
crystallized ; it is expected that these hourly rates
will be slightly higher than those for ordinary
radio repairmen in the same area.

R E P A IR M E N

213

See also: Radio Servicemen, page 210; Elec­
tronic Technicians (Electronics Manufacturing),
page 213; Radar Technicians, page 214; and Radio
Operators (Broadcasting), page 87.

Electronic Technicians (Electronics Manufacturing)
(See D.O.T. 4-98.999)

Outlook Summary

Outlook

A number of openings in radio and other types
o f electronics manufacturing in the near future.
Long-run employment trend upward in all
branches of the industry.

Employment of testers is likely to increase both
in the near future and over the long run. Only a
few thousand are now employed, a majority of
them in radio manufacturing. In this branch of
the industry, growth of television is an important
factor and is expected to contribute largely to the
upward trend in tester employment; television
sets, which must be given many complex factory
tests, probably will be produced in ever-increasing
numbers for many years to come.
Other electronics manufacturing is likely to ex­
pand considerably in the next few years owing to
greatly increased demand for military electronic
equipment. Continued gradual growth in the
manufacture of equipment for civilian use is an­
ticipated for an indefinite number of years. It is
unlikely, however, that the total number of elec­
tronic technicians in this branch of the industry
will equal more than a fraction of the number in
radio and television manufacturing for a long
time to come.
There is now an oversupply of men with some
electronic training in this as in related fields, and
a continuous stream of men is seeking to enter this
occupation. Well-trained, highly competent tech­
nicians have much the best chance of jobs.
Before the war, radio manufacturing was a
highly seasonal industry. Most of the manufac­
turing was done during the fall months; the rest
of the year was devoted mainly to development
and research, which was carried on with a small
fraction of the personnel employed during peak
production. I f this pattern again becomes char­
acteristic of the industry, technicians in radio
plants will be subject to temporary lay-offs in some
seasons. Also, the demand for radio sets, and
therefore employment in radio manufacturing,
changes rapidly with the tides of general business
prosperity and depression.

Nature o f Work
Technicians in radio and other electronics manu­
facturing are employed mainly as testers and
inspectors. Large companies also employ small
numbers as assistants to engineers and scientists
in experimental laboratories.
The testers’ primary job is to check completed
equipment for defects and to locate the source of
malfunctioning. In some plants they are also
responsible for making needed repairs.
Those on low-grade jobs in radio manufacturing
usually do routine testing and need have little
knowledge of the theories of electronics. In other
electronics manufacturing, the equipment pro­
duced is more varied and intricate; it is often made
to order rather than mass produced. In this type
o f manufacturing, even the lowest-grade testers
must have some background in electronics.
Jlow To Enter
A 12-month course at a reputable technical
school or the equivalent of such training is gen­
erally required for tester and inspector positions
(except low-grade jobs in radio manufacturing).
Completion of a year’s course at an Army or Navy
school is usually considered adequate preparation.
Workers usually enter the occupation either
directly from school or from radio-technician jobs
of other kinds; tester positions are seldom filled by
up-grading less-skilled production workers. Ad­
vancement is possible from the lowest-grade tester
jobs to the highest, Men who have unusual ability
may be promoted to engineering positions.
793996°—49

15




214

O C C U P A T IO N A L

OUTLOOK

Earnings
In January 1948, average straight-time earnings
for men ranged from about $1.30 to $1.60 per hour
for high-grade tester and inspector jobs in major
manufacturing centers.
Electronic technicians have earnings advantages
over less-skilled production workers which are not
revealed by their hourly rates. Their opportuni­

HANDBOOK

ties for promotion are considered better than aver­
age. In addition, they are sometimes kept on
when other production workers are sent home be­
cause of temporary break-downs.
See also: Radio Servicemen, page 210; Electronic
Technicians (Commercial and Industrial Serv­
icing), page 212; Radar Technicians, page 214;
and Radio Operators (Broadcasting), page 87.

Radar Technicians
(D.O.T. 5-83.449)

Outlook Summary
Very small but expanding field; occasional open­
ings for highly qualified men.
Nature of Work
The group covered by this statement is made
up of men engaged mainly in supervising installa­
tion o f radar (radio detection and ranging) equip­
ment and in servicing and repairing such equip­
ment; some do actual installation work. In
general, duties are similar to those of radio tech­
nicians but call for greater technical knowledge
and skill, since radar involves more advanced
knowledge of electronic principles and more in­
tricate equipment than ordinary radio. Also, ra­
dar technicians must be able to make reports on
difficulties encountered and recommend improve­
ments in construction and design. They often
service other types of electronic equipment as well
as radar.
Where Employed
Most radar technicians work for the very small
number o f concerns manufacturing and selling
radar equipment and holding contracts to service
military radar. The great majority are assigned
to district offices of employing companies, located
mainly in the big port cities. A sizable propor­
tion are stationed in the Great Lakes and Missis­
sippi River regions. Technicians servicing mili­
tary equipment are scattered throughout the
world.
Training and Other Qualifications
Only men with good experience or training in
radar or radio are hired. Many are former radio




repairmen. Some are college graduates; at least
one company considers a college degree, preferably
in electrical engineering, essential. Even collegetrained engineers must, however, have basic me­
chanical skills to be considered fully qualified
as technicians. A number of schools, colleges,
and radio institutes offer courses in electronics;
some have well-rounded programs, including labo­
ratory work and practice in the types of mechani­
cal tasks met with in technician jobs. Though
thousands of men were trained to operate and
maintain radar equipment in the armed services,
this military experience alone rarely, if ever, quali­
fies a man for civilian work.
New employees almost always receive on-thejob training. For entrants with especially good
experience, the training period may last only a
few weeks; for others, it may last a year or more.
Outlook
There will be a number o f openings for excep­
tionally well qualified men in this small but ex­
panding new field during the next year or two.
As yet, only a few hundred radar equipments
are being operated on a regular commercial basis
for civilian purposes. Practically all the large
equipments are used in navigation o f ocean-going
ships or vessels sailing the Great Lakes and inland
waterways. The number of such sets is expected
to grow particularly fast. There will also be an
increase in aviation installations (including alti­
meters, search radars, and ground approach and
control systems). Radar weather observation and
research instruments are coming into use. An­
other new product, a cooking range, makes use of
radar’s magnetron tube.
All these developments will mean more work for

M E C H A N IC S

technicians in supervising the installation of sets
and keeping them in order. In addition, civilian
technicians will be needed to service military
equipment, the amount o f which will be substan­
tially increased under the rearmament program.
There will be a few openings owing to turn-over.
The total number of job opportunities will not be
great, however. Employment will probably go on
increasing over the long run.
There are now many more job applicants than
openings, but few job seekers meet hiring stand­
ards. The number of qualified technicians com­
peting for jobs is likely to become still greater in
the near future, as more and more people complete
well-rounded programs in electronics. For men
unable to get jobs as radar technicians, there may
be opportunities elsewhere in electronics—in tele­
vision, for example.
In the near future, most jobs, except for work
on military equipment, will probably continue to
be in seaports and Great Lakes and river ports.

AND

R E P A IR M E N

215

However, as use of radar increases in aviation and
other fields, opportunities will tend to become more
widesjn-ead in this country.
Earnings
Fully qualified men with good radar experience
are likely to make around $1,000 for the first year
or so with a company. Typical annual earnings
in the occupation are between this figure and
$5,000. Men working away from their headquar­
ters’ cities have their expenses paid by the com­
pany or receive extra pay. Special bonuses may
be given for overseas work. Basic workweek is
usually 40 hours, with time and one-half for
overtime.
See also: Radio Servicemen, page 210; Elec­
tronic Technicians (Electronics Manufacturing),
page 213; Electronic Technicians (Commercial
and Industrial Servicing), page 212; and Radio
Operators (Broadcasting), page 87.

Typewriter Servicemen
(D.O.T. 5-83.127)

Outlook Summary
There will be a number of job openings for new
workers during the next 4 or 5 years. The longrun outlook is for steady employment.
Nature of Work
Typewriter servicemen inspect, adjust, and
repair typewriters. Repair w
rork may involve
replacing worn or broken parts, alining the type
to print evenly, fixing the escapement (spacer),
and adjusting the shift mechanism and ribbon
movement. Servicemen also clean and oil the
machines. Most servicing and repair work is
taken to the shop. However, minor servicing jobs
may be done in the offices where the machines are
used. The mechanics use common hand tools such
as screwdrivers, pliers, and punches.
In some small shops, typewriter servicing may
be combined with the servicing of other business
equipment, particularly adding machines.
Most servicemen are bench men; that is, their
work is done in the repair shop. “ Outside” men




make contacts with customers as well as frequently
doing some work in the shop. They inspect the
customer’s machines and determine whether or not
they should be brought back to the shop for repair.
Outside men, particularly those employed by small
independent shops, may also sell typewriter rib­
bons and supplies; occasionally, they sell type­
writers.
Where Employed
Typewriter repair men are employed both in the
local service branches of typewriter manufacturers
and in independently owned local repair shops
(which frequently sell typewriters as well as repair
T
them). Many servicemen have their own repair
shops.
Geographically, typewriter servicemen are
widely distributed. Every city and large town
has men employed in the occupation. However,
the greatest concentration of servicemen is in
large cities, wffiere the bulk of clerical work is
found.

216

O C C U P A T IO N A L

OUTLOOK

Training and Qualifications
The length and kind of training for typewriter
servicemen varies. Most of it, however, is received
on the job. Training periods range from 1 to 3
years. Servicemen employed in independently
owned shops require more training and experience,
as they must be able to repair all makes of type­
writers and, sometimes, adding machines and cal­
culators ; servicemen employed in the service
branches of manufacturing companies generally
repair only one make of typewriter.
In many independent shops, new workers be­
come servicemen by working as helpers, gradually
picking up the necessary skills. In some inde­
pendent shops and in the manufacturers’ service
branches, however, training schedules are set up
and experienced servicemen and supervisors teach
the new men systematically.
In addition, trainees in the service branches are
frequently sent to a company school at the factory
for a few weeks or months of intensive training.
Some typewriter servicemen are trained in 2- or 3year formal apprenticeships which include work
on several makes and types qf business machines.
There are at least two privately owned schools,
not connected with any manufacturer, training
typewriter servicemen.
These schools
are
equipped to give additional training on servicing
adding machines and calculators.
Outlook
Opportunities to enter the trade during the next
4 or 5 years will be better than in most prewar
years. There is a current shortage of skilled men.
During the war a number of experienced service­
men went into other lines of work and have not
returned to this field. Many small shops are still
reluctant to take on inexperienced men because of
the expense of training them. Meamvhile, the
amount of repair work is increasing. The number
o f new workers who will find job openings in this




HANDBOOK

field will be greater than in other kinds of businessmachine servicing. There are about 10,000 type­
writer mechanics, who comprise nearly half of all
business-machine servicemen.
Those who enter the occupation during the next
few years, will have excellent chances for continued
employment over the longer run. Employment in
this field will tend to rise gradually as the num­
ber of typewriters in use increases. Moreover,
typewriter repair work is not greatly affected by
changes in general economic conditions. In poor
business years, sales of new machines fall, but the
amount of repair work remains fairly steady, as
old machines are kept in use instead of being
replaced.
Earnings and Working Conditions
The typical pay of experienced typewriter serv­
icemen for a 40-hour week in 1947 ranged from
T
about $45 to $75 in the larger cities. Servicemen
in independent repair shops usually earn more
than men in the manufacturers’ service branches,
largely because men in the independent shops must
be able to repair various makes of typewriters.
Many typewriter repair shops pay servicemen
commissions on sales of typewriters, supplies, and
contracts to do servicing for particular firms.
Servicemen may increase their earnings through
promotion to service supervisors or shop managers.
In many cases they have opportunities to open
their own shops. Typewriter servicing is light
work, comparatively free from accidents, and
cleaner than most other mechanical trades.
Where To Get Additional Information
U. S. Department of Labor. Bureau of Labor
Statistics, Employment Outlook for Business Ma­
chine Servicemen. Bulletin No. 892. Washing­
ton : U. S. Government Printing Office, 1947.
Price 15 cents.
See also: Adding Machine Servicemen, page 217.

M E C H A N IC S

AND

217

R E P A IR M E N

Adding Machine Servicemen
(D.O.T. 5-83.122)

Outlook Summary
Prospects are favorable for entry of a limited
number of new workers during tlie next 4 or 5
years. The long-run outlook is for steady em­
ployment.
Nature of Work
Servicemen inspect, adjust, and repair adding
machines. Adjustments and minor repairs are
usually made in the offices where the machines are
used. Major repair work is taken to the shop.
Repair work involves determining the cause o f
trouble, replacing worn or broken parts, and clean­
ing and oiling machines. Servicemen use common
hand tools such as screw drivers, wrenches, pliers,
punches, and special tools designed for the par­
ticular type of machine being repaired. In some
cases servicing of both adding machines and cal­
culators is combined in a single job. In inde­
pendent repair shops, adding-machine mechanics
may also repair typewriters.
Where Employed
Servicemen are employed principally in large
cities, where the bulk of the adding machines are
used. Adding machine servicemen are employed
both in manufacturer’s service branches, which are
operated in connection with the sales offices of the
firms, and in independently owned local repair
shops. Other sources o f employment are in the
Federal, State, and local governments and in a
few large banks and other firms which use large
numbers o f adding machines.
Training and Qualifications
The training period for adding machine me­
chanics ranges from 6 months to a year or more
of on-the-job instruction. Servicemen employed
in manufacturers’ service branches generally re­
ceive a few weeks supplemental training in the
manufacturers’ own school, usually located at the
plant. Manufacturers train men to work only on
their own line of machines.




I n in d e p e n d e n t sh op s new m en m a y learn to
r e p a ir a d d in g m a ch in es b y w o r k in g as h elpers.
S om e p ic k u p th e sk ill w h ile w o r k in g as ty p e w r ite r
m ech a n ics.

The main aptitudes needed by a trainee are gen­
eral mechanical ability and manual dexterity.
Most manufacturers o f adding machines prefer
new trainees to be in their early twenties.
Outlook
During the next 4 or 5 years, there will be jobs
for a small number of trainees in adding machine
repair. Most manufacturers of the equipment are
conducting expanded training programs. It is
necessary not only to make up for the war years
during which few men were trained, but also to
provide additional men to service the growing
number of machines in use. Since this is a small
occupation, however—there are probably about
2,000 adding machine servicemen in the country—
the number o f openings for new workers will be
limited.
Longer run prospects are for an upward trend
in the employment of servicemen. The number
of adding machines in use in business and in gov­
ernment is tending to increase. Moreover, the
repair of adding machines is little affected by
changes in general economic conditions. In time
of depression there are few lay-offs, since during
these years the tendency is to keep old machines
in repair, rather than to buy new machines.
Earnings and Working Conditions
During the latter part of 1947, typical earnings
for a 40-hour week ranged from $50 to $75. In ad­
dition, commissions are sometimes paid to serv­
icemen and supervisors on sales of supplies and
contracts to do servicing for a particular firm.
Men servicing calculators, as well as adding
machines, generally earn more than men servicing
only adding machines.
S e r v ic e m ech a n ics m a y be p ro m o te d to p o sitio n s
as service su p e rv iso r.

T h e w eek ly ea rn in g s o f

se rv ice su p erv isors ra n g e u p to $100 and ov er.

In

218

O C C U P A T IO N A L

OU TLOOK H A N D B O O K

manufacturers’ branches, mechanics are sometimes
transferred to the sales department.
Repairing adding machines is comparatively
free from the danger of accident and is cleaner
than most other mechanical trades. Servicemen
generally dress like white-collar workers, since
most service work is performed in the offices or
stores where the machines are located.

Where To Find Additional Information
U. S. Department o f Labor, Bureau of Labor
Statistics; Employment Outlook for Business Ma­
chine Servicemen. Bulletin No. 892. Washing­
ton : U. S. Government Printing Office, 1947.
Price, 15 cents.
See also: Calculating Machine Servicemen, page
218, and Typewriter Servicemen, page 215.

Calculating Machine Servicemen
(D.O.T. 5-83.123)

Outlook Summary
There will be opportunities for a limited num­
ber of new men to enter this field during the next
4 or 5 years. Long-run prospects are for steady
employment.

which are operated in connection with the sales
offices o f these firms. However, a few work in
independently owned local repair shops. Most of
these independent shops are small and employ only
a few workers. Another source of employment is
the Federal Government.

Nature of Work
These servicemen inspect, adjust, and repair
calculating machines. Calculating machines,
which add, subtract, divide, multiply, and also
perform combinations o f these operations, are
used mostly in offices where a great many compu­
tations are necessary. These machines, most of
which are electrically operated, have elaborate
mechanisms, and, therefore, skilled men are re­
quired to repair them. Minor repairs and adjust­
ments are made in the offices where the machines
are used. Major repair work may be taken to the
shop. Repairing the machine involves determin­
ing the cause of trouble in the machines, repair­
ing or replacing broken or worn parts, and clean­
ing and oiling the machines. The mechanic uses
common hand tools designed for the particular
type of machine on which he is working. Service­
men are sometimes required to explain to new
operators how to operate the machines. In some
cases, servicing o f calculators is combined with
the servicing of other business machines, particu­
larly adding machines.
Where Employed
Most servicemen are employed in large cities,
since this is where the bulk of the calculators are
used. Mechanics servicing calculators are usually
employed in manufacturers’ local service branches




Training and Qualifications
Trainees employed by manufacturers of calcu­
lating machines generally receive from 1 to 3 years
of on-the-job training, often combined with a 3or 4-month course at a company school. Service­
men employed by the manufacturers are trained to
service only the company’s products.
S erv ice m e n w o r k in g in in d e p e n d e n t sh o p s m ust
be a ble to r e p a ir a ll m akes o f ca lcu la to r s, a n d n eed
a lo n g e r tr a in in g p e rio d .

M o s t c a lcu la to r serv ice-

m en in in d e p e n d e n t sh ops re ceiv e n o fo r m a l tr a in ­
in g , b u t lea rn th r o u g h e x p e rie n ce g a in e d w h ile
h e lp in g e x p e rie n ce d m ech a n ics.

The main aptitudes needed by trainees are gen­
eral mechanical ability and manual dexterity. The
calculating machine manufacturers generally pre­
fer to hire men in their early twenties.
Outlook
Opportunities for new workers to enter this field
will be good for 4 or 5 years. Expanded training
programs are being conducted by the manufactur­
ers and the need for skilled calculator servicemen
in independent shops exceeds the supply. How­
ever, the number of new workers entering the oc­
cupation will be limited, since only about 2,400
men are engaged primarily in repairing calcu­
lators.

M E C H A N IC S

AND

R E P A IR M E N

219

few lay-offs during depressions as the tendency
during poor years is to keep the old machines in
repair rather than to buy new ones.
Earnings and Working Conditions

Ph otograph

by

u

. S.

d e pa r tm e n t

of

labo r

Cleaning a calculator with a fine spray of cleaning fluid— an impor­
tant step in keeping the complicated mechanism in good running
condition.
%

Looking further into the future, prospects are
for an upward trend in the employment of serv­
icemen, lasting for many years. There will be a
growing demand for calculators in business and
government. At the same time, there is a trend
toward more complicated calculators, as they are
improved and adapted to new uses.
Servicing of calculators is little affected by
changes in general economic conditions. There are

In December 1917, typical earnings for a 40hour week ranged from $50 to $85. Including
commissions and overtime, earnings were often
considerably higher. Commissions are sometimes
paid to service mechanics on sales o f contracts to
do servicing for a particular firm.
Servicemen may be promoted to supervisory
jobs. The weekly earnings of a service manager
range up to $120 and over— depending largely on
the size of the shop. In manufacturers’ service
branches, mechanics are sometimes transferred to
the sales departments.
Repairing calculators is usually light work and
cleaner than most other mechanical trades. The
occupation is relatively free from serious acci­
dents. Generally, servicemen dress like office
workers, since most service work is performed in
the offices where the machines are located.
Where To Find Additional Information
U. S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor
Statistics; Employment Outlook for Business
Machine Servicemen. Bulletin No. 892. Wash­
ington: U. S. Government Printing Office, 1947.
Price 15 cents.
See also Adding Machine Servicemen, page 217.

Cash Register Servicemen
(D.O.T. 5-83.124)

Outlook Summary
During the next 4 or 5 years, a limited number
o f new workers will be able to enter this field.
The long-run outlook is for steady employment.
Nature of Work
C a sh -reg ister servicem en in sp ect, a dju st, and re ­
p a ir cash registers.

N ext to ty p e w r ite r s , cash

registers are the m ost w id e ly used business m a ­
ch in es.

T h e y are fo u n d m a in ly in re ta il stores

and service establish m en ts.

C ash reg isters v a ry

g re a tly in the n u m ber o f th in g s th ey can d o.




The

simple models merely record each transaction,
total the day’s receipts, and provide a change
drawer. The more complicated cash registers tab­
ulate several different kinds of information on one
transaction simultaneously, such as identification
of clerk, department, and type of merchandise, as
well as provide printed receipts with such infor­
mation for the customer. The more elaborate cash
registers actually perform many functions of ac­
counting machines.
In some cases servicemen work on other types
of business machines, such as adding machines or

O C C U P A T IO N A L

220

OUTLOOK H A N D B O O K

accounting machines. Most repairs and adjust­
ments are made in the establishments where the
machines are used. Usually only major repair
jobs are taken to the shop. Repairing cash reg­
isters involves determining the cause of trouble in
the machines, replacing worn or broken parts, and
cleaning and oiling machines. Servicemen use
common hand tools, such as screw drivers, pliers,
and punches, and special hand tools designed for
cash registers.

Training and Qualifications
The training period for cash register mechanics
employed in the manufacturers’ service branches
generally consists of 1 year of on-the-job training
followed by about 6 months at the company school.
Cash register servicemen working in manufac­
turers’ shops are trained to repair only the com­
pany’s own line of machines.
Servicemen working in independent repair
shops generally have not had formal training,
unless they are former employees of manufac­
turers’ service branches. Most of the men in the
independent shops pick up the trade while work­
ing as helpers in the shops. In independent shops,
servicemen are required to repair several different
makes of cash registers, and several years of this
informal training is required.
New men entering the field should have general
mechanical ability and enjoy working with ma­
chines. Since servicemen in this field make many
contacts with customers, a presentable appearance
and manner are important, and servicemen must
be able to carry on some business transactions.
Manufacturers generally prefer to hire as trainees
high school graduates in their early twenties.
Outlook

Ph otograph

by

U.

S.

Departm en t

of

La b o r

Cash-register repair is exacting work

Where Employed
Cash register servicemen are employed princi­
pally in large cities. However, most cities of
50,000 population and over have shops repairing
cash registers. The great majority of servicemen
primarily engaged in repairing cash registers are
employed in the local service branches of the few
manufacturing firms in this field. There is little
transferring of servicemen among firms. Some
of the repair work, especially in smaller towns, is
done in independently owned local shops, with
only a few employees, which repair other types of
business machines, such as typewriters and adding
machines.




During the next 4 or 5 years, prospects will be
good for new workers to enter the field in limited
numbers. There will probably be more cash reg­
isters in use than ever before, since retail trade is
expected to expand. Cash-register manufacturers
are carrying on expanded-training programs, and
are planning to open up many new service branches
in the next few years. The number of men who
can enter in any one year, however, is limited by the
small size of the occupation. At the present time
there are probably not more than 2,700 cash-regis­
ter repairmen in the United States.
Longer-run prospects are for an upward trend
in the employment of servicemen. Gradually in­
creasing sales of new machines and the trend to­
ward more complicated machines, which can do a
wider variety of operations make it necessary for
the manufacturers to build up larger service or­
ganizations.
This work is not greatly affected by changes in
general economic conditions. In time of depres­
sion there are few lay-offs. Cash registers are

M E C H A N IC S

AND

great timesavers and they serve so many essential
commercial purposes that they are a necessity in
most businesses. Depressions affect the sales of
new machines, but the repair and service work
continues.
Earnings and Working Conditions
In 1947, experienced cash-register servicemen
typically earned from $60 to $75 a week, plus over­
time for work beyond 40 hours. It generally takes
a trainee 3 years to reach this level of earnings.
Earnings may be increased through promotions to
service supervisory jobs. Men showing sales tal­
ents are sometimes transferred to the sales depart­
ment.

R E P A IR M E N

221

Repairing cash registers is comparatively free
from the danger of accident and is cleaner than
most other mechanical trades. Since most serv­
ice work is performed in the offices or stores where
the machines are located, servicemen generally
dress like white-collar workers.
Where To Get Additional Information,
U. S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor
Statistics, Employment Outlook for Business
Machine Servicemen. Bulletin No. 892. Wash­
ington : U. S. Government Printing Office, 1947.
Price 15 cents.

Accounting-Statistical Machine Servicemen
(D.O.T. 5-83.126)

Outlook Summary
A small number of new workers will be hired
for trainee jobs during the next 3 or 4 years. The
long-run outlook is for a gradual upward trend
in the number of servicemen.
Nature of Work
These servicemen inspect, adjust, and repair
punched-card accounting-statistical machines, such
as card-punching, sorting, and tabulating ma­
chines, collators, multipliers and dividers, and
verifiers. They also install machines in offices
where they are used and sometimes train person­
nel to operate them. Accounting-statistical ma­
chines are machines designed to record and tabu­
late large masses of accounting and statistical
data. The information is punched on cards alpha­
betically or according to a code, and the cards are
put into machines which sort them and tabulate
the results. These machines are used mainly in
large organizations, such as Government agencies,
department stores, insurance companies, and large
industrial establishments for pay-roll and other
accounting records, inventory control, statistical
surveys, and similar purposes.
Repair work involves determining the cause of
trouble in the machines, replacing worn or broken
parts, and cleaning and oiling machines. Service­




men use common hand tools such as screw drivers,
wrenches, punches, and pliers, and a few hand
tools which are specially made for these machines.
Repairs and adjustments are usually made in the
establishments where the machines are used.
Where Employed
Accounting-statistical-machine servicemen are
employed by two firms which manufacture and
service all accounting-statistical machines. These
men may be assigned by their companies to work
anywhere in the United States, but usually their
work is in large cities. They rarely transfer from
one company to the other.
Training and Qualifications
Men seeking employment in this field should
have general mechanical ability and enjoy work­
ing with machinery. Both concerns employing
these servicemen generally require that new
trainees be in their early twenties and have at least
a high-school education. In addition, 2 years’
technical schooling in electrical or mechanical
engineering or equivalent electrical or mechanical
experience is required.
Men hired as trainees are first given a trial
period o f 1 or 2 months’ on-the-job training. I f
the new trainees are satisfactory, they are sent to
the company school for a period of from 3 to 6

O C C U P A T IO N A L

222

OU TLOOK H A N D B O O K

months. After completion of the school course
they are put to work under supervision until they
are able to service and repair machines on their
own. This last period of training usually lasts
from about 12 to 18 months.
Outlook
For many years in the future there will be con­
tinued growth in the use of punched-card account­
ing-statistical machines. This growth, together
with the need for replacing those who leave this
work, means that prospects should be favorable
for entering the occupation and remaining em­
ployed in it for many years. The number of men
that will be hired in any one year will be limited,
however, by the small size of the occupation—
there are about 2,600 punched-card accountingstatistical-machine servicemen employed at the
present time—and by the fact that increases in
use of the machines will be gradual rather than
sharp.
During the next 8 or 4 years prospects should
be especially favorable for new workers to enter
the occupation, as manufacturers are expanding
their service organizations, to take care of the in­
creasing number of machines in use.
Employment in this field will be steady, because
this work is little affected by changes in general
business conditions and because the policy of the
companies in this field is to hold on to their serv­

icemen even when work is slack. In the past,
there have been few lay-offs in time of depression.
Earnings and Working Conditions
The earnings of servicemen vary considerably.
Typical weekly straight-time earnings for account­
ing-statistical-machine servicemen with at least
3 years’ experience ranged from about $65 to $85
at the end of 1947. However, a few of the most
skilled servicemen earned up to $100 a week. Pe­
riodic pay increases are given to servicemen ac­
cording to skill and experience. Servicemen may
be promoted to supervisory jobs, or may get into
the sales departments.
Servicing and repairing these machines is
cleaner and lighter w ork than most other mechani­
T
cal trades. The occupation is comparatively free
from the danger of accident. Servicemen gen­
erally dress like office workers, since the work is
clean and is usually performed in the offices where
the machines are used.
Where To Get Additional Information
U. S. Department of Labor, Bureau o f Labor
Statistics, Employment Outlook for Business Ma­
chine Servicemen. Bulletin No. 892. Washing­
ton : U. S. Government Printing Office, 1947.
Price 15 cents.
See also Adding Machine Servicemen, page 217;
Calculating Machine Servicemen, page 218; and
Cash Register Servicemen, page 219.

Accounting-Bookkeeping Machine Servicemen
(D.O.T. 5-83.121)

Outlook Summary

p o st en tries, som e d o b illin g , w h ile oth ers are c o m ­

O p p o r tu n itie s w ill be g o o d f o r a lim ited n u m b er
o f m en w ith ex p erien ce in r e p a ir in g a d d in g m a ­
ch in es, ca lcu la to rs, an d cash re g is te r s; th e re w ill
be fe w o p p o r tu n itie s f o r m en w ith o u t th is e x p e r i­
ence.

F o r th ose su ccessfu l in e n terin g the field,

p ro sp e cts are f o r stea d y em p loy m en t.

m ach in es. T h ese m a ch in es are used w h e re v e r a
g re a t d eal o f a cco u n tin g a n d b o o k k e e p in g is d on e,
such as in d e p a rtm e n t stores, la r g e re ta il and*
w h olesa le businesses, and banks.

S in ce th ere are

ca ted , th e s e rv ic in g is h ig h ly sk ille d w o rk .

T h ese servicem en in sp e ct, a d ju st, and r e p a ir a c­
T h ere

are

S erv­

ic in g these m a ch in es is som etim es co m b in e d w ith
th e s e r v ic in g o f o th e r office m ach ines.

a

R e p a ir w o r k in v o lv e s d e te rm in in g the cau se o f

n u m b er o f d iffe re n t ty p e s o f these m ach ines— som e

tr o u b le in th e m a ch in es, r e p la c in g w o r n o r b ro k e n




m ach ines.

A ll

ty p e s h a v e k e y b o a rd s, lik e ty p e w r ite r s a n d a d d in g

several d iffe re n t ty p e s o f m a ch in es, each c o m p li­

Nature o f work

c o u n tin g -b o o k k e e p in g

b in a tio n ty p e w r ite r s and c o m p u tin g d evices.

M E C H A N IC S

parts, and cleaning and oiling machines. Service­
men use common hand tools such as wrenches,
punches, pliers, screw drivers, and a few hand
tools which are specially designed for the particu­
lar type of machine being repaired. Adjustments
and minor repairs are made in the offices where the
machines are used. However, some major repair
work is taken to the shop.

