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Foreword
During the years 1957-63, equal-pay bills were introduced in 21
States. New legislation was enacted in five of these States, and
existing laws were amended in three States. B y the spring of 1963,
22 States had enacted laws requiring women workers to receive equal
pay for equal or comparable work in all or in specified industries
operating within the State. This State activity, in addition to the
congressional activity relating to the Equal Pay Act of 1963, has stimulated the interest of many persons and groups in factual information
about wages paid to men and women performing similar work.
Therefore in response to numerous requests, as on several previous
occasions, the Women's Bureau has assembled and analyzed economic
data currently available and pertinent to this issue. Because of
time and cost limitations, it has not been feasible to conduct field
surveys of individual establishments to learn about differentials in
wage rates of men and women performing comparable work. However, the summary material presented here provides additional
information on the subject of equal pay.
This report was prepared by Jean A. Wells, Acting Chief of the
Division of Research and Manpower Program Development, with
the assistance of Isabelle S. Streidl.




ESTHER PETERSON

Director, Women's Bureau

i

U.S.

GOVERNMENT

PRINTING

OFFICE,

WASHINGTON

:

For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office
Washington, D.C. 20402 - Price 15 cents

1
1



1963

Contents
Page

Introduction

1

Job hiring orders

1

Labor-management contracts

3

Pay practices of employers

5

Annual wage and salary income

6

Occupational distributions of men and women workers
Occupational earnings of selected groups
White-collar workers

7
8
8

Service workers

12

Plant workers

15

Salary schedules of teachers

18

Salaries of recent college graduates

20

Federal salaries

20




iii




ECONOMIC INDICATORS RELATING
TO EQUAL PAY, 1963
Introduction
The principle of paying men and women equal rates for equal or
comparable work has been endorsed for several decades by many
business, labor, and government representatives in the United States.
It was the guiding policy of the war labor boards during World War
I and World War II, and of the wage and salary stabilization boards
during the Korean war.
At the beginning of 1963, equal-pay laws were in effect in 22 States.
A majority of the women workers are located in these States. However,
in some States equal-pay laws exempt certain groups, such as domestic
workers, agricultural workers, or public employees; and in other
States, coverage is limited to workers in specific industries. As a
result, not all the women workers in equal-pay States are covered by
law. In States without equal-pay laws, women workers have only
such protection as is provided by labor-management contracts and
voluntary policies of individual employers. No nationwide estimate,
therefore, can be made either of the number of men and women
doing comparable work or of the extent to which they are receiving
equal pay.
Since prevailing wage-rate data for men and women are not available on a plant-by-plant and job-by-job basis, it is useful to analyze
various salary and earnings studies which have been made. From
the summaries which follow, we are able to gain some insight into
existing pay inequities.

Job Hiring Orders
When reporting job vacancies to employment offices, employers
sometimes list a vacancy with a single job title but with a higher
hiring rate for men than for women. About 91 examples of job orders
with wage differentials were found by Women's Bureau representatives who visited public employment offices in nine cities in 1963.




1

A majority of the job orders examined, however, indicated that employers desired either "men only" or "women only" for a specific
job opening. Many other job orders, of course, listed one job title
and one job rate, without any sex preference.
Hiring orders with wage differentials based on sex covered a variety
of occupations, but well over half were for clerical, service, or sales
jobs. Probable reasons for this concentration are such factors as
the kinds of jobs for which both men and women are hired, the prevalence of piece rates for many factory jobs, and different practices
which employers follow in seeking various types of workers.
Table 1 is based on job orders on file in nine public employment
offices, and lists selected examples of jobs with wage differentials
based on sex. In about one-third of the orders the wage differential
amounted to 10 percent or less of the men's rate; in over one-half of
the orders, 11 to 25 percent; and in the remaining orders, 26 percent
or more.
Table 1.—Selected Job Hiring Orders with Wage Differentials in Nine Cities, 1968

Industry

Job title

Hiring rate
Women

Men

Pay
period

CITY A
Cashier
Hospital aide...
Kitchen helper.
Salesclerk

Dairy
Hospital
Restaurant. _
Retail trade..

