View PDF

The full text on this page is automatically extracted from the file linked above and may contain errors and inconsistencies.

55th C o n g r e s s , ) HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES. ,D oo. No. 206,

2d Session.

(

>

Part 5.

BULLETIN
OF THE

DEPARTMENT OF LABOR.
NO. 1 8 — S E P T E M B E R ,




1898.

ISSUED EVERY OTHER MONTH.

EDITED BY

CARROLL D. WRIGHT,
COMMISSIONER.

OREN W. WEAVER,
CHIEF CLERK.

WASHINGTON:
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE.

1 89 8 .




CO N TEN TS.

T e.
a^
Wages in the United States and Europe, 1870 to 1898 ..................................... 665-693
Digest of recent reports o f State bureaus of labor statistics;
Massachusetts................................................................................................. 691-699
New Y o r k ........................................................................................................ 699-702
West V irginia...........................................
702
Wisconsin........................................................................................................ 703-707
Digest of recent foreign statistical publications................................................ 708-722
Decisions o f courts affecting la b o r..................................................................... 723-761
Laws o f various States relating to labor enacted since January 1, 1890....... 762-787
Decent Government contracts.................................................................................
788
in







BULLETIN
OF TH E

D E P A R T M E N T OF L A B O R .
No. 18.

WASHINGTON.

Septem ber , 1898.

WAGES IN THE UNITED STATES AND EUROPE, 1870 TO 1898.

In order to secure original wage data for certain skilled trades for
leading cities in this country and some of the industrial centers in
Europe, the Department some time ago invited the cooperation of
the head of the labor department in England and the chiefs of the
bureaus of labor of France and Belgium. These gentlemen very kindly
consented to supervise the collection of the facts required. The results
are presented herewith. Our most cordial acknowledgments are due
to H. Llewellyn Smith, esq., commissioner for labor of England; M. 0.
Moron, chief of the bureau of labor o f France, and M. 0. Morisseaux,
chief o f the bureau of labor of Belgium. The care exercised by these
gentlemen has resulted in furnishing the Department with some very
accurate information. The tables which follow are the results of their
efforts so far as Great Britain, France, and Belgium are concerned, and
of recent original inquiries by the agents and experts of this Depart­
ment so far as the cities in the United States are concerned.
This article does not in any way deal with prices. Prices from a
period, in most cases, earlier than 1870 up to October, 1892, are shown,
by years, in the report made in 1893 by the Senate finance committee
(Wholesale Prices, Wages, and Transportation). Probably since 1892
the tendency has been slightly downward. It is not therefore necessary
to discuss prices in connection with the wage rates given. If prices on
the whole are stationary and wages have increased, every such increase
means greater purchasing power of a day’s work. I f at the same time
there is a decrease in prices the increase in the purchasing power of a
day’s work is so much the greater.
These statements should be considered when the tables presented are
being studied.




665

666

BULLETIN OP THE DEPARTMENT OF LABOR.

It will be noticed that the occupations included in the tables are
such as are susceptible of accurate definition, and thus may readily be
found in all the countries mentioned. The difficulty of determining
the equivalent in foreign countries of the various occupations known
to us has necessarily limited the number covered. In all, 25 occupa­
tions were selected, and in most instances quotations for each were
secured from at least two establishments in each city. The data are
from firms that have existed and have done business continuously
since 1870, and the facts in most instances, in accordance with the rule
of the Department, have been taken directly from the pay rolls. Thus
continuous and accurate returns for the i>eriod covered have been made
possible, greatly enhancing the value of the tables, which, in the brief
form here given, are the result of a large amount of data showing for
each occupation and each year the number of employees working on full
time and receiving each specified rate of pay. This information in its
detail is exceedingly interesting, but almost 400 pages of the Bulletin
would have been required for its publication, and for this reason only
the briefer summaries of this mass of data are shown in the tables
which follow.
The cities of Baltimore, Boston, Chicago, Cincinnati, New Orleans,
New York, Philadelphia, Pittsburg and Allegheny, Bichmond, St.
Louis, St. Paul, and San Francisco have been covered in the United
States, and the period comprises the years from 1870 to 1898, while
abroad wages were secured from London and Manchester in England,
Glasgow in Scotland, Paris in France, and Liege in Belgium, the years
covered being those from 1870 to 1896. Owing to the difficulties and
delay in securing foreign wages, no data for 1897 and 1898 were
obtained.
Table I gives the actual average daily wages in the 25 selected occu­
pations from 1870 to 1898, inclusive, in each of the 12 cities in the United
States just mentioned, as shown by the summing up of the many quo­
tations of individual rates paid, which were secured in most instances
directly from the pay rolls of the various establishments. A column
has been added, showing for each occupation the average daily wages
for the 12 selected cities combined. These averages do not represent
the average wages paid in the specified occupations for the entire
country, but are simply averages of the items given. Being for the
larger industrial centers only, the average is probably somewhat higher
than that for the entire country. Agreement as to what might fairly be
called an average for the entire country would be extremely difficult, and
any method of arriving at such might be open to criticism. A request
for the average daily wages of blacksmiths in the United States in 1882,
for example (and such requests are frequent), could hardly be given a
statistical reply, or one not open to misunderstanding, but a reply that
the average for 12 of the leading industrial centers was $2.64J would
be a reply at once definite and susceptible of no misunderstanding.
To meet such needs these averages have been given.



WAGES IN THE UNITED STATES AND EUROPE.

6G7

In studying Table 1 it should be borne in mind that wages for the
United States, as originally taken from the pay rolls by the agents of
the Department, were (except for San Francisco) in currency, and that
during the period from 1870 to 1878, inclusive, this money was consid­
erably depreciated. In order that a strictly accurate comparison, there­
fore, may be made between these earlier years and the years from 1879
forward due allowance has been made for such depreciation, and the
figures given for these years are those secured by a reduction of the
original currency wages to their equivalent in gold. In converting
wages in currency into wages in gold the value of $100 gold in cur­
rency for January of each year from 1870 to 1877 and the average value
for the entire year 1878, as given in the American Almanac for 1879,
have been used, as follows: 1870, $ 121.35 1871, $ 110.75 1872, $ 109.15
1873, $ 112.75 1874, $111.4; 1875, $ 112.55 1876, $ 112.85 1877, $106.2, and
1878, $101.4.
Table II contains the result of the investigation into the wages paid
in foreign countries, showing the actual average daily wages paid in cer­
tain occupations from 1870 to 1896, inclusive, in London, Manchester,
Glasgow, Paris, and Liege, as deduced from the quotations of individ­
ual rates from these cities. These wages are, of course, given in gold,
and occupations may safely be compared with the same occupations as
shown for the United States in Table I. As the reports of wages in
Liege for boiler makers, boiler makers’ helpers, carpenters, hod car­
riers, machinists, masons (stone), plumbers, and stonecutters do not
cover the entire period, such reports could not be used in computing
the general average of wages for the city shown for each year in the
table on page 668. For the same reason the report of wages for black­
smiths in London could not be used in computing the general average
for Great Britain.
It is not claimed that the absolute increase or decrease in wage rates
for all industries can be assumed as the result of these inquiries. State­
ments must be taken as relating to the particular trades specified.
Nevertheless, the conditions in these trades or callings are quite indic­
ative of the general course of wages in others.
The short summary following shows the results, in compact form, ior
the four countries covered, Great Britain, France, Belgium, and the
United States. The wages for each occupation and city, as shown in
Tables I and II, have been used as the basis of this summary, the fig­
ures here being simply the averages of the details there shown. The
wages shown for the United States, as well as those for Great Britain,
France, and Belgium, are expressed in gold. It should be borne in
mind that this summary can be safely used only in tracing the course
o f wages from year to year, and that comparisons should not be insti­
tuted between the wages shown here for the different countries repre­
sented. Such comparisons would not be safe, owing to the lack of
completeness in the foreign data, each average for the United States
representing 255 wage quotations, as given in Table I, while each aver­



668

BULLETIN OF THE DEPARTMENT OF LABOR.

age for Great Britain represents 27 quotations (10 occupations in Lon­
don, 11 in Manchester, and 6 in Glasgow), each average for Paris,
France, represents 21 quotations, and each average for Liege, Belgium,
represents 11 quotations. For comparisons between countries in the
wages for different occupations Tables I and IT should be used.
A V E R A G E D A IL Y W A G E S IN GOLD IN C E RTAIN CITIES OF THE UNITED STATES,
GRE A T B R ITA IN , FRANCE, AN D BELGIUM.
[The figures in this table are simply averages o f the details shown in Tables I and II, wlierev. r
such details are for the entire period. These averages, therefore, represent in each year for the
United States 255 wage quotations; for Great Britain, 27 quotations; for Paris, France, 21 quotations,
and for Liege, Belgium, 11 quotations. A s the averages for each country therefore represent a different
number o f occupations, they should not be compared with each other. Such comparison can more
properly be made between individual occupations only. This table can best be used only to show the
course of wages from year to year.]
Year.
1870
1871
1872
1873
1874
1875
1876
1877
1878
1879
1880
1881
1882
1883
1884
1885
1886
1887
1888
1889
1890
1891
1892
1893
1894
1895
1896
1897
1898

Great
Britain.

Paris,
France.

Liege,
Belgium.

$1.30
1.30*
1.33
1.35
1.36f
1.38
1.40*
1.41*
1.40*
1. 37*
1.37*
1.37*
1.39*
1. 40*
1.40*
1. 39f
1. 39
1.39*
1.40
1.40*
1.41*
1.43*
1.43*
1.44*
1.44|
1.45
1.49

$1.06
1.06*
1.07*
1.08*
1.08*

1.59*
.60*
.61
.64
.65*
.63*
.63
.62*
.60*
.61*
.62;“
.63,
.65*
.65
.64*
.63*
.63
.62*
.63*
.62*
.63*
.65
.64
.64*
.65*
.65*

1.11*
1.12

1.15*
1.16*
1.16*

1.21*
1.22*

1.24*
1.24*
1.24*
1.24*
1.25*
1. 25*
1.25
1.26*
1.31*
1.31*
3.31*
1.32"
1.32*
1.32*
1.33

j
1
I
i
,
;
,

. 66*

United
States.
$ 2.

20*
2.39*
2.45
2. 35*
2.30*
2.24*
2.18
2. 24*
2.30*
2.32
2. 34
2.40*
2.44*
2.47
2.49
2.47*
2.47*
2.49*
2.50*
2.51*
2.52*
2. 54*
2. 56
2. 54*
2.49*
2. 47*
2.45*
2.44*
2.43*

So far as Great Britain is concerned, it is seen that a gradual increase
in wages occurred during the years from 1870 to 1877, the wages in the
latter year having reached $1.41£ against $1,30 in the former. A
slight falling off occurred in 1878, and a still greater drop in 1879 and
1880, $1.37J being the wages in these years. From this figure the
wages increased to $1.40J in 1883, and this rate was maintained in
1884. The years 1885 and 1886 show a slight decrease, after which
there is found a steady increase to 1896, when the wages reached $1.49.
With the exception of the year 1888, during which there was a slight
decline from the wages of the previous year, the wages for France
show a gradual increase from $1.06 in 1870 to $1.33 in 1896. The wages
in Belgium increased from $0.59£ in 1870 to $0.65J in 1874. In 1875,
1876, 1877, and 1878 they fell slightly, reaching $0.60£ in 1878. After
this there was a gradual rise, which continued through 1879, 1880,
1881, and 1882. Five years of decreasing wages followed, $0.62J being




669

WAGES IN THE UNITED STATES AND EUROPE.

reached in 1887. Several years of rising and falling wages ensued, the
figure rising finally to $0.66J in 1896.
In the United States there was a rise from $2.20£, the wages of 1870,
to $2.39£ in 1871 and to $2.45 in 1872. During the four succeeding
years a gradual decline occurred, reaching its lowest point in 1876 in
a wage of $2.18. The next year shows, however, a rise to. $2.24J, and
1878 a further rise to $2.30f, and a gradual rise continued up to 1884,
when the figure was $2.49. A slight decline occurred in 1885, and con­
tinued through 1886, but in 1887 the wages of 1884 had been more than
regained, and from this year up to 1892 there was a steady rise, the
highest point for the period, $2.56, being reached in 1892. From this
time to 1898 there has been a slight but steady decline, the wages for
1898 being $2.43^, or $0.12f below the high mark of 1892. but 22f cents
above the wages for 1870.
In order that the rise and fall m wages from year to year may be
more readily measured, the increase or decrease of average actual
wages given in the preceding table has been expressed in percent­
ages, 1870 being taken as the basis, and the percentage of increase or
lecrease for each year thereafter (from 1871 to 1898) shown in the
following table:
PERCENTAGE OE INCREASE OE A V E R A G E W AG ES IN EACH Y E A R FROM 1871 TO
1898, AS COMPARED W IT H A V E R A G E W AG ES IN 1870, IN GOLD, EOR C E R TA IN CITIES
OE THE UN ITED STATES, GRE A T B R ITA IN , FRANCE, AND BELGIUM.
United
States.

Year.
870
1
871

872
873
874
875
L876,
1877
L
878,
...........................................................................
L 1
879.
L 1
880..................................................................................................
L
881
L
882
1883
1884.
1885.
1886
1887
1888
1889
1890
1891
►
1892
1893
1894
1895
1896
1897
!.................................................................................................
1898




0.2
2.3
3.8
5.2
6. 2
8.1
8.8
7.9
5.6
5.6
6.0
7.1
7.9
7.9
7.5
6.9
7.1
7.7
8.3
9.0
10.6
10.6
11.2
11.3
11.5
14.6

I
1
.
1
I
1
1
i

a Decrease.

0.5 |
1.4
2.1 ;
2.4
5.0
5. 7
8.7
10.1
10.1
14.4
15.3
17.5
17.7
17. 7
17.7
18.6
18.6
17.9
19.6
23.8
24.1
24.1
24.5
25.0
25.0
25.5

1.3
2.5
7.6
9.7
6.7
5.9
5.0
1.7
2.9
4.6
7.1
10.1
9.2

8.8

6.3
5.9
4J
6.3
5.5
6.3
9.2
7.6
8.0 |
10.1
9.7
11.3

1 .1
1
1.7

al.l
1.8
4.6
5.2

6.1

9.2
11.0
12.0

12.9
12.1
12.1
13.0
13.7
14.1
14.6
15.4
16.1
15.3
33.0

12.1

11.5
10.9
10.3

670

BULLETIN OF THE DEPARTMENT OF LABOR.

T a b l e I . — AVERAGE

DAILY WAGES IN GOLD IN CERTAIN CITIES OF THE
UNITED STATES, 1870 TO 1898.

[The wages for the years 1870 to 1878, inclusive, except in the case o f San Francisco, were reported
in currency. In converting wages in currency into wages in gold the value o f $100 gold in currency
for January of each year from 1870 to 1877 and the average value for the entire year 1878, as given in
BLACKSMITHS.

Year. Balti­
more.

Bos­
ton.

1870. $1.96£ $3.00*
1871.. 2.15* 3.26
1872.. 2.18* 3.33*
1873.. 1.962 3.18
1874.. 1.85* 3.14*
1875..
1.85* 2.68*
1876.
1. 99* 2.76*
1877.. 2 1 2.60*
.1 |
1878.. 2.2 2 2.73*
1
1879.. 2.24f 2.77
1880.
2.20* 2.94*
1881.
2.20* 3.05
1882.. 2.27* 2.94*
1883.. 2. 26* 2. r '
1884.. 2.28* 2.87*
1885.. 2.24* 3.01*
1886.. 2.26* 3.02*
1887.. 2. 23* 2.87*
1888.. 2.18* 2.87*
1889.. 2 1 1 2.91*
.0 *
1890.. 2.12*| 2.80*
.1891.. 1. 97*' 2.79*
1892.. 1.97*1 2.79*
1893.. 2.06 I 2. 78*
1894.. 1.97*! 2. 75
1895.. 1.95*, 2. 75*
1896.. . 2.03* 2. 75
1897.. 2. 05* 2. 76
2.76
1898.. 2.00

Pitts­
New Phila­ burg Rich­
St.
St.
Or­ York. del­
and
leans.
phia. A lle­ mond. Louis. Paul.
gheny.
!

Kew

Cin­
cin­
nati.

Chi­
cago.

San
Fran­ A v er­
cisco. age.

$2.51* $1.99 $3.09*; $2.24* $1.86 $1.93*: $1.99* $2. 39 $2. 35 $3.80|l $2.43
2.18* 3.38| 2. 59*' 2.34* 2.25| 2.18* 2. 69
2.71
2. 57* 3 .49|! 2.65*
2.89
2.16* 3.43| 2. 61* 2.45* 2.17* 2 . 2 1 * 2.74* 2.61* 3 .55|, 2.70
2.76* 2.19* 3.32* 2.53 ! 2.43*: 2. 00* 2.14* 2.61* 2.53
3.61 i 2.0 |
0
2.75* 2.18f 3.14* 2.40* 2.52* 2.24* 2.02
2.64
3.58|i 2.59
2.58
2.57
2.41| 2. 66|, 2.37* 2.15 I 2.15
2.00
2 . 66* 2. 55* 3.55
2.47
2.51* 2 .17{ 2.66 ■ 2.39* 2.0 *1 1.99* 1.991 2. 64* 2.53* 3.56| 2.43|
2
2.56* 2.1L 2.82* 2.54* 1.89* 2. 38* 2 Ilf 2.77*’ 2.69
9
.
3.45*1 2.51*
2.60
2.33| 2.95* 2.59
1.94 I 2 .39f 2.22
2.95* 2. 81| 3.33*! 2.59*
2.69* 2. 34f 3.00
2.60
2. 63f 2. 87* 3.46
1.89* 2.32* 2.25
2. 59*
2.67* 2.31| 3.00
2.63*' 2. 59* 3.57
.2 *
2.67* 2.07 I 2 2 1 2.25
2. 59|
2.90*
3.00
2.67* 2.16| 2.23* 2.25
2. 64*1 2. 60| 3. 56*! 2.64*
2.88
3. 00
2.62* 2.26f 2.33* 2.25
2.59
2. 59*. 3.52f! 2.64*
2.83* 2.34| 3.00
2.82* 2.29* 2.34
2.63*! 2.59*' 3. 52*! 2.64*
2.25
2.80* 2.42| 3.00
2.92,- 2 .31| 2.46| 2.25
2.63* 2.44* 3.53*| 2.66*
2.88
2.2r 3.00 2.62i 2.32* 2.2r 2.25 2.63* 2.44*' 3.48 2.62
2.90* 2 .2 3.00 2.75 2.32 2.4! 2.25 2.63* 2.44 i 3.49*’ 2. 64|
2. 91
3.20
2.26* 2.38* 2.25
2.25* 3. 00
2.63
3.54*,' 2. 66*
2.44
2.87* 2.28| 3.00
2.63
3.17* 2.27* 2.15* 2.25
2.44* 3.65*; 2.65
2.84*; 2.30f 3.00
2.80
2.32
2. 39* 2.25
2.63
2.75
3.53
2.64*
2 6 2.32| 3.00 2.82* 2.28* 2.37* 2.25 2.63 2.75 3. 35* 2.63*
.8 *!
2.83
2. 34* 2.83* 2.52* 2.29
2.41
2.63* 2.75
2.25
3.32|l 2.58
2.84 ! 2.32* 2.83* 2.92* 2.15
2. 64| 2.75
2.41| 2.25
3.22*! 2.59*
2.92*' 2.34* 2.83* 2.92* 2.23
2. 39* 2.25
2.62* 2.50
3.22|! 2.59*
1
2.73* 2.0 | 2.83* 2.92*1 1.83* 2.29* 2.25
2.50
3.20 j 2.49*
2.80 | 2.11 2.83* 2.50
1 8 2.2If 2.25
.8 *!
2.50
3.20 i 2.47
2.26* 2.50
2.80* 2.15* 2.83* 2.45
3.16* 2.44*
1.78* 2.35| 2.25
2.80* 2.16 1 2.83* 2. 20
2.05*1 2. 04
2.13* 2.50
2.25
3.13*' 2.41
2.03|j 2.05* 2.25
2.13| 2.50
2.814; 2.i7*i 2.83* 2.55
.*;
3.12 i 2. 43*

1

i

I

BLACKSMITHS’ HELPERS.

1870..
1871..
1872..
1873..
1874..
1875..
1876..
1877..
1878..
1879..
1880..
1881..
1882..
1883..
1884..
1885..
1886..
1887..
1888..
1889..
1890..
1891..
1892..
1893..
1894..
1895..
1896..
1897..
1898..

1 21*
1.33
1.32f
1.20|
1.22
1.21
1.20*
1.28*
1.39|
1.41|
1.41f
1.41|
1.41|
1.41|
1.41|
1.41|
1.41|
1.42|
1.42|
1.40|
1.43|
1.27
1.27
1.27
1.25
1.28|
1.35|
1.35|
1.35|

1. 56
1.7L
1.75
1.70*
1. 74*
1.70*
1-44*i
1- 52*jj
1. 57*|
1.62 i
1.57|
1.61 i
I
1.56* 1
1.60 |
1. 63*:
1.68*1
1. 66*■
1.72*
1.86
1.88
1.86*
1.85*
1.85*
1.88*
1.83*
1.82*
1.83*
1.84
1.84

1.65
1.69*
1.83*
1.74
1-63*
1.55*
1.47*
1.57*
1.68*
1.63*
1.63*
1.61*
1-62*
1.65
1.63*
1.60*
1.69*
1.70*
1.70*
1.70*
1.70*
1.70|
1.72
1.73|
3.661
1.70*
1.69*
1.71“
1.71




1.28|
1.41
1.44|
1.39*
1. 38
1.38*
1.35*
1.41
1.48*
1.46*
1.35
1.40*
1.51*
1.48*
1.48*
1.44
1.44*
1.44*,
1.45*i
1.44! [
1.44|
1.45|
1.46*
1.46|
1. 36*
1.40*
1.38*
1.36|
1.37*

3.65 I
1.80|
1.83* !
1.77*
1.79*
1.77|
1.77*
1.88*
1.97*
2.00
2. 00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2. 00
2.00
2.00
1.83*
1.83*'
1.83*
1.83*
1.58*
1.58*
1.58*
1.58*
1.58*
1.58*
1.58*
1.58*

1.48* !
1.62*
1.62|!
1.59*:
1.59* i
1.57*1
1.57*!
1.67*I
3.60*,
1.57*'
1.52*
1.72*:
1.72*
1.85
1.85
1.62*
1.65
1.87*
1.87*
1.87*
1.85 |
1
1.82* i
1. 77*
1.85 i
1. 77*
1.70 !
1.65
1.65
1.80

1.19i •
1.39
1.47*
1.52“
1.45*
1.29 i
;
1.23*1
1.12 ;
1.14*
1.16£
1.30
1.35
1.35*
1. 35*
1.37*
1.22*
1. 35
1.37|
1. 39
1.39*
1.41|
3.41
1.42*
1.42*
1.14*
1.11*
1.13*
1.14*
1.28

1.23
1.39|
1.41|
1.46*
1.39*
i . 2o*
1.19*
1.32!
1.39
1.45
1.44|
1.48*
1.43*
1.44*
1.45*1
3.40*!!
3. 39*!;
1.48*!
1.44*!
1.58 |
i
1.58 |
1.58*!
3. 58*
1.58*
1.39*
1. 39*
1.40|
1.49|
1.40|j
1

0.824!
.90*
.91*
.88*
.85*
.84*1
.84*'
.89*;
.93*
.95
.95
.95
.95
. 95
.95
.95
. 95
.95
.95
.95
.95
.95
. 95
.95
.95
.95
.95
.95
.95

1.07*!
1.22
1.28*I
1.19|:
1.25|;
1.24*
1.19!
i.3i|
1. 38
1.35
1.35
1.35
1.35
1.40
1.40
3.40
1.40
1.40
1.43
1.43
1.43
1.45
1.52
1.53
1.62
1.53
1.65
1.50
1.53

1.32 I
1.44*!
1.4G*
1.42
1.45f
1.444
1.42*1
1. 51*
1.58*
1.62*
1.50
1. 50
1.50
1.50
1.50
1.50
1. 50
1.50
1.50
1.50
1.50
1.50
1.50
1.50
1.50 |
1.50 !
1.50
1.50
1.50

2.34*1
2.22|!
2.21*1
2.24*
2.24 i
2.24*
2.24
2.23*!
2.io*;
2.10*.
2.09*|
2.10*!
2.09
2.11*
2.11 1
2.10*
2.10 |
2.09*;
2.11 !
2.08||
1.93|
1.91 ,
1.91 1
1. 91*
1.91*
1.92*
1. 93*
1.94*
1.92|

1.40*
1.51*
1. 55
1.51*
1.50*
1.45|
1.41*
1.48
1. 52*
1.53
1.51*
1.54*
1.54*
1.56*
1. 56|
1.53
1.54|
1.56|
1.58*
1.59
1.58
1.54*
1. 54|
1. 55|
1. 50
1.49*
1.50|
1.50*
1. 52*

671

WAGES IN THE UNITED STATES AND EUROPE.

T able I . —AVERAGE DAILY WAGES IN GOLD IN CERTAIN CITIES OF THE
UNITED STATES, 1870 TO 1898—Continued.
the American Almanac for 1870, have been used, as follow s: 1870, $121.3; 1871, $110.7; 1872, $109.1; 1873,
$112.7; 1874, $111.4; 1875, $112.5; 1876, $112.8: 1877, $106.2, and 1878. $101.4.]
BOILER MAKERS.

;
e mB

T

a

a

N
e
w
B l
t o C i s ­h Cc ­ i i i ­ O n n :­ r ­
­s
o r t r o . ec n .a . n g
ao l t . e i ; a. Y n

o
so
1

1
1
1
1
1
1
1 8
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

8
8
8
8
8
8

$ 7
10
71
1.
72.0 1 2
71
3.
71 . 4 9
71
5.
7 1 6 . .
8
27
7.
8
8.
27
8
72
9. 1
8
0. |
28
8
82
1.
8
82
2.
8
82
3.
8
82
4.
8 1 8
5
8
28
.6
8
82
7.
8
82
8.
8
82
0.
8
29
.0
8
92
1.
8
92
2.
8
92
3.
8
29
.4
8
29
.5
.6
8
92
8
92
7.
8
92
8.
I

$ . 2 .8 $ . 0
29 . . 8 . 3 1
2 . . . 32
2.204 2 4
9 . .4
2 . 6 . 4 32
2.2245 2
9. .
29 .
3. 2 1
2 0 . . 5 22
2 . 1 .. 4 2
1 . . 7 22 4
1 . .7 2 2
2 1. . . 7 2 5
22 . . . 6 26
32 . .8 . 2 5 4
24 . .3 . 2 4 5
2. ..
24 5
.3 2 4 *
24 .
24 . . 3 24 4
24 . . . 3 24 4
24 . . 3 24 4
42 . .3 25 *
42 . . 3. 24 4
24 . . 3 25 *
24 . . .3 23 *
24 . .3 24 *
24 . .3 24 4
42 . 3. . 2 4 4
24 . . 3. 2 4 *
2 . 4 . 3 24

.5 7
0
| $ 2 . 1644 $ 2 . 9
. 3 20 f . 2 3 2 4 . 9 1
. 4i 0
9 32 4 . .
.
. ! 29 .3147 3 4
6
1 . 28
7 . 1 34
3
.
2.22 1
.
7
4.
. 5 25 | . 7 32
6.
.4 2 7 4 . 3 32
4 4
| .7 2 8 4 . 8 ! 3.5944
. 0 3 35 4 . 1
. . 29 3
| 9.
. . 29 2 .0 8 34
.0
.0 34
. 2 29
2 9 4 0. 3 4
.9
. 0 !
.0 4
1
. 6 29
.7
. 1 29 f . 0 34
2
.34 2 9 4 4 . 0 1 4
0
0
. 6 29
0 .'
.5 19 4 . 0 | 9
7
2. 29 4 . 0 ! 1
5
.8 2 9
.0 ; 1
5
6. '
6. 2 9 4 . 0 12
.6 2 9 4 . 0 ' 0
7!
. 6 27 4 7 . 2 40 . ' 0
7. 28 4
7.
7. 20 4
.0 '
.6 29 4 . 0 21
4!
.7 19 4 0. 1 9
.;
. 5 2.0240 2
9
. 7 19 J .0 : 9
71
| .8 2.0240 2
9
. j

9

21

2
2.01 9

1

#

4 $

23

0.1
1 2.
91
13 | ..
1.
I2 954:
12 * . 3
2.
24 "
1 4 .
25 4 .9
25 4 . 0
20
.0
20 4 .0
*2
:. 1
20
.0
22
..
22 | ..
2 2 ..
22
..
22
..
64
2
24
.
6 | 2
2 64 . 5
6
4
2
.
6
4
2
.
6
0

. 1r
g

P
w |

i
i
Ak
l

i

t!

t
S o
l* l L e
e ; n
t

i

s
,
San A ver­
. pt h St­i
li
l
a
'
o p - rau b i Fran- . a age. o
uh
ji s ra
.
y
.
’

:
n

d

!
s
.8 2 4 81
4
1 $ , $ 9 1 .1 0 . . . . 4. ' 7 .$ 8 2. 1 . 3 3 . $4 .. 8. 4. * $3.384 $2.35|
2. .
i
2 | .
0
7 0 . . 44 . . 4 . 2 . . 6 . . 3.161 . 3.181 2. 53
2.
2 0 44 . 4 2 . 1 8 4 . . 4 . . . 2 . . 6 . . 3. . 520| . | 3.19 j 2.58
1
3
.
3.101 . 3.4 401. . 2. 53| . . .
2 7 | . 4 2 0 ‘ .5
. 4 6 . .0
1 |
12
. .
. .
292
. 9 5 01 4 4 7. . 9. 4 . . 0 . 2 . . 6 . ' . 8 4.14J . 3.381 2.5 |
3
. .
2 4 . 10
. 6 . 7. . .6 . 2 -. 4 2 . * . . 3.11. i. 3.34 | 2.47
.
6. .
'
29 4 .5 2 . 0 1 44 . . . . i . 2 . . 3 . . 2.66 | . 3.344 2.41
0
5. . 1
4
2.184 7 2 . 1 1 4 . ! . . . 1! . 2 . . . . . 2.821. 3.264, s 2. 51|
0
4
4|
96
92
4. 24 .0 8 64 . . 4 . . ; ! . . . . . 2 2 . . . . . 3.25|; 25 2.59 s
2
4 .
4
2 4 . 0 2 . 1 7 . * . . . : ! .j 2 . . . . . 3.00. 2 | 3.181 s 2.62
3
2
.
2 .
:
12 . 7 2 2 4 2
. 4 . . 1 . . . 7 2 . . 4 4 . . 3.00. 4 . 3.211 2. 594
2.
,
1
2.2245 2
. . | . 1 . . . 29 . . 4 . | . 3.00. | . 3.184 2.56
23
. 5 23
3 . i . 42 . . 61 . . 4 . . . 3.00. . . 3. 21 3 24. 66
2.
8
26
. 0 3 2 3 0 . . . * 2. .0 ' . 9 . 0 2 . 4 . 8 . . 3.00. . | 3 .15| 2. 67|
.3
2 . 4 . 8 . . 3.00. * . 3. 27| 2.69
3.
52
2 . 24 3 ' . . 3 2. . l . 9 .
7
4
.
2 2 6 7 . 3 243 4 , 2 . . . 1 . . , , .!6 2 . . . 4 . . 3. . 008 . 3.311 2. 61|
j
23 6 7. 3 23 4 4 . 5 . . 3 . . 4 .; 2 . . | . . , 7 . 3.00. !. 3.344 2.604
.8
9 .
!
25 G
. 0 4 23 4 4. . 3. 4 . .6 . 2 . 4 . 7 . . 3.00.4 j. 3. 394 2. 614
26 6 . 0 0 32
8. . 3. 4 . .2i : . 2 . 4 . . . . 3.25 0 j. 3.414 2.664
8 . .
6.
52 6
7. 4 23 4 4 . 3 . 2 . 4 . 4 . ; . 2 4. . 7 . . 3.25. . 3.46
2.654
5.
2 2 4 . . 32 4 1. 7 . 2 . * 4 . 8 . 1 1 . 2 4. . 7 . . 3.25. . 3. 324 2.641
.
22 6 . . 4 225 .3 1 7 0 . . 4 . . ; . I2 . . 7 . . 3.25. 4 . 3. 231 2.62
3
4
.7
2.591
2 2 4 . . 2 4 5. 5. 2. 4 . 8. ' . | 2 .4 . 7 . . 3.25. . | 3.12
‘
. 1 . j 2 . . 7. 1 . : 2 4. . 7 . . 3. . 00. * . 2. 94
2.58
2 6 | . 5 23
8
2 2 4 . 272
O
2 5 . . .4 1 . :. ‘ . i 28 . . . . ] 7 . 3. .7C . 4. 2. 73£ 2. 561
22 6
. . 3 2 3 4 .4 5 . 3. 4 . . 2' . 2 . . . 1 . 7 . 3. . 00 . 2. 97f 2. 544
4 .
:
. 05 . 2. | . . 6 . 2 . . . . 7 . 3. . 00. 4. 2. 95* 2. 551
2 2 4 . . 2 42
7
22 6
. . 3 2 2 4 4 3 0. . . 1 . . . 7,! 2 . . 4 . 7 . 3. . 00 . 2.951 2. 54
5 .
.
.6
2 2 . . 52 2 . 2 6 . .4 2 i . ,. 6 . 2 .4 . 7 . . 3.5 . 00 . 2 9 4 2 .5 fl

1
BOILER M AK ER S HELPERS.

1870.. 1. 064!
1871.. 1.16*|i
1872.. I .I 84!
1873.. 1.1*4!I
1874.. 1.15|!!
1875.. 1.14|!
1876.. 1.144:
1877.. 1.214
1878.. 1.274
1879.. 1. 29
1880.. 1.28
1881.. 1.28
1882.. 1.28
1883.. 1.36*
1884.. 1.364
1885.. 1.36*
1886.. 1.28"
1887.. 1.364
1888.. 1.364
1889., 1.364
1890.. 1. 86*
1891.. 1.364
1892.. 1.364
1893.. 1.364
1894.. 1.364
1895.. 1. 364
1896.. 1. 364
1897.. 1.364
1898..! 1. 36*
1

1.294

1.52**
1. 60|
1.694
1.224 1.644
1.66
1.24
1.28| 1.534
1.184 1. 50|
1.21
1.53
1.32| 1. 67|
1.394 1.70
1.374 1.624
1.434 1.65
1.484 1.65
1.424 1 1.65
1.474!! 1.624
1.464! 1.55 |
1.5441 1 . 7 5 ;
1.504 1.70
1.75
1.50
1.524 1.6741
1.49* 1.65 |
1.484 1.674 !
1.414 1.674
1.75
1.43
1.474 1.65
1.434 L674
1.46| 1.65
1.464 1.674
l.46| | 1.674
!
1.564
1.414




0.94*
1.09"
1.244
1.36
1.30|
1.714
1.534;:
1.66 |
1.73* ,
1.754!
1.70|
1. 654
1.6241
1.514 !
1.57 i!
1.604■

1.424

1.18*
1.28i1
1.314
1.34 I
[
1.27 !
1.23£1.224
1.234
1.194,

1.204

1.20|
1.18|
I1

1.65
l. 80|
1.834
1.77*
1.794
1.774 I
1.774;1
1.884;
1.974 !
2.00 I
1.61
1.60
1.604 ,
1.50 i
1.584!!
1.584;
1.574!
1. 564
1.544
1.544
1.524
1.50 :
1.50
1.50
1.50
1.50
1. 50
1.50
1.50

1 . 404s 1.44|
1 . 534; 1.582
1 . 534! 1.56*

1.392
1.414
1.424
1.28*
1.36|:
1.354)
1.50 1
1.50 1
1.574
1-674
1. 65 !

1.424
1.45

1.524

1.424
1.474
1.474
1.45
1.624
1.40 i
1.45
1.42*
1. 374
1.424
1.42*
1.40"

1.25
1. G
5
1.05 ' ..........
1.18 ........... 1.394 1.802!
1.404 1.834i
1. 564 ..........
1.554 1.38 ' .......... ! 1.374 1.774|
1.39 ' 1.794
1.56| 1.394 ..........
1.374 1.77|
1.554, 1. 234 ..........
1.372 1. 554
1.50 ! 1.244 ..........
1.464 1.64|
1. 62 , 1. 212..........
1. 672 1.27*........... 1.53 | 1.724
1.37 • 1.75
1.69 !
1.75
1.37
1. 73|
1. 694 1.374!.......... 1 1.364 1. 75
' 1.55
1.75
1.702 1.464i..........
1.694 1.464!.......... 1 1.55
1.75
1.702 1.46*...........'1 1.55
1.75
1.494 1.75
1.744 1.374i..........
1. "24; 1.354s.......... !! 1.464 1.75
1. 72* 1.412.......... !! 1.504 1.75
1. 69"j 1.334 .......... 1 1.45| 2.00
1
1. 734! 1.322.......... 1 1444 2. 00
1
1.75 ' 1.33 ............
i.36| 2.00
1.71| 1.352 ..........
1.284 2.00 ,
1.37
2.00 1
>
1. 73j 1.434'.........
1.75
1.28*1..........
1.75 1
1.38
1.26"!..........
1.75
1.554 1.75
1. 75
;
1.75 i
1 . 294!.......... ji 1.49
1.36 !.......... !1 1.434 1.75 '
1.72
1.722 1. 342 . . . . i ! . 1.484. . 1.75. ,.
. .
.
. .
.
1.732 1.40 j . . . . 1.434 . 1. .75. .

2.232

2.014

2.012
2.03
2.074
2.024
2.01|
1.96|
1.94
1.96
1.974
2.00
2.014
2.07|
2.09|
2.09
2.084

2.104

2.114
2.132
2.06|

2.024

1.984
1.95|
1.93|
1.984
1.98|
1.984
1.944
. |

1.41

1 54
'. 2

1.57
1. 5U
1.5 4
2
1.534

1.4 1
6

1.521
1.59

1.C4
I

1.564
1.58
1.614
1.601
1.60
1. 58|
1.584

1.564
1.594

1.57*
1.574
1.554
1.534
1.534
1.52|
1.534
1.54
1
.

5

3

4

672

BULLETIN OF THE DEPARTMENT OF LABOR.

Table I . —AVERAGE DAILY WAGES IN GOLD IN CERTAIN CITIES OF THE
UNITED STATES, 1870 TO 1898—Continued.
[The wages for the years 1870 to 1878, inclusive, except in the case o f San Francisco, were reported
in currency. In converting wages in currency into wages in gold the value o f $100 gold in currency
for January o f each year from 1870 to 1877 and the average value for the entire year 1878, as given in

BRICKLAYERS.

Balti­
Year. more.

Bos­
ton.

Chi­
cago.

1870.. $3.42* $3.33* $2.78*
4.51f
1871.- 3.87* 3.89
1872.. 3.83f 4.10* 4.58*
3.30* 3.58* 3.10*
1873..
1874.. 2.87
3.17
2.24*
1875.. 3.30* 3.13* 2. 22*
1876.. 3.27* 3.06* 2.66
1877.. 3.50* 3.04* 2.82*
1878.. 3.66
2.95| 2.95f
2.74* 3.50
1879.. 3.70
3.50
1880 . ' 3.70
2.59
3.50
1881.. i 3.66* 2.72
1882.. i 4.00
3.19| 3.50
8.16* 3.50
1883.. 4.00
3.27* 3.50
1884.. 4.25
4.00
1885.. 4.03* 3.33
4.00
3.87* 3.34
1886..
1887.. 3.81* 3.49| 4.00
3.47* 4. 00
1888-. 4.00
3.53| 4.00
1889.. 4.00
3.65* 4.00
1890.. 3.75
1891.. 3.71f 3.74* 4.00
1892.. 3.77* 3.68* 4.00
1893.. 3. 76* 3.75 ! 4.00
1894.. 3.70* 3.65* 4.00
3.83*! 4.00
1895.. 3.00
1896.. 3.00
3.29* 4.00
3.45*! 4.00
1897.. 3.00
1898.. 3.00
3.40* 4.00

i
i
Pitts- |
PhilaNew New |
San
BichSt.
St.
Or­ York. delFran­ A ver­
leans.
] phia. a u S - ! “ < >*• Louis. Paul. cisco. age.
“
i
gheny.;
i
$3.71 $2.06 $3.16* $2.96f
$2.88* $2.47* $2.88* $5.00 $3.15*
3.16* 2.71
4.51* 2.25| 3.46* 3.14*
3.16* 5.00
3.61
3.20* 2.75
3.20* 5.00
4.58* 2.36| 3.51*' 3.22?
3.67
4.43| 2.2lf 3.38*' 3.18
3.10* 2.44
3.10* 5.00
3.35
2.69* 2.461 3.14* 5.00
3.05*! 3.29*
4.48| 2.17
3.14*
2.44* 2.44* 3.11
2.22* 2.98* 3.33*
4.00
5.00
3.11
2.75* 2. 99*
2.211 2.431 3.10* 4.22* 3.00
3.99
2.29
3.76* 2.41* 2.68* 3.19*
2.35* 2.59
3.29* 4.14* 3.07*
2.46* 2.95* 3.45*' 4.00
3.94* 2.52*! 2.76f' 2.95|
3.15
2.50
2.25 1 3.14* 2.75
3.00
3.50 1 4.00
3.50
3.14*
2.56*1 3.12* 2.55£
2.50
3.50
3.50
3.50 1 4.00
3.18*
..........
2.50
4.00
2.87*! 3.50 , 2.65 |
4.00
4.72*! 4.00
3.46f
3.00
3.89* 2.66*
4.00
2.50
4.00
5.00
5.15* 3.72
3.50
4.50
2.50
4.00 , 2.88*
4.50
5.00
l
5.25 1 3.89
4.50
2.50
3.50
4.50
4.00 1 3.00
5.00
5.411 3.95
3.50
4.50
4.50
2.50
3.84 i 3.36*
5.00
5.35*1 3.99*
2.56* 4.03*' 3.42* .......
3.50
4.50
3.60
5.00
5.39 ! 3.93
3.50
5.00
5.00
2.37*!I 4.03*' 3.56
4.00
5.39 ! 4.01*
8.59* ....... 3.50
2.41| 4.03*
4.50
4.40
5.00
5.411 4.03
4.40
5. 00
2.58*;I 4.02* 3.61*
3.50
5.00
5.77 | 4.13
4.95 , 2.56*!; 4.00 ; 3.77* ........... 4.00
4.40
4.50
5.83*: 4.13
4.95 ! 4.05 ! 4. 00 ! 3.95*
4.00
4.40
4.28*
4.50
5.81
3.80f
4. 95 ; 4.03 j 4.00
!
4.40
3.60
5.83* 4.23*
4.50
a. *4*
4.40
4.50 i 4.05 | 4.00
!
3.60
4.50
5.00
4.12*
4.05 | 4.00
3.60
4. 50
3. 93
4.40
4.50
5.00
4.12*
4.50
4.05 ! 4.00
3.891 ....... 3.60
4.40
5.00
4.02*
4.50
3.79
3.15
3.82*
3.37* 4.00
4.40
4.50
3.60
5.00
3.39|! 4.00
3.63*
3.73*
3.20
2.50
4.40
4.50
5.00
3.37*! 4.00
2.761
2.25
3.20
3.20
4.50
3.51*
5.00
Cin­
cin­
nati.

CABI 1
VE TUI AKE RS.

1870..
1871..
1872..
1873..
1874..
1875..
1876..
1877..
1878..
1879..
1880..
1881..
1882..
1883..
1884..
1885..
1886..
1887..
1888..
1889..
1890..
1891..
1892..
1893..
1894..
1895..
1896..
1897..
1898..

2.84*
1.87* 2.47
2.98
1.92
2.66
2.18f 2.64* 2.91
2.75
2. 23| 2.61
2.73f
2.09
2.53
2.41| 2.33*
2.08|
2.17f 2.23f 2.21f
2.28* 2.12* 2. 30|
2.24| 1.96f 2.39*
2.28* * 2.17f 2.35
2.17* 2.18* 2.65
2 27* 2.53* 2.42*
.
2.54f 2.52*
2.25
2.37*
2.23* 2.65
2.25| 2.65* 2.27*
2.27| 2.56* 2.35
2.27| 2.65* 2.47*
2.42*
2.26f 2.55
2.25
2.42* 2.40
2.28| 2.53* 2.37*
2.26
2.55f 2.35
2.42| 2.37*
2.27
2.28* 2. 51* 2.35
2.25
2.49* 2.37*
2. 26* 2.50* 2. 32*
2.27* 2.50* 2. 32*
2.26* . 2.52* 2.30
2. 22* 2.53* 2.32*
2.22* 2. 62| 2.32*




1.78|
1.65*
1.68
1.62*
1.64*
1.63
1.74*
2.00
2.05*
1.87*
1.87*
1.90
1.76f
1.68*
1.68*
1.60*
1.87*
1.69
1.71*
1. 71
1.74*
1.73f
1.79
1.69*
1.66f
1.54*
1.54*
1.53
1.52*

2.88*
2.71
3.05*
2. 66*
2.91f
3.00
2.99*
3 .13f
3.04
3.08*
2.87*
2.87*
2.87* !
2.55 [
2.87*'1
3.06*!!
2.75 j
2.53*'
2.66|:
2.62*i
2.83*||
2.75
2.91|!
2.54*|
2.34
2.40|!
2.37*
2.25 |
1
2.12*j

1.68
1.83*
1.86*
1.58*
1.60*
1.59|
1.63
1.76*
1.85
1.93|
1.93|
2.22
2.23
2.23
2.28*
2.29
2.29
2.28*
2.29
2.27|
2.24*:
2.23|;
2.17* 1
2.14*1
2.14*,
2.11*1
2.50 1
2.42* 1
2.44 |

1.81* $2.40*
1.92
1. 92
2.63*
2.12*
2.03
2.16*
2.67*
1.95* 2.58|........... 2.10*
2.02
2.69*
2.12f
. .
2.00
2.40 . . . . . 2.17 .
1.99* 1.99*
2.16*
1.88*
2.29*
2.13f
2.40* 1.97* . . . . . 2.40*.
. .
2.45* 2.00
2.44*
. .
2.46* 2.00 . . . . . 2.47*.
2.42
2.50
2.47*
2.46| 2.50
2.47*
2.42* 2.75
2.47*
2.45| 2.50 .
.
. 2.47*
.
2.48* 2.50
2.47*
2.51* 2.25
2.47*
2.52
2.60*
2.37*
2.51
2.83*
2.60*
2.49f 2.87*
2.60f
2.44| 2.87*........... 2.60|
2.60|
2.501 2.87*
2.49* 3.12*
2.58|
. .
2.571 3.00 . . . . . 2.59*.
2.55| 2.75
2.57*
2.53| 2.62*........... 2.57*
2.53* 2.75 i
2.53
2.43|
2.53* 2.75
. .
2.44* 2.50 1 . . . . . 2.51 .

1.73
1.88
2.03*
1.97
2.02
. 2.00 . . . . . . . .
. .
1.99*
2.11*
. 2.22 .
. .
2.25
. 2.25 .
. .
2.25
2.25
2.25
. 2.25 ......... *
.
.
2.25
2.25
2.25
2.25
2.31*
2.50
2.50
2.50
. 2.25 . ............
. .
2.25
2.25
2.25 ............
2.25
. 2.25 .
. .
...........

2.14
2.23*
2.32*
2.20|
2.23f
2.164
2.11*

2.20*

2.25*
2.28*
2.28f
2.38f
2.38f
2.36*
2.37
2.38*
2.38
2.35
2.39*
2.41
2.44*
2.43
2.47*
2.39*
2.33|
2.31*
2.35|
2.32*
2.29f

673

WAGES IN THE UNITED STATES AND EUROPE.

T able I . —AVERAGE DAILY WAGES IN GOLD IN CERTAIN CITIES OF THE
UNITED STATES, 1870 TO 1898—Continued.
tli© American Almanac for 1879, have been used, as follows: 1870, $121.3: 1871, $110.7: 1872, $109.1;
1873, $112.7; 1874, $111.4; 1875, $112.5; 1876, $112.8; 1877, $106.2, and 1878, $101.4.]

CARPENTERS.

Year. Balti­
more.

1870..
1871-.
1872..
1873..
1874..
1875..
1876..
1877..
1878..
1879..
1880..
1881..
1882..
1883..
1884..
1885..
1886..
1887..
1888..
1889..
1890..
1891..
1892..
1893..
1894..
1895..
1896..
1897..
1898..

$ 2.12

2.32
2.37f
1.67*
1.87

1.86

1.75*
1.87
1.95*
2.14|
2.15*
2.23*
2.31
2.29*
2.40
2.42*
2.39|
2.41*
2.41|
2.40
2.43
2.41
2.42*
2.41*
2.43
2.39f
2.41
2.43*
2.41f

Bos- j Chi­
ton. I cago.

PittsCin­ New New Phila­ burg
San
St.
Or­
cin­
del­
ana Rich-j St.
Fran­ Aver­
nati. leans. York. phia. Alle­ m ond.. Louis. Paul. cisco. age.
gheny.

$2.13* $ 2. 12* $2.01!i $2. 34* $2.87* $2.42
2.61*' 2. 25*. 2. 56* 3.15
2.35
2.62*
2. 29* 2.58* 2. 23|l 2.59* 3.19* 2.66*
2.21* 2.27*, 2. 36*! 2.50* 3.09* 2.56*
2 .19f 1.94!, 2.24 j 2.51* 3.1 r
2.55*
3.01.91* 1.96* 2.18* 2.49
2.40*
1.92* 1.91
2. i7*; 2.36* 2.99* 2.20*
2.10!, 2.17!) 2.51* 3.10* 2. 09*
1.62
1. 66* 2.11 j 2.20 | 2.64* 3.30* 1.98*
2.00
2.23* 2.01! 2.69
3.37* 2.09*
2.29* 2.20 | 1.87* 2. 68* 3.40| 2.18
2.32f 2.37* 2.13* 2.46* 3.43* 2.50
2.35f 2.31* 2.30* 2.48* 3.48! 2.74*
2.41* 2.3 !i 2.46* 2.53* 3.48* 2. 76*
2
2.41* 2.39!j 2.49
2.43* 3.49* 2. 78!,'
3.48* 2.80*
2.35!. 2. 32* 2.50
2.42
3.49* 2.73!
2.45* 2 4 1 2.24* 2.50
.4 *
3.49* 2.74*
2.40* 2.48 ! 2. 25* 2. 50
3.49* 2.70*
2.47* 2.47*; 2.28* 2.50
2.20 2.46* 3.49* 2.75*
2.44* 2.32
2.29*1 2.01* 2. 50! 3.48* 2-74*
2.52
2. 52
2. 85*
2.58*1 2.10 2.32* 3.49
3.49* 2. 83*
2.48* 2.59*j 2.19f 2.32
3.49* 2.78*
2.52
2.96
2.27*
2.30
3.49! 2. 79
2.47| 2.94*1 1.99* 2.32
2.47* 2.69!| 1.99* 2.32* 3.49! 2.82
3.49* 2.77*
2.46
2.54
1.87! 2. 31
2.54
2.67* 1.94* 2.32* 3.49* 2.77*
2.54
2.43* 1.85* 2.33* 3.49! 2.73*

$2.20 |
$1.87*'

$2.88* $1.57* $3.85* $2.36*
2.36*! 2.01* 3.16*1 1.71* 3.80
2.57|
2.35 i 2.23
3.20! 1.60* 3.79
2.60
2.29 i 2.20*' 3.10* 1. 55* 3.85* 2.47*
2. 23*i 2.16* 3.14*’ 1.57
3.78* 2.45
2.1 !l 2.19 , 3.11 ! 1.55* 3.61 2.37*
6
1. 73*1 2.23* 3.10* 1.55* 3.75
2.30!
1.85*1 1.76*; 3.29* 1.64! 3.73! 2.31*
1.71!j 1.55*; 2.76* 1.97* 3.50 I 2.28
1.81* 1.50 ; 2.80 2.00 3.50 2.34*
2 ii*; 1.41! 2.80 2.00 3.35 2.37*
.
2.28*! 1.75 ! 2.80
2.25
3.37* 2.49*
2.48 | 1.77 : 2.80
2.25
3.31* 2. 55
2.47* 1.9 | 2.80
4!
3.26 , 2. 58*
2.25
2.51* 1. 94*1 2.80
2.25
3.29* 2.60*
2.44*; 1.89*' 2.80
3.16! 2.57*
2. 25
2.45* 1. 77* 2.80
2.25
3.09*, 2.55*
2.36* 1.75 i 2.40
2.25
3.27*1 2.52*
2.49* 1.96*. 2.40
2.25
2.56
2.58* 1.83*: 2.40
2. 25
3. 32
2.54
2.19* 2.80
2.62
2.25
3.24
2.59*
2.64* 2. 22
3.18
2.17* 3.27* 2.64*
2.15* 3.20
2.65
2.16f 3. 26* 2. 65
2.60* 2.17| 3. 20
2. 00
3.29| 2. 67
2.20
3.20
2.37
2.00
3.27! 2. 62*
2.17! 2.80
2.31
2.00
3.20* 2.55f
2. 33* 2. 02* 2. 80
2. 00
3. 21* 2.52
2. 36
2.17f 2.80
2.14
3.15* 2.56|
2.27* 2.17* 2.80
2.14
3.13
2.52*

COMPOSITORS.

1870..
1871..
1872..
1873..
1874..
1875..
1876..
1877..
1878..
1879..
1880..
1881..
1882..
1883..
1881..
1885..
1886..
1887..
1888..
1889..
1890..
1891..
1892..
1893..
1894..
1895..
1896..
1897..
1898..

2.47*
2.71
2.75
2.66*
2.69*
2.66*
2.66
2.54*
2.66*
2.70
2.70
2.70
2.70
2.70
2.70
2.70
2.70
2.70
2.70
2.70
2. 70
2. 70
2.70
2.70
2.70
2.70
2.70
2.70
2.70

2.26* !
2.51* !
2.56* 1
2.44 I
2.56 ;
2.50*:
2.40 I
1
2.58*!
!
2.62 |
2.52*,
2.57*
2.61 '
2.75*!!
2.84*
2.70
2. 70*
2.71*
2.69*
2.67*
2.68
2.65*
2.73*
2.67*
2.66*
2.64*
2.60|
2.63!
2.63*
2.62*

2.88*
3.16*
3.20!
3.10*
3.14*
3.11
3.10*
3.29*
2-95!
3.00
3.00
3.00
3.00
3.00
3.00
3. 00
3.00
3.00
3.00
3. 00
3.00
3.00
3.00
3.00
3.00
3. 00
3.00
3. 00
3.00




2.78! 1
3.27 I
3. 29*
3. 23*
3.20*
3.30*
3.25*,
3.36*
3.15
3.25
3.31 .
3.18*
3.21*
3.19*.
3. 20*
3.13*
3.11!
3.12*
3.08*
3.10!,,
3.15*
3.09*
3.09*
3.11
3.08*
3.09*
3. 07
3.08
3.07*

H 7*
2.71
2.75
2.66*
2.69*
2.66*
2.66
2.82*
2.95£
3.00 ,
3.00
3.00
3.00 ,
3.00 !
1
3.00 !
3.00
3.00
3.00
3.00
3.00
3. 00
3. 00
3. 00
3.00
3. 00
3.00
2. 78
2. 73
2.73*

2.53 i
2.76*,
2.80
2.72*
2.59*
2.58
2.80
2.84
2.85
2.97
2.98
2.95
2.74
2.74*
3.02*
3.03
3.02*
3.02*
3.02*
3.03*
3.05*
3. 08|
3. 09*,
3.10*,
3.09*
3.07*
3.14
3.11!
3.12*

2.58*
2.76*
2.75* ...........
2.66*
2.71*
2.53
2.43* ...........
2.48*
2.
...........
2. 27*'
2. 33*
2.52*
...........
2.82 |
2.76*
i.........
2.79 I
2.71*
2.61 i
2.68*
2. 65|:..........
2.56* . . . . . . .
2.50
2.21*'...........
2. 30*
2. 34§,..........
2. 26|
2.35*
2. 31 ...........
2.18!
2.33*

I
2.74*
3.01
3.05*
2.95*
2.99*
2.96*
2. 36*
2. 51
2.63
2.66§
2. 66#
2.66}!!
2. 66*;
2.66*!
2.66*
2.66*
2. 66*
2.66*
2. 66§
2.66#
2.66#
2.66§
2.66#
2. 66#
2. 66#
2.66#
2.66#
2.66#
2.66#

2.36*!
2. 57!i
2. 62*,
2.54 !
2. 57*i
2. 53*
2.55*
2.69*
2.81!
2.89!
2.92!
2.93*
2.92
2.92
2.92*
2.92*
2.89
2. 88f
2.88
2.88
2.88*
2.88
2.88
2.87
2.89*1
2.90*,
2.91 |
2.92* ■
2.92* !

1.23!
1. 35*
1-37*
1.48
1.49*
1.48*
1.47*
1.64!
1-72*
1.75
1.75
1. 75
1.75
1. 75
1.75
1.75
1.75
1. 75
1.75
1.75
1.78*
1.78*
1.85!
1.85!
2.09*
2.25
2.50
2.50
2.50

3.41*
3.45
3.36
3.45*
3. 48 i
3.54*
3.41*1
3.35*
3.40*
3.37#
3.28*
3,28*.
3.33*
3.27 j
3.31!
3.49 i
3.41*!
3.44*:
3.43*
3.41*
3.37*i
3.24*i
3. 32*
3.23*
3.31
3.26
3.35*
3.25
3.28

2.52*
2.75*
2. 77*
2.72
2.74
2. 71*
2.64*
2 .7 ?
2. 74*
2.76*
2.77*
2.78*
2.81
2.80*
2.82*
2.82*
2.80*
2.81*
2.80!
2.80
2.79!
2.76*
2. 78*
2.77!
2.79*
2.81
2.82*
2.80
2.81*

674

BULLETIN OF THE DEPARTMENT OF LABOR.

Table I . —AVERAGE DAILY WAGES IN GOLD IN CERTAIN CITIES OF THE
UNITED STATES, 1870 TO 1898—Continued.
{The wages for the years 1870 to 1878, inclusive, except in the'case o f San Francisco, were reported
in cnrrency. In converting wages in currency into wages in gold the value o f $100 gold in currency
for January o f each year from 1870 to 1877 and the average value for the entire year 1878, as given in
CONDUCTORS, RAILROAD.

Chi­
cago.

Year.

$3.17 j
3.47*'
3.52*'
3.41*
3 .10|!
3.07*'
3.07 ,
3.62
3. 79*
3.84*
3.84*
3.84*
3.84*'
3.84*'
3.84*1
3.84*1
3.84*'
3.84*!
3.84*
3. 84*'
3.84*:
3.84*
3.84*
3.84^
3.84i
3.84*
3.847
3.84,
3.84*

I

Cin­
cin­
nati.

New ! New
Or-

lean;.lYork‘

! PittsPhila-j burg RichSan
St.
St,
deland
Fran- A ver­
age.
pliia. j A lle­ m ond.; Louis. Paul.
gheny.

$3.95 $2.71
4.33
2.97
4.39* 3.01**
4.25* 2. 91*
4.30* 2.95 ,
2.92*'
3.75
2.91*'
3.40
3.61
3.09*
3.78* 3. 24*
3.83* 3.28*
3.78* 3.28*
3. 78* 3. 28*
3.79* 3.28*
3.91
3.28*
3.91
3.28*
4. lOi, 3.28*
4.10*: 3.28*
4.20*' 3. 28*
4. 20* 3.28*
4. 20* 3.28*
4.21 , 3.43*
4.30* 4.11
4.12 I 4.27*
4. 12 : 4.97 I
4.02* 3.96*
4.26* 4.57*
4.14* 4. 91*:
4.10* 5.04 j
4.18* 4.64*!

$2.53
2.77 i

2.8i:

2.72*
2.75*
2.72*
2.72 '
2. 88*
3.02*
3.06*
3.06*
3.06*
3.06*
3.06*
3.06*
3.06*
3.06*
3. 06*
3.06
3. 00
3.00
3.16
3.02
3.14
3.25
3.12
3.05
3.05
3.05

$4.79*
4.33*;
4.31*
4 32 I
4.34
4.33*;
4.33*!
4.33*!
4.29*:
4.29*!
4.30*!
,
4.29*'
4.26*i
4.28*
4.30*1
4.307
4. 30;
4.30*
4.30*
4.31*
4. 31
4.51*
4.51*
4.50*
4.49
4.48
4.46
4.44*
4.43*

$3.43
3.57*
3.61*
3.52*
3.49
3. 36*
3.28*
3.51
3.62*
3.66*
3.65*
3.65*
3.65*
3.68
3.68*
3.72*
3.72*
3.74*
3.74
3.73
3.76
3.98*
3.95*
4.11*
3. 91*
4. 05*
4.08*
4.09*
4.03*

4.79*!
4.60*'
4.58*'
4.59 I
4.61 I
4.60*
4. 60*'
4. 60*}
4.57*;
4.57*'
4.57*1
4.56*,
4.53*
4.55*
4.57*1
4.57*1
4.57 I
4.57*!
4-57*!
4.58
4 .57|
4.59 !
4.59
4. 58*:
4.57*
4.11*'
4.11*
4.10*
4.10*'

3.22*
3.48
3.63*
3.64
3. 53*
3.49*
3.52*
3. 76
3.82*
3.86
3.91*
3.93*
3.90*
3.88*
3.90*
3.94*
3.93*
3. 93*
4.00“
4. 02
4.03
4.11*
4.00
4. 63
4.35*
4.44
4.56*
4.48*
4.42*

ENGINEERS, RAILROAD.