AND

R E P A IR M E N

223

work with other repair work. Two other major
companies train their mechanics to work on all of
the office machines that they manufacture. One
of these firms has a 4- to 5-year training program.
Usually a man must have had 1 or 2 years’ ex­
perience as an adding machine, calculator, or cash
register repairman in order to be eligible for ac­
counting-bookkeeping machine training—which
consists of 2 or 3 years of on-the-job instruction
and, in some cases, an additional 6 months of train­
ing at a company school. Some of the repair work
on accounting-bookkeeping machines requires con­
siderable experience and knowledge of the ma­
chines. Servicemen who have just completed
their training need additional experience before
they are qualified to perform all repair work.
The main aptitudes needed by a trainee are gen­
eral mechanical ability and manual dexterity.
Most manufacturers of these machines prefer to
hire men in their early twenties as trainees. Since
servicemen in this field make many contacts with
customers, a presentable appearance and manner
is important to the employers.
Outlook

Photograph

by

u

. S.

Departm ent

of

labo r

Repairing accounting-bookkeeping machines is one of the most
highly paid of business-machine servicing jobs

Where Employed
These servicemen are employed principally in
large cities, since this is where the bulk of the ma­
chines are used. Most accounting-bookkeeping ma­
chine mechanics are employed in the local service
branches of companies which manufacture this
equipment. There is little transferring of service­
men among the five main companies in this field.
Only a very few servicemen are in independent
repair shops.
Training and Qualifications
Training programs for accounting-bookkeeping
machine repairmen vary greatly among the com­
panies employing these workers, partly because
this work is frequently combined with the repair
of other business machines. One large concern
uses its mechanics primarily on the accounting­
bookkeeping machines and does not combine this




During the next 5 or 6 years, prospects will be
good for a limited number of new men to enter
this field. Additional workers will be trained in
order to service the growing number of accounting­
bookkeeping machines in use. However, most of
the trainees will be drawn from the ranks of
mechanics repairing other business machines,
such as calculators. The accounting-bookkeeping
machine manufacturers make other machines, such
as adding machines, calculators, and cash registers,
and the practice has developed of transferring
some of the more skillful mechanics on these less
complex machines to servicing the more intricate
bookkeeping machines.
Although this field is small, comprising about
1,600 workers, it will probably expand gradually
for several years to come. The trend is not only
toward greater sales of these machines, but also
toward greater complexity in newly developed
equipment, which tends to increase the need for
servicemen.
Long-run prospects are excellent for stable em­
ployment for those already in the trade or for
those entering in the next few years, since this

224

O C C U P A T IO N A L

OUTLOOK

occupation is little affected by declines in general
business activity. The tendency during poor busi­
ness years is to keep old machines in repair rather
than to buy new ones.
Earnings and Working Conditions
In 1947, experienced servicemen typically earned
from $60 to $85 for a 40-hour week, with some
working 8 hours longer and receiving overtime
pay. It .generally takes a trainee about 3 years
to reach this level of earnings. Experienced serv­
icemen may be promoted to supervisory jobs.
Men showing sales aptitude are sometimes trans­
ferred to the sales departments.
Repairing these machines is comparatively free

HANDBOOK

from the danger of accident and is cleaner than
most other mechanical trades. Since most work is
performed in the offices where the machines are
located, servicemen generally dress like office
workers.
Where To Find Additional Information
U. S. Department of Labor, Bureau o f Labor
Statistics, Employment Outlook for Business
Machine Servicemen. Bulletin No. 892. Wash­
ington : U. S. Government Printing Office, 1947.
Price 15 cents.
Fee also: Cash Register Servicemen, page 219;
Calculating Machine Servicemen, page 218; and
Adding Machine Servicemen, page 217.

Gunsmiths
(D.O.T. 5-83.542)

Outlook Summary
There will be a small number of job openings
for highly skilled workers; also some demand for
less-skilled workers to do gun repairing in gen­
eral locksmith and repair shops.
Nature of Work
The gunsmith rebuilds, repairs, and alters fire­
arms, usually as the proprietor of a small shop.
His duties include the repair o f broken and wornout parts and making new parts, frequently in­
volving the use of such machine tools as the lathe
and grinding machine, as well as many types of
hand and woodworking tools. In addition some
gunsmiths design and make new guns requiring
a high degree o f skill.
Gunsmithing is carried on by two main kinds
o f workers in two types of shops: (1) The com­
bination locksmith and gun-repair shop operated
by a mechanic who does general repair work on
mechanical equipment and guns. The gun-repair
work o f this type o f shop is primarily seasonal.
(2) The shop operated by an expert craftsman
who works on guns throughout the year and who
specializes in intricate jobs, very often working
on unusual and expensive arms.
Qualifications for doing this work in a lock­
smith and gun-repair shop are general mechanical




aptitude, and actual experience which can be best
acquired by starting as a helper in a repair shop.
The specialized gunsmith, the other type of worker,
usually receives his training by spending much
time rebuilding and repairing rifles and guns. He
frequently gets started in the craft by tinkering
with his own guns and if he has sufficient mechan­
ical ability and interest in this hobby, he goes on
to acquire a greater knowledge of gun repair and
machine-shop practice. Some men have been able
to establish themselves in the trade by doing re­
pair jobs on a small scale among their acquaint­
ances and acquiring a reputation for doing good
work.
The more specialized gunsmith who spends most
of his time designing and making new guns must
have all-round skill. In designing new guns he
may have to lay out the plan on paper, apply math­
ematical calculations, and do precision machining
and wood shaping.
Gunsmiths are found throughout the country, to
a large extent in the rural areas in which hunting
is important. They are especially numerous in the
Middle West and West. Most locksmith and repair
shops are located in cities and the larger towns.
Outlook
During the next few years and also over the
longer run there will be some opportunities for

M E C H A N IC S

AND

h ig h ly sk illed w ork ers, m o s tly as rep lacem en ts f o r
th ose w h o leave the o cc u p a tio n due to d eath a n d
retirem en t. N u m bers o f p erson s w h o used sm all
arm s w h ile in the serv ice w ill becom e in cre a sin g ly
interested in firearm s, b o th f o r s p o r t and as relics.

225

R E P A IR M E N

is anticipated. There will be a moderate number
of openings for gunsmiths in the locksmith and
general repair shops. Despite the possibility of
some growth, the size of the occupation will con­
tinue to be very small.

A s a result, a s lig h t increase in jo b o p p o r tu n itie s

Shoe Repairmen
(D.O.T. 4-60.100)

Outlook /Summary
The trade can use only a few additional workers
in the next several years. Over the longer run the
present employment level—considerably above
prewar— will be maintained, with very little
change.
Nature o f Work
The shoe repairman resoles and reheels shoes
and performs various other repair jobs. To resole
a shoe, he first rips off the old sole with a pair of
nippers and levels and sands the welt (narrow
strip of leather between the shoe upper and the
sole). Next, the new sole is set in place over the
welt and permanently attached either by cement­
ing, nailing, or machine stitching. Then the edges
of the new sole are held against a revolving trim­
mer until the sole is trimmed to the shape of the
shoe. Finally, the bottom of the sole is buffed,
and the edges and bottom are waxed and stained
to give a finished appearance. In reheeling, the
old heel must be snipped off, and a new one shaped
(by hand or machine) and fastened into place.
The new heel is buffed and finished in the same
manner as new soles. Numerous other shoerepair services, such as cleaning, dyeing, and
stretching, stitching ripped seams, patching holes,
attaching heel and toe plates, and replacing but­
tons and buckles, are a part of the everyday work
of the shoe repairman.
Over three-fourths o f the shoe repairmen (about
60,000 working in 1940) own or operate their own
shops. Most of the shops are small one-man busi­
nesses and the owner-repairman is an all-round
workman capable of handling almost any repair
job. Comparatively few of the 50,000 shops
throughout the country in 1939 had more than one
qualified repairman. One-man shops frequently




h av e a b o o tb la c k o r w o r k e r to d o o d d jo b s, b u t
su ch em p loy ees ra re ly a ch iev e th e status o f shoe
rep a irm a n .

I n la r g e sh o e -re p a ir sh op s lo ca te d in

d o w n to w n section s o f cities, sk ille d cr a ftsm e n are
o fte n sp ecia lists.

S om e, f o r instan ce, w o r k o n ly

o n m e n ’s shoes o r w o m e n ’s shoes, o th e rs sp e cia lize
in m a ch in e o p e ra tio n s o r b en ch (h a n d ) w o r k , and
p a r tia lly tra in e d w o rk e rs m a y p e r fo r m th e sim p le
tasks.

How To Get Into the Trade
The most common method of entering this trade
is by serving an apprenticeship (usually 2 years)
under an experienced shoe repairman. However,
many shoe repairmen pick up the trade by getting
a minor job in one of the large shops and advancing
from the least difficult to the most difficult oper­
ations. Less emphasis is placed upon apprentice­
ship in large shops, where beginners are often
hired and trained in a few months for one par­
ticular operation—such as finishing—which they
continue to do.
Outlook
Prospects for additional skilled repairmen are
not very bright despite the fact that those in the
trade expect to retain at least 50 percent of the
wartime increase in business. During the war
there was an unprecedented demand for shoe re­
pairers. At the same time many skilled men were
lost to the armed forces. As a result o f the efforts
to fill wartime needs there is currently a sizable
number of partially trained workers. The major­
ity will remain in the trade and eventually become
skilled repairmen. A good many will doubtless
want to go into business for themselves. Conse­
quently, opportunities for additional workers to

226

O C C U P A T IO N A L

OUTLOOK

obtain training and experience in shoe repairing
will be limited for the next few years.
Prospects for continuing employment are good
for those who learn the trade. The demand for
shoe repairs is fairly steady and goes on very much
the same year after year. Few shoe repair busi­
nesses fail, even in periods of depression.
Jobs are located throughout the country, in
small cities as well as large. Employment oppor­
tunities are better in the Middle Atlantic and East
North Central States where over one-half of the
shoe repair shops are located. Barring excessive
competition, shoe repairmen usually fare better
in cities because the average expenditures per

HANDBOOK

family for shoe repairs are much larger than in
small towns and rural areas.
Earnings
In prewar years workers in shoe repair shops
were not highly paid. Wages of skilled men
ranged from $25 to $35 a week. Wages have risen
to the point where skilled workmen in city shops
now receive from $55 to $80 a week and semiskilled
finishers from $35 to $45. Hours of work are
often long. Employment in shoe repairing is
fairly steady throughout the year with the busiest
seasons occurring in early spring and fall.

W atch Repairmen
(D.O.T. 4-71.510)

Outlook Summary
Good employment outlook for skilled men both
in near future and in long run. Good current op­
portunities for men watchmaker-school graduates
but competition for junior jobs likely to become
keen within next few years. Long-run employ­
ment trend slowly upward.
Nature of Work
Watch repairmen (who are frequently referred
to as “ watchmakers” ) repair and adjust time­
pieces. This involves a variety of duties such as
inserting new springs, refitting pivots, truing bal­
ance wheels, and grinding old parts or making
new parts. These workers also clean and oil the
parts, refinish dials, and repair or replace wrist­
bands. In small shops, watch repairmen may per­
form some o f the simpler types of jewelry repair
and sometimes sell jewelry and watches. It is
customary to specialize in either watch or clock
repair work. The latter generally requires less
skill than the former.
Where Employed
Watchmakers work in retail jewelry stores, de­
partment stores, mail-order houses, “ trade shops”
which service retail stores, repair departments of
watch and clock factories, and importing firms.
Many of these in retail stores and trade shops are
in business for themselves.



J o b s are to be fo u n d in all p a rts o f th e co u n tr y ,
b u t a re co n ce n tra te d in la rg e cities, p a r tic u la r ly
N e w Y o r k w h ich , in a d d itio n to o th e r ty p e s o f
sh o p s, has m o st o f th e im p o r t in g firm s. S o m e
e m p lo y m e n t a n d business o p p o r tu n itie s , h o w e v e r ,
w ill b e fo u n d in sm a ller cities, in som e o f w h ich
th ere are fe w e r w a tch m a k ers re la tiv e to d em a n d
th a n in la r g e cities.

Qualifications
Watch repairing is extremely intricate and pre­
cise work and requires much patience as well as a
high degree of mechanical aptitude. A veteran
who has had instrument repair experience has
usually developed a partial skill of small-tool
manipulation and would probably make a good
watch technician provided he received further
training.
Anyone wishing to enter the watchmaking trade
will find that 1 or 2 years in a watchmaker’s train­
ing school is desirable; without such training it
will generally be difficult to qualify later as a
highly skilled watchmaker. The best watchmak­
ers’ schools provide thorough training in all
phases of the trade, though their graduates need
months of experience and practice on the job to
reach a high rate of output. Men trained at lowergrade schools may need 3 to 5 years of work ex­
perience to become highly skilled. Some employ­
ers take on men with less than a year’s training in

M E C H A N IC S

AND

a school or with no school background at all and
attempt to train them on the job, but watchmakers
are usually too busy now to give beginners ade­
quate attention. Only a small number of shops
have formal apprenticeship programs. Such pro­
grams and also most jobs for recent school gradu­
ates and other partially qualified men are in larger
shops where there is more specialization. Small
shops, particularly in large cities, generally hire
only skilled men.
Certificates, which are widely recognized by em­
ployers throughout the country, are issued by the
Horological Institute of America to those who are
able to pass the Institute’s examinations and thus
demonstrate a certain quality o f workmanship.
Junior watchmaker certificates are granted to
those able to pass a relatively simple examination,
usually men who have completed school or the
equivalent in on-the-job training. Certified
watchmaker certificates are awarded to men who
pass the more difficult examination, usually men
who have had about five or more years’ experience.
Certificates of proficiency are also issued by the
Testing and Certification Laboratory of the United
Horological Association of America. However,
the States which require licenses—namely, W is­
consin, Indiana, Iowa, Minnesota, Oregon, and
Oklahoma— will not accept the certificates of
either organization in lieu o f their own exami­
nations.
Outlook
There is a shortage o f skilled workers at the
present time; also good opportunities for watchmaker-school graduates. Employment in the oc­
cupation was about 15,000 to 20,000 before the war
and is now somewhat higher. Junior watchmak­
ers who have completed a school course or equiv­
alent on-the-job training are entering the field at
the rate of about 5,000 to 6,000 a year. Neverthe­
less, more watches are being brought in for repair
than can be taken care of. This is due largely to
the interruption of production of new watches and
clocks caused by conversion of the industry to war
production. While there is an oversupply of job
applicants without adequate basic training, many




R E P A IR M E N

227

shops refuse to employ them because they are likely
to damage the watches.
The shortage of skilled workers, though acute,
is declining and will be relieved, according to one
estimate, in 3 to 6 years. The watchmakers’
schools have expanded enrollments and the better
ones have waiting lists, although these waiting
lists are declining. When the boom in veterans’
training has subsided, enrollments are likely to
drop off, but they may not drop soon enough to
avoid a surplus of new graduates. The number
of watches and clocks brought in for repair is
likely to diminish as worn-out timepieces are re­
placed by new ones, since the watch and clock
industry is producing at peak levels. Watch­
makers with inadequate training will be in danger
of being displaced, and even well-trained junior
men may have difficulty getting jobs.
The long-run trend in employment is slowly
upward, because of the rising trend in watch and
clock ownership. Retirement of older watch­
makers is a factor in creating employment oppor­
tunities. This trade is less affected by declines in
business activity than many other fields. A topnotch man (skilled enough to make his own parts)
is likely to have employment in good times and
bad.
Earnings
In early 1948, experienced watchmakers typi­
cally made around $100 a week, according to
one estimate. Earnings of self-employed watch­
makers vary considerably, depending not only
upon the individual’s skill but also upon the num­
ber of men working for him and, in the case of
retail jewelry stores, upon the quantity of stock
and volume o f sales. Work and earnings are
fairly steady throughout the year.
Where To Go for Additional Information
Horological Institute o f America,
National Bureau o f Standards,
Washington, D. C.
United Horological Association of America,
1549 Lawrence Street,
Denver 2, Colo.

See also: Watch and Clock Factory Workers,
page 370.

228

O C C U P A T IO N A L

OUTLOOK

HANDBOOK

Jewelry Repairmen
(D .O .T . 4-71.010 and .020

Outlook Summary
A few scattered job openings for top-skilled
men, but trade overcrowded with partially trained
workers and trainees. Chances for newcomers
therefore poor, at least for next few years. Not
much expansion in employment expected in long
run. Trade likely to be very much affected by any
decline in general business activity.
Nature o f Work
These workers repair and reshape jewelry such
as rings, pins, chains, earrings, bracelets, clasps,
religious jewelry, necklaces, and other ornaments.
In smaller shops they may also set stones or design
and make pieces of jewelry. Occasionally, the
repairmen do hand engraving on jewelry and sil­
verware or handle very minor watch repairs.
Where Employed
Jewelry repairmen work chiefly in retail jewelry
stores; but also in repair departments of jewelry
factories and of department stores, and in trade
shops which do work for retail stores. Most shops
or repair departments are small, employing only a
handful of men. In retail stores, repairmen some­
times assist in selling jewelry and watches. A
good many repairmen eventually acquire their own
trade shops or retail jewelry stores.
How To Enter
It takes 2 to 3 years of on-the-job experience
and training in the trade to become qualified to
handle most repair jobs; several years more to
become a highly skilled, all-round jeweler. Only
a small number of shops—generally the larger
ones—have apprenticeship systems; except in these
shops there are few opportunities to get wellrounded training. There are in some cities pub­
lic and private vocational schools which offer
courses in jewelry repair and design, stone setting,
and engraving. Additional practical experience
is necessary after completing a school course, in
order to become a skilled worker.




S in c e th is is lig h t se d e n ta ry w o r k , it is su ita b le
f o r p e o p le w ith ce rta in ty p e s o f p h y sic a l h a n d i­
cap s.

M a n y d isa b le d veteran s h a v e been su ccess­

f u lly e m p lo y e d in th is field.

This is a small occupation, employing only a
few thousand men. The supply of skilled repair­
men is about adequate for present needs, although
there are a few scattered job openings. The labor
shortage which developed during and immediately
after the war, has now disappeared. Many former
workers have returned to the trade from war in­
dustries and the armed services. In addition,
jewelry sales, after reaching a peak in the spring
of 1946, have since been showing a slight decline,
especially in the higher priced lines, thereby lessen­
ing the need for skilled men. Partially trained
men, with whom the trade is oversupplied, are in
a much more unfavorable position. Now that the
need for workers is not so acute, these men are
finding it harder to get jobs. Trainee openings
will also be scarce for the next few years owing
both to the surplus of semiskilled workers and to
the fact that more men than usual have been taken
on as trainees since the end of the war. What few
openings for beginners and partially skilled work­
ers do occur in the next few years will generally
be found in the larger trade shops and department
store service departments. Retail jewelry stores,
who rarely employ more than one or two men, re­
quire skilled workers.
A few highly skilled and experienced men may
be able to open their own retail stores or trade
shops, especially in medium-sized communities
which do not now have such services. Retail
stores, which carry watch and jewelry stock, re­
quire at least $5,000 capital to start in a modest
way; stores in a better location or having more
stock are likely to need between $10,000 and
$15,000 as a minimum. For a trade shop, several
thousand dollars would be needed for materials
and machinery.
L it t le i f a n y in crea se o v e r p resen t e m p lo y m e n t
levels is e x p e cte d in the lo n g run.

O p e n in g s th a t

M E C H A N IC S

AND

arise will be primarily due to turn-over, and these
will be few in number since turn-over is character­
istically slight in this occupation. Furthermore,
since this is a luxury trade, it is greatly affected by
declines in general business activity. In bad times,
repair business tends to be somewhat more stable
than jewelry making; people who can afford any
expenditure in this field are likely to have their
old jewelry repaired rather than buy new pieces.
What jobs are to be found will be scattered
throughout the country. The majority are in the
larger cities. However, some employment and
business opportunities, especially for skilled men,
will be found in smaller cities, where earnings may
not be as high but there is often much less compe­
tition for jobs.
Earnings
Weekly earnings of skilled men, according to
scattered reports, ranged from $65 to $160 in late
1947. Those in business for themselves may earn
somewhat more. Earnings are greatest before and
immediately after Christmas. Overtime is very

793996°—49

-1 6




R E P A IR M E N

229

common. The months when there is the least
work are those in the late winter and early spring.
Where To Go for More Information
Additional information on job opportunities,
training, earnings, and related matters may be ob­
tained from the following organizations:
International Jewelry W orkers Union, AFL,
Suite 825, 551 5th Ave.,
New York 17, N. Y.
Jewelry Industry Council,
366 5th Ave.,
New York 1, N. Y.
Playthings, Jewelry, and Novelty W orkers Interna­
tional Union, CIO,
225 Lafayette St., Room 606,
New York 12, N. Y.

The following pamphlet contains information
helpful to those interested in going into business
for themselves:
U. S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of For­
eign and Domestic Commerce. Establishing and
Operating a Jewelry Store. Industrial (Small
Business) Series No. 55. U. S. Government Print­
ing Office; Washington, D. C., 1947. Price 15
cents.

Machine Shop Occupations
Machine-shop workers are the largest occupa­
tional group in metalworking and one of the most
important groups in all industry. Currently,
about 850,000 workers are employed in the skilled
and semiskilled machining occupations. In addi­
tion, there are many thousands of other workers,
such as inspectors, helpers, and laborers employed
in machine shops.
Nature o f Machine Shop Work
Metal is cut down to shape in machine shops
by machine tools— power-driven machines which
firmly hold both the piece of metal to be shaped

and a cutting instrument, or tool, and bring them
together so that the metal is cut, shaved, ground,
or drilled. In some, the tool is moved and the
metal held stationary; in others, the metal is moved
against a stationary tool.
The most common kinds of machine tools include
the engine lathe, turret lathe, grinding machine,
boring mill, drilling machine, milling machine,
screw machine, shaper, and planer. The opera­
tion of lathes is known as turning. The piece of
metal being cut is rotated against the cutting tool
held in the machine. A screw machine is a type
of lathe. Boring mills and drilling machines are

Genera! view of a small machine shop.
C O U R T E S Y O F N A T IO N A L A R C H IV E S

230




M A C H IN E

SH OP

among the machines that make holes in metal.
Grinding machines remove metal with a powerdriven abrasive wheel. Milling machines shape
metal with a saw-toothed cutting tool. Planers
and shapers are used to machine flat surfaces.
Some machine shops manufacture metal prod­
ucts and others do maintenance work—making or
repairing metal parts for machinery or equipment
in use. The manufacturing shops are of two main
types—job shops and production shops—depend­
ing upon the way their production is organized.
In job shops, the earliest developed, a wide variety
of products may be made, with relatively few of
each kind. Production shops, on the other hand,
make large quantities of identical parts.

O C C U P A T IO N S

231

found in the maintenance shops of a large number
of nonmetalworking industries, including, for ex­
ample, railroads, public utilities, and plants mak­
ing such products as cotton textiles, paper, ciga­
rettes, chemicals, and food. Even though the
number of machine-shop workers in most nonmetal industries is small, these industries, taken
together, are important as a source of employment
for machine-shop workers since they provide
almost one-fifth of the jobs for them. Moreover,
in many cases the machine-shop jobs rate among
the better job opportunities in the plant and its
locality, as for example, in many textile mills in
southern towns.
General Employment Outlooh

Industries Where Employed
Machine-shop workers are employed principally
in the metalworking industries. Nearly every
industry, however, employs some machine-shop
workers in maintenance work. About four-fifths
of all workers in the machine-shop occupations
have jobs in metal industries like machinery, auto­
mobiles, and iron and steel (see chart 35).
Most of the remaining machine-shop workers are




Prospects are for a moderate rise in the number
of machine-shop jobs during the next several years.
Continued high employment levels are anticipated
in many of the metal-working industries, which
are the main source of machine-shop jobs. Some
of these industries are likely to hire considerable
numbers of additional workers for their machine
shops. There will also be opportunities in the
maintenance machine shops o f a wide variety of
nonmetal industries.
After a few years of high employment, the num­
ber of jobs in many metalworking industries will
probably decline somewhat, after the backlog of
demand for many metal products is worked off.
However, in the long run, machine-shop employ­
ment should remain far above what it was before
the war. The long-term trend in metalworking
employment has been upward (chart 36). But
one may also see in the chart that the industries
using machine-shop workers are hit severely by
depressions.
Even more than employment trends, replace­
ment needs are likely to affect job opportunities in
machine shops. A high proportion of machineshop workers, especially the more skilled, are of
advanced age and will have to be replaced in a
relatively few years. Deaths and retirements may
create from about 13,000 to 17,000 job openings
annually. In addition, many new workers will
be needed to replace the large numbers of lessskilled machine-shop workers who shift into other
lines o f work, or drop out of the labor market for
one reason or another.

232

O C C U P A T IO N A L

OU TLOOK H A N D B O O K

C H AR T 36

E M P L O Y M E N T IN M E T A L W O R K I N G
I S AT A P E A C E T I M E HIGH
( P R O D U C T IO N W O R K E R S )
MI LLI O N S

MILLIONS

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS

In many areas there will be relatively few ap­
prentice openings for another year or two because
of the large number o f apprentices taken on since
the end of the war. When these men have com­
pleted their training, however, apprentice open­
ings should be fairly numerous.
A ll in all, there should be many openings for
new workers in machine-shop jobs during the next
few years. These workers will have favorable
prospects for continued employment over a period
of many years.
Even though the employment outlook for ma­
chine-shop workers is generally favorable, there
are some differences in prospects among the vari­
ous occupations. The outlook in some of the major
machine-shop occupations is summarized in the
following reports.

to perform any of the operations in a machine shop
rather than to work on only one type of machine.
Tool and die makers are essentially highly
trained machinists who specialize on tool or die
work. The function of tool makers is to make
CHART 37

MAJOR MACHINE SHOP
OCCUPATIONS
EM PLOY ME NT, 19 47
T H O U S A N D S OF W OR KER S

0

100

The Major Occupations
Major machine-shop occupations are shown in
chart 37. The basic machine-shop job is that of
the all-round machinist. Machinists are employed
mainly where workers are needed who are qualified




UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS

200

300

400

500

600

M A C H IN E

SHOP

cutting tools used on machine tools, jigs, and fix­
tures which hold the work while it is being ma­
chined, and gages and other precision measuring
devices. Die makers construct the dies used in
such metal-forming operations as forging, stamp­
ing, and pressing, and they also make the metal
molds used in clie-casting metal and molding
plastics.
The specialized operators of machine tools make
up the bulk of the workers in machine shops.
These workers may be either relatively skilled
men who can handle a variety of work on one type
of machine, including the making of adjustments
on the machine, or they may be less skilled opera­
tors whose duties are confined principally to plac­
ing the workpiece in the machine and watching
its operation. Nearly 540,000 are employed as
machine-tool operators.
In many production shops it is possible to use
semiskilled machine-tool operators only because
the most difficult parts of the work are done for
them by set-up men and lay-out men. The set-up
man is a skilled specialist employed in machine
shops which carry on large-volume production.
His job is to install cutting tools and adjust the

O C C U P A T IO N S

controls of machine tools so that they can be run
by semiskilled operators.
The lay-out man is a highly skilled specialist
whose job is to make guide marks on metal before
it is machined to indicate to the machine-tool
operators the kind of machining needed. This is
one of the smaller machine-shop occupations.
Where Machine-Shop Jobs Are Found
Because so many machine shops are in metal­
working industries, the bulk of them are found in
the northeastern and midwestern sections of the
country, where these industries are concentrated.
Some machine-shop employment, however, is scat­
tered throughout the country in railroad repair
shops and the maintenance shops of other indus­
tries. There are machine-shop jobs in every
State, as is shown in chart 38.
Where To Get Additional Information
Employment Outlook in Machine-Shop Occupa­
tions. Bulletin No. 895. U. S. Bureau of Labor
Statistics, 1947. 28 pp., 3 charts, 7 illus. Price,
20 cents. Superintendent of Documents, Wash­
ington, D. C.

S IX STA TES HAVE T H R E E -F IF T H S
OF T H E M A C H I N E S H O P J O B S

U N IT E D STATES D E PA R TM EN T OF LA BO R
BUREAU OF LA B O R STA TISTIC S




233

234

O C C U P A T IO N A L

OUTLOOK H A N D B O O K

All-Round Machinists
(D.O.T. 4-75.010)

Outlook Summary
C o n tin u e d h ig h e m p lo y m e n t o f m a ch in ists is
e x p e cte d f o r th e n e x t several years. C u rre n tly ,
th ere are fe w a p p re n tice o p e n in g s, b u t a fte r a
y e a r o r tw o , th ere w ill p r o b a b ly be m a n y n ew
a p p re n tice s h ired .

Nature o f Work
This is a skilled machine-shop occupation, in
which about 175,000 men are employed. In addi­
tion, there are thousands of men with training
as all-round machinists but employed in other
machine-shop occupations, such as that of ma­
chine-tool operator.
Variety is the main feature of the all-round
machinist’s work. He knows how to work from
blueprints and specifications, can select the tools
and materials for each job, and can plan the se­
quence of machining operations. He is able to set
up and operate such standard machine tools as
lathes, planers, milling machines, grinders, shap­
ers, boring mills, and drilling machines.
Where Employed
The majority o f all-round machinist jobs are in
maintenance shops in industries which use ma­
chinery, such as railroads, textile mills, automobile
factories, oil refineries, steel mills, and printing
plants. Many all-round jobs are also found in
manufacturing shops (including job and produc­
tion shops) which make machinery and metal
parts, such as machine tools, tractors, and railroad
equipment. In job shops, a wide variety of prod­
ucts may be made, with relatively few of each
kind. Production shops, on the other hand, make
large quantities o f identical parts. In general,
work in j ob and maintenance shops requires greater
all-round skill. In production shops, there are
large numbers o f men trained as all-round machin­
ists, but not usually employed as such; these men
specialize in a single machine-shop function, such
as set-ujf or operation of one type of machine tool.
M o s t o f th e m a ch in is ts ’ jo b s are in the M id d le




Western and Northeastern States where the metal­
working industries are concentrated. However,
machinists are employed in every State because of
their use in maintenance work.
Training and Qualifications
The machinist trade can be learned in two ways.
According to most authorities, a 4-year appren­
ticeship is the best way, but, on the other hand,
many have qualified without an apprenticeship,
by picking up the trade over a number of years
of varied shop experience.
An apprentice machinist must be mechanically
inclined and temperamentally suited to very care­
ful and exact work. Great physical strength is
not required for this work. A high-school or
trade-school education is desirable preparation for
machinist training and some employers require
such preparation. In general, this is a man’s
occupation.
Outlook
The number of all-round machinist jobs during
the next several years is expected to continue at
about the present high level. However, there will
be relatively few apprentice openings for a year
or two, until the present large number of appren­
tices who are already enrolled have completed
training.
Replacement needs will create many opportuni­
ties. There are many all-round machinists closely
approaching the age when death or retirement will
take them from their jobs. To provide for their
replacement, over 40,000 new machinists must be
trained during the next decade.
In manufacturing shops the number of jobs re­
quiring all-round machinists to fill them may be
expected to show a slight, gradual decline after
the next several years, mainly because o f technical
changes which reduce the skill needed, permitting
some substitution of less-trained men. Machinist
training will continue, however, to offer consider­
able advantage. Machinists are generally pre­
ferred for specialized jobs, which often pay as well

M A C H IN E

SHOP

or better than all-round jobs. Moreover, all­
round machine-shop workers must continue to be
hired in order to supply the necessary supervisory
staffs. In maintenance shops, the increasing
mechanization of industry may expand the need
for maintenance machinists to keep production
equipment in working order.

