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United States Department o f Labor
in cooperation w ith

Veterans Administration


Occupational Outlook Handbook
Employment Information on Major Occupations
for Use in Guidance
prepared in cooperation with

Bulletin No. 998
1951 edition
(Revision of Bulletin 940)

Maurice J. Tobin, Secretary
Ewan Clague, Commissioner

For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U. S. Government Printing Office, Washington 25, D . C.

Price $3.00

The prediction of occupational outlook is a matter of major concern to
virtually every citizen of a free society. The relation of the present and
probable supply of workers to the present and probable demand for their
services affects the decisions of the student who is planning his professional
education, the worker who is looking for a job, the business manager who
contemplates expansion, the labor leader who seeks a better bargain, the edu­
cational administrator who contemplates the purchase of new equipment, and
the taxpayer who foots the bill.
Before the tremendous task of assembling the pertinent information and
venturing the predictions reported in this and earlier publications was begun,
nearly everyone who needed such information was dependent upon inadequate
data. Important decisions, sometimes affecting the entire lifetime of the
person who had to make them, often were based upon hearsay or upon the
deliberately biased pronouncements of recruiting officers.
Since the publication of the first Occupational Outlook Handbook, every
informed person in the field of vocational guidance has come to regard it as
one of his indispensable tools. No publication of this kind will ever be perfect.
No collection of predictions will ever achieve complete accuracy. But the
Occupational Outlook Handbook has brought us closer to the ideal than any
previous publication in this area.
Not every expansion of Federal activity and expenditure in recent years
has been endorsed with enthusiasm by all citizens. But it is a distinct pleasure
for one frequent critic to commend the Occupational Outlook Handbook as
a contribution of major importance to the public good, a function indispu­
tably appropriate for a Federal agency, and an investment whose productive
returns promise to delight both the economic royalist and the social planner.

o ber t



President, National Vocational Guidance Association.


Letter of Transmittal

n it e d

States D

epartm ent








S t a t is t ic s ,

Washington, D . C., Sept. 15, 1950.






I have the honor to transmit herewith the second edition of the Occupational Out­
look Handbook, prepared in the Occupational Outlook Branch of the Bureau’s Division
of Manpower and Employment Statistics. Contributions have been made by the
Bureau of Employment Security and the Women’s Bureau of the United States
Department of Labor, the Bureau of Agricultural Economics, United States Depart­
ment of Agriculture, and the Office of Education, Federal Security Agency. This
is a revision of Bulletin No. 940.
Young people, veterans, or older workers who are choosing a career or course of
training need information on employment trends and outlook in the various occupations.
Recognizing this need, the Congress, on a recommendation of the Advisory Committee
on Education, provided for the establishment of an Occupational Outlook Service in the
Bureau of Labor Statistics in 1940.
The need for this kind of information is attested by the wide use of the first edition
of this handbook, which was issued in the spring of 1949. More than 40,000 copies had
been sold by the time the second edition went to press. It was used in high schools,
colleges and community agencies throughout the country, as well as in all Federal and
State government agencies engaged in counseling, including the Veterans Administra­
tion, offices of State employment services affiliated with the United States Employment
Service, and State vocational rehabilitation agencies affiliated with the Office of Voca­
tional Rehabilitation.
For the second edition, employment trends and outlook in all the industries and
occupations described in the first edition were reappraised on the basis of the latest
available information, and the most recent data on earnings, training, and entrance
requirements were added. In addition, the results of new studies on major industries
were inserted, so that information is presented on more than 400 occupations.
, The Bureau wishes to acknowledge with gratitude the cooperation of hundreds of
industrial firms, unions, trade associations, and professional societies, whose officials
gave freely of their time in discussing employment trends in their respective fields, in
supplying information, and in reviewing and commenting upon drafts of the reports.
The research for this handbook has been carried on with the financial support of the
Veterans Administration. In the selection of occupations to be studied and the prepara­
tion of the reports to meet the needs of veterans the Bureau wishes to acknowledge
especially the guidance of the office of the Assistant Administrator for Vocational
Rehabilitation and Education, Veterans Administration, and Donald H. Davenport,
consultant to the Administrator of Veterans Affairs.
E w a n C l a g u e , Commissioner.
Hon. M a u r i c e J. T o b i n ,
Secretary of Labor.


Letter from the Veterans Administration
Washington, D. C,y June 9, I $50.
When the Congress authorized the Veterans Administration to inaugurate the
vocational rehabilitation and education programs for World War II veterans it recog­
nized the desirability of providing information on employment outlook to be used in
the advisement and guidance of veterans designed to assist them in selecting and
planning their courses of training. To accomplish this purpose the Veterans Admin­
istration, in 1945, initiated a program of cooperation with the Bureau of Labor
Statistics, Department of Labor, and the Bureau of Agricultural Economics, Depart­
ment of Agriculture, to provide information on employment opportunities.
First results of this cooperation were issued in the form of preliminary occupational
outlook releases in the summer and fall of 1945 and spring of 1946 pending the release
of full coverage reports. This was followed in August 1946 by VA Manual M7-1,
“ Occupational Outlook Information.” This Manual, augmented, revised, and brought
up to date, was reissued in April 1949, by the Bureau of Labor Statistics as Bulletin
No. 940, Occupational Outlook Handbook, 1st Edition. With the continuing support
of the Veterans Administration this handbook is now being issued as a second edition
revised and again brought up to date.
It is gratifying to know that the information on employment outlook provided by
this joint effort has been of substantial benefit not only to veterans but also to other
students and young people interested in the choice of a career or course of training.
H. V. S t i r l i n g ,
Assistant Administrator for Vocational Rehabilitation and Education,
Veterans Administration.


Local Employment Offices as Sources and Users of Occupational
Outlook Information
Occupational facts form the framework within which local employment offices per­
form most of their operating functions. Workers are registered, counseled, selected,
and referred to jobs by occupation. Services to employers are rendered with respect
to each firm’s occupational requirements.
Because of the direct relationship between employment service activities and occu­
pational data, a wide variety of occupational tools has been developed and made avail­
able for local office use. These are referred to in the section of this volume entitled
“ Guide to Organization and Use of Handbook.” The Occupational Outlook Hand­
book is a valuable addition to this fund of information and will be welcomed in all local
offices. Employment offices in turn, through their day-to-day operations, have ac­
quired an intimate knowledge of specific local labor market conditions which are of
great significance to individuals confronted with problems of vocational choice.
Counselors in local employment offices are faced with a wide variety of vocational
guidance problems. The counselor in using occupational information must bring the
picture into sharp focus in relation to the individual, the time, and the place. The
counselor must learn to use occupational information not like a box camera, but as a
flexible tool capable of many adjustments. He needs to study the handbook, looking
for answers to questions which arise in the counseling process. What kind of person
would be most suitable for this job? What interests, aptitudes, and abilities are
desirable in this occupation? Depending upon the tools and techniques for individual
analysis available to him, the counselor might secure evidence of these characteristics
through the use of aptitude tests, evaluation of work experience, and school reports.
The individual who needs counseling has usually not made a vocational choice in
any real sense. The counseling process will,benefit the applicant most if it tries (1) to
narrow down the alternatives, (2) to select pertinent occupational descriptions which
may serve as representative of the individual’s career goals, (3) to help the applicant
weigh the alternatives in terms of their relative advantages, (4) to help him select the
field of work which appears most suitable in relation to his needs and capacities, and
realistic in terms of employment prospects, and (5) to provide help in planning toward
entering into and progressing toward the desired goal. The counselor will perform a
real service in helping an applicant to broaden his vocational horizons by directing his
attention to the wide variety of occupations related to his fields of interest and aptitudes.
A discussion of the job of the all-round machinist will include facts about the lathe
operator, the drill-press operator, and several semiskilled or other similar jobs in, for
example, the related fields of wood-working occupations.
The information given in this handbook portrays national and long-run trends.
In a particular time and place, however, the outlook may be radically different, changes
may be more precipitate than Nation-wide trends, and conditions contrary to the gen­
eral situation. The applicant who wishes to remain in the area in which he is now
living has to start within the limits of the occupational structure of that area. Within
this more limited span of occupations, the final choice would take into consideration
national and long-range trends in order to take advantage of the wider range of related
occupational opportunities. An employment-office counselor is necessarily concerned
with immediate or near-term placement possibilities, and he needs job outlook infor­
mation which is immediate, specific, and localized. This kind of information has been



available in local offices of the State employment services for several years, although
it has not always been usefully assembled. More recently there have been attempts
to digest the mass of information available and to arrive at better methods of organ­
ization and presentation. Some States and localities have achieved outstanding
success in their occupational information programs. The 400 occupations treated in
this handbook cover the most significant fields of work; it is hoped that employment
offices will add to these descriptions from their rich accumulation of occupational
analysis and labor market information and from their day-to-day experiences. Schools,
employers, and other users of occupational information are invited to call upon their
local employment service for job information relevant to their own community, as are
all persons who seek help and information in the choice of an occupation.



C. G


o o d w in ,


U . S. D


D irector

mploym ent

S e c u r it y ,

epartm ent




This handbook was prepared in the Bureau’s
Occupational Outlook Branch under the direction
of Harold Goldstein, Branch Chief. Helen Wood,
Bichard H. Lewis and Caiman B. Winegarden
supervised the research on employment opportu­
nities and the preparation of the occupational out­
look reports. The following members of the staff
contributed sections: Cora E. Taylor, Samuel
Yernoff, Harold Wool, Alexander C. Findlay,
Bobert W. Cain, Baymond D. Larson, Sol
Swerdloff, Frank Dischel, John S. McCauley,
Chester F. Schimmel, Josephine C. Solomon, Cora
S. Cronemeyer, Vincent H. Arkell, Sylvia K.
Lawrence, and Muriel Navy.
The section on Agricultural Occupations was
prepared in the Bureau of Agricultural Eco­
nomics, United States Department of Agriculture,
by Bobert C. Tetro, with the assistance of A. B.
Genung. The reports were reviewed by C. P.
Heisig, N. W. Johnson, E. L. Langsford, H. L.
Stewart, C. B. Crickman, K. L. Bachman, O. L.
Mimms, W. S. Middaugh, Merton S. Parsons, and
W. D. Goodsell of the Bureau’s staff.
The reports credited to the Women’s Bureau,
United States Department of Labor were prepared
by Marguerite W. Zapoleon, Agnes W. Mitchell
and Grace E. Ostrander of the Employment Op­
portunities Branch.
The chapter on Putting the Handbook to Work
was prepared by Harry A. Jager, Chief, Occu­
pational Information and Guidance Service, O f­
fice of Education, Federal Security Agency.
The Occupational Analysis Branch, Division of
Placement Methods, Bureau of Employment Se­
curity, United States Department of Labor, gave
advice and assistance in the preparation of the
handbook, particularly on matters o f occupational
classification and descriptions of occupations.
The photographs credited to the United States
Department of Labor, most of which were taken

by James B. Lindley of the Visual Services section,
Labor Standards Bureau, are by courtesy of the
Washington Institute of Mental Hygiene; Creel
Brothers, Inc., Washington, D. C .; Abbott School
of Fine and Commercial Art, Washington, D. C .;
Washington Befrigeration Co., Washington, D. C .;
Star Badio Co., Washington, D. C .; Pirrone and
Wolter, Washington, D. C .; National Institute of
Cleaning and Dyeing, Silver Spring, M d.; Kins­
man Optical Co., Washington, D. C .; Hoffman
Upholsterers and Interior Decorators, Washing­
ton, D. C .; Holzbeierlein & Sons, Inc., Washing­
ton, D. C .; Marchant Calculating Machine Co.;
National Cash Begister Co.; Bemington Band,
Inc.; Judd & Detweiler, Inc., Washington, D. C .;
Mercury Press, Inc.; and George A. Simonds & Co.
Photographs were also supplied by the Board
of Education, City of New York; Mellon Institute
of Industrial Besearch, Pittsburgh, Pa.; Trans
World Airline; American Airlines; Beni Newsphoto Service; American Hotel Association; May­
flower Hotel, Washington, D. C .; Capital Airlines ;
American Aviation Associates, Inc.; Norfolk &
Western Bailway; Santa Fe Bailway; Southern
Pacific C o.; Central High School of Needle Trades,
New York City; Commonwealth Edison Co.,
Chicago, 111., U. S. Department of Defense;
National Archives; U. S. Office of Education;
Lynchburg Foundry Co., Lynchburg, V a .; Modern
Equipment Co., Port Washington, W is.; Foundry
Educational Foundation; American Iron & Steel
Institute; Standard Oil Company (New Jersey);
Consolidated Edison Co., New York, N. Y . ;
National Education Association; American Veter­
inary Medical Association; American Chemical
Society; National Broadcasting Co., Inc.; Asso­
ciation of American Bailroads; Chicago and North
Western Bailway System; Chicago, Burlington,
and Quincy Bailroad; and Library of Congress.


For the convenience of users of this handbook, the reports on
each occupation or industry contain a list of organizations or
publications which may be able to provide further information.
A great many trade associations, professional societies, unions,
and other organizations in industry are in a position to supply
valuable information to counselors or young people seeking infor­
mation about careers. While these references were assembled
with care, the Bureau of Labor Statistics has no authority or
facilities for investigating organizations. Also, since the Bureau
has no way of knowing in advance what information or publica­
tions each organization may send in answer to a request, the
Bureau cannot evaluate the accuracy of such information. The
listing of an organization, therefore, does not in any way con­
stitute an endorsement or recommedation by the Bureau or the
Department of Labor, either of the organization and its activities
or of the information it may supply. Such information as each
organization may issue is, of course, sent out on its own


Table of Contents

Putting the handbook to work______________________________________________________________________
Guide to use of the handbook_______________________________________________________________________
How the employment outlook reports were prepared________________________________________
Grouping and definition of occupations_______________________________________________________
Interpreting information on number of workers in each occupation_________________________
Interpreting information on earnings__________________________________________________________
How to obtain additional information on local employment opportunities_________________
Use of the index to occupational reports classified by broad fields of work_________________
Occupations in the Armed Forces______________________________________________________________
How to obtain current information____________________________________________________________
Economic and occupational trends__________________________________________________________________
Population and labor force trends_______________________________________________
Industrial and occupational trends____________________________________________________________


Occupational outlook reports:
Professional, semiprofessional, and administrative occupations______________________________
Health-service occupations________________________________________________________________
Other professional, semiprofessional, and administrative occupations__________________
Clerical, sales, and service occupations________________________________________________________
Protective service occupations____________________________________________________________
Other clerical, sales, and service occupations_____________________________________________
Trades and industrial occupations_____________________________________________________________
Mechanics and repairmen_________________________________________________________________
Machine shop occupations_________________________________________________________
Foundry occupations______________________________________________________________________
Forge shop occupations____________________________________________________________________
Other metalworking occupations__________________________________________________________
Other trades and industrial occupations__________________________________________________


Some major industries and their occupations:


Iron and steel manufacturing occupations_______________________________________________
Shipbuilding and ship repairing occupations_____________________________________________
Aircraft manufacturing occupations______________________________________________________
Furniture manufacturing occupations____________________________________________________
Plastics-products manufacturing occupations____________________________________________
Printing occupations_______________________________________________________________________
Petroleum production and refining occupations__________________________________________
Fur manufacturing occupations___________________________________________________________



Building trades_____________________________________________________________________________
Railroad occupations______________________________________________________________________
Air transportation occupations____________________________________________________________
Electric light and power occupations_____________________________________________________
Insurance occupations_____________________________________________________________________
Restaurant occupations____________________________________________________________________
Hotel occupations__________________________________________________________________________



n o n m a n u f a c t u r in g —

c o n tin u e d

Occupational outlook reports— Continued
Agricultural occupations:
General outlook for farming_______________________________________________________________
Northeast States______________________________________________________________________
Cornbelt States_______________________________________________________________________
Lake States___________________________________________________________________________
Appalachian States___________________________________________________________________
Southeast States______________________________________________________________________
Mississippi Delta States______________________________________________________________
Oklahoma and Texas_________________________________________________________________
Northern Plains States_______________________________________________________________
Mountain States____ __________________________________________________________________
Pacific States__________________________________________________________________________
Other agricultural occupations____________________________________________________________
Professional opportunities____________________________________________________________
Farm service jobs_____________________________________________________________________


Index I— Occupations classified by broad fields of work__________________________________________
Index II— Alphabetical index to occupations______________________________________________________



List of Occupational Reports

T E AC H IN G _________________ ..._________________ _ __ _
College and university teachers________________
High school teachers____________________________
Kindergarten and elementary school teachers.. _
Health and physical education instructors _____

H E A L T H -S E R V IC E O C C U P A TIO N S-— _______
Registered professional nurses__________________
Medical laboratory technicians_________________
Medical X -ray technicians______________________
Public health nutritionists-_____________________
V eter inarians____________________________________
Osteopathic physicians__________________________
Dental hygienists________________________________
Physical therapists______________________________
Medical record librarians_______________________
Occupational therapists_________________________

E N G IN EER IN G _____________________________________
Mechanical engineers___________________________
Civil engineers___________________________________
Electrical engineers______________________________
Chemical engineers______________________________
Industrial engineers_____________________________
Metallurgical engineers_________________________



EN G IN E E R IN G — Continued
Mining engineers________________________________
Ceramic engineers_______________________________

S IO N A L ,
O CCUPATIONS _________ - __________________
Industrial designers_____________________________
Tool designers___________________________________
Weather observers_________________________________
Broadcasting engineers and technicians_______
Ship radio operators_______________________________
Radio operators (telephone and telegraph in­
Personnel workers_________________________________
Social workers_____________________________________
Market research analysts_________________________
Newspaper reporters and editors_________________
Radio announcers_________________________________
Commercial artists-_______________________________
Interior decorators_____________________
Funeral directors and embalmers________________




Federal police and detectives___________________
FB I agents_______________________________________

OCCUPA TIONS ___________________ ___________ Secretaries, stenographers, and typists________






Automobile parts salesmen_____________________
Service station attendants, managers, and
Beauty operators________________________________
Hospital attendants_____________________________
Practical nurses_________________________________





M E C H A N IC S A N D R E P A I R M E N ______________
Automobile mechanics__________________________
Accounting-bookkeeping machine servicemen.
Accounting-statistical machine servicemen____
Adding machine servicemen____________________
Calculating machine servicemen_______________
Cash register servicemen________________________
Typewriter servicemen__________________________
Diesel mechanics________________________________
Electrical-household-appliance servicemen____
Radar technicians_______________________________
Radio and television technicians_______________
Telephone installation and maintenance crafts­
m en____________________________________________
Central office equipment installers, telephone.
Refrigeration and air-conditioning mechanics.
Industrial machinery repairmen________________
Jewelers and jewelry repairmen________________
Shoe repairmen__________________________________
W atch repairmen________________________________

M A C H I N E SHOP OCCUPATIONS ______________
All-round machinists____________________________
Machine tool operators_________________________
Tool and die makers____________________________
Set-up men______________________________________
Lay-out men_____________________________________

FO U ND R Y O CCUPATIONS ______________________
Hand molders____________________________________
Machine molders________________________________
Hand coremakers------------------------------------------------Machine coremakers____________________________
Chippers and grinders___________________________
Castings inspectors______________________________



Foundry technicians____________________________


FORGE SHOP OCCUPATIONS ___________________


Hammer and press crew helpers________________
Drop hammer operators________________________
Forging press operators_________________________
Other forge shop workers_______________________

OTHER M E T A L W O R K I N G O C C U PATIO N S-Arc and gas welders____________________________
Acetylene burners_____________________________
Resistance welders_____________________________
Assemblers (machinery manufacturing)____ _
Inspectors (machinery manufacturing)________
Riveters, pneumatic (manufacturing)_________

O CCU PATIO N S __________________________________
Armature winders_______________________________
Costume jewelry workers_______________________
Instrument makers______________________________
Painters (manufacturing)_______________________
Precision lens grinders and polishers__________
Watch and clock factory workers______________
Dental technicians______________________________
Dry cleaners and spotters______________________
Meat cutters_____________________________________
Optical mechanics (ophthalmic)_______________





OCCUPATIONS __________________________________
Processing occupations__________________________
Mechanical, transportation, and plant service
Technical and office occupations______________


OCCUPATIONS __________________________________


Planning and design jobs______________________


Form making jobs______________________________


Fabricating jobs_________________________________


Hull construction jobs__________________________


Engineering job s________________________________






Outfitting jobs___________________________________
Ship repair jobs_________________________________
Other jobs in shipbuilding______________________


TIONS _____________________________________________


Professional, technical, administrative, and
clerical occupations___________________________
Assembly and installation occupations_______
Sheet-metal fabricating occupations__________
Inspection jo b s __________________________________
Tool-room occupations and machine-tool op­
erating jobs____________________________________



m a n u f a c t u r in g —

c o n tin u e d



TIONS— Continued

PR IN TIN G OCCU PATIO N S __________________________299


Field and service mechanics___________________
Other aircraft manufacturing occupations. _

TIONS _____________________________________________
W ood turners____________________________________
Hand carvers and spindle carvers______________
Woodworking machine operators______________
Furniture assembling occupations_____________
Furniture finishers_______________________________
Other furniture finishing room workers_______
Other upholstery room workers_______________
Furniture designers______________________________

O C C U PATIO N S __________________________________
Molding-machine operators_____________________
Toolroom occupations__________________________
Finishing department occupations____________
Inspection department occupations____________
Laminating occupations________________________
Fabricating occupations_________________________
Technical, office, and sales occupations----------




Hand compositors and typesetters____________
Linotype operators_______________
Monotype keyboard operators_________________
Monotype caster operators_____________________
Electrotypers and stereotypers_________________
Rotogravure photoengravers___________________
Printing pressmen and assistants (letterpress
and gravure)__________________________________
Lithographic (offset) occupations______________
Bindery workers_________________________________

RE F IN IN G OCCUPATIONS ___________________
Crude production (well operation and main­
tenance) ______________________________
Refining occupations____________________________

Fur dressing and dyeing occupations_________
Fur garment manufacturing occupations_____
Retail fur shop occupations___________________
Fur designers____________________________________


340 .


B U IL D IN G T R A D E S _ ___________________________
Cement finishers_________________________________
Structural and ornamental iron workers_______
Rodmen (reinforcing iron workers)__________
Operating engineers (construction machinery
Marble setters, tile setters, and terrazzo
Painters and paperhangers_____________________
Asbestos workers________________________________
Plumbers and pipe fitters______________________
Sheet metal workers___________________________
Elevator constructors___________________________
Building laborers and hod carriers_____________

RAILROAD OCCUPATIONS ____ _________________
Locomotive firemen and helpers-----------------------Locomotive engineers___________________________



Train baggagemen_______________________________
Switch tenders___________________________________
Pullman conductors_____________________________
Pullman porters and passenger attendants____
Dining-car cooks________________________________
Dining-car waiters_______________________________
Telegraphers, telephoners, and towermen_____
Station agents___________________________________
Shop trades______________________________________
Bridge and building mechanics_________________
Signalmen and signal maintainers______________




Airplane pilots___________________________________
Flight engineers_________________________________
Flight radio operators___________________________
Airplane hostesses_______________________________
Flight stewards__________________________________



n o n m a n u f a c t t j r in g —

c o n tin u e d




Dispatchers and assistants______________________
Airport and air-route traffic controllers________
Ground radio operators and teletypists-----------Airplane mechanics______________________________
Stock and stores clerks__________________________
Traffic agents and clerks________________________

O C C U P A T I O N S ________________________________
Power plant______________________________________
Transmission and distribution---------------------------Customer servicing______________________________

IN S U R A N C E OCCUPATIONS ____________________
Home office insurance underwriters-----------------Life insurance agents------------------------------------------





Property, casualty, and surety insurance agents
and brokers______________________________________




HOTEL OCCUPATIONS ___________________________


Restaurant and cafeteria managers______________
Cooks and chefs___________________________________
Waiters and waitresses____________________________
Beverage-service workers_______________________

Front-office clerks_______________________________
Bell captains__________________________
Superintendents of service_______________
Hotel housekeepers and assistants_____________
Hotel managers and assistants_________________

Dairy farm s______________________________________
Fruit and berry farms___________________________
Poultry farms____________________________________
Tobacco farm s___________________________________
Vegetable farms_________________________________
Resort farms_____________________________________
Part-time farms____________________


Corn-livestock farms____________________________
Cash grain farms________________________________
Dairy farm s______________________________________
Fruit and vegetable farms______________________
Poultry farms__________________________* ------------General farms____________________________________
Part-time farms_________________________________


Dairy farm s______________________________________
Crop specialty farms____________________________
Fruit farms______________________________________
Livestock cash grain farms_____________________
Poultry farms____________________________________
Vegetable farms_________________________________
General farms____________________________________
Part-time farms_________________________________


Tobacco farms___________________________________
Fruit farms_______________________________________
Poultry farms____________________________________
Livestock farms__________________________________
Cotton farm s____________________________________
Peanut farm s____________________________________
Vegetable farms__________________________________



A P P A L A C H I A N S T A T E S — Continued
Dairy farm s_____________________________________
General farms____________________________________
Part-time farms_________________________________


Cotton farm s____________________________________
Peanut and pecan farms________________________
General-livestock farms_________________________
Dairy farm s_____________________________________
Fruit farms______________________________________
Poultry farms____________________________________
Tobacco farm s_________________________________
Vegetable farms_________________________________
Part-time farms_________________________________


Cotton farm s____________________________________
Fruit farms______________________________________
Truck farm s_____________________________________
Dairy farm s______________________________________
Poultry farms____________________________________
Rice farms_______________________________________
Sugarcane farms_________________________________
Pecan farm s_____________________________________
Part-time farms_________________________________


Cash grain farms________________________________
Cotton farms____________________________________
Range livestock farms__________________________
Dairy farm s______________________________________
Fruit farms______________________________________
Peanut and pecan farms________________________
Poultry farms____________________________________
Vegetable farms_________________________________
Part-time farms_________________________________




Cash grain farms________________________________


Cash grain-livestock farms______________________


Range livestock farm s__________________________


Dairy farms______________________________________


General farms____________________________________


Part-time farms__________________________________


Cash grain farms________________________________


Range livestock farms___________________________


Irrigated farms__________________________________


Dairy farm s______________________________________


Vegetable farms_________________________________


Part-time farm s__________________________________


Fruit farms_______________________________________


Vegetable farms_________________________________


Irrigated farms__________________________________


Range livestock farms___________________________


Cash grain farms________________________________


Dairy farms----------------------------------------------------------


Poultry farms____________________________________


Part-time farms_________________________________


Professional opportunities______________________






Farm service jo b s-----------------------------------------------Whitewashing service______________________
Feed grinding_______________________________
Fruit spraying______________________________
Fruit caretaker service_____________________
Grain elevator jobs_________________________
Mobile blacksmith shop___________________
Garage and repair shop____________________
Electrical service___________________________
Artificial insemination_____________________
Cow testers_________________________________
Mobile repair shop_________________________
Custom machine work_____________________
Livestock trucking_________________________
Recreation jobs_____________________________
W ell drilling________________________________
Airplane dusting of crops__________________
Mobile grocery store_______________________
Chick hatchery_____________________________
Small poultry-dressing plant______________
Country butcher___________________________
Sheep shearing______________________________
Salesman of farm supplies_________________
Livestock trader and buyer________________
Landscape gardening_______________________
Farm appraisers____________________________
General farm service_______________________




Occupational Outlook Handbook
Putting the Handbook to Work
The counselor or teacher who examines this
handbook for the first time may make enthusiastic
plans for its use in his classroom or at his desk.
Yet in employing the handbook primarily either as
a text or as an immediate source of reference, the
teacher, the counselor, or the counselor trainer may
overlook its real value.
Perhaps the two points about the occupational
field which most readily elude the counselor or
teacher concern the extremely fluid character of
occupational factors and the relative nature of all
occupational data.
Many books detailing occupational facts are ob­
solete nearly from the time they appear in print.
Individual occupations may be destroyed in the
wake o f a new invention. Whole areas may no
longer offer certain types of opportunity because
o f such unpredictable matters as a change in freight
rates or the invention and promotion of a substi­
tute product. The ebb and flow of prosperity in 6
months can throw scores of thousands of persons
engaged in a luxury trade out of work or can, on
the other hand, create a demand for a skill hereto­
fore perhaps not even known.
The relative nature of occupational information
implies that no bald statement should be made
about the characteristics of a particular job, or the
opportunity presented by a group of occupations.
Such statements are valid only when they have been
related to geography, locale, and above all to the
traits o f the individual prospective worker. Mis­
takes arising from ignoring this principle have
plagued the counselor and the counselee ever since
counseling has been a profession.
For these reasons the handbook can be of unique
assistance to the person who is teaching occupations
or who is counseling on vocational problems. The
fact that it describes 433 specific occupations under
diverse headings reveals the special nature of its
occupational treatment. The details of each occu­
pation must be filled in by the teacher or counselor

from other sources of information about employ­
ment conditions, the local scene, and the individual
who is studying his personal problems. The 433
occupations are keys to nearly 30,000 descriptive
terms which fill the “ Dictionary of Occupational
Titles” and which are representative of the great
bulk of occupations in this country. The two fac­
tors of suggestiveness and comprehensiveness make
the book valuable in helping to fill a known void.
The main value of this handbook for the teacher
or counselor lies in its orientation. For such users
the most important parts o f this publication in
many respects are the preliminary chapters and
the introduction to each of its main and subordin­
ate report sections. The brief statements on trends
and interpretations contain the material most lack­
ing in the background of many potential users of
the book, especially those who have not had the
benefit of a comprehensive course in occupational
information. From these statements emerges a
concept of the fluid nature o f occupational data.
These trends are dependent on many factors in
American life that require hard study if they are
to be understood. At the same time the reader
realizes that certain trends may be traced, and that
a reasonable amount of confidence in the predic­
tion as to the future of specific occupational fields
may be justified. Because these trends are stated in
guarded terms the reader is constantly referred to
a study of local and specific conditions as a correc­
tive for jumping to conclusions.
For the counselee the value of the handbook lies
in its contribution to his long-term planning. A
common problem for the pupil in high school or
the student in college is that of looking ahead from
3 to 10 years in order to map out a career in which
he can take full advantage of his personal traits
on the one hand and of occupational opportunities
on the other. For this purpose an occupational
brief or description has relatively little value. It
is perspective which counts. I f the individual,

892273°— 51------ 2



therefore, is trying to solve a vocational problem
which includes such things as preliminary training,
apprenticeship, college work, professional training,
internship, an entry occupation, and perhaps mi­
gration, he must be concerned with trends. He
must have an outlook which includes a reasonable
prediction as to what the conditions of employment
in a field o f work may be 5 or 10 years ahead.
Whether the handbook may be used directly for
study by the counselee is a question which depends
a good deal upon his maturity and ability to under­
stand abstract ideas. For the counselor who works
with the individual, however, the handbook pro­
vides the basic material from which he can devise
simpler means for presenting the facts. The com­
prehensive series o f charts may help. Some
restatement in terms of the interests of young
people in a specific school or the industries found
in their locality may be devised by the counselor
on the basis of the sound principles of the hand­
book. A t least it may be said that for career plan­
ning the ideas in the handbook are indispensable.
Such ideas must enter into the counseling interview
or into the study which the counselee may pursue
at the suggestion of the counselor who is helping
The high-school class in occupations is another
potential user of the handbook. Here again the
teacher is limited by the range o f ability in the
class and the difficulty which abstract ideas present
to perhaps the majority o f high-school pupils. It
is suggested that the principles contained in the
study of trends may be taught best through the
study o f some specific problem.
The town itself may be affected by a crucial trend
which is upsetting its entire economy. It may be
a northern city dependent on a textile industry
which is steadily moving south. The high school
may be in a region where some agricultural product
such as cotton is the main source o f revenue, and
pupils may then study what is happening already
to cotton-raising in specific communities because
of new machinery, a change in markets, and the
buying habits of the public. The prosperity of
another city may be tied up with mining or some
other industry threatened by depletion or new
processes. A new plant which has the capacity of
employing a considerable portion o f available labor
in the community may come upon the scene. It
may also attract many workers from elsewhere,
with the inevitable effect of increasing the popula­

tion and the opportunities of every nature which
a larger population creates. There may be excel­
lent examples locally of professional specialization
in engineering, for instance, or in medicine. There
can scarcely be any community in which the rapid
increase in the use of deep-freeze cabinets and tele­
vision sets, for example, has not created new em­
ployment opportunities for men skilled in installa­
tion and maintenance.
All of the projects suggested above exemplify
one phase or another of the problems treated in
the handbook. To the person teaching the class
the handbook reveals the important aspects of out­
look information which must be illustrated in the
occupations class if the pupils are to view their
problems with sufficient perspective to get away
from the immediate job and the oversimplified
facts of a job description.
The handbook, of course, also supplies specific
resources. Among these are graphic charts which
may be reproduced in wall size or which may be
used as models for charts about local facts and
trends secured by members of the class or from
local sources. The 433 reports on separate occupa­
tions may serve the double purpose of providing a
reference illustrative of almost every field o f work,
and also a model for some similar attempt to study
the occupational outlook in a phase of local com­
merce or industry.
For the counselor trainer the handbook provides
an indispensable tool. The new stress in counselor
training is on competencies. Competency in the
occupational phase of the counselor’s work includes
his ability to move from the general to the partic­
ular or vice versa. He must be concerned with
trends which are Nation-wide in their significance
and their relationship to any immediate problem
of a counselee. He must on the other hand be able
to help interpret the counselee’s ambitions in terms
of the long view. Brief treatments of such mat­
ters as the ratio of openings in a field o f occupa­
tions, the effect of population gain or loss on jobs
available to young people, the ascertainable flow
of migration suggest projects to the counselor
trainer for individual study. In the field of occu­
pational information it is important to encourage
and develop the concepts that occupational data
are always fluid and always relative in nature, con­
cepts which have already been mentioned as among
the important but too often missing knowledges
in the counselor’s equipment. On page 4 the


handbook disclaims any treatment of a list of many
topics commonly included in the general textbook
on occupations. This fact alone calls attention to
its concentration in the field of outlook and enables
the counselor trainer to give more definition to his
study of a neglected area.
Occupational data are composed of a fast chang­
ing stream of facts. Invention, production, migra­
tion, war, peace, the role of women, prosperity, de­
pression, mechanization, obsolescence, legal enact­
ments, management and labor agreements, adver­

tising, birth rate, turn-over, and most of all, the
ambitions, abilities, and the restless spirit of man—
all those and more are among the elements in this
ceaseless flow. The stream of facts must be ex­
pressed as trends, and the point of view of the
observer as outlook. To these considerations this
volume directs the attention of the professional
guidance worker.
H a r r y A. J a g e r , Chief
Occupational Information and Guidance Service
Office of Education, Federal Security Agency


Guide to Use of the Handbook
This handbook is primarily a summary of the
results and conclusions of recent studies of em­
ployment trends and long-range outlook in more
than 400 occupations of interest in vocational
Before using the handbook one should read the
section immediately after this one. That section
tells how the information in the handbook was
obtained, and explains a number of points which
need to be borne in mind in interpreting the re­
ports on the outlook in different occupations.
Following the introduction and a summary of
trends in population, labor force, industries, and
occupations, the major part of the book consists
of chapters on the major occupation groups and
industries and reports on each occupation. The
reports are grouped into five sections; three of
these sections cover occupations which are found
in a wide variety of industries and which can best
be discussed outside the context of an industry.
They are grouped in these major occupation fields:
Professional, semiprofessional, and administra­
tive; clerical, sales, and service; and trades and
industrial. The fourth and fifth sections describe
the occupations in some of the major industries
and in agriculture.
The 483 occupations included in this second
edition of the handbook are largely those found
to be of major interest to veterans and other young
people requesting guidance. Most of these occu­
pations require relatively long periods of train­
ing— either formal education or training on the
job. To young people considering such careers
the need for information on the outlook is most
acute. The occupations were selected also for
their relative importance as a source of employ­
ment opportunity. Some smaller fields are in­
cluded, however, either because there was special
interest in them, or because reports on them could
readily be prepared in the course of the study of
the larger occupations in the same industry.
These occupations represent about 82 percent of
the employment opportunities in the professional
and semiprofessional fields in the United States;

79 percent of those in skilled occupations; 40
percent in clerical occupations; 30 percent in serv­
ice occupations; smaller proportions of those in
administrative, sales, and semiskilled fields; and
most of the major types of farming. Thus, al­
though they represent only a small part of the
total number of different occupations in the United
States, they cover some of the major areas of inter­
est to veterans or students who are planning to
undertake long courses of training or apprentice­
ship. This handbook may therefore be of service
as a guide to the bewildering array of occupations
in the United States.
Inevitably, many significant occupations could
not be included. The first edition gave informa­
tion on 288 occupations; 145 more were added in
this edition. In future editions, reports on other
occupations will be incorporated as rapidly as
studies can be made, and the original reports will
be revised to keep them up to date.
Within these sections, the occupations are
further grouped by industry or field, with a brief
introduction to each which points out the major
characteristics and significant trends in the indus­
try. The chapters introducing each major group
show the occupations in perspective and in rela­
tion to each other. The individual reports sum­
marize recent trends and outlook, together with
the latest available data on earnings, on the kind
of training and preparation required, on the back­
ground of the occupation, on the nature of the
work, and the chief locations at which members
of the occupation are employed. The reports on
agricultural occupations describe the major types
of farms in 10 geographic regions, the kind of
work involved, and the outlook.
Certain types of information are not included in
this handbook because they are readily available
from other sources in the United States Depart­
ment of Labor or other agencies. There is a wealth
of material on job descriptions, labor-market re­
ports, occupational analysis, and relationships
among occupations (“ job families” ) in the publica­
tions of the United States Employment Service,


Bureau of Employment Security.1 Counselors
will find a description of opportunities for women
and problems of women workers in the publica­
tions of the Women’s Bureau.1 Information on
employment problems o f youth is published by the
Division of Child Labor and Youth Employment,
Bureau of Labor Standards.3 Information on op­
portunities and earnings in each locality may be
obtained from regional offices of the Bureau of
Labor Statistics, community occupational surveys,
or from occupational and labor-market reports of
local offices of the State employment services. A p ­
prenticeship standards in different occupations are
presented in publications of the Bureau of Appren­
ticeship.4 Directories and guides of schools or
colleges are listed in a recent publication of the
United States Office of Education, Federal Secur­
ity Agency.5
The United States Department of Agriculture
and the various State departments of agriculture
publish information on opportunities in farming.6
For those who are interested in opening a small
business, the United States Department of Com­
merce has published a series of booklets describing
the problems involved in establishing and operat­
ing various types of businesses.7
How the Employment Outlook Reports Were

Anyone who is trying to provide information
on which young people can make a decision about
courses o f training and lifetime careers must try
to look forward at least several years, and if pos­
sible several decades. The emphasis in the hand­
book, as in the occupational outlook research
program as a whole, is therefore on long-run
changes in employment opportunities in each in­
dustry and occupation.
In appraising these long-run trends, the assump­
1 Guide to Counseling Materials, prepared by the U. S. Employ­
ment Service, U. S. Department of Labor.
2 Current Publications of the Women’s Bureau, may be obtained
free of charge from the Women’s Bureau, U. S. Department of
Labor, Washington 25, D. C.
3 Child Labor and Youth Employment publications, mimeo­
graphed, may be obtained free of charge from the Division of
Child Labor and Youth Employment, Bureau of Labor Standards,
U. S. Department of Labor, Washington 25, D. C.
4 A copy of a list of available publications of current interest
on apprenticeship may be obtained from the Bureau of Appren­
ticeship, U. S. Department of Labor, Washington 25, D. C.
5 What School or College? by Walter J. Greenleaf. Misc. 3276,
4 pp. May be obtained free of charge from, the U. S. Office of
Education, Federal Security Agency, Washington 25, D. C.

tion has been made that there will be sustained
high levels of general business activity, with con­
tinued partial mobilization of about the scope con­
templated in the fall of 1950, and that there will
be no major war. For practical purposes in voca­
tional guidance, this is the most useful framework
for analysis. A major war or full mobilization
would create a great scarcity of workers in most
occupations, would change employers’ hiring
standards, and would otherwise alter the picture
of employment opportunities presented in this
book. The employment situation would, o f course,
be altered also by changing levels of business activ­
ity, as is indicated in the statements on the occu­
pations that have suffered most severely during
depressions. Even in such occupations, however,
the long-term trend is more important than shortrun fluctuations for appraising employment op­
portunities in connection with an individual’s
choice of a life-time career.
When the Advisory Committee on Education
recommended in 1938 that an Occupational Out­
look Service be established, it was recognized that
the analysis of occupational trends and outlook
was a largely unexplored field. It was expected
that it would be some years before results would
be available; much basic work would first have to
be done. Nevertheless, it was pointed out that the
need for facts is great. Each year 1y2 million
young people enter the labor force. Many of them
choose a vocation on the basis of no information
or partial information or even seriously inaccurate
information. I f we can give these young people
the best we have, even though it is not perfect, it
will be of some help to them.
Though the problems of evaluating long-run
employment outlook are far from solved, the Bu­
reau believes that, as the result of the first decade
of occupational outlook research, it is possible in
most cases to discern the major trends. Conclu­
sions as to the future are necessarily far from
precise but often accurate enough to answer satis6 See, for example, Suggestions to Prospective Farmers and
Sources of Information, 22 pp., multilithed, which may be ob­
tained free from the Bureau of Agricultural Economics, U. S.
Department of Agriculture, Washington 25, D. C.
7 A copy of a list of the “ Establishing and Operating” Series
may be obtained from the U. S. Department of Commerce, Wash­
ington 25, D. C., or from its nearest field office. The nearest field
office will also be able to supply copies of a series of small business
aids which give information on such subjects as window displays
and other topics of interest to small business firms.



factorily the questions in the minds of those pre­
paring for a career.
The methods of appraising future demand and
supply in each occupation which have been worked
out on the basis o f present experience differ greatly
among occupations, since the factors affecting the
outlook for one are often quite different from those
which affect another.
In general, a number of lines of research are
followed. Analysis is made of the growth and
changing composition of the population ; trends
in technology; shifts in marketing and in the pub­
lic’s demand for different goods and services; the
changing occupational patterns o f industries;
trends in employment in the various industries;
developments in industrial relations; provisions
of collective bargaining agreements; wage rates
in various occupations; and industrial hazards.
Trends in the supply of workers in each occupation
are determined by analysis of statistics on the
number o f young people in training in colleges
or vocational schools or by apprenticeship for each
occupation, and by study of the losses of workers
to each occupation resulting from death, retire­
ment, or transfer to other occupations.
In the course of each study, trends are discussed
with officials of industry, unions, trade associations,
and professional societies, and the reports are
checked and reviewed by them before publication,
to ensure accuracy and to obtain the benefit of
their judgment and intimate knowledge of their
The field of agricultural occupations is so broad
that only a series of general statements about
major types was prepared by the United States
Department of Agriculture. The Department
points out that even these statements are subject
to wide variations within the areas discussed.
Rapid changes in agricultural technology make it
highly desirable for readers interested in agri­
culture to check further with county and town­
ship advisory committees, land-grant colleges, and
farm associations.
The studies yielded much information of value
in guidance in addition to the appraisal of the
outlook for employment opportunities—such as
trends in the type of training required by em­
ployers, the relative job security of the craftsman
and the semiskilled worker, trends in licensure
requirements, or the steps one must take to make
sure that he can practice his profession in more

than one State. This information is incorporated
in the reports.
How can the results of such studies be inter­
preted in the guidance of individuals? Neces­
sarily, conclusions must be stated in general terms:
Employment opportunities will be relatively fa­
vorable or relatively poor. It is the task of the
individual, aided by the counselor or teacher, to
match his personal interests and abilities against
the demands of the occupation and the competitive
situation which may be expected.
Grouping and Definition of Occupations

Arranging information on a great many occu­
pations for a handbook like this presents many
dilemmas. From some points of view, it would
be useful to group occupations according to the
major occupational classes into which they are
divided by the Bureau of the Census and the D ic­
tionary o f Occupational Titles; yet this would not
be realistic in many cases, since in American in­
dustry there is often a close relationship in actual
practice between occupations which fall into d if­
ferent broad groups. For example, railroad con­
ductor is a managerial occupation according to
standard classifications, but a man cannot become
a conductor except by promotion from brakeman;
it makes sense to discuss conductors in the chapter
on railroad occupations rather than in the chapter
on administrative occupations. I f one attempts
to group the occupations by industry, there is no
convenient place for those occupations which are
found in many different industries—occupations
such as engineering or stenography. From other
points of view, it would be useful for purposes of
vocational guidance to have occupations grouped
according to similarity of the work done or accord­
ing to fields of interest; this might be consistent
with a “ client-centered approach.” Still another
method that has been suggested is to group occu­
pations in such a way that those which offer em­
ployment opportunities to people with certain
types of physical abilities or disabilities would be
presented together. Those are but some of the
possible approaches to occupational grouping.
In despair, the editor of a publication of this type
may throw up his hands and group the occupa­
tions alphabetically or in some other arbitrary
way which removes from him the onus of having
to make a decision.


In preparing this second edition of the Occupa­
tional Outlook Handbook it was decided to follow
no single method, but to present the material in
such a way as seemed most appropriate in view of
the needs of the users and the realities of the in­
dustrial world. The largest proportion of the oc­
cupations described in this handbook are included
in the chapters covering the major industries in
which they are employed. Those occupations
which are employed in a wide variety of industries
are treated in separate sections under the major
occupation groups in which they are classified by
the Bureau o f the Census and the Dictionary of
Occupational Titles. In a few cases where there
are reports on only one or two occupations in an
industry, these were included in the sections for
the major occupation groups into which the occu­
pations fall, no industry chapter having been pre­
pared. An example is “ telephone installation and
maintenance craftsmen” which is listed under Me­
chanics and Repairmen.
While the arrangement followed does not con­
form to any one system of classifying occupations,
provision has been made for those who wish to
approach the material through one or another of
the classification systems. Those interested in
classification according to major occupation
groups will find that the Dictionary o f Occupa­
tional Titles classification number has been given
for every occupation discussed in the text of this
handbook. The first digit of the “ D. O. T .” num­
ber shows the major occupation group, as follow s:

Professional and managerial occupations:
0 -0 through 0-3 Professional occupations
0 -4 through 0 -6 Semiprofessional occupations
0 - 7 through 0 -9 Managerial and official occupa­


Clerical and sales occupations:
1 - 0 through 1 -4 Clerical and kindred occupations
1 - 5 through 1-9 Sales and kindred occupations


Service occupations:
2- 0
Domestic service occupations
2-2 through 2 -5 Personal service occupations
2 -6
Protective service occupations
2 - 8 through 2-9 Building service workers



Agricultural, fishery, forestry, and kindred occupa­
tions :
3 - 0 through 3 -4 Agricultural, horticultural, and
kindred occupations
3 -8
Fishery occupations



Agricultural, fishery, forestry, and kindred occupa­
tions— Continued
3 -9
Forestry (except logging), and
hunting and trapping occupa­
Skilled occupations


Semiskilled occupations


Unskilled occupations

Those interested in occupations related to a field
of work will be able to find what they are looking
for by using the index to occupational reports
classified by broad fields of work (see Use of the
Index to Occupational Reports Classified by Broad
Fields of Work, p. 9). Finally, an alphabetical
index to occupations (beginning on p. 564) is pro­
vided for ready reference.
Interpreting Information on Number of Work­
ers in Each Occupation

The handbook gives figures on employment in
each field wherever possible, both in charts and
text, because the most useful single clue to the pros­
pective employment opportunities in each occupa­
tion is the number o f workers employed in it.
Some occupations are grow ing; but rarely does an
occupation grow so rapidly that the number of new
positions opening up each year is as great as the
number of vacancies which arise as workers leave
the occupation. Even occupations which are de­
clining in size offer employment opportunities to
many young people each year because of this turn­
over. The majority of the job openings are the
result o f deaths, retirements, and transfers of
workers to other fields.
Death and retirement rates vary among occupa­
tions, depending on many factors, including the
nature of the occupation and the ages of workers
employed in it. Carpenters, for example, are an
older group of workers than automobile mechanics,
on the average, because carpentry is an occupation
of long standing, in which few young men were
apprenticed in the depression years, whereas auto­
mobile repair work has existed for only a few dec­
ades, and has grown rapidly, taking in many
young men.
To make it possible to estimate the number of
jobs which open up annually in each occupation
because of deaths and retirements, the Bureau of



Labor Statistics has developed tables of working
life expectancy (for discussion see page 17) simi­
lar to the actuarial life tables used by insurance
companies as a basis for their premium and benefit
rates. These tables have been used wherever pos­
sible in preparing the occupational reports in this
The use of these tables may be illustrated by
their application to the two occupations cited
above—carpenters and mechanics. Because of the
difference in the workers’ ages, the rate of death
and retirement for carpenters (o f whom there
were 766,000 in 1940) is about 3 percent a year,
as computed from the tables of working life ex­
pectancy, whereas that for the automobile and
other mechanics (of whom there were 974,000 in
1940) is only half as much; and therefore the num­
ber of mechanics and repairmen who die or retire
each year is less than two-thirds the number of
For most occupations in which men are em­
ployed the death and retirement rate, as estimated
in this way, varies from 1 to 4 percent a year. The
rate is usually somewhat higher in women’s occu­
pations because so many women leave to get mar­
ried; for example, as many as 6 percent a year
leave the nursing profession, according to a study
by the Women’s Bureau.
Jobs in each occupation open up also as workers
transfer to other types of work. Little is now
known about the movement of workers among oc­
cupations, but research is continuing on the prob­
lems o f measuring this significant aspect of
replacement needs.
Interpreting Information on Earnings

Few people make an occupational choice solely
on the basis of how much money they may be able
to earn, but most people do want to have some idea
of the earnings to be expected in the various occu­
pations they are considering. For this reason,
earnings information is given, insofar as possible,
for each occupation in this handbook.
Most of the information on earnings comes from
the surveys of the Bureau of Labor Statistics. In
some chapters, other Government or private
sources were used. The most recent information
available on each occupation is reported, and the
date of the survey is given.

Where the earnings given are on an hourly or
weekly basis, the reader may want to estimate
roughly what the amount would be on a yearly
basis by considering the information given on sea­
sonality or irregularity of work. Similarly, when
the worker receives tips or wages in kind—such
as meals or lodging—or has to pay for uniforms,
these points are brought out.
The significant thing to remember about the
earnings information that can be given in so brief
a report is that it reflects only an average and that,
like every average, it conceals many variations.
Earnings in an occupation may vary according to
skill level, industry in which the worker is em­
ployed, size of plant, section of the country, and
many other factors. Often earnings are different
for men and women in the same occupation, or for
workers in union shops and shops which do not
have contracts with unions.
It is important to bear in mind that for guidance
purposes an individual will wish to know what
the earnings in each occupation will be several
years in the future, when he will have completed
his training and is ready to enter the occupation.
This cannot be predicted, of course. Wage rates,
salaries, and earnings change rapidly and so does
the level of prices, which determines what a pay
check will buy. The earnings information we can
give on each occupation is valuable, however, in
suggesting the relative position of the occupation
as compared to others: Is it a low-paying field or
one which pays about the average, or is it a field
in which earnings have been consistently high?
Wherever possible, trends in earnings are reported,
so that the steadiness or variability of earnings in
the occupation is suggested.
How To Obtain Additional Information on
Local Employment Opportunities

While many veterans or students who are inter­
ested in choosing an occupation do not necessarily
expect to find one in which they can work in their
home community, there are some to whom this is
an important consideration. Workers in certain
occupations expect to move occasionally from one
city to another to find employment or to get a bet­
ter job. This is true, for example, of engineers,
chemists, business executives, workers in the con­
struction trades and transportation industries, and
many others. On the other hand, many workers


in other occupations are less attached to their field
of work than to the city in which they live, and
would choose an occupation only if they could be
sure that there were local opportunities for em­
The occupational reports in this handbook give
information on employment trends and outlook in
the United States as a whole, and also briefly sug­
gest the geographical distribution of employment
opportunities. To get information on current job
opportunities and earnings for his own city or
State the counselor should check with local sources.
Other important information also has to be
checked locally. Throughout this handbook in­
formation is given on how a person qualifies for
employment in each occupation—the necessary
personal characteristics, education, specific train­
ing, experience, licenses, and other qualifications.
In using this information one must remember that
the individual employer who makes the decision
as to whom he will hire usually has his own ideas
as to the kind of worker he would like to have in
his firm. Each employer will have his own hiring
standards, based on his experience, on the particu­
lar needs of his firm, and on his personal pref­
erences. The hiring standards of firms in the
same line of business within a single community
may differ. Moreover, employers’ specifications
may change from time to time as the supply and
demand situation changes, as technological de­
velopments make it necessary to have workers
with different qualifications, as industry or union
practices change, or as attitudes toward employ­
ment o f women, older workers, handicapped per­
sons, and minority groups are altered. Anyone
interested in finding a job in a particular locality
has to look into the specific facts about employ­
ment opportunities for him in that community.
The local office of the State employment service
regularly surveys employment opportunities in
its area and often has available complete occupa­
tional briefs for important local jobs. Much
additional unpublished information may usually
be obtained from the local office. For profes­
sional occupations the local branches of the various
national professional societies may be of help.
Similarly, the local office of a union will usually
have information on employment opportunities in
its field. Through the chamber of commerce and
the classified section of the telephone directory

lists of specific firms in each type of business may
be obtained.
Local information on the earnings and working
conditions of workers in important occupations in
many localities is issued by the Bureau of Labor
Statistics. These reports, called Community Wage
Surveys, provide the following kinds of informa­
tion : employment in each of the important indus­
tries in a community, the number of workers in
important occupations, their weekly and hourly
earnings and hours of work, and the kind of work
done by persons in each occupation. Wage rates
and weekly working hours are reported for each
industry for three main types of jobs (a) officeclerical workers, such as typists, machine oper­
ators, and bookkeepers (b) skilled maintenance
workers, such as firemen, carpenters, and elec­
tricians (c) less skilled workers, such as janitors,
truck drivers, and order fillers. The reports also
give information on occupations which are found
in important local industries (in furniture manu­
facturing in Grand Rapids, for example). The
reports also show prevailing local practices in
regard to pensions, vacations, holidays, and sick
leave, This picture of the occupational and indus­
trial patterns in local areas is extremely useful to
Surveys similar to those described, but covering
only office workers, have been made in a number of
cities. A list of the Community Wage Survey
and Office Worker reports available is given on
page 574 of this handbook.
Finally, a more comprehensive source of infor­
mation on local opportunities would be a com­
munity occupational survey. Information on how
such surveys have been conducted in a number of
cities is contained in a publication of the United
States Office of Education,8 and more recent
developments are discussed in several articles.9
Use of the Index to Occupational Reports Clas­
sified by Broad Fields of Work

A person choosing an occupational field needs
full knowledge of the wide variety of occupations
8 Vocational Division Bulletin 223, Community Occupational
Surveys. Occupational Information and Guidance Series No. 10,
by Marguerite Wykoff Zapoleon, U. S. Office of Education, Federal
Security Agency, Washington, D. C., 1942. (Out of print; on
file in many libraries.)
9 Occupations Magazine, Volume XXVI, Number 8, and Volume
XXVIII, Number 3.



which may call into play his specific interests and
abilities. To widen the range of choice, the coun­
selor may want to call attention to a variety of
occupations appropriate to his interests or abilities
as shown in interest inventories, aptitude tests,
hobbies, or school grades. For this purpose the
counselor needs information on the occupations
related to each broad type of work.
As an aid in the counseling and placement o f
young workers, the United States Employment
Service devised an Entry Occupational Classifica­
tion structure, published as part IV of the Dic­
tionary o f Occupational Titles. This classifies
fields of work, rather than specific occupations.
For example, there are such fields as musical work,
literary work, child care, metal machining, me­
chanical repairing, graphic art work, machine
tending, and so forth. Specific occupations re­
lated to each field of work are also shown. By
using this information, it is possible to list a wide
range o f occupations which may be of interest to
a person with a given set of interests or aptitudes.
The user of this handbook may identify the
occupations described in the book which are re­
lated to each field by referring to the Index to
Occupational Reports Classified by Broad Fields
o f Work, which begins on page 558. This index
serves as a guide to the occupations included in
the handbook, using the entry occupational classifi­
cation found in Part IV of the Dictionary o f Occu­
pational Titles. For example, a person whose
ability lies in the field of artistic work may be
interested in information on the commercial artist,
industrial designer, fur designer, furniture de­
signer, interior decorator, or photographer. Since
many o f the occupations related to a field of work
are not covered in this handbook, the counselor
may wish to refer to part IV o f the Dictionary for
further suggestions.
Occupations in the Armed Forces

The Armed Forces of the United States offer
careers in many of the fields discussed in this
handbook. A great many o f the jobs done by
members o f the various services involve training
and skills similar to those required in certain civil­
ian jobs. It will therefore be helpful to young
people choosing a career or a course of training if
they are given information on how service in the
Armed Forces will fit in with their job plans.

Those now entering or already in the Armed
Forces will be interested in knowing how skills
acquired in the service can help them in civilian
jobs; through experience in these fields during
their period o f service they may be able to gain
some idea o f their interest in and aptitude for
the work, even though the nature of the work and
the conditions under which it is carried on may
be quite different from those in civilian life. On
the other hand, people now in civilian jobs may
be interested in the opportunities offered by the
services to persons possessing their skills.
General information on the occupations in the
Army, Navy, A ir Force, Marine Corps, and Coast
Guard may be obtained from their respective re­
cruiting stations. A t the same time, the Army,
Navy, and A ir Force have published detailed in­
formation concerning the career fields offered in
each of these services.
The occupational structure of the Navy is ex­
plained in the “ United States Navy Occupational
Handbook,” Bureau of Naval Personnel, Wash­
ington 25, D. C., 1950. This handbook contains
62 vocational information briefs on Navy occupa­
tions classified into 12 major groups. Each brief
explains the purpose of the job, duties and respon­
sibilities, work assignment, qualifications and
preparation, training given, paths of advance­
ment, and related naval or civilian jobs. Promo­
tions, pay rates, retirement provisions, and other
aspects o f careers in the Navy are explained in
the introduction. These books are available in
all high schools, colleges, public libraries, State
employment service offices, and Navy recruiting
stations. The Navy career fields are as follows:
Boatswain’s mate.
Torpedoman’s mate.
Gunner’s mate.
Fire controlman.
Fire control technician.
Electronics technician.
Communications technician.

Personnel man.
Machine accountant.
Disbursing clerk.
Ship’s serviceman.
Photographer’s mate.
Machinist’s mate.
Machinery repairman.
Electrician’s mate.
Interior communications electrician.
Damage controlman.
Construction electrician’s mate.
Utilities man.
Aviation machinists mate.
Aviation electronics technician.
Aviation electronicsman.
Aviation ordnanceman.
Air controlman.
Aviation boatswain’s mate.
Aviation structural mechanic.
Parachute rigger.
Aerographer’s mate.
Aviation photographer.
Tradeoman (training devices).
Aviation storekeeper.
Hospital corpsman.
Dental technician.

Air Force
The Air Force has published a series of booklets
on each of 42 Airmen Career Fields. Each book­
let includes a statement of the scope of the par­
ticular career field and a chart of organization
which shows the relationships between the various
jobs and indicates the paths of advancement. For
each job in a field the booklet gives the following
information: job summary, job description, job
requirements, job progression, and related civilian
jobs. Ranks of those holding jobs discussed in
the booklets range from private to chief warrant

officer. These booklets are printed as A ir Force
letters and are available at any A ir Force recruit­
ing station or A ir Force Base. They can also be
obtained by writing to the Director of Training,
Headquarters, United States Air Force, Washing­
ton 25, D. C. These are the airmen career fields:
Air traffic control and warning.
Communications operations.
Badio and radar maintenance.
Missile guidance systems.
Armament systems.
Training devices maintenance.
W ire maintenance.
Intricate equipment maintenance.
Aircraft accessories maintenance.
Aircraft and engine maintenance.
Rocket propulsion.
Munitions and weapons.
Vehicle maintenance.
Metal working.
Fabric, leather, and rubber.
Food service.
Management methods.
Budgetary, accounting and disbursing.
Statistical and machine accounting.
Rescue and survival.
Ground safety.
Security and law enforcement.
Special activities.

The Army has divided its occupations into 31
career fields which are explained in “Enlisted Per­
sonnel—Military Occupational Specialties,” SR
615-25-15. Every job in each career field is pre­
sented under these headings: Summary, Duties,
Qualifications, and Examples of Duty Positions


for Which Qualified. The purpose of this book is
to re-evaluate the occupational structure of the
Army in order to simplify and improve admin­
istration. Though intended for Army use, this
book is useful to a civilian because it explains
what each job is and how it fits into a particular
Army career field. Another book, “ Enlisted Per­
sonnel— Career Fields,” contains a job progres­
sion chart for each career field showing the paths
of advancement from the lowest to the highest
enlisted rating. These publications are available
at any Army recruiting station or Army post per­
sonnel office. The 31 Army career fields are as
follow s:
Food service.
Machine accounting.
Engineering and construction.
Military police.
W ire maintenance.
Personnel and administration.
Motor transport.
Automobile maintenance.
Quartermaster maintenance.
Army aircraft maintenance.
Electronics maintenance.
Armament maintenance.
Special services.
Scientific services.
Military intelligence.
Communications intelligence.


Marine operations.
Mapping and reproduction.
Engineer equipment maintenance.

How To Obtain Current Information

Revised editions of the handbook will be issued
from time to time to bring the information up to
date and will include additional occupational re­
ports. Their publication will be announced by
the Bureau of Labor Statistics. The Bureau will
be glad to place any user of this handbook on its
mailing list to receive announcements of these and
other publications in the Occupational Outlook
series, and current releases summarizing the re­
sults of new studies. Anyone wishing to receive
these announcements should send the request to
the Bureau of Labor Statistics, United States
Department of Labor, Washington 25, D. C. Per­
sons living in a city in which postal zone numbers
are in use are requested to include the number in
the address. The coupon on the last page of this
handbook may be used for this purpose.
How You Can Help Make This Handbook More

The Bureau of Labor Statistics needs your help
in planning future editions of this handbook.
How can we make it more useful to you? What
additional information about occupations can we
give? I f you have any suggestions for future
editions, please let us have them. The last page
of this book contains a convenient form you can

Economic and Occupational Trends
To the student learning about occupations, to
the counselor engaged in explaining their intri­
cacies, or to the person seeking information on
which to base his selection of a course of training
or a career, it is important to understand one thing
fully: the rapidly-changing nature of our eco­
nomic life.
Constant change is the most significant aspect
of the occupational and industrial world in which
we live. Technological, industrial, and social
changes increase the need for workers in some oc­
cupations, reduce the demand in others, sometimes
create new occupations and throw old ones into the
discard, and constantly alter the content and
character of every line of work.
The rapidity with which the occupational pic­
ture changes is illustrated in chart 1. In 1870 a
young man may have considered the choice be­
tween apprenticing himself to a cooper or to a

barber. Both were skilled trades, with long his­
torical traditions behind them. There were nearly
twice as many coopers as barbers, indicating a
somewhat broader choice of jobs and the need for
more new workers each year. Yet, within the span
of a man’s life, the number of people who made
their living as barbers increased more than tenfold,
while employment opportunities for coopers
shrank to one-fifth of their previous number.
What happened? With growth in population,
a shift of population to cities, increases in aver­
age income, and changes in styles, the occupation
of barber grew. On the other hand, the occupa­
tion of cooper declined as wooden barrels were dis­
placed for various uses by steel drums, aluminum
kegs, paper sacks, paperboard boxes, and other
types of containers, and because of the introduc­
tion of factory methods in making wooden barrels.
Thus, because of population growth, technologi-



IN TWO O C C U P A T I O N S , 1870 TO 1940

















cal improvements, social change, and the vagaries
o f fashion, one occupation grew tremendously,
and the other fell into the discard.
To the young person looking forward to a life­
time of work—and that means nearly half a cen­
tury—the fact that these changes occur is signifi­
cant. T o the best of our ability, we must try to
anticipate the changes and provide as much infor­
mation on trends as is possible. Although we can­
not foresee anywhere near all that may happen, a
real service will have been performed if young
people are made aware of the dynamic character of
the economy, and if they are prepared to expect
changes and to adjust to them. This means main­
taining the utmost flexibility and taking the broad­
est kind o f training consistent with adequate
preparation for a particular occupation.
To emphasize the changing character of occupa­
tional life, as well as to provide background and
context for the reports on trends and outlook in
each occupation, the growth and changing com­
position of population and the labor force, the
major trends in industry, and their effect on broad
occupational trends will be reviewed in the next
few pages.
It should be noted first, however, that far greater
than the changes shown by the growth of popula­
tion, the labor force, industries, and occupations
are the changes in status of individuals. I f the
labor force increases by one-half million in a
single year, it is because a million older workers
died or retired and 1y2 million young people left
the schools and went to work. But this is only a
beginning. The number of changes made by in­
dividual workers from job to job within an indus­

try, between industries, from State to State, or
from one occupation to another are much more
numerous than the movements into and out of the
labor force in any given year.
In 1949 an average of nearly one quarter of a
million manufacturing workers quit their jobs
each month.
In a 2 % -year period during the war, over 7 mil­
lion civilian workers changed from one major
occupation group to another.
Between 1935 and 1940—in a peacetime period—
more than 3 million workers had moved from one
State to another, and another 4 million had moved
from one county to another within a State.
Taking into account the families of these work­
ers, the number of people who move their place of
residence is even greater. In 1947, 25,000,000
people were living in a different county from the
one in which they had been living in 1940; half
o f them were living in another State.
We have just begun in recent years to be able
to measure the movements of individuals, and to
appreciate the extent and significance of this type
of economic change. These movements represent
the adjustments people make to a changing en­
vironment. Without them the labor market could
not function.
It is likely that most young people in school now
will want to make similar changes in the course o f
their working life, either to improve their posi­
tion, or because the change is forced upon them
by loss of a job, poor health, or similar cause. This
suggests once more the importance of flexibility
in preparing for an occupation.

Population and Labor Force Trends

A basic factor underlying the occupational out­
look is the trend in population growth. Changes
in the size and characteristics of the population
influence the amount and types of goods which
will be demanded at various times. They also
have a direct bearing on the size of the labor force
and on the characteristics of the persons avail­
able for work.
Over the past century our history has been one
of rapid population growth. This was particu­

larly true in the decades prior to World War I,
when the heavy influx of immigrants, the rela­
tively high birth rate, and the constant reduction
in mortality, all combined to increase our popula­
tion. (See chart 2.)
Population growth in the past was closely asso­
ciated with expanding economic opportunity.
The rapidly growing size of our domestic market,
combined with great gains in technology, provided
the impetus for large-scale expansion of manu­
facturing, railroads, public utilities, construction,
and other types of business. Employment oppor-


tunities grew apace. Although there were, of
course, great differences in the rate of expansion
among different occupations, there were very few
trades or professions which did not record a sub­
stantial gain in number from one decade to the
Along with rising population, however, there
has been a downward trend in the rate of popula­
tion growth (the percentage increase from year
to year). Restrictions on immigration as well as
the long-term decline in the birth rate have tended
to slow down population growth. During the de­
pression years of the 1930’s there were sharp de­
clines in the rates of marriages and births, reflect­
ing the effect of unemployment and economic in­
security. As a result, the average annual rate of
population increase dropped from 1.5 percent be­
tween 1920 and 1930, to only 0.7 percent in the
following decade.


The population has increased greatly_




The baby boom.—The outbreak of World War II
interrupted this downtrend. There was a sharp
spurt in births during the early war years. After
a brief slackening during 1944 and 1945, when
millions of young men were overseas, marriages
and births mounted to extremely high levels.
Nearly 4 million babies were born in 1947 as com­
pared to an average of less than 2y2 million in the
period 1935-39. The “baby boom” continued in
1948 and 1949, with more than 3,700,000 births in
each of these years (see chart 3).
A part of the recent increase of births has been
viewed as temporary, resulting from the consum­
mation of many marriages postponed by the de­
pression and the war, or moved ahead by favorable
economic conditions. However, the marriage and
baby booms have already had a significant impact
on employment trends, and will continue to influ­
ence the future occupational outlook. For ex­
ample, the high level of demand for consumer
goods of all sorts during the past several years
has been due in no small part to the fact that many
more families have had to be housed and more
children fed and clothed.
In the coming years, too, there will be a record
demand for additional school facilities and teach­
ers, as the new generation moves through ele­
mentary schools, high schools, and colleges.
Elementary school enrollments already have be­
gun to climb and are expected to mount steadily
to about 261/2 million by the late 1950’s, or more
than 45 percent higher than in 1947. On the other
hand, high school enrollments, reflecting the re­
duced number of births in the 1930’s, are likely to
remain under 1947-48 levels for a few years.
Rapid growth in the number of high school stu­
dents will begin around 1955 and enrollments will
continue to rise into the early 1960’s (see chart 3).
After the peaks have been reached, enrollments—
both elementary and high school— are likely to
continue at very high levels for several years.
Long-term prospects.—Looking beyond the next
few years, most population specialists have ex­
pected a resumption of the historical decline in
the birth rate and a further decrease in the rate
of population growth. In fact, until recently,
they considered it likely that the United States
population—in absolute numbers—might actually
level off and begin to decline before the end of the
present century.



and postw ar baby b o o m s ...............

Le a d to ra p id ly in c re a sin g

sc h o o l en ro llm en ts

basic industries. However, if the rate of popu­
lation growth declines, there may be significant
shifts in our patterns of spending and saving and
in the distribution of workers among various
industries and occupations. For example, with
continued gains in productivity, a declining pro­
portion of our labor force will be needed for pro­
duction of basic necessities, such as staple food
items, and a growing proportion will be engaged
in the production of those consumer goods and
services which go with a higher standard of liv­
ing. It will, therefore, become increasingly im­
portant to assess the relative trends in different
lines of work.
The increase in the aged population.—One im­
portant population trend which is likely to con­
tinue for many years is the increase in the number
of aged persons in the population (see chart 4).
The great advances in medicine and public health
have enabled more people to live to older ages.
In 1900, for example, only about 4 out of every 10
babies could expect to survive until age 65; at
present, this proportion is about 6 out of 10. As


However, the recent spurt of population increase
has far exceeded earlier expectations. It now
appears likely that, barring some catastrophe, the
population will continue to expand until the end
of the century and perhaps for many decades
thereafter. At the same time, unless large-scale
immigration is resumed, we may still expect that
the rate of growth in coming years will be con­
siderably lower than it was in the past decade, or
in the years prior to the depression of the thirties.
Both of these trends have very important im­
plications for occupational outlook. A continued
increase in population means that in coming dec­
ades there will be more people to be fed, clothed,
housed, and provided with other consumer goods
and services; it will contribute to increased ex­
pansion in production and employment in many


a result of this and related population trends, the
number of persons 65 or over has been rising rap­
idly. In 1900, only 3 million people (or about 1
out o f 25) were 65 years or over; by 1950, more
than 11y2 million men and women (or about 1 out
of 13) were in this age group. I f recent trends
continue, the number of aged will more than double
before the end of this century and they will make
up a significantly greater proportion of the popu­
lation than at present.
As the aged population grows, we can expect
increasing demands for medical services, for insti­
tutions to care for the aged, and for those types of
goods and services which meet their needs. Prob­
lems o f social security and old age pensions will
come more and more to the forefront. And, at the
same time, we can expect increasing efforts to pro­
vide more adequate employment opportunities for
the older worker, with emphasis on those occupa­
tions which are less exacting in their physical
The Labor Force

Although the growth of total population has
great importance in occupational outlook, we are
more directly concerned with those persons in the
population who work or seek employment. The
“ labor force,” as we shall refer to it, includes not
only employees who work for wages or salaries,
but also farmers, businessmen, the Armed Forces,
and the unemployed. In April 1950, there were
over 63 million persons in the labor force—about
57 percent o f the population 14 years of age and
In the past, the growth of the labor force, from
decade to decade, largely paralleled the increase
of population. It expanded rapidly during the
past half-century from over 20 million in 1890 to
55 million in 1940. With the slowing down in
population growth there were corresponding de­
clines in the rate of increase of the labor force.
Thus, during the decade 1920 to 1930, the average
annual rate of increase of the Nation’s work force
was about 1.7 percent; in the decade of the thirties,
the rate had dropped to 1.1 percent. In the 1940’s,
the downward trend was temporarily reversed.
Between 1940 and 1945, the manpower needs of
the Armed Forces and of industry brought into the
labor force 8 million workers over and above the

number indicated by long-term trends. Most of
these “extra” workers left the labor force shortly
after the end of the war, but in April 1950 the
working population was still about iy 2 million
larger than expected on the basis of prewar trends.
Within the course of the next two decades, popu­
lation trends will play a decisive role in labor force
growth. Relatively small additions to the popula­
tion of working age are expected until the late
1950’s because of the slump in marriages and births
during the depressed thirties. In the following
10-year period, the very large generation of youths
born during the war and early postwar years will
join the working population; even so, the rate o f
labor force growth in that decade may be less than
between 1930 and 1940.
The rising importance of replacement needs.— A
slowing down in labor force growth results in a
significant shift in the sources of jobs for new en­
trants into the labor market. In past periods o f
rapid labor force growth, the main source of op­
portunity for the relatively large numbers of new
workers lay in the expanding manpower needs of
the economy. With a declining rate of labor force
growth, however, an increasingly large proportion
of the new entrants will find jobs as replacements
for workers leaving the labor force because of
death, retirement, or other reasons. In order to
appraise prospective job openings in different oc­
cupations, the study of the age distribution of
persons at present in the occupation, and of other
factors influencing the rate at which workers are
likely to withdraw, will therefore become espe­
cially important. This is particularly true in
many professional occupations and skilled trades,
since relatively few experienced workers normally
withdraw from these fields except when they die
or retire. Clearly, if other factors are equal, oc­
cupations with the highest prospective separation
rates will provide the greatest relative number of
job openings.
In order to estimate the relative number of re­
placements owing to death or retirement, in d if­
ferent occupations, “ tables o f working life” have
been developed by the Bureau of Labor Statistics.1
1 A detailed description of the construction and application of
these tables is given in the publication of the Bureau of Labor
Statistics, U. S. Department of Labor, “ Tables of Working L ife /’
Bulletin No. 1001, 1950. Superintendent of Documents, U. S.
Government Printing Office, Washington 25, D. C. Price 40 cents.

892273°— 51-



These tables, which resemble the conventional life
tables used by insurance companies, include the
rates of separation from the labor force at different
By applying these rates to a particular
occupation for which an age distribution of the
workers is available, it is often possible to esti­
mate the number and percent of persons in the
occupation who are expected to die or retire in a
given period.
Trends in labor force 'participation.—Apart from
over-all population trends, there have been sig­
nificant changes in the extent to which men and
women of different ages have participated in the
labor force. Almost all able-bodied adult men
between the ages of 25 and 55 normally work or
seek work. Over the years there has, however,
been a steady increase in the proportion of women
working outside the home, while the proportion of
workers among youth and among older persons
has been declining. Chart 5 shows the propor­
tions o f different age and sex groups of the popula­
tion in the labor force in April 1950.
The movement of women into gainful employ­
ment has resulted from a combination of forces.
The shift of population to the cities and the in­
creased importance of the white-collar occupa­
tions, for example, resulted in a great expansion
of employment opportunities for women. At the

same time, the decline in the size of families and
the introduction of labor-saving household devices
made it possible for growing numbers of women
to accept jobs outside the home.
However, despite these gains in employment,
we should note that only about a third of all
women aged 20 to 64 were actually in the labor
force in April 1950. The great majority of mar­
ried women, particularly those with small chil­
dren, still devote their full time to household work.
With the increased application of science to house­
hold management and to child care, there is, in
fact, a growing need for adequate training in home
economics and related fields, as well as along
strictly vocational lines.2
In contrast to the trend for adult women work­
ers, the proportion of youth in the labor force has
been declining. There has been a steady length­
ening in the period of schooling, partly because of
compulsory school-attendance laws, but mainly
because our complex society has required a great­
er period of formal training. However, as a re­
sult of a high level of job opportunities, the post­
war period has seen more teen-aged youth in the
2 A more complete account of the long-term trends in employ­
ment of women is given in a publication of the Women’s Bureau,
U . S. Department of Labor, “ Women’s Occupations Through
Seven Decades,” Bulletin No. 218, 1947. Superintendent of Doc­
uments, U. S. Government Printing Office, Washington 25, D, C.
Price 45 cents.









labor force (including many students employed
part time) than might be expected from prewar
trends. On the other hand, considerable num­
bers of older veterans, who would normally be at
work, have been attending schools and colleges
under the provisions of the GI Bill of Rights
(the Servicemen’s Readjustment Act of 1944, as
amended). Most of the veterans still in school
will complete their courses and will enter the labor
market by 1952. The influx of trained veterans,
plus the trend toward longer schooling among
younger people, will make advanced education
more important than ever before as a means of
entry into the better paid occupational fields.
The proportion of older people, particularly
those 65 and over, who were in the labor force, had
also been declining before World War II. Modern
industry, with its dilution of skills and emphasis
on speed, offered very limited employment oppor­
tunities for the elderly. During periods of de­
pression, older workers who had been laid off
found it especially difficult to get other jobs.
Public and private programs for old-age pensions
and assistance also had the effect of encouraging
the retirement of older workers. Although the
number o f older workers in the labor force was
expected to increase with the aging of the popu­
lation, the rise was expected to be proportionately
much less than for the population as a whole.
The war, however, brought a sharp increase in
employment opportunities for the older worker.
Many elderly persons reentered the labor market,
while others postponed their retirement. Even
in the postwar period, the proportion o f older
workers continued somewhat higher than indi­
cated by prewar trends. With jobs still available
for them, many older men and women preferred
work to retirement, particularly in view of the
extremely low level of Federal old-age insurance
benefits in relation to postwar wages and living
costs. Two important factors in the prospective
labor force trends for the older worker will there­
fore be, first, the general level of job opportuni­
ties and, second, the extent to which the recently
increased scale of old-age benefits meets the needs
of older people.
Movements into and out o f the labor force.—
Thus far, we have discussed the labor force in
terms of its size and composition at a particular
time, or in terms of net changes from year to year.

Estimates of this type do not reveal how many
different persons actually enter the labor force
each year, or withdraw for various reasons. For
example, during the past few years, the net in­
creases in the size of the labor force have averaged
close to 1 million a year. During this period about
2 million young persons (including veterans)
entered on a work career each year after leaving
school, while about 1 million older workers left
the labor force because of death, retirement; or
other reasons. The young men generally stay in
the labor force most of their lives; most of the
women remain only until they marry and begin
rearing children. Many married women, however,
return to work when their children are old enough
to get along without full-time care at home.
In addition to these more or less permanent
entries into or withdrawals from the labor force,
there is a much larger volume of temporary shift­
ing between worker and nonworker status, depend­
ing on the season and on changes in personal
circumstances. During 1949, for example, an
average of over 5% million persons moved into or
out of the labor force from one month to the next.
Most of these shifts are temporary in character
and are largely accounted for by the intermittent
work activity of groups such as students and
housewives. These temporary movements tend to
follow a seasonal pattern. The beginning of sum­
mer vacations brings large numbers of young
people into the labor force; in the fall, there are
heavy withdrawals as students return to school.
In farm areas, many people enter and leave the
labor force each year in response to the changing
needs for labor in agriculture and related activi­
ties. In the city, the Christmas shopping season,
with its expansion of employment in retail trade,
brings many housewives and young people into
the labor market for a few weeks in November ana
December. In addition, throughout the year, there
is a considerable amount of temporary labor force
entry and withdrawal arising from changes in
local employment conditions and in the personal
situation of individuals.
There are, therefore, many more persons in the
population with some work experience than are
likely to be in the labor force at any one time in
the year. Although these persons are not avail­
able for work through the entire year under nor­
mal conditions, they are important as a reserve
group who may be attracted into full-time jobs


during periods o f national emergency, or when
employment opportunities are particularly favor­
Regional Differences

National trends in population and labor force
may not, o f course, be indicative of changes in a
particular region or locality. In a Nation as large
and diversified as the United States, there are
bound to be geographic variations in the rates of
population and labor force growth.
The map (chart 6) shows the widely differing
trends in population growth among the various
States in recent years. In part, these divergent
trends reflect great interstate variations in the
natural rate of population growth (simply, the
difference per year, relative to the size of the popu­
lation, between the number of births and the num­
ber of deaths). A more important factor, however,

has been the large volume of migration between
States. In 1947, 1 person out of every 10 was re­
siding in a State other than the one in which he
had been living in 1940; this indicates the magni­
tude of the geographic shifts in population which
occurred in the intervening years.
The most rapid population growth between
1940 and 1949 occurred on the Pacific Coast and
in adjacent areas. Although this section has a
relatively low rate of natural population growth,
it has received a very heavy influx of migrants;
between 1940 and 1948, net in-migration into the
Pacific Coast States amounted to over 3y2 million
persons. In contrast, most of the Southern and
Great Plains States lagged behind the national
rate of population increase. In fact, a few of these
States showed net losses in population. Here,
too, migration was the dominant factor. On the
basis of natural increase, the South, with its high


A P R IL 1940 -

JULY 1949

Decrease 7.6% - Increase 5.9%
Increase 6 . 0 % - 12.9%

Increase I 3 . 0 % - 3 9 .9 %
Increase 4 0 % or more



Excluding persons in the Armed Forces


birth rates, would have had the fastest-growing
population. However, this growth was largely
offset by migration of southerners to other areas
in search of better economic opportunity; net out­
migration from the South from 1940 to 1948 to­
taled about 3 million. In the Great Plains States,
the natural rate of growth has been about equal
to the national average, but the movement of mi­
grants out of this area has held down population
gains and resulted in some net losses.
In the main, the recent shifts of population have
conformed to long-run trends in population move­
ment in the United States. During W orld War
II, however, these movements were greatly accel­
erated, as workers and their families poured into
the coastal shipbuilding and aircraft centers and
into the war production areas o f Michigan, Ohio,
and other industrial States. Most of the mi­
grants stayed on after the war ended. In fact, the
flow o f population into many o f these areas has
continued at a high rate in the postwar period.
Very closely related to the geographic differ­
ences in population growth are the regional vari­

ations in labor force growth. Between 1940 and
1947, the working population o f the Nation as a
whole increased by about 9 percent. In the West,
however, the labor force grew by more than a
fifth, reflecting mainly the large influx of popu­
lation into the Pacific Coast States; in the South,
the increase was less than 2 percent.
Although there are pronounced differences in
regional population and labor force trends, which
must be considered in vocational guidance, the
great interchange o f population among regions
emphasizes the importance o f national trends in
the labor market. A significant proportion of
young people growing up and going to school in
a given area will move to other areas some time
after they reach working age. This tendency to
migrate is particularly marked among profes­
sional and semiprofessional workers, for whom
something approaching a Nation-wide labor mar­
ket exists. Thus, it is necessary, in making voca­
tional plans, for young people to be aware of
occupational trends throughout the Nation as
well as in their own localities.

Industrial and Occupational Trends
Industrial Trends

Eighty years ago more than half the people who
worked for a living were employed in agriculture.
The United States was mainly a country of farm­
ers ; its ways of living and habits of thinking were
influenced by this fact. Indeed, today, in any
group of students in a city school, there will very
likely be some whose grandparents, or even
parents, lived and worked on a farm.
The significant change that occurred in the last
80 years—the rapid growth of industry, commerce,
and other nonfarming employment—is shown in
chart 7. The number of nonfarm workers grew
from 6 million in 1870 to 51.5 million in April 1950,
while the number of farmers and farm workers in­
creased from about 7 million in 1870 to a peak of
11 y2 million around 1910, and since then has actu­
ally declined to about 7.2 million in April 1950.
On any farm today one can see some of the
reasons why this happened. The farmer has
machinery which makes it possible for him to cul­
tivate many more acres than could the farmer
years ago. With tractor and trucks both on the
farm and in the city, much less feed is needed for

horses and mules. About 50 million acres that
once grew feed for work stock is now in food crops
or in feed for cattle, hogs, and poultry. Moreover,
farmers use fertilizer and better seed. Science
and experience have taught them how to get more
out of their farms. In 1944, the average farmer
produced nearly twice as much as did the average
farmer just before World War I.
With these improvements in farming and in
storage and transportation of food—canning,
refrigeration, and warehousing, for example—the
farms of the United States were able to provide
food and other farm products for more and more
people. This made it possible for a larger pro­
portion of the population to take jobs in industry.
Increasing Productivity

The industrialization of the country resulted in
an increasing productivity of labor because o f the
wider use o f machinery, better management of
production, and a better-trained labor force.
Output per man-hour—the usual measure o f pro­
ductivity change in industry—increased at an
average rate of a little over 3 percent a year in


Recent Employment Trends

Recent trends in employment are shown in chart
9, which extends from 1929 through the depression,
World War II, and the postwar period. In the
top line is seen the gradual growth of the labor
force and its rapid increase during the war, as
students, women, and older workers came in to
meet the demands of the Armed Forces and civil­
ian industry for manpower.
The severe drop in employment in nonfarm in­
dustries that marked the onset of the depression—
from 37 million in 1929 to a little less than 29 mil­
lion in 1933—is also shown. As a result of the
drop in employment and the growth of the labor
force, the number of unemployed increased from
about 1!4 million in 1929 to nearlv 13 million
in 1933.
Then began a slow recovery, temporarily set
back by a recession toward the end of 1937. By
1939, the year the war began in Europe, nonfarm
employment had increased by 7 ^ million from the
low in 1933, but was still a million below its average
in 1929. Unemployment had been reduced by only

manufacturing industries between 1909 and 1939.
At this rate, output per man-hour would double
every 25 years.
As a result of increased productivity, incomes
and the standard of living have been rising at the
same time that the average workweek has been
growing shorter. With more purchasing power
at their disposal, people have bought more and
more goods and services and many new industries
have developed. Government and private serv­
ices in such fields as education, medical care, pub­
lic health, and welfare have also expanded. The
greater expansion in services and in distribution
in recent years reflects the major industrial trends
of the past three decades. The basic extractive,
commodity-producing and transportation indus­
tries have required a smaller proportion of the
Nation’s work force; the industries which provide
distributive and other services have given jobs to a
growing proportion of the workers. This trend,
interrupted during World War II by the great
expansion of aircraft, shipbuilding, and munitions
manufacturing, has been resumed since the war.



Distribution of

in Nonagricultural

T o ta l



1919 1924 1929 1934 1939 1944 1949


Annual Averages
Millions of Workers

1929 1930

Millions of Workers







3!/3 million from the peak of nearly 13 million,
however, since the laboUTorce had continued to
grow. It was particularly difficult for younger
workers and older workers to get jobs.
Those in school today may not remember the
depression years; their attitudes are influenced
more by the conditions of relative prosperity since
1940. Yet the thinking of their parents, of their
teachers, of the employers for whom they may
work, of the unions they may join, and of the
leaders in public life is strongly affected by the
experiences of the thirties. It will help in under­
standing much o f the information on occupations
given in the reports in this handbook if one has a
realization of the difficulties of those years.
Among the general effects of the depression
decade upon occupations were these:
Young people found it particularly hard to
get jobs. The rate of unemployment was high
among them, despite the fact that many continued
in school and were not classified as unemployed.
Older workers also found it difficult to get jobs.

2. Employers, faced with many job applicants
and the necessity to save money by having only
the most efficient workers, raised their hiring
standards. The best-trained or experienced work­
ers got the jobs. This hastened a long-term trend
toward a preference for applicants who had more
education. Where grade-school graduation had
been considered adequate, employers began to
specify that they wanted only high-school gradu­
ates ; where high-school graduation had been a re­
quirement employers began to give preference to
the college-trained person.
3. People got jobs where they could, and so
there was a great deal of occupational shifting
down the scale of skills. Many a professionally
trained and experienced worker took a clerical,
sales, or semiskilled job. Many a craftsman worked
in semiskilled or laborer jobs. Their skills grew
rusty from disuse.
4. To preserve the employment security of their
members, and to prevent poorly trained people
from entering their fields, some unions and pro23


fessional societies took action to tighten up en­
trance requirements. Often this went hand in
hand with the improvement of training. In the
professional fields, particularly, it represented the
continuation of a long-term trend toward raising
the standards of education and training.
5. Earnings, of course, dropped in nearly every
field of work.
6. In an effort to share what work there was
among as many people as possible, the workweek
in industry was shortened. This was again a con­
tinuation o f a long-term trend. The Fair Labor
Standards Act, which became law in 1938, required
that workers covered by its provisions be paid time
and a half for work in excess of 40 hours in 1 week.
In a number of industries an even shorter work­
week of 35 or 36 hours was agreed upon by unions
and employers.



M illions of W orkers

Changes During and Since World War I I
Then came World War II. As industry swung
into production of munitions, nonfarm employ­
ment rose rapidly from 36 million in 1939 to 45
million in 1944. The Armed Forces, which had
averaged about 300,000 throughout the decade of
the thirties, added 11 million more men and women
within 4 years. As a result, the number of unem­
ployed dropped from 9y2 million in 1939 to about
three-quarters o f a million in 1944.
Hiring standards which had been stiffened dur­
ing the depression were relaxed. Skilled jobs
which had required a long period of training were
broken down so that the work could be done by a
number of quickly trained workers, often under
the supervision of a skilled worker. Young
people found it easy to get jobs, and often at pay
that made their fathers wonder why they had
spent 25 years learning and gaining experience
in a trade. Older workers postponed their re­
tirement because their skills were needed in in­
dustry and they could earn good pay. Women
whose children no longer needed their care came
into the labor market.
As World War II neared its end, many people,
remembering the depression from which the war
had pulled the country, were afraid of a postwar
recession. They feared the number of unem­
ployed would skyrocket when the millions of
workers engaged in munitions production were


^Source: U.S. Bur.ou of * « Census


laid off, and the more than 11 million men in the
Armed Forces were demobilized, many of whom
had had no experience in civilian occupations.
Although there was a sudden drop in employ­
ment when munitions production stopped, other
industries quickly hired the workers. Stimulated
by high consumer income and by rising demand
for the products that had not been available dur­
ing the war, such as new houses, automobiles, and
washing machines, industry invested over 20 bil­
lion dollars a year in plant and equipment, and
hired more and more workers. At the end of
1948, with the Armed Forces demobilized from
over 11 million to less than 2 million, nearly 60
million people were employed. The number of
unemployed did not rise above 3 million at any
time in this period, and toward the end of 1948
was less than 2 million.


Thus, the country weathered the period of ad­
justment from war to peace better than many
people had expected. For the time being, at least,
the Nation had attained conditions close to a state
o f full employment. It was relatively easy to get
a job, the “ Help Wanted” signs were up, and most
of the unemployed were persons who were out of
work for only short periods between jobs. This
did not mean that everyone could get the job he
wanted, but the fear of complete unemployment
for long periods was at least temporarily
By 1949, some of the backlog of consumer de­
mand had been worked through. Sales of such
products as radios and washing machines slack­
ened. Textiles became harder to sell. But other
industries were still meeting heavy demand for
their products; construction and automobile pro­
duction were still booming. The economy as a
whole worked along at high levels, but the number
of people employed averaged about 700,000 less
than in 1948. This was a drop of little more than
1 percent, but since the total labor force was rising
by some 700,000 a year because of population
growth, the number of unemployed persons in­
creased to an average of 3.4 million in 1949—the
highest for any year since 1941.
A new upturn in business activity and employ­
ment began in early 1950, however. Gains were
accelerated in the middle of the year, owing to
the outbreak of hostilities in Korea and plans for
expanded defense production. Employment is
expected to rise still higher in many industries as
the Government’s orders for aircraft and muni­
tions go into mass production. A t the same time,
many young men will be withdrawn from civilian
jobs for service in the expanding Armed Forces.
Thus, jobs should generally be easy to get at least
so long as the mobilization continues. However,
opportunities will vary from one industry and oc­
cupation to another, as well as among local areas.
In some occupations and areas, there will be labor
shortages; in others there will be enough workers
or, in some cases, possibly even a surplus of workers
The major industry fields and their relative im­
portance as a source of employment are shown in
chart 10. In studying this and the following
charts, it would be well to bear in mind that the

size of each industry or occupation is a clue to the
number of employment opportunities.
M anufacturin g
Manufacturing industries employ the largest
number of people, and offer jobs to many different
kinds of workers: the unskilled laborer, the ma­
chinist, the engineer, the stenographer, the proC H ART 11



duction manager, and—more than any other type
of worker—the operative, or semiskilled worker.
Four out of 10 employees of manufacturing in­
dustry were operatives in 1940.
The major manufacturing industries are shown
in chart 11. A little more than half the workers
are employed in the durable goods manufacturing
industries, the others in the nondurable goods
Largest among the durable goods industries are
the metalworking group. These plants make a
great variety of products, such as steel beams and
pencil sharpeners, automobiles and hairpins, giant
dynamos which generate electric power, and tiny
lamp bulbs which put the electricity to work in
our homes. During W orld War II, plants mak­
ing consumer goods such as washing machines and


lipstick holders shifted over to the manufacture
of antiaircraft guns and cartridge cases, and the
small aircraft and shipbuilding industries grew to
enormous size. Though in early 1950 they had
fewer workers than during the war, the metalwork­
ing industries were producing far above their prewar levels, and by the middle of the year, their
output and employment were mounting again.
These industries and their workers will, of course,
have the same central role in the new mobilization
program as they did in armament production dur­
ing World War II.
Employment in the lumber, furniture, and
building materials industries follows closely that
in the construction industry. More lumber, win­
dow glass, structural tile, and furniture are sold
in years when a large volume of homes and other
buildings are put up.
The major nondurable goods manufacturing in­
dustries are those which make textiles, clothing,
and food. The chemical industries and the print­
ing and publishing industries are also large.
Employment in manufacturing drops severely
during depressions and rises sharply during pe­
riods of good business conditions, as can be seen
in chart 12. It is the durable goods industries
which have the greatest ups and downs, because
when people have no money they can postpone
buying homes, automobiles, and washing machines
much longer than they can put off buying food
and clothing. Similarly, businessmen can put off
buying new machinery. Manufacturing employ­
ment dropped by about 35 percent from 1929 to
the bottom of the depression, and then began to
recover. During World War II, employment shot
up by 7 million, mostly because of the expansion
of metalworking industries.
More complete information on employment
trends in some of the major manufacturing in­
dustries may be found in later sections of this
handbook, particularly those on the iron and
steel industry, page 243, aircraft, page 273, ship­
building, page 259, machine shop occupations, page
186, furniture manufacturing, page 284, the print­
ing trades, page 299, petroleum refining, page 331,
plastics, page 293, and fur manufacturing, page
342. The largest industry groups not covered in
the present edition are the food, textile, apparel
(except fu r ), chemical and lumber industries.


Retail and wholesale trade have more than 9
million employees, and in addition provide a liv­
ing to well over a million proprietors. Salesmen
and sales women constitute the largest group of
employees in trade, but there are also large num­
bers of clerical workers (who keep the records
and send out the bills), truck drivers and delivery
men, and service workers, such as elevator opera­
tors and porters.
Employment in trade fell during the depression
but recovered quickly and by 1937 was higher than
in 1929 (chart 13). In this can be seen the effect of
the long-term upward trend in this field of work.
Employment rose further before W orld War II,
and after the war reached a level more than 3 mil­
lion higher than the 1929 peak. One of the factors
in the growth of this industry has been the increas­
ing amount o f services of all kinds provided for
The only major industry in the field of trade
covered in the present edition of this handbook
is the restaurant industry, page 478. In addition
are a number o f occupations found primarily in
one or another branch of trade, such as servicestation attendants, page 147, pharmacists, page.57,
automobile parts salesmen, page 145, and meat cut­
ters, page 240.
Farming, although it has lost workers in recent
years, is still one of the largest fields of work. In
addition to nearly 6 million farmers who own and
run their own farms, there are a large number of
people who work as farm laborers. Their number
fluctuates seasonally—about 2 million are em­
ployed in the winter, and well over 4 million farm
laborers are employed in the summer. Many of
those who work during the peak season are stu­
dents and housewives or are in other occupations
during the rest of the year.
Government employment—local, State, and
Federal—was 5% million in 1940. More than twothirds o f the workers were in local and State gov­
ernments, employed in such occupations as teacher,
nurse, engineer, typist, and policeman. In ship­

yards, arsenals, and printing plants the Fed­
eral Government employs many workers in indus­
trial occupations. Although people often think
of the clerical worker as the typical Government
worker, only a fifth of the Government workers
were in this category in 1940. One of the largest
Federal occupations is that of mail carrier.
In line with a long-term trend, employment in
government has been rising fairly steadily since
1929, dropping back only slightly from 1931 to
1933, increasing in the thirties and rising sharply
during the war (see chart 14). Government is
providing increased services through the schools,
public health and sanitation, welfare work, and
similar fields. A larger defense establishment,
services to veterans, and a growing amount of re­
search has also increased the number of Govern­
ment employees.
In addition to the civilians employed by the
Federal Government there were one and a half
million men in the armed services in mid-1950.
It was planned to raise this figure to 3 million by
mid-summer of 1951, thus doubling the size of the
Armed Forces within a year. The Armed Forces
use men and women with many different kinds of
skills, such as machinists, airplane mechanics, or
electricians, and give courses of training in these
fields (seep. 10).


service industry described in this edition of the
handbook. There are also some occupations
found primarily in service industries, such as most
of the mechanics and repairmen, page 159, dry
cleaners and spotters, page 238, and dental me­
chanics, page 236.
Transportation and Public Utilities
In the transportation and public utilities indus­
tries major fields are the railroads, trucking com­
panies, bus and transit lines, telephone and elec­
tric-power companies, and the merchant marine.
A ir lines and radio and television broadcasting
are smaller fields, but seem to be of considerable
interest to young people. These industries em­
ploy about 4 million workers with many different

Service industries employ 4% million people
in such diverse fields as automobile and other re­
pair shops, laundries, cleaning and dyeing estab­
lishments, hotels, barber shops, theaters, motionpicture production, advertising, and many other
categories not commonly thought of as in the
service field. There has been a long-term upward
employment trend which was interrupted for only
a short time in the depression (see chart 15). Re­
covery was quick, however, and during the war,
workers were recruited by drawing people partly
from the domestic service field and from among
persons outside the labor force.
The hotel industry, page 483, is the only major


i| n


------------------------------------------------------------------ ------- --------|


°9e ond Solon«d Workers


kinds of skills, such as locomotive engineers, truck
drivers, telephone operators, musicians, engineers,
seamen, ticket agents, and pullman porters. The
great majority of the workers are men. By far
the greatest portion of the women employed in
these industries are clerical workers.
Employment dropped sharply in the early thir­
ties, and did not return to the 1929 level until
after W orld War I I (see chart 16). During the
war, improvements in efficiency and longer hours of
work made it possible for the railroads to carry a
record amount of freight with fewer workers than
in 1929. The public utilities were able to reduce
employment by cutting down their installation
and service work; since the war they have ex­
panded a great deal.