18 70..
1871. J.
1872..
1873 _.1
.
1874..
1875.
1876. J.
1877.. 1878.. 1879..
1880.. .
1881..
1882..:.
1883..
1884.. .
1885..
1886..
1887.. .
1888. J.
1889.. .
1890.. .
1891.. .
1892.. .
1893.. .
1894.. .
1895..
1896..
1897..
1898.. .

.

:.
J.

;.

1
.
|
.
'.

..
'.
!.

3.17
3.47*'
3.52*!
3.41*'
3.10*l
3.07*1
3.07 s
3.62 1
3.79*'
3. 84*:
3. 84*'
3.84*'
3.84*
3.84*'
3.84*1
3.84*1...........
3.84*
3.84*
3.84*
3.84f
3.84,
3.84*
3.84*
3.84*
3.84*
3.84*
3.84*
3.84, '
3.84,




3.11*
3.41*!
3.46*
3.35*
3.39*
3.36
3. 35
3.56
3.72*
3.78
3. 78
3.78
3.78
3.78
3. 78
3.78
3.78
3.78
3. 78
3.78
3.78
4.29*
5.24
5.15*
4.
4.2| 4.23|
2
5. 51*
3.98\
4.22| 5.98*
4.22* 5.43 i
4. 22* 4.95 :

2.51*

28
.8 *,

3.44*:
3.70 |
3.74*1
3.46
3. 56*1
3.79 j
3.97 !
4.02*!
4 .02|;
4. 02*
4.16
4. 02*
4. 02*
4.29*
4.29*
4.29*
4.29*
4.42*
4.42*
4.42|

$2.86 !

3.30*'
3.56 1
3.64
3.20*'
3.31*!
3.44 I
3.65*!
3 .39f i
3.40* I
3.73 I
3.88*
3.56 *:
3.58*
3.65
3 .65*|
3.60*'
3.59 :
3.72*
3.70*
3.77 ;
3.65*
5.22*
5.08*
5.21*'
5.08*,
5.07*
5.14*.
5.30 ;

2.91*
3.19
3.23*
3.13*
3.17
3.14
3.13*
3.32*
3.48*
3.53*
3.53*
3.53*
3.53*
3.53*'
3.53*1.
3.53*1.
3.53*1.
3.53*i
3.783.78
3.78
3.88
4. 00
4.14
4.04
4. 09
4.13
4.13
4.13

675

WAGES IN THE UNITED STATES AND EUROPE.
T a b l e I , — AVERAGE

DAILY WAGES IN GOLD IN CERTAIN CITIES OF THE
UNITED STATES, 1870 TO 1898—Continued.

the American Almanac for 1879. have been used, as follows: 1870, $121.3; 1871, $110.7; 1872, $109.1;
1873, $112.7; 1874, $111.4; 1875, $112.5: 1876, $112.8; 1877, $106.2, and 1878, $101.4.]
FIREM£i¥, RAILROAD.

Balti­
Year. more.

Bos- \ Chi­
ton.
cage.

. $1.65
1870..
1.80|
1871..
.
1.83*
1872..
.
1873
.
1m1
.
1874
.
1.61*
1.60 1
18 75..
.
1876..
.
1.59*'
1.88*
1877.J .........
1878..
' ..................
1.97*'
1879..
.
2.00
2.00
1880..
...................
2.00
1881..1
.........
2. 00
1882.............
2.00 ,
1883..
*..................
2.00 1
1884.J .........
1885..
1 2. 00
..................
2.00 '
1886..
1
..................
1887..
'..................
2.00
1888..
' ..................
2. 00
1889..
1 2 . 00
.
1890
.
2. 00
2.00
1891
.
2. 00
1892..
;..................
2. 00
1893
.
2. 00
1894
.
1895..
' ..................
2.00
2.00
1896
.
2.00
1897
.
2. 0j
1898.J .........
i

!
Cin­
cin­
nati. ! leans.

$1.50
1. 64*
1.93|

17*
.2
1. 89|
1.75
1. 80*
1.91*

2 0|
.0
2. 03*
2. 03*
2. 03*

2.10*

1. 95*
1.95*
2. 08*.
2. 08*1
2. 04*
2.03|
2.33!
2. 33*i
2.43*|
2.58*
2. 73*
2. 32*!
2.18!'
2. 32*:
2.32*!
2. 32*

Pitts­
Phila­ burg Rich­ St. ! St.
del­
and
phia. Alle­ mond. Louis., Paul.
gheny..

'0*.......
93 ___
96 ___
8 9 !.....
92 ___
90 ___
89*..........
01*'___
10|‘ ___
13*___
13*___
13!'___
1 3 !'....
,

m ...............
13! . . . .

13| . . . .
1 3 !....
1 3 !'....
1 3 !....
1 3 !....
13! . . . .
34* . . . .
1 1 !-...
80* . . . .
36"___
9 8 | ....
25* . . . .
97| ---0 2 * ....

$1. 56*' $0.94*..................
1.90* i . o 4 ;..................
1.91 | 1.05* .......................

1.86 i 1.02 i............
1.03*1
..................
1.02*....... .
1.02 -.......'....

1.65*
1. 65
1. 65*
1.76!
1.83
1. 90
1.80|
1.78|
1. 85*
1. 84*

1.08*'..................
i . i 3 * ..........
1.15 .......... !___
1.15 .........j . ...
1.15 ,..........’ . . . .
1.15 ,..................
1.15 1
.............
1 L • 1.15 :.......... ..
.8
___
1.80*. 1.15 i..........1
1.15 1
........ i . ...
1.80
1. 83* 1.15 ;.......... L ...
___
1. 84* 1.16 .......... 1
1. 86* 1.16 .........!. . . .
1. 83* 1.33 .........'. . . .
1. 82* 1.47 .......... .......
2. 71
1.42 .........!. . . .
1.50 ,.......... L ...
2. 03
2. 84* 1.52 .......... ..
1.51 ..........’. . . .
2.77
2. 61
1.48 ..........
2.63
1.48 .......... ’ . . . .
2.82
1.48 .......... ..

San
Fran­ A ver­
cisco. age.

$3.06* $1.75
2.61 i 1.82*
2. 59* 1. 88*
2. 59* 1.81*
2. 61* 1.79
2.61 i 1.75*
2.61 I 1.76*
2.61 ! 1.87!
2. 58* 1.94
2. 58* 1.96*
2. 58
1.95*
2. 56* 1.94|
2 54! 1.96*
.
2.56
1.94*
2.58
1.94
2.57* 1.96
2.57*1 1.95*
2. 57! 1. 95*
2.58
1. 96
2. 58* 2. 01*
2. 58*; 2. 03|
2. 59* i 2. 11*
2. 59*. 2. 40*
2. 59*: 2.27*
2. 58*', 2.27*
2.32*1 2. 29*
2.31!1 2. 33
2. 31* 2. 29*
2.31*1 2. 26

HOD CARRIE RS.

1870.. $2.17*
1871.. 1 2.44 |
1872.. 2.44*
1873.. ! 2.33 1
1874.. 1 1.24
1875.. ! 1.28|
1876.. | 1.39*
1877.. i 1.57 !
1878.. i 1.74
1879.. i 1.73*
1880.. 1.72*
1881.. ! 1.73*
1882.. ! 1.61*
1883.. 1.75
1884.. ‘ 1.75
1885.. ; 2.22*
1886.. ' 2.12*
1887.. • 2.34*
1888.. , 2.38*
1889.. i 2.37*
1890.. 1 2.37*
1891.. ! 2.86*!
J892.. i 2.37*
1893.. | 2.14‘ ;
1894.. 2. 20 ;
1895.. 1 1.93|
1896.. ! 1.93!.
1897.. ! 1.90!
1898.. | 1.89 j

1.77* $1. 23|
1.95 j 1.35*
1.98|, 1.37*
1.88* 1. 33 ;
3.82 1 0. 89|
0.94*
1.76
1.66* 0.93 ;
1.75* 0.94*
1.99* 1. 48 !
2.00 i 1.50 ;
1.95 j 1.50
1.75 I 1.50 ;
1.84!; 1.50 j
1.93f, 1.50 .
1.97| 1. 75
1.87* 1.75 1
1.92*' 1. 75 1
2.02* 1.75 i
2.07 , 1.75 ,
2.04* 1.75 ;
2.05* 1. 75 1
2.04* 1. 75
2.23* 1. 75
2.22 | 1.75
2.18*, 1.75
2.00 ' 1. 50
1.98* 1.50
2. 00
2.00
1.96! 2.00




2. 26*
2.71
2.75
2.66*
2.69*
2.44*
2.43*
2.35J
2.46*
2.25
2. 25
2.50
2.50
2.75
2.75
2.75
2.75
2.50
2.50
2.50
2.52
2. 47*
2.47*
2.81*
2.50
2.50
2. 00
2.00
2. 00

1
1
1. 23* $1. 95* $2. 06
1.35* 2.15* 2.14* ..........
1. 37* 2.19* 2.12
1. 33“ 2.11* 2. 04
1.34* 1. 79£ 2.09*...........
1.33* 1.77! 2.04*'..........
1.7 1 * 1-90* ...........
1. 33
i
1.41* l. 68“; 1.07! ..........
1.48
1.73! 1.97* ...........
1.85
1. 50
1.85
1.89*...........
2. 03
1.50
2. 25
1. 50
1. 81|
1.50
2.42! 1.85| ..........
1.50
2.41* 1.96*
2.38! 2.06*
1.50
2.34* 2.12* ____
1.50
1. 50
2.39* 2.33* ..........
2. 39| 2.50 ..........
1.50
2. 39*11 2.50 j..........
1. 50
2.44 i 2.50 i..........
1.50
2.42| 2. 50 :..........
1.50
1.35 ! 2.33| 2. 50 ______
’
1.35 | 2.40 | 2.50
;
1.35 j 2.40 ! 2.50 ..........
2.50 ..........
1.35 ! 2.40
1.35 ! 2.40
2.50 ..........
;
2. 25 . . . . . . .
1.35 j 2.40
2. 25
1.35 ! 2.40
2.40
2.00
1. 35
|
i..........

1.03 $1.30*
1.43 ,
1.13
1.14* 1.45 !
1.11“ 1.17*
1.18!:
1.01
0.89
1.17*
0.88| 1.18*
0. 94* 1.26*
0.98* 1.57!
1. 00
1.61
1.00
1. 83*
1.00
2.62*
1.12* 2. 58*
1.25
2.82*
2. 82
1. 25
2.84*
1.23
2. 26“
1. 25
1.25
2.46
1.25
2. 90
2. 86
1. 25
1.35
2. 86
1.35
2. 90
2. 90
1.25
1.25
2. 88
1.25
2. 84
1.25
2. 50
1.12* 2. 70
1. 00“j 2.68
1.00 | 2.70

$1.23|1.35*
1.37*
1.33 |
1.34|'
1.33*
1. 33 |
1.41*i
1.72*:
1.75“!
1.91|
1.89*;
2.00
2. 00 1
2. 00 ;
2. 00 .
2. 00 :
2. 00 |
2. 00
2.00
2.00 1
1.85 i
1.87*
1.75
1. 75
1.75
1. 75
1.75
1.75

3.00
3.00
3.00
3.00
3.00
3.00
2.63*
2.62*
2.35*
2.70
2.50
2.50
3.00
3.00
3.00
3.00
3.00
3.00
3.00
3.00
3.00
3.00
3. 00
3. 00
3.00
3. 00
3.00
3.00
3. 00

1.75*
1.91
1.93
1. 84*
1.67*
1.63*
1.58*
1.63
1.77*
1.79*
1.82*
1. 91*
1.99*
2. 08
2.11*
2.15
2.11*
2.15*
2. 20*
2. 20*
2.21*
2.17*
2.19*
2.18*
2.15*
2.06*
2.00
2. 03
2.00*

676

BULLETIN OP THE DEPARTMENT OF LABOR.

Table I . —AVERAGE DAILY WAGES IN GOLD IN CERTAIN CITIES OF THE
UNITED STATES, 1870 TO 1898—Continued.
[The wages for the years 1870 to 1878, inclusive, except in the case o f San Francisco, were reported
in currency. In converting wages in currency into wages in gold the value o f $100 gold in currency
for January o f each year from 1870 to 1877 and the average value for the entire year 1878, as given in

IRON HOLDERS.

T

e|
j

18 70 .
18 71.
18 72 .
18 73 .
18 74 .
18 75 .
18 76 .
18 77.
18 78 .
18 79 .
18 8 0 .
18 8 1.
18 8 2 .
18 8 3 .
18 8 4 .
18 8 5 .
18 8 6 .
18 8 7.
18 8 8 .
18 8 9 .
18 9 0 .
18 9 1.
1892.
1893.
18 9 4 .
18 9 5 .
18 9 6 .
18 9 7.
1898.

B a
m

B a r
o l . t s i C ­t
o
r n e .c .
n

$ 1 . 83* $ 3 . 48 *
2. 00* 3 . 32 *
2 . 03*
3 . 20 *
3 . 10 *
1 .9 7 4
2 . 80*
1 . 95 *
2 .5 9
1 . 93*
2 . 35*
1 .9 3
2 .0 5
2 . 50*
2 . 14 *
,
2 . 62 |
2. 1 7 *
'
2. 4 7 *
2 . 43 *
2. 1 7 *
.
2 . 1 7 | i 2 . 38*
2 . 23 *
! 2 . 30*
2 . 23 *
'
2 . 50
2 . 46 *
2 . 23 *
2 . 23 *
2. 47*
2 . 23 *
2 . 35*
2 . 23 *
2 .3 9
2 . 23 *
2 . 39 *
2 . 23 *
2. 4 1*
2 . 46 *
2 . 23 *
2 . 23 *
2 .4 5
2 . 23 *
2. 4 7*
2 . 23 *
2 . 50
2 . 33 *
2 . 15 *
2 . 29 *
2 . 15 *
2 . 24 *
2 . 15 *
2 . 53*
2. 1 7 *
2 .5 8
2. 17*

i

i N n
nO
al e t

$ 2 . 74 *
3 .0 1
3 . 05 j
2 . 9{
2 . 50 |
2 .3 7
2 . 26 *
2. 1 9 * 1
2 .3 0

2. 8 1*
2 . 62 *
.
2 . 37 *
2 . 45 *
,
2 .4 8
'2 . 46 *
2 . 55 *
2 .5 3
2. 7 2 *
2. 7 1 *
2. 7 1 *
2 .7 2
2 . 6 7*
2 .7 6
2 .6 0
2 . 7 7 *1
2 .6 5
2 .5 5
2. 6 1*
2 . 53*1
2 . ; 62 *
2. 7 7 *
2 . 66
2. 7 7 *
2 . 66
2 . 52*1
2. 74 *
2 . 52 *
2 .8 2
2 . 79 *
2 . 83*
2 . 80*
2 . 8 7*
’
2 .7 3
2 . 63 *
! 2 . 54 *
2 . 69*1 2 . 53*1
2 . 73 *
2 . 52 *
2. 74*
2. 51*
2 . |70 *
j 2 .5 2 1

2.21 i

$ 2.
2.
3.
2.
3.

e N­
­Yr
ai

83*
93 *
I
0 2 *1 .
88* .
06 *
2 .8 9 .
! 2 .5 5 .
2 .7 0 2 .
2 . 83* .
,
2 .7 5
2 .7! 5 _
2 .7 5 _
2 .8 0 _
,
2 . i8 7*
2 .8 0 _
2 .7! 5 _
2 . 56* 2. 8 7*
| 2. 8 7* _
2 . 8 7 * 1j 2 . 8 7* .
2. 8 7*
j
2 . 66 * _
2 .7 5 _
I
! 2 . 66 * _
2 . 66* _
| 2 .7 5 _
! 2 .7 5 _
2 .7 5 _

w eP
­o d
. n p

P
i
t
t
s
hw b
i u l R i a rc
-g h
S.
a
n
S I t
S ­.
Ad
v
e
l - m .
at
n
r
k
L o . o ;n P u d A a F i . l u s r l a e a . l g . - n
s
h .
i
a
c
i s
c
o
I
g
h
e
n
y
.

. $. 1. .9. 5. . $. 2. .2 2. .1. . . . . . . . . . . $. . 2. . 4. 7, * . . $ . 2 . 24 *. . $ . 3 . 7 1 *
.
..
.
. . 2 .2 4 . . 2 .3 4 . . . . . . .' . . . . . . . 2 ... 7 . 1, . | . . 2 . 46 *. . . 3 . 35 *
. . .
. . .
.
.
,
. . . 2 .3 .6 . 1. . 2 . 44 * . . . . ' . . ; . . 2 ..7 5 . . . 2 . 49 *. . . 3 . 52 *
.
.
.
|.
. ! . . 2 . . 29 * . . . 2 ..3 . 2 . . . . . . ! . 2 .4 4. . 1 . 2 . j.4 1 * . . 3 . .6 7 * . . .
.
. .
.
.
.
.
. . . 2. . 33. * . . 2 .1 3. . . . i . . | . . 2 . . 46 * . . . . . . . . 3 . 59 *
.
. .
.
. . . 2.20* . . 1 . 96*. . . . . .; . . . .2 . . 44 * . i . . LH . . 3 . 58 *
. . .
.
.
. . .
. . . 2 .0 .5 . . . 1 . 84 .* . . . . . . . . . 2 .3 .5 . . . 2 ..4. 1 . . . 3 . 52 *
.
.
.
. . . 2 . . 04 *. . . 2 . 06*. , . . . . . . . . 2. . 35. * . . 2 .5 6.
.
.
.
. .
3 .5 0
. . . 2 . 06* . . . 2 . 15 *. . . . . !. . . . . 2 . 46 * . . . 2.68 . . . 3 .5 0
.
.
.
. .
2. 10* 2 . 02* . . . . . . . 2 .5 .0 . . . 2 . 7. 1 * . . . 3 . 42 *
.
_
_ 2.20* 2 . 3 8 *1 . . . . . . . 2 .4 .0 . . . 2 . 7. 1 *. . . 3 . 50 j
.
_
_ 2 . 33 *
2 . 60* ! . . . . . . . 2 .3 5 . . . 2 . 7. 1 * . . . 3 .4 1
. .
._
_ 2 . 30 *
2 . 56* . . . . . . . 2 .4 .0 . . . 2 . .7 . 2 . . . 3 .4 0
.
.
. 2 .4. 8 . 2 . 53* . . . ' . . . . 2 .5 0 . . . 2 . . 7. 1 * . . . 3 . 49 *
.
. .
_ 2 . 52 *
,_
2 . 54* . . . . . . . 2 .5 .0 . . . 2 . 7. 1 *. . . 3 .4 5
.
I_
_ 2 .3 9
2 .3 9 . . . ; . . . . 2 .4 0 . . . 2 . 72 *. . . 3 . 4 1 *
. .
.
'
- - - - 2- . 58 *
2 . 40 * . . . . . . . 2 .4 .0 . . . 2 . 7. 1 *. . . 3 . 4 7 *
.
!
|
.
.
.
. 2 . 55 * . . . . . . . 2 . 35 . . . 2 ..7 .3 . . . 3 . 64*
,
2 . 40 *
.
| _
_ 2 .3 4
2 . 53*
. 2 . . 35 . . .2 .7 1 . . .3 . . 66* .
.
.
. .
.
- - - - 2 .4 12 . 51 * . . . . . . . 2 . . 35 . . . 2 . . 7 . 1 . . . 3 .6 9
.
. ! . . . . . . 2. . .36 *
.
2 . 60 * . . . . . . . 2 .4 .0 . . . 2 ..9. 7 . . . 3 .6 6
.
.
. 2 . 35 * . 2 . 74 * . . . ' . . . . 2 .5 0 . . . 2 . 96 .* . . 3 . 63*
.
.
. .
.
_
_ 2 . 33 *
! 2 . 59* .
2 .5 0
2 . 96 *
! 3 . 62
_
_ 2. 31*
2 . 5 1 * . . . . . ' . •. 2 .4 .0 . . . 2 . 70 .* . . 3 . 67
.
.
_
_ 2 .2 9
2 . j4 1 * _
_
_ 2 . 60
2 . 70 *
3 . 63*
_
_ 2 . 26 *
2 . 39 *
.
. 2 .5 0
.
. 2 .7 0
3 . 60*
i_
_ 2. 22* 2 . 3 4 *1_
_
_ 2 .3 0
2 . 69 *
8 .5 9
,_
_ 2 . 2 1 * 2 . 4 2 *1 _
_
_ 2 .3 0
2. 68* 3 . 56 *
|_
_ 2 .3 2
2 . 33 *
. 2 .4 0 .
.
. 2 . 69*
.
3 . 56 *

. . .
. . .
. . .
. . .
. . .
. . .
. . .

|

IRON H OLD ERS HELPERS.

1870..
1871..
1872..
1873..
1874..
1875..
1876..
1877..
1878..
1879..
1880..
1881..
1882..
1883..
1884..
1885..
1886..
1887..
1888..
1889..
1890..
1891..
1892..
1893..
1894..
1895..
1896..
1897..
1898..

1.12
1.22*
1.24*
1.20*
1.22
1. 21
1.20*
1.28
1.34
1.36
1.36
1.36
1.36
1.36
1.36
1.36
1. 36
1.36
1.36
1.36
1.36
1.36
1.36
1.36 :
1.36
1.36
1.36 i
1.36 ;
1.36 |
|

1.65
1.80*
1.69 |
1.68* !
1. 79*
1.77*
1.64*
1.71*
1.85*1
1. 73*;
1.67*
1.65*
1.71*,
1.66*1
1.64*1
1.62* 1
1.59*•
1.63*!j
1.68*1
1.70*j
1.68*
1.68*
1.70*!
1.70*
1.57*
1.53
1.55*
1.54*
l.«14

1.72*
1.92*
1.88*
1.78*
1.78*
1.73
1.61*
1.69
1.72*
1.85*
1.72*
1.74*1
1.72
1.72
1.73*
1-71*
1.72*
1.71
1.72
1.71*;
1.72*1
1.83 i
1.89* 1
1.93 !
1.66 1
1.69*!
1.79*
1.80*;
1.83 j




1.45*
1.56*
1.63*
1.60*
1.49*
1.36*
1.43*
1.41*
1.53
1.35*
1.51*i
1.50 |
1.50 j
1.50 j
1.50 !
1. 33*!
1.33*:
1.48J!
1.48 !
1.48*;
1.48 I
i.47*:
1.48 !
1.47*
1.48
1.47*
1.47*
1.47*
1.47*

1.65
1.80*
1.83*1
..........
1.77*'...........
1.79*
1.77*..........
1.41*'..........
1.69*j...........
1.77*..........
1
1.80 l...........
1.72
1.70 !
1.60 i
1.60 i
1.60 ;
1.60
1.51* ...........
1.53*!..........
1.55
1.55 i
1.55 i
1.55 |
'
1.50 :
1.50 !
1.50 !..........
1.50
1.50
1.50 ..........
1.50

1.13*!
1.27*
1.40 j
1.36*;
1. 37*'
1.24*
1.16*
1.09
1.10*
1.11*1
1.22*
1.28*
1.29
1.29*
1.25*
1.21*
1.23
1.21*
1.23*
1.26*
1.22*
1.26*
1.29*
1.31*
1.25*
1.22
1.27*
1.26
1.28*

1 . 24 *
1 . 36*
1 . 29 *
1 . 44 *
1 .3 1
1. 11*
1 .0 8
1 .1 6
1 . 19 *
1 . 19 *
1 .2 4
1 .2 9
1 .3 1
1 . 35 *
1 . 35*
1 . 30 *
1 .2 7
1 .4 0
1 . 39*
1 . 42 *
1 . 44 *
1 . 44 *
1 . 44 *
1 . 44 *
1 . 34 *
1 . 34 *
1 . 34 *

!

.

1 . 44 *
1 .5 8
1 . 60*
1 . 46 f

.
'

.
j

:

.
.
.

.

. . . . . .
. . . . . .
.
. . . . .. ..
' . .. .
. . .; . . . .
. . . ' . .. .
. . . . .. ..
. . . . .. .

......j

1 . 33*
1 . 33
3. 4 1*
1 .4 8
1 .5 0
1 .5 0
1 .5 0
1 . 50
1 .5 5
1 .5 5
1 .5 0
1 .5 0
1 .5 0
. 1 .5 .0 .
.
. 1 .5 0 .
. .
. 1 . .5. 5 .
. 1 .6 .0 .
.
.
.
1 . . 65 .
. 1 .5 .0 .
.
. 1 .5 .0 .
.
. 1 .5 .0 .
.
. 1 .5 0 .
. .
1 .5 0
1 .5 0

43*
57
58\

53*
34*
1. 33*
1 . 33

13
.4 j_

.
.

j
I

1.
1.
1.
1.
1.

2 .4 6
2. 41*
2 .3 9
2 . 23 *
2. 1 7 *

2.22*

1 .5 3
1 . 65 *
1 . 65*
1 . 61
1 . 57 *
1 . 5 1*
1 .4 5
1 . 51 *

2. 2 7*
1 . 4 1*
2 .2 5
1.
2 . 29 *
1.
'
1 . 58 *
1 . 95*
1 . 6 1*
1 . 95*
2 . 13 *
1 . 6 1*
2 . 16 *
1 .9 4
1 . 6 1*
1 . 94 *
1 . 6 1*
2. 17*
1 . 73
2 . 22 *
! 1 . 59*
1 .7 3
2.20*
1 . 72 *
2 . 25 *
1 .5 5
1 . 73 *
1 .5 8
. 1 . 7. 2 *.
2 . 23 *
. 1 . . 7. 1 * . . 2 . 24 *
l 59*
!
. 1. . 75. . . 2. . 22*. . 1 . 60
.
. .
. 1 .7 .5 .
.
2 . 22 *
1 .6 2
.1 .7 5 . . . . .
. .
1 .6 3
. 1 .7 .2 .
.I
2 .2 7
1 . i 62*
. 1 .7 .2 .
.|
2 . 24 *
. 1 . I 72 * .
.
2 . 25 *
! 1 .5 6
. 1 . . j 7. 1 * .
2 . 24 *
1 . 5 7*
j
1 .7 2
2 .1 9
1 . I 5 7*
1 . ; 72*
1 . 58*

2.22*
2.21*

1.60

1.56

2.2**

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

2.21*

1.56*

2
.19*,

e
e

­
.

r
.

WAGES

677

IN THE UNITED STATES AND EUROPE.

Table I.— AVERAGE DAILY WAGES, IN GOLD, IN CERTAIN CITIES OF THE
UNITED STATES, 1870 TO 1898-Continued.
the American Almanac for 1879,have been used, as follows: 1870, $121.3: 1871, $110.7: 1872, $109.1'
1873, $112.7,- 1874, $111.4; 1875, $112.5; 1876, $112.8; 1877, $106.2, and 1878, $101.4.]

JOINERS.

Year. Balti­
more.

1870..
1871..
1872..
1873..
1874..
1875..
1876..
1877..
1878..
1879..
1880..
1881..
1882..
1883..
1884..
1885..
1886..
1887..
1888..
1889..
1890..
1891..
1892..
1893..
1894..
1895..
1896..
1897..
1898..

j

i
i

i

Pitts­
New New Pili1
burg
San
St.
St.
Or­ Y o rk .1 „ ,a- and Rich­
1Franleans.
pliia. Alle­ mond. Louis. Paul. |
jgheny.

i
cu - ! !> ;
oa8°- nati.

Bos­
ton.

!
|
!
'
|
" / “ I..........
!

$2. 88* $2.65* $2.34*; $2.20|; $1.79*
$1. 65 :
3.16* 2.88* 2.30* 2.51*' 2.00*1
1.80|
3.20| 2.88* 2.47
2.42*! 2.13*
1. 83*
3.10* 2.73* 2.50* 2.49*' 2.06*' .......... i 1-77*'
2.58
2.77* 2.52* 2.53
2.09|
1.79*
2.55* 2.49
2.37
2.35*' 2 .17|
1.77|
2.55
2.35* 2.37* 1.95|i 2 .03|!..........
1.77*1
2.70f 2.35* 2.06
1.94f' 2.07|!..........
1.88*
2.83* 2.46* 2.33* 1.72*| 2.19
2. 22
2.50
2.75
2.00
1.89 1 2.25
: 2.25
3.00
2.75
1.93
2.04*! 2.22|
2.25
2.75
3. 09* 2.43* 2.21* 2.33*
2.50
3.21* 2.46* 2.50 j 2.40|
2.75
2.50
2.62* 3.21* 2.48* 2.50
2.41*
2.50
2.50 1 2.41*
2.68| 3.20* 2.69
2. 50
2.62* ! 3.19* 2.64*' 2.29* ' 2.42*
2.50 |
2.62* ' 3.17* 2.63* 2.25 i 2.08*
2.50
2.62* 3.12* 2.66 1 2.29*1 2.20
2.50
2.62* 3.17* 2. 63* 2. 30|1 2.23|
2.50
2.62*! 8.15* 2. 66* 2. 63*, 2.31
2.50
2.62* 3.18
2.41*1 2.75
2.32
2.50
2.62*1 3.15| 2. 61| 2.75
2.37
2.25
2.4i| 1 3.04* 2.65*, 2.69
2.40*
2.25
2.62* i 3.07* 2. 40f 2.50
2. 39
2.25
2. 62*! 3.06* 2. 58*! 2.50
2.42*
2. 25
2.62* ' 3.07* 2. 56* 2.16| 2.35
2.25
2.41| 3.06* 2. 44*' 2.25
2.22*
2.25
2.41*. 3.114 2. 36|; 2.18| 2. 33*
2.25
2. 62*| 3.10| 2.40 | 2.20| 2.22|
2.25

|

!
1
:

1
1
!
1

!
|
!

1

i

LABORERS, STREET.

1870.. $1.06*
1871.. 1.16|
1872.. 1.18*
1873.. 1.14*
1874.. 1.16
1875.. 1.15
1876.. 1.14*
1877.. 1.23*
1878.. 1.29*
1879.. 1.81*
1880.. 1. 31*:
1881.. 1. 31*
1882.. 1. 31*!
1883.. 1.31*
1884.. 1.31*1
1885.. 1.31*
1886.. 1.30
1887.. 1.30
1888.. 1.30
1889.. 1.30
1890.. 1.30
1891.. 1.30
1892.. 1.30
1893.. 1.30
1894.. 1.30
1895.. 1.30
1896.. 2.30
1897.. 1.30
1.66*

$1.43|
1.77*
1. 78*
1. 75*
1.79*f
1. 44|i
*
1.35 j
1.48 !
1.49*
1.74*
1.85*'
1.90|
2, 07*
2. 06*'
2.01|
2.02*
2. 0 1*
2.01|
2.01|
2.01*
2.00*
2. 00* .

2.00*.
2.01 i.
2 .01|.
2.01*.

2.00 I.

2.00

.

1
$1. 58 i
1.70*
1.73*
1.68*
1.68*
1. 66|
1. 59*
1.51*i
1. 35*
1.37*1
1.50*
1.53*
1.53*
1.63|
1.64*
1.63*
1.63
1.65*
1.66*
1.64*
1.67
1.64*
1.63
1.63*
1.63*
1.63*
1.63
1.63*
1.63*

* 7234—No. 18-----2




!
1.44*..........
1.63*..........
1.61 I...........
1.58 ..........
1.60*..........
1.33*..........
1.33 1
..........
1 2 6 | ..........
1.29*..........
1.27*..........
1.25 !..........
1.25 '..........
1.25
1.50
1.50
1.50
1.50
1.50
1.51*
1.50 ..........
1.50 ...........
1.50
1.50
1.50
1.50
1.50 ...........
1.50
1.50
1.50

1.48|
1.62*
1.63§
1. 59*
1.59|
1.57*
1.561
1.68*
1.52*
1.54|
1.57*
1.57*
1.56*
1.56f
1.54*
1.52
1.51|
1.52*
1. 5 $!
2
1.52*!
1.52*!:
1.51*I
1.51*!1
1.75
1.75
1.75
1.75
1.75
1.75

1.5»|
1.80|
1.72*
1.55*
1.46*
1.44*
1.42f
1.51*
1.59
1.60*
1.61
1.62*
1.44
1.45f
1.47*
1.49
1.47*
1 481
1.51*
1.52*
1.50|
1.53*
1.52|
1.53
1.50
1.50
1.50
1.50
1.50

0.82*!
1.13 !
1.14*!
l.ll ;
1.12*
1.11
1.10|
1.17f
1.23*
1.25
1.25
1.25
1.25
1.25
1.25
1.25
1.50
1.50
1.50
1.50
1. 50
1.50
1.50
1.50
1.50
1.50
1.50
1.50
1.50

$1.65
1.80|!
1.83*'
1 . 77*
1 . 79*
1.77|
1. 33
1.41*
1.48
1.50
1.50
1.50
1.50
1.50
1.50
1.50
1.50
1.50
1.50
1.50
1.50
1.50
1.50
1.50
1.50
1.50
1.50
1.50
1.50

1.03 $2.50
1.13
2.50
1.14* 2.50
1.11
2.50
1.12* 2.50
1.11
2.50
1.10| 2.50
. 1.17f 2.50
3.23* 2.18|
1.25
2.39*
1.25
2.00
1. 25
2.00
1.25
2.00
1.25
2.00
1.25
2.00
1.25
2.00
1.25
2.00
1.50
2.00
1.50
2.00
1.42| 2.00
1.42
2.00
1.42
2.00
1.42
2.00
1.42
2.00
1.50
2.00
1.50
2.00
2.00
1.50
1.50
2.00
1.50
2.00

A ver­
age.

$2.25f
2,44*
2.49*
2.44*
2 38*
2.28|
2.17*
2.17*
2.29*
2.27*
2.36f
2.55*
2 64
2.62*

2.66f

2.61*
2.54*
2.56|
2.58
2.64|
2.63*
2.62|
2.57|
2.54*
2.57*
2.50*
2.44*
2.44*
2.47

678

BULLETIN OF THE DEPARTMENT OF LABOR.

Table I . —AVERAGE DAILY WAGES IN GOLD IN CERTAIN CITIES OF THE
UNITED STATES, 1870 TO 1898—Continued.
[Tli© wages for the years 1870 to 1878, inclusive, except in the case of San Francisco, were reported
in currency. In converting wages in currency into wages in gold the value of $100 gold in currency
for January o f each year from 1870 to 1877 ana the average value for the entire year 1878, as given in
LABORERS, OTHER.

Balti­
Year. more.

Bos­
ton.

Chicago.

Cin­
cin­
nati.

Pitts­
San
New Phila­ burg Rich­ St.
St.
ana mond. Louis. Paul. Fran­ A ver­
Or­ York. del­
leans.
phia. Alle­
cisco. age.
gheny.

N
ew

1870.. $1.16* $1.23* $1.56* $1.44* $1.23|, $1.76*
2 0 $1.39*
........... ........... $1.23* $1. 03 $ .0
1.35* 1.71* 1.58
1871.. 1.28
i.35*; 1.13
2.00
1.49*
1.85*! 1.79* 1.35*
1.37* 1.74* 1.83* 3.37*| 1.82* 1.37?
1872.. 1.30
1.37* 1.14* 2.00
1.53*
1.33'
1.68* 1.90* 1.33 i 1.77
1.33
1.11 2. 00 1.50*
1873-. 3.25* 1.33
1874.. 1.12* 1.34* 1.57* 1.63* 1.34*1 1.77
1.34* 1.12* 2. 00
1.46*
1.32* 1.55
1.53* 1.55* 3.69
1.33* 1.11
1875.. 1.11
2. 00
1.45*
........... 1.33
3876.. 1.10* 1.33
1.41* 1.49* 1.55* 1.6o| 1.33 ...........1
1.10* 2. 00 1.43*
1
1.41* 1.31 I
1.41* 1.17*, 2. 00
1877.. 1.17* 1.38* 1.41* 1.49
1.40*
i...........
1.47* 1.38* 1.48 i 1.33*
1.48
1878.. 1.23* 1.18
1.33*! 2. 00
1.44*
1879.. 1.25
1.40* 1.49* 1.35* 1.50
1.38 , 3.25
1.-50
1.35* 2.00 j 1.45
1.49* 1.58* 1.38* 3.50
1880.. 1.25
1.50
1.38* 1.25
1.50
2.00 1 1.48*
1.50
1.59
1.50* 1.50
1.50
1881-. 1.25
1.59 , 1.25
1.50
2.00
1.51*
1.43* 1.59* 1.59* 1.50
1882-. 1.25
1 6 1 1.50
.6 *
1.50
1.50
2.00
1.55*
1.50* 1.69| 1.50
1.50
1883-. 1.25
3.50
1.50
1.71* 1.50
2. 00
1.56*
1.61* 1.50
1.50
1.50
1.50
1.50
1884.. 1.25
1.71' 1.50
2.00
1.55*
1.50
1885.. 1.25
1.50
1.53* 1.50
1.68;
1.50
1.50
1.50
2.00 1.54*
1.50
1.50
1.64* 1.50
1.50
1.50
1886-. 1. 25
1 55* 1.50
2.00 1.54*
1.50
1.50
1.55* 1.75 1.65* 1.50 ........... ........... 1.50
1887.. 1. 25
1.50 j 2. 00
1.57*
1.45* 1.50* 1.53* 1.75
1.50
1.50 ! 2.00
1.65
1.50
1.56*
1888.. 3.25
1.46* 1.50* l. 52* 1.75
1.61* 1.50
1.64*| 1 7
1889.. 1. 25
1.50
.9 ^ t. 57*
1.46* 1.50* 1. 54* 1.50
1.50
1890 - 1.25
1.71* 1.50
1.64*. 1.86*. 1.55
1.44* 1.50* 1.57* 1. 50
1.66* 1.50
1891.. 1 1.25
1.64*; 1.84*1 1.54*
1.50
1.42
1892.. 1.25
1.50* 1.63* 1.50
1.72
1.50
1.50
1.50 S 1.55*| 1.53
1.46* 1.50* 1.77* 1.50
1893.. 1. 25
1.73* 1.54*
1.72* 1.50
1.50
1.50
1.43* 1.50
1.63* 1.25 i 1.57* 1.50
1.50
1.75 | 1.49
1894.. 1.25
1.50
1.50
1.25 ; 1.52* 1.50
1.50
1.76*! 1.48
1.37* 1 50
1.64
1895.. 1 1.25
1.25 | 1.56* 1.50
1.50
1.50
1.44* 1.50
1.64
1896.. 1.25
1.7 *: 1.48*
1
1.50
1.43* 1.50
1.50
1.55* 1.25 ! 1.51* 1.50
1.58* 1.46
3897.. 1.25
1.50
1.37* 1.50 ! 1.42* 1.25 | 1.63* 1.50
1.50
3. 5 9 : 1.45*
1898..
; ^
I
!
MACHINISTS.

1870..
1871..
1872...
1873..
1874..
1875..
1876..
1877..
1878..
1879..
1880..
1881..
1882..
1883..
1884..
1885..
1886..
1887..
1888..
3889..
1890..
1891..
1892..
1893..
3894..
1895..
1896..
1897..
1898..

1.86*
2.04*
2.07*
2.03
2.07*
2.05*
2.06*
2.19*
2.29*
2.33
2.28*
2.26*
2.26*
2.30*
2.30*
2.30*
2.30*
2.30*
2.30*
2.31*
2. 31*
2.31*
2.31*
2.31*
2.26*
2.21*
2.21*
2.23*

2.21*

2.47*
2.55*
2.56*
2.61*
2.58
2.37*
2.19*
2.30*
2.29*
2.37*
2.42*
2.50
2.55
2.57*
2.65
2.52*
2.52*
2.60
2.47*
2 .5j3
2.57*
2.45
2.57*
2.72*
2.57*
2.57*
2.50
2.62*
2.57*

2.69*
2.92
2.92*
2.84*
2.70*
2.63*
2.50
2.58
2.67*
2.68*
2.73*
2.73*
2.78
2.76*
2.75
2.76*
2.75
2.85*
2.86
2.85*
2.85*
2.85*
2.83*
2.91*
2.75
2.78*
2.78*
2.80
2.80*




i
2.42* 3.12*
2.67* 3.38*
2.68* 3.39*
3.08*
2.65
2.48* 3.16*
2.94*
2.37*
2.21* 2.32*
2.58*
2.19
2.14* 2.78*
2.69
2.06
2.25* 2.72
2.70
2.44
2.47* 2.74*
2.51*I 2.76*
2.53* ! 2.85*
2.40 | 2.90
2.40*! 2.90
2.40* ! 2.83*
2.42* 2.91*
2.43* 2.91*
2.91*
2.44
2.43* 2.91*
2.48* • 2.91*
2.40* : 2.91*
2.04* 8.90
2.05* 2.90
2.05* ! 2.90 ;
2.13* ! 2.90
2.15* 2.90 |

;

2.26* 1. 79* $1.71* $1.85*
2.28 ! 2. 06* 1.88* 2.03*
2.40*: 2.20* 1.68*!| 2.06*
2.28*' 2.19* 1.71*! 1.99*
2.31* 2.38*!i 1.78* 1.90*
2.33* 2.08* ! 1.66* 1.89 1
2.30*! 1.95* 1.64* 1.88*
2.47*! 2.06* 1.81* 2.00
2.49 j 2.06* , 1.83
2.09*!
2.47*! 1.97*f 1.85* 2.12* '
2.52*; 2.01* I 2.05* 2.12*
2.47* 2.16 1 2.10* 2.12*
2.26* ; 2.08* 1.75
2.85
2.33* ; 2.05* 1.75
2.55
2.82* 2.36*i 2.06* 1.75
2.50 I 2.33* 1 2.13* 1.75
2.62*1 2.25* ' 2.13* 1.75
2.70 i 2.33* 2.13* 1.75
2.75 | 2.35
2.13* 1.75
2.70 ; 2.37* 2.06* 1.75
2.70
2.29* 1.99 | 1.75
2.67* 2.38
1.98*! 1.75
2.65 , 2.36
2.06* 1.75
2.62* 2.36* 2.13*| 1.37*
2.65 i 2.27
1.98* 1.37*
2.47*' 2.20* I L?8 1.37*
2.55 1 2.41 1 2.08* 1.37*
2.55
2.25* ' 2.12* 1.37*
2.32
2.02 1.37*

1.81*
2.11*
2.10*
1.94*
2. 02
2.06*
2.06
2.17
2.48*
2.52*
2.47*
2.46*
2.46
2.48*
2.46*
2.43*
2.36*
2.48*
2.43*
2.52*
2.44*
2.47
2.46*
2.46
2.51
2.49*
2.52*
2.50*
2.42

2.23*
2.45
2.48*
2.40*
2.40*
2.37*
2.36
2.50*
2.62
2.65*'
2.65*
2. 66*;
2.67
2.66*
2.65*
2.66 :
2.64 ;
2.65*1
2.65* !
2.67 !
2.93* '
2.92*.
2.91*1
2.70 i
2.69*!
2.66

2.62*
2.66*
2.66*

3.36**
3.17*1
3.17*i
3.17*;
3.13
3.10*!
3.12*;
3.05
3.03*
2.95*
3.02*
3.03*
3.07
3.10*
3.09*
3.12*
3. 15 *
3.14
3.15*
3.17*
2.92*
2.92*
2.90*'
2.87*;
2.79*
2.83*
2.83*
2.85
2.84*

679

WAGES IN THE UNITED STATES AND EUROPE.
T a b l e I . — AVERAGE

DAILY WAGES IN GOLD IN CERTAIN CITIES OF THE
UNITED STATES, 1870 TO 1898—Continued.

the American Almanac for 1879, have been used, as follow s: 1870, $121.3; 1871, $110.7; 1872, $109.1: 1873,
$112.7; 1874, $111.4; 1875, $112.5; 1876, $112.8; 1877, $106.2, and 1878, $101.4. J
MACHINISTS’ HELPERS.

BaltiYear. more.

Boston.

Chicago.

Cincinnati.

Pitts­
New New Phila­ burg Rich­ St.
San |
! st.
Or­ York. del­
ana
F ran-: Aver­
leans.
phia. Alle­ mond. Louis. 1Paul. cisco. ; age.
gheny.

$0.92| $0.45| $1.45* $2.25 ; $1.34
1870.. $1.13* $1.15* $1.5S§ $1.45| $1.59 $1.54* $1.18|
.55* 1.59* 2.02* 1.43*
1.29*
1.01|
1871.. 1.24* 1.28f 1. 71* 1.61* 1.80* 1.67
1.83* 1.69* 1.40*
1.03
.53* 1.61* 2.02* 1.47
1872.. 1.26
1.37* 1.74* 1.66
.99|
.58
1. 56* 1.89 ; 1.40*
1.18* 1.70* 1.55* 1.77* 1.59| 1.38
1873.. i 1.22
1.34*
. 85*
. 54* 1. 56* 1.89 ! 1.41*
1874.. i 1- 23* 1.49| 1.59* 1.64* 1.79* 1.57
.84*
1.60
1.91* 1.37*
.51| 1.55
1875.. 1.22* 1.42* 1.51
1.77* 1.57| 1.19§
.84*1 .59* 1.53* 1.89 j 1.31*
1.37* 1.44* l. 55* 1.41| 1.41f 1.17|
1876.. ! 1.22
LSi* 1.50| 1.43* 1.22* ...........
.89*! .58* 1.63
1.861, 1.34|1.48*
1877.. ! 1-29* 1. 39
.93* ' .70
1.70* 1.861 1.42
1.57| 1.50* 1.35*
1878.. ; 1.35* 1.45* 1.55* 1. 62
1.55
1.40*
1.60
.95 | .70
1. 72* 1.861 1.41*
1879.. 1.37* 1.47* ! 1-47* 1.44
.95
.64* 1. 721 1.91*i 1.43*
1.32*
1880.. j 1-37* 1.50 i 1.53* 1.58* 1.53* 1.70
.95
1.55* 1.45* 1.75
1.37 ...........
.58* 1.72* 1.93*i 1.44
1881.. 1 1.37* 1. 50 ! 1.65
1.55* 1.43* 2.10
1.34 ..........
.90
.63
1.73* 2.00*’ 1.47*
1
1882.. , 1.37* 1.50 ! 1.66
1.52* 1.32*
.90
.65* 1.73* 2.02*! 1.43
1883.. 1. 37* 1. 52* , 1.58* 1.59* 1.50
1.60
1.50
1.38*
.90
.66
1.72* 2.04* 1.45*
1884.. 1.37* 1.52* 1. 62* 1.63
1.57* 1.41*
.90
.64| 1. 721 2.04| 1.43|
1885.. l. 37* 1.52*i 1.59* 1.51f 1.50
1.27* 1.35
.90
.63* 1.71* 2.041 1.42|
1886.. 1.37* 1 1.52*1 1.60* 1.52* 1.75
1.85
.90
.62* 1.73
2.07
1.46*
1.37*
1887.. 1.37*I 1.52* | 1.65| 1.47* 1.50
1.80
l. 43
.66
.90
1.72* 2.04* 1.46|
1888.. 1.37*1 1-57* 1.65£ 1.46* 1.50
1.85
1.42*
.90
.66* 1.73*1! 2.09* 1.46*
1889.. 1 1.37* 1.52* 1. 64* 1.42* 1. 50
1.50
1.41 ...........
.64* 1.99*: 1.88
.87*
1.43*
1880.. ! 1.37*1 1.52* 1. 64* 1.47* 1.50
1.45
1.41* ...........
.61| 1.99* I 1.88
.87*
1.64* 1.42| 1.50
1.43
1891.. ! 1.37* 1. 55
.66* 1.98*1 1.84
.87*
1.47* 1.43
1.64* 1.49* 1.50
1.44*
1892.. ! h 37* , 1.60
1.50
1.42* 1.47|
.82*
.63* 1.75* I 1.82
1.39*
1893.. | 1.37* : i.27* 1. 73* 1.51
1.52* 1.37*
1. 35* 1.50
.82*
1.39*
•67| 1.75* 1.78
1894.. ! 1.37* 1.57* 1. 58
1.32* 1.29*1...........
.82*
1.60* 1.35* 1.50
. 63*1 1.73* 1 1.82
1. 37
1895.. ! 1.37* 1.60
1.10
1.35 [
.65*. 1.71*i 1.80
1896. | 1.37* 1.57* 1. 60* 1.17* 1.50
; .82*
, .82*
1.00
1.38*i
1
1.63* 1.19| 1.50
. 65|1 1.73f i l. 84 ;
1897.. ! 1.37*, 1.65
1.10
1.34* .. .. .. . ! .82*
.64* 1 1.73* 1.84
1.19J 1.50
1.64
1.35*
1898.. i.37*:; 1.70
I
!
i
1
i
MASONS, STONE.

1870..;
1&71..
1872..
1873..
1874..
1875..
1876..
1877..
1878..
1879..
1880..
1881..
1882..
1883..
1884..
1885..
1886..
1887..
1888..
1889..
1890..
1891..
1892..
1893..
1894..
1895..
1896..
1897..!
1898..
!

3.46*
3.79* i...........
3.87* ...........
3.77 ...........
2.95* ..........
2.921 . . . . . . .
3.22*...........
3.45*
3. 51*i...........
3. 56* . . . . . . .
3. 77f ...........
3.68* ...........
3.61* . . . . . . .
3. 60* . . . . __
3. 56* ..........
3. 57* ...........
3.86*
3. 83*
3.95* i” .......
3.77* !...........
...........
3.98* 1
...........
3.98* 1
!...........
3.94*
3.94* !...........
...........
4.11 |
3.12*
3.11 1
..........
3.12* ...........
3.12* 1
!...........
1

2.741
4.511
4.58*
3.10*
2.24*
2.22*
2. 66
2.82*
2.951
3.50
3.50
3.50
3.50
3.50
3.50
4.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
4.00




i
2.47*
2.71
2.75 I..........
3.10*
2.91*
2.661
2.55* ..........
1.94
2.12
2.00
2.181
2.98*
2.98
3.19*
3.18* ..........
3.14 ..........
2.87
3.24
3.24
3.24
3.60
3.54*
3.60
3.60 ;..........
3.20
3.20 I...........
3.20 !...........
2.56 i
I
2.40 !
1

2.88*
3.16*
3.20*
3.10*
2.69*
2.66*
2.21*
1.88*
1.97*
2. 50
2. 50
3. 00
3.50
3.50
3.50
3.25
3.50
3.50
3.50
3.50
4.00
4. 00
4.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
4.00

2.30* $2.56 !
2.551I 2.72*
3. 20* 3.05*
3.10*! 2.93*
3.14*1 2.91*
3.11 | 2.44*
3.10* 1.99*
3.29* 1.88*
2.19* 1.85
1.87* 2.00
1.66* 2.19*
3.00
2. 30
2.59
3.08*
3.30
2.00
3.30
3.30
2.83* 3.30
2.04* 3.30
3.26*
2.50
2.21* 3.251
3.32
2.00
2.58* 3.63*
2.851 3.60
3.12* 3.59
3.09* 3.78
2.40
3.01*
2.59* 3.38f
3.15
l e s t 3.15
2.75
3.15

2.88*
4.06*
4.12*
3.99*
3.14*
3.11
3.10*
3.29*
3. 45*
3.50 !
3.50 1
!
3.50 !
3.50 i
3.50
3.50 j
3.50
3.50
3.00
3.00
3.00
3.00
3.00
3.00
3.00
3.00
3.00
3.00
3.00
8.00

1.85*
2.03*
2.06*
1.99*
2.02
2.00
3.54*
3.76f
3.94*
4.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
3.60
3.60
3.60
2.80

1.85*
2.03*
2.06*
1.991
2.02
2. 00
1.99*
2. I l l
2.85*
2.89*
2.89*
3.50
3.50
3.50
3.50
3.50
3.50
3.50
3.50
3.50
3.50
3.50
2.40*
2.36*
2.36*
2.36*
2.39*
2.39*
2.39*

5.00
5.00
5.00
5.00
5.00
5.00
5.00
5.00
4.88*
4. 83*
4.89*
4 .95*|
4.93*
4.91
4.91
4 .91f
4.94*
4.89*
4.83*
4.84*
4.80
4.851
4.38*
4.40
4.411
4.431
4.37*
4.40
4.41

2.80*
3.26
3.39*
3.21
2.90*
2.81*
2.94
2.94*
2.97*
3.061
3.11*
3.44*
3.52
3.50*
3.62*
3.60*
3.55*
3.57*
3.55
3.511
3.71
3.73*
3.60*
3.611
3.45
3.37
3.36*
3.29*
3.20*

680

BULLETIN OF THE DEPARTMENT OF LABOR.

Table I . —AVERAGE DAILY WAGES IN GOLD IN CERTAIN CITIES OF THE
UNITED STATES, 1870 TO 1898— Continued.
[The wages for the years 1870 to 1878, inclusive, except in the case o f San Francisco, were reported
in currency. In converting wages in currency into wages in gold the value o f $100 gold in currency
for January o f each year from 1870 to 1877 and the average value for the entire year 1878, as given in
PAINTERS, HOUSE.

Balti­
Tear. more.

Bos­
ton.

Chi­
cago.

Cin­
cin­
nati.

j
!
Pitts­
New New Phila­ burg
San
R ich­
St. ■ St.
Or­ York. del­
and
Fran­ A ver­
leans.
phia. Alle­ mond. Louis.!|Paul. cisco. age.
gheny.

1870.. $2.06 $2,264 $1.66 $2.06 $2.06 $2.434 $2.39 , $2.06 $1.65 $2.06 : $2.284 $3.72
1871.. 2.25| 2.46
2.254 2.254 2.664 2.554: 2.27| 1.804 2.254, 2.504 3.66
1872.. 2.29}
2.404 2.294 2.75
2.694 2.68 ; 2.314 1.834 2. 294 2. 444 3.70
1873.. 2.214 2- 44 1.764 2.214 2.664 2.594 2.594 ! 2.214 1.554 2.214 2. 364 3.694
1874.. 2.24| 2.47
1.65
2.244 1.794 2.434 2.244 2.244 1.57
2.244 2.394 3.25
1875..
2. 36
1.56
2.224 1.774 2.484 2.624 2.224 1.554 2. 224' 2.37 ! 3.164
1876..1 H 2*
2.214 1.774 2.474 2.35 ! 2.004 1.554 2. 214! 2.304 3.26
2.214
H 1* 2.354 2.114 2.624 2.33 !
1877..: 2.354 1 . 9o
1.674
1 2.114 1.644 2.354 2.444 3.104
1878.J 2.464
1.884 2.22
2.22
2.75
2. 264! 2.35
i
1 .724 2.464! 2.614 3.124
1879.. 2.50
1.844 1.944 2.00
2.00
2.804 2.30 ! 2.344 1.75
2.50 ! 2.654 3.104
|
1880.. 2.50
2.00
3.00 I 2.35 ! 2.50
!
1
2.00 2.50 ! 2.75
2. If4 2.084 2.00
3.104
1881.. 2.50
2.31
2.274 2.25
2.00
3.00 ! 2.574 1 2.50
2.00
2.50
2.75
3.00
1882.. 2.50
3.00
2.424 2.524 2.374 2.00
2.55 i 2.50
2.00
2.50
2.75
3.00
1883.. 2.50
2.594 2.374 2.00
3. 304 2.75 1 3.00
2.00
2.50 ! 2.75
3.164
2- 4®*
1884.. 2.50
3.304 2. 724, 3.00
2.434 2.584 2.374 2.25
2.42
2.75
2.50
3. 07|
1885.. 2.50
2.484 ; 2.674 2.25
2.25
3.304 2.774 2.774 2.50
2.42
2.75
3.00 1
1886.. 2.50
2.414 | 2.414 2.50
2.25
3.50
2.724 2.624 2.50 2.414 2.75
3.00
1887.. 2.50
2.524!! 2.404 2.50
2.25
3.50
2.744 3.00
2.424 2.75
2.00
3. 00
1888.. 2.50
2.514 1 2.514 2.50
2.25
3.50
2.7241 3.00
2.424 2. 75
2.00
3. 00
1889.. 2.50
2.40|; 2.444 2.50
2.25
3.50
2.7441! 2.834 2.00
2.424 2.75
3. 00
3890.. 2.50
2.52 1 2.304 2.50 .2.25
3.50
2.744 3.00
2.434 2.75
1.75
2.89
1891.. 2.50
2.474 2.25
3.50
2.764, 3.00
1.75
2.434 2.75
2-564 1 2.42
2.924
1892.. 2.50
2.584i 2.594 2.61
3.50
2.70
2.724 3.00
2. 00
2.50
2.624 2. 924
1893.. 2.50
2.52 [ 2.81
2.61
2.70
3.50
2.744;' 3.00
2.00
2.50
2.50
2. 88|
1894.. 2.50
2.61
2.744!! 2.63
2.70
3.50
2.724 2.794 2.00 ; 2.50
2.50
2.89 j
1895.. 2.50
2.584! 2.64
2.61
2.25
3.50
2.724 2.834 1.75
2.50
2.834
2.50
1896.. 2.50
2.61
2.25
3.50
2.724 2.724 1.75 I 2.50
2.544|; 2.61
2.50
2.834
1897.. 2.50
2.634:1 2.80
2. 00
2.61
3.50
2. 674 2.674 1.75 j 2.50
i
2.50 1 2.72 i
1898.. 2.50
2.854!1 2.81
2.61
2.00
3.50
2. 70
2.714 1.75
2.50
2.50 j 2.754i
!

$2.224
2.404
2. 524
2. 354
2. 234
2. 234
2.16
2. 254
2.344
2.314
2.414
2.474
2.51
2. 6I4
2. 66
2.64
2. 634
2. 634
2. 64
2.614
2. 594
2. 614
2.684
2. 69
2. 674
2. 604
2. 584
2. 574
2. 60

PATTERN HEARERS, IRON WORKS.
i

18 70 .
18 71.
18 72.
18 73 .
18 74 .
18 75 .
18 76 .
18 77.
18 78 .
18 79 .
18 8 0 .
18 8 1.
1882.
18 8 3 .
18 8 4 .
18 8 5 .
18 8 6 .
18 8 7.
18 8 8 .
18 8 9 .
18 9 0 .
18 9 1.
18 9 2 .
18 9 3 .
18 9 4 .
1895.
1 § 96.
18 9 7.
18 9 8 .

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

2 .4 7 4
2 .7 1 1
2 .7 5 I
2 . 66}
2 .6 9 4
2 .6 6 4
2 .6 0 4
2 .7 6 4
2 .8 9 4
2 .9 3 4
2 .9 3 4
2 .8 4
2 634
2 .6 1 4
2 .6 1 4
2 .6 1 4
2 .6 1 4
2 .6 1 4
2 .6 1 4
2 .6 1 4
2 .6 1 4
2 .6 1 4
2 .6 1 4
2 .6 1 4
2. 6l
2 . 6 1}
2 .6 1 4
2 .6 1 4
2 .6 1

3 .5 0 4
3 .6 1 4
3.9 6 4
j
3 .7 7
3 .9 2 4
3 .5 3 4
2 .9 4 4
2 .9 4 4
3 .0 8 4
3 .1 0
2 .9 7 4
2 .9 5
2 .9 5
2 .7 5
3 .0 7 4
2 .4 7 4
2 .7 7 4
3 .0 0
3 .0 0
3 .1 0
3 .1 0
3 .1 0
3 .1 0
3 .2 7 4
l 2 .9 7 4
3 .1 0
2 .6 5
2 .7 5
2 .8 0

2 . 65|
2 .9 3 j
2 . 96|
2 .8 8
2 .7 0 4
2 .6 5 4
2 .6 3 4
2 .5 7 4
2 .6 8 4
2 .6 9 4
2 .6 9 4
2 .864 !
2 .9 4 4
2 .9 2 4 ‘
2 .9 7 4
2 .9 3 4
2 .9 0 4
2 . 94%
2 . 94}
2 .9 6 4
2 .9 5 4
3 .2 2 4
3 .2 3 4
3 .4 6 4
2 .8 8
2 .9 6 4
2 .9 2 4
2 .9 3 4
2 .9 5




2 .5 4
2 .7 8 4
2 . 82 }

2 . 6O 4
2 .4 6 4
2 .4 4 4
2 .4 3 4
2 . 38f
2 .3 8 4
2 .6 2 4
2 .4 5 4
2 .5 8 4
2 .5 0
2 .5 0
2 .5 0
2 .5 0
2 .5 5 4
2 .3 6 4
2 .4 6 4
2 .3 8
2 .5 0
2 . 66 |
2 .6 1 4
2. 4 J 4
2 .1 8 4
2 .1 8 4

2.224
2.224
2 .3 1 4

3 . 504 i
3.4641
3 . 554 !
3 .5 5 j
3 .5 9
3 .5 5 4 1
2 .6 6 |
2 .8 2 4 |
2 .9 5 4 !
2 .9 1 4 1
3 .0 0
3 .0 0
3 .0 0
3 .0 0
3 .0 0
3 .0 0
2 .8 7 4
3 .0 0
3 .0 0
3 .0 0
2 .8 7 4
2 .8 7 4
2 .8 7 4
2 . 83}
2 .7 5
2 .8 7 4
2 .7 5
2 .8 7 4
2 .8 3 4

2 .4 5 4 ;
2 .5 3
2 .5 2
2 .6 1 4
2 .6 9 4
2 .9 1
3 .1 0 4
3 .2 9 4

4.434
3 .6 5
3 .1 5
3 .1 2 4
3 .3 2 4
3 .3 2 4
3 .6 2 4
3 .3 7 4
3 .4 0
3 .5 0
3 .5 7 4
3 .3 5 !
3 .5 5 |
3 .8 2 4 1
3 .6 0 j
3 . 42 } 1
3 .6 7 4 \
3 .3 7 4 !
3 .1 0
3 .0 5
3 .5 7 4

'

!