Co urtesy

of

n a t io n a l

A r c h iv e s

The basic machine shop job is that of the all-round machinist, who
can operate all standard types of machine tools.

Earnings and Working Conditions
Although the pay of all-round machinists com­
pares favorably with that of other machine-shop
workers, it is often lower than the earnings of
skilled machine-tool operators, many of whom
work on an incentive basis. The earnings of
machinists vary considerably among localities.
The average straight-time hourly earnings of pro­
duction machinists in machinery plants in Novem­
ber 1917 are shown here for selected large cities.




O C C U P A T IO N S

A tlan ta_____________$1.42
B altim ore___________ 1. 47
B irm in gh am _______ 1. 46
B oston --------------------- 1.32
Buffalo______________ 1. 35
Charlotte____________ 1.16
Chattanooga________ 1. 40
Chieago-Gary_______ 1. 58
Cleveland___________ 1. 54
D allas______________ 1.36
D enver_____________
1. 34
D e t r o it _____________ 1. 60
H o u sto n ____________ 1. 49
In d ia n a p olis_______
1. 48
Los Angeles________
1. 54

235
M ilw aukee_________ $1.42
MinneapolisSt. Paul__________
1. 43
Newark-Jersey City_ 1. 42
New York City_____ 1. 49
P h ila d elp h ia_______ 1.45
P ittsbu rgh _________
1. 53
P ortla n d -O regon ___ 1. 58
Providence_________
1.27
St. Louis____________ 1. 65
San Francisco______ 1. 67
Seattle---------------------- 1.67
Syracuse____________ 1. 48
Tulsa_______________ 1. 41
W a terbu ry _________
1. 38

The great majority of machinists are members
o f unions. There are a number of labor organiza­
tions in this field, some of the more important of
which are the International Association of Ma­
chinists (Independent), the United Electrical,
Radio and Machine Workers of America (C IO ),
the United Automobile, Aircraft, and Agricul­
tural Implement Workers of America (C IO ), the
United Steelworkers of America (C IO ), and
the Mechanics Educational Society of America
(Independent).
The promotional opportunities for all-round
machinists are good. Many advance to foreman
of a section in the shop, or to other supervisory
jobs. With additional training, some develop into
tool and die makers. Highly skilled and expe­
rienced machinists sometimes have the chance to
start small machine shops of their own.
Most machine shops are relatively clean, well
lighted, and free from dust. The danger of seri­
ous accidents in machine shops is comparatively
small. Machine shops are generally safer places
in which to work than are most factories.
/See also Set-Up Men (Machine S hop), page 244;
Lay-Out Men (Machine Shop), page 245; Tool and
Die Makers, page 236; Engine-Lathe Operators,
page 238; Turret-Lathe Operators, page 239;
Grinding Machine Operators, page 241; Milling
Machine Operators, page 242; and Shaper Oper­
ators, page 243.

236

O C C U P A T IO N A L

OU TLOOK H A N D B O O K

Tool and Die Makers
(D.O.T. 4-76.010, .040, and .210)

Outlook Summary
Rising employment levels are expected for the
next several years, but there will be few appren­
tice openings. Over the longer run, however, re­
placement needs will create many jobs for new
workers.
Nature of Work
Tool and die makers are essentially highly
trained machinists who specialize on tool or die
work. Theirs is the most skilled job in machine
shops and is also one o f the larger skilled fields
in metalworking—nearly 100,000 are currently em­
ployed.
The function of tool makers is to make cutting
tools used on machine tools, jigs, and fixtures
(which hold the work while it is being machined),
and gages and other precision measuring devices.
Die makers construct the dies used in such metal
forming operations as forging, stamping, and
pressing and they also make the metal molds used
in die-casting metal and molding plastics. Tool
and die makers must have a broad knowledge of
machine-shop work, including blueprint reading,
laying out work, setting up and operating machine
tools, and using precision-measuring instruments.
Training and Qualifications
To learn this work requires rounded and
varied machine-shop experience, usually obtained
through formal apprenticeship or the equivalent
in other types of on-the-job training. A tool and
die apprenticeship ordinarily covers 4 or 5 years,
including mainly shop training in various parts
o f the job. Since tool and die making is the most
exacting type of machine-shop job, persons plan­
ning to enter the trade should have a great deal
o f mechanical ability and liking for painstaking
work. This is essentially a man’s job, although
little physical strength is required.
Where Employed
Although tool and die makers work in many
different metalworking industries, the automobile




industry, with nearly one-third of the jobs, is the
largest employer. Also very important are tool
and die jobbing shops. Many are employed in
other machinery industries, including electrical
machinery and general industrial equipment.
Among the nonmetal industries using these work­
ers is the plastics products industry, which em­
ploys die makers to make metal molds.
Most of the tool and die maker employment is in
the midwestern and northeastern sections o f the
country. Michigan, especially the Detroit area,
has more jobs than any other section. Many are
also employed in Ohio, Illinois, New York, and
Pennsylvania.
Outlook
Prospects are for several years of rising employ­
ment in this occupation. The biggest factor in the
job outlook for tool and die makers is the expected
large volume of automobile production. High
output of automobiles will also tend to maintain
employment in tool and die jobbing shops, many
of which serve the automobile industry. Pro­
spective Government programs for expanding pro­
duction o f military aircraft will also require addi­
tional tool and die makers. In many other indus­
tries—such as the heavy electrical equipment and
farm machinery industries—production prospects
are good. Moreover, tooling up for various new
products will provide additional jobs.
Replacement needs are important, because many
tool and die makers are approaching ages at which
they are increasingly likely to drop out o f the
labor force because o f death or retirement. Dur­
ing the next 10 years, such drop-outs may create
upward o f 20,000 new openings.
During the next year or two, there will be rela­
tively few apprentice openings, because o f the
large number o f apprentices taken on recently.
However, after these men complete training,
apprentice openings should be numerous.
After several years, the accumulated demand
for many metal products will have been met, and
the employment of tool and die makers will prob-

M A C H IN E

SH OP

ably drop slightly from its high postwar level.
However, large numbers of these workers will still
be needed, not only to repair and replace the tools
and dies normally used by industry, but also to
retool plants for new products. It is reasonably
certain that those who enter the trade during the

Ph otograph

by

U. S.

Departm ent

of

La b o r

An apprentice tool and die maker learns how to operate standard
machine tools, such as this shaper.

next several years will find good employment
opportunities for many years to come. Even in
the event of a general business depression, with
machine-shop employment temporarily down, ex­
perienced tool and die makers, because of their all­
round skills would have fairly good chances to get
lower rated machine-shop jobs.
Earnings and Working Conditions
This is the highest paid machine-shop occupa­
tion. Earnings of tool and die makers vary con­
siderably among localities. Average straighttime hourly earnings of tool and die makers




237

O C C U P A T IO N S

employed in machinery plants in November 1947
are shown below for selected large cities.
Atlanta______________ $1. 45
Baltim ore__________
1. 61
Birm ingham________ 1.55
Boston______________ 1. 46
Buffalo_____________
1. 52
Chattanooga________ 1. 55
Chieago-Gary_______ 1. 78
Cincinnati__________
1. 60
Cleveland___________ 1. 77
D allas______________
1. 45
Denver_____________
1. 45
D etroit_____________
1. 83
H artford____________ 1. 58
Houston____________
1. 69
Indianapolis________ 1. 71

Los Angeles__________ $1. 72
M ilwaukee___________ 1.61
Minneapolis-St. Paul- 1. 59
Newark-Jersey City_1. 68
New York City_____ 1. 75
Philadelphia_________ 1.71
Pittsburgh___________ 1.56
Portland, Oreg______ 1. 77
Providence___________ 1.45
St. Louis____________ 1. 87
San Francisco______ 2. 00
Seattle_______________ 1.91
Syracuse_____________ 1.53
Tulsa_______________ 1. 55
W aterbury___________ 1.57

Tool and die makers i l machine-tool accessory
plants in December 19471 Lad average straight-time
hourly earnings of $1.94 i i Chicago, $1.74 in Cleveland, $2.10 in Detroit, an 1 $1.83 in Los Angeles,
The great majority of tool and die makers are
members of unions. The re are a number of labor
organizations in this field, some of the more impor­
tant of which are the International Association of
Machinists (Independent), the United Electrical,
Radio and Machine Workers of America (C IO ),
the United Automobile, Aircraft, and Agricultural
Implement Workers of America (C IO ), and the
Society of Tool and Die Craftsmen of America
(Independent).
Tool and die makers often rise to better jobs.
Many have advanced to shop superintendent or
other responsible supervisory work, or to such
positions as tool designer. Another avenue of op­
portunity is the opening of small tool and die
jobbing shops.
Tool rooms, where tool and die makers work, are
relatively clean, well ventilated, and free from
dust. They are considerably safer places to work
than factories in general.
See also All-Round Machinists, page 234.

238

O C C U P A T IO N A L

OUTLOOK

HANDBOOK

Engine-Lathe Operators
(D. O. T. 14-78.000 to 4-78.019; 6-78.000 to 6-78.019)

Outlook Summary
The number of these jobs should increase dur­
ing the next several years; thereafter a slight drop
in employment is likely, but new workers will be
needed to replace many of the older men in the
occupation.
Natume o f Work
These are machine-shop workers specializing in
operating an engine lathe, a machine tool which
shapes metal by rotating the metal against a cut­
ting tool. These jobs may be divided into two
main classes, according to the skill required. The
skilled engine-lathe operator does varying kinds of
machining. He works from blueprints or lay­
outs, sets up his machine for each machining oper­
ation, and measures the finished work to see if it
meets specifications. His work is much like that
o f the all-round machinist except that it is limited
to the engine lathe. The semiskilled engine-lathe
operator does repetitive work. Typically his job
consists o f placing the metal stock in the machine,
watching the machining for signs of trouble, and
measuring the finished work with specially pre­
pared gages which simplify measurement. His
machine is set up for him by a machinist or set-up
man.
Training and Qualifications
To become a skilled engine-lathe operator re­
quires from 2 to 4 years of on-the-job training.
However, many of these jobs are filled by men who
have completed all-round machinist apprentice­
ships. Semiskilled engine-lathe operators are gen­
erally trained in not more than 6 months on the
job.
The work is not physically strenuous and a num­
ber of women are employed as engine-lathe oper­
ators. Most of the women, however, are semi­
skilled operators.
Where Employed
Engine-lathe operators are employed mainly in
metalworking industries. Many of the skilled en­




gine-lathe operators work in jobbing machine
shops, a few are in maintenance shops of nonmetal industries. Production shops in mass-pro­
duction industries, such as automobiles, employ
most o f the semiskilled engine-lathe operators.
In the job shops a wide variety of products may
be made with relatively few of each kind. Pro­
duction shops make large quantities o f identical
parts, and skill requirements are generally lower
than in job shops.
Most o f the jobs for engine-lathe operators are
in the middle-western and northeastern sections
of the United States, with Michigan, Ohio, New
York, and Pennsylvania the leading States.
Outlook
Prospects are for a slight increase in the num­
ber of jobs for engine-lathe operators during the
next several years, because of the expected high
output of many metal products, including auto­
mobiles, aircraft, farm machinery, and heavy elec­
trical equipment. In general, skilled operators
will be more in demand than the semiskilled.
After a few years, employment of engine-lathe
operators may drop slightly as production in the
metalworking industries catches up with unsatis­
fied demand. The number of jobs for enginelathe operators should continue, however, at a rel­
atively high level. Many of the skilled enginelathe operators are older men, approaching the
ages when death or retirement will take them from
the shops. Keplacement of these workers will re­
sult in numerous openings. Among the semi­
skilled operators, shifting into other occupations
is fairly common, and openings for new workers
will be created in this way:
Earnings and Working Conditions
Many engine-lathe operators are paid on an in­
centive basis and hence often earn as much as
machine-shop workers o f greater skill. Earnings
of these workers vary considerably among locali­
ties. Average straight-time hourly earnings of
male engine-lathe operators in machinery plants

M A C H IN E

SHOP

in November 1947 are shown below for selected
large cities.
Class A

Atlanta_____________
Baltim ore___________
Birm ingham________
B oston______________
B uffalo______________
C harlotte___________
C hattanooga________
C hicago-G ary_______
Cincinnati__________
Cleveland___________
D allas_______________
D en v er_____________
D etroit______________
H artford____________
H ou ston ____________
Indianapolis________
Los Angeles_________
M ilw aukee__________
M inneapolis-St. Paul
Newark-Jersey City_
New Y ork C ity _____
Philadelphia________
Pittsburgh__________
Portland, Oreg______
Providence__________
St. Louis____________
San Francisco_______
Seattle______________
Syracuse____________
Tulsa_______________
W aterbury__________

$1.
1.
1.
1.
1.
1.
1.
1.
1.
1.
1.
1.
1.
1.
1.
1.
1.
1.
1.
1.
1.
1.
1.
1.
1.
1.
1.
1.
1.
1.
1.

34
34
49
46
43
19
44
54
32
66
49
31
67
72
56
44
56
54
44
61
57
61
50
55
23
55
71
66
49
32
43

Class B

$1.
1.
1.
1.
1.
.
1.
1.
1.
1.
1.
1.
1.
1.
1.
1.
1.
1.
1.
1.
1.
1.
1.

Class C

18
11
26
24
20
99
31
42
14
71
20
07
50
33
32
34
42
47
30
32
37
33
35

$0. 86
. 92

1. 08
1. 35
1. 44

. 91

1. 30
1. 21
1. 20

1. 04

1. 09
. 86
. 84
1. 37
1. 05
1. 20

1.
1.
1.
1.

22
19
26
24

1.
1.
1.
1.

27
07
14
40

O C C U P A T IO N S

239

The great majority o f engine-lathe operators
are members of unions. There are a number of
labor organizations in this field, some of the more
important o f which are the International Associ­
ation o f Machinists (Independent), the United
Electrical, Radio, and Machine Workers of Amer­
ica (C IO ), and the United Automobile, Aircraft,
and Agricultural Implement Workers of America.
Skilled engine-lathe operators may be promoted
to such jobs as set-up man or foreman. I f they
can get experience on several different kinds of
machine tools, they also can develop into all-round
machinists. Semiskilled operators generally have
less chance for advancement since they are em­
ployed mainly in production shops where the work
is very repetitive, and there are few opportunities
to develop additional skills.
Most machine shops are relatively clean, well
lighted, and free from dust. The danger of se­
rious accidents in machine shops is relatively small.
The industries in which engine-lathe operators are
employed generally have average or better-thanaverage safety records, in comparison with manu­
facturing industries in general.
See also: All-Round Machinists, page 234;
Turret-Lathe Operators, page 239; and Set-Up
Men (Machine Shop), page 244.

Turret-Lathe Operators
(D.O.T. 4-78.020 to 4-78.029; 6-78.020 to 6-78.029)

Outlook Summary
Prospects are for an increase in the number of
jobs during the next few years, with the skilled
operators more in demand than the semiskilled.
Over the longer run, employment is expected to
drop slightly, but replacement needs will create
openings.
Nature o f Work
Turret-lathe operators are machine-shop work­
ers specializing in running a turret lathe, a ma­
chine tool which shapes metal by rotating the
metal against a series o f cutting tools mounted on




a revolving turret. These jobs may be divided into
two main classes according to the skill required.
The skilled turret-lathe operator does varying
kinds of machining. He works from blueprints
or lay-outs, sets up his machine for each machining
operation, and measures the finished work to see
if it meets specifications. His work is much like
that of the all-round machinist, except that it is
limited to a single type of machine tool, the turret
lathe. The semiskilled turret-lathe operator does
repetitive work. Typically, his job consists of
placing the metal stock in the machine, watching
the machining operation for signs of trouble, and
measuring the finished work with specially pre­

240

O C C U P A T IO N A L

OU TLOOK H A N D B O O K

pared gages which simplify measurement. His
machine is set up for him by a machinist or set-up
man.
Training and Qualifications
To become a skilled turret-lathe operator re­
quires from iy2 to 3 years of on-the-job training.
However, many of these jobs are filled by men
who have completed all-round machinist 4-year
apprenticeships. Semiskilled machine-tool oper­
ators are generally trained in not more than 6
months on the job.
The work is not physically strenuous and a num­
ber of women are employed as turret-lathe oper­
ators. Most o f the women, however, are semi­
skilled operators.
Where Employed
Turret-lathe operators are employed mainly in
production shops, in such industries as automo­
biles and machinery. A number of the skilled
turret-lathe operators, however, are found in job­
bing machine shops, and a few work in mainte­
nance shops in nonmetal industries. In job shops
a wide variety of products may be made with rel­
atively few o f each kind. Production shops make
large quantities of identical parts, and skill re­
quirements are generally lower than in job shops.
Most of the jobs for turret-lathe operators are
in the middle western and northeastern sections of
the United States, with Michigan, Ohio, New York,
and Pennsylvania the leading States.
Outlook
The number of jobs for turret-lathe operators
is expected to increase somewhat in the next few
years. Increases will occur mainly in such metal­
working industries as automobiles, aircraft, and
heavy electrical equipment. In general, skilled
operators will be more in demand than the semi­
skilled. After a few years, as production in many
metal-working plants catches up with unsatisfied
demands, the employment of turret-lathe opera­
tors will tend to drop off slightly, but should re­
main at a relatively high level.
Among the skilled turret-lathe operators are a
number of men approaching the ages when death




or retirement will take them out o f the labor force.
Replacement o f these workers will provide many
new openings. Shifting into other occupations is
common among the semiskilled operators, and op­
portunities for new workers will be created in this
way.
Earnings and Working Conditions
Many turret-lathe operators are paid on an in­
centive basis and hence often earn as much as
machine-shop workers of greater skill. In Octo­
ber 1946, average straight-time hourly earnings
o f male turret-lathe operators (hand) in the ma­
chinery industries (except electrical machinery,
machine tools, and machine-tool accessories) in
large cities were as follows: Class A, $1.40:
class B, $1.29; class C, $1.21. Since October 1946
there generally have been wage increases in plants
employing turret-lathe operators.
The great maj ority o f turret-lathe operators are
members o f unions. There are a number of labor
organizations in this field, some of the more im­
portant o f which are the International Association
of Machinists (Independent), the United Electri­
cal, Radio, and Machine Workers of America
(C IO ), and the United Automobile, Aircraft, and
Agricultural Implement Workers of America
(C IO ).
S k ille d tu rr e t-la th e o p e ra to rs m a y be p r o m o te d
to such jo b s as set-u p m a n o r fo re m a n .

I f th e y

ca n get e x p e rie n ce on several d iffe re n t k in d s o f
m a ch in e to o ls, th e y also ca n d e v e lo p in to a ll-r o u n d
m a ch in ists.

S e m isk ille d o p e ra to rs g e n e r a lly h a v e

less ch a n ce f o r a d v a n cem en t since th e y a re e m ­
p lo y e d m a in ly in p r o d u c tio n sh ops w h e re th e w o r k
is v e r y r e p e titiv e a n d th ere are fe w o p p o r tu n itie s
to d e v e lo p a d d itio n a l skills.
M o s t m a ch in e sh op s are re la tiv e ly clea n , w e ll
lig h te d , a n d fr e e fr o m dust.

T h e d a n g e r o f se ri­

ous a ccid en ts in m a ch in e sh op s is r e la tiv e ly sm all.
T h e in d u stries in w h ich tu rre t-la th e o p e ra to rs are
e m p lo y e d g e n e r a lly h a v e a vera ge o r b ette r-th a n a vera ge s a fe ty re co rd s, in co m p a riso n w ith m a n u ­
fa c tu r in g in d u strie s in g en eral.

See also A ll-R o u n d M a ch in ists, p a g e 234; E n ­
g in e L a th e O p e ra to rs, p a g e 238; a n d S e t-U p M en
(M a ch in e S h o p ) , p a g e 244.

M A C H IN E

SH OP

O C C U P A T IO N S

241

Grinding-Machine Operators
(D.O.T. 4-78.500 to 4-78.589; 6-78.500 to 6-78.589)

Outlook Summary
An increase in the number of jobs is expected for
the next few years; thereafter, there may be some
decline in employment, but replacement needs will
create openings, especially in the skilled jobs.
Nature o f Work
These are machine-shop workers who specialize
in operating a grinding machine, a machine tool
which shapes metal by means of a power-driven
abrasive wheel. These jobs may be divided into
two main classes, according to the skill required.
The skilled grinding-machine operator does vary­
ing kinds of machining. Working from blue­
prints or lay-outs he sets up his machine for each
machining operation, adjusts the feed and speed
controls, and measures the finished work to see if it
meets specifications. This job is similar to that of
the all-round machinist, except that it is limited to
a single type o f machine tool, the grinding ma­
chine. The semiskilled grinding machine oper­
ator does repetitive work. His job typically con­
sists of placing metal in the machine, watching
the machining for signs of trouble, and measuring
the finished work with specially prepared gages
which simplify measurement. A machinist or set­
up man sets up the machine for him.
Training and Qualifications
From 2 to 4 years of on-the-job training are
needed to become a skilled grinding-machine oper­
ator. However, many men qualified as all-round
machinists are employed as skilled grinding-ma­
chine operators. Semiskilled machine-tool oper­
ators are generally trained in not more than 6
months on the job.
The work is not physically strenuous and a num­
ber o f women are employed as grinding-machine
operators. Most of the women, however, are semi­
skilled operators.
Where Employed
Grinding-machine operators are employed
mainly in production shops in such industries as




automobiles and machinery. A number of the
skilled grinding-machine operators, however, are
found in jobbing machine shops and a few are in
maintenance shops in nonmetal industries. In job
shops a wide variety of products may be made
with relatively few of each kind. Production
shops make large quantities of identical parts, and
skill requirements are generally lower than in job
shops.
Most of the jobs for grinding-machine operators
are in the middlewestern and northeastern sections
o f the United States, with Michigan, Ohio, New
York, and Pennsylvania the leading States.
Outlook
During the next few years the number of jobs
for grinding-machine operators is expected to
increase somewhat and there will be opportunities
for new workers to get trainee jobs in this occu­
pation. Increases will occur mainly in such
metal-working industries as automobiles, aircraft,
and heavy electrical equipment. After a few
years, employment of grinding-machine operators
may drop off somewhat as production in these and
other metal industries catches up with unsatisfied
demand. As long as general business conditions
are favorable, however, there should continue to
be a large number of these jobs.
Among the skilled grinding-machine operators
are a number of men approaching the ages when
death or retirement will take them out of the labor
force. Replacement of these workers will provide
many new openings. Shifting into other occupa­
tions is common among the semiskilled operators,
and opportunities for new workers will be created
in this way.
Earnings and Working Conditions
Many grinding-machine operators are paid on
an incentive basis and hence often earn as much as
machine-shop workers of greater skill. In Octo­
ber 1946, average straight-time hourly earnings of
male grinding-machine operators in the machinery
industries (except electrical machinery, machine
tools, and machine-tool accessories) in large cities

242

O C C U P A T IO N A L

OU TLOOK

were as follows: Class A, $1.45; class B, $1.35;
class C, $1.22. Since October 1946, there generally
have been wage increases in plants employing these
workers.
The great majority of grinding-machine opera­
tors are members of unions. There are a number
o f labor organizations in this field, some of the
more important of which are the International
Association of Machinists (Independent), the
United Electrical, Radio, and Machine Workers of
America ( C IO ), and the United Automobile, A ir­
craft, and Agricultural Implement Workers of
America (C IO ).
Skilled grinding-machine operators may be pro­
moted to such jobs as set-up man or foreman. I f
they can get experience on several different kinds

HANDBOOK

of machine tools, they also can develop into all­
round machinists. Semiskilled operators gener­
ally have less chance for advancement since they
are employed mainly in production shops where
the work is very repetitive and there are few op­
portunities to develop additional skills.
Most machine shops are relatively clean, well
lighted, and free from dust. The danger of seri­
ous accidents is relatively small. The industries
in which grinding-machine operators are em­
ployed generally have average or better-thanaverage safety records, in comparison with manu­
facturing industries in general.
See also All-Round Machinists, page 234, and
Set-Up Men (Machine Shop), page 244.

Milling-Machine Operators
(D .O .T . 4-78.030 to 4 -7 8 .0 3 9 ; 6-78.030 to 6-78.039)

Outlook Summary
A small increase in the number of jobs is ex­
pected during the next few years. Over the longer
run, employment is expected to drop off somewhat,
but replacement needs will provide openings for
new workers.
Nature of Work
Milling-machine operators are machine-shop
workers specializing in running a milling machine,
a machine tool which shapes metal with a saw­
tooth cutting tool. These jobs may be divided into
two main classes according to the kind of skill re­
quired. The skilled milling-machine operator
does varying kinds o f machining. He works from
blueprints or lay-outs, sets up his machine for each
machining operation, and verifies dimensions of
work. The semiskilled milling-machine operator
does repetitive work. Typically, his job consists
of placing metal in the machine, watching the ma­
chining for signs of trouble, and measuring the
finished work with specially prepared gages which
simplify measurement. A machinist or set-up
man sets up the machine for him.
Training and Qualifications
To become a skilled milling-machine operator




requires from 1y2 to 3 years o f on-the-job training.
However, many of these jobs are filled by men who
have completed all-round machinist apprentice­
ships. Semiskilled milling-machine operators are
generally trained in not more than 6 months on
the job.
The work is not physically strenuous and a num­
ber of women are employed as milling-machine
operators. However, most of the women are semi­
skilled operators.
Where Employed
Milling-machine operators are employed mainly
in metalworking industries, such as machinery and
automobiles. A number of the skilled millingmachine operators work in jobbing machine shops
and a few are employed in maintenance shops in
nonmetal industries. Most semiskilled operators
are employed in production shops. In job shops
a variety of products may be made with relatively
few o f each kind. Production shops make large
quantities q4 identical parts, and skill require­
ments are generally lower than in job shops.
Most of the jobs for milling-machine operators
are in the Middle West and Northeast, with Michi­
gan, Ohio, New York, and Pennsylvania the lead­
ing employers.

M A C H IN E

SHOP

Outlook
The number o f jobs for milling-machine oper­
ators is expected to increase somewhat in the next
few years. Increases will occur mainly in such
metalworking industries as automobiles, aircraft,
and industrial electrical equipment. In general,
skilled operators will be more in demand than the
semiskilled. After a few years, as production in
many metalworking plants catches up with un­
satisfied demands, the number of jobs for millingmachine operators will tend to decrease slightly,
but should remain at a relatively high level.
Among the skilled milling-machine operators
are a number of men approaching the ages when
death or retirement will take them out of the labor
force. Replacement of these workers will provide
numerous openings. Shifting into other occupa­
tions is common among the semiskilled operators,
and opportunities for new workers will be created
in this way.
Earnings and Working Conditions
Many milling-machine operators are paid on an
incentive basis and hence often earn as much as
machine-shop workers of greater skill. In Octo­
ber 1946, in large cities, average straight-time
hourly earnings of male milling-machine opera­
tors in the machinery industries (except electrical
machinery, machine tools, and machine-tool acces­

O C C U P A T IO N S

243

sories) were as follows: Class A, $1.42; class B,
$1.28; class C, $1.20. Since October 1946, there
generally have been wage increases in plants
employing these workers.
Skilled milling-machine operators may be pro­
moted to such jobs as set-up man or foreman. I f
they can get experience on several different kinds
o f machine tools, they also can develop into all­
round machinists. Semiskilled operators gener­
ally have less chance for advancement since they
are employed mainly in production shops where
the work is very repetitive and there are few op­
portunities to develop additional skills.
Most machine shops are relatively clean, well
lighted, and free from dust. The danger of serious
accidents is relatively small. The industries in
which milling-machine operators are employed
generally have average or better-than-average
safety records, in comparison with manufacturing
industries in general.
The great majority of milling-machine opera­
tors are members o f unions. There are a number
of labor organizations in this field, some of the
more important o f which are the International As­
sociation of Machinists (Independent), the United
Electrical, Radio, and Machine Workers of Amer­
ica (C IO ), and the United Automobile, Aircraft,
and Agricultural Implement Workers of America
(C IO ).

Shaper Operators
(D .O .T . 4-78.060 to 4-78.069)

Outlook Summary
Prospects are for a fairly steady employment
level in this small occupation during the next sev­
eral years; over a longer period employment is
likely to drop somewhat, but replacement needs
will create openings for a few new workers.
Nature of Work
These are machine-shop workers specializing
in operating shapers (machine tools which form
a flat surface of metal by moving a cutting tool
back and forth over the surface). This is a rel­
atively small occupation, because of the specialized
uses of the shaper. The workers are usually
skilled. The job generally requires working from




blueprints or lay-outs, setting up the shaper for
each machine operation, and measuring the fin­
ished work to see if it meets specifications. The
work is comparable to that of the all-round ma­
chinist except that it is limited to one machine
tool, the shaper. Training of shaper operators
may consist of a 4-year machinist apprenticeship
or several years of on-the-job training in the
operation of the machine.
Where Employed
Shaper operators are employed mainly in job­
bing shops in various machinery industries, par­
ticularly machine-tool plants and tool and die
shops. Relatively few are employed in production

244

O C C U P A T IO N A L

OU TLOOK H A N D B O O K

shops. In job shops a wide variety o f products
may be made with relatively few of each kind.
Production shops make large quantities of identi­
cal parts, and skill requirements are generally
lower than in job shops.
Most of the jobs for shaper operators will be
in the middle western and northeastern sections of
the United States, with Michigan, Ohio, New
York, and Pennsylvania, the leading States.
Outlook
During the next few years the number o f jobs
for shaper operators should continue at about the
present, relatively high level. It is unlikely that

the industries, such as machine tools, which employ
the bulk of these workers will experience sharp
changes in employment in the near future. Over
a long period, the number of jobs for shaper oper­
ators may decrease slightly, particularly if other
machine tools are substituted for the shaper in cer­
tain uses. However, because a high percentage of
shaper operators are older men, approaching the
age when death or retirement will take them from
the labor force, there will be openings for new
workers to replace these men. Nevertheless, be­
cause this is a small occupation, these openings will
be relatively few in number.
See also All-Round Machinists, page 234.

