The full text on this page is automatically extracted from the file linked above and may contain errors and inconsistencies.
Continuing EDUCATION PROGRAMS for WOMEN For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office Washington, D. C. 20402 - Price 20 cents Continuing EDUCATION PROGRAMS for WOMEN Pamphlet 10 September 1966 U.S. D E P A R T M E N T OF L A B O R : W. Willard Wirtz, Secretary WOMEN'S BUREAU : Mary Dublin Keyserling, Director Foreword The rising aspirations of modern women are reflected in the growing demand for continuing education programs that meet the special needs of women in their middle years. Whether they wish to update their skills before reentering the, work force or rekindle dormant intellectual interests, more and more adult women are making the effort to resume their formal education. They are well aware of how strategic a role education can play in helping them to develop their potentialities and heighten their contributions to society. Inquiries received by the Women's Bureau about continuing education programs for women come primarily from mature women and college educators and administrators. Women want to know what special educational programs are available in their area. Educators seek background information that explains women's interest in and need for special programs and describes what other educators are doing to aid them. This report has been prepared, therefore, primarily for these two groups. If it can help acquaint more adult women with the special programs now being offered and stimulate additional colleges and universities to respond to the special educational needs of mature women, all members of our society will be the beneficiaries. M A R Y D U B L I N KEYSERLING Director, Womerts Bureau iii Ackno wledgments The Women's Bureau wishes to acknowledge with sincere appreciation the many colleges and universities that supplied information for this publication. Special appreciation is extended to the American Association of University Women for making pertinent information available from its files. Credit is due Reni Photo for the illustration on page 7. This report was prepared by Jean A. Wells, Special Assistant to the Director. It supersedes the statement "Why Continuing Education Programs for Women?" issued in 1963. iv Contents Page New Action for New Needs Reasons Behind the Return to College Rising Job Interest of Adult Women Educational Services Requested Examples of Educational Programs Special Degree Programs for Adults Value of Continuing Education Programs Appendixes: A. Schools With Special Programs or Services jfor Adult Women, by State B. Selected Readings 1 2 3 5 8 10 11 12 29 v "The underutilization of American women continues to be the most tragic and the most senseless waste of this century. It is a waste that we can no longer afford. Our economy is crying out for their services . . . . "The requirements in these fields [certain professional fields] alone will be 110,000 additional trained specialists every month for the next 10 years. That requirement cannot be met by men alone, and unless we begin now to open more and more professions to our women and unless we begin now to train our women to enter those professions, then the needs of our Nation just are not going to be met." Lyndon B. Johnson President February 28, 1966 CONTINUING EDUCATION PROGRAMS FOR WOMEN Many mature women who want to return to school or work after a period devoted to homemaking are voicing a desire to refresh and update rusty skills learned 10 or 20 years earlier. Changing interests and needs of these women are raising questions aboiit the adequacy of education programs available in many colleges and universities today. Are teaching methods and courses designed for girls in their late teens satisfactory for women in their thirties and over? Could refresher and updating courses be offered by mortf schools? Could more classes be scheduled at times when children are in school or when some family member other than the mother is* at home? Have sufficient counseling and financial services been established to help encourage mature women to return to college? ]fn general, is the traditional pattern of 4 years of continuous study—established in colleges and universities more than one hundred years ago—really appropriate for the activities and requirements of modern adult women ? NFW ACTION FOR. NEW NEEDS The President's Commission on the Status of Women highlighted the value of continuing education for mature women in its report, "American Women." As one of its major* recommendations, the Commission urged a comprehensive program of continuing education geared to the individual woman's needs. The State commissions on the status of women, which have been established in 48 States and the Virgin Islands, also have pointed to gaps in educational opportunities for adult women. Their recommendations cover numerous types of suggestions but generally focus on ways of increasing the availability, suitability, and visibility of higher education programs to meet the special needs of mature women in their State. 1 Mounting evidence confirms the need to reexamine current curriculums and services of higher educational institutions to learn whether more should and could be done in the light of recent social and economic developments. The evidence consists of (1) demographic and economic statistics that describe some of the recent developments, (2) growing demand by mature women for appropriate consideration of their needs, and (3) experimental programs being established by more and more colleges and universities. The importance of new action to match new circumstances is further emphasized by forecasts of growing demand for skilled and educated workers. REASONS BEHIND THE RETURN TO COLLEGE The U.S. Office of Education reports that in the fall of 1965 the number of wTomen college students enrolled in degree courses was 2,174,000—about three times greater than in 1950. During this period, the population of girls aged 18 to 21 increased only one-third. There is no doubt that many of the women students in 1965 were over 35 years of age. The rising interest of mature women in returning to college is related in part to the greater desire of men and women in all age groups to develop their understanding of the complexities of modern life. There is widespread realization that additional education can bring deeper personal enrichment as well as job skills useful in the working world. Various demographic factors also help to explain the great interest of mature women in college attendance in the United States. And they indicate why the interest is even greater among women than among men over 35 years of age. These factors include women's early age of marriage (median of 20.6 years in 1965), the frequent changes in women's pattern of living, and their lengthened lifespan (an increase of 25 years between 1900 and 1964). Significant numbers of women students leave college before they graduate in order to work and help finance the education of their husbands or to care for their homes and children. Studies that trace college freshmen from initial enrollment through graduation are not available, but other statistics shed some light on'the extent of their retention in school. According to the U.S. Office of Education, women first-time college enrollees