$55.00
160.00
.75
40.00

$60-$65.00
190.00
. 90-1.00
65.00

Week..
Month.
Hour...
Week..

3,000.00
30.00
2, 470.00
2,184.00
3, 263.00

3, 600.00
45.00
2, 626.00
2, 626.00
3, 705.00

Year...
Week..
Year...
...do....
...do....

CITY B
Clerk-typist
Cook
Dining room attendantHospital aide
Physical technician

Chemical mfg.
Cafeteria
Hospital
do
do

CITY C
Accounting clerk
Do
Do
Do
Do
Do
Assembler (elec.)
Assembler (floor)
Do
Do
Billing clerk
Bookkeeper
Cashier
Glazier
Machine operator (addressograph)
Machine operator (billing)
Do
Machine operator (bookkeeping)
Machine operator (general)
Order clerk
Price clerk
Punch-press operator
Do
Machine operator
Stock clerk
Welder (combination)

2




Insurance
Meatpacking
Metal mfg
Publishing
Transportation.
do
Electrical mfg...
Metal mfg
do
.....do
do
do
do
.....do
Publishing.
Paper products mfg.
Metal mfg
_do.:
do.
Machinery mfg.
Paint mfg
Metal mfg
do
do
Meatpacking
Metal mfg

51-58.00
65-70.00
210-260.00
50-55.00
58-70.00
1.45
1.25
1.15
1.185
1.50
210-260.00
210-260.00
210-260.00
1.50

55-60.00
75-80.00
250-275.00
65-70.00
64-80.00
1.80
1.40
1.40
1.545
1.65
250-275.00
250-275.00
250-275.00
1.95

Week...
..do
Month..
Week...
..do
Hour
..do
..do
..do
..do.....
Month..
..do
..do
Hour

46-50.00

54-60.00

Week...

1.60-1.80
210-260.00

1.75-1.90
250-275.00

Hour
Month...

210-260.00

250-275.00

1.185
56-60.00
1.35
1.185
1.30
1.25
65-70.00
1.185

1.545
100.00
1.55
1.545
1.75
1.50
70-75.00
1.545

—do
Hour...
Week..
Hour..
..do....
..do....
..do....
Week..
Hour..

Table 1.- -Selected Job Hiring

Job title

Orders with Wage Differentials in Nine
1963—Continued

Industry

Hiring rate
Women

1

Men

Pay
period

Cities,

Wage differential as
percent of
men's rate

CITY D
Dishwasher (hand).
Manager (dept.)
Do
Do

18.00
1.00
1.00
1.00

20.00
1.62
1.50
1.25-1.62

Week..
Hour...
..do—.
—do—.

1.30
1.30
1.30
60.00
1.15
1.15
46-56.00
1.30
50.00

1. 50-1.75
1.35
1.35
63.00
1.25
1. 25
63-75.00
1.35
60.00

„do
-do
-do
Week...
Hour„_.
-do
Week...
Hour....
Week...

Ordnance..
Hospital
do
Country club
Business service..
Misc. mfg
Retail trade.
do
do..

1.75
45.00
45.00
65.00
1.25
1.15
1.25
1.00
1.00

1.90
54.00
50.00
70.00
1.35
1.25
1.50
1.25
1.25

HourWeek..
..do....
-do....
Hour...
...do—.
—do—.
...do—.
—do-

Textile mfg
Beauty service
Retail trade..
do
Dry cleaning
Retail trade
do
Communications..

50.00
75.00
45.00
45.00
1.35
50.00
1.50
325.00

55-60.00
85.00
55.00
55.00
1.55
65.00
1.75
335-350.00

Wee^.
.„do_—
...do....
... d o Hour—
WeekHour...
Month.

1.75
35.00
60.00

2.00
75.00
80.00

HourWeek.
...do-

1.25
1.25
1.25
1.25

1.50
1.50
1.40
1.40

Hour..
...do...
...do...
...do...