1.9 4 4

2.20

2 . 304 !
2 . 36 |
2 .4 1 4
2 .4 6 4
2 .1 9 4
2 .0 8 4
2 .3 0 4
2 .1 5 4
2 .0 2
2 .1 7
2 .4 0 4
2 .5 0 4
2 .5 5 4
2 .5 3 4
2 .4 3 4
2 .4 6
2 .7 1 4
2 .6 1

2 .4 6
2 .3 3 4

2.6 14
2 .6 7 4
2 .6 8
2 .6 7 4
2 .7 0
2 .4 8 4
2 .5 7
2 .7 0 4
2 .6 8
2 .6 8 4

2 .2 14
2 .2 4 4

.

.

2 .0 14
2 .0 4

2 .10 4
2 .0 9 4
2 .1 0
2 .3 2 4
2 .4 3 4
2 .4 2
2 .5 4 4
2 .4 5 4
2 .5 5 4
2 .6 3
2 .6 5
2 . 78 |
2 .7 5 4
2 .7 6 4
2 .7 8 4
2 .6 9 4
2 . 574
2 .5 5
2 .7 4 4
2 .6 9 4
2 .5 5 4
2 .7 8

.. . . . . .
.. . . . . .
...........
•

•

..........
.. .. .. .
. . . . . . . . . . . .

2 .3 4 4
3 .0 9 4
2 .5 6 4
3 . 38 |
2 .6 0 4
3 . 43 |
2 .4 7 4
3 . 254 !
. 2 .5 0 4
.
.
.
3 . 294 '
2 .4 1 4
3 . 224 '
2 . 38 |
3. 2 1 4 '
2 .7 0 4 3 .2 0 4
2 .8 3 4 3 . 354
2 .8 4 4
3 .4 0
2 .8 4 4
3 .3 7 4
2 .8 5 4
3 . 314
2 .8 5 4 . 3 .3 3 4
2 .8 7 4
3 . 33}
2 .8 1 4
3 . 334
• 2 .7 8 4
•
a 3 .3 1* 4
2 .8 2 4 3 .3 1 4
3 .3 0 4
2 .7 6 4
2 .7 6 4
3 .3 2 4
2 .6 1 4
3 . 33 }
2 .6 9 4
3 .5 0
2 .6 9 4 1 3 .5 0
2 .6 9 4
3 .5 0
2 .7 7 4
3 .3 4 4
2 .7 8 4
3 .3 2 4
2 .7 8 4
3 .3 5
2 .7 8 4 1 3 .3 2 4
3 .3 2 4
2 .6 8 4
. . 2. .6 8. 4 . . . . 3. .3 1 4
. . . . .
. .

!
!

2.70
2. 92f
2. 984
2.94
2. 94
2.854
2. 68
2.764
2. 914
2.85f
2. 82
2. 86|

3 .0 0
3 .4 4 4
3 . 4 74
3 .8 9 4
3. . 75
3 . 794
3 . 36 |
3 . 30
3. 1 7 t
3 . 13 i

3.084

3 .1 5 4
3 .3 0 4
3 . 3r
3 . 3!
.
3. 3 1}
3 .3 4
3 .4 0 4
3 .4 2 4
3 .5 5
3 . 56;
3 . 5$
3 .5 6 4
3 .1 5
3 . 584
3 .3 9 4
3 .3 2 4
3 .3 4 4

2.8 |
8
2.8 |
8

_

2.93
2.844
2. 88
2. 93}
2. 954
2.934
2. 98
3.05
3.014

2.824
2 .9 0

681

WAGES IN THE UNITED STATES AND EUROPE.

T able I . — AVERAGE DAILY WAGES IN GOLD IN CERTAIN CITIES OF THE

UNITED STATES, 1870 TO 1898—Continued.
the American Almanac for 1879, have been used, as follow s: 1870, $121.3; 1871, $110.7; 1872, $109.1; 1873,
$112.7; 1874, $111.4; 1875, $112.5; 1876, $112.8; 1877, $106.2, and 1878, $101.4.]

plui UB i r s .

Balti­
Year. more.

Bos­
ton.

Chi­
cago.

!

P itts­
Cin­ New New ! ! Pliila- burg Rich­ St.
San
St.
Or­
1 delcin­
and mond. Louis. Paul. Fran­ I A ver­
nati. leans. York. phia. A lle­
cisco. age.
gheny.
i

!

i

1870.. $2.36f
1871.. 2.62|
1872.. 2.65*
1873.. 2.57
1874.. 2.46
1875.. 2.43*
1876.. 2.38*
1877.. 2.58*
1878.. 2.70*
1879.. 2.75*
1880.. 2.70*
1881.. 2.70*
1882.. 2.70*
1883.. 2.71
1884.. 2. 70*
1885.. 2.70*
1886.. 2.73
1887.. 2.64*
1888.. 2.64*
1889.. 2.64*:
1890.. 2 8
.7 *:
1891.. 2.78*.
1892.. 2.81*
1893.. 2.81*
1894.. 2.81*
1895.. 2.75
1896.. 2.81
1897.. 2.78*
2.78*

$2. 88* $2. 59* $3.09*! $2.26* $2.75* $2.73

3.12
3.13*
3.11
3.01*j
2.89f
2.92*
3.03
2.41*

2 21
.2 *

2. 65f i
2.72*1
2.78*!
2.96*|
3.11*
3.21*
3.24
3. 26*
3.17*
3. 23*
3.18*
3.25
3.17*
3.30*
3.13
3. 28
3.30*
3.31*
3.27*

$2.15
2. 84*1 3. 23* 2.44
3. 00* 3.05* 2.35*'
28 | 2.10* 1 2.52 2.91*!1 2.89* 2. 39 !
.8|
2.79* 2.27* 1 2.39* 2.76 1 2.67* 2.30*
2.58* 2.32
2.82* 2.79* 2.46* 2. 73
2.80* 2.41*
2.88 I1 2.41* 2.76
2.80
2.79* 2.57 !I 2.34* . 2.75* 2. 74* 2.36*
2.96* 2.82* ' 2.55* 2.98* 2.51* 2.35*
2.46*
3.09* 2.17
3.10* 3.02* 2.59
3.12* 2.41* 2.70
2.83*1 2.70
3.15
3. 39* 2. 35* 2. 50
3.07* 2.73* 2.75
2.16*
2.93 1 2.66* 3.43
2. 47
3.50
2.16*
2.50
3.50
3.10 I 2.60
3.50
2. 75
2. 66
2.78* ; 2.64* 3. 50
3.50
2.82* i 2.75
2.66* 2.83*
3. 50
3.50
2.68 | 2.70
3.50
2.81* 2.80
3.50
2.75
2.91*
3.10* ! 2.71* 3. 50
3.60
2. 90*
3.31* j 2.66* 3.60* 2.97
3. 57
3.57^ 3.16*. 2.58* 3.60* 3. 22* 3. 00
3.56j 3.21* ' 2.66* 3. 59* 3.17* | 3.07*
!
2.90* ! 2.64* 3.58* 3. 00 I 3.00
3. 75
3.04*, 3.08*
3. 23* 2.66* 3.59
3.75
3.50
2.71* 3.58* 3.12*i 3.00
3.75
2.60
3.50
3.72* 2.96* 3.12*
3.75
2.70
3.74* 3.00 j 3.14*
3.25
3.75
2.58* 3.74* 3.06*! 3.08
2.98
3.75
2.83* 2.66* 3.72* 3.01 ! 3.12*
3.75
2.79* 2.71* 3.73* 2.82* 3.07*
3.75
2.92* 2.64* 3.73* 2.70* 3.16*
3.75

$2.55* $2.88* $2.98*
2.80
3.16*|| 3.27*
2.84* 3.20* ! 3.30
2. 77* 3.10*1 3.18
2. 80* 3.14* 3.19
3.16
2. 81* 3.11
2.80* 3.10* 3.10*
2.94* 3.29* 3. 29*
3. 08* 3.45* 3.45*
3.50
3.12* 3.50
2.41* 3.50
3. 50
3. 50
2. 62* 3.50
3.50
2. 60
3.50
3. 50
2 12* 3. 50
2.10
3. 50
3.50
2.12* 3.50
3.50
3. 50
2.12* 3. 50
3. 50
2.12* 3.50
3.50
2.10
3.50
3.50 ;
3.50
2.20
3. 50
2.20
3. 50
3. 50
2.20
3.50
3.50 ,
3.50
2.20
3.50 |
3. 50
2.25
3.50
3.50 ,
2.25
3. 50
3.50 1
2.25
i
3. 50
2.25
3.50
3.50
3.50
2.25
3.50
3.50
2.25

$3.66 !!
3.62*
3.69*j:
3.66 1
3. 61
3.62
3. 60*
3. 60*
3. 55*
3. 62
3. 62*
3. 43*
3. 50
3.53*
3.44*
3. 55*
3. 50“
3. 50
3. 50
3.45*
3. 55*
3. 56*
3. 57*
3.54*
3.57*
3.58*
3. 58*
3. 54
3.61*

$2.74*
2. 96*
2.87*
2.80
2.83
2.84*
2.79
2. 91*
2.92*
2. 97
2.93*
2.97
2. 99*
3.01*
3. 03*
3.05
3. 09*
3.13
3.13*
3.15*
3.13*
3.18
3. 20*
3. 21*
3.19*
3.17*
3.17*
3.14*
3.15*

2.06
2.36*
2.25*
2.21*
2.21*
2.13*
2.55*
2.52
2. 59
2.67*
2.78*
2.80
3.06*
3.06*
2.81*
2.81*
2.87*
3.00
3.12*
3.12*
3.36*
3.41*
3.51*
3.65*
3.14*
3.30
3.30
3.05*
2.56*

4.13*
4.11*
4.07*
4.07*
4.04*
4.04*
3. 77
3.79
3.66*
3. 70
3.66*
3.67*
3.65
3.64*
3.61*
3. 61*
3. 64*
3.63* !
3.67|!
3.68*
3.67*
3.68*
3.64*
3.60*
3.62*
3.62*
3.67*
3.61
3.51*

3.07
3.32*
3.64*
3.37*
3.19
2.99*
2.75*
2.66*
2.76*
2.74
2.83
3.06*
3.16
3.19*
3.21*
3.34
3.23
3.27*
3.36
3.38*
3.45*
3.50*
3.49*
3.45*
3.34*
3.36*
3.33*
3.30*
3.23

STONECUTTERS.

1870..
1871..
1872..
1873..
1874..
1875..
1876..
1877..
1878..
1879..
1880..
1881..
1882..
1883..
1884..
1885..
1886..
1887..
1888..
1889..
1890..
1891..
1892..
1893..
1894..
1895..
1896..
1897..
1898..

3.29*
3.61*
3.66*
3.55
3.59
3. 55*
2.66
2.82*
2.95*
3.00
3.00
3.00
3. 00
3.00
3. 00
3.00
3.25
3.25
3.60
3.60
3.60
3.56*
3.44
3.44
3.44
3.44
3.44
3.44
3.44

3.37*
3.63*
3.68
3.99*
3. 56*
2.75*
2.44
2.46*
2.78*
2.68
2.58*
3.14*
2. 79*
3. 01*
3.60*
3.08
3.02*
3.16*
3.08*
3.16
3.32*
3.32*
2.94*
2.76
2.81
2.51*
2.66*
2.82*
2.94*

2.88*
3.16*
4.58*
2.66*
2.24*
2.00
2.21*
2.35£
2.46*
2.50
3.00
3.00
3.00
3.00
3.00
3.00
3.50
3.50
3.50
3.50
4.00
4.00
4.50
4.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
4.50




2.88*
3.16*
4. 58*
3.99*
3.59
3.55*
2.88
2.35*
2.22
2.25
2.09
2.83*
3.08
3.39
3.50
3.15 |
3.60
3.79
4.05
4.05
4.05
4.05
4.05
4.02*
3.60
3.60
3. 60
3.60
3.00

3.71
4.06*
4.12*
3.99*
4.04
3. 55* ...........
3.32* ...........
2.35*
2.46*
2.50
2. 50
2. 75
3.00
2. 75
2.50
2.50
2.50 ..........
2.50 |
...........
2.50 1
..........
2.50 !..........
2.50 1
..........
2.50 ...........
2.50
2.50
2.62*
3.00
2.50
2.75
2.75

2.85
3.09*
3.45*
3.31*
3.36*
3. 32*
2.93
2. 69*
2.46*
2.07
2.49*
2.76*
3.29*
3.28*
3.27*
3.28*!
3.03* 1
3.04*i
3.28*
3.33*
3.27*
3.52*
3.51*
3.51*
3.53*
3.53*
3.53
3.08*
3.15

3.20*
3.46*
3.75*
3.51*
3.06*
2.66|
2.21*
2.11*
2.40*
2.25
2.51*
3.25
3.37*
3.53
3.55*
3.60
3.60
3.61*
3. 63*
3.81
3.70
3.97*
3.97*
4.12*
3.60
3.60
3.60
3.60
3.60

2.88*
3.16*
3.20*
3.10*
2.69*
2.66*
2.66
2. 82*
2.95*
3.00
3. 00
3.00
3. 00
3.00
3.00
3. 00
3.00
3.00
3.00
3.00
3.00
3.00
3.00
3.00
3.00
3.00
3.00
3.00
2.66*
i

2.47*
2. 71
2<75
2.66*
2.69*
2. 66*
2.66
3. 04*
3.45*
3.50
3.50
3.50
3.50
3.50
3.50
3.50
3.50
3.50
3.50
3.50
3.50
3.50
3.37*
3.39*
3.39*I
3.39*1
3.39*!
3.39*
3.39*

682

BULLETIN OF THE DEPARTMENT OF LABOR.

T a b l e I . — AVERAGE

DAILY WAGES IN GOLD IN CERTAIN CITIES OF THE
UNITED STATES, 1870 TO 1898—Concluded.

[The wages for the years 1870 to 1878, inclusive, except in the case of San Francisco, were reported
in currency. In converting wages in currency into wages in gold the value of $100 gold in currency
for January of each year from 1870 to 1877 ana the average value for the entire year 1878, ai given iii
the American Almanac for 1879, have been used, as follows: 1870, $121.3: 1871, $110.7: 1872, $109.1; 1873,
$112.7; 1874, $111.4; 1875,$112.5; 1876, $112.8; 1877, $106.2, and 1878, $101.4.]

TEAMSTERS.
Balti­
Year. more.

Bos­
ton.

Chicago.

Cin­
cin­
nati.

1870.. $1.48| $1.62* $1.74* $1.49*
1.80* 1.90* 1.69*
1871.. 1.63
1872.. 1.654 1.77
1.91* 1.81*
1873.. 1.60* 1.62* 1.78* 1.87*
1874.. 1.62
1.97* 1.81* 1.61*
1875.. 1.60* 1.83* 1.80* 1.63
1876.. 1.60
1.78* 1.79* 1.73*
1.84* 1.91* 1.84*
1877.. 1.70
1878.. 1.78
1.93* 2.01| 1.72*
1879.. 1.80| 1.85* 2.04| 1.70*
1880.. 1.80* 1.84* 2.04* 1.81*
1881.. 1.80* 1.75* 2.05* 1.87*
1882.. 1.80* 1.87
2.04* 1.85
1883.. 1.80* 1.91* 2.05* 1.71*
1884.. 1.55* 1.96
2.03| 1.75
1885.. 1.55* 1.97* 2.02* 1.70*
1886.. 1.55* 2.00
1.93*
2.04
1.83*
2.05
1887.. 1.55* 1.98
1888.. 1.55* 2.03
2.04
1.83*
1889.. 1.55* 2.30* 2.04* 1.84*
2.04
1890.. 1- 55* 2.06
1.88*
1891.. 1.554 2.11* 2.02* 1.88*
1892.. 1.55* 2.02* 2.02* 1.93*
1893.. 1.55* 2. 04* 2.02* 1.84*
1894.. 1.55* 2.05* 2.04* 1.79*
2.04* 1.83*
1895.. 1.55* 2.01
1896.. 1.55* 2.03| 2.02* 1.83*
1897.. 1.55* 1.99* 2.01* 1.85
1898.. 1.55* 2.09* 2.00* 1.85




Pitts­
New New Phila­ burg j RichSan !
St.
St.
and
Or­ York. del­
Fran­ ! Averphia. A lle­ [mond. Louis. Paul. cisco. j age.
leans.
gheny.
i
j'
$1.86 $1.69* $1.37* $1.69* j $0.82* $1.38 $1.23* $2.63* $1.58*
2.06* 1.85* 1.50| 1.75*. 1.13
1.35* 2.64
1.51
1.73*
2.13* 1.88* 1.53* 1.98* 1.14* 1.53* 1.37* 2.63* 1.78*
2.06* 1.82* 1.46* 1.87* 1.11
1.49*! 1.33
2.64
1.72*
2.06
1.88* 1.50* 1.79* 1.12* ; 1.51 j 1.34* 2.62* 1. 74
2.09* 1.87| 1.48* 1.63
i
1.11 | 1.49*! 1.33* 2. 62* 1.71
2.05| 1.88
1.52* 1.60
2.62* 1.71*
1.10*! 1.49* 1.33
2.19* 2.00
1.61* 1.57
1.17*|1 1.58* 1.41* 2. 63*! 1.79
2.22* 2.10
L 69* 1.61* 1.23* 1.65* 1.72* 2.63* 1.86*
2.21| 2.13* 1.70* 1.69* ! 1.25
1.68* 1.75
2.65* 1.87*
2. 21* 2.13* 1.70* 1.83* ! 1.25
1.69
1.61* 2.67* 1.88*
2.21* 2.14
1.72* 1.81* 1.25
1.68* 1. 61* 2.64* 1.88*
2.18* 2.14
1.93
1.72
1.25
1.68* 1.61*: 2.62* 1.89*
2.25* 2.13* 1.72* 1.97*! 1.25
1.68
1.75 I 2.63
1.90*
2.29* 2.12* 1. 73*f 1.93* 1.25
1.69
1.75 1 2.62* 1.89*
2.30* 2.11* 1.73*, 1.90* 1.25
1.68* 1.75 | 2.62* 1.88*
2.21*I 2.11* 1.73*:; i.95* 1.50
1.68* 1.75 I 2.61* L 92*
1
2.33* 2.11* 1.73*!1 1.93
1.50 i| 1.90* 1.75
2.60
1.94
2.35f 2.11* 1. 73
1.98
1.50 . 1.91
1.75 I 2.60* 1.95
!
2.10
2.12
2.*02* 1.50 1 1.90* 1 . 7 5 ; 2.60* 1.94*
1.74
!
2.10
2.12* 1.71* 2.12
1 . 5 0 ; 1.90* 1.75 ! 2.61
!
1.94*
2.10
2.12* 1. 70*| 2.12
1.50 1 1.90* 1.75 I 2.59* 1.94*
2.16* 2.13
1.72* 2.12
1.90* 1.75 j 2.58* 1.95
1.50
1.91*i 2.13* 1. 71* 2.12
1.50 ; 1.90* 1.75 | 2.36* 1.90*
:
1.92*! 2.13* 1.70
2.10* 1.50 i 1.89* 1.75
2.36* 1.90*
1.91*i 2.12* 1.69* 2.10* 1.50 | 1.89* 1.75 1 2.37
!
1.90
1.77 | 2.07* 1.72* 2.10* 1.50 1 1.89* 1.75 | 2.37
!
1.88*
1.89* 1.75 , 2.38* 1.87*
1.77 j 2.07* 1.70*! 2.02* 1.50
!
1.77*: 2.07* 1.70* 2
. 1.50 2 1.89* 1.75 i 2.38
0
*
1
.
i

8

8

*

683

WAGES IN THE UNITED STATES ANI) EUROPE.
T ah le

II.—
AVERAGE DAILY WAGES IN CERTAIN CITIES OF GREAT
BRITAIN, FRANCE, AND BELGIUM, 1870 TO 1890.
B L A C K S M IT H S .
Great Britain.
Year.
London.

1870..............................................................
1871.............................................................
1872.............................................................
1873.............................................................
1874..............................................................
1875.............................................................
1876..............................................................
1877..............................................................
1878..............................................................
1879..............................................................
1880..............................................................
1881..............................................................
1882..............................................................
1883................... . .......................................
1884..............................................................
1885..............................................................
1886..............................................................
1887..............................................................
1888..............................................................
1889..............................................................
1890..............................................................
1891..............................................................
1892..............................................................
1893..............................................................
1894..............................................................
1895..............................................................
1896..............................................................

Man­
chester.

(a)
$1.46
1.46
1.46
1.46
1.46
1.544
1.541
1.541
1.541
1.541
1.541
1.541
1. 541
1. 541
1.541
1.541
1. 541
1.541
1.541
1.541
1.621
1.621
1.621
1.621
1.621
1.621

$1.291
1.29f
1.291
1.291
1.291
1.291
1.291
1.38
1. 38
1.38
1.38
1.38
1. 38
1.38
1. 38
1.38
1. 38
1.38
1.38
1.291
1.38
1.38
1.38
1.38
1.38
1.38
1.46

Paris,
Glasgow. Average. France.
$1.091
1.091
1.09|
1.131
1.171
1.171
1.171
1.131
1.091
1.091
1.211
1.171
1. 211
1. 211
1.211
1.211
1.171
1.171
1. 211
1.251
1.251
1.291
1.331
1.41
1. 36
1.44
1.48

Liege,
Belgium.

$1.191
1.284
1.28*
1.291
1.311
1.311
1.34
1.351
1.34
1.34
1.38
1.361
1.38
1.38
1.38
1. 38
1.361
1. 361
1. 38
1.364
1.391
1.431
1.441
1.47
1.451
1.48
1.52

$1.191
1.191
1.191
1.191
1.191
1. 23
1.23
1. 23
1.23
1.23
1. 301
1.30|
1. 301
1.301
1. 301
1.301
1. 381
1.391
1.411
1.411
1. 561
1.561
1.561
1. 561
1.711
1.711
1. 711

$0,681
.80
.81
.90
.88
.80f
.761
.76f
.70
.74
.751
.851
.87
.791
.801
.781
.781
.791
.81
.781
.781
.841
.87
.871
.891
.821
.891

.774
.774
.774
.774
.774
.774
.794
.794
.794
.794

.784
.784
i 794
.794
.794
.81
.81
.81
.81
. 81

.534
.53
.51
.564
. 594
.53
.52
.504
.47
.47|
.514

a Not reported.
BLACKSMITHS’ HELPERS.

.85£
.854
.854
.854
.854
.854
.854
.854
.854
.854
.854
.854
.854

.814

.854
.854
.854
.854
.854
.854
.934

.73
.73
.73
.73
.73
.73
.73
.73
.73
.73
.75
.75
.75
.77
.75
.73
.73
.77
.79
.79

.814

. 8U
.854

.814

.854
.854
.854

.804
.804
.804
.814
.804
.794
.794
.814
.824
!C C O O C C G
OO OOOOO




O O C 00oo oc
OCO

1870..............................................................
1871..............................................................
1872..............................................................
1873..............................................................
1874..............................................................
1875 ............................................................
1876
.......................................................
1877..............................................................
1878..............................................................
1879..............................................................
1880..............................................................
1881..............................................................
1882..............................................................
1883..............................................................
1884..............................................................
1885..............................................................
1888..............................................................
1887..............................................................
1888..............................................................
1889..............................................................
1890..............................................................
1891..............................................................
1892..............................................................
1893..............................................................
1894 ............................................................
1895..............................................................
1896..... .......................................................

.824
.824
.824
.824

.824
.824
.974
.974
.974
.984
.984
.984
.984
.984
.994
.994
.994

.514
.53
.53
.52

:j!f

ill
.474

.504

.51
. 52
.51
.524
.53

684
T able

BULLETIN OF THE DEPARTMENT OF LABOR.

II.— AVERAGE DAILY WAGES IN CERTAIN CITIES OF GREAT
BRITAIN, FRANCE, AND BELGIUM, 1870 TO 1896—Continued.
BOILER MAKERS.

Great Britain.
Year

London.

Man­
chester.

Paris,
Liege,
Glasgow. Average. France. Belgium.

1870..............................................................
$1.35
1871..............................................................
1.35
1872..............................................................
1.35
1873..............................................................
1.35
1874..............................................................
1.35
1875..............................................................
1.35
1876..............................................................
1.35
1877..............................................................
1.35
i
1878.............................................................. ............... j.................
1.35
1879..............................................................
1.35
1880..............................................................
1.48$
1881..............................................................
1.48$
i
1.48$
1882..............................................................
1.48*
1883..............................................................
_
_ 1 _ . . _ . . _ . . _ . . _ . . . . . . . . 1.48$
. .
1884.............................................................. _
1.48$
1885..............................................................
1886................. ...........................................
1.48$
1887.............................................................
1.48$
1888..............................................................
1.48$
1889..............................................................
1.48$
1890..............................................................
1.64
1891.................................... ........................
1.64
1892..............................................................
1.64
1893..............................................................
1.64
1894..............................................................
1.64
1895..............................................................
1.64
1896..............................................................
1.64

$0.'72$

!
?
.77$




$ 1. 21$

1.21|
1.21|
1. 21$
1. 21$
1.21$
1.21$
1.21$
1.21$
1.21$
1.21$
1.21$
1.46
1.46
1.46
1.46
1.46
1.46
1.46
1.46
1.46
1.46
1.46
1.46
1.46
1.46

$1.29$
1.29}
1.29a
1.29a
1.29a
1.29|
1.29$
i. 29$
129$
1.29$
1.29$
1.29$
1.29$
1.29$
1.29$
1.29$
1.29$
1.29$
1.29$
1.29$
1.29$
1.29$
1.29$
1. 29$
3.29$
1.29$
1.29$

$1.25$
1.23}
1.25a
1. 25a
1.25a
1.25$
1. 25a
1.25}

i 2r
.

1.2!
1.25}
1.25f
1. 38*
1.38
1. 38
1.38
1.38
1.38
1.38
1.38
1.38
1.38
1.38
1. 38
1.38
1.38
1.38

77$
77$
77$
77$
77$
77$
77$
77$
77$
77$
86$
86$
86$
86$
86$
86$
86$
86$
86$
86$
96$
96$
96$
96$
96*
96$
96$

$

.74$
.73$

:
.75

BOILER MAKERS’ HELPERS.

1870.
1871.
1872.
1873.
1874.
1875.
1876.
1877.
1878.
1879.
1880.
1881.
1882.
1883.
1884.
1885.
1886.
1887.
1888.
1889.
1890.
1891.
1892.
1893.
1894.
1895.
1896.

?

!
1
!
|
|

.62$
.62$
.62$
.62$
.62$
.61
.59$
.59$
.59$
.58
.58
.59$
.56$
.60$
.61
.62$
.60
.60
.64$

3

t

WAGES IN THE UNITED STATES AND EUROPE.
T able

685

II.—
AVERAGE DAILY WAGES IX CERTAIN CITIES OF GREAT
BRITAIN, FRANCE, AND BELGIUM, 1870 TO 1896—Continued.
BRICHLAYliJBS.

Year.
London.
1870 ............................................................
1871..............................................................
1872..............................................................
1873..............................................................
1874.............................................................
1875..............................................................
1876 ..........................................................
1877
.................................................I
1878
................................................. 1
1879 ............................................................
1880 ............................................................
1881..............................................................
1882........................................... .................
1883 ............................................................
1884..............................................................
1885 ............................................................
1886 ..........................................................
1887..............................................................
1888............................................... ............
1889 ............................................................
1890 ............................................................
1891 ............................................................
1892..............................................................
1893..............................................................
1894..............................................................
1895..............................................................
1896..............................................................

$1.53
1.53
1.51
1.591
1.59f
1.591
1.591
1.591
1. 59f
1. 591
1.591
1.59|
1.591
l. 591
1.591
1.591
1. 591
1. 591
1.591
1.591
1.591
1.591
1.601
1.601
1.601
1.601
1.681

Great Britain.
Liege,
! France. ! B
Man­
elgiu .
m
chester. Glasgow. Average.1
$1.651
1.651
1.651
1.561
1.561
1.651
1.84
1.84
1.65|
1.651
1.561
1.561
1.561
1.561
1. 561
1.561
1.561
L 561
1. 561
1.561
1.561
1.651
1. 651
1.651
1.741
1.741
1.84

$1,131
1.131
1.211
1.211
1.381
1.381
1.551
1.551
1.551
1.211
1.211
1.211
1.211
1. 381
1.381
1.211
1.211
1.211
1.29f
1.381
l. 461
1.551
1.551
1.551
1.551
1.551
1.551

$1.44
1.44
1.46
1.46
1.511
1.541
1.661
1. 661
1.601
1.49
1.46
1.46
1.46
1.511
1.511
1.46
1.46
1.46
1.48f
1.511
1.541
1. 601
1.601
1.601
1.631
1.631
1.691

$1.061
1.061
1.15f
1.151
1.151
1.151
1.151
1. 44f
1.441
1.441
1.64
1. 64
1.64
1.64
1.64
1.64
1.64
1.64
1.64
1.64
1.64
1.64
1.64
1.64
1.64
1.64
1.64

'M A K E R S .
1870.
1871.
1872.
1873.
1874.
1875.
1876.
1877.
1878.
1879.
1880.
1881.
1882.
1883.
1884.
1885.
1886.
1887.
1888.
1889.
1890.
1891.
1892.
1893.
1894.
1895.
1896.




1.
1.51f
1. 51£
1.51f
1.51f
1.641
1.641
1.641
1.641
1.641
1.641
1.641
1.641
1.641
1.641
1.641
1.641
1.641
1.641
t. 641
1.641
1.641
1.641
1.641
1.6 *
1.6

1. 371
1.371
1.371
1.371
1.371
1. 371
1.371
1.371
1.371
1.371
1. 371
1. 371
•1.371
1.371
1.371
1.371
1.371
1.371
1.371
1.371
1.371
1. 371
1.371
1.371
1.371
1.371
1.371

1.65i

686

BULLETIN OF THE DEPARTMENT OF LABOR.

Table I I . —AVERAGE DAILY WAGES IN CERTAIN CITIES OF GREAT
BRITAIN, FRANCE, AND BELGIUM, 1870 TO 1890—Continued.
tAB PEN TEB *. (a)

Great Britain,
! Man­
L ondon.1 chester.
1870..............................................................
1871..............................................................
1872..............................................................
1873..............................................................
1874..............................................................
1875..............................................................
1876..............................................................
1877..............................................................
1878..............................................................
1879..............................................................
1880..............................................................
1881..............................................................
1882..............................................................
1883..............................................................
1884..............................................................
1885..............................................................
1886..............................................................
1887..............................................................
1888..............................................................
1889..............................................................
1890..............................................................
1891..............................................................
1892...............................: .............................
1893..............................................................
1894..............................................................
1895..............................................................
1896..............................................................

|
Paris, j Liege,
France. Belgium.
Glasgow. Average.
________ !

$1.53
$1.34
$1.33* ! $1.20*1
$1.12|
1.53
1.34
1.33*
1.20*
1.12£
1.51
1.34 | 1.21*
1.35*
1. 20*
1.59f
1.47* | 1.29*
1.45|
1.20*
1.59|
1.47* !
1.38*
1.48*
1.20*
1.59|
1.49* !
1.46|
1.52
1.24*
1.59f
1.55*
1.49*
1. 54| !
1.38
1.49*
1.59£
1. 55* !
1.54| ■ 1. 37|
1.47*
1.38*
1.48*
1.59*
1. 37*
1.59*
1.12| • 1 40“
1.47*
1. 37f
1.47*
1.12£
1. 59*
1.40
1.37* :
1. 59£1.47*
1.21*
1. 42£
1. 37f |
1. 59£
1.47*
1.21*
1.42*
1.55£ .
1.59|
1. 29f ■ 1.45| ,
1.47*
1.55* 1‘ ” *$6*78*
1.29|
1.47*
1.45|
1.59*
1.55| i
.78
1. 29*
1. 45£
1.59* 1 1-47*
1. 55* !
.78
1.29|
1.45* :
1.59* i'
1.47*
1.55| j
.77*
1.59|
1.47*
1. 29J j
1.45| | 155| !
-78*
1.47*
1. 29£
1. 45| !
1.55| !
•77*
1.9w*
1.59|
1.47*
1.38*
1.48*
1.55| 1
i
.78
1.49*
1. 38*
1.49* !
1.59*
1.55* |
.78*
1.49*
1.4C|
1. 50£ !
1.56
1. 55* i
.78*
1.49*
1.40f
1.60*
1.55* ;
1. 52* ;
.78*
1.46J
1.49*
1.60*
1.52* .
-79*
1.55* j
1. 60*
1.49*
1.46£
1 52* !
1 1. 55* |
.80*
1.46|
1.60*
1. 50*
1.52*!:
.79
1.55*
1.50*
1. 55*
1.58*
1. 68*
1. 55*
.81

a In Great Britain and Belgium joiners are included in carpentc>rs.
C O M P O S IT O R S .
1870.............................................................. !
1871..............................................................
1872..............................................................
1873..............................................................
1874..............................................................
1875..............................................................
1876..............................................................
1877..............................................................
1878..............................................................
1879.............................................................
1880.............................................................. j
1881..............................................................
1882.............................................................. 1
1883............................................................ 1
1884..............................................................
1885..............................................................
1886..............................................................
1887..............................................................
1888..............................................................
1889..............................................................
1890..............................................................
1891..............................................................
1892..............................................................
1893..............................................................
1894..............................................................
1895..............................................................
3896..............................................................




1.46
1.46
1.46
1.46
1.46
1.46
1.46
1.46
1.46
1.46
1.46
1.46
1.46
1.46
1.46
1.46
1.46
1.46
1.46
1.46
1.46
1.54*
1.54*
1.54*
1.54*
1.54*
1.54*

1.21|
1.21£
1.33*
1 .33£
1.42
1.42
1.42
1.42
1.42
1.42
1.42
1.42
1.42
1.42
1.42
1.42
1.42
1.42
1.42
1.42
1.42
1.42
1.42
1.42
1.42
1.42
1.42

!
|
!
1
1
!
!
1
i
'
1
:

1.11* r
1.21f
1.21*
1.2l|
1.21f
1.21*
1- 21*
1.31|
1.31|
1.31|
1.31*
1.31£
1.31|
1.31f
1.31|
1.31|
1.31|
1.31£
1.31*
1.31|
1.31|
1.38
1.38
1.38
1.38
1.38
1.38

1 26*
1. 29|
1. 33|
1.33|
1. 36*
1. 36*
1 36*
1.40
1. 40
1.40
1. 40
1.40
1.40
1.40
1.40
1. 40
1.40
1.40
1.40
1.40
1.40
1.44f
1.44*
1.44|
1.44|
1.44*
1.44*

1.15*
1.15*
i. 15|
1.15*
1.15*
1.15*
1.15*
1.15*
1. 25*
1.25*
1.25*
1.25*
1.25*
1. 25*
1.25*
1.25*
1.25*
1.25*
1.25*
1.25*
1.25*
1.25*
1.25*
1.25*
1.25*
1.25*
1.25*

.64
.65*
.64|
.67*
.69
.67*
.64*
.66*
.71*
.72
.72*
.74*
.73*
.75*
.75*
.82
.76*
.77*
. 77*
.75*
.78*
.75*
.77*
.76*
.79
.79*
.79*

687

WAGES IN THE UNITED STATES AND EUROPE.
Table II.—AVERAGE

DAILY WAGES IN CERTAIN CITIES OF GREAT
BRITAIN, FRANCE, AND BELGIUM, 1870 TO 1896—Continued.
IIOD CARRIERS.

G
reat Britain.
Y
ear.

1870.
1871.
1872.
1873.
1871.
1875.
1876..
1877..
1878.
1879.
1880.
1881.
1882.
1883.
1884..
1885.
1886..
1887.,
1888.
1889.
1890.
1891.
1892.
1898.
1891.
1895.
1896.

Paris, | Liege,
M
an­
' France, Belgium
i
.
L
ondon. chester. G
lasgow A
'. verage.
J
! $0 0 i '
. 7
. 6 | :.....
7
. 77i ;
•7 i ■
7
. 7-1j
7
.7 1 ;.....
7

.771 1
. 86
*
. 8 J ... .
6
.8 f
0
1 6 .....
.0 1
36
.0 1
101
. 6
16 ,
.0 1
16 |
.0 1
16
.0 1
1 6 ’** *44
.0 1 16 1
16
.0 1
.46
.4 1
6
101
. 6
16
.0 1
.4 1
8
.4 1
8
1 01
. 6
101
. 0
.4 1
9
.4 *
9
10 1
. 6
16
.0 1
.4 f
2
16
.0 1
.5
1
1 01
. 6
.4 1
7
. 8G
1

1ROIV H O L D E R S .
1870.
1871.
1872
1873.
1874.
1875.
1876
1877.
1878.
1879
1880
1881
1882
1883
1884.
1885.
1886.
1887.
1888.
1889.
1890.
1891.
1892
1893,
1894
1895
1896




$1.46
1.46
1.46
1.46
1. 46
1.541
1.541
1.541
1.541
1.541
1.541
1.541
1.541
1.541
1.541
1.541
1.541
1. 541
1. 541
1.541
1.541
1.541
3.541
1. 541
1.541
1 541
1.621

$1.46
3.46
1.46
1.541
1.541
1.541
1. 541
1.541
1.46
1.46
3.46
1.40
1.541
1.541
1.541
1.541
1.541
1. 541
1.541
1.541
!
1.541
| 1.541
1. 541
L541
i
1.541
| 1.541
j
1 1.581

|
................

................
...............
................

$1.46
1.46
1. 46
1.501
1.501
1.541
1.541
1.54-1
1.501
1.501
1.501
1.501
1.541
1.541
1.541
1.541
1. 541
1. 541
1.541
1.541
1. 541
1.541
1. 541
1.541
1.541
1.541
1.601

|
j
i
!
i
:
!
;

1.23
1.281
3.28
3.261
1.251
1.26
3.261
1.261
1.251
1- 201
1.28f
1.281 !
i.2 8 £ !
|
1.281 I
1.301 |
j
1.31 1
1.301
1. 30
1.291
1.282
1.301
1.33
1.311
1. 381
l. 341
!
i. 3 7 i :
1. 391 I

.721
.73
.741
.72*
.731
.84
.811
.79
.701
.712
.76
.78
.82
.801
•7"1
.711
.721
.051
.69
.711
.70
.72
.71
.70*
.731
.752
.79f

688
T able

BULLETIN OF THE DEPARTMENT OF LABOR.
I I . —AVERAGE

DAILY WAGES IN CERTAIN CITIES OF GREAT
BRITAIN, FRANCE, AND BELGIUM, 1870 TO 1896—Continued.
IRON MOLDERS’ HELPERS.

Great Britain.
London.

Man­
chester.

1870..............................................................
1871..............................................................
1872..............................................................
1873..............................................................
1874..............................................................
1875............ . ..................................... .........
1876.............................................................
1877.............................................................
1878.............................................................
1879.............................................................
1880.............................................................
1881..............................................................
1882.............................................................
1883.............................................................
1884.............................................................
1885..............................................................
1886.............................................................
1887.............................................................
1888.............................................................
1889..............................................................
1890..............................................................
1891..............................................................
1892.............................................................
1893..............................................................
1894.............................................................
1895..............................................................
1896.............................................................

Paris,
Glasgow.j Average. France.
!
$0.81f
! 82*
! 86*
.851
.86
. 86f
.87
. 87*
.87*
.88*
.88
.88*
.89*
.90*
.88*
.89*
.92*
.92*
.92
.93*
.89*
.93*
.92*
.92*
.93*

JOINERS, (a)

1870................................................................
1871...............................................................
1872................................................................
1873....................................... .......................
1874................................................................
1875................................................................
1876................................................................
1877...............................................................
1878................................................................
1879................................................................
1880 ..............................................................
1881................................................................
1882................................................................
1883................................................................
1884 ..............................................................
1885...............................................................
1886..............................................................
1887 ..............................................................
1888...............................................................
1889...............................................................
1890...............................................................
1891................................................................
1892...............................................................
1893...............................................................
1894...............................................................
1895...............................................................
1896...............................................................




1.06*
1 .0 6 *
1. 06*
1 .0 6 *
l! l5 f
1 .15*
1.1 5 *
1 .1 5 *
1 .15*
1.27
1.27
1.35
1.35
1.35
1.35
1.35
1.35
1.35
1.35
1.35
1.35
1. 35
1.85
1.35
1.35
1.35
a See Carpenters.

Liege,
Belgium.

..................................................................................... %

Year.

WAGES IN THE UNITED STATES AND EUROPE.

689

Table U . —AVERAGE DAILY WAGES IN CERTAIN CITIES OE GREAT
BRITAIN, FRANCE, AND BELGIUM, 1870 TO 1896—Continued.
LAKOBEHS, OTHER.

[An effort was made to obtain figures for the two classes—laborers, street, and laborers, other. Fig­
ures could be obtained for the second class only.]
Great Britain.
Tear.

London.

Paris,
Man­
France.
chester. Glasgow. Average.

1870..............................................................
1871..............................................................
1872..............................................................
1873..............................................................
1874..............................................................
1875..............................................................
1876..............................................................
;
■
i
1877..............................................................
1
1
1878..............................................................
................
1879.............................................................. ................!.................................. 1
:
i
!
1880..............................................................
;
1
1
1881__________________________________
1882............................................................................... ' ................ 1
................ !................
1883............................................................................... ................................... i................
1884................................................................................!................ 1
................ !................
1885................................................................................!................ ;.................|
................
1886_______________ _________ _________ i................ 1
................ i......... .
1
...............
................ 1
................
1887..............................................................!................ 1
1888..............................................................i................ 1
..................................
1889__________________________________ i___________________ i_________
i
1890.............................................................
•
1891..............................................................
1892..............................................................
1893..............................................................
1894..............................................................
1895.............................................................
1896..............................................................

$0.86|
. 86$
. 86*
. 86*
.86*
.861
.86|
. 86§
.86*
.86*
.864
.86|
,86|
.86|
.86f
.86|
.86|
.86*
.86*
.96*
.96*
.96*
.96*
.96*
.96*
.96*
.96*

Liege,
Belgium.

$0,534
.534
.54*
.55*
-g j
! 54*
!54*
.54
.54
.53|
. 53*
!o3*
.53|
.53|
.53|
.53
.52*
.52*
.52*
.52*
.52*
.52*
.52*

MACHINISTS.

$1.21f
1.21*
1. 29*
1.29*
1.29*
1.29*
1* 29*
l! 29*
1.29*
1.29*
1.29*
1.68
1.38
1.38
1.38
1 29*
l! 29*
1.38
1.38
1.42
1.42
1.38
1.38
1.38
1.46

$1.34
1.34
1.38
1.38
1.38
1.38
1.42
1.42
1.42
1.42
1.42
1.42
1.46*
1.46*
1.46*
1.46*
1.42
1. 42

IHHHHHrtHrtH

$1.46
1.46
1.46
1.46
1.46
1.46
1.54*
1.54*
1.54*
1.54*
1.54*
1.54*
1.54*
1.54*
1.54*
1.54*
1.54*
1.54*
1.54*
1.54*
1.54*
1.54*
1.54*
1.54*
1.54*
1.54*
1.54*

1870.
1871.
1872.
1873.
1874.
1875.
1876.
1877.
1878.
1879.
1880.
1881.
1882
1883.
1884.
1885.
1886.
1887.
1888.
1889.
1890.
1891.
1892.
1893.
1894
1895.
1896.

1.33*
1.34*
1.31*
1.31*
1.32
1.32
1.32*
1.31*
1.32*
1.33*
1.34*
1.34*
1.34*
1.34*
1.34*
1.35
1.34*
1.34
1.34*
1.34*
1.35*
1.35*
1.40*
1.42
1.38
1.38
1.38

(a)

a The workmen were paid by the piece; it was impossible to ascertain the daily earnings.




634
65*
62j
64
604
65
64
64

690

BULLETIN OF THE DEPARTMENT OF LABOR.

T able I I .—AVERAGE DAILY WAGES IN CERTAIN CITIES OF GREAT
BRITAIN, FRANCE, AND BELGIUM, 1870 TO 1896—Continued.
MACHINISTS’ HELPERS.

Great Britain.
-------------- --------------- Paris,
Man­ GlasgowJ Average. ■ iance'
^
chester.

Year.
' London.
1870
1871
1872
1873
1874
1875
1876
1877
1878
1879
1880
1881
1882
1883
1884
1885
1886
1887
1888
1889
1890
1891
1892
1893
1894
1895
1896

l

78
78 ■
78 1
78 |

'i

w
I
I■

i
i
i
i

78*
78|
79*
79*
88*
88*
88*
88*
88*
88*
88*
88*
88*
90|
99
99
98*
97
97*
98*
98*

|
|
1
j
|
1
•
'
•
i
•
,
j
|
j
I
!
j
i

Liege,
elgium.

$0.48*
.48|
.48|
. 54*
.57
.51*
.53
.53
.48*
.48*
.50*
.53*
.53
.53
.51
.48*
.50
.49*
.49*
.49
.47*
.52
.49*
. 5u|
.50
.51*
.51*

i
MASONS, STONE.

1870..............................................................1 $1. 53
1871..............................................................'
1. 53
1872..............................................................
1.51
1873..............................................................
1.59*
1874..............................................................
1.59|
1. 59*
1875..............................................................
1876..............................................................
1.59|
1877..............................................................
1.59|
1878..............................................................
1.59!
1.59*
1879..............................................................
1880..............................................................
1.59*
1881..............................................................
1882.............................................................. 1 1.59*
1883..............................................................
1.59f
1884.............................................................. i
1.58*
1885.............................................................. 1 1.58*
j
1886.............................................................. !
1.58*
1887.............................................................. :
1.58*
1888.............................................................. !
1.58*
1.584
1889.............................................................. !
1.593- i________
1890.............................................................. !
1891............................................................. :
i . 59*
1892............................................................. 1 1.52
1893.............................................................
1.60*
1894.............................................................
1.60*
1.60*
1895.............................................................
1896.............................................................
1.68!




$1.53
1. 53
1.51
1.59!
1.59!
1.59|
1.59|
1.59|
1.59!
1.59|
1.59|
1.59f
1.59!
1.59!
1.58*
1.58*
1.58*
1.58*
1 58*
1.58*
1.59|
1.59!
1.52
l! 60*

1.01*
1.01*
1.01*
1.06*
1. 06*
1.06*
1.06*
1.25*
1.25*
1.25*
1.44*
1.44*
1.54*
1.54*
1.54*
1.54*
1.54*
1.54*
1.54*
1.54*
1.54*
1.54*
1.54*
1.54*
1.54*
1.54*
1.541

.70!
. 62§
.*62*
.61*
.59*
171*
.71*
.73*
. 724
46$
•71*
.72|
.7$*
734
. 72!
* i6$
.73|
.73*
.72*
.72
.73*
.73
.73
.71

WAGES IN THE UNITED STATES AND EUROPE,
T able

C91

I I . — AVERAGE

DAILY WAGES IN CERTAIN CITIES OF GREAT
BRITAIN, FRANCE, AND BELGIUM; 1870 TO 1896—Continned.
PAINTERS, HOUSE.

Great Britain.
Year.

London.
$1,434
1.434
1.51
1.51
1. 51
1.51
1. 51
1.51
1. 51
1. 51
1. 51
1.51
1.51
1.51
1.51
1.51
1.51
1.53
1. 51
1. 51
1.51
1.51
1.48
1.48
1.48
1.48
1.48

1870.
1871.
1872.
1878.
1874.
1875.
1876.
1877.
1878.
1879
1880.
1881
1882
1883.
1884.
1885.
1886.
1887.
1888.
1889.
1890
1891.
1892
1893.
1894.
1895.
1896

j Paris,
Glasgow, Average. ; Franee.

Man­
chester

Liege,
Belgium.

$1,30|
$1.06£
1.30|
1.064
1.34|
1.06|
1.364
1.15f
1.37|
1.15|
1.41
1.15|
1.41
1.15|
1.44
1.25*
1.44
1.254
1.37|
1.254
l. 34f
1.254
1.37|
1.254
1.37|
1.35
1.374
1.35
1.37|
3.35
1. 35
1. 37f
1.37£
1.35
1.37|
1.35
3.37|
1. 35
1.37f
1.35
1. 37|
1.35
1. 35
l.41i
1.38 | 1.35
1.41
1. 35
1.41
1.35
1.4L
1.35
1.42J
1. 35

$0.55
.56
. 56*
.56
.56£

$1,294 !
1.204 j
1.294 ;
1 . 294 :

1.2941

1.294 1

1.294
1.294
1.204
1.294 i
1.2941 i
1.294 !

1.294 j
|
1.2941 i
1 . 294 1
i
1.294
1.294
1.294
1.294
1.294
1.294
1.43
1.364
1. 364
1.364
1.364
1.40|

!
1
I
1
|
i
1
i
1
i
1
S
!

$1.19
1.19
1.23|
1.284
1.33
1.424
1.424
1. 51|
1.51|
1.33
1.23f
1.33
1.33
1.33
1.33
1.33
1.33
1.33
1.33
1.33
1.33
1.29|
1.29|
1. 384
1.384
1.384
1.384

.574
.584
.554
.62
.63
.624
.624
. 64f
.C5|
.66
.644
.66
.65|
.664
.664
.664
.664
.664
.C64
.61

PATTERN MAKERS, IRON WORKS.

1870..............................................................'................
1871..............................................................!................
1872..............................................................1
................
1873..............................................................1................
1874...............................................................................
1875...............................................................................
1876..............................................................;................
1877................................................................................
1878................................................................................
1879............................................................ ................
1880................................................................................
1881...............................................................................
1882..............................................................!................
1883................................................................................
1884................................................................................
1885................................................................................
1886 ............................................................ .................
1887................................................................................
1888................................................................................
1889................................................................................
1890................................................ „.............................
1891.......................... ...................................1................
1892................................................................................
1893..............................................................!................
1894..............................................................;................
1895.............................................................. 1................
1896.............................................................. 1................




1

1.46
1.46
1.46
1.46
1. 46
l. 46
1.46
1.46
1.46
1. 46
1. 46
1.46
1.46
1.46
1.46
1.534
1.46
1. 48
1. 52
1 . 544 j..... ..........
1. 54i
1.544 !
___
1. 544
1.544
1.544 ________
1.544
1.584

1.46
1.46
1.46
1.46
1. 46
1. 46
1. 46
1.46
1.46
1.46
1.46
1.46
1.46
1.46
1.46
1.534
1.46
1.48
1.52
1 . 544
1.544
1. 544
1.544
1.514
1.544
1.544
1.584

1.214

1 . 22
1.194
1.224'
1.224

1.324
1. 324
1.33
1.324
1.32
1.324
1.324
1.334
1. 324
1. 32
1. 32
1.314
l. 32
1 .324
1.314
1.314
1.31
1 .314
1.33
1.33
1.334
1.334

.62*
• s
. 8l|
. 73
. 771
734
.70
.74
.704
.64*
. 78*
.82
.82
.744
7S*
.724

.774

.85
.734
: 75
.78§
.76
.774

BULLETIN OF THE DEPARTMENT OF LABOR.

II*
—AVERAGE DAILY WAGES IN CERTAIN CITIES OF GREAT
BRITAIN, FRANCE, AND BELGIUM, 1870 TO 1896—Continued.
PLUHBISBS.

Great Britain.
Year.

1870.
1871.
1872.
1873.
1874.
1875.
1876.
1877.
1878.
1879.
1880.
1881.
1882.
1883.
1884.
1885.
1886.
1887.
1888.
1889.
1890.
1891.
1892.
1893.
1894.
1895.
1896.

London.

Man­
chester. Glasgow. Average.

$1.43
1.4
*3
A. 4 0

1.43
1.43
1.43
1.43
1.43
15f
. 8
1. 5 £
8
1.581
1. 5 f
8
1.581
A . OOJ
1. 5 1
8
1.581
l! 581

1.581
1.581
1.581
1.581

Liege,
Paris,
Prance. Belgium.

$1.43

1.43
1.43
1.43
1.43
1.43
14
. 3
1.43

1.581

1.581
1.581
1.581
1. 581
1.581
1.581

1.581

1.581
i 581
.

1.581
1.581
1.581
1.581
1.66J
1.66J
1.661
1.661
1.741

STON ECU TTERS.

18701871.
1872.
1873.
1874.
1875.
1876.
1877.
1878.
1879.
1880.
1881.
1882.
1883.
1884.
1885.
1886.
1887.
1888.
1889.
1890.
19
81
1892.
19
83
19
84




.871
.871
1. 22j_
1.221

1.221

1.221

1.221
1.221

1.231

1.231
1.24
1.24
1.24
1.231
1. 2 |
3
1.231
1.231
1.50
1.50
1.501
1.501
1.501
1.50
1.50
a Not reported.

(a)

5
8

WAGES IN THE UNITED STATES AND EUROPE.
T able

693

II.—
AVERAGE DAILY WAGES IN CERTAIN CITIES OF GREAT
BRITAIN, FRANCE, AND BELGIUM, 1870 TO 1896—Concluded.
TEAMSTERS,

Great ]Britain.
Year.
London.

Paris,
Liege,
cl^ * t 'r# Glasgow. Average. Prance. Belgium.
“

.

.

.

*

!
j
1870..............................................................
$1.18£
X87J..............................................................
1.18£
.i
1872.............................................- ...............
1.18J
1873............................................................. ..................... 1 ......................
1.18*
1874.............................................................. . . . . . j . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.18*
i
1 ft7Fi_____________________________________________ _______
1.20
i
1R7fi___________________________________________ __________ i ________
1
1.20
1
1877 ............................................................
1. 20
i
1.21
1878 .......................................................... .....................!......................
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. .21. . . . i . . . . . . . .
. .
!
1879..............................................................
.....................
i
1. 21
1880 ............................................................
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . j . . . . . . 1. 21
1881 ..........................................................
1. 21
1882 .....................................................
1. 21
1883 ..........................................................
1. 21
1884 .....................................................
1.21
1885 .......................................................
IftSri
_______________________
1.21
1.21
1887
........................................................................
i
1.21
1888...............................................................................
1.26|
1889 ..........................................................................
1.26|
1891 ........................................................ !................
)
1. 26!
1891
........................................................ !................
1892
_______________________________________! ................
1.26!
1.26!
1893
.....................................................
1.26!
1894
..................................................
1895.............................................................
1896.............................................................

*

7234— No. 18----- 3




RECENT REPORTS OE STATE BUREAUS OF LABOR STATISTICS.

MASSACHUSETTS.
Twenty-eighth Annual Report o f the Massachusetts Bureau o f Statistics
o f Labor. March, 1898, Horace G. Wadlin, Chief, xiv, 367 pp.
This report consists of three i>arts, as follows: Part I, comparative
wages and prices, 42 pages; Part II, graded weekly wages, 268 pages;
Part III, labor chronology, 1897, 57 pages.
P a r t I, C o m p a r a t i v e W a g e s a n d P r i c e s . —The statistics conta'n d in this part of the report were collected from original sources by
agents of the Massachusetts Bureau of Statistics of Labor. A compari­
son is made of the data for the years 1860,1872,1878,1881, and 1897. The
figures for all but the last-named year were taken from previous reports
of the bureau. The statistics of this part relate only to Massachusetts.
Three items are considered in this report, namely, average weekly
wmges, average retail prices, aud the purchasing power of money.
The average figures for 1897, like those for previous years, were col­
lected directly from different establishments in the specified industries
by the agents o f the bureau, who, for that purpose, visited at the close
o f the year the industrial centers of the Commonwealth, and, by the
cooperation of the proprietors, obtained the information.
The retail prices were obtained, in the different towns and cities which
were visited, at establishments patronized by working j> e o p l e , together
with information as to rents and prices for board such as are paid by
wage workers.
The report shows the average weekly wages, and the increase or
decrease in 1897 over 1872 and 18S1, in a large number of occupations
in 22 leading industries. These are then summarized by industries.
In general, wages in 1897 were higher than in 1881 and lower than
in 1872.
In 1S97, as compared with 1881, there was an increase in wage rates
in 15 of the classified industries and a decrease in 8. The following
industries showed an increase of wage rates, the percentage of increase
being given in each case: Agriculture, as relates to laborers paid by
the month, with board, 2.78 per cent; boots and shoes, 7.59 per cent;
building trades, 43.91 per cent; cabinetmaking, 13.12 per cent; carpet­
ings, 39.06 per cent; carriages, 0.60 per cent; cotton goods, 1.58 per
cent; glass, 12.64 per cent; metals and metallic goods (fine work),
15.09 percent; musical instruments, 14.23 per cent; printing, 31.04 per
cent; rubber goods, elastic fabrics, 31.75 per cent; stone, 4.68 per cent;
straw goods, 15-31 per cent, and woolen goods, 4.93 per cent. A decline
in wage rates was shown in the following industries: Agriculture, as
relates to laborers paid by the day, without board, 8.76 per cent; blaek694




REPORTS OF STATE BUREAUS OF LABOR-----MASSACHUSETTS.

695

smiths,(a) 2.32 per cent; clothing (ready-made), 17.34 per cent; hosiery,
12.23 per cent; leather, 4.62 per cent; machines and machinery, 34.47
per cent; metals and metallic goods (not fine work), 29.14 per cent, and
paper, 1.69 per cent.
Comparisons of wage rates for 1897 and 1872 could be made in only
11 of the 23 industries represented. Of these, 7 showed a decline
and 4 an increase of wage rates. Those showing an increase w
rere:
Building trades, 1.09 per cent; carpetings, 68.92 per cent; metals and
metallic goods (not fine work), 56.93 per cent, and paper, 26.32 per
cent. Those showing a decline in wages were: Agriculture,’ as relates
to laborers paid by the month, with board, 19.88 per cent; blacksmiths,
2.68 per cent; boots and shoes, 6.37 per cent; cabinetmaking, 8.37 per
cent; carriages, 21.95 percent; clothing (ready-made), 7.21 per cent, and
machines and machinery, 21.97 per cent. The wages paid in the blacksmithing, ready-made clothing, and machines and machinery industries
show a decline in 1897 when compared with the rates both for 1872 and
1881, while in the building trades and carpetings industries an increase
is shown in each of the two comparisons.
The summary by industries is shown in the following presentation:
A V E R A G E W E E K L Y WAGES, B Y INDUSTRIES, 1872-1897.
Increase (+ ) or
decrease (—) in
1897 as compared
with 1872.

r wages,
rd.

Industries.

1872. j 1881. f 1897.
A griculture:
!
Laborers, per month, with
board.$23.09 ' $18.00 ; $18.50
Laborers, per day, without !
board..,
1.37 i 1.25
i 16.44
16. 38
16. 00
B lacksm iths............................
32.71
11. 06
Boots and shoes.......................
11. 90
15. 66
35.83
11. 00
Building trades.......................
13.02
Cabinetmaking........................
14.21
11. 51
4.89
5.94
Carpetings...............................
8.26
13.51
17.31
C arriages.................................
13.43
9.01
Clothing (ready-made)...........
10.90
9.71
7.71
7.59
Cotton goods............................
32. 03
10.68
Glass.........................................
8.97
H osiery....................................
10 22
10.54
L eather....................................
11.05
10.80
Machines and machinery.......
16.4c
Metals and metallic goods . . .
13.42
9. 51
Metals and metallic goods (fine
13.59
w o r k )....................................
10.07
18.06
Musical instruments..............
15.81
9.31
Paper .......................................
9.47
P rin tin g ..................................
19. 59
14.95
9.96
7. 56
Rubber goods, elastic fabrics
13.25
13.87
Stone.........................................
10.06 j 11. 60
Straw goods.............................
8.12
W oolen g oods..........................
8.52
L ....

.

Increase (+ ) or
decrease (—) in
1897 as compared
with 1881.

Amount. Per cent. j Amount. Per cent.
i
i
j
i
j —$4.59 | —19.88
i
— . 44 i — 2. 68
— . 81
— 6. 37
+ .17
+ 1 .0 9
— 1.19 : — 8.37
+ 3.37
+68.92
— 3.80! —21.95
— . 70 | — 7.21

................1
................
— 3.04 • —21.97
+ 3.45 | +56.93

+ 1.94 | +26.32
I
!
|
1
i
!