in the fall of 1960 numbered 300,943 at 4-year colleges and 86,106 at 2-year colleges. However, only 197,346 women earned a bachelor's degree during the school year 1963-64. (A similar decrease occurred in the number of men: First-time enrollees in the fall of 1960 totaled 413,497 at 4-year colleges and 129,277 at 2-year colleges, but there were only 263,121 baccalaureate graduates in 1963-64.) True dropout rates cannot be calculated from these figures because many of the freshmen were part-time students, some were enrolled in 5-year programs, and others terminated their schooling after graduating from a 2-year college. Nevertheless, it is significant that the number who graduated is much smaller than the number who enrolled in college 4 years earlier. Thus it is evident that many of the women who did not graduate are potential "returnees" during their mature years. When home and family responsibilities lessen, a considerable group of women find they have time to resume formal education. Freed from many housekeeping chores by modern inventions and discoveries, some are interested in returning to school for cultur al or social reasons. Others wish to attain a higher degree, to update their professional skills, or to prepare for reentering the work force. Refresher courses, as well as courses that are completely new, can update job skills made obsolete by technological, scientific, or other advances. RISING JOB INTEREST OF ADULT WOMEN The tremendous rise in the number of mature women who are working outside the home is well documented by labor force statistics issued by the U.S. Department of Labor. The stimulus for many of these'women is a desire to supplement family income—to help send children to college, buy a family home, or pay doctor bills. Those who are divorced or widowed often must work to support themselves and others. The recognized need for the services of educated and talented persons in a variety of challenging occupations is attracting other women into the work force. 239-357 0—67 2 3 In 1965 there were a total of 26.6 million working women, as contrasted with 18.7 million in 1950. Almost three-fifths of the 8 million increase was attributed to the larger number of women in the population ; more than two-fifths of the increase, to the greater tendency of women to enter the work force. Further analysis reveals that 6 million of the 8 million additional women workers were 35 years of age and over. In fact, the median age of all women workers rose from 37 years in 1950 to 41 years in 1965. The sharpest gain was recorded in the group of women 45 to 54 years of age. Within this age group the proportion engaged in paid employment rose from 25 percent in 1940 to 37 percent in 1950 and to 50 percent in 1965. Gains also were reported in work force participation among both women who were slightly younger and those slightly older than this group, but those changes were not so spectacular. The chances that a woman will obtain a paid job can be expected to increase with the level of her formal education. According to a 1965 survey made by the Bureau of Labor Statistics, the proportion of women at work outside the home was almost three-fifths among those with 4 4 years or more of college. In contrast, it was just over two-fifths among high school graduates with no college training and less than one-third among women who had left school after the eighth grade. As the level of formal education continues to rise throughout the country and greater numbers of women attend college, the group of women who seek paid employment in the future probably will expand. And since education and employment appear to exert: reciprocating influences, we can expect the number of mature women attending college to continue to rise. EDUCATIONAL SERVICES REQUESTED Firsthand reports of the educational interests and problems of adult women are available in two questionnaire surveys conducted by the Women's Bureau. Both were followup studies of women who had been out of college for some years. The more recent of these surveys was conducted in 1964 among women who had graduated from college in June 1957.1 Their interest in 1 "College Women Seven Years After Graduation: Resurvey of Women Graduates!—Class of 1957." Bull. 29>2. Women's Bureau, U.S. Department of Labor. 1966. 5 both continuing education and paid employment was exceedingly ancl high—both among the 51 percent in the wort f o r c e m among the 49 percent out of it. Of the total group,almost three-fourths said they were planning to enroll in an educational or a training course in the future. Of these, more than half were motivated by job-connected reasons and the others, by cultural or personal interests. Although 46 percent of the June 1957 women graduates had taken at least one graduate or professional course in the 7-yeaf period after graduation, few commented on the adequacy of their educational opportunities or suggested improvements. More revealing clues to the educational experiences of adult women were provided in the Women's Bureau exploratory survey among women who had been out of college for 15 years.2 As most of this group had children in school, many were a* an age when they were thinking of changing their pattern of living When surveyed, about one-third of the group were employed and 5 out of 6 of the remainder indicated interest in future employment. ]\Ianv also expressed a desire for additional education and training, particularly for university courses that would prepare them for teachingOf the women with recent experience in i-iniversity courses, significant numbers were critical of those with methodology and content directed at teenagers. Such courses do not satisfy women with considerable life experience. Other women had di fficulty in locating classes that reviewed and updated basic information in their fields of interest. Reporting that the hours offered by local colleges were not convenient for them, some mothers wanted courses scheduled when they were not caring for their children. They preferre ;d to attend classes during daytime school hours, in the evening, on Sat urday, or in the summertime. Some alumnae also expressed an inte r e s t in accelerated courses when they were preparing for employment. Time schedules arranged nrincinallv for voun^ qeoRle sometimes rr *ade them impatient. The most frequent request of the surveyed alumnae was for individual counseling by qualified persons, that is, by those competent to advise them about their educational and employment plans. College counselors who necessarily spend most of their time working with teenagers often do not realize the special problems associated with continuing family responsibilities and reentry into the labor market at a mature age. The alumnae also felt that many of their counselors were not aware of existing services and facilities that could help in solving their problems. 2 "15 Years After College—A Study of Alumnae of the Class of 1945." Women's Bureau, U.S. Department of Labor. 1962. 