Set-Up Men (Machine Shop)
(D .O .T . 4-75.160)

Outlook Summary
Prospects during the next few years are for a
small number o f openings for men with experi­
ence as all-round machinists or skilled machinetool operators. Over the longer run continued
high employment is likely.

or as a skilled machine-tool specialist, since the job
requires a good background in machine-shop prac­
tice as well as a thorough knowledge o f the opera­
tion of at least one type of machine tool. This is
essentially a man’s job, although great physical
strength is not required.

Nature o f Work

Where Employed

The set-up man is a skilled specialist employed
in machine shops which carry on large-volume
production. His job is to install cutting tools and
adjust the controls of machine tools so that they
can be run by semiskilled operators.
The usual practice is to assign a set-up man to a
number of machine tools, which are often of one
type, such as the turret lathe. The set-up man
works from blueprints, written specifications, or
job lay-outs in order to set the cutting tools in
place and to adjust, for each machining opera­
tion, the guides, speed and feed controls, working
tables, and other parts of machine tools. After
setting up and adjusting a machine, he makes a
trial run to see if it is working properly, and then
turns it over to the regular operator. During the
machining operation he makes all important ad­
justments needed for accurate production.

Set-up men are employed in a variety of metal­
working industries, especially in plants making
automobiles and machinery. Most of the jobs for
set-up men are in the Middle West and Northeast,
with Michigan, Ohio, Illinois, New York, and
Pennsylvania the leading States.

Training and Qualifications
In order to become a set-up man, it is usually
necessary to qualify first as an all-round machinist




Outlook
Employment prospects for set-up men are gen­
erally favorable for the next several years. Metal­
working employment as a whole is expected to
rise, with marked increases coming in some o f the
industries, such as automobiles and aircraft, which
use relatively large numbers of these workers.
Thus, a number of experienced machinists and
skilled machine-tool operators will be able to get
jobs as set-up men. After a few years, openings
for set-up men will be reduced as the backlog of
demand for many metal products is wiped out.
However, the trend toward specialization in
machine-shop work will tend to provide continued
employment.

M A C H IN E

SH OP

Earnings and Working Conditions
In October 1946, set-up men employed in the
machinery industries (except electrical machinery,
machine tools, and machine-tool accessories) in
large cities had average straight-time hourly earn­
ings of $1.43. Since that date, there generally
have been wage increases in plants employing
set-up men.
The great majority of set-up men are members
of unions. There are a number of labor organiza­
tions in this field, some of the more important of
which are the International Association of Ma­
chinists (Independent), the United Electrical,
Radio, and Machine Workers of America (C IO ),

245

O C C U P A T IO N S

and the United Automobile, Aircraft, and A gri­
cultural Implement Workers of America (C IO ).
Most machine shops are relatively clean, well
lighted, and free from dust. The danger of
serious accidents in machine shops is relatively
small. The industries in which set-up men are
employed generally have average or better-thanaverage safety records, in comparison with manu­
facturing industries in general.
See also: All-Round Machinists, page 234; En­
gine-Lathe Operators, page 238; Turret-Lathe
Operators, page 239; Grinding-Machine Opera­
tors, page 241; and Milling-Machine Operators,
page 242.

Lay-Out Men (Machine Shop)
(D .O .T . 4-75.140)

Outlook Summary
There will be openings for a small number of
experienced, all-round machinists to get into this
field during the next few years; longer run pros­
pects are for stable employment.
Nature o f Work
The lay-out man is a highly skilled specialist
whose job is to make guide marks on metal before
it is machined to indicate to the machine-tool op­
erators the kind of machining needed.
Working from blueprints or written specifica­
tions, the lay-out man marks guide lines, reference
points, and other instructions to operators on
rough castings, forgings, or metal stock. He uses
a wide assortment of instruments, including the
scriber, with which he marks lines on the surface
of the metal; the center punch, used to indicate
the centers on the ends of metal pieces to be ma­
chined or drilled; the keyseat or box rule, used
for drawing lines and laying off distances on
curved surfaces; dividers, for transferring and
comparing distances; L- or T-squares for deter­
mining right angles; and calipers and micrometers
for accurate measurement. Not only must the lay­
out man work with extreme accuracy, but he has
also to be familiar with the operation and uses
o f each of the standard machine tools.
793996°—49


17

Ph o to graph

by

U.

S.

d e pa r tm e n t

of

La b o r

The lay-out man must have a broad knowledge of machine-shop work
and be able to use marking and measuring instruments.

Training and Qualifications
In general, it takes from 6 to 10 years to develop
this skill, including the machinist apprenticeship
or equivalent training needed to learn the funcla-

246

O C C U P A T IO N A L

O U TLO OK

mentals o f machine-shop practice. A high-school
education, including courses in geometry, trigo­
nometry, and mechanical drawing is often re­
quired ; additional preparation in a trade or tech­
nical school is considered desirable.
Where Employed
Lay-out men are employed in various metal­
working industries especially in plants making
automobiles or machinery. Most of the jobs for
lay-out men are in the mid-western and north­
eastern sections of the country, particularly in
the States of Michigan, Ohio, Illinois, New York,
and Pennsylvania.
Outlook
Prospects are for a slight increase in employ­




HANDBOOK

ment in this small, occupation during the next few
years. Metalworking employment as a whole is
expected to rise, with marked increases coming in
automobile plants and other employers of lay-out
men. Thus, a small number o f experienced all­
round machinists will be able to get jobs as lay-out
men. Over a longer period, metalworking em­
ployment, generally, will drop off somewhat as the
backlog o f demand for many metal products is
wiped out. However, the trend toward using
skilled lay-out men in conjunction with semiskilled
machine-tool operators in many shops, is expected
to continue; this will tend to maintain the number
of lay-out jobs at a relatively high level.
See also All-Round Machinists, page 234.

Foundry Occupations
Foundries and Foundry Products
Foundries are places where castings are made.
A casting is formed by pouring molten metal into
a mold and allowing the metal to solidify, taking
the shape of the mold. This is one of industry’s
basic metalworking methods since it can produce
metal parts in a wide range of shapes and sizes.
Castings in general use include, for example, au­
tomobile cylinder blocks, water mains, bathtubs,
machinery bearings, ship propellers, railway car
wheels, machine-tool bases, radiators, valve bodies,
and locomotive frames.
Casting is applied to a number of different
metals and their alloys. Gray iron accounts for
most of the tonnage. Steel and malleable iron are
the other important types of ferrous metals which
are cast. Among the nonferrous metals, brass,
bronze, aluminum, and magnesium are the main
casting materials.' Foundries usually specialize
in casting one or two particular metals, since some­
what different kinds of equipment and methods
are used for the various metals. Most foundry
workers can transfer, however, from casting
one type of metal to another without much extra
training.
Foundries differ greatly in the way their pro­
duction is organized. Production foundries make
large quantities of identical castings, using mainly
machine methods and requiring relatively few
skilled workers. Many of the production found­
ries are captive or integrated foundries, that is,
they are departments or subsidiaries of plants
which use castings in manufacturing finished
products such as automobiles, various types of
machinery, agricultural implements, plumbing
and heating equipment, or electrical machinery.
Jobbing foundries, on the other hand, make a
variety o f shapes and sizes of castings, usually in
limited quantities. To a great extent, hand meth­
ods are employed and a relatively high propor­




tion of skilled workers is required. Jobbing
foundries are usually separate establishments (in­
dependent or commercial foundries), selling their
castings to other companies.
General Employment Outlook
Foundries will provide a large number of jobs
for new workers during the next several years.
Rising output of foundry products is in prospect,
and many foundries will increase their employ­
ment. In addition, there will be numerous job
openings created by the replacement of workers
leaving the foundries.
As chart 39 shows, foundry employment is cur­
rently at a high level; it is far above prewar,
slightly higher than at the end of the war, and not
so much short of the wartime peak. About
380,000 production workers are employed in
foundries, including both independent and inte­
grated foundries. High production of castings
has resulted from the expanding needs of many
of the industries which use castings—including
particularly the automobile, electrical equipment,
farm machinery, industrial equipment, plumbing
and heating supplies, and railroad-equipment
industries. Continued strong demand for cast­
ings for these and other metal-products industries
is likely for the next several years, with even
increased demand expected in many cases. Gov­
ernment programs for expanded production of
military aircraft and ships will require higher
output o f certain types of castings. Prospects are,
therefore, for higher output of castings and for
rising foundry employment, although shortages of
pig iron, scrap, and coke may temporarily hinder
greater production of iron and steel castings.
There are differences in outlook, however, among
the various major classes of foundries.
In gray-iron foundries, which have about 200,000 workers (more than half of all foundry jobs),
production has been at an all-time high. Large
247

248

O C C U P A T IO N A L

OU TLO OK

CHART 39

THE NUMBER OF FOUNDRY
JOBS IS FAR ABOVE PREWAR
TH O U S AN D S OF
PRODUCTION W O R K E R S

1939

Peek
1 94 4

War
J u ly 1945

1947

U N ITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTIC S

quantities o f gray-iron castings are used in the
manufacture of automobiles and trucks, machine
tools, and other types of industrial machinery,
electric motors and generators, steel-mill equip­
ment, and construction materials (including castiron pipe, radiators, bathtubs, etc.). Several
years of record output of gray iron will probably
be required to meet the needs for castings for these
and other metal products. For the immediate
future, however, there is not much chance of in­
creasing employment to any great extent in grayiron foundries, because of continuing shortages of
materials such as pig iron and coke.
In steel foundries, which have about 70,000 work­
ers, rising employment is likely during the comingfew years. Stepped-up production of railway
equipment, which takes a very large share of steel
castings output, will be the main factor in this
increase. Other important markets for steel cast­
ings include such expanding fields as shipbuilding,




HANDBOOK

construction and mining machinery, power-plant
equipment, and steel-mill machinery.
The number of jobs in malleable-iron foundries
will probably rise somewhat above the present level
of about 35,000. Increased production of malle­
able castings will be required to meet the needs
o f many of the industries which are important
users of this type of casting, including the auto­
mobile, farm machinery, and railroad-equipment
industries.
Employment in the non ferrous foundries is the
highest ever achieved in peacetime (75,000) and
is likely to rise above this level during the next
several years. Output of brass and bronze cast­
ings will be kept at a high rate by the demands
of such industries as automobiles, plumbing sup­
plies, and industrial machinery. Aluminum cast­
ings production was expanded tremendously dur­
ing the war, dropping very sharply after VJ-day.
It has recovered substantially, however, with new
markets for aluminum opening up in the house­
hold equipment, automotive, and other fields.
Moreover, stepped-up production of military air­
craft will contribute to the demand for aluminum
castings. Output of magnesium castings also was
enormously increased during the war, but today
only a small number of workers are employed in
magnesium foundries.
Employment opportunities in foundry work will
be created not only by the expected rise in total
foundry employment, but also by the need to re­
place those workers who leave the foundries.
Openings resulting from death and retirement
may run about 6,000 to 10,000 annually. Replace­
ment demand of this kind will be especially im­
portant in the more skilled foundry occupations,
in which there are many workers of relatively
advanced age. An even greater number of open­
ings, however, will arise from turn-over; that is,
the shifting of experienced foundry workers into
other kinds of employment. In the semiskilled
and unskilled foundry occupations, most of the
job openings will arise in this way.
Over a longer period, the backlog of demand
for many metal products, such as automobiles, will
be satisfied and the production of castings prob­
ably will be reduced. In addition, continued tech­
nical advances in foundry methods will have ail
effect on foundry employment. Some of the more
important technological changes will include

FOUNDRY O C C U P A T IO N S

greater use of permanent-mold casting and more
extensive installation of material handling equip­
ment, and as a result fewer workers will be needed
to produce a given amount of castings. These
technological advances, together with the expected
dropping off in the demand for castings, will mean
some reduction in foundry employment. As long
as general business conditions are good, however,
the decrease should not be sharp enough to cause
unemployment of experienced foundry workers in
any numbers, although there will be fewer open­
ings for new workers.
All in all, the trends in foundry employment are
favorable, in terms both of getting a foundry job
during the next few years and of holding onto the
job over a longer period. There are, however,
some differences in outlook among the various
foundry occupations. Opportunities in some of
the more important foundry occupations are sum­
marized in the statements for the individual
occupations.

249

ing and coremaking are relatively large occupa­
tions and include a high proportion o f skilled jobs
requiring apprenticeship or equivalent training.
Although fewer workers are engaged in pattern­
making, the skill needed is very high and appren­
ticeship is the normal method of entry.
Employment in the principal foundry occupa­
tions is shown in chart 40.

The Foundry Occupations
Foundries constitute one of the most important
fields of employment for trained workers in manu­
facturing. Molding, coremaking, and pattern­
making are the main skilled occupations in foun­
dries. There are. of course, many other occupa­
tions represented, including maintenance workers
(such as carpenters and electricians), a large num­
ber of laborers, and clerical and professional
employees.
The foundry occupations are mainly limited to
men, reflecting the strenuous nature of much of
the work as well as certain traditional employ­
ment practices. During the war a large number of
women came into the foundries, but relatively few
of them have remained.
The proportion of Negroes in foundries is
markedly high; they constitute more than onefourth of all production workers in independent
ferrous foundries. They are employed not only
in many unskilled and semiskilled foundry occupa­
tions, but also to a substantial extent as skilled
molders and coremakers. In March 1940, Negroes
comprised about 8 percent of the employed molders
reported in the Census of Population.
Among the many types of foundry jobs, three
occupations—molder, coremaker, and pattern­
maker—stand out as especially significant. Mold­




The first step in casting is to make a wood or
metal pattern in the shape of the final casting
desired. Patternmakers, highly skilled craftsmen,
are classified according to the kind o f material
they use in making patterns. Those who con­
struct wooden patterns constitute about two-thirds
of the total. O f the remainder, most are metal
patternmakers, although there are a few who work
with other materials, such as plaster. Hand
molders prepare the sand molds into which metal
is poured. The molds are made by packing and
ramming sand around the patterns. Molds for
smaller castings are usually made on a workbench
by bench molders/ -floor molders make molds for
large and bulky castings on the foundry floor. A
machine molder operates one of several types of
machines which simplify and speed up the mak­
ing of large quantities of identical sand molds.
Hand coremakers shape the bodies of sand, or
“ cores,” which are placed inside molds in order to
form any hollow spaces needed in castings. Ma-

250

O C C U P A T IO N A L

OUTLOOK

chine coremakers are employed mainly in produc­
tion foundries, where large quantities of identical
castings are made for use in such finished products
as automobiles, agricultural machinery, and house­
hold appliances.
With the mold made and the cores, if any, put
inside, the next step is to pour the molten metal
into the mold. A melter operates a furnace used
to melt metal for castings. The actual pouring is
customarily done by a pourer, although in some
small foundries it is part of the molder’s job.
When the casting has cooled off it is taken out of
the mold (this is called “ shaking out” ) and sent
to the cleaning and finishing department, where
chippers remove the excess metal from castings by
means of pneumatic hammers or hand hammers
and chisels. Grinders, using a mechanically
powered abrasive wheel, smooth and finish the
casting. Although chipping and grinding may be
separate occupations, they are often combined into
one job, especially in the smaller foundries. Cast­
ings inspectors then check finished castings for
structural soundness and proper dimensions.
Foundry technicians are a group of skilled
workers having to do with quality control in the

HANDBOOK

making of castings. Included are workers with
such specialized duties as testing of molding and
coremaking sands, chemical analysis of metal, op­
eration of machines which test the strength and
hardness of castings, and the use of X-ray or mag­
netic apparatus to inspect the internal structure
o f castings.
Earnings and Working Conditions
Wages in foundries compare favorably with
those in the metalworking industries generally.
Shown below are average weekly earnings in inde­
pendent iron and steel foundries, compared with
earnings in the entire group of industries making
iron and steel and their products and in all manu­
facturing.
A v e r a g e w e e k ly ea rn in g s,
J a n u a ry 19 if 8

Gray iron foundries_______________________ $57.
Malleable iron foundries________________
59.
Steel foundries___________________________ 59.
Cast iron pipe foundries_________________
51.
Iron and steel industry group____________
All manufacturing_______________________

FOUR S T A T E S HAVE N E A R L Y HALF
OF TH E F O U N D R Y J O B S




57. 66
52.14

The above earnings include extra pay for overtime
and night work.

C H AR T 41

B U R E A U O F L A B O R S T A T IS T IC S

31
03
86
25

FOUNDRY

The working environment varies greatly among
individual foundries. In some, the conditions
compare favorably with metalworking industries
generally; in others, safety and comfort are below
the average for metalworking. The injury rate
in foundries tends to be relatively high, but there
has been considerable improvement of working
conditions in recent years.
The frequency of accidents varies among the
different kinds of foundry work. In general, pat­
ternmaking and coremaking are the least hazard­
ous, molding is somewhat more unsafe, and jobs
in melting and chipping tend to have among the
highest injury rates.
Where Are the Foundry Jobs?
As the map (chart 41) shows, most of the foun­
dry jobs are in the Midwestern and Northeastern

O C C U P A T IO N S

251

States. Foundries tend to be near the great con­
centrations of metalworking industries for which
they produce castings and near the supply of such
basic material as pig iron, coke, and nonferrous
metals. The leading foundry States are Ohio,
Pennsylvania, Illinois, and Michigan. However,
foundry jobs appear in substantial numbers in
other parts of the country: Alabama, for example,
has many foundry workers; in California, foundry
employment has recently become more important.
Every State has some foundry jobs.
Where To Get More Information
Employment Outlook in Foundry Occupations.
Bulletin No. 880. U. S. Bureau of Labor Sta­
tistics, 1946. 56 pp. 15 cents, Superintendent of
Documents, Washington 25, D. C.

Hand Molders
(D .O .T . 4-81.010 and .030)

Outlook Summary

Where Employed

There will be a number of openings for new
workers during the next several years. Over a
longer period, employment in the occupation will
decline somewhat; however, journeymen molders
will be in a much better position than the less
skilled molders.

Hand molders work mainly in jobbing found­
ries; in production foundries, some journeymen
molders are employed in skilled, specialized mold­
ing jobs and in supervisory positions. Production
foundries make large quantities of identical cast­
ings, using mainly machine methods and requiring
relatively few skilled workers. Many of the pro­
duction foundries are “ captive” or “ integrated”
foundries; that is, departments of plants which
use castings in manufacturing finished products,
such as automobiles, various types of machinery,
agricultural implements, plumbing and heating
equipment, or electrical machinery. Jobbing
foundries, on the other hand, make a variety of
shapes and sizes of castings, usually in limited
quantities. To a great extent, hand methods are
employed and a relatively high proportion of
skilled workers is required. Jobbing foundries are
usually separate establishments (independent or
commercial foundries), selling their castings to
other companies.
Although foundries tend to specialize in casting
one or two metals—gray iron, steel, malleable

Nature of Work
These foundry workers use mainly hand meth­
ods to prepare the sand molds into which metal
is poured to make castings. A mold is made by
packing and ramming prepared sand around a
model or pattern of the desired casting and then
removing the pattern, leaving in the sand a hollow
space in the shape of the casting to be made.
Molds for smaller castings are usually made on a
workbench by bench molders/ those for large and
bulky castings are made on the foundry floor by
floor molders. Skill requirements in this occupa­
tion differ considerably. An all-yound hand
molder (journeyman) makes widely varying kinds
of molds. A less skilled molder does more repeti­
tive work, specializing on a single kind of mold.




252

O C C U P A T IO N A L

OU TLOOK

iron, brass, bronze, aluminum, or magnesium—
hand molders usually can transfer, with little ad­
ditional training, from one type of foundry to
another.
Most of the hand molders work in the Mid­
western and Northeastern regions, with Ohio,
Pennsylvania, Illinois, Michigan, Indiana, and
New York the leading States.
Training and Qualifications
Completion o f a 4-year apprenticeship, or the
equivalent in experience, is needed to become a
journeyman molcler and thus to qualify for all­
round hand molding and for the skilled special­
ized or supervisory jobs. Men with this training
are also preferred for many kinds of machine
molding. For the less skilled jobs, less than 6
months of on-the-job training is usually required.
For a molding apprenticeship, an eighth grade
education is usually the minimum, and many em­
ployers specify additional school work-up to and
including high school graduation. Eighth grade
schooling, however, suffices for most jobs as learn­
ers of less skilled hand molding.
Full-time 1- or 2-year trade school courses in
molding are available in many localities. I f the
school’s equipment is adequate and its instruction
of good quality, useful preparation for the mold­
ing trade may be provided in that the trade school
course may be credited toward completion of the
molding apprenticeship. However, these schools
cannot qualify their students for jobs as journey­
men molders without an additional period of work
experience.
Physical standards for molding jobs take into
account the needs for continual standing and
moving about, frequent lifting, good vision, and
manual dexterity. Since the work is fairly stren­
uous, very few women are employed in this occu­
pation. There are a fairly large number of
Negroes in molding jobs.
Outlook
In general, the employment outlook for hand
molders is favorable. Expanding output in such
industries as automobiles, electric-power equip­
ment, farm and construction machinery, and rail­
road equipment, which are among the major users
of castings, should keep foundry employment at a




HANDBOOK

peacetime high. As between the two skill grades,
however, prospects are better for journeymen be­
cause of their varied skills. A high proportion of
journeymen now employed are of relatively ad­
vanced age, nearing the time when they will have
to be replaced. During the next few years, more
journeymen will be needed than are likely to be
available and many new workers will enter the
occupation. Currently, molcler apprentice open­
ings are scarce in most areas, because of the large
number of apprentices taken on since the end of
the war. However, after a year or two, many of
these men will complete their training, and there
should be numerous openings for apprentices.

COU RTESY

OF

N A T IO N A L

A R C H IV E S

A floor molder smoothing sand mold.

Over the longer run, employment of hand mold­
ers, along with foundry employment generally, is
expected to drop off somewhat as the backlog o f
demand for many metal products is satisfied and
the requirements for castings are thus reduced.
Moreover, greater use of machine molding, per­
manent-mold casting, and other technical advances

FOUNDRY

will cut down the number of openings for new
workers.
Experienced journeymen, however,
should continue to have jobs, since they will be
needed to supervise less skilled workers and to
make molds which cannot be produced by
machines.
For at least several years there will be enough
jobs for experienced less skilled hand molders, and
some opportunities for beginners are expected.
Technical advances will affect this kind of mold­
ing more than the other types, and employment
o f hand molders will be reduced. However, those
who get the equivalent o f the journeyman’s train­
ing will have very good chances for continued
employment.
Earnings and Working Conditions
Hand molders are among the highest paid
foundry workers. Average straight-time hourly
earnings o f male floor and bench molders in inde­
pendent ferrous foundries in selected large cities
in November 1947 are shown below:
City

Baltimore
_
Birm ingham____
_ _
Boston _
__
_ _______ __
Buffalo __
_____ _ __________
Chicago
_ . ______________ __
Cincinnati. _ ______________________
Cleveland________
______ _________
D enver
_ _ _ _ __________ __ _ _
D e t r o it ________ ___________ ____ _
H artford, C on n ____
_
H ouston
__________ ____
Indianapolis__________________ .
_ _
Los Angeles. _____
____ ____ ____
Milwaukee
_
_ _ _ _ _ _

Molders,
hand,
floor
$1.
1.
1.
1.
1.
1.
1.
1.
1.
1.
1.
1.
1.
1.

44
24
49
63
61
57
70
40
84
58
53
53
69
80

Molders,
hand,
bench
$1.
1.
1.
1.
1.
1.
1.
1.
1.
1.
1.
1.
1.
1.

36
08
49
55
63
45
62
40
82
35
41
48
58
43

253

O C C U P A T IO N S

City

M inneapolis-St. Paul _ _________ _
Newark
.
. . __ ___________ _
New York
_ ____________ ____
Philadelphia __________ ___________
Pittsburgh. _
_ ____________ _
Portland, Oreg__ ____________ _
San Francisco__________________ . .
Seattle.
______________________
Toledo __ _ ____________________ . .

Molders,
hand,
floor

$1.
1.
1.
1.
1.
1.
1.
1.
1.

41
49
55
67
57
64
63
64
66

Molders,
hand,
bench

$1.
1.
1.
1.
1.
1.
1.
1.
1.

42
53
51
50
50
64
67
64
52

Apprentices generally start at from one-tliird to
one-half of the journeyman rate, and their pay
rises gradually during the apprenticeship period.
Hand molders with all-round training have
good chances for promotion to supervisory jobs.
Opportunities for advancement are much more
limited for the less-skilled hand molders.
Working conditions for molders vary greatly
among individual foundries. In some, conditions
compare favorably with metalworking industries
generally; in others, safety and comfort are below
the average for metalworking. The injury rate in
foundries tends to be relatively high, although
there has been considerable improvement of work­
ing conditions in recent years.
Like other foundry workers, the large majority
of hand molders are union workers. The principal
labor organizations covering these workers in­
clude the International Molders and Foundry
Workers Union of North America (A F L ), the
United Steelworkers of America (C IO ), and the
United Automobile, Aircraft, and Agricultural
Implement Workers of America (C I O ).
See also: Machine Molders, page 253, and Hand
Coremakers, page 255.

Machine Molders
(D.O.T. 4-81.050; 6-81.010 and .020)

Outlook Summary

Nature o f Work

An increase in the number of jobs is likely dur­
ing the next few years. Replacement needs will
provide many job opportunities for new workers.
Over the longer run, employment should remain
fairly stable.

Machine molders are foundry workers who op­
erate one o f several types of machines which sim­
plify and speed up the making of large quantities
of identical sand molds for castings. The basic
duties of a machine molder consist mainly of as­




254

O C C U P A T IO N A L

OUTLOOK

sembling the flask (molding box) and pattern on
tbe machine table, filling the flask with prepared
sand, and operating the machine by the properly
timed use of its control levers and pedals. Ma­
chine molders sometimes are qualified journeyman
molders who require little supervision and who
set up and adjust their own machines. More com­
monly, however, the machine molder is a semi­
skilled worker, whose duties are limited to operat­
ing the machine which is set up for him.
Where Employed

HANDBOOK

a very high rate. These industries include par­
ticularly automobiles, farm machinery, plumbing
and heating supplies, and railroad equipment.
Over a longer period, foundry employment may
drop off somewhat, as the backlog of demand for
many metal products is satisfied and the produc­
tion of castings is thus reduced. However, the
number of machine molders is expected to remain
fairly stable, because the trend toward wider use
of machine methods in place of hand molding will
tend to offset any decrease in foundry activity.

Machine molders are employed mainly in pro­
duction foundries—those which make large quan­
tities of identical castings for use in such products
as automobiles, agricultural machinery, and
household appliances. Many of these foundries
are departments of plants which use the castings in
their products. Other machine molders work in
independent foundries producing castings for sale.
Although foundries tend to specialize in casting
one or two metals— gray iron, steel, malleable iron,
brass, bronze, aluminum, or magnesium—machine
molders usually can transfer, with little or no
extra training, from one type of foundry to
another.
Most o f the jobs for machine molders are in the
midwestern and northeastern regions, with Ohio,
Pennsylvania, Illinois, Michigan,' Indiana, and
New York the leading States.
Training and Qualifications
For molding-machine jobs of the more difficult
and responsible types, a 4-year molder apprentice­
ship or equivalent training is required. However,
machine molding of the less skilled variety, in
which close supervision is provided and finishing
is delegated to other workers, is ordinarily learned
in from 60 to 90 days of on-the-job training.
In general, average physical strength is needed
for machine molding. A very small number of
women are employed in the occupation.
Outlook
The number of jobs for machine molders is ex­
pected to increase during the next few years. The
expanding needs of many of the industries which
are among the most important users of castings
should keep the Nation’s foundries producing at




Co u rtesy

of

u

. S.

o f f ic e

o f

e d u c a t io n

Machine molders operate machines which simplify and speed up the
making of a large quantity of identical molds.

Since shifting into other occupations is common
among semiskilled machine molders, there will be
many openings for new workers to replace them.
The ranks of the more skilled machine molders in­
clude a considerable proportion of older men who
will have to be replaced within a few years.
Earnings and Working Conditions
Average straight-time hourly earnings (exclud­
ing premium pay for overtime and night work)
of men operating molding machines in independ­
ent ferrous foundries in selected large cities in
November 1947 are shown in the following state­
ment.

FOUNDRY

Baltimore__________ $1. 46
Birmingham________ 1. 23
Boston_______________ 1.47
Buffalo_______________ 1.78
C h icago--------------------- 1.78
Cincinnati___________
1.57
C leveland___________
1.85
Denver_______________ 1.46
D etroit_______________ 1.93
Hartford (C on n .)___ 1.84
Houston______________ 1.38
Indianapolis_________ 1.71

Los Angeles________ $1. 71
M ilw aukee_________
1. 91
Minneapolis-St.Paul- 1.39
N ew a rk _____________ 1. 68
New Y ork__________
1. 92
Philadelphia------------- 1. 67
Pittsburgh__________ 1. 57
Portland (O reg.) ___ 1.71
San Francisco______ 1. 72
Seattle______________ 1. 60
T o le d o ______________ 1. 81

A machine molcler who has completed an appren­
ticeship or acquired other all-round molding ex­
perience is often in line for promotion to a super­
visory job. A semiskilled machine molder, how­
ever. generally has much less chance for advance­
ment.

255

O C C U P A T IO N S

Working conditions vary greatly among indi­
vidual foundries. In some, conditions compare
favorably with metalworking industries gener­
ally; in others, safety and comfort are below the
average for metalworking. The injury rate in
foundries tends to be relatively high, although
there has been considerable improvement of work­
ing conditions in recent years.
Like other foundry workers, the large majority
of machine molders are union members. The prin­
cipal labor organizations covering these workers
include the International Molders and Foundry
Workers Union of North America (A F L ), the
United Steelworkers of America (C IO ), and the
United Automobile, Aircraft, and Agricultural
Implement Workers of America (C IO ).
See also Hand Molders, page 251.

Hand Coremakers
(D.O.T. 4-82.010)

Outlook Summary
Prospects are for a moderate increase in the
number of jobs for hand coremakers during the
next few years. Over a longer period, employ­
ment in this occupation is expected to decline
somewhat.
Nature o f Work
These foundry workers use mainly hand meth­
ods to prepare the bodies of sand, or cores, which
are placed in molds to form hollows or holes re­
quired in metal castings. A core is made by pack­
ing prepared sand into a hollow form (core box)
so that the sand is compressed into the desired
shape. Small cores are made on a work bench by
bench coremakers; large and bulky cores are made
on the foundry floor by floor coremakers. Skill re­
quirements in this occupation differ considerably.
All-round hand coremakers (journeymen) pre­
pare a variety of larger or more intricate cores.
The less skilled coremakers make the small and
simple cores, frequently produced in large num­
bers, so the work is highly repetitive.
Photograph

by

u

S.

Departm ent

of

La b o r

Where Employed
Journeymen hand coremakers usually work in




Bench coremakers use mainly hand methods to prepare the bodies
of sand, or “ cores,” which are placed in molds to form the hollows
or holes required in metal castings.