RestaurantRetail trade..
do.__
do

CITY E
Assembler
Cashier
Grocery checker...
Machine operator.
Salesclerk
Do
Do
Stock clerk
Teller

Electrical mfg_.
Retail trade
....do
Blueprinting...
Retail trade
—.do
do
Retail trade
Banking

CITY F
Assembler..
Clerk-typist
Do
Cook
Detective (store).
Packer
Salesclerk
Do
Do
CITY G
Billing clerk
Clerk-typist
Counter worker...
Do
Presser (machine) _
Salesclerk
Do
Teletype operator_
CITY H
General office clerk.
Salesclerk
Stock control clerk..

Transportation...
Retail trade
Wholesale trade..

CITY I
Cook
Production worker
Machine operator
Punch-press operator.

Restaurant..
Food m f g . . .
Metal mfg__
do

Labor-Management Contracts
Labor-management contracts sometimes include provisions which
guarantee equal pay to men and women doing the same or comparable
work. Such provisions may be in the form of an equal-pay clause,
a schedule of job rates, a job evaluation system, or some combination
of the three. Some contracts make no mention of equal pay because
no women or very few of them are employed by the signatory establishment; in other cases, a clause may be considered unnecessary because
most of the work force consists of women.




3

Equal-pay clauses usually state that the principle of equal pay for
equal work shall be adhered to. Sometimes they expressly prohibit
wage discrimination based on sex. In a special analysis of collective
bargaining agreements made by Women's Bureau representatives in
1956, equal pay was specifically mentioned in about two-fifths of the
contracts studied. The " k e y contracts" (those covering 1,000 employees or more) had a slightly higher proportion of equal-pay clauses
than other contracts. In the electrical products industry, where
large numbers of women production workers are employed, equal
pay for equal work was specified in more than half the union agreements studied.
Typical examples of some equal-pay clauses follow:
The parties hereto agree that the wage structure herein set
forth is fully in accord with the principle of equal pay for
equal work regardless of sex; and agree further to recognize
and apply the principle of equal pay for equal work regardless
of race, color, or creed.
It is agreed that there shall be equal pay for equal work,
regardless of sex or age.

Most collective bargaining agreements which include a schedule of
job rates indicate that a single rate or rate range is to be paid for each
job, regardless of the sex of the worker. Some of these contracts
do not actually mention the phrase "equal pay," although some
warn against discrimination. Some illustrative contract provisions
are:
The established rate of pay for each production or maintenance
job, other than a trade or craft, apprentice, or learner's job as
defined in Paragraph 1 of this Subsection B, shall apply to any
employee during such time as the employee is required to perform such job.
There shall be no discrimination by reason of age, sex, creed,
color, or nationality, and all employees will be paid on the established base rate, hourly rate, or rate range for the job assigned
except as otherwise provided in this Agreement.

At some companies, a job evaluation system has been incorporated
into the labor-management contract. As the wage or salary rate is
by definition based on an objective evaluation of the skills and other
requirements of each job, there may be no reference to the sex of the
worker. Examples of clauses in contracts providing job evaluation
include:
Job descriptions shall be agreed upon by the Union and the
Management before the Evaluation Committee begins its work.
An equitable wage plan has been scientifically developed by
the company for all wage job classifications through the recording of the elemental values of each separate job and their fair
evaluation in reference to the elemental values of every other
job.

4




The absence of an equal-pay provision does not indicate, of course,
that unequal pay for equal work is either permitted or of no concern
to the parties involved, since the principle may be voluntarily or
unanimously accepted outside the written agreement. On the other
hand, the presence of an equal-pay provision does not necessarily
insure equal-pay practice. Important factors which influence the
effectiveness of an equal-pay provision include the method used in
setting rates and the contract enforcement policy.
A few labor-management contracts set a man's rate and a woman's
rate for the same job, or specify different methods of determining job
rates for men and women. Examples follow:
Different hourly wage rates are listed for men and women
in a contract with a long job-rate list but few jobs covering
both men and women. The jobs with differentials follow:
male material handlers, $1.96; female material handlers, $1.76;
male janitors and sweepers, $1.81; female janitresses, $1.71;
male cutter, second class, $2.01; female cutter, $1.91; male
inventory, $2.06; female inventory, $1.76.
New employees will come under the starting rates and base
rates as indicated below: Female—first 30 days, $1,805;
thereafter, $1,950; Male—first 30 days, $1,960; thereafter, $2,015.
Effective July 1, 1962, all male employees in the employ of
the members of the Association on that date shall receive a
wage increase of seven and one-half cents (7 1 M) per hour.
Effective July 1, 1962, all female employees in the employ of
the members of the Association on that date shall receive a
wage increase of six and one-quarter cents (6J40) per hour.