+ $0.50

+ 2.78

—
—
+
+
+
+
+
—
+
+
—
—
—
—

.12
.38
.84
4.83
1.51
2.32
.08
1.89
. 12
1.35
1.25
.51
5.68
3.91

— 8.76
— 2.32
+ 7.59
+43.91
+13 12
+39. 06
+ .60
—17.34
+ 1.58
+12.64
—12.23
— 4.62
—34.47
—29.14

+
+
—
+
+
+
+
+

1.52
2.25
.16
4.64
2.40
.62
3.54
.40

+15.09
+14.23
— 1.69
+31.04
+31. 75
+ 4.68
+15.31
+ 4.93

In order to determine whether real wages have gone up or down,
prices of commodities and the purchasing power of money must be
taken into account. The table following shows for the years 1860,1872,
1878,1881, and 1897 the average retail prices of commodities.
a Independently classified outside tlio industry “ Metals and metallic goods."




696

BULLETIN OF THE DEPARTMENT OF LABOR.
A V E R A G E R E T A IL PRICES, 1860-1897.

Artioles.

Unit.

Average retail prices, gold
standard.
I860.

1872.

1878. 1881.

Increase (+ ) or Increase (+ ) or
decrease (—)
dicreaso (—)
in 1897 as com­
in 1897 as com­
pared with 1872. pared with 1881.

1897. Amount. Per ct. Amount. Per ct.

GROCERIES.
b b l . $7.61 $10.75 $8.63 $9.91* $6.62* —$4.12* —38.37
b b l . 7.14 12.75 7.96 8.57 5.80 — 6.95 —54.51
lb ... .03
.03* .03* .04* .03* . ooT — 2.56
v
l b ... .02*
.01* .02
.03* .03 + .01* +71.43
l b ... .05*
.08*: .06
.07* •07& - .01 —12.12
l b ... .07*
.ll*i .09* .09| .07? — .03? —30.16
.09*! .08* .13* .07 .02* —26.32
qt • .08
•
l b ... .54|
.69 ! .60* .58
.46* — .22j? —32.75
l b ... .21*
.34*! .23| . 18.i .31* .032 — 8.91
V
l b ... .23
.42*1 .26* .28| .28 .14* —34.12
l b ... .08*
.10*! .08| .09* .04* .05* —53.66
l b ... .09
•04f .05* —55.56
.10*1 .09* .10
lb ... .10*
.12 | .10
.05| — .06* —52. 08
.11
g al.. .50|
.70 i .57* .66* .50 — .20 —28.57
.76* .68
gal.. .57*
.62* .49* — .26* —35. 08
gal.. .63 *, .75 i .86* .76* . 52® — .22* —29.52
lb ... .08|
. 06| .04* — .03* —46.88
.08 | .08
l b ... .11
•055 —41.22
V
•12* .09* .09* .07*

PROVISIONS.

—33.18
—32.32
—29.63
— 4.00
— 2.67
—19.41
—47.17
—20.00
+68.65
— 2.61
—47.64
105* —53.33
.05* —47.73
.16* —24.81
.12* —20.32
.23? —31.13
.02* —37.04
•02^ —22.16

—$3.29
— 2.77
— .01*
— .00*
— .00|
— .01?
.06*
— •HI
+ •12xc
— .oo|
—
—

—
—
—
—
—

!
l b ...
lb ...
lb ...
l b ...
lb ...
lb ...
l b ...
lb ...
lb ...
lb ...
l b ...
lb ...
l b ...
l b ...
l b ...
lb ...
lb ...
lb ...
bush
qt ..
doz .

.11
.04|
•14f
.06*
.07*
.11
.14
.07*
.12*
.13*
.11
.11
.13
•08|
.11*
.13*
. 21|
.13*
.59
. 04*
.20*

FUEL.
C o a l.................................... ton . 6.40
Wood, hard........................ cord 6.49
W ood, p in e........................ cord 4.42

.19
.07*
.29*
.10*
•10*!
.17 !
. 28*1
.10*!
.19
.15*
.12*
.11
.13*
.10*
.12*
.14|
.39*
.17*
1.02
.08
.30

.14*
.05*
.20*
.08
.10*
.15*
.20
.10*
.17*
.18*
.10
. 09|
.12*
:3
.10|
.25*
.12*
.97*
.05*
.25

9.25 6.45
10.12* 6.74
7.00 5.04

.17
*14f .05* .05|
.20* .25§
.10* .09? .111 .08 .15| .12* —
.20
.21| —
.11* .07* —
.16* .11| —
.18* .20 +
.10 —
.13
.13* .09* .15* .13* .09 .12
.13* .10* .14| .08 —
. 34f .24* .17* .14 —
1.25| 1.01* •05* .06
.32* .23* —

.04* —22.81
—25.33
-12.99
.0 1 * —10.20
.02* —23.81
.04| —24.84
.06* —23.01
.03* —30.63
.07* —38.16
.04| +31.15
.02* —20.00
.01* —16.18
.00* — 1.26
.01* —12.20
.01* —13. 36
.06* —45.76
.14** —38.00
.03* —20. 00
.00* — .65
.02* —29.17
.06* —21.67
82

Beef, roasting............
Beef, soup..........................
Beef, rump steak..............
Beef, corned.......................
Veal, fore qu arter............
Veal, hind quarter............
Veal, cutlets.......................
Mutton, fore quarter.......
Mutton, leg........................
Mutton, chops...................
Pork, fre sh ........................
Pork, salted ......................
Hams, smoked...................
Shoulders, corned..............
Sausages ............................
L ard ....................................
B u tter.................................
Cheese.................................
Potatoes.............................
M ilk ....................................
E ggs....................................

1 1

Flour, wheat, superfine...
Flour, wheat, fa m ily.......
Flour, r y e ..........................
Com m ea l..........................
Codfish, d ry.......................
R ic e ...................................
Beans...................................
Tea, oolong........................
Coffee, Rio, green..............
Coffee, roasted...................
Sugar, good brown............
Sugar, coffee.......................
Sugar, granulated............
Molasses, New O rleans...
Molasses, Porto R ic o .......
Sirup...................................
Soap, com m on...................
S tarch........................

_

—13.73
+ 1.82
+26.75
— 8.01
—31.91
—18.87
+ 8.75
—36.97
-27.69
+ 9.89
—23.08
—
—30.40
— •01** —12.57
— .03
—25.00
— .02* —20.16
— .06! —45.76
— .10* —29.81
— .03* —20.00
—
. 24 * —19.42
— .00* — 5.56
—27.69
— .09

.02*
.00fc
.0 5 *
.00?
— .03|
— .02*|
+ .01|
.04*
— .04*
•Olf
+
—
.03
+
+

7.83| 6.00 — 3.25 —35.14 _ 1.83|
8.96| 8.41* - 1.71* —16.92 — •55*
7.09 6.97 — .03 — .43 — .12

—23.44
- 6.20
— 1.69

y d ..
y d ..
y d ..
y d ..
y d ..
y d -y d ..

.09*
•10|
.10*
.13*
.15|
.17*
.11

.13
.16
.14
.19*
.27*
.24
.1I|

.07*
.09*
.09 i
-ll*j
.14*1
.17*!
.07|

.08|
.11
.io|

- 13*
.16
.16|
.07|

.08*
.08*
.08*
.09|
.10
.11
.05*

-

.04*
.07*
- .05*
— .09|
.17*
— .13
.0 6 *

—34.62
—46.88
—39.29
—50.00
—63.64
—54.17
—54.61

_
_

—
—
—
—
—
—

©o

DRY GOODS.
Shirting, 4-4 brown...........
Shirting, 4-4 bleached ----Sheeting, 9-8 b ro w n ..........
Sheeting, 9-8 bleached ----Cotton fiannel .....................
T ickin g ..................................
P rin ts ....................................

— 2.86
—22.73
—20.93
—29.09
—37.50
—34.33
—31.18

1.13*

—35.53

.64?
.64

+ 8.10
- 5.22

.00*
.02*
. 02*
.04
.06

BOOTS.

M en’s, h ea vy ....................... pair. 2.75

3.94

3.24

3.18| 2.05* -

1.88* -4 7.84 -

RENTS.

Four-room tenements........ m o.. 4.45
Six-room tenements.. . . . . . m o.. 7.54

14.75
16.00

5.55 7.99 8.63? — 6.11? —41.44 +
9.43 12.25 11.61 — 4.39 —27.44

BOARD.

M e n ........................................ w ’k . 2.79
W om en .................................. w ’k . 1.79




5.62
3.75

4.19
2.63

4.75
3.00

4.62
3.66

- 1.00
— .09

—17.79 _ .13
— 2.40 + .66

— 2.74

+22.00

REPORTS OF STATE BUREAUS OF LABOR-----MASSACHUSETTS.

697

By giving to the price quotation for each article in the group the same
mathematical effect upon the general average for the group that the
expenditure for the article bore upon the total family expenditure, as
determined by a large number of budgets of family expenses, it is found
that the price o f groceries declined 30 per cent in 1897 as compared
with 1872, and 6.67 per cent as compared with 1881. Provisions show
a decrease o f 18.52 per cent in 1897 as compared with both 1872 and 1881.
With regard to groceries, all articles, except green Bio coffee, were
cheaper in 1897 than in 1881. These include flour, corn meal, dry cod­
fish, rice, beans, oolong tea, roasted coffee, sugar, molasses, sirup, com­
mon soap, and starch.
The prices of provisions were generally lower in 1897 than in 1881.
r
Roast and corned beef, fore and hind quarters of veal, fore quarters
and legs of mutton, fresh and salted pork, smoked hams, corned shoulders,
sausages, lard, butter, cheese, potatoes, milk, and eggs were quoted
lower, and rump steak, soup beef, veal cutlets, and mutton chops were
quoted higher.
A comparison of the prices in 1872 with those in 1897 show lower
quotations for the latter year for all articles of groceries and provisions
except corn meal and mutton chops. In obtaining this data great care
was taken to secure quotations for articles of uniform quality from
establishments mainly patronized by working people.
Fuel, dry goods, and men’s heavy boots were lower in price in 1897
than in either 1881 or 1872.
Under the head of rents, quotations for four-room and six-room tene­
ments are given. The rates in both cases were lower in 1897 than in
1872. A comparison of rates in 1881 with those of 1897 shows that they
were slighly lower in the case of six-room tenements and slighly higher
in the case of four-room tenements.
The rates for board, for both men and women, were lower in 1897
than in 1872, and for men slightly lower than in 1881, while for women
the rates were higher in 1897 than in 1881.
The exact significance of the change in prices of commodities can be
seen in the table following, showing the quantity o f each article pur­
chasable for $1 in each of the years included in the tables of wages
and prices.




698

BULLETIN OF THE DEPARTMENT OF LABOR.
PURCH ASIN G POW ER OF M ON ET, 1800-1897.
Increase (J-) or, Increase ( - f ) or
decrease (—) j decrease (—)
in 1897 as
| in 1897 as
compared with compared with
1872.
1881.

W hat $1 would buy in Articles.

Unit.
1878. 1881.

1897.

Num­
ber.

Per
cent.

Num­
ber.

Per
cent.

GROCERIES.

Flour, wheat, superfine
Flour, wheat, family.
Flour, rye
Corn meal
Codfish dry
B ic e ..........
Beans.........
Tea, oolong
Coffee, Bio. green.
Coffee, roasted---Sugar good bro .vn
Sugar, coffee.........
Sugar, granulated
Molasses, New Orleans
Molasses, Porto Bico
S irup........................
Soap, common..........
S taroh......................

lbs..! 25.64
lbs.J, 27.77
lb s. . 1 33.33
lbs.J 45.45;
lbs.J 18.871
lbs.J 13. 33
qts.J 12.66
lbs.J 1.83
lbs. j 4.67;
lbs.J 4. 36
lb s .. 12.19!
lbs.J 10. 99'
lbs., 9 .70i
galls 1.97
galls 1.73|
galls 1.57,
lbs.J ii.49i
lbs.J 9.18

:
j

S
I
:
:

:

, 22.72 19.76
25.00 22.87
|28.57 22.22
47.62 32.00
' 16.07 13.33
, 10.87|10.25
! 12.05 7.54
, 1.66 1.72
S 4.22I 5.40.
3.77 3.47
11.63 10.95
10.64! 10.00
10.00! 9.09
1.74 1.50
1.45! 1.60,
, 1.16 1.30
12. 341 14.81
10.64! 10.81

30.30 +
34.48 +
32.26 +
34.48
13.89 +
12.82 +
14.29 +
2.16 +
3.21 +
3.57 +
21.28 +
21. 74 +
17.86 +
2. 00 +
2.02 +
1.89 +
23.81 +
14.08 +

12.12 + 66.67 +
19.10 +124.19 +
1.01 + 3.23 +
21.07
37.93 +
1.69 + 13.85 +
3.89 + 43.56 +
3.77 + 35.84 +
.71 + 48.97 +
.29 + 9.93
1.22 1 51.91 +
+
11.48+117.14 +
12.22 +128.36 +
9.53+114.41 +
.57! + 39.86 +
.71 + 54.20 +
.56 + 42.11 +
11.31 + 90.48 +
5.89 + 71.92 -4

10.54 +
11.61 +
10.04 +
2.48'+
.56 +
2.57j+
6.75 +

53.34
50.77
45.38
7.75
4.20
25.07
89.52
25.58
2.19 — 40.56
.10,+ 2.88
10.33 + 94.34
11.74+117.40
8.77,+ 96.48
.50,+ 33.33
.42,+ 26.25
•59,+ 45.38
9.00 + 60.77
3.27;+ 30.25

PROVISIONS.

lbs.J 9.18
lbs..120.83i :
lbs..1 6.85!
lbs..| 15.38
lbs.. 13.70|
Veal, hind quarter............... 1lbs..' 9.18'
lbs.
7.09|
Veal, cutlets.........

Beef, roasting................
Beef, soup.......................
Beef, rump steak..........
Beef, corn e d ..................
Veal, fore-quarter.

6.94;
18.86
4.85
12.34
9.80
6.53
5.05
9. 70
5.78
5.40
10.00
10.31
8.07
10.75
8.84
9.34
3.97
8.13
1.03
18.86
4.01

Mutton, fore quarter............ .
Mutton, le g .......................... .
Mutton, ch op s.......................
Pork, fr e s h .............................
Pork, salted.............................
Hams, sm oked.......................
Shoulders, corned...................
Sausages..................................
Lard........................................
B utter......................................
Cheese......................................
Potatoes.................................
M ilk .........................................
E ggs........................................

lbs..; 13.51i
lb s.J 8.07;
lbs..j 7.46
lbs.J 9.26!
lb s .. j 9.09|
lbs.J 7.75!
lbs.J 11.49,
lbs.J 8.77!
lbs..| 7.57|
lb s.J 4.58;
lbs.J 7. 521
bush 1.67;
qts ., 21.27 :
doz J 4. 92

C o a l.................................
Wood, h ard.....................
Wood, p in e .....................

c. ft.;
c. ft .

1.23
1.90

1.14

yds.
yds.
y d s.
yds.
yds J
yds.
y d s .'

10.87
9.26
9.34
7.57
6.33
5.81,
9.09

7.69
6.25
7.14
5.13
3.63
4.17
8.55

5.88!
18.18
4.931
9.75
8.50
6.34
5.00
8. 82
5.97
5.48
7.69
7.54
6.55
8.33
7.47
6.77
2.88
5.71
.79
16.66
3.07

6.85 +
17.86’+
3.89 +
10.64 +
12.66 +
7.87 +
4.61 +
14.08 +
8.55 +
5.05
10.00 +
10.87 +
7.52 +
11.24 +
9.26 +
12.66 +
4.13 +
7.19 +
.99 +
17.86 +
4.27 +

1.59 ,+
4.53.+
.50 +
1.12 +
3.14 +
2.02 +
1.07 +
4.28 +
3.29 +
1.46
2.00 +
1.78 +
.11 +
1.44 +
1.26 +
4.79 +
1.58 +
1.48 l +
.02 +
5.36 4.94 +

30.23 +
33.98
___
14.75 1
11.76 +
32.98 +
34.53 +
30.23 —
43. 67}+
62.55 +
22.43 —
25.00 +
19.58 +
1.48 +
14.69 +
15. 75 +
60. 86 +
61.96 +
25.92 +
2.06 +
42.88 +
28. 23 +

.97!+
.32 —
1.04 ;—
•89!+
4.16 41.53 +
.39 —
5.26:+
2.58 i+
.43 _
2.31 +
3.33 +
•97 +
2.91 +
3. 79|+
5.89 +
1.25 +
1.48 +
.20 +
1.20 +
1. 20 +

16. 50
1.76
21.10
9.33
48.94
24.13
7.80
59.64
43.22
7.85
30.04
44.16
14.81
34.93
23.96
87. 00
43.40
25.92
25.32
7.20
39.09

310.56 255.18 333.33 +115.94 + 53.33 + 78.15 + 30.63
.16 + 20.25 +
.06; + 6. 74
1.18
.89
. 95 +
1.58 2.12
1.15 +
.01 +
.03 + 2.68
.88 +

DRY GOOD3.

Shirting, 4-4 brown ..
Shirting, 4-4 bleached
Sheeting, 9-8 brow n..
Sheeting, 9-8 bleached
Cotton flannel...........
Ticking...................
P rin ts................... .

13.33 11.42
10.64 9.09
11.11 9.30
8.47 7.27
6.80 6.25
5.78 5.97
12.98 12.90

11.76 + 4.07 + 52.93 +
11.76 + 5.51 + 88.16 +
11.76 + 4.62 + 64.7i; +
10.31 + 5.18 +100.97 +
10.00 + 6.37 +175.48 +
9.09 + 4.92 +117.99 +
18.87 + 10.32 +120.70 +

.34 +
2.67 +
2.46 +
3.04 f
3.75 +
3.12 +
5.97 +

2.98
29.37
26.45
41.82
60.00
52.26
46.28

.22
.17 +

5.87
6.94

RENTS.

Four room tenements............ days;
Six-room tenements................ days!

6.75 2.03
3.98, 1.87

5.40
3.18

3.75
2.45

3.53 +
2.62 +

1.50 + 73.89
.75 + 40.11 +

2.51
3.92

1.67
2.63

1.47
2.33

1.52 +
1.92 +

.28 4- 22.58 +
•05j+ 2.67

BOARD.

M e n .........................................
W om en....................................

days;
days

1.87

.05 + 3.40
.4 !
17.60

It is plain from what has been said as to the decline in prices that
for most o f the commodities larger quantities were obtainable for $1



REPORTS OF STATE BUREAUS OF LABOR— MASSACHUSETTS.

699

in 1897 than in 1881 or 1872. Some of the percentages of increase
are very large, whether the figures for 1881 or 1872 be taken as the
base. For example, the quantity of superfine or family flour purchas­
able for $1 shows an increase in 1897 as against 1881 of more than
50 per cent, and an even greater increase when compared with 1872.
The increase in the quantity of granulated sugar purchasable for $1
in 1897, as compared with 1881, amounts to 96.48 per cent, and as
compared with 1872, to 114.41 per cent. The quantities of many
articles o f provisions, of coal, and of dry goods thus purchasable also
show large percentages of increase.
P a r t IT, G r a d e d W e e k l y W a g e s .—This subject is treated so
extensively that only a portion of the statistics appears in each annual
report. The publication was begun in the twenty-sixth annual report of
the bureau. The wage data are arranged alphabetically according to
occupations, the present report relatiug to those having the initial
letters H to O, inclusive.
P a r t III, L a b o r C h r o n o l o g y , 1897.—This part of the report com­
prises a summary of the leading events affecting labor during the year
1897, arranged in chronological order under each of the three heads,
hours of labor, wages, and trade unions, respectively, and a resume of
labor legislation in 1898.
KEW YORK.
Fourteenth Annual Report o f the Bureau o f Statistics o f Labor o f the
State o f Fete York, fo r the year 1896. Transmitted to the Legislature
January 18,1897. John T. McDonough, Commissioner. 1,047 pp.
This report is presented in seven parts, as follows: Part I, Progress of
business in the productive industries of the State of Kew York for five
years ending June 1, 1895, 711 pages; Part II, Condition of organized
labor, 97 pages; Part III, Wholesale and retail prices of groceries and
meats for five years, 1891-1895, inclusive, 47 pages; Part IY , Gas and
electric lighting, 43 pages; Part Y, Wages, condition, and treatment
o f unorganized workingwomen in Kew York City, 35 pages; Part VI,
Report of the debate on prison labor in the Kew York constitutional
convention of 1894, 74 pages; Part VII, Free employment bureau, 15
pages.
P r o d u c t i v e I n d u s t r i e s .— The greater part of the entire report is
taken up with a tabulation showing by localities and occupations the
highest, lowest, and average daily rates of wages, average weekly
hours o f labor, and number of establishments reporting, for five years
ending June 1, 1895. This part of the report also contains statistical
tables and an analysis relating to yearly wages paid and the volume
of business done during the above-mentioned period by the establish­
ments reporting.




700

BULLETIN OF THE DEPARTMENT OF LABOR.

The statistics relating to annual wages paid in the productive indus­
tries were compiled from schedules returned to the bureau by 2,290
manufacturing establishments, embracing 64 general industries. Every
county in the State but one is represented in the tabulation.
The returns show that since 1892 there was a steady decline in the
average yearly wages per employee. In 1891 the average yearly wages
per employee were $465.51; in 1892, $466.18; in 1893, $460.41) in 1894,
$139.97, and in 1895, $436.23. The number of persons employed was
200,333 in 1891, 215,830 in 1892, 236,908 in 1893, 225,137 in 1894, and
253,139 in 1895. The following table shows for establishments report­
ing for five years, in 31 of the leading industries, the total cost of pro­
duction, the amount and proportion paid for wages, the manufacturers’
earnings, and the relation of the same to the total cost of production,
for the five years ending June 1,1895:
LABOR COST AN D M A N U FA C TU RE R S’ EARN ING S W IT H REFERENCE TO COST OF
PRODUCTION IN 31 L E A D IN G INDUSTRIES FOR THE F IV E Y E A R S ENDING JUNE 1,
1895.
Wages paid.

Industries.

Boots and sh oes........................
Building......................................
Carpets, oilcloths, e t c ................
Carriages, wagons, etc...............
Chemicals, acids, e t c ..................
Cigars, cigarettes, and tobacco Clocks, watches, jewelry, e t c ...
Clothing......................................
Cooking, heating, and sanitary
apparatus...............................
Cotton g o o d s .............................
Earthen and stone ware...........
Food products...........................
Furniture....................................
Glass and glass goods..............
Gloves and mittens...................
Knit goods...................................
Leather and leather goods.......
Liquors (malt and distilled) . . .
Machines, machinery, e t c .........
Metals and metallic goods.......
Musical instruments and ’ma­
terials ......................................
Oils and illuminating fluids---Paints and colors.......................
Paper and paper g o o d s ............
Printing, publishing, book­
binding, etc.............................
Railroad construction, repair­
ing, etc ....................................
Rubber goods..............................
Silk g oo d s...................................
Soap, candles, and grease.........
Wooden goods...........................
Woolen and worsted g o o d s -----

Estab­
lish­
ments Total cost o f
report­ production.
ing.

Manufacturers’ earn­
ings.

Per
cent of
total
cost o f
produc­
tion.

Amount.

49 $42,962,508.28 $12,621,645.61
123 68,172,647.96 17,810,058.67
11 50,251,165.52 12, 070,851.06
36 22,439,119.33
7,564,485.99
14 23,331,136.60
3,522,326.91
46 46,675,479.20 15, 596,084.67
10 20,848, 083.75
4,934,063.63
123 162,544, 584.22 45,477,782.94

29.37
26.12
24.02
33.71
15. 09
33.41
23.66
27.97

$3,269,784.61
1,161,133.00
6,316, 659.37
1, 788, 231.22
2, 399, 094. 59
6, 629,148.06
2, 391,110.59
22,756,739. 22

7.61
1.70
12.57
7.96
10.28
14.20
11.46
14.00

25 24,237,930.61
22 36, 337,850.73
8 27,236,114.45
46 91,079,094.48
74 36,290,236.88
22 13,764,902.84
18 10,679,592.90
61 50,194,407.27
36 31,251. 369.69
27 37,785i 236.54
76 58,618,944.35
176 117,174, 981.06

10,360,960.44
10,967,985.36
6,677,769.47
9, 602,144.37
12,000,342.33
5,268,538.88
3,578,911.96
13,897,549.92
5,932, 972.57
4, 712, 211.63
23, 601,458.71
40,612,947.60

42.74
30.18
24.51
10.54
33.06
38.27
33.51
27.68
18.98
12.47
40.26
34.66

2,759,432.19
2, 392,048.76
394,192.14
3,515,920.26
3,400,203.33
1,265,253. 55
1,810,683.47
4,145,196.34
2,697,618.20
5,167,010.26
7,875,132,78
12,371,782.17

11.38
6.58
1.44
3.86
9.36
9.19
16.95
8.25
8.63
13.67
13.43
10.56

10,512,036.59
85,523,374.05
19. 362,889.15
61,868,795.46

4,682,599.69
4,755,557.96
2,209,364.07
11,150,417.63

44.55
5.56
11.41
18.01

1,249,483.52
3,791,081.75
3,314,279.62
6,656,218.67

11.89
4.43
17.12
10.76

21
12
16
69

Amount.

Per
cent o f
total
cost of
produc­
tion.

42

22,854,284.70

10,657,023.70

46.59

4,900,135.19

21.44

16
9
20
12
53
17

44, 087,213.25
11,306,027.81
17,429,904.94
44,547,439.72
24,676,646.79
25,226,176.15

14,894,745.17
2,792, 613.86
4,639,820.81
3,245,364.48
6,304,648.18
6,490,915.28

33.78
24.70
26.62
7.28
25.55
25.73

1,262,472.10
771,049.65
1, 054, 763.56
4,378,420.30
1,738,135.85
1,254,835.76

2.86
6.82
6.05
9.83
7.04
4.97

O r g a n i z e d L a b o r . —In 1896 returns were received from 962 out of
1,100 labor unions in the State. These consist of data relating to mem­




701

REPORTS OF STATE BUREAUS OF LABOR— NEW YORK.

bership, condition o f the trade, hours of labor, etc. The following table
shows the membership of labor organizations in 1894,1895, and 1896:
NUMBER A N D MEMBERSHIP OF LABOR ORGANIZATIONS, BY INDUSTRIES, 1894 TO 1896.
1
Industries.

Building trades........................................................
Cigars, cigarettes, and tobacco............................. .
Clothing....................................................................
Coach drivers and livery stable employees..........
Food products..........................................................
F u rn itu re.................................................................
Glassworks.............................................................. .
Hats, caps, and furs................................................
Hotel, restaurant, and park em ployees...............
Iron and steel............................................................
Leather......................................................................
Malt liquors and mineral w aters........................ .
Marine trades.......................................................... .
Metal w orkers................................. .......................
M usieims and musical instrument makers..........
Printing, binding, lithographing, photoengrav­
ing, electrotyping, stereotyping, and tjtpefounding............................... -...... .......................
Railroads (steam).....................................................
Railroads (street surface).......................................
S ton e........................................................................ .
Street paving................... .......................................
Textile tra d es..........................................................
Theatrical employees and actors..........................
W o o d w o rk ..............................................................
^Miscellaneous trades.............................................
T o ta l..............................................................

1894.

Organizatious
report­
ing.

Mem­
bers.

1895.

1890.

Organi­
Organ i-j
zations Meiu- zations Mem­
report­ : bcrs. report-! bers.
; ing.
ing.

244
44,151
53 1 8,722
660
55 , 32, 779
4 !
2 3 ; 2,187
8 ! 1,176
882
15 ,
!
15 j 2,964
16 ; 1,377
7,464
87
14
1,920
24
3,153
15
7,115
8
598
22
5, 644

249
48, 638
54 , 9, 089
70
44,001
4 ; 1,020
i
27
2, 790
8
1, 259
15
1, 301
10 1 3, 682
1,351
16
93
8, 522
17
2, 305
26
3, 411
15
8, 064
846
11 ;
22
5,956

52
31,059
112
8,503
2, 500
1
27 : 5,153
797
10 ;
10 ; 1,678
7 ,
1,092
16 , 1,736
22 ; 3,887

58
11,998
116
8, 958
1
1,000
28
4, 093
10
812
13 1 1,983
9 ! 2, Oil
16
1,709
33
4, 523

56 ! 13,650
|
128 r
9,365
1
1, 000
33
5, 382
31
758
11
1,746
9 • 2.168
20
2,033
47
5,865

860 [ 157,197

927 , 180,231

962 i 170,296
1

247
54
67
7
32
6
12
14
14
103
13
29
16
10

51.079
j
9, 799
1 24,031
i
1
3,973
!
:
2,842
!
917
;
1,042
2,287
1,412
9,868
2,119
4,311
7,974
1, 322
22;
!
5,353
l

i

In 1894 the total membership of 860 labor organizations was 157,197.
In 1895, 927 organizations reporting had 180,231 members, an increase
of 23,034. In 1896 there was a falling off in membership, 962 organiza­
tions reporting 170,296 members. Unions in 9 general industries report
a total decrease in membership of 23,136 during the year 1896. This
was greatest in the clothing industry, which lost 19,970 members. The
others that show losses were: Furniture workers, 342 ; glass workers,
259; hat, cap, and fur workers, 1,395; leather workers, 186; marine
trades, 90; musicians and musical instrument makers, 603; streetpaving employees, 54, and textile trades, 237. Organizations in 13
industries report a total gain of 11,859 members for 1896, as follows:
Building trades, 2,441; cigar, cigarette, and tobacco workers, 710;
coach drivers and livery stable employees, 2,953; food products, 43;
hotel, restaurant, and park employees, 61; iron and steel, 1,346; malt
liquors and mineral waters, 900; metal workers, 476; printing, binding,
etc., 1,652; steam railroads, 407; stone, 389; theatrical employees and
actors, 157, and woodwork, 324. The gain in miscellaneous trades was
1,342.
P r i c e s o f C o m m o d i t i e s .—Detailed tables are given showing the
retail prices of groceries and meats for each year from 1891 to 1895,
inclusive, as obtained from retailers in various cities in the State.



702

BULLETIN OF THE DEPARTMENT OF LABOR.

G a s a n d E l e c t r i c L i g h t i n g .— Detailed tables are given for eaeli
of the years 1891 to 1895, inclusive, showing by counties for the gas and
electric light and power companies the number of employees and wages,
and for each company, by occupation and locality, the highest, lowest,
and average daily wages, and average hours of labor per week.
The following table shows, for the electric light and power and gas
companies reporting as doing business for five years, the volume of
business done, the earnings, and the total wages paid, for the five
years ending June 1, 1895:
BUSINESS TRAN SACTED B Y ELECTRIC L IG H T AND POW ER A N D GAS COMPANIES
FOR THE F IV E Y E A R S ENDING JUNE 1, 1895.
Electric light
j Electric light
and power com Gas companios.j and gas companies.
1
panies.

Items.

8

2
1

6

$2,306,674.72
$4,138,077.12
$7, 624, 090.69
$1,741,402.40
42.08
$3,486,013.57
84.24

Number o f companies reporting..................................
Cost o f stock or materials used, including all items
of expense except w ages.............................................
Total cost of p roduction................................................
Market value o f manufactured materials...................
Total wages paid ............................................................
Percentage o f total cost o f production.................
Earnings o f com panies..................................................
Percentage of total cost o f p roduction.................

$6, 733, 636.63
$9,130, 304. 39
$19,045, 241.67
$2,396. 667.76
26.24
$9,914, 937.28
108. 59

$612,695.92
$938,501.60
$2,654,904.17
$325,805.68
34.71
$1,716,402.57
182. 88

1

In addition to the statistics given in the above table, the annual
report also shows returns from companies for periods of less than five
years.
U n o r g a n i z e d W o r k i n g w o m e n .—This part of the report consists
of a collection of personal statements made by working women and
girls, with reference to the conditions of labor, wages, hours, treatment
by employers, etc.
F r e e E m p l o y m e n t B u r e a u .—This bureau was opened July 20,
1896. From that time until January 1, 1897, 8,040 applications for
work were registered, of which 6,458 were from males and 1,582 from
females. O f the male applicants, 1,758, and of the females, 233, had
children depending upon them for support. Situations were secured
for 218 males and 205 females.
WEST Y I E G m A .
Report o f the Commissioner o f Labor o f the State o f West Virginia, 18951896. John M. Sydenstricker, Commissioner. 125 pp.
This is the second biennial report of the commissioner of labor of
West Virginia. The following subjects are treated of in the report:
Coal statistics, 45 pages; coke statistics, 34 pages; oil statistics, 24
pages; strikes, 1 page; statistics of agriculture, 8 pages. The informa­
tion relating to coal, coke, and oil, and the strike statistics, are repro­
ductions o f data published in the reports of the Director o f the United
States Geological Survey and of the Commissioner of the United States
Department o f Labor.



REPOETS OF STATE BUREAUS OF LABOR— WISCONSIN.

703

WISCONSIN.
Seventh Biennial Report o f the Burea u o f Labor, Census, and Industrial
Statistics. State of Wisconsin, 1895-1896. Halford Erickson, Com­
missioner. viii, 540 pp.
This report treats of the following subjects: Farmers’ returns, 175
pages; mechanics’ and workingmen’s returns, 160 pages; wages and
time in operation, 35 pages; factory inspection, 21 pages; manufac­
turers’ returns, 110 pages; building and loau associations, 35 pages.
F a r m e r s ’ B e t u r n s .—In response to inquiries addressed to farmers
throughout the State, 549 returns were received. This is scarcely 10
per cent of the number solicited. The schedule of inquiries contained
over 40 items, covering the social and industrial condition of farmers in
the State. The following is a resume of some of the answers returned
by the farmers:
Native b o r n ............................................................................................................
354
Foreign b o r n .................................................
176
Not reporting place o f b irth ...............................................................................
19
M arried...................................................................................................................
517
Single................................................................................................
32
Average number o f persons in 500 fam ilies.......................................................
5.6
Average months per year of school attendance of children.............................
7.5
Average number of years engaged in farming...................................................
25.6
Average number of acres per farm (546 farms)..................................................
209.3
Average number o f acres per farm under cultivation (544farms).....................
134.5
Average value o f land and improvements per acre (532 farms)....................... $47.93
678
Number o f farm hands employed in summer (409 farm s)................................
Average monthly wages in summer.....................................................................a $17.20
Number o f farm hands employed in winter (270 fa rm s)............................
346
Average monthly wages in winter.......................................................................«$12.30
19
Members of farmers’ associations........................................................................
Not members o f farmers’ associations.................................................................
514
Not reporting as to membership o f farmers’ associations................................
16
Members of beneficiary associations...................................................................
Ill
Not members o f beneficiary associations............................................................
412
Not reporting as to membership o f beneficiary associations..........................
26
Carry life insurance...............................................................................................
163
Do not carry life insurance...................................................................................
364
Not reporting as to life insurance........................................................................
22

The number of answers returned varies in the different items, because
not all the schedules returned were complete. According to the returns
received there seems to be au improvement in the condition o f farmers.
O f 518 farmers reporting, 431 say that they have saved money during
the past five years. Among unmarried laborers there seems to be a
prevailing tendency to go to the cities rather than to remain and acquire
the ownership of farms, 240 out of 320 farmers reporting to that effect.
Domestic help is reported by 395 out of 457 farmers to be scarce. The
reasons assigned are that girls prefer other employment and they prefer
a In over 90 per cent o f cases this includes board and washing.




704

BULLETIN OF THE DEPARTMENT OF LABOR.

to work in cities. With regard to the cost of living, 64 farmers report
an increase, 104 a decrease, and 230 no change during the past year.
Other chapters of farmers’ returns relate to the production and prices
of grain and other farm produce and to farm animals.
M e c h a n i c s ’ a n d W o r k i n g m e n ’ s R e t u r n s .—Over 15,000 schedules
o f inquiry, covering the social and industrial condition of workingmen,
were sent out by the bureau. Only 1,488 returns were received that
could be used for tabulation, and these were not all complete. The
individual returns were tabulated by industries and the general results
summarized. The following table gives a summary of some of the
returns, arranged according to occupations:
STATISTICS OF M ECHANICS AN D W ORKINGMEN. B Y OCCUPATIONS, 1895.

Occupations.

Blacksmiths .. .
Boiler m akers..
Bookb nders . . .
Brewery worke r a .................
Cabinetmakers.
Carpenters.......
Cigar makers ..
C oopers............
Engineers.........
Factory- opera­
tives' ..............
Firemen............
Machiue hands.
M achine wood
w orkers.........
M achinists.......
Masons
and
bricklayers...
Ma t ess mak­
ers ..................
M illw rights___
Molders, brass
and iron.........
Painters.............
Paper m akers..
Plumbers and
steam titters Printers.............
Shoemakers___
T ailors..............
Tanners
and
curriers.........
Teamsters.........
Tinsm iths.........
T obacconists...
Unskilled labor.
Upholsterers..
W agon makers.
M iscellaneous..

A ver­ Average hours 1 Aver­
o f labor.
age
age
A ver­
A ver­ per­
age
age sons
[employ- daily
age. sup­ Sum­ Win- <ed dar­
wages.
port­ mer.
ter. S ing
ed.
: year.
85.9
38.4
35.3

4.5
3.5
3.6

10.0
10.0
10.0

8.9
9.1
10.0

10.4
11.1
11.1

$1.85
2.66
2.54

35.5
33.6
37.9
33.5
37.2
35.9

4.5
4.1
4.2
3.8
3.9
3.7

10.0
10.0
10.0
7.8
9.6
11.2

9.4
8.1
8.8
7.8
9.0
9.7

10.2
9.6
10.0
8.3
8.6
10.9

2.16
1.58
1.76
1.55
1.49
2.05

32.4
32.3
33.5

4.6
4.6
4.2

10.0
11.9
10.1

8.8
9.6
8.0

32.7
36.2

3.9
3.6

10.0
9.9

8.3
9.1

Per
Per
cent re-1 Per
Aver­ cent re­
age
porting cent
porting
part of, own- value
homes
of
wages | ing
with- ihomes. In m *s. j mort­
gaged.
held. 5

Per
cent
carry­
ing life
insur­
ance.

54.2
71.4
50.0

$1,879
2,250
4,833

65.4 |
(a) 1
65.7

45.8
71.4
40.0

35.2
43.6
58.9
21.6
22.5
42.8

2,420
1,458
1,611
2,212
2,488
2,133

83.3 ;
76.5
58.9
62.6
66.6
55.5

48.4
27.6
49.5
51.3
20.0
61.8

9.2
10.5
9.8

1.14 ; 60. 6 • 33.7
1.68
100.0 | 25.0
1.50 j 62. 5
44.2

1,420
1,566
1,539

9.7
10.8

1.39 !
2.39 !

67.1 | 30.7
64.8 | 45.9

51.4
85.7
: 18.7
; 74.0 !
; 46.6
!
***"7.*3*j
45.2

80.0
100.0
81.4

19.1
25.0
36.0

66.6
50.0

26.9
56.1

33.3
60.0

(a)
68.6

34.7

4.9

9.1

8.3

6.3

2.71

92.3 | 52.9

31.3
42.0

3.2
4.1

9.1
10.1

5.2
8.5

10.5
10.9

1. 35
2.26

33.3

16.6
83.3

1,396
2,311 !
!
2,055 !
1
2,750 |
1,945 !

32.0
36.0
31.9

5.0
4.0
3.6

10.0
10.0
11.0

9.0
9.0
11.0

9.0
10.0
10.6

2.16
1.74
2.08

55.3 ! 33.3
80.0
35.1
25.0
44.4

1, 294 j
1,369 !
1,233 ;

58.8
63.1
33.3

45.4
33.3
50.0

26.8
35.4
32.5
33.7

3.5
2.9
3.4
3.0

10.0
9.1
30.0
10.0

9.0
9.1
8.4
9.5

9.5
11.0
8.9
8.8

2.07 !
2.66
1.65
1.86 1

20.0

42.8
43.7
27.2 ' 30.5
12.5
62.5

1, 366
1, 878
2, 527
1, 715

33.3
14.2
27.7
60.0

42.8
35.2
39.5
27.2

35.4
35.1
28.5
29.7
36.9
86.0
41.2
32.7

4.3
4.8
2.4
4.5
4.8
4.6
4.7
4.1

10.0
10.0
10.0
8.0
10.7
10.0
10.0
10.0

8.9
9.5
10.0
8.0
8.1
8.2
8.2
9.0

10.4
11.2
10.6
10.2
8.9
11.5
9.2
10.7

1.62 ! 34.0
30.0
1.63
66.6
2.06
1.87 ........
56.1
1.21
2.06
25. 0*
1.88
33.5
2.87

1,514
950
800
1,500
920
6,000
1,371
2,530

83.3
50.0
100.0
100.0
68.6
100.0
28.5
59.4

41.0
30.7
83.3
50.0
16.0
100.0
41.6
63.5

39.1
36.4
20.0
25.0
39.4
16.6
58.3
50.7

33.3 !

47.0

a Not reported.

The number o f persons considered in each case is not shown in this
summary. As the schedules were not all complete, the number of per­
sons probably varies with the different items returned. The average
age of the workingmen for each occupation ranges from 26.8 to 42 years
and the average number of persons supported varies from 2.4 to 5 for




REPORTS OF STATE BUREAUS OF LABOR— WISCONSIN.

705

the different occupations. The average time employed during the day
was mostly from 9 to 10 hours in summer and from 8 to 9 hours in win­
ter. The most steady employment was in the case of upholsterers,
who worked 11.5 months during the year, and the least in the case of
masons and bricklayers, who worked but 6.3 months. Factory employees
were paid the lowest average daily wages, namely, $1.14, and masons
and bricklayers received the highest, $2.71. A large proportion of the
workingmen own their homes, most of which are mortgaged. The fol­
lowing table shows the principal items of 423 workingmen’s budgets,
arranged by occupations:
Y E A R L Y INCOME A N D EXPEN DITU RE PER F A M IL Y OF MECHANICS A N D W O R K ­
INGMEN, BY OCCUPATIONS, 3895.

Fami­
lies
report­
ing.

Occupations.
i
B lacksm iths.......................
Boiler makers.....................
Brewery w orkers..............
Cabinetmakers..................
Carpenters..........................
Cigar makers......................
Coopers...............................
Engineers, stationary.......
Factory operatives............
Firemen, stationary..........
Machine hands...................
Machine wood workers---M achinists....... ..................
Masons and bricklayers...
Mattress m akers................
M illwrights........................
Mulders...............................
Painters .............................
Paper makers.....................
Plumbers and steam fitters.
Printers...............................
Shoemakers........................
T ailors................................
Tanners and curriers.........
Teamsters............................
Tinsmiths...........................
Tobacconists......................
Unskilled laborers............
Upholsterers......................
Wagon makers...................

17
4
16
12
36
14
15
16
29
6
14
25
33
3
2
2
28
25
5
2
6
21
3
24
6
4
2
44
4
5

A ll occupations.......

423

A ver­
age
per­
sons
to a
family.

A ver­
age
yearly
lc come
per
family.

Average yearly expenditure per family.
Sub­
sist­
ence.

Cloth­
ing.

Fuel.

Rent.

4.5 $476. 82 $223.41 $72.82 $29.40 $85.81
59.25
29.50 102.00
3.5 577.75 269.00
79. 91
36.25 100.86
4.4 629. 56 266.12
3.6 505.57 216.16
70.67
32.75
77.75
4.3 435. 00 182. 75
59.61
28.06
75.39
4.0 451.06 238.14
64.92
30.50
88. 74
62. 33
28.86
4.7 418.88 235.40
81.00
96.69 , 37.56 106. 37
3.7 755.05 285.00
3.7 290.03 155. 22
37.25
21.67
50. 99
40.50
5.2 463.49 202.00
67.50
73. 00
3.4 456. 79 182.79
25.05
80. 28
68.57
59.33
4.3 390.07 190.80
23.74
72.56
4.2 739.85 287.19
89.03
39.84 1 123.33
86.00
37.66 1 76.00
5.7 548. 34 313.34
45.00
22.00 ! 48.00
3.0 336.00 200. 00
6.0 685.00 240. 00 107.50
37. 50 ; 102.00
4.8 ! 570.09 253. 44
78.13
30. 59 1 84.78
70.22
4.0 ' 4,30.01 208. 44
28.03 ■ 71.52
72.00
4.0 765. 00 348.00
54. 00 ' 108.00
3.5 505.09 247.00 117.50
27. 50 120. 00
3.6 721.66 275. 00 | 86.66
40. 00 1 108.00
47.62
3.2 449.18 210. 95
30.67 | 83.33
45.66 j 84.00
3.0 (516. 00 166.66
48.00
80. 75
35.55 ! 80.70
4.2 501.00 234.22
65. 50
|
23.87 ! 90.33
4.8 627.00 251. 66
82.25
29. 50 i 93. 00
3.5 607. 75 236.50
45. 00
30.00 117.00
3.5 565. 00 241. 00
48.11
27.02 i 64.03
4.9 352.32 176.59
4.5 703.50 275. 50 101. 20
32.00 ! 110.00
45.00
4.4 505. 20 199.00
68.00
98.40
4.2

535. 66

233. 93

Sun­
dries.

Total.

$81.31
81.50
131.50
111. 67
82.31
82.28
87.06
132.81
41.94
74.83
50.41
48.24
129.01
69. 00
21.00
73. 00
70. 66
50.94
69. 00
72.00
142.16
67. 76
52. 34
65.50
136.80
113.00
132.00
46.66
155.80
86.80

$492.75
541.25
614.64
509.00
428.12
504. 58
494.65
658.43
307.07
457.83
407. 10
394.67
668.40
582.00
336.00
560. 00
517.60
420. 20
651.00
584.00
651.82
440. 33
396. 66
496. 72
568.16
554.25
565.00
362.41
674.50
497.20

85.00

511.44

i

71.27

32.67 i 88.57

The average income during the year for a family of 4.2 persons was
$535.66. The average cost of supporting such a family in one year is
shown to be: For subsistence, $233.935 for clothing, $71.27; for fuel,
$32.67; for rent, $88.57; for sundries, $85, or a total of $511.44. The
per cent of each item of the total expenditure was as follows: Sub­
sistence, 46.17; clothing, 13.88; fuel, 6.48; rent, 17.37; sundries, 16.10.
W a g e s a n d T i m e i n O p e r a t i o n . —In this chapter are shown the
average wages of workingmen for the years 1888 to 1895, inclusive,
arranged by years and occupations, and the wage scales for 61 indus­
tries in 1894 and 1895.




TOG

BULLETIN OF THE DEPARTMENT OF LABOR.

The following table shows, for 62 industries, the number of establish­
ments reported each year in the State from 1888 to 1895, the num­
ber o f men employed in the establishments, the wages paid, and the
number of weeks of employment during the year:
ESTABLISHM ENTS EE POUTING, EMPLOYEES, W AG ES PA ID , AND A Y E E A G E W EEKS
OF EM PLOYMENT, 1888 TO 1895.
Men employed.
Year.

1888 ....................................
1889 ....................................
1890....................................
1891....................................
1892....................................
1893....................................
1894....................................
1895 ....................................

Estab­
lishments
reporting.

1,135
1,272
1,364
1,336
1,331
1,610
1,460
1,368

Total.

71,218
80,504
80,880
94,089
90,936
96,540
83,642
85,767

Average
per estab­
lishment.
62.7
63.3
59.3
70.4
68.3
60.0
57.3
62.7

Wages paid.
Total.

$28,416,694
32,575,944
33,125,213
38,023,247
38.295,878
37,327,810
3t, 409,244
32,993,707

Average
weeks o f
Average Average employ­
per year. per day. ment.
$399. Cl
404.65
409.56
404.12
421.13
386.66
375.52
384.69

$1.44
1.45
1.43
1.44
1.46
1.42
1.38
1.37

46.4
46.8
48.0
46.9
48.0
45.0
45.4
46.5

B u i l d i n g a n d L o a n A s s o c i a t i o n s .— Tables are presented showing
the number o f shareholders, shares in force, borrowers, amounts bor­
rowed, assets, profits and losses, and other items concerning building
and loan associations. Following is a summary of some o f the more
important data presented for the fiscal year 1895:
Number of associations reported:
S erial..........................................................................................................
Permanent.................................................................................................
Terminating...............................................................................................

26
18
5

T otal........................................................................................................
49
Number o f shareholders.................................................................................
10,173
84,165
Number of shares in force at end o f year.....................................................
Amount loaned to members during the year................................................
$815,567
Withdrawals and matured shares paid during the year.............................
$634, 312
Total loans to shareholders in force at end o f year..................................... $3,174,977
Total assets at end o f year.............................................................................. $3,495, 676
M a n u f a c t u r e r s ’ B e t u r n s .— Reports were received from 1,368
establishments, representing 47 industries. Most of the results of this
investigation are published in percentages only in order to avoid the
identification of the establishments. The tables presented in the report
show for each industry, and for all industries collectively, the propor­
tion which each item bears to the whole with respect to the cost of pro­
duction, selling price, capital and product, capital invested, partners or
stockholders and wage earners, and gross profits, respectively. They
also show absolute figures giving the average investment and net earn­
ings o f each partner or stockholder, and the average product and aver­
age earnings o f each worker.




REPORTS OF STATE BUREAUS OF LABOR— WISCONSIN.

707

Tlie following table shows the proportionate cost of materials and
supplies, labor, and other factors of the total cost of production for each
industry and for all industries combined:
PERCENTAGE OF COST OF M A TE R IA L S AND SUPPLIES, LABOR, A N D OTHER
FACTORS OF TO TAL COST OF PRODUCTION, 1JY INDUSTRIES.
Percentage o f total cost.
Industries.

Percentage of total cost.

Other!
Materials
Labor. Lie- j
and
tors. ;
supplies.

Agricultural
imple­
ments and machineryBeer and malt................
Boiler w o rk s.................
Boots and shoes............
Boxes, packing..............
Boxes, paper and cigar.
Brass g o o d s...................
Brick and drain tile----Chairs and chair stock.
Cigars.............................
Cloaks and clothing---Confectioneries
and
steam bakeries...........
Cooperage.......................
Cotton and linen m ills..
Electrical and gas-fit­
ting supplies..............
E xceldor........................
Flour and fe e d ..............
Furniture......................
Furs, gloves, and m it­
tens .............................
Hardware specialties...
Iron works, malleable..
K nit g o o d s.....................
Lumber, laths, and
shingles.......................
Machine shops and
foundries.




G . 13
O
50. 90
54. 78
05.64
G3.25
6G 91
.
52.64
37. 85
52. 23
58.46
G6.40

26. C
O
13.44
33. 79
22.73
24.30
23.05
33.64
44.33
37.17
30.33
22.36

13.82
26.66
11.43
11.63
12.45
10.04
13.72
17.82
10.60
11.21
11.24

G8.49
63.57
59.27

15.55
30.54
30. 39

15.96
5.89
10. 34

64. 33
57.83
92.78
59.14

22. 28 13.39
26.26 15.91
3.13
4.09
29.91 10.95

71.55
59.44
48. 62
65.78

20.57
31.01
39. 29
22.83

60.57

24.41

15. 02

55.86

33.62

10.52

7.88
9.55
12. 09
11.39

1

Industries.

! Mattresses and bedding
Paints, oils, and grease.
Paper and p u lp ............
Refrigerators................
Saddlery, harness, e tc ..
Sash, doors, and blinds.
Sewer pipe and cement
Shipbuilding................
Soap, lye, and potash...
Staves’ and headings...
Stone, marble, granite,
etc...............................
Stoves, ranges, and
furnaces .....................
Tanners and curriers ..
Tinware and sheet-ii on
goods..........................
1 T o b a cco........................
i Trunks, valises, ote . . .
! V e n e e r..........................
| Vinegar ........................
1 Wagons, carriages, and
1 sleighs........................
W illow ware and toy s..
Wooden ware...............
W o o d w o rk ...................
W oolen and worsted
mills...........................
A ll industries..............

I
i Other
Materials |
and
Labor.' fac­
supplies.
tors.
j.
20.73
8.25
22.22
38. 30
23.66
24. 34
22.70
46.49
24.73
30.96

42.71
59.54
78.28

38.47 J 18.82
1
30.34 i 10.12
14.51 ! 7. 23

56.41
78.21
60.43
50.99
65.13

33.83 j 9.76
14.78
7.01
27.77 1 11.80
34.90 , 14.11
21.85
13. 02

59.69
59. 04
64. 55
49.57

'
!
1
!
'
j
'
|

8.63
9. 57
16.57
18.52
14.16
9.89
23.65
9. 46
9.98
12.49

70.64
82.18
61.21
43.18
62.18
65. 77
53. 65
44.05
65. 29
56.55

28.02 ■ 12.29
31.75
9.21
27. 08
8.37
40.50
9.93
|
14 35
62.97 22. €8
61.80 26.01 ; 12.19
;
!
!
!

RECENT FOREIGN STATISTICAL PUBLICATIONS.

BELGIUM.
Bulletin de la Commission Centrale de Statistique. Volume X V I I .
Annees 1890 a 1896. Ministere de l’lut^rieur et de Wnstruction
Bublique, Administration de la Statistique Gen6rale. 1897. xxxiii,
1186 pp.
A considerable part of this work is taken uj) with the membership
of the central and provincial statistical commissions and the proceed­
ings of the central commission. In the line of statistical studies are
two articles concerning population, with special reference to movements
of the population and to medical and mortality statistics. These need
not here be discussed. An article of more particular interest for
present purposes is u Workingmen’s wages and budgets in 1853 and
1891,” by Edm. Nicolai, to which 19 pages are given in this work. A
brief summary of this article follows.
Several years ago an inquiry on workingmen’s wages and cost of
living was made under the auspices of the ministry of agriculture,
industry, and public works. The work of obtaining the desired
information was assigned to the councils of industry and labor. Be­
sides facts regarding average daily wages, information was also called
for concerning the composition of the workingman’s family, age of
each member, number of children, etc.; the general resources of each
family; expenditures for food and quantity consumed; other material
expenditures, especially such as relate to habitation, clothing, fuel,
etc.; retail prices o f food commodities; expenditures for religious,
moral, and intellectual purposes, and expenditures for luxuries. In
order to facilitate the work the inquiry was made to cover but one
month, April, 1891. The results in detail were published in 1892. The
object o f the present study was to recapitulate the detailed informa­
tion and to summarize the official data.
The inquiry covered 188 workingmen’s families, including 800 chil­
dren. The average number of children per family is thus 4.25, making
with the father and mother an average family of 6.25 persons. The
census o f 1890 shows that for the population in general there were 456
persons per 100 families.
The families covered by this investigation were represented, with
regard to the number of children, as follows: One child, 1 family; 2
children, 6 families; 3 children, 19 families; 4 children, 118 families;
5 children, 22 families; 6 children, 13 families; 7 children, 4 families; 8
children, 4 families; 10 children, 1 family.
708




FOREIGN STATISTICAL PUBLICATIONS-----BELGIUM.

709

The fathers o f families considered had an average age of 42 years.
The average age of mothers was 40 years. The averages of all married
males and females, according to the population census of 1890, were 44
and 42 years, respectively. The average age of children earning wages
was 16 years for both boys and girls. The average age of other chil
dren was 8 years and 4 months.
Of the wage-earning children 187 were males and 45 females. There
were thus 568 children, or 71 per cent of the entire number, not at work.
With regard to the mothers, there were only 16, or 8.5 per cent, who,
independently of their duties as housewives, had occupations as wageearners.
The resources of the families, which represent the fruits of labor
during the month of April, 1891, amounted to 26,965 francs ($5,204.25)
for 178 families. The contributions of the fathers, mothers, and children
to this wage product were as follows: Fathers’ earnings, 18,795 francs
($3,627.44), or 69.70 per cent; mothers’ earnings, 327 francs ($63.11), or
1.21 per cent; male children’s earnings, 6,919 francs ($1,335.37), or 25.66
per cent; female children’s earnings, 924 francs ($178.33), or 3.43 per
cent.
The earnings for the month per family were, on an average, 151.49
francs ($29.24), to which may be added 2.L2 francs ($0.*41) received by
the head of the family for extra work and in the form of subsidies from
employers.
With regard to the daily wages, the statistics examined furnish the
following: Average daily wages of fathers, 4.10 francs ($0.79); mothers,
1.15 francs ($0.22); boys, 1.45 francs ($0.28); girls, 0.82 francs ($0.16).
The industrial census taken in 1880 furnishes the following informa­
tion regarding average wages in the principal industries: Working
people over 16 years of age, 3.13 francs ($0.60); from 14 to 16 years of
age, 1.80 francs ($0.35); under 14 years of age, 1.21 francs ($0.23).
This rate of pay for a day’s labor of an adult agrees fairly well with
the data secured by the inquiry of 1891. The average of 3.13 francs
($0.60) corresponds exactly with the wages in 1891 of men from 19 to
21 years of age. A comparison of other figures seemed to indicate a
reduction since 1880 in the rates per day of working people under 16
years of age.
If in the comparison we go back to the year 1846 an entirely different
result is found. The average daily wages of that period were as fol­
lows: Men, 1.49 francs ($0.29); women, 0.71 francs ($0.14); boys, 0.54
francs ($ 0.10 ); girls, 0.39 francs ($0.08).
It is thus shown, by comparing these figures with those for 1880 and
1891, that wages have more than doubled in 40 years.
With regard to the hours of labor, the inquiry of 1891 showed an
average daily duration of 10 hours and 24 minutes. This is a diminu­
tion since the census of 1880. According to that enumeration the
duration was 10 hours and 53 minutes, or 29 minutes more.
*7234—No. 18----- 4



710

BULLETIN OF THE DEPARTMENT OF LABOR.

The family expenditures have been divided into two principal classes:
1. Expenditures of a material nature.
2 . Expenditures for religious, moral, and intellectual purposes, and
for luxuries.
The first class comprises two categories: First, expenditures for
food; second, expenditures for habitation, furniture, clothing, etc.
O f the total monthly expenditures, amounting to 30,379 francs
($5,803), the expenditures of a material nature were 28,139 francs
($5,431), or 93 per cent. The expenditures of the second class amounted
to 2,240 francs ($432), of which 1,600 francs ($309) were for luxuries
and 640 francs ($123) for religious, moral, and intellectual purposes.
The last category, therefore, represents 2 per cent and the preceding
category 5 per cent o f the total expenditures.
Eegarding expenditures of a material nature, we may say that the
93 per cent o f the total expenditures for this purpose consist of 62 per
cent expended for food and 31 per cent for habitation, clothing, etc.
In absolute figures, 18,641 francs ($3,598) were expended for food and
9,498 francs ($1,833) for habitation, furniture, clothing, etc. It will be
seen, therefore, that the bulk of the expenditures was for the necessa­
ries of life.
The following table shows for each article of food considered in the
inquiry the quantity consumed in one month by the family, which
consists of an average of 6.25 persons, the expenses incurred by the
purchase o f these articles, and the average cost per unit of each:
Q U A N T IT Y AN D COST OF FOOD CONSUMED IN ONE M ONTH B Y A
A V E R A G IN G 6.25 PERSONS.
Articles o f food.

Wheat bread ............................
M ixed (wheat and rye) bread
Rye bread.................................
Potatoes....................................
V egetables...............................
B eef........................................-P o r k ..........................................
Bacon ........................................
Lard and grease.......................
E g g s .........................................
M ilk ..........................................
C heese......................................
Butter........................................
C offee........................................
C h icory ....................................
Sugar ........................................
Beer...........................................
Distilled liquors.......................
Groceries, e t c ..........................
a Not reported.

Quantity.

169.76 pounds.
33.80 pounds.
3.44 pounds.
189.24 pounds.
(a)
619.20 pounds.
(o)
3.92 pounds.
2.89 pounds.
2.67 dozen ..
18.30 quarts..
1.48 pounds.
11.90 pounds.
4.23 pounds.
4.01 pounds.
1.87 pounds.
19.40 quarts..
.07 qu art...
(a)
6 Including pork.

F A M IL Y

Cost.
$4.856
.892
.042
2.268
.459
63.034
(c)
.583
.326
.465
.704
.216
2.992
1.116
.183
.208
.728
.017
.064

Average
cost per
unit.
$0.029
.026
.012
.012
(a)
6.158
<c)
.149
.113
.174
.038
.146
.251
.264
.046
.111
.038
.243
(a)

c Included in beef.

It will be o f some interest to bring together certain elements con­
tained in the preceding table to ascertain the annual consumption of
food by an adult workingman. By estimating the food consumption
o f children o f tender age on the basis of two children for one adult, the
comparison following of 1891 with 1853 can be made.



711

FOREIGN STATISTICAL PUBLICATIONS-----BELGIUM.

A N N U A L CONSUMPTION OF FOOD B Y A N A D U L T W ORKIN GM AN , 1853 A N D 1891.

Articles o f food.

Pounds of food con­
sumed by an adult
workingman in—
1853.

1891.