The major transportation and public utility in­
dustries covered in the present edition of this
handbook are railroads, page 404, electric light
and power, page 457, and aviation, page 435. In
addition are the following occupations found
primarily in the transportation, communication
and public utilities field: radio announcers, page
123, radio broadcasting technicians, page 103, tele­
phone installers, page 175, and ship radio opera­
tors, page 105.
The construction industry had an average of
over 2 million employees in 1949. This industry
is noted for sharp variations in employment; be­
tween 1929 and 1933 employment dropped by
nearly one-half (see chart 17). An unusually
high proportion of this industry’s workers are
skilled men (carpenters, plumbers, e tc.); however,

there are large numbers of laborers and of semi­
skilled workers such as truck drivers. The few
women employed in this industry are mostly cleri­
cal workers. The industry is more fully described
in the chapter beginning on page 348.


the expanding use of banking facilities in the post­
war period. The present edition of this handbook
has a chapter on only one of the major branches
of this industry—insurance, page 473.
In mining, which includes mainly coal mining,
ore mining, quarrying, and oil and gas extraction,
less than a million workers are employed. The
largest occupational group is, of course, the miners
who dig out the coal or ore by hand, or by machine,
or blast it out by explosives. There are oppor­
tunities for large numbers of other workers in the
industry, too.
The long-term employment trend has been
downward as machine mining methods have in­
creasingly supplanted pick-and-shovel mining
(see chart 19). There are many mines, however,
where hand methods are still in use because it does
not pay to introduce mechanical cutting and load­
ing equipment.
The only industry in the mining group described
in this edition of the handbook is petroleum pro­
duction (p. 331).

Finance, as a major field of work, includes
principally banking, insurance, and real estate.
The most common occupations are clerical. There
has been a long-term upward trend in these in­
dustries (see chart 18). By 1941 employment had
recovered to above the 1929 level, and, after
dropping during the war, reached a new high
in 1946 and advanced further through 1949. This
increase reflects the activity in building and real
estate, increases in the purchase of insurance, and



E M P L O Y M E N T A P R IL 1950



Professional and

Craftsmen and

except form

Farmers and
Farm Managers

M en

W om en

Farm Laborers
and Foremen



Occupational Trends

While the industrial picture of the United States
shows where people work, the occupational picture
in chart 20 shows the kinds of work they do.
It can be seen that by far the largest group is
the semiskilled workers, of which machine oper­
ators in factories and truck drivers are typical
examples. Clerical workers are the next largest
group, and skilled workers the third largest.
Many young people considering the choice of
an occupation single out one of the professions
as their goal. Not many will be able to enter these
fields, however, for they give employment to only
7 percent of all workers. The whole group of
“ white collar” occupations, which may be broadly

interpreted to include the groups near the top of
chart 20—professional and semiprofessional, ad­
ministrative (proprietors, managers, and o f­
ficials), clerical, and sales workers— consisted of
only about 37 percent of all workers.
The principal occupations within each major
group will be described in later sections of this
handbook, together with the trends in each broad
field. At this point, only the long-term trends in
the size of each group relative to the others will be
Since 1910 the farm, farm laborer, and nonfarm
laborer occupations have been claiming a smaller
and smaller proportion of the workers (chart 21).
As machinery has been introduced in industry and
on the farm, the machine operator who is a semi-

C H ART 21





W ORKERS (including salespeople)







skilled or skilled worker has taken the place of the
unskilled laborer. As a result, the semiskilled
group has been growing rapidly while the laborer
occupations declined. This trend has been further
advanced by developments since 1940.
The skilled occupations just about held their
own over the three decades 1910 to 1940, but since
1940 have increased their share of all workers.
The other fields—clerical, sales, administrative,
professional, and service—have been increasing
in relative size. However, this has not been true


of domestic service (which is not shown separately
in the chart).
These occupational trends arise in part from
the basic industrial changes described above;
namely, the growth of nonfarm industries, and the
expansion of trade and service industries which
employ large numbers of workers in clerical, pro­
fessional, service, administrative, and sales occupa­
tions. Technological developments and changes
in style or custom also affect the number of people
employed in different occupations.

Professional, Semiprofessional, and Administrative
These three major groups of occupations have
many attractions for young people considering the
choice of a career. There is opportunity for inter­
esting and responsible work; earnings are, as a
rule, relatively high; and professional and admin­
istrative work is at the top of the ladder in pres­
tige. Although manual skill is required in some
of these occupations— for example, those of sur­
geon or draftsman—the outstanding requirements
are knowledge of the field and responsible judg­
ment. It should be remembered, of course, that
these qualifications are needed also in other types

of work. Many skilled trades and clerical and
sales occupations are closely related to professions
or administrative occupations, and also require
ability, training, experience, and a high order of
knowledge and judgment.
The occupational outlook reports included in
this section are grouped by fields of work repre­
senting areas o f interest in vocational guidance.
Studies of additional occupations are under way
and will be added to future editions of this pub­


What is a profession? It is difficult to arrive
at a satisfactory definition. Some professions
such as those o f engineer, architect, and physician
are concerned with developing or applying wellorganized fields of knowledge; others, such as edi­
tor and actor, do not always require a great deal of
theoretical knowledge, although the work is con­
sidered professional. Generally, the professions
require either education equivalent to college grad­
uation (often, plus an advanced degree) or experi­
ence of such kind and amount as to provide a com­
parable background. Licenses are required for
practice in many professions—medicine, dentistry,
and pharmacy, for example; in these professions,
the licensing authorities determine the qualifica­
tions which members must have. Professional so­
cieties also set up standards for membership, which
tend to define their respective fields. In many
areas o f work, however, there is no clear-cut line
between professional and other classes o f workers.
Even though the professional field as a whole
is growing in size, many more young people want
to enter the professions than there is room for.
This is partly because the professions have prestige
and partly because many young people do not know
enough about the opportunities for interesting jobs

and good careers in nonprofessional occupations.
Many a person has passed by the opportunity of
becoming a top-notch artisan to become a medio­
cre professional worker.
It is not easy to prepare for and enter profes­
sional work. For some professions, one must com­
plete a long period o f training and grinding study
in competition with the very brightest students.
In many cases, difficult examinations must be
passed in the colleges and professional schools and
before State licensing boards. Often, applicants
are not accepted for professional training unless
their school grades are high, and employers fre­
quently give preference to graduates whose grades
in professional school put them in the highest
fourth or half of their class. Furthermore, many
professional workers have to continue their edu­
cation in later life, to keep abreast of new develop­
ments in their fields.
Past Trends
The professions as a group have been expanding
rapidly and probably will continue to grow. From
less than half a million in 1870, professional and
semiprofessional workers increased to over 4 mil­
lion in early 1950—a tenfold increase within a life-

892273°— 51----- 4








20 0







e le m e n ta ry s c h o o l

s e c o n d a ry s c h o o l


c o lle g e

Social Workers
Accountants, C.P.A.




County Agents

N um b er





to o

fe w



on c h a r t
S o u rc e ; U. S. B U R E A U








time. (See chart 23.) Just after the Civil War,
the leading professions were the traditional ones
o f teaching, medicine, the ministry, and law.
Three out of four professional workers were in
these occupations. Many other occupations, which
now have full status and recognition as profes­
sions, at that time included only a few hundreds or
thousands of people, many of whom had training

which, by present standards, was far from
Since that time, other professions have grown
greatly. For example, by 1940, the number of
engineers was nearly 40 times greater than in 1870.
O f the “big four” of 1870, only teaching has kept
pace with the growth of professions as a whole.
By 1940, the legal profession had increased to


about 414 times its size in 1870, tlie ministry to
about 3y2 times, tlie medical profession only about
threefold. The number of women in the profes­
sions has grown even more rapidly than that of
men; in April 1950, 1 out of every 9 working
women was in a professional occupation (usually
teaching or nursing), compared to only 1 out of
16 men.
The growth of the professions was fairly steady
over the seven decades after 1870—especially
rapid in the prosperous twenties; somewhat slower
in the thirties. The supply of college graduates
increased steadily to 1920, as shown in chart 24,
and then rose sharply between the two world wars.
Recent Developments and Future Prospects
During World War I I many more engineers,
physicians, nurses, chemists, and other profes­
sional workers were needed than ever before.
Some training programs were stepped up—medi­
cal and dental training was accelerated, for ex­
ample—but it was impossible to train as many
people in these critical occupations as were needed
by the Armed Forces and civilian industries. Furthermore, the number of new graduates in some
fields, such as business administration, library sci­
ence, and teaching, decreased sharply during the
war years. There was a drop in the total number
o f college graduates in all fields combined, as
shown in chart 24.
Employment of professional workers in civilian
jobs decreased somewhat during World War II, as
many thousands were inducted into the Armed
Forces (chart 25). An increase in the number of
women professional workers was not enough to
offset the loss of the men. Shortages developed in
almost every major professional field.
As the Armed Forces were demobilized, many
physicians, engineers, lawyers, teachers, and others
returned to civilian jobs; employment of profes­
sional workers increased. Nevertheless, shortages
continued in many fields. The peacetime economy
of high employment during the late 1940’s de­
manded many more workers than were available.
Workers continued to leave certain fields, such as
teaching, because of relatively low pay or poor
working conditions. In some fields, the number of
new entrants was very small in the first postwar
years, owing to the drop in college enrollments
during the war.

Aided by the educational benefits provided for
veterans, a record number of students enrolled in
college in the fall of 1946. Still greater numbers
enrolled in the fall of 1947 and of 1948; by the
fall of 1949, college enrollments had risen to an
all-time high of nearly 2.5 million. As a result
of these large enrollments, record numbers of de­
grees have been awarded in the last few years.
More than 270,000 bachelor’s degrees were granted
in the academic year 1947-48, compared to the
prewar high of only 186,500 in 1939-40 (chart
24). In 1948-49, 367,000 bachelor’s degrees were
awarded. Unprecedented numbers of master’s and
doctor’s degrees were also granted that year.
At the beginning of 1950, the shortages in many
professions had been alleviated, and some gradu­
ates were having difficulty in obtaining jobs in
their fields. However, by the fall of the year the


of Degrees


to increase college enrollments over the long run
is the trend for a larger proportion of young peo­
ple to take post-high-school training (see chart 24).
Employment in the professions will probably
continue its long-run upward trend throughout the
fifties. The expected expansion of employment
will be distributed among nearly all of the major
professional fields; even those which are growing
very slowly will require new entrants as replace­
ments for members of the professions who die, re­
tire, or leave for other reasons. The reports
on individual professions should be examined to
determine the employment outlook by occupation,
Increasing Training Requirements

C H ART 24

employment situation for many of the professional
occupations had again changed. The expansion
of the Armed Forces and other defense programs
were rapidly increasing the demand in many fields,
as is brought out in the reports on individual pro­
fessions in this handbook.
Altogether, from 1940 to 1950, the growth in the
number of professional workers was greater than
in the previous decade, despite the effect of the
draft upon college enrollments during World War
II. ( Part of the apparent increase in employment
between 1949 and 1950 shown in chart 25 is due to
an improvement in the Census sampling proce­
dure, which gives more accurate data for profes­
sional and semiprofessional workers).
After reaching a peak of nearly 434,000 in the
year ending June 1950, the number of bachelor’s
degrees is expected to decline somewhat, owing to
the exhaustion of veterans’ educational benefits
and the decrease in the college-age population
resulting from the low birth rate of the thirties.
In addition, enrollments will be reduced to the
extent that students enter the Armed Forces. By
the late fifties, enrollments will probably begin to
rise again, as the babies born in the early 1940’s
reach college age. Another factor which will tend

Young people interested in entering a profession
should also consider the trend toward requiring
more and more educational preparation for pro­
fessional jobs. In one occupation after another,
training requirements have moved in the same di­
rection over the years: From informal on-the-j ob
training or apprenticeship with an experienced
member of the profession to full-time institutional
study (for a period of years which has grown
longer and longer) followed by some form of
on-the-job training.
This trend has been more pronounced in some
occupations than in others. In chemistry, for ex­
ample, graduate training is necessary for a higher
proportion of the j obs than in engineering. Nevertheless, as one examines different fields, the efforts
to raise standards and improve the quality of train­
ing become evident.


m a s t e r 's















Charts 26 and 27 show the tremendous increase
in graduate degrees awarded since 1920 in all fields
taken together. The number receiving master’s
and doctor’s degrees had reached unprecedented
heights by 1950. They were expected to rise still
further, in view of the peak number of bachelor’s
degrees granted in 1950 and the years immediately
before. However, the level of graduate enroll­
ments for the next few years at least, will depend
largely upon Selective Service policies regarding
The extension of education requirements has
been due partly to the growing complexity of each
field of science. The desirability of a broad edu­
cational background as a preparation for work as

well as for life is receiving greater emphasis. The
increase in college graduations has also contributed
to the trend; because so many workers with degrees
are available, a degree has become necessary to
compete for employment in many fields.
It is believed that these trends will continue:
That employers will require college education as
a minimum qualification for more and more differ­
ent occupations or, at least, will give preference
to people with such education; also that an increas­
ing amount of education will be required by em­
ployers or State boards of licensure for occupa­
tions in which some college training is already a


The line between professional and ^unprofes­
sional occupations has never been sharply drawn.
In general, the word “ semiprofessional” implies
that an occupation is similar to a profession in
that it requires rather extensive education or prac­
tical experience or both. Semiprofessional fields,

however, usually demand less background or in­
volve less need for initiative and judgment in deal­
ing with complicated work situations than fields
which are classed as “ professional”.
The professional engineer, for example, is
given basic training in higher mathematics and


shown in chart 28. Employment in some of these
occupations— for example, airplane pilot—has
increased substantially since 1940, but draftsmen
and laboratory technicians are still the largest
semiprofessional groups.
The semiprofessional field as a whole has grown
rapidly in recent years. Scientific and technical
work has become more highly organized, partic­
ularly in the laboratories and engineering depart­
ments of large firms, and more semiprofessional
assistants have been provided for the professional
workers. During W orld War II, with a shortage
of engineers and chemists, it was discovered that
men with less training could perform part of the
work formerly done by engineers or chemists,
freeing the latter for the more difficult tasks.

scientific principles, which he applies to each new
problem, whereas the semiprofessional draftsman
is required merely to have a practical knowledge
of scientific methods and practices, so that he can
translate the engineer’s sketches into blueprints.
In actual practice, the distinctions are not so clearcut : many a draftsman is required to know more
than this implies, and, also, many draftsmen have
advanced to jobs as professional engineers because
o f personal ability and study. On the other hand,
some firms start their new graduate engineers as
draftsmen so that they can learn the work from
the ground up, and many of these men do not ad­
vance beyond the draftsman’s job, particularly
during depressions.
The major semiprofessional occupations are








w o rkers






Religious Workers
Sports Instructors
Medical Service
Workers, n.e.c.
Radio Operators
Technicians, exc. lab.
Airplane Pilots



Number of women loo few 1o show on chart



The number of semi professional workers em­
ployed in civilian jobs did not decrease during the
war, as did the number of professional workers.
Employment of semiprofessional personnel in­
creased sharply in the first two years after World
War II and then leveled off.
(The increase
in employment between 1949 and 1950 shown in
chart 29 is accounted for, at least in part, by an
improvement in the Census sampling procedure,
which gives more accurate data for professional
and semiprofessional workers). In the early
1950’s, it is likely that the number of semiprofes­
sional workers will again increase somewhat as
the defense program expands.


Administrative and managerial work offers
many opportunities for employment. Con­
sidered broadly, the field of work covers a wide
range of occupations, from the proprietor of a
lunch counter, to the president of a giant corpo­
ration. The majority of the jobs are concerned
with the management of business firms, but there
are also many thousands of administrative work­
ers employed in the Federal Government and in
State and local governments.
Chart 30 shows the trend of employment be­
tween 1940 and 1950 in groups classified by the
Bureau of Census as proprietors, managers and
officials, except farm. Except for a drop in 1943,
employment in this group rose steadily from
3,750,000 in 1940 to about 6,400,000 in 1948. The
number of these workers fell off slightly in 1949,
but by 1950, employment had almost regained the
1948 level. Proprietors of business firms, mainly
retail stores, account for the largest share of the
employment in this group, and employment de­
clines in 1943 and 1949 at least partly reflect the
drop in the number of business enterprises in these
Other occupations included in the proprietors,
managers and officials group include postmasters,
with 39,000 employed in 1940, other government
officials, adding up to about 194,000 in 1940, and
railroad conductors. Another large group is
composed of managers and officials in specialized
jobs, such as advertising agents, store buyers and

department heads, building superintendents, and
purchasing agents. This group accounted for a
total employment of 335,000 in 1940.
Types of Administrative Jobs
Jobs in business management can be grouped in
several broad classes. At the top are the general
administrators, the persons who set broad policies
and who have over-all responsibility for the oper­
ation of the company or a major segment of its
activities. Included in this group are such top
officials as presidents, vice presidents, general
managers, division superintendents, and men with
similar titles. Persons who run and operate their
own businesses have the same general function but
usually on a much smaller scale.
In the second level of administrative jobs are
those who direct individual departments or special
phases of a firm’s operations, such as plant mana­
gers, personnel managers, comptrollers, sales man­
agers, purchasing agents, branch office managers,
and department store buyers. In very large cor­
porations, those in charge of these functions have
great responsibility and are often considered part
of the top management.
In the third category of administrative jobs are
those who specialize in particular business tech­
niques. They include the accountants, advertis­
ing copy writers, market research analysts, sales­
men, statisticians, insurance underwriters, and


personnel technicians. These workers are em­
ployed not primarily to supervise other workers
but to carry on special business operations, such as
auditing accounts, preparing advertisements, sell­
ing, and training new workers. Their duties are
professional in nature rather than managerial.
They involve mainly knowledge and skill in the
application of particular techniques. Some of
these men can, of course, advance to executive posi­
tions in their departments. For example, topnotch salesmen who demonstrate administrative
ability may be able to become sales managers.
There are not a great many jobs at the top ad­
ministrative level, except in the management of
small business firms. O f the more than 3,000,000
persons who were reported in the miscellaneous
group o f proprietors, managers and officials, ex­
cept farm, by the 1940 Census of Population, the
great majority were the owners or managers of
relatively small enterprises. For example,
almost 2,000,000 were employed in wholesale or
retail trade, mainly as the owners or managers of
small stores. In many industries where there are

a great number of fairly small owner-operated
firms, knowledge of a particular trade or technical
process counts more toward success than does
managerial ability. Examples of such businesses
are neighborhood bakeries, shoe repair shops, and
small print shops. Nevertheless some knowledge
of business administration methods is becoming
increasingly necessary for the proprietors and
managers of small businesses.
The duties and responsibilities of the managers
of small firms are obviously quite different from
those of the high officials of large corporations.
The top executives of large companies usually
make plans, set policies, and supervise and review
the over-all operations of the company. Carrying
on the more detailed and specialized managerial
activities is entrusted to subordinates. Executive
jobs, even at the lower levels of responsibility, are
not open to newcomers, and years of experience are
required for advancement to these positions.
The various executive and specialized jobs in
business are essential in the operation of business
firms and they require a high level of intelligence
and considerable experience. However, they have
not yet achieved recognition as professions, in the
sense that law, medicine, engineering, and similar
fields are regarded. Business jobs fall short of b$ing professions in several ways. Their functions
and duties have often not been clearly defined.
In some cases there is no basic methodology estab­
lished or standard procedure recognized. A l­
though there are now definite formal college train­
ing programs for most business jobs, they have not
been recognized to the extent that they are, by law
or custom, a necessary qualification for the job.
Business is still noted as a field in which many men
with outstanding ability and energy are able to
rise without the benefit of a college education.
Increasing Complexity of Business Organization
Most of the high-level administrative jobs and
specialized jobs that now exist in business are a
fairly recent development. It was only about 75
years ago that really large-scale industrial and
commercial establishments such as we have today
began to appear. The growth of modern large
corporations with thousands of individual owners
has brought about the employment of a large group
of salaried managers and executives.



As business became larger there were more and
more tilings that a single owner or manager could
not supervise. At the same time, business opera­
tion was becoming much more complex, partly be­
cause of the large scale, and also because new
techniques were being developed in the production
and distribution of goods. In the past an individ­
ual businessman might act as his own factory
manager, personnel manager, sales manager, and
bookkeeper. He knew most of his workers di­
rectly, accounts were simple, and sales were made
by bargaining with relatively few buyers. The
manager of a small business must still carry on
these functions himself, but even here the competi­
tive pressure for efficiency means that he must
often apply advanced managerial techniques.
Training for Administrative Jobs
To prepare students for both the specialized
managerial jobs and top level administrative jobs
in industry, colleges and universities have set up
special courses of study in business subjects. Such
training programs are a relatively recent develop­
ment, with only a few in existence before 1900.
Since 1920, as shown by chart 31, the number of
students graduating from business administration
courses has been increasing very rapidly—from
1,500 in 1920 to 19,000 in 1940. During World
War II business enrollments and graduations de­
clined substantially.
With the end of the war came a remarkable up­
surge in business administration training. The
tremendous flow of veterans and other students
into business courses was reflected in the record
figures of 38,000 graduates of business and com­
merce courses in June 1948 and 62,000 in 1949.
The great rise in training in business has made
business education the second largest field after
teacher training, placing it ahead of such large
fields as engineering, agriculture, law, and
The general trend toward higher educational re­
quirements is likely to have an increased effect in
the field of business, particularly since it is the
most recent large field to become professionalized.
Eventually it is probable that college graduation
will be required for almost all positions at the ad­
ministrative level. There will, of course, continue
to be many thousands of opportunities for persons

without college training to establish and manage
their own business enterprises.
Employment Outlook
Whether there will be an increasing number of
administrative and technical jobs in business in
future years depends partly on the general trends
in business activities. Over the long run there has
been a steady expansion o f business activity in gen­
eral. It is likely that total business employment
will continue to grow over the long run, causing
a moderate increase in the number o f executive
There also will be a continuation o f the trend
toward greater specialization and increased com­
plexity in business. This trend has led to the wider
use of such workers as accountants and others who
have specialized training techniques. However, a
large part of this development has already taken
place and it is not likely that it will have as much
effect in creating openings for managerial workers
as in the past. Thus, the general outlook is for a
continued but less rapid growth in the number of
executive jobs.
The main source o f new job opportunities in
administrative and managerial work will be in
the replacement of executives now employed as
they die or retire from business. Newcomers will
not, of course, obtain top jobs, but the dropping
out of those holding responsible jobs results in
promotions within the organization and vacancies

Annual Number of Bachelor's and F irs t Professional Degrees Granted





in beginning jobs. In almost any stable field of
employment sneh replacements create the largest
number of job openings for new workers, but
there are special factors which emphasize the im­
portance of this replacement demand in the busi­
ness field. A large proportion of the executives
in the higher-ranking administrative and tech­
nical jobs in industry are in the upper-age brackets
where many leave each year because of death or
retirement. This means that a higher percentage
than usual must be replaced during the next 10
to 15 years. Many industries are seriously con­
cerned about this problem.
During 1947 and 1948 there was a strong de­
mand for graduates of business administration
courses by firms making up their wartime deficit
of administrative and professional trainees. In
1949, a decline in business activity caused many
companies to curtail their recruitment programs.
As a result there was keen competition for avail­
able jobs among the record crop of more than
60,000 business graduates, and many were not


immediately able to find jobs which matched their
qualifications. It is too soon to tell definitely
whether this situation means that the number
trained has only temporarily outrun the long-run
demand and immediate replacement needs, or
whether business cannot normally absorb this
many graduates in executive trainee jobs or in
entry jobs in specialized fields.
A number of managerial jobs are included
among the individual occupational reports in this
handbook. Hotel managers, page 491, and restau­
rant managers, page 478, are managerial occupa­
tions related to specific industries. Accountants,
page 116, personnel workers, page 107, and market
research analysts, page 119, are examples of occu­
pations which are important in the management
of many types of business enterprises and which
offer opportunities for advancement to high level
administrative jobs. Many members of other
professions, such as engineers, chemists, and law­
yers, advance to administrative positions in in­
dustry and government.

Teaching is not only the largest single profes­
sional field, but it is also the parent field, in the
sense that it is the teachers who educate and pre­
pare workers for all the other professions. Teach­
ing is also uniquely related in vocational terms to
other professions and to nonprofessional occupa­
tions, since many persons who consider themselves
members of a profession or a trade do part-time
or full-time work as teachers. Many a leading
chemist, engineer, or physician is a teacher in a
college or university, and in many vocational
schools the crafts are taught by practicing mem­
bers of the trades. Teaching, then, is one of the
types of work done by members of other profes­
sions, as well as being a profession in its own right.
The great bulk of teachers, however, particularly
those below the college level, are persons who pre­
pared themselves primarily for the teaching pro­
The broad divisions of the field are college and
university teaching, high school teaching, and

P ercent

Change over


April 1 9 4 7






9 -1 2

___1 _ 1
_ ___L _ _ !
_ ___1
___ 1



E nrollm ent




UNITED STATES d e p a r t m e n t OF LABOR








*59 I960

8 ureou of the Census

kindergarten and elementary school teaching.
Considerably more than half of all teachers are
employed in elementary schools. The belief was
once widespread that the level of ability required
of the teacher increases with the age of the stu­
dents ; in many parts of the country both entrance
requirements and salaries are greater for the high
school than for the elementary school teacher.
More recently, however, many educators have
come to believe that teachers of young children
should be as well prepared as those who teach older
children, and to attract competent teachers to ele­
mentary schools salaries should be equalized and
credit toward higher salaries given for advanced
The great majority of teachers are public em­
ployees. This is true of 9 out of 10 teachers below
the college level, but about half the college teachers
in 1940 were employed in private colleges and
Employment in the profession has increased
tenfold over the last 80 years. This great gain
reflects the growth of population, the tendency
for young people to stay in school longer, and the
increasing enrichment of the curriculum, particu­
larly in high schools and junior high schools.
However, the rise in the number of teachers has
not been steady at all levels, owing to fluctuations
in enrollments caused by varying birth rates. Ele­
mentary school enrollments decreased by more
than 31/2 million between 1930 and 1946. This loss
was offset in part by a gain of nearly 2% million
high school students between 1930 and 1940; how­
ever, enrollments in high schools dropped by about
a million during the war.
Chart 32 shows the trend in school enrollments
which is expected to 1960. The abrupt rise in en­
rollments in the first eight grades, resulting from
the high birth rates of the 1940 decade, may re­
quire an increase of more than 260,000 elementary
teaching positions by 1957. High school enroll­
ments will begin to rise about 1952, but will not
fully reflect the unusually high birth rates until
about 1956; peak enrollments will be reached in
1961 or 1962.
The drop-out rate is higher in the teaching pro­
fession below the college level than in many other


occupations. The number of teachers required
each year as replacements exceeds the number
needed for new positions, even in a period of rapid
expansion in school enrollments (see chart 33).
The fact that many young women teach only a few
years and then withdraw from the profession is
one of the main reasons for the high attrition rate.
This rate is usually higher among elementary than
among secondary teachers.
The relationship of the supply of teachers to
the demand may vary from year to year and among
teaching levels. The shortage of teachers whicli
was one of the consequences of World War II
is comparable to that of World War I. The short­
age during and following World W ar I gradually
changed to a surplus of applicants for teaching
positions which reached its height during the de­
pression years of the 1930’s. In 1950, shortages of
elementary teachers were acute, but for the first
time since World War II there was an adequate
supply of high school teachers in most subject
fields (see chart 33). The other employment op­
portunities available and relative salaries offered
will continue to be the most important factors
affecting teacher supply.

College and University Teachers
(D . O. T . 0-11.50)

Outlook Summary
Openings for new entrants in the early fifties
will be limited largely to replacement needs. Con­
siderable increase in the number o f positions is
expected in the long run.
Nature of Work
In 1949-50, the more than 1,800 colleges and
other institutions of higher education in the
country had about 155,000 faculty members for
2,457,000 students. Besides teaching, these faculty
members frequently do research. Some devote all
or part of their time to administrative work.
Most have specialized in a particular subject field.
Where Ejnployed
The great majority of faculty members are in
4-year colleges, universities, and professional

schools; in 1948, 84 percent were employed by such
institutions, about 8 percent by teachers’ colleges
and normal schools, and 8 percent by junior col­
leges. Largely because of differences in popula­
tion, the distribution of these institutions among
the States is extremely uneven. Some Western
States have but one or two colleges, with staffs
totaling only a few hundred, while a few thickly
populated States have over 100, with more than
10,000 staff members.
Training and Other Qualifications
In general, a doctor’s degree is required for the
better college teaching positions, but requirements
vary considerably according to institution and
type of appointment. Inexperienced persons may
obtain instructorships directly from graduate
training, especially when their academic records
are outstanding, or they may assist in teaching
undergraduates while still taking advanced work.


Assistant and associate professorships are usually
attained only after college-teaching experience or
extensive graduate training. To reach the position
of professor usually requires either 10 to 15 years
of experience or outstanding achievement.

o f the 1940 decade will begin to affect college-age
population in the late fifties. A ll these factors,
plus the trend toward lengthening the period of
college training, will tend to increase the number
of teachers needed.



Opportunities for new entrants to college teach­
ing in the first half of the 1950 decade will be
created mainly by retirements or other with­
drawals from the profession. College-age popula­
tion will decrease somewhat until the mid-fifties;
at the same time there will be a sharp drop in the
number of W orld War I I veterans enrolled at the
college level. In the event of the withdrawal of
many young men for the Armed Forces, college
enrollments would be further reduced. Therefore,
it is unlikely that many new teaching positions
will be established. On the other hand, the need
for new entrants to replace teachers leaving the
field may be considerable. During the period
of high enrollments following W orld War II,
many faculty members served beyond retirement
age, but will leave their posts in the near future.
In addition, withdrawals to the Armed Forces and
other defense-connected activities will create open­
ings for newcomers. Though the supply of poten­
tial teachers is great because of unprecedented
enrollments in graduate schools, it is possible that
this supply will be quickly dissipated in many
specialties by defense program demands. A few
subject fields, particularly those related to medi­
cine, will no doubt continue to suffer shortages.
In the long run, there will probably be a con­
siderable increase in the number of college level
teaching positions. There is a trend for a larger
proportion of young people to complete high school
and enter college; higher education is becoming
more and more important both in meeting com­
petition in the labor market and in social relation­
ships. Growing interest in extending higher edu­
cation, particularly at the junior college level, is
expected to result in a greater number of institu­
tions, more widely distributed throughout the
country. This will not only encourage enroll­
ments but make it possible to have smaller classes
than at present. Furthermore, the high birth rates

Members of teaching staffs in 147 selected insti­
tutions showed the following average annual sal­
aries in 1947-48: Full professors, $5,750; associate
professors, $4,590; assistant professors, $3,890; in­
structors, $2,950; lecturers, $2,780. Salaries of
full professors averaged $4,800 'for those with 2 to
5 years of experience and $5,770 for those with 20
years or more experience. However, salaries of
teachers at lower ranks increased but little with
added experience.
A survey of 12,500 teachers in 5 types of profes­
sional schools disclosed the following median an­
nual salaries in 1948-49:

Type of school

Law _________________

Professors 1 professors




800 $4, 600 $3, 800
500 5 ,0 0 0
4 ,0 0 0
600 5 ,3 0 0
4 ,3 0 0
800 4 ,4 0 0
3, 800
1005 ,0 0 0
4 ,2 0 0


i Including department heads.
In general, salaries are highest in large uni­
versities and men’s colleges; lower in women’s,
teachers’, and junior colleges, and in church re­
lated schools.
Where To Go for More Information
General information on colleges and universities
and special surveys, such as that on faculty sal­
aries (Circular No. 254), are available from:
Federal Security Agency,
Office of Education
Washington 25, D. O.

Information on a study of college teacher sup­
ply and demand is available from :
National Commission on Teacher
Professional Standards
National Education Association
1201 16th St., N W .
Washington 6, D. C.





High School Teachers
(D . O. T. 0-31.01 and .10)

Outlook Summary
Competition for positions which existed in most
subject fields in mid-1950 expected to be quickly
reduced as mobilization program progresses.
Natu/re o f Work
About 335,000 classroom teachers, principals
and supervisors were employed in the public sec­
ondary schools in 1949-50 to teach about 6,500,000
Besides classroom instruction, most of these
teachers have other duties, including supervision
of extracurricular activities, record keeping and
preparation of reports. Maintenance of good re­
lations with parents, the community, and fellow
teachers is an important aspect of their jobs.
Inexperienced teachers often start in rural
schools or small-town school systems. Oppor­
tunities for advancement are by way of moderate
salary increases within the same system, by mov­
ing after a few years of experience to school sys­
tems paying higher salaries, or by promotion
to supervisory, administrative, or specialized
Training and Other Quali'fications
Typical requirements for teacher certificates are
a bachelor’s degree, with the equivalent of about
a half year of education courses including student
teaching, and with specialization in one or more
subjects commonly taught in high school. The
requirements vary considerably from one State
to another, however. A few States will grant
certificates only to people with a year of graduate
work. Many school systems, especially in large
cities, have additional requirements—with respect
to educational preparation or successful teaching
experience—beyond those needed for State certi­
Satisfactory teacher-training curricula are
offered at universities with schools of education;
by colleges with strong education departments
and adequate practice teaching facilities; and by
teachers’ colleges. A student who wishes to
specialize in vocational agriculture, home econom­

ics, music, commercial work, or the like should
choose an institution accredited for work in the
specific field and should take enough hours of edu­
cation and practice teaching to meet certification
requirements. Although the trend is toward spe­
cialization, the greater the number of subjects a
person can teach, the better are his chances for
securing a position. Ability to handle extracur­
ricular activities will also improve chances for
The strong competition for positions which was
evident in mid-1950 will probably be much re­
duced as mobilization progresses. The supply of
teachers in many fields, particularly in the social
sciences, English, and men’s physical education,
greatly outnumbered the openings at the begin­
ning of the 1950-51 school year. However, there
were still shortages in some localities and in a few
subject fields, such as home economics and com­
mercial work. The number of students (nearly
85,000) completing training in June 1950 for high
school teaching was greater than in any previous
year, and nearly two and one-half times the num­
ber completing preparation for elementary teach­
ing where the need for personnel is greater. It was
estimated that around 20,000 new teachers would
be placed in 1950-51. However, mobilization, in­
volving more men in the Armed Forces and more
production than in mid-1950, could quickly drain
off any oversupply of high school teachers. His-’
torically the profession has lost teachers when
other better paid positions have been available.
Enrollments in grades 9 to 12 are expected to
decline until about 1952, because of the decrease
in high school age population. During that
period the demand for high school teachers will be
limited largely to replacements for those who die,
retire, or otherwise leave the profession. This
replacement rate is conservatively estimated at 5
percent annually for the country as a whole, but
there are great variations by State. Assuming a
5 percent withdrawal rate there should be a de­
mand for around 17,000 teachers annually during
the next 2 or 3 years. However, an extensive pro­
gram of defense production or mobilization for the


Armed Forces would greatly increase the with­
drawal rate of teachers from the profession.
From about 1952 to 1962, the high school age
population will increase greatly and additional
teachers will be required for new classes. Assum­
ing a ratio of 25 pupils per teacher, close to 85,000
new teachers will probably be needed between
1952 and 1960 to handle added enrollments. In
addition, the number of teachers required for
replacement purposes, based on a 5 percent rate,
may be over 20,000 a year by the end of the 1950
Long-run forecasts of population indicate that
employment of secondary teachers should be
higher throughout the 40-year period 1960 to 2000
than in 1950. The long-term trend for a rising
proportion of young people to attend high school
is expected to continue. Greatly increased Fed­
eral and State aid to education might expand
enrollments considerably. The trend toward en­
riching the curriculum, offering special subjects
and extending instruction to adult classes may also
further increase the demand for secondary school
In 1948-49, high school classroom teachers had
a median salary of about $4,690 in cities of over
500.000 population; $3,790 in cities of 100,000 to
500,000; $3,445 in cities of 30,000 to 100,000;
$3,270 in cities of 10,000 to 30,000; $3,015 in towns
of 5,000 to 10,000 and $2,875 in those of 2,500 to
5,000. Median salaries of principals in communi­
ties of the above sizes were about $7,320, $6,075,
$5,470, $4,795, $4,230 and $3,950, respectively.
Median salaries of superintendents ranged from
$16,000 to $5,100, depending on size of city. These
figures are based on a survey covering more than
2.000 school systems.
Salaries vary greatly from one State to another
and among school systems in the same State. Esti­
mated average salaries of classroom teachers in
secondary schools in 1949-50, ranged from less
than $2,500 in some southern or predominantly
rural States to $4,000 or more in Arizona, Cali­
fornia, Massachusetts, and New York. Salaries
in rural schools and those in small towns are usu­
ally considerably below those in cities. Teachers
in special fields such as vocational education and
physical education sometimes receive higher pay
than classroom teachers of other subjects.

Home economics teachers are in great demand.

Where To Go for More Information
Information on the employment outlook, certifi­
cation requirements, and earnings in the teaching
profession in each State is given in : Employment
Outlook for Elementary and Secondary School
Teachers, Bulletin No. 972, U. S. Department of
Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics, 1949. Price 40
cents. Superintendent of Documents, Washing­
ton 25, D. C.
General information on teaching may be ob­
tained from :
Federal Security Agency
Office of Education
Washington 25, D. C.
National Education Association
1201 16th St., N W .
Washington 6, D. C.

Information on schools and requirements in a
particular State may be obtained from the depart­
ment of education at the State capital.
See also Kindergarten and Elementary School
Teachers, page 48; College and University Teach­
ers, page 44; Health and Physical Education Intructors, page 50.


Kindergarten and Elementary School Teachers
(D. O. T. 0-30.02 and .11)

Outlook Summary
Shortages of qualified teachers are expected to
continue in the early 1950’s at least. Rising em­
ployment till late in the 1950 decade. Thousands
of new entrants needed annually as replacements
for teachers who leave the profession.
Nature of Work
Kindergarten and elementary school teachers
make up nearly two-thirds of the entire teaching
profession below the college level. In the school
year 1949-50, about 600,000 of them were employed
in public schools to teach approximately 18,500,000
Teaching in the elementary grades usually in­
volves working with one group of pupils during
the entire day, thus covering a wide range of sub­
jects and activities. Some schools have depart­
mentalized instruction in the upper elementary
grades, and teachers usually handle two or three
subjects with several different groups of pupils
during the school day. Teachers in rural schools
may have to teach all subjects in several grades.
Inexperienced teachers often start in rural
schools or small town systems. Opportunities for
advancement are by way of small salary increases
in the same position, shifting to a school system
with a higher salary scale, or by appointment to
a supervisory, administrative, or specialized
Training and Other Qualifications
In every State except Massachusetts, a State
certificate is required for teaching in public
schools. The educational qualifications needed for
certificates vary considerably from one State to
another. About a third of the States and the Dis­
trict of Columbia require 4 years of college as mini­
mum for the lowest regular elementary certificate;
half the States require 2 or 3 years of college train­
ing; other States have even lower minimum re­
quirements. In most States, candidates must have
completed several elementary education courses,
including practice teaching.

There are about 1,200 institutions approved by
different State departments of education from
which graduates are granted State certificates
without examination. However, some local dis­
tricts have their own standards and examinations,
in addition to the State requirements. Prerequi­
site for training is usually graduation from an ac­
credited high school. Most States have a minimum
age of 18 years, but appointing officials usually
prefer somewhat older teachers. Some school sys­
tems do not employ married women; over half
the States make proof of good health a requisite;
some have citizenship and other special standards.
A prospective teacher should acquaint himself with
the specific requirements in the State in which he
plans to teach.
During and since World War II, many thou­
sands of emergency or temporary certificates have
been issued to persons unable to meet the regular
requirements. As the supply of fully qualified
teachers increases, such certificates will be discon­
tinued. Furthermore, the general trend is toward
raising requirements; all prospective elementary
teachers should therefore plan to secure the bache­
lor’s degree.
The serious shortage of elementary teachers in
mid-1950 is expected to continue during the early
fifties, at least. Only about 35,000 new teachers
qualified for regular elementary certificates in
June 1950, when the estimated demand was for
more than 75,000 new teachers for the 1950-51
school year. The deficit will be met by issuing
emergency certificates to teachers who cannot meet
regular requirements. Only in Negro schools has
the number of teachers approached the demand.
Generally, throughout the Nation, shortages have
been greatest in kindergartens and other primary
grades in the cities and in rural elementary schools.
The extent of the shortage varies considerably
from one State to another and also within States;
but it has tended to be most acute in areas where
teachers’ salaries are lowest or where there are
many better paying employment opportunities in
other fields.


for the country as a whole. On the basis of this
rate, about 575,000 elementary school teachers
will probably be required in the 10 years begin­
ning in 1950 to replace those who die, retire, or
otherwise leave the classroom.
In the future as in the past, the other employ­
ment opportunities available and the relative sal­
aries offered will be chief among the many factors
affecting the supply of new teachers. A strong
defense production program and shortages of
workers in other fields would reduce the number
seeking teaching positions.
Because salaries
usually increase less rapidly in the teaching field
than in many others, the profession is considered
less desirable in boom periods than in periods of
economic depression.
According to a survey covering about 2,200 cityschool systems, median salaries for teachers and
principals in elementary schools in 1948-49 were
as follow s:
Shortages of teachers are greatest in kindergarten and primary grades.

Tlie total number of teachers needed for grades
below the high-school level will continue to mount
until the late 1950’s, owing to increasing enroll­
ments resulting from the abrupt rise in the birth
rate since 1940. Assuming that 1947 was the peak
year for births, total enrollment in grades 1 to 8
will be greatest (about 26y2 million) in 1957.
However, the number of new teachers required in
any one year will be greatest about 1953, wnen
over 40,000 may be needed just to take care of
the increase in enrollments (assuming a ratio of
30 pupils per teacher). Over the 10-year period
(1949-50 through 1958-59), it is estimated that
at least 800,000 new teachers will be required to
handle additional enrollments and replace teach­
ers who withdraw from the profession.
In the teaching profession many more teachers
are required each year as replacements than for
new jobs, even in a period of rapid growth of
school population. The large number of young
women who enter the profession and then with­
draw because of marriage or for other reasons
creates an attrition rate higher than for most
other occupations. This rate varies greatly among
States, but is conservatively estimated at 7 percent
S92273°— 51-----5

Population of city

Classroom teachers
Kindergarten Elementary

Teaching Su pervising

2 ,5 00-4,9 99____________________ 1 $2, 483
$2, 762
5.000 9,999____________________
1 2, 609
2 ,8 5 9
1 0 .000 - 29,999__________________ 1 2, 778
3, 121
3 0 .0 0 0 - 99,999______
$3, 006
2, 955 3, 226
100.000- 499,999___
3, 087
3, 265 3, 661
500.000 and over____
3, 663
4, 019 2 5, 141

$3, 692
3 ,9 41
3, 872
4, 195
4, 676
5, 907

• Includes kindergarten teachers.
a Assistant principals.
Rural school salaries, especially those in oneteacher schools, are considerably below those in
small towns. There is a trend toward establishing
the same salary scales for elementary teachers as
for secondary teachers with comparable education
and experience.
Estimated average salaries of class-room teach­
ers in elementary schools in 1949-50 ranged from
less than $2,000 in about 10 States to $3,400 or
more for Arizona, California, Massachusetts,
Michigan, and New York.
Where To Go for More Information
Information on the employment outlook, certi­
fication requirements, and earnings in the teach­
ing profession in each State is given in : Employ­
ment Outlook for Elementary and Secondary


School Teachers. Bulletin No. 972, U. S. Depart­
ment o f Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics, 1949.
Price 40 cents. Superintendent of Documents,
Washington 25, D. C.
General information on teaching may be ob­
tained from:
Federal Security Agency,
Office of Education,
Washington 25, D. C.

National Education Association,
1201 16th St., N W .,
Washington 6, D. C.

Information on schools and requirements in a
particular State may be obtained from the depart­
ment of education at the State capital.
See also High School Teachers, page 46; Col­
lege and University Teachers, page 44; Health
and Physical Education Instructors, page 50.

Health and Physical Education Instructors
(D. O. T. 0-57.21 AND .41)

Outlook Summary
Supply of male instructors in this field more
than adequate in 1950, but surplus expected to be
quickly reduced by defense activities. Good op­
portunities for women. Employment expected to
expand over the long run.
Nature of Work
Health and physical education instructors give
individual or group instruction in a great variety
of physical activities and games, and coach teams
in various sports. They also teach classes in health
education, supervise school health-education pro­
grams, and direct school and community recrea­
tional activities. In small high schools, the teach­
ing o f physical education is often combined with
the teaching of other subjects. In elementary
schools, it is usually done by the regular classroom
It is estimated that about 60,000 professional
workers were employed in this field in late 1949.
How To Enter
In most States, the minimum requirement for a
high school teaching certificate is a 4-year college
course, including 15 to 24 semester hours in health
and physical education and 15 to 20 hours in gen­
eral professional education, including teaching
methods. The employment requirements of in­
dividual schools may be somewhat higher.
Courses in biological sciences, social sciences, and
health education are helpful. Educational re­
quirements for teaching in colleges or universities
vary considerably, but graduate training is gen­
erally preferred. Experience in physical educa­

tion with the Armed Forces is valuable when com­
bined with formal education.
The usual method of entry for people with
undergraduate training is by way of a small
school, though successful athletes sometimes start
as assistant coaches in colleges or universities.
Positions in colleges or large high schools usually
require several years’ experience or graduate train­
ing, or both. Experienced instructors may ad­
vance to physical or health education supervisor
for a city school system or State department of
education or transfer to related recreational or
health activities.
Instructors of physical education for men were
in oversupply in most areas for the 1950-51 school
year, but there were indications that the competion would be quickly reduced owing to the mo­
bilization program. The shortage of male in­
structors which existed in the early postwar years
was relieved by the unusually large graduating
classes in 1948,1949, and 1950; the number of men
qualifying as high school teachers of health and
physical education in 1950 was six times the num­
ber who qualified in 1941. In addition, more than
twice as many women completed training for such
teaching positions in 1950 as 9 years previously;
however, at mid-1950, there were still moderately
good employment opportunities for women in the
The number of schools offering physical edu­
cation training has risen considerably since World
War I I ; enrollments have been high, owing largely
to the many veterans who entered these schools.
The great increase in supply of instructors has


come at a time when the number of high school
students is beginning to decrease. Most job open­
ings which arise in the next few years will occur
as a result of turn-over. This is high among
women instructors; it is also considerable among
men, since older men often have to transfer to
other occupations. In addition, many young men
are likely to withdraw for military service or de­
fense production jobs.
After the mid-fifties, high school enrollments
are expected to increase rapidly for several years,
and the demand for health and physical education
instructors will rise. A number of other factors
will also tend to expand employment over the long
run. The public is becoming more aware of the
need for health and physical education programs.
Greater interest is being displayed in local com­
munities in planning health, physical education,
and recreation facilities. There is a trend toward
establishing more year-round positions for health
and physical education directors who can handle
community recreation programs. With the ex­
ception of positions in large city schools, where
specialization is preferred, there are increasing
numbers o f jobs combining health, safety, recrea­
tion, and physical education activities; new en­
trants will do well to consider obtaining the broad
training for such combination jobs. There will
also be increased employment in such related fields
as employee-recreation programs conducted by pri­
vate bifsiness or Government departments, and rec­
reational activities and camps sponsored by
churches and youth serving agencies. However,

the popularity o f the physical education field as a
career for young men is likely to persist; hence,
newcomers may expect to meet considerable com­
petition in the long run and should therefore se­
cure a year or two of graduate training.
Starting salaries ranged from about $2,300 to
about $3,300 for high-school instructors without
experience in 1948-49, depending on individual
qualifications, size of school, geographic location,
and other factors. A man with a strong back­
ground in varsity athletics nearly always receives
a larger beginning salary. Directors, assistant di­
rectors, and supervisors of health and physical
education had median salaries of about $3,200 to
$5,300, depending on the size of the city or town.
In many school systems, athletic coaches receive
additional amounts above their regular salaries be­
cause of extra duties. It is often possible to sup­
plement earnings for the school year by taking a
position in a summer camp.
Where To Go for More Information
American Association for Health, Physical Education
and Recreation,
1201 16th St., N. W .
Washington 6, D. C.
Federal Security Agency,
Office of Education,
Washington 25, D. C.

See also High School Teachers, page 46; Col­
lege and University Teachers, page 44.


Engaging more than a million persons in 1940,
medical and other health service is not only vital
to public welfare, but important as a source of
employment opportunity. This broad group of
occupations is second only to teaching as a field
bf employment for professional and semiprofes­
sional workers. With its more than half a million
women workers, it ranks as a major vocational
field for women.
1 This introductory section is based on The Outlook for Women
in Occupations in the Medical and Other Health Services : Trends
and Their Effect Upon the Demand for Women Workers. Bulle­
tin 203, No. 12 (1946), published by the Women’s Bureau, U. S.
Department of Labor, Washington 25, D. C.

The major occupations in the field are shown in
chart 34. Nursing, the largest of these occupations,
is also the second largest profession for women.
The occupation of physician ranks with engineer­
ing, teaching, and law as a major profession for
men. There is close working relationship among
the occupations in the health-service field; such
semi professional persons as dental hygienists and
medical X-ray technicians are often employed di­
rectly by the dentist and the physician.
Health services are given in a wide variety of
places, including hospitals and sanitariums,
clinics, laboratories, pharmacies, nursing homes,


E M PLO Y M E N T IN 1949

Professional and Student
Practical Nurses and
Hospital Attendants,1941
Medical Laboratory
Medical X-ray Technicians

Dental Hygienists, 1945
Physical Therapists
Medical Record Librarians,

Occupational Therapists ^7

-^205,500 additional nurses(professional and students)
-includes registered only; 1,100 were inactive




health and hygiene agencies, industrial plants,
offices of physicians, dentists, osteopathic physi­
cians, chiropractors, veterinarians, and chiropo­
dists, and in private homes. Work in these fields
is to be found in every State, and in the smallest of
towns—wherever there are people to be served—
but employment is more concentrated in the popu­
lous and wealthy sections of the country.
Medicine, dentistry, and some of the other health
service occupations present opportunities for in­
dependent professional practice and self-employ­
ment. Most members of certain other occupations,
such as nursing, have salaried positions. In 1940,
more than half of the men in the health service
field were self-employed, compared with less than
a tenth of the women. About a fifth of the work­
ers were employed by local, State, or Federal
Government agencies.
Health-service employment has an upward

trend. The need for expansion in services is a
result of an increasing population (particularly
in the older age groups), rising income levels, bet­
ter education in the need for medical care, the
growth of preventive medicine, hospitalization and
other medical insurance plans, progress in medical
science itself, and the provision of medical and
dental care for veterans. More hospitals are being
built, and there is growing interest in plans to
make health care more available to low-income
groups. Also, additional health personnel will be
needed because of the expansion o f the Armed
Therefore, there will be increasing employment
opportunities in this large field. Moreover, be­
cause of the large number of women in some o f
these occupations, the replacement rate is high,
and many new workers will have to be trained each

Registered Professional N u rses 1
(D. O. T. 0-33)

Outlook Summary

Training and Other Qualifications

Excellent opportunities in the early fifties and
in the long run, but openings vary considerably by
locality. The emergency situation in 1950 also
stimulated the demand for the professional nurse.

To be a registered nurse, one must have a licenseissued by the State board of nurse examiners or
other authorized agency. In practically all
States, applicants for licenses must have highschool diplomas and be graduates of schools of'
nursing. There were 1,215 such schools in 1949.J
approved by the State board or authorized agency;
The basic diploma course in nursing education
usually consists of 3 years of combined study and
supervised practice in one or more hospitals. Most
States specify that applicants must be at least 20
or 21 years old, and all require them to pass an
examination given by the board. Provision is
made in the law of most States for granting
licenses or certificates of registration without
examination to a nurse who is registered in an­
other State, provided her qualifications ape equiv­
alent to those required for nurses by the State
in which she is applying.
Educational preparation beyond the minimum
required for licensing is an asset in competing fan
professional advancement. Almost 200 schools

Nature of Work
Registered nurses (R. N.’s) are the second larg­
est group of professional women in the country.
In 1949, the American Nurses’ Association esti­
mated that there were about 300,500 active regis­
tered professional nurses and a reservoir of about
205,500 inactive nurses. There were also 88,817
student nurses. According to an inventory in
1949, about 51 percent of the employed nurses were
in hospitals, schools of nursing, or other institu­
tions; about a fifth were in private practice; the
remainder were public health, industrial, or office
nurses. In 1949 less than 1 percent were men.
3Prepared by the Women’s Bureau, U. S. Department of



offer collegiate programs in nursing leading to a
degree. Nurses with the United States Public
Health Service must have had at least a year of
postgraduate study in public health nursing at a
college or university approved by the National
Organization for Public Health Nursing.
The opportunity to advance to posts of respon­
sibility is especially good, because of the many
administrative, teaching, and supervisory posi­
tions in this large expanding profession. Teach­
ing and administrative positions, particularly in
schools of nursing, usually go to those who have
college degrees as well as the necessary profes­
sional preparation and who combine successful
experience with aptitude for teaching or admin­
istrative work.

Factors which created the shortage of professional
registered nurses will probably continue to oper­
ate for some years. By 1960 it has been estimated
that about 500,000 professional registered nurses
will be required to maintain current standards of
Earnings and Hours of Work
Up-to-date information on earnings of nurses
is not available, but their income is believed
to be higher than in 1946, the year of the latest
comprehensive earnings study. In October 1946,

A shortage of professional nurses existed in
early 1950 despite the fact that there were more
nurses than ever before. It was estimated that
in 1950, 409,700 professional registered nurses
would be required to meet ordinary needs, about
109,160 more than were employed in the first part
of 1949.
The shortage o f nurses has resulted from a de­
mand for nursing service which has increased at
a greater rate than the supply. Many factors have
caused this accelerated demand; among them are:
a growing number of hospital patients, increased
membership in prepayment health plans, the
effects of health education programs which em­
phasize early treatment, preventive medicine,
the use of clinical facilities and periodic check­
ups. In addition, a growing population, as well
as a population with a larger number of older
people, the use of new drugs and treatments, and
the extension of nursing services in government
service and the fields of industry, psychiatry, and
public health, have added to the demand for pro­
fessional nurses. The Army called up 650 reserve
nurses in September 1950 and more were needed
as a result of the expansion in the Armed Forces.
By 1948 admission of students to schools of
nursing had reached the largest number in any
peacetime year (43,373 students were admitted
in 1948). However, admissions to schools of nurs­
ing must continue to grow to meet accelerated
demand and to replace the large number who nor­
mally withdraw from the profession each year.



U .

S .




During an operation the surgical nurse is depended upon for her
alertness and coordination in assisting the surgeon.

median monthly earnings of registered nurses
who were not provided with living quarters were
between $170 and $175. About one in four earned
less than $145; on the other hand, a fourth earned
more than $195. Median earnings in different
fields of nursing ranged from $153 a month for
private-duty work to $207 for nurse educators.
Because of differences in the number of days
worked during the month, earnings of individual
private-duty nurses varied widely; one out of four
earned less than $95 and another fourth received


at least $200. There was also variation by re­
gions, from a median of $144 in New England to
$202 in the Pacific States. An 8-hour day and a
workweek of 40 to 48 hours has become the gen­
erally accepted schedule in nursing, but there are
many deviations, especially in private-duty

fessional Nurses. Bulletin No. 931. 69 pp. Su­
perintendent of Documents, Washington 25, D. C.,
1947. Price 30 cents.
Information may also be obtained from:
American Nurses’ Association,
1790 Broadway,
New York 19, N. Y.
Committee on Careers in Nursing,
11th Floor,
1790 Broadway,
New York 19, N. Y.

Where To Go for More Information
Additional information on the outlook for
women as professional nurses is given in the fol­
lowing publication:
U. S. Department of Labor, Women’s Bureau.
Professional Nurses. Bulletin 203, No. 3, 66 pp.
Washington, 1946. Price 15 cents.
Additional information on earnings and work­
ing conditions is given in the following publica­
tion :
U. S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor
Statistics. Economic Status of Registered Pro­

National League of Nursing Education,
1790 Broadway,
New York 19, N. Y.

Information on State registration requirements
may be obtained from the board of nurse exam­
iners from any State capital or from the Counselor
of any State Nurses’ Association (a directory of
these counselors is available from the American
Nurses’ Association).

(D. O. T. 0-26)

Outlooh Summary
Excellent opportunities for those able to gain
admission to medical school and complete require­
ments for practice. Keen competition for admis­
sion to medical school.
Nature of Work
Most physicians are engaged in private practice,
either as individuals or in a group of doctors.
Others have full-time positions on hospital staffs,
with private firms, or in governmental agencies
such as the United States Public Health Service,
the Armed Forces, and the Veterans Administra­
tion—caring for patients or giving medical ex­
aminations. Some combine private practice with
a part-time position in a hospital or industry.
Physicians also teach in medical schools; do re­
search on causes of disease and develop new
methods of treatment; hold administrative posi­
tions in hospitals, clinics, laboratories, and other
organizations; and write and edit medical books
and magazines. A few devote their full time to
these activities, but most care for patients as well.
As of 1950, there were over 200,000 physicians

in the United States. However, a number of them
were not available for service to the general public:
about 5 percent were retired or not in practice;
nearly one-quarter were employed by Government
agencies (including the Armed Forces), had full­
time research positions with private companies,
or were in full-time hospital service (internes, resi­
dents, and staff positions). About half of the
total number of physicians were general practi­
tioners, and about a fourth limited their practice
to their specialty; the remainder were general
practitioners with an interest or training in a
specialty. Only about 1 out of every 20 doctors
are women. There are approximately 4,000 Negro
physicians in the United States.
As of mid-1950, the medical specialties rec­
ognized by approved examining boards were:
ophthalmology, otolaryngology, obstetrics and
gynecology, dermatology and syphilology, pedi­
atrics, orthopedic surgery, psychiatry and neu­
rology, radiology, urology, internal medicine,
pathology, anesthesiology, plastic surgery, sur­
gery, neurological surgery, physical medicine and
rehabilitation, preventive medicine and public
health, thoracic surgery, and proctology.


Training and Qualifications
For practice as a physician in any State or the
District of Columbia, one must be licensed by a
State board of medical examiners and, in most
cases, must register annually with this board. It
generally takes at least 7 to 9 years after high
school to complete the educational and experience
requirements for licensure.
Candidates for licenses must be graduates of ap­
proved medical schools in practically all cases.
In mid-1950 there were 79 approved medical
schools and basic science schools in the United
States (the latter give only the first 2 years of
medical training). Most of these schools require
students to have completed three or more years
of premedical study in colleges. In the fall of
1949, only five required as little as 2 years of premedical study, while six required a bachelor's de­
gree. At all schools a bachelor’s degree is an
advantage in competing for admission—an im­
portant consideration in view of the intense com­
petition for entrance into most schools. Sixtythree percent of the freshman class of 1949-50 had
baccalaureate degrees and another 8.8 percent had
completed 4 years of college.
Most medical schools give 4-year courses; how­
ever, in 1950, six schools required an extra year of
internship or research for the M. D. degree. After
completing medical school, graduates generally
serve at least a year’s internship in a hospital; this
is legally required for licensure in over half the
States. Finally, candidates have to pass a licens­
ing examination given by the State board of medi­
cal examiners.
To be recognized as a specialist, a doctor must
meet standards established by one of the 19 spe­
cialty boards set up by the American medical pro­
fession. These standards include: Graduation
from an approved medical school, licensure, com­
pletion of an approved internship, and generally
5 years of specialized training and practice in the
selected field. Besiclencies of varying lengths in
approved institutions are required as part of the
training for most specialties In addition, physi­
cians intending to become general practitioners
often serve as residents for a year or two after
completing their internship, to obtain additional
training and experience.

C o u r te s y

o f


. s .

p u b l ic

h e a l t h

S e r v ic e

Surgeon and assistant during a tense moment in an operating room
of a hospital.

The demand for physicians' services was much
greater at the end of the 1940-50 decade than be­
fore World War II. The rise in national income
and the development, of prepayment plans for
medical care and hospitalization made it possible
for many more people to obtain doctor’s services.
Acceleration of training during the war made
possible the graduation of more than 59,000 medi­
cal students from approved schools during the
decade. However, the total number of physicians
did not increase as fast as the demand for medical
service in this period, and only slightly faster
than the population itself. Moreover, the military
demand for physicians was beginning to rise as a
result of the increased mobilization which began
in the last half of 1950. Thus, at the beginning
of the 1950's there vT need for additional per­
sonnel in the medical profession.
The demand for medical care will probably con­
tinue to rise in the future. Among the factors
which will tend to increase the demand for phy­
sicians’ services are the increase in population
(particularly, the number of older persons) ;
Government provision of medical care for veter­


ans and for members of the Armed Forces and
their families; and the planned large-scale pro­
gram for construction of hospitals in areas which
have no modern facilities. Underlying these fac­
tors is the general trend toward higher standards
of medical care and public health. In addition,
as of 1949, nearly 4,000 new physicians were
needed each year to meet replacement needs owing
to deaths, retirements, and lowered service capac­
ity among the many older physicians; these re­
placement needs will tend to become larger as the
profession increases in size.
The number of freshmen enrolled in medical
schools in the fall of 1949 was larger than ever
before. With the expansion of existing schools
under way by the end of that year and the several
new schools already being organized, enrollments
should be even higher by the mid-1950’s. How­
ever, the net increase in the number of physicians
will be moderate and is not expected to equal the
increased demand for medical service. The level
of medical and premedical school enrollments for
the next several years at least, will be affected by
Selective Service policies regarding deferments,
as well as policies concerning expansion of train­
ing because of mobilization.
The outlook, then, is excellent for those persons
who have the needed personal characteristics and
genuine interest in the field and who are able to
gain admission to medical school and complete re­
quirements for practice. Despite the increased
training facilities which will be available by the
mid-1950’s, it is expected that competition for ad­
mission to medical school will remain great for a
number of years. Prospective medical students
should remember that the training required for the
profession is long and arduous. Preparation for
a medical career should begin even before college.
During the entire period of schooling a very high
scholastic average must be maintained.

The average net income (after business ex­
penses) of independent physicians has more than
doubled since 1939 and probably was about
$11,000 yearly in 1947, according to several small
surveys and other scattered reports. Incomes of
salaried physicians were somewhat lower.
Generally speaking, incomes tend to be higher
in large cities than in smaller communities. How­
ever, there is some evidence to indicate that average
incomes do not rise continuously with size of com­
munity (particularly over 250,000 population).
It should be emphasized that earnings of individ­
ual doctors vary widely—wdth length of profes­
sional experience, field of specialization and
personal ability, as well as size o f community and
region of the country.
Where To Get More Information
General information on professional education,
licensure, and other requirements for practice may
be obtained from :
Council on Medical Education and Hospitals
American Medical Association
535 North Dearborn St.
Chicago 10, 111.

This Council has published several excellent
booklets on requirements for practice and, each
year, prepares material for several special issues of
the Journal of the American Medical Association—
the Educational Number, the State Board Number
(licensure statistics), and the Internship and
Residency Number.
Persons wishing to practice in a given State
should find out about the requirements for licens­
ure directly from the board of medical examiners
of that State. A list of the executive officers of
the boards of the States and Territories can also
be obtained from the Council.

(D. O. T. 0-25.10)

Outlook Summary

Nature of Work

Very good employment prospects for several
years. Shortage of trained personnel is expected
to continue during early fifties. Gradual ex­
pansion in employment expected over long run.

Pharmacy is the science of drugs. A qualified
pharmacist must understand the composition,
chemical properties, manufacture, and uses of
drugs, and be able to test them for purity and



strength. He must also be able to compound medi­
cines as called for by physicians’ prescriptions
and he may advise doctors concerning the use and
availability of drugs.
About 90,000 or 90 percent of all registered
pharmacists were employed in the Nation’s 50,000
drug stores in 1949. Most State laws require every
pharmacy to have a registered pharmacist in at­
tendance at all times. The essential function per­
formed by the pharmacist in drug stores is filling
prescriptions; particularly in small stores, how­
ever, he may perform a variety of sales and man­
agerial duties—such as purchasing supplies and
goods, arranging window displays, and hiring
employees. Many retail pharmacists own and
manage their own stores.
Drug manufacturing and wholesaling firms em­
ployed about 6,500 registered pharmacists in 1949.
Not quite half of these men did research or super­
vised drug production or packaging. Others were
sales representatives or detail men, who visited
physicians and retail druggists to tell them about
the merit of new medicinal preparations.
Only about 3,000 registered pharmacists were
employed by the more than 6,300 hospitals in the
Nation in 1949. A still smaller number taught in
colleges of pharmacy, wrote for pharmaceutical
publications, or were employed by State and Fed­
eral Government agencies.
How To Enter
Entrance into this profession is governed by
State licensing requirements. Most State laws
specify that applicants for licenses must be citizens
of the United States and at least 21 years of age.
In every State except Vermont, graduation from
a college of pharmacy is a prerequisite for obtain­
ing a license and most States require at least a year
of practical experience under the supervision of
a registered pharmacist. In a number of States,
a specified amount of experience must be gained
in retail pharmacy; however, most States allow
full credit for hospital experience, and the number
doing so may increase in the near future. All
States except New York, Florida, and California
will grant a license without examination to a
pharmacist already registered in another State,
provided that at the time of original licensure he
had the qualifications required by the State in
which he is presently seeking a license. A phar­

macist who has graduated from a school accredited
by the American Council on Pharmaceutical Edu­
cation will generally find it easier to obtain a
The outlook for the entire pharmaceutical pro­
fession is dominated by the prospects in retail drug
stores, where a moderate upward trend in employ­
ment is expected over the long run. In view of
the trend toward increasing drug sales and to­
ward shorter working hours in the profession,
many employers will probably seek to take on
additional pharmacists. It is also expected that
there will be a moderate increase over the long run
in the number o f drug stores in the country. In
recent years the tendency in cities has been away
from many small stores toward fewer and bigger
ones, but some new stores will be needed, partic­
ularly in new residential areas.
The number of pharmacist positions in the
Armed Forces and in hospitals is expected to in­
crease rapidly during the next few years. There
The pharmacist must exercise great care in filling a physician's


will also be increased opportunities in manu­
facturing and wholesaling, in the public health
services, and as teachers, law-enforcement officials,
and writers for pharmaceutical publications. It
is roughly estimated that about 3,000 pharmacists
will be needed yearly in the near future to replace
those who die, retire, or transfer to other fields of
work. The fact that a high proportion of the
Nation’s active pharmacists are over 60 years of
age will create relatively high replacement needs.
There was a shortage of registered personnel
in many parts of the country in early 1950, because
o f the sharp drop in graduations during World
War II and the expanding employment needs.
Since W orld War I I there has been a large increase
in the number o f students enrolled in pharmacy
colleges (approximately 21,000 in the academic
year 1949-50, compared with about 8,000 in the
prewar years). The 1949-50 senior class almost
reached the 6,000 mark— an all-time record. Nev­
ertheless, the shortage will probably continue dur­
ing the early 1950’s.
Earnings and Working Conditions
Pharmacists working for others usually earned
around $80 a week in late 1949, according to re­
ports from various parts of the country. Those
in beginning positions with the Federal Govern­
ment started at $3,825 a year, while chief pharma­
cists at larger installations had a base salary of
$4,600 under the salary scale that went into effect

in late 1949. In addition, “ within-grade” in­
creases are given periodically in these as in other
Federal jobs. Owners of successful drug stores
have considerably higher net incomes.
Despite the long-run trend toward shorter work­
ing hours, many pharmacists still worked more
than 50 hours a week in early 1950. Drug stores
are usually open in the evenings and on Sundays.
In drug manufacturing, teaching, publications
work, and government service, hours tend to be
shorter. Sales representatives spend much of
their time going from one doctor’s office or retail
drug store to another and many work irregular
Where To Go for More Information
For general information on the profession, one
may write t o :
American Pharmaceutical Association
2215 Constitution Ave., N W .
Washington 7, D. C.

Information on schools and scholarships is
available from the Dean of any college of phar­
macy. Current regulations on education, train­
ing, and other requirements for licensure in a par­
ticular State may be obtained from the board of
pharmacy at the State capital. Persons interested
in entering the profession should find out about
these regulations before enrolling in pharmacy
colleges or arranging to obtain practical exper­

(D. O. T. 0-13.10)

Outlook Summary
Outlook excellent for persons able to enter and
complete dental training. Keen competition for
admission to dental school.
Nature of Work
Most dentists are engaged in general practice.
Fewer than 20 percent specialize in some particu­
lar branch of dentistry; and of this small group,
only a fourth specialize on a full-time basis.
As of early 1950, six fields of dentistry speciali­
zation were recognized by the Council on Dental

Education of the American Dental Association.
These specialties, represented by Boards, were oral
surgery, pedodontics (children’s dentistry), perio­
dontics (treatment of disease), prosthodontics
(making of artificial teeth or plates), orthodontics
(teeth straightening), and oral pathology. Sev­
eral other phases of practice have not as yet been
recognized by the profession as full specialties.
The vast majority of dentists are independent
practitioners. However, sizable numbers are
employed by the United States Public Health
Service, the Veterans Administration, the Armed
Forces, and other Government agencies; some are


assistants to other dentists; and some work for
industrial plants and other private organizations.
Training and Qualifications
For pract ice as a dentist in any State or the Dis­
trict of Columbia one must be licensed by the State
board of dental examiners; in some States annual
registration is required. The main requirement
for admission to the examination for licensure is
graduation from one of the 41 recognized schools
of dentistry. These schools offer 4 years of pro­
fessional dental training leading to the degree of
doctor of dental surgery or doctor of dental medi­
cine. One State, Delaware, requires a year's in­
ternship before a dental graduate may be admit­
ted to the licensing examination. At least 2 years
of predental study in college is required for ad­
mission to dental school. However, over half of
the students in dental schools in the fall of 1949
had more than 2 years of predental training;
more than a quarter of them had a bachelors
The prospective dentist needs to start preparing
for his career even before he enters college. In
high school, he must choose the college entrance
course and include certain specified subjects such
as chemistry, biology, and other sciences. Most
important of all, he must have an exceptional scho­
lastic record both in high school and in predental
study. Competition for admission to dental school
is very great; a survey in the fall of 1949 showed
that, for all dental schools reporting, an average of
six times as many people applied as could be ad­
mitted to freshman classes; in the preferred
schools, the ratio was considerably higher.
There was need for additional personnel in this
profession at the beginning of the 4950’s. The
effective demand for dental service has been in­
creasing at a rapid rate. Conditions during
W orld W ar II helped to arouse a national interest
in more and better dental care. In addition, the
proportion of the population with an income level
high enough to afford adequate dental service
has increased greatly. The need for additional
dentists will be increased in the near future as a
result o f the expansion of the Armed Forces.
Between 1940 and 1949, annual graduation from

dental schools averaged nearly 2,100; this was only
slightly more than the number needed to replace
those who die or retire each year (about 1,900).
Thus, the profession has not grown as rapidly as
the demand for dental service.
The number of dentists graduating is expected
to rise in the future. Two new dental schools have
been added since 1946 and at least one more is
planned; this means additional training facilities
for prospective dentists. In 1950, about 2,600 den­
tists were graduated; the number of new gradu­
ates should be even higher in the early fifties.
However, dental and predental enrollments for
the next several years at least will be affected by
Selective Service policies regarding deferments,
as well as policies concerning the expansion of
training because of mobilization.
At the same time the demand for dental services
will continue to grow. There is a trend toward
better oral health care for the Nation’s growing
popnlation and particularly for school children.
The Veterans Administration expects to need an
increasing number of dentists for the care of exservicemen and women. The development of pre­
payment plans for dental care, coupled with con­
tinuing high levels of national income would also
make it possible for more people to obtain dentists’
services. In addition, replacement needs, owing to
deaths and retirements, will rise and may reach
2,300 by 1960.
For all these reasons, the outlook over the long
run is exceptionally bright for young persons who
have the proper qualifications and interest in the
work and are able to enter training. However, the
competition for admission to dental schools will
probably continue for a number of years. Pro­
spective dental students will therefore need to get
the best predental training possible.
Nearly all parts of the country will need dentists,
but the need is less in some sections than in others.
Nine States (New York, Illinois, Pennsylvania,
California, Ohio, Massachusetts, New Jersey,
. Michigan, and Missouri) wdth less than half the
Nation’s population had more than three-fifths of
all active dentists in 1949. In all States, dentists
are concentrated to a great extent in and around
highly populated sections, where earnings tend to
be highest. Rural areas, therefore, have fewer
dentists in relation to population than do urban


Civilian dentists had a median net income of
about $5,888 in 1948, according to a survey recently
completed by the United States Department of
Commerce. Independent practitioners (about 90
percent of all dentists) bad a middle earnings
figure of $5,944, and salaried dentists, $5,295. Den­
tists with a specialty tended to make considerably
more than those in general practice: 1948 median
net income was $5,737 for general practitioners,
compared with $6,942 for dentists with both gen­
eral and specialized practice, and $8,391 for those
whose practice was limited entirely to their spe­
cialty. Dentists in middle-sized cities earned
more than those in either very small communities
or large metropolitan centers. According to the
1948 survey, the median net income figures for
dentists in communities of different sizes increased
with the size of the community to a peak of $7,000
in cities of 25,000 to 250,000 population. Beyond
that point, earnings tended to decrease, instead of
rise, with size of city; in cities with 1 million popu­
lation or more, the middle earnings figure was only
about $5,000. Earnings of individual dentists
also vary with length of experience and age, geo­
graphical location, number of employees, and
other factors.
Where To Find Out More About Dentistry
Information on schools, requirements, and prac­
tice may be obtained from the Council on Dental
Education of the American Dental Association,
222 East Superior St., Chicago, 111.
This Council has published an informative pam-

Regular examinations by a dentist are recognized more and more as a
necessity for maintenance of good health.

phlet, Dentistry as a Professional Career, which
may be obtained from local libraries or by writing
directly to the Association.
Information on earnings and other economic
data may be obtained from the Association’s Bu­
reau of Economic Research and Statistics at the
above address.

Medical Laboratory Technicians 1
( D . O. T . 0 -50.01)

Outlook Summary

Nature of Work

Expanding demand and good employment op­
portunity for graduates from approved schools
and all-round experienced workers with college
background. High school graduates with labora­
tory experience as helpers or routine workers will
not have much chance in competition with welltrained personnel.

About two-thirds of all medical laboratory tech­
nicians are employed in hospital laboratories
where they make blood and urine analyses on all
patients and, as directed by a physician, special
analyses and laboratory tests (metabolism, sputum,
serology) on certain patients. Others work in
physicians’ laboratories, in public health labora­
tories, in clinics, and in medical schools.

1Prepared by the Women’s Bureau,

U. S. Department of Labor.



Training and Other Qualifications
One may qualify for registration with the Reg­
istry of Medical Technologists of the American
Society o f Clinical Pathologists by graduating
from one of the 404 hospital schools for clinical
laboratory technicians on the approved list of the
American Medical Association in 1949. The
length of the course at an approved school ranges
upward from the required minimum of 12 months.
For entrance, 2 years of accredited college work
are required by 70 percent of the schools; the re­
maining require more. Certain credits in speci­
fied subjects, or graduation from a recognized
school of nursing plus 30 semester hours of college
work including chemistry and biology, are re­
quired. Painstaking accuracy, manual dexterity,
dependability, and ability to follow directions are
some of the most important personal traits for
advancement. The advancement opportunity for
even thoroughly trained medical technicians also
depends on the size of the organization.
The demand for registered technologists and for
adequately trained technicians will continue to
increase with the extension of hospitals for vet­
erans and for the civilian population, and of
public health services and clinics. The increased
mobilization and the consequent expansion in mili­
tary hospitals will add to the demand for such
technicians. With the spread of hospitalization
insurance, the number of patients served in hos­
pitals will continue to rise. Laboratories in pub­
lic health facilities are also gradually increasing
in number.
Many practicing physicians are forming small
groups, hiring a medical laboratory technician,
and maintaining a laboratory to service the group.
Most specialists in internal medicine employ a full­
time technician because of the large number of
routine and special laboratory tests involved in
the diagnosis and treatment of diseases of the
internal organs. Industrial medical laboratories
are also growing in number with the emphasis on
industrial hygiene. The growing use of power­
ful drugs such as the sulfa group, requiring
laboratory checking, also tends to increase the
need for the laboratory technician. Opportuni­
ties in research are usually limited to those who
have degrees in science or medicine. Poorly or

partially trained technicians who entered the field
because of the W orld War II emergency will have
difficulty in competing with well-trained personnel
so long as high peacetime standards of skill and
competence can be maintained.
In 1949 there were approximately 14,500 reg­
istered medical technologists and another group
of about 14,000 without approved training who
were working as technicians in medical labora­
tories. According to the American Society of
Medical Technologists, from 1,000 to 2,000 newly
trained medical technologists should be available
yearly to keep abreast of the ordinary demand for
the next 15 years. Over 1,700 were graduated in
1949 from approved schools. It is estimated that
45,000 will be needed by 1960. During W orld
War II, approved hospitals employed nonregistered technicians, many of whom had been trained
for only a few weeks or months in schools that
offered substandard courses. But poorly trained
persons cannot obtain jobs when well trained per­
sons are available. About three-fourths of the
medical technicians are women.
In 1948, a study by the American Society of
Medical Technologists covering 3,885 laboratories
reported that lowest salaries in these laboratories
averaged $2,700 and highest salaries, $4,272. The
average salary was between $3,300 and $3,400.
Medical laboratory technicians in hospital labora­
tories usually receive higher salaries than those
in university laboratories and in physicians’
offices, but their salaries are lower than those in
public-health laboratories and commercial clinical
laboratories. The beginning Federal civil service
salary for medical laboratory technicians was
$2,450 per annum in early 1950.
Where To Go for More Information
Additional information on the outlook for
women and on the profession in general, may be
obtained from :
U. S. Department of Labor, Women’s Bureau.
Medical Laboratory Technicians. Bulletin 203,
No. 4. 10 pp. 1945. Out of print but available
in many public libraries.
American Society of Medical Technologists,
6544 Fannin St.
Houston 5, Tex.


Medical X-ray Technicians1
( D . O . T . 0 -5 0 .0 4 )

Outlook Summary


Good employment opportunities in fifties and
in the long run for registered technicians or those
with comparable training and experience; limited
opportunities for those who have received only
short, specialized training in the armed services.

The general trend in the medical services is
toward an increasing need for X-ray technicians.
The total number of X-ray technicians in 1949
was estimated at 25,000 as compared to about
15,000 before World War II. About three-fourths
were women, but the number of male technicians
was increasing. Hospitals graduate from 500 to
700 X-ray technicians each year. Many others are
trained informally by the radiologists for whom
they are working. Since X-ray work is still inci­
dental in many medical services, there is often
a preference for persons who have related train­
ing or experience in nursing, in medical labora­
tory work, or in secretarial work.
Originally used for diagnosis in bone work and
in the location of foreign bodies, the X-ray is now
employed widely in such fields as examination
for detecting tuberculosis, and defects of the teeth
and in the treatment of cancers, tumors, sinusitis,
and certain skin conditions. Industrial establish-

Nature of Work
The medical X-ray technician operates X-ray
equipment for the purpose of photographing parts
of the body or treating patients by means of X rays. He usually works under the direction of a
physician. His job may include various related
duties such as developing and drying the films, or
office work of an unrelated nature. * X-ray tech­
nicians employed in industry for the examination
of materials are not included in this discussion.
Training and Other Qualifications
X-ray technicians are trained principally in ap­
proved courses offered at 224 hospitals in the
United States. In general, high school gradua­
tion is required for entrance to a 12-montli course
of training. Preference is given to graduate
nurses, those with some training in nursing, and
those with college work in science. In order to
become registered by the American Registry of
X-ray Technicians, it is necessary to have com­
pleted high school or the equivalent, to have at
least 2 years of experience and training under a
recognized radiologist, and to pass an examination
given by the board of trustees. There were about
7,000 registered X -ray technicians in 1949.
Good health is an important consideration in
this occupation, since those who work with X-rays
and radium are subject to the effects of radiation
and may become anemic if ordinary precautions
are not taken.
About half of all medical X-ray technicians
are employed in hospitals; some work in the offices
of radiologists and of dentists or in laboratories
which serve physicians, dentists, and others using
X-rays for medical purposes. The technician may
specialize in X-rays of certain parts of the body,
such as the chest, abdomen, or feet.

1Prepared by the Women’s Bureau,

X-ray technician taking X-ray film in a hospital


U .

S .




U. S. Department of Labor.



ments, health departments, tuberculosis hospitals
and associations in many parts of the country are
organizing for the routine X-raying of large
groups. Many insurance companies are beginning
to include a chest X-ray as a part of the physical
examination. Further expansion in the use of
X -ray should create adequate opportunities for
those who graduate from approved schools in the
future. But those who received only partial train­
ing in the armed services may have difficulty in
qualifying for positions in civilian medical serv­
ices. It is estimated that 35,000 medical X-ray
technicians will be needed by 1960 to fill antici­
pated needs. In 1950, the expansion of the Armed
Forces and the accompanying increase in military
and veterans’ hospitals had already accelerated
the demand for these workers.

aries for X-ray technicians began at $2,450 in late
1949. Opportunities for advancement are rela­
tively few but there are some supervisory jobs in
large hospitals, institutions, laboratories, or pub­
lic health agencies where a number of technicians
are employed.
Where To Go for More Information
Additional information on the outlook for
women as medical X-ray technicians is given in
the following publication:
U. S. Department of Labor, Women’s Bureau.
X -Bay Technicians. Bulletin 203, Xo. 8. 14 pp.
1945. Out of print but available in many public
Information may also be obtained from :
The American Registry of X-R ay Technicians,


Alfred B. Greene, B. Sc., R. T.

Annual earnings of X-ray technicians ranged
from $2,200 to $3,600 in 1949. Civil service sal­

2900 E. Minnehaha Parkway
Minneapolis 6, Minn.

(D. O. T. 0-39.92)

Outlook Summary
Good opportunities likely in the early fifties;
however, large numbers of new entrants may create
increasing competition for desirable locations.
Some expansion in field expected in long run.
Nature of Work
Optometrists specialize in examining the eyes
and conserving and improving the vision. They
administer a series of tests to determine visual
efficiency and prescribe lenses or corrective exer­
cises when needed. They do not treat diseases
of the eye but refer patients to doctors of medicine
for such care. Some optometrists fill the prescrip­
tions for e}T
eglasses in their own laboratories.
Optometrists use various instruments for eye
measurement and examination. The opthalmometer or keratometer may be used to measure
the degree of astigmatism; the retinoscope and
refractometer, to determine the degree of near­
sightedness or far-sightedness; the ophthalmo­
scope, to examine the interior of the eye. Optom­
etrists also give subjective examinations, using a

series of lenses and prisms to assist in determining
the one or combination which gives the patient
greatest clearness, comfort, and efficiency of
Optometrists should not be confused with ocu­
lists or opticians. The oculist (or ophthalmolo­
gist) is a duly licensed doctor of medicine who is
a specialist in the medical and surgical care of the
eyes and is qualified to prescribe lenses or any
other form of treatment. The optician fills pre­
scriptions for eyeglasses written by oculists or
optometrists; he does not examine eyes nor pre­
scribe treatment.
Where Employed
Most optometrists are engaged in private prac­
tice and maintain offices in professional buildings
or in their homes. Many, especially new entrants,
are employed by established practitioners or are
associated with clinics or industrial organizations.
The greatest number of optometrists are in
urban areas. The ratio of practitioners to popu­
lation varies greatly from one State to another.


For example, California, Oregon, and Illinois
have 1 optometrist for about every 5,000 persons,
while in some Southern States the ratio is 1 to
every 20,000 persons.
Training and Other Qualifications
A license is required in all States and the Dis­
trict of Columbia for the practice of optometry.
Graduation from a 5-year course in a college of
optometry which has been approved by the Ameri­
can Optometric Association is necessary for ad­
mittance to a State board examination. The nine
accredited schools and colleges of optometry, all
of which require high school graduation for ad­
mittance, award the degree of doctor of optometry
or the degree of bachelor of science in optometry.
The various colleges have somewhat different
requirements for the courses which applicants
must have completed in high school.
The graduate schools of two universities offer
programs o f study in optometry leading to the
M. Sc. and Ph. D. degrees. These programs are
designed especially to prepare career teachers of
optometry and research workers in physiological
Optometrists who enter practice in the early
years of the 1950 decade will probably find
good opportunities. New entrants will be needed
to replace persons dying and retiring—estimated
at 400 to 500 annually— and to make up for the
curtailment of training during World War II. In
1949, there were only about 17,000 registered op­
tometrists and a relatively small number of physi­
cians who were specialists in eye health, to provide
eye care for the entire population. However, en­
rollments in schools of optometry have risen
greatly since World War I I ; graduating classes in
1948 and 1949 were more than 4 times as large as in
the immediate prewar years. I f enrollments con­
tinue at such high levels for a few years, it may
become increasingly difficult for new entrants to
find desirable opportunities for practice. On the
other hand, the increase in the size of the Armed
Forces anticipated as of mid-1950 will drain off
some students and a few trained optometrists,
thus tending to reduce competition for desirable
8 9 2 2 7 3 ° — 51

In the long run, there will be an increasing num­
ber of employment opportunities, owing to popu­
lation increase and the extension of eye care.
There is a growing awareness of the need for such
care, brought about largely by school health ex­
aminations, expansion of health facilities in rural
communities, emphasis on safety through proper
vision, and the importance of vision in modern
industry. Women may find increasing oppor­
tunities in the field of visual training of children.
There is growing emphasis on the correction of
crossed eyes and the development of visual skills
as related to achievement in school.
The need for practitioners will continue to be
greatest in rural communities and small towns.
Those choosing a location should consider, how­
ever, that the demand for optometric services de­
pends on the occupations in which people are em­
ployed as well as on the number of people in the
locality and their income level. For example,
the proportion of people using eyeglasses is less
among farmers than office and factory workers.
Self-employed optometrists had the following
approximate median net incomes in 1944 accord­
ing to a survey of members of the American Opto­
metric Association: $1,720 for the first year of
practice; $2,825 for the third year; $3,675 for the
fifth year; $4,970 for the tenth year. The median
net incomes o f optometrists with the same amount
of experience who were working for others were
approximately $1,900, $2,510, $2,940, and $3,410,
respectively. In general, incomes were highest in
cities with populations of from 10,000 to 50,000.
Where To Go for Further Information
General information on optometry and a list of
accredited colleges may be obtained from :
American Optometric Association,
518 Wilmac Bldg.,
Minneapolis 2, Minn.

Information on State requirements for opto­
metric licenses is available from the State board
of examiners in optometry in any State capital.
The entrance requirements of the different colleges
of optometry may be obtained directly from the


Dietitians 1
(D. O. T. 0-39.93)

Outlook Summary
An urgent demand at the beginning of the 1950
decade. Continuing expansion of employment
opportunities for those who have completed die­
tetic internships.
Nature of Work
Most dietitians work in hospitals where they
may administer the food service for patients and
staff; may supervise therapeutic diets for patients
receiving treatment for certain diseases, either in
the hospital or in the clinic; may teach student
nurses, dietetic interns, and other groups the prin­
ciples of good nutrition. Dietitians are also em­
ployed in public and private institutions for the
aged and for children in corrective institutions
and in camps operated by social agencies. Other
dietitians supervise the food service in college resi­
dence halls, school lunch programs in private and
public schools, child care centers, and nursery
schools. Some are also employed in hotels, restau­
rants, and industrial cafeterias. Dietitians may
also become consultants to food companies or in­
stitutes, to small hospitals or institutions which
lack trained staff, or to a group of physicians,
or establish themselves as self-employed consult­
ants with offices and patients of their own.
Training and Other Qualifications
A person may qualify for membership in the
American Dietetic Association by completing a 4 1
year course in an accredited school of home eco­
nomics with a major in foods and nutrition or
institution management, followed by an internship
of approximately 1 year in one of the 70 hospitals
or other training programs approved by the Asso­
ciation. For some positions, especially those in­
volving teaching and research, additional graduate
training may be required.
Membership in the Association is particularly
valuable to hospital dietitians. The American
College of Surgeons has a policy that the food
service in all hospitals approved by it be admin1 Prepared by the Women’s Bureau, U. S. Department of Labor.


istered by a person who meets the requirements
of membership in the American Dietetic Associa­
tion. Those who do not take formal internships
must undergo a period of training on the job after
graduation from college before they are capable
of assuming supervisory work. Those specializing
in consultation need a background of experience
in therapeutic or clinic work. The advancement
opportunity for trained dietitians is excellent after
a few years of experience have been acquired.
Many seek variety by moving from their own
special field into other fields of dietetics after the
first few years of employment in one phase of the
A shortage of dietitians existed in 1949, and
demand for trained hospital dietitians was ex­
pected to increase with the extension o f hospital
facilities for veterans and for the civilian popula­
tion, the rising popularity of hospitalization in­
surance, and the lengthening of the life span of
the population. The partial mobilization in 1950
and the expansion of the Armed Forces created
an additional demand. More hospital dietitians
with advanced training will be needed for clinical
work for diabetics, sufferers from heart ailments,
and other chronic diseases, and for teaching the
principles of good nutrition to student nurses,
dietetic interns, doctors, dentists, and social
Further demand will be strong for trained dieti­
tians to operate expanding school lunch programs
and related food services in private schools, camps,
and college residence halls. Women without
training who were able to enter the field because
of the shortage of trained personnel will find
increasing competition from those with adequate
preparation and may be denied promotions to
better positions or be dropped entirely when
trained persons are available.
In 1950, there were at least 15,000 trained dieti­
tians in the country, of whom about 40 percent
were members of the American Dietetic Associa­
tion. The number without adequate training in
the hospital field was large, especially in hospitals


with less than 100 beds. In some school cafeterias,
men with business or statistical training were
placed in charge of the administration of the food
service, and trained women dietitians or those with
training gained from experience were hired to
supervise the food production. According to
authorities in the field of dietetics, 1,000 or more
new dietitians are needed yearly to fill normal
replacements, and yet only 676 completed intern­
ships approved by the American Dietetic Asso­
ciation in 1948. The high marriage rate among
dietitians reduces the number available and
creates continuing opportunities for those seeking
work. Few men enter this field from an intern­
ship, but some are taking postgraduate work in
restaurant or hotel administration or management
and enter the field from that source. They are
much in demand as administrators and are con­
sidered excellent in purchasing, accounting, cost
control, and the business phase of the work, as dis­
tinct from food production.
The median annual salary of members of the
American Dietetic Association working as hospi­
tal dietitians was $2,820 in May 1949, not including
the cash equivalent of any part or full maintenance
provided by the hospital, according to a study by
the Bureau of Labor Statistics. For those living
outside hospital quarters, the median was $2,970.
In mental hospitals the median was $3,330. Sal-

aries ranged from less than $2,000 (received by 1
out of 12) to more than $5,000 (received by fewer
than 1 out of 20). Members working in college
food service work averaged $3,000 annually; those
working in industrial food service, $3,800. In
1948, the National Education Association reported
that the salaries of heads of school cafeteria sys­
tems ranged from $2,650 to $5,125, depending on
the size of the school system. In early 1950, Fed­
eral Government salaries for dietitians ranged
from $3,100 to $7,400.
Where To Go for More Information
Additional information on the outlook for
women as dietitians is given in the following pub­
lication :
U. S. Department of Labor, Women’s Bureau.
The Outlook for Women in Dietetics. Bulletin
No. 234-1. 80 pp. 1950. Superintendent of
Documents, Washington 25, D. C. Price 25 cents.
General information on dietitians may be ob­
tained from :
American Dietetic Association
620 N. Michigan Ave.,
Chicago 11, 111.

A report on a survey of salaries and working
conditions of hospital dietitians is available from
the U. S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor
Statistics, Washington 25, D. C., or the American
Dietetic Association.
See also Public health nutritionists, below.

Public Health Nutritionists 1
Outlook Summary
A shortage existed in early 1950 for well-trained
nutritionists in the public health field, especially
for those with graduate training in certain phases
of human nutrition. The field is small as a whole,
but promises gradual expansion to those inter­
ested in public health service.
Nature o f Work
Most public health nutritionists are employed
by the States in various capacities. These may
include: improving the public understanding of
the use of foods through conferences with local

1Prepared by the Women’s Bureau,

U. S. Department of Labor.

health groups; assisting in the training of nurses;
advising patients in prenatal clinics; planning
school nutrition projects; preparing food budgets
for public welfare departments; assisting in nu­
trition meetings for school lunch workers, camp
leaders, and industrial workers and their families;
serving in a consulting capacity to small hospitals
within the State which are in need of nutrition
advice, for example, on maternity care. Others
work for counties or larger cities which have pro­
grams within their jurisdiction similar to those
of the States but on a smaller scale.
Public health nutritionists are also employed by
the Federal Government to assist State and local
governments to determine and correct malnutri­
tion in communities; put into operation nutrition


programs in pediatric, diabetes, cardiac, and rheu­
matic fever clinics; or work on the nutritional
problems of such groups as families, institutions,
the aged, or crippled children. Those in the in­
ternational field usually serve as consultants to
officials in other countries wmrking on the improve­
ment of nutrition for their people. A few nutri­
tionists are employed by industrial concerns to
encourage better nutrition among the employees
and their families. Others are employed by the
Red Cross, local community funds, and other
private organizations. The function of the pub­
lic health nutritionist primarily is to impart the
principles of good nutrition to groups which in
turn reach the public. Although they are com­
paratively few in number, their influence is very
Training and Other Qualifications
The basic training of a public health nutritionist
consists of the completion of a 4-year course in
an accredited school of home economics with a
major in nutrition. Advanced training in the
science of nutrition and in educational methods
is also desirable. Graduate work in schools of
public health or in colleges of home economics,
offering training in the public health field, is nec­
essary if the public health nutritionist is to ad­
vance to the higher levels of the profession.
A shortage of public health nutritionists in State
and Federal Governments existed in early 1950, as
it Had in the preceding decade. The supply of be­
ginners was adequate, but some personnel was lack­
ing for positions requiring highly specialized
training. About 50 State positions and more than
10 positions for specialized personnel in the Fed­
eral Government were unfilled. With the general
increase in social responsibility and food con­
sciousness throughout the country, it was believed
that the need for nutritionists would tend to ex­
pand gradually in the future. Expansion in the
Armed Forces begun in 1950 and the accompany­
ing increase in industrial activity will also lead to
a need for the services of more trained nutrition­
ists to safeguard the health of the Nation.
It was estimated that approximately 1,000
trained nutritionists including full-time teachers

of nutrition were employed in the United States
in 1949. The number graduating from home
economics schools who became nutritionists was
unknown because those who specialize in foods and
nutrition may be employed in a number of related
occupations. In 1948, the number of master's
theses in foods and nutrition was 145, and the num­
ber of doctor’s theses, 18. As in the case of under­
graduates, this represented the supply for almost
all types of professional foods and nutrition work
and was not confined to the public health field
alone. However, the supply of public health nu­
tritionists came in part from teachers, scientists,
and others in related fields. It was adequate only
at the beginning levels in 1949 and 1950.
Fhe young home economics graduate entering
this field in 1949 and working under supervision
could expect a beginning salary of from $2,100 to
$2,700. Following a satisfactory period of service
she might receive a stipend from or through her
agency for graduate training. After some train­
ing at the graduate level and 2 or 3 years of ex­
perience in the public health field she might earn
$3,000 to $4,000 or more. The seasoned worker
supervising a staff of workers in a large agency
might receive from $5,000 to $6,000. In 1949, the
salaries of State public health nutritionists, re­
sponsible for service in a large section of the State,
usually ranged from $3,384 to $4,620, and for State
directors, from $4,200 to $6,000.
Where To Go for More Information
Additional information on the outlook for
women as public health nutritionists is given in
the following publication:
U. S. Department of Labor, Women’s Bureau.
The Outlook for Women in Dietetics. Bulletin
No. 234-1. Part II. 80 pp. 1950. Superin­
tendent of Documents, Washington 25, D. C.
Pi •ice 25 cents.
Information may also be obtained from :
American Dietetic Association
620 No. Michigan Ave.,
Chicago 11, 111.
Food and Nutrition Section
American Public Health Association
1790 Broadway,
New York 19, N. Y.


(D. O. T. 0-39.90)

Outlook Summary
Employment opportunities vary widely from
one part of the country to another. New entrants
with the highest qualifications will have greatest
Nature of Work
Chiropractic is a system of treatment based on
the premise that the nerve system controls the
physiological functions of the human body, and
that interference with the nerve system impairs
normal functions and induces disease by rendering
the body less resistant to infection or other causes
of disability. The chiropractor treats by specific
adjustment and manipulation the structures of the
body, especially those of the spinal column. He
makes use of such supplementary measures as diet,
rest, light, water, heat, and exercise. Most prac­
titioners enter independent private practice, which
is limited almost entirely to office calls.
The National Chiropractic Association reported
14,500 practitioners in 1949.
How To Enter
High school graduation or its equivalent is pre­
requisite for training in all States issuing licenses,
and one or more years of preparatory college work
is required in some States. Moreover, in all but
a few States, 4 years of training in one of the 26
chiropractic colleges is necessary for admission
to examinations; the degree of D. C. (doctor of
chiropractic) is awarded upon completion of this
course. The make-up of the examining boards
differs among the States; some are composed of
medical members only, chiropractic members only,
or basic science members only, while other boards
have combinations of these. As a result, examina­
tions given by some boards are considered much
more difficult than those given by others.
As of late 1949, chiropractic licenses were issued
in 44 States, Hawaii, Alaska, and the District of

Columbia, but chiropractic was not legalized in
Louisiana, Massachusetts, Mississippi, and New
The success of the new entrant will depend in
large part on proper selection of a location; since
the principles of healing by chiropractic are not
as yet universally accepted, community attitudes
and State regulations vary widely.
Employment opportunities will be greatest for
new entrants who are able to meet the highest State
licensing requirements, including graduation from
a 4-year course of 4,000 or more hours. It will be­
come increasingly important to be able to qualify
for any State examination in order to have a wude
choice of locations.
Opportunities for women appear to be good, as
many women prefer to go to members of their own
sex for treatment. In 1940, 18 percent of the
chiropractors reported in the census were women.
There will continue to be some opportunities for
chiropractors as teachers and in X-ray work (tak­
ing and interpreting X-ray pictures for other
The National Chiropractic Association reported
an average net income in 1949 of $2,100 for the first
year of practice and a steady increase to around
$7,500 at about the tenth year of practice. Aver­
age net incomes of $10,000 and over were reported
for those with more than 15 years of experience.
As in other types of independent practice, income
of chiropractors varies according to such factors
as ability, personality, length of experience, loca­
tion, and economic conditions.
Where To Find Out More About Chiropractic
National Chiropractic Association,
National Bldg.,
Webster City, Iowa



(D. O. T. 0-34.10)

Outlook Summary

Where Employed

Very good opportunities in the early fifties.
Moderate expansion in the field expected over the
long run.