Pay Practices of Employers
Two private surveys in which employers were questioned whether
or not they provide equal pay for equal work, give some indication of
how employers view their own pay practices. In both surveys,
significant proportions of employers acknowledged the existence of
some wage or salary inequality.
As a result of a survey of more than 1,900 employers in the United
States and Canada, the National Office Management Association has
reported 1 the following question and answers:

Yes
No
No answer.

2 33

66
1

"Factor of Sex in Office Employment" in the February 1961 issue of Office Executive.
These employers were probably all in the United States, since Federal and provincial laws requiring
equal pay for equal work cover virtually all employers in Canada.
1

2




5

A mail questionnaire survey conducted by two university professors 3 was focused on salary and personnel practices affecting men
and women in high-level positions in business, industry, and education. A total of 120 firms located in 20 States participated in the
survey; they included manufacturers, oil companies, insurance firms,
banks, universities, and department stores.
When questioned whether they always pay women the same salary
as men if they both have the same position, the companies who
responded answered as follows:
Number

Always pay the same
Never pay the same
Sometimes pay the same

Percent

65

83

13

17

The report of the university professors includes the following statement:
Variations in practice from the policy of equal pay for
women, even though the policy is favored, are explained as
due to the factor of permanency (there is a relatively high
rate of turnover among female employees for reasons of marriage, housekeeping, and family responsibilities) and the existence of jobs for which men are better suited (in which case the
distinction in salary is primarily a difference in individuals
rather than a difference based on policy).

The comments provided in the preceding quotation may be viewed
as individual interpretations, since there is no generally accepted
proof that women in high-level positions have higher labor turnover
than men, and since the jobs being compared were, b y definition,
similar—regardless of whether or not men were better suited to them.

Annual Wage and Salary Income
The wage and salary income data reported annually by the Bureau
of the Census provide an overall view of the differences in pay levels
of men and women. These differences are related primarily to the
different types of jobs men and women hold, but they reflect also a
variety of other factors, including amount of education and work
experience, industry of employment, size of company, location of
plant or office, and even wage differentials based on sex.
Among year-round full-time workers, women have earned on the
average less than two-thirds as much as men during each of the past
7 years (1955-61). In 1961, women's median income of $3,351
amounted to $2,293 less than men's. Table 2 shows the median income of men and women for the years 1955-61 and the percentage
that women's income was of men's.
3 Preliminary information from an unpublished study " M e n and Women in Executive Positions, A
Comparison of Salary and Other Personnel Policies and Practices" by Lola B. Dawkins of Arizona State
University and E. Lanham of the University of Texas.

6




Table 2 . — W a g e or Salary Income of Women and Men,

1955-61

[Year-round full-time workers]
Median wage or salary
income

Year

Women
1961
1960
1959
1958
1957
1956
1955

$3,351
3,293
3,193
3,102
3,008
2,827
2,719

.

Men

Percent
women's
income of
men's

$5,644
5,417
5,209
4,927
4,713
4,466
4,252

59
61
61
63
64
63
64

Source: U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census.

Even for the same major occupational groups, there are substantial
differences in men's and women's earnings. In 1961, the greatest
difference existed in the median earnings of men and women sales
workers. The relatively best situated were the women clerical
workers, who averaged almost seven-tenths as much as men clerical
workers. Comparative earnings of men and women in the same
major occupational groups are shown in table 3.

Table 3.—Earnings of Women and Men in Selected Occupations, 1961
[Year-round full-time workers]
Median earnings

Occupational group

Women
Sales workers
Managers, officials
Service workers (except private household)
Operatives
Professional workers.
Clerical workers

_ _

$2,391
3,411
2,302
2,951
4,875
3,719

Men
$6,021
6,977
4,322
5,150
7,468
5,355

Percent
women's
earnings
of men's
40
49
53
57
65
69

Source: U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census.