6 Bull. 283. The various suggestions and criticisms made by these college alumnae shed light on the special interests of mature women in continuing their education. The responses also raise doubts about the adequacy of many courses and services now available to mature women in colleges and universities. EXAMPLES OF EDUCATIONAL PROGRAMS The forerunners of the so-called "continuing education programs for women" were the courses instituted following World War II. College graduates with a background in liberal arts were given intensive courses in education leading to teacher certification. Some colleges and universities also scheduled refresher courses for professional nurses. But the continuing education programs developed for women in the 1960's acquired some interesting new features. Although generally not all offered by the same college or university, some of the principal features are: limited course loads in degree or nondegree programs, flexible scheduling of classes at hours convenient for housewives, liberal provision for transfer credits, educational and employment counseling, financial assistance for part-time study, nursery services, and job placement or referral services. In 1960 the University of Minnesota formally organized a facility specifically committed to making the resources of the university more efficiently and effectively useful to adult women. Now called the Minnesota Planning and Counseling Center for Women, it highlights individual counseling and information services for women at all levels of education. Women are referred to both educational and employment opportunities throughout the local metropolitan area. This comprehensive program also encompasses scholarship aid for adult women, nursery facilities, and job placement services. (See page 19.) Comprehensive programs of continuing education for mature women are offered also by Oakland University (Michigan), the University of Michigan, the University of Wisconsin, and Washington University (Missouri). Sarah Lawrence College (New York) in 1962 initiated a program especially for adult women who wish to resume an interrupted college education on a part-time basis. The women are provided counseling assistance and refresher courses prior to admission as degree candidates. The enthusiastic response to this program stimulated the establishment of part-time arrangements for graduate study also. In 8 cooperation with other universities, the college has arranged for parttime study programs leading to a master's degree in social work, library science, or early childhood and elementary education. (See page 23.) Other colleges with continuing education programs designed especially for adult women who wish to complete (or start) their undergraduate education include Lindenwood College for Women (Missouri), Santa Monica City College (California), Tift College (Georgia), and the University of Pittsburgh (Pennsylvania). General orientation workshops or courses have been developed by various colleges and universities in response to demand from adult women interested in entering or reentering the work force. These courses typically provide guest lectures on careers, information about educational courses and volunteer work, counseling on both a group and an individual basis, and placement assistance. Among the schools offering this type of continuing education program are Barnard Col- 9 lege (New York), George Washington University (District of Columbia), Hofstra University (New York), Mon terey Peninsula College (California), Portland Community College. (Oregon), State University Agricultural and Technical College (New York), the University of Akron (Ohio), the University of California at Los Angeles, and the University of Washington. The Radcliffe Institute (Massachusetts) seeks highly qualified women, particularly those with doctorates, a nd provides generous financial assistance so they can combine a period of creative study with homemaking. Its expanded program also includes weekly seminars for adult women, a guidance laboratory, and a research program. In addition, many other colleges and universities a rev attempting to meet specific educational needs of their alumnae, as well as of other women living in their area. A partial list of colleges and universities with special programs or services for wome>i lias been compiled by State and is shown in appendix A. A suggested reading list about some of these programs and related matters appears in appendix B. SPECIAL DEGREE PROGRAMS FOR ADULTS In other experiments now underway, innovations in curriculums and educational practices are being developed through degree programs especially for adults. The need for a new approach results from the increasing number of mature men and women who want to work toward a degree but whose lives are not geared to regular class room and credit hour requirements. 10 Degree programs designed for adults often include several of the following features: short-term residence requirements, independent study, credit for life experience, seminars, correspondence study, taped lectures, and programed learning. Some of the schools with this type of program are Brooklyn College (New York), Goddard College (Vermont), Mundelein College (Illinois), P a c i f i c Oaks College (California), Roosevelt University (Illinois), Syracuse University (New York), and the University of Oklahoma. VALUE OF CONTINUING EDUCATION PROGRAMS Support of continuing education programs for women is consistent with the principles of our democratic society th£t foster freedom of choice and personal fulfillment. Such programs help make it possible for women to engage in activities that use their individual abilities and energies. Women need opportunities to satisfy their yearning for self-development and expression. They want mc>re college education either to expand intellectual interests or to prepare for employment. Increased educational opportunities for mature women may bring numerous rewards. These rewards can extend beyond individual satisfaction to society at large. Economic forecasts indicate that the talents and energies of educated men and women will h- needed urgently to help our country grow and to provide a better life for all our citizens. If mature women are to be active and responsible participants in tomorrow's world, however, new responses must ibe made to changing social and economic developments. Mature wome n who find they have more free time and want to share in the excitemen t and responsibilities of the economic world need to be able to obtain s suitable occupational skills. As the number who return to college an d work continues to rise, they need to make known their interests i n and their requirements for education ancl training. University and college officials, in turn, need to review their current curriculum offerings to be sure that education is available to mature women at suitable times and places and in a manner appropriate to adult experience and patterns of life. These officials also need to understand how important is the establishment of a special educational facility or service for mature women. Whether they involve refresher courses, a counseling service, financial assistance, or some other form of special sendee, such programs demonstrate active support and encouragement of continuing education for women. 