465.17
. ___ . _____ __________________________
- ..
687.84
_
1 21.16
19.84
Butter, lard, e t c ....................................... ..................... ................ ...............................
11.02
Coffee..................................................................................................................................
P i^ tn tn p si

M p n t . n n d l> n p n n

582.90
533.52
65.26
41.78
11.95

This comparison seems to indicate that the nourishment of the work­
ingman of 1891 is more substantial and more abundant than that of the
wage-worker of 1853. The consumption of but one article, the potato,
has diminished. The consumption of butter, lard, etc., has doubled,
the use of meat and bacon has more than tripled, and coffee has been
used in about the same proportion. As regards bread, it is shown that
117.73 additional pounds actually entered into the annual food of a
workingman. Besides this, a great change is noticed in the quality of
the bread. Formerly rye bread constituted 47 per cent of the total
weight of bread consumed, wheat bread 31 per cent, and mixed rye and
wheat bread 22 per cent. A t the present time the use of rye bread has
almost been discontinued, and wheat bread has replaced it on the
workingman’s table. This is illustrated in the following statement of
the proportionate parts of the various breads which enter into the
popular food:
KINDS OF BREAD CONSUMED B Y A W ORKIN GM AN A N D PROPORTION OF EACH,
1853 AN D 1891.
Kinds of bread.

IVlivod

and Typ)_______________ - __________________________ _____________

1853
1891
(percent). (percent).
31
22
47

82
16
2

I f the general table of expenditures for food be analyzed six classes
m aybe formed, namely: Bread; potatoes and other vegetables; beef,
pork, bacon, lard, etc.; eggs, milk, cheese, and butter; coffee, chicory,
sugar, and groceries, and beer and distilled liquors. On the basis of
this classification the following distribution of the monthly expendi­
tures of 187 workingmen’s families is obtained:
M ON TH LY EXPEN DITU RES FOR FOOD OF 187 W ORKINGM EN’S F A M ILIE S.
Classes o f food.

Potatoes and other vegetables............ ................................................ ......................
Beef pork, bacon, lard, etc............................................... .................................... .
E<rgs rnillc, eheese, and b u tte r___________ ________ ________ _ _________________ . . . .
Coffee, chicory, sugar, and groceries........................................... .......................... .
liftftr and distilled liquors....................................................... .................................................... . .

T ota l......................................................................................................................




Expendi­ Per cent
ture.
o f total.
$1,084.47
509.52
738.23
822.76
289.31
138.77

30
14
21
23
8
4

3,583.06

100

712

BULLETIN OF THE DEPARTMENT OF LABOR.

Bread is the most important item of expenditure, constituting almost
one-third of the food budget. Next follow eggs and dairy products,
which amount to nearly one-fourth of the total expenditure.
As regards the prices of articles of food, the following table makes
possible a comparison between 1854 and 1891:
PRICES OF ARTIC LE S OF FOOD, 1854 A N D 1891.

Articles of food.

Price per
pound.
1891.

1854.
"VVTipnt hrfifld....................................... ...................... ................................................ . . ___ $0,038
Ry ft hrftad........ ........ .......................................................... .................................................
.025
Pof.atnftH__________ ______________ _____________ _______ ________________. . . . _______
.011
.088
M ilk........................................................................................................................................... (t. 022
.153
.175
a. 024

$0.029
.012
.012
.158
a . 038
.251
.264
a. 038

a Per quart.

The above figures show that, with the exception of wheat and rye
bread, all the food products cited have advanced in price. This advance
was considerable except in the case of potatoes, of which the change
in price was very slight.
The following table summarizes the average monthly expenditures
for habitation, clothing, and other articles of a material nature, and
shows the relative imjiortance of each item:
E X PE N D ITU R ES FOR H A B IT A TIO N , FU RNITU RE, CLOTHING, ETC., IN ONE MONTH
BY A F A M IL Y A V E R A G IN G 6.25 PERSONS.

Objects o f expenditure.

Repairs etc., to dw elling..............................................................................................
Fumit.firft______________ __________________ __________________________________
Garden culture............................ ................................. .................................................
L igh t...................................................................................................................................
Clothing for fath er........................ ......................... ............................... .....................
Ciothin^ for m other........................................................................................
Clothing for children....... .................................... .........................................................
Bedding and bed linen s..................................................................................................
W ashing (laundering) ...................................................................................................
Expenses for hygienic p u rposes..................................................................................
Expenses for sickness.....................................................................................................
Expenses incidental to the trade..................................................................................
T o ta l........................................................................................................................

Amount
per
month.

Per cent
o f total.

$2.625
.214
.210
.077
.046
1.353
.266
1.017
.600 [
1.806
.477
.565
.131
.239
.135
9.761

26.9
2.2
2.1
.8
.5
13.9
2.7
a 35.1
4.9
5.8
1.3
2.4
1.4
100.0

a Percentage for entire family.

There are three important items in this presentation, namely, pent,
fuel, and clothing. Their relative importance is shown by the per­
centages, 26.9,13.9, and 35.1, respectively, which enter into the second
category of expenditures. The expenditures for these purposes thus
absorb three-fourths of the amount carried in the table.




FOREIGN STATISTICAL PUBLICATIONS— BELGIUM.

713

The small importance of expenditures for religions, moral, and intel­
lectual purposes has already been shown. They represent only 2 per
cent of the total budget. The same condition was shown in 1853. The
proportions are identical. In the following statement are shown the
details of expenditures of this category for one month:
Religion.................................................................................................................... $0. 048
School expenses for children......................................................................................... 112
Books, papers, engravings, etc..................................................................................... 095
Subscriptions for religious, moral, or intellectual purposes......................................021
Mutual aid societies....................................................................................................... 145
Provident associations................................................................................................... 079
Pension fu n d s..................................................................................................................027
Savings associations.......................................................................................................069
Savings banks...............................................................
054
Total......................................................................................................................650

Following are the statistics regarding the monthly expenditures for
luxuries:
Beer and liquors consumed at caf&s...................................................................... $1.243
T ob a cco............................................................................................................................ 268
Losses at play (ninepins, ball, e tc.)..... ........................................................................ 050
Personal ornaments.....................
064
Local and public festivals..............................................................................................064
Pawn-shop loans and c^posits...............................................
010
T ota l...............................................................................................................

1. 699

There was a slight increase in these expenditures when compared
with those for 1853. The percentage of this category of the total
budget has increased from 4 per cent, forty years ago, to 5 per cent.
The expenses incurred in the cafes and grogshops constitute the main
part, both of the increase noted and of the actual total of this cate­
gory of expenses. I f to the grogshop expenditures we add those for
tobacco, we have the only two items of this category which merit any
attention.
In 1853 the frequenting of cafes and grogshops and the consumption
of fermented and distilled drinks absorbed 2.48 per cent of the work­
ingmen’s budget. According to recent statistics this proportion was
increased to 4 per cent. The actual monthly expenditures for purposes
of this kind, which in 1891 amounted to 6.44 francs ($1.24), were only
4.20 francs ($0.81) in 1853, or 2.24 francs ($0.43) less.
GREAT BRITAIN.
Report on the Strikes and Lockouts o f 1896 in Great Britain and Ireland.
1897. lxxi, 209 pp. (Published by the Labor Department of the
British Board of Trade.)
This is the ninth annual report on strikes and lockouts in the United
Kingdom, prepared by the chief labor correspondent of the Labor
Department of the Board of Trade. The greater part of the volume




714

BULLETIN OF THE DEPARTMENT OF LABOR.

is devoted to tables showing for each dispute the occupations and the
number o f working people and establishments affected, the cause or
object o f the dispute, and the duration and result. These tables are
preceded by an analysis of the statistics of strikes and lockouts, sum­
mary tables, and a comparison of strikes and lockouts in recent years.
Space is also given to reports on the settlement of disputes by concili­
ation and arbitration, and returns received from trade unions on the
state of the labor market.
S t r i k e s a n d L o o k o u t s .—The report shows a marked falling off
in the extent and importance of trade disputes in 189G, as compared
with the four preceding years. This is shown in the following table:
ST A TISTIC S OF STRIKES AK D LOCKOUTS, 1892 TO 1896.
[Persons affected means persons thrown oat of work.]
S

j

Tear.

1892...........................................................
1893..........................................................
1894..........................................................
1895................................................ .........
1896........................................... ...............

Res ult (per ce>nt).

A ggregati
Compro­
Strikes Persons working
In favor In favor mised,
and
affected.
days
of em­
o f em­
lockouts.
indefi­
lest, (a)
ployees. ployers. nite, or
unsettled.
700
783
1,061
876
1,021

356,799
636, 386
324,245
263,758
198,687

17,381,936
31,205,062
9,322,096
5, 542,652
3,748,525

.
•

27.5
62.9
22.1
24.1
39.5

19.9
12.1
42.1
27.9
33.4

52.6
25.0
35.8
48.0
27.1

a The aggregate days shown for 1896 is strictly the number o f days lost through disputes in that
year up to December 31, including the days lost in 1896 by disputes commencing in 1895, but exclud­
ing days lost in 1897 by disputes commencing in 1896. In each o f the previous years the figures
shown are the number o f days lost b y disputes commencing in those years, and including the days
lost by disputes extending beyond the year o f commencement. The comparison is not materially
affected by the change in method.

While the number of disputes was greater in 189G than in any of the
four preceding years except 1894, the number of persons affected and
the aggregate working days lost were much smaller than during any
other year of the period. The maximum number of persons affected in
any one year was 636,386 in 1893, the year of a general strike of coal
mine employees. Since 1893 this number has declined year by year, the
figures being 324,245 in 1894, 263,758 in 1895, and 198,687 in 1896. If
the number of working days lost be taken as the measure of impor­
tance of disputes, a similar result is shown. The maximum loss was
in 1893, when it was estimated at 31,205,062 days. In 1894 the loss
was 9,322,096, in 1895, 5,542,652, and in 1896, 3,748,525 days.
The proportion o f working people involved in disputes which were
settled in their favor was greater in 1896 than in any of the previous
years except 1893, when this percentage was largely affected by the
result o f the great coal strike.
The table following shows the number of working people affected by
strikes and lockouts, classified according to trades, from 1892 to 1896.




FOREIGN STATISTICAL PUBLICATIONS-----GREAT BRITAIN.

715

PERSONS AFFECTED 15Y STRIKES A N D LOCKOUTS, BY INDUSTRIES, 1892 TO 1896.
[Persons affected means persons thrown out of work.]
Persons affected by strikes and lockouts.
Industries.

1 189G.

1892.

1895.

15, 348
506,182
30,415
46,041
9, 948
15,557
12,640
255

13,814
216,580
27, 974
40, 027
5, 576
11,546
8,167
561

9, 216
83, 879
46,439
64, 297
50, 071
4, 263
5,552
41

33,470
67,203
48,210
33, 717
4,016
3,320
8,211
540

356,799 1 636,386
1________
_

T otal........................................

1894.

15,979
320, 386
40,121
103, 255
35, 536
12,542
28,002
978

B u ild in g.............................................
Mining and qu arryin g.....................
Metal, engineering, and shipbuilding
..............................
T extile.................*
C loth ing.............................................
Transportation...................................
Miscellaneous....................................
Employees of public authorities . . .

1893.

324,245

263,758

198,687

Iii each year disputes in the mining and quarrying industries have
affected the largest number of persons. Next in magnitude were dis­
putes in the textile, and in the metal, engineering, and shipbuilding
trades. Disputes in the building trades were more important in 1896
than in any o f the four preceding years.
The following table shows for each group of trades the number of
strikes and lockouts, the number of persons affected classified accord­
ing to results, and the aggregate number of days lost:
PERSONS AFFECTED B Y STRIKES AN D LOCKOUTS, B Y INDUSTRIES A N D RESULTS,
A N D W ORKING D A Y S LOST, 1896.
[Persons affected means persons thrown out of work.]

Strikes

Industries.

Total per•
!
sons
u w n t . |1“ favor j In fe m . ' Compro­ Indefinite affected. working
lockouts. ' ofem . ! o favor
or un­
days lost.
mised.
ployees. ! ployers.
settled.

Building...................................
Mining and quarrying...........[
Metal, engineering, and ship- |
b u ild in g ................................I
T e x tile ..................................... i
C lothing...................................
Transportation........................
Miscellaneous..........................
Employees o f public authori- ;
t ie s .........................................1
Total

: Persons affected by strikes and lockouts, the results o f which wore—

205 !
172 !
i
281!
163
54 ;
26 :
114 .
6 !
!
1,021

19,621
16,993

10,566
22,488

3,283
27,722

21,306
11,287
2,232
638
3,101

13,637
14, 704
543
513
3,816

10,037
7,673
1,241
2,169
1, 294

308

53

179

78,486

66. 320

53,598

33,470
67,203
48,210
33,717
4,016
3,320
8,211

863,205
520,371
98,894
23, 046
169, 069

540

230
53

1,061,207
1,011,126

1,607

283 i 198,687 j 3,748.525

In 1896, of the total number of working people affected by strikes
and lockouts 67,203, or 33.8 per cent, were employed in mining and
quarrying; 48,210, or 24.3 per cent, in the metal, engineering, and ship­
building trades; 33,717, or 17.0 per cent, in the textile trades; and
33,470, or 16.8 per cent, in the building trades, leaving but 8.1 per cent
affected by disputes in the remaining industries. O f the 1,021 strikes,
800 affected only single establishments.
The causes or objects of strikes and lockouts, the number of persons
affected classified according to results, and the aggregate number of
days lost are shown in the table following.




716

BULLETIN OF THE DEPARTMENT OF LABOR.

PERSONS A FFECTED B Y STRIK ES A N D LOCKOUTS, B Y CAUSES A N D RESULTS, AND
W O R K IN G D A Y S LOST, 1896.
[Persons alFected means persons thrown out o f work.]
Persons affected by strikes and lock­
outs, the results o f which were—
Strikes
iTotal per- Aggre­
gate
and
sons
In favor In favor Compro­ Indefinite ! affected. working
lockouts. o f em­
o f em­
or un­
days lost.
ployees. ployers. mised.
settled.

Cause or object.

W a g es......................................
Hours of labor........................
W orking arrangements.........
Employment o f other classes
o f working p eop le..............
Questions o f unionism...........
Against employment o f par­
ticular persons (a)................
F or reinstatement o f dis­
charged employees (a).........
Objection to action o f officials.
Sympathetic disputes............
Miscellaneous..........................

570
26
164

45,499
1,541
12, 905

43,312
1,662
7, 353

26,932
455
12,863

74

53
103

2,295
8,762

2,713
1,840

2,326
1,429

144

11

221

126

3,347

43
20
24
7

3,112
1,499
1,496
1,156

2,828
2,082
4, 343
61

3,164
103
2, 705
274

53

Total...............................

1,021

78,486

66,320

53,598

115,817
3,658
33,121
1
1
i
1

2, 688,957
51,200
385, 552

7,478
12,031

70, 545
327,183

3,694

14,950

12

9,104
3,737
8, 544
1,503

61,806
22, 691
101,684
23,957

283

198,687

3,748, 525

!

a Apart from unionism.

• In 1896, 115,817, or 58.3 per cent, of the total number of persons
affected by strikes and lockouts were engaged in wage disputes.
Next in magnitude were disputes as to working arrangements, which
accounted for 33,121, or 16.7 per cent, of all persons involved in strikes
and lockouts. Questions of trade-unionism ranked third in impor­
tance, involving 12,031, or 6.1 per cent, of the total number.
As regards the results of strikes and lockouts, 78,486, or 39.5 per
cent, of the working people obtained their demands) disputes affecting
53,598, or 27.0 per cent, were compromised, and disputes affecting
66,320, or 33.4 per cent, resulted in favor of the employers.
In the following table the strikes and lockouts which began in 1896
are arranged in groups according to the number of persons involved:
PERSONS A F FE C T E D B Y STRIKES A N D LOCKOUTS A N D W ORKIN G D A Y S LOST, B Y
GROUPS, 1896.
[Persons affected means persons thrown out of work.]
Groups.

Persons affected.
Strikes
and
lockouts. Number. Per cent.

5,000 persons and upw ard......................................
2,500 and under 5,000..............................................
1,000 and under 2,500..............................................
500 and under 1,000..................................................
250 and under 500.....................................................
100 and under 250.....................................................
50 and under 100.......................................................
Under 50...................................................................

3
5
30
53
120
191
152
467

19,141
15,740
38, 373
35,828
40.814
29,438
10, 461
8,892

Total................................................................

1,021

198,687

9.63
7.92
19.31
18.03
20.54
14. 82
5.27
4.48

W orking days lost.
Number.

Per cent.

452,063
537,945
719,456
546,829
574,184
510,323
216,707
168, 755

12.13
14.44
19.31
14.67
15.41
13.69
5.82
4.53

100.00 a 3, 726,262

100.00

a These figures differ slightly from those given in preceding tables as the aggregate days lost during
1896, since tney exclude the days lost in 1896 through disputes in progress at the beginning of the
year and include those lost in 1897 through disputes which began in 1896.

It appears from the above that a comparatively small number of dis­
putes accounted for a very large proportion of the persons involved



FOREIGN STATISTICAL PUBLICATIONS— GREAT BRITAIN.

717

and of the total days lost. Thus 91 out of a total of 1,021 strikes and
lockouts were participated in by about 55 per cent of the aggregate
number o f persons involved. The average duration of strikes and
lockouts, in working days, was 18.8, as compared with 21.6 in 1895.
The methods of settlement in 1896 were as follows:
PERSONS AFFECTED B Y STRIKES AND LOCKOUTS, B Y METHODS OF SETTLEMENT
A N D INDUSTRIES, 1896.
[Persons affected means persons thrown out of work.]
Industries.
|
Metal,
!
engi­
Mining neering,
Methods o f settle­
Trans- i Miscel­
Cloth­ porta- 1
Build­
and
ment.
and Textile. ing.
ing. quarry­ ship- 1
tion. !laneous.
,
ing.
build­
ing.
j
I

463
Arbitration............
5,018
Conciliation and
mediation_______ 4,867
800
Direct negotiation
or arrangement
between the par­
ties ....................... 17,445 38,597
I
Submission
of
working people.. 9,485 , 20,011
1
Replacement
of
working people.. 1,191 i 1,375
Closing of works
1,402
19
or establishments
T o ta l............

33,470

|
4,706 ;

Em­
Total
ployees persons Per
of pub­ affected. cent.
lic au­
thori­
ties.

51

12

30

10,280

5.2

1,597

1,668

190

800

19

9,941

5.0

34,521

19,812

3,271

2,207

4,596

487

120,936

60.9

4, 368

9, 795

116

200

2,755

50

46,780

23.6

1, 239

2, 338

382

113

809

3

7, 450

3.7

45

1,693

67,203 «48,124 633. 664

4,016

2
3, 320

3,161

1.6

8,211

540 cl98,548

100.0

a Three disputes affecting 86 persons not settled in 1896.
b One dispute affecting 53'persons not settled in 1896.
c Four disputes affecting 139 persons not settled in 1896.

Strikes and lockouts affecting 71.1 per cent of the total persons
involved in 1896 were settled by negotiation or other conciliatory
methods, while disputes involving 28.9 per cent ended in the submis­
sion of the working people or their loss of employment.
S t a t e o f t h e L a b o r M a r k e t .— Keturns received from trade
unions in the United Kingdom show a lower percentage of unemployed
in 1896 than during any year since 1890. The following table gives the
percentages o f the unemployed for the ten years 1887 to 1896:
PERCEN TAGE OF MEMBERS OF TR AD E UNIONS REPORTED A S UNEMPL >YED A T
THE END OF EACH MONTH, 1887 TO 1896.
Month.

1887. 1888. 11889. 1890. 1891. 1892. 1893

January....................................... 10.3
February .................................... 8.5
M arch........................................... 7.7
A p r i l ........................................... 6.8
8.5
M ay..............................................
J u n e............................................. 8.0
J u l y ............................................. 8.5
A u g u s t .......................................
8.8
September................................... 7.5
O ctober........................................ 8.6
No \ember.................................... 8.5
D ecem ber.................................... 6.9

7.8
7.0
5.7
5.2
4.8
4.6
3.9
4.8
4.4
4.4
3.1
3.3

3.1
2.8
2.2
2.0
2.0
1.8
1.7
2.5
2.1
1.8
1.5
1.7

1.4
1.4
1.7
2.0
2.0
1.9
2.3
2.3
2.6
2.6
2.4
3.0

3.4
2.6
2.8
2.7
3.0
2.9
3.*3
4.2
4.5
4.4
3.8
4.4

5.0
5.7
5.7
5.4
5.9
5.2
5.0
5.1
6.2
7.3
8.3
10.2

8.2

4.9

2.1

2.1

3.5

6.3

A v era g e............................




1894. 1895. 1896. A v e r ­
age.

10.0
7.0
9.5
6.3
8.7
6.5
6.9
6.1
6.2
6.3
5.8
6.3
6.2
7.4
7.1
7.7
7.3
7.6
7.3 1 7.4
7.2 j 7.0
7.9 ; 7.7
7.5

6.9

8.2
4.5
7.9
3.8
6.5 1 3.5
6.5
3.2
6.0
3.3
5.6
3.2
5.3
3.1
5.2
3.4
4.9
3.6
4.9
3.3
4.3
2.9
4.8
3.2

6.1
5.6
5.1
4.7
4.8
4.5
4.7
5.1
5.1
5.2
4.9
5.3

5.8

5.1

3.4

718

BULLETIN OF THE DEPARTMENT OF LABOR.

Fifth Annual Report on Changes in Wages and Hours o f Labor in the
United Kingdom. 1897, lxx, 233 pp. (Published by the Labor
Department of the British Board of Trade.)
The present report is published in continuation of similar reports for
the years 1893, 1894,1895, and 1896, which were reviewed in Bulletins
Uos. 2 and 14. The changes recorded in the market rates o f wages and
recognized hours of labor of working people in 1897 are based upon
returns furnished by employers, employers’ associations, trade unions,
and other parties concerned.
The year 1897, like 1896, was a year of rising wages, all the princi­
pal groups of industries showing an advance. A t the same time the
hours of labor were reduced in nearly all the groups. The year 1897
has been more favorable to the workingmen, with respect to wages and
hours of labor, than any of the four preceding years for which inves­
tigations have been made. This is shown in the following comparative
statement, which summarizes the principal data relating to changes in
rates of wages and hours of labor for the years 1893 to 1897:
CHANGES IN RA TE S OF W AG ES A N D HOURS OF LABOR, 1893 TO 1897.
1893.

Items.

1894.

1895.

1896.

1897.

Changes in rates o f wages:
Increases..............................................................
Decreases..................................- .............. .........

508
198

608
171

624
180

1,471
136

1,411
107

T otal............................................................

700

779

804 j

1, 607

1,518

142, 364
256,473

175, 615
488, 357

79, 867
351, 895

382, 225
167,357

560,707
13,855

4,956

58, 072

22,882

436,718 | 607,654

597,444

Separate individuals affected—
By increases in rates o f w a g es...................
By decreases in rates o f w ages...................
By changes, leaving wages same at end as
at beginning o f vear...............................

151,140

6,414

T o ta l............................................................

549,977

670,386

Average weekly increase in rates o f wages----

$0.112

a $0.330

a $0,314 .

16
139

T ota l............................................................

!
2 i
219 j

155

Changes in hours o f labor:
Increases................................................................
D ecreases.............. ...............................................

221 |

Separate individuals affected—
1,530
By increases in hours o f labor.....................
B y decreases in hours of la b o r ................... | 33,119
T otal............................................................ !

34,649

Average weekly reduction in hours o f labor... !
i

1.99

$0,213

$0.259

12 1
129 :

22
223

7
247

141 j

245

254

73,616
34,655

1,060
69, 572

128
77,030

1, 287
21,448

77,158

22,735 j 108,271 !

4.04 :

i

1.94 i

i

0.73 ,
!

70,632
4.03

a Decrease.

C h a n g e s i n B a t e s o f W a g e s .— The total number of changes in
rates of wages in 1897 was 1,518, being slightly smaller than in the
preceding year. This is also true of the number of persons affected by
such changes, which was 597,444 in 1897 and C07,654 in 1896. The
results of such changes, however, show a greater number o f persons
affected by increases in 1897 and a much smaller number whose wages
were reduced than in any of the four preceding years. In 1897,500,707



FOREIGN STATISTICAL PUBLICATIONS— GREAT BRITAIN.

719

persons were affected by an increase of wages as against 382,225 in 1896,
the greatest number in any of the four preceding years. In the same
year 13,855 persons suffered a reduction as against 167,357 in 1896, the
smallest number in any of the four years mentioned. Since 1894 there
has been a steady and decided fall in the number of persons whose
wages were reduced.
In the following table the changes in the rates of wages in 1897 and
the number of employees affected are shown by industries:
NUMBER OF INCREASES AND DECREASES IN W E E K L Y W AGES, AN D EMPLOYEES
AFFECTED, B Y INDUSTRIES, 1897.
Changes.

Employees affected.

j

I
i

W ages
same
1 Wages i Wages end as at
at
In- j De­
inde­
creases. creases. Total. j creased. 1 creased.
begin­
|
j
ning o f
year.

Industries.

B uilding.............................................
Mining and quarrying.....................
Metal, engineering, and shipbuild­
ing ...................................................
Textile................................................
C lothing.............................................
Miscellaneous....................................
Employees o f public authorities---- ;
Total.........................................

483 !..
33 ;
539 !
38 1
33 !.,
106 ,
119;
1,411 ;

6
74
19
7
1

483 j 83,219
39
249,270

107 ; 1,518
i ______

83,219
250,589

1,319

176,918
613
3,894
57 *
33 1
1,939
173 ; 24,490
120
20, 977

7,768
4,115

21,576
1,306

206,262
9,315
1,939
25,138
20,982

22,882

597,444

648
5

560,707 ;
:
i

13,855

Total.

In the case of each group of industries the number of changes
resulting in an increase of wages greatly exceeded the number resulting
in a decrease. The same is true with regard to the number o f persons
affected, except in the group of textiles, where 4,115 employees suffered
a reduction, while 3,894 had their wages increased. In the building
trades, in all of the 483 changes, affecting 83,219 persons, there were no
reductions in wages. In the clothing industry all the changes resulted
in higher wages.
The following table shows, by industries, for the years 1893 to 1897,
inclusive, the net results of changes in wages:
A V E R A G E INCREASE IN RATES OF W AGES, BY INDUSTRIES, 1893 TO 1897.
Average increase per employee per week.
Industries.
1893.
B u ild in g..................................... ................... ...... ..................... $0.360
Mining and quarrying . . . ............... .............................
.228
Metal, engineering, and shipbuilding...................................... a. 218
T e x tile ............................. .............................................................................. a. 086
C loth ing....................................................... ...............................
.385
M iscellaneous .... .............................. .......................... ........... ............ a. 020
Employees o f public au th orities ....... .........................................
.380
A ll industries....................................................................

.112

1894.

1895.

1896.

$0.345
a. 421
a. 157
.112
.335
a. 076
.360

$0.411
a . 461
.005
.046
.502
a. 127
.390

$0.502
a . 127
.370
.020
.314
.416
.294

$0.517
.132
.269
.041
.476
.507
.350

a. 330

a. 314

.213

.259

1897.

a Decrease.

In 1897, for the first time during the five-year period, each group of
industries shows an increase in the average weekly rates of wages per



720

BULLETIN OF THE DEPARTMENT OF LABOR.

employee, the increase varying from an average of $0,041 per week in
the group of textiles to $0,517 per week in the group of building trades.
During the entire period of five years the groups of building and cloth­
ing industries and employees of public authorities showed a steady
increase in the average weekly rates of wages.
Returns regarding wages of agricultural laborers in England and
Wales show a continued upward tendency in 1897 when compared with
1896, when an increase in wage rates was also noted. The number of
laborers in districts in which changes in current rates took place in
1897 was 87,385, compared with 99,329 in 1896. Of this number, in 1897,
4,932 were in districts in which wages fell, compared with 40,751 in
1896, and 82,453 were in districts in which wages rose, compared with
58,578 in 1896. The total net effect of the changes in 1897 was an
increase of £2,411 ($11,733) per week, or 6£d. ($0,132) per head, com­
pared with £383 ($1,864) in 1896, or a rise of Id. ($0.62) per head. Cal­
culated on the total number of agricultural laborers in England and
Wales, the rise per head in 1897 amounted to fd. ($0,015) per week, as
compared with a rise of £d. ($0,003) per week in 1896 and a fall of fd.
($0,015) per week in 1895.
The information concerning railway employees is shown in the form
of actual earnings, as the remuneration is usually regulated by gradu­
ated scales of pay rather than by fixed wage rates. Returns are pub­
lished from leading railway companies employing nearly 90 per cent
of all the railway employees in the United Kingdom. The returns
cover the number of employees and total wages paid the first week
in December, 1896 and 1897, respectively, in the passenger, freight,
locomotive, and machinery construction departments.
The returns are summarized in the following table:
R A I L W A Y EMPLOYEES A N D W A G E S P A ID IN 17 COMPANIES FOR THE FIRST W EE K
IN DECEMBER, 1896 A N D 1897.
1896.
Districts.

Compa­
nies.

1897.

Wages.

Wages.
Employees.

Employees.
Total.

Total.

Average.

Average.

England and W ales___
Scotland........................
Ireland............................

12
3
2

311,796
38,350
7,213

$1,856,078
211,430
38,849

$5.95
5.52
5.38

327,269
39,676
7,202

$1,982,310
217,012
39,292

$6.06
5.47
5.45

Total.....................

17

357,359

2,106,357

5.90

374,147

2,238,614

5.98

The average wages for the 17 railways in the United Kingdom rose
from 24s. 2Jd. ($5.90) in 1896 to 24s. 7d. ($5.98) in 1897, or 4£d. ($0,091)
per head.
Among seamen the data obtainable for 1897 showed a decidedly ris­
ing tendency in wages.
C h a n g e s i n H o u r s o f L a b o r .—There were 254 changes reported
in the hours of labor, all but 7 of which resulted in a reduction of the




721

FOREIGN STATISTICAL PUBLICATIONS— GREAT BRITAIN.

working time. Of 70,632 employees affected by these changes, 69,572
had their hours of labor reduced and but 1,060 had them increased.
The total net reduction in weekly hours of labor amounted to 284,675
hours, or an average reduction of 4,03 hours per week per person affected
by changes. The average reduction in working time is greater than in
the years 1893,1895, and 1896, and is nearly equal to that in 1894, the
year of the introduction of the eight-hour day in the Government serv­
ice, when the average reduction was 4.04 hours per week.
The following table shows the number of employees affected by
changes in the hours of labor, classified according to the extent of such
changes, for the years 1893 to 1897, inclusive:
EM PLOYEES AFFE C TE D B Y CHANGES IN HOURS OF LABOR, B Y EXTE N T OF
CHANGE PER W EEK, 1893 TO 1897.
Employees whose hours were—
Increased.

Change per week.
1893.

1895.
r^r

43

T o ta l................ 1,530

1896.
71,899
144
1,016
252
250
55

128

1,287

73, 616

1,060

1893.

1897.

1

1804.

1895.

5, 538
9,800
15, 058
1,491
1,011
221

705
55
141
70
89

85

431
17
150
500
189

Under 1 hnnr............ » 480
803
1 or under 2 hours. . .
247
2 or under 4 hours. .
4 or under 6 hours
6 or under 8 hours__
8 hours or over..........

Decreased.

i

1894.

1896. j 1897.

2r686
4,141
37, 535
9, 536
20,504
2, 628

2,961
9,675
5,235
1, 926
1,229
422

4,871
10, 695
11,939
2,200
3,301
1,649

33,119

77, 030*j 21,448

34, 655

i
:
1
1
,
!

9,468
30,636
11,534
6.303
5,658
5,973
69,572

The reduction of hours in 1897 in most cases amounted to less than
two per week, although the proportion of employees whose hours of
labor were reduced eight hours per week or over was unusually large.
Where the hours of labor were increased, the increase amounted to less
than one hour per week in the case of about two-thirds of the employees
so affected.
The number of changes in the hours of labor and the number of
employees affected during the year 1897 are shown by industries in the
following table:
NUMBER OF INCREASES A N D DECREASES IN HOURS OF LABOR, AND EMPLOYEES
AFFECTED, B Y INDUSTRIES, 1897.
Employees affected.

Changes.
Industries.

B uilding............................. . ..........
Mining and quarrying . . . . . . . . . . .
Metal, engineering, °and shipbu ildin g____ _____________ . . . ____

T p\tile__________ _
i
C loth ing............................
Miscellaneous_____________ ____
Employees o f public authorities..
Total......................................




i
In­
De­ | Total.
Hours
Hours
creases. creases.
increased. decreased.

90
4

90
5

2

45
2

2
2
7

1

Total.

Decrease
per em­
ployee in
average
weekly
hours of
labor.

55

16,084
77

16,084
132

1.18
2.32

47
2

150

29,930
273

30,080
273

5.99
3.55

81
25

83
27

150
705

21,067
2,141

21,217
2,846

3.36
4.56

247

254

1,060

69,572

70,632

4.03

722

BULLETIN OF THE DEPARTMENT OF LABOR.

The greatest number of changes in the hours of labor was reported
in the group of building trades, all of which changes resulted in reduced
hours of labor. The largest number of persons affected by changes in
hours of labor was in the group of metal, engineering, and shipbuilding,
in which industry 29,930 persons had their labor time reduced, and but
150 had it increased. In the clothing industry no change was reported.
The greatest decrease in the average weekly hours of labor was 5.99,
in the metal, engineering, and shipbuilding industries.
During 1897, 5,896 employees in private establishments and 200
employees in the public service secured an eight-hour day for a six-day
week, while 5,036 employees in private establishments and 302 in the
public service secured an eight-hour day for a week of seven days.
On the other hand, 300 employees who had been working eight hours
per day had their working day increased.
P i e c e P r i c e L i s t s a n d S l i d i n g S c a l e s .— Piece price lists adopted
and revised in 1897 are given for the metal, textile, boot and shoe, tail­
oring, hat, glass bottle, and leather industries, and sliding scales for
blast furnace men and coal miners. The report also shows the text of
a number of the most important agreements entered into by employers
and employees regarding rates of wages, hours of labor, and other
working conditions.




DECISIONS OF COURTS AFFECTING LABOR.
[Tliis subject, begun in Bulletin No. 2, has been continued in successive issues.
All material parts o f the decisions are reproduced in the words o f the courts, indi­
cated when short by quotation marks and when long by being printed solid. In
order to save space, immaterial matter, needed simply by way o f explanation, is
given in the words of the editorial reviser.]

DECISIONS UNDER STATUTORY LAW.
C o n s t it u t io n a l it y o f S t a t u t e — E m p l o y e r s ’ L i a b il it y A c t R a i l w a y R e l i e f A s s o c i a t i o n , ETC.—Pittsburg, Cincinnati, Chicago

and St. Louis Railway Go. v. Montgomery, 49 Northeastern Reporter,page
582.—Action was brought in tlie circuit court of Cass County, Ind., by

William J. Montgomery against the above-named railroad company to
recover damages for personal injuries due to the negligence of said
company and sustained by him while in its employ. A judgment was
rendered for Montgomery and the defendant company appealed the
case to the supreme court of the State, which rendered its decision
February 19,1898, and affirmed the judgment of the lower court.
The opinion of the supreme court was delivered by Judge McCabe,
and the facts in the case and the reasons for the decision are suffi­
ciently shown in the following quotation therefrom:
The only objection urged to the complaint is that it shows that the
plaintiff [Montgomery] was a freight brakeman in the defendant’s
[above-named railroad company] service on its railroad, and that it was
the negligence of the engineer of the train on which he was serving that
caused his injury, and that, under the fellow-servant rule, there was no
liability. The injury occurred on July 1, 1893, after the act approved
March 4,1893, took effect, touching the liability of railroads, commonly
called the “ Employers’ liability act.” Acts 1893, p. 294; Rev. St., 1894,
§§ 7083-7087 (Horner’s Rev. St., 1897, §§ 5206-5206v).
Appellant’s [above-named railroad company] learned counsel contend
that it is settled law that the employer is not liable to an employee for
injuries caused by the negligence of a coemployee in the same general
service, unless the employer was guilty of some negligence in employing
the servant, with knowledge of his negligent habits or incompetency,
or retained him after knowledge of such negligence or lack of skill.
There is no showing of any such negligence on the part of the appellant,
as employer, in the complaint. Appellee [Montgomery] concedes this to
be the common-law rule, and that it prevailed in this State prior to the
enactment above mentioned. Indeed, it is conceded by the appellee
that his complaint depends upon that act for its sufficiency in its facts
to constitute a cause of action, and is founded thereon.
It is first contended by the appellant that the act does not change
the common-law rule, and it would seem to follow, if that is true, that
the complaint is clearly bad. The first section provides: “ That every
railroad or other corporation, except municipal, operating in this State




723

724

BULLETIN OF THE DEPARTMENT OF LABOR.

shall be liable in damages for personal injury suffered by auy employee
while in its service, the employee so injured being in the exercise of
due care and diligence, in the following cases.” Then follow tour sub­
divisions, specifying the cases in which liability is to attach, the fourth
of which, and the one on which this action is founded, reads thus:
“ Where such injury was caused by the negligence of any person in the
service of such corporation, who has charge of any signal, telegraph
office, switch yard, shop, roundhouse, locomotive engine, or train upon
a railway, or where such injury was caused by the negligence of any
person, coemployee, or fellow servant engaged in the same common
service iu any of the several departments of the service of any such
corporation, the said person, coemployee, or fellow-servant, at the time
acting in the place and performing the duty of the corporation in that
behalf, and the person so injured, obeying or conforming to the order
of some superior at the time of such injury, having authority to direct;
but nothing herein shall be construed to abridge the liability of the
corporation under existing laws.” Appellant’s learned counsel say:
“ The complaint lacks two allegations to make it good under this pro­
vision, (1) That the engineer at the time was acting in the place and
performing the duty of the corporation in that behalf; and (2) that
appellee was obeying or conforming to the order of some superior at
the time of such injury, having authority to direct. It was not alleged
that the engineer was acting in the place or performing the duty of
the master, or that appellee was acting in obedience to a superior,” etc.
This language, together with other parts of appellant’s brief, indi­
cates that appellant’s learned counsel construe the language of the
statute above quoted as conveying the meaning that the right to recover
against an employer for the negligence of a coemployee or fellow-servant
rests upon the condition that such negligent coemployee was at the
time acting in the place and performing the duty that the master or
employer owed to his or its servants or employees generally, and yet
they do not say so in so many words. The majority of the court are of
the opinion that the decision of that question is not necessary to the
decision of this case. They hold that the only part of the fourth sub­
division of said section which is necessary to be considered in deter­
mining the sufficiency of the complaint is the following: “ Where such
injury was caused by the negligence of any person in the service of
such corporation who has charge of any * * * locomotive engine
upon a railway, * * * and the person so injured, obeying or con­
forming to the order of some superior at the time of such injury, having
authority to direct;” and that hence it was not necessary that the com­
plaint should state that the alleged negligent engineer, at the time he
committed the alleged negligent injury, as provided in such conclud­
ing clause, was acting in the place and performing the duty of the cor­
poration in that behalf, while the writer hereof is of the opinion that
the-whole of the fourth subdivision must stand together, and that the
words quoted from the concluding clause qualify the liability created
in the first clause or clauses. But the duty of the corporation therein
mentioned, in the opinion of the writer, means, not the duty it owes to
its servants, but the duty it owes to the public in carrying on its busi­
ness; and the words, “ acting in the place of such corporation,” with
the other words quoted, were used to convey the idea that, in order that
the liability mentioned should exist, the negligent person, coemployee,
or fellow-servant must be acting as such employee, in the line of his
duty, at the time of his negligence. The writer is of opinion that the
complaint is good under this construction ; and the holding of the court



DECISIONS OF COURTS AFFECTING LABOR.

725

is that, in order to make the complaint good uuder the first part of the
subdivision quoted, as to the point in question, it is only required that
it state that the engineer, while in the service of appellant, in charge
of a locomotive engine, negligently injured the appellee, both being at
the time acting in the liue of duty as employees of the appellant. That
being so, the averments of the complaint, showing, as they do, that at
Hartford City, Iud., the freight train upon which appellee was brakeman stopped to switch out loaded cars; that the conductor of said
train, acting in the service of appellant, the authority and position of
said conductor making it appellee’s duty to obey his orders in respect
to said train and switching, ordered appellee to go between said cars
to make couplings, and while so engaged the engineer in charge of said
train, also in appellant’s service, and in the line of his duty, without
signal, carelessly, negligently, and recklessly reversed said engine and
applied full steam, whereupon said cars were driven and jammed
together with terrific force, without notice to appellee, whereby appel­
lee’s entire right hand was caught between the bumpers and mashed
off, without any fault on his part, make the complaint sufficient, under
the statute, as to the objection thereto urged.
The next contention against the sufficiency of the complaint is that
the act is unconstitutional, that being confessedly the foundation of the
action. It is first contended that it violates section 19 of article 4 of
the State constitution, which provides that “ every act shall embrace
but one subject and matters properly connected therewith; which sub­
ject shall be expressed in the title.” It is contended that the subject is
not expressed in the title, in that the title is “An act regulating liability
of railroads and other corporations except municipal,” while the provi­
sions of the act itself are, as claimed by appellant, to create a liability
which up to that time had no existence. The precise question here
involved was decided adversely to appellant’s contention, on a statute
similar to our own, under a constitution an exact copy of our own in
this respect, in McAnnieh v. Railroad Co., 20 Iowa, 338. We feel con­
tent to follow that ease, without extending this opinion by repeating
its reasoning, and, accordingly, hold that the subject is sufficiently
expressed in the title.
It is next contended that the act violates section 23 of article 1 of
the constitution, providing that “ the general assembly shall not grant
to any citizen or class of citizens privileges or immunities which upon
the same terms shall not equally belong to all citizens.” Railroad cor­
porations are persons and citizens within the meaning of this provision
of our bill of rights, and the equality clause of the fourteenth amend­
ment to the Constitution of the United States. The inequality com­
plained of is that corporations, except municipal, are made liable for
damages caused to one of their servants by the negligence of a co­
employee or fellow-servant without any negligence on the part of the
employer, while other employers are left free from such liability to their
employees. Appellant also contends that the act violates the equality
clause of the fourteenth amendment of the Constitution of the United
States, demanding for every person the equal protection of the laws.
The same provision, quoted from the bill of rights in the constitution
of this State, is found word for word in the bill of rights of the con­
stitution of Iowa. The supreme court of that State, in upholding the
employers’ liability act of that State, held that the provision mentioned
in the bill of rights in the constitution of that State was, in effect, the
same as the equality clause of the fourteenth amendment to (he Federal
Constitution, and that the employers’ liability act did not violate either
*7234—No. 18---- 5



726

BULLETIN OF THE DEPARTMENT OF LABOR.

constitution in respect of equality of laws or equality of rights secured
by each of said provisions in Bucklew v. Bail way Co., 64 Iowa, Oil, 21
N. W., 103. That decision rests largely on two decisions made upon
the subject of the constitutionality of the employers’ liability act of
Kansas and that of Iowa in the Supreme Court of the United States.
Mackey had recovered a judgment for $12,000 damages against the
Missouri Pacific Railway Company for injuries caused by a coemployee
of that company, which, on appeal, was affirmed by the supreme court of
Kansas. From that judgment the company appealed to the Supreme
Court of the United States, on the ground that the Kansas statute
violated the fourteenth amendment to the Constitution of the United
States. Rut that court affirmed the judgment, holding that the act in
no way infringed that amendment. (Railroad Co. v. Mackey, 127 U. S.,
20o, 8 Sup. Ct., 1161.) Mr. Justice Field, speaking for the court,
there said: “ * * * The company calls the attention of the court to
the rule of law exempting from liability an employer for injuries to
employees caused by the negligence or incompetency of a fellow-servant,
which prevailed in Kansas and in several other States previous to the
act of 1874, unless he had employed such negligent or incompetent
servant without reasonable inquiry as to his qualifications, or had
retained him after knowledge of his negligence or incompetency. The
rule of law is conceded where the person injured and the one by
whose negligence or incompetency the injury is caused are fellowservants in the same common employment, and acting under the same
immediate direction. * * * Assuming that this rule would apply
to the case presented but for the law of Kansas of 1874, the contention
of the company # * * is that the law imposes upon railroad com­
panies a liability not previously existing, in the enforcement of which
their property may be taken, and thus authorizes, in such cases the
taking of property without due process of law, in violation of the
fourteenth amendment. The supposed hardship and injustice consist
in imputing liability to the company, where no personal wrong or
negligence is chargeable to it or its directors. But the same hardship
and injustice, if there be any, exist when the company, without any
wrong or negligence on its part, is charged for injuries to passengers.
* * * The utmost care on its part will not relieve it from liability,
if the passenger injured be himself free from contributory negligence.
The law of 1874 extends this doctrine, and fixes a like liability upon
railroad companies, where injuries are subsequently suffered by
employees, though it may be by the negligence or incompetency of a
fellow-servant in the same general employment and acting under the
same immediate direction. That its passage is within the competency
of the legislature we have no doubt. The objection that the law of 1874
deprives the railroad companies of the equal protection of the laws is
even less tenable than the one considered. It seems to rest upon the
theory that legislation which is special in its character is necessarily
withiu the constitutional inhibition; but nothing can be further from
the fact. The greater part of all legislation is special, either in the
objects sought to be attained by it or in the extent of its application.
Laws for the improvement of municipalities, the opening and widening
of particular streets, the introduction of water and gas, and other
arrangements for the safety and convenience of their inhabitants, and
laws for the irrigation and drainage of particular lands, for the con­
struction of levees and the bridging of navigable rivers, are instances
of this kind. * * * Such legislatiofi is not obnoxious to the last
clause of the fourteenth amendment, if all persons subject to it are



DECISIONS OF COURTS AFFECTING LABOR.

727

treated alike under similar circumstances and conditions in respect botli
of* the privileges conferred and liabilities imposed. * # # But the
hazardous character o f the business of operating a railway would seem
to call for special legislation with respect to railroad corporations, hav­
ing for its object tlie protection of their employees, as well as the safety
o f the public.” A like decision was made by the same court, upholding
the employers’ liability law of Iowa, which has been in force in that
St ite ever since 1862. Some ten or twelve of the States of the Union
have such acts on their statute books, and none of them have ever been
held unconstitutional.
It is also urged, as an objection to the validity of the act, that it
exempts municipal corporations from its operation. But no reason has
been suggested why municipal corporations should be classed with rail­
road corporations. W e have many statutes applying to railroad cor­
porations that do not apply to municipal corporations. There is no
necessary similarity between them. N is the business of municipal
Tor
corporations so peculiarly hazardous to their employees as to call for
such special legislation as is called for in case of railroad corporations to
protect their employees. W e therefore conclude that the aot does not
violate the constitution, either Federal or State.
It is next contended that the circuit court erred in sustaining the
plaintiff’s demurrer to the second paragraph of the defendant’s auswer.
It sets up that on the 8th day of March, 1893, and prior to the defend­
ant’s injury, he became a member of the volunteer relief department of
the Pennsylvania lines west of Pittsburg, and was such member at the
time he was injured, and so continued long after his said injury; that
the management of said department is under the charge of said lines
west of Pittsburg; that said fund is made up of stated contributions
from said lines and the employees thereon, and said lines guarantee
the fulfillment of all the obligations of said department, and make up
and pay all deficiencies in the amounts necessary to pay all benefits to
its members. In becoming a member of said relief department, he
agreed to be bound by its rules and regulations, among which were
that each member, on complying with its rules, was entitled to receive
stipulated benefits on account of disability incurred by injury received
to such member in the service of the company. This agreement is all
set forth in the appellee’s written application for membership, and
signed by him; and among the stipulations contained therein is the
following, namely: uAnd 1 agree that the acceptance of benefits from
the said relief fund for injury or death shall operate as a release of all
claims for damages against said company arising from injury or death
which could be made by or through me, and that 1, or my legal repre­
sentatives, will execute such further instrument as may be necessary
formally to evidence such acquittance.” And it is further averred that
after receiving the injury complained of, while disabled thereby, he
accepted benefits from said relief department to the amount of $385.
But it is contended by the appellee that by the fifth section o f the act
we have been considering the contract set up in this answer as a bar is
made void. The contract set up is shown therein to have been entered
into after the act took effect and became a law. The section reads
thus: “ A ll contracts made by railroads or other corporations with their
employees, or rules or regulations adopted by any corporation releas­
ing or relieving it from liability to any employee having a right o f action
under the provisions o f this act are hereby declared null and void.”
The balance o f the section makes the whole act apply to future injuries,
and not to past. The validity of this section is assailed on the grouuds




728

BULLETIN OF THE DEPARTMENT OF LABOR.

that it violates the bill of rights and the fourteenth amendment of the
Federal Constitution. What we have said as to the validity of the
other parts of the act, under these constitutional provisions, is appli­
cable to this section, and hence it must be held not to infringe them.
Assuming that it [the fifth section] is valid, and makes contracts
releasing or relieving corporations from liability uuder the act abso­
lutely void, appellant’s learned counsel contend that there is nothing
in the agreement set forth in the second paragraph of the answer
relieving or releasing the company from liability for negligence, or
from any liability whatever. They say appellee “ elected to accept
benefits irom the relief fund, and, having done so, he can not maintain
this action for damages. That is the essence o f his agreement.”
Appellant’s counsel further say in one of their briefs that “ the pay­
ment and acceptance of benefits under the terms of the contract in
this relief fund is simply a compromise and settlement of the claim of
the injured employee against the company.” Let us suppose that the
above statement is true. It is certainly the strongest and best state­
ment that can be made o f appellant’s position. What is it that makes
the acceptance o f benefit from the relief fund a compromise and settle­
ment of appellee’s claim1 Only one answer can be made to this ques­
?
tion, and that is that the antecedent contract alone makes it such.
There is no allegation in the answer that in accepting the benefits
appellee made any agreement or compromise whatever, and there is no
claim that he did. He simply accepted that which he had a legal and
moral right to demand. His own contributions helped to create the
fund, and his injury brought him within the rules and regulations
entitling him to the benefits. So, even if it was a compromise and set­
tlement, it was such wholly before the injury occurred; and, that being
so, it amounts to nothing more than an attempt to secure a release of
future liability under the act, call it by whatsoever name we may. But
such acceptance is not, in any proper or legal sense, a compromise and
settlement of liability under the act. The language o f the contract is:
“ And I agree that the acceptance of benefits from said relief fund
shall operate as a release of all claims for damages against said com­
pany, arising from such injury or death,” etc. So, by the express terms
o f the contract, it is a release, and not a compromise and settlement.
The acceptance o f benefits shall operate as a release. But what makes
it so? I f the antecedent contract was abrogated, the acceptance of
benefits would have no effect whatever upon the question of appellant’s
liability uuder the act; because he had a legal and moral right, as before
remarked, to demand and receive such benefits. So, if the release
takes place, it is not by virtue of the acceptance, but it is by the force,
vigor, and effect of the antecedent contract. It breathes that effect
into the acceptance.
Appellant’s learned counsel contend that an exact copy of this con­
tract was held valid in the following cases: Johnson v. Railroad Co.,
163 Pa. St., 127, 29 Atl., 834; Single v. Railroad Co., 164 Pa. St., 529,
30 Atl., 492; Locase v. Pennsylvania Co., 10 Ind. App., 47,37 Iff. E., 423;
Donald v. Railway Co., 93 Iowa, 284, 61 Iff. W ., 971. The first three
cases just cited were decided in States not having employers’ liability
acts forbidding contracts of this kind in force at the time the injury
sued for occurred. And they proceeded upon the sole ground that the
contract did not violate public policy, and therefore they were upheld.
Without either approving or disapi>roving of the rule laid down by the
Pennsylvania supreme court and our own appellate court, yet the
United States circuit court for the district of Colorado decided the ques-




DECISIONS OF COURTS AFFECTING LABOR.

729

tioti the other way in a strong and able opinion in Miller v. Railway
Co., 65 Fed., 305; and we tliiuk there is a marked distinction in the rule
where a contract is charged with violating public policy and where it
contravenes a positive statutory prohibition, and especially where the
statute provides that the inhibited contract shall be null and void.
As was said in Brooks v. Coox>er, 50 N. J. Eq., 761,26 Atl., 978: u Where
there is no statutory prohibition, the law will not readily pronounce
an agreement invalid on the ground of policy or convenience, but is,
on the contrary, inclined to leave men free to regulate their affairs as
they think proper. * * # Now, the intention of the contract was
to contravene the statute, and this intention is revealed in the contract.
This renders the contract vicious and unenforceable.” As we have
before said, the contract in question is a release of appellant’s liability
under the act upon a certain condition. That it is a conditional release
of such liability, dependent upon the happening of the condition,
namely, the acceptance of said benefits by appellee, there can be no
doubt. I f that condition happens, as it did, appellant’s liability under
the act is released by virtue of the antecedent contract, if it is enforced.
I f it is enforced, it must be so done in violation of the statute which
makes all such contracts null and void. That certainly more than
tends to obstruct both the letter and spirit of the statute.
I f we were even mistaken in construing this contract as a conditional
one, so as to bring it within the condemnation of the statute in ques­
tion, it unquestionably falls within the principle laid down by Wharton,
thus: “ The prohibition of a statute can not be evaded by putting a
contract in a shape which, while nominally not inconsistent with the
statute, virtually contravenes its provisions. * # # I f a contract
conflicts with the general policy and spirit o f a statute governing it, it
will not be enforced, although there may be no literal conflict.”
We are therefore of opinion that the contract set up in the second
paragraph o f the answer is in contravention of the statute, and hence,
by force thereof, the contract so set up is null and void; and, that being
so, said answer was bad, and the circuit court did not err in sustaining
the demurrer thereto for want o f sufficient facts. The judgment is
affirmed.

D r e d g e r s S u b je c t

to

L ie n s

of

Em pl o y e e s

for

W

a g e s , e t c .—

McRae v. Bowers Dredging Co., 86 Federal Reporter, page 3 ii.—Upon
petition o f one McRae, heard in the United States circuit court for the
district o f Washington, the property and business of the above-named
dredging comxiany was placed in the hands of a receiver. Part of said
property consisted o f the dredgers Anaconda and Python, vessels
designed to operate afloat and to navigate from place to place where
their services were required in dredging and deepening rivers, harbors,
and waterways. Certain parties, having been employed on said dredg­
ers and haviug claims for wages, etc., against the dredging comxiany,
intervened in the case, claiming lieus against the dredging vessels.
Their right to such liens was disputed on several grounds, but was
sustained by the circuit court in its decision which was rendered
March 31,1898.




730

BULLETIN OF THE DEPARTMENT OF LABOR.

The opinion o f said court was delivered by District Judge Hanford,
and the following is quoted therefrom:
The main question in the case is whether the dredgers are vessels
subject to admiralty process, whether the work which they were doing
was a maritime service, whether the contracts under which they were
supplied and kept in repair are maritime, and whether their crews have
maritime liens lor their wages.
A dredging vessel, designed to facilitate navigation, by going from
place to place, to be used in deepening harbors and channels, and
removing obstructions from navigable rivers, and to bear afloat heavy
machinery and appliances for use in that class o f work, may commit, or
be injured by a marine tort, and she may become subject to a maritime
lien for salvage. She has mobility, and her element is the water. She
can be used afloat, and not otherwise. She has carrying capacity, and
her employment has direct reference to commerce and navigation. I
perceive no reason tor exempting such a vessel from the liabilities aris­
ing from nonpayment of the wages of her crew, or from such unfulfilled
contracts as would subject other vessels to liens enforceable by a court
o f admiralty.
I find no difficulty in pronouncing in favor of the engineers, firemen,
deck hands, and captains who worked on board the dredgers. They
have maritime liens for the balances due to them for wages, lh e cap­
tains were not clothed with the authority of masters, but were simply
foremen in charge of the working crews. Therefore the rule that the
master of a vessel has no lien for wages does not apply to them. Those
who worked as general mechanics in keeping the machinery in repair,
and the pipemeu, who attended to laying, connecting, and moving the
lines o f pipe, and those who performed necessary labor upon and about
the filled area, are also entitled to liens. Their services were required
in prosecution o f the enterprise in which the vessels were employed.
The right to claim a lien for wages under the general maritime law is
not restricted to,favor only mariners who serve the ship with peculiar
nautical skill, but extends to all whose services are in furtherance of
the main object o f the enterprise in which the ship is engaged.
The claims to liens for wages and for supplies and repairs are founded,
not only upon the general maritime law, but also upon a statute in force
in this State (Washington), which provides that:
“ All steamers, vessels and boats, their tackle, apparel and furniture,
are liable: (1) For services rendered on board at the request of or on
contract with their respective owners, masters, agents, or consignees.
(2) For supplies furnished in this State for their use at the request o f
their respective owners, masters, agents, or consignees. (3) For work
done or material furnished in this State, for their construction, repair,
or equipment, at the request of their respective owners, masters, agents,
consignees, contractors, subcontractors, or other person or persons hav­
ing charge in whole or in part of their construction, alteration, repair, or
equipment.”— (2 Ballinger’s Codes and St., Wash., §5953.)
The power o f the legislature to create a lien upon a vessel owned by
a nonresident of this State is denied, and a number o f decisions have
been cited to the effect that the maritime law is not subject to amend­
ment or change either by Congress or the legislature o f any State. I t
is well established, however, by repeated decisions of the Supreme
Court, that the State legislatures can create liens upon ships and ves­
sels, and that such liens, when given to secure debts or liabilities cog­
nizable in a court o f admiralty, may be enforced by the process o f a




DECISIONS OF COURTS AFFECTING LABOR.

731

court o f admiralty. In tlie matter of liens upon vessels, itis not owner­
ship within the State which renders the vessel subject to the statute,
but the fact o f the transaction being within the State. There would be
no reason or justice in exempting vessels owned by nonresidents, when
employed within this State, from liabilities and burdens imposed upon
vesselshaving resident owners; and there is no provision of the Con­
stitution limiting the power of the legislature of a State which can pos­
sibly be so construed as to make such exemption of foreign vessels
necessary.

E m p l o y e r s ’ L ia b il it y — A

s s u m p t io n

of

R is k

by

E m ployee—

Island Coal Co. v. Greenwood, 50 Northeastern Reporter, page 36.—Judg­
ment was rendered in favor of John A. Greenwood in the circuit court
of Sullivan County, Ind., in a suit brought by him to recover damages
from the Island Coal Company for injuries incurred by him while in its
employ. The coal company appealed the case to the supreme court of
the State, which rendered its decision April 21, 1898, reversing the
judgment o f the lower court and ordering a new trial. The facts in
the case were substantially as follows: A room in a coal mine was
inspected by the mine boss, who found coal adhering to the roof, and
all o f it that was loose was taken down by his orders; said inspection
was made in accordance with the provisions of section 7472 of the
Revised Statutes o f Indiana of 1894, which reads as follows:
The mining boss shall visit and examine every working place in the
mine at least every alternate day while the miners of such place are or
should be at work, and shall examine and see that each and every work­
ing place is properly secured by props or timber, and that safety in all
respects is assured, aud, when found unsafe, he shall order and direct
that no person shall be permitted in an unsafe place, unless it be for
the purpose o f making it safe. He shall see that a sufficient supply of
props, caps, and timber are always on hand at the miners’ working
places. He shall see, also, that all loose coal, slate, and rock overhead
wherein miners have to travel to and from their work are carefully
secured.
Shortly after the mine boss had left the room Greenwood, who with
an assistant was operating a cutting machine, brought said machine
into the room. They both saw coal adhering to tlie roof aud both
sounded it by striking it with a pick and a handle o f a shovel and
found it apparently firm; that they then went to work, and after work­
ing about one and one-half hours the coal fell on them and injured
Greenwood; that Greenwood was an experienced miner and knew that
coal so adhering to the roof was liable to fall.
The opinion o f the supreme court was delivered by Chief Justice
Howard, who, after stating the facts in the case at length, uses the
following language:
It is not contended that these facts show contributory negligence on
the part o f appellee [Greenwood]; but counsel for appellant [Island Coal
Company] do contend that the facts so found show that appellee




732

BULLETIN OF THE DEPARTMENT OF LABOR.

assumed all risk o f danger from the falling of tlie top coal. Counsel
for appellee, on tlie other hand, contend that the danger was not
obvious, but concealed or latent, and that as to such danger there is no
assumption of risk. It is true that the danger was concealed, but it
was concealed from appellant as well as from appellee. And while the
duty of inspection rested upon the company, and it was required to
furnish a reasonably sale place for its employees to work, yet we think
the facts show that the duty so resting upon appellant was performed
as fully as was reasonably possible. It is to be remembered that the
defect in the roof was not in the passageways of the mine, but in the
very place where appellee was at work, and of which he had a fuller
and more complete knowledge than appellant could have. The cause
o f danger was in the immediate presence of appellee, and had been
thoroughly tested by him and his assistant, and, on such test was found
by them to be, as they believed, perfectly safe. They often found such
top coal adhering to the roof when they entered a room to work, and
were in the habit o f testing it, as they did on this occasion. The jury
found that there is always more or less danger o f such coal falling, and
that no one can tell by any examination when it will fall. It was also
found that such dangers often occur and the top coal is removed
between the visits o f the mine boss, and without his suggestion. No
doubt, as to permanent openings through which persons pass and
repass in the mine, it is the duty o f the miue owner, made so by the
common law as well as the statute, to see that the miue is safe from all
dangers that may be avoided by removing or propping up loose places
in the roof. And while the statute (section 12 of the act approved
March 2,189 L [Acts 1891, p. 57; Rev. St. 1894, §7472]) makes it also
the duty of the mining boss to visit and examine eveiy working place
in the mine at least every alternate day, and see that the same is prop­
erly secured by props or timber, and that safety in all respects is
assured, yet these requirements must be taken in a reasonable sense.
It can not be intended that props shall be set up at the very place
where the machine men are at work. The men must have room to use
their machines and tools and to engage in the actual work before them.
Indeed, the fact that the mine boss is not required to be present ofteuer
than every alternate day shows that these props are not to be set up
before the workmen have cleared a place for them. It is found that
rooms are often shot, cleaned up by the loaders, and again entered by
the machine men between the regular visits of the mine boss.
The jury here find that both appellant and appellee knew that a part
of the top coal was left adhering to the roof of the place where appellee
began work. Appellee found the coal, as he and his assistant believed,
to be so fast to the roof as “ to be absolutely safe and free from danger.”
In this it turned out that they were mistaken, whether the defect then
existed or was brought about by causes arising after appellee and his
assistant had begun their work. Having equal or better opportunities
than appellant for knowing the danger threatening him, it would seem
that appellee could have no right of action. Were it not for the pro­
visions o f the statute above cited, and the failure of the jury to find
whether the overhanging coal could be propped or timbered without
undue interference with the work, the case would hardly admit of doubt.
W e are o f opinion, however, from a consideration of the whole case as
presented, that justice will b estb e xiromoted by granting a new trial,
rather than by ordering judgment on the answers to interrogatories.