Occupational Distributions
of Men and Women Workers
Although women are employed in almost every occupation, a large
proportion of women are employed in a relatively small number of
occupations, with only a few women in the remaining job array. To
a large extent, women have different types of jobs than men. For
example, over half of the women workers in 1962 were engaged in
clerical or service work (including private-household work), whereas
over half of the men workers were operatives, craftsmen, or managerial workers—as indicated in table 4.




7

Table 4.—Major Occupational Groups of Men and Women Workers,
Number (in thousands)

Occupational group

Women

1

Women

Men

Women as
percent of
all workers

22, 954

All workers
Professional workers
Managers, officials
Clerical workers
Sales workers
Service workers
Operatives
Private-household workers
Craftsmen
Farmers.
Farm laborers
Laborers

Men

Percent distribution

1962

...

_.

44,892

100

100

34

2,865
1,132
6, 963
1,699
3, 462
3, 377
2, 281
223
132
731
90

5,175
6,276
3,144
2, 646
2, 999
8, 664
60
8, 455
2, 463
1, 540
3,469

12
5
30
7
15
15
10
1
1
3

12
14
7
6
7
19

36
15
69
39
54
28
97
3
5
32
3

0)

0)

19
5
3
8

Less than 0.5 percent.

Source: U.S. Department D Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics.
f

Occupational Earnings
of Selected Groups
Occupational wage surveys conducted by the Bureau of Labor
Statistics provide information on average 4 earnings of men and women
in selected occupations. In evaluating this information, it is important to remember that the averages shown do not relate to any particular establishment. Differences in average earnings for men and
women in a given area may reflect variation in the following: (1)
in the distribution of men and women among establishments (and
among industries in the case of office clerical jobs); (2) in job content,
since the job descriptions used in wage surveys are usually more
generalized than those in individual establishments; or (3) in amounts
of work experience or length of service.
In order to decrease wage variations arising from differences in
incentive earnings, industry combinations, or geographical locations,
the following data are presented for jobs paid on a time basis on y,
for firms engaged in similar activities, and for the smallest geographical area possible.
To what extent these figures reflect unequal pay for identical or
comparable work cannot * be determined. Nevertheless, they do
serve as striking examples of the lower level of women's earnings.

White-Collar Workers
Salaries of clerical workers are especially pertinent for consideration
because of the fact that 7 million women and 3.1 million men were
engaged in clerical work in 1962. It appears that clerical occupations
* Average weekly earnings for each occupation were obtained by weighting each rate (or weekly earning)
by the number of workers receiving the rate.

8




represent one of the most important areas where lower pay for women
than for men is found.
The Bureau of Labor Statistics annually collects salary data for
selected clerical groups in major metropolitan areas. In the winter
of 1958-59, a special analysis was made of comparative job earnings
in the survey establishments which employed both men and women
in the same job categories. The analysis covered six office jobs and
three plant jobs. Although the pay comparisons were confined to
identical establishments, the remaining differences are at least partially accounted for by differences in workers' positions within rate
ranges, in length of service, and in actual duties within the limits
of the job descriptions.
From one-fifth to two-fifths of the establishments studied reported
higher average earnings for women than for men in the same office
jobs. About one-tenth of the establishments had fairly similar
average earnings ^for men and women in five of the six office jobs.
(Relatively more of the office boys and girls had similar averages.)
Thus, in a majority of the survey establishments, women averaged
less than men in five of the six office jobs. The difference generally
exceeded $8 a week, as may be noted in table 5.
T a b l e 5 . — D i s t r i b u t i o n of Establishments
by Relationship
Between
Establishment
Averages
for Men
and Women
in Selected Office Occupations,
20 Labor
Markets,
Winter
1958-59
Relationship of women's weeklyearnings to men's