Veterinarians are located chiefly in States where
a large percentage of the Nation’s livestock is
raised. States in which veterinary service is now
in use on a large scale are New York, Illinois,
Iowa, California, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Indiana,
Michigan, Minnesota, Wisconsin, Texas, Mis­
souri, and Kansas. Most of the private practice,
except pet practice, is in rural areas.

Nature o f Work
Veterinarians study and treat diseases of
animals, serve as advisors on matters relating to
the care and breeding of animals, and inspect
animal products intended for human consumption.
Most of the 14,000 veterinarians in the United
States are general practitioners; among those who
specialize, the majority work with cattle or small
animals. About 65 percent are in private prac­
tice; most of the remainder are employed on a
salary basis by Federal and State agencies for
meat inspection, disease control, and research.
During W orld W ar II, approximately 2,200 veter­
inarians served in the Army Veterinary Corps;
in 1949 about 225 were on commissioned duty with
the Army and Air Force. Other veterinarians are
engaged in teaching and research at educational
institutions, and a few work for manufacturers of
products used in veterinary medicine.

Training and Other Qualifications
A license is required to practice in all States
and the District of Columbia. Generally, appli­
cants must be graduates of veterinary schools and
must pass an examination to obtain a license. A
few States accept diplomas from approved schools
in lieu of the examination; some do not specify
graduation, but few except graduates could pass
the required examinations. At least 2 years of
preveterinary work and 4 years of professional
study in a veterinary college are required for the
doctor of veterinary medicine degree. Further
training can be taken in specialized fields such as
pathology or bacteriology. In 1949, there were
11 accredited schools in the United States and 6
new schools which had not yet produced graduat­
ing classes. Only graduates of accredited veter­
inary colleges are admitted to examination for
Federal civil service employment.
In 1949, the Bureau of Animal Industry in­
augurated a plan whereby sophomore and junior
students of schools of veterinary medicine could
serve as trainees with the Bureau during the sum­
mer months. Sncli trainees will be given civil
service credit for the time served if they later ac­
cept permanent employment with the Government.

Veterinarian vaccinating a heifer calf against brucellosis.


The shortage of veterinarians which developed
during World War I I is expected to continue into
the early years of the 1950 decade at least. In
mid-1950 veterinarians were in strong demand
for private practice work, as a result of the high


value of livestock. There were also many open­
ings in salaried positions, particularly with the
Bureau of Animal Industry of the United States
Department of Agriculture, as inspectors of meat
products and for work in disease eradication and
control. Veterinary medical colleges had open­
ings for veterinarians in teaching and research,
and there was a shortage of veterinarians trained
for laboratory work, especially in pathology and
bacteriology. Additional openings of these types
are expected in the near future. Because many
men in this profession are at or near the retire­
ment age, there will also be above normal replace­
ment needs in the early fifties. The planned
increase in the size of the Armed Forces will re­
quire additional veterinarians to serve in the
Veterinary Corps.
Though the number of schools of veterinary
medicine have been increased from 10 to 17 since
World W ar II, there was still considerable com­
petition among applicants for admission to schools
in 1950. As the number of veterans enrolled
declines, the competition for entrance to the
schools will probably be lessened. Residents of
States with veterinary colleges are given prefer­
ence in these schools over equally qualified non­
resident applicants. Chances of admission to
schools are best for those with farm backgrounds
and with high scholastic averages.
Undergraduate enrollment in schools of vet­
erinary medicine numbered about 3,150 in the
academic year 1949-50, an increase of nearly 50
percent over the 1940 enrollment. The number of
graduates was higher in 1950 (about 800) than
the prewar average and an even larger class will
be graduated in 1951. Nevertheless, it appears
certain that this supply will not equal the com­
bined civilian and military demand for veterinary
In the long run, some growth in the field is ex­
pected. Principal fields for future expansion are
public-health work—concerned mainly with food
inspection and control of disease transmissible to
man— and research on livestock diseases. Some
expansion in opportunities is expected also in

private practice. The trend is toward more scien­
tific attention to the raising of livestock and poul­
try—to produce more and better meat, milk, wool,
and other products with the same amount of feed
and care. However, in this field the demand for
veterinary service depends largely upon economic
conditions, as the market value of an animal usu­
ally determines the professional care that can be
afforded. Any major economic recession would
greatly affect incomes and employment opportun­
ities in large animal practice. Practice with pet
animals is less affected by changing economic con­
ditions ; this type of practice has grown consider­
ably in recent years and can be expected to make
further gains.
Income from private practice varies greatly
according to location and length of time in prac­
tice, ranging from about $2,500 to $10,000 or more
a year. Only a small percentage had a net income
of over $7,500 in 1949. However, most practi­
tioners live in rural areas where living costs are
comparatively low. The two fields which usually
bring highest incomes are pet practice in metro­
politan areas and specialized practice with thor­
oughbred horses and other purebred animals, such
as fine dairy cattle. Veterinarians employed by
the Federal Government had annual entrance sal­
aries of $3,825 for most types of jobs, under the
scale which went into effect in late 1949. Salaries
of veterinarians employed by State and municipal
governments are generally lower.
Where To Go for More Information
American Veterinary Medical Association,
600-S. Michigan Ave.,
Chicago 5, 111.

Employment opportunities for veterinarians in
the U. S. Bureau o f Animal Industry are described
in : Career Opportunities for Graduate Veterinar­
ians, Miscellaneous publication No. 671. Price 10
cents. Available from : Superintendent o f Docu­
ments, Washington 25, D. C.



Osteopathic Physicians
(D. O. T. 0-39.96)

Outlook Summary
Generally good outlook for those able to obtain
training, though opportunities vary from area to
Nature of Work
Osteopathy is the school of medicine which em­
phasizes the mechanical phases of medicine; it
includes operative surgery, obstetrics, and the
other branches of the healing arts. Most osteo­
pathic physicians engage in general practice
(within the limitations set by the various State
laws). However, a small but growing number
specialize in one of the following fields: internal
medicine, neurology and psychiatry, obstetrics
and gynecology, ophthalmology, dermatology and
sypliilology, otorhinolaryngology, pathology, pe­
diatrics, proctology, radiology, and surgery (sev­
eral types). There is an osteopathic board of
specialty certification for each of these fields.
The great majority are in private practice;
however, a number have full-time positions with
hospitals, private industry, or government agen­
cies, such as the United States Public Health
Service, and the Veterans Administration. Still
others write or edit scientific books or journals.
Though doctors of osteopathy are licensed and
practice in every State and the District of Colum­
bia, about three-fifths of them were in the follow­
ing nine States in 1949: California, Missouri,
Pennsylvania, Michigan, Ohio, New York, Illinos,
Texas, and Iowa.
As of mid-1949, there were about 11,000 osteo­
paths in the United States, including a small num­
ber who were retired, not in practice, or otherwise
not available for service to the general public.
Nearly 10 percent of all practitioners were women.
Training and Qualifications
For practice as an osteopathic physician in any
State or the District of Columbia one must be
licensed by a board of examiners; in some States
annual registration is required. Licensing ex­
aminations are given in 29 States by boards of
osteopathic examiners; in other States by medical

examining boards, 15 of which include osteopathic
members. While a number of States and the Dis­
trict of Columbia give licenses granting all prac­
tice rights of medicine and surgery to osteopathic
physicians, five States do not include the use of
surgery and five do not permit the prescription
or administration of drugs (according to infor­
mation as of early 1950). There are also certain
other restrictions on practice in some States.
In all States candidates for licensure must be
graduates of approved osteopathic colleges, which
offer 4-year courses leading to degree of D.O.—
Doctor of Osteopathy. There are six schools in the
United States approved by the American Osteo­
pathic Association. In 18 States and the District
of Columbia, a certificate of proficiency (by exami­
nation) in the basic sciences is a prerequisite for
admission to the professional examination. Some
States also require a period of internship; most
graduates complete at least a year’s internship in
approved training hospitals.
All osteopathic colleges require high school
graduation and at least 2 years of pre-osteopathic
college study for entrance. Most students have
more than this minimum of preparation; in the
fall of 1949, nearly 90 percent of the freshmen in
osteopathic colleges had had 3 or more years of
preprofessional study; over half had a bachelor’s
degree. The pre-osteopathic college courses re­
quired by the professional schools include chemis­
try, biology, physics, and other science courses;
in addition, certain electives are recommended.
As of early 1950, the osteopathic profession was
not overcrowded; in nearly every State there were
cities and towns without osteopathic physicians.
The long-run trend toward more medical care for
the general population was accentuated during the
1940's, owing in part to the rise in national income
and the development of prepayment plans for
medical care and hospitalization. These and other
factors have made it possible for more people to
obtain medical services. Furthermore, enroll­
ments in osteopathic colleges decreased sharply
during World W ar II. Annual graduations since


1940 have averaged only slightly more than the
number leaving the profession; 176 degrees were
conferred in 1949 and about 300 were estimated
for 1950.
The demand for all types o f medical care will
probably continue to grow in the future, owing
to the increase in population (particularly older
persons), Government provision of medical service
for veterans and members o f the Armed Forces,
and the underlying trend toward higher standards
of medical care and public health. In addition, a
number of new osteopathic physicians will be
needed each year to replace those who die or re­
tire and to make up for lowered service capacity
among the older personnel.
The number of osteopathic graduates is expected
to rise in the 1950 decade. Enrollments in schools
of osteopathy were high in the academic year
1949-50 and are expected to remain so for some
time; the profession has plans under way to
expand school facilities. However, osteopathic
enrollments in the future will be affected by
Selective Service policies regarding deferments
and by the extent of mobilization. Competition

for entrance to the professional schools is expected
to continue for some time.
The outlook then, for persons who are able to
enter and complete osteopathic training, is gener­
ally good, though it varies with the area in which
the graduate wishes to practice. In view o f the
differences in the various State laws regulating
the practice o f osteopathy, the prospective entrant
should study carefully the professional and legal
requirements in his particular State.

Where To Go for More Information
General information on professional education,
licensure, and other requirements for practice may
be obtained fr o m :
American Osteopathic Association,
212 E. Ohio St.,
Chicago 11, 111.

Persons wishing to practice in a given State
should find out about the requirements for licensure
directly from the board o f examiners o f that State.
A list o f the boards and their officers o f the States
and territories can be obtained from the American
Osteopathic Association.

Dental H ygienists 1
(D. O. T. 0-50.07)

Outlook Summary
Good employment opportunities expected for
those trained in approved schools. There are
increasing opportunities in public health work,
where qualifications and requirements are com­
paratively high.
Nature of Work
The dental hygienist cleans teeth and performs
other preventive services consistent with the re­
spective State dental laws or promotes dental
health through educational activities in schools,
clinics, and institutions.
Most dental hygienists are employed in den­
tists’ offices, but in 1941 there were only 4.2 hygien­
ists for every 100 dentists. A large number are
employed in public health programs conducted by
public school systems or by State or local health

1Prepared by the Women’s Bureau,

U. S. Department of Labor.

departments. Hospitals, clinics, and dental hy­
giene training schools constitute the other major
employers in this field. This occupation should
be distinguished from that of the dental assistant
who performs X-ray and laboratory work and
clerical duties. A dental hygienist may also be
trained to perform these duties, but, for her, they
are a secondary function. A ll persons in this
occupation are women.
Training and Other Qualifications
A minimum requirement for entrance to a
school for training dental hygienists is high school
graduation in a college preparatory curriculum.
Students must be 18 years of age and in good
health. The length of the course in an approved
school is 2 years. Graduation from an approved
school of dental hygiene and the successful pass­
ing of an examination given by a State board of
dental examiners are requirements for licensure
in 45 States, the District of Columbia, and Hawaii.


tice by several dentists which often results in
their joint employment of one dental hygienist.
In 1945, the number of licensed dental hygien­
ists in the United States totaled more than 7,000.
In 1949, all schools were full and had to turn
down applicants. Preference was given to those
with previous college work. The number of den­
tal hygenists graduating from the 14 approved
schools was 350 in 1949. In 1950, with the open­
ing of four additional approved schools, the output was about 450. It has been estimated that
more than twice this number could be used



U .

S .




Dental hygienist gives treatment to aid in prevention of tooth decay.

There is general agreement that the opportuni­
ties for dental hygienists in public health and in­
stitutional work are gradually increasing. There
is a difference of opinion about the future demand
for those who work in dentists’ offices. This d if­
ference arises from the fact that both the dental
hygienist and the dental assistant, who is essen­
tially a clerical worker, are valuable to a dentist.
In 1941 dental assistants outnumbered dental hy­
gienists more than 10 to 1. There is a definite
trend toward the employment by dentists of at
least one person, since it increases the number of
patients a dentist can serve. There also has been
more and more emphasis placed upon group prac­


There is a wide range in salaries owing to differ­
ences in the income levels of the dentists and to
the sizes of communities and, in part, to the wide
variation in background and personal qualifica­
tions of those practicing dental hygiene. In 1949,
most dental hygienists, however, were earning be­
tween $2,000 and $3,000 a year, $2,500 being a
typical salary. The beginning yearly Federal
civil service salary for dental hygienists in late
1949 was $2,650. Only a small proportion of the
dental hygienists work for the Federal Govern­
ment, however. There are very few opportunities
for supervisory work except in very large insti­
Where To Go for More Information
Additional information on the outlook for
women as dental hygienists is given in the follow­
ing publication:
U. S. Department of Labor, Women’s Bureau.
Dental Hygienists. Bulletin 203, No. 10. 17 pp.
1945. Out of print but available in many public
Information may also be obtained from :
American Dental Hygienists Association,
1612 Eye St., N. W .,
Washington (5, D. C.


Physical Therapists 1
(D. O. T. 0-52.22)

Outlook Summary


Excellent opportunities for persons already
qualified. New entrants from approved schools
should readily be absorbed within the foreseeable

The acute shortage of trained physical ther­
apists during World War I I has continued, and
the demand was still greater than the supply in
1949. The international situation in 1950 further
increased the need in military and veterans’ hos­
pitals. Although graduating classes increased
from about 150 in 1941 to 425 in 1949, the need had
not yet been met. There is a need for additional
training centers. Applications in 1949 exceeded
training capacity.
Veterans’ hospitals will continue to need many
of the physical therapists. A marked increase is
expected in the number of veterans who need treat­
ment but do not require hospitalization. They
will be given physical therapy treatment as outpatients. Expanding civilian rehabilitation and
crippled-children programs, in which States are
aided by Federal funds, also have encouraged the
use of physical therapy in the rehabilitation of
both adults and children. The clinical and labora­
tory research of the National Foundation for In­
fantile Paralysis has found that prompt physical
therapy treatment is of great value in poliomye­
litis. As techniques and equipment continue their
development, more physicians will recommend
physical therapy for patients.
In 1949, there were about 4,500 qualified physi­
cal therapists, most of whom were employed. A p ­
proximately 1,200 additional workers were not
qualified. The rate of withdrawal from the occu­
pation may be high if many young women who
trained during W orld War I I marry and retire
fully or partially from practice after only a few
years of service. It is estimated by the American
Physical Therapy Association that altogether
15,000 physical therapists will be needed by 1960.

Nature of Work
The physical therapist administers treatment
only as prescribed by a physician. Physical ther­
apy includes treatment by means of massage, exer­
cise, heat, light, water and electricity, for polio­
myelitis, orthopedic, neurological, arthritic, cere­
bral palsy, neuropsychiatric, and other patients.
Most physical therapists work in hospitals, but
some are employed by orthopedic surgeons, by
physiatrists (physicians specializing in physical
medicine) or in public health or social service agen­
cies serving crippled children, injured industrial
workers, and others who need physical therapy
treatments. Those employed in hospitals usually
have access to a wider variety of equipment and
tend to be less specialized than those working with
a particular physician or agency.
Training and Other Qualifications
Graduation from an approved school of physical
therapy is requisite for membership in the Ameri­
can Physical Therapy Association or registration
with the American Registry; admission requires
graduation from a school of nursing, a school of
physical education, or 60 college semester hours,
including courses in the physical and biological
sciences. The American Physical Therapy Asso­
ciation reports that an increasing percentage of
the 29 training schools in this field in the United
States will soon require 3 years of college educa­
tion. The length of the approved physical ther­
apy course ranges upward from a minimum of 12
months. Good health is essential. More than 90
percent of physical therapists are women.
Prepared by the Women’s Bureau, U. S. Department
of Labor.

Before W orld W ar II, beginners received about
$1,500 annually, but in 1949 graduates of approved
schools started at $2,400 to $2,700. Except for
small annual increases, advancement is mainly
through the addition of supervisory or instruc­
tional duties at salaries ranging upward to $4,500.


The Federal civil service entrance salary for
physical therapists was $3,100 in late 1949. A l­
lowance for maintenance is sometimes given by

Where To Go for More: Information
The American Physical Therapy Association,
1790 Broadway,
New York 19, N. Y.

Medical Record Librarians 1
(D. O. T. 0-23.25)

Outlook Summary
Good employment opportunities expected for
graduates of approved schools in this relatively
small but growing occupation. New entrants will
encounter considerable competition unless spe­
cially trained.
Nature of Work
The medical record librarian is in full charge of
the medical or clinical reports of a hospital.
Duties consist of planning, organizing, and man­
aging the records department, as well as catalog­
ing, filing, and compiling medical and surgical
statistics, and assisting physicians in using them
for research. The medical record librarian should
not be confused with medical librarians who have
charge of a library in a hospital or medical insti­
tution and have nothing whatever to do with the
patients’ records.
Medical record librarians are employed in hos­
pitals or other medical institutions throughout
the country. Both men and women are employed
in this occupation, although women predominate.
Training and Other Qualifications
Only a small proportion of those engaged in
this occupation in 1949 were graduates of the 17
schools in the United States approved by the
Council on Education and Hospitals of the Ameri­
can Medical Association. Two years of college
or graduation from a recognized school of nursing
is usually required for entrance to an approved
course, which lasts 12 months. Two schools whose
4-year courses lead to a degree require only a high
school education; one school requires 3 years of
college for entrance to its 1-year degree course.
All students must be proficient in typing and
1 Prepared by the Women’s Bureau, U. S. Department of Labor.


shorthand. Regular courses include at least 208
hours on medical fundamentals and terminology.
Less than a third of the medical record librar­
ians employed full time in registered hospitals in
1946 were registered by the Registry of the Ameri­
can Association of Medical Record Librarians.
Requirements for registration include: Gradua­
tion from an approved school or high school
graduation plus 3 to 5 years’ experience in this
work; minimum age of 21 years; active employ­
ment in this occupation; the passing of an ex­
amination covering pertinent subject matter.
A steadily increasing need for medical record
librarians is expected because of increases in the
number of hospitals for veterans and civilians.
More and more persons are seeking hospital care
during illness. As the science of medicine pro­
gresses, as new treatments develop, the record­
keeping function becomes more significant. Hos­
pital records supply much of the raw material on
which medical research and further progress
depend. They also furnish a basis for evaluating
the effectiveness of the hospital and its staff and
the extent of their progress.
There were 3,819 persons employed in full-time
work of this type in registered hospitals in 1946
and another group of more than 1,000 engaged in
part-time work. The combined capacity enroll­
ment in 1948 of the 13 schools approved by the
American Medical Association was only 118. In
1948, 58 students were graduated from approved
courses, and an additional 18 completed courses
for experienced but untrained librarians.
The several thousand workers without approved
training who are already employed should have
no difficulty in retaining their posts, especially if
they supplement their training by special short


courses in approved schools. However, untrained
persons will find it increasingly difficult to enter
this field.
Annual salaries for medical record librarians
throughout the United States in 1947, ranged from
$2,400 to $5,000, according to the American Asso­
ciation of Medical Record Librarians. Advance­
ment opportunities lie in supervisory work,
especially in large hospitals.

Where To Go for More Information
Additional information on the outlook for
women as medical record librarians is given in the
following publication:
U. S. Department of Labor, Women’s Bureau.
Medical Record Librarians. Bulletin 203, No. 6.
1945. 9 pp. Out of print but available in many
public libraries.
Information may also be obtained from :
American Association of Medical Record Librarians,
22 East Division Street, Chicago, 111.

Occupational Therapists 1
(D. O. T. 0-32.04)

Outlook Summary
Good employment opportunities for persons al­
ready trained and for a steady flow of new entrants
in this growing occupation.
Nature of Work
The occupational therapist conducts programs
for patients in hospitals and other institutions to
provide them with directed activity which will
help in their rehabilitation; he supervises workers
who teach such activities as arts and crafts. Occu­
pational therapy is a type of treatment prescribed
by a physician to hasten a patient’s recovery from
disease or injury or to help him adjust to hospital­
ization. Among the activities taught are: weaving,
leatherwork, woodwork, photography, metalwork,
ceramics, plastics, printing, and gardening.
Most occupational therapists work with mental
or orthopedic patieats; many are employed in
tuberculosis or children’s hospitals or wards; still
others specialize in work with the blind or with
patients who are chronically ill. Almost all the
work was originally done in hospitals and insti­
tutions, but in recent years there has been a trend
toward the development of community workshops
to which those who need occupational therapy may
come from their homes or places of employment.
Since W orld W ar I I a very large field has been in
the rehabilitation of veterans. Most of the tuber­
culosis and neuropsychiatric veterans’ hospitals, as
well as some of the general veterans’ hospitals

1Prepared by the Women’s Bureau,

U. S. Department of Labor.

caring for large numbers of chronic patients, have
occupational therapy departments.
Training and Other Qualifications
Graduation from an accredited school of occu­
pational therapy is generally required to qualify
as an occupational therapist. There were 22 ap­
proved schools in the United States in 1949, and 3
additional ones which had developed courses based
on approved standards but which had not been in
existence long enough to obtain accreditation. Re­
quirements for entrance vary with the course sub­
sequently taken. A 5-year degree course is
available to high school graduates. A 3-year
diploma course is offered persons with one or more
years of college, and a college graduate may com­
plete training in 18 months. To become a regis­
tered occupational therapist, it is necessary to
graduate from an accredited school and to pass the
national registration examination given by the
American Occupational Therapy Association.
There is an increasing need for capable persons
in this small, but growing field. The American
Occupational Therapy Association believes that
an additional 6,000 persons will be needed by 1960.
In early 1950 there were shortages, especially of
therapists qualified for administrative jobs. The
partial mobilization under way later in that year
emphasized the undersupply. There will con­
tinue to be good opportunities for new entrants


because of the expansion of veterans’ hospitals,
and of civilian health programs, and the in­
creasing use of occupational therapy for mental
patients, crippled children, tuberculous patients,
and convalescents. The retirement of the many
young women who marry will create additional job
O f the approximately 3,400 occupational thera­
pists registered in 1949, only about 2,300 were
active. The need was so great that no oversupply
in this field was anticipated in the predictable
The greatest number of occupational therapists
were formerly along the eastern seaboard and in
the Midwest; however, future employment op­
portunities may tend to be more widespread, be­
cause veterans’ hospitals, where so many will be
employed, are located throughout the country.


Salaries for beginners in 1949 ranged from
$2,000 to $3,000 a year, according to the American
Occupational Therapy Association. In institu­
tional work, $1,200 to $1,800 a year, plus mainte­
nance, is the usual salary. Heads of departments
or of schools earned as much as $3,500 to $6,000 a
year, the average falling between $3,000 and $4,000.
Under the Federal civil service $3,100 per annum
was the entrance salary for qualified occupational
therapists in late 1949.
Where To Go for More Information
A list of training centers may be obtained from :
American Occupational Therapy Association,
33 W . 42il St.,
New York 18, N. Y.

Engineering is one of the largest professional
occupations, outranked in size only by teaching
and nursing; for men it is the largest profession.
Perhaps more than any other occupation it is
identified with our present-day technological civ­
ilization. The more than a third of a million en­
gineers in the United States are largely respon­
sible for planning the work of, or designing the
machines and buildings used by, a majority of
the Nation’s 60 million employed.
Employment Trends and Outlook
Engineering is also one of the most rapidly
growing professions in the United States. The
number of engineers increased nearly tenfold be­
tween 1890 and 1910, rising from 27,000 to slightly
over 260,000. (See chart 35.) It is estimated
that, by the spring of 1948, the engineering pro­
fession numbered approximately 350,000— an inCHART 35

crease of about 34 percent since 1940. Further­
more, very few members of the profession were
unemployed in 1948, whereas about 16,000 were
without work in 1940.
The profession’s long-term growth has resulted
in part from expansion in the industries which
employ engineers. Between 1890 and 1940, there
was nearly a threefold increase in the total num­
ber of workers attached to the basic commodityproducing and transporting industries (manufac­
turing, mining, construction, transportation and
public utilities), which employ about three out of
four members of the engineering profession.
After 1940, in the war and postwar periods, these
industries had a large additional increase in em­
ployment, and they are expected to make further
gains over the long run.
The engineering profession has grown even
more rapidly than the total work force of the pro­
duction and transportation industries mentioned
above. In 1890, there were 290 workers attached
to these industries for every engineer in the
country; in 1940, the ratio was only 78 to 1; and in
1948 it was 69 to 1. The ratio dropped very
rapidly up to 1930 and has since declined more
Examination of the trends in the use of en­
gineers in each major industry leads to the con­
clusion that their employment should increase
relative to the total number of workers in indus­
try at least until 1960, although the rise may not
be continuous. Some of the factors which under­
lie the extension of industry’s use of engineers are
the general advance o f scientific knowledge and its
practical application in industrial operations, the
extension of research and development work in in­
dustry and government, and the new uses of engi­
neering methods in administration, sales, and other
types of work.
By 1960, if total employment in the major in­
dustries using engineers increases moderately in
line with past trends, and if the number of work­
ers employed per engineer decreases somewhat
more slowly than in the past five decades, it may
be estimated that total engineering employment
would rise to roughly 450,000—some 100,000 more
than in 1948. This estimate is presented, not as a




Source-. Dato from Office of Education and Journal of Engineering
Education, adjusted by Bureau of Labor Statistics


forecast, but only to suggest the large magnitude
of the increase in engineering jobs which is indi­
cated by past trends. Furthermore, the estimated
expansion takes account only of the peacetime de­
mand for engineers without any allowance for
additional personnel needs arising out of the mo­
bilization program.
Besides the engineers needed to fill new posi­
tions, thousands will have to be trained annually
to replace those who die, retire, or transfer to
other occupations. Such losses to the profession
were estimated to be slightly over 10,000 a year at
the end of the 1940’s. Toward the end of the
1950 decade, losses from all factors are expected
to rise to around 13,000 a year, owing to the in­
creasing size of the profession.
In line with the general increase in college grad­
uations, the number o f engineering degrees
awarded rose from an average of 7,000 a year in
the 1920’s to about. 10,000 a year during the 1930’s

(see chart 36). After increasing further in the
early 1940? and decreasing in the later years of
World War II, graduations rose to new heights in
the postwar period, the 1946-47 graduating class
of 21,000 outnumbered that of any previous year.
In 1947-48 and 1948-49 some 32,000 and 45,000
students were graduated; about 52,000 graduated
during the year ending June 1950. On the basis
of enrollments in the academic year 1950-51, grad­
uations were expected to decline to about 38,000 in
1951, 26,000 in 1952, 20,000 in 1953, and 17,000 in
1954, owing to the graduation of most of the vet­
erans and the decrease in college-age population.
The decrease in enrollments in the next few years
will be accentuated by the withdrawal o f students
for military service. The downward trend is ex­
pected to continue to the mid-fifties and then rise
again, at least until 1965.
In late 1949, reports from industry indicated
that hirings for 1950 would be 30 percent lower


than in 1949; hirings in 1949 were no better than
in 1948. It was expected that during 1950 and
the following couple of years, new engineering
graduates would be likely to meet sharply increas­
ing competition for employment.
By the fall of 1950, the employment situation
had changed a great deal as a result of the
increased mobilization of the Nation’s resources.
Information from placement offices and other
sources indicated that soon after the outbreak of
hostilities in Korea, hiring of engineers increased
sharply. Despite the record 1950 graduating
class, employers were, in the fall, seeking addi­
tional personnel. Any recent graduates who had
taken nonengineering jobs could find opportuni­
ties to transfer to engineering work.
Persons now in engineering school or planning
to enter in the near future are expected to have
good employment prospects. The long-run in­
crease in need for engineering graduates for engi­
neering positions described above is likely to be
augmented by the anticipated higher levels of
defense production and expanded military force.
A t the same time, the supply of engineers may be
greatly affected by the general decline in gradua­
tions and the withdrawal of both students and
experienced graduates for military service.
The foregoing evaluation does not allow for the
likelihood that some engineering jobs will be filled,
as in the past, by men without engineering degrees.
In the long run, nongraduates will probably have
increasing difficulty getting engineering jobs. On
the other hand, there is a long-run trend toward
increased hiring of engineers for nonengineering
T r a i n in g , Q u a lific a tio n s , a n d R e g is t r a ti o n

College freshmen and those who plan to enter
engineering school in the future would be well
advised to get the best possible training. The
minimum educational requirements have been
raised gradually and the would-be engineer should
endeavor to maintain the best possible record of
achievement in his studies and broaden his train­
ing as much as possible. Furthermore, many
employers emphasize the extra-curricular college
record of prospective employees.
Persons contemplating an engineering career
should rate well above average in mathematics and
892273°— 51-----7

science courses in high school. Graduation from a
recognized engineering college is the minimum
educational requirement for engineering work.
Most engineers have a college education and the
proportion with advanced degrees, though small,
is increasing. It is also important for prospective
engineering students to select a properly accred­
ited school of engineering since persons trained at
such schools generally have the best employment
In addition to regular collegiate training, many
industrial concerns have special testing and train­
ing programs in operation fo r engineering gradu­
ates. F or the most part leaders in the professions
realize that a person has not been completely pre­
pared for a professional engineering job merely
by finishing an undergraduate course. Also, many
companies prefer to teach specific industry tech­
niques in their own manner.

Laws providing for registration or licensing of
engineers are in effect in all 48 States, the Dis­
trict of Columbia, and 5 Territories. In gen­
eral, the purpose of the laws is to ensure that
engineering work which involves the safeguard­
ing of life, health, or property is done by registered
engineers. The various laws have different pro­
visions as to the types of work for which registra­
tion is required. In some States, for example, only
civil or structural engineers have to register. In
1950, there were over 150,000 registered engi­
neers in the country—nearly a third o f the total
number. The greatest number of these are civil
engineers, but registration of other types of en­
gineers is growing.
Registration laws are subject to frequent change
and improvement; the major engineering societies
have from time to time attempted to set up “ model”
laws and definitions. Generally, requirements for
registration as a professional engineer are: Grad­
uation from an approved engineering college, plus
4 years of experience and passing of a State ex­
amination. Examining boards may accept a
longer period of experience as a substitute for a
college degree.
Earnings in engineering, as in other professions,
vary considerably and are affected by many factors.


d o lla r s

Median Base Monthly Salary Rates, 1946

d o ll a r s


Length of experience is one of the most im­
portant factors influencing earnings. For most
engineers, earning capacity increases with added
years of experience. In general, the greatest rise
in earnings occurs in the first 10 years of expe­
rience (chart 37).
The type of work performed by an engineer
also has much to do with the amount of money
he is able to earn. Top salaries in all the major
fields are earned by engineers in administrationmanagement jobs. These positions are usually
attained only after many years o f experience.
When earnings are considered in relation to
length o f experience, it is found that jobs in re­
search and sales, as well as administration, gen­
erally pay more than such work as inspection,

analysis and testing, operation, and college
There are wide differences in the educational
attainment of engineers among the major branches
of engineering and also within each branch. E x­
amination of salaries for men with comparable
amounts of experience showed that, in general,
earnings are highest for engineers with the
greatest amount of formal education. In most
fields, holders of the master’s degree earn slightly
more on the average than those with only the
bachelor’s degree. Men with the doctorate tend
to earn considerably more than either of these
Engineers employed by private firms and those
employed by the Federal Government have com­


parable average salaries when length of experi­
ence is taken into account. Engineers employed
by State and local governments generally had
lower earnings. Employers and independent con­
sultants had highest annual incomes in all fields
of engineering, with large amounts being derived
from fees and bonuses.
Data on average earnings in 1946 in the major
branches of engineering are presented in the state­
ments on individual branches which follow.
These earnings data are from the 1946 Survey of
the Economic Status of Engineers, made by the
Bureau o f Labor Statistics in cooperation with
the Economic Survey Committee o f the Engineers
Joint Council and with the National Roster of
Scientific and Specialized Personnel, United
States Employment Service.
Average earnings in the profession as a whole
have increased since 1946. A survey of the em­
ployment programs of industrial companies and
governmental agencies made by the Engineers
Joint Council showed that engineering graduates
who had been out of school for 10 years in late
1948 were receiving 20 percent higher salaries than
graduates with similar experience in 1946. A
similar survey revealed that, in early 1950, median
monthly starting rates were as follow s: bachelor’s
degree—$255; master’s degree—$320; doctor’s
degree—$445. However, median starting rates
differed greatly by type of industry, engineer, and
While earnings information, such as that from
the Bureau’s surveys, is useful in showing what the
average person may expect by way of remunera­
tion in the engineering profession, caution should
be exercised in applying such findings to individ­
ual cases. Some engineers never advance beyond
the earnings level of the average factory worker
or clerk. It is possible to gain an engineering
degree without having the capacity to advance far
up the professional ladder; while experience tends
to increase earning capacity, it does not do so for
all people. Young people considering engineering
as a career should weigh their own interests and
abilities in relation to the competition which they
will meet in this field. For those who can success­
fully meet the competition, the top of the profes­
sion is so well rewarded both in terms of
remuneration and the inherent interest of the work
that it is worth sacrifice to attain it.

W h e r e T o G e t M o r e In fo r m a tio n

Additional information on employment trends
and outlook, earnings, and occupational mobility
is given in :
U. S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor
Statistics. Employment Outlook for Engineers,
Bulletin No. 968, 1949. Superintendent of Docu­
ments, Washington 25, D. C. Price 55 cents.
Employment opportunities for women in the
engineering profession are described in :
U. S. Department of Labor, Women’s Bureau.
Outlook for Women in Architecture and Engi­
neering. Bulletin 223-5,1948. Superintendent of
Documents, Washington 25, D. C. Price 25 cents.
Information on engineering schools and curric­
ula, professional training and ethics, and on
student selection and guidance may be obtained
from the following organization:
Engineer’s Council for Professional Development,
29 W est 39th St.,
New York 18, N. Y.

Information on registration and on the profes­
sional, economic, social, and other nontechnical
aspects of engineering may be obtained from the
following organization:
National Society of Professional Engineers,
1121 15th St., N W .,
Washington, D. C.

Organizations which can furnish information on
the respective branches of engineering are listed
American Ceramic Society,
2525 N. High St.,
Columbus, Ohio.
American Institute of Chemical Engineers,
50 E. 41st St.,
New York 17, N. Y.
American Institute of Electrical Engineers,
29 W . 39th St.,
New York 18, N. Y.
American Institute of Industrial Engineers,
214 Industrial Engineering Building,
Ohio State University,
Columbus 10, Ohio.
American Institute
29 W . 39th St.,
New York 18, N. Y.





Association of Consulting Management Engineers,
347 Madison Ave.,
New York 17, N. Y.


American Society of Civil Engineers,

Institute of Radio Engineers,
1 E. 79th St.,
New York, N. Y.

33 W . 39th St.,
New York 18, N. Y.
American Society of Mechanical Engineers,
29 W . 39th St.,
New York 18, N. Y.

Society for the Advancement of Management,
84 William S t ,
New York, N. Y.

Some o f the other national organizations to
which engineers belong are listed in the publica­
tion, Employment Outlook fo r Engineers, men­
tioned above.

American Society of Safety Engineers,
20 No. Wacker Drive,
Chicago 6, 111.

Mechanical Engineers
(D. O. T. 0.19.01, .03, .05, .81, .91)

O u tlo o k S u m m a r y

O u tlo o k

Employment in this largest branch of engineer­
ing will continue to expand over the long run.
Good employment prospects for new graduates
until middle of 1950 decade at least.

This was the second largest branch of engineer­
ing before World War II, with about 86,000
members in 1940. It has now become the largest
branch with around 130,000 members in 1948.
Large numbers of mechanical engineers have
graduated since 1940, particularly since W orld
War II. Also many engineers of other types
transferred into the field during W orld War I I
and have remained there. In addition, many per­
sons without engineering degrees were able to enter
the field during the war. Mechanical engineers
have been used in increasing numbers by a variety
of industries. Research opportunities have been
expanding. The mobilization program under­
taken in mid-1950 has led to a further sharp in­
crease in demand for personnel.
Employment in mechanical engineering will
continue to expand over the long run, although at
a slower rate than during the forties. On the basis
of peacetime needs alone, more than 175,000
mechanical engineers may be employed by 1960.
However, the number of new graduates who obtain
positions will vary from year to year. As men­
tioned above, a large proportion o f mechanical
engineers are employed in metalworking indus­
tries ; these industries will expand over the
long run. Additional engineers will be needed
to replace those dying or retiring (estimated at
about 2,000 annually).

N a tu r e o f W o r k

Mechanical engineers are responsible for de­
sign, testing, construction, and operation of ma­
chinery that produces, transmits, or consumes
power, or utilizes heat energy. These engineers
also design machine tools and equipment, and
plants or mills which require special construction
to accommodate power-producing or transmit­
ting machinery. Mechanical engineering covers
several distinct areas of work, such as: aeronauti­
cal; marine engineering and naval architecture;
automotive; railroad equipment; heating, ventila­
ting, and air-conditioning; and general power
production. Major functions are design, develop­
ment, manufacturing and production, administra­
tion, and sales.
W h ere E m p lo ye d

Many industries employ mechanical engineers,
but more than half are in the metalworking indus­
tries—principally iron and steel, machinery, and
transportation equipment. Though there are some
mechanical engineers in all States, the large major­
ity (about 70 percent in 1946) are employed in the
following eight States: New York, Ohio, Cali­
fornia, Pennsylvania, Illinois, New Jersey, Michi­
gan, and Massachusetts.

Graduations in mechanical engineering reached
new highs of almost 11,000 in the academic year
1947-48, and nearly 15,000 in 1948-49, and 16,000


in 1949-50. The prewar peak was 6,000 in
43. Though the number of graduates is
expected to decline after 1949-50, it will still
remain above prewar levels unless drastically af­
fected by withdrawals for military service.
The sharp increase in hiring in the summer and
fall of 1950 quickly reduced competition for jobs
among the great number of graduates. A good
outlook in the early and middle fifties is expected
as a result of declining graduations and increased
mobilization and industrial activity.

In 1946, beginners had a median monthly salary
of about $225; those with 5 years’ experience, a
middle earnings figure of $340. Median monthly
salary was about $405 for those with 10 years’ ex­
perience, and $495 for those with 20 years’
See also Aircraft Manufacturing Occupations,
p. 273; Iron and Steel Manufacturing Occupa­
tions, p. 243; and Shipbuilding Occupations, p.

Civil Engineers
(D. O. T. 0-16.01)

Outlooh Summary
Slow growth of employment over long run,
though less than in most other branches of engi­
neering. Employment opportunities were good
in mid-1950 and are expected to remain so for a
number of years. However, opportunities are
greatly affected by changing levels of construction
Nature of Work
A civil engineer plans, designs, and supervises
the construction of roads, bridges, buildings, dams,
tunnels, water-supply and sewage systems, trans­
portation facilities, and other structures for pub­
lic, industrial, or commercial use. Most civil engi­
neers are engaged in technical administrativemanagement, design, or construction supervision.
Others are employed as consulting engineers, col­
lege teachers, in research or development work, or
in selling. The major specialized fields of civil
engineering are: structural, highway, hydraulic,
railroad, and sanitary and public health.
Where Employed
About half of all civil engineers are employed by
local, State, and Federal government agencies.
The second-largest group are in the private con­
struction industry. Many are employed also by
railroads and public utilities. Some are in the iron
and steel industry, petroleum refining, and other
branches of manufacturing.

Civil engineers are employed in all parts o f the
country; there are jobs in every State and city.
Frequently the engineer is called upon to work at
the construction site, which is sometimes in a re­
mote location. Some civil engineers from the
United States work in foreign countries. Mem­
bers o f this branch o f the profession are often re­
quired to move from one place to another, although
there are many jobs in civil engineering— such as
city engineering positions— which involve virtu­
ally no traveling.

Civil engineering has not expanded as rapidly
as other major engineering fields in recent decades,
partly because the construction industry has not
grown as fast as some manufacturing industries
which employ many chemical, mechanical, metal­
lurgical, and other types of engineers. In 1940,
civil engineers were the largest group of engineers,
numbering over 89,000; nearly 10 percent were
unemployed, and many men with civil engineering
degrees were employed in subprofessional posi­
tions as draftsmen or surveyors. By the spring
of 1948, the number of employed civil engineers
had increased to slightly over 90,000, owing mainly
to gains in construction activity since World War
II. However, the number of mechanical engi­
neers employed has risen so much faster that they
have become the largest branch of the profession.
The number o f openings for civil engineers
should be higher in the early fifties. Though con-



Co u r te s y o f b u r ea u

o f

r e c l a m a t io n


U . S . d e p a r t m e n t

o f

in t e r io r

Frequently, the civil engineer is called upon to supervise construction
jobs on site— sometimes in remote locations.

struction employment for at least the next few
years will be affected by the impact of mobiliza­
tion, it is expected to stay well above pre-World
War II levels unless the mobilization program
goes far beyond the point contemplated in late
1950. Over the long run, a slow expansion in
civil engineering employment seems likely; by
1960, the branch may grow to around 105,000,
some 15,000 more than in 1948. Additional engi­
neers will be needed to replace those dying and

retiring, estimated at 2,400 in 1949; this number
should also rise slowly in the future. It should
be noted, however, that in this occupation as in
the construction industry as a whole, employment
opportunities are greatly affected by changing
levels of economic activity.
The number of civil engineering graduates
reached a new peak of about 8,000 in the year
1949-50, after record numbers in earlier postwar
years. However, graduations have not increased
as much as in most other branches o f the profes­
sion. Also, both during and since World War II,
a number of civil engineering graduates have not
taken civil engineering positions. Many jobs have
remained unfilled, particularly in the public works
field, partly because salaries paid under State and
local government contracts have been lower than
in other areas of work. The increasing demand
for other types of engineers resulting from the
mobilization program which began in mid-1950
will offer additional opportunities for civil engi­
neers outside their own branch.
In 1946, beginners had a median monthly salary
of around $240; the median for those with 5 years’
experience was nearly $300. The middle earnings
figure for those in the profession for 10 years was
around $350; for those with 20 years’ experience,
about $390. Salaries of $10,000 a year and over
are not uncommon in this field, especially in posi­
tions involving managerial responsibilities.

Electrical Engineers
(D. O. T. 0-17.01 and .02)

Outlook Summary
Continued expansion in employment anticipated
over long run. Good outlook for those now in
school or planning to enter school in early fifties.

Nature of Work
The electrical engineer is concerned with the
generation, transmission, and utilization o f elec­

tricity. Am ong the major branches o f electrical
engineering are: Power generation, transmission,
and distribution; illumination; wire communica­
tion; electronics (including radio, television, and
other applications) ; transportation; and electrical
machinery and equipment manufacturing. The
most important fields o f functional specialization
are: Research and development, operation or
application, design, teaching, and selling.

W h ere E m p lo ye d

About two-thirds of all electrical engineers are
employed in the following industries: Electrical
machinery and equipment manufacturing, electric
utilities (generation, transmission, or distribu­
tion), communications (telegraph, telephone,
radio), or electronics manufacturing.
Most electrical engineers (over two-thirds in
1946) are in the States of New York, Pennsyl­
vania, New Jersey, Ohio, Illinois, Massachusetts,
and California. Employment in this branch of
engineering is heavily concentrated in the indus­
trial centers where electrical equipment is manu­
factured. However, jobs with electric light and
power companies, telephone companies, and radio
stations are located in every State, in small towns
as well as large cities. Some American electrical
engineers are employed in foreign countries.
Outdo oh
Electrical engineering, the third largest branch
o f the engineering profession, has grown rapidly
over the last 30 or 40 years, although its growth
was interrupted during the depression thirties.
Between 1940 and 1948, the number of electrical
engineers employed in the country rose from about
56,000 to nearly 75,000. Initial growth came as the
result o f the development of the electric utility
industry, the telephone and telegraph, and elec­
trical-machinery and equipment manufacturing.
More recently, the growth of the radio industry
and other developments in electronics have been a
major factor in the expansion of this branch of
Employment of electrical engineers will increase
further in the future because of the expanding use
of electrical and electronic equipment in industry,
by the Armed Forces, in homes, on farms, and in
therapeutic work. Industry will need engineers
to develop new products for both military and
civilian uses. Over the long run, public and
private powder developments should provide op­
portunities for additional men, and there will also
be some opportunities in the radio and television
broadcasting industry, in teaching, and in other
fields. From about 75,000 in 1948, the number of

electrical engineers could well increase to around

95.000 by 1960, on the basis of peacetime demand
alone. In addition, electrical engineers will be
needed to replace those dying and retiring each
year, estimated at slightly over 1,000 in 1949.
The number o f degrees awarded in electrical
engineering has been exceedingly high in the last
few years. Large numbers were attracted to this
field, owing to their experience in working with
radar, radio, or other electronic or electrical equip­
ment in the armed services. Graduations reached
new highs in the postwar years: about 6,700 bach­
elors’ degrees were awarded in 1947-48; over
11.000 in 1948-49; and about 13,000 in 1949-50.
These figures may be compared to the prewar high
of slightly under 3,000 bachelors’ degrees in

In late 1949, a number of electrical engineering
graduates were still seeking employment in their
field several months after graduation. At that
time, it was expected that the overcrowding would
continue for a few years. However, since the
beginning of the defense mobilization, employers
have hired many more electrical engineers than
they had expected to need earlier. The mobiliza­
tion will also contribute to the demand through
the early fifties. At the same time, the supply of
personnel entering the field is likely to decline
owing to the general decrease in the number of
college students and the withdrawal of students
for military service. Therefore, the outlook for
students now in school or planning to enter school
in the near future is good.
E a r n in g s

In 1946, beginners had a median monthly salary
of about $235; those with 5 years’ experience made
about $80 more. For men who had been in the
profession 10 years, the median monthly salary
was around $370, for those with 20 years’ experi­
ence, about $460. Salaries have increased gen­
erally since 1946. Salaries of $10,000 to $15,000 a
year and over are not uncommon in electrical engi­
S e e a lso A ircraft Manufacturing Occupations,
p. 273; and Iron and Steel Manufacturing Occu­
pations, p. 243.



Chemical Engineers
(D. O. T. 0-15.01)

Outlook Summary
Continued increase in employment expected over
long run. Employment prospects for new gradu­
ates have improved greatly as a result o f the de­
fense program and are expected to remain good at
least until the middle o f the decade.

Nature of Work
Chemical engineers are concerned with the ap­
plication of chemistry and other basic sciences and
of engineering principles to the design, construc­
tion, operation, control, and improvement of
equipment for the utilization of chemical processes
on an industrial scale. These processes are usually
separated into individual operations or processes
known as “unit operations.” The work of the
chemical engineer involves the application of one
or a series of these “ unit operations” to the manu­
facture of a product.
The chemical engineer may specialize industri­
ally (for example, in petroleum, plastics, rubber,
food, or industrial chemicals) ; by type of opera­
tion (for example, in absorption and adsorption,
heat transfer, disintegration, or distillation) ; or
functionally (for example, in management, re­
search, design, or operation).
Where Employed
A great many industries use chemical engineers.
Approximately four out of five are employed in
manufacturing industries, according to a 1940 sur­
vey. Over a third are in the chemical industries,
while about a fifth work in the petroleum and coal
products industries.
Chemical engineers are employed to some extent
in all States, mainly in or around large industrial
cities. However, three-fourths of them were em­
ployed in the following 11 States in 1946: New
York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Ohio, Illinois,
Texas, California, Massachusetts. Michigan, Dela­
ware, and Indiana. Two out of every five were
in the first four of these States.
Chemical engineering is one o f the youngest of
the major fields o f engineering; its growth in the

past few decades has been very rapid. The num­
ber of chemical engineers (about 35,000 in 1948)
has more than doubled since 1940. Major factors
underlying this growth have been the expansion
of chemical and allied industries, the increasing
use of chemical engineers in other industries, and
expanding research and teaching needs.
Employment in this branch of the engineering
profession will probably continue to increase over
the long run, although growth will probably slow
down. Further expansion is expected in the indus­
tries in which most chemical engineers are em­
ployed—chemical, petroleum and coal products,
and closely allied industries—particularly in view
of the mobilization program which began in mid4950. The large research programs with the de­
velopment of atomic energy and the synthetic fuel
program should also provide many opportunities.
In addition, the number of engineers needed to
replace those retiring or dying—small at present
because of the low average age of chemical
engineers—may be expected to increase.
Despite the postwar gains in employment, new
entrants were faced with competition for jobs in
early 4950. In the academic year 1949-50, about
4,500 chemical engineers received their bachelor’s
degree, compared to some 2,500 in 1940-41, the preWorld War II peak figure. The number of bach­
elor's degrees granted in the allied field of chem­
istry also has risen far above prewar levels.
Graduations will decline in both chemistry and
chemical engineering; however, they will prob­
ably remain above pre-World War II figures in­
definitely, unless withdrawals for military service
are very large. On the other hand, opportunities
have increased greatly as a result of the defense
mobilization, which began in mid-1950. Employ­
ment prospects should improve still more as the
number of new graduates decline, particularly in
view of the expected level of expenditures for
Best opportunities will be for those with ad­
vanced training. The proportion o f persons with
graduate training is higher among chemical
engineers than in most other branches.


In 1946, beginners had a median monthly salary
of about $240; those with 5 years’ experience, a
middle earnings figure of about $330. For those
with 10 years in the profession, the median salary

was around $400; for those with 20 years experi­
ence, about $500. Monthly salaries of $800 to
$1,000 and over are not uncommon in this field.
Chemists, p. 93; and Petroiuem Pro­
duction and Refining Occupations, p. 331.
S e e also

Industrial Engineers
(D. O. T. 0-18.01)

O u tlo o k S u m m a r y

Continued growth in employment expected in
this rapidly developing field. Employment pros­
pects favorable at least through the early fifties.
N a tu r e o f W o r k

Industrial engineers are concerned primarily
with the efficient use of labor, machines, and mate­
rials in industry. They often specialize in one or
more types of work, such as factory design, loca­
tion, and lay-out; time, motion, and incentive
studies; job and wage evaluation; or safety en­
gineering. Other specialties are: production and
material control, production cost control, training
of supervisory and production personnel, and
quality control. The terms “ industrial engineer­
ing” and “management engineering” are some­
times used interchangeably, but the tendency is to
apply the former to positions concerned with pro­
duction problems only, the latter to positions of
broader responsibility or to independent consult­
ants dealing with problems of company organiza­
tion and policy, marketing, finance, and personnel,
as well as production.
O u tlo o k

Employment o f industrial engineers is expected
to rise in the early fifties and over the long run,
because o f the need to increase productivity and
lower costs, growing recognition of the importance
of scientific management and safety engineering
and long-term expansion of industrial activity.
Gains in employment of industrial engineers
may not be as rapid in the future as in the
last decade, however. During World War I I and

in the postwar years, many persons were trained
in this field and many others with incomplete col­
lege education or with degrees in related fields
were given some training in industrial engineer­
ing, to meet the shortage of qualified men. It is
estimated that the number in the field has more
than doubled since 1940, when about 9,300 indus­
trial engineers were employed.
Graduations in industrial engineering, which
have been rising since W orld War II, reached a
peak in 1950. They are expected to decline some­
what in the next several years, but will probably
remain above pre-World War II levels indefi­
nitely, unless withdrawals for military service are
very large. In addition, a record number of
persons have received degrees in business admin­
istration in the postwar years and graduates in
this field usually compete with industrial engi­
neers for some of the available industry jobs. On
the other hand, the increase in hiring in the latter
part of 1950, which resulted from the increased
expenditures for defense production, quickly re­
duced competition for jobs among new graduates.
Employment prospects are likely to remain good
at least in the early years of the decade, because of
the expected decline in graduation and the antic­
ipated high level of industrial activity.
E a r n in g s

In 1946, beginners had a median monthly salary
of between $220 and $240 per month; those with
5 years’ experience had a median salary of around
$350; those with 10 years’ experience, a median
of $410. Monthly salaries of $800 to $1,000 are not
uncommon, particularly in consulting and execu­
tive positions.


Metallurgical Engineers
(D. O. T. 0-14.10 and .20)

Outlook Summary
This small but rapidly expanding branch of
engineering will probably continue to grow over
long run. Employment opportunities likely to
remain favorable at least until middle of decade.
Nature of Work
Metallurgical engineers direct the industrial
processing of ores and the treatment and alloying
o f metals. They may also analyze ores or design
processes to eliminate worthless minerals before
the ore goes to the smelter; perform research in
order to improve production methods or develop
new products; assume responsibilitity for the de­
sign, construction, installation, and operation of
pilot plants, and for coordination of research.
Metallurgy is usually divided into two main
branches—chemical or process metallurgy, and
physical metallurgy or metallography.
Wh,ere Employed
Metallurgical engineers are employed in many
industries—mostly in those dealing with metals
and metal products. About half are in the iron
and steel industry and over a fourth in the manu­
facture of nonferrous metals and their products,
according to a 1946 survey. Metallurgical engi­
neers are employed also in machinery and trans­
portation-equipment manufacturing, mining, and
many other industries.
Most metallurgical engineers are located in the
large metalworking centers of the country, mainly
in the Middle Atlantic States (New York, New
Jersey, and Pennsylvania) and in the East North
Central region (particularly Ohio, Illinois, and
M ichigan). Those employed in the extractive in­
dustries are located in mining regions.
This branch of engineering has been expanding
rapidly since the beginning of World War II.
By 1949, over 10,000 metallurgical engineers were
employed. The defense program, which began in

mid-1950, has led to a further sharp increase in
the demand for personnel.
Employment will probably continue to rise over
the long run. Long-term growth in the metal­
working industries and the development o f new
products will tend to increase the demand for
metals or alloys to serve specific purposes. These
developments require metallurgical work on prob­
lems concerning alloys and development o f metals
adaptable to various uses. Research in “ fatigue”
o f metals is growing rapidly. Also the develop­
ment o f atomic energy has opened the door to a
whole new field in the study o f metals and their
uses. There are also some opportunities in in­
dustries which make finished products from metals
and require the special knowledge o f metallurgists
in solving manufacturing or marketing problems.

Opportunities for new entrants will be com­
paratively few since this branch of the profession
is relatively small. The number of additional
metallurgical engineers needed will be higher in
the early fifties and over the long run than before
World War II. However, graduations in this
field, as in the related fields of chemistry and
chemical engineering, ha ve been high in the post­
war years. After reaching a peak in 1950, the
number of graduates is expected to decrease but
will remain above pre-World War II levels in­
definitely unless withdrawals for military service
are very large. Competition for jobs was much
reduced by late 1950. Employment prospects are
likely to be even better for the remainder of the
decade, because of the decline in graduations and
the increased mobilization.
In 1946, beginners in the fields of mining and
metallurgical engineering had a median monthly
salary of about $245. The middle earnings figure
for those with 5 years’ experience was nearly $315;
for those with 10 years, nearly $410; for those with
20 years, about $520. Monthly salaries of $800 to
$1,000 and over are frequent in this field.
See also Iron and Steel Manufacturing Occupa­
tions, p. 243.


Mining Engineers
(D. O. T. 0-20.01 and .11)

Outlook Summary
Employment will expand more slowly than in
most other branches of engineering. Opportu­
nities for new graduates likely to improve through
the early fifties.
Nature of Work
Mining engineers are responsible for locating
and extracting coal, petroleum, metallic ores, and
nonmetallic materials; planning construction of
mine shafts, slopes, and tunnels; devising the
means of extracting the minerals, the methods to
be used in transporting them to the surface, and
the methods to be used in separating ores from
worthless or relatively unimportant earth, rock,
or other minerals. Frequently they deal with the
preliminary processing o f ore. They may also be
concerned with the design, construction, and in­
stallation o f water supply, ventilation equipment,
and electric light and power facilities at the mine.
They are responsible for mine safety. Other ma­
jor functions are: prospecting (search for depos­
its) , development (opening the mine and extending
it), and operations. Major specialties are: coal
mining, natural gas and petroleum production,
metal and mineral mining, and mine-safety
Where Employed
Mining engineers are usually employed at the
location of mineral deposits. For this reason, they
often work in out-of-the-way places—in moun­
tains or deserts. The majority are employed in
Pennsylvania, Texas, California, New York, Illi­
nois, Ohio, West Virginia, Oklahoma, and
This branch of engineering has expanded less
rapidly than most branches over the past decade.
In 1949, employment was still less than 10,000,

making this the smallest of the major branches of
Employment of mining engineers will continue
to grow slowly over the long run. The exhaustion
of easily mined deposits and growing industrial
needs for metals place mining engineers at the
forefront o f a constant battle—devising ways of
mining poorer deposits or those which are more
difficult to work at a competitive cost. As new
alloys are developed and new uses of metals are
discovered, an increased demand for little known
ores is created. The release of atomic energy has
also led to growing activity in the search for and
development of the ores used in this field of work.
The petroleum industry has so far drawn upon
only the richer and more accessible oil fields.
Petroleum engineers and geologists are today con­
stantly searching for new oil fields, both in the
United States and overseas.
Opportunities for new entrants are compara­
tively few in any one year, both because this branch
of engineering is small and because it is growing
slowly. Graduations in mining engineering, as in
other branches, have been relatively high in post­
war years; however, the number will decline from
the peak o f 1950. Although the mobilization pro­
gram initiated in mid-1950 has affected this branch
of the profession less sharply than most others,
it has rapidly improved the employment situation.
Employment prospects for new graduates are
likely to be even better by the mid-fifties.
In 1946, beginners in the fields o f mining and
metallurgical engineering taken together had a
median monthly salary of about $245. The middle
earnings figure for those with 5 years’ experience
was nearly $315; for those with 10 years, around
$410; for those with 20 years’ experience, about
$520. Monthly salaries of $800 to $1,000 and more
are frequent in this field.
See also Petroleum Production and Refining
Occupations, p. 331.



Ceramic Engineers
(D. O. T. 0-15.11)

Outlook Summary
Expanding employment in this small field over
long run. Employment prospects likely to con­
tinue good for a number of years.
N a tu r e o f W o r k

Ceramic engineers are concerned with the min­
ing and processing of clay, silicates, and other nonmetallic minerals and the manufacture of products
from these raw materials; also with the construc­
tion and design of plant equipment and structures.
They may work in research or sales. Specializa­
tion is usually by type of product—for example,
structural materials (such as brick, tile, and terra
cotta) ; pottery; glass; enameled metals; abrasives;
refractories (fire and heat-resistant materials,
such as fire brick) ; limes and plasters; cements;
and many others.
W h ere E m p lo ye d

More than half o f all ceramic engineers are em­
ployed in the stone, clay, and glass industries,
according to a 1947 survey of members of the Insti­
tute of Ceramic Engineers. Others are found in
iron and steel, electrical machinery, chemical, and
other industries. Also, some are employed by edu­
cational institutions and by other organizations.
More than four-fifths are employees o f private
firms or institutions; about an eighth work for a
government agency—primarily for the Federal
Government; and about 1 in 20 are self-employed.
Nearly two-thirds of all ceramic engineers are
employed in 5 States—Ohio, Pennsylvania, New
York, New Jersey, and Illinois; nearly a quarter
in the State of Ohio alone.
O u t lo o k

Employment is expected to grow rapidly for
several years following 1950 and more slowly
thereafter. It is estimated that over three thou­
sand ceramic engineers were employed in 1949.
Many technological improvements are expected in


the ceramics industries in future years; additional
engineers will be needed to bring about those im­
provements. Other factors which will tend to
raise the number employed are the new mili­
tary and civilian uses of nonmetallic minerals and
the growth of the industries using these materials.
Increasing use of glass, enameled metals, abrasives,
and other ceramic products will require research
and design to adapt these products to various uses
and thus will contribute to the growing demand
for engineers. In addition, the increasing use of
cement and structural clay products in construc­
tion—particularly in residential building proj­
ects—will provide greater opportunities for
ceramic engineers. Since the field is so small,
however, openings will be few in any one year.
• A need for more personnel has existed in this
branch of the profession since W orld War II.
Then, the shortage of engineers was acute, though
more people than usual entered the field with in­
complete college training or with degrees in re­
lated fields. The shortage became less acute with
the entrance of relatively large numbers of grad­
uates in the postwar years. Also, there have been
large graduating classes in other closely related
fields of engineering. However, the number of
graduates in ceramic engineering, as in other
fields, is expected to decline in the early fifties.
Also, the demand for ceramic engineers should
continue to increase as a result of increased de­
fense activity. Therefore, employment prospects
for those entering or planning to enter the field
in the near future are good.
E a r n in g s

Ceramic engineers with 5 to 9 years’ experience
had a median monthly salary of $390 in 1947 ac­
cording to the survey of members of the Institute
of Ceramic Engineers. Those with 10 to 14 years’
experience made about $440; those with 15 to 19
years, nearly $510; and those with 25 or more
years, about $700. Many engineers in this field
received considerably more— some making $1,000
a month or over.



(D. O. T. 0-07.02 through .85)

O u t lo o k S u m m a r y

W h ere E m p lo ye d

Good employment opportunities for chemists,
particularly those with graduate training, in the
early fifties. Expanding employment over the
long run. Graduate training will continue to be
important in competing for the higher grade j obs.

By far the largest number of chemists are em­
ployed in manufacturing, particularly in the chem­
ical and petroleum industries. Many are employed
also by Federal, State, and local governments, col­
leges and universities, research institutes, public
utilities, consulting laboratories, and other types
of employers. The State where the greatest num­
ber of chemists are located is New York; Pennsyl­
vania and New Jersey are next.

N a tu r e o f W o r k

Chemists are trained primarily for laboratory
research and development work relating to chemi­
cal and physical changes in materials and prod­
ucts. They usually specialize in one of five main
branches of chemistry and in some field within a
branch. Organic chemistry is the branch employ­
ing most people in the profession; it is concerned
with the broad field of the carbon compounds. In­
organic chemistry deals with compounds not con­
taining carbon, such as most of the minerals and
metals. Physical chemistry deals with quantita­
tive relationships between chemical and physical
properties in chemical compounds and mixtures
and requires specific training in physics and math­
ematics. Biochemistry has to do chiefly with
chemical compounds and processes occurring in
plants and animals and with the influence of chem­
icals on vital processes. Analytical chemistry is
concerned with determining the composition of
substances and the exact percentage of each im­
portant constituent in a substance.
Chemistry is the largest of the natural sciences;
there were over 80,000 chemists in the country in
1949 (about 4 percent were women). The types
of work in which the greatest numbers are engaged
are industrial research, technical administration,
analysis and testing, and teaching. Other major
fields are production, development, research in
basic science, and technical service.

T r a in in g

A bachelor’s degree is usually the minimum re­
quirement for new entrants. Over two-fifths of all
employed chemists hold advanced degrees. Over
half the chemists engaged in college teaching and
research in basic science have the doctor’s degree.
Thorough training in a college or university o f
recognized standing is important in securing de­
sirable employment.
Entrance jobs for persons with only a bachelor’s
degree are mainly in analysis, testing, and certain
production positions in manufacturing, and as
laboratory assistants in research. Those who take
additional training or show unusual aptitude have
good chances of advancement, but those without
initiative often remain in routine jobs at low pay.
There are some opportunities as graduate assist­
ants in universities, where one may give part-time
instruction to undergraduates at a monthly sti­
pend of about $100, while taking graduate work.
O u tlo o k

Employment opportunities for well trained
chemists were good in late 1950. There has been
a shortage of scientists (particularly of those with


The chem ist usually qualifies for basic research only after specialized
experience or graduate training

advanced degrees) for basic and background re­
search, developmental and applied research, and
teaching. Factors underlying this shortage in­
cluded the increased demand brought about by
the backlog of research projects postponed during
World War II, the increased enrollments in col­
leges and universities, and the shifting o f the main
center of basic research to this country from Eu­
rope. In industrial laboratories, where chemists
represent nearly 40 percent of the total number
of scientists and research engineers employed, op­
portunities have been good for those with ad­
vanced degrees or specialized experience. Since
mid-1950, the mobilization program has further
stimulated the demand for chemists.
Chemists with graduate training, particularly
those with doctorates, will therefore continue to
have excellent employment prospects in the early
fifties, although the number of advanced de­
grees awarded has been increasing rapidly. In
1949-50, the number of doctorates granted in
chemistry reached an all-time high of about 950,
well above the previous high of 672 in 1940-41
and more than in any other field of study. A
record number of master’s degrees have also been

awarded. The number of advanced degrees
awarded should continue high for several years,
unless many students are withdrawn for military
Employment prospects for new entrants with
only a baccalaureate are good though less promis­
ing than for those with graduate training. A large
number of young people have completed training
at this level in chemistry since the end of World
War II. After reaching new highs of nearly
7,500 in the academic year 1947-48, and over 9,000
in 1948-49, about 11,000 bachelor’s degrees in
chemistry were awarded in 1949-50 (more than
double the number in 1941-42). However, in late
1950 the competition for jobs among chemists
without graduate training was rapidly being re­
duced by the expansion in defense production, and
opportunities are expected to improve further.
Moreover, undergraduate enrollments in chemis­
try are expected to decline somewhat after the
school year 1949-50, as the veterans complete their
courses. The decline will be intensified to the
extent that students are withdrawn for military
In the long run, there will be expanding oppor­
tunities in the profession, particularly for chem­
ists with advanced degrees or successful experi­
ence. Many industrial concerns have plans for
further expansion o f research facilities. Total
expenditures for research and development by pri­
vate industry and government are expected to re­
main high indefinitely. Employment in the
chemical manufacturing industries is also ex­
pected to remain well above pre-World War II
levels over the long run. The likelihood is that
there will be a number of openings in teaching,
particularly for those qualified to teach at the
graduate level. In all fields there will be some
openings each year owing to deaths and retire­
ments, though the number of such vacancies is not
large in this profession—slightly over 1,000 a
Chemists’ income depends on the type of work
in which they are engaged, the amount and quality
of their educational background, and the amount
of professional experience they have had, as well
as their individual abilities. In general, admin­
istrative jobs pay the highest salaries; technical


service and industrial research pay more than
analysis and testing or secondary school teaching.
In 1943, holders of doctors’ degrees typically
earned 20 to 35 percent more than chemists with
the same number of years in the profession who
had only masters’ or bachelors’ degrees. Most be­
ginners had monthly salaries of about $170 to $200
and earned about $30 to $50 extra for overtime
work. Earnings of men with 10 to 12 years of
experience averaged from $230 to $310 a month,
depending on their educational background; earn­
ings of those with 21 to 25 years in the field also
varied widely with amount of education, averag­
ing from $300 to $400 a month. There is evidence
that salaries have increased markedly since 1943.

American Chemical Society,
1155 16th St., NW .,
Washington 6, D. C.

Information on earnings is given in the follow­
ing publication:
U. S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor
Statistics. Factors Affecting Earnings in Chem­
istry and Chemical Engineering. Bulletin No.
881,1946. 22 pp. Superintendent of Documents,
Washington 25, D. C. Price 10 cents.

Where To Go for More Information

Employment opportunities for women are dis­
cussed in the following publication:
U. S. Department of Labor. Women’s Bureau.
The Outlook for Women in Chemistry. Bulletin
223, No. 2,1948. 65 pp. Superintendent of Doc­
uments, Washington 25, D. C. Price 25 cents.

Information on schools, scholarships, and other
subjects may be obtained from :

See also Chemical Engineers, p. 88; Petroleum
Production and Refining Occupations, p. 331.

(D. O. T. 0-03.10)

Outlook Summary
Profession expected to grow slowly over the long
run; however, demand for architects’ services de­
pends largely on volume of construction activity,
which is always subject to marked fluctuations,
and during early fifties, is likely to be much af­
fected by the mobilization program.
Nature of Work
Most architects plan and design all types of
buildings. However, some specialize in one or
more of the major fields of architecture: Domestic
(private residences, apartments, group housing,
farm buildings), industrial (factories, power­
houses), commercial (banks, hotels, office build­
ings, clubhouses), institutional and public, trans­
portation buildings, and miscellaneous structures.
Architects who are in private practice serve their
clients as professional advisers in a relationship
similar to that of doctors and lawyers with their
clients. Before designing a building, the architect
first consults wdth the client on the purpose to be

served, general style, size, location, cost range,
materials criteria, and other characteristics de­
sired. In planning the building he takes into con­
sideration economy of lay-out and construction as
well as appearance and efficiency. After prelim­
inary drawings have been made and approved by
the client, he prepares detailed working plans,
specifications, and obtains estimates of cost. In
addition, he usually arranges the contract between
the owner and building contractor for the con­
struction of the building, supervises the progress
of the work, and certifies to the completion of the
Where Employed
Most architects are in business for themselves or
are employed by architectural firms. A few work
for government agencies, construction contractors,
and engineering firms, and teach in colleges and
Members of the profession are found in all re­
gions of the country, mainly in large cities. In
1940, over half were employed in the following


seven States: New York, California, Illinois,
Pennsylvania, Oliio, New Jersey, and Massa­
Training and Qualifications
A bachelor’s degree from one of the recognized
architectural schools is generally a minimum re­
quirement for entrance into the profession. Most
of these schools have 5-year courses. After obtain­
ing a degree, the beginner usually starts as a
draftsman in an architectural office and works up
as his ability becomes recognized. A few people
without formal training may enter the profession
by acquiring many years of experience in archi­
tectural offices.
Licensure is required in practically all States
for practice as an architect, where safety of life,
health, and property is involved. Requirements
for admission to the licensing examination vary
among States but generally include graduation
from a recognized professional school followed
by 3 to 5 years of practical experience (most States
accept a very long period of experience as a sub­
stitute for graduation from an architectural
The demand for architects’ services was much
greater in mid-1950 than before World War II,
owing to the great amount of residential building
and other construction. By the end of the year,
it was apparent that the defense mobilization
would sharply reduce private residential building
and several other types of construction. The level
and type of construction activity and therefore
the demand for architects’ services in the early

fifties will depend on how deep these cuts go and
the extent to which they are offset by defense con­
The shortage of architects existing during
World War II and in the first postwar years had
been almost made up by the end of 1949. Large
numbers of architects were graduated in 1947-48,
1948-49, and 1949-50 and many persons who left
the profession during the thirties re-entered the
field. Enrollments in architectural schools were
still high in 1949-50; however, graduations are
expected to decline in the early fifties. The sup­
ply of qualified persons may be reduced further by
transfers to other work and the withdrawal of
persons for military service. Therefore, employ­
ment opportunities are likely to be fairly good in
this profession for the next few years, unless the
defense mobilization reduces construction activ­
ity more drastically than was anticipated in late
The long-run employment trend in the profes­
sion appears to be slowly upward, owing in part
to the increasing use of architectural services in
both residential and nonresidential construction.
However, the demand for architects’ services de­
pends largely on the volume of building activity.
In the thirties, when construction was at a low
ebb, there was more unemployment among archi­
tects than in many other professional groups.
Where To Go for More Information
American Institute of Architects,
1741 New York Ave., NW .,
Washington, 1). C.

See also Civil Engineers, p. 85; and Draftsmen,
p. 99.

Industrial Designers
(D. O. T. 0-46.88)

Outlook Summary

Nature of Work

Good opportunities for experienced and well
qualified persons in this comparatively small oc­
cupation in the early fifties; some openings for
well-trained beginners. Field likely to expand in
long run, but competition for jobs may become
keener, increasing the importance of well-rounded
training in seeking employment.

Workers in this occupation design the form or
structure of a great variety of products, so that
they will appeal to consumers and meet their
needs. Products designed include automobiles,
furniture, machinery, electrical appliances, ash
trays, fountain pens, and many others. The de­
sign is usually submitted in the form of a drawing



or model, which is made according to a specific
order or request.
Industrial design service is rendered by inde­
pendent design firms consisting of an individual
or a group with their necessary staff doing work
for several manufacturers, or by staff designers
working full time for a single large manufactur­
ing company. In either case one man may design
widely different products, ranging from tooth
brushes to locomotives. Competent persons trans­
fer easily from one field or product to another and
actually benefit from this diversity of experience.
Most industrial designers are employed in large
metropolitan areas, where most designing firms
and industrial plants are located. In 1940, the
majority of industrial designers were employed
in the Northeastern States.
Personal. Qualifications and Training
The industrial designer must have artistic
ability, a knowledge of merchandising, and the
technical skill to create products suited to modern
production methods. A proper educational back­
ground, including training in applied art, the main
branches of factory technology, mathematics and
other technical subjects, business economics, and
consumer psychology, is extremely important. A
few universities and technical schools have com­
bined these courses into programs of study which
may be completed in 3 or 4 years and lead to a
degree or certificate in industrial designing. A
number of industrial designers now in practice
have had training in architecture, engineering, or
one of the sciences.
A less frequent method of entry is through onthe-job training with established designers. Also
some persons enter by transfer from drafting,
commercial art, commercial designing, engineer­
ing, or other allied fields. However, in view of
the variety of skills and knowledge essential for
success, an integrated course of study at college
level is recommended. Before the beginner can

get recognition as a full-fledged designer, he must
have created design ideas that have proved
Outlook •
The demand for the services of industrial
designers will probably increase in the early
fifties. Increased expenditures for defense pro­
duction will create more designing jobs. Thus,
opportunities will be good for experienced and
well qualified persons, with some openings for well
trained beginners. On the other hand, an oversupply of inadequately trained persons usually
exists in this profession.
The field is likely to expand over the long run.
It has developed as a separate occupation only
within the past 20 years and, despite rapid
growth, is still rather small. Among the factors
which indicate long-term growth in opportunities
for industrial designers is the prospect that war­
time technological advances will be adapted more
and more to peacetime uses and that new products
will also be developed as a result of regular re­
search. Employment opportunities, however,
vary considerably with changes in the level of
business activity, and competition for jobs may
eventually become keener if, as expected, more peo­
ple take college training in industrial designing.
Beginners, after training and some experience,
generally received about $50 a week in early 1947;
earnings were reported to be about the same in
1949. A wide range of earnings exists among
established designers; some working on a free­
lance basis make upward of $25,000 yearly.
Where To Get More Information
Society of Industrial Designers,
48 E. 49th St.,
New York, N. Y.

See also Draftsmen, p. 99.

Tool Designers
(D. O. T. 0-48.41)

Outlook Summary

Nature of Work

Expanding employment both in the early fifties
and over long run. However, the number of job
openings will be limited since this is a relatively
small occupation.

The tool designer originates and prepares
sketches of the designs for special fixtures, cutting
tools, and other attachments used on machine tools.
These sketches are made into detailed drawings

8 9 2 2 7 3 ° — 5 1 ---------8



by draftsmen under the direction of the tool de­
signer. The tool designer must have a practical
and detailed knowledge of machine-shop practice,
drafting, and the characteristics of the materials
of which tools and fixtures are made. His duties
include developing new tools as well as redesign­
ing and improving tools currently in use. In the
smaller shops, tool and die makers and machinists
often design and make new accessories for machine
tools as part of their regular duties. In larger
establishments, where many complicated machinetool accessories have to be designed, special tool
designers are employed.

and aircraft industries. The engineering depart­
ments of many companies in these industries have
sections engaged wholly in tool design. Another
large field of employment for tool designers is
with tool and product engineering companies
which specialize in tool designing for other firms
on a contract basis; these companies service mainly
the automobile industry. A third and less im­
portant field of employment is with independent
tool and die shops; however, many of these are
relatively small and much of their designing is
done by the tool and die makers or machinists.
Tool designers are also employed in government
arsenals and navy yards.

Training and Qualifications


One may qualify as a tool designer in several
different ways. Usually, tool and die makers and
machinists supplement their experience by special
training in tool design, drafting, and mathematics,
and then advance into tool design work. This
move from machine-shop and tool-room work to
tool design requires not only ability to conceive
the idea for a new tool that will fill a definite
need in the machining operations but also the
knowledge of how to prepare a working design
for its construction. Other new entrants qualify
by serving a 4-year apprenticeship in tool design­
ing, which should include at least 2 years of ma­
chine-shop training.
Mechanical engineering
graduates who have gained additional practical
experience in machine-shop work may also enter
the field; fewer persons have qualified by this
method than by the other two. Occasionally,
draftsmen acquire sufficient knowledge of ma­
chine-shop practice to advance to tool-design work.
Tool designers with engineering degrees are the
ones likely to advance to broader and more respon­
sible jobs in tool engineering, which include^ the
selection, planning, and production of tools as well
as designing.

The employment outlook for tool designers is
related mainly to trends in metalworking indus­
tries using mass production methods and in the
tool and die shops and engineering firms which
service these industries. A high level of machineshop activity arising from increased expenditures
for defense production and the general trend to­
ward more extensive tooling in machining opera­
tions will provide new opportunities for tool
designers both in the near future and over
the long run. In addition to the long-range trend
toward greater use of special tools, jigs, and fix­
tures in machining operations, more and more
plants have recognized the value of specialized
tool designers and are beginning to employ them.
The introduction of new products, as well as modi­
fication of older ones, frequently requires extensive
retooling. This operation will also contribute to
the demand for tool designers in the coming years.
However, the number of job openings will be lim­
ited, since the occupation is relatively small.

Where Employed
Most jobs for tool designers are in the engineer­
ing and designing departments of large manu­
facturing plants, especially in the automobile,
machine-tool, machinery, electrical equipment,

Earnings of fully qualified tool designers usu­
ally start at about the rates for class-A tool and
die makers (see p. 192), and range upward de­
pending on the degree of skill and responsibility
involved in the position.
Eee also Tool and Die Makers, page 192;
Draftsmen, page 99; Mechanical Engineers, p. 84:
and Aircraft Manufacturing Occupations, p. 273.


( D . O . T . 0 -4 8 .)

Outlook Summary
Good employment prospects for well-trained
drafstmen: however, increasing number of top
jobs being filled by persons with engineering or
architectural degrees.
Nature of Work
Draftsmen make working plans and detailed
drawings for engineering, construction, or manu­
facturing purposes. They generally work from
sketches, specifications, or field notes furnished by
an engineer, architect, or designer. Many types of
drafting instruments are used, including com­
passes, T-squares, triangles, scales, and special
drafting pencils and lettering pens.
A new draftsman usually starts as a tracer or
copyist. From there, he may advance to detailer,
junior draftsman, senior draftsman, and possibly
head or chief draftsman. Workers in the higher
grade positions are required to make calculations
concerning the strength, quality, or cost of mate­
rials ; to use engineering handbooks and tables for
computations; and to have still other skills.
From top drafting jobs, it is possible to advance
to design and engineering positions, especially for
men who obtain additional training in mathe­
matics and science. Many graduates of engineer­
ing and architectural schools start their careers in
the drafting room and may advance rapidly be­
cause of superior training. However, some of
these graduates never achieve professional status.
Most draftsmen specialize in some particular
field o f work. The largest fields are architectural,
structural, mechanical, aeronautical, electrical,
marine, and topographical drafting.

where most of the above mentioned industries are
Qualifications and Training
Usually a person becomes a draftsman either by
studying at a trade or vocational school and later
acquiring practical experience, or by serving a 3or 4-year apprenticeship, or by some other type of
on-the-job training plus part-time schooling. In
any case, the training received should include
mathematics, physical sciences, mechanical draw­
ing, standard methods of lettering, and tracing.
Many of the higher grade jobs require knowledge
of the techniques of the particular industry in­
A draftsman must be neat and accurate. He
must also have good eyesight, manual skill, and a
talent and liking for drawing, in addition to tech­
nical knowledge.
Employment of draftsmen was well above the
pre-World War I I level in mid-1950 and was
expected to increase further in the near future.
M a n y of the top drafting jobs require knowledge of the techniques
of the particular industry involved

Where Employed
In the main, draftsmen are employed in the con­
struction, machinery, iron and steel, automobile,
aircraft, and shipbuilding industries; by private
engineering and architectural consulting firms;
and in Federal, State, and local government agen­
cies. Draftsmen are to be found in every State,
even in small cities, but the greatest number work
in the Northeastern and North Central States



Prospects will probably continue to be good for
well-trained and experienced draftsmen in the
early fifties. Generally, the occupation tends to
be overcrowded at the lower levels by inadequately
trained workers. In addition, a large number of
persons have been completing school training in
recent postwar years (1947-49) ; a large number
of veterans were still in training under the GI
Bill of Bights in 1950. Graduations and enroll­
ments in closely allied professional fields have also
been high in the last few years. Furthermore, an
increasing number of top drafting jobs are being
filled by persons with college degrees in engineer­
ing or architecture. However, the defense mobili­
zation which began in mid-1950 rapidly increased
the demand for well-trained draftsmen and sub­
stantially reduced the competition for jobs among
the less qualified workers.
Over the long run, activity in the “heavy” in­
dustries, where most draftsmen are employed, is
expected to continue its long-term upward trend.
However, the construction industry has in the past
been subject to marked ups and downs. I f re­

peated in the future, these fluctuations would
mean periods of reduced employment for drafts­
men connected with this industry. Employment
of draftsmen in other industries, though affected
by changes in business activity, does not fluctuate
as much as the employment of regular production
workers. A sizable number are employed in re­
search, development, or planning departments
whose work is not always directly affected by
changes in production levels.
Where To Go for More Information
American Institute of Architects,
1741 New York Ave., NW .,
Washington, D. C.
International Federation of Technical Engineers,
Architects, and Draftsmen’s Unions, A. F. of L.,
900 F St., N W .,
Washington, D. C.

See also Architects, p. 95; Civil Engineers, p.
85; Mechanical Engineers, p. 84; Tool Designers,
p. 97; and Industrial Designers, p. 96.

(D. O. T. 0-35.68)

Outlook Summary
The oversupply of meteorologists which existed
in early 1950 was being quickly reduced late in
the year by defense activities. Employment in
this small profession will expand slowly over the
long run.

of the instruments, making observations, drawing
and analyzing maps, as well as producing the final
forecast. Meteorologists also play an important
part in allied fields such as flood warning and con­
trol, soil conservation, irrigation, and insect

Nature o f the Work

Where Employed

Meteorologists are concerned with the study of
weather conditions. They make weather forecasts
covering particular localities or regions, for the
use of aviation and other transportation industries,
manufacturers, and farmers, as well as the general
public. They may also do research on weather
conditions in a particular area over a long period
of time and on such problems as causes of thunder­
storms or hurricanes, ways of creating artificial
rain or snow, long-range forecasting, or new types
of recording instruments. In small stations, me­
teorologists must assume such duties as handling

The United States Weather Bureau is the princi­
pal employer of meteorologists in this country; it
employed about 1,300 of them in late 1949. These
men are located at stations in most principal cities
of the United States, in the Territories, and in a
few foreign cities. About 500 additional civilian
meteorologists are employed as private weather
consultants by commercial air lines, as teachers in
universities, operators of their own businesses, or
are employees in other Government agencies.
Some meteorologists are used in the Armed Forces.
Very few women are employed in this profession.



T raining
A college degree in meteorology is almost im­
perative for the new entrant, though many present
meteorologists gained their skill mainly through
experience. Graduate work is also becoming more
and more helpful. Many universities give one or
two courses in meteorology, but there are only
about a dozen which offer the opportunity to major
or obtain graduate degrees in meteorology. For
workers already employed by the Weather Bureau,
there is an in-service training program which
offers every year a few scholarships at certain uni­
versities to help outstanding workers complete
their professional education.
In addition to academic training, practical work
experience as a weather observer (see p. 10-2) is
valuable to the young meteorologist. Some prom­
ising meteorology students can obtain jobs with
the United States Weather Bureau during the
summer after their junior year under the studentaid program; those accepted under this program
are eligible for professional jobs with the Weather
Bureau upon graduation. Upon a more extensive
work-and-study program now being considered,
college students in meteorology would obtain 3
summers’ work experience.
The competition for meteorological positions
which existed in early 1950 was being rapidly re­
duced late in the year, owing to the defense pro­
gram. The armed services, chiefly the Air
Force, will require some meteorologists. The
Weather Bureau, the main source of employment
for meteorologists, will need some new entrants
particularly as replacements for retiring employ­
ees and those who enter the Armed Forces. How­
ever, there were, in early 1950, about 500
meteorologists on the civil service registers. Fur­
thermore, the supply of trained people will con­
tinue to grow unless many students are withdrawn
for the armed services. In addition to those grad­
uating from schools with long-established meteor­
ology departments, many new entrants are
expected to complete training at schools which
set up new departments in 1948 or 1949.
In the long run, employment will tend to rise
slowly, though this will remain one of the smaller
professions. The expected gradual expansion of
civil aviation will tend to raise the number of

Co u r te s y

o f


. S .

w e a t h e r

B u r ea u

M eteorologist interprets data w hich has been picked up by the
receiving apparatus of the radiosonde

meteorologists needed by the Weather Bureau.
In addition, the airlines .will probably employ a
slowly increasing number of men with some mete­
orological training in dispatcher or other jobs.
Private consultant services furnishing weather
data to meet the client’s particular business needs
offer another new and growing field of opportu­
nity for enterprising meteorologists. A small but
increasing number of meteorologists will be re­
quired as teachers of meteorology, or of meteorol­
ogy in combination with some allied field, as more
and more institutions become interested in adding
weather courses to the curriculum. Research
meteorologists with extensive training and experi­
ence will undoubtedly continue to find good
There will be some openings owing to deaths,
retirements, or other withdrawals, but the main
source of jobs for new entrants will result from
expansion of the profession. Since meteorology
is relatively new as a formalized science, the people
in the field are predominantly younger men.
Opportunities for women in this work will prob­
ably continue to be rather limited. What few
chances there are for their employment are likely
to be at women’s colleges, teaching courses in


meteorology along with other scientific subjects,
A few positions in the Weather Bureau are
especially suited to women.
Earnings and Working Conditions
In late 1949, salaries of professional meteorol­
ogists in the Weather Bureau started at $3,100 a
year. Most experienced men earned between
$3,825 and $5,350 a year. Those with supervisory,
administrative, or executive duties had higher
salaries. Those who are stationed in the Terri­
tories receive a territorial differential which is 25
percent of their basic salaries. In foreign coun­
tries, allowances are made on the basis of cost-ofliving, as authorized by the State Department.
With the commercial air lines, junior meteor­
ologists had monthly rates ranging from $175 to
$300 in late 1949; meteorologists made from $240
to $425; senior meteorologists, $250 to $485. Air
line meteorologists working at overseas stations
get special allowances.
Many Weather Bureau jobs involve night work,
frequently on rotating shifts, since stations are
operated on a 24-hour basis. Although most sta­
tions are located at airports or other places in or

near large cities, there are some posts in very
remote and isolated spots. Some civilian jobs are
located outside continental United States in such
places as Alaska, Wake Island, Canton Island,
Hawaii, Puerto Rico, Iceland, and Ireland.
These people, like other government employees,
have unusually steady employment and stable
earnings, paid vacations, sick leave, pensions, and
other benefits.
Where To Co for More Information
For general information on the profession, one
may write t o :
American Meteorological Society,
5 Joy St., Boston 8, Mass.

The United States Weather Bureau, Washing­
ton 25, D. C., should be consulted directly for
information on positions with that agency, as well
as on the student-aid program.
The following publication gives information on
women in the profession: U. S. Department of
Labor, Women’s Bureau, The Outlook for Women
in Geology, Geography and Meteorology. Bulle­
tin No. 223-7, 1948. Superintendent of Docu­
ments, Washington 25, D. C. Price 20 cents.

Weather Observers
(D. O. T. 0-66.88)

Outlook Summary
Opportunities expected to be limited in this
small occupation. Persons with professional
training in meteorology will have advantage over
other job applicants.

sities and private forecasting services. A few em­
ployees of the Civil Aeronautics Administration
make weather observations in addition to their
other duties; these people must pass an examina­
tion in meteorology given by the Weather Bureau.

Nature of Work

How To Enter

These workers’ main job is to make weather
observations, using instruments which measure
temperature, humidity, atmospheric pressure, wind
direction, or wind velocity. They may also plot
the data on weather maps, draw weather charts,
and keep weather records. Often they answer
inquiries as to the weather and handle other duties,
under the direction of the professional meteorolo­
gists at the station.
O f the 2,700 weather observers employed at the
end of 1949, about 2,300 were in the United States
Weather Bureau. The others worked for univer­

High school graduation, with courses in mathe­
matics and science, or 1 year of experience in
weather observing is the minimum requirement for
jobs in the Weather Bureau. Some college train­
ing in the physical sciences is desirable. Some
newly graduated persons with degrees in meteorol­
ogy take weather observer jobs at first, to gain
valuable practical experience. Veterans who have
had weather observer training in the Armed
Forces receive special preference for jobs. All
weather-observing personnel with Government
agencies must take written examinations.



The United States Weather Bureau operates an
in-service training program for its employees and
also offers a few meteorological scholarships each
year at leading universities to improve the profes­
sional competence of outstanding employees.
Opportunities for weather observers will be
limited over the long run, as well as in the immedi­
ate future unless there is great expansion of the
defense program. The Weather Bureau, which
employs about 85 percent of all the observers, had
no plans in mid-1950 for a significant increase of
staff. Openings for weather observers outside the
Weather Bureau will continue to be a relatively
minor source of employment.
Personnel available for weather observing jobs
may continue to exceed the few positions arising
from normal turn-over, although shortages of ap­
plicants may develop for positions in isolated
areas. New entrants without specialized training
may find it difficult to obtain employment
in or near large cities. However, veterans with
weather-observer training in the Armed Forces
and civilians trained by the Weather Bureau dur­
ing World War II may be able to find jobs, par­
ticularly if defense mobilization is accelerated.
In the Weather Bureau, observers with mini­
mum qualifications start at $2,650 a year. People
with more training or experience may begin at

somewhat higher rates. Jobs in the Territories
carry a 25 percent territorial differential.
Many of the Weather Bureau jobs are located
in or near large cities, often at the local airport.
However, some of the weather observatories are
in remote and isolated spots; a few are outside
continental United States in such places as Alaska,
Iceland, Puerto Rico, Hawaii, Wake Island, and
Canton Island.
Since weather stations operate on a 24-hour
basis, observers often have to do night w ork; fre­
quently they are on rotating shifts. These people,
like other government workers, have unusually
steady employment and stable earnings, paid va­
cations, sick leave, pensions, and other benefits.
Where To Go for More Information
For general information write to:
American Meteorological Society,
5 Joy St.,
Boston 8, Mass.

People interested in employment with the United
States Weather Bureau should get in touch with
the nearest of the four Weather Bureau regional
offices, which are located in New York, N. Y . ;
Kansas City, Mo.; Fort Worth, Tex.; and Salt
Lake City, Utah. For employment outside conti­
nental United States, the Weather Bureau office
in Washington, D. C., should be consulted. In ­
formation on employment opportunities for
meteorology students, through the Student Aid
Program, may also be obtained from the United
States Weather Bureau in Washington.

Broadcasting Engineers and Technicians
(D. O. T. 0-61.10, .16, .17, .30, .40, and .50)

Outlook Summary

Nature of Work

Many jobs in new television stations by 1960
unless defense preparations restrict construction.
Little further growth and eventual decline in
number of sound stations. Big sound stations,
networks, and T V stations generally hire men
with experience.

Groups covered are (1) transmitter operators,
who operate and maintain transmitters and re­
lated equipment; (2) studio operators, master con­
trol operators, and field engineers, who are
responsible for the arrangement and operation o f
studio and field equipment, including operation o f




Left, radio operator controls television transm ission; right, sound

volume controls during broadcasts; (3) mainte­
nance men; and (4) the various groups of tech­
nicians—such as video operators, cameramen, and
projectionists—who work only at T V stations.
Training and Qualifications
Transmitter operators are required to have firstclass radio-telephone licenses from the Federal
Communications Commission.
No license is
needed for other types of work, but many men on
these jobs have licenses. To obtain a license, one
must be a citizen and must pass an examination
requiring knowledge of mathematics, basic radio
theory, advanced radio telephony, and FCC regu­
lations. Employers often set up additional re­
quirements with regard to experience, formal edu­
cation, and practical skills. Men who can an­
nounce in addition to qualifying as engineers have
an advantage in getting jobs.
Television engineers and technicians must have
an unusually high degree of skill and technical
knowledge and must undergo on-the-job training.
Most trainees are selected from among the AM and
FM men; a few come directly from the better
radio and television schools. Sometimes graduate
electrical or electronic engineers are taken on as
trainees; many employers prefer men with a pro­
fessional education.

Between 11,000 and 12,000 engineers and tech­
nicians were employed at 2,300 AM, FM, and
combination A M -F M stations in late 1949. The
number of stations and of operators employed had
both more than doubled since 1945. Employment
at sound stations will increase at a much slower
rate in the early 1950’s and may eventually de­
cline. Most jobs will result from turn-over at
established stations. There is likely to be stiff
competition for the better-paying jobs at big sta­
tions, which, as a rule, hire only experienced men.
Competition for jobs at smaller stations, which
pay lower wages, will continue to be less keen.
Inexperienced men almost always start at these
small stations.
New television stations probably will take on
several thousand technicians in the next 10 years.
Fewer than 100 such stations were operating in
late 1949, but within a few years there will be
several hundreds if defense preparations do not
hinder construction. This will mean greatly ex­
panded opportunities for engineers and techni­
cians with TV training although the industry will
still be a small one. Men without such experience
probably will find it hard to get jobs in television
unless they have exceptional qualifications.
Earnings and Working Conditions
Transmitter engineers working for the Nation­
wide networks and their key stations had average
earnings of $118 in a survey week in October 1948.
At other stations with 15 or more employees, these
workers averaged $71. Studio engineers em­
ployed by the networks and their key stations
averaged $120; those at the other sizable stations
averaged $78. At stations with less than 15 em­
ployees, all technical personnel, including super­
visors, averaged $59 for the survey week, much
less than technicians employed at the bigger sta­
tions and networks. Working hours averaged
from 42 to 44 a week.
Principal unions organizing radio operators are
the International Brotherhood of Electrical
Workers (A F L ), the National Association of
Broadcast Engineers and Technicians (independ­
ent), and the American Communications Asso­
ciation (C IO ).


Ship Radio Operators
(D. O. T. 0-61.33)

Outlook Summary
Good employment prospects in the early fifties.
Small occupation.
Nature of Work
Ship operators stand watch in the radio room,
to receive incoming messages in telegraphic code
and transmit any outgoing ones. They keep
records of messages handled and must be familiar
with code books and radio channels. They also
make adjustments in the receiving and trans­
mitting equipment to give the clearest possible
reception, and take care of routine repairs. In
addition, operators are responsible for other types
of electronic equipment aboard, such as radio di­
rection finders. On a minority of ships and for
extra pay, they perform clerical tasks not related
to their regular duties. Like other members of
the crew, they take part in shipboard emergency
Where Employed
Oceangoing vessels of more than 1,600 tons, in­
cluding those engaged in coastwise traffic, all carry
radio operators. The great majority of ship oper­
ators are on cargo vessels, but a hundred or so
are on oceangoing passenger ships, which usually
have at least three operators in order to maintain
the required continuous radio watch. A much
smaller number still are on Great Lakes passenger
vessels. Cargo vessels operating exclusively on
the Great Lakes seldom have radio operators;
these ships have only radiotelephone equipment,
which is usually operated by the captain or other
ship’s officer.
Men serving as ship operators must hold firstor second-class radio telegraph licenses issued by
the Federal Communications Commission. To
qualify for a second-class license, an appli­
cant must pass a written examination covering
basic communications law and radiotelegraph
theory and practice, and must demonstrate ability
to transmit and receive Morse Code at the rate of

16 code groups a minute. For a first-class license,
an applicant must have more advanced knowledge
and be able to transmit and receive 20 code groups
a minute and 25 plain language words a minute.
In addition, to obtain a first-class license, one must
be at least 21 years of age and have had at least 1
year's experience. Ship operators are required to
have a Radio Officer’s License issued by the U. S.
Coast Guard.
Hiring is most often done through the American
Radio Association (CIO ) or the Radio Officers
Union (A F L ) ; a large majority of ship operators
belong to one of these unions.
Employment of operators expanded greatly
during World War I I and fell sharply after
YJ-day. During World War II there were as
many as 3,900 merchant ships with radiotele­
graph, most of which had 2 operators and some
had more. In the years following YJ-day the
number of active ships declined to less than 1,500,
and most of them had only one operator. As a
result, many operators took other jobs, and there
were long waiting lists for assignments to ships.
The stepped-up defense program begun in mid1950, however, will bring about rising employment
of ship radio operators for several years at least,
and it will be easier for them to find jobs than at
any other time since World War II.
Earnings and Hours of Work
Operators on cargo ships, by far the largest
group, received base pay of about $324 a month
in 1949, plus overtime for holiday and Sunday
work. Additional overtime work is common, so
most operators earn considerably more than the
base rate. Generally, operators on the relatively
few passenger ships are paid higher base rates.
Operators receive board and room free of charge
aboard ship and are given paid vacations.
See also Flight Radio Operators, page 443;
Ground Radio Operators and Teletypists, page
450; Broadcasting Engineers and Technicians,
page 103; Radio Operators (Telephone and Tele­
graph Industry), page 106.