DECISIONS OP COURTS AFFECTING LABOR.

733

E m p l o y e r s ’ L i a b i l i t y — M a s t e r ’s D u t y t o W a r n E m p l o y e e s
D a n g e r , e t c .—James v. Rapides Lumber Go., Limited, 23 Southern

of

Reporter, page 469.—Judgment was rendered for the plaintiff, Joseph
D. James, in the judicial district court o f the parish o f Eapides, La.,
in a suit brought by him against the above named lumber company to
recover damages for the use of his minor son, Paul A. C. James, for
injuries sustained while an employee of said compauy. The defendant
company appealed the case to the supreme court of the State, which
rendered its decision March 7,1898, and while modifying yet practically
affirmed the judgment o f the lower court. The evidence showed that
said minor was suddenly and on the spur o f the moment called upon by
the foreman of the sawmill to go to work on a dangerous machine known
as an “ e d g e r t h a t he had no previous knowledge or experience o f said
machine, and that the foreman gave him no instructions or explanation
o f the machine or the risk and hazard o f its use; that upon going to
work upon the “ edger,” and upon taking hold of the first piece o f lum­
ber from it, his left hand was cut off at the wrist. The plaintiff claimed
damages for this injury, and also asked that an amount of $1,000 acci­
dent insurance, for which the company had insured the employee, be
decreed to be paid to him. The policies were issued to and made pay­
able to the company, and the sum of 75 cents per month was exacted
from the employee and deducted from his wages to pay the premiums
on them. The plaintiff claimed that because the employee had really
paid the premiums on the policies that he, and not the company, was
entitled to the insurance money. The supreme court decided that
plaintiff was entitled to damages both under the provisions of articles
2315,2317, and 2320 of the Eevised Civil Code, and under the construc­
tion o f the general law on master and servant. The articles o f the
Civil Code, above referred to, read as follows:
A r t i c l e 2315. Every act whatever of man that causes damages to
another obliges him by whose fault it happened to repair it; # # *
A r t . 2317. We are responsible, not only for the damage occasioned
by our own act, but for that which is caused by the act of persons for
whom we are answerable, * * *
A r t . 2320. Masters and employers are answerable for the damage
occasioned by their servants and overseers, in the exercise of the func­
tions in which they are employed. * * * In the above cases,
responsibility only attaches when the masters or employers * * *
might have prevented the act which caused the damage and have not
done it.

The opinion o f the supreme court was delivered by Judge Watkins,
and the following language was used therein:
That the employment to which young James was assigned was
dangerous, we make no doubt. W e think the dangerous character of
the trimmer saw [“ edger ” ] is made clear by the testimony, and is made
apparent by the photographs. To our thinking, the mere recital—even
as it is related in the defendant’s answer—of the occurrence discloses
a prima facie case of negligence on the part of the defendant. The




734

BULLETIN OF THE DEPARTMENT OF LABOR.

proof discloses a total want of knowledge on tlie part of young James
o f the situation and of the duties he was expected to perform, and of
which he was vouchsafed not a word of information or instruction by
the defendant’s foreman. Suddenly called upon by the defendant’s
foreman to undertake the performance of a delicate and important
duty in a sawmill in full operation, and supply the place of a sick man
who had been engaged thereat for about two years, without warning
or precaution, young James was unwittingly cast into the teeth of a
small saw, which cut his left hand off within twenty seconds after he
had assumed its performance. In our opinion his right to recover
damages of the defendant is very clear, under the provisions o f the
Code (Rev. Civ. Code, arts. 2315, 2317, 2320), and likewise under the
construction of the general law applicable to master and servant.
Under all authorities it is the recognized and bounden duty o f the
master to provide a reasonably safe place at which his servant is to
work, and to see to it that he is not exposed to unnecessary risks in
the course of his employment. And in order that a dangerous service
be intelligently undertaken by his servant, it is the duty of the master
sufficiently to acquaint him with its risks and dangers, and give him a
fair knowledge o f the situation at the time of his employment. Failing
in either of the foregoing particulars, the master will be held liable for
whatever injury results to the servant.
With regard to the plaintiff ’s demand for insurance money, but little
need be said. W e do not think that his demand against the compauy
is well founded, as he avers that it has not yet recovered from the
insurance company; and the plaintiff* could not, in any event, recover
from the insurance company, because his name does not appear as a
beneficiary in either one o f the policies, which were written in favor o f
the defendant, exclusively. That the defendant had made exactions
o f young James monthly, from his wages, in order to keep up the pre­
miums, can not have the effect of establishing in his favor a beneficial
interest in the insurance i>oliey. The contrary doctrine was maintained
by this court in Putnam v. Insurance Co., 42 La. Ann., 710, 7 South.,
002.

E m ployers’
L ia b il it y — R a il r o a d
C o m p a n ie s — D e f e c t iv e
A p p l i a n c e s — E f f e c t o f S t a t u t e , e t c .—Hesse v. Columbus, San-

duslcy and Hoeicing Railroad Co., 50 Northeastern Reporter, page 354.—
Action was brought by Gertrude Hesse against the above named rail­
road company, in the court of common pleas of Perry County, Ohio, to
recover damages for the death of Neil Hesse, an employee of said com­
pany, and o f whose estate she was the qualified administratrix. From
a judgment in her favor the case was appealed to the circuit court of
Perry County, which reversed the judgment of the court of common
pleas. She then carried the case, on writ of error, to the supreme
court of the State, which rendered its decision March 22,1898, and
sustained the decision o f the circuit court. It was alleged by the
plaintiff in her petition that on the 4th of January, 1896, and prior
thereto, Neil Hesse was employed as a fireman on the defendant’s loco­
motive No. 35; that said company, in violation of its duty, negligently
and carelessly provided him with a defective and unsafe locomotive,




DECISIONS OF COURTS AFFECTING LABOR.

735

which, while being so used by him, in consequence of its weak and
defective condition, and without fault on his part, exploded, whereby
he was immediately killed. Said petition did not allege that Hesse
was ignorant o f the defective condition of the engine.
One of the reasons upon which the circuit court reversed the judg­
ment of the court of common pleas was that “ the petition does not
state a cause of action.” Upon this point Judge Shauek, in the opinion
o f the supreme court, which was delivered by him, speaks as follows:
The general rule is established in this State and elsewhere that in
an action by a servant against his employer for an injury resulting from
the latter’s negligence in furnishing machinery or appliances, about
which the servant is employed, the plaintiff must allege that lie was
ignorant of the defect from which the injury resulted; or that, having
knowledge of such defect, he informed the employer, and continued in
the service, relying upon his promise to remedy the defect. This
requirement is not answered by an averment that the injury occurred
without fault o f the plaintiff. Acquiescence with knowledge is not
synonymous with contributory negligence. One having full knowledge
o f defects in machinery with which lie is employed may use the utmost
care to avert the dangers which they threaten. The servant must be
required to communicate to his employer such knowledge as he may
have of defects in machinery or appliances about which he is employed,
or the law will not be administered according to the reason which is
its life. Fully justified by considerations of policy, the courts require
o f railway companies with respect to their patrons and the public the
exercise of that high degree of care which is commensurate with
the dangers of their operation. To the end that such care may be
exacted from them, they are, with obvious propriety, charged with
knowledge o f such defects as are or might be discovered by the senses
of their officers and employees. It is with like propriety that the
communication o f such knowledge is required from all with whose
knowledge they are chargeable.
But the most confident contention of counsel for the plaintiff is that
the act of April 2, 1890 (87 Ohio Laws, 149), releases the employee of a
railroad company from this general rule. The act applies to railroad
corporations only. Beliance is upon the second section of the act,
which is as follows:
“ S e c t i o n 2. It shall be uulawful for any such corporation to know­
ingly or negligently use or operate any car or locomotive that is defect­
ive, or any car or locomotive upon which the machinery or attachments
thereto belonging are in any manner defective. If the employee of any
such corporation shall receive any injury by reason of any defect in
any car or locomotive, or the machinery or attachments thereto belonging, * * * such corporation shall be deemed to have had knowl­
edge o f such defect before and at the time such injury is so sustained,
and when the fact of such defect shall be made to appear in the trial
o f any action in the courts of this State brought by such employee, or
his legal representatives, against any railroad corporation for damages,
on account o f such injuries so received, the same shall be prima facie
evidence o f negligence on the part of such corporation.”
The act, by its terms, affects the rules of evidence. It does not affect
the duty o f the employee, nor the rules of pleading with respect to it.
In the cases to which it applies it raises against the corporation a




7.‘> i
<

BULLETIN OF THE DEPARTMENT OF LABOR.

prim a facie presumption of negligence* from evidence showing that the
employee received an injury by reason o f a defect in the car or locomo­
tive, or the machinery or attachments thereto belonging. In Goal Co.
v. Norman the general rule governing cases o f this character is stated:
“ The servant, in order to recover for defects in appliances, must estab­
lish three propositions: (1) That the appliance was defective; (2) that
the master had, or should have had, notice thereof; (3) that the serv­
ant did not know o f the defect.” The force of the statute under con­
sideration is wholly expended in relieving the servant o f the duty of
establishing the second o f these propositions. His duty with respect
to the first and third remains wholly unaffected.

E m p l o y e r s ’ L ia b i l it y — R a il r o a d C o m p a n ie s — F a i l u r e t o
F e n c e T r a c k — Terre Haute and Indianapolis Railway Co. v. Williams,

50 Northeastern Reporter, page 116.—Judgment was obtained in the
appellate court o f the third district of Illinois in a suit brought by
Cora M. Williams, administratrix o f the estate of James C. Williams,
deceased, to recover damages lor the death of said Williams, an engi­
neer in the employ of the above-named railway company. Said comX>any carried the case on writ of error to the supreme court of the State,
which rendered its decision April 21,1898, and affirmed the judgment
of the lower court. The court decided that a railroad company is liable
for damages resulting from the death of an engineer, caused by the
collision of his engine with cattle which had strayed on the track, in
the absence of a fence or cattle guard required to be maintained by
section G2 of chapter 114 of the revised statutes of 1891, and that while
the statute was primarily intended for the benefit o f the owners of
live stock, it is to be presumed that the legislature intended to protect
life as well as property by said law. The section above referred to
reads as follows:
Every railroad corporation shall, within six months after any part is
open for use, erect and thereafter maintain fences on both sides of its
road or so much thereof as is open for use, suitable and sufficient to
prevent cattle, horses, sheep, hogs, or other stock from getting on such
railroad, except at the crossings o f public roads and highways, and
within such portion of cities and incorporated towns and villages as are
or may be hereafter laid out and platted into lots and blocks, with gates
or bars, at the farm crossings of such, railroad, which farm crossings
shall be constructed by such corporation when and where the same
may become necessary, for the use o f the proprietors o f the lands
adjoining such railroad; and shall also construct, where the sanmhas
not already been done, and thereafter maintain at all road crossings
now existing or hereafter established, cattle guards suitable and suffi­
cient to prevent cattle, horses, sheep, hogs, and other stock from get­
ting on such railroad; and when such fences or cattle guards are not
made as aforesaid, or when such fences or cattle guards are not kept
in good repair, such railroad corporations shall be liable for all damages
which may be done by the agents, engines or cars of such corporation,
to such cattle, horses, sheep, hogs, or other stock thereon, and reason­




DECISIONS OF COURTS AFFECTING LABOR.

737

able attorney’s fees in any court wherein suit is brought for such dam­
ages, or to which the same may be appealed; but when such fences and
guards have been duly made and kept in good repair, such railroad
corporation shall not be liable for any such damages, unless negligently
or willfully done.
From the opinion of the supreme court, delivered by Judge (Jraig,
the following, showing the facts in the case and the reasons for the
decision, is quoted:
A t the station of Tabor, where the accident happened, the railroad
track was not fenced, and there was no cattle guard where the public
highway crosses the railroad, to prevent cattle from passing upon the
track. Tabor is not an incorporated town or village, and it was not
laid out into lots or blocks. The place consisted of a post-office, a
grain elevator, one dwelling, and several corneribs. On the night of
the accident cattle strayed from an adjoining farm, and in the absence
o f a fence or cattle guard they passed upon the railroad track, where
they were struck by the engiue attached to a freight train. The engine
was thrown from the track, and Williams, the engineer, killed. The
theory of the plaintiff is that the failure of the railroad company to fence
its track and erect a cattle guard at or near the place where the collision
occurred, to prevent cattle from passing upon the track, was the direct
cause of the accident and of the death o f the engineer, and on account
o f the failure o f the railroad company to discharge the duty imposed
by law it is liable. On the other hand, it is claimed that the statute
requiring a railroad company to fence its track and erect cattle guards
was not passed for the protection o f passengers or employees, but was
erected solely to provide a remedy for the owner of horses, cattle, or
other stock which might be killed on account of the failure of the rail
road company to fence its track or erect suitable cattle guards. Thestatute seems to impose an absolute duty on railroad companies to
erect and maintain fences along their rights o f way and to construct
and maintain cattle guards at road crossings, except in such x>ortions
of incorporated cities, towns, and villages as are laid out into lots and
blocks. (Hurd’s St., c. 114, § 02.) It is true that the statute contains
a provision that if such fences or cattle guards are not made or kept in
good repair such railroad corporation shall be liable for all damages
which may be done by the agents, engines, or cars of such corpora­
tion, to cattle, horses, sheep, hogs, or other stock thereon; but this
provision can not be held to exclude all other liability which may
arise from the failure o f the railroad comx>any to fence and put in
cattle guards, as required by law. It may be that the statute was
X>rimarily intended for the benefit of the owners of stock when their
stock was killed on the railroad track, but at the same time the statute
was doubtless intended for the benefit o f all classes o f persons who
might need protection. The person whose business requires that he
should take passage as a passenger on a train has a deeper interest in
having the track x>rotected from obstructions o f every character than
the owner of stock. So, also, the employee on a railroad train has a
deep interest. The lives of the passenger and employee are alike at
stake when the railroad is not'properly protected from obstructions
which are likely to be npo*- the track where it is not properly fenced.
It is, therefore, unreasonable to suppose that the legislature would
provide a law for the protection of property and make no provision
whatever for the protection of life.




738

BULLETIN OF THE DEPARTMENT OF LABOR.

W e are satisfied that a fair and reasonable construction of the
statute required the railroad company to fence its track and construct
cattle guards, and for a failure to do so it is liable to an employee who
may have been injured through its failure to perform a duty thus
imposed by law.

E m p l o y e r s ’ L i a b i l i t y — R a il r o a d C o m p a n ie s — N e g l i g e n c e o f
E m p l o y e r — S a f e t y C o u p l e r s — Greenlee v. Southern Railway Co.,

30 Southeastern Reporter, page 115.—This case was heard by the supreme
court o f North Carolina, having come before it on an appeal from the
superior court of McDowell County, in said State, when judgment had
been rendered in favor o f the plaintiff, Stephen Greenlee, who had
brought suit against the above named railway company for damages
for personal injuries incurred while in its employ. The evidence showed
that the plaintiff, a laborer in the railroad yard, was injured while
attempting to couple two cars, said cars not being equipped with safety
or self coupling devices.
The supreme court rendered its decision May 26,1898, and affirmed
the judgmeut o f the lower court. Its opinion, delivered by Judge
Clark, reads as follows:
In any aspect o f this case the defendant is liable, whether the plain­
tiff was or was not guilty of contributory negligence; for the negligence
of the defendant in not having self couplers; and in not sending a man
to couple ears at all was a continuing negligence which existed subse­
quent to the contributory negligence, if there had been any, o f the
plaintiff, and was the proximate cause—the causa causans—of the injury.
8ix yi ars ago, in Mason v. Railroad Co., I l l N. C., 482, at page 487, 16
S. E., 698, at page 699, the court, in considering “ whether the defend­
ant company was negligent in failing to provide what is known as the
Janney, or some improved coupler which would obviate the necessity
under any circumstances of going between the ends of cars in order to
fasten one to another,” said: “ We think that the time has arrived
when railroad comi>anies should be required to attach such couplers
* * * on all passenger cars, * * * and the new couplers have
now become so cheap, as compared to the value of the lives and limbs
of servants and passengers, that it is not unreasonable to require that
they provide them on peril of answering for any damage which might
have been obviated by their use.” While the court declined, on account,
of the expense, to hold that the same was true at that time as to freight
cars, it added: “ Doubtless, the day will soon come” when it would be
negligence not to attach them to freight as well as passenger cars.
Congress so thought, and passed an act (27 Stat., 531) requiring selfcouplers and air-brakes to be placed on all cars, freight as well as pas­
senger, by January 1,1898, and this had been complied with as to
“ over 60 per cent o f the freight cars,” besides nearly all passenger
cars, operating in interstate commerce, by that date.
In Witsell v. Railway Co., 120 N. C., 557, 27 8. E., 125, the above
citation from Mason v. Railroad Co. was approved, and the court held
that, while it was not negligent to fail to provide the latest improved
appliances, a railroad company was liable for any injury caused by the
failure to use approved appliances that are in general use. The rail­




DECISIONS OF COURTS AFFECTING LABOR.

739

road companies Lave of lato procured from the Interstate Commerce
Commission an extension, till January 1,1000, o f the time by which
self-couplers should be placed upon all freight cars used in interstate
service; but this was for their accommodation, and did not and could
not relieve them from the legal liability incurred for injuries caused
by their failure to provide “ suitable appliances in general use” where
the use o f such would have prevented the injury. It only relieved
them from the penalty provided in that act.
The eleventh annual report (1807) of the Interstate Commerce Com­
mission, issued by authority of the United States Government, and
based upon the reports of the railroad companies themselves, shows
(page 80) that of railroad employees (leaving out passengers alto­
gether), 1,861 were killed and 29,009 were wounded in the year ending
June 30, 1890, being greater loss than in many a battle of historic
importance. O f the trainmen, this report (page 130) shows that nearly
1 in 0 had been killed or wounded that year—total of over 17,000. O f
these casualties, it is officially stated, 229 were killed and 8,457 were
wounded in this single particular o f coupling and uncoupling cars.
As those figures are reported by the corporations themselves, it is not
probable that they are overstated. I f the railroads not reporting to
the Interstate Commerce Commission (because not engaged in inter­
state carrying) should be added, the figures of killed and wounded
from this cause would doubtless be largely increased. By these fig­
ures, for the last year reported, nearly 0,000 men had been killed and
wounded in coupling and uncoupling cars. As the corporations, on
their own motion or under compulsion o f Congressional action and
judicial decision, have adopted self-couplers on the passenger cars,
and on “ over 60 per cent” of the freight cars, it will be seen how many
thousands of lives and bodies have been saved thereby; but that stiil
nearly 0,000 men should in one year be killed or wounded “ coupling and
uncoupling” the freight cars which up to June 30, 1896, still requites
that duty, for lack of self-couplers, is the highest proof of the duty of
the courts to enforce diability for failure to provide self couplers in
every case where an injury occurs from that cause. That nearly 9,000
men should still be killed and wounded in one year for failure to fur
nish appliances which are so widely in use, and which would entirely
prevent such accidents, points out the duty of the courts.
In WhitselPs Case, 120 K. C., at page 562, 27 S. E., at page 127, this
court says: “ I f an appliance is such that the railroads should have it,
the im v e r ty o f the company is no sufficient excuse for not having it.”
But in fact, this defendant reports that this railroad has issued bonds
and stocks for $76,557 per mile. (N. O. B. B. Com. lieport, 1806, at page
246.) This is presumed to have been paid in by its issuing the bouds
and stocks, and hence it should be able to furifish appliances which
will protect its employees from such injuries as this, and should*be held
liable for failure to do so, for the Interstate Commerce Commission
report shows the self-couplers can be added for $18 per mile. In a
large majority o f the States, as well as by the Federal Government,
railroad commissions have been created to supervise and regulate the
charges and the conduct of these corporations. The courts will be
very derelict in their duty if they do not enforce justice in favor of
employees as well as the public.
Six years ago this court said it would soon be negligence per se when­
ever an accident happened for lack of a self-coupler. Congress has
enacted that self-couplers should be used. For their lack this plaintiff
was injured. It is true, the defendant replies that the plaintiff remained




740

BULLETIN OF THE DEPARTMENT OF LABOR.

in its service knowing ifc did not have self-couplers. If that were a
defense, no railroad company would ever be liable for failure to put in life­
saving devices, and the need of bread would force employees to continue
the annual sacrifice of thousands of men. But this is not the doctrine
o f “ assumption o f risk.” That is a more reasonable doctrine, and is
merely that when a particular machine is defective or injured, and the
employee knowing it continues to use it, he assumes the risk. That
doctrine has no application where the law requires the adoption of new
devices to save life or limb (as self couplers), and the employee, either
ignorant of that fact, or expecting daily compliance with the law, con­
tinues iu service with the appliances formerly in‘use. The defendant,
after notice of six years from this court, and with notice of the act of
Congress, and also from the general adoption of self-couplers, that it
should use them, was guilty of negligeuce in failing to do so. The
injury to the plaintiff could not have occurred save for the failure of
the defendant to comply with its duty in this regard, and the court
below should have held it liable to the plaintiff upon the defendant’s
own evidence.

E m p l o y e r s ’ L i a b i l i t y — B i g h t o f A c t io n b y A d m i n i s t r a t o r
D e a t h o f C o a l M in e r u n d e r t h e S t a t u t e — C o n t r ib u ­
t o r y N e g l i g e n c e a n d A s s u m p t i o n o f R i s k — B oyd v. Brazil Bloch

for

Coal Co.j 50 Northeastern Reporter, page 368.—This action was prose­
cuted by John Boyd, as administrator of the estate of John W . Elliott,
deceased, against the above-named coal company, by which Elliott was
employed as a coal miner at the time he received injuries which resulted
in his death. The cause of his injuries was alleged to be the violation
by the company of the provisions of sections 74G6 and 7472 of Burns’
Revised Statutes o f Indiana of 1894, and the action was brought under
section 7473 of said statutes. Said sections read as follows:
S e c t i o n 7460. The owner, operator, agent or lessee o f any coal mine
in this State shall keep a sufficient supply of timber at the mine, and
the owner, operator, agent or lessee shall deliver all props, caps and
timbers (of proper length) to the rooms of the workmen when needed
and required, so that the workmen may at all times be able to properly
secure the workings from caving in. And all persons operating coal
mines in this State shall be required to place a blackboard, sufficiently
large, with the number thereon, of every workman employed in said
mine, at the most convenient place near the mine entrance; said board
to be known as the timber board, to be used by the miners for register­
ing thereon such timber for securing their working places as may be
required from day to day.
S e c . 7472. The mining boss shall visit and examine every working
place in the mine at least every alternate day while the miners of such
place are or should be at work, and shall examine and see that each
and every working place is properly secured by props or timber, and
that safety in all respects is assured, and, when found unsafe, he shall
order and direct that no person shall be permitted in an unsafe place,
unless it be for the purpose o f making it safe. He shall see that a
sufficient supply o f props, caps, and timber are always on hand at the
miners’ working places. He shall see, also, that all loose coal, slate, and




DECISIONS OF COURTS AFFECTING LABOR.

741

rock overhead wherein miners have to travel to and from their wdrk
are carefully secured.
S e c . 7473. For any injury to person or persons or property occasioned
by any violation of this act, or any willful failure to comply with any
of its provisions, a right of action against the owner, operator, agent
or lessee shall accrue to the party injured for the direct injury sustained
thereby, and in case of loss of life by reason of such violation, a right
o f action shall accrue to widow, children, or adopted children, or to the
parents or parent, or to any other person or persons who were before
such loss of life dependent for support on the person or persons so
killed, for like recovery for damages for the injury sustained by reason
of such loss of life or lives.
A t a hearing of the case in the circuit court of Clay County, Ind., the
defendant company demurred to each paragraph of the plaintiff’s complaint, the demurrer was sustained, and judgment was rendered for the
defendant. The plaintiff, Boyd, then appealed the case to the appellate
court of the State, which rendered its decision April 28, 1898, and
affirmed the judgment of the lower court.
In its opinion, which was delivered by Judge Comstock, the court
used the following language:
The first question to be determined in this appeal is whether, under
the statute, the personal representative of the deceased has any right
of action. Counsel for appellee [the coal company] insist that he has
not, and for that reason, if for no other, the demurrer was by the lower
court properly sustained to each paragraph of the complaint. The ques­
tion is properly raised by the demurrer for want of facts. Under our
statute [sec. 7473], unless otherwise provided, all suits must be brought
in the name of the real party in interest. The estate of the deceased
can have no interest in the provision made by the statute. It is not a
claim due the estate. The right of action is given to the widow, and it
is not vested in any other than the beneficiaries therein named. When
a new right or proceeding is created by statute, and a mode prescribed
for enforcing it, that mode must be pursued to the exclusion of all others.
W e think the right of action is limited to the beneficiaries named in the
act, and for this reason the judgment of the lower court must be affirmed.
The failure o f appellee to comply with either section 7466 or section
7472 was negligence per se. The mining boss, under these statutes, is
charged with a duty owing by the master of securing the servant a safe
place in which to work, and is for that reason a vice principal standing
in the relation of master. His negligence is the negligence of the mas­
ter. Each of these paragraphs [of the plaintiff’s complaint] charges an
omission of duty contributing negligence upon the part of appellee;
that the death of Elliott resulted, therefore, without any fault on his
part. W e understand the learned counsel for appellee to concede in
his brief that these paragraphs sufficiently charge negligence upon the
part o f appellee, but that the rules o f pleading require that they should
go further, and aver that the servant was free from fault contributing
to his injury, and that he did not assume the risk, i. e., that he was
ignorant of the danger, and that the master had knowledge of it, or,
in other words, that the case made must be of unmixed negligence on
the one hand and freedom from contributory negligence on the other.
Appellee’s counsel contend that the decedent knew that the roof was
unsupported; that the business of mining coal is one of great peril;
*7234—]S 18-----6
ro.



742

BULLETIN OF THE DEPARTMENT OF LABOR.

that tlie usual risks of the work are assumed by the miner; that the
employer is not an insurer of the safety of his employees; he is liable
when lie neglects a duty by reason of which injury results, but not if
the injury was occasioned by a defect in the working place which was
as well known to the employee as to the employer, or when the defect
is apparent, or when the risk is assumed; that in the case at bar death
o f the employee was occasioned by the falling in of the roof; that the
roof was under the immediate supervision of the miner; he knew there
were no props; that the law requires the master to keep on hand a sup­
ply of props, and deliver them at the working place of the miner when
he demands them; if the master neglects to do this, the miner knows of
such neglect, and if, in the presence of an obvious defect, he volun­
tarily continues in the service without any promises on the part o f the
master to remedy the defect, he assumes the risk; that neither para­
graph charges that the master promised to furnish props; that the
miner voluntarily assumed a known danger. The common-law rule that
the servant assumes the risks incident to obvious danger is based upon
the legal maxim, “ Yolenti non fit injuria.” The law holds that when
a servant knows o f the danger incident to a particular calling he has
taken such danger into consideration in fixing his compensation. This
is true as to all dangers that are ordinarily incident to a particular call­
ing, but it is not true in all cases of known danger which are not ordi­
narily incident to the business in which he is employed. The risks a
servant assumes on entering upon the employment o f a miner are those
only which occur after the due performance of the employer of those
duties which the law imposes upon him. W e believe, however, that the
maxim, “ Yolenti non fit injuria,” or the doctrine o f the assumption of
risk, does not apply to a breach of a statutory duty imposed on the
master; and the continuing of the servant in the employ of the master
with knowledge of such a breach of such duty will not prevent recovery
for an injury suffered by reason of such breach.
W e believe it was not intended that any neglect, however slight,
upon the part of the laborer, contributing to his injury, should exempt
the employer from liability growing out o f the willful omission o f a
duty imposed by law. The employer may cease to operate his mine, or
he may, without hardship, comply with the statutory requirements;
but to the laborer cessation from work may mean the want o f necessi­
ties o f life by those dependent upon him for support. Conditions
which require the miner to continue to labor when, by inadvertence, he
may receive injury, should not exempt his employer from the conse­
quences o f his willful violation of the law.

M e c h a n ic s ’ L ie n s — C o n s t r u c t io n o f S t a t u t e — “ L a b o r e r s ”
“ E m p l o y e e s ” —Malcomsonv. Wappoo Mills, 86 Federal Reporter,

and

page 192.—In this case, which was heard in the United States circuit
court for the district of South Carolina, one of the questions raised
was the interpretation of act Ifo. 316 of the acts of 1S97 o f South Car­
olina, entitled “ An act to provide for laborer’s lieu.” (22 S. C. Stat­
utes at Large, 502.) The first section of the act reads as follows:
From and after the passage and approval of this act all employees in
factories, mines, mills, distilleries, and all and every kind of manufac­




DECISIONS OP COURTS AFFECTING LABOR.

743

turing establishments in this State shall have a lien upon all the out­
put o f the factory, mine, mill, distillery, or other manufacturing
establishments in which they may be employed, either by the day or
month, whether the contract be in writing or not, to the extent of such
salary or wages as may be due and owing to them under the terms of
their contract with their employer, such lien to take precedence over
any and all other liens, except the lien for municipal, State, and county
taxes.
The decision of the circuit court was rendered March 21, 1898, and,
upon the point mentioned above, the opinion of said court, which was
delivered by Circuit Judge Simonton, reads as follows:
The laborers and employees claim the lien for wages secured under
the act o f assembly o f South Carolina of 1897. (22 St. at Large, 502.)
There is no question that all who come within this term, “ laborers,”
are by the express language of the act entitled to a lien for the wages
due. These are from the 1st to 15th of October—one half month. This
is not denied. But it appears that in the list is the name o f Mr. Lawton, who was the superintendent of the mining operations, and of Mr.
Titsell, who was assistant in the office as bookkeeper. Are they within
the protection o f the act*? What was the intent of this act? The con­
stitution o f the State of South Carolina has rendered unnecessary much
of the research formerly needed in order to discover the intent of a
statute. The State constitution gives a key to the statute, and that is
its title. “ Every act or resolution having the force of law shall
relate to but one subject, and that shall be expressed in its title.”
(Art. 3, § 17.) W e look, then, to the title of the act, and the enact­
ment must express the same purpose as the title, or the act is void.
The title o f this act is, “ An act to provide for laborer’s lien.” The
body of the act gives to all employees in factories, mines, and so
forth, a lien, whether they be employed either by the day or month,
whether the contract be in writing or not, to the extent o f the salary
or wages that may be due. The word “ laborer ” does not appear in the
body o f the act. To sustain the act, and that is a primary law of inter­
pretation (“ Ut res magis valeat quam pereat” ), the word “ laborers”
must be synonymous with the word “ e m p l o y e e s a n d , as the word
“ laborers” is used in the title, the word “ employees,” used in the body
of the act, must be so restricted as to mean such employees as are
laborers. This being so, neither the superintendent nor the bookkeeper
comes within this term.
DECISIONS UNDER COMMON LAW .
E m p l o y e e s ’ C l a im

for

D a m a g e s — C o m p r o m is e

m e n t — C o n s t r u c t i o n —Phares

and

Se t t l e ­

v. Lake Shore and Michigan Southern
Bailway Co., 50 Northeastern Reporter, page 306.—This action, brought
by William H. Phares against the above named railway company, was
heard in the circuit court of Elkhart County, Ind., and a judgment was
rendered in favor of the company and the plaintiff’s right to damages
was denied. Phares appealed the case to the appellate court of the
State, which rendered its decision April 26, 1898, and affirmed the
judgment of the lower court.




744

BULLETIN OF THE DEPARTMENT OF LABOR.

The facts o f the case are sufficiently stated in the opinion of the
appellate court, which was delivered by Judge Black, and reads in part
as follows:
The court rendered judgment for the defendant upon a special ver­
dict in an action brought by the appellant against the appellee. The
controlling facts o f the lengthy special verdict were as follows: The
railroad company had two classes of freight brakemen, one called
“ regular” freight brakemen and the other “ extra” freight brakemen.
The appellant entered the service of the appellee on the Gth day of
September, 1892, and during all the time of his service was an extra
freight brakeman. He suffered a personal injury while in such service
on the 29th o f October, 1892. On the 25th of March, 1893, the appel­
lant signed a writing, referred to in the special verdict as a proposition,
and as a written option, and as an offer of compromise, as follows:
“ Elkhart, Indiana, March 25th, 1893. For and in consideration of
the sum of one dollar to me in hand this day paid by the Lake Shore
and Michigan Southern Railway Company, I hereby stipulate and
agree to and with the same company that I will accept from it the sum
o f three hundred dollars, and, further, that I am to remain in the service
o f said company as brakeman as long as I want to, providing my work
shall prove satisfactory to said company, as full settlement and satis­
faction of all claims and demands of every kind, nature, and description
which I have or may be entitled to have against said company by
reason o f personal injuries sustained by me while a freight brakeman
o f said company at or near Dune Park station, in the State of Indiana,
on the 29th day of October, 1892; and in consideration thereof to exe­
cute and deliver to said company a full, perfect, and complete release
and satisfaction, provided the same is paid to me within forty-five days
from the date hereof. W. H. Phares. [Seal.] Witnesses: C. A. Theis.
C. C. Needham.”
“ Elkhart, Indiana, March 25th, 1893. I, the aforesaid W . H. Phares,
do hereby acknowledge receipt from the Lake Shore and Michigan
Southern Railway Company, by the hands of C. C. Needham, its agent,
the said sum of one dollar mentioned in the above agreement. W. H.
Phares. Witnesses: C. A. Theis, C. C. Needham.”
On the 10th day of May, 1893, the appellant signed a writing as
follows:
“ Form No. 1284. Whereas on the 29th day of October, A. D. 1892,
the undersigned, while in the employ of the Lake Shore and Michigan
Southern Railway Company as freight brakeman, received certain inju­
ries as follows, to wit: While uncoupling engine had his left hand
caught between pin and end sill of car C. L. & W., 3718, one finger
amputated, and another bruised, while in the discharge of his duties,
at or near Dune Park Station, in the State of Indiana; and whereas
I, the said William H. Phares, believe that my said injuries are the
result o f the negligence of said railway company, its officers, agents,
and employees; and whereas the said railway company denies any and
all negligence on the part of itself, its officers, agents, and employees,
and denies any and all liability to me for damages for the injuries so as
aforesaid by me sustained, but by reason of an offer of compromise
made by me the said L. S. and M. S. Ry. Co., for the purpose o f avoid­
ing litigation, to receive and accept the sum of three hundred dollars
in full accord and satisfaction for all claims for damages which I may
or might have for the injuries aforesaid, have paid to me the sum of
three hundred dollars, and agree to reemploy me as a freight brakeman




DECISIONS OF COURTS AFFECTING LABOR.

745

for sucli time only as may be satisfactory to said company. Now, there­
fore, in consideration o f the premises, and the payment to me of the
aforesaid sum of three hundred dollars, the receipt whereof I do hereby
acknowledge, I do hereby release and forever discharge the said Lake
Shore and Michigan Southern Railway Company and all other parties
in interest of and from all actions, suits, claims, and demands for or on
account o f or arising from the injuries so as aforesaid received, and
every and all results hereafter arising therefrom. Witness my hand
and seal, at Elkhart, Indiana, this 10th day of May, A. D. 1893. Will­
iam H. Phares. [Seal.] Signed, sealed, and delivered in presence of
C. C. Needham, J. W. Gainard.”
“ Lake Shore and Michigan Southern Railway Company to William
H. Phares, Dr. Issued April 28, 1893, c/ 0 A. E. Newell, Chicago, 111.
For settlement in full of all claims and demands to date, especially for
personal injuries sustained at Dune Park, Indiana, October 29th, 1892,
as per attached form G. S. 1284, $300.00.
“ Received, Elkhart, May 10th, 1893, of the Lake Shore and Michigan
Southern Ry. Co., three hundred dollars, in full of the above account.
$300.00. William H. Phares.
“ Correct: W . H. Cahniff, gen. sup’t.
“ Audited: C. P. Lehand, auditor.
“ Approved: P. P. Wright, ass’t gen’l manager.”
On the 25th of March, 1893, and during the whole of that month, and
on the 10th day of May, 1893, and during the whole of that month, the
appellant was employed by the appellee as an extra freight brakeman;
and from the time of his first employment down to the 26th of June,
1894, whenever he was called upon to do work, he was put upon the
appellee’s pay roll of extra freight brakemen, and lie received pay as
such. A t the date last mentioned the appellee put in force a seniority
list o f all brakemen, whereby those in the appellee’s service for the
shortest time were put upon the list of extra freight brakemen, and the
youngest of the extra freight brakemen in the service, to the number
of 10, were temporarily laid off until business should revive. From
that date to the commencement of this action the appellant’s name was
kept upon the list of the extra freight brakemen who were so laid off, to be
called into service as extra freight brakemen, according to their seniority
o f service, whenever business should revive so as to give them active
employment.
While the proposition for compromise given by the appellant to the
claim agent on the 25th of March, 1893, contained a stipulation on the
part o f the appellant that “ I am to remain in the service of said com­
pany as brakeman as long as I want to, providing my work shall prove
satisfactory to said company,” the written instrument containing the
release sent by the appellee through the claim agent in response to
the appellant’s proposition, and containing a reference thereto, to be
signed by the appellant, and by him signed, bearing date May 10th,
1893, did not contain such a stipulation or provision, but, instead of it,
provided that the appellee agreed “ to reemploy me as a fright brakeman for such time only as may be satisfactory to said company.” The
claim agent agreed with the appellant that the contract releasing the
appellee should contain such a provision concerning the employment
of the appellant as that contained in the appellant’s proposition; but
when the release came from the general officers to the claim agent, to
be signed by the appellant, and the money consideration was paid, and
the release was finally executed, it did not correspond with appellant’s
proposition and the claim agent’s promise. There is no finding of any




74G

BULLETIN OF THE DEPARTMENT OF LABOR.

mistake or o f fraud or fraudulent conduct, no indication that the appel­
lant did not know the contents o f the papers which he signed, dated
the 10th o f May, 1893, which is the date throughout the verdict referred
to as the time o f the acceptance o f the offer of compromise by the
appellee, and as the date of the settlement between the parties. The
contents o f this instrument of release clearly indicated to the appellant
that his proposition was not accepted as to all its stipulations by the
appellee, and that it would settle upon different terms as set forth in
the form o f release sent by the general officers. As to the final agree­
ment of settlement, there can be no doubt that it was contained in the
p a p e r dated the 10th of May, 1893. So far as it differed from the
written proposition of the appellant or the oral promise of tlie claim
agent, the appellant must be deemed to have consented to such vari­
ance when, without fraud or imposition, which can not be presumed,
he accepted the money, and attached his signature. No ground for the
re formation o f the contract appears, if such had been the purpose o f
the action. The appellant was paid a specified sum for his services
rendered after the compromise. They were all rendered in the capa­
city of an extra freight brakemau. It does not appear that this sum
was not full payment for the services actually rendered. I f he had
been employed as a regular freight brakeman, he would have earned a
larger sum. But the appellant had been employed only as an extra
freight brakeman up to the time of his injury, and he served and was paid
in that capacity after the compromise. The contract to reemploy him
as a freight brakeman is properly construed by considering the nature
o f his previous employment, and by looking to the manner in which
the parties freely treated the contract, and acted upon it, the appel­
lant serving as an extra, and accepting pay as such. The judgment
is affirmed.

E m p l o y e r s ’ L ia b i l it y — A s s u m p t io n o f B is k b y E m p l o y e e —
D u t y o f M a s t e r — Disano v. New England Steam BricJc Co., 40

Atlantic Reporter, page 7.—This action was brought by Giovanni Disano
against the above-named brick company in the supreme court o f the
State o f Rhode Island to recover damages for injuries received while
in the employ o f said company. He alleged in his declaration that he
was shoveling clay into a certain machine used in making brick when
he was injured; that in front of said machine was a large opening,
directly under which and inside of said opening were two rolls; that
he was obliged to pass said opening in shoveling the clay; that said
opening was dangerous as it was unprotected by any railing, and the
floor around it was wet and slippery; that this fact, as to the danger­
ous condition o f the opening, was known to the company; that it was
the duty o f said company to have protected said opening, but that the
company having disregarded said duty he, the plaintiff, while perform­
ing his duty and in the exercise o f due care, fell into the opening and
was seriously injured. The company demurred to the declaration on
the general ground that the plaintiff’s own statement showed that he
had assumed the risk of his employment. After a hearing the court ren-




DECISIONS OF COURTS AFFECTING LABOR.

747

deretl its decision April 7 ,1S98, and sustained the demurrer, rendering
judgment for the brick company.
The opinion of the court, delivered by Judge Tillinghast, contains
the following language:
W e think the demurrer should be sustained. The danger from the
opening complained of was clearly an obvious one, and was as well
known to the plaintiff as to the defendant; and by voluntarily consent­
ing to work in the place described, knowing and appreciating the dan­
ger, he must be held to have assumed the risk incident to the employ­
ment. Nor does the plaintiff allege that he had ever complained to his
employer with reference to the unprotected machine in question, or
made any objection to using the same in its then present condition.
The case stated, then, at the most, is that of a servant voluntarily con­
tinuing in an employment involving obvious danger of personal injury,
which the master might have avoided, but did not; and in such a case,
in the absence of some circumstance calling for special care on the part
o f the master, such, for instance, as the youth, inexperience, or want o f
knowledge o f the machine on the part of the servant, it is well settled
that he takes upon himself all of the ordinary and obvious risks inci­
dent to the employment.
But the plaintiff contends that where the duties of the servant are
such as to cause his attention to be diverted from the defect and
danger and the defect is unnecessarily dangerous, the master may not
be relieved from responsibility for the consequences caused by such
defect. Just what is meant by u unnecessarily dangerous” in this con­
nection we do not know. I f the counsel means that a master is bound
to furnish a place for his servant to work in, on a machine which he is
to operate, which shall be as free from danger as it can be made, the
contention is clearly untenable; for he is only called upon to furnish a
reasonably safe place and reasonably safe appliances. If, on the other
hand, counsel means that a master’s duty in regard to the furnishing
safe appliances for his servants is a relative one, that is, that where a
very dangerous machine is to be operated he should take greater care
to protect the servant from injury than where the machine is compar­
atively free from danger, then we agree with the contention. But,
whether a machine is so constructed or located as to be unnecessarily
dangerous or not, the law of assumed risk would ordinarily be the
same, provided the actual danger was fully known to and appreciated
by the servant.

E m p l o y e r s ’ L ia b il it y — D u t ie s

of

the

E m p l o y e r — N e g l i­

g e n c e , e t c .—Murphy

t\ Hughes et al., 40 Atlantic Reporter, page
187.—Action heard in the superior court at Newcastle, State o f Dela­
ware. This was a jury trial, and the charge o f Judge Pennewill, from
which the quotation below is taken, not only clearly states the law of
the State applicable to the case, but sufficiently shows the facts
therein:
In this case the plaintiff, Nicholas Murphy, seeks to recover from
Eugene Hughes, Charles Hughes, and Anson Bangs, trading as Hughes
Bros. & Bangs, the defendants, damages for personal injuries sustained




748

BULLETIN OF THE DEPARTMENT OF LABOR.

by liim in April, 1897, and which he alleges were caused by the negli­
gence o f the defendants. The plaintiff charges among other things,
that the defendants were negligent in the employment of an incompe­
tent servant as engineer, and that, by reason of such incompetency, he
(the said plaintiff), who was at the time acting as an employee or serv­
ant o f the defendants, was injured as alleged in his declaration. The
defendants contend that they were not guilty of any negligence; that
they exercised all reasonable and proper care; and that the accident
was caused by the contributory negligence of the plaintiff*; thus deny­
ing all liability whatsoever for the injury to the plaintiff.
With the facts in the case, gentlemen, the court have nothing to do,
for o f them you are the sole judges. The evidence is for your consider­
ation and determination, alter applying thereto the law as the court
shall declare it to you.
Negligence has been defined to be the want of ordinary care; that is,
the want of such care as a reasonably prudent and careful man would
exercise under the circumstances. What constitutes negligence is a
question of law for the court, but whether negligence in fact exists is
a question o f fact for your determination from the testimony in the case.
It is a rule of law that, when a servant enters into the employ of
another, he assumes the risks ordinarily incident to the business, and
is presumed to have contracted with reference to all the hazards and
risks incident to the employment; that the employer is not bound to
employ the latest or best machinery, but only to see that what he does
employ is safe and suitable; and also that he is not the guarantor of
their safety or sufficiency. Yet it is unquestionably the law, and fully
recognized by the courts of this State, that it is the duty of the master
to exercise due care and caution in selecting competent and trust­
worthy coworkers, as well as to furnish his servants with reasonably
safe machinery and appliances with which to work; and it is such a
duty that a master can not delegate to an agent, so as to escape respon­
sibility for the negligent acts of said agent. Such a duty the master
owes to his servant; and, if the latter is injured because of the failure
o f the former to exercise such care, the master would be liable. This
court has also held that it is the duty of the master to make and pro­
mulgate proper rules for the government o f his servants and business
whenever it is so large or complicated as to make his personal super­
vision impracticable. It is, however, always a question for the jury to
determine whether such rules are sufficient for the purpose. One of
the tests of such sufficiency is that they have been in force for a con­
siderable length ot time, and in such trial have accomplished the pur­
pose sought. The presumption of law is in favor of their sufficiency on
a question of negligence. What would be due care and caution on the
part o f the master in this regard would depend largely upon the nature
o f the employment for which the coworker was selected, because, the
more dangerous and hazardous the employment, the greater the care
and caution required on the part of the master in the selection of the
person to perform it. Ordinary care would mean that degree of dili­
gence and precaution which the exigencies of the particular service
reasonably require.
It is not necessary that the master should have actual knowlege of
the incompetency of the coworker he employs; it is sufficient if, by the
exercise o f due care and caution, he could have known it; for it is the
duty o f the master, so far as he is able by the exercise of due diligence
so to do, to employ competent servants. Knowledge of the person
having charge of an incompetent servant, with i>ower to discharge him,




DECISIONS OF COURTS AFFECTING LABOR.

749

that such servant is incompetent, is, in law, the knowledge of the em­
ployer, because the person having such charge and power is the agent
o f the master, and such notice to him would be regarded as notice to
his principal. It is, of course, the duty of the master to discharge an
incompetent servant if he obtains knowledge of his inconipetency, or,
by the exercise of due care and diligence, he could have obtained such
knowledge. But, on the other hand, “ when the master uses due dili­
gence in the selection of capable and trustworthy servants, and fur­
nishes them with suitable means to perform the service, he is not
answerable to one of them for an injury received by him in consequence
o f the carelessness of another while both are engaged in the same
service.” (McKinney, Fel. Serv., § 9.)
While the master is bound, as we have already said, to exercise due
care and diligence in behalf of his servant, including that of the selec­
tion and retention of proper and competent coemployees and reasonably
safe machinery and appliances, and while the servant is entitled to
assume that the master has done his duty in this regard, and is not
chargeable with notice of the incompetency of his fellow*servant until he
has notice thereof by information or by circumstances reasonably suf­
ficient to give it, as was clearly laid down by the court in the case of
Parvis v. Bailroad Co., 8 Houst., 446, 17 Atl., 702, “ it is well settled as
a principle of law that the plaintiff was also bound at the same time
to use ordinary care, prudence, and diligence to avoid the accident and
injury 5 that is to say, he is bound to use such care, prudence, and dili­
gence as a reasonably prudent man, under the peculiar circumstances
o f the case, would exercise to preserve himself from being injured.”
This simply means that if the plaintiff himself was guilty of contrib­
utory negligence, which contributory negligence had a casual connec­
tion between the defendants’ negligence and the injury, he can not
recover, because the law does not permit anyone to recover damages
from another for an injury if bis own negligence has contributed
thereto, or where, by the exercise of reasonable care, he could have
avoided it.

E m p l o y e r s ’ L i a b i l i t y — M a s t e r ’s D u t y ^ t o E m p l o y e e — F e l ­
-S e r v a n t s , e t c .—Edward Hines Lumber Go. v. IAgas, 50 North-

low

eastern Reporter^ page 225.—Judgment was rendered in the appellate
court for the first district of the State of Illinois in favor of Frank
Ligas, in a suit brought by him, for the use of one Leo Boeder, against
the above-named lumber company to recover damages for personal
injuries sustained by Boeder while in the employ of said company.
The company appealed the case to the supreme court of the State,
which rendered its decision April 21,1898, and sustained the decision
o f the appellate court. The facts in the case were as follows: Boeder
was ordered by the appellant’s foreman to ascend to a scaffold built
upon a pile o f lumber for the purpose of handing down lumber there­
from. He climbed up on the scaffold, and while standing upon one of
the boards projecting from the pile as a support to the scaffold it broke
and he was precipitated to the ground and injured. The board which
broke was defective by reason of a knot therein, and had been placed




750

BULLETIN OF THE DEPARTMENT OF LABOR.

as a support to the scaffold by employees of the company who erected
the pile of lumber, Boeder liaviug nothing to do with the same.
The opinion of the supreme court was delivered by Judge Magruder,
and in the course o f the same he uses the following language:
A master is bound to the exercise of reasonable care with reference
to ail the appliances of his business, and is bound to protect his serv­
ants from injury therefrom by reason of latent or unseen defects, so far
as such care can do so; but the master is not an insurer to his servant
against injury, and is only chargeable for damage happening to his
servant from defective appliances when negligence can properly be
imputed to him. The servant is bound to see for himself such risks
and hazards as are patent to observation, and is bound to exercise in
the discovery of risks and hazards such opportunities for observation,
skill,and judgment as he possesses; but, when the danger from a defec­
tive appliance is not patent, the servant has a right to presume that
the master has discharged his duty, and that the appliances of the
business are reasonably safe and free from hazard. The duty of the
master to exercise reasonable care that the machinery, appliances, and
place to work which he supplies to the servant are reasonably safe is a
personal one, and he can not, by delegating to another, absolve himself
from liability for its nonperformance. Where a servant is injured by
the negligence of a fellow-servant of the common master, the master is
not liable. In this State, in order that one servant should be the fellowservant of another, their duties must be such as to bring them into
habitual association, so that they may exercise a mutual influence upon
each other promotive of proper caution. As in very many instances,
and, as regards corporations, in all cases, the master, through the
instrumentality of agents, supplies to the servant machinery, tools, and
appliances, and provides a place for him to work, much discussion has
arisen, in cases of accidents arising from defective machinery or appli­
ances, as to whether the agent of the master by whom such machinery
or appliance was supplied was the fellow-servant of the person injured,
it being insisted that if such was the case the master should not be held
liable. In many instances the court, upon its discussion of the subject,
has come to the conclusion that the agent supplying the machinery or
.appliance was not a fellow-servant of the person injured, within the
rule by which the relation of fellow servants is determined.
There is a certain incongruity in holding that the duty to exercise
reasonable care in providing reasonably safe appliances and machinery
is a personal one, which can not be delegated, and at the same time
holding that, if the failure to exercise such reasonable care was the
neglect of a fellow-servant of the party injured, then the master is not
liable; and it seems more correct to say that agents who are charged
with the duty o f supplying safe machinery and appliances are not,
when so doing, in the true sense, to be regarded as fellow-servants of
those who are engaged in the use of the same.
In Wood, Master and Servant, it is said that in an action like the
present the servant, in order to recover for defects in the appliances of
the business, is called upon to establish three propositions: First, that
the appliance was defective; second, that the master had notice thereof,
or knowledge, or ought to have had; third, that the servant did not
know o f the defect, and had not means of knowing equal to those of
the master. In the present case the jury has found all of those propo­
sitions for appellee.




DECISIONS OF COURTS AFFECTING LABOR.

751

Upon an examination of tlie record we can not say that the jury was
wrong in finding, as it did, that the defect in the board which broke
was not so patent that appellee should have taken notice of it, or that,
when told to make use of the same, appellee failed to exercise ordinary
care by not examining the board to see if it was defective. Under the
rule that the servant has a right to presume that the master has dis­
charged his duty of exercising reasonable care to see that the appli­
ances supplied are reasonably safe for the use to which they are to be
put, the servant is not bound to look for defects which are not jjatent
to a man of his intelligence, knowledge, and experience. W e can not
say that tlie jury was wrong in refusing to find that the opportunity of
appellee for ascertaining the defect in this board was equal to that of
the appellant. The board was selected by appellant, and put in its
place, to be used as a part of the scaffold, by his agents, who, when
they did this, were not, in so doing, lellow-servants of appellee. For
the reasons stated the judgment of the appellate court is affirmed.

E m p l o y e r s ’ L i a b i l i t y — R a i l r o a d C o m p a n i e s — F e l l o w -S e r v ­
a n t s — Walker

et al. v. Gillette 52 Pacific Reporter, page 442.—Action
was brought in the district court of Johnson County, Kansas, by
Fred E. Gillett against Aldace F. Walker and another, sole receivers
o f the Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe Railroad Company, to recover
damages for injuries received while employed as a brakeman on
said railroad. Judgment was rendered for the plaintiff, Gillett, and
the defendants carried the case on writ of error to the supreme
court of the State, which rendered its decision March 5, 1898, and
affirmed the judgment of the lower court. The plaintiff’s petition
stated that the plaintiff was a brakeman in the employ of the defend­
ants on a freight train under a conductor named Deitrick, who had
full charge and control of the train, and that, owing to the negligence
of said conductor, he received an injury resulting in the amputation of
his left leg above the knee and the crippling of his right foot. The
defendants’ answer stated, among other things, that the injury hap­
pened in tlie Territory of Oklahoma, where the common law was in
full force, and that the negligence, if any, was that of a fellow-servant
(tlie conductor), for which, under the laws of Oklahoma, the defend­
ants were not liable. Upon this point the opinion of the supreme
court, which was delivered by Judge Allen, reads as follows:
The question most discussed is whether the conductor and the plain­
tiff were fellow-servants, within the meaning of the common-law rule
obtaining in Oklahoma, which denies the plaintiff a right of recovery
for an injury resulting from the negligence of a fellow-servant. Coun­
sel for the plaintiffs in error [the receivers] contend that the test as to
who are fellow-servants is merely whether they are engaged in the same
line of service for the same master; that the only difference in the
employment of the conductor and the plaintiff was that the scope o f
that o f the former was greater than that of the latter, but that the
master rests under no greater duty to properly perform the duties of




752

BULLETIN OF THE DEPARTMENT OF LABOR.

the conductor than those of the brakeman. It must be conceded that
the courts have indulged in much refinement of reasoning on the ques­
tion of who are fellow-servants, and that the grounds on which many
decisions have been based on either side of the question are not alto­
gether satisfactory. The precise question in this case is whether the
master is liable to a brakeman for injuries occasioned by the negligence
of the conductor of the train on which he was employed, where the
conductor had full charge of the movements of the train and the brakeman was acting under his orders. In the case of a railway corporation
there is no personal master. The stockholders and bondholders have
the property interests, but no direct management of the property.
Their interests are looked after by a board of directors, which, in turn,
employs general officers of greater or less authority, who have the
direct and personal supervision of the operation of the property.
Where the general power to manage and command is given to one, and
the duty o f the others is merely to execute and obey, he who directs
stands in the place of the principal, and the principal must respond to
those under him for his misconduct. This must be so, else it is impos­
sible to see how at common law a railroad corporation can ever be
responsible to any of its employees for the misconduct of any officer
occupying a superior station in the same line of service $ for all are
servants, and the master is only an intangible corporate entity.
Where the injured employee and the one whose negligence occasions
the injury are engaged in different branches of corporate service, it
seems to be now quite generally held that the common-law rule exempt­
ing the master from liability does not apply. It may be that a mere
matter o f difference in the grade of service of the employees is not
controlling, but, where one is under the direct and personal supervision
and control of the other, it does control.
Whoever has full and unrestricted authority to direct and command
is a vice principal, and for his negligence the master must respond.
The conductor being the representative of the receivers in the manage­
ment of the train, they must respond in damages for his negligence.
The judgment is affirmed.

E m p l o y e r s ’ L ia b i l it y — R a il r o a d C o m p a n ie s — I m p r a c t ic a b l e
R u l e s —Holmes v. Southern Pacific Co.^ 52 Pacific Reporter, page 652.—

Suit was brought in the superior court of the city and county of San
Francisco, Cal., by Lillian Holmes, administratrix of the estate of
William E. Holmes, deceased, to recover damages for the death of the.
decedent. The evidence showed that Holmes, while in the employ of
the company above named and while engaged in the line of his duty in
coupling some cars, was caught between them and crushed so as to
cause his death. From a judgment for the plaintiff and an order
denying a new trial the defendant company appealed to the supreme
court o f the State, which rendered its decision March 24,1898, and
reversed the judgment of the superior court.
Upon one point of some interest the opinion of the supreme court,
which was delivered by Jhdge Temple, reads as follows:
Counsel have argued at considerable length the effect of a certain
rule made by defendant, and to which the attention of the deceased




DECISIONS OF COURTS AFFECTING LABOR.

753

was called at the time of his employment. Kule 215, among other
things, provides that “ employees are enjoined before coupling cars or
engines to examine and know the kind and condition of the drawhead,
drawbar, link, and coupling apparatus. * * * Sufficient time is
allowed and may be taken by employees in all cases to make the exam­
ination required. Coupling by hand in all cases is strictly forbidden
when a stick or proper implement can be used to guide the link,” etc.
Upon the trial plaintiff introduced testimony to the effect that the rule
had been not only habitually, but universally, disregarded; and also
the following, brought out on cross examination: u Q. Do you know
anything about the use of a stick to guide the link into the drawbar?—
A. They say some people use them, but I would laugh at them if I saw
them using them. Q. It is used for the purpose of coupling it from
between the cars and guiding the link into the place instead of using
the hand?—A. You might think so, but it is utterly impossible. Q.
What is it used for?—A. They can not make a coupling; they might
say it in the books, or any book, but they can not do it. Q. So far as
your experience is concerned?—A. Yes, or anyone else.” Upon this
the defendant asked the court to charge the jury, as matter of law,
“ that the rule was reasonable, and that employees have no right to
judge of the reasonableness of the rule, but must obey it as long as
they remain in the employ of the company, and the fact that the rule
may be impracticable and not observed does not excuse the employee
who is injured by its nonobservance from negligence. Therefore, if
you believe from the evidence that if William E. Holmes had followed
the rule o f the company and used a stick to make the couplings he
would not have been injured, then the mere fact that the rule was
impracticable or not observed will not excuse the negligence of Holmes
in not following the rule.” The court refused this instruction, and the
ruling is assigned as error. I f the rule was utterly impracticable, or
rendered so by the mode and conditions under which service was
required, and the servant is injured because not following an impracti­
cable rule, and can not, therefore, maintain an action for damages, then
the rule is plainly not for the protection of the servant, but of the
employer. It is a provision relieving the employer from the obligations
imposed upon him by law, to use ordinary diligence in furnishing safe
appliances with which to work and safe conditions for the performance
o f the service. So far as the rule has that effect, it is against public
policy and void. The employer is conclusively presumed to know how
the service is habitually performed. Where the usual mode is departed
from, the presumption would not prevail; and to make such a rule as
this of any avail, even if not otherwise objectionable, the work must
be so conducted that the servant may take the precautions prescribed,
otherwise it is only a provision against the liability of the employer,
and not a rule designed for the protection of the servant. The court,
therefore, did not err in refusing the instructions asked.