230-357 0-67- 11 APPENDIX A Schools With Special Programs or Services for Adult Women, by State A Partial List of Colleges and Universities With Continuing Education Programs or Special Educational Services Designed Primarily for Adult Women In their regular undergraduate, graduate, and adult education programs, many colleges and universities offer the same educational services to adult women as to other persons. Especially in metropolitan areas, large universities schedule classes almost continuously during the daytime and evening. Their numerous courses often cover a wide array of professional and semiprofessional subjects, vocational information, and aspects of personal development. The standard offerings of some institutions of higher education include summer sessions, part-time enrollment, short-term courses, public institutes, alumnae workshops, conferences, correspondence courses, televised courses, or audiovisual materials available on loan. In addition, some public universities operate a statewide extension service that has facilities for conducting in small cities and towns specific courses requested by the local residents. Such varied educational opportunities are, of course, exceedingly valuable to adult women. Nevertheless, because of the relatively small proportion of mature women in the college population, women frequently feel that their educational needs and problems require special attention. And educational institutions, realizing that the needs and problems of many adult women are unique, often are interested in having these circumstances interpreted to them. The following list of institutions is limited to those that have established continuing education programs or educational services with specific concern for adult women. As may be noted, the types of programs and services offered differ markedly from institution to institu12 tion. In general each program has been designed to meet the specific needs of mature women in the immediate area. More detailed and current information about a program may be obtained from the Director of Admissions of the college or university. CALIFORNIA City College of San Francisco (San Francisco) Encourages mature women to continue their education, giving credit for previously completed courses and admitting on the basis of test scores those without a high school diploma. Also provides aptitude testing and vocational and educational guidance. Monterey Peninsula College (Monterey) Conducts, in cooperation with the local branch of the American Association of University Women, a lecture series, Operation Update, which furnishes adult women with current information about a variety of cultural and technical fields. Pacific Oaks College (Pasadena) Arranges individual study plans in baccalaureate and postbaccalaureate programs in child development, psychology, and sociology. Permits part-time enrollment, independent study, short periods ofresidence,and enrollment of the students' children in the Children's School operated by the college. San Francisco College for Women (San Francisco) Schedules late afternoon and Saturday classes. Permits parttime enrollment by students working toward a bachelor of arts degree. Also allows special students not seeking a degree to enroll for credit in courses for which they qualify. Santa Monica City College (Santa Monica) Offers a course that provides guidance and counseling to women 25 to 65 years of age in preparat ion for enrollment in the regular college program. University of California (Berkeley) Conducts a summer workshop for housemothers and professionally trainedresidencepersonnel on a 3-year rotating basis with Oregon State University and the University of Washington. University of California (Los Angeles) Offers, through the Extension Division, a weekly course in Group Counseling for Women, which helps participants to analyze realistically their goals, skill aptitudes, and interests and provides 13 CALIFORNIA—Continued information about opportunities for women in educational, vocational, and volunteer activities. University of San Francisco (San Francisco) Offers a program in the School of Nursing that enables registered nurses to obtain a baccalaureate degree. COLORADO Colorado State College (Greeley) Conducts a summer workshop for housemothers and for professionally trained residence personnel, offering them the option of working for academic credits. University of Colorado (Boulder) Operates a Women's Center, as part of its Center for Student Life Programs and Studies, which encourages and facilitates the enrollment of adult women. Provides individual and group counseling, special financial grants to part-time students, and liberal loans to mature women students. Permits arrangement of part-time study programs and gives credit for introductory courses through proficiency examinations. Also offers noncredit courses primarily to students' wives in a local church with nursery facilities. CONNECTICUT University of Bridgeport (Bridgeport) Permits adult women to enroll on a part- or full-time basis in liberal arts, science, business administration, education, and engineering courses offered during the daytime or evening and leading toward a degree. DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA George Washington University Offers a noncredit orientation course, Developing New Horizons for Women, that lasts for 15 weeks each semester; consists of lectures, discussion, and testing service; and aims to assist adult women in planning for continuing education, careers, or community service. Also offers off-campus credit courses during morning hours. Provides a few tuition fellowships for part-time graduate study, informal referral for placement, and registration of qualified students in nondegree or degree programs on a part- or full-time basis. 14 DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA—Continued Mount Vernon Junior College Offers graduate seminars in English and history that may be credited toward a master of arts in teaching by Smith College of Northampton, Massachusetts. FLORIDA Barry College (Miami) Florida Atlantic University (Boca Raton) Miami-Dade Junior College (Miami) University of Miami (Coral Gables) Cooperate in conducting, through an independent community service, the Council for the Continuing Education of Women, an information and referral center for adult women who are interested in academic and vocational opportunities in the area. Rollins College (Winter Park) Provides counseling and placement services to mature women graduates of any college or university. Schedules graduate courses after the usual school hours and during the summer to enable current and future teachers to work toward a master of arts in teaching. Also offers nondegree courses in music and art. University of South Florida (Tampa, St. Petersburg) Has designed specifically for women a series of morning or afternoon lectures on a variety of cultural subjects. GEORGIA Agnes Scott College (Decatur) Offers, through its Alumnae Association, a series of noncredit liberal arts courses open to alumnae and their husbands and conducted during evening hours. Tift College (Forsyth) Operates a program during the summer to enable inservice teachers who have not completed their basic education to obtain a baccalaureate degree. Also offers a special program to assist registered nurses in obtaining a baccalaureate degree. ILLINOIS Mundelein College (Chicago) Admits women who are over 26 years of age and have a high school diploma into a special degree program that includes Basic Studies 15 ILLINOIS—Continued Seminars, limited classroom attendance, use of tutorial and independent study techniques, and credit for life experience. Roosevelt