Radio Operators (Telephone and Telegraph Industry)
(D. O. T. 0-61.25, .33, and .36)

Outlook Summary
Employment declining in this small field. Ex­
tremely few job openings expected.
Nature of Work
A few major companies which specialize in ra­
diotelegraph and radiotelephone service and which
operate shore stations for communicating with
ships at sea employ most of the workers covered
in this statement. There are also a number of
smaller companies in this field.
There are two main groups of workers, radio
operators and radio operating technicians. The
radio operators transmit and receive radiotele­
graph messages in code, mostly to and from over­
seas points and ships at sea. They use both semi­
automatic and manually operated equipment and
must meet the company’s minimum requirements
with regard to speed in receiving and transmitting
messages. They need little technical knowledge
of radio. The Federal Communications Commis­
sion does not require licenses for this group.
The radio operating technicians adjust, main­
tain, and repair the actual transmitting and receiv­
ing equipment. Their jobs are similar to those of
transmitter operators in the radio broadcasting
industry. They must have first or second class
radiotelephone or radiotelegraph licenses issued
by the FCC. Requirements for licenses include
United States citizenship; passing a written ex­
amination on communications law, radio theory,
and related subjects; and, for radiotelegraph li­


censes, passing a speed test in receiving and send­
ing code messages.
This is a small field, offering extremely limited
employment opportunities. Fewer than 1,000
radio operators and about 500 radio operating
technicians were employed in late 1948, including
those working outside continental United States.
Employment of high-speed manual operators
will continue to decline. The volume of overseas
communications is increasing, but teletype, multi­
plex, and other automatic machines are gradually
replacing manually operated equipment. With
the shift to automatic equipment, fewer and lessskilled workers are needed. Opportunities for
radio operating technicians will also be scarce.
Earnings and Working Conditions
The middle 50 percent of the senior radio oper­
ators working for the principal companies earned
between $1.53 and $1.77 an hour in 1948. The cor­
responding figures for junior operators were $1.44
and $1.52; for marine coastal station operators,
$1.52 and $1.82; and for radio operating techni­
cians, $1.64 and $1.87.
Working hours averaged about 38 a week. The
American Radio Association (CIO) is the prin­
cipal union in this field.
See also Broadcasting Engineers and Techni­
cians, page 103; and Ship Radio Operators,
page 105.


Personnel W orkers 1
(D. O. T. 0-39.82 and .83; 0.68.71 and .73)

Outlook Summary
Expanding employment in the early fifties
owing to defense program. Profession also ex­
pected to grow slowly over long run.
Nature of Work
Personnel workers plan for and assist in the
recruitment, placement, training, rating, disci­
pline, lay-off, and discharge of employes. They
maintain personnel records and may also be re­
sponsible for job standardization and classifica­
tion and wage setting; for employee counseling,
welfare services, health, safety, and pension and
retirement systems; for compliance with Federal
and State labor laws; and for an employee infor­
mation service. Labor relations is becoming one
of the most important parts of their work. In a
small company, one man may handle all this work;
sometimes he may also have other duties of a non­
personnel nature. In the largest organizations,
the personnel manager is a top-ranking executive
who advises in setting personnel policies and su­
pervises as many as several hundred personneldepartment employees.
Professional personnel workers number in the
tens of thousands. Directors or managers make
up only a small proportion of the total. Personnel
workers are employed in all industries and by Fed­
eral, State, and local governments. A few hun­
dred are employed in universities as teachers of
personnel administration. Men with long and
varied experience may work independently as pri­
vate consultants or labor-relations experts.
About three out of every four people in the pro­
fession are men. Very few women have top mana­
gerial positions, but many are in technical person­
nel jobs such as classification and placement, in
interviewing and counseling, and in personnel
research—particularly in government and in in­
dustries with large numbers of women workers.
How To Enter
Requirements for professional personnel posi­
tions usually include a bachelor’s degree, with


student personnel workers in schools and colleges.

courses in personnel and public administration,
psychology, statistics, business management, eco­
nomics, sociology, political science, English, and
public speaking. Graduate study is becoming in­
creasingly useful; in many universities technical
personnel courses are offered only at the graduate
Experience in the type of work done by the
employees with whom a prospective personnel
man expects to deal is useful in providing insight
into their problems. Such experience is particu­
larly important for positions in private industry,
which are usually filled from within. In a factory,
the best place to start is in a production job. Other
good places are subprofessional jobs in time study,
job analysis, or wage setting, or, in the case of
women, clerical positions in the personnel depart­
ment. Many of the leading personnel executives
in private industry today came into the field via
production and supervisory work, which gave
them the necessary first-hand contact with the
operation of their company. Psychological test­
ing is one of the few branches of industrial per­
sonnel work which can be entered directly from
college; it usually requires a graduate degree.
Though keen competition for entry positions in
personnel work existed in mid-1950, improvement
in the employment situation was expected owing
to increasing defense activities. College enroll­
ments in personnel administration courses have
been extremely high since World War II. Many
of the people taking training had wartime exper­
ience in personnel work; those with relevant ex­
perience may have an advantage in competing for
jobs over people with college training only. New
graduates from personnel courses may continue to
have some difficulty in finding jobs, unless enroll­
ments are sharply reduced by withdrawals for
military service or unless the expansion in the
employment of personnel workers in defense
plants and Government agencies is very great.
Opportunities at top managerial levels, already


good in early 1950, will improve in the immediate
Over the long run, the profession will probably
grow slowly. Openings will not be many, how­
ever, because the field is relatively small and
turn-over low. Not only is the profession staffed
mainly by younger men, but people who succeed
in making headway seldom transfer to other
occupations. Best opportunities for jobs will be
with small and medium-sized companies. Fields
in which increasing employment of personnel
workers is expected in the long run include whole­
sale and retail trade, especially department stores;
insurance and finance ; and State and local gov­
It is expected that the profession will keep on
rising in status in the managerial hierarchy, and
that personnel officials will gain in prestige and
responsibility. A small but increasing number of
top-notch personnel executives are being appointed
to high administrative posts in government and
in private industry. A very few outstanding men
will continue to find opportunities as labor arbi­
trators or independent personnel consultants.
Over the long run, people with graduate degrees
will also find some openings to teach personnel
administration; as the profession grows, teaching
opportunities will tend to increase.
Most jobs, along with the keenest competition,
will be in highly industrialized parts of the coun­
try, principally New York, New Jersey, Penn­
sylvania, Ohio, Illinois, and the West Coast.

Annual starting salaries for most personnel
clerks in the Federal Government were $2,875 in
late 1949. Personnel specialists started at about
$3,100 while personnel directors earned approxi­
mately $6,000 to $11,000. State and local govern­
ments paid salaries in late 1949 that were gen­
erally somewhat lower, although there were a few
examples of salaries as high as $12,000.
In private industry starting rates are lower
than in the Federal Government but top salaries
are much higher; earnings depend on both the
general salary level of the company and the degree
of recognition given to personnel work. Begin­
ning positions such as job analyst, time study man
and interviewer generally paid from $1,800 to
$2,600 a year in 1947. The most usual annual
salary for a personnel manager was between $6,000
and $8,000. However, small companies may pay
as little as $5,000 a -year and giant corporations
as high as $30,000 or more to a vice-president in
charge of industrial relations.
Where To Go for Additional Information
Society for the Advancement of Management,
84 W illiam St., New York 7, N. Y.

Information may also be obtained from the local
chapters of this organization and from the deans
of any of the major colleges of business adminis­
tration. For a fairly comprehensive list of schools
offering courses in personnel work, see The Per­
sonnel Journal, Volume 26, No. 8, February 1948.

(D. O. T. 0-36.21 through .26)

Outlook Summary
Excellent prospects for qualified psychologists
in early fifties. Long-run outlook very good for
people with the doctorate; less favorable for those
who get only a master’s degree, owing to the trend
toward more positions requiring a Ph.D.
Nature of Work
The psychologist does research in human be­
havior; teaches psychology; or applies psycho­
logical principles and procedures in such work as

measuring aptitudes and other qualities, guiding
and counseling people with personal problems, in­
terviewing and classifying workers for jobs, doing
clinical work, or acting as a consultant to other
professional workers or executives.
A clinical psychologist usually collaborates with
psychiatrists and social workers in dealing with
maladjusted or disturbed people. His particular
role is to contribute toward diagnosis and treat­
ment by tests, interviews, and other techniques; to
perform certain types of psychotherapy in collab­
oration with psychiatrists or other medical person­


nel; to conduct certain types of research; and to
train other clinical psychologists.
Where Employed
About 10,000 professional psychologists were
employed in the United States in mid-1950.
Colleges and universities constitute the largest
single field of employment. In addition, sizable
numbers of psychologists work for government
agencies or privately supported community agen­
cies; others are in private industry; still others
are in independent practice.
Most clinical psychologists, of whom there were
roughly 1,500 in mid-1950, are employed in mental
hygiene clinics, child-guidance clinics, or hospitals,
though some are in private practice. Some clinics
are separate agencies; others are operated by
schools, courts, institutions for the insane or feeble­
minded, or government agencies of other types.
The Veterans Administration employed over 300
clinical psychologists in the summer of 1950.
Training and Other Qualifications
The trend is toward requiring the Ph. D. for
new entrants, especially in the teaching and clini­
cal fields, although the master’s degree is still
accepted for many positions, chiefly in the field of
guidance and counseling. A bachelor’s degree
qualifies only for psychological technician work,
and even for such work an internship or additional
specialized training may be required. A profes­
sional psychologist must have at least 1 to 4 years
of experience besides an advanced degree. Super­
vised experience, offered as part of graduate train­
ing, is acceptable as part of the experience require­
ment. Experience and training must be in a field
related to the branch of psychology which the
trainee expects to enter; for example, clinical psy­
chologists must usually have had 1 to 3 years’
experience in applying psychological principles to
the aid of maladjusted individuals in cooperation
with psychiatrists. Requirements are occasionally
lowered where no qualified applicant is available.
Much emphasis is placed on emotional maturity.
Applicants for government positions must usu­
ally qualify through civil service. Private practioners in Kentucky must be certified; they must
have a Ph.D. and several years of experience and

pass a State examination. A few cities in other
States also require certification for private prac­
tice. The profession is urging the passage of cer­
tification laws in other States. The probable
requirements will be the Ph.D. plus at least 1 year
of full-time professional experience or, possibly,
the equivalent in education and experience.
Special training programs in clinical psychol­
ogy have been set up since World War II, under
the Veterans Administration, United States Pub­
lic Health Service, and the United States Army.
These programs all provide some remuneration
during the training period.
The shortage o f psychologists, especially of
Ph.D.’s, is expected to persist in most fields during
the early 1950’s, although the supply of profes­
sionally trained personnel increased markedly
in 1948 and 1949, and may continue to do so
for the next few years at least. The shortage will
continue to be most acute in clinical work. In
mid-1950, the Veterans Administration was seek­
ing 600 clinical psychologists in addition to those
already employed. The Army Clinical Psychol­
ogy Branch, already inadequately staffed, was
faced with the problem of finding trained person­
nel to handle an increasing number of servicemen.
The expanding program of State-supported clin­
ics subsidized by the Public Health Service was
expected to require 100 to 200 new clinical psy­
chologists each year. In addition, at the begin­
ning of 1950 many vacancies existed in privately
supported clinics. Many hospitals were adding
clinical psychologists to their staffs. Training
centers still needed highly experienced people to
train new personnel.
Needs will continue to be great also in other
branches of the profession. Progressive educa­
tional systems will create new openings for school
psychologists. Many business concerns are adding
psychologists to their personnel departments or,
for the first time, using the services o f psychologi­
cal consulting firms. While the Veterans Admin­
istration was reducing its staff of vocational
advisors in early 1950, the program had stimulated
colleges and other organizations to supply guid­
ance services. Aside from the Veterans Admin­
istration, the greatest number of vacancies for


various types of psychologists in Federal employ­
ment will probably be with the defense agencies.
Vacancies are also anticipated in the State De­
partment, Civil Service Commission, and the Fed­
eral Security Agency. Government programs
offer opportunities in every field of psychology,
but two fields in which the Government’s needs
are growing rapidly in comparison to the supply
are the fields of social psychology and psycho­
logical measurement.
Graduate schools are filled to capacity, but the
facilities for training psychologists in some fields
are inadequate to produce sufficient personnel to
meet the needs. This is especially true of facili­
ties for training clinical psychologists; fewer than
200 fully qualified workers in this branch of the
profession completed their training in the aca­
demic year 1949-50. There is keen competition
among new graduates with bachelor’s degrees
in psychology (over 9,500 in 1950) for admission
to graduate training. However, training facili­
ties are gradually being increased. This increase,
plus the trend toward raising employment require­
ments to the Ph. D. level, may lead to increasing
competition for jobs among new entrants with
only a master’s degree in some fields. The com­
petition among vocational advisors was already
considerable in early 1950. The withdrawal of
many students for the Armed Forces would, of
course, lessen competition among new entrants.
The long-term trend in the use of psychologists
appears to be upward, although there is a possi­
bility that the rapid rate of growth of the late
1940’s may slacken somewhat. Teachers, particu­
larly at the graduate level, will continue to be in
demand to train the needed specialists and to direct
research. The United States Public Health Serv­
ice is furnishing subsidies to build up psychology
departments, especially for clinical training. Con­
tinued expansion of clinical psychology is ex­
pected. The Veterans Administration planned in
early 1950 to increase its staff of clinical psycholo­
gists to a total o f 1,200 in 5 years, to 1,500 in 10
years, and to an even greater number by 1970.
Employment in State-supported clinics should rise
by at least 500 in 5 years. The Navy plans to set
up a clinical program when personnel becomes
available. It has been estimated that, if the men­
tal health needs of the Nation were adequately met,
10,000 clinical psychologists would be employed.

Budgetary limitations, as well as personnel short­
ages, now prevent the employment of this number.
However, expenditures for mental hygiene are
likely to be enlarged owing to an increased under­
standing of the needs and benefits of such treat­
ment and to stimulation from Federal grants-inaid. There is also likely to be greater provision
for early clinical treatment of maladjusted
In other branches of psychology, employment
opportunities are likely to increase as money be­
comes available to meet recognized needs. Psy­
chology as a science is still in its infancy; even so,
many related fields rely on psychological prin­
ciples and use phychologists for training, consult­
ing, testing, or other purposes. As research pro­
ceeds, the science will probably gain greater pres­
tige, and th ere will be an increasing demand for the
application of its principles.
In addition to newly created jobs, some vacancies
occur owing to retirements. Such vacancies are
now small in number because the field is new and
few persons have reached retirement age, but the
need for replacements will be appreciable in 20 or
30 years.
In 1948, median annual earnings of professional
psychologists were about $5,450, according to a
survey by the American Psychological Associa­
tion. Those holding Ph. D.’s had median earnings
of $6,150, but for those without the doctorate the
corresponding figure was about $4,050. Median
earnings of women psychologists were about
$4,200; those of men, $6,100. In colleges and uni­
versities, median earnings ranged from about
$3,200 for instructors to approximately $7,650 for
department heads and deans. Psychologists em­
ployed by the Federal Government had median
earnings o f $5,650 for 1948; those working for
State and city governments, a median of $4,750;
those with private organizations, a median of
$5,000. A ll the above earnings figures include
any supplementary professional income received,
such as that from summer teaching or consulting.
Clinical psychologists employed by the Federal
Government earn somewhat more than those em­
ployed by other institutions. In the Veterans A d­
ministration, basic annual salaries in late 1949
started at $4,600 for those who had just completed


the V A training program or its equivalent and
went up to $7,600 for branch chiefs. In addition,
in-grade pay increases are granted to Federal em­
ployees for each 12 or 18 months of service. Basic
salary rates in the Army ranged from $4,212 for
unmarried psychologists with the rank of first
lieutenant to $8,784 for married men with the rank
of colonel. After 30 years’ service, an Army psy­
chologist can retire on an annual income of about
Trainees in clinical psychology under the Vet­
erans Administration program in 1949 were paid
for the time actually worked. They usually work
about half time and earn about half the specified
annual rates for full-time work, which are $3,100
the first year, $3,825 the second year, and $4,600
the third and fourth years. Veterans receive ad­
ditional benefits under Pub. Law 16 or Pub. Law
346. United States Public Health Service trainees
in 1949 received a stipend of $1,200 the first year,
$1,600 the second, $2,000 the third, and $2,400 the
fourth; they may not receive aid from any other
Federal agency. Army-officer trainees with 2
years of graduate training are commissioned as
second lieutenants and receive $3,790 if single and
$3,970 if married.
Where To Go for More Information

American Psychological Association,
1515 Massachusetts Ave. N W .,
Washington 5, D. C.

For information on Veterans Administra­
tion training program for clinical psychologists:
Chief, Clinical Psychology Section,
Psychiatry and Neurology Division,
Department of Medicine and Surgery,
Veterans Administration,
Washington 25, D. C.

F or information on the clinical psychologist
training program o f the U. S. Public Health
Training and Standards Section,
National Institute of Mental Health,
U. S. Public Health Service,
Bethesda, Md.

For information on the clinical psychologist
training program o f the Department o f the Arm y :
Department of the Army,
Office of the Surgeon General,
Attention: Personnel Division,
Washington 25, D. C.

For information on internships in clinical
National Committee for Mental Hygiene,
1790 Broadway,
New York 19, N. Y.

For information on accredited graduate schools
and placement opportunities:

Social Workers
(D. O. T. 0-27)

Outlook Summary
Excellent employment opportunities expected in
early fifties in all types o f positions. Long-run
outlook good fo r workers with graduate training;
those with only undergraduate training may face
increasing competition.

Nature of Work
The three main types o f social work are social
case work with individuals, social group work,
and community organization. Principal special­
ties within the field o f case work are public as­
sistance, other fam ily service work, child welfare
services, school social work, medical social work,

psychiatric social work, and work in the correc­
tional field such as probation, parole, and other
work with delinquents. Some social workers are
engaged in teaching, administration, or research.
The majority are employed by State and local gov­
ernments; most of the remainder by private social
agencies and the Federal Government; a few by
private industry. Social work positions are lo­
cated in all parts of the country, in both urban
and rural areas.
How To Enter
In early 1950, 52 accredited schools (46 in conti­
nental United States and the remainder in Canada,
Hawaii, and Puerto Rico) offered graduate edu­


cation in social work. Two years of such training
is usually considered necessary for positions in­
volving advanced case work and is desirable for all
jobs. Qualifications for most Federal civil service
positions can be met either by specified amounts of
training in social work or by a combination of
training and experience. Entrance requirements
for graduate schools include undergraduate
courses in social and biological sciences and a

p h o t o g r a p h

b y

U .

S .

d e p a r t m e n t

o f

l a b o r


Social work requires tact and understanding in helping people deal
with their problems.

scholastic standing above a specified level. For
persons who enter the field with only a B.A. degree,
some colleges and universities offer preprofes­
sional courses in social work, or extension courses
which may be taken on a part-time basis and ap­
plied toward a graduate degree. Some positions,
for example in some State public-assistance pro­
grams, may be entered without a bachelor’s degree.
Scholarships are available at most accredited
schools of social work, and both private and public
agencies encourage further training through
scholarships, special work-study arrangements,
and educational leave. Emotional maturity and
good judgment are essential for most social work
Roughly 100,000 social workers were employed
in 19-19; about two-thirds were women. The pro­
portion of Negroes employed is small, but greater
than before World War II.

There was an acute shortage of social workers
in mid-1950, owing largely to the increased use of
social services and the inability of the professional
schools to keep pace with the demand for trained
personnel. Although enrollments were approxi­
mately 50 percent higher in 1949 than at the end of
World War II and schools had waiting lists of
applicants, shortages of trained and qualified
workers for all types of positions are expected to
continue at least during the early fifties. State
and local agencies are expected to have increasing
need for professionally trained workers for child
welfare and mental hygiene services and public
assistance. The Veterans Administration will
continue to need social workers in certain areas.
Experienced workers will probably continue to
advance rapidly to better positions in administra­
tion, supervision, research, and teaching, thus leav­
ing openings in the case work jobs. Shortages in
rural areas will likely be the last to be relieved.
The greatest number of workers will continue to be
employed in cities. An accelerated program of
mobilization involving more people in defense pro­
duction and in the Armed Forces would further
increase the need for social workers to serve in
hospital units and to give aid in solving various
family adjustment problems.
Workers with graduate training will probably
find good employment opportunities in the long
run, as well as in the immediate future. Only
about one out of three social workers employed in
1949 had this training. There is a definite trend
toward higher training requirements, which may
be expected to become more widespread as soon as
shortages are less severe. How many people
will be employed in the field as a whole will
depend largely on the appropriations for public
social work by Federal, State, and local govern­
ments ; to a lesser extent on community support of
private agencies. In any case, many openings will
arise owing to turn-over, which is high because
many women leave the field to marry (though
marriage is not a barrier to employment in this
Earnings and 'Working Conditions
Public-assistance salaries were estimated to
average between $1,800 and $2,400 in most States


in 1949. Salaries of experienced case workers
(including case-work supervisors) in large cities
ranged from about $2,700 to $4,000 in most fields;
those in small cities and rural areas were some­
what less. Typical salaries for administrators
varied from about $3,600 to $13,000, depending on
the size of the agency. The entrance salary for
most social-work jobs in the Veterans Adminis­
tration was $3,825 in late 1949.
According to a survey of social workers in Mich­
igan, median annual earnings as of November
1948 were $3,100, with half the workers earning
between $2,650 and $3,850. The average for
women was $2,880 a year. Men usually received
higher pay than women in the same type of posi­
tion; their earnings in 1948 averaged $3,700. Sal­
aries tended to increase with experience; persons
who had been employed in social work less than
2 years averaged $2,500 a year, while those with
20 or more years’ experience averaged $4,150.
Workers with no graduate training in social work
earned, on the average, $700 less than those re­
porting some graduate education.
The usual weekly work schedule was 40 hours,
according to the Michigan survey. Almost all
social workers in this study received paid vaca­
tions and sick leave after a year’s service. About
six out of seven were covered by some sort of
retirement plan.

Where To Find Out More About Social Work
General information on the profession may be
obtained from:
American Association of Social Workers,
One Park Aye.,
New York 16, N. Y.

Information on salaries of social workers in
Michigan in 1948 is available in reprint form
(Serial No. R. 1957) on request to the Bureau of
Labor Statistics, United States Department of
Labor, Washington 25, D. C. The preliminary
report on a comparable Nation-wide survey of
social workers will be available in early 1951.
A study of social work education, conducted
by Ernest V. Hollis and Alice L. Taylor under
the auspices of the National Council on Social
Work Education, is scheduled for publication in
early 1951. The report will discuss the past, pres­
ent, and future status of social work and will make
recommendations on issues affecting long-range
planning in social work education.
A series of bulletins on the outlook for women
in social work is being prepared by the Women’s
Bureau, United States Department of Labor. The
first bulletin, “ The Outlook for Women in Social
Case Work in a Medical Setting” (No. 235-1), is
available from the Superintendent o f Documents,
Washington 25, D. C. Price 25 cents.

D. O . T. 0-22

Outlook Summary
Profession overcrowded in mid-1950 and likely
to remain so in the next few years, though defense
program will tend to ease competition among new
entrants. Some expansion in demand for legal
services likely over the long run.
Nature of Work
A large portion o f lawyers’ work consists in
advising clients on their legal rights and obliga­
tions and in negotiating settlements out o f court.
In addition, lawyers prosecute or defend both
civil and criminal law suits in the courts. They
may also represent clients before semi judicial or
administrative agencies o f the government, draw
up legal documents, often act as trustee, guardian

or executor, and do other legal work. Those em­
ployed by the government may also prepare drafts
of proposed legislation, and help to establish pro­
cedures for law enforcement.
The number of lawyers and judges in the United
States in late 1949 was roughly estimated at 200,000, including more than 4,000 women. The ma­
jority of lawyers (about two-thirds, according to
a 1947 survey) derive most of their professional
income from independent practice, either by them­
selves or, less often, with partners. The remainder
depend on salaried positions with other lawyers,
industrial firms, banks, labor unions, government
agencies, etc. A considerable number combine
salaried and independent practice; others do legal
work on a part-time basis in conjunction with such
nonlegal pursuits as real estate or insurance.

892273°— 51----- 9



How To Enter
Prospective lawyers must meet the requirements
for admission to the bar of the States where they
intend to practice. The main educational require­
ment is graduation from law school (or equivalent
study in a law office, a method of training now
very rarely used, although still permitted in 27
States as of mid-1949). Many States require regis­
tration and approval by the Board of Bar Ex­
aminers before a student begins his law study.
Most States require that the law school which the
candidate attended be one approved by either the
proper State authorities or the American Bar As­
sociation; in September 1949, 113 of the Nation’s
173 law schools were approved by the American
Bar Association. It usually takes 3 years in full­
time day school or 4 years in night school to obtain
an LL.B.
To be admitted to an ABA-approved law school,
at least 2 years of prelaw college work were re­
quired in late 1949; 53 of these 113 schools re­
quired a minimum of 2 years, 43 required at least
3 years, and 17 required a college degree. Most
other law schools required only 2 years of college
work. However, the trend is toward higher en­
trance requirements; a large proportion of stu­
dents entering law school now have college degrees.
Besides meeting the educational requirements, a
prospective lawyer must pass the State bar exami­
nation—except that in seven States, mostly in the
South, graduates o f the State university law school
and occasionally of other specified law schools are
admitted to the bar without examination. Several
States require 6 to 12 months’ clerkship in a law
office, in addition to the specified education and
the bar examinations.
Many young lawyers start as law clerks in an
established office. Some remain with these firms
and, in time, may become partners. After gaining
some experience, others open their own offices and
may then face a “ starvation period” of several
years. Many lawyers start in private practice im­
mediately after graduation; for them the first few
years may be even more trying. Some lawyers
get their first jobs in private industry, especially
with insurance companies; a small proportion go
directly into government service. A ll States and
bar associations forbid lawyers to advertise or
solicit business; therefore, to become known, it is

important to participate in community affairs and
to get on national commercial law lists and on the
lawyers’ reference list, if one exists in the area.
Writing articles for legal reviews and journals is
a good way to gain recognition from other lawyers
as a specialist.
In mid-1950, the legal profession was over­
crowded, and appeared likely to remain so during
the next few years, although competition among
new entrants will be reduced by the mobilization
program. It has been conservatively estimated
that about 12,000 young lawyers passed the bar ex­
aminations during 1949. This is an all-time peak,
close to twice as many as in the years just before
World War II. In view of the unprecedented
numbers enrolled in law schools, the number of
new graduates will probably remain very high for
the next year or two unless many students are
withdrawn for the Armed Forces.
In the next few years, the average graduate
may expect considerable competition in looking
for a legal position or attempting to start a prac­
tice unless such factors as defense production and
increased Government employment operate to
provide many new positions for lawyers. Topranking students will continue to find openings
with relative ease.
Prospects for Negro lawyers were relatively
favorable in early 1950, and are expected to remain
so for at least several years. The outlook is best
in urban areas with a large Negro population—
except New York, Chicago, and Washington, D. C.
It is especially promising in the South, where only
a handful of the Nation’s Negro lawyers were
employed up to 1950.
Over the long run, the legal profession will prob­
ably tend to expand slowly, as a result of popula­
tion growth and of the numerous economic and
social trends which would increase the need for
legal services. Deaths and retirements of law­
yers—which are roughly estimated at around
4,000 or 5,000 a year—will also create openings.
The tendency toward overcrowding in the profes­
sion will probably continue, however, unless ways
are found to make legal services available to
greater numbers of middle- and lower-income
people. Legal aid societies in many cities have for


a number of years been offering free services to
those who cannot pay, but a great proportion of
the population who can afford small fees do not
use the legal services they need, largely because
the charges are beyond their means or they fear
the fees will be too high. Attempts have been
made to provide competent low-cost legal services
through such programs as the lawyer reference
plan which was operating in more than 30 cities in
late 1949. Some other programs under discussion
are: group practice for a number of specialists,
private insurance plans similar to hospitalization
insurance, legal-service bureaus for middle-income
groups, legal cooperatives, or some type of Gov­
ernment-subsidized legal service administered by
the bar. I f such plans become widespread and
well-known, the new legal business will absorb
many young lawyers.
Opportunities for specialists are often better
than for lawyers in general practice; many of the
larger law firms have such specialists. However,
such lawyers are comparatively few in number,
and usually practice in the larger cities. Special­
ties with relatively good prospects in the long run
are: tax law (thorough knowledge of accounting
is necessary and Government experience helpful),
patent law (scientific or engineering training is
often required), administrative law (this is becom­
ing increasingly important as more and more
lawyers engage in legal dealings with various Gov­
ernment agencies, and as the Government itself
employs more lawyers), admiralty law, and inter­
national law. Legal training is becoming increas­
ingly useful for many types of business, and for
administrative positions in Government; it is also
a great asset to people seeking public office.
Best opportunities usually lie in medium-size
and smaller cities, especially those with prospects
of economic expansion. State capitals and county
seats may also offer good opportunities. The pro­
fession was especially overcrowded in the very
large cities and in Washington, D. C., in early
According to a survey made by the United States
Department of Commerce, lawyers in independent
practice had a median net income of about $5,700 in
1948, nearly twice as much as in 1941. Incomes
tended to be much higher in large than in small

communities. Independent lawyers in places of
under 1,000 population had a median income of
only about $3,100 in 1947, as contrasted with $6,900
in cities of 1,000,000 or more.
Salaried lawyers, who are located mainly in
large cities, had higher median 1947 incomes than
their colleagues in independent practice—$6,100
compared with $5,300. Earnings of under $3,000
for the year were reported by 26 percent of the
independent lawyers and only 6 percent of those on
salaries. On the other hand, the proportion with
net incomes of $20,000 or more was twice as large
among independent as among salaried lawyers (6
and 3 percent, respectively).
For those in independent practice, incomes
tended to increase with the size of the law firm.
Lawyers practicing alone in 1947, and this included
about three-fourths of all independent lawyers,
had a median net income of about $4,300; the small
percentage in firms o f five to eight members had a
median of $16,800.
In this profession as in others, incomes mount
with increasing age and experience up to a certain
point and then tend to drop off. Young lawyers,
aged 25-29 years, had a median income of about
$3,500 in salaried positions and $3,100 in independ­
ent practice in 1947. The highest median income
of independent lawyers for 1947 (about $7,000)
was reported by the group 50-54 years of age;
salaried lawyers seemed to reach their peak income
($8,000) between the ages of 60 and 64.
These figures represent net income after deduc­
tion of expenses. Lawyers’ operating expenses are
high, absorbing, on the average, about a third of
their gross income in 1947. Frequently, two or
more lawyers share the same office to reduce over­
head costs. Many of them, particularly in small
towns, have to have some other source of income
such as a farm or real estate agency.
Where To Go for More Information
Information on law schools, their entrance re­
quirements, and employment opportunities in par­
ticular localities may be obtained from deans of
law schools and from State and local bar associa­
tions. The American Bar Association, 1140 N.
Dearborn St., Chicago, 111., may also be helpful.
Information on opportunities for Negro lawyers
is available from the National Bar Association,
Mr. J. It. Booker, Century Building, Little Rock,


Ark. The specific requirements for admission to
the bar in a particular State may be obtained from
the clerk of the highest appellate court at the State
The following reports give information on in­
come of lawyers:

U. S. Department of Commerce, Office of Business
Economics, Income of Lawyers, 1929-1948. Reprint
from Survey of Current Business, August 1949.
Follow-Up Study of Graduates of American Law
Schools of 1946 and 1947, published by B ’nai B ’rith
Vocational Service Bureau, 1424 16th St., N W .,
Washington 6, D. C.

(D. O. T. 0-01.)

Outlook Summary
Job competition among inexperienced account­
ants likely to be eased, with expansion of the de­
fense program; good employment prospects for
Certified Public Accountants and other well quali­
fied persons. Continued upward trend in employ­
ment in long run.
Nature of Work
There are many types of accounting work, rang­
ing from partnerships in accounting firms and controllerships in corporations to jobs at the clerical
level. Accountants may engage in either public
or private practice. Public accounting firms are
usually headed by C. P. A .’s although they often
employ other accountants; they render service to
a number of clients on a fee basis. Private ac­
countants work on a salary basis either for a single
business establishment, keeping accounts of that
business, or for Government agencies in such jobs
as auditor, bank examiner, or tax examiner.
About 35,000 C. P. A .’s were employed in early
1950, but altogether probably eight or nine times
that number of persons were engaged in account­
ing work. Less than 10 percent were women, and
many of these were in teaching positions; about
400 women were C. P. A .’s.
How To Enter
Employment requirements vary with the type of
work. A bachelor’s degree with a major in ac­
counting or a related field, or a diploma from a
school of accounting is usually required for the
better jobs, although experience may be substituted

for part of the formal education. To qualify as a
certified public accountant and receive the certifi­
cate from a State board, one must meet certain
educational and experience requirements and pass
a rigid examination. Eighteen States have regu­
latory accountancy laws under which only regis­
tered accountants or certified public accountants
can practice public accounting. Only one of these
allowed registration of noncertified public ac­
countants in 1949, although the other 17 formerly
did so.
The accountant usually begins in a minor job—
compiling data, preparing invoices, or as a junior
assistant on the staff of a C. P. A. Advancement
may be rapid for able accountants with sufficient
educational preparation, but inadequate training
often results in routine jobs with little opportunity
for promotion— except in cases of unusual ability.
Experience in accounting is an excellent back­
ground for many types of jobs such as credit man­
ager, controller, purchasing agent, budget officer,
and many executive positions.
The strong competition which existed among
inexperienced accountants in early 1950 in most
localities is expected to be reduced as the defense
program gets under way. Although there was
a shortage of accountants during and immediately
after World War II, the unusually large number
of new graduates entering the profession in 1948
and 1949 led to a surplus. There was considerable
competition for jobs and pay rates were beginning
to show the effect of overcrowding in the profes­
sion in early 1950. However, a program of ex­
panding defense production and an increase in the


size of the Armed Forces and in Government
employment could quickly drain off any oversupply of accountants. Applicants with a college
degree and courses in business administration as
well as in accounting have better chances of em­
ployment than those whose training has been
limited to the accounting field. Opportunities for
jobs in private accounting are more numerous than
those in public accounting.
The demand for C. P. A .’s and other highly
qualified accountants was strong in early 1950,
and continued gains in employment are expected
over the long run. Factors which have increased
employment of accountants in recent years, and
which are expected to continue, are complex tax
systems and a growing emphasis on scientific
management in industry. World War II greatly
increased the demand for accounting services,
especially in the Government, and similar cir­
cumstances would again call for expansion of
such services. The upward trend in private in­
dustry has continued. Many employers, newly
introduced to the value of accounting services
during World War II, now see the advantage of
maintaining production control systems, regular
auditing services, and a variety of other account­
ing practices.
There are some employment opportunities for
accountants in every community and in nearly all
industries, but the greatest number of jobs, as well
as the keenest competition, will continue to be in
industrial centers such as New York and Chicago.
However, the decentralization of industry has
increased the demand for accountants in the
smaller industrial communities. Throughout the
country, the trend toward increased use of ac­
counting services can be expected to persist over
the long run.

accountants to be $36 a week in small firms and
$37 in medium-large firms. In March 1948, deans
and professors in 80 schools of accounting esti­
mated that private and public accountants with
5 years5 experience averaged $73 and $78 a week,
respectively; C. P. A .’s with the same experience
averaged $89. Salaries of accountants vary
greatly according to type of employer and size and
location of city, as well as by preparation and
experience of the individual.
Federal civil service entrance salary for junior
accountants and auditors was $2,875 in late 1949;
assistant accountants and bank examiners began
at $3,100; most accountants and auditors, who
must meet higher qualifications, started at $3,450
a year. More responsible positions at higher pay
are usually filled through promotion.
Beginning monthly salaries for accountants in
private firms averaged $238 in 1949 and ranged
from $170 to $285, according to a survey o f 169
large and medium-sized companies.
Where To Go for Further Information
Information, particularly on C. P. A .’s, may be
obtained from:
American Institute of Accountants,
270 Madison Ave.,
New York 16, N. Y.

The Committe on Selection of Personnel of the
above organization will provide information on
the aptitude and achievement tests now given in
many schools and by many public accounting firms.
Further information on specialized fields of
accounting may be obtained from :
National Association of Cost Accountants,
385 Madison Ave.,
New York 17, N. Y.


Controllers Institute of America,
One E. 42d St.,
New York 17, N. Y.

A survey of C. P. A. firms in New York City
in 1948 showed median entrance salaries for junior

The Institute of Internal Auditors,
120 W all St.,
New York 5, N. Y.



(D. O. T. 0-23.20)

Outlook Summary

Where Employed

Employment opportunities for professionally
trained librarians are expected to be very good for
several years at least. Further expansion of pro­
fession over long run.

About 30,000 trained librarians were employed
in late 1949, of whom 90 percent were women.
As of 1948, the 7,400 public libraries employed
slightly more than 40 percent of the librarians.
Centralized libraries in elementary and secondary
schools (numbering some 20,000) employed about
30 percent although, as a rule, only large schools
have specially trained librarians. College and
university libraries (numbering about 1,700) em­
ployed nearly 18 percent. The remainder worked
in approximately 1,500 special libraries and 230
Federal and State libraries.

Nature of Work
The major divisions of the work of every library,
large or small, general or specialized, are adminis­
tration, book selection and order work, cataloging
and classification, circulation work, and reference
service. In a small library the librarian may per­
form the duties involving all or several of these
functions. In a large organization, different
librarians handle each function and there are addi­
tional positions such as children’s librarian, read­
ers’ adviser, public-relations director, subject
specialists, personnel director, and positions of a
strictly administrative nature.
T raining
To be adequately prepared for a position as
librarian, one must be a graduate of one of the 34
accredited library schools in the United States or
of the 2 accredited schools in Canada. In 1949-50,
21 of these schools conferred a master’s degree upon
completion of the fifth year of training. Six other
library schools gave a year’s professional curricu­
lum at the graduate level, but conferred a pro­
fessional bachelor’s degree. Nine schools offered
professional programs within the undergraduate
4 years. Undergraduate study should introduce
the librarian to various fields of knowledge and
include as intensive study as possible in the sub­
ject field in which he wishes to specialize. Con­
siderable knowledge of the physical or the social
sciences is particularly important in library
New graduates usually start out as librarians
in small libraries or as assistants in large ones.
Opportunities for advancement are by transfer to
larger libraries or, in institutions with many em­
ployees, by promotion to higher grade positions.
Eventual promotion to administrative, super­
visory, or specialized positions is possible.

Employment opportunities for trained librar­
ians were very good in mid-1950, and there will
continue to be good opportunities for new entrants
for several years. Growth in this field has been
rapid in the past and there are indications of fur­
ther expansion. Even before W orld War II the
annual placement of library-school graduates
reached 100 percent. There is considerable turn­
over in this field because many young women
marry and leave their jobs, and both men and
women find positions in other fields in which
knowledge of librarianship is an asset. Enroll­
ments in accredited library schools in 1948-49
slightly exceeded the prewar peak (reached in
1939-40). But graduating classes will have to be
much larger than those expected on the basis of
these enrollments, to provide needed replacements
and fill the new positions which will be created by
expanding facilities in the next few years.
The greatest number of opportunities will con­
tinue to be for reference and circulation librarians,
catalogers, librarians for service to children and
young people, and school librarians. A smaller
number of librarians will be needed for positions
which require special competence and prepara­
tion—administrators, subject specialists, extension
librarians, librarians in adult education, public re­
lations specialists, hospital librarians, and librar­
ians to develop the use of audio-visual materials.
There is need for librarians who can carry admin­
istrative responsibilities in small libraries and also


perform most of the routine work, since libraries
with very small staffs far outnumber the large
Earnings and Working Conditions
The median annual salary of professional
library employees as reported in January 1949 was
$3,050 according to a survey of library personnel
throughout the country; the nonprofessional
workers had a median salary of $1,975. The
region where salaries were highest for both pro­
fessional and nonprofessional workers ($3,575 and
$2,425 a year, respectively) was the Border States
and the District of Columbia; in the District, a
large proportion of all library employees work
for the Federal Government. Median pay was
lowest for professional librarians in the Middle
West ($2,575 a year) ; for nonprofessional work­
ers, in the Southeast ($1,675 a year).
Salaries vary with the type of position, size of
library, and other factors. Median salaries of
chief librarians varied from $2,000 a year in small
public libraries (those with less than 5 employees)
to over $8,000 in libraries with 100 or more em­
ployees. Branch librarians had median annual
salaries of $2,250 in libraries with 5 to 9 workers
and of $4,000 in those with 500 or more employees.
The survey also indicated that salaries tend to in­
crease with amount of professional education.
With the Federal Government, the basic en­
trance salary for most professional librarians was
$3,100 a year in late 1949.
According to the above-mentioned survey, the
most typical workweek for library employees was
40 hours in 1949. Since many libraries are open
during the evening, the schedules of about half

the professional and a third of the nonprofessional
employees included evening work.
Library employees typically receive holidays
with pay or are given extra pay or time off for
holidays on which they work. Almost all em­
ployees are given paid vacations and sick leave.
Where To Go for Further Information
Additional i n f o r m a t i o n—particularly on
schools, requirements, and placement—may be ob­
tained from :
American Library Association,
50 E. Huron St.,
Chicago 11, 111.

Information on special libraries may be obtained
from :
Special Libraries Association,
31 E. 10th St.,
New York 3, N. Y.

Statistics of school library systems and other
information will be furnished by:
Federal Security Agency,
Office of Education
Washington 25, D. C.

A report on the earnings and working condi­
tions of library employees in 1949 is available from
the American Library Association or the U. S.
Department o f Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics,
Washington 25, D. C.
Information on employment opportunities in
the Federal Government is given in pamphlet No.
37, The Librarian in the Federal Civil Service,
available on request from :
U. S. Civil Service Commission,
Washington 25, D. C.

Market Research Analysts
(See D. O. T. 0-36.11)

Outlook Summary
Gradually rising employment in this small oc­
cupation, but increasing competition for jobs.

Nature o f Work
Market research analysts collect, analyze, and
interpret inform ation for use in planning market­
ing programs and guiding sales operations. A fter

studying a marketing problem the analysts usually
make recommendations which can be applied di­
rectly to the marketing activities o f a particular
Market research is carried on in a wide variety
o f organizations which are directly engaged in or
connected with marketing. Am ong the main em­
ployers o f market analysts are manufacturing
companies, both those selling to consumers and



those selling to industrial users. They are also
employed by retail stores, wholesale distributors,
by the movie industry, by radio stations, news­
papers, and many other types of organizations
that maintain any kind of sales activity. Many
of these users of market research have their own
research departments, but others have this work
done by independent research firms. There are
several hundred of these firms which do research
or conduct surveys on special order.
Many advertising agencies have market research
staffs. Some of their studies are related to the
products of clients of the agency and are done on
a fee basis. Much of the research done in ad­
vertising agencies, however, is related to prepara­
tion of the advertising itself. Surveys are made
to help choose the themes of advertising programs
and to aid in deciding the kinds of type and the
lay-outs which are most; likely to attract the at­
tention of readers. Surveys are also used to de­
termine the best types of publication to carry
particular advertisements and to test their effec­
tiveness after they have appeared.
A good illustration of the market analyst’s job
is his part in the development of a new product.
Companies considering the introduction of new
products often use the services of market research­
ers to help them make this decision. Market re­
search personnel check the proposed product for
acceptance by potential users for size, convenience,
color, and any other qualities which may affect
its use. Analysts also investigate the nature of
the market for the product, including such points
as how many people want to use it, how much
they can pay, what the competition is, and how
the product should be distributed. With this in­
formation a company can decide what products
should be added to its line, and what price and
distribution policy should be adopted.
Similar analyses are applied to existing prod­
ucts to find out if their distribution is the most
effective that can be achieved. I f a company is
planning to change a product’s price or package,
a careful and thorough market research job will
guide them in making the decision. Market re­
searchers are also called on to forecast the sales of
individual products to serve as a basis for pro­
duction and sales planning and to make forecasts
of changes in styles and other demand factors.
They also may advise the sales department in se­

lecting areas in which to concentrate sales efforts
and in setting quotas for branch offices and indi­
vidual salesmen.
The main promotional opportunity for market
research analysts is to the job of market research
director. Directors are responsible for the gen­
eral planning and supervision of the market re­
search activities of a particular company. They
often work closely with top officials and help to
guide the over-all marketing operations. It usu­
ally takes at least 5 to 10 years’ experience as an
analyst to qualify for a job as a director. The
experience requirements for a particular job
depend to a large extent on the size of the market
research department or staff, and the scope of the
research work. In large companies market re­
search work may be a good avenue for promotion
to higher jobs outside the market research depart­
ment. Many market researchers have moved into
high level sales or executive work.
Training and Qualifications
A college degree in business with a major in
marketing will be required of most new trainees
for market research jobs. Although many persons
now employed as analysts do not have this back­
ground, employers are increasingly giving pref­
erence to those who have had specialized training
in marketing and market research in college.
Some universities give a well-rounded training
program for market research, including courses in
market research problems and techniques. The
marketing curriculum of others includes only basic
courses in marketing. Many other types of college
courses serve as basic preparation for work in
market research. Since statistical techniques are
among the principal tools used in market research,
courses in statistical methods are essential for a
successful career in marketing research: Those
preparing for jobs as analysts should also have a
good grounding in economic theory and a knowl­
edge of economic institutions and how they affect
marketing operations. Courses in other aspects
of business such as selling and sales management
and accounting may help the market researcher in
many of his problems. His work often cuts across
the entire field of distribution and selling, includ­
ing distribution cost analysis and sales manage­
ment problems.


Courses in psychology are also helpful to many
people in market research, especially those who
expect to carry on or supervise market research on
consumers’ products, using questionnaire surveys.
In approaching marketing problems it is very im­
portant to understand the psychology of the cus­
tomers, what their wants are, and how they can be
New college graduates should not expect to land
jobs immediately as full-fledged analysts. To
qualify as an analyst, at least a few years of expe­
rience are required, either in assisting analysts by
doing research under close supervision, or in inter­
viewing or statistical tabulating work. Useful
background experience also may be acquired in
selling or other activities in the marketing field.
Many people have also transferred into market
research from research jobs in other fields.
Employment Outlook
The number of jobs for market research ana­
lysts should grow gradually, both during the next
several years, and over the long run. In 1949,
there were probably only between 2,000 and 3,000
market analysts employed and the occupation is
likely to remain relatively small. Some market
research functions have been carried on for many

years, but market research did not become firmly
established as a separate field until the 1930’s.
Since then it has had a very rapid growth, es­
pecially during the first postwar years. Market
research activity and the number of market re­
search jobs should continue to expand, but at a
slower rate.
More and more companies will set up market
research departments or contract for increasing
amounts o f work with outside agencies. Market
research will also be used more extensively by
companies which have already adopted it, to help
solve new marketing problems that arise. Market
research is a relatively new field in a technical
sense, so that many new techniques will be devel­
oped in future years to obtain more precise and
accurate information.
Under the defense mobilization conditions
which are foreseen during the next several years
expansion o f market research activity may be re­
stricted by the curtailment of some civilian pro­
duction. A t the same time the number o f new
graduates o f market research courses is expected
to drop. This decline, combined with the effects
of the entry of many young men into the Armed
Forces, should result in less competition for the
beginning jobs than there was in 1949 and 1950.

Newspaper Reporters and Editors
(D. O. T. 0-06.43, .44, .45, .47, .48, .51, .52, and .71)

Outlook Summary
Competition fo r jobs usually keen, especially
among new entrants. Some expansion in employ­
ment expected in related fields.

Managing editors have complete charge of the
news department and, with the publisher, set the
general news policy of the paper. Editors are
usually recruited from reporters. Taking both
groups together, about 58,000 were employed in
1940; approximately a fourth were women.

Nature of Work
Newspaper reporters gather facts fo r news
stories which may be written either by them or
by a rewrite man. There are many types o f editors,
with varying degrees o f responsibility. Depart­
ment editors handle a particular kind o f news
such as sports or society. City editors assign re­
porters, photographers, and rewrite men to local
news stories and may edit stories and headlines.

Qualifications, Training, and Advancement
Talent for writing is essential and often out­
weighs academic training in getting jobs and pro­
motions. A college education is desirable, how­
ever. More and more, employers are giving
preference to people with formal training in
journalism, history, and economics.
People usually get into the occupation by start­


ing as a “ cub” reporter on a small newspaper or a
trade-association paper or by working up from the
job of copy boy (where they begin as messengers
and advance to routine reporting assignments).
Small country and suburban papers prefer local
men who know the community and have related
skills, such as photography or printing. Trade
associations prefer people with a knowledge of
their particular field. Many large papers and
syndicates hire college graduates as copy boys and
give them a chance at reporting after several
Reporters may advance to positions as copy
readers or to editorships, get reporting jobs on
larger papers or with syndicates, or transfer to a
variety of better paying, related jobs. They may
also do free-lance reporting for more than one
newspaper or magazine.

ployment, however, is expected with the labor
press, religious press, foreign language, trade asso­
ciation, and country newspapers.
Fields related to newspaper work will continue
to employ some new journalism graduates and also
absorb a number of experienced reporters each
year, thus increasing replacement needs on news­
papers. There are indications that the advertis­
ing, public relations, radio, and book-publishing
fields will use greater numbers with journalistic
training and experience in years to come.
Competition for jobs will probably continue to
characterize the reporting field over the long run,
since many young people are attracted by the
reputed glamour of the work. Nevertheless, tal­
ented people, including those with little formal
training, will always have some chance of breaking
into this profession.



The reporting field, always highly competitive,
was considerably overcrowded in mid-1950.
There were three times as many journalism grad­
uates in June 1950 as in any of the last few years
before World War I I ; the number will probably
increase further in the following year or so, unless
many students are withdrawn for military service.
This expanded supply may keep the field over­
crowded in spite of developments which tend to
create new openings for reporters. The unsettled
international situation in mid-1950 was stimulat­
ing greater interest in foreign news and may draw
off a few experienced reporters to foreign assign­
ments, thus creating openings for some new
reporters. Fields related to newspaper work, such
as advertising, radio, and special publications,
may be able to absorb a good many people with
j ournalism training or experience. Opportunities
with country papers, trade papers, and house or­
gans are expected to be better than with the dailies.
Employment of reporters and editors on daily
newspapers will probably not increase much in the
long run, although there will always be some
openings owing to turn-over. The use of syndi­
cated material and the increasing proportion of
space devoted to advertising may reduce the need
for reporters on dailies. Some expansion in em­

American Newspaper Guild minimum rates for
cub reporters with no previous experience were
$35 to $55 a week in 1949. Minimums for experi­
enced reporters ranged between $70 and $110, with
actual going rates considerably higher. On 38
dailies employing over 55 percent of the Guild
reporters the minimum for experienced reporters
was $100. There are no set salary standards for
editors; some may make as little as $75 a week,
while the managing editor of a large metropolitan
daily may earn as much as $50,000 a year. Salaries
vary with size of the paper, type of job, experi­
ence, and other factors.


Where To Go for Additional Information
Information, especially on union wage rates, is
available from;
American Newspaper Guild,
Research Department,
99 University Place,
New York 3, N. Y.

Information about opportunities with small­
town papers may be obtained from :
American Press Association,
920 Broadway,
New York 10, N. Y.


The above organization publishes a complete
list of the 8,400 weekly newspapers of the country.
This list is available at quite a number of libraries.
Names and locations of all daily newspapers are
published in the Editor and Publisher’s Interna­
tional Yearbook, available in most large newspaper

People interested in operating a small news­
paper will find valuable information in the follow­
ing publication :
U. S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of For­
eign and Domestic Commerce. Industrial Series
No. 43, A Weekly Newspaper. Superintendent o f
Documents, Washington 25, D. C. Price 15 cents.

Radio Announcers
P>. O. T. 0-69.21)

Outlook Summary
Competition for openings likely to be keen, par­
ticularly in large cities. Opportunities for new­
comers generally limited to small stations. Ex­
panding employment at T V stations. Eventual
decline in employment in sound broadcasting
Nature o f Work
Announcers act as masters of ceremonies on ra­
dio programs of various kinds, read commercials
and news flashes, give station identifications, de­
scribe sporting events, and do announcing of other
types. Especially in small stations, they may also
have a variety of other duties—playing phono­
graph records and other transcriptions which are
being broadcast, operating some of the controls on
the broadcasting equipment, writing script, even
acting as station manager. Most are on the staffs
of single stations or radio networks; some work
for large advertising agencies. Others are not
connected with any company, but free-lance, hir­
ing out for a single job or a series of programs. A
few have their own stations.
How To Enter
A well-rounded education, preferably including
a college degree, is important for this occupation.
Good knowledge of the English language is neces­
sary. Other essential qualifications are a good
voice and ability to deal readily with unusual sit­
uations. For jobs in telecasting, announcers must
meet particularly rigid standards as to personal
Practically all new announcers begin at small
radio stations. I f successful there, they may be

hired by a larger station or one of the radio net­
works. Those who hold Federal Communications
Commission first class radio-telephone licenses
have an advantage in getting jobs at small stations,
since they can double as transmitter operators. A
few announcers become well-known and highly
paid radio personalities, some of them on a free­
lance basis; occasionally they advance to executive
positions in the broadcasting industry.
Approximately 2,300 AM, FM, and A M -F M
combination stations employed about 8,000 an­
nouncers (including both full-time announcers and
other full-time staff program employees who did
some announcing) in the fall o f 1949. Employ­
ment of announcers had more than doubled since
1945 but is likely to increase at a much slower
rate in the future. Most openings will arise from
Television stations probably will employ more
and more announcers for an indefinite number of
years. In mid-1950, there were 106 T V stations
on the air, but there are likely to be several hun­
dred of them by the late fifties, unless defense
preparations make it necessary to restrict con­
struction o f new stations.
Job prospects for those who wish to become an­
nouncers are not good. New stations will provide
jobs and some openings will result from turn-over,
but there was a surplus of job-seekers in late
1949, and this appears likely to continue. As in
the past, broadcasting companies, particularly
those in large communities, will generally be able
to choose the best o f many applicants. In small
communities, where most announcers get their
first jobs, competition for openings is likely to be
much less keen than in big cities.


Announcers who succeed in getting established
generally have steady employment throughout the
year. Except for the possibility o f station fa il­
ures, they can reasonably expect to continue work­
ing year in and year out, even in periods o f busi­
ness recession. Some sound stations may be forced
off the air, especially in metropolitan areas, where
competition from T V will be keenest.

in 15 large cities, of members of the American
Federation of Radio Artists, median earnings
from all sources were highest in New York and
Chicago. The much smaller group of free-lance
announcers generally earned much more. The
following table summarizes annual earnings data
for both groups of announcers in the cities

Earnings and Tl7orbing Conditions

Total earnings of announcers, 1947

Full-time staff announcers working for the
Nation-wide networks and their key stations had
average weekly earnings of $125, according to a
Federal Communications Commission survey
made during the week of October 16,1948. Those
at other stations with 15 or more employees aver­
aged $72. Stations with fewer than 15 employees
do not report earnings for announcers separately;
at these stations, staff program employees aver­
aged $51, much less than the average for announc­
ers at the larger stations. Announcers at bigger
stations averaged about 40 hours of work for the
week; those at small stations had a slightly longer
Yearly earnings of staff announcers vary widely
from city to city. In 1947, according to a survey

Occupation and city
Staff announcers— all
New York
Los Angeles______
Other cities
Free-lance announc­
ers— all cities
New York_______
Los Angeles
Chicago _
Other cities

1 out of 4
less than—



5, 100
8, 200
6, 500

1 out of 2 1 out of 4
more than— more than—



9, 000
16, 100
10, 900



3, 300

5, 800



16, 200
26, 200
17, 900

9, 600

1Too few cases to warrant calculation of separate earnings figures.

(D. O. T. 0-56.01 through .31)

Outlook Summary
Competition for jobs usually keen, especially
among new entrants. Occasional openings for
highly qualified persons. Long-run trend in em­
ployment slowly upward.
Nature o f Work
Photographers usually specialize in portrait,
commercial, news, or aerial work. They must be
able to use cameras, lenses, filters, and other equip­
ment and have knowledge of lighting. They must
also be able to do such work as developing, finish­
ing, printing, enlarging, and retouching, much of
which requires the knowledge and use of chemicals.
In small shops, the photographer may do all this
work. Even in large studios employing photo­

graphic technicians, he often develops and prints
his own pictures.

Where Employed
Most photographers are employed in studios
handling portrait or commercial work. Others
work for newspaper and magazine publishers, ad­
vertising agencies, manufacturing plants, and
Federal, State, and local governments. Many are
in business for themselves.

There are photographers in all parts of the
country, in small towns as well as large cities.
Those located in small towns are usually all-round
photographers. Most studios doing commercial
work only are located in larger cities (50,000
population or more). In 1940, over half of all
photographers were employed in only six States—■


Usual method of entering the occupation is by
on-the-job training. This normally takes 2 or 3
years and covers all phases of photography, the
trainee advancing through the various operations.
Some employers have formal apprenticeship pro­
grams. Persons may also enter the occupation by
attending a school of photography. Completion
o f a school course is not a substitute however, for
on-the-job training, although it may shorten the
training period. Selection of a reputable school
is very important. Veterans whose only experience
in photography was obtained in the Armed Forces
need additional training for civilian work.
A high school education, with emphasis on
chemistry, physics, and art, is recommended for
all prospective photographers but is not necessarily
a prerequisite for employment. Photographers
also need artistic ability, a pleasing appearance and
personality, and a good business sense if they ex­
pect to go into business for themselves.

specialized that most photographers cannot qual­
ify. Inexperienced photographers, however, are
likely to have considerable difficulty obtaining jobs
in the near future.
Over the long run, employment will probably
rise slowly, although it is not likely to reach the
W orld W ar I I levels for some time. In addi­
tion, replacement needs owing to deaths and retire­
ments will create some openings. Best opportuni­
ties may be expected in commercial work, owing to
expanding use of photography in many fields and
the frequent discovery of new uses. The largest
and most rapidly growing subdivision of commer­
cial photography is industrial photography. The
news photography field has reached a plateau and
is not expected to show much gain in employment.
The field of aerial photography is relatively new
and will probably show some growth over a
period of time. In all fields, there will be room for
the photographer with exceptional talent, superior
selling ability, or unusual resourcefulness. Usu­
ally, commercial photographers stand a better
chance of steady employment than portrait pho­
tographers because the latter branch is likely to be
more affected by declines in business activity.


Earnings and Working Conditions

The surplus of photographers which existed in
mid-1950 was expected to continue for a few years
at least. The oversupply was due in part to the
very large number of persons who received some
training in photography during W orld W ar II
and to the record number of postwar graduates of
photography schools. Furthermore, the decline in
portrait business after VJ-day caused a number of
studios to curtail their staffs and others to go out of
business entirely; many experienced photograph­
ers were laid off. The commercial field has been
expanding, but not enough to absorb the surplus of
experienced men seeking work. On the fringes of
the profession, there have been, as usual, a large
number of amateurs who are potential job appli­
cants and who intensify the competition for por­
trait and commercial positions. The fields of news
photography and aerial photography will offer a
few vacancies; entrants qualified for these fields
will meet less competition, because the work is so

Typical salaries for experienced portrait pho­
tographers ranged from about $50 to $100 a week
in some large cities in early 1947. Those with
established reputations earned much more in
many instances. Salaries of commercial photog­
raphers were about the same; many work on a
job basis. News photographers usually averaged
about $40 a week, with some of the more experi­
enced receiving as high as $110 or more, at the
beginning of 1947, depending on the circulation of
the newspaper or magazine. Aerial photograph­
ers typically earned from $40 to $50 a week, plus
any traveling expenses they may have incurred.
Earnings of photographers in 1950 were re­
ported to be about the same as in 1947.
Commercial and news photographers often work
nights and Sundays. Portrait photographers
have rush seasons and may work long hours at
these times.

New York, Illinois, California, Pennsylvania,
Ohio, and Michigan.
How To Enter



Commercial Artists
(D. O. T. 0-44.11, .13, .21, .23, .24, .25, .26)

Outlook uncertain fo r m ajority in the field.
Prospects will continue to be good for those with
unusual ability. There is a continual oversupply
o f poorly qualified persons attempting to enter
this occupation.

knowledge of lettering and typography, as well
as drawing, is essential.
Beginners must be content to start at the bottom
and perform routine jobs, until their ability is
recognized. Artistic talent, originality, resource­
fulness, and salesmanship are among the personal
qualifications needed for success.

Nature o f Work


Commercial artists design and draw illustra­
tions for advertising copy, books, magazines, and
newspapers. They also create posters for bill­
boards and other uses. Preparation of charts and
maps for exhibition or publication is another type
of work handled. Still other artists are employed
to retouch photographic prints. Experienced
artists usually specialize in a particular product
or field—for example, fashion or industrial illus­
trations, furniture advertising, or story illustra­

Competition is expected to be keen among new
entrants at least during the early fifties. A
greater number of artists were trying to break into
advertising and other fields of commercial art in
mid-1950 than at any time since W orld W ar II.
The number seeking to enter the field will probably
continue at a high level, owing to the large number
of students taking training (including veterans

Outlook Summary

Experienced commercial artists usually specialize in a particular
product or field— example, theater poster advertising.
P h o to g r a ph

Where Employed
The largest employers o f commercial artists are
advertising concerns, department stores, news­
paper and magazine publishers, mail order
houses, and calendar and greeting-card companies.
Some people work as free-lance artists on an in­
dependent basis or own a commercial art studio
employing several other artists. Most are em­
ployed in or near metropolitan areas where the
largest users of commercial art are located.
How To Enter
Most commercial artists begin their training in
high-school art classes or at vocational art schools
and later acquire practical experience. However,
some enter through on-the-job training with pe­
riods o f varying lengths, combined with part-time
schooling. Still others enter by obtaining certifi­
cates from schools of fine and applied arts; the
courses of study offered by such schools usually
take 3 years and cover all phases of art work.
Selection o f a reputable school is very impor­
tant. The basic education should include art
courses, mathematics, science, and history. A

b y


. S .

d e p a r t m e n t

o f

Lab o r


under the GI Bill of Rights). However, special­
ists in certain types of commercial art will still be
needed in various localities, and talented artists
will probably continue to be in demand in nearly
every large city.
The long run trends in demand for commercial
art work and employment of commercial artists
are uncertain. There are some factors which will
tend to increase the use of this medium and others
which will tend to decrease it. The fields in which
commercial art work has traditionally been used
have been expanding rapidly in the past and fur­
ther expansion is expected. The use of visual ad­
vertising, especially in magazines and newspapers,
should continue to grow, as it has in the past 10
years. Other forms of art, such as poster and
window displays, greeting cards, calendars, and
use of visual aids in education should also continue
to employ an increasing number o f artists. On the
other hand, many firms have been replacing com­
mercial art work with photographs, especially
since W orld W ar II, as improved techniques in
color photography have been developed. In the
future, technological improvements expected in
both color and black and white photography are

likely to lead to the use of more photographs in
preference to the work of commercial artists.
Greater use of photography would probably not
affect opportunities for the artist whose work is
considered superior to photography and would in­
crease the number o f openings for photographic
retouchers. A t all times, there is a demand for
artists of unusual ability, even when keen compe­
tition exists for most of those in the occupation.
On the other hand, the occupation has been chroni­
cally overcrowded with poorly trained persons
whose work is substandard.
In late 1949, beginning staff artists in some large
cities typically received about $50 a week. Hourly
rates for free-lance artists in large cities varied
according to the type of work, ranging from about
$3 for photo colorers (oil) to $8 for lay-out sketchers, according to limited data for a few large cities.
Experienced artists may make as much as $10,000
yearly or more.
See also Interior Decorators, page 127; Indus­
trial Designers, page 96; and Draftsmen, page 99.

Interior Decorators
(D. O. T. 0-43.40)

Outlook Summary
Expanding employment expected over long run.
However, this profession is greatly affected by the
level o f residential and commercial construction
activity, which will probably be lowered during
the early fifties by the mobilization program.
Nature of Work
Decorators design interiors for homes, hotels,
ships, theaters, business offices, and other places.
They estimate costs and, in most cases, purchase
furnishings and supervise their installation. They
may also plan displays and model rooms and pro­
mote current decorating fashions in other ways.
A good many sell draperies, upholstered furniture,
and other small furnishings and have their own
workshops where these articles are made. Many
are employed by large decorating firms or depart­

ment stores or are in business for themselves. The
majority are women.
Personal Qualifications and Training
A good interior decorator combines the abilities
o f the architect, designer, and artist. He must
have a knowledge o f drawing, materials, color, in­
terior construction, furniture design and arrange­
ment, fine arts, lighting, and estimating. Sales­
manship and a pleasing personality and appear­
ance are among the personal qualifications
A good educational background is very impor­
tant. It is helpful to begin preparation in high
school by studying such subjects as mechanical
drawing, art, and business administration. Two
years of college are considered desirable before
entrance into one of the specialized schools of in­
terior decoration, which offers a 3- or 4-year pro­


fessional course. Some persons get their training
at trade and vocational schools, but they are
likely to meet keen competition later on from per­
sons with more advanced training.
After completion of schooling, on-the-job train­
ing with an established decorating firm or depart­
ment store is invaluable. A beginner may have
such duties as keeping stock in order, selling home
furnishings, or acting as assistant draftsman.
From these entry jobs one may advance to deco­
rator’s shopper; then to assistant decorator; and
finally to decoration consultant or some other top
position. Practical experience is particularly
necessary for persons planning to go into business
for themselves.
Employment opportunities were favorable for
well-trained persons in this relatively small but
expanding field in mid-1950. A greater amount
and variety of decorating materials had become
available since W orld W ar II. Record numbers
of new homes were being built. However, the
level of residential and commercial construction
activity for the next few years at least will prob­
ably be lowered by the mobilization which was
beginning in late 1950. In any event, there will
continue to be a demand as in the past for redec­
oration of interiors which have grown worn and
The supply of well qualified new entrants was
increasing in 1950, and newcomers were facing a
little more competition than in earlier years.
Decorators trained in modern design were in
greater demand than those whose training had
been predominantly in period design.
Openings are likely to be easiest to find in areas
adjacent to large cities and in cities with popula­
tions o f 50,000 to 150,000. However, persons em­
ployed in these cities must usually be content with
small businesses and many have some difficulty in


securing materials. In the largest cities, where
most of the specialized schools of decoration are
located and where furnishings are easier to obtain,
an oversupply of decorators may exist. Oppor­
tunities for beginners in these areas will therefore
be limited.
The demand for interior decoration should tend
to increase over the long run. Formerly, this was
considered a luxury service, but in recent years
there has been more and more professional deco­
rating of moderately priced homes and offices.
Construction of new houses, schools, hospitals, and
other buildings will eventually provide a growing
demand for the service. However, this occupa­
tion is far more affected by declines in business
activity than many others. Only if general eco­
nomic conditions continue to be good and resi­
dential and commercial construction activity
remains at high levels may the great majority of
decorators look forward to continued employment
over a long period of time.
Typical earnings of beginners in entrance jobs
were around $30 to $40 a week in some large cities
in late 1947. A wide range of earnings existed
among established decorators, depending on size
of establishment, size of city, income of clientele,
and other factors; some earned upward of $10,000
or even $20,000 a year. Most decorators in the
upper income brackets were in business for them­
selves, although high salaries were often paid by
large establishments to department heads and
Earnings of interior decorators were reported
to be about the same in 1949 as in 1947.
Where To Get More Information
American Institute of Decorators
41 E. 57th St.
New York, N’. Y.


Funeral Directors and Embalmers
(D. O. T. 0-65)

Outlook Summary
New entrants seeking apprenticeship oppor­
tunities may continue to outnumber openings
for several years. Slight expansion of field ex­
pected in long run.
Nature of Work
The funeral director, who may also be referred
to as mortician or undertaker, makes arrange­
ments for and conducts funerals. He interviews
the family to obtain data about the deceased, so
that legal requirements can be met, and helps plan
the details of the funeral service. Frequently he
acts as embalmer.
The embalmer prepares bodies for final disposi­
tion, in conformity with State laws and local ordi­
nances. Preparation includes sterilizing and pre­
serving the body by injecting embalming fluid or
by other means. Embalmers may also dress the
body, apply cosmetics to give a natural appear­
ance, and restore maimed or disfigured bodies.
In 1949, over 40,000 funeral directors and em­
balmers were employed; more than 2,000 were
women. There were 23,827 funeral establish­
ments, including 2,144 operated by Negro mem­
bers of the profession, according to a 1949 survey
by the National Funeral Directors Association.
Most establishments have a small volume of busi­
ness. Nearly half have only one or two employ­
ees; many funeral directors operate their own
establishment with help only of family members
or part-time workers. Approximately a fifth are
operated in combination with other businesses
such as furniture or hardware stores.
How to Enter
In all States and the District of Columbia em­
balmers must be licensed. Some States have a sep­
arate funeral director’s license while others have
a common license for both embalming and funeral
directing. Most people now entering these occupa­
tions obtain the licenses needed for both types of
892273°— 51------10

For embalmers’ licenses, the usual requirements
are: Minimum age of 21; good moral character;
residence in State for prescribed number of years;
high-school graduation (as of late 1949, 11 States
required some college training) ; completing an
embalming course; completing apprenticeship
(usually a 2-year period, which may have to be
served before, after, or concurrently with the re­
quired school course) ; and passing an examination
given by the State. Requirements for funeral di­
rectors’ licenses are about the same, except that the
course in embalming is required in only a few
States and only 1 year of apprenticeship is usually
specified. There are about 25 schools of embalm­
ing, most of which give a 9- to 12-month course.
Three universities offer courses in mortuary
Employment opportunities were limited in 1950
and may remain so for several years. Some new
entrants will find openings in partnership with
older men or as replacements for those who die or
retire. However, more people were seeking ap­
prenticeship opportunities in 1950 than there were
openings. Embalming schools have been filled to
capacity since the end of World War I I ; thou­
sands of veterans have taken training under the
GI Bill of Rights. Many students have connec­
tions with established funeral homes run by
friends or members of their families, and thus
have much the best chance of securing a place
to serve an apprenticeship, as required by all State
laws. It is advisable for students to make ar­
rangements for serving the apprenticeship before
starting class work in embalming schools. The
withdrawal of young men for service in the Armed
Forces or in defense production jobs would, of
course, reduce the competition for apprenticeship
In the long run, the volume of business handled
by funeral homes is likely to increase slowly. The
number of deaths is expected to continue rising
slowly for about the next 40 years, owing to in­
creasing population. A few men will find oppor129


tunities to start new funeral homes, although in
most localities competition from established firms
will be great. In 1949, there was an average of
only about 57 deaths per funeral home; however,
the amount of business was very unevenly dis­
tributed among establishments. Openings with
the older firms will be created mainly by retire­
ments and deaths of proprietors or employees.
Jobs are to be found in sizable communities
throughout the country. For men starting a new
business, selection of a good location is very im­
portant. Factors to be considered include the
number of people in the locality, death rates, per
capita income, and competition from established

small establishments, earnings of owner-operators
are often supplemented by income from other
businesses such as furniture sales.
Workers in this field usually have very irregular
working hours, and are required to be available for
a period well beyond the generally accepted 8-hour
working day. Workweeks of 80 hours and more
are not unusual; a typical schedule for an embalmer in a large establishment is 6 days a week,
every third night, and every other Sunday. How­
ever, actual duties performed may require only a
small proportion of the workweek. Embalmers
who service small establishments must usually be
on call at all times.


Where To Get Additional Information

Average earnings are not high. Nearly a third
of all mortuary establishments in 1939 had annual
receipts, before deduction of any expenses, of less
than $5,000; only about 15 percent had receipts of
$25,000 or more. Typical weekly earnings of li­
censed embalmers ranged from about $35 to $100
in 1949; those of apprentices from $20 to $50. In


National Funeral Directors Association,
135 W est W ells St.
Milwaukee 3, W is.
National Selected Morticians,
520 N. Michigan Ave.
Chicago 11, 111.
The State Board of Embalmers and Funeral Directors
at any State capital.

Clerical, Sales, and Service Occupations

Eighty years ago very few people were engaged
in clerical work. In those days business records
were kept to a minimum; letters had to be written
and copied by hand and bookkeeping involved la­
borious copying of figures from one sheet or ledger
to another.
Since then the typewriter has been introduced
widely, speeding up the writing of letters and
providing copies; adding and calculating machines
speed up figuring; accounting machines make rec­
ord-keeping easy; statistical punch-card equip­
ment performs miracles of accuracy and speed in
sorting, counting, adding, computing, and print­
ing a vast amount of information.
Despite these and other labor-saving, techno­
logical improvements—possibly even because of
them—the number of clerical workers has in­
creased greatly. In fact, in the 60 years before
1930, their number grew more rapidly than that
of any other major occupation group. Only 1
out of every 160 workers in the country was in a
clerical occupation in 1870; in 1930, 1 in 12 was
engaged in this type of work. From 1930 to 1940,
employment in clerical occupations continued to
rise, but the relative gain was considerably less
than in the preceding decade. As shown in chart
38, steady gains were made during W orld War II,
and this growth continued without interruption
in the postwar period; in 1950, one worker out of
every eight was engaged in a clerical occupation.
Underlying this growth has been the increasing
complexity of business and government organiza­
tion. The introduction of additional labor-saving
business machines and of more efficient procedures
induced by the growing burden of clerical costs,
may affect the future trends in this field, particu­
larly in routine bookkeeping and clerical jobs, just
as the dial telephone has cut down the employment
of telephone operators and the teletype has reduced
the number of jobs for telegraph operators. These
developments may well slow down the growth of
clerical occupations, but in view o f their past gains
and the increasing complexity of the economy it

seems likely that they will continue to gain in
importance for some time to come.
The major occupations in the field are shown in
chart 39. Largest groups are stenographers, typ­
ists, and secretaries; and bookkeepers, accountants,
and cashiers. A large number of people are also
employed as shipping clerks, telephone operators,
and mail carriers. Many clerical workers per­
forming miscellaneous jobs are not classified sep­
arately by the Bureau of the Census.

Looking at the chart, one can clearly see the
wide variations in skill to be found among the
occupations classified as clerical in the 1940 cen­
sus. They range from accountants, who usually
have several years o f college or business school
training and often hold responsible positions in
large firms, to messengers and office boys. Actu­
ally, accountants are often considered professional
workers. Certified public accountants (of whom
there were about 20,000 in 1940) have been in­


eluded with the professions in chart 22; the rest
of the accountants—perhaps as many as 200,000—
are not shown separately, because they were
grouped with the bookkeepers in the 1940 census
statistics and an accurate estimate of their number
is not available.
Competition is usually keen for many jobs in
the clerical field, primarily because of the low
entrance requirements. However, turn-over is
high and, as a result, there are many openings for
new entrants. College graduates often enter cleri­
cal occupations, to gain experience in a particular
industry or business, and later work up to pro­
fessional or administrative positions. Young
people who enter with little training may never
advance far and may leave for other jobs. Many
women clerical workers leave the labor market
after marriage. For a young woman considering
a vocational choice, the clerical field is an impor­
tant area o f employment opportunity. Over a
fourth of the working women are in clerical jobs—

more than in any other single field. Women out­
numbered men in this field for the first time in
1940. In early 1945, at the peak of the war effort,
there were 2,300,000 more women in clerical occu­
pations than in 1940, while the number of men
decreased. As W orld War II veterans returned to
industry, the number of men in clerical occupa­
tions increased and the number of women de­
creased, but by 1949 there were still 2,150,000 more
women clerical workers than in 1940, and only
about 650,000 more men. A program of mobiliza­
tion involving considerable expansion of the
Armed Forces, defense industries, and Govern­
ment employment would again create shortages of
clerical workers.
Reports on a few occupations usually classified
as clerical are included in other sections of this
handbook—railroad clerks and baggagemen, with
the other railroad occupations, hotel clerks, with
the hotel occupations, and proofreaders, with the
printing occupations.


E M PLO Y M E N T , 1940


and Secretaries
Bookkeepers, Accountants,
and Cashiers
Shipping and
Receiving Clerks
Telephone Operators
Mail Carriers
Office Machine
Messengers and
Office Boys
Bill Collectors
Telegraph Operators
Ticket Agents




C H ART 40




Traveling Salesmen and
Sales Agents
Food Store
Department and General
Merchandise Store
Insurance Agents and
Clothing and
Accessories Store
Automobile and
Auto Parts
Real Estate Agents
and Brokers
Canvassers and
Drug Store
Limited Price
Variety Store
Hardware Store

I Men

W om en


Furniture Store
Hucksters and
Shoe Store






Almost everyone has some idea of what sales
work consists of, but most people fail to realize
the great variation among sales jobs. An entirely
different knowledge and selling technique may be
required to sell one type of product to housewives
from that involved in selling an industrial product
to large companies. Because of the wide variety
of products sold and the many different classes of
consumers that buy them, sales jobs may differ
more among themselves than many other fields of
work. The duties, the knowledge and training
required, and the personal characteristics required
depend upon the particular type of sales job.
Among the different types of sales workers (see
chart 40) are manufacturers’ salesmen, who sell to
stores or other manufacturers; jobbers’ salesmen;
insurance salesmen; specialty salesmen, who go
from door to door selling such items as brushes;
and sales clerks employed by department, variety,
apparel, grocery, and other kinds of stores.
Sales clerks in stores are by far the most numer­
ous. Some salespersons in stores, such as those
selling furniture, must know a great deal about
the merchandise they sell. Many are able to build
up followings o f loyal customers. But most sales
clerks merely display merchandise, assist the cus­
tomer in making a selection, and receive payment
or make out a charge slip.
Most manufacturers’ salesmen must have a
thorough knowledge of the products they are sell­
ing and how each product can meet the needs of
their customers. In many jobs, technically trained













'5 0


men are required, such as engineers, chemists, and
pharmacists. Training courses in sales techniques
are given new salesmen by most large companies,
and courses in salesmanship are offered by many
universities. In addition, at least several years of
experience are usually required to become a fullfledged salesman. Many salesmen must travel ex­
tensively and be away from home a good part of
the time. Most salesmen work on a commission
basis, rather than on straight salary, and conse­
quently their earnings may vary considerably from
month to month or from year to year, depending
on business conditions and other factors.
There has been moderate growth in employment
in sales occupations in recent years. By 1940, after
nearly a decade of depression, there were many
people working in sales occupations simply
because they had no other job.
During the war the employment of men in the
selling field dropped by a million or about half,
but by 1949 it had completely recovered and had
reached a point slightly above the 1940 level
(chart 41). A wartime increase of a half million
women was maintained in the postwar period.
The exodus of men was caused in part by selective
service withdrawals, but even more by the fact that
in the war economy, production of furniture, auto­
mobiles, and other consumer durable goods was
curtailed or eliminated. Also, manufacturers
with Government contracts found it unnecessary
to maintain large sales staffs, and manufacturers
of consumers’ goods, instead of having to make an
effort to sell, often found buyers eagerly beating a
path to their doorsteps. Moreover, difficulties in
recruiting workers in some relatively low-paid
sales jobs hastened the prewar trend toward selfservice stores, which employ many clerical work­
ers—such as checkers, weighers, and stock clerks—
but few salespeople. Employment in sales occu­
pations has increased only half as much since 1940
as total employment in wholesale and retail trade.
In the long run, the field of sales occupations
will probably continue to rise. In view of the
moderate growth of sales occupations in the past,
however, and the continued extension of self-serv­
ice stores, it does not seem likely that the number
of jobs in selling will increase as much in the
future as in some of the other occupational fields.











Waiters and
Janitors and
Guards and
Beauticians and
Detectives, etc
Boarding-and Lodginghouse Keepers
hosp ita l, etc.

Practical Nurses
and Midwives
Housekeepers, Stewards,

f ir e d e p a r t m e n t

Elevator Operators

Wome n

Cleaners and
amusement, etc.

services, n.e.c








Service occupations are often referred to in
glowing terms as a great and promising field of
employment. This is true to some extent of service
industries, as pointed out in the discussions of
industrial trends (p. 28). But service occupations
and service industries are not the same thing.
Not all workers in service occupations are em­
ployed in service industries; janitors in factories
and porters on railroad trains are examples of
service occupations found in manufacturing and
in transportation industries. On the other hand,
service industries (which include hotels, automo­
bile repair shops, amusement enterprises, and ad­
vertising agencies) employ many professional,
clerical, and skilled workers, such as automobile
mechanics, advertising copywriters, radio actors,
and stenographers. Although the service indus­
tries have grown fairly rapidly in the past 40
years, employment in service occupations has in­
creased more slowly.
The major job fields include domestic service,
protective service, personal service, and institu­
tional service. The occupations are shown in
chart 42, and the recent trends in chart 43. (Part
of the increase in employment between 1949 and
1950 shown in chart 43 is due to an improvement
in the census sampling procedure, which gives
more accurate data for service workers other than
C H ART 43


Domestic service as an occupation has been
growing more slowly than the labor force as a
whole. Whenever other jobs were easy to get, em­
ployment in this field declined. This was true
during the recent war, as can be seen in chart 44.
Employment probably will decline again in the
early 1950’s because defense preparations are
likely to bring about a favorable job market.
C H ART 44







'4 4



'4 6


’4 8




The protective service occupations include
mainly policemen, detectives, firemen, guards, and
watchmen. Almost all of the workers in the first
three of these jobs are employed by Federal, State,
and local governments.
The other service occupations include personal
services, such as barbers, beauty operators, and
practical nurses; and institutional service occupa­
tions such as janitors, waiters, cooks, and elevator
operators. Some require considerable skill and
training; others are comparatively unskilled. In
most, the long-run trend is slowly upward. With
higher income levels and a rising population, res­
taurants, hotels, barber and beauty shops, and
theaters and other places of amusement should
furnish gradually increasing employment oppor­
tunities. As more hospitals and large commercial
and public buildings and apartment houses are
built, more jobs will open for janitors, charwomen,
elevator operators, and hospital attendants.
It seems likely that the service occupations as a
group will grow moderately in the long run, but
they are not the great and promising field of the
future, as they are sometimes described.

This large field includes those workers whose
jobs involve the protection and safety of people
and property, and the enforcement of the Nation’s
Guards and watchmen are the largest group of
protective service workers in civilian employment.
In 1940, there were about 208,000 guards and
watchmen employed, w ith some jobs in almost
every industry. The war and postwar expansion
in general business activity has considerably in­
creased the number of guards and watchmen.
Also many business firms have become more aware
of the importance of plant protection. As Na­
tional security requirements are tightened in the
early 1950’s, employment in these occupations
probably will rise.
Most job openings, though, will arise from turn­
over. Guard and watchman jobs are usually of
such a nature that older men can be effectively em­

ployed, and many firms use some of their older
workers in these jobs. As a result, a large number
leave these occupations each year because of
death, retirement, and other reasons.
Firemen employed by fire departments are an­
other important group of protective service work­
ers, numbering about 77 thousand in 1940. Since
then there has been a substantial gain. It is likely
that the total number of firemen will continue to
increase with the continuing growth of cities and
surrounding urban places where most full-time
firemen are employed. There will also be many
openings to replace those who die or retire.
The law enforcement group of protective service
workers—policemen, detectives, etc.— is comprised
of government employees. Several of the more
important occupations in this group—policemen,
detectives, Federal police and detectives, and F B I
agents—are covered in the following reports.

(D. O. T. 2-66.20 to .29)

Outlook Summary
Large and expanding field. Several thousand
newcomers will be needed each year.
Nature of Work
Most policemen are city employees, though many
work for counties and States. Those employed by
the Federal Government are not covered by this
statement, but are discussed separately (see p. 139).
Policemen usually wear uniforms. In large
cities, they are assigned to a particular type of
work, such as walking a beat, accident or crime
prevention, dance- or pool-hall inspection, traffic
patrol, homicide squad, or radio operation. Police­
women are assigned mainly to crime prevention
and detection Avork among women, young people,
and children. County police and those in smaller
communities usually have more diversified work.
Many of the State-wide police departments
were at one time chiefly concerned with traffic con­
trol, but more and more their authority is being
broadened. In 1948, the only State police depart­

ments confined to the enforcement of traffic regu­
lations were in the following 11 States:

North Dakota

Departments in all other States operated under
general police authority.
Qualifications, Training, and Advancement
In many cities, especially the larger ones, the
jobs are filled on the basis of competitive examina­
tions. In such cities, job seekers may have to meet
very rigid requirements, especially with respect to
age, height, health, strength, agility, physical en­
durance, and emotional stability. Applicants
must have sufficient education to meet basic re­
quirements. There has been and will probably
continue to be a strong tendency to raise hiring
standards for police jobs, and examinations are


becoming increasingly difficult. Veterans, espe­
cially those with military police training and ex­
perience, are likely to have some advantage over
other applicants. F or most police j obs, applicants
must meet residence requirements.
Many police departments have training p ro­
grams for new recruits and also provide in-service
training. The number o f communities with such
programs is growing, mainly, as a result o f increas­
ing emphasis on crime prevention and traffic

Opportunity for advancement to the rank of
sergeant is fair—better in large and medium-sized
cities than in small communities. Further ad­
vancement is possible to lieutenant, then to cap­
tain, and on up the ladder. In most large cities,
promotions up to the rank of captain are made on
the basis of competitive examinations. Appoint­
ment to a higher grade (inspector, deputy chief,
chief, and commissioner) is usually made without
examination. In addition to direct promotions
in rank, policemen often have chances to be trans­
ferred or promoted to the detective force of the
police department.
Police work is an expanding field. Em ploy­
ment in early 1949 was estimated at about 110,000
nonranking policemen, an increase of almost 15
percent over the 1940 employment. Included in
the 1949 employment were about 1,000 police­
women and 2,200 Negro policemen.

Employment of policemen is expected to con­
tinue to increase throughout the 1950-60 decade.
This long-range increase in employment will occur
mainly because of the increasing growth of popu­
lation in cities and their suburbs, and because of
a continued growth of motor vehicle traffic. Other
factors, such as the reduction of scheduled workhours per week, more emphasis on crime preven­
tion and accident prevention, and the need for
more traffic controls will also encourage further
expansion of police departments in many localities.
In addition to the new policemen needed to in­
crease the police forces, turn-over will probably
provide several thousand job opportunities
annually. It is estimated that an average of about
2,500 to 3,000 policemen will die or retire each
year and replacements will be needed. Many

vacancies will also occur because of promotions
and transfers to other types of work.
Geographically, opportunities are widespread.
A ll but the smallest communities will probably
have a few openings each year. Most opportuni­
ties will be in big cities, where there are more
policemen in proportion to population than in
small cities, and the turn-over is somewhat higher.
Competition for the available jobs, however, is
likely to be stiffer in large than in small

Earnings and Working Conditions
Base vStarting salaries of city policemen in 1949
were generally over $2,500 a year, and are usually
higher in the larger cities than in smaller com­
munities. Earnings vary not only with the size
of the community, but with the region of the
country. Automatic pay raises are generally pro­
vided in most police departments. In large cities,
the raises usually amount to $300 to $500 over a
period of about 5 years; thereafter, advancement
in earnings is almost always through advancement
in rank only.
The most common work schedule for city police
was 8 hours a day and 48 hours a week in 1949.
Howrever, there is a trend toward a 40-hour week;
more than 50 cities had established the 40-hour
week and the smaller cities are moving from a 54to a 48-hour week. State police generally live in
barracks, are on call 24 hours a day, and often
work more than 72 hours a week. Policemen have
unusually secure jobs and stable earnings, paid
vacations, better-than-average retirement pen­
sions, and other benefits.
Wh ere To Go for More Information
Information on employment opportunities and
requirements in a particular locality may be ob­
tained from the chief of police or personnel officer
of the local police department, or from a local
civil service commission. Inquiries vT regard
to opportunities in the Metropolitan Police Force
of Washington, D. C., should be addressed to
United States Civil Service Commission, Wash­
ington 25, D. C.
Women interested in police work should see the
Outlook for Women in Police W ork, Bulletin No.


231, U. S. Department of Labor, Women’s Bureau,
1919, obtainable from the Superintendent of Docu­
ments, Washington 25, D. C., for 15 cents.

See also Federal Police and Detectives, page
139; F B I Agents, page 141; and Detectives, page

(D. O. T. 2-66.11)

Outlook Summary
Gradually rising employment for at least next
10 years. Detective positions practically always
filled by promotion or transfer of uniformed
Nature of Work
Detectives are plainclothes men and women.
The large majority are city employees, though
many work for States and counties. Men are
usually assigned to investigate crimes of a par­
ticular type, such as homicides, burglaries, rob­
beries, illegal use and sale of narcotics, forgeries,
illegal pawn shop activities, or pocket-picking.
Women detectives—of whom there are very few—
generally do crime prevention and detection work
among women, young people, and children.
Hoic To Enter
Detective positions are practically always filled
by promotions or transfers of uniformed police.
Both personal qualifications and length of service
in uniform are considered in selecting personnel
for detective positions. In many places, especially
large cities, the positions are covered by a merit
system based on written examinations. Some po­
lice departments have apprenticeship periods for
new detectives, although many provide no intro­
ductory training.
There will be many opportunities for appoint­
ment to detective jobs in the period from 1950 to

1960. In 1940 there were about 10,000 detectives
in the fields covered by this statement. In the
country as a whole, employment remained at about
the prewar level until the end of the war and then
began to rise as former employees returned from
the armed services. The total number of detec­
tives employed is now (1950) larger than ever
before and will probably continue to increase.
This will result partly from the trend toward a
shorter workweek and also from the needs created
by the greater emphasis on crime prevention and
scientific detection. There will also be a few
hundred openings each year to replace detec­
tives who die or retire. However, as already in­
dicated, practically all personnel will be obtained
from the uniformed police forces.
Earnings and Working Conditions
Detectives usually have the same salary rates as
uniformed men at the same grade levels. Their
starting salaries are generally over $2,500 a year
in most cities and are higher in large cities than
in smaller communities. Detectives in some locali­
ties are allowed expense accounts for extra costs
connected with their work.
Opportunities for advancement to higher grade
positions are excellent for men with the needed
experience, efficiency, and other qualifications.
Detectives have unusually steady employment
and stable earnings, paid vacations, better-thanaverage retirement pensions, and other benefits.
See also Policemen, page 137; Federal Police
and Detectives, page 139; and F B I Agents, page

Federal Police and Detectives
(D. O. T. 2-66.99)

Outlook Summary

Nature of Work

No large increase in employment expected but
there will be some replacement openings.

Police and detectives referred to in this statement are employed by the Bureau o f Customs,



United States Secret Service, Bureau of Internal
Revenue, and Bureau of Narcotics, all of which are
in the United States Treasury Department; by the
national defense agencies; and by some other Fed­
eral agencies. Excluded from the statement are
F B I agents (see p. 141), ordinary building guards
and watchmen, and unarmed investigators.
Some Federal police are uniformed; others are
plainclothes men. Their duties depend on the
agency where they are employed and their particu­
lar assignment. Some guard the borders and
ports of the United States (Bureau of Customs,
and Immigration and Naturalization Service) ;
protect the President and President-elect and their
families and property, and visiting foreign digni­
taries (Secret Service), or guard Government
property, especially military and naval establish­
ments (Army and Navy Departments). Other
groups enforce certain Federal laws— for example,
those regarding counterfeiting (Secret Service),
narcotic trade (Bureau of Narcotics), and tax col­
lection (Intelligence and Alcohol Tax Units of the
Bureau of Internal Revenue). The work often
involves tracking down criminals and making
arrests. Job titles include patrol inspector, cus­
toms agent, port patrol officer, secret service agent,
special agent, patrolman, and narcotics agent.
How To Enter
All these positions are in the Federal Civil Serv­
ice. Permanent appointments are made only
from registers established on the basis of competi­
tive examinations given by the United States Civil
Service Commission.
To be admitted to examinations for agent posi­
tions in the Treasury Department, applicants
must have some college training or experience in
investigative work. Port patrol officers’ examina­
tions and requirements are different from those for
Treasury agents’ jobs, while customs agents are
usually appointed from within the Bureau of Cus­
toms. Veterans are given 5 or 10 points prefer­
ence in the grading of all examinations. Physical
requirements are strict—more so for some kinds of
jobs than others.
Newly hired employees receive on-the-job train­
ing, including classroom instruction, for periods
varying from several weeks to about a year. Ex­
haustive background and character investigations
are conducted on applicants prior to appointment.

This is not a large field o f employment. The
Treasury Department has some 3,000 agents, and
only a few more than that number are employed
by all other agencies combined.
Altogether there probably will be a few hun­
dred openings each year in the early fifties. Most
of these will result from turn-over, but it is likely
that the stepping-up of defense preparations
which began in mid-1950 will require some addi­
tional Federal police. Over the long run em­
ployment is expected to grow slowly.
In 1949, the starting salary for some jobs was
$3,100 a year for men without experience and
about $4,600 a year for those with related expe­
rience. “ Within-grade” pay increases are given
at regular intervals, as in other Federal jobs. The
maximum salary for Treasury agent classification
was $5,350 a year. Opportunity for advancement
to supervisory positions with still higher pay
usually comes only after many years of experience.
Like government workers generally, these men
have steady employment and stable earnings, paid
vacations, sick leave, better-than-average retire­
ment annuities, and other benefits.
Where To Go for More Information
Inquiries about examination should be made at
regional offices o f the United States Civil Service
Commission or at any first- or second-class post
office (except those in cities in which Civil Service
regional offices are located). Notices regarding
examinations are posted on bulletin boards in
first- and second-class post offices and in other F ed­
eral buildings. Many newspapers publish items
regarding examinations. The Commission has
regional offices in the follow ing cities:
Boston, Mass.
New York, N. Y.
Philadelphia, Pa.
Washington, D. C.
Atlanta, Ga.
Cincinnati, Ohio
Chicago, 111.

St. Paul, Minn.
St. Louis, Mo.
New Orleans, La.
Seattle, Wash.
San Francisco, Calif.
Denver, Colo.
Dallas, Tex.

See also F B I Agents, page 141; Policemen, page
137; and Detectives, page 139.


FB I Agents
(D. O. T. 2-66.99)

Outlook Summary
Number of agents will increase sharply in the
early fifties but not nearly enough to provide
positions for all job seekers. Applications are
welcomed, especially from qualified veterans.
Nature of Work
F B I (Federal Bureau of Investigation) agents
are plainclothes men. They investigate all types
of violations o f Federal law not specifically as­
signed to other agencies, including antitrust vio­
lations, bribery, fraud against the Government,
bank robbery, kidnaping, white-slave traffic,
motor-vehicle theft, espionage, and sabotage.
How To Enter
The FBI, part of the United States Department
of Justice, hires its agents directly (not through
the U. S. Civil Service Commission). Applicants
must be (1) graduates from resident law schools
and members o f the bar in good standing; or (2)
graduates of accounting schools and possess cer­
tified public accountant’s certificates. They must
also be male citizens of the United States, between
the ages of 25 and 40 years, and willing to serve
anywhere in the United States or its Territories.
Furthermore, they must be at least 5 feet 7 inches
tall; have unimpaired hearing, excellent vision,
and normal color perception; be capable of strenu­
ous exertion; and have no physical defects which
would prevent use of firearms or participation in
dangerous assignments.
Written and oral examinations are given, cov­
ering law, accounting, and aptitude for meeting
the public and conducting investigations. Exhaus­
tive background and character investigations are
conducted on applicants prior to appointment.
In 1949, employment was about 4,000. Several
thousand additional men will be needed in the
next few years to combat the sharply increased
crime rate, to handle security aspects of the

stepped-up defense program undertaken in mid1950, and to discharge the Bureau’s various
other responsibilities. Turn-over, although small,
should make some vacancies, and if prewar expe­
rience is any indication, the number of agents
employed will rise in the long run. How­
ever, the number of interested applicants will
probably far exceed the number of available jobs.
The F B I nevertheless welcomes inquiries from
applicants, particularly from qualified veterans,
and interviews plus the opportunity to file appli­
cations are granted.
Earnings and Working Conditions
A ll agents start at $5,000 a year. Periodic
“ within-grade” pay increases are given, as in all
Federal agencies. Opportunities for advance­
ment to higher-grade positions are excellent for
men with the needed experience, efficiency, and
other qualifications. Top pay for regular field
agents is $7,400 a year.
The basic workweek is 40 hours, but all agents
are on call 24 hours a day, 7 days a week. Though
assigned to one of the many F B I offices in different
parts of the country, agents may be called upon
at any time to handle jobs requiring travel outside
their headquarters city. A subsistence allowance
on a graduated scale from $9 to $7 a day is paid
for work away from that city. Transportation
of families and shipment of household effects are
at Government expense on official transfers.
F B I men have paid vacations and sick leave,
relatively secure employment and stable earnings,
and annuities on retirement.
Where To Go for More Information
Additional information and application forms
may be obtained by writing t o :
Personnel Office, FBI,
Room 2266,
U. S. Department of Justice Building,
Washington 25, D. C.

See also Policemen, page 137; Detectives, page
139; and Federal Police and Detectives, page 139.



Secretaries, Stenographers, and Typists
(D. O. T. 1-33; 1-37.12, .14, .18, and .32)

Outlook Summary
Excellent employment prospects for welltrained secretaries and stenographers in at least
the early fifties; good prospects for typists. Longrun employment trend upward.
Nature of Work
Typists’ work ranges from simple copying to
reproducing complicated statistical tables and
manuscripts. Most typists also have to do a
variety of clerical work. Stenographers, besides
typing, take dictation in shorthand; a small num­
ber use a stenotype machine. A few become spe­
cialists in foreign languages, legal or police work,
or public or court stenography. Court reporters
must be able to record difficult technical language
at very high rates of speed for several hours at a
time. Secretaries usually handle stenographic
duties along with business details which do not
need their employer’s personal attention. Some
specialize in legal, medical, private, social, or other
types of secretarial work.
Over 1,000,000 persons were employed in these
occupations in 1940. The number has increased
greatly since that time. The great majority of
the workers (94 percent in 1940) are women.
Nevertheless, a good many men are employed in
this field (about 69,000 in 1940). Men are often
preferred for stenographic jobs with finance, in­
surance, real-estate companies, and in transpor­
tation industries. Court stenographers are usually
men, although some women stenotypists are
How To Enter
Completion of a business course in high school,
junior college, or business school is usually pre­
ferred for entrance into these occupations. Addi­
tional training in colleges with departments de­
signed specifically for training in business subjects
is desirable. Typists need good training not only

in typing but in spelling, vocabulary, punctuation,
grammar, and correspondence procedures; stenog­
raphers must also be able to take dictation quickly
and accurately. Ability to use other office ma­
chines is helpful for many jobs. The better-paid
positions often require a knowledge of the funda­
mentals and terminology of a particular field,
such as law, medicine, engineering, or foreign
Starting out as a typist, a person with ability
and additional training may advance to a steno­
graphic job ; stenographers may advance to secre­
tarial and administrative assistant positions.
Specialized knowledge of the particular industry
or business is most helpful for advancement.