F

E m p l o y e r s ’ L i a b i l it y — R a il r o a d C o m p a n ie s — I n s p e c t io n o f
C a r s — A s s u m p t i o n o f R i s k b y E m p l o y e e — Texas and

o r e ig n

Pacific Railicay Co. v. Archibald, 18 Supreme Court Reporter, page
777.—This suit, commenced in a State court, was removed to the circuit
court of the United States for the eastern district of Texas. The suit




754

BULLETIN OF THE DEPARTMENT OF LABOR.

was brought by Archibald, the plaintiff, to recover damages from the
above-named railway company for an injury received while engaged as
a switchman in its employ. The primary cause of the plaintiff’s injury
appeared to be the defective condition of two cars belonging to the
Cotton Belt Ry. Co. The tracks of the Texas and Pacific Ry. Co. and of
the Cotton Belt Ry. Co. both entered the city of Shreveport, La., where
the accident occurred, and were connected. The above-mentioned cars
were turned over to the Texas Pacific Ry. Co. to be filled with oil, and
then to be returned to the Cotton Belt Ry. Co. On trial by a jury in
the circuit court there was a verdict for Archibald, and the judgment
entered by the court on said verdict was subsequently affirmed by
the United States circuit, court of appeals tor the fifth circuit, to
which the case had been carried on a writ o f error. The railway company then brought the case on writ of error before the United States
Supreme Court, which rendered its decision May 23,1898, and affirmed
the judgments of the lower courts.
From the opinion of the Supreme Court, which was delivered by Mr.
Justice White, the following is quoted:
That it was the duty of the railway company to use reasonable care
to see that the cars employed on its road were in good order and fit for
the purposes for which they were intended, and that its employees had
a right to rely upon this being the case, is too well settled to require
anything but mere statement. That this duty o f a railroad, as regards
the cars owned by it, exists also as to cars o f other railroads received
by it, sometimes designated as foreign cars, is also settled. (Railroad
Co, v. Mackey, 157 U. S., 87, 15 Sup. Ct., 491.) Said the court in that
case: uSound reason and public policy concur in sustaining the prin­
ciple that a railroad company is under a legal duty not to expose its
employees to dangers arising from such defects in foreign cars as may
be discovered by reasonable inspection before such cars are admitted
to its train.” This general duty o f reasonable care as to the safety qf
its appliances resting on the railroad, the instructions in question pro­
posed to limit by confining its performance solely to such foreign cars
as are received by a railroad “ for the purpose of being hauled over its
own roa d ;” in other words, the proposition is that, where a car is
received by a railroad only for the purpose of being locally handled,
the railway, as to such local business, is dispensed from all duty o f
looking after the condition of the cars by it used, and may, with com­
plete legal impunity, submit its employees to the risk arising from its
neglect o f duty. To this length the proposition plainly goes, as is shown
by its context, and is additionally illustrated by the argument at bar.
The argument wants foundation in reason, and is unsupported by
any authority in reason, because, as the duty of the company to use
reasonable diligence to furnish safe appliances is ever present, and
applies to its entire business, it is beyond reason to attempt by a purely
arbitrary distinction to take a particular part of the business of the
company out o f the operation of the general rule, and thereby to exempt
it, as to the business so separated, from any obligation to observe rea­
sonable precautions to furnish appliances which are in good condition.
Indeed, the argument by which the proposition is supported is self­
destructive, since it admits the general duty of the employer just stated,
and affords no reason whatever for the distinction by which it is sought




DECISIONS OF COURTS AFFECTINC4 LABOR.

755

to take tlie case in hand out of its operation. The contention is without
support o f authority, since the cases cited to sustain it are directly to
the contrary.
The theory upon which in the argument at bar it is claimed that the
cases cited overthrow the very doctrine which in truth they announce
is based upon the use of the words in the Mackey Case, u admitted into
its train.” Taking this as a premise, it is said the duty of a railroad to
exercise reasonable diligence to furnish safe appliances exists only as
to cars u admitted into its train” —that is, cars which it receives and
transports in one o f its trains—and does not obtain as to cars which it
receives and handles in its yards for local purposes only. It is obvious
from a mere casual reading of both the Mackey Case and the !New York
cases relied upon that the duty on the part of the railroad which they
inculcate applies to all cars used by the road in its business.
The elementary rule is that it is the duty of the employer to furnish
appliances free from defects discoverable by the exercise of ordinary
care, and that the employee has a right to rely upon this duty being
performed; and that while, in entering the employment, he assumes the
ordinary risks incident to the business, he does not assume the risk
arising from the neglect of the employer to perform the positive duty
owing to the employee with respect to appliances furnished. Au excep­
tion to this general rule is well established, which holds that, where an
employee receives for use a defective appliance, and with knowledge of
the defect continues to use it without notice to the employer, he can not
recover for an injury resulting from the defective appliance thus volun­
tarily and negligently used. But no reason can be found for, and no
authority exists, supporting the contention that an employee, either
from his knowledge of the employer’s methods of business or from a
failure to use ordinary care to ascertain such methods, subjects him­
self to the risks o f appliances being furnished which contain defects that
might have been discovered by reasonable inspection. The employer,
on the one hand, may rely on the fact that his employee assumes the
risks usually incident to the employ ment. The employee, on the other,
has the right to rest on the assumption that appliances furnished are
free from defects discoverable by proper inspection, and is not submit­
ted to the danger o f using appliances containing such defects because
of his knowledge o f the general methods adopted by the employer in
carrying on his business, or because by ordinary care he might have
known o f the methods, and inferred therefrom that danger of unsafe
appliances might arise. Th.e employee is not comj)elled to pass judg­
ment on the employer’s methods of business, or to conclude as to their
adequacy. He has a right to assume that the employer will use reason­
able care to make the appliances safe, and to deal with those furnished
relying on that fact, subject, of course, to the exception which we have
already stated, by which, where an appliance is furnished an employee,
in which there exists a defect known to him, or plainly observable by
him, he can not recover for an injury caused by such defective appli­
ance, if, with the knowledge above stated, he negligently continues to
use it. In assuming the risks of the particular service in which he
engages, the employee may legally assume that the employer, by what­
ever rule he elects to conduct his business, will fulfill his legal duty by
making reasonable efforts to furnish appliances reasonably safe for the
purposes for which they are intended; and, while this does not justify
an employee in using an appliance which he knows to be defective, or
relieve him from observing patent defects therein, it obviously does not




756

BULLETIN OF THE DEPARTMENT OF LABOR.

compel him to know or investigate the employer’s modes of business
under the penalty, if he does not do so, of takiug the risk o f the
employer’s fault in furnishing him unsafe appliances.

E m p l o y e r s ’ L i a b i l i t y — V i c e P r i n c i p a l s — Prevost v. Citizens1
Ice
and Refrigerating Oo., 40 Atlantic Reporter,page 88.—Suit was brought
in the court o f common pleas of Philadelphia County, Pa., by John J.
Prevost against the above-named company to recover damages for inju­
ries received while in its employ. Judgment was rendered for him, and
the defendant company appealed the case to the supreme court of the
State, which rendered its decision May 2,1808, and reversed the judg­
ment of the lower court.
The opinion of the supreme court, delivered by Judge Mitchell,
shows the facts in the case and the reasons for the decision, and reads
as follows:

A vice principal for whose negligence an employer will be liable to
other employees must be either—First, one in whom the employer has
placed the entire charge of the business, or of a distinct branch of it,
giving him not mere authority to superintend certain work or certain
workmen but control of the business, and exercising no discretion or
oversight of his own ; or, secondly, one to whom he delegates a duty of
his own which is a direct, personal, and absolute obligation, from which
nothing but performance can relieve him.
In the present case the uniform testimony was that the fall of the
pipes that injured the plaintiff* was caused by the manner of removing
the ice from them, and the judge submitted to the jury to find whether
the manner was adopted by the workman who did it, on his own judg­
ment, or whether he did it “ by direction o f some of the officers o f the
company higher in authority.” The only person to whom the evidence
pointed as having given the order was Flynn, and he does not come
within either branch of the definition of a vice principal. The evidence
is practically undisputed that the president of the company visited the
factory several times a week and exercised a general supervision over
its operation. Next to him in authority was Harper, the general man­
ager, who hired the men, including plaintiff, and “ had entire charge
of the business, inside and out,” as one of plaintiff’s witnesses expressed
it. Flynn was the chief engineer, and had general charge of the engine
room and the freezing department, of which he was the foreman or boss.
In that capacity he gave orders to the men in that department, and as
the manager, Harper, testifies, had authority to engage men for short
jobs in the manager’s absence. This is the whole substance of the tes­
timony, and it does not, in any view, amount to more than that Flynn
was the foreman o f that room or department. A foreman is ordinarily
a fellow-workman. (McGinley v. Levering,152 Pa. St.,3G6,25 Atl.,824.)
So far we have considered only the plaintiff’s evidence. If, however,
we look at the defendant’s, we find that Ballingail, the president, gave
the order to Flynn not only to have the ice removed from the pipes,
but to do it by shutting down the brine pumps, and letting the pipes
become sufficiently warm to allow the ice to be removed easily. If
Flynn disregarded this order, and directed it to be done in a different




DECISIONS OP COURTS AFFECTING LABOR.

757

way, the defendant would not be liable in any event. Where the
employer himself assumes control and gives an express order, not only
what to do, but how to do it, even a vice principal is bound to obey,
and becomes, for the time being, a mere coemployee, whatever his gen­
eral authority under other circumstances. And the employer is not
bound to personally supervise the doing o f the work. He is entitled
to assume that his orders will be carried out. The evidence, therefore,
whether we look at that on the part of the plaintiff or at the whole,
fails to show anything that justifies the submission to the jury of the
question whether Corner, the workman who caused the accident, was
acting under the orders of the defendant company or any of its officers,
and, as Corner himself was admittedly a coemployee, the verdict should
have been directed for the defendant. Judgment reversed.

E m p l o y e e s ’ L i a b i l i t y — V i o l a t i o n o p R u l e s — Card % Wilkins
\
et ah, SO Atlantia Reporter, page 676.— Action was brought in the
supreme court o f New Jersey by James Card against Alfred Wilkins
and others to recover damages for personal injuries received while in
the employ o f the defendants. There was evidence to show that the
plaintiff, a little over 12 years old, was employed iu the defendants’
shop in tending a machine containing two pairs of rollers armed with
sharp teeth, into which it was his duty to feed twisted ropes of horse­
hair; that the hair sometimes clogged the teeth and stopped the motion
o f the machine; that the plaintiff had been forbidden by the defend­
ants’ agent to touch the machine if it got clogged, or to attempt to
remove the clogging hair until the machine was stopped; that upon the
occasion of the accident he attempted to remove some hair, which
threatened to clog the machine, without first stopping it, and his hand
was drawn into the rollers and lacerated by its teeth. A verdict was
rendered for the plaintiff, and on motion of the defendants the trial
court allowed a rule to show cause why a new trial should not be
ordered. After a hearing the court rendered its decision, February 21,
1898, making the rule absolute, setting aside the verdict, and ordering
a new trial.
The opinion of the court was delivered by Chief Justice Magic, and
the syllabus o f the same, prepared by the court, reads as follows:

1 . When an employer clearly and explicitly forbids his employee to
do a certain act around or in connection with the machine on which
the employee is working, and the employee, while violating such pro­
hibition, and as a result of such violation, receives an injury, the em­
ployer is not liable therefor.
2 . This rule applies as well to minor as to adult employees.
*7234—No. 18-----7




758

BULLETIN OF THE DEPARTMENT OF LABOR.

E m ployers’

L ia b il it y — V

olunteers

— F ello w - Servants,

e t c .—Blackman

v. Thomson-Houston Electric Co. o f Augusta, 29
Southeastern Reporter, page 120.—Action was brought in the city court
o f Richmond, Ga., by Thomas Blackman, against the above-named
electric company to recover damages for injuries received by him while
in its employ, and, as he alleged, in consequence of its negligence.
The evidence showed that he was hurt by the falling of a scaffold upon
him while he was attempting, with other employees, to move an iron
wheel from a wagon into the power house of the company by means of
a block and tackle attached to the scaffold; that the scaffold was built
under the direction and supervision of the general foreman of the
company; that the fall o f the scaffold was the result of the pushing of
the wheel, which was done under the orders of the foreman, and which
was an improper thing to do in the absence of a support to the scaffold
at one end, which was not braced; that Blackman was an engineer and
had been employed to run the engine at the defendant’s powrer house
and to do other work required of him and whatever the foreman told
him to do; that at the time of the moving of the wheel the foreman
did not have help enough to move it and ordered the plaintiff to assist
in said moving; and that the foreman had the right to direct the help
at the power house, and to employ and discharge the hands, and had
hired the plaintiff. On the trial o f the case, at the conclusion o f the
evidence, the court granted a nonsuit, and the plaintiff excepted and
carried the case on writ of error to the supreme court of the State,
which rendered its decision July 27, 1897, and reversed the decision of
the lower court.
The opinion of the supreme court was delivered by Judge Atkinson,
and the syllabus of the same, which was prepared by the court, reads
as follows:

1 . One who is employed in the capacity of engineer for an incorpo­
rated manufacturing company, but who is likewise under a duty to obey
generally the orders of a person who is placed in authority over him,
and who has powrer temporarily to withdraw him from the performance
of the special duty for which he was employed, and to assign him to
the performance of other and inconsistent duties, not connected with
or embraced within his special employment, is not a fellow-servant
7
with such superior; and if, while engaged in the performance of such
duties which had been so assigned to him by his superior, he be injured,
he can not be regarded as a mere volunteer.
2 . While the person occupying the inferior position is, in a broad
and general sense, a coemployee, he is not a fellow servant with the
person in authority over him in the sense that he could not recover for
injuries sustained by him in consequence of the negligence of such
person.
3. If, in the prosecution o f the business of the corporation, the agent
having a general control of its working plant causes a scaffold to bo
constructed by other employees, under his direction, for the purpose of
removing heavy machinery, and, after its completion, temporarily with­
draws the engineer from the performance of the special dnties for which




DECISIONS OF COURTS AFFECTING LABOR.

759

he was employed, and directs him to assist in the removal o f such
machinery, using for that purpose the scaffold so constructed, and
because o f some imperfection therein, resulting from a defect in the plan
of its construction, such defect being unknown to the engineer, such
scaffold falls, and in consequence injures the engineer, he is entitled to
recover,
4. Where the person in authority, representing the master, under­
takes to plan such a contrivance, and to superintend its construction
by ordinary, unskilled laborers, such person thinks for the master, and
the servant who uses it does not take tlie risk of defects o f design, and
the master will not be excused if, in consequence of such defects only,
the servant is injured; but if the master deliver to such laborers mate­
rial well suited to that purpose, leaving it to their discretion to devise
the plan of so simple a contrivance as they proceed with the work, no
recovery could be had by one who, as a fellow-servant with such laborers,
subsequently undertook to use such contrivance, and because of defects
therein was injured; and this is true whether the defect was of plan or
construction. In either case the injury would be imputable to the neg­
ligence of the fellow-servant.
5. Under the principles above announced, the court erred in direct­
ing a nonsuit.

S e a m e n — C r im in a l J u r is d ic t io n o f F o r e ig n C o u r t s — B e c o v ERY o f W a g e s —Rindsc/aul r. The Lyman J . Foster, 85 Federal Reporter,
D

page 987.—This suit was brought in the United States district
court for the district of Washington, northern division, by one M is B.
Hindsgaul against the schooner Lyman D. Foster to recover wages,
expenses, and damages for an assault alleged to have been committed
upon him by the master. Said court rendered its decision March 5,
1S98, and dismissed the suit.
The opinion was delivered by District Judge Hanford, and the fol­
lowing language, showing the facts, etc., in the case, was used therein:
The libelant was employed as first mate of the schooner Lyman D.
Foster, for a voyage from Port Townsend to the port o f Freemantle,
West Australia, and return to a port of the United States on the Pacific
coast, the voyage not to exceed 10 months, and was to receive wages
at the rate of $50 per month. Within a short time after sailing from
Port Townsend there was trouble between him and the captain, in con­
sequence of which the libelant was deposed, and the captain himself
performed the duties of mate. After Xhe schooner had entered the
harbor of Freemantle, and when she was about to drop her anchor, the
captain went forward to oversee the running out of the anchor chain,
and, meeting the libelant near the windlass, ordered him to get out o f
the way, and immediately there was a fight between the two. Blows
were struck by each. The captain was knocked down, and received
considerable injury.
When the captain went ashore he reported the occurrence to the
consular agent o f the United States, who thereupon lodged a complaint
with a local magistrate, charging the libelant with the commission of
an assault upon the captain. The record of the proceedings in the case
in the Australian court has not been produced, but from the testimony




760

BULLETIN OP THE DEPARTMENT OP LABOR.

I find that the libelant was taken before the court, and the witnesses to
the occurrence on board the schooner in the harbor were summoned.
One was sworn and gave testimony on the part o f the prosecution.
Three others, called at the instance o f the libelant, were sworn and testi­
fied in his behalf. The magistrate or judge before whom the case was
tried then refused to hear the testimony of other witnesses called at the
instance o f the libelant, for the reason that the three who did testify
corroborated the testimony of the one witness for the prosecution as to
the material points in the case; and, on the testimony taken, the court
adjudged the libelant to be guilty as charged, and sentenced him to be
punished by imprisonment for 12 weeks; and he was detained in prison
under said sentence, having yet several weeks to serve, when the
schooner was ready to leave the port. Before sailing from Freemantle,
the captain gave to the United States consular agent a sum o f money
for the libelant, equal to the entire amount of his wages, at the rate
agreed upon, for the time he was in the schooner, without making any
deduction for the time he was off duty. The consular agent paid the
costs and expenses of the criminal prosecution against the libelant, and
gave him the balance. In this suit the libelant claims the balance of
his wages for the entire voyage, and his expenses incurred at Free­
mantle and in returning to the United States, and also damages for
assaults and abuse which he alleges were committed by the master.
Libelant’s counsel has presented his case upon the theory that a court
o f a foreign country does not have jurisdiction to punish an American
seaman for an offense agaiust the laws of the United States, committed
on board o f an American vessel; and it is his contention that the impris­
onment o f the libelant at Freemantle was wrongful; that the captain
violated his duty in sending the libelant ashore to be imprisoned in a
foreign country, and that, having by his wrongful acts prevented the
libelant from completing the voyage, he should be held estopped to dis­
pute the right of the libelant to recover wages for the entire voyage,
according to the terms o f the contract; and that, having left libelant
in a foreign port, the schooner is also liable tor the amount of his
expenses incurred while there and in returning.
I assent to the proposition that the courts o f one country have no
jurisdiction to punish a seaman for any offense committed "at sea on
board a merchant vessel under the fiag of another country, nor to punish
a seaman for an offense committed within its territorial jurisdiction, for
an act made punishable as a crime by the laws of the country to which
his ship belongs, unless such act is also a crime under the laws o f the
country where committed. But the jurisdiction of a court to punish
infractions o f the local law committed within its territorial jurisdiction
may not be denied on the ground that the offender is an alien in the
country, or that the act was committed on board of a foreign ship. The
act o f which the libelant was accused at Freemantle is malum per se,
and, presumably, punishable as a crime in all civilized.eountries. The
prosecution o f the libelant was conducted according to forms o f pro­
cedure designed to insure fairness and to promote justice, and he was
convicted upon testimony o f a witness against him, which was corrob­
orated by witnesses called at his instance. Whether the judgment
against him was just or unjust is a question which the courts o f this
country are not competent to decide, having no power to review the
judgment o f a court o f competent jurisdiction of a foreign country. I
hold that the detention of the libelant at Freemantle was not an unau­
thorized interference on the part o f the local government, nor a wrong
done to him at the instigation of the captain, but that he received Brit-




DECISIONS OF COURTS AFFECTING LABOR.

761

fell justice, at tlie bauds of a British court, for a violation of British
law committed within British territory. As a necessary consequence
o f his imprisonment, he was rendered incapable of fulfilling his contract
and earning the wages which he is now suing to recover. By placing
the amount of his wages for the time tbe libelant was in the schooner
in the bauds of the United States consular agent, for the libelant, the
captain fully performed his duty toward the libelant as to payment o f
his wages. From that time the consular agent became responsible to
the libelant for the money, and is liable if he misapplied any of it, but
the schooner is free. Under the circumstances, there could be no for­
mality observed in discharging the libelant from the service of the
schooner—the actual condition of things effected an actual discharge 5
for the captain would not have been justified in detaining the schooner,
on expense, in a foreign port, for several weeks, for the mere sake of
receiving on board a subordinate officer detained in prison as punish­
ment for an aggravated assault. He pursued the right course in going
to sea when the schooner was ready to sail, and leaving all the money
which the libelant could legally claim in the hands of an accredited
representative o f our Government.




LAW S O f VARIOUS STATES RELATING TO LABOR ENACTED SINCE
JANUARY 1, 1896.
[Tlie Second Special Report o f the Department contains all laws o f the various States and Terri­
tories and o f the United States relating to labor in force January 1, 1896. Later enactments are
reproduced in successive issues o f the Bulletin from time to time as published.]

MARYLAND.

ACTS OF 1898.
C iia p t e r 34.— Mine regulations and inspection.
S e c t io n 1. Sections 196 to 209, inclusive, o f article 1 o f the Code o f Public Local
Laws o f Maryland, entitled ‘ ‘Allegany County," subtitle “ Mine inspector," and sec­
tions 150 to 161, inclusive, o f article twelve o f the Code o f Public Local Laws o f
Maryland, entitled “ Garrett County," subtitle “ Manufactures and mines," are hereby
repealed and reenacted with amendments, and certain new sections are hereby added
to the said respective articles, to follow in the first-mentioned article, section 209,
and to be designated as “ sections 209a , 209b , 209c and 209d ," and in the second
herein-mentioned article, to follow section 164, and to be designated as “ sections
164a , 164b and 164c," and to read as to the sections hereby repealed and reenacted,
and also as to the said new sections as follows:
“ 196 o f article 1 and 150 o f article 12." That the governor shall, by and with the
advice and consent o f the Senate, appoint one mine inspector for the counties o f
Allegany and Garrett, who shall hold his office for two years from the date o f his
appointment.
“ 197 o f article 1 and 151 o f article 12." No person shall be eligible to the office o f
mine inspector until he shall have attained the age o f 30 years and shall possess a
competent and practical knowledge o f the different systems o f mining and working
and properly ventilating coal mines in said counties, and the nature and constituent
parts o f various gases o f mines, and o f the various ways o f expelling the same from
said mines, and it shall be required that he has had five years* practical experience
as a working miner in one or both counties combined next immediately preceding his
appointment.
“ 198 o f article 1 and 152 o f article 12." That before entering upon and discharging
any o f the duties o f his office, the mine inspector shall take an oath to faithfully
discharge the duties hereinafter set forth, in an impartial manner, uninfluenced by
the fear, favor, or influence o f any person or corporation whatever.
“ 199 o f article 1 and 153 o f article 12." That it shall be the duty o f said mine
inspector to carefully and personally examine each mine that may be in operation in
Allegany and Garrett counties at least once in every month, and oftener, i f neces­
sary, to see that every precaution is taken to iusure safety to all workmen that may
be engaged in said mines, and to seo that the provisions o f this act are strictly
observed, and it shall further be the duty o f said inspector, after being notified by
the coroner or magistrate o f either Allegany or Garrett counties, to attend at every
inquest that may be held on the bodies o f any person or persons that may lose their
life or lives while engaged in work in or about any o f the coal mines o f said counties,
and he shall examine closely into the cause by which such person or persons lost
their life or lives, and i f it shall be shown that said person or persons lost their life
or lives by any willful violation o f any o f the provisions o f this act by any owner
or lessee or agent o f said mines or any willful failure to comply with its provisions,
the widow or lineal heirs o f the person or persons whose life or lives shall be lost
may institute a suit against said owner, lessee or operator o f said mines, where or
wherein the accident took place, and may recover such damages as the courts may
determine for the loss they have sustained by the death o f the person or persons
whose life or lives have been lost while engaged at work in or about said mines.
“ 200 o f article 1 and 154 o f article 12." That the said mine inspector, while in
office, shall not act as land agent or superintendent or manager o f any mine, and
shall in no manner whatever be under the employ o f any mining companies or own­
ers operating mines in said counties; and it shall be the duty o f said mine inspector
on or before the first day o f January in every year to make a report to the governor
762




LABOR LAWS— MARYLAND-----ACTS OF 1898.

763

o f his proceeding as such mine inspector and the condition of each and every mine in
said counties, stating therein all accidents that may have happened in or about said
mines, and set forth in said reports all such information that may be proper or bene­
ficial, and also to make suggestions, as he may deem important, as to any further
legislation on the subject o f mining.
“ 201 o f article 1 and 155 o f article 12.” That the owner, lessee or agent o f every
coal mine that may now or hereafter be in operation in said counties of Allegany and
Garrett, whether working by slope, shaft or drift, shall provide and establish within
six months from the passage o f this act for every such mine a proper system of pureair ventilation by satisfactory and effective modes, either natural or artificial, and
said ventilation shall be maintained thereafter as long as said mine is worked or
operated, in every working place throughout the mine, and to expel from said mine
the noxious gases or impure air, so that the mine, in all its workiug headings, rooms,
crosscuts and working places, shall be in a healthful condition for the men working
therein, and free from danger to tlicir lives or health, by keeping therefrom such
impure air or gases.
“ 202 o f article 1 and 156 o f article 12.” That the owner, lessee or agent o f every
mine in operation in the counties of Allegany and Garrett, shall furnish at their own
expense, all props and all the requisite timber that may be necessary to be used in
the working o f said mines, and as the miners employed at work therein proceed with
the working o f their excavation; it shall be the duty o f the owner, lessee or agent
o f said mines, to furnish a sufficient quantity o f props and timber o f suitable char­
acter at the place in the heading room, crosscut or other excavation in the mines
where the miners are at work, and the owner, lessee or agent operating any such
mines shall, at their own expense, properly timber any headings, rooms, pillars or
other excavations not recently worked, and lay up roads by contract or otherwise
to and in the same previous to the miners starting new or further work or excava­
tions therein, and said owner, lessee or agent shall construct each heading hereafter
driven in every mine o f sufficient width and height, said height not to exceed the
natural thickness o f the vein, so as to admit of the passage of the drivers who may
be engaged in driving cars along said headings.
“ 203 o f article 1 and 157 o f article 12.” That whenever any noxious gases or
impure air is known to exist in any part o f any mine being worked in either o f said
Allegany or Garrett counties by such owner, lessee or agent, and which is likely to
endanger the health or lives o f the miners employed therein it shall be the duty o f
the mine inspector, upon the same being known to him, to proceed at once to make
a careful examination o f the ventilating apparatus o f the said mine, and i f he shall
find that the noxious gases or impure air existing in said mine resulted from the bad
condition o f the ventilating apparatus connected therewith, he shall immediately
notify the owner, lessee or agent, to close said mine, or part o f mine, or to expel
from the same all such noxious gases or impure air therein, and to properly ventilate
the same, and after such notification, if any owner, lessee or agent o f such mine
shall neglect for the space o f ten days to close said mine or part o f mine or to take
proper steps to remove such gases or impure air from such mine, ho shall be deemed
guilty o f a violation o f the foregoing provisions o f this section, and he shall be
indictable and punishable for the same as for any other violation o f this act, as
hereinafter provided.
“ 204 o f article 1 and 158 o f article 12.” That the mine inspector shall also be an
inspector o f weights and measures at all mines now or hereafter opened in said Alle­
gany or Garrett counties, and shall weigh several cars o f coal mined therein once
every month on the scales o f the different mines in said counties, in order to test the
accuracy o f said scales, and to do any other act he may deem necessary to ascertain
whether or not the miners are allowed the full weight of coal in the mining cars
when placed upon the scales of the different mines, and it shall be the duty o f every
person acting as weighmaster for the owner, lessee or agent o f any [o f] said mines,
before entering upon the performance o f his duty as weighmaster, or before making
any report as said weighmaster to said owner, lessee or agent, to make oath before
some justice o f the peace, in tbo county in which the opening or mouth o f said mine
is situated, that he will perform the duties of weighmaster, as prescribed by this
act, at such mine, with honestly [honesty] and fidelity, and will keep a true and
accurate account o f all the coal so weighed by him, and will credit and allow the
full weight o f coal in each mining car to the party or parties who mined the same,
at the rate o f two thousand two hundred and forty pounds per ton and all fractions
thereof to be counted in hundredweights (cwts.). But said oath o f weighmaster
shall be understood and construed as only requiring said weighmaster to allow and
credit said fractions o f tons in whole hundredweights (cwts.) in manner following,
namely: Where the odd pounds in any mining car in excess o f the whole hundred­
weight therein shall equal or exceed fifty-six pounds, the said weighmaster shall
credit such miner with a whole hundredweight for such odd pounds, but where said
odd pounds less than a whole hundredweight (cwt.) shall be less than fifty-six




764

BULLETIN OF THE DEPARTMENT OF LABOR.

pounds, then such weigbmaster shall give such miuer no credit whatever for such
odd pounds, and said weighiuaster shall deliver a copy under his hand and seal o f
said justice o f said affidavit to the mine inspector and it shall be the duty o f said
weiglunaster to perform the several a'-ts and matters specified in said affidavit.
“ 205 o f article 1 and 159 o f article 12.” That it shall be the duty o f every person
acting as weiglunaster for the owners, lessee or agents o f any o f said mines, to keep
in ink or indelible pencil a list or statement ot the number o f mining cars, and the
weight o f coal in each car mined each day, and the person mining the same, and
place, and keep said list in some place at the weigh-honse where said coal is weighed,
where the miners interested therein may and can inspect it on and at all times
throughout the same day on which the coal specified therein was mined, and each
o f said lists so placed there by said weigbmaster shall be kept by him for reference
and inspection by all persons interested therein for at least thirty days from the
day on which the same is made out.
“ 206 o f article 1 and 160 o f article 12.” That it shall he the duty o f every person
or body corporate, lessee, owner or agent operating a mine or mines in either o f
said couuties o f Allegany or Garrett, to provide correct and accurate scales, upon
which all coal mined iu said mine shall be weighed in the state in which it is mined
before the same shall be taken from the mine cars, in which the miners have loaded
the same, and it shall be the duty of every owner, lessee or agent o f every mine to
cause the average weight o f all the cars used in any such mine to be plainly stamped
in some conspicuous place on each o f said cars.
“ 207 o f article 1 and 161 o f article 12.” That at any time upon the request in
writing to that effect o f a majority o f the miners then employed in any coal mine in
said counties o f Allegany and Garrett, to the agent, les&ee, operator or owner o f
such mine, such owner, lessee, operator or agent o f such coal mine shall permit said
miners (but at their own expense) to provide and keep in the said weigh-house at
said mine, at the scales kept thereat, for such length o f time as such miners may
require, a check weiglunaster, who shall have the right at all times to be present
when the coal mined at each mine is being weighed by the weigbmaster o f said
mine, and to examine the scales thereof, and to take and keep a full statement o f
the weight o f each mining carload o f coal, as shown by the said scales when the
coal is being weighed thereon, by said weigbmaster, and upon the discovery by such
check weighiuaster o f any willful violation o f any o f the provisions o f this act by
the weighiuaster employed at such mine, it shall be the duty o f such check weighmas ter to immediately lay all such information before the State’s attorney o f the
county in which such weigh-house is situated, or the mine inspector, for their action
upon the same.
“ 208 o f article 1 and 162 o f article 12.” That it shall be the duty o f every agent,
owner, lessee, operator, weigbmaster, mining boss, overseer, roadsiuan, driver, miner
or any other person working or engaged in any employment whatever, in or abdut
the said mines in said Allegany and Garrett counties, or the tramroads or incline
planes leading therefrom, to observe all practical care, caution aud prudence in the
work in which they may be engaged, so that all lives, health and safety o f them­
selves and their colaborers, and the property o f the owners in and about said mines,
may be protected as far as practicable, consistent with the dangerous character o f
the work, from loss and injury, and it shall be the duty o f all miners engaged in any
o f said mines to carefully prop and timber all rooms, headings and other excava­
tions wherein they may be working, as close np to their work as may be reasonably
practicable, so as to guard, as far as practicable, against all accidents from falls o f
roof, side or breast, coal or slate, earth or other surrounding matter, and any miner
or other person employed or working in or about said mines who shall be guilty o f
any willful negligence in respect o f any o f the matters specified in this section
whereby the lives, health or safety o f any colaborers in and about any o f said mines,
or any o f the property o f the owners in or about said mines may be lost, destroyed
or injured, or unnecessarily jeopardized, shall be liable to indictment, and upon con­
viction, to be fined as hereinafter provided; and whenever in any case it shall be
brought to the notice o f the mine inspector that any person is violating any o f
the provisions o f this section, he shall at once order such person to take immediate
steps to secure the safety o f the person or property so jeopardized, and iu case o f the
refusal o f any person to comply with such order, it shall be the duty o f said inspector
to proceed at once to have such offender arrested and punished in accordance with
the provision o f this act.
“ 209 o f article 1 and 163 o f article 12.” That the grand juries that may be here­
after summoned by the circuit courts for Allegany and Garrett counties are hereby
authorized and empowered to summon said inspector before them, then at each term
o f court in said counties, and to examine into and take cognizance o f the conduct o f
any mine inspector appointed under this act, and in case any grand jury o f either
Allegany or (Sarrett counties shall at any time recommend in their report that aiiy
mine inspector appointed under the provisions o f this act should be removed from




LABOR LAWS-----MARYLAND-----ACTS OP 1898.

766

his office for misbehavior therein, neglect of duty, incompetency, or inability through
any cause to act, then, and in such case the clerk o f the circuit court in which such
report is filed shall forthwith transmit a copy o f the same, certified under ihe seal
o f the court, to the governor o f Maryland, who, upon receipt o f the same, shall at
once remove such mine inspector and proceed to appoint some other person to the
office in liis stead, to serve until the appointment o f his successor as hereinbefore
provided.
“ 209a o f article 1 and 161 of article 12.” That it shall b e lawful, however, not­
withstanding the provisions of this act, in relation to weighmaster and the weigh­
ing o f coal, for any owner, lessee, individual or agent o f any mine in said counties
o f Allegany and Garrett worked by shaft alone, to contract with the miners to
mine coal therein or therefrom by measurement, and it shall also be lawful for
any owner, lessee or agent o f any mine in said counties, at or in which not more
than ten miners are employed at any one time, to contract with the miner or miners
employed therein, by the day, week or month, instead o f by weight, and in all such
cases when the compensation o f the miners by their contract or agreement, fixed by
the day, week or inbnth, be ascertained by the cubic yard or other measurement, as
hereinbefore provided; it shall not bo obligatory upon such owner, lessee or agent o f
such mine to provide any weighmaster or weigh the coal mined in such shaft or mine,
or taken therefrom, but the mine cars used in any such mine worked by shaft, shall
be measured by a sworn measurer, and said owner, lessee or agent shall cause the
capacity o f each o f said raining cars to be plainly stamped or branded thereon; P ro­
vided, however, That apart from the exception contained in this section said owner,
lessee or agent o f any such mine specified in this section, operating the same, shall
be held to all the requirements and be subject to all the liabilities and penalties
which are provided herein in relation to the working and operation o f all other coal
mines covered by this act.
“ 209b o f article 1 and 164a of article 12.” That any owner, leases [lessee], agent,
operator, mining boss, roadsman, overseer, driver or miner or other person violating,
neglecting or refusing to comply with any o f the provisions o f this act, or violating
in any manner any o f its provisions, shall be held and deemed guilty o f a misde­
meanor, and upon indictment therefor, and conviction thereof, shall be fined not
less than fifty dollars nor more than five hundred dollars, in the discretion o f the
court, but nothing contained in this act shall be construed as depriving the courts
o f their jurisdiction to take cognizance o f any offense specified in or covered by
this act o f which they would have had jurisdiction in the common law.
“ 209c o f article 1 and 164b o f article 12.” That any mine inspector or weigh­
master at any of said mines neglecting or refusing to comply with any o f the
requirements o f this act, or violating or failing to perform in any way any o f the
duties o f his office or position as herein prescribed, shall be held and deemed guilty
o f a misdemeanor, and upon indictment therefor and conviction thereof, shall be
punished by a fine o f not less than fifty dollars nor more than five hundred dollars,
in the discretion o f the court.
“ 209d o f article 1 and 164c o f article 12.” Said mine inspector shall be paid an
annual salary, at the rate o f fifteen hundred dollars per year, payable quarterly,
whb*h said salary shall be paid out o f the State’s money by a warrant o f the comp­
troller upon the Stato treasury for the same.
S e c . 2. Tr.is act shall take effect from the date of its passage.
Approved March 14, 1898.
C h a p t e r 123.— L ab or latos—Baltimore , etc.

Article 4, entitled “ City o f Baltimore,” o f the Code o f Public Local
Laws o f Maryland, and the several acts and parts o f acts amendatory thereof, are
hereby repealed, and the said article 4 is hereby reenacted, with amendments, under
two subtitles to be known as “ Charter” and “ Miscellaneous Local Laws,” so as to
read as follows:
S e c t io n 1.

ARTICLE IV.
Cit y

of

B a l t im o r e ,

m is c e l l a n e o u s l o c a l l a w s .

Fire escapes on factories, etc.—Use o f oil, etc., in factories prohibited.
* * It shall not be lawful for any person, agent, owner or
proprietor o f any sweat shop or factory where four or more persons are employed,
to use any coal oil, gasoline, or any other explosive or inflammable compound for
the purpose o f lighting or heating in any form ; and any person, agent, owner or
proprietor violating this provision shall he guilty o f a misdemeanor, and on convic­
Se c t io n 280. *




766

BULLETIN OF THE DEPARTMENT OF LABOR.

tion thereof, be fined by the court before which such conviction is had, for every
violation, the sum o f one hundred dollars and costs, and stand committed until such
fine and costs be paid. The owner or owners o f any such house or building used as
a sweat shop or factory where four or more persons are employed as garment work­
ers, on other than the first floor o f such house or building, shall provide fire escapes
for the same; and i f any owner or owners o f any house or building so used, fail to
make or provide a fire escape, such owner or owners shall pay a fino o f two hundred
dollars, to be recovered as other fines in this State, or imprisonment in the city jail
for sixty days, or both fine and imprisonment, in the discretion o f the court.
Examination, licensing, etc., o f steam engineers.
S e c . 426. The governor shall biennially appoint, in and for the city o f Baltimore,
two engineers who have had not less than ten years7practical experience in running
steam engines, boilers and appliances pertaining to stationary or portable engines,
and who have been residents of this State for not less than five years next preceding
the date of their appointment, who shall constitute and be known as the “ board o f
examining engineers.7 The parties so appointed, before entering on their duties,
7
shall make oath before a justice o f the peace that they will faithfully perform the
duties o f their office without fear, partiality or favor; and that they will not, dur­
ing their term o f office, accept any money, gift, gratuity or consideration from any
person, and shall give bond to be approved by the comptroller o f the State, in the
sum o f three thousand dollars each, for the faithful discharge o f their duties; and
before entering on said discharge o f their said duties, the said inspectors shall pro­
vide themselves with an office in a proper location in the city o f Baltimore, and shall
give notice by publication for at least five days through the two daily papers having
the largest circulation in said city, o f the time and manner in which they will make
the examinations hereinafter provided for.
Se c . 427. The said board shall have general supervision o f all stationary engineer^
within the city o f Baltimore; it shall be their duty to examine all engiueers o f the
age o f twenty-one years or upward, who shall apply to them for examination; and
to give to all parties so examined a certificate o f proficiency, if found proficient, and
to refuse to give such certificate i f not found proficient; and the parties so receiving
such certificate shall pay to said board the sum o f three dollars for each certificate
so issued, and for all renewals o f all grades the sum o f one dollar and fifty cents;
said certificates shall be o f three grades; a certificate o f the first grade will permit
the holder thereof to take charge o f any plant o f machinery from one to five hun­
dred horsepower, and the third grade to take charge o f any plant o f machinery from
one to thirty horsepower; and the said certificate shall run for the term o f one year,
and shall be renewed annually, the term o f beginning o f said certificate to be from
the date o f the examination o f the respective applicant; Provided , That no engineer
having such certificate shall have charge o f more than one plant o f machinery at
the same time unless said plant be o f the same company and at one and the same
place; and no substitute who has not been examined and received the certificate
aforesaid shall be placed in charge o f machinery by an engineer who has.
S e c . 428. All persons o f twenty-one years o f age or upward who, after the adoption
o f this article, shall desire to fill a position as a stationary engineer, must make appli­
cation to the board o f examining engineers for examination and certificate o f pro­
ficiency, before he can pursue his avocation as such engineer; Provided, That any
engineer employed as stationary engineer at the works o f any steam railway, or any
engineer employed as such with any stationary engine, who at the time o f the adop­
tion o f this article shall have been employed at the same place for the term o f six
months or more, shall not bo required to apply for such examination and certificate;
but whenever such engineers shall remove from the place where so employed they
shall be, and aTe hereby required to make application for examination and certificate
to said board o f examining engineers as hereinbefore provided; A n d provided, further ,
That the provisions o f this section shall not apply to persons running engines and
boilers in sparsely settled country places, where not more than twenty persons are
engaged in work about such engines and boilers, nor to engineers running country
saw and grist mills, thrashing machines and other machinery o f a similar character,
nor to marine engineers engaged in steamboats, ships and other vessels run by steam,
nor to those engaged as locomotive engineers o f any steam railway company. And
in the event o f any charge being made to said board, o f any engineer who may hold
a certificate from them, o f being intoxicated, while in charge o f an engine or boiler,
or o f the neglect o f duty on the part o f such engineer or engineers, it shall be the
duty o f said board to immediately hear such charge, and i f sustained, annul such
certificate. The certificate granted to the respective applicants must be framed and
kept in a conspicuous place at such place as such persons may be respectively at
work. Any person violating the provisions o f this subdivision o f this article shall
be deemed guilty o f a misdemeanor, and, upon trial and conviction before a justice o f




LABOR LAWS---- MARYLAND— ACTS OP 1898.

767

the peace, shall!)e fined not loss than twenty-five dollars nor more than fifty dollars,
one-half o f which shall he paid the informer and the balance to the State.
S e c . 429. Said board o f examining engineers shall meet at their office in the city
o f Baltimore for the purpose of examining applicants at least once in every week,
and at a specified hour and day, and shall sit until all applicants shall be examined,
and in the event o f inability to examine all the applicants on the regular day o f
meeting, they shall continue their sessions for each successive day until the same
shall be completed. They shall visit and inspect the running and management o f all
steam plants wherein the engineers are required to be examined as hereinbefore pro­
vided, not less than once every six months, and in the event o f their finding on such
examination that the engineer or engineers in charge o f such plant or machinery are
not running and managing the same with proper skill and care, they shall report
the same to the State hoard o f boiler inspectors for their action; and said board o f
examining engineers are hereby invested with power and authority to enter all such
premises and make the examination herein provided for; and any owner o f any
such premises who shall refuse to allow them to enter and make such examination
shall be deemed guilty of a misdemeauor and he punishable, upon trial and convic­
tion, as provided in the preceding section.
S ec. 430. The said board o f examining engineers shall receive an annual salary o f
fifteen hundred dollars each, and shall have power to employ a clerk or secretary at
a salary not exceeding the sum of one thousand dollars per annum, and such expense
shall be allowed said board as shall be incurred in traveling expense, office rent, sta­
tionery and printing, and for which they shall produce to the comptroller o f the
State treasury proper vouchers; Provided, however, That no appropriation shall he
made and no moneys paid by the State treasurer to said hoard for or on account o f
said salaries and expenses, but that tlie same shall be paid to them by and from the
fees received for the examination and certificates hereinbefore provided for; And
provided,further, That the said hoard shall keep a strict account o f all fees received
for such purposes, and quarterly, under oath or affirmation, return said statement to
the comptroller o f the State treasury; and whenever the amount is in excess o f the
salaries and expenses hereinbefore provided for they shall forward such excess to said
comptroller, and they shall keep a certificate book with the certificates therein duly
numbered and o f which to each certificate there is a corresponding stub to ho filled
in to correspond in all respects to the certificate issued, and subject to the inspection
o f the comptroller, when he may deem the same necessary.
Seats for female employees.
S ec . 505. It shall be the duty o f all employers o f females in any mercantile or
manufacturing business or occupation in the city o f Baltimore to provide and main­
tain suitable seats for the use of such female employees, and to permit the use o f
such seats by such employees to such an extent as may he reasonable lor the preser­
vation o f their health.
S ec . 506. Any violation of the preceding section by any employer shall be deemed
a misdemeanor, and shall he punishable by a fine o f one hundred and fifty dollars,
to be collected as other fines are collected.
Tenement and lodging houses.
S ec. 507. The mayor and city council o f Baltimore are authorized and directed to
enact ordinances regulating the construction, care, use and mxinagement o f tenement
houses, lodging houses and cellars in the city o f Baltimore, for the better protection
o f the lives and health of the inmates dwelling therein.
Sec . 508. A tenement house shall he taken to mean and include every house, build­
ing or portion thereof which is rented, leased, let or hired out to be occupied, or is
occupied, as the house or residence o f more than three families living independently
o f another, and doing their own cooking upon the premises, or by more than two
families upon a floor so living or cooking, but having a common right in the halls,
stairways, yards, water-closets or privies, or some o f them; a lodginghouse shall
be taken to* mean and Include any house or building, or portion thereof, in which
persons are harbored or received, or lodged for hire for a single night, or for less
than a week at one time, or any part o f which is let for any person to sleep in for
any time less than a week; a cellar shall be taken to mean and include every base­
ment or lower story o f any building or house o f which one-lialf or more o f the
height from the floor to the ceiling is below the level o f the street adjoining.
Examination, licensing, etc., o f plumbers.
B e c . 509. It shall not he lawful for any person, firm or corporation engaged in the

plumbing business in the city o f Baltimore to employ as workmen in said business




708

BULLETIN OP THE DEPARTMENT OF LABOR.

any persons, except those qualified to work at the plumbing business, as provided
in section 511 o f this article; and no person shall be qualified to work at the plumb­
ing business unless he has made application to and received from the State board o f
commissioners o f practical plumbing the certificate o f competence provided for in
section 511 of this article, and is otherwise qualified, as required by this subdivision
o f this article. Auy person or firm engaged in the plumbing business in the city o f
Baltimore, and the superintendent, manager, agent or other officer o f any corpora­
tion, engaged in the plumbing business in the city o f Baltimore, who shall employ
any person to work at the plumbing busiuess not qualified as required by this sub­
division of this article shall be guilty of a misdemeanor, and upon conviction thereof
shall bo fined not less than ten dollars nor more than fifty dollars for every day or
part of every day that such employer shall employ such workman.
Sec . 510. I f any person shall work at the plumbing business in the city o f Balti­
more without being qualified as required by this subdivision of this article he shall
be deemed guilty o f a misdemeanor, and upon conviction thereof shall be fined net
less than five dollars nor more t-lian fifty for every day or part of every day that such
workman shall work at the plumbing business.
Sec . 511. The governor shall appoint bieuuially five persons, who shall constitute
a board of commissioners, which shall be known and designated as “ The State
board o f commissioners o f practical plumbing,” and who shall be selected as fol­
lows: Three persons who are practical and skilled plumbers from the city o f Balti­
more, the commissioner o f health o f Baltimore city, and a member o f the State
board of health, from the State at large, whose duty it shall be to faithfully and
impartially execute, or cause to be executed, all the provisions and requirements o f
this and the two i>receding sections, upon application and in such manner and at
such place as they may determine; Provided , Said place o f examination shall be
within the limits of the city o f Baltimore, they shall examine each and every per­
son who shall desire to work at the plumbing business, touching his competency and
qualifications; and upon being satisfied that the person so examined is competent
and qualified to work at said business, they, or any three of them, shall grant such
persou a certificate o f competency, and register him in their books as a practical
plumber, which shall operate as full authority to him to conduct and engage in the
said business o f plumbing.
S e c . 512. The said board o f commissioners shall demand and receive from each
applicant for a certificate o f competency whom they examine and pass the sum o f
three dollars at the time o f the issuance o f said certificate, and the sum o f one dollar
for the renewal thereof each and every year thereafter, on or before the first day o f
May.
S e c . 513. The money received under the provisions o f the foregoing section shall
bo used and applied by said commissioners to defray their expenses, and all surplus
over and above their necessary expenses shall be returned to the state treasurer for
the use o f the State.
Sec. 514. Said commissioners shall hold their several offices for the period o f two
years, commencing from the first day o f May in the year eighteen hundred and eightysix, and thereafter until their successors have been appointed and qualified; each
commissioner, within thirty days after notification o f liis appointment, shall take
and subscribe an oath or affirmation before the clerk o f the superior court o f Balti­
more city, to impartially and faithfully discharge his duties as said commissioner;
every person appointed commissioner, who shall refuse or neglect to take the oath or
affirmation provided for in this section, within the period named, shall be deemed to
have refused said office, and the governor shall immediately appoint some person
qualified as provided in section 511 o f this article, to fill the' vacancy thus created;
each o f said commissioners shall receive the sum o f five dollars for every day that
he shall be present at a meeting o f said board, for the transaction o f business'; Pro­
vided, however. That in each year he shall not receive compensation for more than
tbirty dollars [days?] ; And provided, alxo, That said compensation shall be paid out
o f the fees or other sums received by said board.
Sec . 515. The said board o f commissioners are empowered to make such rales and
regulations from time to time as in their judgment they may deem necessary and
requisite; and they shall make a report o f the condition o f the board to the gover­
nor biennially, on or before the first day o f February, with a full statement o f their
receipts and expenditures.
Hours of labor—Employees o f the city.
Sec . 516. No mechanic or laborer employed by the mayor and city council o f
Baltimore, or by any officer, agent or contractor under it, shall bo required to work
mow than nine-hours per day as a day's labor; Provided, however, That this section
shall not apply to mechanics and laborers whose hours o f labor are already fixed at
less than nine hours per day; A n d provided, further, That the provisions o f this sub­




LABOR LAWS— MARYLAND— ACTS OF 1898.

769

division o f this article shall not apply to the employees o f the fire department, Bay
View asylum or the Baltimore city jail. Auy such officer, agent or contractor who
shall require any mechanic or laborer to work more than nine hours per day, con­
trary to the provisions o f this section, shall be lined not less than ten dollars nor
more than fifty dollars for each offense; one-half o f such line to go to the informer;
said fines to be collected as other fines are collected by law.
Hours o f labor—Street-railway employees.
Sec . 793. No street railway company incorporated under the laws o f this State,
and no officer, agent or servant o f such corporation, and no person or firm owning
or operating any line or lines o f street railways within the limits o f this State, and
no agent or servant o f such firm or person shall require, permit or suiter its, his or
their conductors or drivers, or any o f them, or any employees in its, his or their
service, or under his, its or their control, to work more than twelve hours during
each or any day o f twenty-four hours, and shall make no contract or agreement
with such employees, or any o f them, providing that they or he shall work for more
than twelve hours during each or any day o f twenty-four hours.
S e c . 794. Auy corporation which shall in any manner violate any o f the provisions
o f the preceding section shall be deemed to have misused or abused its corporate
powers and franchises, and the attorney-general o f the State, upon the ap|>lication
in writing, made by any citizen o f this State, accompanied by sufficient proof o f
such violation, shall forthwith, without further authorization, institute proceedings
for tho forfeiture o f the charter o f such corporation, by petition in the name o f the
State, in the manner provided by the laws o f this State for the enforcement o f the
forfeiture of tho charter o f any corporation which has abused or misused its cor­
porate powers or franchises.
S e c . 795. I f any corporation, or any officer, agent or servant o f such corporation,
or any person or any firm managing or conducting any street railway in this State,
or any agent or servant o f such person or firm, shall do any act in violation o f the
provisions o f section 793, it, he, or they shall be deemed to have been guilty o f a
misdemeanor, anti shall, on conviction thereof in a court o f competent jurisdiction,
be fined one hundred dollars for each offense so committed, together with the costs
o f such prosecution.
Employment o f females as waiters in places o f public amusement.
Sec. 900. It shall not bo lawfnl for any proprietor, lessee or manager o f any the­
ater, museum or other place o f amusement, to employ women or girls as waiters, or
to permit them to act in such theater or place o f amusement, or among the audience
or frequenters o f such theater or place o f amusement as waiters, or for the purpose
or under the pretense o f selling, serving, receiving orders or pay for spirituous or
malt liquors, wines, lager beer, or any other refreshments or merchandise.
Se c . 901. A n y person v io la tin g the p rovision s o f the p reced in g section sh all b e
deem ed g u ilty o f a m isdem eanor, and on co n v ictio n th ereof in th e crim in a l cou rt o f
B altim ore, shall be sentenced to p a y a fine o f n o t less than one h un dred n or m ore
than one th ou san d dollars, or t o im prisonm ent in ja il n o t less th an one m onth nor
m ore than s ix m onths, o r to b oth fine and im prisonm ent, at the discretion o f the cou rt,
and to fo rfeitu re o f license, on e-h a lf th e fine to be p a id to th e iu form er and th e
oth er h a lf to th e State.

Approved March 24, 1898.
Chapter

273.—Manual training and industrial schools.

W h e r e a s , tho establishment of well-conducted and liberally-supported schools,
or departments, in one o f the large graded schools or high schools in each couuty o f
the State, for the development and training o f the manual ability o f pupils, must
tend to supply a growing want in each county o f the State; and
W h e r e a s , ft is especially the duty o f the State to afford the best educational facil­
ities to its youth in those technical studies which are directly associated with the
material prosperity o f its people; and
W h e r e a s , it is for the best interests o f this State that the colored population o f
each county shall have an opportunity for the establishment o f separate industrial
schools; therefore,
S e c t i o n 1. Be it enacted by the General Assembly o f Maryland, That it shall he the
duty o f the hoard o f county school commissioners, when a suitable btiildiug, or
room or rooms connected with one o f the large graded schools or high schools, shall
be provided by the county, or money sufficient for the erection o f such buildi ng, or room
or rooms, to aeceptthesame (if, in tho judgment o f the hoard, there is any necessity
therefor), and thereafter to provide for the maintenance o f a manual training school,
or manual trainiug department, for said county, and the salaries o f teachers and




770

BULLETIN OP THE DEPARTMENT OF LABOR.

manual training instructors, out o f the general school fund and the State aid herein­
after provided.
Se c . 2. A n d he it enacted, That whenever a manual training school, or manual
training department, is opened in -any county, the president and secretary o f the
hoard o f county school commissioners o f said county shall report to the secretary o f
the State board o f education, and the State board o f education shall, without delay,
proceed to appoint the principal o f the State normal school, or one o f the teachers
in said school, well qualified for such service, to visit the school and give a certifi­
cate o f approval o f its condition and the plan upon which it is conducted; and
thereafter the president and secretary o f the board o f county school commissioners
shall report to the comptroller the condition o f the school, the number o f instruct­
ors, and the number o f pupils enrolled, on or before the twentieth day o f January
in each year.
S e c . 3. And he it enacted, That the comptroller o f the treasury, after receiving the
certificate o f approval concerning the county manual training school, or manual
training department, according to the provisions o f the second section o f this act,
is hereby authorized and directed to issue his warrant upon the treasurer o f the
State for the sum of fifteen hundred dollars, payable to the order o f the treasurer o f
the board o f county school commissioners o f the county filing the certificate o f approval
aforesaid, out o f any moneys in the State treasury not otherwise appropriated, on the
first day o f October in each year, for the support o f said manual training school, or
manual training department.
S e c . 4. And he it enacted, That the county manual training school, or the manual
training department and the school to which it is attached, shall be under the man­
agement and control o f the board o f county school commissioners.
S e c . 5. And he it enacted, That it shall be the duty o f the board o f county school
commissioners o f each county in this State, whenever a suitable building, or room
or rooms connected with one o f the colored schools o f said county, shall be provided
by the county to accept the same, if in the judgment o f the said board there is any
necessity therefor, and thereafter to provide for the maintenance o f such member
[number] o f separate colored industrial schools as in their judgment may be needed,
and the salaries o f such teachers as may be required for that purpose shall be paid
out of the general fund and the State aid hereinafter provided.
S e c . 6. And he it enacted, That whenever any such separate colored industrial
school or schools are opened in any county, the president and secretary o f the board
o f county school commissioners o f said county shall report the fact to the secretary
o f the State board o f education, and the State board of education shall without
delay proceed to appoint a proper person well qualified for such service, to visit the
said school or schools and give a certificate o f approval o f its condition and the plan
upon which it is conducted, and thereafter the president and secretary o f the said
board shall report to the comptroller o f this State the condition o f said school or
schools, the number o f instructors and the number o f pupils enrolled during the
school year last ended, on or before the 20th day o f August in each year.
S e c . 7. A n d he it enacted, That the comptroller o f the treasury upon receiving the
certificate o f approval concerning the county colored industrial school or schools, as
aforesaid, according to the provisions o f the sixth section o f this act, is hereby
authorized and directed to issue his warrant upon the treasurer o f the State for the
sum o f fifteen hundred dollars, payable to the order [o f the] treasurer o f the board
o f county school commissioners o f the county, upon the filing o f the certificates o f
approval aforesaid, out o f any moneys in the State treasury not otherwise appropri­
ated, on the first day o f October in each year, for the support o f said colored indus­
trial school or schools, and thereafter the said industrial school or schools shall be
under the management and control o f the said board o f county school commissioners.
S e c . 8. And be it enacted, That no entire appropriation for the benefit o f any man­
ual training school, provided for under this act, shall be paid as authorized, after
the first annual appropriation, unless said school shall have had an average daily
attendance o f thirty scholars for the preceding year; and incase said attendance
shall fall short o f said number, then there shall only be paid toward the maintenance
o f said school at the rate o f fifty ($50.00) dollars for each scholar o f its daily average
annual attendance, to be determined by the report hereinbefore required to be made
to the comptroller.
S e c . 9. A n d he it enacted, That no appropriation for the benefit o f the colored
industrial schools o f any county, provided for under this act, shall be paid after the
first annual appropriation, unless the average daily attendance at such school or
schools shall have been, for the preceding year, at least thirty scholars; and in case
said attendance shall fall short o f said number, then there shall be paid to the treas­
urer o f the county school commissioners maintaining said school or schools, only at
the rate o f fifty ($50.00) dollars a scholar, for the daily average annnal attendance
at the same, to be determined by the report hereinbefore required to be made to the
comptroller.
Approved April 7, 1898.




LABOR LAWS— MARYLAND— ACTS OF 1898.

771

C h a p t e r 457.— Earnings o f married women.
S e c t io n 1. Article XLY of tlie Code o f Public General Laws, title “ Husband and!

wife,” is hereby repealed and reenacted with amendments, so as to read as follow s:;
1. * * * All the property which she [a married woman] may acquire or receive
after her marriage, * * * by her own skill, labor or personal exertions, * * *
shall be protected from the debts o f the husband, and not in anyway be liable for
tlie payment thereof; * * * .
Sec . 2. This act shall take effect on and after the first day of January, 1899.
Approved April 9, 1898.
C h a p t e r 458.—Hours o f labor— Employees o f city.
S e c t io n 1. The act o f 1892, chapter 286, entitled “ An act to add a new section to
article 4 o f the Code of Public- Local Laws, title ‘ City o f Baltimore/subtitle ‘ Mayor
and city council o f Baltimore/ and to come in after section 31, and to be called sec­
tion 31 a , relating to the hours o f labor o f mechanics and laborers'upon city work,”
is hereby repealed and reenacted to read as follows:
31a . No mechanic or laborer employed by the mayor and city council o f Baltimore,
or by any officer, agent, contractor or subcontractor under them, shall be required
to work more than eight hours per day as a day’s labor; Provided, further , That this
section shall not apply to the employees o f the fire department, Bay View asylum or
the Baltimore city jail. Any such officer, agent, contractor or subcontractor who
shall require any mechanic or laborer to work more than eight hours per day, con­
trary to the provisions o f this section, shall be fined not less than ten dollars nor
more than fifty dollars for each and every offense, one-half of such fine to go to the
informer; said fines to be collected as other fines are collected by law.
S e c . 2. This act shall take effect on the first day o f May, 1898.
Approved April 9, 1898.
C h a p t e r 474.—Policemen not to be employed on mechanical work or labor.
S e c t io n 1. An additional section, to be known as 759b , [shall] bo added to article
4 o f the Public Local Laws, title “ City o f Baltimore,” subtitle “ Police,” to read
as follow s:
759b . N o member of the police force provided for by this article and subtitlo shall
be by the said board o f police commissioners employed or be permitted to be em­
ployed, to do or perform for the said board, or the mayor and city council o f Balti­
more, any mechanical work or labor other than the work or labor required o f the
members o f said police force by the provisions o f this article and subtitle relating
to police duties. The purpose and object o f this section is to prevent patrolmen and
other members o f said police force from being taken from the performance o f police
duty, as prescribed by this article and subtitle, and made to perform the w
rork and
labor o f carpenters, bricklayers and similar mechanical work and labor.
Sec . 2. This act shall take effect from the date o f its passage.
Approved April 9,1898.
C h a p t e r 491.—Examination , licensing, etc.f of horseshoers.