University (Chicago) Offers to men and women 25 years of age or over a degree program leading to a bachelor of general studies degree and consisting of a proseminar that provides intensive preparation for life study and evaluation of life experience in terms of theoretical knowledge, concentrated study in an area of interest, three "integrating seminars" that cover large areas of human knowledge, and an internship as a volunteer in a community agency. University of Illinois (Urbana) Offers, through its University Extension Division, a series of nondegree liberal arts courses designed for adult women to broaden their knowledge of the arts. Also conducts a workshop in residence hall work for mature women. Has established the position of Assistant Dean for Married Students to provide additional counseling and advisory services for women who wish to continue their education. IOWA Iowa State University of Science and Technology (Ames) Conducts 2- and 3-week workshops during the summer in various subject matter areas relating to home economics for current teachers or those wishing to renew their certification. Also permits part-time study in the regular university program and offers noncredit short courses in vocational fields and off-campus credit courses in the evening. KANSAS Marymount College (Salina) Offers adults, in the evening and Saturdays, a variety of credit and noncredit courses that include refresher courses with a vocational purpose. University of Kansas (Lawrence) Conducts daytime workshops for adult women in such fields as education, music, and the arts. Adult women also may enroll as special students in university courses for which they qualify and may receive credits toward a degree. 16 LOUISIANA Southern University and A & M College (Baton Rouge) Permits adult women to enroll in regular courses on a part-time basis in the evening and on Saturdays, provides a guidance program, offers resident assistantships for those in programs leading to a bachelor's or master's degree, and sponsors workshops providing educational and vocational information. Tulane University of Louisiana (New Orleans) Offers, in cooperation with the Newcomb College Alumnae Association, a series of morning courses—Estate Planning for Women—for those interested in financial affairs. MARYLAND Goucher College (Towson, Baltimore) Conducts the Wednesday Program in Continuing Education for women who have had 1 year or more of college and who wish to prepare for reentry into a regular degree program. In addition, admits some women with the necessary educational background who do not plan to enter a degree program. However, auditors are not admitted to the program. MASSACHUSETTS Boston University (Boston) Offers short-term certificate programs in such fields as insurance, real estate, management, foreign languages, and liberal arts. Also schedules a guidance seminar for women as needed. Brandeis University (Waltham) Offers weekly noncredit Morning Seminars for Women in various subjects, particularly in the humanities, fine arts, and social sciences. Also, conducts annual summer institutes that are open to adults on a noncredit basis and consist of two 1-week programs focusing on specific themes. Harvard Graduate School of Education (Cambridge) Provides three programs of part-time study to prepare for teaching and counseling. College graduates who qualify may work toward (1) a master of education degree for teaching in elementary schools, (2) a master of arts in teaching for work in secondary schools, or (3) a master of education degree for counseling in elementary or secondary schools. 17 MASSACHUSETTS-Continued Northeastern University (Boston) Maintains an Office of Programs for Adult Women, which provides educational counseling; arranges for course scheduling at times and places convenient to adult women; and offers numerous orientation, noncredit, and undergraduate courses on a weekly basis during the daytime. Northeastern University (Burlington) Offers, through its Office of Programs for Adult Women, a variety of undergraduate, graduate, and noncredit courses and workshops given once a week during the daytime to suit the needs of adult women. Courses leading to a degree may be taken on a part-time basis. Counseling and orientation courses are also available. Eadcliffe College (Cambridge) The Eadcliffe Institute provides fellowships to enable highly qualified women to engage in part-time (or occasionally fulltime) research or creative work while they still have family commitments. Conducts the Eadcliffe Seminars, with courses offered weekly to adult women on a credit or noncredit basis and providing advanced study in various subjects. Also maintains a guidance laboratory and a research program. Simmons College (Boston) Maintains an Office of Continuing Education that provides counseling for mature women and schedules programs on a part-time basis during the daytime. Included are nondegree refresher courses and programs leading to an undergraduate degree or to a master's degree in English, library science, social work, home economics education, or urban teaching. Wellesley College (Wellesley) Conducts an Institute in Chemistry that provides for halftime study for 2 years and leads to a master's degree. The program is open to women who have obtained their bachelor's degree (ordinarily with a minimum of 18 hours of chemistry) 5 or more years ago. New participants are required to enroll in a preliminary program given during the summer. MICHIGAN Michigan State University (East Lansing) Encourages the enrollment of mature women through Programs for Women, a part of its Continuing Education Service. Cospon18 MICHIGAN—Continued sors a community project, Re-Evaluation and Education for Adults Project (R.E.A.P.), which provides information about counseling and testing services, educational and employment opportunities, financial assistance, parent-education courses, and cultural courses and events. With the Lansing Community College, also has cosponsored Now and Later, a 6-week noncredit orientation course for married women with families, to help them assess their abilities, interests, and potentialities. Has expanded its counseling services for adults and is developing an orientation course for women interested in a university education. Oakland University (Rochester) Operates the Continuum Center, which offers individual counseling in four areas: personal identity, educational courses, employment opportunities, and volunteer activities. Provides scholarships for its testing program; offers a variety of courses and seminars of interest to women; and conducts conferences relating to women's interests, needs, and problems. Also operates a child care center for preschool children of women returning to school. University of Michigan (Ann Arbor) Provides, through the Center for Continuing Education of Women, counseling services to women interested in continuing their education on a graduate or an undergraduate level and gives information on university or college courses and on employment opportunities. Arranges flexible programs to meet the special requirements of adult women. Refers women to appropriate ancillary services offered by the university, such as testing, financial aid, and psychological counseling. MINNESOTA University of Minnesota (Minneapolis) Operates the Minnesota Planning and Counseling Center for Women, open to Minnesota women at all levels of education. The center provides advice, counseling, and information on educational and employment opportunities in the Minneapolis-St. Paul area. Also offered are scholarship, nursery, and job placement services. MISSOURI Central Missouri State College ( Warrensburg) Conducts a summer workshop for housemothers and for professionally trained residence personnel. Also offers women short courses to upgrade basic business skills. 