Employment opportunities for well-trained
secretaries and stenographers are expected to be
excellent in the early fifties at least. Prospects
for typists are generally good, although oppor­
tunities vary from one local area to another.
There was a shortage of secretaries and stenog­
raphers at the beginning of 1950 in most localities,
despite the fact that increasing numbers of young
people have completed courses in junior colleges,
specialized schools, or high schools since World
W ar II. The high demand for stenographers has
been due largely to continuing business prosperity
and to the high rate of turn-over in the occupation.
The defense mobilization program will provide
even more employment opportunities. Typists are
not in as much demand as stenographers, since
employers prefer workers with more than one skill
to offer; also the number of typists seeking to
enter the field each year will continue to be greater
than the number of new stenographers and secre­
taries because of the comparatively low training
requirements for typists. However, a large in­
crease in defense activities and in Government
employment will create a shortage of workers in
this field also.


In the long run, employment will probably tend
to rise slowly. In addition, high turn-over rates,
usual in occupations where young women predomi­
nate, will continue to create many job openings.
Since these workers are needed in every industry,
business, and profession, they are likely to be less
seriously affected by declines in economic activity
than those in occupations found in only one indus­
try. Well-trained stenographers and secretaries
have a better chance of holding their jobs than
Jobs will be found in most sections of the coun­
try, in small towns as well as large cities. The
greatest number of openings, but also keenest com­
petition for jobs, will be in large industrial and
population centers. About three-fifths of the
workers in 1940 were employed in eight States:
New York, Illinois, Pennsylvania, California,
Ohio, New Jersey, Massachusetts, and Michigan.
Earnings and Working Conditions
According to a survey of office workers in 17
large cities, average weekly salaries of women
workers in the first half of 1949 were as follows :


$45. 00
47. 00
54. 00
Cleveland____________ 52. 50
52. 50
____ __ _
54. 50
Hartford _
Los Angeles_________ 56. 00
Minneapolis-St. Paul- 46. 00
New Orleans_________ 52. 00
New York___________ 52. 50
46. 50
Portland, Oreg
Richmond, Va _
St. Louis_____________ 44. 50
55. 50
Seattle- _
Washington, D . C ___ 51. 50


General Class A Class B










1Insufficient data to justify presentation of an average.

In the Federal civil service, typists had an an­
nual starting salary of $2,200 or $2,450 in early
1950; stenographers started at $2,450. Stenog­

raphers may advance to secretarial and adminis­
trative assistant jobs, which pay higher salaries.
Court stenographers in the Federal service began
at $3,450. State and local governments generally
have somewhat lower salary scales than the Fed­
eral Government.
The most usual work schedule for office workers
in the 17 cities surveyed in 1949 was 5 days a week
and 40 hours or less. Those in finance, insurance,
and real estate offices most frequently worked S7y2
hours a week. Practically all office workers with
a year's service received 2 weeks’ vacation. The
majority of offices had no formal provisions for
sick leave.
Where To Go for Further Information
Information on training is available from :
Federal Security Agency,
U. S. Office of Education,
Vocational Division,
Business Education Service,
Washington 25, D. C.
United Business Education Association,
(A department of the National Education Assotion,)
1201 16th St., N W .,
Washington 6, D. C.

Information on private business schools may be
obtained from :
National Council of Business Schools,
2601 16th St., NW .,
Washington 9, D. C.

Information on salaries, hours of work, and
supplementary benefits for office workers in large
cities is published periodically in the Monthly
Labor Review, U. S. Department of Labor, Bureau
of Labor Statistics. A list of separate reports
for selected cities may be obtained from the Bureau
of Labor Statistics, Washington 25, D. C. (See
p. 574.) The Monthly Labor Review is available
from the Superintendent of Documents, Washing­
ton 25, D. C. 12 issues, $5.50 per annum or 50
cents per copy.
Information on Government jobs may be ob­
tained from State or municipal civil service au­
thorities or the United States Civil Service Com­
mission, Washington 25, D. C.
Notices of civil service jobs and examinations
are frequently posted in local post offices.


(D. O. T. 1-01.02, 1-01.03; 1-02.01, .02, .03)

Outlook Summary

Where Employed

Many openings in early fifties, resulting pri­
marily from high rate o f turn-over. Some in­
crease in number of bookkeeping positions over
long run.

Bookkeepers are employed in all industries,
with by far the greatest number in wholesale and
retail trade. Many employment opportunities are
found with banks, insurance companies, railroads,
and utility companies.

Nature of Work
Jobs in bookkeeping range from entry positions
as clerk or machine operator to head bookkeeper.
Bookkeeping clerks perform routine tasks such as
recording and posting items by hand; in small
businesses, they may also perform related duties
such as typing, filing, answering the telephone,
and mailing statements. Bookkeeping-machine
operators may use relatively simple machines to
record only one type of data or may operate com­
plicated machines that record a great variety of
General bookkeepers keep complete and system­
atic sets of records of their employers’ business
transactions, recording items in proper journals
and on special forms, posting ledgers, balancing
books, and compiling reports. In large establish­
ments which employ many office workers, a book­
keeper may be assigned to work with one phase or
section of a complete set of records, as accounts
payable or accounts receivable. The head book­
keeper in a large office has full responsibility for
his department.
Most employers require graduation from a high
school, business or vocational school, or junior col­
lege. Many employers, however, prefer not to
hire college-trained persons for routine bookkeep­
ing jobs. A business course which includes train­
ing in many office functions such as typing, short­
hand, and use of various office machines, as well
as bookkeeping procedures, will usually be of
greatest value in obtaining a job in this field, par­
ticularly in a small office. Head bookkeepers us­
ually qualify either by education in accounting or
extensive experience.

A considerable number of openings in bookkeep­
ing jobs in the early fifties will result chiefly from
the high rate of turn-over in this large occupa­
tion. More than 700,000 workers were employed
in bookkeeping jobs in 1949. A large proportion
of these positions are filled by young women,
many of whom leave their jobs after a few years,
thus creating openings for new employees.
There is a trend, especially in large offices, to­
ward breaking down bookkeeping functions into
office-machine operator and other routine clerical
jobs; the vast majority of openings in the bookkeeping field will be of this nature. There are
usually plenty of people in the labor market with
the qualifications needed for such positions. How­
ever, the comparatively low salaries offered limit
the number of applicants when other jobs are
available. During a period of rapid expansion
of defense production a shortage of applicants for
routine bookkeeping jobs may develop. Openings
for bookkeepers who are required to assume
responsibility for a complete set of books will
probably continue to be few, and will generally
be filled by promotion from within or by those
with accounting training or experience.
Over the long run, the need for bookkeepers
will probably tend to increase because the growth
of scientific management in industry, complex tax
systems, and the general complexities of the econ­
omy necessitate more record keeping. However,
the demand for bookkeepers at any given time
depends mainly on the level of business activity
and the number of individual businesses.
Earnings and Working Conditions
Average weekly earnings of men employed as
hand bookkeepers ranged from $53 to $70 in 17


large cities, according to a survey of office work­
ers’ salaries in the first half of 1949. In nearly
all cities, hand bookkeepers received higher pay
than workers in any other office occupation;
women bookkeepers averaged somewhat less than
men ($45 to $62). The average weekly salaries
of women hand bookkeepers and of bookkeepingmachine operators in the cities surveyed are shown

ceived 2-weeks’ vacation after a year’s service.
The majority were in establishments that did not
have formal provisions for paid sick leave. Many
were covered by insurance and pension plans paid
for in whole or in part by employers.
Where To Go for Additional Information
Information on training is available from :
Federal Security Agency,
U. S. Office of Education,



Class A

Class B

Division of Vocational Education,
Business Education Service,
Washington 25, D. C.
United Business Education Association,

D allas_______________
Los Angeles_________
Minneapolis-St. Paul
New Orleans________
New York___________
Portland, Oreg______
Richmond, V a _______
St. Louis_____________
Washington, D. C _







The most usual work schedule for office workers
in the cities surveyed was 5 days and 40 hours or
less a week. Workers in finance, insurance and
real estate offices were generally on a 37^-hour
week. Practically all employees in the study re­







A s­

sociation )
1201 16th St., N W .
Washington 6, D. C.

Information on private business schools may be
obtained from :
National Council of Business Schools,
2601 16th St., N W .
Washington 9, D. C.

Information on salaries, hours of work, and
supplementary benefits for office workers in large
cities is published periodically in the Monthly
Labor Review, U. S. Department of Labor, Bureau
of Labor Statistics. A list of separate reports for
selected cities may be obtained from the Bureau
of Labor Statistics, Washington 25, D. C. (See
p. 574.) The Monthly Labor Review is available
from the Superintendent of Documents, Washing­
ton 25, D. C. 12 issues, $5.50 per annum or 50
cents per copy.

Automobile Parts Salesmen
(D. O. T. 1-75.22)

Outlook Summary

Nature of Work

Many openings for trainees in stock clerk jobs
with automobile dealers and parts jobbers during
the early fifties. Retail parts and accessories
stores will also hire and train many new salesmen
to fill vacancies caused by turn-over. Longer run
trend of employment slowly upward.

There are more than 50,000 automobile parts
salesmen in the country. Most of them work for
automobile dealers and parts jobbers. A large
proportion are also employed in retail auto parts
and accessory stores. The occupation includes
both counter and outside salesmen, the former

8 9 2 2 7 3 ° — 5 1 --------- 1 1



being the larger group. For either type of job,
a knowledge of several thousand automotive parts,
often for various makes of cars, is necessary.
Salesmen must identify parts, using micrometers,
calipers, and other measuring instruments when
necessary. They till orders, quote prices, and give
other information using catalogs as a source. Some
jobs involve examining faulty parts to determine
what has to be replaced. In the retail stores a
bigger part of the job is selling accessories, and
often many items unrelated to automobiles are
handled, such as electrical appliances and sporting
Outside salesmen call on such places as auto
repair shops, service stations, or retail stores,
wdiich sell auto parts and accessories. They usu­
ally cover a set territory ranging in size from
sections of a large city to several States. Where
the sales territory is large a salesman may often
have to travel for a week or more at a time. Defi­
nite sales ability is necessary for this type of work,
and it is usually the more successful countermen
who become outside salesmen. A car is generally
necessary, but in some cases may be furnished by
the company.
How To Enter
Men usually enter this field as stock or receiving
clerks. Those employed by automobile dealers or
parts jobbers usually work several months before
becoming junior countermen, and it may take as
long as 2 years more to become a fully qualified
counter salesman. Outside salesmen must have
had some experience as counter salesmen. A few
employers have established 3-year training pro­
grams with provisions for spending a definite
amount of time in each department. In many
stores, particularly those selling accessories as well
as parts, it takes much less time to learn the job.
A qualified and aggressive salesman can often work
himself up to store manager in about 5 years with
future possibilities of becoming a district manager
or eventually a high executive in the company.
In these more responsible jobs, sales and mana­
gerial ability are extremely important.

Ph o to g r a ph

b y

U .


D e p a r t m e n t

o f


Auto parts salesman fills an order for a customer.

receiving clerks in the early fifties. Turn-over
will be the most important source of jobs. Large
numbers of persons in the occupation will turn to
other fields of work or move up to more respon­
sible positions in their firms, and a few will go
into business for themselves. Openings will also
arise as workers die, retire, or are drafted.
A large volume of auto parts will be sold in the
fifties. There were about 35 million passenger
cars registered in mid-1950, 18 million of which
were manufactured before World W ar II. Be­
cause this large and still growing number of cars
will need a great many repair parts, employment
will remain at a high level. I f defense prepara­
tions make it necessary to curtail automobile pro­
duction, the volume of parts sold will tend to
increase. Employment of parts salesmen would
not rise correspondingly, however, since many
companies could handle a greater volume of parts
without increasing their sales forces.
Jobs are to be found in all parts of the country,
in small towns as well as in large cities. The great­
est number of jobs are in States with the highest
number of motor vehicles—California, New York,
Pennsylvania, Ohio, Ilinois, Texas, Michigan, and
New Jersey.

0 utlooh
Many men who are mechanically inclined and
have some sales ability will find jobs as stock or

Countermen are usually paid on an hourly basis,
outside salesmen on a salary. The general method
of payment is a basic guaranteed rate plus some


type of commission or bonus. The size of the shop
and its location have a great influence on earnings.
According to a survey of franchised auto parts
dealers in the larger cities, the base pay of parts
salesmen in early 1949 ranged from $1,800 to
$8,600 a year in firms employing a total of 20 to
49 people; and from $2,100 to $4,200 for firms with
50 to 99 employees; in all instances there were
additional commissions or bonuses. Yearly earn­
ings of outside salesmen in some of the large cities

in mid-1949 were approximately $5,000 to $7,000,
with some earning considerably more.
Where To Find Out More About This Occupation
National Standard Parts Association,
8 S. Michigan Aye.,
Chicago 3, 111.
Motor and Equipment Wholesalers Association,
309 W . Jackson Blvd.,
Chicago 6, 111.

Service Station Attendants, Managers, and Owners
(D. O. T. 0-72.12 and 7-60.500)

Outlook Summary
Job openings expected to be quite numerous in
early fifties mainly because of the high turn-over
in this field. Opportunities for going into busi­
ness will be more limited, however.
Nature of Work
Attendants work in service stations owned or
controlled by oil companies and in independent
stations. They have a variety of duties—supply­
ing passenger cars, trucks, and busses with gaso­
line, oil, water, and air; changing oil and doing
lubrication jobs; installing accessories; changing
tires and repairing inner tubes. Since service
stations generally have many supplies for sale—
for example, batteries, spark plugs, light bulbs,
and tires—selling these makes up an important
part of the attendant’s duties.
Short training programs are conducted by many
oil companies for employed attendants and man­
agers, operators (who lease a station, usually from
an oil company), or owners. Except in some very
large stations, managers, operators, and owners
perform many or all of the duties of attendants,
in addition to buying supplies, supervising their
employees, and handling other business duties.
The most common method of going into business
in this field is to lease a station from an oil com­
pany. Previous experience as an attendant is
highly desirable.
There were about 190,000 service stations in
operation in late 1949, employing roughly 200,000
attendants and 180,000 managers, operators, and
owners. The greatest number of stations were
in States having the most motor vehicles—Cali­

fornia, New York, Pennsylvania, Ohio, Illinois,
Texas, Michigan, and New Jersey.
Thousands of young men will find openings in
service stations during the early fifties. Most of
the men in this occupation are young and there
is always a great deal of turn-over. In the next
several years turn-over will be higher than during
the 1945-49 period, because jobs will be easier to
get in many other lines of work and because of the
draft. Employment in this occupation may de­
cline if defense preparations make it necessary to
restrict the use of gasoline. Even in this event,
there would still be many openings arising
through turn-over.
Opportunities for purchasing or leasing a new
service station will be limited in the early fifties,
but there will continue to be many chances to buy
stations already operating. A considerable num­
ber of stations were available immediately after
the war, but these were quickly taken over by
veterans and other people interested in the busi­
ness. Stations selling the most popular brands of
gasoline will probably continue to be the hardest
to get. The best locations for new stations in the
early fifties will probably be in the vicinity of
newly developed residential areas. The minimum
amount of capital needed to buy or build a station
ranged between $8,000 and $5,000 in late 1949, de­
pending upon the size and location of the station.
Wages and Working Conditions
Wages in mid-1949 were almost double what
they were before the war. The average attend­


ant earned about $45 to $50 a week in many large
cities, while the manager earned about $60; in
smaller cities weekly wages were about $5-$10
lower. The workweek in this field generally
ranges from 40 to 60 hours a week, with 8 to 9 hours
a day and a 6-day week being the most common.
In addition to their wages, some attendants and
managers get commissions on sales. Earnings of
operators and owners depend upon the location
and size of station and other factors affecting the
volume of business, and therefore vary a great deal.

Where To Go for More Information
People interested in going into business for
themselves will find valuable information in :
Establishing and Operating a Service Station.
Industrial (Small Business) Series No. 22. U. S.
Department of Commerce, Bureau of Foreign and
Domestic Commerce (1945). Price 45 cents.
Sup’t. of Documents, Washington 25, D. C.
Information on job and business opportunities
in a particular locality can be obtained from local
distributors of the large oil companies.

(D. O. T. 2-32.01)

Outlook Summary
Thousands of openings each year in the early
fifties to replace barbers who leave the occupation.
Gradual increase in employment in the long run.
Nature of Work
Barbers provide a variety of personal services,
such as haircuts, shaves, shampoos, scalp treat­
ments, and facial massages. In the beginning of
1949 there were an estimated quarter of a million
barbers working in about 125,000 barber shops.
A large proportion of them were self-employed.
Training and Advancement
The most frequent method of entering the occu­
pation is by taking a trade course in a public vo­
cational school or a 6- to 9-month course in a
commercial barbers’ college. Graduates of such
courses must usually serve 18 months as appren­
tices (or learners) before qualifying as journey­
men. Apprentices must meet minimum-age re­
quirements (generally 16 or 18 years); must, as a
rule, have a grade-school education or its equiva­
lent ; and must be able to pass health examinations.
In all States except Virginia, both apprentices
and master barbers must have licenses.
Experienced barbers can advance by going into
shops where customers spend more money on such
services as facial massages, shampoos, and scalp
treatments, or by opening their own shops. In
some shops which are not managed by the owner,

there is opportunity for promotion to manager.
The majority of barbers are self-employed.
Because this is such a large occupation, thou­
sands of newcomers enter it every year. Employ­
ment is expected to remain near 1949 levels, so that
most openings for new workers will be to replace
barbers who leave the trade because of death, re­
tirement, changing to other jobs, or for military
service. These drop-outs should create thousands
of vacancies each year. Many men were attracted
to the trade by the early postwar shortage of bar­
bers. As a result there was fairly stiff competi­
tion for beginners’ jobs by late 1949. In the
early fifties, however, increasing turn-over in the
trade probably will bring about an increasing
number of openings. In the long run, a gradual
increase in employment is expected, owing mostly
to growth in the population.
Earnings and Working Conditions
Most barbers are paid a fixed basic salary plus
a commission, although some receive only a
straight salary and others are completely on a
commission basis. Typical union contracts for
many large cities in late 1949 provided for a mini­
mum of $35 to $40 a week, or 60 to 70 percent of
the barber’s gross take, whichever is greater. In
New York City, the minimum was $44 a week.
Tips usually form a considerable addition to the
barber’s take-home pay. The earnings of indi­


vidual workers vary, depending on such factors
as the type and location of the shop, the custom
of the community regarding tips, as well as the
skill and personality of the particular operator.
Earnings tend to increase as the barber establishes
a personal following. 'Self-employed men also
tend to earn more. The employee usually pays
for his uniforms, razors, combs, and scissors.
Hours are long; 46 to 48 is the maximum accord­
ing to most union contracts. Workers receive a
1-week paid vacation after a year’s service in a
number o f shops; some union contracts provide
for 2 weeks vacation. Insurance benefits are also
included in many of these contracts.
Organized barbers belong to the following un­
ions: Journeymen Barbers, Hairdressers, and
Cosmetologists International Union of America,
AFL, and the Barbers and Beauty Culturists Un­
ion of America, CIO. Those who are shop owners
or managers may belong to the Associated Master
Barbers and Beauticians of America.

Where To Go for More Information
For the licensing requirements in the particular
State where one would like to work, it is advisable
to write directly to that State licensing board. The
following organizations can provide additional in­
formation on such subjects as earnings, working
conditions, training requirements, and job oppor­
tunities :
Barbers and Beauty Culturists Union of America,
330 Flatbush Ave.,
Brooklyn 17, N. Y.
Journeymen Barbers, Hairdressers, and Cosmetolo­
gists International Union of America, AFL,
12th and Delaware Sts.,
Indianapolis 7, Ind.
National Education Council,
Associated Master Barbers and Beauticians of Amer­
537 S. Dearborn St.,
Chicago 5, 111.

Beauty Operators
(See D. O. T. 2-32.11— .14, .21, .22, .31)

Outlook Summary
Opportunities for inexperienced persons some­
what limited in the early fifties, but turn-over
will create thousands of openings each year.
Gradual increase in employment in the long run.
Nature of Work.
The majority of workers are all-round oper­
ators who give a variety of services such as
shampoos, haircuts, hair setting, permanent waves,
hair dyeing, face and scalp treatments, and mani­
cures. There are, however, some less skilled oper­
ators who can do manicuring only. In the larger
shops, some operators with all-round training
may specialize in such services as electrolysis, hair
styling, permanent waving, hair dyeing, or facials.
The few men in the occupation are mainly stylists
specializing in hair cutting, setting, and perma­
nent waving. Many operators are self-employed.
There were approximately 125,000 beauty shops
in operation at the beginning of 1949, employing
over 300,000 operators, including owners, man­
agers, and specialists such as manicurists and

electrologists. Only a small percentage of these
workers were men.
Training and Advancement
As of the end of 1949, there were licensing re­
quirements in all States except Delaware and V ir­
ginia. To qualify for licenses, operators must
meet the requirements of the State in which they
expect to work. There is a great deal of variation,
but these requirements generally include passing a
health examination, being at least 16 or 18 years
of age, having at least a grade school or, in some
cases a high school education, and the completion
of an approved training course. In late 1949, the
required amount of training varied from 1,000 to
1,800 hours and more. There were some indica­
tions that the minimum might be raised to 1,500
hours and an applicant would do well to get at
least that much training. Prospective beauty
operators usually meet these requirements by tak­
ing a 6- or 8-month course in beauty culture in a
commercial beauty school or a trade course in a
public vocational school. In the District of Co­


lumbia and the 46 States which require licensing,
there were in late 1949 about 1,100 schools offering
beauty culture courses approved by the State ex­
amining boards. There are schools in every State,
in both small towns and large cities. Learning on
the job is not common, although some States accept
this kind of training in lieu of trade school courses.
After completing a beauty course and obtaining
a license, an operator ordinarily starts out in a
small neighborhood shop, although especially skill­
ful girls are sometimes able to go directly into
higher-grade shops. Licensed operators are
sometimes hired by large cosmetic manufacturers,
and then are given special beauty courses at the
company’s training centers. Occasionally, some
of the more competent beauty operators may be­
come instructors in schools of beauty culture or
inspectors for State licensing boards.
Experienced operators may advance by moving
to a better shop or by becoming specialists. Only
the exceptionally good operator can earn more as
a specialist, however. A few operators, employed
in large salons, may be promoted to positions as
managers. Many operators with enough skill,
business ability, and capital have successfully
opened their own shops.
Beauty operators just out of school may have a
hard time finding job openings in the early fifties.
Experienced people will be preferred over in­
experienced workers because beauty shop owners
rarely can spare the time to train new workers.
No increase in total employment is foreseen dur­
ing this period, so that what openings occur will
come from turn-over. Turn-over will create
many thousands of job opportunities in the early
fifties, since this is an occupation composed pri­
marily of young women, who frequently work a
few years and then leave to get married, raise fam­
ilies, or take other jobs. However, it is likely
that there will be more than enough newcomers
in the next few years to meet all replacement
In the long run, employment in this field is likely
to show a very gradual upward trend, since popu­
lation is expected to grow and there is a general
tendency for an increasing proportion of women
to patronize beauty shops.

Earnings and Working Conditions
Earnings are influenced by length of experience,
personality, ability, and clientele of the operator,
as well as by type of shop, its location, and pop­
ularity. Therefore, earnings vary widely. Most
operators receive a basic guaranteed wage, plus a
commission on their sales. Tips also add a con­
siderable amount to their take-home pay. Basic
union rates in New York City in late 1949 ranged
from $35 to $60 a week; in other cities basic rates
are somewhat lower.
Before an operator earns a commission, she must
usually have sales amounting to twice the basic
guaranteed wage. Then 40 to 50 percent of the
total gross take above that amount is given to her
as a commission. This is known in the trade as
“ 40 percent (or 50 percent) over double.” Accord­
ing to a survey of beauty salons in department
stores in 175 different localities, the average beauty
operator in early 1949 earned between $40 and $45
a week, exclusive of tips. Operators in neighbor­
hood shops would have slightly lower total earn­
ings. Manicurists generally earn less than all­
round operators. In States where there are mini­
mum wage laws covering this work, the minimum
rates in effect in mid-1949 ranged from $17 to $30
a week. Beginners just out of school would be
most affected by these regulations. The total
amount of money earned from tips was much less
in late 1949 than 2 or 3 years earlier, because the
volume o f work had fallen off; individual tips
still remained about the same, however.
The general workweek in this occupation in late
1949 was 40 to 44 hours; some union shops worked
39 hours. The 5-day week is becoming more pop­
ular. However, a considerable number of oper­
ators, especially in the small shops, have much
longer hours. Some shops give 1 week’s vacation
with pay; a few 2 weeks. Unionization has been
increasing in this field, especially in the big cities
in the East. The two unions organizing beauty
operators are: Barbers and Beauty Culturists Un­
ion of America, CIO, and the Journeymen Bar­
bers, Hairdressers and Cosmetologists Interna­
tional Union of America, AFL.
Where To Go for More Information
For information on the specific licensing re­
quirements in the States where one intends to

National Education Council,
Associated Master Barbers
537 S. Dearborn St.,
Chicago 5, 111.

work, it is advisable to write to that particular
State Board of Beauty Culture.
The following organizations may be helpful in
supplying information on such topics as job op­
portunities, training requirements, and working
Brooklyn 17, N. Y.
Journeymen Barbers, Hairdressers and Cosmetolo­
gists, International Union of America, AFL,
12th and Delaware Sts.,
Indianapolis 7, Ind.
National Council of Boards of Beauty Culture,
17 N. State S t ,
Chicago 2, 111.



National Hairdressers and Cosmetologists Associa­
212 5th Ave.,
New York 10, N. Y.

Barbers and Beauty Culturists Union of America,
330 Flatbush Ave.,


To people interested in opening a beauty shop
of their own, the following pamphlet will be
Establishing and Operating a Beauty Shop.
Industrial (Small Business) Series No. 25.
United States Department of Commerce, Bureau
of Foreign and Domestic Commerce. Superin­
tendent of Documents, Washington 25, D. C.
Price 35 cents.

Hospital Attendants 1
(D. O. T. 2-42.)

Outlook Summary
Good employment opportunities in early fifties.
The need in the future will considerably exceed
that of the years before World War IL
Nature of Work
Hospital attendants assist the nursing staff in
hospitals by performing routine or less skilled
tasks in the care of patients. Such services usually
include dressing patients, answering call bells,
making beds, serving food, assisting the patient in
walking, giving alcohol rubs, and possibly cleaning
rooms and equipment. There is a trend toward
standardizing their training and duties. Many
are employed in hospitals for mental patients.
Training and Other Qualifications
Preparation for practice varies considerably.
Many persons qualify for jobs as attendants
through experience only and obtain jobs without
being licensed. Veterans trained in such work in
the Army or Navy will qualify for most jobs as
attendants in hospitals. Two years of high school
are preferred, though not required, for entrance to
1 Prepared by the Women’s Bureau, U. S. Department
of Labor.

an approved course for training attendants.
About half the States have made provision for
voluntary licensing and requirements vary, but
usually call for graduation from an approved
course of 9 to 18 months, or the passing of an ex­
amination. In 1948, there were nearly 142,000 at­
tendants and practical nurses and almost 36,000
orderlies in approved hospitals in the United
States. O f this number, over half were men.
They worked for the most part in veterans’ hospi­
tals or hospital departments in which all the
patients were men, and frequently mentally ill.
Employment outlook for the trained hospital at­
tendant is good for the early fifties. The most de­
sirable jobs will go to those with approved train­
ing, as the trend is toward licensing to protect both
patients and qualified personnel. Schools trained
very few attendants during W orld War II, and
poorly qualified persons often obtained jobs. A t­
tendants trained in special courses such as those
given by the Army and Navy should have no diffi­
culty in obtaining employment either in veterans’
or in other hospitals. The Federal civil service re­
stricts positions as hospital attendants to veterans
so long as such applicants are available.


There is a growing tendency toward the use of
attendants to assist the professional nurse. As
new treatments are developed, more assistants are
required to aid the nurse or physician during the
treatment and also with the preparation of the
patient for it. Trained attendants or assistants
usually are needed for such special purposes as,
for example, in the application of hot moist packs
under the Kenny treatment for poliomyelitis.
World War II greatly increased the number of
veterans who will require long-time hospitaliza­
tion and the services of attendants. The partial
mobilization which began in mid-1950 is expected
to accelerate the demand in military and veter­
ans’ hospitals. The increasing hospitalization of
those suffering from mental or nervous conditions
adds to the demand for trained attendants in men­
tal institutions, as does the growing hospitaliza­
tion of tuberculous and other patients with chronic
illnesses. There is a growing trend toward merg­
ing the hospital attendant and practical nurse
groups so that basic training and requirements for
licensing will be similar.

The basic annual beginning salary for hospital
attendant jobs under civil service in late 1949 was
$2,200. Hospital attendants not qualified as prac­
tical nurses were included among the untrained
men and women hospital employees whose average
gross annual earnings in 1947 were reported by the
American Hospital Association as being $1,476
and $1,284 respectively.
Where To Go for More Information
Additional information on the outlook for
women as hospital attendants is given in the fol­
lowing publication:
U. S. Department of Labor, Women’s Bureau.
Pi •actical Nurses and Hospital Attendants. Bul­
letin 203, No. 5. 20 pp. 1945. Out of print but
available in many public libraries.
Information may also be obtained from :
American Hospital Association,
18 E. Division St.,
Chicago, 111.

Practical N u rses 1
(D. O. T. 2-38.20)

O utlo ok Summary
Very good employment opportunities in fifties
and in near future, particularly for those with
training. It will become increasingly difficult for
those without training to obtain the most desirable
Nature of Work and Where Employed
Practical nurses work in institutions, as visiting
nurses with visiting nurse associations, and in
homes. They work under the general direction
of a licensed physician or the supervision of a
registered professional nurse. They perform
nursing duties and housekeeping duties as needed.
Training and Other Qualifications
Preparation for practice varies considerably.
For applicants under 25 years of age, 2 years of
high school are usually required for entrance to
an approved course for training nurses; for older
1 Prepared by the Women’s Bureau, U. S. Department of Labor.


applicants, graduation from elementary school is
acceptable. Courses are often available in public
vocational schools and in many hospitals requir­
ing no tuition fee. In the 84 approved schools of
practical nursing, located in 20 States, tuition
ranged up to $175 in 1947. Hospital experience is
required as part of the training. Full maintenance
is generally provided by the hospital and a stipend
for service is accepted practice.
Licensing of practical nurses is recommended
by the American Nurses Association, but there was
mandatory legislation of this kind in 1949 only
in New York, Arkansas, Louisiana, and Hawaii.
Twenty-five additional States have made provision
for licensing. Kequirements for licensure vary
but usually call for graduation from an approved
school where courses are 9 to 18 months in length,
and the passing of an examination covering such
subjects as care of children and of the aged, care
of convalescents, care of medical and surgical pa­
tients, care of the mentally ill, dietetics and food
preparation, hygiene, elementary anatomy, and


nursing methods. In States with permissive li­
censure laws, those licensed are given preference.
In 1948 there were nearly 142,000 practical
nurses and attendants employed in approved hos­
pitals in the United States in addition to almost
36,000 orderlies. About 150,000 are believed to
be employed in private homes or by visiting nurse
associations. More than half the hospital group
are men whereas more than 95 percent of the noninstitutional group are women. The employment
outlook for both groups is good. Because of a
slowly growing insistence on licensing it will be­
come increasingly difficult for those without train­
ing to obtain the most desirable employment. Dur­
ing World War II, the needs of hospitals, publichealth agencies, and industry, as well as an
increased number of patients cared for at home,
created a demand for practical nurses which was
far greater than the supply. This demand will
continue because of the increasing use of hospital
facilities brought on by the partial mobilization
which began in mid-1950, other Government pro­
grams, insurance, and preventive medicine.
The trained practical nurse performs many of
the functions formerly performed by the profes­
sional nurse, such as the taking of temperatures
and the giving of certain routine treatments.
Earlier discharge of patients from hospitals after
surgery or childbirth lengthens the convalescent
period at home during which some nursing is
required. Visiting nurse service and practical
nursing at home will continue in high demand
because of the increased number of chronically ill
persons—the result of the larger proportion of
older people in the population.
Earnings and Hours of Work
Salaries vary greatly according to the place of
employment, the hours worked, the amount of

responsibility assumed and general economic con­
ditions. During the depression period many
practical nurses worked for wages amounting to
little more than subsistence. On the other hand,
during the war some practical nurses in commu­
nities where the shortage was critical earned as
much or more than some professional nurses. In
some States, practical nurses and professional
nurses have agreed that 75 percent of the usual
professional nurse’s salary is an acceptable salary
for the practical nurse in any given area in the
State. In 1947, the graduate of an approved school
of practical nursing might earn as much as $7 to
$11 a day (without maintenance). The average
gross monthly beginning earnings for practical
nurses in hospitals in 1947 were $132.
Resident duty hours vary from 8 to 20 a day. In
hospitals, 8 hours is often the rule, but there is
wide variation of schedules and hours. Practical
nurses in hospitals averaged a 47-hour workweek
in 1947.
Where To Go for More Information
Additional information on the outlook for
women as practical nurses is given in the following
U. S. Department of Labor, Women’s Bureau.
Practical Nurses and Hospital Attendants. Bulle­
tin 203, No. 5. 20 pp. 1945. Out of print but
available in many public libraries.
Information may also be obtained from :
National Association for Practical Nurse Education,
Suite 407,
654 Madison Ave.,
New York 21, N. Y.
National Federation of Licensed Practical Nurses,
Suite 1018,
250 W . 57th St.,
New York 19, N. Y.


Trades and Industrial Occupations
The trades and industrial occupations—skilled,
semiskilled, and unskilled—are the largest of the
broad groupings of fields of work. They offer
employment to 4 out of 10 workers in the United
States today. These workers are of prime impor­
tance to the economy because they are the men and
women who produce the goods; they mine the coal
and ore, run the railroads, build the houses, bake
the bread, make the clothes, and keep our mechani­
cal civilization in running order.
To the many young people whose interests and
abilities lie in the mechanical or manual spheres,
the trades and industrial occupations offer the bulk
o f employment opportunities. Within this area
is offered a wide range of occupations varying in
skill and earnings from the tool and die maker to
the unskilled laborer.
While most of the jobs fall clearly into either
the skilled, semiskilled or unskilled groups, dis­
tinctions cannot always be finely drawn. This is
particularly true because the nature of the work
in the occupations often changes as new machines
or methods are introduced. Thus some o f the
types of work formerly done by all-round crafts­
men are now broken down into several different
steps, each requiring a shorter period of training
than was originally demanded of the craftsman.
These are usually classified as semiskilled occupa­
tions, but in some cases the skilled designation has
been kept. In the same way it is often difficult to
distinguish between unskilled occupations and the
simpler machine-tending jobs in the semiskilled
For practical purposes in guidance, informa­
tion on the outlook in each of the various unskilled
and semiskilled occupations is not of major impor­
tance. For the most part a worker can move

fairly easily from one to another, since training
for most semiskilled occupations is given on the
job in a few weeks or months at the most. To
qualify for a skilled occupation, on the other hand,
requires either a formal apprenticeship or a long
period of experience and training in semiskilled
jobs which gives the worker a chance to learn all
the different phases o f the craft.
The introduction of machinery and new, efficient
processes over the last two centuries has slowly
changed the relationship of the skilled, semi­
skilled, and unskilled occupations. In the old
days the all-round craftsman, who made the entire
product, and the unskilled laborer were the pre­
dominant occupations. As machinery came in
and the process was broken down into a number of
steps, each handled by a different worker, the semi­
skilled group gained in importance at the expense
of both skilled and unskilled workers. In recent
years the semiskilled have increased rapidly, the
skilled have just about held their own, and the
unskilled have declined. It has been easier to de­
vise machines to do the lifting, carrying, digging,
and other jobs in the province of the unskilled
laborer than to find mechanical substitutes for the
The reports on these occupations are grouped
by industry or field of work, rather than by level
of skill, since from the point of view o f prac­
tical guidance that is the most useful grouping.
The occupations which are found in a wide
variety of industries or in industries for which
an entire chapter has not been prepared are in­
cluded in this section of the handbook. The
great majority of the trades and industrial occu­
pations, however, are described in the section on
“ Some Major Industries and Their Occupations.”


Skilled workers or craftsmen are a key group in
our economy. They make the machines for our
machine age, and the patterns, models, working
samples, tools, dies, templates, or jigs without
which industrial processes could not be carried out
by semiskilled or unskilled workers. They keep

things running, too, since they are the repairmen,
not only for equipment used in industry but also
for the large amount of mechanical equipment
and appliances used by consumers—automobiles,
household appliances, radios, and many other


E M P L O Y M E N T , 1940


These functions suggest why the skilled occupa­
tions have continued to grow, and why they offer
good employment opportunities to a large number
of young people. Moreover, because so many
skilled workers are older men, a large number of
jobs will open each year as men in the field die or
The relative importance of the various skilled
groups has been changing. While the artisan has
in some cases been displaced by semiskilled work­
ers, the repairmen occupations have been growing
as the amount of mechanical equipment in use
increases. Chart 45 shows that the occupations
which characteristically do repair work— the
largest single one of which is automobile me­
chanic—are the second largest group of skilled

workers, exceeded only by the building trades.
Moreover a great many of the skilled workers in
other fields do repair work as their major func­
tion ; this is true, for example, of machinists, up­
holsterers, and plumbers, carpenters, and other
building-trades workers.
The end of the decade of the thirties found
the skilled occupations, many of which are in
the construction and durable goods industries,
severely hit by the depression. Fully 900,000
skilled workers—or 1 out of 7—were unemployed,
and another 460,000 were employed in semiskilled,
unskilled, and other occupations. In contrast to
the situation in the professions, training of new
workers in many skilled trades had slowed down
to a trickle. Moreover, immigration laws adopted


in the twenties had cut off one of the major sources
of the skilled labor supply. By 1940, half of the
craftsmen employed were over 41 years of age,
and relatively few young men were being trained
in all-round skills.
War production required great numbers of
skilled workers. Employment of craftsmen, fore­
men and kindred workers increased by over 2
million in the early years of World War II at the
height o f the factory and cantonment construction
program, and then fell off somewhat, emphasis
shifting to the metal trades as munitions produc­
tion hit its peak (see chart 46). This rapid expan­
sion of employment—at a time when many skilled
men were being called to the Armed Forces— is re­
markable in view of the long period required to
train craftsmen. It was made possible by recruit­
ment from among the 1,360,000 skilled workers
who were unemployed or engaged in other occupa­
tions in 1940, by temporary upgrading to craft
or foreman jobs of semiskilled and other workers
who already had partial training or qualifying
experience, and to some slight extent by expansion
of apprentice training in the metal trades begin­
ning at the start of the lend-lease program. As a


result, many of those employed in skilled occupa­
tions during the war did not have a fully rounded
background in their craft. In some crafts such
as tool and die maker and machinist, it was sim­
ply not possible to expand employment so rapidly
and many men in these trades worked extraordi­
narily long hours during the war.
Recruitment of skilled workers for war indus­
tries was also facilitated by the movement of
craftsmen from other industries. Employment
of automobile mechanics dropped by about 150,000
during the war, many of them moving to factory
jobs where their mechanical background could be
utilized in skilled jobs. After the construction
peak of 1942 many building craftsmen also moved
into factory jobs.
In the postwar period, as construction activity
increased, employment of skilled workers sur­
passed the wartime peak by half a million. A p ­
prenticeship programs received great impetus as
a result o f the desire of veterans for thorough
training leading to a skilled trade. From about
20,000 at the end of the war, the number of ap­
prentices in programs registered with the Bureau
of Apprenticeship of the United States Depart­
ment of Labor shot up to more than 230,000 by
the end of 1949. More than half the apprentices
at that time were in the building trades, and more
than two-thirds of them were veterans.
In the long run the place of some craftsmen will
be taken by semiskilled workers. But as mechan­
ical equipment becomes more widely used—in in­
dustry, on farms, in the home—the need increases
for the rapidly growing repairmen occupations.
Furthermore, the small nucleus of all-round skilled
craftsmen used in developing new equipment
should increase in size somewhat as technology
advances. In machine shops and printing—two of
the major fields for skilled workers in manufac­
turing—moderate increases in employment seem
likely in the long run. Foundry occupations may
not show any significant rise over present high
levels and employment in railroad occupations is
likely to decline. The model-making occupations
in industry—tool and die makers, pattern mak­
ers, sample makers in apparel plants, etc.—will,
in general, gain in employment only slightly,
since a large increase in production and plant
employment can usually be achieved with only
a small expansion in this type of work. With
greater use of semiskilled workers in industry,


the number of skilled workers serving as foremen,
leadmen, set-up men, lay-out men, inspectors, and
similar workers should increase. Thus, it seems
likely that there will be a gradual increase in the
long run, in the number of workers in the skilled
occupations. Moreover, the expanded defense
production program will substantially increase
the need for workers in many skilled occupations
during the early fifties, especially in the metal­
working fields. A large share of the additional
requirements in the skilled occupations will be
met, however, by breaking down jobs and utilizing
less skilled, partially trained workers.

The skilled trades offer certain advantages young
men should consider seriously. With training and
experience in a craft, a man often has a wider
choice of jobs; he may work in different cities or
industries; he is able to handle not only the skilled
job in the plant but also, if necessary, one requir­
ing less skill, and he is therefore more valuable to
his employer than the one-machine man. This pays
off in job security, and usually in earnings as well.
Moreover in many plants the skilled man, who un­
derstands the whole process, is given preference in
promotion to a foreman’s job.


More than one-fifth of the workers in the United
States are “ operatives,” the census designation for
what are often called semiskilled workers.
Like all broad occupational classifications this
one has within it jobs varying widely in nature of
the work, in earnings, and in levels of skill. For
example, truck driving, one of the largest occupa­
tions in the group, calls for skill in driving, knowl­
edge of routes and traffic rules, ability to make
minor repairs, some clerical work, and independent
responsibility and judgment. On the other hand
some machine operator jobs in industry require
only the repetition of a half-dozen different mo­
tions all day long—reach for a metal blank and put
it in the machine, pull the lever, press the button,
push the lever, take out the piece of metal, which
now has been stamped or cut, and place it on a
pile, reach for another metal blank. Such a routine
can be picked up in a day and mastered in a few
With some exceptions, such as the truck driver’s
occupation, these jobs are generally fairly routine
and repetitive. Often they pay fairly well, how­
ever, particularly when an incentive system based
on the amount of production a worker achieves is
in use. Frequently semiskilled workers in a large,
efficient plant, or one that is represented by a
strong union will earn more than skilled workers
in inefficient or unorganized plants.
The semiskilled worker does not need to invest
years of his life in learning his trade. This is a
disadvantage in some ways, as was pointed out in
the discussion of skilled workers—the worker with
less training lias less flexibility and is not so valu­
able to his employer. On the other hand, the semi­

skilled worker is not wedded to any one occupa­
tion because of long years he has spent in training
for it, and he is therefore more ready to adapt to
new opportunities as they arise.
Should the
chances for employment disappear in one field of
work, as often happens when some new process
displaces an existing one, it is usually the semi­
skilled man who most readily writes off his in­
vestment of time and experience in that field, gets
C H ART 47

O pe r a ti v e s and Kindred

Work ers

Millions of Workers





himself another job, and, in a brief period of train­
ing, learns the new occupation. Too often the
craftsmen hang on in the outmoded occupation as
long as they can, and longer than they should.
In the guidance and education of those who may
become semiskilled workers it is important to
stress flexibility. In a sense, many a semiskilled
worker has a job or a series of jobs, rather than
an occupation. His skill should consist not so
much in doing one kind of work as in readily
learning new kinds in response to his own need to
find a new or better job or the needs of industry for
an adaptable labor force. Rather than extensive
training in a vocational school in one type of work,
this person needs some familiarity with many
different types—machine shop, woodworking shop,
welding, electrical work, etc. He does not need
to attain proficiency in any one of these fields, but
does need an industrial literacy—a familiarity
with the different types of processes and machines
so that he can adapt readily to them.
The need for adaptability in the semiskilled
worker is illustrated by the great increase in em­
ployment in this field in a short period in response
to the needs of the war production program.
During World War II, manufacturing employ­
ment increased and more new and heavily
mechanized industrial plants were built. More
semiskilled workers were needed, and over
4,000,000 were added—half as many as were em­
ployed in 1940 (see chart 47). Great numbers of
hastily trained welders, riveters, machine tool
operators, and assemblers, the largest part of

whom were semiskilled, went to work in shipyards,
aircraft factories, and munitions plants. The
number of welders and machine tool operators
nearly tripled from 1940 to 1943.
After a sharp drop when the war ended, employ­
ment in semiskilled jobs has again climbed nearly
to peak wartime levels. Some workers had to
learn new skills in the postwar period; more than
100,000 welders, for example, had to shift to other
occupations. In many machine shops where some
form of mass production had been introduced
during the war, a return to prewar products and
methods has meant need for fewer semiskilled men
and more all-round machinists and skilled ma­
chine-tool operators. Nevertheless, employment
in the semiskilled group, though not as high as at
the peak of war industry employment, is far above
prewar levels, and this group of occupations has
increased its share of the working population.
During the early fifties, considerable expansion in
employment in these occupations is likely as a re­
sult of expanding defense requirements, especially
in the metalworking fields.
In view of the long-term trends and the recent
developments, it seems likely that these occupaions will continue to grow, both in number and
in relative importance. There are still large areas
o f work in which further mechanization holds the
promise of additional employment opportunities
for semiskilled workers. These include farming,
the movement and handling of material in indus­
try, and construction.
The increase in employment of semiskilled
workers will mean relatively fewer jobs for un­
skilled workers. There are now over 3 million
people engaged in unskilled jobs in industry. The
long-term trend in this group has been downward
relative to other occupation groups, and this trend
continued during the war. Workers were drawn
out of these jobs by the better pay in other occu­
pations. Rapid strides in the use of machinery
are displacing laborers from the principal work
they are called upon to do in many industries:
moving materials, loading, unloading, digging and
shoveling, etc.
Employment in these occupations dropped dur­
ing the war and increased after the war to above
prewar levels partly because of the great amount
of construction work being done (see chart 48).
The long-term downward trend in relative impor­
tance will probably continue.

Automobile Mechanics
(See D. O. T. 5-81.010, .120, .420, and .510)

Outlook Summary

How To Enter

There will be many apprenticeship and other
on-the-job training openings for beginners in this
large trade during the early fifties. Turn-over,
high in this trade, will continue to be the main
source of job openings. Long-run employment
trend slowly upward.

Most mechanics learn the trade by working in
a garage or repair shop as helper, greaser, or
washer. It will be helpful to men who enter the
trade in this way to take courses in related tech­
nical subjects which are given in most public voca­
tional schools. These courses aid in understand­
ing how automobile engines operate, and give
knowledge of the parts used in different types and
makes of cars.
The best way to learn the trade is to serve a
3- or 4-year apprenticeship, which assures the be­
ginner of a definite schedule of training, covering
the entire field in an orderly fashion. For ex­
ample, in one agreement which calls for at least
8.000 hours (about 4 years) training, the appren­
tice must spend at least 2,000 hours working on
motors. The contract also calls for 1,000 hours
each on front axle and steering, rear wheel and
axle assembly, and transmission and clutch w ork;
600 hours in learning how to adjust and repair
brakes. Such formal apprenticeships have be­
come increasingly common since the end of the
war. In June 1949, it was estimated that about
29.000 were working as apprentices. In addi­
tion, an even larger number of men were learning
this trade in late 1949 while working as helpers
or in other beginning jobs.
It is desirable to have completed at least 2 years
of high school before beginning on-the-job train­
ing or entering a vocational school. Many high
schools offer some training in auto repair in their
shop courses. Courses in English, general science,
physics, and mathematics are also very helpful,
especially for men who want to advance to super­
visory jobs or open their own shops. Mechanics
employed by automobile and truck dealers are
sometimes sent to automobile factories or parts
manufacturers for specialized training.
Those entering automotive work should have
definite mechanical ability and an interest in work­
ing with tools. This knack for mechanical work

Nature of Work
Automobile mechanics do repair work on pas­
senger cars, busses, and trucks. Typical repair
jobs are tuning up the motor, replacing piston
rings, re-aligning the wheels, and adjusting or re­
lining the brakes. Mechanics may be either gen­
eral mechanics or specialists such as auto elec­
tricians, carburetor experts, and paint and body
repairmen. Body repairmen, as a rule, are skilled
only in straightening, repairing or refinishing fen­
ders and bodies. The other specialists are usually
mechanics with all-round knowledge of automotive
repair who have concentrated upon one kind of
repair work.
Where Employed
Most of the estimated 500,000 mechanics work
in service departments of car and truck dealers
or in independent repair garages. There were
about 150,000 such establishments in 1949, many
o f them owned and operated by mechanics.
Mechanics are also employed in garages of trans­
portation companies and other large firms which
service their own fleets. Some work in gasoline
service stations, where they usually do only light
repair work.
There are auto mechanics in all parts of the
country, including small rural communities.
States with the greatest number of auto mechanics
are those which have the largest number of motor
vehicles. In 1948, these were California, New
York, Pennsylvania, Ohio, Illinois, Texas, Mich­
igan, and New Jersey.



often makes the difference between an average
mechanic and a really good one.
The Nation had more than 45 million automo­
biles in 1950, half of which were manufactured
before W orld War II. This means that the
volume of repair work will stay at a high level
during the early fifties, whether or not defense
preparations make it necessary to curtail the pro­
duction of new cars.
Employment of automobile mechanics probably
will stay near the 1950 level of approximately
500,000. Nevertheless, many new trainees will be
needed each year in this large occupation to re­
place men who die, retire, enter military service,
or leave their jobs for other reasons. Training op­
portunities may not be as plentiful as during the
1945-48 period, however, when shops were hiring
thousands of veterans to make up for wartime
shortage of good trainees.
Some of the vacancies will arise as men die or
retire. In 10 or 15 years, when a substantial pro­
portion o f the workers in the trade will be over
55 years of age, the number of drop-outs resulting
from death and retirement probably will increase
There will be a strong demand for body repair­
men in the early fifties. As a result of postwar

mechanics doing a major overhaul job on a cylinder
Ph o to g r a ph


b y

U .

S .

d e p a r t m e n t

o f

l a b o r

changes in auto body design, such as use of larger
sheets of steel on the body and the omission of
running boards, auto bodies are more easily dam­
aged and require more complex and extensive
repair work.
•Mechanics with business ability, plus consider­
able experience, will still find favorable oppor­
tunities to open their own repair shops. However,
the trend is toward greater numbers o f mechanics
working for large truck and car dealers, since the
capital required to open a modern well-equipped
shop is often beyond the means of many mechanics.
In the long run, motor travel will increase. Em­
ployment will probably continue to rise unless a
simpler way of propelling cars is developed and
widely adopted, such as might be possible with
gas turbine engines. Although newer cars require
fewer repairs, the expected growth in the number
of motor vehicles will probably be great enough
to assure an increase in the total amount of repair
work, and consequently in employment.
Earnings and Working Conditions
Class A mechanics had average straight-time
earnings in July 1948 ranging from $1.31 in
Providence, R. I., to $2.15 in Cleveland, Ohio, ac­
cording to a survey of independent general repair
shops in dealer’s service departments in 30 large
cities. In about a third of these cities, average
earnings exceeded $1.75 an hour, and were $2 or
more in San Francisco, St. Louis, Detroit, and
Cleveland. For Class B mechanics, average
straight-time earnings in the 18 cities for which
data were available ranged from 89 cents an hour
in Atlanta to $1.72 in San Francisco. Automobile
electricians earned more than Class A mechanics
(from $1.33 to $2.25 an hour) ; body repairmen
made still more ($1.37 to $2.36). As of the end
of 1949, wages in most cities were slightly higher.
In general, wage rates were substantially higher
in the Pacific Coast and Great Lakes cities than
in other regions. Within cities, pay varies widely,
depending upon the individual’s skill, the size and
location of the shop, and, where there are incentive
wage plans, on the volume of business done.
Earnings in small rural areas tend to be consid­
erably lower than in cities. Mechanics may be paid
a straight salary, sometimes with an incentive
bonus; but the flat rate system, whereby the me­
chanic receives a percentage of the labor cost


charged the customer, is the most common, espe­
cially in the large cities.
About a third of the mechanics covered in the
July 1948 survey had a 44-hour week. Most of
the others worked longer, except in Cleveland, St.
Louis, San Francisco, and Seattle, where the ma­
jority were on a 40-hour week. More than 90 per­
cent of the shops surveyed gave their mechanics
vacation with pay. Most shops pay for holidays,
usually six in number. Work is fairly steady
throughout the year.
Unionization is not very widespread among me­
chanics as a whole, but where it exists it is usually

found in the shops of large dealers and the repair
shops of truck and bus fleets. They are highly or­
ganized on the West Coast, but there is some un­
ionization in other parts of the country, particu­
larly in large cities.
Where To Go for Further Information
U. S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of For­
eign and Domestic Commerce. Establishing and
operating an Automobile-Repair Shop, Industrial
(Small Business) Series No. 24. 1946. Out o f
print but available in many public libraries.

Accounting-Bookkeeping Machine Servicemen
(D.O.T. 5-83.121)

Outlook Summary
Opportunities will be good during the early
fifties for a limited number of men to be trained
in this work. Most of these openings will go to
men already employed by the companies which
make and service the machines, and who are ex­
perienced in repairing adding machines, calcu­
lators, or cash registers. For those successful
in entering the field, prospects are for steady
Nature of work
These servicemen inspect, adjust, and repair ac­
counting-bookkeeping machines. There are a
number of different types of these machines—some
post entries, some do billing, while others are com­
bination typewriters and computing devices. All
types have keyboards, like typewriters and adding
machines. These machines are used wherever a
great deal of accounting and bookkeeping is done,
such as in department stores, large retail and
wholesale businesses, and banks. Since there are
several different types of machines, each compli­
cated, the servicing is highly skilled work. Serv­
icing these machines is often combined with the
servicing of other office machines.
Repair work involves determining the cause of
trouble in the machines, replacing worn or broken
parts, and cleaning and oiling machines. Service­
men use common hand tools such as wrenches,
punches, pliers, screw drivers, and a few hand

892273°— 51------12

tools which are specially designed for the particu­
lar type of machine being repaired. Adjustments
and minor repairs are made in the offices where the
machines are used. However, some major repair
work is taken to the shop.
Where Employed
These servicemen are employed principally in
large cities, since this is where the bulk of the ma­
chines are used. Most accounting-bookkeeping ma­
chine mechanics are employed in the local service
branches of companies which manufacture this
equipment. There is little transferring of service­
men among the five main companies in this field.
Only a very few servicemen are in independent
repair shops.
Training and Qualifications
Training programs for accounting-bookkeeping
machine repairmen vary greatly among the com­
panies employing these workers, partly because
this work is frequently combined with the repair
of other business machines. One large concern
uses its mechanics primarily on the accounting­
bookkeeping machines and does not combine this
work with other repair work. Two other major
companies train their mechanics to work on all of
the office machines that they manufacture. One
of these firms has a 4- to 5-year training program.
Usually a man must have had 1 or 2 years’ ex­
perience as an adding machine, calculator, or cash


P h o to g r a ph

b y


. S .

d e p a r t m e n t

o f

l a b o r

Repairing accounting-bookkeeping machines is one of the most
highly paid of business-machine servicing jobs

register repairman in order to be eligible for ac­
counting-bookkeeping machine training—which
consists of 2 or 3 years of on-the-job instruction
and, in some cases, an additional 6 months of train­
ing at a company school. Some of the repair work
on accounting-bookkeeping machines requires con­
siderable experience and knowledge of the ma­
chines. Servicemen who have just completed
their training need additional experience before
they are qualified to perform all repair work.
The main aptitudes needed by a trainee are gen­
eral mechanical ability and manual dexterity.
Most manufacturers of these machines prefer to
hire men in their early twenties as trainees. Since
servicemen in this field make many contacts with
customers, a presentable appearance and manner
is important to the employers.

business machines, for the companies which make
and service accounting-bookkeeping machines.
These companies manufacture other machines,
such as adding machines, calculators, and cash
registers, and the practice has developed of trans­
ferring some of the more skillful mechanics on
these less complex machines to servicing the more
intricate bookkeeping machines.
Although this field is small, comprising about
1,800 workers in 1949, it will probably expand
gradually for several years to come. The trend is
not only toward greater sales of these machines,
but also toward greater complexity in newly de­
veloped equipment, which tends to increase the
need for servicemen.
Long-run prospects are excellent for stable em­
ployment for those already in the trade or for
those entering in the next few years, since this
occupation is little affected by declines in general
business activity. The tendency during poor busi­
ness years is to keep old machines in repair rather
than to buy new ones.
Earnings and Working Conditions
In 1919. experienced servicemen typically earned
from $60 to $85 for a 40-hour week, with some
working 8 hours longer and receiving overtime
pay. It generally takes a trainee about 3 years
to reach this level of earnings. Experienced serv­
icemen may be promoted to supervisory jobs.
Men showing sales aptitude are sometimes trans­
ferred to the sales departments.
Repairing these machines is comparatively free
from the danger of accident and is cleaner than
most other mechanical trades. Since most work is
performed in the offices where the machines are
located, servicemen generally dress like office
Where To Find Additional Information

During the early fifties, prospects will be good
for a limited number of new men to enter
this field. Additional workers will be trained in
order to service the growing number of accounting­
bookkeeping machines in use. However, most of
the trainees will be drawn from the ranks of
mechanics already employed in repairing other


U. S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor
Statistics, Employment Outlook for Business
Machine Servicemen. Bulletin No. 892. 1947.
Superintendent of Documents, Washington 25,
D. C. Price 15 cents.
See also: Cash Register Servicemen, page 166;
Calculating Machine Servicemen, page 165; and
Adding Machine Servicemen, p. 164.


Accounting-Statistical Machine Servicemen
(D. O. T. 5-83.126, .128)

Outlook Summary
A small number of new workers will be hired for
trainee j obs during the early fifties. The long-run
outlook is for a gradual upward trend in the
number of servicemen.
Nature of Work
These servicemen inspect, adjust, and repair
punched-card accounting-statistical machines,
such as card-punching, sorting, and tabulating
machines, collators, multipliers and dividers, and
verifiers. They also install machines in offices and
sometimes train personnel to operate them. A c­
counting-statistical machines record and tabulate
large masses of accounting and statistical data.
The information is punched on cards alphabeti­
cally or according to a code, and the cards are
put into machines which sort them and tabulate
the results. These machines are used mainly in
large organizations, such as government agencies,
department stores, insurance companies, and large
industrial establishments for payroll and other
accounting records, inventory control, statistical
surveys, and similar purposes.
Repair work involves determining the cause of
trouble in the machines, replacing worn or broken
parts, and cleaning and oiling machines. Service­
men use common hand tools such as screw drivers,
wrenches, punches, and pliers, and a few hand
tools which are specially made for these machines.
Repairs and adjustments are usually made in the
establishments where the machines are used.
Where Employed
Accounting-statistical machine servicemen are
employed by two firms which manufacture and
service all accounting-statistical machines. These
men may be assigned by their companies to work
anywhere in the United States, but usually their
work is in large cities. They rarely transfer from
one company to the other.
Training and Qualifications
Men seeking employment in this field should
have general mechanical ability and enjoy working

with machinery. Both concerns employing these
servicemen generally require that new trainees be
in their early twenties and have at least 2 years’
technical schooling in electrical or mechanical en­
gineering or equivalent electrical or mechanical
experience. One company is now hiring only grad­
uate electrical engineers as trainees for servicemen
jobs, because the electronic features of their ma­
chines are becoming increasingly important.
Men hired as trainees are first given a trial
period of 1 or 2 months’ on-the-job training. I f
the new trainees are satisfactory, they are sent
to the company school for a period of from 3 to 6
months. After completion of the school course
they are put to work under supervision until they
are able to service and repair machines on their
own. This last period of training usually lasts
from about 12 to 18 months.
For many years in the future there will be con­
tinued growth in the use of punched-card account­
ing-statistical machines. This growth, together
with the need for replacing those who leave this
work, means that prospects should be favorable
for entering the occupation and remaining for
many years. The number of men that will be
hired in any one year will be limited, however,
by the small size of the occupation—there were
4,000 employed at the beginning of 1950—and by
the fact that increases in use of the machines will
be gradual rather than sharp.
Employment in this field will be steady, because
this work is little affected by changes in general
business conditions and because the policy of the
companies in this field is to keep their servicemen
even when work is slack. In the past, there have
been few lay-offs in time of depression.
Earnings and Working Conditions
The earnings of servicemen vary considerably.
Typical weekly straight-time earnings for ac­
counting-statistical machine servicemen with at
least 3 years’ experience ranged from about $65 to
$85 at the end of 1949. However, some o f the most


skilled servicemen earned up to $100 a week. The
company that employs the majority of servicemen
pays its trainees $250 a month to start. Periodic
pay increases are given to servicemen according
to skill and experience. Servicemen may be pro­
moted to supervisory jobs, or may get into the
sales departments.
Servicing and repairing these machines is
cleaner and lighter work than most other mechan­
ical trades. The occupation is comparatively free
from the danger of accident. Servicemen gen­
erally dress like office workers, since the work is

clean and is usually performed in the offices where
the machines are used.
Where T o Get Additional Information
U. S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor
Statistics, Employment Outlook for Business Ma­
chine Servicemen. Bulletin No. 892. 1947. Su­
perintendent of Documents, Washington 25, D. C.
Price 15 cents.
/See also Adding Machine Servicemen, page 164;
Calculating Machine Servicemen, page 165; and
Cash Register Servicemen, page 166.

Adding Machine Servicemen
(D.O.T. 5-83.122)

Outlook Summary

Training and Qualifications

A small number of new workers will be able to
find jobs in this field during the first half of
the fifties. The long-run outlook is for steady

The training period for adding machine me­
chanics ranges from 6 months to a year or more
of on-the-job instruction. Servicemen employed
in manufacturers’ service branches generally re­
ceive a few weeks supplemental training in the
manufacturers’ own school, usually located at the
plant. Manufacturers train men to work only on
their own line of machines.
In independent shops new men may learn to
repair adding machines by working as helpers.
Some pick up the skill while working as typewriter
The main aptitudes needed by a trainee are gen­
eral mechanical ability and manual dexterity.
Most manufacturers of adding machines prefer
new trainees to be in their early twenties.

Nature of Work
Servicemen inspect, adjust, and repair adding
machines. Adjustments and minor repairs are
usually made in the offices where the machines are
used. Major repair work is taken to the shop.
Repair work involves determining the cause of
trouble, replacing worn or broken parts, and clean­
ing and oiling machines. Servicemen use common
hand tools such as screw drivers, wrenches, pliers,
punches, and special tools designed for the par­
ticular type of machine being repaired. In some
cases servicing of both adding machines and cal­
culators is combined in a single job. In inde­
pendent repair shops, adding-machines are often
serviced by mechanics who also repair typewriters.
Where Employed
Servicemen are employed principally in large
cities, where the bulk of the adding machines are
used. Adding machine servicemen are employed
both in manufacturer’s service branches, which are
operated in connection with the sales offices of the
firms, and in independently owned local repair
shops. Other sources of employment are in the
Federal, State, and local governments and in a
few large banks and other firms which use large
numbers of adding machines.

During the first half of the fifties, there will be
jobs for a small number of trainees in adding ma­
chine repair. Most manufacturers of the equip­
ment are conducting expanded training programs.
Since this is a small occupation, however— in 1949
there were about 2,000 adding machine servicemen
in the country—the number of openings for new
workers will be limited.
Longer run prospects are for an upward trend
in the employment of servicemen. The number
of adding machines in use in business and in gov­
ernment is tending to increase. Moreover, the
repair of adding machines is little affected by


changes in general economic conditions. In time
of depression there are few lay-offs, since during
these years the tendency is to keep old machines
in repair, rather than to buy new machines.
Earnings and Working Conditions
During 1949, typical earnings for a 40-hour
week ranged from $50 to $75. In addition, com­
missions are sometimes paid to servicemen and
supervisors on sales of supplies and contracts to
do servicing for a particular firm. Men servicing
calculators, as well as adding machines, generally
earn more than men servicing only adding
Service mechanics may be promoted to positions
as service supervisors. The weekly earnings of
service supervisors range up to $100 and over. In

manufacturers’ branches, mechanics are sometimes
transferred to the sales department.
Repairing adding machines is comparatively
free from the danger of accident and is cleaner
than most other mechanical trades. Servicemen
generally dress like white-collar workers, since
most service work is performed in the offices or
stores where the machines are located.
Where To Find Additional Information
U. S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor
Statistics; Employment Outlook for Business Ma­
chine Servicemen. Bulletin No. 892. 1947. Su­
perintendent of Documents, Washington 25, D. C.
Price 15 cents.
See also: Calculating Machine Servicemen, page
165; and Typewriter Servicemen, page 168.

Calculating Machine Servicemen
(D.O.T. 5-83.123)

Outlook Summary
There will be opportunities for a limited num­
ber of new men to enter this field during the first
half of the fifties. Long-run prospects are for
steady employment.
Nature of Work
These servicemen inspect, adjust, and repair
calculating machines. Calculating machines,
which add, subtract, divide, multiply, and also
perform combinations of these operations, are
used mostly in offices where a great many compu­
tations are necessary. These machines, most of
which are electrically operated, have elaborate
mechanisms, and, therefore, skilled men are re­
quired to repair them. Minor repairs and adjust­
ments are made in the offices where the machines
are used. Major repair work may be taken to the
shop. Repairing the machine involves determin­
ing the cause of trouble in the machines, repair­
ing or replacing broken or worn parts, and clean­
ing and oiling the machines. The mechanic uses
common hand tools designed for the particular
type of machine on which he is working. Service­
men are sometimes required to explain to new
operators how to operate the machines. In some
cases, servicing of calculators is combined with
the servicing of other business machines, particu­

larly adding machines, and also accounting-book­
keeping machines.
Where Employed
Most servicemen are employed in large cities,
since this is where the bulk of the calculators are
used. Mechanics servicing calculators are usually
employed in manufacturers’ local service branches
which are operated in connection with the sales
offices of these firms. However, a few work in
independently owned local repair shops. Most of
these independent shops are small and employ only
a few workers. Another source of employment is
the Federal Government.
Training and Qualifications
Trainees employed by manufacturers of calcu­
lating machines generally receive from 1 to 3 years
of on-the-job training, often combined with a 3or 4-month course at a company school. Service­
men employed by the manufacturers are trained to
service only the company’s products.
Servicemen working in independent shops must
be able to repair all makes of calculators, and need
a longer training period. Most calculator service­
men in independent shops receive no formal train­
ing, but learn through experience gained while
helping experienced mechanics.


government. At the same time, there is a trend
toward more complicated calculators, as they are
improved and adapted to new uses. There will be
relatively few openings to replace men leaving the
occupation during the next 10 or 15 years. Turn­
over of servicemen is low, and there is only a small
proportion of older men in the trade who will be
dying or retiring during this period.
Servicing of calculators is little affected by
changes in general economic conditions. There are
few lay-offs during depressions as the tendency
during poor years is to keep the old machines in
repair rather than to buy new ones.
Earnings and 'Working Conditions

p h o t o g r a p h

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o f

Labo r

Cleaning a calculator with a fine spray of cleaning fluid— an importtant step in keeping the complicated mechanism in good running

The main aptitudes needed by trainees are gen­
eral mechanical ability and manual dexterity. The
calculating machine manufacturers generally pre­
fer to hire men in their early twenties.
Opportunities for new workers to enter this field
will be fairly good in the early fifties. The manu­
facturers of calculators have expanded their train­
ing programs during the past several years to
provide servicing for the increased number of
calculators in use. However, the number of new
workers entering the occupation will be limited,
since in 1949 only about 2,400 men were engaged
primarily in repairing calculators.
Looking further into the future, prospects are
for an upward trend in the employment of serv­
icemen, lasting for many years. There will be a
growing demand for calculators in business and

In 1949, typical earnings for a 40-hour week
ranged from $50 to $85. Including commissions
and overtime, earnings were often considerably
higher. Commissions are sometimes paid to serv­
ice mechanics on sales of contracts to do servicing
for a particular firm.
Servicemen may be promoted to supervisory
jobs. The weekly earnings of a service manager
range up to $120 and over—depending largely on
the size of the shop. In manufacturers’ service
branches, mechanics are sometimes transferred to
the sales departments.
Repairing calculators is usually light work and
cleaner than most other mechanical trades. The
occupation is relatively free from serious acci­
dents. Generally, servicemen dress like office
workers, since most service work is performed in
the offices where the machines are located.
Where To Find Additional Information
U. S. Department of Labor, Bureau o f Labor
Statistics; Employment Outlook for Business
Machine Servicemen. Bulletin No. 892. 1947.
Superintendent of Documents, Washington 25,
D. C. Price 15 cents.
See also Adding Machine Servicemen, page 164.

Cash Register Servicemen
(D .O .T . 5-83.124)

Outlook Summary

Nature of Work

During the first half of the fifties, a limited
number of new workers will be able to enter this
field. The long-run outlook is for steady em­

Cash-register servicemen inspect, adjust, and re­
pair cash registers. Next to typewriters, cash
registers are the most widely used business ma­
chines. They are found mainly in retail stores



and service establishments. Cash registers vary
greatly in the number of things they can do. The
simple models merely record each transaction*
total the day’s receipts, and provide a change
drawer. The more complicated cash registers tab­
ulate several different kinds of information on one
transaction simultaneously, such as identification
of clerk, department, and type of merchandise, as
well as provide printed receipts with such infor­
mation for the customer. The more elaborate cash
registers actually perform many functions of ac­
counting machines.
In some cases servicemen work on other types
of business machines, such as adding machines or
accounting machines. Most repairs and adjust­
ments are made in the establishments where the
machines are used. Usually only major repair
jobs are taken to the shop. Eepairing cash reg­
isters involves determining the cause of trouble in
the machines, replacing worn or broken parts, and
cleaning and oiling machines. Servicemen use
common hand tools, such as screw drivers, pliers,
and punches, and special hand tools designed for
cash registers.
Where Employed
Cash register servicemen are employed princi­
pally in large cities. However, most cities of
50,000 population and over have shops repairing
cash registers. The great majority of servicemen
primarily engaged in repairing cash registers are
employed in the local service branches of the few
manufacturing firms in this field. There is little
transferring of servicemen among firms. Some
of the repair work, especially in smaller towns, is
done in independently owned local shops, with
only a few employees, which repair other types of
business machines, such as typewriters and adding
Training and Qualifications
The training period for cash register mechanics
employed in the manufacturers’ service branches
generally consists of 12 to 18 months of on-the-job
training in the branch that hires him, followed by
about 6 months at the company school. Cash
register servicemen working in manufacturers’
shops are trained to repair only the company’s
own line of machines.
Servicemen working in independent repair

Ph o to g r a ph

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S .

d e p a r t m e n t

o f

l a b o r

Cash-register repair is exacting work

shops generally have not had formal training,
unless they are former employees of manufac­
turers’ service branches. Most of the men in the
independent shops pick up the trade while work­
ing as helpers in the shops. In independent shops,
servicemen are required to repair several different
makes of cash registers, and several years of this
informal training is required.
New men entering the field should have general
mechanical ability and enjoy working with ma­
chines. Since servicemen in this field make many
contacts with customers, a presentable appearance
and manner are important, and servicemen must
be able to carry on some business transactions.
Manufacturers generally prefer to hire as trainees
high school graduates in their early twenties.
During the early fifties, a limited nu'mber of
new workers will be able to enter the field as
trainees. Cash-register manufacturers have ex­
panded their training programs, but are not plan­
ning to take on as many trainees in the next
several years as they did during 1948 and 1949.
The number of men who can enter in any one
year, however, is also limited by the small size of
the occupation. In 1949 there were probably not
more than 2,700 cash-register repairmen in the
United States.


Longer-run prospects are for an upward trend
in the employment of servicemen. Gradually in­
creasing sales of new machines and the trend to­
ward more complicated machines, which can do a
wider variety of operations will make it necessary
for the manufacturers to build up larger service
This work is not greatly affected by changes in
general economic conditions. In time of depres­
sion there are few lay-offs. Cash registers are
great timesavers and they serve so many essential
commercial purposes that they are a necessity in
most businesses. Depressions affect the sales of
new machines, but the repair and service work
Earnings and Working Conditions
In 1949, experienced cash-register servicemen
typically eafned from $60 to $80 a week, plus over-

time for work beyond 40 hours. It generally takes
a trainee 3 years to reach this level of earnings.
Earnings may be increased through promotions to
service supervisory jobs. Men showing sales tal­
ents are sometimes transferred to the sales depart­
Repairing cash registers is comparatively free
from the danger of accident and is cleaner than
most other mechanical trades. Since most serv­
ice work is performed in the offices or stores where
the machines are located, servicemen generally
dress like white-collar workers.
Where To Get Additional Information
U. S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor
Statistics, Employment Outlook for Business
Machine Servicemen. Bulletin No. 89*2. 1947.
Superintendent of Documents, Washington 25,
D. C. Price 15 cents.

Typewriter Servicemen
(D.O.T. 5-83.127)

Outlook Summary
There will be a number of job openings for new
workers during the first half of the fifties. The
long-run outlook is for steady employment.
Nature of Work
Typewriter servicemen inspect, adjust, and
repair typewriters. Repair work may involve
replacing worn or broken parts, alining the type
to print evenly, fixing the escapement (spacer),
and adjusting the shift mechanism and ribbon
movement. Servicemen also clean and oil the
machines. Most servicing and repair work is
taken to the shop. However, minor servicing jobs
may be done in the offices where the machines are
used. The mechanics use common hand tools such
as screwdrivers, pliers, and punches.
The operating mechanism of electric typewriters
differs from that used in the ordinary mechanical
typewriters, and men who have not had some
training on the electric machines cannot service
them. One company which makes and services
only electric typewriters employs servicemen who
work full-time on the electric machines. In the

other companies which make both types of ma­
chines, servicing of electric machines is still a
small part of the repair business. In some cases,
repair shops have a few men who have been trained
to handle the electric machines, and they spend all
their time on them. In other shops, the men who
know the electric typewriters also work on the
regular mechanical machines.
In some small shops, typewriter servicing may
be combined with the servicing of other business
equipment, particularly adding machines.
Most servicemen are bench men; that is, their
work is done in the repair shop. “ Outside” men
make contacts with customers as well as frequently
doing some work in the shop. They inspect the
customer’s machines and determine whether or not
they should be brought back to the shop for repair.
Outside men, particularly those employed by small
independent shops, may also sell typewriter rib­
bons and supplies; occasionally, they sell type­
Wh ere Employed
Typewriter repair men are employed both in the
local service branches of typewriter manufacturers


and in independently owned local repair shops
(which frequently sell typewriters as well as repair
them). Many servicemen have their own shops.
Geographically, typewriter servicemen are
widely distributed. Every city and large town
has men employed in the occupation. However,
the greatest concentration of servicemen is in
large cities, where most clerical work is done.
Training and Qualifications
The length and kind of training for typewriter
servicemen varies. Most of it, however, is received
on the job. Training periods range from 1 to 3
years. Servicemen employed in independently
owned shops require more training and experience,
as they must be able to repair all makes of type­
writers and, sometimes, adding machines and cal­
culators ; servicemen employed in the service
branches of manufacturing companies generally
repair only one make of typewriter.
In many independent shops, new workers be­
come servicemen by working as helpers, gradually
picking up the necessary skills. In some inde­
pendent shops and in the manufacturers’ service
branches, however, training schedules are set up
and experienced servicemen and supervisors teach
the new men systematically.
In addition, trainees in the service branches are
frequently sent to a company school at the factory
for a few Aveeks or months of intensive training.
Some typewriter servicemen are trained in 2- or 3year formal apprenticeships which include work
on several makes and types of business machines.
To be able to service electric typewriters it is
necessary to have special training. The com­
panies which make and repair both types of ma­
chines are sending experienced mechanics to com­
pany schools for 2 or 3 weeks’ instruction on the
electric machines. New trainees hired by these
companies will learn to repair electric machines
as part of their training program.
There are at least two privately owned schools,
not connected with any manufacturer, training
typewriter servicemen. These schools
equipped to give additional training on servicing
adding machines and calculators.
Opportunities to enter the trade during the
early fifties will be better than in most prewar

years. However, the number of new trainees
taken on will be smaller than in 1947 and 1948.
Skilled men are still in strong demand and will
have little difficulty in getting jobs. The number
of new workers who will find job openings in this
field will be greater than in other kinds of businessmachine servicing. There were more than 10,000
typewriter mechanics in 1949 making this by far
the largest business-machine servicing occupation.
Those who enter the occupation during the next
few years, will have excellent chances for continued
employment over the longer run. Employment in
this field will tend to rise gradually as the num­
ber of typewriters in use increases. Moreover,
typewriter repair work is not greatly affected by
changes in general economic conditions. In poor
business years, sales of new machines fall, but the
amount of repair work remains fairly steady, as
old machines are kept in use instead of being
Earnings and Working Conditions
The typical pay of experienced typewriter serv­
icemen for a 40-hour week in 1949 ranged from
about $45 to $75 in the larger cities, although
some highly skilled men made more. Servicemen
in independent repair shops usually earn more
than men in the manufacturers’ service branches,
largely because men in the independent shops must
be able to repair various makes of typewriters.
Many typewriter repair shops pay servicemen
commissions on sales of typewriters, supplies, and
contracts to do servicing for particular firms.
Servicemen may increase their earnings through
promotion to service supervisors or shop managers.
In many cases they have opportunities to open
their own shops. Typewriter servicing is light
work, comparatively free from accidents, and
cleaner than most other mechanical trades.
Where To Get Additional Information
U. S. Department o f Labor, Bureau o f Labor
Statistics, Employment Outlook for Business M a­
chine Servicemen. Bulletin No. 892. 1947. Su­
perintendent o f Documents, Washington 25, D. C.
Price 15 cents.

See Also Adding Machine Servicemen, page 164.


Diesel Mechanics
(D. O. T. 5-83.931)

Outlook Summary
In the early fifties a limited number of men
will be taken on as helpers and apprentices in
shops which handle Diesel repair work. Prospects
for experienced engine mechanics who specialize
in Diesel work are highly favorable. Volume of
Diesel repair work will increase over long run.
Nature o f Work
Diesel-engine mechanics maintain and repair
Diesel engines. Their duties include diagnosing
engine trouble, disassembling the engine, replacing
or repairing defective parts, reassembling the en­
gine, and adjusting the fuel and air valves. The
Diesel engine is similar to the gasoline (or carbu­
retor) engine in many respects. From the point of
view of the mechanic, the essential difference be­
tween the carburetor engine and the Diesel engine
lies in their different methods of ignition. The
Diesel engine has no electric ignition system or
carburetor such as is found in the gasoline engine,
but has an oil-injector system and fuel pumps, with
which the mechanic must be familiar. However,
the basic stationary and working parts are similar
in both engines. As a result, Diesel-engine main­
tenance is usually carried on by workers who are
employed as engine mechanics rather than as spe­
cialized Diesel mechanics. For example, Dieselpowered busses, trucks, tractors, and construction
machinery are usually maintained by automobile
or tractor mechanics. Railroad electricians and
machinists generally repair Diesel locomotives.
Training and Qualifications
Most mechanics who repair Diesel engines have
had training and experience on other engines.
Qualifications for Diesel maintenance jobs vary
among industries. Mechanics employed in servic­
ing and repairing Diesel locomotives are drawn
from among railroad shop craftsmen who are re­
quired to serve a 4-year apprenticeship. Marine
engineers, who are in charge of the operation and
maintenance of Diesel engines on ships, must be
licensed by the United States Bureau of Marine
Inspection and Navigation. Experience in the

engine department of ships and a written exami­
nation are among the chief requirements for a
marine license. Mechanics who service Diesel en­
gines in the vehicular field, including trucks,
busses, tractors, and construction machinery, gen­
erally are gasoline-engine mechanics who have
learned how to repair Diesel engines. There are a
number of schools which provide instruction in
Diesel engine repair and maintenance. Such train­
ing is most valuable when it supplements experi­
ence in gasoline-engine maintenance. Those with­
out actual experience who take courses in Diesel
theory and practice will find it difficult to qualif y
directly for Diesel maintenance and repair work.
Where Employed
Diesel maintenance jobs are found in a wide
variety of fields. Among the more important
sources of employment are bus lines, trucking
companies, railroads, ships, electric power plants,
large farms, logging camps, marine-engine repair
establishments, and garages and firms that service
Diesel tractors and construction machinery.
The use of Diesel power probably will continue
to expand for many years. Almost all of the new
locomotives ordered by the railroads are Diesels;
more Diesel trucks and busses are on the high­
ways; and thousands of Diesel tractors are sold
to farmers annually. This points to a continued
increase for a number of years at least, in the
number of Diesel maintenance jobs, which will go
to mechanics who already have experience in re­
pairing other types of engines. For example, a
company changing over to use of Diesel engines
will usually assign experienced mechanics already
on its payroll to service the Diesel equipment, and
give them the slight retraining necessary. Other
companies who are filling expansion needs with
Diesel engines will hire experienced engine me­
chanics wherever possible. Also, in many shops,
union-management agreements specify that men
in the shop be given first chance at vacancies. In
these shops most new men will be taken on as ap­
prentices or helpers, regardless of whether they


have had previous training in Diesel engines.
Men who have had school training but no practical
experience in Diesels, will find few opportunities
to start as full-fledged mechanics.
Eventually, as Diesels come into greater use,
on-the-job training opportunities for inexperi­
enced applicants may become more common.
Diesel engines are likely, however, to continue to
be but a very small proportion of all engines in
use. Unless unexpected developments occur, they

will not be used to any appreciable extent in pas­
senger automobiles.
Where To Get Additional Information
Employment Opportunities for Diesel-Engine
Mechanics. Bulletin No. 813. U. S. Department
of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics, 1945. 10
pp. Superintendent of Documents, Washington
25, D .C. Price 5 cents.

Electrical-Household-Appliance Servicemen
(D. O. T. 5-83.04)

Outlook Summary
Sizable expansion of employment over long run.
A few thousand openings for beginners each year,
in the early fifties.
Nature of Work
Repairmen are employed mainly by service de­
partments of stores, wholesalers of electrical
household appliances, shops specializing in the
repair of appliances, and appliance manufacturers
and electric companies. There are many owneroperated retail repair shops.
Main duties of servicemen are to install, repair,
and rebuild large appliances such as ranges, re­
frigerators, and washing machines, and to repair
smaller ones such as irons and toasters. Some­
times servicemen repair both appliances and
radios. Servicemen in small repair shops fre­
quently repair almost every type and make of
electric appliance. Those working in shops spe­
cializing in the repair of small appliances usually
learn to repair all types handled by their shop.
Shops which handle both large and small appli­
ances have some servicemen who repair only small
appliances and others who specialize in one or
more types of major appliances. Some men, for
example, repair the major appliances of a par­
ticular manufacturer, others handle only refrig­
erators ; still others, automatic washing machines.
Almost all the workers in this occupation begin
as helpers and learn their skills through work
experience. Occasionally, workers are sent to

schools operated by manufacturers of appliances
for short periods of training or are given instruc­
tion by factory representatives at their places of
work. Repair of simple appliances can be learned
in a few months, but to become an all-round serv­
iceman or to learn how to repair complicated ap­
pliances requires as much as 3 years of on-the-job
training. School courses in the fundamentals of
electricity are helpful in understanding the work,
but to be considered fully qualified, a worker must
have had several years of practical experience.
Employment in this occupation will increase for
many years as the number of appliances continues
to grow. Many appliances which in early 1950
were found in relatively few homes, for example,
electric dishwashers, will eventually be purchased
by millions of families. Moreover, continued
growth in the number of families will mean a
greater use of electric appliances. Besides the
appliances now on the market, the industry will
continue to introduce new ones.
As the number of appliances grows, demand
for service will increase. The amount of work
for servicemen will also be increased as more and
more automatically operated appliances are used.
Automatic appliances have more parts which can
break down and are harder to repair than non­
automatic appliances. This factor making for
more employment may be somewhat offset by im­
provements in the durability and reliability of
appliances which will tend to reduce the amount
of servicing. In the balance, however, it is likely
that many more servicemen will be employed in


the future than the 60,000 now estimated to be
in this occupation.
Despite the expected growth in employment of
appliance servicemen, the prospects of establish­
ing successful retail and repair shops generally
will not be favorable in the next few years. A
great many such shops were started in the postwar
period, and competition for business is likely to
be keen for some time.
The only Nation-wide earnings data for electric
appliance servicemen available is that for service­
men employed by electric utility companies.
In the spring of 1948, electric company service­
men had average hourly wage rates of $1.45.
Those in the Pacific Coast region had the highest

average, $1.66 an hour, and servicemen in the re­
gion including Delaware, District of Columbia,
Kentucky, Maryland, Virginia, and West V ir­
ginia, had the lowest average, $1.34 an hour.
Where To Go for Additional Information
Servicemen interested in going into business for
themselves will find valuable information in:
U. S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of
Foreign and Domestic Commerce. Establishing
and Operating an Electrical Appliance and Radio
Shop. Industrial (Small Business) Series No.
28. 1946. Superintendent of Documents, Wash­
ington 25, D. C. Price 45 cents.
See also Radio and Television Technicians,
page 173, and Refrigeration and Air-Condition­
ing Mechanics, page 177.

Radar Technicians
(D. O. T. 5-83.449)

Outlook Summary

Training and Other Qualifrations

Small but rapidly expanding field with open­
ings for qualified men.

Only men with good experience or training in
radar or radio are hired. Many are former radio
repairmen. Some are college graduates; at least
one company considers a college degree, preferably
in electrical engineering, essential. Even collegetrained engineers must, however, have basic me­
chanical skills to be considered fully qualified as
technicians. A number of schools, colleges, and
radio institutes offer courses in electronics; some
have well-rounded programs, including laboratory
work and practice in the types of mechanical tasks
met with in technician jobs. Although thousands
of men were trained to operate and maintain radar
equipment in the armed services, this military ex­
perience alone rarely, if ever, qualifies a man for
civilian work.
NewT employees almost always receive on-thejob training. For entrants with especially good
experience, the training period may last only a few
weeks; for others, it may last a year or more.

Nature of Work
This group is made up of men engaged mainly
in supervising installation of radar (radio detec­
tion and ranging) equipment and in servicing
and repairing such equipment; some do actual in­
stallation work. Radar work calls for advanced
knowledge of electronic principles and a high
degree of technical skill. Radar technicians must
be able to make reports on difficulties encountered
and recommend improvements in construction and
design. They often service other types of elec­
tronic equipment as well as radar.
Where Employed
Most radar technicians work for the very small
number of concerns manufacturing and selling ra­
dar equipment and holding contracts to service
military radar. Many technicians who service mil­
itary equipment work outside continental United
States. Those servicing commercial radar are lo­
cated mostly in the big port cities in this country.

During the early fifties there probably will be
a shortage of radar technicians, mainly because


of rapid expansion in the use of military radar
equipment. Only a limited number of men have
sufficient skill, experience, and theoretical knowl­
edge to handle radar servicing, and it will take
time to train additional men to meet the rapidly
expanding needs. Moreover, only men capable of
learning theoretical electronics and with unusual
aptitude for this type of work can become qualified
radar technicians. Some of the men who do not
meet all the requirements for radar technician jobs
will find opportunities in television servicing and
other types of electronics work.

In 1949, fully qualified men with good radar
experience made about $4,000 for the first year or
so with a company. Typical annual earnings in
the occupation in 1950, were between this figure
and $5,000. Men working away from their head­
quarters cities have their expenses paid by the com­
pany or receive extra pay. Special bonuses may
be given for overseas work. The basic workweek
is usually 40 hours, with time-and-a-half for over­
See also Radio and Television Technicians, page
173; Electrical Engineers, page 86.

Radio and Television Technicians
(D. O. T. 5-83.411 and 6-98.210)

Outlook Summary
Good opportunities for men thoroughly trained
in electronics during early part of the 1950-60
decade. Long-run employment trend upward in
TV installation and repair—probably down in
radio repair.
X ahire of Work
Radio and television technicians mainly install
and repair home and automobile sets. Techni­
cians with FCC licenses work on two-way aircraft,
police, boat, and taxicab radios and a small num­
ber install and service other types of electronic
equipment such as public address and interoffice
communications systems. A few thousand are
employed in research laboratories or work as
testers and trouble-shooters in radio and television
manufacturing plants. In small towns, radio re­
pairmen frequently service electrical appliances.
Altogether there probably were about 100,000
radio and television technicians in late 1949.
A majority of the technicians who repair radio
sets are self-employed; some repair radios only
during their spare time. Other radio men are
employed by large repair shops, radio stores, ga­
rages, wholesale distributors, manufacturers of
electronic equipment, and other types of concerns.
Increasingly, television repair is also being han­
dled by independent servicemen but many tele­
vision technicians work for manufacturers,
companies contracting with manufacturers to in­

stall and repair their sets, distributors, and large
repair shops.
How To Enter
Most radio repairmen get their initial training
in vocational and technical schools, in the Armed
Forces, as helpers or apprentices, in radio manu­
facturing plants, through amateur radio, or from
correspondence schools. The quality of initial
training and the ability of the men vary greatly,
so that there is a very wide range in degree of
skill among new entrants. Many months of work
experience are needed to learn the trade thor­
oughly. Radio technicians who test aviation,
police, marine, or taxicab transmitters are required
to have an FCC second-class radio operator’s
Television repairmen need much more basic
training and knowledge of electronic theory than
radio repairmen. The latter may learn television
work through on-the-job training with television
servicing companies. Independent servicemen
who wish to learn television repair sometimes get
training materials and technical help from TV
manufacturing companies. These companies also
train their own employees to test and repair TV
sets. Men with no previous training can enter the
trade by studying for about a year in one of the
better technical or vocational schools; a few
schools provide excellent placement service. TV
technicians who work in the homes of customers
are required to have a neat appearance and pleas­
ant personalities.


Men going into the radio repair business for
themselves must have at least $500 worth of tools
and equipment. The additional equipment needed
to service television sets costs from $700 to $1,000.
During the early fifties there will be a strong
demand for skilled electronic technicians. They
will be needed to service home radio and television
sets and in manufacturing and servicing military,
industrial, and other types of electronics equip­
ment. Repair work on home radio and television
sets, which employ the bulk of these technicians,
will continue to expand, even though military re­
quirements are likely to cut down the production
of new sets. Production and servicing of military
electronic equipment will grow rapidly. A l­
though skilled men will easily find jobs in the
early fifties, there will at the same time be many
men with inadequate training in electronics or
with no aptitude for this type of work, who will
be qualified only for helpers’ or assistants’ posi­
tions. Many who might have enough knowledge
and skill for radio repair will not be able to
handle the much more difficult television work.
In addition to openings arising from expanding
employment in this occupation, there will be a
Radio repairman locating “ trouble” in a home receiver.
Fh o to g r a ph

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d e p a r t m e n t

o f

l a b o r

fairly large number of openings created by turn­
over. Many technicians who repair home radio
and television sets are young men subject to draft
for military service. Moreover, some technicians
now engaged in repairing home sets will shift to
jobs with companies manufacturing or servicing
military electronic equipment.
Over the long run, increasing use of television
sets will call for a growing number of technicians,
because T V sets are much more complicated than
the radio sets they tend to replace. Although the
total number of technicians employed will in­
crease, many men who now have their own radio
repair shops will be forced out of business unless
they can successfully enter the T V repair field.
Earnings and Working Conditions
Radio servicemen working for others generally
have lower wage rates than most other groups of
skilled workers. Only a small proportion of radio
repairmen are union members. Some big cities
have associations of independent radio servicemen.
Apprentices or helpers in television work had
weekly earnings ranging from about $30 to $60 in
1949. Supervisors and foremen had earnings
ranging from about $60 to $120 a week. Many T V
technicians are members of the International
Brotherhood of Electrical Workers; some belong
to other unions.
Radio repairing is inside work. Television tech­
nicians frequently have to work outside while put­
ting up and adjusting aerials; sometimes this
means climbing to dangerous positions on roofs
and working in bad weather.
Where To Go for More Information
Some communities have radio servicemen’s or­
ganizations that can provide information on
employment opportunities, wages, and working
conditions. Servicemen interested in going into
business for themselves will find valuable infor­
mation in :
U. S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of For­
eign and Domestic Commerce. Establishing and
Operating an Electrical Appliance and Radio
Shop. Industrial (Small Business) Series No. 28.
Superintendent of Documents, Washington 25,
D. C., 1946. Price 35 cents.
See also Radar Technicians, p. 172; and Broad­
casting Engineers and Technicians, p. 103.



Telephone Installation and Maintenance Craftsmen
(D. O. T. 5-53.030, .250, and .410)

Outlook Summary


Employment likely to remain at about the 1950
level for several years, with several thousand open­
ings each year resulting from turn-over. Stable
employment over long run.

Employment of telephone installation and
maintenance craftsmen probably will remain at
about the present level over the next few years.
The number of men in these occupations was about
135.000 in October 1949, about twice the figure
reported in late 1945. The work force was ex­
panded to install and maintain an average of
more than 3,000,000 additional telephones each
year. When the enormous backlog created by the
depression of the Thirties and World War II will
have been taken care of, installations will be made
at a more moderate rate. In late 1949, however,
the associated Bell Companies alone still had about
800.000 unfilled orders for telephones.
The volume of repair and maintenance work
will continue to rise as new phones are added and
should serve to maintain present employment
levels even though there will be a decrease in the
number of installations. Although employment
will remain fairly level in the early fifties, turn­
over rates may rise as men enter the armed serv­
ices and as a tighter labor market makes it easier
to shift from one job to another.
Employment probably will tend to increase
slowly over the long run. Many of the Nation’s
families—in both urban and rural areas— are wait­
ing for telephones; the construction of facilities
to provide this service is going ahead actively.
Moreover, the growing population will create addi­
tional demand for telephone service. Special types
of telephone service, such as automobile installa­
tions, will continue to expand, although this will
be a very small factor for many years.
Gains in employment which will result from the
rising number of telephones in use will be partly
limited by improvements in telephone equipment
which will enable each maintenance man to service
a larger number of phones. However, the
mechanization program, including dial equip­
ment, intertoll dialing, etc., and developments such
as coaxial cable, radio relay, etc., are resulting in
a large increase in the central office forces which

Nature o f Work
Group includes station installers and repair­
men, who install and maintain telephone equip­
ment in private homes, offices, and pay telephone
booths; P B X installers and repairmen, who work
on private switchboard equipment; central-office
repairmen, who do maintenance work on the tele­
phone companies’ central-office equipment; line­
men, who string and repair wire and place cable;
and cable splicers, who splice and maintain aerial
and underground cable. Most workers in these
occupations are employed by the associated com­
panies of the Bell System, but some work for
independent telephone companies, which have
about a sixth of the total telephones in the United
High-school graduates are given preference for
jobs in these occupations, and a knowledge of basic
principles of electricity is an asset. New entrants
are usually hired for general telephone work and
are given all-round classroom and on-the-job train­
ing. Then they are placed in the particular occu­
pation where workers are needed. They usually
progress within a single craft, though men are
often shifted from one type of work to another as
the need arises. It usually takes about 8 years
to advance to the top of the wage-progression
schedule in the Bell System companies. Some of
the small companies also have progression sched­
ules covering varied periods of time, but others
promote workers on the basis of their individual
competence. Veterans are usually granted some
credit for training and experience received in the



will tend to offset any reduction in outside forces
such as cable splicers and other craftsmen who han­
dle lines and cables.
Earnings and Working Conditions
Starting rates with Bell companies ranged from
about $30 to $38 a week in late 1949, depending
on the community. The highest salaries provided
for by the progression schedules varied from about
$72 to $90 (somewhat less for linemen). The
standard workweek is 40 hours, but overtime is

frequently necessary. Linemen have to work outof-doors in all kinds of weather.
Where To Go for Additional Information
People interested in employment with a tele­
phone company should go to their nearest central
office where they will be directed to the proper
See also Central Office Equipment Installers,
Telephone, page 176; and Linemen and Troublemen, page 468.

Telephone, Central Office Equipment Installers
(D. O. T. 5-53.010)

Outlook Summary
Employment likely to decline in next several
years. A limited number of men will be hired to
meet replacement needs in early fifties.

up to the top of the progression schedule. Some
of the small companies also have progression
schedules covering various period of time, while
others promote workers on the basis of their indi­
vidual competence.

Nature of Work


This group is engaged mainly in installing
manual and dial switchboards and other equip­
ment in the central offices of telephone companies.
In general, the duties involve placing the equip­
ment in locations designated in floor plans, con­
necting the various units with cables, and adjusting
the devices for maximum efficiency. The principal
employer is Western Electric Co., a subsidiary of
the American Telephone and Telegraph Co. The
next largest is the Automatic Electric Co., which
produces a good deal of equipment for foreign
companies as well as for independent telephone
companies in this country. The associated com­
panies of the Bell System also employ a small
number of installers in large cities, to make rela­
tively simple installations.

Employment will decline gradually from the
high level of late 1949 through the early fifties.
The number of installers working for the West­
ern Electric Co. grew rapidly in the early postwar
period. A t the end of World War II, there
were 3,700 installers as compared with 16,700
in early 1949. During this period, the Bell System
alone installed 10,000,000 telephones, an expansion
which would have been impossible without a tre­
mendous enlargement of central office facilities.
During the next several years, a great deal of
equipment will be installed to convert manual
systems to dial and to expand central offices, but
probably less equipment will be installed each
year than during the years between 1946 and 1949.
Because of decline in employment the number of
job openings will be small, although there will be
some as a result of turn-over in the occupation.
After the next few years, when the postwar ex­
pansion and modernization program is completed,
openings will arise much less frequently than at
any time since the end of World War II. Most of
the hiring will be to replace installers who die,
retire, are promoted, or leave their jobs for other
reasons. Employment probably will tend to be
relatively stable, since there is likely to be a con­
tinuation of the long-run growth in the use of

Applicants must have at least a high-school
education or its equivalent. Courses in electricity
are an asset. Men with college education have an
advantage in competing for advancement within
the company, especially if they have engineering
training. It is absolutely necessary that the ap­
plicant be willing to travel.
The Western Electric Co. gives new employees
on-the-job training, supplemented as required by
classroom training. It takes about 6 years to work


Earnings and Hours of Work

Where To Go for Additional Information

For most installers, wages started at 90 to 97
cents an hour in early 1949, with increase up to a
maximum of $1.56 to $1.69 an hour after 6 years’
experience. The standard workweek is 40 hours,
but it is often necessary to work overtime.