256

O C C U P A T IO N A L

OUTLOOK

jobbing foundries, which make castings of various
shapes and sizes in limited quantities. Most job­
bing foundries are independent establishments,
selling their castings to other firms. Semiskilled
hand coremakers are generally employed in pro­
duction foundries, where large quantities of iden­
tical castings are made, so that coremaking is
mainly repetitive. Many of the production found­
ries are captive or integrated foundries, that is,
they are departments or subsidiaries of plants
wffiich use castings in manufacturing finished
products, such as automobiles, farm machinery, or
plumbing supplies. Some journeymen coremakers
work in production foundries as supervisors or in
skilled, specialized jobs.
Although foundries tend to specialize in casting
one or two metals—gray iron, steel, malleable iron,
brass, bronze, aluminum, or magnesium—hand
coremakers usually can transfer, with little addi­
tional training, from one type of foundry to
another.
Most o f the hand coremakers work in the midwestern and northeastern regions, with Ohio,
Pennsylvania, Illinois, Michigan, Indiana, and
New York the leading States.
Training and Qualifications
Completion of a 4-year apprenticeship, or the
equivalent in experience, is needed to become a
journeyman coremaker. Molding and coremak­
ing training is often combined in a single appren­
ticeship. For the less skilled jobs, only a few
months of on-the-job training is usually required.
For coremaking apprentices an eighth-grade
education is usually the minimum, and many em­
ployers specify additional school work up to and
including high-school graduation. Eighth-grade
schooling, however, suffices for most jobs as learn­
ers of less skilled hand coremaking.
Full-time 1- or 2-year trade-school courses in
molding, coremaking, or general foundry work are
available in many localities. I f the school’s equip­
ment is adequate and its instruction of good qual­
ity, useful preparation for the coremaking trade
may be provided in that the trade-school course
may be credited toward completion of the core­
making apprenticeship. However, these schools
cannot qualify their students for jobs as skilled
coremakers without an additional period of work
experience.




HANDBOOK

Physical requirements for light coremaking are
fairly modest, since the work is not strenuous;
women are frequently employed in the less skilled
coremaking jobs.
Outlook
The number of hand-coremaker jobs should
increase somewhat during the next few years.
Foundry employment is already at a peacetime
high, and further increases are likely in some types
of foundries. Many industries which are impor­
tant users of castings, including automobile, farmmachinery, and power-plant equipment producers,
are expected to expand their output, creating a big­
ger demand for castings, and, in turn, more jobs for
coremakers. Journeymen coremakers will be in
especially strong demand, with replacement needs
becoming more important because of the advanced
age o f many of these men. Although apprentice
openings are currently somewhat scarce in many
localities because of the large number of appren­
tices now in training, there should be a relatively
large number of openings after a year or two. A t
the less skilled level, shifting of experienced work­
ers into other occupations will create jobs for
beginners.
Over a longer period, the number of hand core­
making jobs will decline slightly, because foundry
production will drop somewhat when the backlog
of demand for many metal products is satisfied,
and because of greater use of coremaking ma­
chines. Although opportunities for semiskilled
coremakers will be reduced by greater use of
machines, journeymen will be less affected, since
the work of the latter is less subject to mecha­
nization and because journeymen will continue to
be needed on supervisory jobs.
Earnings and Working Conditions
Hand coremakers are among the better paid
foundry workers. Average straight-time hourly
earnings of male hand coremakers in selected large
cities in independent ferrous foundries in Novem­
ber 1947 are shown below:
B altim ore____________$1.34 Cleveland_____________ $1.69
B irm in gh am _______ 1.10
D e n v e r_____________
1. 36
B oston_______________
1.50 D e t r o it ______________ 1.84
B u ffa lo ______________ 1.71 H artford (C on n .) —
1.34
Chicago_____________ 1. 73
H o u sto n ____________ 1.45
C in cin n a ti__________ 1. 45
In d ia n a p olis------------ 1. 53

FOUNDRY

T.ns Arip-pies
Milwaukee
Minneapolis-St. PaulNewark
New York
Philadelphia

$1. 54
1. 72
1.37
1. 46
1. 53
1. 82

Pittsburgh
Portland (O reg.) —
San Francisco
Seattle
Toledo

$1. 55
1.61
1. 63
1. 63
1. 66

Working conditions for coremakers vary greatly
among individual foundries. In some, conditions
compare favorably with metalworking industries
generally; in others, safety and comfort are below
the average for metalworking. The injury rate
in foundries tends to be relatively high, although
there has been considerable improvement of work­
ing conditions in recent years. Coremaking, how­

O C C U P A T IO N S

257

ever, is somewhat safer than foundry work
generally.
Like other foundry workers, the large majority
of hand coremakers are union members. The
principal labor organizations covering these
workers include the International Molders and
Foundry Workers Union o f North America
(A F L ), the United Steelworkers of America
(C IO ), and the United Automobile, Aircraft, and
Agricultural Implement Workers of America
(C IO ).
See also Machine Coremakers, page 257, and
Hand Molders, page 251.

Machine Coremakers
(D.O.T. 6-82.010, .020, and .030)

Outlook Summary
Employment in this occupation is expected to
increase slightly during the next few years. Over
the longer run a fairly stable employment level is
anticipated.
Nature of Work
Machine coremakers are foundry workers who
operate one of several different types of machines
which force prepared sand into specially shaped
hollow forms to make sand cores. These cores are
then used together with sand molds in casting
metal. The duties and the amount of skill re­
quired for machine coremakers vary. Some
workers are required to set up and adjust their
own machines and do any necessary finishing oper­
ations on the cores; less-skilled coremakers are
more closely supervised, and the necessary adjust­
ing of the machines is done for them.
Where Employed
Machine coremakers are employed mainly in
production foundries, where large quantities of
identical castings are made for use in such finished
products as automobiles, agricultural machinery,
and household appliances. Most of these produc­
tion foundries are departments of the company
which uses the castings, but some are independent
foundries producing castings for sale. Although




foundries tend to specialize in casting one or two
metals—gray iron, steel, malleable iron, brass,
bronze, aluminum, or magnesium—machine coremakers can usually transfer, with little or no extra
training, from one type o f foundry to another.
Most of the jobs for machine coremakers are in
the midwestern and northeastern sections of the
country, with Ohio, Pennsylvania, Illinois, Michi­
gan, Indiana, and New York the leading States.
Training and Qualifications
In general, for the less-skilled machine-core­
maker jobs only a brief period o f on-the-job train­
ing is needed, and no special form of preparation
is required. Persons without previous foundry
experience may be hired directly, or foundry labor­
ers or helpers may be upgraded to this work.
However, a 3- or 4-year coremaker apprenticeship,
or equivalent training, is sometimes needed for the
more difficult and responsible machine-coremaking
jobs.
For many types of machine coremaking little
physical strength is needed, and some women are
employed. In a number of foundries the occu­
pation is open to Negro workers.
Outlook
During the next few years, a moderate increase
in the number of jobs for machine coremakers is
anticipated. Expanding output in such industries

258

O C C U P A T IO N A L

O U TLO OK

as automobiles, electrical equipment, farm ma­
chinery, and railroad equipment, which are among
the major users of castings, should keep foundry
employment at a peacetime high. There will also
be job opportunities for a number of new work­
ers to replace experienced machine coremakers
who leave the foundries for other fields of work,
or to replace those who die or retire. However,
T
because machine coremaking is a relatively small
occupation, the total number of new job openings
will be limited.
Over the longer run, the employment of ma­
chine coremakers should be relatively stable. The
trend toward wider use of coremaking machines
will tend to offset the slight decline in total
foundry activity likely to occur when the unsatis­
fied demands for many metal products using cast­
ings have been met.

HANDBOOK

Working Conditions
Working conditions vary greatly among indi­
vidual foundries. In some, conditions compare
favorably with metalworking industries gener­
ally; in others, safety and comfort are below the
average for metalworking. The injury rate in
foundries tends to be relatively high, although
there has been considerable improvement of 'work­
ing conditions in recent years.
Like other foundry workers, the large majority
of machine coremakers are union members. The
principal labor organizations covering these work­
ers include the International Holders and Foundry
Workers Union of North America (A F L ), the
United Steelworkers of America (C IO ), and the
United Automobile, Aircraft, and Agricultural
Implement Workers of America (C I O ).
See also Hand Coremakers, page 255, and Ma­
chine Holders, page 258.

Patternmakers
(D.O.T. 5-17.010 and .020)

Outlook Summary
There will be opportunities each year for a
small number of persons to enter this highly skilled
occupation, with good prospects for continued em­
ployment over the longer run.
Nature o f Work
Patternmakers are the highly skilled craftsmen
who construct patterns and core boxes for cast­
ings. They are classified, primarily, according to
the kind o f material they use in making patterns.
Those who construct wooden patterns constitute
about two-thirds of the total. Of the remainder,
most are metal patternmakers, although there are
a few who work with other materials, such as
plaster.
To do his job properly, a patternmaker must
understand general foundry practice. He works
from blueprints and plans the pattern, taking into
account the manner in which the object will be
cast and the type o f metal to be used. The wood
patternmaker selects the appropriate wood stock
and lays out the pattern, marking the design for
each section on the proper piece of wood. Using




power saws, he cuts each piece of wood roughly
to width and length. He then shapes the rough
pieces into their final form, using various wood­
working machines—such as borers, lathes, planers,
band saws, and sanders—as well as many small
hand tools. Finally, he assembles the pattern seg­
ments by hand.
The duties of a metal patternmaker differ from
those o f a wood patternmaker principally in that
metal and metalworking equipment are substituted
for wood and woodworking equipment. Metal
patternmakers prepare patterns from metal stock,
or, more commonly, from rough castings made
from an original wood pattern. To shape and fin­
ish their work, they use a variety of metalworking
machines, including the engine lathe, drill press,
milling machine, power hacksaw, grinder, and
shaper. Apart from these differences, metal pat­
ternmaking is similar to work on wood patterns,
requiring blueprint reading and lay-out.
Throughout his work the patternmaker care­
fully checks each dimension of the pattern. A
high degree of accuracy is required, since any im­
perfection in the pattern will be reproduced in the
castings made from it. Other duties of pattern­

FOUNDRY

makers include making core boxes (in much the
same manner as patterns are constructed) and
repairing patterns and core boxes.
Where Employed
Patternmaking is done in specially equipped
pattern shops, which are of two types—independ­
ent and integrated. Independent pattern shops
are separate establishments which make patterns
for sale. An integrated (or corporation) shop
may be operated in conjunction with a foundry
which uses the patterns. On the other hand, it,
may be the pattern department of a plant that
buys castings from a commercial foundry, to which
it supplies appropriate patterns with each new
order for castings.
Patternmaking jobs are found mainly in the in­
dustrial centers of the Midwest and Northeast,
with Michigan, Ohio, Illinois, Pennsylvania, and
New York the leading States.
Training and Qualifications
Apprenticeship, or a similar program of on-thejob training, is the principal means of qualifying
as a journeyman patternmaker. Because of the
high degree of skill and the wide range of knowl­
edge needed for patternmaking, it is very difficult
to obtain the necessary training through infor­
mally picking up the trade. Good trade school
courses in patternmaking provide useful prepara­
tion for the prospective apprentice, and may in
some cases be credited toward completion of the
apprentice period. However, these courses do not
substitute for apprenticeship or other on-the-job
training.
The usual apprenticeship period for pattern­
making is 5 years, or about 10,000 working hours.
In addition, at least 720 hours of classroom in­
struction in related technical subjects is normally
provided during apprenticeship. Since wood
and metal patternmaking differ in certain essen­
tial respects, there are separate apprenticeships
for each type.
Patternmaking, although not strenuous, re­
quires considerable standing and moving about.
A high degree of manual dexterity is especially
important because of the precise nature of many
hand operations. To all practical purposes, this
is entirely a man’s occupation.




O C C U P A T IO N S

259

Outlook
It is expected that the number of jobs for pat­
ternmakers will remain around its present level of
about 16,000 during the next few years. Con­
tinued high production in the industries which are
among the main users of castings, such as automo­
biles,, plumbing and heating equipment, household
appliances, and farm machinery, is expected to
keep foundry activity at a peacetime high, thus
providing many jobs for patternmakers.
There will be few apprentice openings in the
next year or two because of the large number of
apprentices taken on since the war, but when these
men complete their training there will be a small
number o f openings each year.
After several years of high employment, the
number o f patternmaker jobs will decline, slightly
reflecting the general downward trend in foundry
activity that may be expected after the accumu­
lated demand for many metal products has been
met. In addition, employment may tend to be re­
duced somewhat by such technological changes as
some substitution of welding and other fabricat­
ing methods in place of casting. However, not
many experienced patternmakers should be unem­
ployed, and those who begin training during the
next few years, have good prospects for continued
employment over a period of many years. The
gradual dropping out of older men in the trade
will tend to offset the decline in employment, so
that the remaining workers will probably continue
to have jobs.
Earnings and Working Conditions
Patternmaking is among the highest paid occu­
pations in manufacturing. In August 1947, union
patternmakers in such large centers as Chicago,
Cleveland, and Detroit generally earned upward
of $2 an hour straight time, and some made as
much as $3.50 an hour.
Experienced patternmakers may be advanced to
pattern lay-out man or pattern room foreman.
In some cases, a journeyman may have the oppor­
tunity to start a small pattern shop of his own.
When patternmaking employment is not avail­
able, journeymen patternmakers can find jobs in
related fields. Wood patternmakers can qualify
for nearly every kind of skilled woodworking

260

O C C U P A T IO N A L

OU TLO OK

job— cabinetmaking, for example. Metal pattern­
makers are suited for many types of machine shop
work, including the jobs o f machinist, machine
tool operator, and lay-out man.
The great majority of patternmakers are mem­

HANDBOOK

bers of the Pattern Makers’ League of North
America (A F L ). A small number have been or­
ganized by industrial unions of the CIO, particu­
larly the United Automobile, Aircraft, and A gri­
cultural Implement Workers of America.

Chippers and Grinders (Foundry)
(D.O.T. 6-82.910)

Outlook Summary
There will be numerous openings for new
workers during the next few years; employment
prospects in the longer run are less favorable.
Nature of Work
Chippers and grinders constitute a large group
of workers, most of them semiskilled, in the clean­
ing and finishing departments of foundries.
Chipping consists of removing the excess metal
from castings by means of pneumatic hammers
or hand hammers and chisels. In grinding, a me­
chanically powered abrasive wdieel is used to
smooth and finish castings. Although chipping
and grinding may be separate occupations they
are often combined in one job, especially in the
smaller foundries. There are variations in skill
requirements, depending on the intricacy of the
castings on which work is done, the degree of
precision required, and the amount of supervision
given the worker.
Where Employed
Chippers and grinders are employed in both
independent foundries, which produce castings
for sale to other firms, and in foundry depart­
ments of plants which use castings in the manu­
facture of such products as automobiles, farm
machinery, various types of industrial equipment,
household appliances, and railroad equipment.
Although foundries tend to specialize in casting
one or two metals— gray iron, steel, malleable
iron, brass, bronze, aluminum, or magnesium—
chippers and grinders usually can transfer, with
little or no extra training, from one type of foun­
dry to another.
Most o f the jobs for chippers and grinders are
in the midwestern and northeastern sections, with




Ohio, Pennsylvania, Illinois, Michigan, Indiana,
and New York the leading States.
Training and Qualifications
The basic duties of the chipper or grinder are
generally learned in a brief period of on-the-job
training, and no special form of preparation is
needed. Persons without previous foundry expe­
rience may be hired directly, or foundry laborers
may be upgraded to this work. Considerable
experience in chipping and grinding is required,
however, to qualify for the more intricate, precise,
and responsible duties.
In many respects chipping and grinding involve
strenuous work, and at least average strength is
needed. Consequently, relatively few women are
employed in this occupation, and these only for
work on small castings. In most foundries, these
jobs are open to Negro workers.
Outlook
The number o f jobs for chippers and grinders
is expected to rise slightly above the present level
of about 40,000 during the next few years. E x­
panding output in such industries as automobiles,
electrical equipment, farm machinery, and rail­
road equipment, which are among the major users
of castings, should keep foundry employment at a
peacetime high. There will also be many job op­
portunities for new workers to replace experienced
chippers and grinders who leave the foundries for
other fields of work, or who die or retire.
Over the longer run, employment of chippers
and grinders, along with foundry employment
generally, is expected to drop off somewhat as the
backlog of demand for many metal products is
satisfied and the requirements for castings are thus
reduced. The growing use of permanent-mold

FOUNDRY

261

O C C U P A T IO N S

and grinders in independent ferrous foundries in
selected large cities in November 1947 are shown
below:
B a ltim ore------------------$1. 00
Birmingham________
. S6
Boston______________ 1. 04
B u ffa lo _____________ 1. 58
Chicago_____________ 1. 42
Cincinnati___________ 1.15
C leveland__________
1. 42
Denver______________ 1. 05
D etroit--------------------- 1. 66
H artford (C o n n .)
1.14
Houston_____________ 1. 01
Indianapolis________ 1. 27

Photograph

by

u

. S.

d e pa r tm e n t

of

La b o r

Grinders use mechanically powered abrasive wheels to smooth and
finish castings.

casting, and other methods which decrease the
amount of finishing needed, plus increased in­
stallation of materials handling equipment, will
tend further to lower the number of jobs for
chippers and grinders. However, there should be
little unemployment of experienced workers, al­
though the number of openings for beginners will
be diminished considerably.
Earnings and Working Conditions
Earnings o f chippers and grinders vary widely.
Many are paid on an incentive basis. Average
straight-time hourly earnings of male chippers

Los Angeles________ $1. 23
M ilw au kee_________
1. 56
M inneapolis-St.PauL 1.16
N ew ark _____________ 1. 04
New Y ork__________
1.15
Philadelphia________ 1. 48
P ittsburgh_________
1. 35
Portland (O reg.)___ 1.39
San Francisco______ 1. 33
Seattle______________ 1. 34
T o le d o ______________ 1. 42

Working conditions vary greatly among individ­
ual foundries. In some, conditions compare fa­
vorably with metalworking industries generally;
in others, safety and comfort are below the average
for metalworking. The injury rate in foundries
tends to be relatively high, although there has been
considerable improvement of working conditions
in recent years. Chipping and grinding tend to
have higher-accident rates than many other kinds
of foundry work.
Like other foundry workers, the large majority
of chippers and grinders are union members. The
principal labor organizations covering these
workers include the International Holders and
Foundry Workers Union of North America
(A F L ), the United Steelworkers of America
(C IO ), and the United Automobile, Aircraft, and
Agricultural Implement Workers of America
(C IO ).
See also Castings Inspectors.

Castings Inspectors
(D.O.T. 6-82.920)

Outlook Summary
In the next several years, there will be some
openings for new workers in this occupation.
Longer run prospects are for continued employ­
ment of experienced inspectors.

tors are able to read blueprints, to work on widely
different types of castings, and to mark partially
defective castings to show what should be done
to salvage them. The less skilled do routine
measuring and checking of large numbers of
identical castings under close supervision.

Nature of Work
Castings inspectors are foundry workers who
check finished castings for structural soundness
and proper dimensions. The more skilled inspec­
793996°—49-

-18




Where Employed
Castings inspectors are employed in both inde­
pendent foundries, which produce castings for sale

262

O C C U P A T IO N A L

OUTLOOK

to other firms, and in foundry departments of
plants which use castings in the manufacture of
such products as automobiles, farm machinery,
various types of industrial equipment, household
appliances, and railroad equipment. Although
foundries tend to specialize in casting one or two
metals—gray iron, steel, malleable iron, brass,
bronze, aluminum, or magnesium—castings in­
spectors usually can transfer, with little or no
extra training, from one type of foundry to
another.
Most of the jobs for castings inspectors are in
the midwestern and northeastern regions, with
Ohio, Pennsylvania, Illinois, Michigan, Indiana,
and New York the leading States.
Training and Qualifications
Skilled inspector jobs are usually filled by pro­
motion from lower-grade inspection jobs or from
other cleaning and finishing occupations, such as
that of chipper and grinder. For the less skilled
work, previous foundry experience may not be
needed. Physical requirements depend on the size
o f castings inspected and the availability of me­
chanical handling equipment. In the lighter
types o f inspection work some women are em­
ployed, mainly for the less skilled jobs. Skilled
inspectors may be promoted to the jobs of chief
inspector or cleaning room foreman.
Outlook
The number o f jobs for castings inspectors is
expected to remain near its present high level of
about 10,000 during the next few years. The ex­
panding needs of many of the industries which
are among the important users of foundry prod­
ucts should keep the Nation’s foundries producing

HANDBOOK

at a very high rate. These industries include par­
ticularly automobiles, farm machinery, industrial
electrical equipment, plumbing and heating sup­
plies, and railroad equipment.
Over a longer period, the number of jobs for
castings inspectors, along with foundry employ­
ment generally, may drop off somewhat, as the
backlog of demand for many metal products is
satisfied and the needs for castings are thus re­
duced. However, few, if any, experienced in­
spectors will be unemployed, although the number
o f new job openings will be reduced.
There will be some job opportunities for new
workers because of replacement needs. Among
the less skilled inspectors especially, experienced
workers frequently shift into other lines of work,
creating jobs for newcomers.
Working Conditions
Working conditions vary greatly among indi­
vidual foundries. In some, conditions compare
favorably with metalworking industries •gener­
ally; in others, safety and comfort are below the
average for metalworking. The injury rate in
foundries tends to be relatively high, although
there has been considerable improvement of work­
ing conditions in recent years.
Like other foundry workers, the large majority
of castings inspectors are union members. The
principal labor organizations, covering these
workers include the International Molders and
Foundry Workers Union of North America
(A F L ), the United Steelworkers of America
(C IO ), and the United Automobile, Aircraft, and
Agricultural Implement Workers o f America
(C IO ).
See also Chippers and Grinders (Foundry),
page 260.

Melters (Foundry)
(D.O.T. 4-91.351, .411, .441, .447, .571, and .572)

Outlook Summary

Nature of Work

There will be a limited number of openings for
new workers in this occupation during the next
few years. Long-run prospects are for a fairly
stable level of employment.

A foundry melter operates or directs the opera­
tion o f a furnace used to melt metal for castings.
He usually specializes on a particular type of fur­
nace— cupola, open-hearth, electric, crucible, or




FOUNDRY OCCUPATIONS

reverberatory—and on one or two metals. Skill
requirements in this occupation depend on the way
the foundry is organized and the type of melting
equipment used. Skilled melters need little super­
vision and are responsible for charging the fur­
nace, controlling the furnace temperature and
melting time, and determining from the appear­
ance of the molten metal when it is ready for pour­
ing. Less skilled melters work under close super­
vision of a foundry manager or an engineer and
need use little independent judgment.
Where Employed
Melters are employed both in independent
foundries, which produce castings for sale to other
firms, and in foundry departments of plants which
use castings in the manufacture of such products
as automobiles, farm machinery, various types of
industrial equipment, household appliances, and
railroad equipment.
Most of the jobs for melters are in the midwestern and northeastern regions, with Ohio,
Pennsylvania, Illinois, Michigan, Indiana, and
New York the leading States.
Training and Qualifications
As a rule, there are no apprenticeships or other
organized training programs provided for melters.
The less skilled melting jobs are learned in a brief
period of informal training. The usual way to
get one of the more skilled jobs is to begin as a
furnace helper or less skilled melter and gradually
to pick up the trade. The more skilled melters
must have some familiarity with general foundry
practice, shop arithmetic, and certain practical
aspects of chemistry and metallurgy. Since the
duties of melters are in many respects strenuous,
physical requirements are fairly high and normally
only men are employed.
Outlook
The number of jobs for foundry melters along
with foundry employment generally is expected




263

to increase somewhat in the next few years because
of the expanding needs of many of the major users
of foundry products, including such industries as
automobiles, electrical equipment, farm machin­
ery, and railroad equipment. The long-run trend
is for a fairly stable level of employment, although
the growing use of more efficient melting methods
may slightly reduce the number of men required.
There is, moreover, a definite tendency to simplify
the work of the more skilled melters by trans­
ferring some of their responsibilities to technical
employees.
Job opportunities for new workers will arise
mainly from replacement needs. Among the more
skilled melters, particularly, there is a considerable
proportion of older men who will have to be re­
placed within a few years. Experienced furnace
helpers and less skilled melters frequently shift to
other fields of work, creating openings for new
workers. However, because this is a fairly small
occupation, there will be only a limited number
of openings in any one year.
Working Conditions
Working conditions vary greatly among indi­
vidual foundries. In some, conditions compare
favorably with metalworking industries gener­
ally; in others, safety and comfort are below the
average for metalworking. The injury rate in
foundries tends to be relatively high, although
there has been considerable improvement o f work­
ing conditions in recent years. Accidents in melt­
ing tend to be more frequent than in many other
kinds of foundry work.
Like other foundry workers, the large majority
of melters are union members. The principal la­
bor organizations covering these workers include
the International Molders and Foundry Workers
Union of North America (A F L ), the United
Steelworkers of America (C IO ), and the United
Automobile, Aircraft, and Agricultural Imple­
ment Workers of America (C IO ).

264

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

Foundry Technicians
( D . O . T . 4 - 8 6 .1 7 0 )

Outlook Summary
There will be good employment opportunities
for a limited number of new workers in this small
but growing occupation.
Nature of Work
This is a group of skilled foundry occupations
having to do with quality control in the making
of castings. Included are workers with such spe­
cialized duties as the testing of molding and core­
making sand, chemical analysis of metal, opera­
tion of machines which test the strength and hard­
ness o f castings, and the use o f X-ray or magnetic
apparatus to inspect the internal structure of
castings.
In general, a high-school education is a pre­
requisite, and employers may require additional
technical schooling. However, most of the foundry
technician’s duties are learned on the job. Physi­
cal strength is not ordinarily needed, and women
are often employed. Foundry technicians may
advance to supervisory positions in their various
specialized fields.
Foundry technicians are employed both in in­
dependent foundries, which produce castings for
sale to other firms, and in foundry departments




of plants which use castings in the manufacture
of such products as automobiles, various kinds o f
industrial equipment, farm machinery, railroad
equipment, and household appliances.
Most of the jobs for foundry technicians are in
the midwestern and northeastern sections of the
country, with Ohio, Pennsylvania, Illinois, Michi­
gan, Indiana, and New York the leading States.
Outlook
Employment of foundry technicians is expected
to rise slightly above its present level during the
next few years. The expanding needs o f many
industries which are major users of foundry prod­
ucts should result in an increase in foundry ac­
tivity. These industries include particularly auto­
mobiles, power-plant equipment, farm machinery,
and railroad equipment.
Over a longer period, while foundry employ­
ment generally may decline somewhat, the longrun trend toward greater use of scientific methods
in casting metal gradually will lead to expanded
employment of foundry technicians. However,
although this is a growing occupation, it is numeri­
cally small and consequently only a limited num­
ber of openings are likely in any one year.

Forge-Shop Occupations

Forge-shop work is among the smaller fields of
employment in metalworking. Less than 60,000
workers currently are employed in forge-shop
occupations. These are, however, among the bestpaid industrial occupations and include a high
proportion of skilled jobs.
Forging is used to shape metal objects that are
required to withstand great stress, including, for
example, automobile crankshafts and axles, loco­
motive wheels, and marine-engine drive shafts.
Steel is the main material used, but brass and
other nonferrous metals are also forged.
In general, forgings are produced in machines
which pound or squeeze heated metal into the
desired shape. This is similar to what is done
by the old-time blacksmith, except that machine
power is substituted for the blacksmith’s arm, and
dies for his hammer and anvil.
There are many different kinds o f jobs in forge
shops. The most important are those having to
do with the operation of the forging hammers.
These hammers usually are run by crews of 2 or
more— sometimes as many as 10 or 15. Hammer
operators (or hammermen) and their crews gener­
ally specialize on a particular kind of forging
hammer. Drop-hammer operators use a machine
which forms heated metal by impact between dies
shaped like the desired object. Hammersmiths
produce forgings with power hammers equipped
with unshaped dies, forming metal to shape by
manipulating it under the pounding of the flat
dies. (Basically this is what the blacksmith does
by hand.) Upsetters operate forging machines
which shape metal by pressure exerted horizon­
tally ; forging-press operators use a machine simi­
lar to the upset machine, except that it operates
vertically. Heaters and helpers make up the rest
o f the various hammer crews, assisting the ham­
mer operators in a number of ways.
In addition to' the hammer crews, forge-shop




workers include a number o f men engaged in trim­
ming, cleaning, finishing, or inspecting forgings.
There are also many laborers employed, mainly in
moving materials. A small number of skilled die
sinkers work in the die shops, preparing the forg­
ing dies by highly acccurate hand and machine
operations.
The more skilled forge-shop jobs, such as that
o f hammerman, are filled by promoting men from
lower rated forge-shop jobs. For example, a man
starts as a helper on a hammer crew, advances to
the job of heater, and then to hammerman. T yp­
ically, this takes several years; it can, however,
sometimes be done in less than a year.
Forge-shop jobs are found in a variety o f in­
dustries. The largest group is in independent
steel-forging plants—those producing steel forg­
ings for sale to other industries. Many workers,
however, are employed in the forge departments
o f plants which use forged parts in their final prod­
ucts, such as automobiles, railroad equipment, air­
craft, hand tools, or machinery. A number of
forge-shop workers are employed in large shops
operated as a part of steel mills.
Employment of forge-shop workers is concen­
trated mainly in the metalworking centers of the
Midwest and the Northeast, with Ohio, Pennsyl­
vania, Michigan, and Illinois among the most im­
portant States.
During the next several years there should be
some increase in the number of forge-shop jobs,
and new workers will be hired as helpers and la­
borers. Higher output is in prospect in many
industries using forged parts in their final prod­
ucts. These industries include particularly auto­
mobiles, tractors, farm machinery, aircraft, and
railroad equipment. As a result, production o f
forgings will probably rise somewhat over its pres­
ent high level. However, although fo'rge-sliop
265

266

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

employment is far higher than prewar, it is still
well under the wartime peak, when tremendous
quantities of forgings were required for ordnance,
aircraft, and ships.
Over the longer run, forge-shop employment
may decline slightly as the backlogs of demand for
automobiles, tractors, and other products using
forgings are worked off. It is likely, however, that
enough older workers will be dropping out of the
shops to offset the decline in employment so that
those remaining in this field will continue to have
jobs, and there will also be some new openings.
Earnings in forge shops are among the highest
in industry. In January 1918, production work­
ers in independent steel forging plants earned an
average o f nearly $66 for a workweek of slightly
under 42 hours. (In the same month, the average
for all durable goods manufacturing was slightly
under $56 for a workweek of about 41 hours). In
part, the level of forge-shop earnings is accounted

for by the prevalence of incentive p a y ; the gen­
erally difficult working conditions are also a factor
in the wage scale. Earnings in certain forge-shop
occupations, such as that o f hammerman, range
considerably higher. Because some of these jobs
require considerable speed and stamina, older men
are often unable to continue in the occupation and
are transferred to lower rated, less-demanding
forge-shop jobs.
Forge shops are typically hot and noisy, and
much of the work is strenuous. The accident fre­
quency rates for forge shops are higher than the
average for metalworking industries.
Most forge-shop workers are union members.
The leading unions in this field include the Inter­
national Brotherhood of Blacksmiths, Drop Forg­
ers, and Helpers (A F L ), the United Steelworkers
of America (C IO ), and the United Automobile,
Aircraft, and Agricultural Implement Workers
of America (C IO ).