239-357 O—67 4 19 MISSOURI—Continued Lindenwood College for Women (St. Charles) Conducts a Program for the Continuing Education of Women in which adult women who wish a college education may enroll on a part- or full-time basis and receive testing services, vocational counseling, and special consideration regarding requirements. Saint Louis University ( St. Louis) Conducts Daytime Programs Especially for Ladies, which include both liberal arts and vocationally oriented courses. University of Missouri (Kansas City) Offers daytime noncredit courses, including liberal arts courses, special training seminars for women interested in becoming research assistants or volunteer workers, and a course on Social Change and Women's Roles in Contemporary America. University of Missouri (St. Louis) Offers, through its Office of Continuing Education for Women, a 12-week noncredit course in Wider Horizons for Women, which provides group and individual counseling, information on employment opportunities, and placement assistance. Also offers special courses for registered nurses desiring a baccalaureate degree and for other women wishing to become library aides. Permits enrollment on a part-time basis in degree and nondegree courses, assists mature women with their course scheduling, and refers them to specialized services when necessary. Washington University (St. Louis) Provides, through its Office of Continuing Education for Women, general counseling for adult women; offers certificate programs in vocational and professional fields; permits enrollment on a parttime basis in both credit and noncredit courses; helps develop flexible programs to meet the special needs of adult women; and refers them as necessary to such specialized services as testing, academic counseling, psychological counseling, financial aid, and placement. MONTANA Eastern Montana College (Billings) Operates, in cooperation with the local branch of the American Association of University Women, a Plan for Continuing Education for Women, which provides a referral service to academic, vocational, scholarship, placement, and other counseling services and conducts special conferences and meetings relating to educational and employment opportunities for women. 20 NEW HAMPSHIRE Rivier College (Nashua) Offers adult women a variety of courses that they may take on either a credit or noncredit basis. Permits part- or full-time enrollment in the undergraduate program and a part-time study schedule for graduates. NEW JERSEY Fairleigh Dickinson University (Madison) Operates Referral to Employment, Academic, and Community Service Opportunities for Housewives (REACH)—a liaison service between adult women and educational institutions, placement agencies, potential employers, and community groups. Permits adult women on all three campuses (Rutherford, Teaneck, and Madison) to enroll in credit courses on a part-time basis. Also, offers noncredit courses that prepare women for specific vocations such as library work. Rutgers, The State University (New Brunswick) Conducts a Retraining Program in Mathematics! and Science that offers morning and early afternoon courses in the review and updating of mathematics and science, the teaching of the new mathematics, computer programing, and statistics. The program, which includes professional counseling and guidance in job placement, is geared especially to the needs of housewives who wish to prepare for teaching or for mathematical work in industry. NEW YORK Bank Street College of Education (New York) Offers a graduate program in teacher education that permits adult women to adapt their study schedules to home responsibilities and that enables qualified students to engage in supervised teaching with full-time pay after their first semester. Also offers a program in school guidance leading to a master's degree or to an advanced professional diploma. Barnard College (New York) Does not charge tuition to its alumnae who return to take any of the regular courses offered. Sponsors the Barnard College Workshop for Community Service, which is open to women who have attended any accredited college. The workshop provides weekly sessions giving information about occupational fields and guidance in entering or reentering the labor market. 21 NEW YORK-Continued Brooklyn College (New York) Offers a Special Baccalaureate Program that allows individual pace of study, independent study, and tutorial assistance and grants academic credit for life experience. Admits selected college graduates to a program that prepares them to teach in elementary schools in disadvantaged areas. City College (New York) Conducted, during the summer of 1966, in cooperation with the Board of Education of the City of New York, a tuition-free intensified study program that enabled college' graduates to prepare for teaching in the New York City public school system. C. W. Post College of Long Island University (Brookville, Long Island) Provides individual counseling, program planning assistance, and classes scheduled at hours convenient for adult women in degree and nondegree courses, including special sections of English, philosophy, mathematics, art, and physical education. Hofstra University (Hempstead, Long Island) Offers each year two 10-week workshops, Career Horizons for Women, which provide women who have had some college education such services as group guidance and counseling as well as information about educational and employment opportunities and about the world of work in relation to family responsibilities and individual needs. Permits adult women to attend daytime classes as part-time students. Also offers a new course in social science research techniques to women who are at least 25 years of age, have at least 2 years of college, and are members of a nonprofit civic organization. New School for Social Research (New York) Offers, through its Human Relations Center, a daytime program for adults, including multidisciplinary courses in psychology, sociology, philosophy, history, current affairs, and ethics. Program includes noncredit courses in Planning for Work and Study and in Volunteer Training for subprofessional assistants. A certificate program is also available for those who wish to refurbish skills in academic fields and in self-discipline. New York Medical College (New York) Conducts an approved psychiatric residency for married women medical doctors, in which their work and study schedules and resi22 NEW YORK-Continued dence requirements are adjusted to their home needs. This training program will make the candidate eligible to take examinations leading to certification by the American Board of Psychiatry and Neurology. New York University (New York) Offers such courses as Career Planning for Women and Women's Law Class, and conducts discussion programs and lecture courses in about 65 suburban locations. Also