Total number of establishments

Accounting Accounting
clerks,
clerks,
class A
class B
748

Order
clerks

603

207

182

Establishments with women's average higher than men's *

Payroll
clerks

Office
boys or
girls

Tabulatingmachine
operators

317

376

472

112

176

43

$20 or more..
$18-$20
$16-$18
$14-$16
$12-$14
$10-$12
$8-$10
$6-$8
$4~$6
i
$2-$4
$l-$2
Establishments in which difference
was less than $1
Establishments with men's average
higher than women's i

5
2
5
3
5
17
13
24
30
48
24
81
487

340

30
146

108

196

156

$l-$2
$2-$4
$4-$6

20
41

$6-$8

$8-$10
$10-$12
$12-$14
$14-$16
$16-$18
$18-$20
$20 or more
1

253

Limited to establishments in which the difference in average weekly earnings is $1 or more.

Source: U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics.

689-573




26
21
20
11
12
13
30

Another representative group of white-collar workers are bank
tellers, for whom salary data were collected by the Bureau of Labor
Statistics in 1960. Even though the salary data were separated by
the length of experience of the tellers and the type of work done,
women's average earnings were consistently lower than men's. 5 For
example, table 6 shows that women note tellers with under 5 years'
experience typically averaged $5 to $15 a week less than men in the
same occupational group.
T a b l e 6 . — C o m p a r i s o n of Average
Weekly
Earnings
of Women
and
Tellers (Under 5 Years' Experience),
May-July
1960
Number of
workers

Area 1

Women
Atlanta
Boston
Chicago
Dallas
Denver
Detroit.
Houston
Kansas City
Los Angeles-Long Beach .
Miami
Milwaukee
Minneapolis-St. Paul
_
Newark-Jersey City
New York
Providence
St. Louis
San Francisco-Oakland
Seattle
1
2

27
44
26
21
56
7
27
16
289
31
22
27
44
21
17
19
60
43

Average weekly
hours

Men

Women

6
13
66
11
6
7
23
12
102
19
14
15
41
125
12
16
68
16

Note

Average weekly earnings

Men

Women

39.0
36.5
39.0
40.0
40.0
37.5
40.0
40.0
40.0
39.0
39.5
40.0
36.0
36.5
37.0
36.5
40.0
40.0

39.0
35.5
39.5
40.0
40.0
40.0
40.0
40.0
40.0
38.5
39.5
39.5
36.0
37.0
36.0
37.5
40.0
39.5

Men

$67.00
69.00
78.50
64.00
63.00
64.50
69.50
63. 50
77.00
62.50
63.50
65.00
72.00
75.00
54.00
62.50
71.50
67.50

Men
$72.50
77.00
89.50
79.50
91.00
73.50
89.00
74.50
82.50
68.00
94.50
88.50
80.00
80.50
66.00
80.00
81.50
85.00

Difference2
-$5.50
-8.00
-11.00
-15.50
-28.00
-9.00
-19.50
-11.00
-5.50
-5.50
-31.00
-23.50
-8.00
-5.50
-12.00
-17.50
-10.00
-17.50

Includes all survey areas in which both men and women in tMs occupation were paid on a time basis.
Refers to the amount by which women's earnings vary from men's earnings.

Source: U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics.

Comparisons of average weekly earnings also may be made for
women and men employed in similar white-collar occupations by
life insurance companies with home offices or regional head offices
in selected cities. The data obtained by the Bureau of Labor Statistics in June 1961 are shown in table 7. In the majority of instances
where comparisons are possible, the men's average exceeded the
women's average by $8 to $20 a week.
Annual salaries for men and women employed in professional
occupations in government and voluntary agencies for the blind
are shown in table 8. The Bureau of Labor Statistics bulletin which
reported the salary data collected in M a y 1961 gave the following
analysis :
M e d i a n salaries

6

f o r m e n in all agencies c o m b i n e d were higher

t h a n f o r w o m e n in 1 4 of t h e 16 o c c u p a t i o n a l categories in w h i c h
c o m p a r i s o n s c o u l d be m a d e .