Drop-Hammer Operators
( D .O .T . 4 - 8 6 .1 7 0 )

Outlook Summary
There will be some increase in employment dur­
ing the next few years. Drop-hammer operator
jobs will be filled by upgrading less-skilled forgeshop workers, creating openings for new workers
at the lower-skill levels. Longer-run prospects are
for continued employment of those in this field.
Nature o f Work
A drop-hammer operator is a skilled forge-shop
worker who operates a drop hammer, a kind of
forging machine which pounds metal into various
shapes between closed (shaped) dies. He directs
the work of the heater who heats the metal to pre­
pare it for forging and supervises any helpers as­
signed to his hammer. He may direct his crew in
setting up the hammer. The two principal types
o f drop hammers are steam and board. The oper­
ators of steam hammers are generally considered
more skilled than those on board hammers and the
skill required tends to increase with the size of the
hammer, although this also depends upon the com­
plexity o f the object to be forged. Men can trans­
fer from one type of hammer to another only with




an additional period of training. Because of their
greater skill, steam-hammer operators can more
readily transfer to board hammers than boardhammer operators to steam.
Where Employed
The largest number of drop-hammer operators
are employed in independent iron and steel forge
shops which forge parts for other industries.
Many are also employed in forge shops in factories
making automobiles and machinery, and in rail­
road repair shops.
Jobs for drop-hammer operators are found prin­
cipally in the Midwestern and Northeastern
States, including Ohio, Pennsylvania, Illinois,
Michigan, and New York.
Training and Qualifications
Drop-hammer operation is learned on the job,
but a regular apprenticeship is not ordinarily pro­
vided. Usually, a minimum of 2 to 4 years’ ex­
perience in the forge shop is required. Workers
usually begin as helpers and after sufficient expe­
rience advance to the job of heater. Experienced

FORGE-SHOP OCCUPATIONS

and capable heaters are upgraded to light forging
work when openings occur and then progress on
to the heavier hammers as they acquire greater
skill. All of the workers in this occupation are
male, and considerable physical strength is
required.
Outlook
During the next several years there should be
some increase in the number of drop-hammer
operator jobs, so that less-skilled forge-shop
workers will be upgraded to these jobs and new
workers taken on as helpers. Higher output is in
prospect in many industries using drop-forged
parts in their final products. These industries
include particularly automobiles, aircraft, trac­
tors, farm machinery, and railroad equipment.
As a result, production o f drop forgings will prob­
ably rise somewhat over its present high level.
Over the longer run, forge-shop employment
may decline slightly as the backlog o f demand for
automobiles, tractors,.and other products using
forging is worked off. However, it is likely that
enough older workers will be dropping out o f the
occupation to offset the decline in employment,
so that those remaining in this field will continue
to have jobs, and there will also be some new
openings.
Earnings and Working Conditions
Drop-hammer operators are among the highestpaid workers in manufacturing. Recent wage

267

data are not available for the independent forge
shops or for some of the other industries which
employ drop-hammer operators. However, in
October 1946, in the machinery industries (except
electrical machinery, machine tools, and machinetool accessories) average straight-time hourly
earnings were as follow s: Drop-hammer opera­
tors, steam, 5,000 pounds and over, $1.91; drophammer operators, steam, under 5,000 pounds,
$1.72; drop-hammer operators, board, under 3,000
pounds, $1.57. (Since October 1946, drop-ham­
mer operators generally have received wage in­
creases in machinery plants.)
Most drop-hammer operators are members of
unions. Many belong to the International
Brotherhood of Blacksmiths, Drop Forgers, and
Helpers (A F L ). Others have been organized by
the industrial unions o f the CIO, especially the
United Steelworkers o f America and the United
Automobile, Aircraft, and Agricultural Imple­
ment Workers o f America.
Forge shops are typically hot and noisy places
to work. The accident frequency rates for forge
shops are higher than the average for metal­
working industries.
Because the work requires considerable speed
and stamina, older men are often unable to con­
tinue in the occupation. These men are usually
transferred to lower-rated, less-demanding forgeshop jobs.
See also Heaters, Forge, page 271.

Hammersmiths
(D.O.T. 4-86.120)

Outlook Summary
There will be a few new openings for hammer­
smiths during the next several years. Longer run
prospects are for stable employment.
Nature of Work
A hammersmith is a highly skilled forge-shop
worker who operates a hammer equipped with un­
shaped (open) dies, used to pound heated metal
into required shapes. This method is employed
in forging objects which are too large or intricate




for closed dies (shaped to form a particular ob­
ject) or which are needed in quantities too small
to justify the expense of making closed dies. The
hammersmith supervises several men—for ex­
ample, an assistant operator or hammer driver, a
heater, and several helpers assigned to his hammer.
His work is generally considered more skilled than
closed-die forging. In addition to control of the
hammer stroke and careful manipulation of the
heated metal under the die, his job requires a
knowledge of forging practice, blueprint reading,
properties of metals, and shop arithmetic.

268

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

Co urtesy

of

n a t io n a l

a r c h iv e s

The hammersmith supervises a crew of men.

Where Employed

m ersm ith .

H a m m ersm ith s are e m p lo y e d b oth in in d e p e n d ­
en t ir o n an d steel fo r g e sh op s (p a r tic u la r ly in the

ex p e rie n ce d h e lp e r w h o sh ow s th e need ed a p titu d es
m a y be p r o m o te d to th e jo b o f h eater, a n d th en ce

sm a ller p la n t s ), w h ich fo r g e p a rts f o r sale to

to

o th e r in d u stries, an d in the fo r g e d ep a rtm en ts o f

lected fr o m a m o n g the m ore e x p e rie n ce d a ssist­

fa c to r ie s m a k in g fin ish ed p ro d u cts , such as h ea v y

ants.

d u t y m a ch in ery .

w o r k in o rd e r to d o the n ecessary h e a v y lif t in g

D u r in g the w a r, m a n y w ere

assistant

I t is usual to b e g in as a h elp er.

o p e ra to r.

H a m m e rsm ith s

are

An

se­

C on sid e ra b le stam in a is re q u ire d f o r th is

e m p lo y e d in f o r g i n g la r g e g u n b a rrels a n d sh ip

a n d to w ith sta n d the n oise, h eat, a n d v ib r a tio n

p arts, such as p r o p e lle r sh afts.

ty p ic a l o f fo r g e shops.

H a m m e rsm ith jo b s are fo u n d m a in ly in the

Outlook

M id w e ste rn a n d N orth ea stern States, in c lu d in g
P e n n s y lv a n ia , In d ia n a , O h io , N ew Y o r k , Illin o is ,
and W is co n s in .

Training and Qualifications
A t least several y ea rs o f fo r g e -s h o p e x p erien ce
in lo w e r g ra d e jo b s are re q u ire d to b ecom e a h a m ­




R e p la ce m e n t o f w ork e rs le a v in g th e o cc u p a tio n
w ill p ro v id e a fe w o p e n in g s to be fille d b y lesssk ille d fo r g e -s h o p w ork ers.

T h e n u m ber o f h a m ­

m ersm ith jo b s is fa r b e lo w the w a rtim e p eak , w h en
m a n y w ere e m p lo y e d in f o r g in g o rd n a n ce and sh ip
p arts.

E m p lo y m e n t, h o w e v e r , is fa r h ig h e r th a n

FORGE-SHOP OCCUPATIONS

prewar, and may rise somewhat during the next
few years in response to the needs of many metal­
working industries for heavy forgings. Longer
run prospects are for continued employment of
those entering the occupation. This is one of the
smaller forge-shop occupations, so that the number
of openings occurring in any one year is limited.
Wo t hing Conditions
Forge shops are typically hot and noisy places
to work. The accident frequency rates for forge
shops are higher than the average for metalwork­
ing industries.

269

Because the work requires considerable speed
and stamina, older men are often unable to con­
tinue in this occupation and are usually trans­
ferred to lower-level, less-demanding forge-shop
j obs.
Most hammersmiths are members of unions.
Many belong to the International Brotherhood of
Blacksmiths, Drop Forgers, and Helpers (A F L ).
Others have been organized by the industrial
unions of the CIO, especially the United Steel­
workers of America and the United Automobile,
Aircraft, and Agricultural Implement Workers of
America.

Forging-Press Operators
(D.O.T. 4-86.125; 6-88.718)

Outlook Summary

Training and Qualifications

There will be a few openings for new workers.
The trend of employment is upward, so that those
who do enter the occupation should continue to
have jobs.

Forging-press operation is learned on the job.
Where crews are used, workers start as helpers,
advancing to heaters after getting enough experi­
ence; operators are selected from among the ex­
perienced heaters. It may take several years to
advance from helper to operator. Where a single
man operates the press, inexperienced men are
hired as trainees. The work is strenuous and re­
quires the ability to withstand the heat, noise, and
vibration present in forge shops.

Nature of Work
These are forge-shop workers who operate forg­
ing presses, which shape metal by squeezing it in
closed (shaped) dies. This method is mainly used
where large quantities of relatively small forg­
ings—either steel or nonferrous— are required.
The forging-press operator may supervise a heater
(who heats the metal before forging) and one or
more helpers. He must know how to control the
heating of the metal, to regulate the pressure of
the machine, and to position the work in the dies.
His duties may include setting up the press. In
general, the job is less skilled than drop forging.
Where Employed
Forging-press operators are employed both in
independent forge shops (which forge parts for
sale to other industries) and in the forge depart­
ments of factories producing finished products,
such as automobiles and farm implements. Dur­
ing the war, many were employed in forging alu­
minum parts for aircraft.
Jobs for forging-press operators are found prin­
cipally in the Midwestern and Northeastern States,
including Ohio, Illinois, Pennsylvania, Michigan,
Connecticut, and ISew York.




Outlook
There will be a few openings for forging-press
operators in the next several years. Employment
will rise somewhat because of the expanding needs
for pressed forgings in many metalworking in­
dustries. Longer-run prospects are also favorable,
since somewhat greater use of the press-forging
method is anticipated. The resulting increase in
the number of forging-press jobs combined with
normal replacement needs will create opportuni­
ties for beginners. Relatively few openings are
likely in any one year, however, because of the
small size of the occupation.
Earnings and Working Conditions
Recent w age data for independent forge shops
T
and for many of the other industries which em­
ploy forging-press operators are not available.
However, in October 1946, hydraulic forging-press

270

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

operators (vertical) averaged $1.33 an hour
straight time in forge shops in the machinery in­
dustries (except electrical machinery, machine
tools, and machine-tool accessories). Since then,
forging-press operators have received wage in­
creases in many machinery plants.
M o s t fo r g in g -p r e s s o p e ra to rs are m em bers o f
u n ion s.

M any

b e lo n g

to

the

In te r n a tio n a l

B ro th e r h o o d o f B la ck s m ith s , D r o p F o r g e r s , a n d

H e lp e rs ( A F L ) .

O th ers h a v e been o rg a n iz e d b y

the in d u stria l u n ion s o f the C I O . esp e cia lly the
U n ite d S te e lw o rk e rs o f A m e r ic a a n d the U n ite d
A u to m o b ile , A ir c r a f t , a n d A g r ic u lt u r a l I m p le ­
m en t W o r k e r s o f A m e rica .
F o r g e sh op s are ty p ic a lly h o t a n d n o is y p la ces
in w h ich to w o rk . T h e a ccid e n t fre q u e n c y rate
f o r f o r g e sh op s is h ig h e r th a n th e a v e ra g e f o r
m e ta lw o rk in g in d u stries.

Upsetters (Forging’)
(D .O .T .

Outlook Summary

4-86.125)

Training and Qualifications

D u r in g th e n ex t fe w y ea rs th ere w ill be a sm all
n u m ber o f o p e n in g s to be filled b y less sk illed
fo r g e -s h o p w o r k e r s ; o v e r the lo n g e r ru n , e m p lo y ­
m en t w ill ten d to rise s lig h tly .

S e v e ra l y e a rs ’ w o r k e x p e rie n ce is g e n e r a lly
n eed ed to lea rn upset fo r g in g . I t is usual t o b e g in
as a h e lp e r, a n d a fte r sufficient e x p e rie n ce to rise
t o the jo b o f heater. E x p e rie n ce d h eaters are se­
le cte d f o r u p setter jo b s on lig h t w o rk .

Nature o f Work

W it h f u r ­

th e r e x p erien ce th e y m a y p ro g re ss to th e h e a v ie r

T h e u p setter in fo r g e sh op s op era tes an u psetter

fo r g in g

w o rk .

C o n sid e ra b le

p h y sic a l

stren g th

m eta l b etw een

a n d en d u ra n ce are n eed ed in o r d e r to d o th e r e ­

clo se d dies (sh a p e d to m a ke a p a r tic u la r o b je c t)

q u ire d h e a v y l if t in g a n d to w ith sta n d h eat, n o ise ,

w h ich m o v e h o riz o n ta lly , p re s sin g th e m etal a lo n g

a n d v ib r a tio n .
o cc u p a tio n .

fo r g in g

m a ch in e, u sed to

its g reatest len g th .

fo r m

T h is a ctio n causes the m etal

t o sp re a d a lo n g its o th e r d im en sion s, u n til it takes
o n th e req u ired fo rm . T h e u psetter d ire cts a
sm all cre w , co n s istin g o f a h eater (w h o heats th e
m eta l p re p a r a to r y to f o r g i n g )
sig n ed to h is m a ch in e.

a n d h e lp e rs as­

H e m u st k n o w h o w to c o n ­

t r o l th e h e a tin g o p e ra tio n , to a d ju s t th e m a ch in e ’s
p ressu re on the m eta l, a n d t o p o s itio n th e m etal
sto ck b etw een the dies.

I n gen era l, th e la r g e r the

o b je c t fo r g e d , the g re a te r th e sk ill req u ired .

Outlook
T h e r e w ill be a fe w o p e n in g s f o r u p setters in
th e n e x t severa l years. T h e jo b s w ill be filled
b y u p g r a d in g less sk ille d fo r g e -s h o p w o rk e rs, n ew
w o r k e r s b e in g ta ken on as h elp ers. E m p lo y m e n t
o f u psetters w ill rise som ew h a t because o f the e x ­
p a n d in g needs f o r u p set fo r g in g s in m a n y m e ta l­
w o r k in g in d u stries, such as a u to b o m ile s a n d a ir ­
c r a ft.

L o n g e r -r u n p ro sp e cts are a lso fa v o r a b le ,

since co m e w h a t g re a te r use o f th is f o r g i n g m e th o d

Where Employed
M o s t u p setters are e m p lo y e d in in d e p e n d e n t
ir o n an d steel f o r g i n g sh ops, w h ich sell fo r g e d
p a rts to o th e r ind u stries.

O n ly m en a re e m p lo y e d in th is

S o m e w o r k in the fo r g e

d ep a rtm en ts o f p la n ts m a k in g fin ish ed p ro d u cts ,
su ch as a u tom ob iles a n d m a ch in e ry .

is a n ticip a te d .
ber o f

T h e re su ltin g in crea se in th e n u m ­

these jo in s, co m b in e d

p la ce m e n t needs, w ill
b egin n ers.

create

n o rm a l

re ­

o p p o r tu n itie s

w ith

fo r

K e la tiv e ly fe w o p e n in g s are lik e ly in

a n y on e y e a r, h o w e v e r , because o f th e sm a ll size o f
th e o cc u p a tio n .

J o b s f o r u psetters are con cen tra ted in the M id ­
w estern a n d N orth ea stern States, in c lu d in g O h io ,

Working Conditions

P e n n sy lv a n ia , Illin o is , In d ia n a , W is co n s in , M ic h i­
g a n , a n d N ew Y o r k .




M o st u p se ttin g m a ch in e o p e ra to rs are m em bers
of

u n ion s.

M a n y b e lo n g to the

In te r n a tio n a l

FORGE-SHOP OCCUPATIONS

Brotherhood of Blacksmiths, Drop Forgers, and
Helpers (A F L ). Others have been organized by
the industrial unions of the CIO, especially the
United Steelworkers of America and the United
Automobile, Aircraft, and Agricultural Imple­

271

ment Workers of America.
Forge shops are typically hot and noisy places
to work. The accident-frequency rates for forge
shops are higher than the average for metalwork­
ing industries.

Heaters, Forge
(D.O.T. 6-88.732)

Outlook Summary

Outlook

Higher employment is in prospect for the next
few years, with openings occurring for expe­
rienced forge-shop helpers. Those entering the
occupation will have good chance for employment
over the longer run.

During the next several years there should be
some increase in the number of jobs for forge
heaters. Higher output is in prospect in many
industries using forged parts in their final prod­
ucts. These industries include particularly auto­
mobiles, aircraft, tractors, farm machinery, and
railroad equipment. As a result, production of
forgings will probably rise somewhat over its
present high level.
Over the longer run, forge-shop employment
will decline somewhat as the backlog of demand
for automobiles, tractors, and other products
using forgings is worked off. However, it is
likely that enough older workers will be dropping
out o f forge-shop work to offset the decline in
employment, so that those remaining in this field
will continue to have jobs, and there will also be
some new openings. However, not many open­
ings are likely in any one year, because of the
small size of this occupation.

Nature o f Work
The forge heater prepares metal shapes for
forging by heating the metal pieces in a furnace.
His duties include operating the furnace and
feeding fuel to it, controlling the temperature,
placing the metal shapes in the furnace, taking
them out when properly heated, and transferring
them to the forging machine. Many heaters work
in independent shops producing forgings for use
in further fabrication by other companies. Heat­
ers are also employed in forge shops of plants
making automobiles and parts, in machinery
plants, and in railroad repair shops.
Experienced heaters are in line for promotion
to higher-rated jobs on the hammer crews.
Jobs for heaters are found principally in the
Midwestern and Northeastern States, including
Ohio, Pennsylvania, Illinois, Michigan, and New
York.
Training and Qualifications
Heaters learn their jobs by working as helpers
on various kinds of forging hammers. When a
vacancy occurs, experienced and qualified helpers
are upgraded to the job of heater. A growing
number of shops are requiring heaters to have
some technical knowledge of metallurgy. Consid­
erable physical strength may be required.




Earnings and Working Conditions
Recent wage data for independent forge shops
and for many of the other industries which
employ forge heaters are not available. How­
ever, in October 1946, light-work forge heaters
averaged $1.31 an hour straight time, and heavywork forge heaters averaged $1.55 straight time
in forge shops in the machinery industries (except
electrical machinery and machine-tool acces­
sories). Since then forge heaters generally have
received wage increases in machinery plants.

272

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

Most forge heaters are members of unions.
Many belong to the International Brotherhood of
Blacksmiths, Drop Forgers and Helpers (A F L ) ;
others have been organized by the industrial
unions of the CIO, especially the United Steel
Workers o f America and the United Automobile,
Aircraft, and Agricultural Implement Workers
o f America.




Forge shops are typically hot and noisy places
in which to work. The accident-frequency rate
for forge shops is higher than the average for
metalworking industries.
See also: Drop-hammer Operators, page 266:
Hammersmiths, page 267; Forging-Press Opera­
tors, page 269; and Upsetters, page 270.

Other Metalworking Occupations
Assemblers, Bench (Machinery Manufacturing)
(D.O.T. 4-75.120; 6-78.632)

u su a lly e m p lo y e d .

Outlook Summary
P ro sp e cts are th at the n u m b er o f jo b s w ill r e ­
m ain at its p resen t h ig h lev el d u r in g the n e x t fe w
years.

O v e r the lo n g e r ru n , re p la ce m e n t needs

w ill con tin u e to p r o v id e m a n y o p e n in g s f o r new
w ork ers even th o u g h to ta l e m p lo y m e n t in this
o ccu p a tio n m a y d r o p o ff som ew h at.

In e x p e rie n ce d w ork e rs m a y be

h ir e d as train ees o r h elp ers a n d tr a in e d on the jo b
to d o th e less sk illed b en ch assem blin g.
B e n ch assem blers u su a lly sp e cia liz e o n on e ty p e
o f m a ch in e r y o r equip m en t.

O fte n th e y can n ot

r e a d ily tr a n s fe r to b en ch a ssem bly o f o th e r p r o d ­
ucts, o r even o f sim ila r p ro d u c ts in o th e r p la n ts,
w ith o u t a d d itio n a l tr a in in g .
T h e w o r k is re la tiv e ly lig h t, a n d m a n y w o m e n

Nature of Work

are e m p lo y e d to d o th e less sk illed a ssem b lin g jo b s.
T h ese w ork ers fit to g e th e r and assem ble m a ­
ch in e ry p a rts in to com p le te u n its o r subassem blies
w h ile w o r k in g at a bench .

T h e m ore s k ille d as­

sem blers ( o ft e n ca lle d b en ch m a ch in ists) assem ­
b le the m o re c o m p le x m a ch in e ry p a rts w ith g reat
p recision an d w ith little o r n o su p e rv isio n .

T hey

m u st k n o w h o w to rea d b lu e p rin ts a n d to use p r e ­
cisio n m e a su rin g in stru m en ts a n d v a rio u s h a n d
an d p o w e r to o ls, su ch as scrap ers, ch isels, files, and
d r ill presses. T h e less s k ille d assem blers d o re p e ti­
tiv e a ssem b lin g o p e ra tio n s u n der su p e rv isio n a n d
are g e n e ra lly n ot resp on sib le f o r th e fin a l assem ­
b lin g o f co m p le x job s.

Where Employed

Outlook
T h e n u m b er o f jo b s f o r b en ch assem blers is e x ­
p e cte d t o re m a in at its present h ig h level d u r in g
the n ext fe w yea rs, w ith m a n y jo b o p p o r tu n itie s
o p e n in g

up

fo r

n ew

w ork ers.

C u rre n tly ,

the

m a ch in e r y in d u stries are p r o d u c in g at the h ig h e st
ra te e v e r a ch ie v e d in p eacetim e, w ith m a n y m a ­
ch in e ry p la n ts, such as th ose m a k in g tra ctors, fa r m
m a ch in e ry , co n stru ctio n eq u ip m en t, a n d o il-fie ld
m a ch in e ry , h a v in g la rg e b a ck lo g s o f o rd ers.

H ig h

e m p lo y m e n t in the m a ch in ery in d u stries as a w h o le
is lik e ly to be m a in ta in e d d u r in g the n ext fe w
years.
A f t e r a fe w years, as p r o d u c tio n in m a n y m a ­

B en ch assem blers are e m p lo y e d in a w id e v a rie ty
o f m a ch in e ry p la n ts, in c lu d in g th ose w h ich m ake
m a ch in e tools, a g ricu ltu ra l m a ch in e ry , in tern a lco m b u stio n en gin es, and te x tile m a ch in e ry .
B en ch

assem blers w o r k

th ro u g h o u t the cou n try .

in m a ch in e ry p la n ts
H o w e v e r , m ost o f th e

c h in e r y p la n ts catches u p w ith u n sa tisfied d e ­
m a n d s, the n u m ber o f jo b s f o r assem blers a lo n g
w ith m a ch in e r y e m p lo y m e n t g e n e r a lly w ill ten d
to d r o p o ff som ew h at, bu t sh ou ld rem a in at a re la ­
tiv e ly h ig h level as lo n g as ge n e ra l business c o n ­
d itio n s rem ain g o o d .

jo b s f o r these w ork ers are co n ce n tra te d in the m a ­

A m o n g the sk illed b en ch assem blers are a n u m ­

c h in e r y -m a n u fa c tu r in g cen ters o f th e M id w e st

b er o f w o rk e rs n e a r in g the a ge w h en d ea th o r re ­

and

tirem en t w ill ta k e them fr o m the la b o r fo r c e .

N orth ea st,

p a r tic u la r ly

in

O h io ,

Illin o is ,

P e n n sy lv a n ia , M ich ig a n , a n d N ew Y o r k .

o f o p e n in g s f o r n ew em p loy ees each yea r.

Training and Qualifications
F or

the

m ore

m a ch in e-sh op

sk ille d




S h if t ­

in g in to o th e r o cc u p a tio n s is com m on a m o n g the

b en ch -a sse m b lin g jo b s ,

w ork ers, such

lie -

p la cem en t o f these w ork e rs w ill p r o v id e a n u m ber

as m a ch in ists, are

less sk ille d assem blers, and m a n y jo b o p p o r tu n tie s
w ill be cre a te d in th is w ay.
273

274

O C C U P A T IO N A L

O U TLO OK

Earnings and Working Conditions
Earnings of bench assemblers vary widely,
depending on their skill grade, the type of product
assembled, the size and location of the plant in
which they are employed, and whether they are
paid on an incentive basis. Average straighttime hourly earnings of male assemblers (includ­
ing both bench and floor assemblers) in machinery
plants in November 1947 are shown below for
selected large cities.
Class A

Atlanta
Baltimore
.
Birmingham
Boston
. Buffalo
Charlotte
Chattanooga
Chicago-Gary
Cincinnati
Cleveland
Dallas
Denver
D etroit
Hartford
Houston
Indianapolis
Los Angeles
Milwaukee
Minneapolis-St. Paul
Newark-Jersey Citv
New Y ork Citv
Philadelphia
Pittsburgh
Portland, Oreg
Providence
St. Louis
San Francisco
Seattle
Syracuse
Tulsa
W aterbu ry.
■

_ . _
_ ,




$1. 34
1. 28
1. 42
1. 36
1. 45
1. 16
1. 44
1. 56
1. 32
1. 67
1. 19
1. 56
1. 66
1. 40
1. 46
1. 38
1. 48
1. 68
1. 38
1. 53
1. 53
1. 43
1. 41
1. 60
1. 29
1. 53
1. 55
1. 65
1. 69
1. 23
1. 44

Class B

$1. 07
1. 14
1. 24
1. 21
1. 22
1. 02
1. 09
1. 37
1. 17
1. 61
1. 02
1. 14
1. 58
1. 21
1. 30
1. 26
1. 34
1. 42
1. 32
1. 33
1. 37
1. 26
1. 58
1. 45
1. 14
1. 28
1. 38
1. 45
1. 46
1. 07
1. 32

HANDBOOK

Most bench assemblers are members of unions.
There are several labor organizations in the field,
among the most important of which are the Inter­
national Association of Machinists (Inch), the
United Electrical, Radio and Machine Workers of
America (C I O ), and the United Automobile, Air-

Class C

$0. 89
. 98
1. 16
1. 00
1. 09
. 80
. 93
1. 24
1. 01
1. 26
. 92
1.
1.
1.
1.
1.
1.
1.
1.
1.
1.
1.

38
10
16
45
13
44
02
11
11
11
39

______
1.
1.
1.
1.
1.
.
1.

03
10
21
27
39
90
23

COURTESY

OF

N A T IO N A L

A R C H IV E S

Bench assemblers fit together and assemble small machinery parts into
complete units or subassemblies.

craft, and Agricultural Implement Workers of
America (C IO ).
Working conditions for bench assemblers are
usually good compared with factory work in gen­
eral. Their places of work, generally, are rela­
tively clean, well-lighted, and free from dust.
See also Floor Assemblers (Machinery Manu­
facturing), page 275; and All-Round Machinists,
page 234.

OTHER

M E T A L W O R K IN G

O C C U P A T IO N S

275

Assemblers, Floor (Machinery Manufacturing-)
(D.O.T. 6-78.«32)

Outlook Summary
Employment in this occupation is expected to
remain at the present high level during the next
few years. Over the longer run, the number of
jobs will drop off somewhat, but replacement needs
will continue to provide numerous openings for
new workers.
Nature of Work
These workers assemble heavy machinery or
equipment on shop floors, fitting and finishing
machined parts with hand and power tools and
fastening parts together with bolts, screws, or
rivets. The more skilled assemblers put together
finished machines and equipment of a complex
nature, with little or no supervision. They must
know how to read blueprints and use various hand
and power tools. The less skilled assemblers do
repetitive assembling operations under close super­
vision and are generally not responsible for the
final assembly of complex jobs.
Where Employed
Floor assemblers are employed in a wide variety
of machinery plants, including those which make
machine tools, tractors, construction machinery,
and internal-combustion engines.
Floor assemblers work in machinery plants
throughout the country, with most of the jobs con­
centrated in the Midwest and Northeast, particu­
larly in Ohio, Illinois, Pennsylvania, and New
York.
Training and Qualifications
For the more skilled floor assembling jobs, ma­
chine-shop workers such as machinists are usually
employed. Inexperienced workers may be hired
as trainees or helpers and trained on the job to do
less skilled floor assembly.
Floor assemblers usually specialize on one type
of machinery or equipment. Often they cannot
readily transfer to assembly of other products, or




even of similar products in other plants, without
additional training.
Outlook
The number of jobs for floor assemblers is
expected to remain around its present high level
during the next few years, with many job opportu­
nities opening up for new workers. Currently,
the machinery industries are producing at the
highest rate ever achieved in peacetime, with many
machinery plants, such as those making tractors,
farm machinery, construction equipment, and oil­
field machinery, having large backlogs of orders.
High employment in the machinery industries as
a whole is likely to be maintained during the next
few years.
After a few years, as production in many
machinery plants catches up with unsatisfied
demands, the number of jobs for assemblers, along
with machinery employment generally, will tend
to drop off somewhat, but should remain at a rela­
tively high level as long as general business condi­
tions remain good.
Among the skilled floor assemblers are a number
of workers nearing the age when death or retire­
ment will take them from the labor force. Re­
placement of these workers will provide a number
of openings for new employees each year. Shift­
ing into other occupations is common among the
less-skilled assemblers, and many job opportunities
will be created this way.
Earnings and Working Conditions
Earnings of floor assemblers vary widely,
depending on their skill grade, the type of product
assembled, the size and location of the plant in
which they are employed, and whether they are
paid on an incentive basis. Average straighttime hourly earnings of male assemblers (includ­
ing both bench and floor assemblers) in machinery
plants in November 1947 are shown in the follow­
ing statement for selected large cities.