operates in White Plains, Westchester County, a part-time daytime program especially for women that leads to a master's degree in social work or in early childhood and elementary education. St. Joseph's College for Women (New York) Conducts a Program for Continuing Education that permits adult women to enroll in a part-time study program of credit courses. Sarah Lawrence College (Bronxville) Operates the Center for Continuing Education and Community Studies that provides educational counseling and coordinates (1) special courses and a part-time study program for women who left college before graduation, (2) a graduate studies program designed on an individual basis and leading to a master's degree, and (3) part-time study programs, arranged with cooperating institutions and located initially in Westchester County, and leading to a master's degree in social work, library science, or early childhood and elementary education. State University Agricultural and Technical College (Farmingdale, Long Island) Conducts a 15-session noncredit workshop—Gateway to Careers— that provides adult women with information about opportunities for continuing education, employment, and volunteer work. The course helps women appraise their aptitudes and abilities, reestablish self-confidence, and learn job-search techniques. Other special offerings for women include a refresher program to prepare inactive registered nurses for active service, a school lunch workshop for women entering or engaged in school food services, a secretarial workshop, and a "gericare-aide" training program. Counseling services are also provided. Syracuse University (Syracuse) Operates a Center for the Continuing Education of Women that provides information on part-time study opportunities, admission 23 NEW YORK-Continued requirements, financial arrangements, proficiency examinations, and advanced placement. Also offers a degree program of directed independent study, a Certificate Program for Social Work, and workshops for supervising nurses. Vassar College (Poughkeepsie) Permits married women to enroll in a part-time study program focused toward a baccalaureate degree, but requires former students of other colleges who have been out of school quite a while to take a few courses before being accepted into the degree program. NORTH CAROLINA Queens College (Charlotte) Conducts, primarily for adult women, a morning program of noncredit short courses in numerous cultural subjects. Also operates an independent study program that includes tutorial guidance. OHIO Ohio State University (Columbus) Provides, through its Continuing Education for Women project, educational counseling for mature women as well as noncredit lecture-seminars and special residential workshops. Adult women may enroll in a part-time study program or as special students in the regular program. Ohio University (Athens) Conducts a summer workshop for housemothers. University of Akron (Akron) Offers, during 10 weekly sessions, a course—Opportunities for Women: Plan for the Second Half of Your Life—which covers general appraisal of individual talents, work requirements, and job opportunities. Also, permits both undergraduate and graduate students to enroll on a part-time basis. University of Dayton (Dayton) Offers noncredit courses during the daytime and evening in a variety of liberal arts subjects, such as Contemporary Civilization, and vocationally oriented subjects, such as Computer Concepts. 24 OKLAHOMA Oklahoma City University (Oklahoma City) Conducts the Mothers Return to School Institute, which provides counseling services and educational information for mothers who wish to start or return to college. University of Oklahoma (Norman) Enables adults to work toward a bachelor of liberal studies degree, proceeding at their own pace with independent study and with only short periods of residence. The program includes seminars in broad areas of study and special examinations that measure knowledge acquired through earlier education or experience. OREGON Oregon State University (Corvallis) Conducts a summer workshop for housemothers and professionally trained residence personnel on a 3-year rotating basis with the University of California at Berkeley and the University of Washington. Portland Community College (Portland) Offers an evening course primarily for mature women 34 to 55 years of age who are interested in entering or reentering the world of work. Two series of the course are scheduled on a weekly basis for 10 weeks; they include such aspects as counseling, testing, selfappraisal, consideration of home and work schedules, and occupational information. PENNSYLVANIA Margaret Morrison Carnegie College, Carnegie Institute of Technology (Pittsburgh) Provides counseling, educational information, and professional preparation to mature women who plan to seek employment. Pennsylvania State University (University Park) Offers each spring a Workshop for Women in Management to provide better understanding of advanced management principles. Temple University (Philadelphia) Operates a Continuing Education Plan that permits adult women to enroll on a part- or full-time basis, to fullfill some course requirements through evaluation of previous experience, to participate in special orientation sessions, to be assigned specific academic advisers, and to join the Encore Club. 25 PENNSYLVANIA—Continued University of Pennsylvania (Philadelphia) Conducts a Program of Continuing Education for Women that provides for educational counseling and enrollment on a part-time basis in either undergraduate or graduate programs. University of Pittsburgh (Pittsburgh) Permits women over 30 years of age with a high school diploma or equivalent education to enroll, without taking College Board examinations, for as few as 6 credit hours during the day or 3 credit hours at night and to disregard the requirement that credits needed for a bachelor's degree be accumulated in 7 years. Provides, through its Office of Women's Education, special counseling services and orientation lectures on such subjects as study and reading techniques. Makes special effort to adjust academic schedules to each woman's home, family, or work obligations. May give credit in some programs for travel or work experience. Allows for part-time study in some graduate programs, such as in the School of Social Work. RHODE ISLAND University of Rhode Island (Providence) Offers, through its Division of University Extension, daytime courses that are designed primarily for mature women seeking a career outside the home and that lead to the degree of bachelor of arts in English or bachelor of science in home economics. Daytime courses, which are interchangeable with similar evening courses, are scheduled in the morning when schoolage children of the women students are in school. TENNESSEE University of Chattanooga (Chattanooga) Offers a variety of noncredit courses designed to meet the needs of mature women. These are generally scheduled during the morning and evening on a weekly basis. VERMONT Goddard College (Plainfield) Conducts an Adult Degree Program for men and women at least 26 years of age who have not graduated from college. Two-week resident seminars with lectures and discussions are alternated with 6-month periods of independent study carried on at home and supervised through correspondence with faculty. 