People interested in employment as a centraloffice installer should go to the nearest telephone
company office, where they will be directed to the
proper person for information.
See also Telephone Installation and Mainte­
nance Craftsmen, page 175.

Refrigeration and Air-Conditioning Mechanics
( D . O . T . 5 -83.941)

Outlook Summary
Limited numbers of apprentices will be hired
during the early fifties. Employment trend
upward over long run.
Nature o f Work
Refrigeration mechanics install and service
large self-contained refrigeration and air-condi­
tioning units of the types used in such places as
food stores and restaurants. They must know re­
frigerants and how to repair compressors, con­
densers, pumps, and other equipment. Central
systems, such as those used in theaters, factories,
office buildings, and cold storage warehouses use a
good deal of piping, electrical, and sheet metal duct
work. This type of installation requires the serv­
ices of craftsmen such as sheet metal workers, pipe­
fitters, and electricians in addition to the refrigera­
tion specialists. The stationary engineers who
maintain the big central systems and men who re­
pair only household refrigerators are not covered
by this report.
Mechanics usually work for heating, refrigera­
tion, or air-conditioning contractors and for com­
panies that sell and service large self-contained
refrigeration and air-conditioning units. Many
are in business for themselves as contractors. Some
mechanics are employed by manufacturers of re­
frigeration and air-conditioning equipment.

working on the equipment over a period of years.
Sometimes men who repair household refrigera­
tors are given an opportunity to learn how to in­
stall and repair the larger equipment. Young
men are usually preferred for apprenticeships and
other beginning jobs, but age requirements are
frequently waived for veterans.
In some cities mechanics are required to have
licenses. Many cities require that refrigeration
contractors be licensed.
The total number of men employed as refrigera­
tion and air-conditioning mechanics will increase
M echan ic repairing an air conditioner.
P h o to g r a ph

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. S.

d e p a r t m e n t

o f

l a b o r

IIoio To Enter
The usual way of becoming a mechanic is to
serve a 5-year formal apprenticeship in programs
jointly supervised by unions and employers. In
areas where the trade is not organized, shop help­
ers and assistants frequently learn the trade by
892273°— 51----- 13



over the long run, owing to expanding use of com­
mercial and industrial refrigeration and air-con­
ditioning equipment. An increasing number of
mechanics will be needed to install and repair airconditioning equipment—mostly for commercial
users, such as stores, restaurants, and office build­
ings. Air-conditioning systems for private homes
are still too costly for all except the comparatively
small number of high-income families. Industrial
process air-conditioning and refrigeration will
also employ more and more men. Employment on
commercial refrigeration, ranging in size from
walk-in boxes to cold storage warehouses, will
have an upward trend for many years to come.
The long-run upward trend in employment in this
occupation may be interrupted during the early
fifties, however, if defense preparations make it
necessary to cut back production of civilian re­
frigeration and air-conditioning equipment.
In any event, it probably will be difficult
for beginners to enter the trade. Commercial
and industrial refrigeration and air-conditioning
work is concentrated in cities where the trade is
organized and men become journeymen mechanics
by serving apprenticeships. Even in good times
there are usually many more applicants for ap­
prenticeship than can be taken on.
Earnings and Working Conditions
Separate earnings information for air-condi­
tioning and refrigeration mechanics is not avail­
able. However, minimum union wage rates for
pipefitters in major cities on July 1, 1949, ranged
from $1.90 to $3 an hour; from $1.50 to $3 for

electricians; and from $1.75 to $2.75 for sheet
metal workers. Apprentices generally start at
less than half the journeyman’s rate. They get
increases after each 6 months and after com­
pleting their apprenticeships get the journeyman’s
Many mechanics, especially in large cities, are
represented by the United Association of Journeymen and Apprentices of the Plumbing and PipeFitting Industry. This union, the International
Brotherhood of Electrical Workers, and the Sheet
Metal Workers’ International Association repre­
sent most of the workers who install and repair
air-conditioning and refrigeration systems.
Except in the southernmost regions of the
United States the demand for repair services and
new installations is seasonal. During peak sum­
mer months overtime work is common.
Where To Go for Additional Information
Further information on the nature of the work,
apprenticeship and other training opportunities,
earnings, etc., may be obtained from :
Local unions of the United Association of
Journeymen and Apprentices of the Plumbing
and Pipe-Fitting Industry (A F L ), the Interna­
tional Brotherhood of Electrical Workers (A F L ),
the Sheet Metal Workers’ International Associa­
tion (A F L ), and local air-conditioning and re­
frigeration contractors associations.
See also Electricians, page 393; ElectricalHousehold - Appliance - Servicemen, page 171;
Pipefitters, page 389; Sheet Metal Workers, page

(D. O. T. 5-83.542)

Outlook Summary
Openings for new workers will be extremely
scarce in the early fifties. This is a very small
occupation and turn-over is very low. A slight
increase in employment likely in the long run.
Nature o f Work
The gunsmith rebuilds, repairs, and alters small
firearms such as rifles or pistols. His duties in­
clude the replacement of broken and worn-out

parts and the making of new parts, frequently in­
volving the use of such machine tools as the lathe
and grinding machine, as well as many types of
hand and woodworking tools. In addition, the
more skilled gunsmiths spend a great deal of time
designing and making new guns. In designing
new guns they may have to lay out the plan on
paper, select the proper materials, and do preci­
sion machining and wood shaping.
Most gunsmiths are proprietors of their own
small shops. There are two main types of shops,


each employing different types of workers: (1)
Combination locksmith and gun-repair shops op­
erated by mechanics who do general repair work
on mechanical equipment and guns. The gun re­
pair work in this type of shop is primarily sea­
sonal. (2) Shops operated by expert craftsmen
who work on guns throughout the year and who
specialize in intricate jobs, very often working on
unusual and expensive arms. Since the war, a
growing number of such expert craftsmen are also
being employed by general sporting goods shops.
The American Rifle Association estimated that
there were about 5,000 men doing some gunsmith’s
work in 1949, but only about 500 of these were
engaged in gunsmithing on a full-time basis.
There are gunsmiths' shops throughout the coun­
try, but the greatest number are located in areas
where hunting is an important sport. The follow­
ing 10 States issued the most hunting licenses in
the 1948-49 hunting season, ending June 30, 1949:
Michigan, Pennsylvania, New York, Ohio, Minne­
sota, California, Illinois, Wisconsin, Indiana, and
Washington. Some of the gunsmiths’ shops in the
small towns do a large volume of mail order busi­
ness derived from their advertising in national
sports magazines. Most locksmith and gun repair
shops are located in cities and the larger towns.
How To Enter
The most common way of learning this trade is
through practical experience. Those working in
lock and gun repair shops usually start in as help­
ers and learn on the job. Most expert gunsmiths
started out by tinkering with their own guns as
a hobby and then became interested enough to
study and acquire some machine-shop experience.
After doing this for a few years, some men may
undertake small repairs for their friends, doing
the work after hours in their garage or basement
shop. By starting out on just such a small scale
and gradually acquiring a good reputation, a few
men have been able to establish themselves in busi­
ness on a full-time basis.
An apprenticeship is about the best way to learn
this trade, but there are very few gunsmiths shops
large enough to spare the time of an expert crafts­
man to supervise the training. However, there are
several vocational schools, mostly located in the
West, which give good training courses in gunsmithing. Even graduates of these schools must

get several years of working experience before
they can be considered as experts.
The main personal qualification for a man who
wants to become a gunsmith is a love of guns.
He must also have a high degree of mechanical
ability. At least a year of machine-shop training,
either in school or through working in a machine
shop, is also essential. Men who did some gunsmithing in military ordnance departments during
the war usually must get several years more o f
civilian experience before they are considered fully
So few men do gunsmithing as a full-time job
(only 500 in 1949) that the number of replace­
ments each year needed for those who die, retire,
or transfer to other work, will be extremely small
in the early fifties. More than enough skilled ex­
perienced people will be available to fill any such
openings, since so many men already do this on a
part-time basis. Therefore, opportunities will be
very limited for newcomers who want to do this
work full time. There may be occasional oppor­
tunities, however, for a really skilled young man
with a good record of experience as an amateur
gunsmith, to do gunsmithing on a part-time basis.
The amount of work available for gunsmiths de­
pends largely on the amount of hunting being
done. Since W orld War II, hunting has become
more popular than ever (over 12% million hunting
licenses were issued for the 1948-49 season, one
and one-half times as many as before the war.)
Many men became interested in this sport as a re­
sult of their military experiences. Game conser­
vation programs have increased the amount of
wildlife available for hunting in many areas.
In the long run there is likely to be only a slight
increase in full-time employment of gunsmiths,
and the occupation will continue to be very small.
There will also be a moderate number of openings
in locksmith and general repair shops.
Where To Go for More Information
Information on the name and location of train­
ing schools, as well as job requirements and em­
ployment opportunities, may be obtained from :
National Rifle Association of America,
1600 Rhode Island Ave., N W .,
Washington 25, D. 0.



The publication of this organization, The Arnerican Rifleman, frequently carries technical articles,

help wanted columns, and other information of
value to anyone interested in entering this field.

Industrial Machinery Repairmen
(D. O. T. 5-83.641)

Outlook Summary
Increasing employment is in prespect in this
Nature o f Work
Industrial machinery repairmen, often called
maintenance mechanics, maintain and repair ma­
chinery and other mechanical equipment in all
types of industrial plants. Their duties include
examining the machinery to determine cause of
trouble, dismantling, repairing, or replacing de­
fective parts, reassembling the machinery, and
making necessary adjustments for efficient opera­
tion. Often some of the duties of the millwright
in the moving and assembling of machinery and
equipment are included. Maintenance mechanics
usually specialize in the type of machinery or
equipment used in the industry in which they are
employed, and generally are required to have a
knowledge of the operation of the machines which
they repair.
Where Employed
These workers arc employed in almost every type
o f industrial plant which uses any great amount of
machinery or equipment. Many industrial ma­
chinery repairmen are employed in metalworking
establishments including plants making automo­
biles, electrical equipment, iron and steel products,
and machinery. Automobile plants employ well
over 4,000. Other groups work in nonmetal
industries such as textile mills, petroleum refiner­
ies, chemical plants, and paper and pulp mills;
several thousand are employed in coal and metal
Because industrial machinery repairmen do
maintenance work in such a wide variety of indus­
tries, some are employed in every section of the
country. These workers are concentrated, how­
ever, in the principal industrial States including

New York, Pennsylvania, Ohio. Illinois, Michigan,
New Jersey, California, and Massachusetts.
Training and Qualifications
The amount of skill and training required for
industrial machinery repairmen varies widely with
the type of machinery and equipment in the plant.
Training is usually obtained on the job, particu­
larly since workers often specialize on one type
of equipment. In many plants, machinists or
machine operators are transferred to the mainte­
nance department to do this job; in other plants
inexperienced workers are hired as helpers and
learn the job while working. A 3- or 4-year ap­
prenticeship may be required by some firms.
The expected rise in industrial activity due to
expanding defense requirements will increase the
number of maintenance mechanics during the
1950-60 decade. Many openings will result from
the need to replace workers who switch to other
jobs, retire, die, or are called up for military serv­
ice. Over the long run, the growing mechanization
of industry is expected to increase the need for
maintenance mechanics to keep production equip­
ment in working order.
Industrial machinery repairmen are generally
among the better-paid maintenance workers.
Their earnings vary considerably among indus­
Recent data on earnings of industrial machinery
repairmen are not available for most industries.
However, in passenger automobile maufacturing
plants in February 1950, these workers averaged
$1.89 an hour, and in the airframe industry in
May-June 1949, they averaged $1.62 an hour.
See also Millwrights, page 223.


Jewelers and Jewelry Repairmen
( D . O . T . 4-7 1 .0 1 0 , .020, and .025)

Outlook Summary
Limited number of openings for those who wish
to learn these trades in the early fifties. Little
increase in employment likely in the next 10 or
15 years.
Nature of Work and Where Employed
Jewelers make or repair rings, pins, earrings,
bracelets, necklaces, chains, fraternal emblems, re­
ligious jewelry, and other ornaments. They may
also design jewelry, do hand engraving, or set
stones. They work with metals such as gold, silver,
platinum, or palladium, and precious, semipre­
cious, and synthetic stones. The manufacture of
a piece of jewelry is done mostly by hand and
involves such skilled operations as making molds
according to design, casting metals, shaping and
filing down the rough piece, soldering and polish­
ing. Repair work, usually less complicated, con­
sists of such jobs as making rings larger or smaller,
soldering broken parts, or resetting stones.
Jewelers are employed in retail stores, trade
shops, and manufacturing establishments. Trade
shops are small establishments which repair
jewelry or make jewelry on a custom order basis
for the retail stores in a particular locality. Re­
tail stores and trade shops usually employ only a
few jewelers— in many retail stores there is only
one skilled man.
Precious jewelry is manufactured in a large
number o f small shops and in a few large estab­
lishments. In the small shops, most of the work
is made to order, so that a large proportion of the
employees are highly skilled all-round jewelers.
In the larger establishments, there is considerable
specialization among the skilled workers. Some
of them set diamonds, others design jewelry, do
hand engraving, assemble parts, or polish the fin­
ished pieces. Also, the bigger manufacturing
plants employ a much larger proportion of semi­
skilled and unskilled workers than do the small
About 1,350 establishments manufacturing pre­
cious jewelry employed an average o f 20,600 pro­
duction workers in 1917. The New York City area

(including northern New Jersey) is the largest
center of precious jewelry manufacturing. The
Providence, R. I.-Attleboro, Mass., area ranks next
in importance in precious jewelry manufacturing.
II o w To Enter
It takes 2 to 3 years of on-the-job training and
experience in the trade to become qualified to han­
dle the simpler jobs, and several years more to
become a highly skilled all-round jeweler. The
beginner may start out as a charger (setting up
the work for soldering) or do simple soldering or
rough polishing; as he gains experience he may

P h o to g r a p h

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. S .

d e p a r t m e n t

o f

l a b o r

This skilled jewelry worker is setting a diamond— a job that takes
several years of practice to do well.

get a chance to undertake more difficult work. The
best way to learn the trade is through an appren­
ticeship training program which takes from 2 to
4 years. However, since only a few of the larger
shops are able to undertake such formal training
programs, apprenticeships are not widespread in
this industry.
There are trade schools which teach jewelry
work, but even with school training, it is necessary
for the newcomer to get several years of practical


experience before he is considered a skilled worker.
Many employers send their apprentices and other
trainees to day or evening classes in these trade
schools, and consider the time spent as part of
their working hours; in some instances the em­
ployer pays the tuition.
To become an all-round jeweler, it is necessary
to have artistic talent and mechanical ability. Be­
cause this is light sedentary work, it has been found
suitable for people with physical handicaps of
certain types. Many disabled veterans have
been employed successfully in this field. Skilled
jewelers sometimes set up their own small
manufacturing shops or acquire retail stores or
trade shops.
Young people who want to become jewelers will
have difficulty finding openings where they can
learn the trade in the early fifties. Little expan­
sion from 1949 employment levels is expected in
either jewelry manufacturing or retail trade. A l­
most all openings will rise through turn-over.
Beginners will have a better chance of getting
started in the manufacturing shops, because that is
where most skilled jewelers are employed and be­
cause retail jewelry stores prefer to hire skilled
workers. However, in manufacturing shops the
number of apprentices is limited by union agree­
ment. Despite a scarcity of openings, some appli­
cants with a high degree of artistic talent and
mechanical ability will be able to find jobs, since
this is a field where employers are always searching
for fresh and original talent. Moreover, there
will continue to be a demand in manufacturing
shops for certain highly specialized craftsmen
such as hand stone setters, model makers, and
sample makers.
Employment of jewelers depends to a great de­
gree on general business conditions, since this is
a luxury trade. However, even with good busi­
ness conditions, little increase in employment is
likely in the next 10 years.
Earnings and Working Conditions
According to a survey made by an employers’
association, average earnings for skilled workers
in precious jewelry manufacturing shops in the

New York City area were about $2.10 an hour in
late 1949, or about $70 to $75 for the customary
35-liour week. Many are paid on a piece-work
basis, but their earnings were about the same.
Apprentices started at 70 cents an hour and re­
ceived increases every 3 months until they reached
the journeyman’s rate. Fall is usually the busiest
season in jewelry manufacturing. Many skilled
workers belong to the International Jewelry
Workers Union, AFL, some to the Playthings,
Jewelry, and Novelty Workers International
Union, CIO.
The general range of earnings of men employed
in retail stores and trade shops in late 1949 was
about $60 to $160 a week. Earnings vary con­
siderably at different seasons of the year, follow­
ing closely the fluctuations in retail jewelry sales.
Top earnings usually come before and immediately
after Christmas. Self-employed repairmen may
work considerable overtime during that period.
Summer is usually the slowest season.
Where To Go for More Information
Additional information on job opportunities,
training, earnings, and related matters may be
obtained from the following organizations:
International Jewelry Workers Union, A F L ,
Suite 825, 551 Fifth Ave.,
New York 17, N. Y.
Jewelry Crafts Association, Inc.,
20 West 47th St.,
New York 19, N. Y.
National Association of Credit Jewelers,
545 Fifth Ave.,
New York 17, N. Y.
Playthings, Jewelry & Novelty Workers International
Union, CIO,
225 Lafayette St., Km. 606,
New York 12, N. Y.

The following pamphlet contains information
helpful to those interested in going into business
for themselves.
U. S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of For­
eign and Domestic Commerce. Establishing and
Operating a Jewelry Store. Industrial (Small
Business) Series No. 55. 1947. Out of print but
available in many public libraries.
See also Costume Jewelry Workers, page 227.


Shoe Repairmen
(D. 0 . T. 4-60.100)

Outlook Summary
Declining occupation. Limited number of op­
portunities for trained men to take over businesses
o f older repairmen or to open new shops. Men
learn trade by working with experienced shoe
Nature of Work
The shoe repairman (often called a shoemaker)
resoles and reheels shoes and performs various
other repair jobs. To resole a shoe, he first rips off
the old sole with a pair of nippers and levels and
sands the welt (narrow strip of leather between
the shoe upper and the sole). Next, the new sole
is set in place over the welt and permanently at­
tached either by cementing, nailing, or machine
stitching. Then the edges of the new sole are held
against a revolving trimmer until the sole is
trimmed to the shape of the shoe. Finally, the
bottom of the sole is buffed, and the edges and
bottom are waxed and stained to give a finished
appearance. In reheeling, the old heel must be
snipped off, and a new one shaped and fastened
into place. The new heel is buffed and finished in
the same manner as new soles. Numerous other
shoe repair services, such as cleaning, dyeing,
stretching, stitching ripped seams, patching holes,
attaching heel and toe plates, and replacing but­
tons and buckles, are a part of the everyday work
o f the shoe repairman.
There were roughly 50,000 shoe repair shops in
1939, most of which were small one-man businesses.
Altogether, there were about 60,000 shoe repair­
men. In large cities, shoe repair facilities are
often combined with other types of personal serv­
ices, such as dry cleaning, laundry, hat blocking,
and tailoring. Shoe repairmen sometimes own the
concessions in these valet shops.
How To Get Into the Trade
The most common method of entering this trade
is by serving an apprenticeship of about 2 years
under an experienced shoe repairman. However,

many repairmen pick up the trade by getting a
minor job in one of the large shops and advancing
from the least difficult to the most difficult opera­
tions. Less emphasis is placed upon apprentice­
ship in large shops, where beginners are often
hired and trained in a few months to do one par­
ticular operation. Vocational schools teach this
trade, but most employers prefer people trained
on the job. Those who have had school training
usually are not considered fully qualified until they
have had some practical experience.
The majority of repairmen eventually go into
business for themselves. Several years’ experience
working for someone else is valuable, not only to
develop skill, but to learn how to operate a shoe
repair business.
In general, prospects for opening successful new
shops will not be good. Nevertheless, men who
have learned the trade by working for some one
else as a helper or apprentice will occasionally
find favorable opportunities to take over shoe re­
pair businesses or concessions, or to open new
shops. Some beginners will be hired as helpers to
replace these workers and to replace helpers and
apprentices who leave the occupation to take other
jobs. However, because the number of shops is
not expected to increase, there will be only a lim­
ited number of helper openings.
The number of shoe repairmen has decreased
over the past 30 years. Introduction of labor-sav­
ing machinery has been the chief factor making it
possible for fewer repairmen to serve a greater
number of people. The trend of employment
probably will be downward in the future, also,
partly because leather soles and heels are being
replaced by new type composition soles and heels
which outwear leather by a considerable margin.
Moreover, advances in labor-saving repair equip­
ment and the tendency for larger, more efficient
shops to get a greater share of the work will make
it possible for fewer repairmen to handle a given
amount of work. Population growth, on the other


hand, will partly offset the factors making for
decreased employment.

unionization among shoe repairmen, especially in
the 1arger cities.


Where To Go for More Information

No recent information is available on the earn­
ings of owner-operators, who comprise the great
majority o f shoe repairmen. Wages for skilled
employees in the big cities in late 1949 ranged be­
tween $55 and $80 a week; for semiskilled workers,
$35 to $45. Hours of work are often long. Em­
ployment in shoe repairing is fairly steady
throughout the year, with the busiest season oc­
curring in early spring and fall. There is some

The following publication contains valuable in­
formation for persons interested in going into the
business for themselves:
U. S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of F or­
eign and Domestic Commerce. Establishing and
Operating a Shoe Repair Business. Industrial
(Small Business) Series No. 17. 1945. Superin­
tendent of Documents, Washington 25, D. C.
Price 45 cents.

W atch Repairmen
(D. O. T. 4-71.510)

Outlook Summary
Limited number of openings for jobs in the
early fifties. Graduates of first-rate training
schools have best chances of finding beginning
jobs. Slight increase in employment likely over
the long run.
Nature of Work
Watch repairmen (who are frequently referred
to as “ watchmakers7 ) repair and adjust time­
pieces. This involves a variety of duties such as
inserting new springs, refitting pivots, truing bal­
ance wheels, and grinding old parts or making new
parts. These workers also clean and oil the parts,
refinish dials, and repair or replace wristbands.
In small shops, watch repairmen may perform
some of the simpler types of jewelry repair and
sometimes sell jewelry and watches. It is cus­
tomary to specialize in either watch or clock repair
work. The latter generally requires less skill than
the former.
Where Employed
Most watchmakers work in retail jewelry stores
or separate watch repair shops, either as owners
or employees. Some of the separate watch repair
shops service the public directly, while others,
known as trade shops, repair watches for retail

stores. Many watch repairmen are also employed
in department stores and mail order houses. In
some instances, watchmakers operate a watch re­
pair concession in a retail store. A small number
of watch repairmen are also found in jewelledwatch factories and in firms that import watch
movements and parts and assemble them into com­
plete watches.
There were about 35,000 to 40,000 watchmakers
employed in early 1949, including a small number
of women. They work in all parts of the country,
but the greatest proportion are concentrated in
large cities.
How T o Enter
Watch repairing is extremely intricate and pre­
cise work which requires much patience as well
as a high degree of mechanical skill. Since this
is light sedentary work it is suitable for many
handicapped people.
Anyone wishing to enter the trade will find it
difficult to do so without a year and a half to 2
years of training in one of the better watchmaking
schools. There were about 125 schools of watch­
making in operation in late 1949, but some of these
schools did not give training that was o f a quality
acceptable to most employers.
The best watchmakers7schools provide thorough
training in all phases of the trade, but even their
graduates need many months of experience and


practice on the job to reach a high rate of output.
Men trained at lower-rated schools may need 3
to 5 years of work experience to become highly
skilled. Some employers employ men with less
than a year’s training in a school or with no school
background at all and attempt to train them on
the job, but watchmakers are usually too busy
now to give beginners adequate attention. Only
a small number of the larger shops have formal
apprenticeship programs. Small shops, particu­
larly in large cities, generally hire only skilled
Certificates, which are widely recognized by em­
ployers throughout the country, are issued by the
Horological Institute of America to those who are
able to pass the Institute’s examinations and thus
demonstrate a certain quality of workmanship.
Certified watchmaker certificates are granted to
those able to pass a relatively simple examination,
usually men who have completed watchmaking
school or the equivalent in on-the-job training.
Master watchmaker certificates are awarded to
men who pass the more difficult examination, usu­
ally men who have had about 5 or more years’
experience. Certificates of proficiency are also
issued by the Testing and Certification Labora­
tory of the United Horological Association of
America. However, the States which require
licenses—namely, Wisconsin, Indiana, Iowa, Min­
nesota, Oregon, Louisiana, and Oklahoma—will
not accept the certificates of either organization in
lieu of their own examinations. The State of
Ohio requires no license, but has regulations speci­
fying the minimum number of hours of training
a watchmaker must have in order to practice his
In 1950 there was an ample supply of men
trained in watchmaking. There was such a great
influx of newly trained watchmakers in the late
forties, composed mainly o f veterans, that by early
1949, employment had risen to nearly double the
prewar figure. Although the number of openings
for newcomers will be fewer in the early fifties,
watchmaking schools probably will turn out more
than 1,000 graduates each year.
Almost all of the openings which arise in the

next several years will result from turn-over in
retail shops, although a limited number of addi­
tional watchmakers will be needed by factories
producing military equipment. Graduates of
first-rate watchmaking schools will have a strong
advantage in getting jobs.
In the long run there is likely to be a slow in­
crease over present levels of employment. The
number of watches in use will probably continue
to increase. Not only will many persons who do
not now have watches buy them, but there is a
growing tendency for people to own more than
one watch, to wear watches as costume jewelry,
and to buy more and more children’s watches.
Moreover, the continuing popularity of small
watches will also help to keep up a large volume
of repair work, because they break down more fre­
quently and are much harder to fix.
Earnings and Working Conditions
In late 1949, a beginner trained in a first-rate
watchmaking school could expect wages of $40 to
$60 a week. Typical earnings of experienced men
working for other shops were between $70 and $85
a w^eek. Earnings of self-employed watchmakers
vary considerably, depending largely on the vol­
ume of repair work and in case of retail jewelry
stores, also upon the volume of sales. Work and
earnings are fairly steady throughout the year.
Only a small proportion of watchmakers belong
to unions; The International Jewelry Workers
Union, A FL, has organized some of the watchmak­
ers employed in retail stores in a few of the larger
Where To Go for Additional Information
For data on job opportunities, schools giving
training courses acceptable to the trade, and simi­
lar matters write t o :
Horological Institute of America,
P. O. Box 4355,
Washington 12, D. C.
United Horological Association of America,
1549 Lawrence St.,
Denver 2, Colo.

See also Watch and Clock Factory Workers,
page 23A


Machine-shop workers are the largest occupa­
tional group in metalworking and one of the most
important groups in all industry. In early 1950,
more than 750,000 workers were employed in the
skilled and semiskilled machining occupations. In
addition, there were many thousands of other
workers, such as assemblers, inspectors, helpers,
and laborers, employed in machine shops.1

machine which firmly holds both the piece of metal
to be shaped and a cutting instrument, or “tool,”
and brings them together so that the metal is cut,
shaved, ground, or drilled. In some cases, the tool
is moved and the metal held stationary; in others,
the metal is moved against a stationary tool.
The most common kinds of machine tools include
the engine lathe, turret lathe, grinding machine,
boring mill, drill press, milling machine, screw
machine, shaper, and planer. The operation of
lathes is known as “ turning.” The piece of metal
being cut is rotated against the cutting tool held
in the machine. Boring mills and drilling ma­
chines are among the machines that make holes
in metal. Grinding machines remove the metal
with a power-driven, abrasive wheel. Milling ma­
chines shape metal with a saw-toothed cutting tool.
Planers and shapers are used to machine flat sur­
faces. A screw machine is a type of lathe.
Some machine shops manufacture metal prod­
ucts and others do maintenance work—making or
repairing metal parts for equipment use. The
manufacturing shops are of two main types—job
shops and production shops—depending upon the
way their production is organized. In job shops,
the earliest developed, a wide variety o f products
may be made with relatively few of each kind.
Production shops, on the other hand, make large
quantities of identical items.
Where Machine-Shop Workers Are Employed

The long-range upward trend of employment in
this field, together with a large volume of replace­
ment needs, should provide many opportunities
for new workers. Job openings will be particu­
larly numerous in the early fifties as the metal­
working industries, which are the main sources of
machine shop jobs, expand to meet defense
Nature of Machine-Shop Work
Machining is done by machine tools, and a ma­
chine shop is simply a workplace in which machine
tools are used. A machine tool is a power-driven
1 Reports for some of these occupations, such as machinery
assemblers and inspectors are elsewhere in this handbook. See
index for page numbers.


Because of their importance in making metal
products, machine-shop workers are employed
principally in the metalworking industries.
Nearly every industry, however, employs some ma­
chine-shop workers in maintenance work. More
than three-fourths of all workers in the machineshop occupations have jobs in metal industries like
machinery, primary and fabricated metals, and
automobiles. ( See chart 49.)
Most of the remaining machine-shop workers
are employed by the railroads, public utilities, and
in the maintenance shops of nonmetal manufac­
turing plants which make such products as cotton
textiles, paper, cigarettes, and chemicals. Even
though the number of machine-shop workers in
most nonmetal industries is small, these industries,


taken together, are important as a source of em­
ployment for machine-shop workers since they
provide almost a fourth of the jobs. Moreover, in
many cases the machine-shop jobs rate among the
better jobs in the plant and locality, as for ex­
ample, in many textile mills in southern towns.
Because so many machine-shop workers are in
metalworking industries, the bulk of them are
found in the northeastern and midwestern sec­
tions of the country, where these industries are
concentrated. Some machine-shop employment,
however, is scattered throughout the country in
railroad repair shops and the maintenance shops
o f other industries. There are machine-shop jobs
in every State.
Many thousands of new workers will get ma­
chine-shop jobs during the next decade. Job
openings will be particuarly numerous in the early
fifties as the metalworking industries, which are
the main source of machine-shop jobs, expand to

meet increasing defense requirements. The longrange employment trend in metalworking indus­
tries is also upward, as chart 50 shows. However,
as the chart also shows, the metalworking indus­
tries are more seriously affected by business
depressions than industry generally. Thus,
machine-shop workers suffer heavy lay-offs and a
greatly reduced workweek when economic condi­
tions are bad.
In the maintenance shops of nonmetal industries,
long-run growth in machine-shop employment is
also in prospect. These industries as a whole have
a general upward trend associated with rising pop­
ulation and national income. Moreover, the grad­
ual mechanization of industry tends to expand the
need for maintenance machine-shop workers to
keep mechanical equipment in good condition.
Many of these nonmetal industries are much less
affected by changes in general business conditions
than are the metalworking industries, so that ma­
chine-shop workers in the nonmetal industries tend
to have fairly steady employment over the years.

General view of a small machine shop.
Co u r te s y

o f

n a t io n a l

A r c h iv e s



In addition to the expected rise in machine-shop
employment, replacement needs (resulting from
the loss o f experienced workers) will create thou­
sands ®f openings for beginners. Death and re­
tirement of experienced men may provide some­
thing in the order of 15,000 openings annually
during the 1950-60 decade. This will be a par­
ticularly important factor in the skilled occupa­
tions, which have a relatively high proportion of
older workers. In the less skilled occupations,
shifting into other lines of work is fairly common;
many thousands of openings for newcomers will
arise in this w ay.
In addition, replacements will be needed as
workers are called up for service in the Armed
Forces; although some of those who are in critical
machine-shop occupations may be deferred.
Machine-Shop Workers and Their Jobs
Employment in major machine-shop occupa­
tions is shown in chart 51. The basic machine
shop job is that o f machinist, employed mainly
where workers are needed who are qualified to do
any o f the operations in a machine shop. Tool
and die makers are essentially highly trained ma­
chinists who specialize in making the cutting tools,
jigs, fixtures, and dies used in the various metal­
working operations. Machine-tool operators are
the largest group of machine-shop workers; the
occupation includes both skilled and semiskilled
workers. Set-up men and lay-out men are skilled,

Production Workers


specialized workers employed in shops which carry
on volume production; these are among the smaller
machine-shop occupations.
Except for the semiskilled machine tool operat­
ing jobs, the main method of entering these occu­
pations is through apprenticeship. The appren­
tice must be mechanically inclined and tempera­
mentally suited to very careful and exact work.
Apprentices are generally required to have highschool or trade-school education. There are no
special educational requirements for the semi­
skilled jobs.
Great physical strength is not required for ma­
chine-shop work. The workers, however, usually
must stand at their jobs most of the day and be
able to move about freely. Since continuous atten­
tion is required when the machine is in operation,
the work may often be rather tedious, especially on
simple and repetitive machining jobs. Where the
work is varied and complex, and the standards of
accuracy high, the worker can consider himself a
real craftsman and experience the satisfaction that
this feeling gives to the conscientious and capable
Because the work is not physically strenuous,
many women are employed as machine-tool opera­
tors. However, most of them are employed in the
less skilled machining operations; practically none
are found among the tool and die makers
and all-round machinists and relatively few among
the skilled machine-tool operators.
Most machine shops are relatively clean, well
lighted, and free from dust. They are generally
safer places in which to work than are most


The great majority of macliine-shop workers
are members o f unions. There are a number of
labor organizations in this field, some of the more
important of which are the International Associ­
ation of Machinists (Independent), the Interna­

tional Union of Electrical, Radio and Machine
Workers (C IO ), the United Automobile, Aircraft
and Agricultural Implement Workers of America
(C IO ), and the Mechanics Educational Society of
America (Independent).

All-Round Machinists
(D. O. T. 4-75.010)

Outlook Summary
There will be many job opportunities in this
occupation during the fifties, with many openings
resulting from replacement needs.
Nature of Work
This is a skilled machine-shop occupation in
which about 165,000 men are employed. In addi­
tion, there are many thousands with training as
all-round machinists, but employed in other
machine-shop occupations, such as that of ma­
chine-tool operator.
Variety is the main feature of the all-round
machinist’s work. His training enables him to
plan and carry through all operations needed in
turning out a machined product and to switch
readily from one kind of product to another. He
knows how to work from blueprints and written
specifications, can select the proper tools and ma­
terials required for each job, and can plan the
proper sequence of cutting and finishing opera­
tions. When necessary, he lays out the work by
marking the surface of the metal to show where
machining is needed and to indicate the shape and
depth of the cuts. After machining, he may finish
his work by hand, using files and scrapers, and
may assemble the parts by welding. His knowl­
edge of shop practice, of the working properties of
such metals as steel, cast iron, aluminum, and
brass, and of what the various machine tools do,
makes it possible for him to turn a block of metal
into an intricate, precise part.

An apprentice machinist must be mechanically
inclined and temperamentally suited to very care­
ful and exact work. Great physical strength is not
required for this work. A high school or grade
school education is desirable preparation for ma­
chinist training and some employers require such
preparation. In general, this is a man’s occupa­
Where Employed
The majority o f all-round machinist jobs are in
maintenance shops in a variety of industries, such
as railroads, textile mills, automobile factories, oil
The basic machine shop job is that of the all-round machinist, who
can operate all standard types of machine tools.
Co u r te s y

o f

n a t io n a l

a r c h iv e s

Training and Qualifications
According to most authorities, a 4-year appren­
ticeship is the best way to learn the machinist
trade. Many have qualified without an appren­
ticeship, however, by picking up the trade over a
number of years of varied shop experience.



refineries, steel mills, and printing plants. Many
all-round jobs are also found in manufacturing
shops (including job and production shops). In
production shops, there are large numbers of men
trained as all-round machinists, but not usually
employed as such; these men specialize in a single
machine-shop function, such as set-up or operation
of one type of machine tool.
Most of the machinists’ jobs are in the Middle
Western and Northeastern States where the metal­
working industries are concentrated. Machinists
are employed in every State, however, because of
their use in maintenance work.
Job openings for machinists will be plentiful
during the early fifties, to fill the needs of expand­
ing defense industries. However, there will be
relatively few apprentice openings. In the long
run, the number of jobs for all-round machinists
in production work may show a slight decline.
Continuing technical changes will reduce the skill
needed in many machining operations, permitting
the substitution of less trained men for machin­
ists. Machinist training will continue, however,
to offer considerable advantage to men going
into these shops. Machinists are generally pre­
ferred for the specialized machine-tool operator
jobs, which often pay as well or better than
all-round jobs. They also will have many
chances to get jobs setting up machines for groups
of semiskilled operators. Moreover, all-round
machine-shop workers must continue to be hired in
order to supply the necessary supervisory staffs—
the lead men and foremen—which are extremely
important in the modern mass-production shops.
In maintenance shops, the number of all-round
machinist jobs should show some growth over a
period of many years. The increasing mechaniza­
tion of industry will expand the need for men to
keep production equipment in good working order,
and this may mean more jobs for maintenance ma­
chinists. Replacement needs will provide many
j ob opportunities. To provide for the repl acement


of all-round machinists who die or retire, 30 to 40
thousand new machinists must be trained between
1950 and 1960. In June 1949, there were nearly
10,000 registered machinists in training.
Earnings and Working Conditions
Although the pay of all-round machinists com­
pares favorably with that of other machine-shop
workers, it is often lower than the earnings of
skilled machine-tool operators, many of whom
work on an incentive basis. Earnings of produc­
tion machinists in the machinery industries in
selected cities in November 1949, are shown in
the following tabulation:
earnings 1


________ _


Cleveland. ________
Denver ...
_ _
In d ia n ap olis._____

$1. 48
1. 44
1. 57
1.5 3



Los Angeles
Milwaukee_____ __
M i n n e a p o li s -S t .
N e w a r k - J ersey
New York C ity ___
Portland, Oreg____
St. Louis.
_ ______


$1. 72
1. 65
1. 60







1 Straight-time earnings (excluding premium pay for overtime and night

Average straight-time hourly earnings for pro­
duction machinists in the airframe industry in
May-dune 1949 were $1.72. Recent earnings data
for other industries are not available.
Promotional opportunities for all-round ma­
chinists are good. Many advance to foreman of a
section in the shop, or to other supervisory jobs.
With additional training, some develop into tool
or die makers. Some are successful in opening and
operating machine shops of their own.


Machine Tool Operators
(D. O. T. 4-78.000 to 78.039 and 6-78.000 to 78.039; 4-78.500 to 78.589 and 6-78.500 to 78.589; 4 -78.060 to 78.069)

Outlooh Summary
Good job prospects.

generally trained in not more than 6 months on
the job.
Where Employed

Nature of Work
The operators of machine tools make up the
bulk o f the workers in machine shops. Nearly
470,000 workers were employed as machine-tool
operators in the fall of 1949.
Machine-tool operating jobs may be divided into
two main classes, according to the skill required.
The skilled machine-tool operator does widely
varying kinds of machining. Working from blue­
prints or lay-outs, he sets up his machine for each
machining operation, adjusts the feed and speed
controls, and measures the finished work to see if
it meets specifications. He knows how to sharpen
cutting tools when they become dull and under­
stands the machining qualities of various metals.
In brief, his work is very much like that of the
all-round machinist, except that it is limited to a
single type of machine tool.
The majority of machine-tool operators are
much less skilled than the machine-tool specialists
described above and do work which is repetitive,
rather than varied. A typical job consists mainly
of placing rough metal stock into an automatic
machine tool, watching the machining operation
for signs of trouble, and measuring the finished
work with specially prepared gages which simplify
measurement. He may make minor adjustments
to keep the machine tool in operation, but must de­
pend on more skilled men for major adjustments.
Machine-tool operators, skilled and semiskilled
alike, are designated according to the kind of tool
which they operate—for example, engine-lathe op­
erator, turret-lathe operator, drilling-machine op­
erator, grinding-machine operator, milling-ma­
chine operator. There are many other kinds of
machine-tool specialists, each o f whom knows his
particular machine tool.
To become a skilled machine-tool operator re­
quires from iy 2 to 3 years o f on-the-job training.
Many o f these jobs, however, are filled by men
who have completed all-round machinist appren­
ticeships. Semiskilled machine-tool operators are

Skilled machine-tool specialists are employed
in all types of machine shops, but most of
them work in production shops. The propor­
tion of these specialists varies greatly among
production shops, however, depending on the
extent of job breakdown and the kind of ma­
chining done. They form a smaller percentage
of the workers in job and maintenance shops,
where an all-round knowledge of machine-shop
practice is generally preferred. Nevertheless, a
substantial number of skilled operators are em­
ployed in these shops, working under the guidance
of all-round machinists.
The employment of semiskilled machine-tool op­
erators is confined mainly to production shops and
is concentrated particularly in such mass-produc­
tion industries as automobiles and farm machin­
ery. Because o f their limited training, few can
be used in either job or maintenance shops.
There will be many thousands of opportunities
for new workers to get jobs as machine tool opera­
tors during the next decade. Job openings will
be particularly numerous during the early fifties
as the metalworking industries expand to meet
defense requirements.
Long-run job prospects for skilled machine-tool
specialists are likely to be good. Some employers
will continue to train specialists in preference to
training all-round men, because it costs less. The
growth of specialization in machine-shop work
will continue and this trend may offset technical
advances which otherwise would reduce the need
for skilled operators.
Those who get jobs as semiskilled operators also
have good prospects for continued employment in
the future. The gradual simplification o f ma­
chine-tool work through greater use of auto­
matic machines may widen their field of employ­
ment. On the other hand, technical advances


which increase the efficiency of machine tools will
tend to hold down the tot#l number of jobs in this
The need to replace the many machine-tool op­
erators who shift to other occupations or who die
or retire will result in many job openings for new
workers each year. Replacements will also be
needed for those entering the Armed Forces.

are employed mainly in production shops where
the work is very repetitive and where there are
few opportunities to develop additional skills.
Average hourly straight-time earnings, 19^9


Drill-press operators, singleand multiple-spindle



Engine-lathe operators



E a r n in g s a n d W o r k i n g C o n d itio n s

Many machine-tool operators, especially the
less skilled, are paid on an incentive basis and
hence their earnings are often as high as machineshop workers of greater skill. Average hourly
straight-time earnings (excluding premium pay
for overtime and night work) for drill-press op­
erators and engine-lathe operators in machinery
manufacturing industries in selected cities in
November 1949 are shown in the accompanying
Average straight-time hourly earnings for ma­
chine tool operators, in plants producing passenger
cars, in February 1950, were as follows :
Boring-mill operators_________________________$2.
Drill-press operators_______________________
Lathe operators_____________________________
Milling-machine operators_________________
Screw-machine operators_____________


Recent earnings data for other industries are
not available.
Skilled machine-tool specialists may be pro­
moted to such jobs as set-up man or supervisor (on
machines on which they have specialized). I f
they can get experience on several different kinds
of machine tools, they, also, may develop into all­
round machinists. Semiskilled operators gener­
ally have little chance for advancement since they

Boston_______ $1.
Cincinnati___ 1.
Cleveland____ 1.
Dallas _
Denver. _ _
Detroit. _
Hartford __ _ 1.
Houston. _
Indianapolis— 1.
Los Angeles __ 1.
Milwaukee___ 1.
MinneapolisSt. Paul___ 1.
sey C i t y . . . 1.
N ew Y o rk
C ity ----------- 1.
Philadelphia.. 1.
P o r tla n d ,
_ 1.
St. Louis____
Seattle _
Syracuse _
Tu lsa.
Worcester____ 1.


19 $1. 12 $1. 50
1. 65 $1. 41
1. 26
1. 65
1. 43
1. 51
1. 05
1. 41
1. 72
1 .5 6
1. 34
1. 05
1. 51
1. 31
1. 28
1. 74
1. 65
1. 47
. 95
1. 33
1. 62
1. 31
1. 44
2. 08
1. 57
1. 73
1. 62
1. 35
1. 33
1. 40
1. 65
1. 76
1. 12
1. 57
1. 58
1. 38
1. 69
1. 48
1. 11
1. 59
1. 59
1. 43
1. 65


1. 47

1. 16

1. 65


1. 43

1. 39

1. 67

1. 50

1. 30


1. 48
1. 35
1. 60

1. 18
1. 24
1. 14

1. 75
1. 80
1. 70

1. 52
1. 56

1. 21
1. 33
1. 37

1. 19
1. 41
1. 56
1 .5 4
1. 19
1. 45

1. 19
1. 11

1. 72
1. 40
1. 64

1. 23
1. 49

1. 20

1. 37

1. 30

1. 36

1. 24





1. 43
. 97

1. 57
1. 51
1. 49



1. 23

1. 35
1. 49

Tool and Die Makers
(D. O. T. 4-76.010, .040, and .210)

O u tlo o k S u m m a r y

Tool and die making offers good long-range
employment prospects.
N a tu r e o f W o r k

The function o f tool makers is to make the cut­
ting tools used on machine tools, and the jigs,

fixtures, and other accessories which hold the work
while it is being machined. They also make the
gages and other measuring devices needed for pre­
cision work. Die makers construct the dies which
are used in such metal-forming operations as
forging, stamping, and pressing, and they also
make the metal molds used in die-casting metal
and molding plastics. Tool and die makers must


Average straight-time hourly earnings of tool and die


Jobbing shops

Detroit _
Hartford _ .
Los Angeles
Minneapolis-St. Paul
Newark-Jersey Citv
New York City
Portland, Oreg
St. Louis __
Syracuse. _
. _



2. 25
1. 65
1. 78
1. 87
1. 82
1. 93
2. 00

1. 73
2. 08
1. 70

Other than
jobbing shops


liave the broad knowledge of the all-round ma­
chinist, including blueprint reading, lay-out work,
setting up and operating machine tools, using pre­
cision measuring instruments, understanding the
working properties of common metals and alloys,
and making shop computations. In addition,
they must be able to work to closer tolerances than
those usually required of machinists and must do
a greater amount of precise hand work. These
requirements, plus specialization on tools and dies,
distinguish tool and die makers from all-round

training in various parts of the job. In addition,
during the apprenticeship, courses such as shop
arithmetic and blueprint reading are usually
given in vocational schools. After apprentice­
ship, a number of years of experience as a journey­
man is often considered necessary to qualify for
the more difficult tool and die work. Since tool
and die making is the most exacting type of ma­
chine-shop jobs, persons planning to enter the
trade should have a great deal of mechanical abil­
ity and liking for painstaking work. This is
essentially a man’s job, although little physical
strength is required.
Where Employed
The estimated 85,000 tool and die makers are
employed in many different metalworking indus­
tries. The automobile industry is the largest
employer of these workers. Also very important
are tool and die jobbing shops. Many are em­
ployed in other machinery industries. Among the
nonmetal industries using these workers is the
plastics products industry, which employs die
makers to make metal molds.
Most o f the tool and die maker employment is
in the mid western and northeastern sections of
the country. Michigan, especially the Detroit
area, has more jobs than any other section. Many
An apprentice tool and die maker learns how to operate standard
machine tools, such as this shaper.
Ph o to g r a ph

b y

U .

S .

D e p a r t m e n t

o f

Labo r

T r a in in g a n d Q u a lifica tio n s

This work requires rounded and varied ma­
chine-shop experience, usually obtained through
formal apprenticeship or the equivalent in other
types of on-the-job training. In July 1949, there
were about 6,000 tool and die maker apprentices
in training. A tool and die apprenticeship ordi­
narily covers 4 or 5 years, including mainly shop
8 9 2 2 7 3 ° — 5 1 --------1 4



are also employed in Ohio, Illinois, New York,
and Pennsylvania.
O u tlo o k

Tool and die making offers good long-range em­
ployment prospects. These workers are needed
not only to repair and replace the tools and dies
normally used by industry but also to retool plants
for new models and new products. Also the
trends toward greater use of die casting, stamping,
and plastics molding w ill tend to increase dieT
maker employment. In the early fifties, the de­
mand for tool and die makers will be particularly
strong as the metalworking industries expand to
meet defense requirements.
Even in the event of a general business depres­
sion, with machine-shop employment temporarily
falling to a low level, experienced tool and die
makers, because of their all-round skills, would
have fairly good chances to get lower rated ma­
chine-shop jobs. Thus, from the point of job
security, they may have a considerable advantage
over other machine-shop workers.

E a r n in g s and W o r k i n g

C o n d itio n s

This is the highest paid machine-shop occupa­
tion. In November 1949, the average straighttime hourly earnings (excluding premium pay for
overtime and night work) of tool and die makers
employed in the machinery industries in selected
cities are shown in the foregoing tabulation.
Higher rates are generally paid in jobbing shops
than in production shops. Average earnings in the
airframe industry for tool and die makers in mid1949 were $1.79 an hour. In passenger-car manu­
facturing plants, average straight-time hourly
earnings, in February 1950, were $1.98 for die
makers (excluding leaders) and $1.97 for tool
makers (excluding leaders). Eecent earnings in­
formation for other industries is not available.
Tool and die makers often rise to better jobs.
Many have advanced to shop superintendent or
other responsible supervisory work, or to such posi­
tions as tool designer. (See statement on this oc­
cupation, p. 192.) Another avenue of opportunity
is the opening of their own small tool and die job­
bing shops.

Set-up Men (Machine Shop)
(D. O. T. 4-75.160)

O u t lo o k S u m m a r y

Some openings for qualified men in this small,
growing occupation.
N a tu re o f W o r k

The set-up man is a skilled specialist employed
in machine shops which carry on large-volume
production. His job is to install cutting tools and
adjust the controls of machine tools so that they
can be run by semiskilled operators.
The usual practice is to assign a set-up man to a
number of machine tools, which are often of one
type, such as the turret lathe. The set-up man
works from blueprints, written specifications, or
job lay-outs in order to set the cutting tools in
place and to adjust for each machining operation
the guides, speed and feed controls, working tables,
and other parts of machine tools. After setting
up and adjusting a machine, he makes a trial run
to see if it is working properly, and then turns it

over to the regular operator. During the machin­
ing operation he makes all important adjustments
needed for accurate production.
In order to become a set-up man, it is usually
necessary to qualify first as an all-round machin­
ist or as a skilled machine-tool specialist, since the
job requires a good background in machine-shop
practice as well as a thorough knowledge of the
operation of at least one type of machine tool.
O u tlo o k

Set-up men comprise one of the smaller occu­
pations among machine-shop workers. However,
the long-run trend toward using these skills in
conjunction with semiskilled machine-tool opera­
tors in many shops is expected to continue. Thus,
there should be openings for men with the neces­
sary qualifications. The number of set-up men
should increase substantially during the early
fifties because of the expected expansion of pro­
duction in metalworking industries.


Lay-out Men (Machine Shop)
(D. O. T. 4-75.140)

Outlook Summary
There will will be openings for experienced all­
round machinists to get into this field.
Nature of Work
The lay-out man is a highly skilled specialist
whose job is to make guide marks on metal before
it is machined to indicate to the machine-tool op­
erators the kind of machining needed.
Working from blueprints or written specifica­
tions, the lay-out man marks guide lines, reference
points, and other instructions to operators on
rough castings, forgings, or metal stock. He uses
a wide assortment of instruments, including the
scriber, with which he marks lines on the surface
o f the metal; the center punch, used to indicate
the centers on the ends of metal pieces to be ma­
chined or drilled; the keyseat or box rule, used for
drawing lines and laying off distances on curved
surfaces; dividers, for transferring and compar­
ing distances; L- or T-squares for determining
right angles; and calipers and micrometers for
accurate measurement. Not only must the lay-out
man work with extreme accuracy, but also he has
to be familiar with the operation and uses of each
o f the standard machine tools.
Generally it takes from 6 to 10 years to develop
this skill, including the machinist apprenticeship
or equivalent training needed to learn the funda­
mentals of machine-shop practice. Earnings in
this occupation are among the highest in machine

the early fifties as production in metalworking
plants expands to meet defense requirements.
Where To Get Additional Information
Employment Outlook in Machine-Shop Occu­
pations. Bulletin No. 895. U. S. Department of
Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics, 1947. 28 pp.,
3 charts, 7 illus. Superintendent of Documents,
Washington 25, D. C. Price, 20 cents.
Persons interested in opening their own metal­
working business would do well to consult Estab­
lishing and Operating a Metalworking Shop.
U. S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of For­
eign and Domestic Commerce, 1945. Superin­
tendent of Documents, Washington 25, D. C.
Price, 35 cents.
The lay-out man must have a broad knowledge of machine-shop work
and be able to use marking and measuring instruments.
P h o to g r a ph

b y

U .


d e p a r t m e n t

o f

L ab o r

This is one of the smaller machine-shop occu­
pations. However, employment opportunities for
qualified men are likely to be good, since there is
a trend toward employing skilled lay-out men in
conjunction with semiskilled machine-tool opera­
tors in production shops. A considerable rise in
the number of lay-out men is in prospect during


Foundries constitute one of the principal metal­
working fields and one of the larger sources of
employment for trained workers in manufactur­
ing. The more than 5,000 foundries in the United
States employed about 435,000 production workers
in July 1950, many o f them in skilled occupations.
Prospects are that a large number of new workers
will get foundry jobs during the 1950-60 decade.
Earnings are above the average for factory work
C h a r a c te r is tic s o f F o u n d r ie s

Foundries are places where castings are made.
A casting is formed by pouring molten metal into
a mold and allowing the metal to harden, taking
the shape of the mold. This is one of industry’s


basic metalworking methods since it can produce
metal parts in a wide range of shapes and sizes.
Castings in general use include automobile cylin­
der blocks, water mains, bathtubs, machinery
bearings, ship propellers, railway car wheels, ma­
chine-tool bases, radiators, valve bodies, locomo­
tive frames, and hundreds o f other industrial
Casting is applied to a number o f different
metals and their alloys. Gray iron accounts for
most of the tonnage produced and the largest seg­
ment of employment in the entire foundry field.
Steel and malleable iron are the other important
types of ferrous metals which are cast. Among
the nonferrous metals, the main casting materials
are brass, bronze, aluminum, and magnesium.
Foundries usually specialize in casting one or two


metals—since somewhat different kinds of equip­
ment and methods are used for the various metals.
Most foundry workers can transfer, however, from
casting one type of metal to another without much
extra training.
Foundries differ greatly in the way their pro­
duction is organized. Production foundries make
large quantities of identical castings, using mainly
machine methods and requiring relatively few
skilled workers. Many of the production foun­
dries are “ captive” or “ integrated” foundries, that
is, they are departments of firms which use cast­
ings in manufacturing finished products such as
automobiles, various types of machinery, agricul­
tural implements, plumbing and heating equip­
ment, or electrical machinery. Jobbing foundries,
on the other hand, make a variety of shapes and
sizes of castings, usually in limited quantities.
Although the amount of mechanization has been
increasing, hand methods are still used to a great
extent in jobbing shops, and a relatively high pro­
portion of skilled workers is required. Jobbing
foundries are usually separate establishments
(“ independent” or “ commercial” foundries), sell­
ing their castings to other companies. The dis­
tinction between production and jobbing foundries
is not always sharply defined, as production found­
ries often do some jobbing work and jobbing
foundries may carry on some semiproduction
Foundries vary greatly in size. In 1947, of the
more than 1,600 independent gray-iron foundries,
only 13 had more than 1,000 workers each. On the
other hand, over one-half of the gray-iron found­
ries employed fewer than 50 workers. Both steel
foundries and malleable-iron foundries are gen­
erally larger than the typical gray-iron foundry;
more than half of the workers in these foundries
were employed in plants with more than 500 em­
Nonferrous foundries are typically
small; four-fifths of them had fewer than 50 em­
ployees each in 1947.
As the map (chart 52) shows, most of the
foundry jobs are in the Midwestern and North­
eastern States. Foundries tend to be near the
great concentrations of metalworking industries
for which they produce castings, and near the sup­
ply of such basic materials as pig iron, coke, and
nonferrous metals. The leading foundry States
are Ohio, Pennsylvania, Illinois, and Michigan.
However, foundry jobs appear in substantial num









bers in other parts of the country. Alabama, for
example, has many foundry workers; in Cali­
fornia, foundry employment has recently become
more important. Every State has some foundry
Employment Outlook
Foundries are expected to hire many new work­
ers during the 1950-60 decade. Openings will be
particularly numerous during the early fifties, as
metalworking industries— the principal users of
castings—expand to meet defense requirements.
Many job opportunities will be created by the need
to replace those workers who leave the foundries
because of death, retirement, or shifting to other
fields of work.
There has been a long-run upward trend in
foundry production and employment. This trend
reflects the growth of the whole economy and par­
ticularly the great expansion of the metalworking
industries including the automobile, machinery,
railroad, electrical equipment, and plumbing and


heating equipment industries. However, foundry
activity lias also shown wide fluctuations from year
to year. To a high degree, these fluctuations are
associated with changes in general business con­
ditions; foundries are especially hard hit during
depressions, but in boom times, their situation is
particularly favorable. For example, there was
a drop of 67 percent in iron and steel castings out­
put between 1929 and 1933, and a rise of 82 percent
between 1939 and 19-17. Wartime also causes
sharp fluctuations in foundry activity. Tremen­
dous requirements for castings for aircraft, tanks,
and ordnance lead to a rapid rise in foundry out­
put, followed by some postwar decline.
Chart 53 shows the trend of foundry employ­
ment in recent years. It can be seen that the num­
ber of workers employed in foundries is far above
prewar, although somewhat lower than the war­
time peak. In July 1950, about 435,000 pro­
duction workers had jobs in foundries (including
both independent and integrated foundries).
In the early fifties, foundry employment is ex­
pected to rise above this level, because of the need
for castings by defense industries during the next
Long-run prospects are good in many of the
industries which use large amounts of castings,
including automobile, electrical equipment, farm
machinery, many kinds of industrial equipment,
and plumbing and heating supplies. This should
Foundry workers pouring molten metal into sand molds to form castings.


mean gradually increasing levels of castings
production. However, foundry employment is
not expected to rise quite as much as pro­
duction. Continued technical advances in foun­
dry methods will mean that fewer workers will
be needed to produce a given amount of cast­
ings. Some of the more important technological
changes may include more extensive installation
of materials-handling equipment and greater use
of permanent-mold castings.
Although no great rise in employment is antici­
pated, over the long run, foundries will hire many
workers each year because of the need to replace
employees who leave the foundries. Openings re­
sulting from death and retirement may run about
6,000 to 10,000 annually. Replacement demand of
this kind will be especially important in the more
skilled occupations, in which there are many
workers of relatively advanced age. An even
greater number of openings should result from the
shifting of experienced foundry workers into other
kinds of employment. In the semiskilled and un­
skilled occupations, most of the job openings will
arise in this way. Replacements will also be
needed for those entering the Armed Forces.
Foundry Workers and Their Jobs
Most skilled jobs in foundries, as well as many
of the less skilled, are not found elsewhere in in­
dustry. Estimated employment in some of the
principal foundry occupations is shown in chart
54. There are many occupations which are not
typical of foundry work as such, but which are,
nevertheless, represented in foundries. These
workers are found throughout industry and in­
clude maintenance workers (such as carpenters
and electricians), engineers, clerical employees,
and laborers.
The customary employment practice is to hire
only men for most foundry occupations. During
the war, a large number of women worked in
foundries, but relatively few have remained. In
May 1950, about 5 percent of all employees in
independent iron and steel foundries were women.
The proportion of Negroes in foundries is fairly
high. They are employed not only in many un­
skilled and semiskilled foundry occupations but
also to a substantial extent as skilled molders and
Wages in foundries are somewhat above the aver­


age for manufacturing as a whole. In July
1950, production workers in independent iron and
steel foundries earned an average of about $1.54
an hour (including pay for overtime and night
work). Those in nonferrous foundries averaged
about $1.60 an hour. This compares with average
hourly earnings of about $1.46 for all manufactur­
ing industries in the same month.
The working environment varies greatly among
individual foundries.
In some, the conditions
compare favorably with metalworking industries
generally; in others, safety and comfort are below
the average for metalworking.
Foundries are sometimes hot places to work,
particularly near the melting units in the summer
months. Smoke and fumes are sometimes a nui­
sance. Noise may be a problem in certain opera­
tions, particularly in cleaning and finishing.
The injury rate in foundries tends to be rela­
tively high, but there has been considerable im­
provement of working conditions and safety prac­
tices in recent years. The frequency of accidents
varies among the different foundry occupations.
In general, patternmaking and coremaking are the
least hazardous, molding is somewhat more unsafe,
and jobs in melting and chipping tend to have
among the highest injury rates.
The large majority of foundry workers are union
members. The principal labor organizations cov­
ering these workers include the International
Molders and Foundry Workers Union of North
America (A F L ), the United Steelworkers of
America (C IO ), and the United Automobile, A ir­
craft, and Agricultural Implement Workers of
America (C IO ). Most patternmakers are mem­
bers of the Pattern Makers’ League of North
America (A F L ).
The first step in casting is for the patternmaker
to make a wood or metal pattern in the shape of
the final casting desired. Sandmixers prepare
sand for use in molding and coremaking. Hand
molders make the sand molds into which metal is
poured. The molds are made by packing and ram­
ming sand around the patterns. Molders5 helpers
may assist in these operations. Machine molders
operate one of several types of machines which
simplify and speed up the making of large quanti­
ties of identical sand molds. Goremakers shape
the bodies o f sand, or “ cores,” which are placed
inside molds in order to form any hollow spaces
needed in castings. .C are assemblers may be used

to put together core sections. Gore-oven tenders
operate furnaces in wdiich cores are often baked.
With the mold made and the cores, if any, put
inside, the next step is to pour the molten metal
into the mold. A melter operates a furnace used
to melt metal for castings. The actual pouring is
customarily done by a pourer, although in some
small foundries it is part of the molder’s job.
When the casting has cooled off, it is taken out of
the mold by shake-out men and sent to the cleaning
and finishing department. Sandblasters and tum­
bler operators run the various kinds of cleaning
equipment. Chippers and grinders remove excess
metal and finish castings. The casting may be
placed in an annealing furnace to improve its
physical properties; annealers run these furnaces.
Casting inspectors then check finished castings for
structural soundness and proper dimensions. A n­
other group of workers are the foundry techni­
cians—skilled workers having to do with quality
control in the making of castings.
Among the many types of jobs associated with
foundry work, three occupations—molder, core­
maker, and patternmaker—stand out as especially
significant. Molding and coremaking are rela­
tively large occupations and include a high pro­
portion of skilled jobs requiring apprenticeship
or equivalent training. Although fewer workers
are engaged in patternmaking, the skill needed is
very high and apprenticeship is the normal method
of entry. For the less skilled foundry jobs, per­
sons without previous foundry experience may be
hired directly or foundry laborers may be up­
graded. The leading foundry occupations are
discussed below.


Hand Molders
(D. O. T. 4-81.010 and .030)

These foundry workers use mainly hand meth­
ods to prepare the sand molds into which metal is
poured to make castings. A mold is made by
packing and ramming prepared sand around a
model or pattern of the desired casting and then
removing the pattern, leaving in the sand a hollow
space in the shape of the casting to be made.
Molds for smaller castings are usually made on a
workbench by bench molders; those for large and
bulky castings are made on the foundry floor by
-floor molders. Skill requirements in this occupa­
tion vary considerably. An all-round hand molder
(journeyman) makes widely varying kinds of
molds. A less skilled molder does more repetitive
work, specializing on a single kind of mold. Hand
molders work mainly in jobbing foundries. In
production foundries, where most of the molding
is done bv machine, some journeyman molders
are employed in skilled, specialized molding jobs
and in supervisory positions.
A floor molder smoothing sand mold.
C o u r tesy

o f

n a t io n a l

a r c h iv e s

Completion o f a 4-year apprenticeship, or the
equivalent in experience, is needed to become a
journeyman molder and thus to qualify for all­
round hand molding and for the skilled specialized
or supervisory jobs. Men with this training are
also preferred for many kinds of machine molding.
For the less skilled jobs, not more than 6 months of
on-the-job training is usually required.
For a molding apprenticeship, an eighth grade
education is usually the minimum, and many em­
ployers specify additional school work up to and
including high school graduation. Eighth grade
schooling, however, suffices for most jobs as learn­
ers of less skilled hand molding.
Physical standards for molding jobs take into
account the need for continual standing and mov­
ing about, frequent lifting, good vision, and
manual dexterity.
Hand molders are among the highest paid
foundry workers. Average straight-time hourly
earnings of male floor and bench molders in in­
dependent ferrous foundries in the summer of
1950, are shown in the following tabulation:

Birmingham . _
Denver_________ . _ ________
Detroit ________
H a r t fo r d ______.
Houston __ _
Indianapolis. _
Los Angeles._
Minneapolis-St. Paul ________
Newark-Jersey Citv ________
New York ____
Portland, Oreg
St. Louis
San Francisco
T o l e d o ._________

$1. 15
1. 67
1. 65
1. 76
1. 70
1. 83
1. 53
1. 92
1. 83
1. 62
1. 72
1 .7 6
1. 83
1. 61
1.7 3
1. 70
1.6 9
1. 77
1. 69
1.8 5
1. 76




1. 90
1. 70


Hand molders with all-round training have
good chances for promotion to supervisory jobs.
Opportunities for advancement are much more
limited for the lessi skilled hand molders.


Machine Molders
(D. O. T. 4-81.050; 6-81.010 and .020)

Machine molders are foundry workers who op­
erate one of several types of machines which
simplify and speed up the making of large quanti­
ties of identical sand molds for castings. The
basic duties of a machine molder consist mainly of
assembling the flask (molding box) and pattern
on the machine table, filling the flask with pre­
pared sand, and operating the machine by the
properly timed use of its control levers and pedals.
Machine molders sometimes are qualified journey-

man molders who require little supervision and
who set up and adjust their own machines. More
commonly, however, the machine molder is a semi­
skilled worker, whose duties are limited to operat­
ing the machine which is set up for him. Machine
molders are employed mainly in production
foundries which make large quantities of identical
For molding machine jobs of the more difficult
and responsible types, a 4-year molder apprentice­
ship or equivalent training is required. However,
machine molding of the less skilled variety is ordi­
narily learned in from 30 to 90 days of on-the-job
training. Average physical strength is needed.
Machine molders are generally among the high­
est paid foundry workers. Average straight-time
hourly earnings of men operating molding ma­
chines in independent ferrous foundries in the
summer of 1950, are shown in the following tab­
ulation :
Birmingham__________ $1. 21
B u ffalo_______________
Chicago_______________ 1.73
Cleveland_____________ 1.81
D en ver______________ 1 .5 3
D etro it_______________
Hartford______________ 1.86



U .

S .




Machine molders operate machines which simplify and speed up the
making of a large quantity of identical molds.

Los Angeles__________
Minneapolis-St. Paul_
Newark-Jersey City_
Portland, Oreg______
St. L o u is____________
San Francisco______

$1. 91
1. 91
1. 70
1. 78
1. 66
1. 78
1. 78
1. 84
2. 03

A machine molder who has completed an ap­
prenticeship or acquired other all-round molding
experience is often in line for promotion to a
supervisory job. A semiskilled machine molder,
however, generally has much less chance for ad­

Hand Coremakers
(D. O. T. 4-82.010)

These workers use hand methods to prepare the
bodies of sand, or cores, which are placed in molds
to form hollows or holes required in metal cast­
ings. A core is made by packing prepared sand
into a hollow form (core box) so that the sand is
compressed into the desired shape. Small cores
are made on a workbench by bench coremakers;
large and bulky cores are made on the foundry

floor by -floor coremakers. Skill requirements in
this occupation differ considerably. All-round
hand coremakers (journeymen) prepare a variety
of larger or more intricate cores. The less skilled
coremakers make the small and simple cores, fre­
quently produced in large numbers, so the work is
highly repetitive.
Journeyman hand coremakers usually work in


of on-tlie-job training is usually required. For
coremaking apprentices, an eighth grade educa­
tion is usually the minimum, and many employers
specify additional school work up to and including
higli-school graduation. Eighth grade schooling,
however, suffices for most jobs as learners of less
skilled hand coremaking.
Physical requirements for light coremaking are
fairly modest, since the work is not strenuous;
women are frequently employed in the less skilled
coremaking jobs. Coremaking is generally some­
what safer than other foundry work.
Hand coremakers are among the better paid
foundry workers. Average straight-time hourly
earnings of male hand coremakers in independent
ferrous foundries in the summer o f 1950j are
shown below:
Hand coremakers prepare the bodies of sand, or “ cores," which are
placed in molds to form the hollows or holes required in metal castings.

jobbing foundries. Some journeyman coremakers
work in production foundries as supervisors or in
skilled, specialized jobs. Semiskilled hand coremakers are generally employed in production
Completion o f a 4-year apprenticeship, or the
equivalent in experience is needed to become a
journeyman coremaker. Molding and coremaking
training is often combined in a single apprentice­
ship. For the less skilled jobs, only a few months



1. 67
1. 70
1. 76
1. 74
1. 86
1. 54
1. 95
1. 50
1.5 7
1. 60

$1. 71
Los A n g e le s -___
1.8 2
Minneapolis-St. Paul- 1. 61
Newark-Jersey City_ 1. 62
1 .7 0
New York
1. 92
1. 73
Portland, Oreg
1. 78
St. Louis
1. 75
1. 84
San Francisco
1.8 5

A hand coremaker who has completed his ap­
prenticeship or acquired equivalent, all-round ex­
perience may be promoted to a supervisory job.

Machine Coremakers
(D. O. T. 6-82.010, .020, and .030)

Machine coremakers operate several different
types o f machines which force prepared sand into
specially shaped hollow forms to make sand cores.
These cores are placed in molds to form hollow
spaces required in the castings. The duties and
skill o f machine coremakers vary. Some workers
are required to set up and adjust their own ma­
chines and do any necessary finishing operations
on the cores; less skilled coremakers are more
closely supervised, and the necessary adjusting of
the machines is done for them. Machine core­
makers are employed mainly in production found­
ries, where large quantities of identical castings
are made.

Generally, for the less skilled machine-core­
maker jobs only a brief period of on-the-job train­
ing is needed, and no special form of preparation
is required. Persons without previous foundry
experience may be hired directly, or foundry
laborers or helpers may be upgraded to this work.
However, a 3- or 4-year coremaker apprentice­
ship, or equivalent training, is sometimes needed
for the more difficult and responsible machine­
coremaking jobs. For many types of machine
coremaking, little physical strength is needed, and
some women are employed.


(D. O. T. 5-17.010 and .020)

Patternmakers are the highly skilled craftsmen
who construct patterns and core boxes for castings.
They are classified, primarily, according to the
kind of material they use in making patterns.
Those who construct wooden patterns constitute
about two-thirds of the total. O f the remainder,
most are metal patternmakers, although there are
a few who work with other materials, such as
To do his job properly, a patternmaker must
understand general foundry practice. He works
from blueprints and plans the pattern, taking into
consideration the manner in which the object will
be cast and the type of metal to be used. The
wood patternmaker selects the appropriate wood
stock and lays out the pattern, marking the de­
sign for each section on the proper piece of wood.
Using power saws, he cuts each piece of wood
roughty to width and length. He then shapes the
rough pieces into their final form, using various
woodworking machines—such as borers, lathes,
planers, band saws, and sanders—as well as many
small hand tools. Finally, he assembles the pat­
tern segments by hand.
The duties of a metal patternmaker differ from
those of a wood patternmaker principally in that
metal and metalworking equipment are substi­
tuted for wood and woodworking equipment.
Metal patternmakers prepare patterns from metal
stock, or, more commonly, from rough castings
made from an original wood pattern. To shape
and finish their work, they use a variety of metal­
working machines, including the engine lathe,
drill press, milling machine, power hacksaw,
grinder, and shaper. Apart from these differ­
ences, metal patternmaking is similar to work on
wood patterns, requiring blueprint reading and
Throughout his work the patternmaker care­
fully checks each dimension of the pattern. A
high degree of accuracy is required, since any
imperfection in the pattern will be reproduced in
the castings made from it. Other duties of pat­
ternmakers include making core boxes (in much

ttie same manner as patterns are constructed) and
repairing patterns and core boxes.
Patternmaking is done in specially equipped
pattern shops, which are of two types—independ­
ent and integrated. Independent pattern shops
are separate establishments which make patterns
for sale. An integrated shop may be operated
in conjunction with a foundry which uses the pat­
terns; on the other hand, it may be the pattern
department of a plant that buys castings from a
commercial foundry, to which it supplies appro­
priate patterns with each new order for castings.
Apprenticeship, or a similar program of on-thejob training, is the principal means of qualifying
as a journeyman patternmaker. Because of the
high degree of skill and the wide range of knowl­
edge needed for patternmaking, it is very difficult
to obtain the necessary training through inform­
ally picking up the trade. Good trade school
courses in patternmaking provide useful prepara­
tion for the prospective apprentice, and may in
some cases be credited toward completion of the
apprentice period. However, these courses do not
substitute for apprenticeship or other on-the-job
The usual apprenticeship period for patt ern making is 5 years, or about 10,000 working hours.
At least 720 hours of classroom instruction in re­
lated technical subjects is normally provided dur­
ing apprenticeship. Since wood and metal pat­
ternmaking differ in certain essential respects,
there are separate apprenticeships for each type.
Patternmaking, although not strenuous, requires
considerable standing and moving about. A high
degree of manual dexterity is especially important
because of the precise nature of many hand opera­
tions. For all practical purposes, this is entirely
a man’s occupation.
Patternmaking is among the highest paid occu­
pations in manufacturing. In independent pat­
tern shops, union patternmakers in such large
foundry centers as Chicago, Cleveland, and De­
troit generally earn upward of $2 an hour
straight-time, and some make as much as $3.50
an hour.


Average straight-time hourly earnings of pat­
ternmakers in independent ferrous foundries in
the summer of 1950, are shown below:
B u ffalo _______________ $1. 70
Chicago_______________ 2.10
Cleveland __________ 2.2 8
H artford______________ 1.89
Los Angeles__________ 2.32

M ilwaukee__________ 81. 7."
Philadelphia________ 1.92
1. 78
St. Louis____________
1. 95
San Francisco______
2. 27

An experienced patternmaker may be advanced
to pattern lay-out man or pattern-room foreman.

Occasionally a journeyman may have the oppor­
tunity to start a small pattern shop of his own.
When patternmaking employment is not available,
journeymen patternmakers can find jobs in related
fields. Wood patternmakers can qualify for
nearly every kind of skilled woodworking jobs—
cabinetmaking, for example. Metal pattern­
makers are suited for many types of machine shop
work, including the jobs of machinist, machine
tool operator, and lay-out man. (See: Machine
Shop Occupations, p. 186.)

Chippers and Grinders (Foundry)
(D. O. T. 6-82.910)

Chippers and grinders constitute a large group
o f workers—most of them semiskilled—in the
cleaning and finishing departments of foundries.
Chipping consists of removing the excess metal
from castings by means of pneumatic hammers or
hand hammers and chisels. In grinding, a me­
chanically powered abrasive wheel is used to
smooth and finish castings. Although chipping
and grinding may be separate occupations they are
often combined in one job, especially in the smaller
Grinders use mechanically powered abrasive wheels to smooth and
finish castings.
p h o t o g r a p h

b y


. S.

d e p a r t m e n t

o f

l a b o r

foundries. There are variations in skill require­
ments, depending on the intricacy of the castings
on which work is done, the degree of precision
required, and the amount of supervision given the
worker. Chippers and grinders are employed in
both jobbing and production foundries.
The basic duties of the chipper or grinder are
generally learned in a brief period of on-the-job
training, and no special form of preparation is
needed. Persons without previous foundry ex­
perience may be hired directly, or foundry laborers
may be upgraded to this work. Considerable ex­
perience in chipping and grinding is required,
however, to qualify for the more intricate, precise,
and responsible duties.
In many respects chipping and grinding in­
volves strenuous work, and at least average
strength is needed. Consequently, relatively few
women are employed in this occupation, and they
work only on small castings.
Average straight-time hourly earnings of male
chippers and grinders in independent ferrous
foundries in the summer of 1950, are shown in the
following tabulation:
Boston________________ $1. 26
B u ffalo______________ 1. 46
Cincinnati___________ 1.3 9
Cleveland __________
1.5 7
D enver_______________
D etroit_______________
Hartford______________ 1.33
H ouston______________ 1.13
Los Angeles__________


M ilwaukee___________
Newark-Jersey C ity.
New York___________
Portland, Dreg______
St. Louis____________
San Francisco______

$1. 66
1. 29
1. 47
1. 52
1. 50
1. 62
1. 53


Casting’s Inspectors
(D. O. T. 6-82.920)

Casting inspectors are foundry workers who
check finished castings for structural soundness
and proper dimensions. The more skilled inspec­
tors are able to read blueprints, to work on widely
different types of castings, and to mark partially
defective castings to show what should be done to
salvage them. The less skilled do routine measur­
ing and checking of large numbers of identical
castings under close supervision. Castings inspec­
tors are employed in both jobbing and production

Skilled inspector jobs are usually filled by pro­
motion from lower-grade inspection jobs or from
other cleaning and finishing occupations, such as
that of chipper and grinder. For the less skilled
work, previous foundry experience may not be
needed. Physical requirements depend on the size
of castings inspected and the availability of me­
chanical handling equipment. In the lighter types
of inspection work some women are employed,
mainly for the less skilled jobs. Skilled inspectors
may be promoted to the jobs of chief inspector or
cleaning room foreman.

Melters (Foundry)
(D. O. T. 4-91.351; .411, .441, .447, .571, and .572)

A foundry melter operates or directs the opera­
tion of a furnace used to melt metal for castings.
He usually specializes on a particular type of fur­
nace—cupola, open-hearth, electric, crucible, or
reverberatory— and on one or two metals. Skill
requirements in this occupation depend on the way
the foundry is organized and the type of melting
equipment used. Skilled melters need little super­
vision and are responsible for charging the fur­
nace, controlling the furnace temperature and
melting time, and determining from the appear­
ance of the molten metal when it is ready for
pouring. Less skilled melters work under close
supervision o f a foundry manager or an engineer
and need use little independent j udgment. Melters
are employed in both production and jobbing

As a rule, there are no apprenticeships or other
organized training programs provided for melt­
ers. The less skilled melting jobs are learned in
a brief period of informal training. The usual
way to get one of the more skilled jobs is to begin
as a furnace helper or less skilled melter and grad­
ually learn the trade. The more skilled melters
must have some familiarity with general foundry
practice, shop arithmetic, and certain practical
aspects of chemistry and metallurgy. Since the
duties of melters are in many respects strenuous,
physical requirements are fairly high and nor­
mally only men are employed. Accidents to work­
ers in the melting units tend to occur more
frequently than to those in other departments of
the foundry.



Foundry Technicians
( D . O . T . 4 -8 6 .1 7 0 )

This is a group of skilled foundry occupations
having to do with quality control in the making of
castings. Included are workers with such special­
ized duties as the testing of molding and core­
making sand, chemical analysis of metal, opera­
tion of machines which test the strength and hard­
ness of castings, and the use of X-ray or magnetic
apparatus to inspect the internal structure of
Technicians working in a foundry laboratory.


In general, a high school education is a pre­
requisite, and employers may require additional
technical schooling. However, most of the
foundry technician’s duties are learned on the job.
Physical strength is not ordinarily needed, and
women are often employed. Foundry technicians
may advance to supervisory positions in their
various specialized fields.

These workers have to do with quality control in the making of castings.

Forge shop work is among the smaller fields of
employment in metalworking. In late 1949, about
45,000 workers were employed in forge shop occu­
pations.1 However, these are among the best-paid
factory occupations and include a high proportion
o f skilled jobs. During the fifties, there will be
many job opportunities for new workers in forge
shops. Most openings will be for laborers or help­
ers; the more-skilled forge shop jobs are generally
filled by upgrading experienced men.
Nature of Forge Shop Work
Forging is used to shape metal objects which
are required to withstand great stress, such as
automobile crankshafts and axles, locomotive
wheels, and marine engine drive shafts. Steel
is the main material used, but brass and other
nonferrous metals are also forged.
In general, forgings are produced in machines
which pound or squeeze heated metal into the
desired shape. This is similar to the work done
by the old-time blacksmiths, except that machine
power is substituted for the blacksmith’s arm, and
dies replace his hammer and anvil.
Forge shop jobs are found in a variety of indus­
tries. The largest group is in independent steel
forgings plants, producing forgings for sale to
other industries. Many workers, however, are
employed in the forge departments of plants
which use forged parts in their final products,
such as automobiles, railroad equipment, hand
tools, or machinery. A number of these workers
are in forge shops operated as part of steel mills.
Employment of forge shop workers is concen­
trated mainly in the metalworking centers o f the
Midwest and Northeast. Forge shops are located
near the steel producing centers, which provide
steel for forgings, as well as near the metalwork­
ing plants which are the major users of forged
products, such as automobiles, machinery, and
1 Forge shop occupations, as used here, are those characteristic
of the forging process, including operation of the forging ham­
mers and presses, and preparing metal for forging, heat treat­
ing to remove the stresses resulting from the forging process, the
removal of excess metal and scale, and inspection. Not consid­
ered as employed in forge shop occupations are those workers
who have machining, maintenance, custodial, or other nonforging
jobs in forge shops.

railroad equipment. Accordingly, the bulk of
forge shop jobs are found in the industrial centers
of Michigan, Illinois, Ohio, Wisconsin, Pennsyl­
vania, and New York.
Employment Outlook
The long-range trend of forge-shop employment
is upward. This is indicated by chart 55 which
shows production worker employment in the inde­
pendent iron and steel forgings industry during
the last half century. The upward trend reflects
the growth of the whole economy as well as the
great expansion of metalworking industries
which are the users of forgings. It has also re­
sulted from the development of improved forging
methods, leading to wider use of forged parts.
During wartime especially, the industry expe­
rienced great gains because of the critical impor­
tance of forged parts in many military products.
In part, these gains have been retained in postwar

E m p lo y m e n t in

1899 ‘04


In d e p e n d e n t




S te e l

F o rg in g

'25 '29

P lo n ts

'35 '39


Sou-rct: Census of Manufactures, 1899-1937
Bureau of Labor Sfofiefice —1939-48



periods. The chart also reveals that forging ac­
tivity is extremely sensitive to the business cycle;
relative to the economy as a whole, forging is espe­
cially hard hit during depressions. For example,
by 1933, employment in independent iron and steel
forge shops had dropped to about 40 percent of the
1929 level, while employment in manufacturing as
a whole* had dropped to about 70 percent of that
During the early fifties, the number of forge
shop jobs is expected to rise substantially. E x­
panding defense requirements will greatly increase
activity in the Nation’s forge shops. In the long
run, moderate growth is in prospect in this field.
Most of the industries which use forged parts in
their final products, such as automobiles, tractors,
farm machinery and aircraft have generally favor­
able long-run prospects.
Most job openings will be for helpers and la­
borers, since the more skilled jobs are generally
filled by upgrading experienced men. In addition
to opportunities that may be created by any rise
in employment, shifting of less skilled workers
into other fields of work will create jobs for be­
ginners. The need to replace older workers drop­
ping out of the shops because of death or retire­
ment or transferring to physically less-demanding
forge shop work will provide promotional oppor­
tunities for experienced workers and will create
additional vacancies in starting jobs.
Forge Shop Workers and Their Jobs
There are many different kinds of jobs in the
metal forging process. The principal jobs are
those having to do with the operation of the forg­
ing hammers and presses. These hammers and
presses usually are run by crews of 2 or more, some­
times as many as 10 or 15. Operators and their
crews generally specialize on a particular kind of
forging hammer or press. Considerable strength
and endurance are required for these jobs, in order
to do the necessary heavy lifting and to withstand
the noise, heat, and vibration typical of forge
shops. Virtually all the workers are men.


In addition to the hammer and press crews, forge
shops have many workers engaged in cleaning,
finishing, or inspecting forgings, as well as labor­
ers employed mainly in moving materials.
The more-skilled forge shop jobs, such as drophammer operator, are filled by promoting men
from lower-rated jobs. For example, a man starts
as a helper on a drop-hammer crew, advances to
the job of heater, and then to hammer operator.
Ordinarily this takes several years to achieve.
Earnings in forge shops are among the highest
in industry. In July 1950, production work­
ers in independent iron and steel forging plants
earned an average of $1.76 an hour (including pay
for overtime and night work). In the same
month, the average for all manufacturing indus­
tries was about $1.46 an hour. In part, the level
of forge shop earnings is accounted for by the
prevalence of incentive pay; the generally diffi­
cult working conditions are also a factor in the
wage scale. Earnings in certain occupations, such
as that of hammer operator, range considerably
higher. Recent earnings data for individual forg­
ing occupations are not avaliable for most indus­
tries. However, in the automobile industry, in
February 1950, average straight-time hourly earn­
ings were $2.57 for hammermen (steam, medium) ;
$2.08 for upsetters (3 inch and over) ; and $1.94 for
heaters. Because some of these jobs require speed
and stamina, older men are often unable to con­
tinue in the occupation and transfer to lower-rated,
physically less-demanding forge shop jobs.
Forge shops are typically hot and noisy, and
much of the work is strenuous. Accident fre­
quency rates for forge shops are somewhat higher
than the average for metalworking industries.
Most forge shop workers are union members.
The leading unions in this field include the Inter­
national Brotherhood of Blacksmiths, Drop Forg­
ers and Helpers (A F L ), the United Steelworkers
of America (C IO ), and the United Automobile,
Aircraft and Agricultural Implement Workers of
America (C IO ).
Some of the more important forge shop occu­
pations are briefly described below.


Helpers (Hammer and Press Crews)
(D. O. T. 6-88.713 and 8-93.71)

The basic entry job on hammer and press crew
is that of helper. This worker assists the ham­
mer or press operator in bringing the materials up
to the machine and helping in manipulating
the metal. On the smaller equipment, the job of
helper is often combined with that of heater.

It is important to note the generally modest
educational requirement for forge shop jobs. Em­
ployers usually require no more than an eighthgrade education for helpers and other workers in
entry occupations. With experience, these work­
ers can rise to more skilled and better paid jobs.

( D . O . T . 6 -88.732)

When a vacancy occurs, experienced and quali­
fied helpers are upgraded to the job of heater. The
heater prepares metal shapes for forging by heat­
ing the metal pieces in a furnace. His duties
include operating the furnace and feeding fuel to
it, controlling the temperature, placing the metal

shapes in the furnace, taking them out when prop­
erly heated, and transferring them to the forging
machine. A growing number o f shops require
heaters to have some technical knowledge of metal­
lurgy. Experienced heaters are in line for promo­
tion to higher-rated jobs on the hammer crews.

The hammersmith supervises a crew of men.

S92273°— o i ­







(D. O. T. 4-86.120)

The hammersmith operates a hammer equipped
with unshaped (open) dies, used to pound heated
metal into required shapes. (This is what the
blacksmith does by hand.) This method is em­
ployed in forging objects which are too large for
closed dies (shaped to form a particular object)
or which are needed in quantities too small to jus­
tify the expense of making closed dies. The ham­
mersmith supervises several men— for example, an
assistant operator (or “hammer driver” ), a heater,
and .one or more helpers assigned to his hammer.
The work is generally considered more skilled than
closed die forging. In addition to control of the

hammer stroke and careful manipulation of the
heated metal under the die, the job requires a
knowledge of forging practice, blueprint reading,
properties of metals, and shop arithmetic.
At least several years of forge shop experience
in lower-grade jobs is required to become a ham­
mersmith. It is usual to begin as a helper. An
experienced helper, who shows the needed apti­
tudes, may be promoted to the job of heater, and
thence to assistant operator. Hammersmiths
are selected from among the more experienced

Drop-Hammer Operators
(D. O. T. 4-86.120)

A drop hammer is a kind of forging machine
which pounds metal into various shapes between
closed (shaped) dies. The operator directs the
work of the heater and supervises any helpers as­
signed to his hammer. He may also direct his
crew in setting up the hammer. The two princi­
pal types of hammers are steam and board. The
operators of steam hammers are generally con­
sidered more skilled than those on board hammers.
On both types of hammers, the skill required usu­
ally tends to increase with the size of the hammer

and the complexity of the object to be forged.
Men can transfer from one type of hammer to
another only with an additional period of training.
Because of their greater skill, steam-hammer oper­
ators can more readily transfer to board hammers
than board-hammer operators to steam.
Drop-hammer operator jobs are filled by up­
grading experienced heaters. Usually a minimum
of 2 to 4 years’ experience in the forge shop is

(D. O. T. 4-86.125)

The upsettermen in forge shops operate upsetter
forging machines used to form metal between
closed dies (shaped to make a particular object)
which move horizontally, pressing the metal along
its greatest length. This action causes the metal
to spread along its other dimensions, until it takes
on the required form. The upsetterman directs a
small crew, consisting of a heater and helpers as­


signed to his machine. He must know how to
control the heating operation, to adjust the ma­
chine’s pressure on the metal, and to position the
metal stock between the dies. In general, the
larger the object forged, the greater the skill
required. Several years’ work experience is gen­
erally needed to learn upset forgin g; heaters gen­
erally are upgraded to fill vacancies.


Forging-Press Operators
(D. O. T. 4-86.125)

These workers operate forging presses, which
shape metal by squeezing it between either closed
(shaped) or open (unshaped) dies. Open die
press forging, which generally requires consider­
ably more skill than closed die work, is used where
a relatively small number of large pieces are re­
quired. In open die press forging, the operator
shapes the heated metal by manipulating it under
an unshaped die (making his job comparable in
skill to that of the hammersmith). He usually
supervises a crew of at least several workers.
Closed die presses are mainly used where large
quantities of relatively small forgings—either steel
or nonferrous—are needed. The closed die-press
operator may supervise a small crew or may work

alone. Both kinds of press operators must know
how to control the heating of the metal, to regu­
late the pressure of the machine, and to position
the work in the dies. Duties may also include set­
ting up the press.
To become an open die-press operator, the
worker begins as a helper on a press crew and
progresses to higher-rated jobs as vacancies occur;
it usually takes at least several years to rise to the
job of operator. Closed die work can be learned
more quickly. Where crews are used, the worker
starts as a helper. Where one man operates the
press, inexperienced men, or workers in lower­
rated jobs elsewhere in the shop, are assigned as

Other Forge Shop Workers
One of the larger groups of forge shop workers
are inspectors. Some inspectors examine forged
pieces for flaws and faulty workmanship while the
forgings are still hot. Others inspect forgings
after trimming, checking dimensions and appear­
ance to determine whether required standards and
specifications are met.
Another group of forge shop occupations is in
the cleaning and finishing departments. Trim­
mers remove excess metal with a saw or trimming

press. Chip pens and grinders remove surplus
metal and imperfections by means of pneumatic or
hand hammers and chisels or by using a mechani­
cally powered abrasive wheel. Blasters operate
sandblasting or shotblasting equipment to clean
and smooth forgings. Pieklers dip forgings in an
acid solution to remove scale. Heat treaters, by
controlled heating and cooling of the forged pieces,
alter the physical properties of forgings to pro­
duce a specified degree of hardness and strength.


Arc and Gas Welders
(D. O. T. 4-85.020, .030; 6-85.080)

Outlook Summary
Employment is expected to rise over the long
run. During the early fifties, job openings should
be particularly numerous.
Nature of Work
In electric arc and gas welding, metal parts are
joined through the application of heat intense
enough to melt the edges to be joined. The welder
controls the melting by properly directing the heat,
either from an electric arc or from a gas welding
torch, and adds filler metal where necessary to com­
plete the joint.
In hand arc welding, the most commonly used
method, the welder “ strikes’1 an arc by touching
the metal part to be welded with an electrode and
then withdrawing the electrode a short distance.
The arc results when the electric circuit is
broken by withdrawing the electrode making the
current jump the gap between the metal to be
welded and the electrode. The welder then guides
the electrode along the joint to be welded, holding
it at the proper arc length.
In gas welding, the welder directs the flame from
a gas welding torch along the joint to be welded.
The flame is usually produced by combustion of
oxygen and acetylene or other fuel gases. The
welder must know how to light and adjust the
torch for various metals and kinds of welds.
Experienced arc and gas welders should be able
to make various kinds of welds in different metals,
work from different positions, and read welding
To a considerable extent, particularly in main­
tenance and repair work, welding is done by mem­
bers of other crafts. The boilermaker, the struc­
tural steel worker, the machinist, and the
automobile mechanic, all may be required to know
and perform welding in their work. Typically,
however, in production work, welding is done by
workers who specialize in its application. No
matter where lie works, the skilled welder should

have some practical knowledge of the fabricating
and assembling operations in the field of work in
which he is engaged. For example, a welder
working in a shipyard should know in general how
ships are put together, or one employed in a boiler
shop should understand how boilers are assem­
bled. I f the welder moves into a type of work
in which he is not experienced, some of the basic
practices in the new field must be learned.
Training and Qualification
A course in welding methods, usually in public
or private vocational schools, followed by exten­
sive job experience, has been the common way for
skilled welders to receive their training. During
World War II, there were a number of “ trainingwitliin industry’’ programs which have been con­
tinued in areas where there is a fairly large
demand for welders and training facilities in
schools are not readily available. Formal ap­
prenticeships in welding alone are not often found.
Frequently, welders doing the simpler repetitive
types of work are trained on the job, without any
special instruction, in about 6 months. To be­
come an all-round skilled welder, regular course
instruction in welding is desirable, either in pub­
lic or private vocational schools or in courses
conducted by industrial firms to train their work­
ers. Before enrolling in a private school, the
prospective student should check with the local
educational authorities about the quality of the
instructions offered. The American Welding So­
ciety has issued codes of recommended standards
for welding courses which provide for a minimum
of 150 hours of actual welding practice under
qualified instructors and not less than 20 hours
of class instruction in welding theory. Experi­
ence has shown that a longer learning time is
usually required.
Since a poor weld may have serious consequences
in the failure of the completed product when in
use, welders are usually required to have passed
qualification tests established by the American


Welding Society. Requirements are administered
by insurance companies, employers, and inspec­
tion agencies as specified by the applicable code.
In addition, welders must be licensed to do cer­
tain types of construction work in some localities.
Where Employed
Welding jobs are found in a wide range of in­
dustries. Most welding jobs, however, are in pro­
duction work in the metal products industries;
the leading employers are those making machin­
ery, automobiles, electrical equipment, ships, air­
craft, boilers and tanks, and fabricated structural
steel. Examples of places where welders are used
mainly in maintenance work are railroad shops,
electric power plants, street railway systems, paper
mills, foundries, and chemical plants. A large
number of welders work in local repair shops that
either specialize in welding or do general metal
repair work. Usually these are small shops, and
very often they are owned and operated by indi­
vidual welders, with perhaps several employees to
assist. These shops serve mainly their local com­
munities, repairing such things as farm equip­
ment, automobile parts, and industrial machinery,
and making welded products on a subcontract basis
for local manufacturing plants.
Because of their wide employment among differ­
ent industries, jobs for welders are found in all
sections of the country. Many of the jobs are con­
centrated in the industrial centers in the Midwest­
ern and Northeastern States, where the machinery,
automobile, and electrical equipment plants are
mainly located. Some companies often have open­
ings in foreign countries for employment on pipe­
line work and similar construction.
During the early fifties, there will be many open­
ings for welders. Expanding defense requirements
in such industries as aircraft, ordnance, machinery,
iron and steel, and electrical equipment will sub­
stantially increase the need for welders. A very
important consideration in the outlook for welders
is the extent of shipbuilding and repair activity.
A t the World War II peak, 180,0001 welders had
jobs in the shipyards; this was twenty times the
1 Estimate includes other types of welders and burners in addi­
tion to arc and gas welders as of December 1943.

C o u r t e s y o f n a t io n a l a r c h iv e s

Welders are subject to certain hazards in their work, but these can
be almost entirely avoided by proper precautions.

prewar (1910) total. Total employment in
United States shipyards in August 1950 was less
than 150,000—about a twelfth of the W orld War
II peak of 1,700,000. Although no such expan­
sion as occurred in World War II is expected, any
large increase in shipyard activity would result
in many jobs for welders.
In the long run, prospects are for a gradual
growth in the number of jobs for arc and gas
welders. The metalworking industries, which
employ most of these workers, have a generally
favorable long-run outlook. Moreover, new uses
for welding are being found, and as a result of
new developments in welding, more and more
types of material can be welded. This should
also mean an increase in the number of arc and gas
welding jobs. The gains in employment, how­
ever, may not keep pace with the increase in
amount of welding done, as techniques become
more efficient, fewer man-hours are required to
do a job. Especially in production work, new
applications of welding methods will call for auto­
matic welding machines which do not have to be
operated by skilled hand welders.
Among the less skilled welders, there is con­
siderable shifting of experienced workers into
other occupations; this will create opportunities
for newcomers. Death and retirement of experi­
enced welders will also provide openings for new­
comers; however, this will be a relatively less im­


portant source of jobs than in many other occupa­
tions, since the welders are a comparatively young
group of workers.
A few experienced, all-round welders will be
able to establish their own welding repair and
service shops. Prospects for such shops depend
upon the situation in the particular community in
which the shop is located. Before a new shop is
opened the needs of the community and the com­
petition to be faced should be carefully considered.
Earnings and Working Conditions
Recent information is not available on earnings
of welders in most of the industries which employ
them. Average straight-time hourly earnings of
men in arc and gas welding jobs in machinery
plants in November 1949, are shown in the accom­
panying tabulation.
Arc and gas welders in passenger car assembly
plants received $1.70 an hour, straight-time, in
February 1950. In petroluem refineries, average
straight-time earnings were $2.02 an hour in Sep­
tember 1948. In the airframe industry in M ayJune 1949, average straight-time earnings of Class
A hand welders (production) were $1.67 an hour,
and $1.53 an hour for Class B hand welders
Welders are subject to certain hazards in their
work, but these can be almost entirely avoided by
proper precautions. Without such precautions
arc welders may be exposed to minor skin burns
and eye injuries and to electric shock. Similarly,
gas welders are subject to the possibility of explo­
sion and fire and, when welding is done in confined
spaces, poisonous fumes or gas may be present.
These hazards can be largely eliminated, however,
by training in safety methods and by the use of

Class A
Detroit __
Hartford __
. . .
H ou ston ..
Indianapolis _
Los Angeles
Minneapolis-St. Paul.
Newark-Jersey City
New York
Portland, Oreg
St. Louis




$1. 44
1. 57
1. 53
1. 63
1. 61
1. 68
1. 48
1. 80
1. 36
1. 72
1. 81
1. 46
1. 76
1. 59
1. 74
1. 68
1. 58
1. 81
1. 83
1. 83
1. 63
1. 72
1. 48
1. 89
1. 76
1. 57
1. 47

Class B




1. 68
1. 51

1. 50
1. 66
1. 45

proper equipment such as goggles and ventilating
Where To Get Additional Information
Employment Opportunities for Welders. Bul­
letin No. 844. United States Department of La­
bor, Bureau of Labor Statistics, 1945. 19 pages.
Superintendent of Documents, Washington 25,
D. C. Price 10 cents.