276

O C C U P A T IO N A L

|
Atlanta
Baltimore
Birmingham
B oston ,
Buffalo _
C h arlotte, _
Chattanooga
, .............
Chicago-G arv
Cincinnati
Cleveland
D a l l a s ____
D enver
D etroit, _
H artford _
_
H ou ston , _
Indianapolis
Los Angeles
Milwaukee
M inneapolis-St. P au l,
Newark-Jersey C itv ,
New Y ork C i t y ,T
Philadelphia,
Pittsburgh _ _
Portland, Oreg
Providence
_ _
St. Louis - _ , , ------------

|

Class A

$1. 34
1. 28
1. 42
1. 36
1. 45
1. 16
1. 44
1. 56
1. 32
1. 67
1. 19
1. 56
1. 66
1. 40
1. 46
1. 38
1. 48
1. 68
1. 38
1. 53
1. 53
1. 43
1. 41
1. 60
1. 29
1. 53

Class B

$1. 07
1. 14
1. 24
1. 21
1. 22
1. 02
1. 09
1. 37
1. 17
1. 61
1. 02
1. 14
1. 58
1. 21
1. 30
1. 26
1. 34
1. 42
1. 32
1. 33
1. 37
1. 26
1. 58
1. 45
1. 14
1. 28

OU TLOOK

HANDBOOK

Class C

$0. 89
. 98
T . 16
1. 00
1. 09
. 80
. 93
1. 24
1. 01
1. 26
. 92
1.
1.
1.
1.
1.
1.
1.
1.
1.
1.
1.

38
10
16
45
13
44
02
11
11
11
39

1. 03
1. 10

Class A

San Francisco
Seattle
Syracuse
Tulsa
W aterbury _

$1.
1.
1.
1.
1.

55
65
69
23
44

Class B

$1.
1.
1.
1.
1.

38
45
46
07
32

Class C

$1.
1.
1.
.
1.

21
27
39
90
23

Most floor assemblers are members of unions.
There are several labor organizations in the field,
among the most important of which are the Inter­
national Association of Machinists (In d.), the
United Electrical, Radio and Machine Workers of
America (C I O ), and the United Automobile, A ir­
craft, and Agricultural Implement Workers of
America (C IO ).
Working conditions for floor assemblers are
usually good compared with factory work in gen­
eral. Their places of work, generally, are rela­
tively clean, well lighted, and free from dust.
See also Bench Assemblers (Machinery Manu­
facturing), page 273, and All-Round Machinists,
page 234.

Inspectors, Machinery Parts
(D.O.T. 4-78.671, 6-78.671)

Outlook Summary
Prospects are that the number of jobs for these
workers will remain around its present high level
during the next few years. Over the longer run,
employment is expected to drop off somewhat, but
replacement needs will continue to provide open­
ings for new workers.
Nature of Work
These workers examine metal parts which have
been shaped by machine tools. They look for
various defects, checking the dimensions and ap­
pearance of the parts to determine whether they
meet specifications. The skilled inspectors work
with little or no supervision and examine a variety
o f parts, often quite complex. They must be able
to read blueprints and use various measuring de­
vices, such as calipers, gages, and micrometers.
Skilled inspectors usually must have a general
knowledge of machining and other metalworking




processes. The less skilled inspectors inspect
large numbers of identical parts under close super­
vision; often they use specially prepared gages
and other measuring instruments which greatly
simplify inspection.
Where Employed
These inspectors are employed in a wide variety
of nonelectrical machinery plants, such as those
which make machine tools, tractors, mechanical
power transmission equipment, and refrigerating
equipment. Most of the jobs for these workers
are concentrated in the industrial centers of the
Midwest and Northeast, particularly in Ohio, Illi­
nois, Pennsylvania, Michigan, and New York.
Training and Qualifications
Skilled inspectors are obtained from the ranks
of machine-tool operators and other machine-shop
workers, or by upgrading less skilled inspectors.

OTHER

M E T A L W O R K IN G

Inexperienced workers are often hired for the less
skilled jobs and taught to do repetitive inspection
in a brief period o f on-the-job training.
The work is not strenuous, and women are often
employed as inspectors. Because of the nature of
the work, good eyesight is generally required.
Outlook
The number of jobs for machinery-parts in­
spectors is expected to remain near its present
high level during the next few years, with some
openings occurring for new workers. During the
war large numbers of inspectors were trained in
the war industries, such as aircraft. However,
most of those workers have shifted to other occu­
pations or dropped out of the labor force, so that
they will not be seeking jobs as machinery-parts
inspectors. Currently, machinery industries are
producing at the highest rate ever achieved in
peacetime. Many machinery plants, particularly
those making such products as tractors, farm ma­
chinery, oil-field equipment, and construction ma­
chinery, have large backlogs of orders, and high
employment in the machinery industries as a whole
is likely to be maintained for a few more years.
After a few years, as production in many ma­
chinery plants catches up with unsatisfied de­
mands, the employment of machinery-parts in­
spectors will tend to drop off slightly, but should
remain at a relatively high level as long as gen­
eral business conditions are favorable.
Among the skilled machinery-parts inspectors
are a number of workers approaching the age when
death or retirement will take them out o f the labor
force. Replacement of these workers will provide
a number of openings for new employees each year.
Shifting into other occupations is common among
the less skilled inspectors, and many job oppor­
tunities will be created in this way.
Earnings and Working Conditions
Average straight-time hourly earnings of male
inspectors in machinery plants in November 1947,

793996°—49-----19



277

O C C U P A T IO N S

are shown in the following statement for selected
large cities.
Class A

Atlanta
Baltimore
Birmingham
Boston
Buffalo
Charlotte
Chattanooga
Chicago-Garv
Cincinnati
Cleveland _
D allas. _ __
D en v er. _
D etroit
H artford
Houston
Indianapolis
L o s A n g e le s ..
Milwaukee
Minneapolis-St. Paul
Newark-Jersey C ity _
New Y ork City
Philadelphia
Pittsburgh
Portland, Oreg
Providence
St. Louis
San Francisco
Seattle
Svracuse
Tulsa
Waterbury

$1.
1.
1.
1.

43
52
48
53

1.
1.
1.
1.
1.
1.
1.
1.
1.
1.
1.
1.
1.
1.
1.
1.
1.
1.
1.
1.
1.
1.
1.

51
45
57
44
39
67
62
61
47
54
54
45
46
50
71
64
66
27
39
61
67
36
26

Class B

Class C

$1. 05
1. 15
1. 33
1. 39

1. 37
1. 27
1. 47

$1. 05
1. 10

1. 10
1. 22

1.
1.
1.
1.
1.
1.

57
25
45
40
34
39

1. 43
1. 12

1.
1.
1.
1.

23
34
38
37

1.
1.
1.
1.

1. 20
1. 25
1. 37
1. 17
1. 03
1. 26

1. 16
1. 22
1. 21
04
11
13
17

1. 11
1. 22
1. 05
1. 09

Most machinery-parts inspectors are members
o f unions. There are a number of labor organiza­
tions in this field, some o f the more important of
which are the International Association of Ma­
chinists (Ind.), the United Automobile, Aircraft,
and Agricultural Implement Workers of America
(C IO ), and the United Electrical, Radio and Ma­
chine Workers o f America (C IO ).
Working conditions in the inspection depart­
ments are usually good compared with factory
work in general. The working places are generally
clean, well lighted, and adequately ventilated.

278

O C C U P A T IO N A L

OU TLOOK H A N D B O O K

Arc and Gas Welders
(D.O.T. 4-85.020, .030; 6-85.080)

Outlook Summary
Employment of arc and gas welders is expected
to rise somewhat during the next few years and
over the longer run. For several more years,
however, many of the job openings will be filled
by workers who have had wartime welding ex­
perience but are now employed in other occupa­
tions.
Nature o f work
In electric arc and gas welding metal parts are
joined through the application of heat intense
enough to melt the edges to be joined. The welder
controls the melting by properly directing the
heat, whether from an electric arc or from a gas
welding torch, and adds filler metal where neces­
sary to complete the joint.
In manual (hand) arc welding, the most com­
monly used method, the welder “ strikes” an arc by
touching the metal part to be welded with an elec­
trode and then withdrawing the electrode a short
distance. The arc results when the electric curcuit is broken by withdrawing the electrode, mak­
ing the current jump the gap between the metal to
be welded and the electrode. The welder guides
the electrode along the joint to be welded, holding
it at the proper arc length. The welder should
know how to make different kinds of welds to
weld from various positions, and to work with
different metals, he should understand welding
symbols.
In gas welding the welder directs the flame
from a gas welding torch along the joint to be
welded. The flame is usually produced by com­
bustion of oxygen and acetylene gas. The welder
must know how to light and adjust the torch for
various metals and how to form the different kinds
of welds.
To a considerable extent, particularly in main­
tenance and repair work, welding is done by mem­
bers of other crafts. The boilermaker, the struc­
tural steel worker, the machinist, and the auto­
mobile mechanic, all may be required to know and
perform welding in their work. Typically, how­




ever, welding, especially in production work, is
done by workers who specialize in its application.
No matter where he works, the skilled welder
should have some practical knowledge of the
fabricating and assembling operations in the field
of work in which he is engaged. For example, a
welder working in a shipyard should know in gen­
eral how ships are put together or one employed
in a boiler shop should understand how boilers are
assembled. I f the welder moves into a type of
work in which he is not experienced, some of the

C o u r t e s y o f n a t io n a l a r c h iv e s

W elders are subject to certain hazards in their work, but these can
be almost entirely avoided by proper precautions.

basic practices in the new field of work must be
learned.
Training and Qualifications
A course in welding methods, followed by exten­
sive job experience, has been the common way for
skilled welders to receive their training. Formal
apprenticeships in welding alone are not often
found. Frequently, welders doing the simpler
repetitive types of work are trained on the job,
without any special instruction, in 6 months or less.
To acquire a broader knowledge of welding, regu­

OTHER

M E T A L W O R K IN G

lar course instruction in welding is desirable, either
in public or private vocational schools or in courses
conducted by industrial firms to train their work­
ers. Before enrolling in a private school, the pros­
pective student should check with the local educa­
tional authorities about the quality of the instruc­
tions offered. The American Welding Society has
issued codes of recommended standards for weld­
ing courses which provide for a minimum of 150
hours of actual welding practice under qualified
instructors and not less than 20 hours of class in­
struction in welding theory. Experience has
shown that a longer learning time is usually re­
quired.
Since a poor weld may have serious consequences
in the failure of the completed product when in
use, welders are usually required to have passed
qualification tests established by the American
Welding Society. Requirements are administered
by insurance companies, employers, and inspection
agencies as specified by the applicable code. In ad­
dition, welders must be licensed to do certain types
of construction work in some localities.
Where Employed
Since many welders are engaged in maintenance
work, welding jobs are found in a wide range of in­
dustries, including all those in which metal equip­
ment is repaired. Most jobs, however, are in pro­
duction work in the metal products industries;
the leading employers are those making machin­
ery, automobiles, electrical equipment, ships, air­
craft, boilers and tanks, and fabricated structural
steel. Examples of places where welders are used
in maintenance work are railroad shops, electric
power plants, street railway systems, paper mills,
foundries, and chemical plants. A large number
of welders work in local repair shops that either
specialize in welding or do general metal repair
work. Usually these are small shops, and very
often they are owned and operated by individual
welders, with perhaps several employees to assist.
These shops serve mainly their local communities,
repairing such things as farm equipment, auto­
mobile parts, and industrial machinery, and mak­
ing welded products on a subcontract basis for
local manufacturing plants.
Because of their wide employment among d if­
ferent industries jobs for welders are found in all




279

O C C U P A T IO N S

section s o f the co u n tr y .

M a n y o f the jo b s are c o n ­

cen tra ted , h o w e v e r, in th e in d u stria l cen ters in
th e M id w e ste rn a n d N orth ea stern S tates, in c lu d ­
in g M ich ig a n , O h io , Illin o is , P e n n sy lv a n ia , and
N ew Y o r k , w h ere th e m a ch in e ry , a u tom ob ile, and
e le ctrica l eq u ip m en t p la n ts are m a in ly loca ted .
S o m e com p a n ies o fte n h a v e o p e n in g s in fo r e ig n
co u n trie s f o r e m p lo y m e n t on p ip e -lin e w o r k and
sim ila r co n stru ctio n .

Outlook
D u r in g the n ext fe w years, th ere sh o u ld be an
in c re a sin g n u m ber o f jo b op en in g s f o r a rc a n d gas
w elders.

M a n y o f the o p e n in g s w ill resu lt fr o m

the re p la ce m e n t o f w ork ers le a v in g the o c c u p a ­
t i o n ; o th e r o p e n in g s w ill be crea ted b y th e e x ­
p e cte d rise in the d em a n d f o r w elders.
T h e m a ch in e ry , a u tom ob ile, stru ctu ra l steel f a b ­
r ic a tin g , a ir c r a ft, a n d b o ile r sh op in d u stries a n d
th e o th e r p r in c ip a l em p lo y e rs o f w eld ers in the
m e ta lw o r k in g field are ex p e cte d to m a in ta in a n d
in som e cases in crea se th e ir a c tiv ity in th e n ext
fe w years. T h e a ir c r a ft in d u stry , p a r tic u la r ly ,
w ill h ire m ore w eld e rs as the G o v e rn m e n t p r o g r a m
f o r g r e a tly e x p a n d e d p ro d u c tio n o f m ilita r y a ir ­
c r a ft gets u n d e r w a y.

S h ip b u ild in g , w h ich d u r in g

the w a r e m p lo y e d o v e r h a lf the tota l n u m ber o f
w eld ers, is fa r b e lo w the w a rtim e rate a n d is n ot
ex p e cte d to rise a bove the cu rre n t lo w levels, u n ­
less a la rg e scale G o v e rn m e n t sp o n so re d s h ip b u ild ­
in g p r o g r a m sh o u ld be resum ed.
I n spite o f in crea sed e m p loy m en t o f w elders, the
n u m b er o f jo b s in th is field w ill be fa r u n der the
w a rtim e level.

A s a result, w e ld e r jo b s w ill be

filled , in m a n y cases, b y w ork ers w h o h a v e h a d
w a rtim e e x p erien ce in w e ld in g b u t are n o w e m ­
p lo y e d in o th e r o ccu p a tio n s. I n a d d itio n , h o w ­
ever, th ere sh o u ld be a n u m ber o f o p e n in g s f o r new
w ork ers, since m a n y o f the w a rtim e w eld ers are
n o lo n g e r a v a ila b le f o r w e ld in g job s.
A f t e r several yea rs, e m p lo y m e n t o f w eld ers in
m a n y m e ta lw o r k in g in d u stries m a y d e clin e som e­
w h a t, as the b a c k lo g o f dem an d f o r certa in m eta l
p r o d u c ts is e lim in a ted .

O ffse ttin g th is d eclin e,

h o w e v e r, w ill be the p ro b a b le g re a te r use o f w e ld ­
in g in in d u stry g e n e ra lly .

N ew uses f o r w e ld in g

are b e in g fo u n d , a n d as a resu lt o f new d e v e lo p ­
m ents in w e ld in g , m ore and m ore ty p es o f m a te­
ria ls can be w eld ed .

T h is sh ou ld m ean a gra d u a l

280

O C C U P A T IO N A L

OUTLOOK

increase in the future number of arc and gas weld­
ing jobs. The gain in employment, however, may
not keep pace with the increase in amount of weld­
ing done, because as techniques become more effi­
cient, fewer man-hours are required to do a job.
Some experienced, all-round welders may be
able to establish their own welding repair and
service shops. Prospects for such shops depend
upon the situation in the particular community in
which the shop is located. Before a new shop is
opened the needs of the community and the compe­
tition to be faced should be carefully considered.
Earnings and Working Conditions
Recent information is not available on earnings
of welders in most o f the industries which employ
them. Average straight-time hourly earnings of
male hand welders in machinery plants in Novem­
ber 1947, are shown below for selected large cities.
Class A

A tlanta____
Baltimore - _
Birmingham
B oston _____
Buffalo_____
Charlotte.
C hattanooga_
_
C h icago-G ary_..
Cincinnati_____
Cleveland_____
Dallas_________
D enver________
D etroit________
H artford_______
H ouston_______
Indianapolis-----

$1.
1.
1.
1.
1.

35
39
30
38
52

1.
1.
1.
1.
1.
1.
1.
1.
1.
1.

60
61
39
73
25
47
78
53
63
41

Class B

$1. 16
1. 16
1. 17
1. 30

1.
1.
1.
1.
1.
1.

37
33
67
11
25
56

1. 50
1. 41

HANDBOOK

Class A

Los Angeles
Milwaukee
Minneapolis-St. Paul
Newark-Jersey City
New Y ork Citv
Philadelphia
Pittsburgh
Portland, Oreg
Providence
St. Louis
San Francisco
Seattle
Syracuse
Tulas
W aterbury

$1.
1.
1.
1.
1.
1.
1.
1.
1.
1.

57
75
43
52
52
60
41
58
46
43

Class B

$1.
1.
1.
1.
1.
1.
1.

51
69
31
35
36
43
30

1. 11

1. 68

1. 63
1. 51
1. 33

1.
1.
1.
1.

60
73
17
32

Welders are subject to certain hazards in their
work, but these can be almost entirely avoided by
proper precautions. Without such precautions arc
welders may be exposed to minor skin burns and
eye injuries and to electric shock. Similarly, gas
welders are subject to the possibility of explosion
and fire and, when welding is done in confined
spaces, poisonous fumes or gas may be present.
However, these hazards can be largely eliminated
by training in safety methods and by the use of
proper equipment such as goggles and ventilating
devices.
Where To Get Additional Information
Employment Opportunities for Welders. Bulle­
tin No. 844. United States Bureau o f Labor
Statistics, 1945. 19 pages. 10 cents, Superin­
tendent o f Documents, Washington 25, D. C.

Resistance Welders
(D.O.T. 6-85.010, .020, .030, .060, and .100)

Outlook Summary
There will be a small increase in employment
during the next several years, with gradual gains
over the longer run. Some job openings will occur
as a result o f replacement needs in the occupation.
Nature of Work
Operators of resistance welding machines join




metal parts by bringing them together under heat
and pressure. The pieces of metal to be joined are
pressed between two electrodes through which
electric current is passing. The parts being welded
offer sufficient resistance to the flow of current to
create intense heat, which together with the pres­
sure, fuses them together. The principal types of
resistance welding machines are the spot, seam,
projection, flash, and upset welding machines and

OTHER

M E T A L W O R K IN G

portable spot welding guns. The supervisor, or in
some cases the operator, sets the controls of the
machine for the desired electric current and pres­
sure. The operator mainly alines the work, starts
the machine, and then removes the work when it is
finished. The machines that weld automobile
bodies are large and highly automatic, while
smaller and less automatic machines are used to
assemble such products as metal furniture.
Training amd Qualifications
Courses in resistance welding are not widely
given. Most resistance welders learn their work
on the job in a relatively short time. The length of
the learning period on the job depends upon the
scope of the duties of the welders. Some welders,
following general directions, insert the proper
electrodes and regulate and adjust the welding ma­
chine each time a different welding operation is
begun. To do this a welder should learn the mean­
ing of welding symbols, the characteristics of dif­
ferent metals, and how to select and install the
electrodes. In most welding j obs, however, the ma­
chine is set up and adjusted for the welder, and
the welding is simple and repetitive. Beginners
can learn these jobs in a month or two.
Where Employed
Resistance machine welders are employed al­
most entirely in metalworking industries, particu­
larly in plants assembling large quantities of
products made o f sheet metal and intended for
the final consumer rather than as equipment to be
used in factories. Thus, most of the jobs are in
the industries making automobiles, electrical
household appliances, refrigerators, metal furni­
ture, and similar products. Some are also em­
ployed in machinery, industrial electrical equip­
ment, and aircraft plants. Because metalworking
employment is concentrated in the Midwestern
and Northeastern States, most of the jobs are
located in these regions, with Michigan, Ohio,
Pennsylvania, New York, and Illinois the leading
States.
Outlook
Employment opportunities for resistance weld­
ers depend upon prospects in metalworking indus­




O C C U P A T IO N S

281

tries and the extent to which resistance welding
becomes more widely used. The industries which
employ most of the workers in the occupation, such
as the automobile and household appliance indus­
tries, have been operating at high levels during
the past several years, and are expected to continue
at or above these levels for at least several years
more. Stepped-up production of military aircraft
will also create some jobs for resistance welders.
Thus, a small number of additional jobs for re­
sistance welders is in prospect.
In recent years rapid progress has been made in
improving resistance welding methods, and in
spreading its use to more products. Only during
the 1930's did welding become extensively used in
assembling automobiles, although now it is a very
important part of the process. In the long run,
further gains in the use of resistance welding can
be expected. The resulting rise in the employment
of machine welders will be limited, however, be­
cause of a trend toward the use of more rapid and
highly automatic machines. There is likely to be
a good number of job openings, however, because,
as is the case in many semiskilled occupations,
turn-over rates are relatively high.
Earnings and Working Conditions
Earnings vary considerably, depending upon
the industry in which employed, degree of skill
required, and method of wage payment (hourly or
incentive rates). Earnings usually range some­
what below those of arc welders and skilled ma­
chine-tool operators. * Average hourly earnings in
July 1946 in plants manufacturing stoves and
ranges were $1.28 for male Class A and 90 cents
for female Class A resistance machine welders; in
October 1946, average hourly earnings in the ma­
chinery industries (excluding machine tools and
accessories and electrical machinery) were $1.37
for male Class A and $1.25 for male Class B ma­
chine welders. In 1947 male spot welders in the
metal furniture industry averaged $1.17 an hour
straight time, while female spot welders earned 90
cents an hour on the average. Women generally
earn less than men and are usually employed at
Class B machine welding jobs. Since 1946 there
generally have been substantial increases in aver­

282

O C C U P A T IO N A L

OU TLOOK

age hourly earnings in plants employing machine
welders.
The hazards connected with resistance-welding
work are not great, and in general the working
conditions compare favorably with those in other
metalworking operations.

HANDBOOK

Where To Get Additional Information
E m p lo y m e n t O p p o r tu n itie s f o r W eld ers.
le tin N o. 844.

B u l­

U n ite d S tates B u re a u o f L a b o r

S ta tistics, 1945.

19 p p .

10 cen ts, S u p e rin te n d e n t
o f D o cu m e n ts, W a s h in g to n 25, D. C .

Acetylene Burners
(D.O.T. 6-86.215)

Outlook Summary

Where Employed

No marked changes in employment are expected.
There will be some job openings to replace workers
leaving the occupation.

Acetylene burners are generally employed in
plants whose operations include cutting steel plates
to size, removing metal from castings, trimming
rough steel shapes, and cutting up scrap metal.
Among the principal employers of acetylene burn­
ers are the shipbuilding, steel works and rolling
mills, machinery, fabricated structural steel, and
boiler shop industries. Many are also employed by
firms that prepare and sell scrap metal to be re-used
in steel mills and foundries.

Nature of Work
Acetylene burners use an oxyacetylene torch to
cut or trim metal objects to the desired size or
shape. The oxyacetylene cutting equipment gen­
erally consists of a torch into which oxygen and
acetylene gas are fed from hoses connected with
the gas supply. The ignited acetylene, which
serves as the fuel gas, heats the metal, and jets of
oxygen do the actual cutting.
Torch tips, from which the flames spout, come
in various sizes, depending upon the nature of the
cutting jobs. The operator prepares for the cut­
ting job by attaching the proper torch tip for the
particular job, connecting the torch to the gas
hoses, and regulating the flow of gases into the
torch for the desired cutting flame. He then guides
the torch along previously marked lines or, fol­
lowing a template or pattern, cuts through the
metal. In some cases he marks the lines on the
metal himself, following blueprints or other in­
structions.
Training and Qualifications
The operators of acetylene burners are semi­
skilled workers. Newcomers usually learn the
work in a relatively short period of on-the-job
training. Experienced acetylene gas welders can
easily qualify for jobs as burners, if they should
desire, since theirs is a more skilled job and covers
all the things that the burner has to know.




Outlook
During the next few years, employment of
acetylene burners is not expected to increase sig­
nificantly. There will be some openings in this
relatively small field, however, to replace workers
who change to other jobs. Over the longer run,
employment in the occupation should remain at
around current levels. A substantial revival of
shipbuilding would open up some additional jobs.
Increased use of flame cutting machines in place of
hand torches will hold down increases in employ­
ment of burners, even when metalworking ac­
tivity is expanding. I f at any time during the
next 3 to 5 years or so general employment should
drop substantially and jobs become hard to get,
many of the experienced burners from among the
thousands laid off from shipyards at the end of the
war may again seek jobs as burners. I f this should
happen, employers would be likely to choose them
over inexperienced applicants to fill any job open­
ings for burners.
See also Arc and Gas Welders, page 278.

OTHER

M E T A L W O R K IN G

O C C U P A T IO N S

283

Boilermakers
(D.O.T. 4-83.100)

Outlook Nummary
Long run prospects are for a gradual decline
in the number of jobs for all-round boilermakers,
but experienced workers will continue to have
jobs.
Nature of Work
All-round boilermakers fabricate, assemble, and
repair boilers, tanks, vats, smoke stacks, and simi­
lar products made of heavy steel plate. Their
work involves such duties as planning and laying
out work from blueprints or specifications; cutting
plate to size and shape with power shears or acety­
lene burners; shaping plates on power presses;
assembling parts by bolting, riveting, or welding;
and calking seams and rivet heads. Many men
qualified as all-round boilermakers, however,
specialize in a simple boiler-shop function, such as
welding. Some of the most skilled boilermakers
do only lay-out work—marking the steel plates to
show other workers where the metal is to be
sheared, welded, bent, or otherwise fabricated.
Where Employed
Boilermakers are employed in railroad repair
shops, construction projects, and boiler repair
shops throughout the country; in power boiler
manufacturing plants concentrated in the Great
Lakes, Middle Atlantic, and Pacific coast areas; in
coastal shipyards; and in the oil-refining areas of
Texas, California. Pennsylvania, and other States.
Training and Qualifications
To become an all-round boilermaker, a 4-year
apprenticeship or equivalent on-the-job training
is required. Welders, helpers, and other boilershop workers sometimes have the opportunity to
learn the trade without serving an apprenticeship.
Much of the boilermaker’s work is fairly strenuous
and at least average physical strength is needed.
Outlook
Currently, the number of boilermaker jobs is
considerably higher than prewar when less than
•30,000 were employed, but under the wartime peak




when many boilermakers were working in ship­
yards. However, many of these wartime workers
had been quickly trained in some part of boiler­
making and were not all-round workers. A num­
ber of these less skilled men went into other lines
of work after being released from the shipyards.
During the next several years electric power
plants, oil refineries, chemical plants, and other in­
dustries using boilershop products are expected to
expand their production facilities greatly, putting
up new plants and installing new equipment.
This will mean continued high employment of ex­
perienced boilermakers and some openings for new
workers. In addition, any revival of shipbuilding
activity, resulting from the Government’s defense
program, will create jobs for boilermakers.
Over a longer period a gradual decline in the
number of jobs for all-round boilermakers is in
prospect. In railroad shops, which have a large
proportion of boilermaker jobs, the long-run trend
is for reduced employment of boilermakers be­
cause of the increasing use of Diesel and electrical
locomotives in place of steam locomotives. (Few
boilermakers are used in the construction and re­
pair of Diesel and electrical locomotives.) There
also has been a growing tendency in boilermaking
operations generally to utilize specialized workers,
such as welders, thereby reducing the need for all­
round boilermakers. Experienced men, however,
are not likely to be unemployed, since men quali­
fied as all-round boilermakers are definitely pre­
ferred for specialized boilermaking jobs by most
employers. Moreover, a high proportion of boiler­
makers are older men who will be dropping out of
the labor force; thus replacement needs may offset
any decline in employment, so that the younger
men will continue to have jobs.
Earnings and Working Conditions
Earnings of boilermakers vary among the indus­
tries in which they are employed. In September
1947, straight-time earnings of boilermakers work­
ing for steam railroads averaged about $1.45 an
hour. In construction work, in July 1947. the av­
erage hourly wage rate of union journeyman

284

O C C U P A T IO N A L

OU TLOOK H A N D B O O K

boilermakers in 75 cities was $2.09. Recent wage
data are not available for boilermakers employed
in other industries.
Boilermaking tends to be more hazardous than
most other metal-working occupations. The injury
frequency rate in the boiler-shop-products industry
is considerably higher than the average for manu­
facturing industries as a whole.
In construction there is considerable seasonal
variation in employment of boilermakers; while in
other fields, such as power boiler manufacturing

and railroad repair shops, employment is fairly
steady throughout the year.
Boilermakers are generally unionized. A large
number are members of the International Brother­
hood of Boilermakers, Iron Shipbuilders and
Helpers of America (A F L ) ; others have been or­
ganized by industrial unions, such as the United
Steelworkers of America (CIO ) and the Indus­
trial Union of Marine and Shipbuilding Workers
o f America (C IO ).
See also Arc and Gas Welders, page 278.

Riveter, Pneumatic (Manufacturing)
(See D.O.T. 4-84.060; 6-95.080 and .082)

Outlook Summary

Outlook

Employment of riveters is expected to rise dur­
ing the next few years; over the long run it will
decline, as riveting is largely being replaced by
welding and other metal-joining methods.

In the next several years, there should be a rela­
tively big increase in the number of jobs for riv­
eters, with practically all o f the rise occurring in
aircraft plants. Many of these jobs, which will be
concentrated in a few aircraft-producing centers,
will be filled by wartime riveters now employed in
other occupations.
In other metalworking industries, replacement
needs will provide a limited number of openings.
The more-skilled riveters will be preferred for
most of these jobs.
After several years of relatively high employ­
ment in this occupation the number of jobs will
begin gradually to decline. This will result, in
part, from technological changes, particularly the
substitution of welding for riveting in the fabri­
cation of many products, which already has re­
sulted in greatly decreased use of riveters in re­
cent years. The effects of these developments have
been particularly felt in the aircraft, shipbuilding,
and boilermaking industries.

Nature o f Work
These workers use pneumatic hammers to rivet
together steel plates and metal parts. The more
skilled riveters do many types of work; they must
be able to read blueprints, use riveting hammers of
varied types and sizes, and select appropriate ham­
mers, dies, and rivets. However, most riveters in
manufacturing plants do repetitive work which
does not call for the skills of the all-round riveter.
Some of the more skilled riveting in certian in­
dustries, boilermaking and shipbuilding, for ex­
ample, is done by journeymen qualified in other
occupations, such as structural iron worker, boiler­
maker, and sheet-metal worker.
Pneumatic riveters who are employed in manu­
facturing industries are found mainly in plants
making aircraft, industrial cars and trucks, and
agricultural equipment; boilermaking shops; loco­
motive and car-building and repairing shops; and
shipyards.
The less skilled pneumatic riveters are generally
trained in several months on the job. Boiler­
makers, sheet-metal workers, and other journey­
men who do skilled riveting have had formal ap­
prenticeships or the equivalent in experience.
While women were employed as riveters during
the war, especially in aircraft assembly and ship­
building, it is predominantly a male occupation.