26 VIRGINIA Mary Baldwin College (Staunton) Provides educational counseling services for mature women who want to work toward a baccalaureate degree, and permits alumnae to audit courses without charge. University of Virginia, Northern Virginia Center (Arlington) Offers during the daytime and evening noncredit seminars designed to provide adult women with information about a variety of cultural and current subjects. The seminars are offered at low tuition on a weekly basis for 8-week periods in the fall and spring. Counseling services and daytime scheduling of credit courses have been expanded to meet the needs of housewives returning to school. Also offered are special courses to update registered nurses on new developments in medicine. WASHINGTON University of Washington (Seattle) Offers a noncredit workshop—Decision Is Destiny—that provides educational and vocational counseling and guidance to adult women during daytime hours preparatory to employment, volunteer work, or enrollment in the regular university program. Offers a series of noncredit daytime courses at an off-campus center for women. In addition, the University's regular program includes two orientation sessions for returnees and makes financial aid available. Also conducts a summer workshop for housemothers and professionally trained residence personnel on a 3-year rotating basis with the University of California at Berkeley and Oregon State University. WISCONSIN Marquette University (Milwaukee) Offers adult women various courses, both cultural and vocational in nature, scheduled during the daytime and evening and available at off-campus locations as well as on campus. University of Wisconsin (Madison) Provides special services for mature women, including educational counseling, scholarships for mature women interested in graduate work leading to a doctoral degree and in utilizing their advanced education, scheduling of courses of interest to adult women, and a job placement clearinghouse. 27 WISCONSIN—Continued University of Wisconsin (Milwaukee) Provides mature women with educational counseling services and scholarships, and schedules classes especially for women during daytime hours. Also assigns professors for study groups in offcampus seminars. Wisconsin State University (Platteville) Presents the Women's Program Series, a program of monthly lectures covering various aspects of modern life. NOTE: The American Association of University Woirien College Faculty Program provides tuition grants and stipends to college women 35 years of age and over for full-time graduate study that will qualify them for teaching, administrative, or research positions in colleges and universities. Awards have been made recently in eight States (California, Illinois, Michigan, Minnesota, Ohio, Oregon, Washington, and Texas) and are being extended to other States. 28 APPENDIX B Selected Readings American Association of University Women Educational Foundation. Counseling Techniques for Mature Women. Report of the Adult Counselor Program June 14-August 6, 1965. Washington, D.C. 1966. Berry, Jane, and others. Counseling Girls and Women: Awareness, Analysis, and Action. Kansas City, Mo., University of Missouri at Kansas City, 1966. Berry, Jane, and Sandra Epstein. Continuing Education of Women: Needs, Aspirations, and Plans. Kansas City, Mo., The University of Kansas City (now the University of Missouri at Kansas City), 1963. Bunting, Mary I.: A Huge Waste: Educated Womanpower. In the New York Times Magazine, May 7,1961. The Radcliffe Institute for Independent Study. In Educational Record, October 1961. Bureau of Social Science Research, Inc. Two Years After the College Degree: Work and Further Study Patterns. Report on the 1960 Survey of 1958 College Graduates. Washington, D.C., 1963. Change and Choice for the College Woman. In Journal of the American Association of University Women, May 1962. Dennis, Lawrence E., ed. Education and a Woman's Life. Proceedings of the Itasca Conference on the Continuing Education of Women. Washington, D.C., American Council on Education, 1963. Dolan, Eleanor F.: Counseling the Mature Woman. In Journal of the American Association of University Women, January 1966. Higher Education for Women: Time for Reappraisal. In Higher Education, September 1963. 29 Ford Foundation Program for the Retraining in Mathematics of College Graduate Women. In Notes and Comments, New Brunswick, N.J., Rutgers, The State University, May 1963. Ginzberg, Eli. Life Styles of Educated Women. New York, N.Y., Columbia University Press, 1966. A Lot More To Learn. In Mademoiselle, February 1962. Ludwig, Jack. New Shining Minds for Rusty Ladies. In Glamour, July 1961. O'Neill, Barbara Powell. Careers for Women After Marriage and Children. New York, N.Y., The Macmillan Co., 1965. Opportunities for Women Through Education. Conference-Workshop Proceedings, Center for Continuing Education of Women, March 16, 1965. Ann Arbor, Mich., The University of Michigan, 1965. President's Commission on the Status of Women. American Women. 1963.1 Proceeding from The First Catalyst on Campus Conference—a Program Proposal. Held at Margaret Morrison Carnegie College. May 15-16, 1964. Pittsburgh, Pa., Carnegie Institute of TechnologyRaushenbush, Esther. Unfinished Business: Continuing Education for Women. In Educational Record, October 1961. Scates, Alice Y. Women Moving Ahead. In American Education, March 1966. Senders, Virginia L. The Minnesota Plan for Women's Continuing Education: A Progress Report. In Educational Record, October 1961. Stern, Bernard H. Never Too Late for College: The Brooklyn Degree Program for Adults. Chicago, 111., The Center for the Study of Liberal Education for Adults, 1963. Useem, Ruth Hill. The Furor Over Women's Education. In University College Quarterly, East Lansing, Mich., Michigan State University, May 1963. U.S. Department of Labor, Women's Bureau: 2 College Women Seven Years After Graduation: Resurvey of Women Graduates—Class of 1957. Bull. 292. 1966. Counseling Girls Toward New Perspectives. A Report of the Middle Atlantic Regional Pilot Conference. Held in Philadelphia, Pa., December 2-4,1965. 1966. 1 Single copies may be obtained without charge from the Women's Bureau, U.S. Department of Labor, Washington, D.C. 20210. 2 Single copies of Women's Bureau publications may be obtained without charge from the Women's Bureau, U.S. Department of Labor, Washington, D.C. 20210. 30 Fifteen Years After College—A Study of Alumnae of the Class of 1945. Bull. 283. 1962. First Jobs of College Women—Report on Women Graduates, Class of 1957. Bull. 268. 1959. Job Horizons for College Women in the 1960's. Bull. 288. 1964. New Approaches to Counseling Girls in the 1960's. A Report of the Midwest Regional Pilot Conference. Held at the University of Chicago, Chicago, 111., February 26-27,1965. 1965. Trends in Educational Attainment of Women. June 1966. 1965 Handbook on Women Workers. Bull. 290. 1966. White, Martha S., ed. The Next Step: A Guide to Part-Time Opportunities in Greater Boston for the Educated Woman. Cambridge, Mass., Radcliffe Institute for Independent Study, 1964. 31 •U.s. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE: 1 9 6 7 O—239-357 S . DEPARTMENT O F LABOR WOMEN'S BUREAU WASHINGTON, D . C . 20210 O F F I C I A L BUSINESS POSTAGE A N D FEES P A I D U.S. D E P A R T M E N T O F L A B O R