Acetylene Burners
(D. O. T. 6-86.215)

Outlook Summary
Increasing employment in this relatively small
field is anticipated during the early fifties.
Nature of Work
Acetylene burners (also referred to as “ oxygen
cutters” ) , use an oxyacetylene torch to cut or trim
metal objects to the desired size or shape. The

oxygen cutting equipment generally consists of a
torch into which oxygen and acetylene gas are fed
from hoses connected with the gas supply. The
ignited acetylene, which serves as the fuel gas,
heats the metal, and jets of oxygen do the actual
Torch tips, through which the flames are di­
rected, come in various sizes, depending upon the
nature of the cutting jobs. The operator prepares


for the cutting job by attaching the proper torch
tip for the particular job, connecting the torch to
the gas hoses, and regulating the flow of gases into
the torch for the desired cutting flame. He then
guides the torch manually along previously
marked lines or, following a template or pattern,
cuts through the metal. In some cases, he marks
the lines on the metal himself, following blueprints
or other instructions. In other cases, the cutting
torch or torches are mounted on a machine which
by electronic or mechanical means automatically
follows the proper line of cut.
Training and Qualifications
Acetylene burners are semiskilled workers.
Newcomers usually learn the work in a relatively
short period of on-the-job training. Experienced
acetylene gas welders can easily qualify for jobs
as burners, if they desire, since theirs is a more
skilled job and covers all the things that the burner
has to know.
Where Employed
Acetylene burners are generally employed in
plants where operations include cutting steel

plates to size, removing metal from castings, trim­
ming rough steel shapes, and cutting up scrap
metal. Among the principal employers of acety­
lene burners are the shipbuilding, steel, machinery,
fabricated structural steel, and boiler shop indus­
tries. Many are also employed by firms that pre­
pare and sell scrap metal to be re-used in steel
mills and foundries.
The number of jobs for acetylene burners is ex­
pected to rise during the early fifties as a result of
expanding military requirements in the industries
employing these workers. A substantial revival
of shipbuilding, for example, would result in many
openings in this occupation. Over the longer run,
increased use o f oxygen cutting machines will hold
down increases in employment of burners, even
when metalworking activity is expanding. In
addition to any increase in employment, replace­
ment needs will provide some openings for new
workers in this relatively small field.
See also Arc and Gas Welders, page 212.

Resistance Welders
(D. O. T. 6-85.010, .020, .030, .060, and .100)

Outlook Summary
There will be many openings for resistance
welders during the early fifties.
Nature of Work
Resistance welders, unlike hand arc and gas
welders, who use manual methods, are operators
o f resistance welding machines. These machines
fuse metal part by bringing them together under
heat and pressure. The pieces of metal to be
joined are pressed between two electrodes through
which electric current is passing. The parts being
welded offer sufficient resistance to the flow of cur­
rent to create intense heat, which, together with
the pressure, fuses them together. The principal
types of resistance welding machines are the spot,
seam, projection, flash, and upset welding ma­
chines and portable spot welding guns. The super­
visor, or in some cases the operator, sets the con­
trols of the machine for the desired electric current

and pressure. The operator mainly feeds and
aligns the work, starts the machine, and then re­
moves the work when it is.finished. The ma­
chines that weld automobile bodies are large and
highly automatic, while smaller and less-automatic
machines are used to assemble such products as
metal furniture.
Most resistance welding operators learn their
work on the job in a relatively short time. The
length of the learning period depends upon the
scope of the duties. Some wielding operators, fo l­
lowing general directions, insert the proper elec­
trodes and regulate and adjust the welding ma­
chine each time a different welding operation is
begun. To do this, a welder should learn the
meaning of welding symbols, the characteristics
of different metals, and how to select and install
the electrodes. In most welding jobs, however,
the machine is set up and adjusted for the welding
operator, and the welding is simple and repetitive.
Beginners can learn these jobs in a month or two.


Where Employed
Resistance welding operators are employed al­
most entirely in metal-working industries, par­
ticularly in plants assembling large quantities of
products made of sheet metal and intended for the
final consumer rather than as equipment to be
used in factories. Thus, most of the jobs are in
the industries making automobiles, aircraft, ma­
chinery, ordnance, electrical household appliances,
refrigerators, metal furniture, and similar prod­
ucts. Some are also employed in machinery, in­
dustrial electrical equipment, and aircraft plants.
Because metalworking employment is concentrated
in the Midwest and Northeast, most of the jobs
are located in these regions.
There will be many openings for resistance
welders during the early fifties. Expanding de­
fense requirements in many industries which em­
ploy large numbers of resistance welders will re­
sult in rising employment in this occupation.
Over the longer run, a gradual upward trend
in employment is in prospect. Opportunities
for these workers depend upon prospects in the
metalworking industries and the extent to
which resistance welding becomes widely used.
The metalworking industries, which employ most
of the workers in the occupation, are expected
to increase their activity over the long run.
In recent years, rapid progress has been made in
improving resistance welding methods and in
spreading its use to more products. For example,

only during the thirties did welding become ex­
tensively used in assembling automobiles, al­
though now it is a very important part of the
process. About 15,000 welders were employed in
passenger car plants in 1950, of which over twothirds were resistance welders. Further gains in
the use of resistance welding are expected. The
resulting rise in the employment of machine weld­
ers will be limited, however, by a trend toward the
use of more rapid and highly automatic machines.
There is likely to be a sizable number of job open­
ings, however, because, as is the case in many semi­
skilled occupations, transfer of experienced
workers to other fields is relatively common.
Earnings and Working Conditions
Earnings usually range somewhat below those
of arc welders and skilled machine-tool operators.
In February 1950, average straight-time hourly
earnings in passenger automobile plants were: gun
welders, $1.64; spot welders, $1.62; and machine
welders, $1.57.
The hazards connected with resistance welding
are not great, and generally the working condi­
tions compare favorably with those in other metal­
working operations.
Where To Get Additional Information
Employment Opportunities for Welders. Bul­
letin No. 844. United States Department of La­
bor, Bureau of Labor Statistics, 1945. 19 pages.
Superintendent of Documents, Washington 25,
D. C. Price, 10 cents.

Assemblers (Machinery Manufacturing)
(D. O. T. 4-75.120; 6-78.632)

Outlook Summary
This occupation will provide many job oppor­
tunities for new workers during the fifties.
Nature of Work
These workers assemble machinery parts to
form complete units, such as a machine tool or
Diesel engine, or subassemblies such as a gear box
or fuel pump. Floor assemblers put together
heavy machinery or equipment on shop floors,
fitting and finishing parts with hand and power
tools and fastening them together with bolts,

screws, or rivets. Bench assemblers assemble ma­
chinery parts into subassemblies or small complete
units while working at a bench. Skilled assem­
blers work on the more complex machines and
subassemblies with little or no supervision. They
must know how to read blueprints and how to use
precision measuring instruments and various hand
and power tools, such as scrapers, chisels, files, and
drill presses. The less-skilled assemblers do re­
petitive operations under close supervision and
are generally not responsible for the final assem­
bling of complex jobs.


Where Employed
Assemblers are employed in a wide variety of
nonelectrical machinery plants, including those
which make machine tools, pumping equipment,
tractors, refrigerators, business machines, and in­
ternal combustion engines.
Assemblers work in machinery plants through­
out the country. Most of the jobs for these work­
ers are concentrated in the Midwest and Northeast,
particularly in Ohio, Illinois, Pennsylvania, Mich­
igan, New York, and Wisconsin.
Training and Qualifications
For the more-skilled assembling jobs, machin­
ists and others with experience are usually em­
ployed. Inexperienced workers may be hired as
trainees or helpers and trained on the job to do the
less-skilled assembling.
Assemblers usually specialize on one type of
machinery or equipment. Often they cannot read­
ily transfer to assembly of other products, or even
of similar products in other plants, without addi­
tional training.
Class A

_ _
Los Angeles___
Milwaukee _ _
Minneapolis-St. Paul
Newark-Jersey City..
New York _
Portland, Oreg
Providence _
St. Louis. _
Seattle _
_ _

Class U

Class C

$1. 54

$1. 10

1. 60
1. 62

1. 46
1. 44

1. 47

1. 38

1. 50
1. 69

1. 47
1. 52

1. 07



1. 34

1. 06
1. 33

1. 81
1. 58

1. 57

1. 48
1. 23

1. 63
1. 50

1. 40
1. 41
1. 47

1. 61

$1. 17
1. 32

1. 33

1. 31

1. 62

1. 15
1. 58

1. 52

1. 22

1. 80

1. 52

1. 32

1. 81

1. 60

1. 57

.. _

1. 47

1. 72

1. 55
1. 49

1. 29

1. 66

1. 36

1. 63

1. 44

1. 71

1. 58

1. 23

1. 41

1. 28

1. 09

1. 63

1. 35

1. 16

1. 53
1. 20

1. 52

1. 37
1. 57

1. 67

1. 11

1. 79
1. 67

1. 12





Bench assem blers fit together and assem ble small m achinery parts into
complete units or subassem blies.

Much of the work in bench assembling is rela­
tively light, and women are often employed in the
less-skilled jobs.
The number of jobs for assemblers is expected to
rise substantially during the early fifties as the
machinery industries expand to meet defense re­
quirements. The outlook, in the longer run, is for
continued growth in employment. The machin­
ery industries which employ these workers have
had a long-range upward trend in employment;
in July 1950, production workers in nonelectrical
machinery manufacture totaled about 1,000,000,
which was over 50 percent above the 1929 level.
In addition to the new openings that may be
created by the expected increase in employment,
replacement needs will provide a considerable
number of job opportunities for new workers.
This is a relatively large occupation—about 100,000 jobs in the fall of 1949. Death and retirement
of experienced workers should provide approxi­
mately 1,500 to 2,500 job openings annually. More­
over, shifting into other occupations is common
among the less-skilled assemblers and many job
opportunities will be created in this way. Re­


placements will also be needed for assemblers
called up for military service.
Although the long-range outlook is generally
favorable, it should be noted that machinery man­
ufacturing industries are extremely sensitive to
the business cycle and to changing military
needs; the past trend of employment, while up­
ward, has been marked by extreme ups and downs.
Compared to manufacturing as a whole, the ma­
chinery industries are particularly hard hit during
depressions. Between 1929 and 1932, for example,
the number of wage earners in the nonelectrical
machinery industries dropped by about 55 percent
while manufacturing employment as a whole de­
clined by only 38 percent.
Earnings and Working Conditions
Earnings of assemblers vary widely, depending
on their skill grade, the type of product assembled,

the size and location of the plant in which they are
employed, and whether they are paid on an incen­
tive basis. Average straight-time hourly earnings
of male assemblers in machinery plants in Novem­
ber 1949, for selected large cities are shown in the
accompanying tabulation. These earnings exclude
premium pay for overtime and night work.
Most assemblers are members of unions. There
are several labor organizations in the field, includ­
ing the International Association of Machinists
(Ind.), the International Union o f Electrical,
Radio and Machine Workers of America (C IO ),
and the United Automobile Aircraft and Agricul­
tural Implement Workers of America (C IO ).
Working conditions for assemblers are usually
good compared with factory work in general.
Their places of work, generally, are relatively
clean, well-lighted, and free from dust.
See also Machine Shop occupations, p. 186.

Inspectors (Machinery Manufacturing)
(D. O. T. 4-78.671; 6-78.671)

Outlook Summary

Where Employed

Rising employment is expected in this occupa­
tion during the first part of the fifties.

Inspectors are employed in a wide variety of
nonelectrical machinery plants, including those
which make machine tools, tractors, refrigerators,
internal combustion engines, and business ma­
They work in machinery plants throughout the
country. Most of the jobs for these workers are
concentrated in industrial centers of the Midwest
and Northeast, particularly Ohio, Illinois, Penn­
sylvania, Michigan, New York, and Wisconsin.

Duties and Training
These workers examine complete units of ma­
chinery (such as turret lathes), subassemblies
(such as starter mechanisms), or individual metal
parts. They look for various defects, checking
dimensions and appearance against required
standards and specifications. The more skilled in­
spectors work with little or no supervision and
examine either a variety of parts or relatively com­
plex units. They must be able to read blueprints
and interpret specifications. Often they are re­
quired to use such measuring devices as calipers,
gages, and micrometers. Skilled inspectors usu­
ally must have a general knowledge of machining
and other metalworking processes. The less
skilled inspectors inspect large numbers of iden­
tical parts or relatively simple products under
close supervision. Often they use specially pre­
pared gages and other measuring instruments
which greatly simplify inspection.

Training and Qualifications
Skilled inspectors are obtained from the ranks
of metal-processing workers, such as machine tool
operators, or by upgrading less-skilled inspectors.
Inexperienced workers are often hired for the lessskilled jobs and taught to do repetitive inspection
in a brief period of on-the-job training. The work
is not strenuous and many women are employed
as inspectors. Because of the nature of the work,
good eyesight is generally required.
Inspectors usually specialize on one type of
product; often they cannot readily transfer to in­


spection of other products, or even similar prod­
ucts in other plants, without additional training.
The number of jobs for inspectors is expected to
rise substantially during the early fifties as the
machinery industries expand to meet defense re­
quirements. In late 1949, machinery plants em­
ployed about 30,000 inspectors. The outlook, in the
longer run, is for continued growth in employment.
The machinery industries which employ these
workers have had a long-range upward trend in
employment; in July 1950, production workers
in nonelectrical machinery manufacture totaled
about 1,000,000 which was over 50 percent above
the 1929 level.
In addition to the new jobs that will be created
by increases in employment, replacement needs
will provide job opportunities for new workers.
Death and retirement of experienced inspectors
should provide about 500 to 700 job openings an­
nually. Moreover, shifting into other occupations
is common among the less skilled inspectors and
job opportunities will be created in this way. Re­
placements will also be needed for workers called
up for military service.
Although long-range employment prospects are
generally favorable, it should be noted that ma­
chinery manufacturing is extremely sensitive to
the business cycle; the past trend of employment,
while upward, has been marked by extreme fluctua­
tions. Compared to manufacturing as a whole,
the machinery industries are particularly hard hit
during depressions.
Eawnings amd Working Conditions
Earnings of inspectors vary considerably, de­
pending on their skill, grade, the type of product
inspected, and the size and location of the plant
in which they are employed. Average straighttime hourly earnings o f male inspectors in ma­

chinery plants in selected large cities in November
1949 are shown in the following tabulation. These
earnings exclude premium pay for overtime and
night work.

_ __ _ _ __
_ __
Los Angeles
_ _
St. Paul
Newark-Jersey City
New York _
_ _
_____ __
Providence _
_ _ _ __
St. Louis
. . . .
_ _ _ _
_ _ __
_ __

Class A





Class B

Class C

$1. 38
1. 46
1. 38

$1. 21
1. 29

1. 48
1. 32
1. 61

1. 32

1. 64
1. 32


1. 47
1. 45
1. 24
1. 41
1. 38
1. 37
1. 20
1. 23
1. 32
1. 11
1. 21

Most inspectors are members of unions. There
are several labor organizations in the field.
Among such organizations are the International
Association of Machinists (A F L ), the Interna­
tional Union of Electrical, Radio and Machine
Workers (C IO ), and the United Automobile, A ir­
craft and Agricultural Implement Workers of
America (C IO ).
Working conditions for inspectors are usually
good compared with factory work in general.
Their places of work, generally, are relatively
clean, well-lighted, and free from dust.
See also Machine Shop Occupations, page 186.



(D.O.T. 4-86.010)

Outlook Summary

Where Employed

Long-run prospects are for little change in the
employment of blacksmiths. Replacement needs
will provide some opportunities for new workers.

Most blacksmiths work in small shops which re­
pair farm and garden equipment, tools, automo­
bile parts, and household articles. Often these
shops perform other services, such as welding and
tool dressing; a few shoe horses. Many black­
smiths are self-employed, operating their own
Other blacksmiths are employed in maintenance
and repair departments in metalworking plants,
in railroad repair shops, and in coal and metal
Blacksmiths are found in all parts of the coun­
try, many in small rural communities as well as in
large industrial centers.

Nature of Work
Blacksmiths use mainly hand methods to shape
and repair metal articles and parts. They heat
metal in a forge and hand-hammer the metal on
an anvil into the desired shape. They also forgeweld metal by heating the pieces and hammering
them together; sharpen tools such as chisels, drills,
and picks by heating them and hammering the
cutting edges to proper shape; and heat-treat metal
articles to improve their physical properties.

Blacksm iths use mainly hand m ethods to shape and repair metal articles and parts.
C o u r t e s y o f n a t io n a l a r c h iv e s



Training and Qualifications
Some workers enter this occupation through ap­
prenticeship, others by picking up the trade while
working as laborers or helpers in blacksmith shops.
The apprenticeship period is generally 3 or 4 years
and customarily includes blueprint reading, train­
ing in the use of tools and equipment, heat-treating
metal, forging methods, and welding.
Considerable physical strength is required in
order to pound metal into shape and to handle
heavy metal parts.
There will be a small number of openings for
new workers in this occupation. Few young men
have entered the occupation in the last several
A large proportion of the men now engaged in
the trade are of relatively advanced age, nearing

the time when they will have to be replaced.
Openings for new workers will occur because of
this replacement demand rather than because of
expanding employment.
Prospects for those entering the occupation are
for continued employment over a long period.
About 40,000 blacksmiths were employed in 1940,
substantially few^er than 20 or 30 years before.
However, there has been little change in employ­
ment in recent years and no further decline is an­
ticipated. The number of blacksmiths working in
small repair shops is expected to remain stable be­
cause of the diversified demands for their services
and the importance of blacksmithing in local com­
munities. Since blacksmiths employed in manu­
facturing plants, railroads, and mines generally
do maintenance work, which tends to be fairly
steady, there should not be much fluctuation in
the number of jobs for these workers.

(D. O. T. 4-83.100)

Outlook Summary

Where Employed

The number of boilermakers is expected to rise
during the early fifties as a result of expanding
defense requirements. Over the longer run, a
moderate dowmward trend in employment is likely.
Replacement needs, however, will provide openings
for new workers.

Boilermakers are employed in railroad repair
shops, construction projects, boiler repair shops,
and electric power plants throughout the country;
in boiler shop products plants concentrated in the
Great Lakes, Middle Atlantic, and Pacific Coast
areas; in coastal shipyards; and in the oil refining
areas of Texas, Pennsylvania, California, New
York, and other States. Other industries employ­
ing boilermakers include steel, chemicals, and

Nature of Work
Boilermakers fabricate, assemble, and repair
boilers, tanks, vats, smoke stacks, and similar
products made of heavy steel plate. Their work
involves such duties as planning and laying out
work from blueprints or specifications; cutting
plate to size and shape with power shears or
acetylene burners; shaping plates on power
presses; assembling parts by bolting, riveting, or
welding; and calking seams and rivet heads.
Many men qualified as all-round boilermakers,
however, specialize in a single boiler-shop func­
tion, such as welding. Some of the most skilled
boilermakers do only lay-out work—marking the
steel plates to show other workers where the metal
is to be sheared, welded, bent, or otherwise

Training and Qualifications
To become an all-round boilermaker, a 4-year
apprenticeship or equivalent on-the-job training
is usually required. Welders, helpers, and other
boiler-shop workers sometimes have the opportu­
nity to learn the trade without serving an appren­
ticeship. Much of the boilermaker’s work is fairly
strenuous and at least average physical strength
is needed.
The number of jobs for boilermakers is expected
to rise during the early fifties as a result of expand­



ing defense requirements. A substantial revival
of shipbuilding, for example, would result in many
openings in this occupation. Over the longer run,
however, prospects are not as favorable. There
has been a downward trend in boilermaker em­
ployment over the last three decades. In 1940,
the Census counted about 33,000 boilermakers in
the labor force (employed or seeking work) ; this
was only about half the number reported in 1920.
In early 1950, the number of boilermakers em­
ployed was somewhat higher than prewar, but be­
low the wartime peak, when many boilermakers
were working in shipyards. Many of these war­
time workers had been quickly trained in some part
of boilermaking and were not all-round boiler­
makers. After being released from the shipyards
at the end of the war, many of these less-skilled
men went into other lines of work.
In railroad repair shops—the leading source of
jobs for boilermakers in peacetime—employment
of these workers has decreased steadily since
World War II. Class I railroads employed an
average of about 13,500 boilermakers in 1946; in
1948, they employed about 12,000. In June 1950,
the number was about 9,800—about the prewar
There have been two main factors responsible
for the decline in employment in this occupation.
One has been the general tendency in boilermaking
operations to utilize specialized workers (such as
welders) to do the various parts of the boiler­
maker job, thereby reducing the need for all-round
boilermakers. The other has been the specific
trend toward less boilermaking work in the con­
struction and repair of railroad equipment; this
is a direct result of the increasing use of Diesel
and electric locomotives in place of steam locomo­
tives. In contrast to work on steam locomotives,
relatively few boilermakers are used in making
and repairing the Diesel and electric types. Both
factors are expected to continue to operate in the
future, so that further declines in the number of
boilermaking jobs is likely over the long run.
In spite of the expected drop in the number of


jobs, over the long run there should be opportuni­
ties for a number of new workers to enter this
occupation. A high proportion of the experienced
boilermakers are older men who will be leaving the
labor force; deaths and retirements during the
1950-60 decade may total something in the order
of 10,000, or nearly a third of the number of exper­
ienced boilermakers in 1940. Other replacements
will be necessary for men shifting to jobs in other
fields or entering military service. This indicates
that replacement needs may be considerably
greater than any probable reduction in employ­
ment. Moreover, men trained in all-round boilermaking will have some opportunities to get special­
ized boilermaking jobs, since they are preferred by
most employers to the men qualified in only one
part of the work.
Earnings and Working Conditions
Earnings of boilermakers vary among the indus­
tries in which they are employed. In September
1949, the wage rate for boilermakers working for
steam railroads w generally about $1.74 an hour.
In construction work, in July 1949, the average
hourly wage rate of union journeyman boiler­
makers in 77 cities v7 $2.39. Recent w^age data
are not available for boilermakers employed in
other industries.
Boilermaking tends to be more hazardous than
most other metalworking occupations. The injury
frequency rate in the boiler-shop-products indus­
try is considerably higher than the average for
manufacturing industries as a whole.
Boilermakers are generally unionized. A large
number are members of the International Brother­
hood of Boilermakers, Iron Shipbuilders and
Helpers of America (A F L ) ; others have been or­
ganized by industrial unions, such as the United
Steehvorkers of America (CIO ) and the Indus­
trial Union of Marine and Shipbuilding Workers
of America (C IO ).
See also Arc and Gas Welders, page 212. Rail­
road shop trades, page 426.


(D. O. T. 5-78.100)

Outlook Summary
Long-run prospects are for a fairly stable level
o f employment in this occupation. Some increase
is probable during the early fifties as new plants
and equipment are added to meet expanding de­
fense needs.
Nature of Work
The job of a millwright is to install, dismantle,
move, and set up heavy machinery and industrial
equipment. Millwrights also prepare the plat­
forms on which machines are mounted and help
plan the location of new equipment in the plant.
They sometimes perform some of the duties of
industrial machinery repairmen in addition to
their regular work. They should have consider­
able knowledge of the structure and operation of
the equipment on w^hich they work. Millwrights
usually specialize on particular types of industrial
machinery, such as paper-mill machinery or ma­
chine tools.
Where Employed
Millwrights are employed in most manufactur­
ing plants which use heavy machinery and equip­
ment. Many of these workers are in the metal­
working industries, such as machinery, automo­
biles, and iron and steel. Automobile plants alone
employed about 4,000 in early 1950. Other large
groups are employed in various nonmetal indus­
tries, including pulp-and-paper mills, sawmills,
and flour mills. Some millwrights are employed
by building contractors in the installation of ma­
chinery and equipment in new factory buildings.
A small number work for machinery manufac­
turers who do the installation of their machinery
in customers’ plants.
Millwrights work in every State. However,
most of the millwright jobs are in the major indus­
trial areas of the Midwest and Northeast, with
Michigan, Ohio, Pennsylvania, New York, and
Illinois the leading States.
Training and Qualifications
Entry into this occupation is usually through
a millwright apprenticeship or equivalent on-the

job training. The apprenticeship period is gen­
erally 4 years and the training customarily in­
cludes blueprint reading; use of hoisting equip­
ment ; installation, assembly, and repair of indus­
trial machinery and equipment; and acetylene
burning. However, inexperienced workers may
be hired as helpers or laborers and pick up the
occupation while working.
Some increase in the number of millwrights is
probable during the early fifties, as new plants and
equipment are added to meet expanding defense
needs. In late 1949, the number of millwrights
was well above prewar (1940), when about 40,000
were employed. A major factor in the high post­
war level of employment of millwrights has been
the large expenditure made by industry for new
plants and equipment during the last few years.
The outlook in the longer-run is for a fairly
stable level of employment in this occupation. A l­
though new plant and equipment expenditures may
fall off somewhat, employment is expected to hold
up fairly well. These workers have continuing
functions in plants using heavy equipment, in
connection with repair and rearrangement of the
equipment. Moreover, the growing mechanization
of industry has a tendency to expand the need for
millwrights. Job opportunities for new workers
will result mainly from the need to replace expe­
rienced millwrights who switch to other jobs, re­
tire, or die. Death and retirement alone may
create about 1,000 openings each year.
Earnings and Working Conditions
Recent information on wages for most industries
employing millwrights is not available. However,
average straight-time hourly earnings for mill­
wrights employed in passenger car manufacturing
plants in February 1950, were $1.80. In a wage
agreement made in July 1948 between the United
States Steel Corp. and the United Steelworkers of
America (C IO ), a standard hourly rate of $1.77
was specified for millwrights in iron and steel
Millwrights are generally unionized. Their un­


ion affiliation varies according to the industry in
which they are employed. Some of the more im­
portant unions include the International Asso­
ciation of Machinists (Ind.) ; United Steelworkers
of America (CIO ) ; United Automobile Aircraft
and Agricultural Implement Workers of America,

International Union (CIO) ; International Broth­
erhood of Carpenters and Joiners (A F L ) ; and
International Brotherhood of Pulp Sulphite and
Paper Mill Workers (A F L ).
See also Industrial Machinery Repairmen, p.

Riveters, Pneumatic (Manufacturing)
(D. O. T. 4-84.060; 6-95.080 and .082)

Outlook Summary
Employment of riveters is expected to decline
gradually over the long run. However, prospects
in the early fifties are more favorable.
Nature of Work
These workers use riveting equipment which is
driven by compressed air to fasten together metal
parts. Pneumatic hammers are most commonly
used, although specialized pneumatic-riveting ma­
chines are used in some manufacturing plants.
Where heavy steel plates have to be fastened, as
in ship construction, the large rivets which are
used must be heated before they are hammered.
In hot riveting, the riveter is assisted by a rivet
heater and a worker usually called a bucker who
backs up the rivet while it is being hammered by
the riveter. Rivet heaters are not needed in cold­
riveting and some pneumatic-riveting equipment,
especially in aircraft plants, can be operated by
the riveter alone.
Pneumatic riveters who are employed in manu­
facturing industries are found mainly in plants
making aircraft, industrial cars and trucks, and
agricultural equipment; boilermaking shops; loco­
motive and car-building and repairing shops; and
The more skilled riveters do many types of
work; they must be able to read blueprints, use
riveting hammers of varied types and sizes, and
select appropriate hammers, dies, and rivets.
Some o f the more skilled riveting in certain indus­
tries, boilermaking and shipbuilding, for exam­
ple, is done by journeymen qualified in other occu­
pations, such as structural iron workers, boiler­
makers, and sheet metal workers. However, most
riveters in manufacturing plants do repetitive
work which does not call for the skills of the all­
round riveter.

The less skilled pneumatic riveters are generally
trained in several months on the job. Boiler­
makers, sheet metal workers, and other journey­
men who do skilled riveting have had formal
apprenticeships in their trade or the equivalent
in experience.
During the early fifties, there will be many open­
ings for new workers in this occupation to meet the
needs of the expanding aircraft and other defense
industries employing riveters. Other openings
will be created in the event that shipbuilding and
repairing are greatly expanded as a matter of na­
tional policy.
The long-run outlook is for a gradual decline
in the number of riveters. This will result
mostly from the substitution of welding for rivet­
ing in the fabrication of many products. Welding
has been replacing riveting in recent years, and
this trend is expected to continue in the future,
particularly in the shipbuilding and boiler­
making industries. In addition, the development
of specialized high speed riveting equipment, es­
pecially in the aircraft industry, will permit more
work to be done by fewer riveters. However, there
will be some job openings for new workers to re­
place experienced men who leave this occupation.
Earnings and Working Conditions
In airframe plants in May-June 1949, average
straight-time hourly earnings of riveters were
$1.43 for Class A workers and $1.24 for Class B.
Riveting is noisy work, and much of it is done
in cramped positions (for example, inside aircraft
See also Aircraft Manufacturing Occupations,
p. 273, and Shipbuilding and Ship Repairing
Occupations, p. 259.

Armature Winders
(D. O. T. 6-99.011)

Outlook Summary
Upward trend in employment, but not many
openings in this small, semiskilled occupation.
Nature of Work
Armature winders fit wires into the slots of
armature cores of electric motors and generators.
The armature is the moving part of a motor and
generator. It consists of a metallic core and wire
coils through which electric current flows. The
armature winder may wind the wire coils onto
the core by hand, by using a coil winding machine,
or by inserting previously prepared wire coils into
the slots o f the armature core. He may also be
required to cut and pack insulating material
around and in the armature core.
Armature winders are employed in plants which
manufacture small motors and generators. These
plants make large quantities of standard motors
and generators, so that armature winding is
mainly repetitive, and can be learned in a few
months of on-the-job training. In motor-repair
shops and in the manufacture of the larger spe­
cially designed motors and generators, motor re­
pairmen or all-round assemblers do most of the
armature winding as part of their broader jobs,

and only a few armature winders are employed.
A large share of the armature winders are women.
Employment in the occupation is largely con­
centrated in a number of electrical equipment man­
ufacturing centers, such as Schenectady, N. Y .;
Pittsburgh, Pa.; and St. Louis, Mo.
Long-run prospects are for rising employment
in this occupation. Output of motors and gen­
erators will tend to increase because of the grow­
ing use of electrical equipment both in homes and
in industry generally. Military requirements will
probably increase the output of motors and gener­
ators. This will result in a moderate rise in the
number of armature winders needed, particularly
during the early fifties. In addition to openings
that will arise from increase in employment, there
will be opportunities resulting from replacement
needs. Withdrawal from this occupation is usu­
ally at a rate higher than from many other indus­
trial occupations because a large proportion of the
workers are women, many of whom leave the labor
force when they marry. The total number of
openings will be limited, however, by the small size
of the occuation— a total of several thousand were
employed throughout the country in mid-1950.

(D. O. T. 4-01.100 to .800; 4-02.151, .311, and .321)

Outlook Summary
A moderate upward trend is likely in the num­
ber of bakers employed. Most new workers will
enter the trade through apprenticeship.
Nature of Work
Bakers are skilled workers capable of perform­
ing all or several of the steps in the process of
making bakery products. These products include
bread, rolls, biscuits, cookies, cakes, pies, pastries,

pretzels, crackers, and doughnuts. Some bakers
make a wide variety of products; others specialize
on one product, for example, bread bakers, cake
bakers, and pastry bakers. Many journeyman
bakers specialize on one operation; although qual­
ified to do all-round work, they are in such spe­
cialized jobs as benchman, ovenman, and decora­
tor. However, many other workers performing
a single operation are not considered bakers, be­
cause they are skilled in only that operation and
lack the training and experience necessary to do
the other tasks of the baker’s trade. Some bakers

892273°— 51----- 16



specialize in baking along nationality-product
lines such as Hebrew, Frencli, or Scandinavian.
In neighborhood shops and other specialty shops
where most of the work is done by hand, bakers
ordinarily make a wide range of products and
perform all stages of the work, frequently with
the assistance of helpers and apprentices. In
many of the larger plants, specialization has been
adopted to such an extent that fully qualified bak­
ers are found chiefly in supervisory positions or
in skilled jobs making specialty products. Bakers
working for hotels, restaurants, and institutions
are generally all-round workers. But even in
these large establishments, there is considerable

labor, and planning baking schedules. Frequently,
they supervise other workers.
Where Employed
Because of the perishability of their products,
most bakeries, large and small, sell primarily
within a limited area. (The principal exceptions
are plants making “ dry” products, such as cookies,
crackers, cones, and pretzels.) As a result, em­
ployment of bakers is widely spread throughout
the country. However, certain areas, and par­
ticularly large cities in the North and East, have
the great majority of the jobs.
The greatest number of bakers who do all-round
work are in small shops. Many of these bakers
own and operate their own bakeries. A consid­
erable proportion of the all-round bakers are em­
ployed in the big bread, cracker, and cake plants.
Other bakers have jobs in restaurants, hotels, and
Training and Qualifications
A baker generally learns his trade through a 3or 4-year apprenticeship. An agreement between
the union and employer regulates the conditions
o f apprenticeship. It provides that the appren­
tice must be given all-round training in the de­
partment in which he is employed, such as the
bread or the cake department. Some small shops
offer an advantage in apprentice training since it
is possible to work on a wide variety of products.



U .




M an y bakers have specialized jobs, such as m easuring and




Bakeries may be either “hand” or “ machine”
shops. Most hand work is found in small estab­
lishments. However, some machines are used in
nearly all shops. Large baking plants, such as
the wholesale bread or biscuit plants, are highly
The baker’s work can be roughly divided into
three phases: first, preparing the dough or batter,
by mixing the ingredients and dividing, kneading,
and shaping the material; second, the actual bak­
ing operations, which involve closely watching and
regulating the ovens; and finally, finishing the
freshly baked items by adding fillings, icings, and
Other duties of bakers may include ordering
supplies, estimating the costs of materials and

Long-run prospects are for some growth in the
number of jobs for bakers. In the past, the trend
has been markedly upward. Between 1920 and
1930, the number of bakers rose by more than 40
percent, reflecting increased consumer preference
for baked foods as well as continuation of a trend
toward purchasing these foods rather than making
them at home. In the 1930-40 decade, there was
further growth in the occupation, but at a very
much lower rate. About 144,000 persons reported
their occupation as that of baker in the 1940 Cen­
sus of Population; this figure probably includes,
however, a number of less skilled bakery workers
as well as journeyman bakers.
On the basis of past trends and expected future
growth in population, some further rise in con­


sumption of bakery products is indicated, pro­
vided that general business conditions are
favorable. Increasing mechanization of bakeries,
however, may tend to reduce the number of all­
round bakers needed. Mechanization makes it
possible to substitute less skilled men for journey­
men bakers and also raises output per worker.
On the other hand, journeymen will continue to
be employed in the production of hand-made spe­
cialty products (such as fragile pastries and dec­
orated cakes which cannot be made by machines)
and in supervisory jobs in mechanized bakeries.
Another factor tending to raise employment in
this occupation is a probable reduction of the
workweek; some bakeries are on a 48-hour week,
but the 40-hour week is being more widely adopted.
Replacement needs will probably provide more
openings for new workers than the expected grad­
ual rise in employment. Death and retirement
o f experienced workers may provide about 2,000
to 3,000 jobs annually during the next decade.
Other job opportunities will also result from the
need to replace bakers who shift to other types
o f work or who are called up for military service.

Earnings and Working Conditions
Earnings of journeymen vary considerably, de­
pending upon skill, the kind of bakery in which
employed, and area. About half of all bakery
workers are union members, most of whom belong
to the Bakery and Confectionery Workers’ Inter­
national Union of America (A F L ).
In spite of the large amount of mechanization,
most baking jobs still require some strenuous work.
Baking shops are often unpleasantly hot. Bakers
often work nights and on Sundays and holidays.
Baking is not particularly hazardous when com­
pared with other manufacturing industries. In
1949, the baking industry had 14.8 disabling in­
juries for each million employee hours worked as
compared to 15.0 for manufacturing as a whole.
Where To Get Additional Information
U. S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of For­
eign and Domestic Commerce, Establishing and
Operating a Retail Bakery. Industrial (Small
Business) Series No. 29. Superintendent of Docu­
ments, Washington 25, D. C. Price 35 cents.

Costume Jewelry Workers
(D. O. T. 4-72.300 to .599; 6-72.300 to .599)

Outlook Summary
Opportunities for beginners to learn skilled
jobs will be limited in the early fifties. Many
openings in unskilled and semiskilled jobs because
of high turn-over. Employment falls off heavily
during depressions. Little increase in employ­
ment in the long run.
Nature of Work
Costume jewelry consists of medium- and lowpriced rings, pins, bracelets, necklaces, earrings,
chains, fraternal emblems, religious jewelry, and
other ornaments. Most costume jewelry is
stamped out by machine on a mass production
basis, using semiskilled and unskilled operators,
although some pieces are cast rather than stamped.
Only about a fourth of the workers in costume
jewelry manufacturing plants are skilled. The
skilled workers design pieces of jewelry and make
up samples, make molds and dies, do engraving,
stone setting, fine casting, soldering, or bench

Costume jewelry manufacturers employed
22,300 production workers in 1947. Eighty of the
860 firms in the industry had more than twothirds of the employees. About half of the work­
ers are women, employed primarily in semiskilled
and unskilled occupations. The main costume
jewelry production centers are the Providence-At­
tleboro area in Rhode Island and Massachusetts,
and the New York City area. The next largest
production center is the Chicago area.
How To Enter
Semiskilled and unskilled operators learn their
jobs through short training periods on the job.
Skilled workers in costume jewelry plants have
similar skills and get the same type of training
as the skilled workers in precious jewelry shops.
(See p. 181.)
Opportunities for becoming a
skilled worker, however, are not as good as in
precious jewelry shops, where much of the jewelry
is handmade. Some workers in costume jewelry
plants were trained in precious jewelry shops. A


few public and private trade schools teach these
trades. Employers occasionally send their trainees
to day or evening classes in these trade schools, and
consider the time spent as part of their working
hours; in a few instances the employer pays the
Employment Outlook
Several thousand semiskilled and unskilled
workers will be hired each year during the early
fifties to replace employees who leave their jobs.
Turn-over will be high because women make up a
high proportion of the work force, because it will
be easier to find other types of work in a generally
tight labor market, and because some workers will
be entering the Armed Forces. Seasonal ups and
downs in the industry also add to the total turn­
over. Opportunities for beginners in the skilled
trades will be much more limited. With the ex­
ception of jewely tool and die makers there are
enough workers now in training for skilled jobs to
take care of any needs that may arise. During the
next several years employment will probably ex­
pand slightly.
Over the long run, there probably will be only a
slight increase in employment. Although buying
of costume jewelry is expected to increase, owing
to growth in population and rising incomes,
greater productivity per worker will enable fac­
tories to expand output without hiring more
During late spring and early summer when

work is slack, many employees are laid off, par­
ticularly among the semiskilled and unskilled
workers. Employers usually try to keep their
skilled workers employed throughout the year.
Earnings wnd Working Conditions
Skilled workers in a great many medium- and
low-priced jewelry plants in the Providence-Attleboro area in mid-1949 had an average base rate of
$1.51 an hour; semiskilled workers, 99 cents; and
unskilled workers, 75 cents. There are additional
incentive payments which may increase earnings
in the rush seasons by as much as 10 to 30 percent.
Many workers in the skilled tool trades are or­
ganized by the International Association of
Machinists. The Playthings, Jewelry, and Nov­
elty Workers International Union (C IO ) and the
International Jewelry Workers’ Union (A F L )
represent many of the industry’s remaining skilled
and semiskilled workers.
Where To Go for More Information
The following organizations may be helpful in
providing information on employment opportuni­
ties, working conditions, and earnings:
New England Manufacturing Jewelers’ and Silver­
smiths* Association,
Sheraton-Biltmore Hotel,
Providence, It. I.
International Jewelry Workers’ Union, AFL,
551 5th Ave., Suite 825,
New York 17, N. Y.

(D. O. T. 4-74.010)

Outlook Summary
Prospects are for little change in the number o f
these jobs; a small number o f new workers will
find jobs each year as replacements for those leav­
ing the trade.

Nature of the Work
Platers work in electroplating shops, where ob­
jects, usually o f metal, are given a relatively thin
coating o f nickel, silver, gold, chromium, tin, or
zinc. These coatings are usually applied fo r or­
namentation or for protection against corrosion.
Typical electroplated products include automobile


bumpers and hardware, cigarette lighters, plated
silverware, costume jewelry, plumbing fixtures,
electrical appliances, and bearings. The plating
is done by immersing the article in a liquid solu­
tion, containing the plating metal, through which
an electric current is passed.
The plater must first make sure that the articles
to be plated have been properly cleaned and other­
wise prepared for plating. He must know the
characteristics o f the metal being plated, the type
and thickness o f metal coating to be applied, and
the area o f the surface to be plated. He can then
judge the proper type and strength o f solution
to use, the electric current strength, and the posi-


electrical appliances, plumbing fixtures, lighting
fixtures, silverware, hardware, and costume jew­
elry. Many companies do not do their own plat­
ing, however, but send their parts to be plated to
specialized job shops. These shops are usually
small. About four-fifths of the more than 1,800
independent plating shops in 1917 had less than
20 workers each. However, 7 of the plants had
more than 250 workers each. Because they work
for different customers, they must be prepared to
handle many types of plating jobs. Many of the
very small job shops are owned by platers, who do
their own work.
Electroplating shops are found throughout the
country, but many are concentrated near the cen­
ters of metalworking industry in the NortheastMidwest, and, to a lesser extent, California
Training and Qualifications

C o u r te s y

o f

n a t io n a l

a r c h iv e s

Electroplating is done by immersing an article in a liquid solution
containing the plating metal and passing an electric current through
the solution.

tion and time the articles should be kept in the plat­
ing tank. In some electroplating shops, particu­
larly the smaller ones, solutions are analyzed pe­
riodically in an outside testing laboratory, and
standard procedures set up, so that the plater has
only to maintain solutions, regulate the flow o f
electric current, and the time the article is kept in
the plating tank, and see that no trouble develops.
Platers usually supervise helpers who perform
such tasks as placing the articles to be plated on
racks where they are held while in the plating tank,
removing them after plating is completed, and
cleaning the tanks and racks. Skilled platers may
also direct the work o f one or more “ tank op­
erators” who carry on the plating process at the
tanks to which they are assigned. These workers
have less knowledge and experience than the fully
qualified platers.

Where Employed
Platers are employed in a number o f different
industries. The automobile and automotive parts
industries are the largest employers o f platers.
These workers are also found in plants making

Plating is learned on the job. The training
may be through an apprenticeship, ordinarily of
3 years, or through general work experience (in
such less-skilled jobs as plater’s helper or tank
operator) which usually takes a longer time. The
best place to learn the trade is in a job shop, be­
cause of the great variety of work done. High
school courses in physics and chemistry are help­
ful in learning the work. Advanced courses in
these and similar subjects is often considered al­
most indispensable for promotion to supervisory
In mid-1950 there were an estimated 8,000
to 10,000 electroplaters employed throughout the
country. It is likely that there will not be any
substantial increase or decrease in the number of
jobs over the long run. A small number of job
openings will result from the need to replace those
platers who die, retire, or shift to other lines of
work. The use of electroplating is closely tied to
general business conditions, however, and slumps
in business activity cause temporary declines in
the employment of platers.
Plating should continue to have an important
place in the production o f the many metal products
where it is now used. There is no marked trend
toward substituting other finishing methods for
plating. Neither are there any important techno­
logical changes in prospect that would greatly



reduce the number of platers needed in electroplat­
ing processes. Many of the larger shops use auto­
matic conveying devices to carry the plated articles
through the plating tanks and other parts of the
process, and this development may be extended to
additional plants. This equipment tends more to
displace many of the helpers and laborers from the
plating process than the skilled platers who direct
it. However, as greater mechanization occurs in
some of the larger plants, there is a tendency to
have chemical engineers direct the plating opera­
tions and to use platers as foremen.
Earnings and Working Conditions
Recent earnings data are not available for
many of the industries in which platers are im­
portant. In February 1950, platers employed in

automobile manufacturing plants had average
straight-time earnings of $1.59 an hour.
Plating work involves certain hazards, because
strongly acid, alkaline, or poisonous solutions are
used, and there may be noxious fumes. Injury
from contact with chemicals can be avoided with
reasonable care, however, and fumes eliminated by
proper ventilation. Use of protective clothing
and of respirators provide additional safeguards.
Many platers are members of trade unions.
Some belong to the Metal Polishers, Buffers, Plat­
ers and Helpers Union (A F L ), while others are
covered by the United Automobile, Aircraft and
Agricultural Implement Workers (CIO ) and
other industrial unions which organize all the
workers in a plant rather than only those in par­
ticular occupations.

Instrument Makers
(D. O. T. 4-75.130; 5-00.912; 5-08.066)

Outlook Summary
Small but growing field. Most openings will
be for men with experience as machinists, tool
makers, or machine-tool operators; a few without
this experience will enter through apprenticeships.
Nature o f Work
Instrument makers are skilled mechanics who
build scientific and industrial instruments. The
principal types of instruments include optical,
electrical, mechanical, aeronautical, electronic, and
gyroscopic. Microscopes and cameras are com­
mon types of optical instruments, but there are
many other specialized kinds. Electrical instru­
ments measure voltage, amperage, or other char­
acteristics of electricity. Mechanical instruments
include those used to record, measure, or control
such things as liquid level, temperature, density,
and acidity. Among aeronautical instruments are
those used in navigation, and those which indicate
air speed and altitude. Gyroscopic devices aid in
stabilizing aircraft and ships. Electronic instru­
ments perform a variety of industrial functions,
such as inspecting and counting products. In ad­
dition, there are many other types of instruments,
including meteorological, biological, geophysical,
and specialized military and scientific devices.
Instrument makers construct instruments by

making parts and assembling them into the fin­
ished product. Some make experimental or pilot
models which will be put into regular production.
Others turn out instruments, of which only a few
are made, to fill special orders. In a few cases,
they produce relatively standard instruments, but
in large-scale production the work is broken down
and assigned to less skilled workers, such as ma­
chine-tool operators and assemblers. For work
in scientific laboratories, instrument makers build
instruments to fit specific research jobs.
In producing instrument parts these workers use
machine tools, such as lathes and grinding ma­
chines, and a variety of hand tools. High-pre­
cision work is required. Instrument makers work
with various metals, and may also fabricate other
materials. Their work may include the making
of cutting tools, dies, and other attachments used
in shaping metal. They assemble the parts into
complete instruments, which are often very com­
plex. Finally, they may use testing equipment to
check on the operation of the finished instruments.
The distinguishing feature of the instrument
maker’s job, setting him apart from other metal
craftsmen, is that he must be able to construct
instruments from start to finish. Machinists or
machine-tool operators may make parts, but they
do not turn out complete instruments.
There is considerable variation in skill require­


ments in this occupation. Some instrument
makers, particularly in scientific laboratories, con­
struct instruments from rough sketches and oral
instructions, and may contribute to instrument
design. Many others work under close supervision
and follow detailed blueprints. Instrument
makers often specialize in making one broad class
o f instruments, such as optical, electrical, or me­
chanical. In scientific laboratories and in some
manufacturing shops, they are often required to
turn out a wide range of instruments.
Training and Qualifications
There are two main kinds of training for instru­
ment makers. Usually, trainees are drawn from
the ranks of experienced tool and die makers,
machinists, or skilled machine-tool operators.
Working, at first, under close supervision and
doing the simpler jobs in the instrument shop,
these men usually need at least 2 years to qualify
as instrument makers. On the other hand some
shops provide instrument-making apprenticeships
for which previous experience is not required.
These apprenticeships, which generally cover 4
years, include not only shop training, but also
classroom work in related technical subjects, such
as mathematics, physics, and blueprint reading.
Those who enter this field should have consid­
erable mechanical aptitude and superior manual
dexterity. They should be suited for work requir­
ing close and continuous concentration, because of
the precision needed in making parts and because
of the intricacy of many instruments. High school
graduation is generally required for apprentice­
ships and trainee jobs. Courses in mathematics,
science, and machine shop work are considered
useful preparation for these jobs. For electricalinstrument making, some technical schooling in
electricity and electronics is often very desirable.
As the instrument maker’s skill improves and
as he broadens his knowledge of the field, he may
advance to increasingly responsible jobs. It takes
10 to 15 years’ experience to rise to the top-skill
level. Advancement may be more rapid during
the fifties, because of the increasing need for these
w orkers. A first class workman must possess con­
siderable inventiveness in order to construct new
types of instruments. Supervision of less experi­
enced workers may be an important part of his job.

Where Employed
The great majority of instrument makers are
employed by firms manufacturing instruments for
sale. In this field, most instrument makers work
for large firms, where they mainly construct pilot
models of new types of instruments. With smaller
firms, instrument makers are likely to be engaged
in producing special types of instruments required
in small quantities.
In the Federal Government, the principal em­
ployers of instrument makers include the Army,
Navy, Air Force, Bureau of Standards, Coast and
Geodetic Survey, and other technical agencies.
University and other private research labora­
tories use instrument makers to produce the special
devices required in scientific research. Generally,
only larger laboratories have their own instrument
makers, and then only one or two.
The main centers of instrument making are in
and around a few- large cities such as New York
City, Rochester (N. Y .), Chicago, Philadelphia,
Cleveland, Washington (D. C.), Baltimore, and
Pittsburgh. Among the leading States are New
Jersey, New York, Illinois, Pennsylvania, Con­
necticut, Ohio, California, Michigan, Maryland,
and Massachusetts.
The number o f jobs in this field will continue
to grow during the fifties. Hov-ever, the number
of openings for new- w-orkers wfill not be large in
any one year because of the small size of the occu­
pation— probably not over 5,000 w
rere employed at
the beginning of 1950.
Both private and public organizations will be
employing additional instrument makers during
the fifties. The development of new and of im­
proved instruments for industrial and military
purposes will be of vital importance to defense.
Instrument makers are used in the continuous de­
velopment of aircraft, naval vessels, ordnance, and
other war materials. How-ever, even without
military requirements, our constantly advancing
technology requires a corresponding development
of instruments.
Prospects are that the output of instruments will
rise. There has been a trend toward more ex­
tensive use of instruments in a great variety
of industries, including petroleum, chemicals,


rubber, paper, and food-processing. Instru­
ments used in industry today perform essential
operations that cannot be done by human workers.
The tendency has been to make increasing use of
instruments in industrial operations as well as to
require new and more complex types.
Another source of stepped-up demand for in­
struments will be the Nation’s many research lab­
oratories. Research in biology and medicine,
chemistry, physics, meteorology, astronomy, and
other fields utilizes a great variety of instruments.
The development of atomic energy has required
vast numbers of instruments, many of them com­
pletely new devices. It seems likely that research
activity will continue to grow and with it the
demand for instruments in research.
As a result of expected expansion in this field,
there should be some increase in the number of
jobs for these craftsmen. Although gains in out­
put are in prospect, the number of jobs may not
increase proportionately, since these workers are
used mainly in the development of new instru­
ments and in the production of instruments to
special order, rather than in the mass production
of standardized devices.
Most openings for new workers will go, as in the
past, to those with experience as tool and die
makers, machinists, and skilled machine-tool op­
erators. There will also be some apprentice open­
ings for young men without this experience.
In the future there may be some increased spe­
cialization, so that more work will be done by less
skilled men working under the direction of
all-round instrument makers. This development

has been occurring over a period of years and
seems likely to continue. Nevertheless, since such
a large part of instrument making is in connection
with the development of new or very special types
of instruments, the possibilities for specialization
are limited and there should continue to be a grow­
ing number of jobs for all-round men. Moreover,
there will always be a need for all-round me­
chanics to make instruments needed in such small
numbers that mass production techniques are
impractical. Some openings for new workers
will occur as replacements are needed for those
who die or retire or shift to other fields of work.
Earnings and Working Conditions
Earnings of instrument makers vary greatly,
partly because of difference in skill. Typical
straight-time hourly earnings in manufacturing
plants, however, ranged from $1.70 to $2 in 1949.
In the Federal Government, annual salaries
ranged from $2,200 (for the lowest grade helpers
and learners) to $6,400 (for higher level super­
visory jobs). Instrument makers at grades com­
parable to journeymen earned from $3,000 to
$5,000 a year in the Federal Service.
In general, instrument making shops are clean
and well lighted, in order to facilitate precision
work. Serious accidents are uncommon, and
heavy lifting usually is not required. Part of the
work is done at benches and part at machines in
the shop. Noise is not great, since the machines
used are generally small and not in continuous

Painters (Manufacturing)
(D. O. T. 7-16.210, 9-16.90)

Outlook Summary
This semiskilled occupation offers many job
openings fo r new workers.

Nature of the Work
These are semiskilled workers employed in
manufacturing plants. They paint various kinds
o f manufactured products on a mass-production
basis. These products include automobiles and
automotive parts, furniture, electrical equipment,
farm machines and tractors, and many other


manufactured items. The painters use spray guns,
or hand brushes; in some cases, they dip the
articles to be coated into a paint mixture. (This
work should not be confused with that of skilled
hand painters employed in some manufacturing
processes and in construction and maintenance
work.) In 1940, upwards of 60,000 were employed
in this occupation; about 8 percent of the total
were women. In mid-1950, over 5,000 were em­
ployed in automobile and truck assembly plants
There is no formal training for this work. Ex-


perience on the job is necessary to qualify as a
painter in a manufacturing plant. Two weeks of
experience may be sufficient for some jobs; a few
jobs may take up to a year to learn.
Anyone going into this work should have the
ability to stand on his feet for long periods of
time, good lungs, a steady hand, strong fingers,
and a good eye to see that there is a smooth surface
on the articles being painted. He must not be
bored by having to paint the same kind of objects
over and over again.
Recent earnings are not available for painters
in most manufacturing industries which employ
these workers. However, in February 1950, in
passenger automobile manufacturing plants, aver­
age straight-time hourly earnings for lacquer or
enamel sprayers were $1.75, and for miscellaneous
sprayers $1.58. In September 1949, straight-time
average hourly earnings for sprayers in wood
furniture manufacturing plants varied from less
than $1 an hour, in North Carolina and Virginia,
to $1.39 in Grand Rapids, $1.44 in Jamestown,
New York, and $1.59 in Los Angeles.

Where They Work
Painters are employed in many different indus­
tries. Most o f them, however, work in plants
which produce furniture, store fixtures, electrical
machinery and equipment, agricultural machinery
and tractors, aircraft and parts, and automobiles
and automobile parts.

Some increase is likely in the number o f these
workers during the fifties. The industries which
employ most o f the painters have generally favor­
able production prospects, so that there should be
some gradual expansion in the amount o f product
painting to be done. However, most openings for
new workers will arise from replacement needs.
Death and retirement o f experienced workers will
create some openings. However, as in many
other semiskilled fields workers do not feel closely
attached to the occupation and often shift into
other kinds o f jobs; this results in many oppor­
tunities for newcomers. Replacements will also be
needed for workers called up for military service.

Precision Lens Grinders and Polishers
(D. O. T. 5-08.071 and .081; 7-08.028)

Outlook Summary
Few beginners will be taken on for training in
this small occupation during the early fifties.
Long-run employment trend generally upward.
Nature of Work
These workers grind and polish optical ele­
ments—lenses, mirrors, prisms, and optical flats—
for binoculars, microscopes, range finders, pho­
tographic equipment, and other highly accurate
optical instruments, such as spectographs and con­
tour projectors used in inspection of many preci­
sion products. The degree of skill required for
this type o f work varies widely. The final opera­
tions call for working to very close tolerances and
are handled by highly skilled craftsmen with years
of experience. Some of the final polishing and

grinding is done by hand and some is done on ma­
chines. The rough grinding and polishing is done
on machines by semiskilled workers. Few of the
latter become skilled craftsmen.
Most precision optical workers are employed in
factories making optical instruments; others in
such Government establishments as arsenals and
navy yards, in small custom shops, and in a lim­
ited number o f precision instrument repair shops.
Some highly skilled workers are in business for
themselves, doing custom work for various indus­
tries. In most factories the work is on a massproduction basis, and the bulk of the workers are
semiskilled. However, some factories, as well as
custom shops, produce optical elements in small
numbers on special order; in such places practi­
cally all the workers are highly skilled, able to
work to close tolerances and to perform all the
various operations.


p h o t o g r a p h

b y


. S.

d e p a r t m e n t

o f

l a b o r

Precision optical worker grinding a lens blank.

To become a skilled precision optical worker,
it is necessary to complete a 3- or 4-year appren­
ticeship or equivalent all-round on-the-job train­
ing. Learners usually are assigned to the rougher
operations first and are set to work on the final
polishing and correction of lenses only toward
the end of their training program. To handle the
most difficult and precise operations requires years
of experience after completion of an apprentice­
ship. Semiskilled production-line work can
usually be learned in a few months. Experience
on the production line does not qualify a person
as a skilled all-round worker, although it may
shorten the necessary apprenticeship period.
A limited number of men will be trained as
skilled precision lens grinders and polishers in the
early fifties. There will be training opportun­
ities in the larger plants producing precision
optical lenses, prisms, and optical instruments.
There will also be openings in some small shops

specializing in custom-ordered lenses and instru­
ments. Altogether, only a few men will have a
chance to become craftsmen in this small trade.
The larger optical lens plants have many more
semiskilled grinders and polishers than skilled
workers, since the latter are needed only as super­
visors, in final polishing, and for custom-order
work. A number of workers will be taken on for
semiskilled jobs in the early fifties, as lens manu­
facturers expand their production to meet military
requirements. Most of the semiskilled workers
will not learn the skills required to qualify for the
few openings which will arise for skilled crafts­
men and supervisors. When production of pre­
cision optical instruments was greatly expanded
during World War II, almost all of the increased
employment was among semiskilled production
workers who did repetitive work requiring little
training. For this reason only a small number of
those trained during the war are able to qualify
as skilled lens grinders and polishers, who learn
the trade by working on every type of operation
in lens making.
Over the long run most openings for skilled lens
grinders and polishers will occur as craftsmen die,
retire, or leave the occupation for other reasons.
Employment is likely to increase slightly, owing
to increasing use of precision optical instruments
in such fields as scientific laboratories, eye-testing,
and inspection devices used in manufacturing ma­
chinery and other products built to close tolerances.
Moreover, new uses for precision optical instru­
ments continue to arise.
What job openings arise will be mainly in New
York State, where the large, long-established pre­
cision optical manufacturing firms are concen­
trated, and, to a lesser extent, in some other East­
ern Seaboard States and California. Chicago is
also emerging as a center for optics. Opportu­
nities, particularly for skilled men, may be found
near some of the universities and scientific and in­
dustrial research centers where custom shops are
generally located.
Hourly rates of pay for skilled precision lens
grinders and polishers ranged from about $1.60 to
$2 an hour in early 1950. Semiskilled workers
had lower rates of pay.


W atch and Clock Factory Workers
(D. O. T. 4-72.000 to .299 and 6-72.000 to .299)

Outlook &ummary
Number of openings arising from turn-over and
from slight expansion of employment in the early
fifties. Most vacancies in semiskilled and un­
skilled jobs. Little increase in employment
expected over the long run.
Nature of the Industry
The watch and clock industry of the United
States is made up of the following three distinct
1. Companies producing clocks and inexpensive
non jeweled (clock-type) watches.
A large proportion of the mechanical clocks and
all of the inexpensive watches made in this country
are produced by four companies. Their main
plants are located in LaSalle and Peru, 111.; and
Bristol, New Haven, Guilford, Waterbury, and
Middlebury, Conn. These companies perform
every step in clock and watch manufacturing from
fabricating parts through final assembling. The
four big clock companies, a number of smaller
mechanical clock manufacturers, and several elec­
trical equipment companies manufacture electric
2. Companies manufacturing jeweled watches.
Four other companies produce all the jeweled
watches made in this country. (In early 1950, one
o f these was shut down, at least temporarily.)
The main plants o f these firms are located in Long
Island and New York C ity; Lancaster, P a .; Elgin,
111.; and Waltham, Mass. Three of these com­
panies manufacture all their own parts with the
exception o f jewels; the fourth imports some of
its watch parts from its subsidiary in Switzerland.
Less than a third of all jeweled watches sold in
this country in 1948 were made by these companies.
3. Companies which import jeweled watch
movements from Switzerland and put them into
watch cases.
About 150 companies, located mainly around
New York City, are engaged in this importing­
assembling-marketing business. Most of these
are very small shops, but there are several which

employ up to a few hundred people. They pro­
duced about two-thirds of all jeweled watches sold
in the United States in 1948. Complete watch
movements are imported from Switzerland, but
some minor adjustments are generally necessary
after the movement is inserted into the watch case.
Comparatively few production workers are needed
for these operations and only a very small pro­
portion have to be highly skilled.
The watch and clock industry in the United
States employed about 27,600 production workers
in October 1949. The eight big manufacturers
employed about two-thirds of this total. Less than
4,000 production workers were employed by the
importing-assembling firms. States having the
largest number of production workers (in 1947)
were Connecticut, Illinois, Massachusetts, New
York, and Pennsylvania. Most of the jobs are
semiskilled, and are generally held by women.
Only a small proportion of the workers have jobs
which take years to learn. The proportion of
skilled workers is considerably higher in the plants
producing jeweled watches than in those making
clocks and inexpensive watches.
Nature of Work
There are many specialized jobs in watch and
clock factories. The typical plant has many de­
partments (spring, dial, plate, etc.) and five major
types of workers: (1) machine operators who
make the various parts; (2) parts finishers, whose
work is done both by machine and by hand; (3)
assemblers; (4) final finishers, timers, and ad­
justers; and (5) inspectors and supervisors. In
the factories which make electric clocks, there are
other workers who specialize on electric motors.
Most of the workers are semiskilled, and a very
large number are women. The work differs some­
what from one plant to another, depending on the
kind of timepiece made and also on the method of
production. A few watchmakers (watch repair­
men) are employed in the factories, but they gener­
ally work in the service departments on watches
sent in by customers for repair. They are rarely
used in the production departments.


Ho w To Enter
Almost all skilled craftsmen in watch and clock
manufacturing learn their trades through work ex­
perience and training on-the-job. Beginners are
most often hired for one of the simpler semiskilled
jobs, which they can usually learn to do well in a
few months. Operators of some of the machines
used in watch manufacturing have to train for
about a year until they reach their maximum out­
put. A t least 2 or 3 years and sometimes as much
as 6 years5training are needed to learn the skilled
trades thoroughly. As a rule, work on the jeweled
watches requires more skill than work on clocktype watches. Work on the cheaper watches in
turn requires more skill than work on ordinary
It is very important that persons considering
this field have good vision with or without glasses
as well as a high degree of manual dexterity, for
even the semiskilled jobs often require work on
very small parts. Some of the large manufactur­
ing companies have testing programs for job ap­
plicants to discover just how much visual and
mechanical skill the individual possesses. Such
tests are useful in determining what people are
suited to this type of work and also what particu­
lar type of factory job would be most satisfactory.
There will be a number of openings in this in­
dustry during the early fifties. The industry will
produce military equipment in addition to civilian
clocks and watches, and turn-over will probably
rise as jobs become more plentiful throughout the
economy. Most of the turn-over will be among
the semiskilled workers, many of whom are young

women who work for several years and then drop
out because of family responsibilities.
Opportunities for skilled workers will be lim­
ited in the early fifties. Some of the jeweled
watch manufacturing plants, where most of the
skilled production workers are employed, have
been mechanizing more of the operations to be
able to make increasing use of semiskilled rather
than skilled operators.
Over the long run also, employment in the whole
industry is not likely to rise much provided tariff
rates on imported jeweled watches remain at early
1950 levels. Although the demand for watches
and clocks is expected to increase considerably,
improved production methods will make it pos­
sible to produce many more clocks and watches
with a work force of about the same size as in
late 1950. However, if the tariff rates increase
sharply, the number of imported jeweled watches
would drop. Production and employment in the
jeweled watch factories of the United States
would probably rise considerably.
Earnings and Working Conditions
Average weekly earnings of production workers
in the watch and clock industry in October 1949
were about $51. Highly skilled workers earned
much more than this amount.
Many workers in clock-type watch factories be­
long to the Playthings, Jewelry and Novelty
Workers International Union (C IO ). Produc­
tion workers employed in three of the domestic
plants manufacturing jeweled watches are mem­
bers o f the American Watch Workers Union
(Ind.). Some employees of firms which import
and assemble watches belong to the International
Jewelry Workers Union (A F L ).
See also Watch Repairmen, page 184.

Dental Technicians
(D. O. T. 0-50.06)

Outlook Summary
Field will be overcrowded with newly trained
workers through the early fifties. Employment
is likely to increase gradually over long run.

Nature of Work
Dental technicians (sometimes called dental me­
chanics) make or repair dentures, bridges, inlays,


crowns, and other dental restorations, according
to dentists’ specifications. Technicians range in
skill from semiskilled assistants in such jobs as
plasterman, polisher, finisher, and packer, to
highly skilled technicians such as set-up men, head
casters, designers, and carvers. Technicians usu­
ally specialize in one of five major types of w ork:
(1) rubber or acrylic (plastic) dentures; (2) gold
crowns and bridges; (3) gold castings; (4) non­


precious metal castings; (5) ceramic (handmade
porcelain work). However, in small laboratories
they may have to do two or more of these types
o f work. Since dentures and the other restora­
tions are made for individual patients, each must
be especially designed and handled as a separate
Approximately 24,000 dental technicians were
employed in 1950. Most of them worked in com­
mercial dental laboratories—small shops which
make up various types of dental restorations on
special order from dentists. A few thousand
were employed directly by dentists. Very few
women are employed in this trade, although some
were taken on temporarily during the war. In
1949 there were over 5,000 commercial dental
laboratories in operation. Laboratories vary in
size. The majority are very small, employing one
to five men. Few laboratories have over 25 work­
ers, while the very largest employed not more than
300. Virtually all dental laboratories are owned
by men trained as dental technicians.
IIow To Enter
On-the-job training in dental laboratories is the
most practical and efficient way of learning this
craft. As a rule, dental laboratories prefer to
train their own workers. Three to five years’ work
experience is needed to qualify as a senior tech­
nician. During this period the technician learns
how to build the various types of dentures, taking
into account the structural problems involved in
their design. He must learn how to plan dentures
so they will not put undue stress or strain on
existing teeth. He also learns such techniques as
coloring porcelain teeth so that they match the
patient’s real ones. Casting metal parts of den­
tures is one of the more difficult operations that
must be mastered if one is to become a fully quali­
fied all-round dental technician. There are some
schools offering formal courses, but few of them
give training that will be acceptable to most em­
ployers. However, some employers take on grad­
uates from trade schools as advanced apprentices.
Three dental colleges now offer courses in dental
technology which are approved by the American
Dental Association and the number doing so may
increase. It is very important that prospective
dental technicians possess a high degree of both
artistic and mechanical ability.

It will be difficult for persons trained in trade
schools to get jobs in the early fifties. In mid1950 there was a surplus of persons who had been
trained during the past 3 years, and many more
were being trained. Employment of dental tech­
nicians was more than 50 percent higher in 1950
than in 1941, but the gain in employment was
mostly accounted for by workers trained by the
dental laboratories. At a result, many of the
thousands trained in trade schools have been un­
able to get jobs in the field. Because most dental
laboratories prefer to train their own workers, it
probably will continue to be hard for trade school
graduates to find jobs in this field. However,
some newcomers will be taken on, mainly to meet
replacement needs. In addition to deaths, retire­
ments, and shifts to other jobs, men will leave the
occupation for military service.
Employment probably will increase over the
long run. In response to a growing realization of
the value of dental care, there will probably be a
gradual increase in the number of dental tech­
nicians. In addition, there will be several hun­
dred job openings each year as a result of deaths
and retirements. Dental technicians have a good
chance of steady employment over a long period.
Although technicians are employed in all parts
of the country, the majority of jobs are in the
larger cities. More than half the dental tech­
nicians employed in 1949 were in the following
eight States: New York, Ohio, Illinois, New Jer­
sey, California, Minnesota, Massachusetts, and
Pennsylvania. In small communities, dentists
frequently send their work out of town. Some
enterprising and highly skilled technicians will
be able to set up their own laboratories in smaller
localities and get the local trade.
Earnings and Working Conditions
Earnings in 1948 for experienced workers gen­
erally ranged from $200 to $300 a month. Some
highly skilled men made much more. Hourly
rates for beginners were from 50 to 60 cents; for
skilled operators $1.25 to $1.80. Since the work
falls off during the summer in most areas, annual
earnings may be reduced by short lay-offs in that
season. Earnings of self-employed technicians
vary considerably, depending not only upon the


location of the laboratory and the individual’s
skill, but also upon the number of men working
for him. There is some union organization among
dental technicians in the larger laboratories and
dental offices in the big cities in the east, midwest,
and in California, but only a very small propor­
tion of technicians are members of unions.

Where To Go for More Information
For more information on job opportunities,
training, and other questions, write to :
Dental Laboratories Institute of America,
7 South Dearborn St.,
Chicago 3, 111.

Dry Cleaners and Spotters
(D. O. T. 5-57.110 and 5-57.310)

Outlook Summary
Limited number of opportunities for plant help­
ers to be promoted to skilled dry cleaner positions
in early fifties. More opportunities to become
spotters. Slowly increasing employment over
the long run.
Nature of Work
Dry cleaners operate machines which wash gar­
ments in dry-cleaning solvents. This involves de­
termining the proper amount of solvent and the
proper detergent mixture to be used for various
fabrics, regulating the time each garment must
remain in the machine, and filtering the solvent to
remove lint and other insoluble matter.
A dry cleaner’s main duty is to operate machines which wash gar­
ments in dry-cleaning solvents.
P h o to g r a ph

b y

U .

S .

D e p a r t m e n t

o f

l a b o r

Most plants have only one dry cleaner. In some
large plants, one skilled man supervises a small
number of helpers in the operation o f several dry
cleaning machines. Many dry cleaners own their
own plants. This is ordinarily a man’s occupation.
A good many of the workers are Negroes.
Spotters are employed in dry-cleaning establish­
ments to remove spots from garments by applying
moisture and chemical solutions. They determine
the nature of each spot, select the proper solvent
for the material and the spot, and remove the stain
by special techniques. They may prepare their
own solutions or use standard ones. Spotters may
also wash or direct the washing of dirty garments
in soap solution before attempting to remove spots
(called wet cleaning).
In very small plants all spotting is done by one
individual. In most plants, however, there are
two types of spotters: silk and wool spotters.
Wool spotters are not as skilled as silk spotters,
because they work with garments which have a
coarser texture and are more color-fast. In a
number of plants, spotting, particularly wool spot­
ting, is done by Negro workers.
An estimated 30,000 dry cleaners and 40,000
spotters worked in dry cleaning plants in 1949.
There were between 24,000 and 25,000 separate
plants. Dry cleaning employment is widespread
throughout the country with considerable concen­
tration in the bigger cities.
How To Enter
From 9 months to as much as 3 years of on-thejob training is needed to qualify as a silk spotter.
Iu the course of his training, the silk spotter learns
wool spotting, wet cleaning, and dry cleaning.
The training is generally of an informal nature,



but a few plants have regular 3-year apprentice­
ship programs. To become a wool spotter requires
only 3 months to a year of work experience.
Working as a helper is the usual way of learning
how to be a dry cleaner. The length of time it
takes to learn the job varies; it may take from 6
months to as much as 2 years for a man to be
classed as a fully qualified dry cleaner. Helpers in
both occupations are usually taken on just before
the busy seasons beginning in early March and late
Employment of dry cleaners and spotters is ex­
pected to remain at about the 1940 level for the
next several years. Turn-over in these trades,
however, will create a few thousand openings, a
large majority of them in spotter jobs. The va­
cancies will be filled almost entirely by workers
already employed in dry-cleaning plants. Inex­
perienced workers who wish to become dry cleaners
or spotters will have to take helper jobs and
learn these operations by working with experi­
enced employees. Since turn-over is high among
helpers in dry-cleaning plants, openings for be­
ginners will be fairly plentiful.
Over the longer run, employment of dry cleaners
and spotters probably will rise slowly. More
and more people will recognize the importance
of wearing clean well-pressed clothes. An in­
creasing proportion of the population will con­
tinue to enter the white collar occupations which
require wearing clothes of the types which must be
dry cleaned. Increasingly, garment manufac­
turers are using nonwashable materials and waterrepellant fabrics, which must be cleaned and
treated by dry cleaners. In addition, it is becom­
ing more common to have dry-cleaning firms clean
rugs, draperies, and upholstery. Moreover, as the
population grows and per capita income rises,
people spend more money on cleaning.
Earnings and Working Conditions
Typical earnings of dry cleaners employed in
the larger plants in various parts of the country
in mid-1919, ranged from $40 to $60 a week,

P h o to g r a p h

b y

U .

S .

d e p a r t m e n t

o f

l a b o r

Spotters are employed in dry-cleaning establishments to remove spots
from garments by applying moisture and chemical solutions.

according to a survey. In the larger cities, ex­
perienced men employed on a piece-work basis,
could make somewhat more. Average weekly
earnings of wool spotters ranged from $30 to $60
a week. Silk spotters made between $45 and $75.
Workers in the smaller towns earned less than
those in cities. Many States have laws which
specify the minimum rates which dry-cleaning
plants can pay. The average workweek is 40 to
45 hours, although during the busy spring and fall
seasons, overtime is common. There is some
unionization in this field, primarily in the larger
cities. Two unions which represent the greatest
number of workers are : International Association
of Cleaning and Dye House Workers (A F L ), and
the Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America
(C IO ).
Spotters have to stand on their feet all day in
a hot damp place, using chemicals that have un­
pleasant odors. Dry cleaners face additional
hazards from the cleaning solvents they use in the
machines. Because petroleum solvents are slightly
inflammable they require special handling to pre­
vent fires. Synthetic solvents give off fumes which
may be harmful in large amounts. However,
some of the newer machines are equipped with
automatic locks that will not open until all the
fumes have been drawn out by special suction fans.


Where To Go for More Information
For more information on job opportunities,
earnings, or training courses, the following organi­
zation may be helpful:
National Institute of Cleaning and Dyeing,
8001 Georgia Ave.,
Silver Spring, Md.

The following publication provides useful infor­
mation to people interested in going into their
own dry-cleaning business:
U. S. Department of Commerce. Establishing
and Operating a Dry Cleaning Business. Domes­
tic Commerce Series No. 12. Superintendent of
Documents, Washington 25, D. C. Price 55 cents.

Meat Cutters
(D. O. T. 5-58.100)

Outlook Summary
A few thousand job openings for trainees each
year during the early fifties. Over the longer run,
rising consumption of meat will hold the employ­
ment of meat cutters at about the 1949 level or
possibly cause a gradual increase, despite techno­
logical developments in cutting and selling meat.
Nature of Work
Meat cutters carve pieces of meat from animal
carcasses, or from precut quarters of beef, lamb,
veal, or pork—using a knife, saw, or cleaver. They
may also dress fish and poultry and make sausage,
meat loaf, and other special products. An impor­
tant part of the meat cutter’s job is knowing the
quality of the meat he handles, and knowing the
different cuts of meat. The meat cutter in the re­
tail store usually acts as a sales clerk in addition
to cutting meat. He displays and sells meat and
suggests various cuts to the customer. I f he is
a proprietor of a small shop or a manager of a meat
department in a large, independently owned store,
the meat cutter buys and prices the meat.
Where Employed
Meat cutters work in retail meat markets, in
grocery stores with meat departments, in whole­
sale supply houses, and, to some extent, in hotels
and restaurants. The bulk of them are employed
in grocery stores and meat markets. However,
wholesale supply houses hire many meat cutters
to divide whole carcasses into quarters for meat
retailers who request this service, or to carve steaks,
chops, roasts, etc., for restaurants, hotels, and in­
stitutions. Some of the larger hotels and restau­

rants employ their own meat cutters instead of
following the usual procedure of buying precut
Training and Qualifications
The meat cutter learns his trade on the job,
usually in 2 or 3 years’ time. Chain stores, and
some of the larger independent meat markets
and grocery stores have definite training pro­
grams, including many regular apprenticeships.
But many meat cutters pick up the trade as
butchers’ helpers or as part-time workers in
butcher shops. Vocational schools in some cities
offer instruction in meat cutting, but only a few
provide training acceptable to most employers.
Even in these cases school training must be fol­
lowed by a period of work experience before a man
is considered a fully qualified meat cutter.
There should be at least a few thousand trainee
openings each year in this large occupation during
the early fifties. These openings will be mainly
to replace meat cutters who die, retire, or change to
other jobs. Meat consumption is expected to re­
main at high levels in this period, and there will
not be much change from the 1949 employment of
meat cutters. Self-service meat departments have
been widely introduced in recent years. This de­
velopment will continue, but there has as yet been
no indication that it will tend to reduce substan­
tially the employment of meat cutters. Self-serv­
ice for meat has been mainly used in the larger,
supermarket type stores, and such departments
are not likely to be established in many of the
smaller, independently owned stores, where the


volume of sales is lower and direct contact with
the customer is important.
Over the longer run, the total consumption of
meat should continue to grow, as a result of in­
creasing population and higher per capita con­
sumption. This gain in consumption should offset
the effects of such technological changes as selfservice, precut meats, and meat-cutting machines.
As a result, the employment of meat cutters should
at least be held at present levels, with a possible
gradual growth in the number of jobs.
In the larger cities, experienced meat cutters
typically made between $60 and $85 for a 40- to
48-hour week in 1949. But in the small cities and

towns throughout the country, they made less and
frequently worked longer hours. Managers of
meat departments in stores often earn considerably
more than the meat cutters. There are many such
supervisory jobs in relation to the total employ­
ment of meat cutters.
Although the hourly pay of the average meat
cutter is lower than that of some other skilled
workers, his annual earnings are comparatively
good. His work goes on steadily the year round
without much seasonal slack in activity.
Many meat cutters look forward to eventually
opening their own meat markets or combination
grocery and meat stores. Earnings of such pro­
prietors vary widely, depending on the size of
the store, its location, and other factors. However,
there are many more small stores than large ones.

Optical Mechanics (Ophthalmic)
(D. O. T. 5-08.010)

Outlook Summary

Training and Other Qualifications

Limited number of openings for beginners in
this small occupation through the early fifties.
Number of workers will increase over long run.

Two or 3 years’ training and experience in the
trade are necessary to become a fairly satisfactory
surface grinder or benchman, and longer—per­
haps 2 more years—to become fully qualified.
Some shops have formal apprenticeship programs
which include a definite training schedule. T ypi­
cally, these programs call for 8,000 hours of ex­
perience and instruction on such operations as
hand sphere grinding, and surface lens inspections
for lens grinders and on lay-out and mounting for
benchmen. In other shops, the work is learned
informally on the job over a period of years.
Wholesale shops generally provide the best oppor­
tunity to acquire all-round skill and knowledge,
Connecticut is the only State which licenses opti­
cal mechanics, but California, New York, Florida,
and South Carolina as well as Connecticut have
legal requirements as to who may dispense eye­

Nature of Work
Optical mechanics (or opticians) are of two
main types—lens grinders, who grind and polish
surfaces of lenses used in eyeglasses; and benchmen, whose duties include cutting the edge of the
lens to desired shape and size and inserting it in
the frame or rimless mountings. Much of the
work is precise, and it may require workers to be
on their feet for extended periods of time.
Most lens grinders work for wholesale optical
distributors. A few are employed in retail shops,
but the tendency is for such shops not to do surface
grinding but to send their work to a wholesale
house. On the other hand, sizable numbers of
benchmen work for optometrists and retail dis­
pensers as well as for wholesale establishments.
Those employed in retail shops often combine
work in edging and fitting lenses with the actual
dispensing of eyeglasses to customers. A good
many optical mechanics who have the necessary
capital are in business for themselves.
892273°— 51------ 17

A limited number of beginners will be hired as
helpers and apprentices in this small occupation
in the early fifties. According to one estimate,
in 1949 there were about 7,500 mechanics working


in wholesale optical shops and no more than 1,500
in retail prescription shops. Employment in 1949
was about twice as high as during the late 1930’s.
For the next several years at least, it is expected
that there will be an ample supply of mechanics.
In most shops enough men are being trained to
provide replacements for mechanics who die, re­
tire, or leave their jobs for other reasons. In
addition, graduates of trade schools teaching this
type of work will be seeking jobs. Highly skilled
men will, of course, be able to find positions. Men
who wish to establish their own businesses will
need a great deal of experience in this field and
at least $8,000 to $10,000.
Employment in this field probably will increase
over the long run. The number of eyeglass
wearers wdll continue to increase—owing to the
growing proportion of old people in the popula­
tion and growing general awareness of the im­
portance of good vision. More and more schools
and employers have eye-testing programs and are


encouraging people with defective vision to wear
glasses. The increasing number of eyeglasses in
use will tend to bring about employment of more
optical mechanics, but this may be somewhat offset
by the introduction of improved mechanical meth­
ods of grinding lenses. Experienced optical me­
chanics are assured generally favorable employ­
ment conditions for many years. Sales of eye­
glasses hold up relatively well during declines in
general business activity.
Optical mechanics are employed in big and
medium-sized communities all over the United
States. People in rural communities usually get
their glasses in the nearest town or city.
Where To Go for Additional Information
Optical Wholesalers National Association,
Times Building,
New York 18, N. Y.
See cdso Precision Lens Grinders and Polishers,
page 283.

Some Major Industries and Their Occupations

The industrial power of the United States rests
largely on iron and steel. It is estimated that over
a billion tons of steel are in use in America today—
14,500 pounds of steel in some form for each per­
son in the country. H alf of the world’s output is
produced in the United States; the per capita
output of steel in this country in 1947 was esti­
mated at eight times the average for the entire
world. With its more than 600,000 wage and
salary workers in mid-1950, the iron and steel in­
dustry is one of the Nation’s largest manufactur­
ing industries. The more than 300 iron and steel
plants have a great variety of jobs, a large number
of which are found in no other industry. Many
of the jobs are skilled, and, compared with manu­
facturing generally, earnings are high. It is ex­
pected that the iron and steel industry will hire
many thousands o f new workers during the 1950G decade.

The bulk of the products shipped from steel plants
such as sheets, bars, plates, and strips are further
fabricated in plants in other industries into hun­
dreds of different products. The leading steel­
using industries are automobiles, construction and
building materials, machinery, railroads, contain­
ers, and petroleum. About 5 percent of the steel
is exported.
Sheet steel is made into such things as automo­
bile bodies and metal furniture. Bars are used in
making various automobile and machinery parts,
as well as to reinforce concrete in building con­
struction. Plates may go into the making of rail­
road cars, ships, bridges, and heavy machines.

The Iron and Steel Industry and Its Products
The iron and steel industry consists of plants
engaged in several different kinds of activities:
manufacturing pig iron from iron ore in blast fur­
naces; converting this pig iron, along with iron
and steel scrap, into steel; and rolling or drawing
the steel into basic shapes, such as plates, sheets,
strips, rods, bars, rails, and structural shapes. In
many of the plants, manufacturing processes are
carried beyond the rolling stage to produce fin­
ished products. The mining of the raw materials
is classified as a separate industry, although many
mines are owned by steel companies. Also ex­
cluded are plants which are mainly engaged in
casting, stamping, forging, or machining steel pur­
chased from steel-producing companies.
Only a small percentage of the products of iron
and steel plants, such as rail, wire, and nails, can
be used directly without further manufacturing.



Strips are manufactured into such products as
razor blades, license plates, and toys. Tinplate is
used primarily for making containers, of which
the tin can is best known.
Plants in this industry are typically large.
They range in size from a few plants with fewer
than 100 workers to several with over 20,000. In
1947, more than two-thirds of all the employees
in this industry worked in plants which had over
2,500 wage and salary workers each. Steel com­
panies differ in their degree of completeness of
operation. Fully integrated companies mine their
own raw materials, produce pig iron, make
steel, and roll and finish steel products. Semiintegrated companies make no pig iron; they pro­
duce steel from purchased pig iron or scrap and
make semifinished and finished products. A third
group, the nonintegrated companies, purchase
steel for their rolling and finishing operations. A
fourth type of plant is the merchant blast furnace
which produces pig iron for sale to semiintegrated
steel companies and to iron and steel foundries.

The fully integrated companies produce the great
bulk of the steel and employ most of the workers.
Steel plants have been located with reference to
several important factors. One is the location of
coal, iron ore, and other raw materials; a second
factor is nearness to the markets for steel. Since
steel markets and the various raw materials are
rarely found in one place, good transportation
facilities are essential in plant location.
The steel industry is concentrated mainly in the
northern and eastern parts of the United States.
The Pittsburgh-Youngstown area is the leading
steel center. Farther east, there are large plants
in Buffalo, N. Y., Johnstown, and Bethlehem, Pa.,
and Sparrows Point, near Baltimore, Md. The
Great Lakes region has many important steel cen­
ters, particularly in the Chicago and Cleveland
areas. Much of the steelmaking in the South is
done in the Birmingham area. As a result of the
Government’s wartime expansion program, steel
capacity has been increased greatly in the Far
West, which previously had only a few small
plants; large new mills were built in Geneva,
Utah and Fontana, Calif. As chart 57 indicates,
about three-fourths of the workers in the industry
were employed in five States (Pennsylvania, Ohio,
Indiana, Illinois, and New York) in 1947;
Pennsylvania alone had more than a third of the
Employment Outlook,
It is expected that the iron and steel industry
will hire many thousands of new workers during
the 1950-60 decade. A substantial increase in
steel capacity is in prospect during the fifties, in
order to meet expanding defense requirement. As
a result, steel employment will increase. Thou­
sands of other job openings will arise from re­
placement needs. Because of the great size of the
steel industry’s labor force, normal death and re­
tirement alone should provide approximately
12,000 to 15,000 job openings annually during the
fifties. Also important as a source of jobs is the
shifting each year of thousands of steelworkers
to other fields of employment. Other replace­
ments will be needed for the workers who wull
enter the Armed Forces.
Although replacement needs appear to be the
main factor in the longer run job outlook, it is



necessary to take a closer look at future employ­
ment trends in steel, since a drastic change in the
industry’s employment level, if one should occur,
might greatly outweigh replacement needs. The
first factor to be considered in the long-run em­
ployment outlook is the trend in the production of
A glance at chart 58 reveals some fundamental
facts about the economics of steel production. It
is apparent that there have been very wide fluctua­
tions in steel output over the years. To a high
degree, these fluctuations are associated with
changes in general business conditions. The main
uses of steel are in “ durable goods” activities, such
as automobile production, construction, and ma­

chinery manufacture. These activities are ex­
tremely sensitive to the business cycle, and, as a
result, steel is a “ feast or famine” industry; rela*
tive to the economy as a whole, steel is especially
hard hit during depressions, but in boom times its
situation is particularly favorable. How great
these variations can be is shown by the drop of 75
percent in steel production between 1929 and 1932
and by the rise of 67 percent between 1939 and
Business cycles are not the only causes o f sharp
fluctuations in steel activity. Wartime, with its
tremendous requirements for steel (fo r ships, air­
craft, ordnance, and new factories and production
equipment) leads to a sharp rise in steel output,




Ingots and Steel for C a st in gs






followed by a decline (somewhat less abrupt)
with the coming of peace. A glance at the charted
trend in steel output during the two world Avars
illustrates this point.
Chart 58 shows more, however, than great varia­
bility in the activity of the steel industry; it also
reveals a long-range upward trend in production
and capacity. Although the growth of the United
States population has been a factor in this rise, a
much more important cause has been the great in­
crease in the use of steel in our economy. A few
figures illustrate this fa ct: between 1898 and 1948,
the population of the United States doubled but
steel production increased 780 percent; and per'
capita steel output rose 340 percent over the period.
The growth in per capita output has been the
result primarily of the rise of great steel-using
industries— automobiles, construction, railroads,
containers, petroleum, electrical appliances, and
machinery manufacturing.
During 1947 and 1948, steel production was at
extremely high levels, closely approaching the
wartime peak. In spite of near-record output,
however, the demand for steel exceeded the supply
and very marked shortages of certain steel prod­
ucts (mainly sheet and strip) persisted through
these years. By mid-1949, the shortage had dis­
appeared; steel production declined as general
business conditions moved down from peak levels
and as many steel-using industries finished Avorking off their postwar backlog of orders.
However, in the fall of 1950, steel production
rose to record levels, because of heavy defense re­
quirements and the upturn in civilian demand.
In the fall of 1950, the industry was planning to
make substantial additions to steel capacity.
The future level o f steel production in the long
run is most difficult to gage, tied in as closely as
it is Avith the state o f the whole economy and
with defense requirements. However, it seems
clear from the past trend, and from the factors
responsible fo r this trend, that the long-range
movement will be upward. The principal steel­
using industries have generally favorable long-run
prospects and the industrial economy o f the
United States undoubtedly has great potentiali­
ties for further groAvth.

Another aspect of the steel production outlook
should be briefly considered. The rapidly grow­
ing output and expanding range of uses of alumi ­

num and plastics have raised a question as to the
chances of these materials being extensively sub­
stituted fo r steel. Careful study of this possibility
suggests that the demand fo r steel is not likely to
be seriously affected by the use o f these substitutes.
An upAvard trend in steel production Avill not
necessarily mean an increase in the number o f
steel working jobs. In appraising future employ­
ment trends, it is necessary to go beyond the prob­
lem o f the production outlook and to look into the
factors which m ight change the number o f workers
needed to produce a giAr quantity o f steel.

One of the factors influencing worker produc­
tivity is the product mix, the kind of steel products
made in the mills. The lighter steel products
(sheet strip, tin plate, etc.) require more man­
hours per ton to produce than do the heavier
products (plate, bars, structural shapes). Shifts
in the relative importance of the two classes of
products may greatly affect the number of tons
produced per man-hour. Thus, with a relatively
large increase in the number of tons produced per
worker betAveen 1941 and 1944, and practically no
change in total man-hours worked, steel output
was increased by about a twelfth. This was largely
accounted for by the shift in emphasis from light
to heavy products occasioned by the war.
A fter alloAving for the effects o f a varying
product mix, however, we still find a great increase
in output per man-hour in the steel industry. The
primary reason for this is that m ajor technological
developments in steelmaking have occurred; these
developments have sharply reduced the amount of
Avork needed to produce a given amount o f steel.
Between 1929 and 1939, man-hour output in the
iron and steel industry rose by about a third. In
part, this was caused by a series o f minor technical
advances, and by some m ajor advances, o f which
the principal one Avas the introduction o f continu­
ous rolling (described in a later section o f this
In spite o f the sharp rise in productivity, how­
ever, steel employment in 1939 was slightly above
the 1929 level, even though output in 1939 was
almost 11 million tons less than in 1929. W hat
happened Avas that a drastic reduction in the work­
week more than offset the other factors. In 1929,
the standard workAveek in the steel industry was
nearly 55 hours; by 1939, the 40-hour week was
generally in effect.


There is good reason to believe that the future
will bring substantial further increases in the
productivity of the steel labor force. Past trends
in man-hour output are one indication of what
may occur in the future. Moreover, there are
several important technological developments in
steelmaking now in various stages of application.
Coal washing removes impurities from coal, which
speeds up the operation of the coking ovens and
improves the quality of the coke; the higher-grade
coke steps up blast furnace output. Greatly in­
creased air pressure has been used in blast furnaces
to obtain increased production of pig iron. Feed­
ing oxygen into open hearth and electric furnaces
is reported to have reduced melting time in steelmaking. Continuous casting, still on an experi­
mental basis, introduces short cuts in steel making
by eliminating several reheating and rolling op­
erations. There is some question as to the extent
to which these and other technical advances will
be found suited to general adoption throughout
the industry. The degree to which steelmaking
employment may be affected by use of these meth­
ods is also not clear. Moreover, some technological
developments, having to do with the improvement
o f the quality of steel, may require more rather
than fewer workers in some operations, particu­
larly in the maintenance of added equipment. All
in all, however, an upward trend in man-hour
output in the steel industry seems most likely.
To sum up the analysis of the employment out­
look in the iron and steel indsutry, it is expected
that many thousands of new workers will be
needed during the early fifties, as industry pro­
duces at record levels to meet heavy defense re­
quirements and strong civilian demand. Longer
range prospects are for the autput of steel to
continue its long-run rise. But gains in produc­
tion are likely to be offset by increases in worker
productivity, so that no substantial long-ruit in­
crease in employment is anticipated. The iron
and steel industry will, however, hire thousands
of workers each year to replace employees who
die, retire, or shift to other industries.
Steelworkers and Their Jobs
Four thousand or more separate and distinct
jobs are found in the plants and offices of the iron
and steel industry. Because this is a highly mech­
anized industry, a large share of the jobs will have

to do with the operation of a great variety of
machines and equipment. Another large group
of workers is employed in the maintenance de­
partments of the steel plants, keeping this ma­
chinery and equipment in good operating condi­
tion. The highly technical nature of steelmaking
also requires technically trained personnel, such
as engineers, chemists, and metallurgists. Finally
there are the many administrative and clerical
The estimated percentage distribution of all
employees in the industry by departments in 1940
is shown in the following tabulation.

Percent of total

Coke ovens_______________________________________
Blast furnaces__________________________________
Steel furnaces___________________________________
Clerical and sales______________________________
Maintenance, service, and miscellaneous______

2. 4
3. 8
7. 7
29. 8
11. 8
4. 7
39. 8

100. 0

The working force of the industry is predom­
inantly male, reflecting in part the hot, strenuous
nature of much of the production work. Women
are employed largely in the administrative offices
of the steel companies. About 2 percent of the
plant workers are women, who are mainly in the
less physically demanding plant jobs, such as sort­
ing and inspecting tinplate and nails. The pro­
portion of Negroes in iron and steel plants is
higher than in most manufacturing industries;
they constitute about an eighth of the plant work­
ers. While a large number work on the labor
gang and in other unskilled jobs, many are em­
ployed in semiskilled and skilled occupations.
Earnings in iron and steel plants are among
the highest in industry. In July 1950, earn­
ings of production workers in these plants aver­
aged $67.83 for a workweek of 39.9 hours. This
compares with average earnings of production
workers in all manufacturing industries of $59.21
for an average workweek of 40.5 hours, in the same
In the fall of 1949, agreements between the
United Steelworkers of America (CIO ) and the
major steel companies provided company-paid
retirement and disability pensions for iron and
steel workers generally. These pensions amount
to at least $100 a month (including social security)


for workers who retire at the age of 65 after 25
years of service, and somewhat less for those who
retire with less than 25 years of service. Other
benefits of the agreements include paid-up life
insurance, hospitalization, and sick benefits; these
insurance provisions are financed in part by de­
ductions from the workers’ wages.
Because steel mills are spread over wide areas
and have many different operating and mainte­
nance units, working conditions vary greatly.
Employees working around blast furnaces and
steel furnaces must be able to stand considerable
heat. Many of the rolling mills are hot and noisy.
Much of the work around the coke ovens is heavy
and is accompanied by exposure to heat, dirt, and

fumes. On the other hand, maintenance units,
such as machine shops, are often relatively clean
and cool. Because some processes have to be op­
erated continuously, many workers are on night
shifts and many work week-ends.
Steel companies generally conduct safety pro­
grams among their workers and equip machinery
with protective devices to prevent accidents. Steel
plants have become relatively safe places to w ork;
the frequency o f disabling injuries is less than half
the average for manufacturing industries as a
A ll but a small percentage o f plant workers in
the iron and steel industry are members o f the
United Steelworkers o f America (C IO ).

Processing Occupations
The bulk of the workers in the iron and steel
industry are employed in the many processing
operations involved in converting iron ore into
finished and semifinished steel products or shapes.
Making steel requires three main successive steps:
(1) iron is first smelted from iron ore in blast
furnaces; (2) then it is converted into steel in
steel furnaces; and (3) finally the steel is rolled
and finished in steel mills (see chart 59).
In order to provide a picture of steelmaking jobs
we will follow the operations carried on in a fully
integrated plant, giving brief descriptions of im­
portant occupations as they fit into the production
Ore Docks and Stockyards

Ore is brought to plants on the Great Lakes and
other waterways mainly by ship from mines in
Minnesota and Michigan. Giant electric unload­
ers empty the ore from the vessels; the huge cranes
dip down into the holds of the ships, lifting as
much as 17 tons of ore at one time. A bucket
operator, working in a compartment located in
the arm of the crane, rides down into the hold and
controls the movement of the unloading mechan­
ism. Ore bridge operators manipulate electric
controls to operate ore bridges (huge conveyors)
which carry ore and other raw materials from the
unloading dock or stockyards to the stock house.

Coking Ovens

Steel companies use coke rather than coal in
their furnace operations. Coke is produced by
baking coal in ovens lined with intensely hot gas
pipes, but with no flame coming in contact with
the coal or coke. The baking removes volatile
gases and other impurities from the coal, prevent­
ing such impurities from later entering the molten
iron in the blast furnace. The coke plant con­
sists of a series of ovens arranged side by side in
groups or “ batteries.” An oven has a door on
each end, and openings on top through which the
coal is fed, or “charged.” A heater (D. O. T.
4-56.010) operates a battery of ovens, checking
gages, regulating temperature controls, and su­
pervising helpers. When the coal has been con­
verted into coke and the coke is ready to be
emptied from the oven, the pusher operator
(D. O. T. 6-56.030) brings his crane into place
behind the oven. At a signal from the door ma­
chine operator, who has removed the door on one
side of the battery, the pusher operator opens the
door on his side of the oven, shoves out the long
arm of his crane, and pushes out the entire con­
tents of the oven into a waiting coke car on a track
on the other side. Quencher carmen (D. O. T.
6-56.040) operate electrically driven locomotives
which move the coke cars to quencher towers where
the coke is sprayed with water. Then, after pass-


ing over a screen to remove dust and very small
lumps, the coke is taken by conveyors to the blast
Blast Furnaces

The first step in making steel is that of con­
verting iron ore into a metallic iron called “ pig
iron.” This process consists of charging alternate
layers of coke, iron ore, and limestone into a blast
furnace and blowing a blast of very hot air up
through the mass. The air blast burns the coke,
generating heat and gases which melt the charge
and promote the necessary chemical reactions.
The gases formed by the combustion of the coke
combine with and remove the oxygen from the
ore; at the same time, the molten limestone com­
bines with earthy matter in the ore, forming scum,
or “ slag.” With the oxygen and slag removed,
molten iron is left.