Earnings and Working Conditions
In October 1946 male pneumatic riveters in the
machinery industries (except electrical machinery,
machine tools, and machine-tool accessories) had
average straight-time hourly earnings of $1.18.
Since that date there generally have been wage
increases in machinery plants employing riveters.
Riveting is noisy work, and much of it is done
in cramped positions (for example, inside aircraft
fuselages).

OTHER

M E T A L W O R K IN G

O C C U P A T IO N S

285

Blacksmiths
(D.O.T. 4-86.010)

Outlook Summary
Long-run prospects are for little change in the
employment of blacksmiths. Replacement needs
will provide some opportunities for new workers.
Nature of T
Vork
Blacksmiths use mainly hand methods to shape
and repair metal articles and parts. They heat
metal in a forge and hand-hammer the metal on
an anvil into the desired shape. They also forgeweld metal by heating the pieces and hammering
them together; sharpen tools such as chisels, drills,
and picks by heating them and hammering the




cutting edges to proper shape; and heat-treat metal
articles to improve their physical properties.
Where Employed
Most blacksmiths work in small shops which re­
pair farm and garden equipment, tools, automo­
bile parts, and household articles. Often these
shops perform other services, such as welding and
tool dressing; a few shoe horses. Many black­
smiths are self-employed, operating their own
shops.
Other blacksmiths are employed in maintenance
and repair departments in metalworking plants,

Blacksmiths use mainly hand methods to shape and repair metal articles and parts.
c o u r t e s y o f n a t io n a l a r c h iv e s

286

O C C U P A T IO N A L

OUTLOOK

HANDBOOK

in railroad repair shops, and in coal and metal
mining.
Blacksmiths are found in all parts of the coun­
try, many in small rural communities as well as in
large industrial centers.

have entered the occupation in the last several
decades.

Training and Qualifications

th is rep lacem en t d em a n d ra th er th a n because o f

A la r g e p r o p o r tio n o f the m en n o w e n g a g e d in
the tra d e are o f r e la tiv e ly a d v a n ce d age, n e a r in g
the tim e w h en th ey w ill h a v e to be re p la ce d .
O p e n in g s f o r n ew w ork e rs w ill o c c u r because o f
e x p a n d in g em p lo y m e n t.

Some workers enter this occupation through ap­
prenticeship, others by picking up the trade while
working as laborers or helpers in blacksmith shops.
The apprenticeship period is generally 3 or 4 years
and customarily includes blueprint reading, train­
ing in the use of tools and equipment, heat-treating
metal, forging methods, and welding.
Considerable physical strength is required in
order to pound metal into shape and. to handle
heavy metal parts.
Outlook
There will be a small number of openings for
new workers in this occupation. Few young men

Prospects for those entering the occupation are
for continued employment over a long period.
About 40,000 blacksmiths were employed in 1940,
substantially fewer than 20 or 30 years ago. How­
ever, there has been little change in employment in
recent years and no further decline is anticipated.
The number of blacksmiths working in small re­
pair shops is expected to remain stable because
of the diversified demands for their services and
the importance of blaeksmithing in local com­
munities. Since blacksmiths employed in manu­
facturing plants, railroads, and mines generally
do maintenance work, which tends to be fairly
steady, there should not be much fluctuation in
the number of jobs for these workers.

Millwrights
(D.O.T. 5-78.100)

Outlook Summary

Where Employed

Prospects are for fairly stable employment in
this occupation, with replacement needs providing
opportunities for new workers.

Millwrights are employed in most manufactur­
ing plants which use heavy machinery and equip­
ment. Many of these workers are in the metal­
working industries, such as iron and steel, auto­
mobiles, and machinery. Other large groups are
employed in various nonmetal industries, includ­
ing pulp-and-paper mills, meat packing houses,
sawmills, and flour mills. Some millwrights are
employed by building contractors in the installa­
tion of machinery and equipment in new factory
buildings. A small number work for machinery
manufacturers who do the installation of their
machinery in customers’ plants.
Millwrights work in every State.
However,
most of the millwright jobs are in the major indus­
trial areas of the Midwest and Northeast, with
Michigan, Ohio, Pennsylvania, and New York the
leading States.

Nature of Work
The job of a millwright is to install, dismantle,
move, and set up heavy machinery and industrial
equipment. Millwrights also prepare the plat­
forms on which machines are mounted and help
plan the location of new equipment in the plant.
They sometimes perform some of the duties of in­
dustrial machinery repairmen in addition to their
regular work. They should have considerable
knowledge of the structure and operation of the
equipment on which they work. Millwrights often
specialize on particular types of industrial ma­
chinery, such as paper-mill machinery, machine
tools, or chemical-plant equipment.




OTHER

M E T A L W O R K IN G

Training and Qualifications
Entry into this occupation is usually through a
millwright apprenticeship or equivalent on-thejob training. The apprenticeship period is gen­
erally 4 years and the training customarily in­
cludes blueprint reading; use of hoisting equip­
ment; installation, assembly, and repair of indus­
trial machinery and equipment; and acetylene
burning. On the other hand, inexperienced
workers may be hired as helpers or trainees and
pick up the occupation while working.
Outlook
T h e n u m ber o f jo b s f o r m illw r ig h ts is exp ected
to rem ain at its presen t h ig h level d u r in g the n ext
fe w years.

C o n tin u in g la r g e ex p en d itu res f o r new

p la n ts an d equ ip m en t b y such e x p a n d in g m a n u ­
fa c tu r in g in d u stries as ir o n and steel, ch em ica ls,
a n d a u tom obiles w ill req u ire m a n y m illw r ig h ts .
O th er in d u stries in w h ich m illw r ig h ts are e m ­
p lo y e d , such as p u lp and p a p e r, fa c e several yea rs
o f h ig h a ctiv ity .

After the next several years the number of mill­
wright jobs may decline somewhat as retooling
and new equipment purchases fall off. However,
employment in this occupation is expected to hold
np fairly well. Growing mechanization of indus­
try has a tendency to expand the need for mill­
wrights. Moreover, these workers have continuing
functions in plants using heavy equipment, in con­
nection with repair and rearrangement of the
equipment.




O C C U P A T IO N S

287

Replacement needs will provide numerous op­
portunities for new workers. There are many ex­
perienced millwrights approaching the age when
death or retirement will take them from their jobs,
and new men will have to be trained to fill these
positions.
Earnings and Working Conditions
The pay of millwrights compares favorably with
that of many other maintenance jobs. Recent in­
formation on wages for most industries employing
millwrights is not available. In October 1946
average straight-time hourly earnings for mill­
wrights in large cities in the machinery industries
(except electrical machinery, machine tools, and
machine-tool accessories) was $1.32. In independ­
ent ferrous foundries in the same period they
earned an average of $1.29. Since October 1946
there generally have been wage increases in
foundries and machinery plants.
Millwrights are generally unionized. Their
union affiliation varies according to the industry in
wffiich they are employed. Some of the more im­
portant: unions include the International Associa­
tion of Machinists (Inch), United Steelworkers of
America (C IO ), United Electrical. Radio and
Machine Workers of America (C IO ), Interna­
tional Brotherhood of Carpenters and Joiners
(A F L ), and International Brotherhood of Pulp,
Sulphite and Paper Mill Workers (A F L ).
See also Industrial Machinery Repairmen, page
201.

O C C U P A T IO N A L

288

OUTLOOK H A N D B O O K

CHART 4 2

NEWSPAPER AND JOB SHOPS EMPLOY
MOST PRINTING WORKERS
N U M B E R S EM P LO Y ED AND N U M B E R S OF P L A N T S
IN P R IN T IN G AND A L L IED IN D U S T R IE S , 1939

EMPLOYMENT

INDUSTRY

THOUSANDS

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS




NUMBER OF PLANTS
THOUSANDS

S ou rce

CENSUS OF MANUFACTURERS AND CENSUS OF BU SIN E SS
REFER TO APPENDIX FOR FIGURES AND E X P L A N A T IO N S

Printing Occupations
Printing is an art, a great industry, and one of
our chief means of communication. Its contribu­
tion to the growth of democracy was so funda­
mental that freedom of the press was one of the
basic rights incorporated in the first amendment
to the United States Constitution.
About 725,000 men and women made their liv­
ing in the printing industries in 1948. Printing
is especially important as a field of employment
for men capable of attaining a high level of skill.
It affords opportunities in many different skilled
occupations, and, as a rule pays better-than-average wages. Jobs are to be found in all parts of the
country, in small towns as well as large cities.
Many printing craftsmen are in business for them­
selves.
The Printing Industries
More than a third of the people working in the
printing industries in 1939 were in newspaper
shops. General commercial or job printing is the
second largest printing industry; there are many
more commercial shops than newspaper plants, but
the average job shop is small. Periodicals and
books are the next largest printing industries.
Smaller industries are engaged mainly in produc­
ing lithographed items of various types, greeting
cards, or gravure products, or in doing bookbind­
ing and other bindery work. The so-called service
industries for the printing trades do mainly type­
setting, photoengraving, or other work for print­
ing shops.
A lm o s t ev ery sm all to w n has a p r in t in g sh op o f
som e k in d — fre q u e n tly a sm all n ew sp a p er p la n t
w h ich also h an d les an y jo b p r in t in g n eeded in the
com m u n ity .

H o w e v e r , a la rg e p a r t o f th e c o u n ­

t r y ’s p r in t in g is d on e in 10 in d u stria l cen ters—
N ew Y o r k , C h ica g o , P h ila d e lp h ia , L o s A n g e le s ,
S an F ra n cisco , D e tr o it , C lev ela n d , St. L o u is , C in ­




cinnati, and Minneapolis-St, Paul. In 1939, about
half of all employees in the printing and allied
industries were in these centers.
Methods of Printing
Letterpress (or relief) printing is the oldest and
by far the most common printing process. Prac­
tically all newspapers, most books and magazines,
and most commercial jobs are printed by this
method.
Lithography, though still much less common
than letterpress work, is the most rapidly growing
method of reproduction. Practically all items
printed by the relief process are also produced by
lithography— including, for example, books, cal­
endars, maps, posters, labels, office forms, sheet
music, and even newspapers. Almost all printing
on metal and much of the printing on rough paper
is done by this method.
Gravure printing, the least common process, is
of two main types: Rotogravure (in which press
plates are made from pictures by a method based
on photography) and hand or machine engraving.
The picture supplements of some Sunday news­
papers are the best known rotogravure products.
Hand or machine engraving is used in making en­
graved stationery, greeting cards, and similar
products.
The Printing Workers
The largest group of skilled and semiskilled
workers are in the composing room, the depart­
ment responsible for typesetting. Other major
groups are the printing pressmen and their assist­
ants, photoengravers and rotogravure photoen­
gravers, electrotypers and stereotypers, litho­
graphic workers, and bookbinders and bindery
workers. Chart 44 shows the number of people
employed in 1940 in each of the main occupations
in these categories.
289

290

O C C U P A T IO N A L

OUTLOOK H A N D B O O K

CHART 4 3

A GENERAL PICTURE OF THE FLOW OF WORK
IN PRINTING
LETTERPRESS

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS




LITHOGRAPHIC

ROTO­
GRAVURE

P R IN T IN G

Employment Prospects
There will be many thousands of job openings in
printing during the next few years. The outlook
is for greater and greater activity and employment
in all branches of printing at least during the next
few years, because of growing demands for printed
products such as advertising materials and text­
books, increasing availability of new machinery
and supplies, and other factors. Unusually large
numbers of job openings due to retirements and
deaths may also be expected for a while, because of
the postponement of retirements during and since
the war and the fact that the average age of jour­
neymen is therefore higher than before. For all
these reasons, it will generally be easy for skilled
workers to get jobs during the years immediately
ahead, and there will be moderate numbers of
training opportunities.
Workers who now have jobs or succeed in get­
ting them in the near future should have a good
chance of holding them indefinitely. Printing em­
ployment tends to be less affected by declines in
general business activity than employment in man­
ufacturing as a whole. Moreover, the long-run
trend in employment is upward in most printing
occupations.
In general, the largest number of job openings
will be in the printing centers previously men­
tioned. Opportunities will, however, be more
widespread in some branches of printing than in
others. They will, for example, be more scattered
in newspaper than in job printing; but in lithog­
raphy, they will be concentrated in the major cen­
ters to a greater extent than in either of those in­
dustries. In all branches of printing, competition
for jobs is likely to be keenest in the largest cities.
Earnings
Earnings tend to be higher in printing than in
many other industries, owing to the large number
of skilled workers employed, the strong influence
of the printing unions, and other factors. In early
1948, earnings averaged over $1.50 an hour in book
and job shops and well over $1.80 in newspapers
and periodicals, compared with about $1.30 in all
manufacturing.
What an individual printing worker can expect
to make varies greatly from one occupation to an­




291

O C C U P A T IO N S

other, as well as from city to city and in other
ways. The best source of information on wages in
different occupations are union wage scales. These
scales are the minimum rates paid under collectivebargaining agreements and are usually uniform
for each occupation in a given locality. They are,
in general, representative of wage rates in skilled
and semiskilled printing trades, which are all
highly organized.
In January 1948, union wage scales averaged
about $2 an hour. For the skilled workers covered
rates were typically between $1.85 and $2.30 an
hour; for the others they were usually between $1
and $1.70. Tables 1 and 2 give union wage rates
for the major printing trades in a large number of
cities.
The wage scales cited are the basic rates received
by employees on day shifts. In most printing
plants, as in many other manufacturing establish­
ments, workers are paid time and a half for over­
time work not only above a standard number of
hours a week but also above 8 hours a day. The
standard workweek is usually 37^/2 hours in news­
paper plants. In other printing shops, it is usually
40 hours. Work on Sundays and holidays is
customarily paid for at time-and-a-half or double­
time rates in most branches of printing. In news­
paper plants, the standard workweek often in­
cludes Sundays and work has to go on as usual on
holidays; however, time and a half or double time
is paid for these days only when they are not
part of the Employee’s regular shift. Night-shift
workers in union shops generally receive extra pay.
There are many other types of provisions for over­
time and special rates of pay.
How much workers earn during a year depends
not only on their rates of pay but also on how
regularly they are employed. Printing workers
are fortunate in having steadier employment and
earnings than those in many other industries.
Earnings tend to be especially steady in newspaper
work.
P a id v a ca tio n s are ca lle d f o r b y m ost w age
agreem ents.

T h e m a jo r ity o f u n io n w ork ers re ­

ceive 2 w eek s’ v a ca tio n w ith p a y a fte r 1 y e a r o f
e m p loy m en t.

In

a d d itio n , the p r in t in g u n ion s

are n o te d f o r w e lfa r e p ro v isio n s f o r th e ir m e m ­
b e rs; f o r ex a m p le, p en sion s, san itariu m fa c ilitie s ,
and e d u ca tion a l p ro g ra m s.

292

O C C U P A T IO N A L
T

a ble

OUTLOOK

HANDBOOK

1.— U nion W age Scales in M a jor Newspaper Printing Trades in Selected Cities, January 2, 1 9 4 8 1

Hand com­
positors

City and State

Composingmachine
operators

Stereotypers

Photoengravers

$2.19
1.81
1. 73
1. 83
2. 47
2.09
2. 02
1. 75
1. 88

$2. 08
2. 16

2. 04
2. 11

2. 51
2. 37
2. 40
2.64

$2. 26
1. 73
1.90
2. 40
2.19

$2. 26
1. 73
1.90
2.40
2.28

1.85

1. 35

2.40
2.28
2. 24

2. 40
2. 28
2. 24

2. 01
2. 16

2.20
2. 21
1.92

(2
)
2. 13
1.93-1.99
1. 91

Erie, Pa. ___ . . . ____________________________________
Grand Rapids, M ich._ . . .
_____ .. _____ . .. . .
Houston, Tex__
... ....
. ...
. . . . . .
Indianapolis, Ind_____________________________________
Jacksonville, Fla____ ____ . . . . . . .
.
. _____ . ..
Kansas City, M o. . ____ _ ._ . . . . . .
... ... . .

2. 55
1.85
2. 00
1.97
2. 05
2. 27
2. 11
2. 29
2.13

2.55
1.85
2. 00
1. 97
2. 05
2. 27
2. 11
2. 29
2. 13

2.46
1. 63
1. 84
1.63
2. 05
1.96
2.09
2. 29
1. 70

Los Angeles, Calif

_ ____________________ .

1.73
2. 07

1.73
2. 07

Manchester, N. I I . _ _ . . . . ____ _____ ____ .
Memphis, Tenn___
. ____ . ________ ___ _. .. ..
Milwaukee, Wis. _ . . . . .
___ ..
.. .
Minneapolis, M inn___________________________________

2.00
1. 87
2.13
2. 00
2. 35
1. 80

2.00
1.87
2.13
2. 05
2. 35
1.80

1. 64
2. 07
2.08
2. 00
1. 87
1. 77
1. 97
2. 20
1. 90

Baltimore, M d ______ _____ ._ ______ __________ ._
Binghampton, N. Y __ . . . . _ _____
. . ...
Birmingham, Ala.
.
_ _______
........
Boston, Mass______
_______ _____________________
Buffalo, N. Y ________________________________________
Charleston, W. V a... ._ _.
______ . . . . ...
Charlotte, N. C ... . . . .
. . . . ___ _______ .

Columbus, Ohio________________________________

. .

____

Davenport, Iowa
.
...
_ .
. ___
.....
Dayton, O h io ..------ ------ ----------------------------------------- .
Denver, C olo... . . . ----------- . ________________ ___

(2
)

Detroit, M ich.. _____________________________________
Duluth, M inn_________________________ ___________ .

._ _____

Moline, 111_________________________________________ .
Nashville, Tenn______________________________________
Newark, N. J________________________________________

(2 '
)

2.20
2. 21
1.92

(2
)

(2
)

(2
)

New Orleans, La_
_ ....
......... ....................
New York, N. Y _____________________________________

2. 05
2.20
1.89
1.90
2. 48

Oklahoma City, Okla_____ ._ _________________
Omaha, Nebr . _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ ___ .. . . . .

. ...

1.83
1.95

1.83
1.95

2. 04
2. 03
1. 75
1. 65
2. 25
1. 88
1. 65
1. 95

Peoria, 111.. _ _____
. . . . _ . .. ____
______ .
Philadelphia, Pa_____________________________________

2.00
2.13
2. 00
2. 40
1.63-1.71
2. 48
2. 30
1. 79
1 94
.

2.00
2.13
2.00
2. 40
1.63-1. 71
2.48
2. 30
1. 79
1.94

1. 92
1.65
2.00
1.97
1. 71
2. 01
2. 24
1. 79
1.63

1.97
1.96
2. 47
2. 30
2. 07
2. 03
2. 17
2. 05
2. 19

1.97
1.96
2. 47
2.30
2. 07
2.03
2. 17
2. 05
2. 19

1.97
1. 96
2. 09
1.92
1. 75
1.83
2. 06
1.98
2. 19

1.96
2.00

1.96
2. 00

1.95
2. 28
2. 43
1.88
1.87
1. 78
2.13

1.95
2. 28
2. 43
1. 88
1.87
1. 78
2. 13

1.95
2.21
2. 10
1. 55
1.89
1. 78
2. 04

1.95
2. 58
2. 45

(2
)

2. 09
2.12
2. 20
2. 41
1.88
2. 00
2. 30
2. 44
2. 00
2. 40

Richmond, Va.

_

___ _

.
_

______
. ...

_ . .

_____

______

Rochester, N. Y . . _ _ _ _ _ _
__ .
_ ...
Rock Island (111.) district 2 _ __________________ .
__
St. Louis, Mo___ _ _ _____
...
__ . . .
St. Paul, M inn_______________ ______________________
Salt Lake City, Utah_______ ________________________
San Antonio, Tex____________ ____________________ ..
San Francisco, Calif. ________________________________
Seattle, Wash_______________________________________
South Bend, Ind_____________________________________
Springfield, Mass .
_ .....
..... .....................
Tampa, Fla... _____________ ___________________ ____
Toledo, Ohio ___ ____________________ _____________
Washington. D. C ____________________________________
Wichita, Kans_____________ _ _______ ______ _
___
Worcester, Mass. __________________ . . ------------------

1 U. S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Wage Analysis Division: Union Wage
Scales, Newspaper Printing Trades, January 2,1948 (available upon request).
These scales are the minimum wage rates agreed upon through collective
bargaining between employers and trade unions and are, in most cases, uni­




$2 19
1.81
1. 73
1. 80
2. 00-2.18
1. 96-2. 10
2 00
1 80
1. 85

(2
)

2. 29
2. 19
1.95
2.59
1.96
2.13
1.88
2.20
2. 37
2.31
2. 20
1.63
2. 24
1. 87
2. 59
2. 30
1.97
1. 75
2. 25
2. 59

1.87
1.65
2.32
2.30
1.88
2. 08

2. 00
1.89
2.14-2. 33
2.13-2. 27
2 15
2.03
2 19
2 17
2 52
2.13
2 33

2.00
2. 06
2. 11

(2
)

2.11
2.19

2.13-2. 39
1.66
1 84
1.81
1. 88
1. 89
2. 04
2.00
1. 75-2.18

2. 40-2. 66
1.80
1.87

1. 64
1. 94
1. 97
2. 00

1 74
2. 07
2 24
2.08

1.78
1.91
2. 20
1. 90

2. 00
2. 07
2. 37

1. 71
2. 19
2. 24
2. 35
(2
)

Pressmenin-charge

2 01
2 04
2 29
2. 00
2.12

2. 51
2. 21

1.98
1.93

Pittsburgh, Pa____________ ______ . . ._ ______
Portland, Oreg_______ . . . .

2. 05
2. 20
1.89
1.90
2. 48

Journeyman
pressmen

(:)

2. 04
2. 10
1. 80
1.70
2. 33
1. 89
1. 76
1. 74

1.95
2.20
2.13
1.81

(2
)

2. 21
2.29
1 90
1.85
2. 54
1.89
1.89

2.00
2.00
1. 90
1.89
1. 71
1.95
1. 95
1. 79
1.88

2.13
2. 20

1. 97
1.96
2. 28
1.92
1.83
1. 86
2. 07
1 94
2. 05

2.11
2. 12
2. 47
2.45
1.97
2.11
2. 27
2. 06
2.18

1. 89

2. 02

1. 95
2.18-2. 27
1.90
1. 73
1. 80

2.18
2. 33-2. 55
2.03
1.79
1.92

1. 78

1.91

1. 96
2. 05
2 08
1 92
2. 13

form for each occupation in a given locality. Where no rate is given, there
was no effective union wage scale for the occupation in the particular city.
2 Rock Island district includes Rock Island and Moline, 111., and Daven­
port, Iowa.

P R IN T IN G
T

a b l e

293

O C C U P A T IO N S

2 .— U nion W age Scales in M a jor Book and Job Printing Trades in Selected Cities, January 2, 19j S 1

ComposingHand
machine
compositors operators

City and State

Baltimore, M d ________ _ _ _ ___________
•_
Binghampton, N. Y_ _ _ _ _______ _
Birmingham, Ala________________________
Boston, Mass_ ___________ ____ ____ ____
Buffalo, N. Y ___________________________
Butte, Mont_. ___ _ _ _____ __ . . . ___
Charleston, W. Va___ _ ............ .......... ... __
Charlotte, N. C _____________
Chicago, 1 1 __ ___
1
_ _ .
Cincinnati, Ohio____ _______ ___ __ _
Cleveland, Ohio___ __
_
__ ___
Columbus, Ohio_______ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
Dallas, Tex
_____ _ _ __ _______
Davenport, Iowa.. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
_ _
Dayton, Ohio.
_____ _ _ ______ ____
Denver, Colo
_____ __ ___ ______ _ _
Des Moines, Iowa_________ _ ______ ____
Detroit, Mich___________________________
Duluth, Minn__________________________
El Paso, Tex___________________ ___ ____
Erie, Pa_________________________ _______
Grand Rapids, Mich_ _____________ __
_
Houston, Tex_
_
_ _ _ _ ....................
Indianapolis, Ind_______________ _______
Kansas City, M o_________ _____________
Los Angeles, Calif_______________________
Louisville, K y .......... .
_
_
__ __
Madison, Wis___________________________
Manchester, N. H__
Memphis, Tenn _
Milwaukee, Wis _ _ _ _ _ _ _ ___. . .
Minneapolis, Minn. ____________________
Mobile, Ala___. . . _______ ___ _ _ _ __

Electro­
typers

$2.00
1.49
1. 50-1.63
1.52
1.63-1.72
1.82
1. 75

2. 02-2.80
1. 54-2. 21
1.86-2. 25
2. 08
1.07-1.88
(2
)
1.66-2.43
1.75
1.81-1.98

2.16-2. 35
1. 54-1.64

2.08-2.15
1.40
1.84
1.75
1.85
1.95
1.65-2. 07

1.85
1.10
1.84
1.60
1.60
1.70-1.85
1.83-1.97

1.15-1.45
1.65-1. 71
1.17-1.84

2.11-2. 27

1.96-2.06

1.33-1.67

1.19
2.25-2. 36
1.37-2.16

1.19
2.14
1.35-1.46

$2.17
1.75

$2. 35
2.08-2.29

2.00
1.81
2. 04

2.00
1.81
2.04

2.01
$1.90-1.92
1.55

1.95
2. 27
2.16

1.98
1.85

1.98
1.85
2. 50
1.92
2.05
1.84

2.39

Book­
binders

Bindery
women

$1.13-1.35
1.14-1.46
1.10-1.18
. 90-1. 25
1. 02-1. 70
1.42-1. 78
. 79-1.13

$1.99
1.55
1.02-1.45
1.80
1.81
1.83
1.89
1.98
1.45

$1. 03
.63- .85
.78- .88
1.00
.98
.93
1.11
1.13
.87

1.68-2.44
1.03-1.72
1.41-1. 79
1. 72
1.07-1.45
(2
)
. 90-1. 70
. 82-1. 44
1. 20-1. 58

2.12-2. 44
1. 90
2. 00
2.08

1.27 1 31
1. 07
.95-1 02
1.13

1.85-1.95
1.61
1.61

.90-1.10
.98
.90

1.35-1.83
.80

1.25-1.80

. 92-1.07

1.97
1. 25
2.00

1.09
. 70
1.15

.60- .83
1.61-1.96
.98-1.62

1. 56
2. 25

.80
1.35

1. 53
1.90
1.74

81
.95
.90

1.28-1.65
1. 72-2.10
1.65
1.65
. 85-2. 24
2.03
1.65

.85
1 10
.80
.85
. 90-1.08

.85- .90

1. 55

2.20
2.08
2. 25
(2
)
2.14
1.75
1.90

(2
)
2. 25
2.00
1.84

2.20
1.83
2.20

2.30
1.45

2.30

2.26

2.13

1.80
2.05
2. 27
2.00
1.50
2.11

1.80
2. 05
2. 27
2.00
1.50
2.11

1.70
2.10
2.00
2.13

1.56
2.05

1.56
2. 05

2.20

1.81

1.81

1.63
2.06
1.87
1.90

1.63
2.06
1.87
1.90

1.88
2.00
2.05

2.34
1.71

1.50
1.58
1.90-2.10
1.30-2. 07
1. 70

1.30
1.35-1.60
1.88
1.37-1.82
1.70

.81-1.05
1.23-1.76
. 77-1. 52

(2
)
1.75
2. 50
2.00
2. 03
2.50

2.06
2. 71
2.00
1.90
2.74

(2
)
1.41-1.80
1.80-2. 35
1.70-1.88
1.65-1.78
2. 23-2. 53

(2
)
1.33-1. 53
2.00-2. 40
1.58
1.20
1.95-2.10

(2
)
. 91-1.30
1. 20-1.96
1.35-1.48
. 80-1. 28
1.38-1. 92

1.66
1.75

2.00
1.88

1.65
1.45

1.51
1.45

1.04-1.17
1.20

1.85
2. 35

2.02
2.13

1.45-1.65
1. 28-1. 76
1.21-1.32
1.13-1. 70

1.65

.89

2.19
1.90

2.40

1.73
1.86
1.61
1.83
1.00
1.93

1. 56-1. 74

1.70

1.85
1.75-2. 29
1.76
1.92-2. 35
1.11
2.00-2.13

1.35-1.60

2.00

1.20

1.88

1.88

1.69
1.25-1.88

1.58-1.63
1.15

1.47-1.63
1.00-1. 54

1.60-2.18
1.66
1.80-2. 25
1.87-2.30
1.70
1. 50
1.87-2.65
1.88-1.99
2.14

1.44-1.97
1.43
1.73-1.87
1.32-1.95
1. 70
1.35
2.41
1. 60
1.97

1.12-1. 59
1.32
1.10-1.90
1.07-1.52
1. 25
. 75-1. 00
1.57-1.98
1. 25-1.60
1.41-1. 70

(2
)
1.93

New Haven, Conn_
_
_ _ _ _ ._
__ _
New Orleans, La_ __ _ _
_
_
_ __
New York, N. Y ________________________
Norfolk, Va___ __
_ _________________
Oklahoma City, Okla____ _ _. ___ _
Omaha, Nebr_______ ____ _________ ___

1.75
1.80
2. 23
1.75-1.94
1.65

1.75
1.80
2. 23
1.75-1.94
1.65

Peoria, 111_________ ____________________
Philadelphia, Pa____ ____ ._ _ ______
Phoenix, Ariz__.........
___ _ ________ ____
Pittsburgh, Pa_ __________ _____ _
_
__
Portland, Maine________________ _______
Portland, Oreg_
_ _ _____________
_
Providence, R. I _ ___ _______ ___ ___
Reading, Pa. _ _____ ______ _____
Richmond, V a __________________ _ _ _ _

1.90
1.84
2.00
2. 24
1.13
2.00
1.70
1.73
1. 75-1.97
1.75

2.00

1.90
1.84
2.00
2. 24
1.13
2.00
1.70
1.73

Rochester, N . Y_ _
_ _ _ _ _ _ .......
Rock Island (111.) district 2_. ___ _ ______
St. Louis, M o ___ _ ______ _ ___ _ __ __
St. Paul, Minn __ _ _ _ _
_ _ .
Salt Lake City, Utah____________________

1.87
1.75
1.90
2. 41
1.92
2.14

1. 75-1.97
1.75
2.12
1.87
1.75
1.90
2. 41
1.92
2.14

1.95
1.88

1.95
1.98

1.75
1.95-2. 07
2.11

1.75
1.95-2.07
2.11
1.88
1.60
1.70

2 .1 2

2. 40-2. 48

Platen
pressmen

2.15
2.08
2. 25
(1
2
)
2.14
1.75
1.90

1.80

__ _

$1. 58-2.16
1.60-1.98
1. 50-1. 73
1.80-2.15
1.81-1.96
1.96-2.18
1.89
1.98
1.80

$1.75

(2
)

South Bend, Ind_ _ _____ __ _
_

Cylinder
pressmen

$1.75

Moline, 111___ _ _ _ _
_____ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
Nashville, Tenn__ ______ _ _ _ __ __ _ _

Seattle, Wash.. ________________________

Press
as