I n t h e five categories w i t h t h e

highest e m p l o y m e n t — g r a d e

school teachers, vocational

selors,

teachers,

caseworkers,

home

and

secondary

counschool

«In this report, the data are combined for all banks in each survey area. Thus, as stated previously, the
differences in earnings are partially accounted for by variations in wages between small and large establishments, in job content, and in length of service.
• One-half of the salaries reported fall above and one-half below the median salary.

10




teachers—median

salaries for m e n were

1.3, 3.2, 4.2,

11.1 percent, respectively, a b o v e those for w o m e n .

1.1,

and

Separated

b y t y p e of a g e n c y , s a l a r y l e v e l s of m e n a l s o w e r e h i g h e r t h a n f o r
w o m e n in a m a j o r i t y of t h e o c c u p a t i o n s in w h i c h
c o u l d b e m a d e in b o t h G o v e r n m e n t
T a b l e 7 . — C o m p a r i s o n of Average
in Home

Offices

and Regional

Weekly

Head

Number of workers

Clerks, Accounting, class A;
Chisago
Dallas
New York
Clerks, Correspondence,class A:
Chicago
Hartford
Clerks, Correspondence, class B:
Dallas
Hartford
Clerks, Policy Evaluation:
Chicago
Dallas
Programmers, Electronic Data
Processing, class B:
New York
Tabulating-Machine Operators,
class B.Chicago
Underwriters, class A:
Minneapolis-St. Paul
Underwriters, class B:
Boston
Chicago
Los Angeles-Long Beach...
Minneapolis-St. Paul
Underwriters, class C.Chicago
Dallas

Earnings

Offices of Life

Occupation and area
Women

and

Men

of

agencies.7

Women

Insurance

Men

and

Men

Companies,

Average weekly
hours
Women

comparisons

voluntary

Average

Women

Employed
June

weekly

Men

1961

earnings

Difference 1

54
23
132

38.0
39.0
35.5

38.0
39.0
35.5

$92. 50
72. 50
87. 50

$96.00
84. 00
97.00

-$3.50
-11.50
-9.50

27
14

37.5
37.0

37.5
36.5

89. 50
105. 50

113. 50
113. 50

-24.00
- 8 . 00

48
29

38.5
37.0

39.5
37.0

64.00
75.50

83.00
84.00

-19.00
- 8 . 50

62
46

37.5
38.5

37.5
38.0

71.00
63.50

90. 50
79. 00

- 1 9 . 50
- 1 5 . 50

36.0

36.0

124.00

129.00

- 5 . 00

38.0

37.5

77. 50

82. 50

-5.00

38.0

38.0

130. 00

150. 00

-20.00

37.0
38.0
38.0
37.5

37.5
37.5
39.0
38.0

126. 50
112.00
120.50
98. 50

126. 00
130.50
118.00
127. 50

+
.50
- 1 8 . 50
-f 2.50
-29.00

37.5
38.5

37.5
38.5

90. 50
77.00

99. 00
97.00

- 8.50
-20.00

i Refers to amount by which women's earnings vary from men's earnings.
Source: U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics.
T a b l e 8 . — C o m p a r i s o n of Median
Occupations,

Annual
Agencies

Salaries

All agencies
Occupation
Men
Assistant directors, agencies for the blind..
Caseworkers (social)
Casework supervisors (social)...
Directors, agencies for the blind
Principals of residential schools
Superintendents of workshops for the
blind..
Supervisors, sections for the blind
Teachers:
Teachers of arts and crafts
Grade school teachers
Home teachers
Music teachers
Physical education teachers
Secondary school teachers
Supervising teachers
Vocational training teachers
Vocational counselors