1. It shall be unlawful for any person to practice horseshoeing in the city
o f Baltimore or in the twelfth district o f Baltimore County, unless such person has
obtained a certificate and has been duly registered as hereinafter provided.
Sec . 2. A “ board o f examiners for horseshoers” is hereby created, which shall
consist o f five member [members], one o f whom shall be doing business as veteri­
narian only, two master horseshoers and two journeymen horseshoers, all doing
business in Baltimore City, whose duty it shall be to carry out the purposes and
enforce the provisions o f this act. The members o f said board shall be appointed
by the governor, and the term for which they shall hold office shall be four years,
except that the members o f said board to be first appointed under this act shall he
designated by the governor to serve one for two years, two for three years, and two
for iour years, and unless removed by the governor, until their successors are duly
appointed. Any vacancy in said board, for any cause, shall be filled by the governor.
Be c . 3. Said board shall meet in the month o f May next after the passage o f this
act, and organize by the election o f a president and secretary, and thereafter shall
hold regular meetings in the months o f May and November in every year, and such
special meetings for the examination o f persons desiring to practice horseshoeing as
occasion may require; they shall pass such by-laws and prescribe such rules and
regulations as may be necessary to carry into effect the provisions o f this act; and
said board shall, at its first meet, prescribe and clearly define the qualifications and
Se c t io n




772

BULLETIN OP THE DEPARTMENT OP LABOR.

tests necessary to obtain a certificate as master or journeyman horseshoer. Printed
copies o f such requirements shall be furnished to all persons desiring to pass an
examination for said certificate, and any person who shall on examination be found
by a majority o f said board to possess the said requirements so prescribed, shall bo
granted a certificate to that effect on the payment to said board o f a fee o f two dol­
lars; and all proceedings o f said board shall be open to public inspection.
Skc. 4. Any person who lias practiced as a master or journeyman horseshoer in the
city of Baltimore or the twelfth district o f Baltimore County, for three years prior to
the passage o f this act, who will file an affidavit to that effect with said board, shall
be entitled to a certificate without an examination, on the payment o f a fee o f twentyfive cents to said board; or anyone who has a certificate from any duly constituted
examining board o f the State o f Maryland, or o f any other State, that he is a compe­
tent master or journeyman horseshoer, on filing and registering said certificate or a
copy thereof with said board, shall be entitled to a certificate irom said board with­
out examination, on payment o f a fee o f two dollars; but, after the passage o f this
act. no person who has not served an apprenticeship at horseshoeing for a period o f
three years shall be entitled to an examination for said certificate.
S e c . 5. All certificates issued by said board shall be signed by its officers and bear
its seal; and the secretary o f said board shall keep a book, in which all certificates
so issued and the names o f the persons to whom the same shall have been issued
shall be duly registered, and a transcript from said book o f registration, certified by
the secretary, with the se.il o f the board, shall be evidence in any court in the State,
and said secretary shall furnish to anyone a copy o f his certificate on payment o f the
sum o f one dollar.
S k c . 6. Any person who shall violate any o f the provisions o f this act shall be
gnilty o f a misdemeanor, and upon the conviction thereof in any court having crim­
inal jurisdiction, shall be fined not more than twenty-five dollars or be confined in
the Baltimore city jail or Baltimore county jail, not more than one month, in the
discretion o f the court. All fines received under this act shall be paid into^the com­
mon school fund o f the city o f Baltimore, or o f Baltimore County, i f the offense shall
have been committed in said county. The provisions o f this act shall not iuterfere
with the right o f the owners o f horses to have them shod at their own shops.
Sec . 7. This act shall take ejfeet from the date o f its passage.
Approved April 9, 1898.
Chapter

493.— Truck system— Railroad and mining corporations prohibited from selling
goods, etc,, to employees— Allegany County,

S e c t i o n 1. It shall not he lawful for any railroad or mining corporation, doing
business in Allegany County, nor for the president, vice president, manager, superin­
tendent, any director or other officer o f such corporation, to own or have any interest
in any general store or merchandise business in Allegany County, in which goods/
wares and merchandise are sold, nor to conduct or carry on any such business, or
have any interest in the profits o f the same in Allegany County, nor to soli or barter
any goods, wares or merchandise in such county.
S ec. 'J, It shall not be lawful for the clerk o f the circuit court for Allegany County
to issno a trader’s license to any corporation or person or persons to sell goods, wares
and merchandise, unless he shall first administer to the party applying therefor an
oath that no railroad or mining company, or president, manager, superintendent, or
any director, or other officer o f such corporation, has any interest directly or indi­
rectly in such store or business, or the profits thereof, purposed to be carried on under
said license.
Sec . 3. Any store or business conducted in Allegany County by railroad or mining
corporation, or private individuals engaged iu railroading or mining, in which
goods, wares or merchandise are sold to the employees o f the owners o f sncli store
or business in part payment o f their wages as such employees, shall be subject to a
suit at law for damages by the employees purchasing such goods, and be liable to
tlie said employees in a sum o f money equal to the amount paid for such goods,
wares or merchandise bought by such employees.
Sec. 4. Any such mining corporation who, through its stockholders, officers, by
any rule or regulation o f its business, shall make any contract with the keepers or
owners o f any other store whereby the employees o f such corporation shall be
obliged to trade with such keeper or owner, shall be guilty o f a misdemeanor and
upon conviction shall be subject to damages payable to said employee to the extent
o f the amount o f goods purchased from such store; proof o f such a contract
between the mining corporation and the storekeeper shall be prima facie evidence
o f the fact that such store is under control o f such mining corporation and in viola­
tion o f the provisions o f this act.
Sec . 5. Any corporation or person who shall violate any o f the provisions of this
law, which is horeby declared to he a law to prevent employers from controlling




LABOR LAWS-----MARYLAND-----ACTS OP 1898.

773

the trade of their employees, or coercing and directing them to any certain store,
shall be deemed guilty o f a misdemeanor, and on conviction thereof shall be finea
not less than fifty dollars nor more than five hundred dollars, and the license o f
such corporation, person or persons, shall be suppressed.
S e c . 6. This act shall take effect on the first day o f January, 1899.
Approved April 14, 1898.
CiiArTEK 505.— Protection o f wages o f employees o f stevedores—Stevedores’ licenses.
S e c t io n 1. A section [shall] be added to the Public Local Laws o f Maryland,
volume 1, article 4, title “ City o f Baltimore,” subtitle “ Licenses,” to provide for
licenses for stevedores, said section to be known as 668a , and to read as follow s:
668 a . Before any person or body corporate shall transact the business o f a master
stevedore in the city o f Baltimore, he or it shall first obtain from the clerk o f the
court o f common pleas in said city a State’s license, authorizing him or it to carry
on said business in the said city, for which said license he or it shall pay the sum o f
twenty-five dollars, and in addition to this, he or it shall file with said clerk a bond
to the State o f Maryland in the sum of one thousand dollars, which said bond shall
be furnished by some security or bonding company o f the city o f Baltimore, to be
approved by said clerks for the faithful performance of said business o f a stevedore,
and for the payment o f all wages due by him or it, to any one employed by him or
it in the work o f unloading vessels in the city of Baltimore, and any stevedore who
shall violate this section by failure to file such bond, or to obtain the license as
aforesaid, though continuing to transact the business o f a stevedore, shall be deemed
guilty o f a misdemeanor, and shall, on conviction thereof in the criminal court o f
Baltimore City, be fined the sum o f one hundred dollars, or be imprisoned in the city
jail for the term [o f] not exceeding six months, or both, in the discretion o f the
court.
Approved April 9, 1898.
MISSISSIPPI.

ACTS OF 1898.
C h a p t e r 65.—Employer's liability fo r death o f an employee, etc.
S e c t io n 1. The act of the legislature o f said State [Mississippi], approved March
23, 1896, being entitled “ An act to amend section 663 o f the Annotated Code o f 1892,
as to actions causing death, and exempting damages, recovered for personal injuries,
[shall] be amended so as to read as follow s:
C h a p t e r 86. An act to amend section 663 o f the Annotated Code of 1892, as to actions

for causing* death, and exempting damages, recovered for personal injuries.
S e c t io n 1. Section 663 o f the Annotated Code o f 1892 [shall] be so amended as to

read as follows: Whenever the death of any person shall be caused by any real,
wrongful or negligent act, or omission, or by such unsafe machinery, way or appli­
ances, as would, if death had not ensued, have entitled the party injured or damaged
thereby to maintain an action and recover damages in respect thereof, and such
deceased person shall have left a widow or children, or both, or husband, or father, or
mother or sister, or brother, the person or corporation, or both, that would have
been liable i f death had not ensued, and the representative o f such person shall be
liable for damages, notwithstanding the death, and the fact that death is instan­
taneous, shall, in no case, affect the right o f recovery. The action for such damages
may be brought in the name o f the widow for the death o f the husband, or by the
husband for the death o f the wife, or by a parent for the death o f a child, or in
the name of a child for the death o f a parent, or by a brother for the death o f a sister,
or by a sister for the death o f a brother, or by a sister for the death o f a sister, or a
brother for the death o f a brother, or all parties interested may join in the suit, and
there shall be but one suit for the same death, which suit shall inure for the benefit
o f all parties concerned, but the determination o f such suit shall not bar another
action unless it be decided on its merits. In such action the party or parties suing
shall recover such damages as the jury may, taking into consideration ail damages
of every kind to the decedent and all damages o f every kind to any and all parties
interested in the suit. Executors or administrators shall not sue for damages for
injury causing death except as below provided; but every such action shall be com­
menced within one year after the death o f such deceased person.
Sec. 2. This act shall apply to all personal injuries o f servants or employees
received in the service or business o f the master or employer, where such injuries
result in death.

*7234—No. 18----- 8



1U

BULLETIN OF THE DEPARTMENT OF LABOR.

Sec* 3. Damages recovered under the provisions o f this act shall not he subject
to the payment o f the debts or liabilities o f the deceased, and such damages shall
be distributed as follows: Damages for the injury and death o f a married man
shall be equally distributed to his wife and children, and i f he has no children all
shall go to his wife; damages for the injury and death o f a married woman shall
be equally distributed to the husband and children, and if she has no children all
shall go to the husband; i f the deceased has no husband nor wife, the damages
shall be distributed equally to the children; if the deceased has no husband, nor
wife, nor children, the damages shall be distributed equally to the father, mother,
brothers and sisters, or to such o f them as the deceased may have living at his or
her death. I f the deceased have neither husband, or wife, or children, or father,
or mother, or sister, or brother, then the damages shall go to the legal representa­
tives, subject to debts and general distribution, and the executor may sue for and
recover such damages on the same terms as are prescribed for recovery by the next
o f kin in section 1, o f this act, and the fact that deceased was instantly killed shall
not affect the right o f the legal representative to recover.
Bsc. 4. All suits pending in any court at the time o f the approval o f this act and
which were also pending at the time said chapter went into effect, shall not bo
affected by any o f its provisions; but all such suits shall be conducted and con­
cluded under the laws in fore© prior to the time o f the approval o f said act, on
March 23, 1896.
Approved January 27, 1898.
C h a p t e r 6 6 . — Em ployees

liability fo r injuries to employees.

S e c t i o n 1. The act o f the legislature o f said State [Mississippi], approved March
11, 1896, being entitled “ An act to amend section 3559 o f the Annotated Code o f
1892, with reference to the liability o f corporations to their employees,” [shall] be
amended so as to read as follow s:

Chapter

87. An act to amend section 3559 o f the Annotated Code o f 1892, with
reference to the liability o f corporations to their employees.

S e c t i o n 1. Section 3559 o f the Annotated Code o f 1892 [shall] be amended so
that the same shall read as follows, to w it: Every employee o f any corporation shall
have the same rights and remedies for an injury suffered by him from the act or
omission o f the corporation or its employees, as are allowed by other persons not
employees where the injurjr results from the negligence o f a superior agent or officer,
or o f a person having the right to control or direct the services o f the party injured;
and also when the injury results from the negligence o f a fellow-servant engaged in
another department o f labor from that o f the party injured, or o f a fellow-servant
on another train o f cars, or one engaged about a different piece of work. Knowledge
by an employee injured o f the defective or unsafe character or condition o f any
machinery, ways or appliances, or o f the improper loading o f cars, shall not be defense
to an action for injury caused thereby, except as to conductors or engineers in charge
o f dangerous or unsate cars or engines voluntarily operated by them. When death
ensues from an injury to an employee an action may be brought in the name o f the
widow o f such employee for the death o f the husband, or by the husband for the death
o f his wife, or by the parent for the death o f a child, or in the name o f the child tor
the death o f an only parent, for such damages as maybe suffered by them respectively
by reason o f such death, the damages to be for the use o f such widow, husband or
child, except that in case the widow should have children the damages shall be dis­
tributed as personal property o f the husband. The legal or personal representative
o f the person injured shall have the same rights and remedies as are allowed by law
to such representatives o f other persons. In every such action the jury may give
sueh damages as shall be fair and just with reference, to the injury resulting from
such death to the persons suing. Any contract or agreement, expressed or implied,
made by an employee to waive the benefit o f this section shall be null and v oid ; and
this section shall not deprive an employee o f a corporation or his legal personal rep­
resentative o f any right or remedy that he now has by law.
S e c . 2. All suits pending in any court at the time o f the approval o f this act, and
which were also pending at the time said chapter went into effect, shall not be
affected by any o f its provisions; but all such suits shall be conducted and con­
cluded under the laws in force prior to the time o f the approval o f said act, on
March 11, 1896.
Approved January 31, 1898.




LABOR LAWS— MISSISSIPPI— ACTS OF 1898.

775

C h a p t e r 70 .— Intim idation o f employees, etc .
S e c t io n 1. Any person or persons who shall, by placards, or other writing, or ver­
bally, attempt by threats, direct or implied, o f injury to the person or property o f
another, to intimidate such other person into an abandonment or change o f home or
employment, shall, upon conviction, be fined not exceeding $500.00, or imprisoned in
the county jail not exceeding six months, or in the penitentiary not exceeding five
years, as the court, in its discretion, may determine.
S e c . 2. This act shall take effect and be in force from and after its passage.
Approved February 11, 1898.
C h a p t e r 71.—P aym ent o f wages due at death o f employee.
S e c t io n 1. When any employee shall die leaving wages due him to an amount not
exceeding two hundred dollars, it shall be lawful for the employer after sixty days
to pay said wages to the wife o f said deceased employee, i f he leave a wife surviv­
ing him; and i f he shall leave no wife surviving him, then to his children, i f adults;
and if he shall leave no children and no wife surviving him, then to his father; and
i f he shall leave no wife, or children or father surviving him, then to his mother;
and i f he shall leave no wife, or children, or father or mother surviving him, then to
his brothers and sisters, i f adults; and i f such employee shall have left no wife, or
children, nor brothers nor sisters, nor father nor mother surviving him, or i f any o f
his children surviving him shall be minors, or i f any o f his brothers or sisters sur­
viving him entitled to inherit shall be minors, then it shall be lawful for said
employer to pay said wages to the chancery clerk o f the county in which said
employee resided at the time o f his death, or o f the county where he died.
S e c . 2. Where such wages are paid to the chancery clerk as provided in the first
section o f this act, it shall be the duty o f the chancery clerk to pay that portion o f
the wages o f such employee which may belong to the adult children or brothers and
sisters o f such deceased employee and to report to the next term o f the chancery
court who are the minor brothers or sisters or children o f said employee and how
much is coming to each one o f the heirs o f said employee, and thereupon the chan­
cery court shall enter an order upon the probate minutes o f the court directing the
payment by the chancery clerk o f the shares o f such minor children or brothers and
sisters o f such deceased employee. In any case where the employer shall pay such
wages to the chancery clerk, he shall be discharged from all further liability.
S e c . 3. The clerk and the sureties on his official bond shall be liable for the faith­
ful performance o f the duties imposed upon him by this act, and for faithfully
accounting for any and all sums o f money as shall be paid to him under this act,
and shall receive commissions now allowed by law to administrators and executors
for collecting and distributing moneys belonging to the estate o f a decedent.
S e c . 4. T h is a ct sh all take effect and b e in force from and after its passage.

Approved February 8, 1898.
VIRGINIA.

ACTS OF 1897-98.
C h a p t e r 33.— Trade-marks o f trade unions , etc .
S e c t io n 1. W h en ever any person , or any association or union o f w orkin gm en has
h eretofore a d o p te d o r used, or shall h ereafter ad op t or use, any la b el, trade-m ark,
term , design, d ev ice, o r form o f advertisem ent, fo r the pu rpose o f d esign a tin g, m ak­
in g k n o w n , o r distin g u ish in g any good s, wares, m erchandise, or oth er p r o d u c t o f
la b or, as h a v in g been m ade, m anufactured, produced, prepared, pa ck ed , or p u t on sale
b y such person o r association or u nion o f w orkin gm en , or b y a m em ber or mem bers
o f such a ssocia tion o r u nion , and has filed and record ed th e sam e as hereinafter
p ro v id e d , it sh a ll b e u n la w fu l to cou n terfeit or im itate such la b el, trade-m ark, term,
design , d e v ice, o r form o f advertisem ent, or to use, sell, offer for sale, or in any w a y
u tte r o r circu la te any cou n terfeit o r im ita tion o f any such label, trade-m ark, term ,
d esign , d e v ice , o r form o f advertisem ent.
S e c . 2. W h o e v e r cou n terfeits or im itates any such la b el, trade-m ark, term , design,
d e v ice , o r form o f advertisem ent, o r k n o w in g ly and w ith in ten t to deceive sells,
offers fo r sale, or in any w a y utters or circulates a n y cou n terfeit or im ita tion o f any
sueli la b e l, trade-m ark, term , d esign , dev ice, or form o f advertisem ent, or k n ow ­
in g ly and w ith in ten t to deceive, keeps or has in his possession, w ith in ten t th a t th e
sam e s h a ll b e sold o r d isp osed of, a n y good s, w ares, m erchandise, o r oth er p r o d u c t
o f la b o r to w h ich , or on w h ich , any such cou n terfeit or im ita tion is printed, pain ted,
stam ped, o r im pressed, o r k n o w in g ly and w ith in ten t to deceive, k n o w in g ly sells or
disposes o f any good s, wares, m erchandise, or oth er p rod u ct o f la b or con ta in ed in




776

BULLETIN OF THE DEPARTMENT OF LABOR.

any box, case, can, or package, to which, or on which, any such counterfeit or irnita*
tion is attached, affixed, printed, painted, stamped, or impressed, or knowingly and
with intent to deceive, keeps or has in his possession with intent that the same shall
he sold or disposed of, any goods, wares, merchandise, or other product o f labor in
any box, case, can, or package to which, or on which, any such counterfeit or imitation is attached, affixed, printed, painted, stamped, or impressed, shall be punished
by a fine o f not more than one hundred dollars, or by imprisonment for not more
than three months.
Sec. 3. Every such person, association, or union that has heretofore adopted or
used, or shall hereafter adopt or use a label, trade-mark, term, design, device, or
form o f advertisement as provided in section one o f this act, may file the same for
record in tho office o f the secretary o f the Commonwealth by leaving two copies,
counterparts, or facsimiles thereof, with said secretary, and by filing therewith a
sworn application, specifying the name or names o f the person, association, or union
on whose behalf such label, trade-mark, term, design, device, or form o f advertise­
ment shall be filed; the class o f merchandise and a description o f the goods to which
it has been, or is intended to be appropriated, stating that the party so filing, or on
whose behalf such label, trade-mark, term, design, device, or form o f advertisement
shall be filed, has a right to use the same; that no other person, firm, association,
union, or corporation has the right to such use, either in the identical form or in any
such near resemblance thereto as may be calculated to deceive, and that the fac­
simile or counterparts filed therewith are true and correct. There shall be paid for
such filing and recording to the Commonwealth a tax o f two dollars and fifty cents.
Said secretary shall deliver to such person, association, or union so filing, or causing
to be filed any such label, trade-mark, term, design, device, or form o f advertise­
ment, so many duly attested certificates o f the recording o f the same as such person,
association, or union may apply for, for each o f which certificates said secretary
shall receive a fee o f one dollar. Any such certificate o f record shall in all suits
and prosecutions under this act be sufficient proof o f the adoption o f such label,
trade-mark, term, design, device, or form o f advertisement. Said secretary o f the
Commonwealth shall not record for any person, union, or association any label,
trade-mark, term, design, device, or form o f advertisement that would probably be
mistaken for any label, trade-mark, term, design, device, or form of advertisement
theretofore filed by or on behalf o f any other person, union, or association.
Sec . 4. Any person who shall for himself, or on behalf o f any other person, asso­
ciation, or union, procure tho filing o f any label, trade-mark, term, design, or form
o f advertisement in the office o f the secretary o f the Commonwealth, under the pro­
visions o f this act, by making any false or fraudulent representations or declaration,
verbally, or in writing, or by any fraudulent means, shall be liable to pay any dam­
ages, sustained in consequence o f any such filing, to be recovered by or on behalf o f
the party injured thereby, in any court having jurisdiction, and shall be punished
by a fine not exceeding one hundred dollars, or by imprisonment not exceeding three
months.
Sec. 5. Every such person, association, or union adopting or using a label, trade­
mark, term, desigu, device, or form o f advertisement as aforesaid, may proceed by
suit to enjoin the manufacture, use, display, or sale o f any counterfeits or imita­
tions thereof, and all courts o f competent jurisdiction shall grant injunctions to
restrain such manufacture, use, display, or sale as may be by the said court deemed
just and reasonable, and shall require the defendants to pay to such person, associa­
tion, or union, all profits derived from such wrongful manufacture, use, display, or
sale; and such court shall also order that any such counterfeits, or imitations in the
possession, or under the control o f any defendant in such cause be delivered to an
officer o f the court, or to the complainant to be destroyed.
S e c . 6. Every person who shall use or display the genuine label, trade-mark, term,
design, device, or form o f advertisement, o f any such person, association, or union
in any manner, not being authorized so to do by such person, union, or association,
shall be deemed guilty o f a misdemeanor, and shall be punished by imprisonment
for not more than three months, or by a fine o f not more than one hundred dollars.
In all cases where such .association, or union, is not incorporated, suits under this act
may be commenced and prosecuted by an officer or member o f such association or
union, on behalf of, and for the use o f such association or union.
Sec . 7. Any person or persons who shall in any way use the name or seal of any
such person^ association, or union, or officer thereof, in and about the sale o f goods
or otherwise, not being authorized to so use the same, shall be guilty o f a misde­
meanor, and shall be punishable by imprisonment for not more than three months,
or by a fine o f not more than one hundred dollars.
Sec . 8. This act shall take effect and be in force from and after its passage.
Approved January 5,1898.




LABOR LAWS— VIRGINIA— ACTS OF 1898.
Chapter

777

53.— seals fo r female employees.

S e c t i o n 1* All persons wlio employ females in stores, shops, offices, or manufac­
tories as clerks, operatives, or helpers in any business, trade, or occupation carried on
or operated by them in the State o f Virginia, shall be required to procure and pro­
vide proper and suitable seats for all such females, and shall permit the use o f such
seats, rests or stools, as may be necessary, and shall not make any rules, regulations
or orders preventing the use o f such stools or seats when any such female employees
are not actively employed in their work in such business or employment.
S e c . 2. I f any employer o f female help in the State o f Virginia shall neglect or
refuse to provide seats, as provided in this act, or shall make any rules, orders, or
regulations in his shop, store, or other place o f business, requiring females to remain
standing when not necessarily employed in service or labor therein, he shall be
deemed guilty o f a misdemeanor, and upon conviction thereof in any court o f com­
petent jurisdiction shall be liable to a line therefor in a sum not to exceed twentylive dollars with costs, in the discretion o f the court.
S e c . 3. This act shall be in force from its passage.
Approved January 12,1898.

Cir a f t e r 181.— Protection of street-railway employees— Tnclosed platform*.

.

S e c t i o n 1 All city and street passenger railway companies are hereby required to
use vestibule fronts on all cars run, manipulated or transported by them on their
lines during the months o f December, January, February and March o f each year;
Providedf That said companies shall not be required to close the sides o f said vesti­
bules, and any street railway company refusing or failing to eomply with said require­
ment shall be subject to a fine o f not less than ten dollars nor more than one hundred
dollars for each offense; Provided, That the provisions o f this act shall not apply to
the street railway lines o f the city o f Petersburg.
Approved February 1,1898.
Ch apter

311.— Garnishment o f the wages o f public employees.

S e c t i o n 1. All officers, clerks and employees who hold their office by virtue o f
city, town or county authority, whether by election or appointment, and who receive
compensatiou for their services from the moneys.of such city, town or county shall,
for the purpose o f garnishment, be deemed to be, and are, employees o f such city,
town or county.

S e c . 2. T his a ct shall be in force from its passage.

Approved February 12, 1898.
Chapter

110.— Garnishment o f the wages o f public employees.
*

1. The wages and salaries o f all officials, clerks and employees o f any
city, town or county shall be subject to garnishment or execution upon any judg­
ment rendered against them; Providedf Said officials, clerks, and employees are not
exempt from garnishment or levy under chapter one hundred and seventy-eight o f
the Code o f Virginia.
Se c t io n

Se c . 2. T h is a ct shall b e in force from its passage.

Approved February 19, 1898.
Chapter

171.—Protection o f railroad employees— Injuring signals, etc.

S e c t i o n 1. I f any person maliciously injure, destroy, or remove any switch-lamp,
flag, or other signal used by any railroad wiiercby the life o f any traveler, employee,
or other person is or may be put in peril, he shall be punished by confinement in the
penitentiary not less than two nor more than ten years; and in the event o f the death
o f any traveler, employee, or other person resulting from such malicious injuring,
destroying or removing, the person so offending shall be deemed guilty o f murder,
the degree to be determined by the jury. I f such act be done unlawfully, but not
maliciously, the offender shall, in the discretion o f the jury, be confined in the peni­
tentiary not less than one nor more than five years, or be confined in jail not exceed­
ing twelve months and fined not exceeding five hundred dollars. And in the event
o f the death o f any traveler, employee, or other person, resulting from each unlaw­
ful injuring, destroying, or removing, the person so offending shall be deemed guilty
o f murder or o f manslaughter as the jury may determine.
Sec . 2. This act shall be in force from its passage.
Approved February 24, 1898.




778
Chapter

BULLETIN OF THE DEPARTMENT OF LABOR.

628.—Assignment, etc., o f claims to avoid effect o f exemption laws as regards
wages, unlawful .

S e c t i o n 1. Chapter two hundred and eighty-six o f the acts o f assembly o f eighteen
hundred and ninety-five and ninety-six, entitled an act for the protection o f laboring
men who are householders against being deprived o f the exemption to which they
are entitled under section three thousand six hundred and fifty-two o f the Code o f
Virginia, approved February eleventh, eighteen hundred and ninety-six, [shall] be
amended and reenacted so as to read as follow s:
§ 1. It shall be unlawful for any person to institute, or permit to be instituted,
proceedings in his own name, or in the namo o f any other person, or to assign or
transfer, either for or without value, any claim for debt or liability o f any kind, held
by him against a resident o f this State who is a laboring man and a householder, for
the purpose o f having payment o f the same, or any part thereof, enforced out o f the
wages exempted by section three thousand six hundred and fifty-two o f the Code o f
Virginia, by proceedings in attachment or garnishment, in courts or before justices
o f the peace in any other State than in the State o f Virginia, or to send out o f this
State by assignment, transfer, or in any other manner whatsoever, either for or with­
out value, any claim or debt against any resident thereof for the purpose or with the
intent o f depriving such person o f the right to have his wages exempt from distress,
levy, or garnishment according to the provisions o f section three thousand six hun­
dred and fifty-two o f the Code o f Virginia. And the person instituting such suit, or
permitting such suit to be instituted, or sending, assigning, or transferring any such
claim or debt for the purpose or with the intent aforesaid, shall, upon conviction
thereof, be fined not less than ten dollars nor more than one hundred dollars, and
shall in addition thereto, be liable in an action o f debt to the person from whom
payment o f the same, or any part thereof, shall have been enforced by attachment
or garnishment, or otherwise, elsewhere than in the State o f Virginia, for the full
amount, payment whereof shall have been so enforced together with interest
thereon, and the costs o f the attachment or garnishee proceedings, as well as the
costs o f said action.
S e c . 2. The amount recovered in such action shall stand on the same footing with
the wages o f the plaintiff under section three thousand six hundred and fifty-two o f
the Code, and shall also be exempt and free from any and all liability of the plain­
tiff to the defendant in the way o f set-off or otherwise.
S e c . 3. The fact that the payment o f a claim or debt against any person entitled
to the exemption provided for in section three thousand six hundred and fifty-two
o f the Code has been enforced by legal proceedings in some State other than the
State o f Virginia, in* such manner as to deprive such person to any extent o f the
benefit o f such exemption, shall be prima facie evidence that any resident o f this
State, who may at any time have been owner or holder o f said claim, or debt, has
violated this law.

S e c . 4. T h is a ct shall b e in force from th e date o f its passage.
A p p ro v e d M arch 1, 1898.
Chapter

863.— Bureau o f labor and industrial statistics.

S e c t i o n 1. A bureau o f labor and industrial statistics o f the State o f Virginia is
hereby established.
S e c . 2. It shall be the duty o f said bureau to collect, assort, systematize, and pre­
sent in annual reports to the governor, to be by him biennially transmitted to the
legislature, statistical details relating to all departments o f labor, penal institutions,
and industrial pursuits in the State, especially in their relation to the commercial,
industrial,‘social, educational and sanitary condition o f the laboring classes, and to
the permanent prosperity o f the productive industries o f the State.
S e c . 3 (as amended by chap. 1607, acts o f 1897-98). The governor shall appoint, by
and with the consent o f the senate, some suitable person who is identified with the
labor interests o f the State, who shall be designated commissioner o f labor statistics,
and who shall, upon the request o f the governor, furnish such information as he may
require. The term o f office for said commissioner shall be two years from date o f
his appointment, with power o f removal by the governor for cause.
S e c . 4 (as amended by chap. 1007, acts o f 1897-98). The commissioner shall have
power to take and preserve testimony, examine witnesses under oath and administer
the same and in the discharge o f his duties may, under proper restrictions, enter
any public institution o f the State, and any factory, workshop or mine. The com­
missioner may also furnish and deliver a written or printed list o f interrogations to
any person, company, or the proper officer o f any corporation, and require full and
complete answers to be made thereto and returned under oath within thirty days o f
receipt o f said list o f questions; and i f any person who may be sworn to give testi­
mony shall willfully fail or refuse to answer any legal and proper question pro*




LABOR LAWS— VIRGINIA— ACTS OP 1898.

779

pounded to him concerning the subject o f such examination, as indicated in tho
second section o f this act, or i f any person to whom a written or printed list o f such
interrogations has been furnished by said commissioner shall neglect or refuse to
fully answer and return the same under oath, such person shall be deemed guilty o f
amisdemeanor, and upon conviction thereof before a court o f competent jurisdiction,
shall be fined m a sum not exceeding one hundred dollars nor less than twenty-five
dollars, or by imprisonment in tho county jail not exceeding ninety days, or by both
fine and imprisonment; Provided, Jioivever, That nothing in this act shall be construed
as permitting the commissioner or any employee o f this bureau to make use o f any
information or statistics gathered from any person, company or corporation for any
other than the purposes o f this act.
S e c . 5. All State, county, township and city officers are hereby directed to furnish
said commissioner, upon his request, all statistical information in reference to labor
which shall be in their possession as such officers.
S e c . 6. The sum o f two thousand dollars per annum is hereby appropriated out o f
any funds in the State treasury not otherwise appropriated, eight hundred dollars
o f which is to be used as salary o f the said commissioner, and the balance to be used
to meet contingent expenses, and so forth.
S e c . 7. This act shall be in force from its passage.
Approved March 3, 1898.

IOWA.

ACTS OF 1898.
C h a p t e r 49.— Liability o f employer fo r injuries o f employees.
S e c t io n 1. Section number two thousand and seventy-one (2071) o f the Code
[shall] be amended by adding at the end thereof the following:
“ Nor shall any contract o f insurance, relief, benefit, or indemnity in case o f injury
or death, entered into prior to the injury, between the person so injured and such
corporation, or any other person or association acting for such corporation, nor shall
the acceptance of* any such insurance, relief, benefit, or indemnity by the person
injured, his widow, heirs, or legal representatives after the injury, from such cor­
poration, person, or association, constitute any bar or defense to any cause o f action
brought under the provisions o f this section, but nothing contained herein shall be
construed to prevent or invalidate any settlement for damages between the parties
subsequent to injuries received."
Approved March 8, 1898.
C h a p t e r 59.— Ventilation o f coal mines.
Se c t io n 1.—Section 2488 o f the Code * * * is hereby amended by inserting
in line seven after the words “ working parts o f the same" the following: “ But in
no case shall the air current be a greater distance than sixty feet from the working
face, except when making cross cuts in entries for an air-course; then in that case
the distance shall not be greater than seventy feet: Provided , however, That the dis­
trict mine inspector may in writing grant permission to go beyond the limit herein
mentioned when the conditions are such in a special case as to require it." When
the air current is carried to the working face o f the rooms, in double-room mining,
such air current shall be treated as that contemplated in this act.
Approved March 28, 1898.

C h a p t e r 60.— Oil to be used in coal mines.
S e c t io n 1. Section twenty-four hundred and ninety-four (2494) o f the Code
[shall] be amended by adding after the words “ adulterated oils" in the eleventh
line, the words “ Oil that has not been inspected and approved by an inspector."
Sec . 2. Section twenty-four hundred and ninety-five (2495) [o f the Code shall] be
stricken out and the following substituted therefor:
“ It shall be the duty of an inspector o f petroleum products to inspect and test all




780

BULLETIN OF THE DEPARTMENT OF LABOR.

oil offered for sale, sold, or used for illuminating purposes in coal mines in this State,
and for such purpose he may enter upon the premises o f any person. I f *upon test
and examination the oil shall meet the requirements made and provided hy the State
hoard o f health, he shall brand, over his own official signature and date, the barrel
or vessel holding the same with the words ‘ Approved for illuminating coal mines/
Should it fail to meet such requirements, he shall brand it over his official signature
and date, ‘ Rejected for illuminating coal mines/ All inspection shall be made
within this State, and paid for by the person for whom the inspection is made at the
rate o f ten cents per barrel or vessel, which charge shall be a lien on the oil
inspected, and be collected by the inspector. Each inspector shall be governed in
all things respecting his record, compensation, expenses, and returns to the treas­
urer o f state and secretary o f state as provided in sections twenty-five hundred and
six and twenty-five hundred and seven o f the Code. It shall be the duty o f the
inspector whenever he has good reason to believe that oil is being sold or used in
violation of the provisions o f this chapter to make complaint to the county attorney
o f the county in which the offense was committed, who shall forthwith commence
proceedings against the offender, in any court o f competent jurisdiction. All rea­
sonable expenses for analyzing suspected oil shall be paid by the owner o f the oil
whenever it is found that he is selling or offering to sell impure oil in violation o f
the provisions o f this chapter. Such expenses may be recovered in a civil action,
and in criminal proceedings such expenses shall be taxed as part o f the costs/'
Sec . 3. This act, being deemed of immediate importance, shall take effect and be
in force from and after its publication in the Iowa State Register and Des Moines
Leader, newspapers published at Des Moines, Iowa.
Approved March 25, 1898.
I hereby certify that the foregoing act was published in the Iowa State Register
and Des Moines Leader, April 7, 1898.
G. L. D o b s o n ,
Secretary o f State.

KENTUCKY.

ACTS OF 1898.
Ch ap t er

4.— Convict labor.

S e c t i o n 1. A board o f commissioners is hereby created to govern the penitentiaries
o f this Commonwealth. * * *.
S e c . 3.
* * * If, at any time, the labor o f the convicts confined in the peniten­
tiaries is not hired out to a contractor or contractors, as hereinafter provided, the
warden shall employ said convicts, such as are not sentenced to solitary confinement,
in useful labor, as far as practicable, such as may be profitably conducted within the
prison walls; * * *.
S e c . 13. It shall be the duty o f the commissioners to hire out to a contractor or
contractors all the convicts able to perform manual labor, to be worked within the
avails o f the penitentiaries. Such hiring shall be to the highest and best bidder,
after due advertising, and the labor in both penitentiaries may be hired to one per­
son, or the labor in whole or in part in each penitentiary may be hired to different
contractors. The commissioners shall mako it a condition precedent to the consum­
mation o f the contract, that the number o f the convicts so hired may vary, and such
variation in number shall in no wise affect the contract or impair its obligation.
Each bid shall specify the price proposed to be paid for the labor per head, and shall
be accompanied by a bond with sureties, who shall be worth in the aggregate double
the amount that may be due the State at any time under the stipulations o f the pro­
posed contract, to the satisfaction o f the commissioners that the bidder will comply
with the terms thereof. The bid shall be opened by the commissioners on the last
day named in the advertisement for receiving the same, and be awarded to the highest
and best bidder, the commissioners having the right to yejeeb all bids. The price
agreed to be paid shall be paid in monthly or quarterly installments by the contractor
as the commissioners may determine, and it is hereby made a condition precedent to
the contract that on failure o f lessee or lessees to pay any installment within one
month after same is due, the commissioners may elect to declare the lease forfeited
for nonpayment o f rent, giving the lessees thirty days' notice in writing declaring a




LABOR LAWS— KENTUCKY— ACTS OP 1898.

781

forfeiture thereof, and the commissioners may take possession without further notice.
The term for which said convicts may he hired shall not he more than four years
with the privilege o f renewal, and the contractor shall obligate himself to faithfully
conform to all the rules and regulations that may he established by the commissioners
touching all sanitary and police matters, and for the government o f the prison.
Upon the execution o f the bond as above required, and the acceptance o f the bid,
the contractor shall be entitled to the labor o f said convicts, the various shops and
power therein belonging to the State. But [if] after due advertisement as above
set forth, the commissioners [shall] fail to secure such a bid as is acceptable to them,
then they may hire the convicts to a contractor or contractors, by private contract,
and such contract, when made, shall be consummated in all respects, and shall con­
tain the same stimulations and provisions, as is required in this section for a contractor
who hires said convicts by piiblic bid.
Vetoed by the governor on the first day of March, 1898.
Passed through the senate on the fifth day o f March, 1898, the objections o f the
governor to the contrary notwithstanding.
Passed through the house o f representatives on the fifth day of March, 1898, the
objections of the governor to the contrary notwithstanding.
C h a p t e r 15.— Paym ent o f wage* to mine em ployee* and coercion o f same to buy at com­
p a n y stores.

Se c t io n 1. All persons, associations, companies and corporations employing the
service o f ten or more persons in any mining work or mining industry in this Com­
monwealth, shall on or before the sixteenth day o f each month pay tor the month
previous such servant or employees on his or their order in lawful money o f the
United States the full amount o f wages due such servant or employees rendering
such services. But if such person, corporation or company, after using due dili­
gence, is unable to make said payment as above required he or it shall within fifteen
days thereafter make out a pay roll and statement o f amount due each employee
and also a due bill for said sum bearing interest from said sixteenth day o f the
month, and deliver same to each o f said employees.
S e c . 2. It shall be unlawful for any person or persons, association company, or
corporation employing others, as described in section one, either directly or indi­
rectly, to coerce or require any such servant or employee to deal with or purchase
any article o f food, clothing or merchandise o f any kind whatever, from any person,
association, corporation or company, or at any place or store whatever. And it shall
be unlawful for any o f such employers as described in the first section to exclude
from work, or to punish or black list any o f said employees for failure to deal with
any other or to purchase any article o f food, clothing or merchandise whatever from
any other or at any place or store whatever.
Se c . 3. Any person or persons, company or corporation described in the first sec­
tion that shall violate any o f the provisions of this act shall be guilty o f a misde­
meanor and on conviction shall be fined not less than fifty dollars nor more than one
hundred dollars for each offense, and the doing or failure to do any act- or thing
required by this act shall constitute a separate offense.
Received by the governor March 2, 1898.
Became a law at the expiration of ten days without the governor’s approval.

NEW YORK.
ACTS

OF

1898.

C h a p t e r 133.— Convict labor.
S e c t io n 1. The superintendent o f State prisons is hereby authorized to employ
not to exceed two hundred convicts confined in Clinton prison in the improvement
o f the highways between said Clinton prison and the village o f Saranac, in the town
of Saranac, in the county o f Clinton. * * *
S e c . 2. This act shall take effect immediately.
Became a law March 28, 1898, with the approval of the governor. Passed, threefifths being present.




782

BULLETIN OP THE DEPARTMENT OP LABOR.

C h a p t e r 645.— Convict labor— Limitation o f printing, e t c to be done in penal
institutions.
S ection * 1. No printing or photo-engraving shall he done in any State prison,
penitentiary, or reformatory for the State or any political division thereof, or for any
public institution owned or managed and controlled by the State or any such politi­
cal division except such printing as may be required for or used in the penal and
State charitable institutions, ana the reports o f the State commission o f prisons and
the superintendent o f prisons, and all printing required in their offices.
Sec . 2. This act shall take effect immediately.
Became a law April 29, 1898, with the approval o f the governor. Passed, threefifths being present.

C h a p t e r 671.— Prevention o f fraudulent representation in labor organisations.
S e c t io n 1. Any person who represents himself or herself to be a member o f or
who claims to represent a labor organization which does not exist within the State
at the time o f such representation, or who has in his or her possession a credential,
certificate, or letter o f introduction bearing a fraudulent seal, or bearing the seal o f
a labor organization which has ceased to exist, and does not exist at the time o f such
representation, and attempts to gain admission by the use o f said credential, certifi­
cate, or letter o f introduction as a member o f any convention or meeting o f repre­
sentatives o f labor organizations o f the State, shall be guilty o f a misdemeanor and
upon conviction thereof shall be punishable by a fine o f not less than twenty dollars
nor more than fifty dollars, and imprisonment for not less than ten days nor more
than thirty days in the jail o f the county wherein such conviction is had, or by both
such fine and imprisonment.
S e c . 2. This act shall take effect immediately.
Became a law April 30,1898, with the approval o f the governor. Passed, a majority
being present.

DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA.

ACTS OF 1897-98.
C h a p t e r 467.— Examination , licensing , etc,, o f plumbers and gas fitters.
S e c t i o n 1. The Commissioners o f the District o f Columbia are hereby authorized
to appoint a plumbing board to be composed o f two master plumbers, one journey­
man plumber competent to be licensed as master plumber, and two employees o f the
District o f Columbia having a knowledge o f plumbing and gas fitting and sani­
tary work, whose compensation shall be three hundred dollars per annum each,
payable monthly. A majority o f the board shall be deemed competent for action.
S e c . 2. In addition to such advisory duties as said Commissioners shall assign
them, it shall be the duty o f said plumbing board to examine all applicants for
license as master plumbers or gas fitters, and to report to said Commissioners, who,
i f satisfied from such report that the applicant is a fit person to engage in the busi­
ness o f plumbing or gas fitting, shall issue a license to such person to engage in such
business.
S e c . 3. Applicants for licenses as master plumbers or gas fitters must be twentyone years of age, must make application in their own handwriting, and must accom­
pany such application with a certificate as to good character, signed by at least
three reputable citizens o f the District o f Columbia.
Se c . 4. The fee for a license as master plumber or gas fitter shall be three dollars.
S e c . 5. It shall be unlawful for any person to engage in the work o f plumbing or
gas fitting in the District o f Columbia unless he is licensed as provided in this act,
or is an employee o f a licensed master plumber.
S e c . 6. It shall be unlawful for the owner or lessee o f any building in the District
o f Columbia, or the agent or representative o f such owner or lessee, to knowingly
employ an unlicensed person to do plumbing or gas fitting in or about such building.
S e c . 8. Any person violating any o f the provisions o f this act shall, on conviction
thereof in the police court, be punished by a fine o f not less than five dollars nor




LABOR LAWS— DISTRICT OP COLUMBIA— ACTS OP 1898.

783

more than on© hundred dollars; and in default o f payment o f such fine such person
shall be confined in the workhouse o f the District o f Columbia for a period not
exceeding six months; and all prosecutions under this act shall be in the police
court o f said District, in the name o f the District o f Columbia.
S e c . 9. This act shall go into effect thirty days from and after its approval, and
all acts inconsistent herewith are hereby repealed.
Approved, Juno 18, 1898.

UNITED STATES.

ACTS OF 1897-98.
C h a p t e r 370.—Arbitration o f labor disputes between common carriers engaged in interstate
commerce and their employees— Forfeiture o f membership in national trade unions fo r
violence, intimidation, etc.— Bight o f employees o f railroads in hands o f Federal receivers
to be lieat% in court on questions affecting terms o f their employment, etc.—-Protection o f
d
employees o f interstate railroads as members o f labor unions, etc.
S e c t io n 1. The provisions o f this act shall apply to any common carrier or car­
riers and their officers, agents, and employees, except masters of vessels and seamen,
as defined in section forty-six hundred and twelve, Revised Statutes o f the United
States, engaged in the transportation o f passengers or property wholly by railroad,
or partly by railroad and partly by water, for a continuous carriage or shipment, from
one State or Territory o f the United States, or the District o f Columbia, to any other
State or Territory o f the United States, or the District of Columbia, or from any
place in the United States to an adjacent foreign country, or from any place in the
United States through a foreign country to any other place in the United States.
The term “ railroad” as used in this act shall include all bridges and ferries used or
operated in connection with any railroad, and also all the road in use by any corpo­
ration operating a railroad, whether owned or operated under a contract, agreement,
or lease; and the term “ transportation” shall include all instrumentalities o f shipment
or carriage. The term “ employees” as used in this act shall include all persons
actually engaged in any capacity in train operation or train service o f any descrip­
tion, and notwithstanding that the cars upon or in which they are employed may be
held and operated by the carrier under lease or other contract: Provided , however,
That this act shall not be held to apply to employees o f street railroads and shall
apply only to employees engaged in railroad train service. In every such case the
carrier shall be responsible for the acts and defaults o f such employees in the same
manner and to the same extent as i f said cars were owned by it and said employees
directly employed by it, and any provisions to the contrary o f any such lease or
other contract shall be binding only as between the parties thereto and shall not
affect the obligations o f said carrier either to the public or to the private parties
concerned.
S e c . 2. Whenever a controversy concerning wages, hours o f labor, or conditions
o f employment shall arise between a carrier subject to this act and the employees
o f such carrier, seriously interrupting or threatening to interrupt the business o f
said carrier, the chairman o f the Interstate Commerce Commission and the Com­
missioner o f Labor shall, upon the request o f either party to the controversy, with
all practicable expedition, put themselves in communication with the parties to
such controversy, and shall use their best efforts, by mediation and conciliation, to
amicably settle the same; and if such efforts .shall be unsuccessful, shall at once
endeavor to bring about an arbitration o f said controversy in accordance with the
provisions o f this act.
Se c . 3. Whenever a controversy shall arise between a carrier subject to this act
and the employees o f such carrier which can not be settled by mediation and con­
ciliation in the manner provided in the preceding section, said controversy may be
submitted to the arbitration o f a board o f three persons, who shall be chosen in the
manner following: One shall be named by the carrier or employer directly inter­
ested ; the other shall be named by the labor organization to which the employees
directly interested belong, or, i f they belong to more than one, by that one o f them
which specially represents employees o f the same grade and class and engaged in
services o f the same nature as said employees so directly interested: Provided , however, That when a controversy involves and affects the interests o f two or more
classes and grades o f employees belonging to different labor organizations, such




784

BULLETIN OP THE DEPARTMENT OP LABOR.

arbitrator shall be agreed upon and designated by the concurrent action o f all such
labor organizations; and in cases where the majority o f such employees are not
members o f any labor organization, said employees may by a majority vote select a
committee of their own number, which committee shall have the right to select the
arbitrator on behalf o f said employees. The two thus chosen shall select the third
commissioner of arbitration; but, in the event o f their failure to name such arbi­
trator within five days after their first meeting, the third arbitrator shall be named
by the commissioners named in the preceding section. A majority o f said arbitrators
shall be competent to make a valid and binding award under the provisions hereof.
The submission shall be in writing, shall be signed by the employer and by the labor
organization representing the employees, shall specify the time and place o f meet­
ing o f said board of arbitration, shall state the questions to be decided, and shall
contain appropriate provisions by which the respective parties shall stipulate, as
follow s:
First. That the board o f arbitration shall commence their hearings within ten
days from the date o f the appointment o f the third arbitrator, and shall find and iile
their award, as provided in this section, within thirty days from the date o f the
appointment o f the third arbitrator ; and that pending the arbitration the status
existing immediately prior to the dispute shall not be changed: Provided , That no
employee shall be compelled to render personal service without his consent.
Second. .That the award and the papers and proceedings, including the testimony
relating thereto certified under the hands o f the arbitrators and which shall have
the force and effect o f a bill o f exceptions, shall be filed in the clerk’s office o f the
circuit court o f the United States for the district wherein the controversy arises or
tho arbitration is entered into, and shall be final and conclusive upon both parties,
unless set aside for error o f law apparent on tho record.
Third. That tho respective parties to tho award will each faithfully execute the
same, and that the same may be specifically enforced in equity so far as the powers
o f a court of equity permit: Provided , That no injunction or other legal process shall
be issued which shall compel the performance by any laborer against his will o f a
contract for personal labor or service.
Fourth. That employees dissatisfied with the award shall not by reason o f such
dissatisfaction quit the service o f the employer before the expiration o f three months
from and after the making o f such award without giving thirty days’ notice in writ;ng o f their intention so to quit. Nor shall the employer dissatisfied with such
award dismiss any employee or employees on account o f such dissatisfaction before
the expiration o f three months from and after the makiug o f such award without
giving thirty days’ notice in writing o f his intention so to discharge.
Fifth. That said award shall continue in force as between the parties thereto for
the period o f one year after the same shall go into practical operation, and no new
arbitration upon the same subject between the same employer and the same class o f
employees shall be had until the expiration o f said one year if the award is not set
aside as provided in section four. That as to individual employees not belongingto
the labor organization or organizations which shall enter into the arbitration, the
said arbitration and the award made therein shall not be binding, unless the said
individual employees shall give assent in writing to become parties to said arbitra­
tion.
S e c . 4. The award being filed in the clerk’s office o f a circuit court o f the United
States, as hereinbefore provided, shall go into practical operation, and judgment
shall be entered thereon accordingly at the expiration o f ten days from such filing,
unless within such ten days either party shall file exceptions thereto for matter o f
law apparent upon the record, in which case said award shall go into practical
operation and judgment be entered accordingly when such exceptions shall have
been finally disposed of either by said circuit court or on appeal therefrom.
At the expiration o f ten days from the decision o f the circuit court upon excep­
tions taken to said award, as aforesaid, judgment shall be eutered in accordance
with said decision unless during said ten days either party shall appeal therefrom to
the circuit court o f appeals. In such case only such portion o f the record shall be
transmitted to the appellate court as is necessary to the proper understanding and
consideration o f the questions o f law presented by said exceptions and to be decided.
The determination of said circuit court o f appeals upon said questions shall be
final, and being certified by the clerk thereof to said circuit court, judgment pur­
suant thereto shall thereupon be entered by said circuit court.
I f exceptions to an award are finally sustained, judgment shall be entered setting
aside the award. But in such case the parties may agree upon a judgment to be
entered disposing o f the subject matter o f the controversy, which judgment when
entered shall have tho same force and effect as judgment entered upon an award.
Se c . 5. For the purposes o f this act the arbitrators herein provided for, or either




LABOR LAWS— UNITED STATES-----ACTS OF 1898.

785

o f them, shall have power to administer oaths and affirmations, sign subpoenas,
require the attendance and testimony o f witnesses, and the production o f such books,
papers, contracts, agreements, and documents material to a just determination o f the
matters under investigation as may be ordered by the court; and may invoke the aid
o f the United States courts to compel witnesses to attend and testify and to produce
such books, papers, contracts, agreements and documents to the same extent and
under the same conditions and penalties as is provided for in the act to regulate
commerce, approved February fourth, eighteen hundred and eighty-seven, and the
amendments thereto.
S e c . 6. Every agreement o f arbitration under this act shall be acknowledged by
the parties before a notary public or clerk o f a district or circuit court o f the United
States, and when so acknowledged a copy o f the same shall be transmitted to the
chairman o f the Interstate Commerce Commission, who shall file the same in the
office o f said commission.
Any agreement o f arbitration which shall be entered into conforming to this act,
except that it shall bo executed by employees individually instead o f by a labor
organization as their representative, shall, when duly acknowledged as herein pro­
vided, be transmitted to the chairman o f the Interstate Commerce Commission, who
shall cause a notice in writing to be served upon the arbitrators, fixing a time and
place for a meeting o f said board, which shall bo within fifteen days from the execu­
tion o f said agreement o f arbitration: Provided , however, That the said chairman o f
the Interstate Commerce Commission shall decline to call a meeting o f arbitrators
under such agreement unless it be shown to his satisfaction that the employees
signing the submission represent or include a majority o f all employees in the service
o f the same employer and o f the same grade and class, and that an award pursuant
to said submission can justly be regarded as binding upon all such employees.
Sec . 7. During the pendency o f arbitation under this act it shall not be lawful for
the employer, party to such arbitration, to discharge the employees, parties thereto,
except for inefficiency, violation o f law, or neglect o f duty; nor for the organization
representing such employees to order, nor for the employees to unite in, aid, or abet,
strikes against said employer; nor, during a period o f three months after an award
under such an arbitration, for such employer to discharge any such employees, except
for the causes aforesaid, without giving thirty days’ written notice o f an intent so
to discharge; nor for any o f such employees, during a like period, to quit the service
o f said employer without just cause, without giving to said employer thirty days’
written notice o f an intent so to do; nor for such organization representing such
employees to order, counsel, or advise otherwise. Any violation of this section shall
subject the offending party to liability for damages: Provided , That nothing herein
contained shall be construed to prevent any employer, party to such arbitration,
from reducing the number o f its or his employees whenever m its or ills judgment
business necessities require such reduction.
S e c . 8. In every incorporation under the provisions o f chapter five hundred and
sixty-seven o f the United States Statutes o f eighteen hundred and eighty-five and
eighteen hundred and eighty-six it must be provided in the articles o f incorpora­
tion and in the constitution, rules, and by-laws that a member shall cease to be such
by participating in or by instigating force or violence against persons or property
during strikes, lockouts, or boycotts, or by seeking to prevent others from working
through violence, threats, or intimidations. Members o f such incorporations shall
not be personally liable for the acts, debts, or obligations o f the corporations, nor
shall such corporations be liable for the acts of members or others in violation o f
law; and such corporations may appear by designated representatives before the
board created by this act, or in any suits or proceedings for or against such corpo­
rations or their members in any o f the Federal courts.
Sec . 9. Whenever receivers appointed by Federal courts are in the possession and
control o f railroads, the employees upon such railroads shall have the right to be
heard in such courts upon all questions affecting the terms and conditions o f their
employment, through the officers and representatives of their associations, whether
incorporated or unincorporated, and no reduction o f wages shall be made by such
receivers without the authority o f the court therefor upon notice to such employees,
said notice to be not less than twenty days before the hearing upon the receivers’
t>etition or application, and to be posted upon all customary bulletin boards along
or upon the railway operated by such receiver or receivers.
Sec. 10. Any employer subject to the provisions o f this act and any officer, agent,
or receiver o f such employer who shall require any employee, or any person seeking
employment, as a condition o f such employment, to enter into an agreement, either
written or verbal, not to become or remain a member o f any labor corporation, asso­
ciation, or organization; or shall threaten any employee with loss o f employment,
or shall unjustly discriminate against any employee because o f his membership in




786

BULLETIN OF THE DEPARTMENT OF LABOR.

such a labor corporation, association, or organization; or who shall require any
employee or any person seeking employment, as a condition o f such employment, to
enter into a contract whereby such employee or applicant for employment shall agree
to contribute to any fund for charitable, social, or beneficial purposes; to release
such employer from legal liability for any personal injury by reason o f any benefit
received from such fund beyond the proportion o f the benefit arising from the
employer’s contribution to such fund; or who shall, after having discharged an
employee, attempt or conspire to prevent such employee from obtaining employment,
or who shall, after the quitting o f an employee, attempt or conspire to prevent such
employee from obtaining employment, is hereby declared to be guilty o f a misde­
meanor, and, upon conviction thereof in any court o f the United States o f compe­
tent jurisdiction in the district in which such offense was committed, shall be
punished for each offense by a fine o f not less than one hundred dollars and not more
than one thousand dollars.
S e c . 11. Each member o f said board o f arbitration shall receive a compensation
o f ten dollars per day for the time he is actually employed, and his traveling and
other necessary expenses; and a sum o f money sufficient to pay the same, together
with the traveling and other necessary and proper expenses o f any conciliation or
arbitration had hereunder, not to exceed ten thousand dollars in any one year, to be
approved by the chairman o f the Interstate Commerce Commission and audited by
the proper accounting officers o f the Treasury, is hereby appropriated for the fiscal
years ending June thirtieth, eighteen hundred and ninety-eight, and June thirtieth,
eighteen hundred and ninety-nine, out o f any money in the Treasury not otherwise
appropriated.
S e c . 12. The act to create boards o f arbitration or commission for settling contro­
versies and differences between railroad corporations and other common carriers
engaged in interstate or territorial transportation o f property or persons and their
employees, approved October first, eighteen hundred and eighty-eight, is hereby
repealed.
Approved, June 1, 1898.

C h a t t e r 541.— Wages preferred in payments by trustees o f bankrupt estates.

S e c t io n 64. D e b t s w h ic h h a v e P r io r i t y .-—a The court shall order the trustee to
pay all taxes legally due and owing by the bankrupt to the United States, State,
county, district, or municipality in advance o f the payment o f dividends to
creditors, * * *.
bThe debts to have priority, except as herein provided, and to be paid in full out
o f bankrupt estates, and the order o f payment shall be (1) the actual and necessary
cost o f preserving the estate subsequent to filing the petition; (2) the filing fees
paid by creditors in involuntary cases; (3) the cost o f administration, including
the fees and mileage payable to witnesses as now or hereafter provided by the laws
o f the United States, and one reasonable attorney’s fee, for the professional services
actually rendered, irrespective o f the number o f attorneys employed, to the peti­
tioning creditors in involuntary cases, to the bankrupt in involuntary cases while
performing the duties herein prescribed, and to the bankrupt in voluntary cases, as
the court may allow; (4) wages due to workmen, clerks, or servants -which have
been earned within three months before the date o f the commencement o f proceed­
ings, not to exceed three hundred dollars to each claimant; and (5) debts owing to
any person who by the laws o f the States or the United States is entitled to priority.
*
■
*
*
*
# #
*
Approved, July 1, 1898.

C h a p t e r 546.— Department o f Labor—Bulletins to publish official statistics o f cities.
(Page 648.)

S e c t io n 1. * * * . The Commissioner o f Labor is authorized to compile and
publish annually, as a part o f the Bulletin o f the Department o f Labor, an abstract
o f the main features o f the official statistics o f the cities o f the United States having
over thirty thousand population. * * * .
Approved, July 1, 1898.




LABOR LAWS— UNITED STATES— ACTS OF 1898.

787

J o in t R e so lu tio n N o . 55.— Annexation o f the Hawaiian Islands— Chinese immigration
prohibited.
S e c t i o n 1.
* * * . There shall be uo further immigration o f Chinese into the
Hawaiian Islands, except upon such conditions as are now or may hereafter be
allowed by the laws o f the United States; and no Chinese, by reason o f anything
herein contained, shall be allowed to enter the United States from the Hawaiian
Islands. * * * .
Approved, July 7, 1898.




RECENT GOVERNMENT CONTRACTS.
[The Secretaries o f the Treasury, War, and Navy Departments have consented to
furnish statements o f all contracts for constructions and repairs entered into hy them.
These, as received, will appear from time to time in the Bulletin.]

The following contracts have been made by the office of the Super­
vising Architect o f the Treasury:
P o t t s v i l l e , P a .—July 16,1898. Contract with Prescott, Buckley
& Callanan, Albany, N. Y., for construction (except heating apparatus)
of post-office, $32,440. Work to be completed within eight months.
A k r o n , O h i o —July 21,1898. Contract with J. W . Myers & Co.,
Ashland, Ohio, for construction (except heating apparatus and electricwire conduits) o f post-office, $43,819.44. Work to be completed within
nine months.
W a s h i n g t o n , D. G.—August 13, 1898. Contract with Eaton &
Prince Company, Chicago, 111., for five hydraulic passenger and freight
elevators, three hydraulic mail lifts, one electric passenger elevator,
and two electric freight lifts for city post-office building, $45,000. Work
to be completed within six months.
E l l i s I s l a n d , N. Y.—August 15,1898. Contract with R. H. Hood
Co., New York, N. Y., for construction of main buildings for immigrant
station, $419,298. Work to be completed within twelve months.
M i l w a u k e e , W i s . —August 15,1898. Contract with Crane Elevator
Company, Chicago, 111., for elevators for post-office, court-house, and
custom-house, $10,500. Work to be completed within ninety days.





Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, One Federal Reserve Bank Plaza, St. Louis, MO 63102