A blast furnace works continuously, 24 hours a
day, seven days a week, until it has to be shut down
for repairs. Every 4 to 6 hours the molten iron
is run off or “ tapped.” Iron ore, coke, and lime­
stone are charged continuously into the top of the
furnace. These raw materials are stored nearby
in a stock house below the furnace level. Here
tarry men (D. O. T. 7-40.050) load “ larry cars”
with ore, limestone, and coke from the bins
(weighing all materials and following prear­
ranged schedules). Then they convey the load
through a tunnel to skip cars, which run up in­
clined double tracks to the top of the blast fur­
nace. Here the skips dump their contents into
the furnace. The skip cars are operated by shipmen (D. O. T. 5-73.550) stationed on the ground
below. Stove tenders (D. O. T. 6-91.311) and
their assistants operate the huge brick-lined stoves
which heat air for the blast furnace. They reg­


ulate valves which control the flow of air into the
furnace; at regular intervals they let cold air into
stoves already heated and gas flame into those to
be heated.
Blowers (D. O. T. 4-91.311) supervise the whole
blast-furnace operation, including charging and
tapping of the furnace, air blast, furnace heat,
and quantity and quality of iron produced. Blow­
ers carefully check the metal in the furnace,
sampling the molten iron and slag and sending
the samples to the laboratory where metallurgists
make exacting tests and report their findings back

H elper taking a sample of a heat of steel which w ill be sent to laboratory
for chemical analysis.

to the blower. Keepers, (D. O. T. 4—
91.321) under
the direction of the blower, are responsible for
the tapping of the furnace. They supervise their
helpers and cinder snappers in lining troughs and
runners through which the molten iron and slag
is run off. In integrated steel plants, the molten
iron runs down the trough into giant ladles and is
taken directly in its liquid state to the steel fur­
nace. Where iron is produced for shipment or
for later use somewhere in the plant, it is cast
into bars, or “ pigs,5 by means of a casting machine.
The pig casting machine consists of a series of
molds, mounted on a slowly moving chain. Iron
pourers operate electrically controlled cranes, tip­
ping the hot metal ladles and pouring the molten
metal into the molds.

Steel Furnaces

The second major step in steelmaking is to con­
vert the iron into molten steel. About ninetenths of the steel is produced in open hearth
furnaces; smaller quantities of special purpose
steel are made in Bessemer converters and electric
furnaces. Open hearth steel is produced by add­
ing pig iron from the blast furnace to steel scrap
and limestone and heating the mixture in a fur­
nace. The “ open hearth” is so named because the
molten steel lies on the hearth, or floor, of the
furnace and is exposed to the flame. The furnaces
range in capacity from about 50 to 250 tons of
steel at one making or “heat.”
A melter (D. O. T. 4—
91.444) is in charge of the
operation of a group of open hearth furnaces and
is responsible for the quality of the steel produced.
Each heat of steel is made to definite specifications,
so that specific instructions must be followed each
time the furnace is charged. The melter must
have a practical knowledge of metallurgy; by
varying the proportion of the different materials
in the furnace and by adding such elements as
carbon, manganese, phosphorus, or sulphur, he
makes the steel to order. Melter's helpers of d if­
ferent ranks (first (D. O. T. 4—
91.445), second
(D. O. T. 6-91.183), and third) work under the
direction of the melter; a first helper is in charge
of one open hearth furnace. These helpers regu­
late furnace temperatures, take samples for lab­
oratory tests, and direct the charging of various
materials. Charging machine operators (D. O. T.
6-91.181) run electrically controlled machines
which pick up boxes full of limestone, scrap, and
other materials; push the boxes through the open
furnace doors, and dump the materials into the
furnaces. Charging floor cranemen (D. O. T.
5-73.030), operating large overhead cranes, pick
up ladles full o f molten iron (which has been
brought over from the blast furnaces) and pour
the contents into the furnaces. In the various
charging operations, door operators, by throwing
electric switches, open and close the furnace doors.
After eight to twelve hours, the heat of steel
is ready to be “ tapped,” that is, removed from the
furnace. Helpers, assisted by a crew of cinder
pitmen. knock out a plug at the back of the fur­
nace, allowing the molten metal to flow into a
ladle which is just large enough to hold the heat


of steel, so that the slag which floats to the top,
overflows into a smaller ladle.
The liquid steel is then poured from the ladle
into ingot molds. A ladle craneman (D. O. T.
5-73.030), directed by the pourer (or castingman)
(D. O. T. 4-91.651), operates an overhead crane;
the crane picks up the ladle and moves it over a
long line of ingot molds (hollow cast iron forms)
standing on flat-bottom cars. The pourer works
a stopper on the bottom of the ladle to pour steel
into the molds.
As soon as the steel in the ingot molds has solidi­
fied sufficiently, ingot strippers (D. O. T. 5-73.010
and 5-73.020) remove the molds from the ingots.
They operate a crane-like machine which grasps
lugs on top of the mold and pulls off the mold,
leaving the stripped ingot standing to cool.
In addition to the open hearth furnaces, steel is
made in Bessemer converters and in electric fur­
naces. In the Bessemer process, steel is produced
by blowing air up through molten pig iron, the
oxygen in the air burning away or combining with
impurities in the iron. No fuel other than the
oxygen present in the air is needed, because the
chemical reaction resulting from the combustion
of oxygen produces sufficient heat. The converter,
a pear-shaped steel vessel lined with fire brick, is
tilted horizontally to receive its charge of molten
iron. The converter is swung slowly upward, and
at the same time air is forced into the molten iron.
This is a spectacular process; 30-foot flames and
showers o f sparks shoot out of the top of the
A i lower (D. O. T. 5-92.302) is in charge of the
operation of the Bessemer converter. He directs
a regulator (D. O. T. 6-91.381) in charging the
converter and starting the air blast. During the
blast, the blower determines the condition of the
steel by observing the color and character of the
flame. He shuts off the blast at the right moment
and tilts the converter. He directs the regulator
in pouring the metal from the converter into a
ladle for teeming into ingots.
Highest quality steels are generally produced
in electric furnaces, in which melting and refining
can be most closely controlled. Electric furnaces
are steel shells lined with heat resisting brick.
Carbon electrodes project through the roof of the
furnace; a powerful electric current “ arcing” from
one to the other provides heat for refining. The
raw material is usually selected steel scrap, al­

though Bessemer or open-hearth steel may be used.
During refining, impurities are carried into the
slag and the required alloys are added.
Rolling and Finishing

The final step in the production of steel is shap­
ing. The three principal methods of shaping
metal in steel plants are casting, forging, and
rolling. Casting, done in foundries, consists of
pouring molten metal into a sand mold and letting
it harden into the shape of the mold. Forging
involves heating the metal to soften it and then
pounding or squeezing the metal into the desired
shape. While a considerable amount of forge shop
and foundry work is carried on in steel plants, the
bulk is done in other industries. (Descriptions of
foundry and forge shop occupations and processes
are included in this handbook; see pages 196
and 207).
Rolling is the principal method of shaping steel;
it is estimated that four-fifths of all steel products
pass through a rolling mill at some stage of their
manufacture. The purpose of rolling is to im­
prove the quality o f the steel as well as to form it
into desired shapes. In passing between the rolls,
the steel is squeezed longer or flatter, in much
the same way as pie crust is kneaded and rolled out
by a cook.
Before the ingots are rolled, they are heated to
the required uniform temperature; the heating is
done in large furnaces called “ soaking pits.” A
heater controls the soaking pit operation. He
directs helpers in heating the ingot to the tem­
perature specified by the plant metallurgical di­
vision and, by observing the color of the steel,
determines when it is ready for rolling. A crane­
man lifts the ingot from the soaking pit and de­
posits it on a flat-bottom steel carriage, on which
the ingot is brought to the semifinishing mill.
In the semifinishing mills, ingots are rolled into
blooms, slabs, and billets. These forms are gen­
erally square or rectangular in shape. Blooms are
more than six inches wide and six inches thick.
Slabs are rolled wider and thinner than blooms.
Billets are the smallest of the three. Later, in
the finishing mills, blooms, slabs, and billets are
made into finished steel products.
The rolling of blooms illustrates the semifinish­
ing process. In the blooming mill, as in other
rolling mills, the steel is moved along on a con­


veyor. After the ingot lias been weighed, a
whistle is sounded telling the roller (D. O. T. 592.301), the man in charge of the mill, that the
ingot is on the conveyor. Roll engineers operate
the conveyor, controlling direction and speed.
The ingot comes along the conveyor until it is
caught between two rollers, which turn in op­
posite directions like a clothes wringer; this pulls
the hot steel through the roll, making it thinner
and longer. No sooner is it through, than the
rolls revolve in the opposite direction and the
ingot is brought back through the rolls. This is
repeated, and each time the rolls are brought a
little closer together, so that after each “ pass”
through the rolls, the ingot is flatter and longer.
Every round trip or two the ingot is turned on its
side, so that the sides are also rolled.

A roller operates the mill, working in a glassenclosed “ pulpit” above the conveyor. His duties,
which appear to consist principally of moving
levers and pushing buttons, look relatively simple,
but actually the quality of the product depends to
a large extent upon his skill. One of his prin­
cipal duties is to regulate the distance between the
rolls after each pass. This requires long experi­
ence and a knowledge of steel properties. (Too
much pressure on the roll may result in cracks in
the steel or may strain its tensile strength; too
little pressure may result in too long a rolling
period, so that the steel may cool below proper
rolling temperature.) A manipulator (D. O. T.
4-88.012) sits in the pulpit with the roller and
operates some of the controls. After perhaps 20
passes, the ingot is sent along the conveyor to a

General view of a continuous rolling mill.



place where shearmen (D. O. T. 6-88.664) use
heavy hydraulic blades to trim and cut the steel
into bloom-size sections.
The principle of rolling is essentially similar
in all mills and the occupations in various kinds
of rolling mills resemble fairly closely those in
the blooming mills. (Incidentally, the word
“ mill,” as it is used in the steel industry, may
mean an entire plant, one department of that
plant, or just one stand of rolls.) Blooms and
other semifinished products are further processed
by rolling and other finishing operations in the
various special finishing mills. Making railroad
rails is one example. In a rail mill, the bloom goes
through a number of stands of rolls, beginning
with a “ roughing mill,” which has three rollers.
The middle roll revolves in a direction opposite
from the upper and lower rolls. With this ar­
rangement the bloom can be rolled in both direc­
tions without reversing the direction of the rolls.
All that is necessary is that the whole conveying
table be lifted on the return, so that while the
direction of the movement of the bloom is re­
versed, the direction of the rolls is not. In this
mill, operated by a rougher (a kind of roller),
the bloom becomes narrower and longer, coming
out in the rough shape of a rail. Levermen,
(D. O. T. 6-88.032), operate the tables raising and
lowering the blooms. Guide setters position the
iron guards that direct the partly finished rails
into their proper niches between the rolls. From
the roughing roll, the steel goes through five or
more other stands equipped with grooved rolls.
In each stand, the steel becomes longer and more
like a finished rail. Hot sawmen (D. O. T.
6-88.652) operate circular saws which cut the
rails to proper length.
One of the outstanding improvements in steel
technology, introduced nearly 25 years ago, is con­
tinuous rolling. Briefly, this consists of arrang­
ing in tandem a number of rolling-mill units, so
that finished steel products can be made without
breaking the continuity of the operation. Con­
tinuous hot strip mills are a good example of this
process. Slabs from the semifinishing mills are
reheated. Then they are passed through roughing
stands where they are reduced in thickness and
increased in length. The steel then passes through
a series of rolling stands, each driven separately
and perfectly timed to roll the strip faster and

faster as it becomes thinner and longer. As it
races from the last stand, the long strip of steel
may be cut up automatically into sheets, which
are cooled and stacked in piles, or it may be me­
chanically wound onto reels. Rollers (D. O. T.
5-92.301) are in general charge of all strip rolling
and related operations. Pulpit men (D. O. T.
4-88.012) (speed operators) set up, adjust, and
coordinate the speeds of the different mill stands
to maintain proper tension of the strip. Goiters,
by means of electrical controls, operate the ma­
chines which coil the hot strip coming from the
One of the many finishing operations done in
steel plants is the making of tinplate. Tinplate
is actually steel with a thin coating of tin. The
oldest method of tinplating consists of dipping
steel sheets in a bath of molten tin. For this
process the sheet steel must be carefully prepared.
The sheets are first cleaned in acid baths by picklers. These sheets are then passed through a cold
reduction mill, w^here they are given a smooth, fine
surface. Cold reduction is generally done on a
tandem mill. In each set of rolls, powerful pres­
sure makes the strip thinner and longer. After
leaving the last roll, the steel is coiled on a reel.
Since this operation tends to make the strip hard
and brittle, it is softened and made more ductile in
an annealing furnace. The coiled strip is then
sheared into sheets. The sheets are passed through
tanks containing molten tin and then cleaned and
polished by passing them through a series of flan­
nel-covered rolls.
A recent innovation is electrolytic tin plating.
In this process, steel goes through a tank contain­
ing a tin solution charged with electric current.
Action of the electricity causes a coating of tin
to be deposited on the steel.
Both sides of the tin-plated steel sheet are care­
fully inspected for defects and sorted by thickness.
Many of the inspectors and assorters are women.
Another specialized steel product made in fin­
ishing mills is wire. W ire is drawn from a rod,
which is rolled from a billet in a rod mill. The
wire drawing process consists o f drawing or pull­
ing a rod through a series o f dies; the hole o f each
successive die is smaller than the rod or wire
passing through. A fter each trip through a die.
the rod or wire loses some of its thickness, but is
lengthened proportionately. Wire drawers (D. O.



Job title

H o u rly rate

Coking ovens
Pusher operator________________
Door machine operator________
Quencher carman______________





Blast furnaces
Stove tender________________________
Bucket operator; unloader, docks.
Ore bridge operator________________
Iron pourer; pig machine operator
Keeper’s helper_____________________
Cinder snapper_____________________

Steel furnaces
Blower, Bessemer converter______________
Melter’s helper, first, open hearth_______
Charging machine operator, open hearth
Ladle craneman, open hearth____________
Pourer, first castingman, open hearth___
Melter’s helper, second, open hearth____
Charging floor craneman, open h e a r th ...
Ingot stripper, open hearth_______________
Cinder pitman, open hearth______________
Inspecting and sorting tinplate is one of the few plant jobs open to
women in steel mills.

T. 4-88.511) use tongs to pull a tapered rod
through the die hole. Then the tapered end is
fastened to a reel which starts to turn, pulling the
rod through the die and also winding the wire
onto the reel. Continuous wire drawing, similar
in principle to continuous rolling, is also used to
make wire. The wire is drawn, without interrup­
tion, through a series of dies, becoming thinner
and longer as it goes through each die.
Large quantities of pipe and tube are made in
the finishing mills of steel plants. There are two
principal types made: welded and seamless.
Welded pipe is made from “ skelp” (narrow, fiat
strip steel) hot-rolled in a special mill and then
reheated in a small furnace. A butt welder (D. O.
T. 4-88.341) grasps the white-hot skelp with a
pair of tongs and pulls it through a “ welding bell,”
which is a funnel-shaped die. He then drops the
tongs in a trough, where the tongs are gripped
by a moving chain, drawing the skelp through the


2. 310

2. 220






Rolling and finishing
Roller, blooming mill____________________________
Butt welder, pipe and tube______________________
Heater, soaking pits_____________________________
Roll engineer, slab m ill__________________________
Rougher, hot strip m ill___________________________
Guide setter, rail mill____________________________
Pulpitman; speed operator, finish, hot strip
m ill_____________________________________________
Manipulator, blooming m ill_________________
H ot sawman, rail m ill____________________________
Leverman, first roughing, rail mill_______________
Pickier, sheet batch, tin plate___________________
Coder operator, hot strip continuous m ill______
Shearman, blooming mill_________________________
Pierce operator, pipe and tube___________________
Wire drawer, continuous, wire m ill______________
Wire drawer, bull blocks, wire m ill______________
Assorters, tin plate_______________________________

All departments
Laborer, assigned, such as pig machine laborer
or wharfman____________________________________
Laborer, unassigned, general_____________________

1. 275
1. 230


bell. As the skelp enters the wide end of the bell
it is curled until the two edges come together in
the shape of a pipe. As the pipe comes out of
the small end of the bell, its edges are automati­
cally welded. The pipe then passes through sizing
rolls which make it perfectly round and of the
exact diameter desired.
In the manufacture of seamless pipe and tube, a
solid round steel bar first is heated to rolling
temperature. Piercer operators run “ piercing
machines” which consist of two barrel-like rolls,
having between them a long bar with a bullet­
shaped nose, called a “ piercer.” As the bar
moves lengthwise through the rolls, the piercer
goes through the entire length of the bar, forming
a hollow tube without seams. While the rough
tube is still hot, it goes through a number of other
rolls which straighten it and make its diameter and
wall thickness to specifications. Afterwards the
tube is cut in lengths and carefully inspected and
tested. Rollers (D. O. T. 4-88.313) operate the
seamless pipe mills; they control the pressure of
the rolls, which determines length of pipe and
thickness of the pipe wall.



Qualifications Training and Advancement in
Processing Jobs
Steel plant workers generally are hired at the
factory gate or are referred by public employment
offices. New workers for processing jobs are
nearly always brought in at the unskilled level,
either as laborers or as learners in one of the oper­
ating units. Openings in higher-rated jobs are
filled by upgrading. Training for processing
occupations is almost entirely on the job, with the
worker progressively moving to operations requir­
ing greater skill as he acquires experience and
“ know how.” A craneman, for example, is first
taught how to operate relatively simple cranes and
advances in several steps to cranes much more
difficult to run, such as the hot metal cranes.
Generally, steel companies prefer that new em­
ployees have some high school training. To help
advance in their work, many workers take parttime courses in such subjects as chemistry, physics,
and metallurgy. In many cases, this training is
provided by the steel companies and may be done
within the plant. Other workers take evening

Roll turners use lathes, grinders, and other tools to finish steel rolls to
the desired shape and size.

courses in high schools, trade schools, and univer­
sities in their communities or enroll in correspond­
ence courses.
Workers in the various operating units usually
advance along fairly well defined lines of promo­
tion within their departments. Both seniority
and performance on the job are factors in upgrad­
ing. Advancement is apt to be more rapid during
periods when the mills are operating at capacity
and there are shortages of skilled steel workers.
The following illustrate possible lines of advance­
ment in the various operating units:
To become a blast furnace blower, a worker may
start as a laborer, advancing to cinder snapper,
keeper’s helper, keeper, blower’s helper, and finally
blower. In the open hearth departments, a man
may begin by doing general clean-up work around
the furnace and then advance to door operator,
cinder pitman, third helper, second helper, first
helper, and eventually, to melter. A possible line
of progression for a roller in a finishing mill might
be pitman, roll hand, manipulator, rougher, and
finish roller. To reach these skilled jobs, such as
blower, melter, and roller (which are among the
highest-rated steelmaking jobs), takes a minimum
of 4 or 5 years, but usually a much longer time is



Earnings in Processing Jobs
Earnings vary considerably among the many
processing occupations. The table on page 254
shows standard hourly rates in selected occupa­
tions as specified in the wage agreement effective
July 16, 1948, between the United Steelworkers
(C IO ) and the steel producing subsidiaries1 of
the United States Steel Corp. (the largest single

steel company). These earnings are representa­
tive of those throughout industry. Workers paid
on an incentive basis (estimated at about 40 to 50
percent of the workers) generally earn more than
these standard hourly rates. However, the stand­
ard rate serves as a guaranteed minimum for the
incentive worker.
Not including the Tennessee Coal, Iron, and Railroad Co.

Mechanical, Transportation, and Plant Service Occupations
Large numbers of workers are required in steel
mills to maintain and repair machinery and equip­
ment ; to provide power, steam and water; to move
material and supplies; and to perform a variety
of other maintenance and service operations.
In the machine shops, machinists and machine
tool operators make and repair metal parts for
machinery or equipment. Die makers use ma­
chine tools to construct dies used in wire and cold­
drawing units. (See p. 186 for information on
duties, training, earnings, working conditions, and
job opportunities in other industries in these ma­
chine shop occupations.) Roll turners (D. O. T.
4-78.011) use lathes, grinders, and other machine
tools to finish steel rolls to desired shape and size
for use in the rolling mills.
Millwrights install and help maintain mechani­
cal equipment. They dismantle machinery and
replace defective parts. Their most important
function is to set up new machinery and equip­
ment. Electricians install electric wiring and fix­
tures and hook up electrically operated equip­
ment. Electrical repairmen keep wiring, motors,
switches, and electrical equipment in good operat­
ing condition and make repairs when equipment
breaks down.
Refractory bricklayers (D. O. T. 5-24.130) re­
pair and rebuild the brickwork in furnaces, soak­
ing pits, and coke ovens. Pipefitters lay out, in­
stall, and repair piping, valves, pumps, and
compressors. Boilermakers test, repair, and re­
build various types of pressure vessels such as
heating units, locomotive boilers, storage tanks,
stationary boilers, and condensers. Locomotive
engineers and other train crew members operate
steam, Diesel, or electric locomotive-driven trains
used to transport materials and products in the

vast yards o f iron and steel plants. Skilled
workers run the various boilers, turbines, switch­
boards, and pumps in the power plants which pro­
vide the large amounts o f electric power needed
in steelmaking.

Many workers are employed in the labor gangs
to load and unload materials and do a variety of
clean-up operations. Other maintenance and
service occupations found in steel plants include
carpenter, craneman, oiler and greaser, janitor,
and guard.
Detailed descriptions o f the duties, training,
working conditions, and job prospects in many o f
the mechanical, transportation, and service occu­
pations, such as boilermaker, bricklayer, carpen­
ter, electrician, millwright, and pipefitter are
included in this handbook. See index fo r page

Experienced craftsmen, such as machinists,
boilermakers, pipefitters, and electricians, are
sometimes hired directly by steel companies.
Generally, however, openings in the skilled main­
tenance occupations are filled from within. Most
steel plants conduct some type of apprentice train­
ing program to meet the needs of their mainte­
nance shops.
The apprenticeship programs
usually cover 3 or 4 years, including mainly shop
training in various parts of the particular jobs.
In addition, classroom instruction in related tech­
nical subjects is generally given, either in the plant
or in local vocational schools.
Qualifications for apprentices vary among com­
panies. Generally, the apprentice must be a high
school or vocational school graduate and must be
able to provide character references. In most
cases, the minimum age is 18 years; usually an
upper age limit of 26 or 30 is specified. Some


companies give aptitude tests to applicants for
apprenticeship to determine their suitability for
the trade. Apprentices are chosen from among
those who apply directly to the plant; they are
also selected from among qualified young workers
already employed in other plant jobs. Prefer­
ence is often given to those who have a member of
their family working for the company. The fol­
lowing occupations are among those most often in­
cluded in apprentice training programs in iron
and steel plants: boilermaker, bricklayer, carpen­
ter, electrician, machinist, pipefitter, roll turner,
and tool and die maker.
Semiskilled maintenance jobs are generally
filled by upgrading laborers or helpers. Unskilled
laborers on the labor gang are normally hired at
the gate. Some of these workers stay in labor
jobs indefinitely; others advance to higher-rated
maintenance or processing jobs.
Earnings in Mechanical, Transportation, and
Plant Service Occupations
Earnings vary considerably among the many
maintenance and service occupations. The fol­
lowing table shows standard hourly rates in

Mechanical, transportation, and plant service

Job title
Power station operator_____
Tool maker
Electrician, first class _
Boilermaker. _
Bricklayer, A _
Roll turner
_ _
___ __ _
Rigger, A
Welder, A __ _
Electrical repairman, A
Locomotive engineer. _
Painter, A
Oiler and greaser, mill oiler
Carpenter helper
Bricklayer helper
. . .
Painter helper
Janitor and sweeper _

Hourly rate

_ _ _ _




1 Not including the Tennessee Coal, Iron, and Railroad Co.

Technical and Office Occupations
Until now we have discussed the large groups
of skilled, semiskilled, and unskilled workers
employed in the processing and maintenance de­
partments. Because of the technical nature of
steelmaking and because many of the operations
are highly mechanized, a considerable force of
professional and technical personnel is also needed.
The estimated 8,000 engineers constitute the larg­
est group of these employees.
The principal work of mechanical engineers in
iron and steel plants is in the design, construction,
and operation of mill machinery and material­
handling apparatus. Many mechanical engineers
work in operating units where their jobs include,
for example, determination of roll size and con­
tour, rolling pressures, and operating speeds.
Others are responsible for plant and equipment
maintenance. Metallurgical engineers work in
laboratories, where they have the important task
of testing and controlling the quality of the steel
during its manufacture. Civil engineers are en
892273°— 51-------18
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

selected occupations as specified in the wage
agreement effective July 16, 1948, between the
United Steelworkers (C IO ) and the steel produc­
ing subsidiaries1 of the United States Steel Corp.

gaged in the lay-out, construction, and mainte­
nance of the steel plant and its utilities, equipment,
and roads. Electrical engineers design, lay out,
and supervise operation of electrical generating
and distribution facilities which provide the power
essential in modern steel mill operation. They
also are concerned with the operation of electrical
machinery and control equipment. (For a much
more detailed description of the engineering field
see page 79.) Chemists as well as metallurgists
work in the laboratories, making chemical analyses
of steel and raw materials used in steel manufac­
ture. Laboratory technicians do routine testing
and assist chemists and metallurgists. Draftsmen
prepare working plans and detailed drawings re­
quired in plant construction and maintenance.
Many steel companies recruit engineers and
other technically trained personnel by sending
representatives to colleges and universities each
year to interview graduating students. Some


companies have formal training programs for
college trained engineers in which the trainees are
rotated through the various operating and main­
tenance divisions to give them a broad picture of
steelmaking operations before assignment to a
particular department. In other companies, the
newly hired engineer is assigned directly to a spe­
cific research, operating, or maintenance unit. It
is important to note that many of the top execu­
tives in the industry have engineering back­
A large number of workers are employed in such
activities as purchasing materials, shipping, sell­
ing steel products, accounting, personnel work,


and record keeping. Engineering graduates are
usually hired for selling jobs and are often given
additional training at the plant in order to help
them understand the technical requirements of
buyers of steel products. Clerks, bookkeepers,
accountants, typists, stenographers, personnel
workers, traffic managers, and purchasing agents
are included among the many kinds of workers
found in administrative offices of steel companies.
There are also many clerical workers in operating
departments, doing such jobs as keeping produc­
tion records. Discussion of many of these admin­
istrative and clerical jobs can be found in this
handbook. See index for page numbers.

Shipbuilding and ship repairing, one of the Na­
tion’s oldest industries, has had marked fluctua­
tions in activity and employment, especially dur­
ing the decades of the two world wars. At the
peak of World War II, more than 1,700,000 work­
ers had jobs in shipyards; by June 1950, the num­
ber had shrunk to 135,000.
The employment outlook in shipyards is uncer­
tain, because it depends largely on public policy
with respect to the shipbuilding and merchant ma­
rine industries. What the policy may be in the
future cannot be foreseen. However, in mid-1950
the employment trend was reversed. In view of
the military procurement program, employment is
expected to rise substantially during the early
fifties. Compared to most other industries, ship­
building has a very high proportion of skilled j obs;
about half of the production workers in a ship­
yard are in skilled or supervisory positions.
Nature of the Industry
This industry consists of yards which repair
ships, yards which build them, and yards which
do both building and repair. The yard may be
privately owned or it may be a naval shipyard.
In peacetime, all commercial vessels and about
half the naval craft are built in privately owned
shipyards. In wartime, naval shipyards are so
busy with the maintenance, servicing, and repair
of the fleet that they leave practically all building
to the private yards and also assign to them a large
number of naval vessels for repair or conversion.
Shipbuilding is much like construction work.
Generally, ships are built on a custom basis, each
vessel being a distinct job. In peacetime years,
even the biggest yard has only a few ships under
construction at the same time, and each unit may
be of an entirely different type.
There are a large number of private yards which
do ship repairing, but only a small number build
new ships. As of January 1, 1949, there were 13
private shipyards in the country engaged in the
construction of combatant vessels or seagoing com­
mercial ships: 10 on the Atlantic Coast, 2 on the
Gulf Coast, and 1 on the Great Lakes. A t the be­

ginning of 1949, there were 10 naval shipyards: 6
on the Atlantic Coast and 4 on the Pacific. Five of
these naval yards were building new ships at that
The great expansion during World War II, in­
cluding the influx of many new organizations
without prior shipbuilding experience, brought a
great dispersion of facilities and jobs. Now, how­
ever, the industry and its jobs are once again to be
found generally where they were before the war.
Chart 60 shows that, taking all yards together,
jobs are located almost entirely along the coasts.
They are heavily concentrated in the North Atlan­
tic coastal area (Connecticut, Delaware, Maine,
Maryland, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New
Jersey, parts of New York and Pennsylvania, and
Rhode Island). Nearly half the industry’s em­
ployment was in this region in early 1950.
Another 16 percent or so in the Atlantic area to
the south (parts of Georgia and North Carolina,
South Carolina, and Virginia) brought employ­
ment on the whole of the Atlantic Coast to nearly
two-thirds of all shipbuilding jobs in the country.
By way of contrast, the Pacific Coast (California,
Oregon, and Washington) afforded somewhat less
than a fourth of all jobs. About 7 percent of the
jobs were found in the remaining area of impor­
tance, the Gulf States (Alabama, Florida, parts of
Georgia and Louisiana, Mississippi, and Texas).
Employment Trends and Outlook
Among the more striking facts in the history of
merchant shipbuilding in the United States are,
first, that new construction has fluctuated greatly
from year to year; second, that over the last 100
years there has been no upward trend in building.
This failure to increase contrasts sharply with the
expansion which occurred in most other industries,
as would be expected in a country experiencing
population and economic growth. There has,
however, been a growing need for repair work, to
service and maintain a growing merchant marine.
The annual volume of naval construction,
usually smaller than that of commercial building,
has shown a tendency to rise only moderately over


the years; naval servicing and repair needs have
tended upward much more. On balance, the
long-run trend in total demand for new construc­
tion during peacetime has been fairly level over
the last few decades, while that for repair work has
Foreign competition in a world market has been
a factor of great importance in the ups and downs
of American shipping and shipbuilding. In the
years immediately preceding World War I, our
shipbuilders were having unusual difficulty meet­
ing this competition, and operations were at a low
level when war broke out in Europe. Increasing
demands upon our shipping and shipbuilding in­
dustries followed, especially after our own entry
into the war made it necessary to move abroad and
supply unprecedented numbers of t r o o p s .
Through great efforts, the industry managed to


construct the heavy volume of tonnage required
to meet these growing needs. Between 1914 and
the peak year of 1919, the number of jobs increased
from 65,000 to 484,000, including 71,000 in naval
shipyards (chart 61).
The situation clearly demonstrated how greatly
the Nation’s security depended upon our shipping
capacity. There developed a greater appreciation
of the need for maintaining, in peacetime, goodsized multipurpose merchant and naval fleets, and
a shipbuilding industry readily expansible in case
of war. This would mean maintaining at all
times a core of experienced managers, engineers,
and craftsmen, who could maintain and improve
the technical “ know how.”
When World War I ended, few new ships were
ordered, because there was a large surplus of both
commercial and naval vessels. From the 1919


Thousands of




- 1600












- 800



400 -




Notet Selected years, 1909-1921 * employment in private yards, ship and
boat building and repair-Census of Manufactures; Naval Shipyard
employment - Navy Department. 1923 - 1949: shipbuilding and repair
employment in private and Naval Shipyards-Bureau of Labor Statistics,





Genera! view of an aircraft carrier under construction.



high of 484,000 workers (private and Naval ship­
yards), employment dropped to about 90,000 by
1923, and even this volume of employment could
not be maintained, shrinking to 70,000 by 1928.
With new construction falling and the tonnage of
the merchant fleet in use holding at about double
that before the war, an increasing share of the
business was in the form of repair work. The
depression brought employment in private and
naval yards down to a low of 57,000 in 1933, de­
spite the Merchant Marine Act of 1928 designed to
bolster the industry.
The Merchant Marine Act of 1928 and a sim­
ilarly entitled act of 1936 established policies of
Government aid, principally in the form of sub­
sidies. With the work done directly by the Navy
and that done for the Navy by private yards
already bulking large in the total building and
repair picture, the effect of the latter act in par­
ticular has tended to make Government and Gov­
ernment-subsidized activity the overwhelming
share of all shipbuilding work, both in most years
of peace and in years of war.
Stimulated by Government action, mainly
naval construction contracts, and by the improve­
ment in general business conditions, private and
naval shipyard employment increased from 57,000
in 1933 to over 100,000 in 1937. Two years later
World War I I broke out in Europe and ship­
building employment increased rapidly, more
than tripling between 1939 and 1941. The really
spectacular shipbuilding expansion of W orld War
II, one of the most dramatic in all industrial his­
tory, came after the attack on Pearl Harbor. By
December 1943, the number of workers in private
and naval shipyards had reached an all-time high
of 1,723,000. The war had made o f one of the
smaller manufacturing industries one of the
The decline from this peak was even sharper
than the rise to it. By the summer of 1945, while
the war with Japan was still going on, shipyard
employment in private and naval shipyards had
fallen to around 1,100,000, a drop from the peak
of over a third, and by the end of 1946 it had
dropped another 850,000 to about 250,000. After
1946, employment in the shipbuilding industry
drifted more or less steadily downward to a level
of 135,000 workers in June 1950. Nevertheless,

4 years after the war there were still more jobs,
both in private and in naval shipyards, than at
almost any time in the 1920’s and 1930’s. A re­
versal of the downward trend occurred in mid1950, as employment began to climb as a result of
the defense program. About half the jobs were
in naval shipyards.
The employment outlook for shipyard workers
is difficult to determine. Shipbuilding is one of
the few industries regarding which this would be
true even if we assumed full employment in the
economy generally. The discussion above has
indicated that employment levels in shipbuilding
depend principally upon the amount and character
of new construction and reconstruction carried on,
and upon the size and composition of the naval and
merchant fleets requiring servicing and repair. It
has also brought out the importance of Govern­
ment policy in determining the level of activity in
the industry. More so than in most other indus­
tries, many of the factors which determine the
magnitude and nature of its activity are unforesee­
able or difficult to evaluate in advance. For ex­
ample, international political and economic devel­
opments influence both the business decisions o f
American shippers and shipbuilders, and the deci­
sions of Congress which affect shipping and ship­
building, notably the shipbuilding program of the
Navy and the Federal program of subsidy to
private shipbuilding.
There has been a wide range of proposals set
forth as to the size of the shipbuilding industry
to be maintained. A number of bills introduced
in recent sessions o f Congress set forth as National
policy the maintenance o f a minimum level o f
employment in ship construction. Nevertheless,,
there was an almost continuous decrease in em­
ployment since World War II. In mid-1950,
however, a reversal of this trend occurred. A
substantial increase in employment in the early
fifties is expected in view of our expanding de­
fense program.
A big factor in job openings in almost any indus­
try is the replacement need arising from quits,
deaths, and retirements. There is some evidence
that there was, in mid-1950, a heavier proportion
of older workers in the Nation’s private yards
than there has ever been; this should be reflected
in a somewhat higher annual rate of loss from
deaths and retirements.


Shipyard Workers and Their Jobs
The basic characteristics of shipyards and their
work force are the same regardless of whether they
are private or naval yards, or whether they con­
centrate on building or repair. Every yard of
any size offers employment to skilled workers in a
wide variety of crafts, principally metalworking,
woodworking, and the kind usually designated as
“ building trades.” Of the workers directly en­
gaged in building ships, about half are skilled
workers or supervisors. About 40 percent are
semiskilled and about 10 percent unskilled. Few
industries have such a high proportion of skilled
Earnings and Working Conditions
Average hourly and weekly earnings of ship­
yard workers tend to be higher than those of most
other manufacutring workers, reflecting in part
the large proportion of skilled workers in ship­
building. In July 1950, production workers in
private shipbuilding and repair average $64.00 for
an average workweek of 37.8 hours, or about $1.69
an hour. The corresponding averages for all
manufacturing were $59.21 for 40.5 hours of work,
or about $1.46 an hour.
How much workers earn during a year depends,
of course, on how steadily they are employed.
Shipbuilding and repair work, in private yards in
particular, tend to fluctuate more than many other
kinds of manufacturing activity. Within the
space o f a single year, individual yards may ex­
perience sharp ups and downs, while other indus­
tries are operating at a relatively even pace. In
the same yard, workers in some jobs or divisions
may be laid off, while those in other operations are
recalled. Some fluctuations could not be com­
pletely eliminated even with a very heavy continu­
ous building program in each yard. Repair busi­
ness is inherently spasmodic. When a ship comes
in for repair work there is a great rush of activity
to get it back into operation as quickly as possible;
then a slack period may follow, and men are laid
off. Weather is another factor making for irregu­
larity in employment in shipbuilding, since bad
weather hampers the outdoor work around the

In addition to being subject to month-to-month
fluctuations, the industry has been and may well
continue to be subject to ups and downs over a
period of years. A year or two of relatively highlevel activity has often been followed by a 1- or 2year lull. Nevertheless, workers tend to stick to
the industry. When it is possible to do so, they
offset pay losses in slack periods by working in
other industries.
Building and repairing ships, like construction
work, necessitates some arduous and even hazard­
ous work. There are, of course, many differences
in working conditions among jobs and depart­
ments. Many jobs require considerable heavy
work; others are hard on the eyes. Some work
must be done under conditions of extreme heat,
cold, dampness, poor ventilation or drafts. Ship­
yard employees frequently work high above the
ground, or in cramped and prone positions.
Moving heavy equipment, burning and welding,
working on small platforms, going up and down
ladders, and many other aspects of shipbuilding
operations make for many accidents to mechanics
and their crews. Falls are a common source of
injury, since much of the work is done above
ground and deck levels.
Much has been done to improve working condi­
tions and make the many dangerous or uncomfort­
able conditions in shipbuilding as safe and pleas­
ant as possible. Special campaigns, standing
yard committees on safety and health, and pro­
tective devices on machines have all contributed
toward keeping down the number of accidents.
These efforts have aided in bringing the disablinginjury rate down to about 26 for each million man­
hours worked in the private shipbuilding industry
in 1949. This rate is over 50 percent greater than
that for manufacturing as a whole, but well below
that in construction. The injury rate in naval
shipyards is lower.
A number of unions organize shipbuilding
workers. Along the Atlantic Coast the bulk of
workers are represented by the Industrial Union
of Marine and Shipbuilding Workers of America,
CIO. On the Pacific Coast, A F L metal trades
unions predominate bargaining as a group. This
arrangement includes, in addition to the regular





A F L metal trades unions, A F L groups usually
designated as “building trades unions,” and the
large, unaffiliated International Association of
Machinists. There are also a number of small
unaffiliated unions in the field, usually single-yard
How To Enter the Field
Methods of entry into the principal shipbuild­
ing occupations vary. For professional engineer­
ing and for drafting jobs, as well as for most office
and clerical positions, the training and qualifica­
tions required are similar to those in other indus­
tries. Further information may be found in this
Handbook, in the reports on engineers, draftsmen,
clerical occupations, accountants, etc.

To enter most o f the skilled occupations, a per­
son must ordinarily obtain training and experience
within the industry as an apprentice, handyman,
or helper.

Apprenticeship in shipyards, as in other indus­
tries, generally covers a 4-year period and includes
both supervised work and classroom instruction in
related technical subjects, such as blueprint read­
ing and shop arithmetic. In selecting young men
for apprenticeship, employers consider their rec­
ords in school and their physical condition. A p ­
prentices are nearly always required to have had
a high school education or equivalent, preferably
along mathematical and technical lines. Mini­
mum and maximum age provisions for apprentices
are common.


Handymen occupy a position between that of
helper and of journeyman mechanic. Some of
them are in reality trainees for journeymen jobs,
without benefit of formal apprenticeship arrange­
ment. Unless the handyman is a recognized learn­
er, he is expected to master and perform independ­
ently only a limited number of tasks.
H eifers are among the least skilled shipbuilding
workers. They may assist handymen or work
under journeymen mechanics. Generally, they
learn elementary tasks only, related to the less
skilled, usually repetitive operations. As in the
case of handymen, however, the so-called helper
may also really be a learner, under a more or less
informal arrangement, and the training is then
more extensive. Preference in filling handymen
vacancies is frequently given to helpers.
Information on job opportunities in a particu­
lar locality may be obtained from several different
sources. An applicant may go to the nearest
office of his State employment service, or to any
yard in the neighborhood. Unions and employer
associations may be of some assistance. I f neither
is present locally, an applicant may write for in­
formation to national headquarters of such or­
ganizations as :
Industrial Union of Marine and Shipbuilding
Workers, CIO, 534 Cooper St., Camden, N. J.
A F L Metal Trades Department, 901 Massachu­
setts Ave., NW., Washington 1, D. C.
International Association of Machinists, Ind.,
Ninth St. and Mt. Vernon PL, NW., Washington
1, D. C.
Shipbuilders Council of America, 21 West St.,
New York 6, N. Y.
The Shipbuilders Council is the principal em­
ployer association. For naval shipyard positions,
information can be obtained from the nearest
shipyard, or from the nearest regional office of
the United Civil Service Commission.
Jobs in the Industry
Shipbuilding is done in six principal broad
steps: planning and design, making forms for
hull sections, fabricating metal sections from the
forms, hull construction, engineering, and out­
fitting. Once the flow of production is sufficiently
under way, several operations may be in process
at the same time. The major engineering and
outfitting tasks must await the completion of hull

construction. The assembled hull is launched
and transferred to another location for equipping.
Shipbuilding operations are summarized in
chart 62.
The tabulation below shows the occupational
distribution of production workers employed on
new construction in private yards in two periods
for which data are available.1 In both periods,
the leading occupations were machinists, welders,
and ship fitters, and this is likely to be true today.
As for the relative importance of the different
occupations, such shifts as those indicated for
machinists and welders in particular probably re­
flect the wartime building program.


Percent of total
August 1936

W elders
Sheet-metal workers
Chippers and calkers
Pipe fitters
Carpenters and shipw rights_
Anglesmiths and blacksmiths _
All other occupations________




100. 0 j

June 1943


100. 0

Planning and Design Jobs
After a purchaser indicates to a shipbuilder or
design specialist what kind of ship he wants, de­
tailed plans are drawn, incorporating his desires
as to size, capacity, speed, and numerous other fea­
tures. This may involve a tremendous amount of
research, calculating, and drafting by professional
naval architects and marine engineers and related
workers. Draftsmen, for example, under the
guidance of the architects and engineers, make the
detailed drawings required. Other employees do
laboratory work or prepare blueprints. From 10
to 15 percent of the industry’s work force are
found in professional, technical, and office jobs—

1Employment in the Shipbuilding Industry, 1935-43, Monthly Labor
Review, May 1944, p. 966.


many of them in planning and design work. For
further discussion of naval architects and marine
engineers, see mechanical engineers, page 84; for
draftsmen, see page 99.

Form-Making Jobs
After plans are approved, they are sent to the
various departments. Among the first to start
operating is the mold loft. Here are made wood
or paper patterns, called “molds” or “ templates” ,
for almost every structural part of the ship. These
forms correspond exactly to plates and shapes such
as will make up the completed hull. Some of these
pieces and standard parts—pipe fittings, propel­
lers, and steering gear, for example—may be
ordered from manufacturers who specialize in such
items. Only a very small portion of the shipyard’s
total work force are engaged in preparing molds.
The principal occupation in this operation is that
o f loftsman.
In making the templates, loftsmen (D. O. T. 517.210) draw the ship’s lines to full size on the large
loft floor. Using hand and machine woodworking
tools, they then construct the molds for individual
parts in conformity with the floor lay-outs. On
the molds themselves, loft workers make lines and
other markings to guide the workers who later
fabricate the parts. These lines and markings
help identify the parts and indicate the work to be
done to plates or shapes before being fitted on the
ship. In some yards, loftsmen specialize in partic­
ular mold loft operations.
Since they work from dimensions and smallscale drawings given them bv the drafting room,
loftsmen must be able to read blueprints: they must
know mechanical drawing and drafting proced­
ures. Having only two-dimensional plans at their
disposal, they must be able to visualize the threedimensional shapes of parts from such plans.
They must be able to do at least simple carpentry
tasks and know hovTto use carpenters’ tools and
machines. In addition, they must be able to direct
Hiring and promotion policies vary among the
yards. A minimum condition to becoming a
loftsman is a year’s experience as a mold loft
handyman. More often a regular 4-year appren­
ticeship or equivalent training is required. Lofts­
men may advance to supervisory jobs in the

Fabricating Jobs
The next step in shipbuilding is to make metal
parts from the templates fashioned in the mold
loft. This is done in the fabricating shop or “ steel
mill.” Metal is cut, shaped, punched, and drilled,
as indicated by the templates. Metal workers of
many types are engaged in the work, including

anglesmiths, blacksmiths, burners, machine oper­
ators, machinists, welders, and lay-out men, along
with their helpers and apprentices. Roughly a
fourth o f the industry’s workers are engaged pri­
marily in fabrication. Many jobs in this operation
are similar to metalworking jobs in other indus­
tries. A detailed description of duties, training,
working conditions, and job prospects in many
metalworking occupations are included in this
handbook. See index for page numbers.

Hull Construction Jobs
Hull assembly begins after enough parts have
been fabricated in the yard or received from manL o fts m e n d ra w th e s h ip 's lin e s to f u ll size on th e lo ft flo o r .
F ro m
th is f lo o r la y -o u t th e y m a k e w ood o r pap er m o ld s o r te m p la te s of th e
s tru c tu r a l Darts o f th e sh ip .



ufacturers. It is this operation that most people
have in mind when they think of shipbuilding, for
it is principally the hull-in-construction which
meets our eyes as we pass by a yard.
Assembling is done on a shipway, a platform
specially built and equipped for hull construction.
The first step in erecting the hull is laying the keel,
the backbone o f the ship’s frame that runs along
the bottom of the hull the full length of the ship.
Keel-laying is carried out principally by gangs of
erectors. The hull is built outward and upward
from the keel. Cranemen, under the direction of
erectors, lift prefabricated plates and shapes into
place as erection progresses. There erectors fasten
these structural parts temporarily. Shipfitters,
assisted by “ service men” (burners, tack welders,
and chippers), follow, to see that all pieces are in
the exact spot called for in the blueprints and re­
fasten them accordingly— again temporarily.
Final fastening is done by welders, riveters, and
related workers.
With the hull built, the ship is ready for the
often dramatic ceremony of launching. This job
of transferring the ship to the water involves a
substantial construction task in itself. Heavy tim­
ber runways and other structures are built, and
steel tie plates are attached at appropriate points
to keep the ship from sliding into the water. These
are later burned through to permit the ship, and
with it virtually the whole launching structure, to
slide or be hydraulically rammed into the water.
The ship is then towed to a new location for
Roughly a third of the production workers in
ship construction work on hull construction. In
repair work, on the other hand, a smaller propor­
tion of the workers are engaged in this operation.
Many of the jobs in hull construction are also
found in other industries. These include such oc­
cupations as welder, burner, and riveter, which are
described elsewhere in this handbook. Two occu­
pations in this operation which are distinctive to
shipbuilding are shipfitter and erector.
Ship-jitters (D. 0 . T. 4—
84.012), sometimes
called “ fitters” or “ assemblers” , constitute one of
the largest occupations in the industry. Working
from blueprints, these workers mark the struc­
tural parts to show their location in the hull,
assemble the parts to be fitted, and direct the work
of making these parts secure enough for further

handling by other workers in the job of final instal­
lation. Sometimes the blueprint dimensions will
not fit or it may not have been possible to prede­
termine the lay-outs at all in the mold loft. In
such cases, shipfitters prepare molds or templates
on the spot.
Shipfitting is a skilled operation in which abil­
ity both to measure and work to close tolerances
is essential. All shipfitters must be familiar with
shipfitting practices and know ship structure and
terminology, but men in the trade are frequently
classified in various grades according to experi­
ence, ability, and seniority. The greatest responsi­
bility is, of course, on the top-grade men who fre­
quently specialize in a particular phase of the
work. Lower-ranking men usually have their
tasks organized and closely directed by their
The proportion of shipfitters needed in differ­
ent types of work varies considerably. In repair
work, where the job consists principally of fitting
replacement parts, a relatively simple task, there
were only two or three shipfitters for every 100
repair workers in 1943; in most ship construction
work 4 to 5 percent of the employees were
Minimum training required for entry into this
occupation is a year’s experience as a handyman
on hull construction. More often a regular 4-year
apprenticeship or equivalent is required.
Erectors (D. O. T. 6--84.115) work in gangs.
Their job is to get all the steel parts onto the
ship, when and where they are needed, for tem­
porary fastening. Their usual tasks include at­
taching the member to be erected to a crane (using
rigging such as hooks or chains) and directing the
crane operator, by hand signals, in lifting the part
and in placing it where indicated by a shipfitter.
One or more members of the gang then work the
member roughly into position with bars, pins, and
sledges and see that it is bolted down to await
final fastening by rigging and welding crews.
The erector must know the procedure for put­
ting various sizes and weights of assemblies into
place and how to use a wide range of rigging gear.
He must know ship structure and terminology.
For plate erection and for setting units in welded
construction, in particular, especially well-quali­
fied gangs are needed. Jobs are filled primarily
by promotion of handymen and helpers already


working in erection gangs; the main promotional
opportunity for an erector is to become a lead
man. Erectors make up a very small proportion
of the shipbuilding work force. They numbered
probably no more than one or two thousand in
1941, which was a good shipbuilding year, and
the number in 1949 was considerably smaller.
Another group of workers employed in hull
construction are calkers and chippers. Calkers
and chippers make up about 2 or 3 percent of the
work force in the shipbuilding industry. On
steel hulls, chipping and calking are sometimes
handled by the same workers. Chipping is gen­
erally considered to be a less-skilled job than
In chipping, the worker chips, trims, levels, or
otherwise cuts to size metal plates and parts with
tools powered by a pneumatic hammer. To do the
required cutting or gouging, the worker selects the
tool, puts it into the hammer socket, and carefully
guides the tool, free-hand or along lines marked
out by other workers. Additional duties may in­
clude cleaning slag out of flame-gouged joints prior
to their being welded, testing tanks and compart­
ments to see if they are air-tight or liquid-tight,
oiling and maintaining pneumatic hammers, and
grinding chipping tools.
In metal calking, the worker, using hand or airpowered tools, tightens rivet heads, seams, and
joints in order to close leaks in tanks and ship
sections and make them water- or air-tight. Wood
calking is an entirely different operation. This
job consists of filling in seams in hull planking to
make them water-tight. Among the calking ma­
terials used are cotton, oakum, rosin, and white
Some yards hire inexperienced workers and
train them for these jobs; others hire only ex­
perienced men. I f the experience has been gained
in other industries, some retraining in shipyard
methods and terminology is necessary. There is
also a considerable amount of upgrading into this
occupation, particularly of members of the rivet­
ing gangs. Sometimes calkers or chippers are
promoted to better-paying combination chippercalker jobs. It is also possible for calkers, chip­
pers, and chipper-calkers to advance to such posi­
tions as lead man and to the still higher level of
departmental quarterman (supervisor).






E re c to r d ire c tin g th e c ra n e s m a n by hand s ig n a ls in p la c in g s te e l p la te .

Engineering Jobs
Engineering is the important, highly compli­
cated operation—one of the most intricate in ship­
building—of installing engines, boilers, and other
heavy equipment. Craftsmen, such as machinists
and pipe -jitters, prepare equipment for installa­
tion. (For further discussion of pipefitters, see
plumbers and pipefitters, p. 389.) Riggers do
the hoisting, using cables, chains, and other tackle,
and direct crane operators in lifting and lowering
the equipment into the assigned spaces aboard ship.
The machinists, pipe fitters, and others then com­
plete the installation on-ship. Engineering jobs
taken together make up perhaps 10 to 15 percent
of the industry’s total production jobs. Machin­
ists are almost always the largest single occupation
in engineering departments.
There are two groups of machinists in the ship­
building and repair industry. One group is known
by such titles as “ outside,” “ installation,” or “ ma­
rine machinists,” or “marine engineers.” The re­
maining group of machinists working in the ship­
building industry have duties similar to machin­
ists employed in other industries. (Description of
their work, training, employment outlook, and
earnings is included in this handbook, see p. 186.)
The main job of the outside machinists (I). O. T.
4-75.150) is to line up accurately for installation


the units which make up a ship’s propulsion and
auxiliary machinery, steering apparatus, and pip­
ing. These units may have been previously po­
sitioned, on a temporary basis, by other workers,
e. g., riggers. The machinists fasten the units on
prepared bases or directly at designated ship lo­
cations. They lay out holes for burning, the holes
being used for passing connecting items (such as
shafting and high-pressure steam lines) through
bulkheads, decks, and other vessel surfaces. Addi­
tional duties include constructing floor and work­
ing spaces in engine and boiler rooms and testing
and inspecting installed machinery and equipment
for proper functioning during dock and sea trials.
These and other tasks involve working to close
tolerances and exact, vibrationless alignments; fine
measuring and aligning gages and instruments are
used* Naval installation specifications are par­
ticularly stringent.
The occupation is one of the highest-skilled in
the industry. Workers are often classified in var­
ious grades based on experience, ability, and sen­
iority. All top-grade men must be able to work to
close accuracy with machinist’s hand tools and do
precision checking with delicate instruments.
Unless machinery and equipment locations are
laid out by departmental supervisors, all machin­
ists must be able to read and interpret blueprints.
Workers are either trained by apprenticeship or
are advanced to journeyman status on the basis of
experience, especially experience as handymen in
the type of installation work done by machinists.
Precision experience in naval construction is a
decided advantage in advancing to a machinist’s
Outfitting Jobs

Outfitting is the job of making a vessel livable
and equipping it for carrying cargo. Bare com­
partments must be transformed into living and
working quarters. Carpenters and joiners build
and install such equipment as bunks, lockers, and
cabinets. Electricians install lighting and com­
munications systems. Sheet-metal workers con­
struct ventilating systems. Painters go over the
entire ship. Riggers install the wide assortment
of cargo-moving equipment needed. A fifth of
the production workers are in the industry’s out­

fitting departments, with larger proportions in
naval and repair operations.
The work of carpenters, electricians, sheet-metal
workers, and painters in this industry is similar
to that done in construction and other indus­
tries. Discussion of these occupations is included
elsewhere in the handbook. See index for page
Riggers are a small but important group of
workers employed in outfitting, as well as in other
shipbuilding operations. They are employed in
all types of ship construction and in repair work.
There are two categories of riggers. The biggest
group, known simply as “ riggers,” work pri­
marily on the complex job of hoisting aboard
heavy equipment (such as boilers, rudders, and
machinery) and putting it into position for final
installation by other workers. The smaller group
includes “ ship riggers,” who work in the fabricat­
ing shops, making and assembling the ship's rig­
ging, and “ stage riggers,” who, in some shipyards,
put up the staging, scaffolding, ladders, and guard
rails needed in assembling the hull. Both ship
and stage riggers may install rigging aboard ship.
To hoist a piece of equipment aboard ship, rig­
gers (D. O. T. 5-88.040) determine what hoisting
equipment is needed, secure the equipment with
cables, slings, ropes, or chains, and direct crane
operators by hand signals in the actual hoisting.
They get on-the-spot advice from the installation
workers, e. g., advice from pipe fitters on pipes,
from machinists on engine parts. Usually, rig­
gers with the most experience and skill handle
expensive machinery. Sometimes these men are
called “ machinery riggers.”
Ship riggers (D. O. T. 5-05.570), using mostly
hand tools, cut and splice wire cables and rope and
attach various types of fittings to the rigging.
They also make wooden and rope assemblies, such
as Jacob's ladders, and install canvas covers on
boats, hatches, and guns. As has been indicated,
ship riggers work both in the fabricating shops
and on rigging the ship.
The stage rigger—really a carpenter—is respon­
sible for providing such items as working plat­
forms, hand rails, gangways, and ladders. He
designs and cuts the lumber for scaffolding and
staging, erects the pieces himself if they are light,
and directs others if the pieces are too heavy to

s h ip b u il d in g


s h ip

handle alone. When the stage rigger installs lad­
ders, hand rails, and walkways aboard ship, he
frequently needs the services of welders. A ddi­
tional responsibilities may include maintenance
and repair of the temporary equipment he erects,
such as staging and scaffolding. Stage riggers
may also shore up structures and prepare the
shipways for a launching.
Sometimes so-called riggers also do ship rig­
ging and even stage rigging as described above.
Duties ascribed to ship riggers in this report may
be handled by other groups of workers entirely.
The fabrication jobs, for example, may be done by
cable splicers, loft riggers, and wiremen.
Job requirements with respect to skills and ex­
perience may be very limited or very comprehen­
sive, depending on the yard and the worker’s spe­
cific assignments. This is true especially for ship
riggers. Among the more difficult requirements
for most ship rigger jobs are experience with all
types of rigging used on ships, all kinds of wire
cable or rope splices, and all methods of rigging.
There are few formal training programs for
rimers. Experience received as handymen and
helpers in all kinds of rigging work is about the
best qualification for classification as a journey­
man rigger. Rigging experience in other indus­
tries is helpful, but most openings are filled by
promotion from within. Foremen and subfore­
men, such as lead men, are likewise drawn largely,
if not exclusively, from within the ranks.
Ship Repair Jobs

Ships arriving in port frequently need repairs
and service which cannot be made by their regular
crews but require the specially trained workers of
the ship repair industry. Sometimes the repairs
to be made are simple and can be done by one or
two men in a few hours. More serious trouble,
such as an engine breakdown, may keep a rather
large group of men busy for a week or more. Ship
conversion and modernization are also classed as
repair work.
A ll repairs except those affecting the underside
of the ship can be made alongside a pier or when
the ship is at anchor. Underside or bottom re­
pairs and servicing, such as replacing propellers or

r e p a ir in g

o c c u p a t io n s

cleaning the hull, are done in a dock, most com­
monly a “ floating dry dock.” This is a structure
which can be submerged; the ship is located over
it, and the water pumped out, giving workmen ac­
cess to working platforms around the ship. Other
types of structures used for repair jobs are graving
docks and marine railways. A graving dock is a
walled and floored excavation at the water’s edge
with a gate. The dock space is flooded, the gate
opened, the ship brought in, the gate closed and
the water pumped out. A marine railway is used
for smaller vessels. It consists of a cradle which
rests on rollers on an inclined track extending out
into the water. The ship is made fast to the cradle
out in the water and ship and cradle are pulled
onto land with winches and chains.
Repair work calls for the same type of skilled
workers as does new construction, although in d if­
ferent proportions. However, some kinds o f
workers are needed in ship repair in very small
numbers, if at all. For example, few designing
experts, draftsmen, and mold loft and fabricating
workers are required in ordinary repair work—
although more may be needed in ship conversion
and modernization. On the other hand, repair
work calls for a much higher proportion o f engi­
neering craftsmen than does building. This is
because the greatest volume of repair work is done
on engines and other moving parts. Moreover,
repair work involves some types of workers not
found in construction at all—crews who operate
and maintain dry docks, for example. It involves
also a greater variety of jobs for workers in a given
trade than does new construction, and men special­
izing in repair work are often referred to in the
industry as “ all-round men”.
Important to the would-be shipyard worker is
the fact that the skills are to a considerable degree
interchangeable as between construction and repair
work. Where both kinds of activity occur in the
same yard, workers may find themselves assigned
to either class of work. A worker changing from
one shipyard to another will likewise find that he
can qualify in his vocation whether or not the new
yard’s business differs from that of yards in which
he gained experience. However, seniority policies
may limit his chances to shift readily from yard to


Other Jobs in Shipbuilding

In addition to workers directly involved in the
physical process of building or repairing ships and
in launching or dry-docking operations, the indus­
try employs many other types of workers. There
are the usual executives and auditors, clerks and
stenographers, custodial workers and guards, time­


keepers and tool checkers—to mention but a few of
the many classes of workers not directly engaged in
production. Their work is much the same as that
of similar personnel found in industry generally.
Discussion of some of these jobs is included else­
where in the handbook. See index for page

The vital importance of aircraft to national
defense and the wider use of civilian air transpor­
tation has made the manufacture of aircraft one
of the important industries in our economy. It
is still a young and dynamic industry, with the
potentials of civilian use of aircraft far from rea­
lized. However, in 1950, the industry was pri­
marily engaged in military aircraft production for
military use. During the subsequent 5 to 10 years,
the industry will probably continue to depend,
for the most part, on Government needs for mili­
tary aircraft. In July 1950, the industry em­
ployed more than a quarter of a million workers.
In addition to the many specialized jobs found
only in aircraft production, this industry is a
major source of employment for engineers, drafts­
men, tool and die makers, and other highly trained
Nature of the Industry
The industry is composed of several separate
and distinct branches. Airframe plants make up
by far the largest division. These are the final
assembly plants where the completed aircraft are
produced and also most of the basic structures,
such as the fuselage and the wings are made. The
engines are made in separate plants and are in­
stalled in the plane at the airframe plant.
Another division consists of plants that specialize
in manufacturing propellors and their parts while
the fourth division makes special equipment and
parts such as instruments, gun turrets, and subassemblies of aircraft.
Airframe plants have approximately two-thirds
of the industry’s employment. Aircraft engine
plants account for about a fifth of the workers,
and the remaining jobs are found in aircraft propellor and other parts plants.
The four segments of the industry have quite
different operations and utilize different types of
workers. Assembly and inspection is the basic
process of the airframe plant, which can be con­
sidered as the heart of the aircraft industry. A ir­
frame producers are responsible for the over-all
construction of the planes, initiating the design,
and planning the manufacture. In the manu­
facture of private and commercial planes, the en-

gine and parts plants operate in effect as subcon­
tractors; for most military planes, the Govern­
ment contracts directly with the engine or parts
producer and supplies the equipment to the air­
frame manufacturers for installation in the fin­
ished aircraft.
The manufacture of aircraft engines is a preci­
sion metal-working operation, requiring large
numbers of machine-shop workers. To illustrate
the almost complete separation between airframe
assembly and the making of engines, not one im­
portant engine plant is located west of the Missis­
sippi even though well over half of the airframe
production is on the West Coast.
More than half of the jobs in airframe plants
were in the West Coast States of California and
Washington in October 1948. The Los Angeles
area alone had two-fifths of the country’s air­
frame employment. About 1 out of 10 airframe
workers was in a Texas plant. The Eastern States
of New York, Maryland, and Connecticut ac­
counted for a fifth of the jobs. However, the re­
cent movement of a major aircraft plant from
Connecticut to Texas has greatly reduced the num­
ber of aircraft workers in Connecticut. Almost
all the remaining airframe employment is found
in Kansas, Ohio, and Missouri.
The bulk of employment in aircraft engine
plants is concentrated in States east of the Missis­
sippi. Over a third of the jobs are in Connecticut,
while most of the remainder are found in New
Jersey, Indiana, Massachusetts, and Pennsylvania.
During World War II, the larger aircraft com­
panies opened large branch plants throughout the
country, and the automobile and household re­
frigerator industry converted to aircraft produc­
tion. As a result, employment in aircraft manu­
facturing was much more widely distributed
throughout the country than before the war. The
industry returned largely, although not entirely,
to the prewar locations. Texas, Kansas, and
Missouri, however, are now relatively much more
important than they were before the war.
Employment Outlook
Employment opportunities in the aircraft man­
ufacturing industry, both during the early fifties

892273°— 51------19



and over the longer run, will depend chiefly
on the size of the Government’s military aircraft
procurement program. Whether measured by dol­
lar value, airframe weight, or the amount of labor
devoted to its manufacture, military aircraft rep­
resents by far the largest share of airplane pro­
The expanded military aircraft procurement
program initiated in the summer of 1950 is ex­
pected to continue into the foreseeable future.
Military aircraft will compose an even greater
proportion o f future production. This higher
level of activity should result in employment op­
portunities throughout the industry. However,
should there be an improvement in the interna­
tional situation, a drop in production comparable
to the period following YJ-day, with similar effects
upon employment would probably occur. A
worsening in international relations would accel­
erate the expansion of employment in aircraft
Since 1940, the aircraft industry has undergone
several stages of expansion and contraction. This
has greatly affected the kind as well as the number
of workers in its labor force. Chart 63 shows how,
in the short span of 4 years, between the beginning
of 1940 and the end of 1943, the industry increased
its employment of production workers 14-fold in
order to meet the demands of war production.
During this period, the production worker total
increased from 77,000 to 1,100,000. The average

Digitized for 274

weekly hours also increased. In airframe plants,
for example, average weekly hours were raised
from 41.5 in January 1940 to 48.7 in January 1942.
Actually, these figures understate the degree of
employment increase. They do not include office
and technical workers, nor do they include the
substantial number employed in plants of other
industries, such as the automobile industry,
which converted to aircraft or aircraft parts
production during the war. A t the peak of air­
craft employment in November 1943, the estimated
total employment in all aircraft and parts estab­
lishments was 2,100,000.
To absorb the flood of new employees quickly it
was necessary to utilize experienced workers as
teachers, supervisors, and production lead men for
the newly hired inexperienced workers. Job op­
erations were broken down into more simplified
and specialized steps. Women were used in large
numbers for the first time. In January 1942, they
accounted for 5 percent of total employment and
by the end of 1943 over a third of the workers were
women. While additional workers were hired in
every occupation in the industry, most job open­
ings were for specialized assemblers, riveters, ma­
chine-tool operators, inspectors, and testers. In
general, the wartime expansion of the aircraft
industry meant not only a great increase in em­
ployment but also a great increase in the propor­
tion of semiskilled and unskilled workers.
The coming of peace reversed the wartime trends
in employment and the composition of the labor
force. Employment in the industry had already
tapered off considerably from the peak in 1943,
but, with victory in Europe, it contracted sharply.
The major aircraft companies closed down many
of their branch plants. Factories which had been
converted to aircraft production, from the manu­
facture of such products as automobiles and re­
frigerators, returned to their normal peacetime
As a result, employment declined sharply and
rapidly. The number of production workers in
the aircraft industry proper fell from 683,000 in
June 1945 to less than 140,000 in January 1946.
The aircraft companies attempted to retain their
more skilled workers and professional personnel.
Seniority was frequently used as the basis for de­
ciding who was to be laid off, so that workers with
longer periods of service were kept on. Many


women and older people, most of whom had semi­
skilled jobs, voluntarily left employment. The
net effect of the reduction was to increase consid­
erably the proportion of skilled workers in the
industry’s labor force.
During the first 3 years after the war, a large
share of the industry’s activity was devoted to
civilian aircraft production. Military expendi­
tures for aircraft were on a small scale, the Air
Force and Naval Aviation drawing upon the stock
of planes carried over from the war. Approxi­
mately thirty to thirty-five thousand production
workers were added during 1946. However, after
an early spurt of orders, production of planes for
commercial aviation tapered off so that employ­
ment declined again during 1947. Airline opera­
tions did not expand as much as expected and many
orders for planes were canceled. Another factor
affecting aircraft production and employment was
the failure of the sales of private planes to reach
the levels previously anticipated.
In early 1948, following, in general, the recom­
mendation of the President’s Air Policy Commis­
sion, Congress laid the ground work for the
proposed eventual establishment and maintenance
o f a 70-group air force to be equipped with the
latest model planes. As a result, most of the in­
dustry has shifted back to producing military
aircraft and equipment. Employment began to
rise during the latter part of 1948 owing to the
first orders placed as part of the program. Be­
tween June 1948 and October 1949, total employ­
ment increase by almost 40,000. However, actual
appropriations by Congress have provided for an
air force well below the original 70-group pro­
gram, and it was not until the summer of 1950 that
a further substantial increase in funds material­
ized. A large increase in employment, and pro­
duction over the February 1950 level can be
expected during the next decade. In addition to
any jobs created by rising employment, many
replacements will be needed for workers who re­
tire, die, shift to other industries, or enter the
Armed Forces.
The Workers and Their Jobs
A great variety of jobs are to be found in this
industry. Most of them are semiskilled, requiring
less than 2 years of training and experience. On

the other hand, there are a large number of highly
trained aeronautical engineers, designers, and
scientists as well as many skilled craftsmen.
More than a fourth of the total number of work­
ers in the aircraft manufacturing industry have
professional, technical, administrative, or clerical
jobs. Among the factory occupations, assembly
jobs are by far the most numerous. They consti­
tute more than 15 percent of total employment in
airframe plants while substantial numbers are also
found in the other branches of the industry, espe­
cially in parts plants. During 1949, approxi­
mately 5,000 airframe workers were employed in
such metal fabricating jobs as sheet metal work,
riveting, and welding. Almost 3,500 inspectors
were employed in airframe plants and about 2,000
additional workers were found in inspection jobs
in the remainder of the industry. Tool-room and
machine-tool operating jobs are another important
group of occupations in the aircraft industry. In
airframe plants alone, during 1949, these occupa­
tions included approximately 2,500 jig and fixture
makers, over 1,400 milling-machine operators, 500
production machinists and almost 600 engine-lathe
There are also several thousand tool-room work­
ers and machine-tool operators in engine and parts
plants where precision metalworking is a large
part of the work. The major occupations in the
aircraft manufacturing industry are discussed
below in greater detail.
Average hourly and weekly earnings of aircraft
workers compare favorably with most manufactur­
ing industries. During July 1950, production
workers in aircraft and parts plants averaged $1.62
an hour as compared to average hourly earnings of
$1.62 for plant workers in all manufacturing in­
dustries. In the same month, hourly earnings in
the automobile industry averaged $1.76 and ship­
building $1.69. Average weekly earnings of air­
craft and parts plant workers were $66.38 com­
pared to $59.21 in all manufacturing industries.
(These figures include extra pay for overtime, holi­
day work, and night shifts and therefore do not
show the straight-time pay.)
Most of the production workers in the aircraft
manufacturing industry are members of the United
Automobile, Aircraft and Agricultural Implement
Workers of America (C IO ). The International


Association of Machinists (Independent) also has
a substantial membership in this field.
Most employees in the aircraft manufacturing
industry work in modern factory buildings which
are clean and have good lighting and ventilation.
In California and Texas, many work outside. The
kind of physical effort required as well as the con­
ditions surrounding the work vary somewhat with
the different departments in a plant.
Industrial hazards in this industry have been
minimized by the use of modern machinery
equipped with safety devices. The industry has a
relatively low injury-frequency rate when com­
pared with most other manufacturing industries.
During 1949, the aircraft and parts plants respec­
tively had an average of 4.4 and 8.7 disabling
work injuries for every million employee-hours
worked compared with an average rate of 15.0
for all manufacturing industries.
Although the conditions of work in most jobs
are relatively favorable, there are unpleasant as­
pects to some o f the jobs. Some workers in the
assembly and subassembly departments, such as
electricians and control rigging installers, may
work in cramped quarters inside and outside the
planes, frequently having to work from a reclining
position. Welders and riveters often must crouch,
kneel, and crawl about the aircraft to perform
their duties. Sheet metal workers are exposed to
constant loud noises from the pounding and shap­
ing of parts and to the heat from annealing fur­
naces. Cuts on hands from sharp edges of metal,
bruises from use of hammers, and burns from fur­
nace and hot metals are possible hazards in this
Professional, Technical, Administrative, and
Clerical Jobs

Before an aircraft can be made and assembled
by the various branches of the industry, it must be
designed and its production planned. The work­
ers engaged in professional, technical, adminis­
trative and clerical occupations accounted for more
than a fourth of the 260,000 employees in the
aircraft manufacturing industry in July 1950.
Engineers (D. O. T. 0-19.03) and other scien­
tific workers, such as physicists, metallurgists,
chemists, and mathematicians prepare the plans
and specifications for the complete design as well
as the many component parts of the airplane. This

industry employs more mechanical engineers than
any other industry as well as a large number of
engineers with electrical and electronics back­
grounds. In most cases, the engineers and scien­
tific workers must have a college degree in
engineering or one of the physical sciences. Some
entering jobs require little or no experience, while
some of the highly trained scientists may have had
postgraduate study as well as many years of expe­
rience in the aircraft industry. Draftsmen (D. O.
T. 0-48.04) develop these plans in detail in the
form of blueprints and specifications.
Production methods in the aircraft manufac­
turing industry are continually affected by modi­
fications and changes in airplane design. In order
to put these design changes into production it may
be necessary to rearrange the lay-out of the plant
and select and install new tooling equipment and
machinery. Changes may also have to be made
in the storage and movement of materials and
parts within the plant. Even after changes in
design have been incorporated there are daily
problems in the methods and sequence of produc­
tion which require the coordination of design
plans and production practices.
There are a substantial number of professional
and semiprofessional workers who are engaged in
production planning and control in this industry.
Production planners (D. O. T. 0-68.50, .52) gen­
erally serve as liaison men between the engineer­
ing and production departments in a plant. They
plan from information contained in blueprints
and various kinds of engineering specifications the
sequence of operations and the processes necessary
to fabricate, assemble, and install aircraft parts.
They must keep in touch with the shop lay-out,
facilities, and operating practices in order to make
provisions for them when they make out their
work orders.
The most skilled workers in this field are the
experimental planners and tool planners. The
division of responsibility among employees en­
gaged in production planning differs in each plant.
Production planners with wider experience and
responsibility are usually employed where much
of the work is experimental or where a plant is
tooling up for a new job.
Since production planners serve as liaison men
between the engineering and production depart­
ments, they must be able to apply some of the


engineering principles as well as have a working
knowledge of shop practices. Tool, experimental,
and class A production planners, who are the most
skilled workers in their field, must usually have
5 years of diversified shop and tool planning ex­
perience. Not all plants now require formal engi­
neering training, but it is becoming more common
for these workers to have at least 2 years of
There are several ways in which workers can
enter and advance in this field. Some workers
acquire their initial experience in the drafting
department, while others gain experience as
skilled assemblers or machine-shop workers.
However, the top production planning occupations
require a combination of engineering as well as
shop experience.
Technicians who specialize in designing special
parts may, in some cases, substitute drafting or
machine-shop experience for college training.
Tool designers (D. O. T. 0-48.41) for example,
have frequently been upgraded from the tool and
die or drafting departments. In addition, there
are many auxiliary office occupations, such as
blueprinters, clerks, operators of various office and
tabulating machines, and the technicians needed
to do the paper work associated with designing,
production planning, and general administration.
(More complete statements on engineers, chemists,
draftsmen, and tool designers are included in this
handbook. See index for page numbers.)
Assembly and Installation Jobs

Over a fifth of the production workers in the air­
craft manufacturing industry are directly engaged
in assembling and installing the numerous parts
which make up the finished product. These work­
ers are employed, in large numbers, in all branches
of the industry. The nature of their work varies
considerably between the branches of the industry
as well as from plant to plant.
The more skilled assemblers (D. O. T. 5-03.500
to .700; 5-17.240; 7-03.500 to .700) in airframe
factories are usually known as chief, class A, or
first-class assemblers; installers; or mechanics.
They are all-round assemblers who perform di­
versified assembly or installation work. They
must be able to use blueprint and other engineer­
ing specifications so as to decide the order of the


Assemblers fitting wing tip to plane.

assembly operations and how the various parts
and smaller assemblies are related. They may
then have to pick out the proper equipment or im­
provise production aids when adequate tooling or
equipment is not supplied. The all-round assem­
bler is usually employed in final assembly work
where major subassemblies, such as the tail, fuse­
lage, and wings, are fitted together and the major
installations are made. They are also employed
in plants which are engaged in producing proto­
types and experimental aircraft. Rework, repair,
or modification of aircraft in order to introduce
technical improvements also requires the services
of the top skilled assembler or mechanic.
It must be borne in mind, however, that the di­
vision of duties among assemblers in a particular
plant depends largely on the organization of the
production line. Factories which are engaged in
the quantity production of aircraft, rather than a
few experimental types, usually require even their
skilled assemblers to specialize in one or more fields
of work. They are assisted by several lower-rated
assemblers who do routine work in a narrower
field. For example, a class A armament assembler
typically does such work as assembling, installing,
and aligning power turrets, weapons, mechanisms,
gun cameras, and related accessories. Lower-rated
armament mechanics typically do such work as


uncrating and cleaning weapons, loading ammuni­
tion, installing armor plate and placing parts in
jigs. Electrical and radio assembly is another
field of specialization. Assemblers of electrical
equipment are sometimes called electricians rather
than assemblers. They do such work as installing,
hooking up, and checking major units in the elec­
trical or radio systems. The class A electrical and
radio assembler is assisted by less skilled assem­
blers, who do the more routine intallations and
wire routings by following standard wiring dia­
grams and charts. Power plant assemblers, some­
times known as engine mechanics, install, align,
and check the various types of engines and acces­
sories. Since jet and gas turbine engines are be­
coming widely used in military aircraft, new prob­
lems of installation and testing have arisen, re­
quiring the use of specially trained assemblers.
Other parts of the aircraft in which assemblers
specialize include the plumbing, hydraulic, and the
various surface control and rigging systems. Pre­
cision assembly, another field of specialization,
typically consists of assembling such large hydrau­
lic and mechanical units as landing gear struts and
bomb racks and operating hydraulic testing equip­
ment so as to ensure a close fit with exacting toler­
The fields o f specialization which have been de­
scribed are usually found in the final assembly and
Aircraft workers installing wiring in military plane.

large subassembly stages of production. Bench
assembly, by which the small parts are fitted
together, generally requires less skilled assemblers.
Assembly work in aircraft engine and aircraft
parts factories differs to some extent from the
assembly operations in airframe plants. Assem­
bly operations are usually divided into bench and
floor assembly in aircraft engine plants. The
numerous small parts which go into making up an
aircraft engine are fitted together by bench assem­
blers. They are then brought together on the floor
of the factory. A crew of floor assemblers, usually
consisting of a skilled assembler and several less
skilled workers, then work around the engine until
all the parts have been fitted together. As in air­
frame plants, the all-round class A assembler is
usually employed in the final stages of floor assem­
bly or on repair, modification, and experimental
work. Most assemblers in aircraft parts plants
are bench assemblers.
The skilled all-round assembler must have the
equivalent of a high school or vocational school
education, from 2 to 4 years of training in the trade
and several years of shop experience. Specific re­
quirements vary in each plant. Two years of high
school and from 3 months to 2 years of assembly
experience is usually required for the low-rated
assembly jobs.
Assemblers must be able to read and interpret
engineering blueprints, schematic diagrams, and
production illustrations. The class A assemblers
must, of course, be able to interpret engineering
drawings which are more complex than the ones
used by lower-rated assemblers. As part of their
duties, skilled assemblers may be expected to do
their own riveting and have a working knowledge
of metal fabrication and machining methods.
In airframe plants during May-June 1949,
straight-time average hourly earnings for class
A assemblers were $1.52 and for class B assem­
blers, $1.31.
Sheet-Metal Fabricating Jobs

Closely allied to the assembly occupations in air­
frame plants are those occupations concerned with
fabricating parts and assemblies of sheet metal.
Metal fabricators (D. O. T. 4-80.050, .060; 485.000 to .200; 6-88.622; 6-88.664; 6-94.207;
6-94.221; 6-94.060) shape metal aircraft parts
from sheet metal by hand or machine meth­


ods. They are employed mainly in the airframe
plants. Where hand methods are used, the worker
shapes the part by pounding it with a mallet and
by bending, cutting, and punching it with hand
tools. Machine methods involve the use of power
hammers, presses, saws, tube benders, and drill
presses. Metal fabricating includes several related
occupations which have different skills. The all­
round sheet metal workers, are the highest-rated
metal fabricating workers in the aircraft plant.
Their duties consist of laying out from blueprints,
lofting data, and other engineering information
the sequence of operations and fabricating by hand
or power machine complicated and nonrepetitive
metal shapes. Less complex parts, as well as those
which are produced in large numbers, are fabri­
cated by less skilled sheet metal workers or work­
ers who specialize in operating a single machine
and who are known as power-brake operators,
poiver-hammer operators, power-shear operators,
profile-cutting-torch operators, and punch-pressoperators.
Other important metal fabricating occupations
in aircraft production are tube benders, riveters,
and welders. The tube bender forms tubing
which is used for oil, fuel, and hydraulic lines
and electrical conduit lines. Riveters and weld­
ers join fabricated parts together by hand or
machine riveting and by electric arc, gas, or elec­
tric resistance welding. (See statements on arc
and gas welders, resistance welders, and pneu­
matic riveters, pp. 212, 215, and 224.)
Metal fabricating operations are sometimes car­
ried on by workers in other occupations. Assem­
blers, for example, may be required to do riveting
and welding as part of their duties. Jig and fix­
ture builders may do sheet metal work in setting
up work-holding devices. Since metal fabrication
is so closely related to the assembly operations, the
exact division of duties between workers in these
fields differs to some extent from one plant to
Four years of apprenticeship or equivalent
training and several years of experience are
usually required to qualify as skilled sheet metal
workers. They may be assisted by less skilled sheet
metal workers who have had considerably shorter
training. Operators of specialized power ma­
chines, riveters, and welders usually learn the work
on the job in a year or two, although some all­

round welders are required to have much broader
training. Many of the machine operating, rivet­
ing, and welding jobs are entry occupations for
workers with little or no experience. However, it
must be remembered, that most of the semiskilled
machine jobs do not lead to advancement to the
skilled sheet-metal occupations.
Metal fabricating workers are exposed to con­
stant loud noises from the pounding and shaping
of parts and to the heat from annealing furnaces.
These workers often must lift and place in position
moderately heavy sheets of material in the various
presses and operate the machines, as well as handle
welding and riveting equipment. Cuts on hands
from sharp edges of metal, bruises from use o f
hammers, and burns from furnaces and hot metals
are possible hazards in this department. Arc and
gas welders are exposed to certain hazards, such
as electric shock or burns, but these can be avoided
by proper precautions and the use of protective
In May-June 1949, average straight-time hourly
earnings of workers in some of the metal fabricat­
ing occupations in airframe plants were as follow s:
Riveters, class A ________________________ _________ $1. 43
Riveters, class B _________________________________ 1. 24
Sheet-metal workers, production______________
1. 58
Spot welders, class A ____________________________
1. 51
Spot welders, class B ____________________________
1. 29
Spot welders, class C____________________________
1. 28
Welders, hand, production, class A ______________ 1. 67
Welders, hand, production, class B ______________ 1. 53

Inspection Jobs

Thousands of inspections are made during the
manufacture of an airplane from the time raw ma­
terials are received, through the metalworking
and assembling operations, and until it has com­
pleted its first flight. A defective part or a mistake
in the assembling can cause a fatal air crash later.
The inspector's (D. O. T. 4-80.025; 5-03.800 to
.900; 7-03.800 to .900) job is to examine the parts
and assembled units of the airplane in each stage
of its manufacture to see that all engineering re­
quirements have been met. Some inspectors spe­
cialize in examining materials and subassemblies
which are purchased from the outside; others are
engaged in inspecting the various stages of fab­
rication and final assembly within the plant; while
still others inspect the completed aircraft after it


has been rolled out onto the field in preparation
for its initial test flight. Within each field of
specialization there are inspectors with different
levels of skill, so that the less skilled class B and
C inspectors are responsible for the more routine
inspections or assist the skilled class A inspector
in some of the more complicated tests in his field
of work.
When an aircraft plant purchases supplies or
subcontracts some of its production to other com­
panies, it must inspect the incoming materials and
parts to ensure that they meet specifications. Some
of the most skilled inspectors, especially in air­
frame plants, are the outside production inspectors
who examine machined parts, subassemblies, and
tools and dies which have been ordered from other
firms. They serve as liaison men between their
own engineering departments and the contracting
company. Other inspectors, with less responsi­
bility than outside production inspectors, fre­
quently known as receiving inspectors, check pur­
chased materials and parts for conformity with
blueprints, Air Force and Navy requirements, and
other established standards. They operate testing
equipment and must be familiar with the peculiari­
ties of the parts and materials purchased from
different sellers.
Machined parts inspectors in the production
department determine, by the use of precision in­
struments, whether or not a part has been properly
machined to conform to the sometimes exacting
measurements of its blueprint specifications.
Where large numbers of similar parts are being
machined, the inspector usually checks the set-up
(adjustments) of the machine tool, inspects the
first parts turned out and then approves the ma­
chine run to produce the rest of the order. His
duties also typically include testing for hardness
and porosity, checking the finished parts against
the rest of the assembly, and determining the
machinability of castings and forgings.
Another field of specialization is that of fabri­
cation inspector. The work of the more skilled
inspectors in this field typically consists of ex­
amining fabricated sheet metal, the first run of
assemblies and developmental parts, and the final
inspection of complex parts which have required
numerous fabricating operations. The more
skilled of these inspectors are experts in sheet
metal work.

As the purchased, machined, and fabricated
parts are fitted together, they undergo numerous
inspections by assembly inspectors. Class A as­
sembly inspectors are employed, for the most part,
in the later stages of the assembly process. They
usually inspect complete major assemblies and
installations, such as the fuselage, wings, and nose
section to ensure their proper final mating. They
also check the functioning of such systems as hy­
draulics, plumbing, and controls. Subassamblies
and the assembly of prefabricated components
parts into subassemblies are usually inspected by
less skilled class B and C assembly inspectors.
Some of the top-skilled inspectors are the field
and service or ground and flight-test inspectors
who make the final examination of the assemblies
and systems of the airplane after it has been com­
pleted and sometimes go along on the initial flight.
The kind of training and length of experience
required by inspectors depend largely on the field
in which they specialize. Generally, the higher
skilled inspectors gain their experience and train­
ing in one of the aircraft manufacturing trades
while many of the lower-rated inspectors, espe­
cially when many new workers are being taken
on, may be hired with limited or no experience in
shop trades and trained directly as inspectors.
As part of their duties, inspectors must be able
to read blueprints and other engineering specifi­
cations and use shop mathematics. They must
also be able to install and use the various testing
equipment and instruments used in their field of
Top skilled inspectors of outside production and
machined parts must have had at least several
years of machine-shop experience in addition to
4 years’ training as a machinist. Lower-rated
machined-parts inspectors must usually have from
1 to 2 years of machine-shop experience.
Among assembly inspectors, those engaged in
final assembly or field and service inspection are
usually the most skilled inspectors. They usually
are drawn from experienced assemblers employed
in final assembly, modification, or repair work.
Fabrication inspectors must have a knowledge of
sheet-metal work. Here too, the higher skilled
fabrication inspectors are sheet metal workers,
who have completed their training in the trade
and acquired at least several years of experience.


The most skilled among these workers are the
all-round or general machinists, who can lay out
the work and set up and operate several types of
machine tools so as to perform machining oper­
Assembly, class A _________________________________ $1. 59
ations on highly variable and nonrepetitive work.
Assembly, class B ________________________________ 1.46
Assembly, class C________________________________ 1.29
They are most frequently employed in depart­
Fabrication, class A _____________________________
ments or plants which are engaged in experimental
Fabrication, class B _____________________________
and prototype production.
Fabrication, class C____________________________
Machine-tool operators specialize on a single
Field and service, class A ______________________
1. 79
type of machine tool and they are often divided
Field and service, class B _______________________
Final assembly___________________________________
into three skill groups, A, B, and C. Class A
Machined parts, class A _________________________ 1.72
machine-tool operators must be able to set up the
Machined parts, class B _____________________
work on their machine and they handle the more
Machined parts, class C________________________
1. 26
difficult, precise, and variable jobs. The less
skilled B and C operators usually do more repeti­
tive work. Milling-machine operators are the sin­
Tool-Room and Machine-Tool Operating Jobs
gle largest group among the workers.
The tool room is one of the main places in air­
(For more information on machinists and ma­
craft manufacture requiring skilled workers*
chine tool operators, see the section on Machine
Tooling does not employ large numbers of work­
Shop Occupations, p. 186.)
ers, compared with some other operations in air­
In May-June 1949, average straight-time hourly
craft production, but the nature of the work
earnings of workers in some of the tool-room and
demands highly skilled men with years of training
machine-tool operating occupations in airframe
and experience.
plants were as follow s:
The two principal occupations in tool rooms are
Engine-lathe operators:
jig and fixture builders and tool and die makers.
Class A ______________________________________ $1. 67
Jig and -fixture Guilders (D. O. T. 5-17.060) are
Class B _____________________________________
1. 49
Jig and fixture makers__________________________ 1. 70
mainly employed in the airframe plants and they
Machinists, production__________________________ 1. 72
frequently work on the assembly floor making jigs
Milling-machine operators:
and fixtures used in the production and assembly
Class A _____________________________________ 1. 63
operations. Jig and fixture builders must be able,
Class B _____________________________________ 1. 41
following information received from the engineer^
Class C_____________________________________ 1. 26
ing department, to plan the sequence of operations
involved in making a jig, lay out the work, and
Field and Service Mechanics
carry it through to completion. Jigs and fixtures
Field and service mechanics (D. O. T. 5-80.100;
hold the parts and subassemblies while they are
5-80.352) prepare the airplane for its test flight
being riveted, welded, or assembled, and in air­
after the final assembly operations have been com­
frame manufacture, these devices may be large
pleted. They look for flaws in the construction or
and complicated metal frameworks. Tool and
functioning of the aircraft and make necessary
die makers (D. O. T. 4-76.040) make the cutting
repairs or return it for further re-work in the fac­
tools and fixtures used in machine-tool operations
tory before final delivery. They may also be re­
and the dies used in forging and punch press work.
quired to go up on test flights in the performance
They must be all-round experts in the use of ma­
o f their duties. Workers in this occupation are
chine tools. (See statement on tool and die
also often called operational checkout mechanics,
makers, p. 192.)
or functional test mechanics.
Another large group of workers in the aircraft
The job of preparing an airplane for its first
manufacturing industry are engaged in shaping
flight requires a team of mechanics who have dif­
and finishing metal parts with machine tools.
ferent levels of skill and experience. The chief
These machinists and machine-tool operators are
mechanic or crew chief, who is the most skilled
relatively much more numerous in engine and
parts plants than in airframe plants.
among these workers, is responsible for the entire
In May-June 1949, average straight-time hourly
earnings of inspectors in airframe plants were as
follow s:



checking-out operation and repair work. He usu­
ally supervises a crew of mechanics, each of whom
specializes in one or more fields. For example, the
armament mechanic is required to check out and
repair, when necessary, the mechanism of powerdriven turrets, fire controls, and bomb releases be­
fore and after test firing with live ammunition
while the airplane is on the ground or in flight.
Other mechanics, frequently called engine me­
chanics, specialize in checking out the power plant
of the aircraft, including the engine, propellers,
and oil and fuel system. The engine mechanic
examines the power plant and subjects it to various
tests during its operation so as to determine
whether there are any flaws in its construction or
operation. He then makes any necessary minor
adjustments and repairs or returns it to the fac­
tory for any needed major assembly or fabricating
Other fields of work in which field and service
mechanics may specialize are the checkout and
repair of the electrical systems, instruments, rig­
ging and controls, and the plumbing and hydrau­
lic systems of the airplane. In some cases,
lower rated mechanics are employed to assist the
specialized mechanics in conducting their tests and
making minor repairs.
The extent to which mechanics specialize in
checking out a particular section of the airplane
varies from one plant to another depending on
the type of aircraft being produced and the manner
in which the checking-out operations are organ­
ized. For example, establishments which are en­
gaged in developing prototypes and experimental
aircraft, especially large military types, usually
employ a larger proportion of all-round skilled
mechanics than those factories which are engaged
in the quantity production of established types, es­
pecially small civilian aircraft. In addition, the
duties of field and service mechanics in some plants
are more repetitive and specialized than in other
plants where checking-out operations are organ­
ized in a way which requires more workers with
all-round skills.
Chief field and service mechanics are usually
required to have from 3 to 5 years of aircraft man­
ufacturing experience, including at least 1 year
as a field and service mechanic. Specialized me­
chanics, working under the supervision of the chief
mechanic, are usually required to have two or more

years of aircraft experience. Jobs for lower rated
mechanics, who assist the specialized mechanics,
are frequently beginning jobs for workers witli
little or no experience in the aircraft industry.
They are required to have only 6 months or less
of experience.
Workers in this occupation, especially chief me­
chanics, frequently acquire much of their expe­
rience in production departments before becoming
field and service mechanics. As a result, workers
can qualify for the higher rated operational me­
chanics in different ways. They can take a be­
ginning job as a lower rated mechanic and may
advance as they gain experience. Those who have
completed high school or vocational school may be
eligible for training jobs which are offered by some
aircraft plants. The higher rated jobs are also
sometimes filled by experienced “ line maintenance”
mechanics who have been employed by airlines.
Field and service mechanics must be able to un­
derstand and use shop mathematics, assembly blue­
prints, and service manuals. They use hand tools,
testing equipment, and precision measuring in­
struments. The more skilled mechanics may be
required to know how to install and maintain test
equipment and check the operations of experi­
mental test set-ups. The blueprints, shop mathe­
matics, and testing instruments used are more com­
plex for the highly skilled mechanics.
During May and June 1949, average straighttime earnings of class A field and service me­
chanics in airframe plants were $1.72 an hour.
Other Aircraft Manufacturing Occupations

Some of the major occupational groups in air­
craft manufacturing have already been discussed.
There are, in addition, a great variety of other oc­
cupations, each employing a relatively small num­
ber of workers, but which are important in some
way to the production operations departments.
Some workers are employed as skilled pattern­
makers, molders, and coremakers in making cast
metal parts in foundries operated by aircraft
plants. Drop-hammer operators and other forge
shop workers are found in the forgings depart­
ments of some plants. Castings and forging work­
ers are important mainly in plants making inter­
nal-combustion engines. Still other workers are
engaged in anodizing, heat treating, and electro­


plating metal parts to give them various qualities
of hardness or finish. Pattern and template
makers have an important part in the preparation
for airframe assembly operations. Most plants
also employ aircraft painters. (More detailed in­
formation on foundry, forge shop, and electroplater occupations is included in this handbook.
See index for page numbers.)
Tool crib attendants and stock clerks keep the
production workers supplied with tools, parts, and

A large staff of maintenance and custodial work­
ers is also required in aircraft plants to keep the
buildings and machines in good operating condi­
tion and to make changes in the lay-out of the
plant. Among them are carpenters, electricians,
plumbers, painters, millwrights, maintenance me­
chanics, and machinists. Guards and janitors are
also part of the plant protective and custodial
group. (Detailed discussion of some of these oc­
cupations is included in this handbook. See in­
dex for page numbers.)


The household furniture industry offers employ­
ment to a number of different kinds of workers.
The majority of these workers are semiskilled.
Furniture jobs are found throughout the country,
although the bulk of employment is concentrated
in a few States.
Many thousands of new workers will be hired
by the household furniture industry during the
fifties. Most openings will arise as a result of the
need to replace those Avorkers aaJ io die, retire, or
transfer to other Avork.
The Industry and Its Products
The household furniture industry consists of two
main branches—plants engaged primarily in mak­
ing wooden (unupholstered) articles, and plants
making upholstered articles. (Workers in facto­
ries making metal furniture, either for office or
home, are not included in this report since most are
in metalworking occupations rather than in Avoodworking jobs.)
In mid-1950, about 190,000 persons were em­
ployed in the household furniture industry; this is
about the same as in 1948, the peak year. In 1947,
there Avere more than 3,500 firms in the I avo main
branches o f the industry. A small additional
number of persons engaged in making home furni­
ture are found in small custom establishments and
repair shops.
The furniture industry makes a wide variety of
products—all those which are on display in furni­
ture stores today. Some plants make only one
product, such as chairs or tables; others produce
only one kind of furniture, such as bedroom or
living room furniture. HoAvever, there is a con­
siderable number of plants which manufacture
many types of furniture, ranging from complete
suites to small decorative pieces.
The larger of the two main branches of the in­
dustry is that which makes primarily Avooden or
unupholstered furniture—bedroom and dining
room furniture, kitchen furniture, occasional
tables, chairs, and other nonupholstered products.
Employment was nearly 145,000 in mid-1950.
Many manufacturers in this branch also make up­
holstered pieces. Much of the furniture is made
in factories using mass-production methods and is

generally divided into three main operations—
AvoodAvorking, assembling, and finishing.
cutting and shaping o f the various furniture parts
is done in the woodAvorking department by work­
ers using a great variety of machines.

Prior to

woodAvorking, the lumber is seasoned by air- and

A fte r the parts have been cut and

shaped in the manner desired, they are assembled.
The assembled piece of furniture is next sent
through the finishing department where it is
stained, filled, sealed, finish-coated, and polished.

There is a large number of plants in the branch
of the industry which makes primarily upholstered
furniture. They employed more than 45,000 per­
sons in mid-1950. However, the plants are rela­
tively small; they employed an average of 30
Avorkers for each establishment in 1947. Smallscale manufacturing is the rule and is done mainly
by hand. Some plants do not make the wooden
frames for their furniture but purchase them ready
to be upholstered. Only those parts of the frame
which will be exposed after it is upholstered are
finished off. The frames are then sent through
the upholstering process which consists generally
o f attaching the springs, covering the springs
with filling material, and stretching a fabric cover
over the foundation.
Although the furniture industry as a whole is a
large one, plants with 50 employees or less out­
number all the rest. On the other hand, about 12
percent of all plants employed more than 100
workers each in 1947; these larger plants have
most of the industry’s employment.
Most of the furniture industry is concentrated
in three regions— Southeastern, Middle Atlantic,
and Great Lakes (see chart 64). Production in
Pacific Coast States is increasing rapidly. There
are several important furniture producing areas
within these regions: High Point and other towns
in North Carolina; N oav York City and James­
town, N. Y . ; Martinsville, V a .; Gardner-Fitchburg area of Massachusetts; Chicago and Rock­
ford, 111.; Sheboygan, W is.; Grand Rapids, M ich.;
Jasper-Tell City and Evansville, In d .; and Los
Angeles, Calif. Most of these areas specialize in
a particular type of furniture making. New York
City, with its many small establishments, is the
country’s upholstery center. Virginia plan