of

Women

for the Blind,

and

Government
agencies
Women

Men

in

Selected

1961

Men

Voluntary agencies

Women

Men

$7, 500
5,180
6, £00
6, 500
7,200

$8,130
5,400
7,020
7, 800
7,030

$8, 520
5,520
6, 700
8, 770
7,560

$7,860
5,700
7, 020
8,360
7,020

$7, 500
4,860
6,500
6,240

$8,820
5,200
7,020
7, 750

4, 780
6, 770

5,880
7,130

7, 300

6,190
7,150

4,680
5,300

5, 710
6,800

4,360
4, 450
4, 510
4, 500
4, 350
4,680
5, 400
4,120
5,350

4,250
4,510
4,560
4, 630
4,660
5,200
6,020
4, 740
5,520

4,680
4, 530
4, 740
4, 550
4,350
4, 770
5,370
4, 530
5,360

4,200
4,580
4, 510
4, 820
4, 680
5,200
6, 020
4, 920
5,520

3,490
4,200
3, 900
3,990

4,840
4,000
4,810
3,580
4,350
4, 400

4,500
5, 400
3,800

4, 500
5,330

Source: U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics.
7 U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics, Bull. No. 1322, "Salaries for Selected Occupations
in Services for the Blind, M a y 1961," p. 3.




li

Service Workers
There are about 3.5 million women and 3 million men classified as
service workers (excluding private-household workers). Earnings
data for service workers have been collected by the Bureau of Labor
Statistics in selected service industries, including power laundries,
hotels, hospitals, and eating and drinking places. Tables 9, 10, 11,
and 12, which present wage comparisons in these industries for occupations employing both men and women workers on a time basis,
show marked wage differences favoring men.
Table 9.—Comparison of Average Hourly Earnings of Women and Men
in Power Laundries, June 1961
Occupation and area

Number of workers
Women

Assemblers:
Baltimore
Chicago
...
Detroit
Newark-Jersey City
New York
Philadelphia
Washington, D . C
Clerks, Retail Receiving:
Chicago
Newark-Jersey City
Washington, D . C
Identifiers:
Boston
Chicago
Newark-Jersey City..
New York
Philadelphia.
Markers:
Boston
Los Angeles-Long Beach
New York.
Pressers, Machine {Drycleaning):
Boston
Chicago
Los Angeles-Long Beach.
New York
San Francisco-Oakland
Tumbler Operators {Laundry):
Baltimore
Boston
Chicago.
Los Angeles-Long Beach
Newark-Jersey City
New York
Philadelphia.
San Francisco-Oakland—
Washington, D . C . _
Wrappers, Bundle:
Boston
Chicago
Los Angeles-Long Beach
Newark-Jersey City
New York
Philadelphia.
Washington, D . C
1

Average hourly earnings

Men

Women

Difference1

21
90
18
29
92
22
21

$0.91
1.22
1.13
1.20
1.23
1.17
1.07

$0.87
1.30
1.25
1.33
1.35
1.14
1.11

+$0.04
-.08
-.12
-.13
-.12
+.03
-.04

128
43
132

14
28
18

1.22
1.12
1.00

1.81
1.38
1.08

-.59
-.26
-.08

21
98
38
66
27

63
90
6
64
25

1.26
1.11
1.11
1.17
1.16

1.34
1.34
1.29
1.36
1.16

-.08
-.23
-.18
-.19

40
213
24

14
9
29

1.19
1.35
1.39

1.28
1.67
1.38

-.09
-.32
+.01

13
48
35
30
27

22
18
18
16
21

1.66
1.38
2.00
1.35
2.40

1.78
1.68
1.98
1.88
2.60

-.12
-.30
+.02
-.53
-.20

19
9
128
30
31
49
20
22
16

13
20
51
23
26
62
44
11
12

.82
1.10
1.06
1.29
1.18
1.12
1.19
1.58
.97

.98
1.39
1.30
1.42
1.31
1.23
1.27
1.83
1.25

-.16
-.29
-.24
-.13
-.13
-.11
-.08
-.25
-.28

40
128
12
100
96
91
40

17
22
27
27
72
10
15

1.13
1.11
1.28
1.17
1.19
1.14
.98

1.29
1.38
1.32
1.22
1.41
1.21
.98

-.16
-.27
-.04
-.05
-.22
-.07

Refers to the amount by which women's earnings vary from men's earnings.




Men

108
233
71
131
150
177
90

Source: U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics.

12

Workers

Table 10.—Comparison of Average Hourly Earnings of Women and Men
by Selected Occupations in Hotels, June 1961
Occupation and area

Number of workers
Women

Room Clerks:
Atlanta
Buffalo
Chicago
Cleveland
Denver
Detroit
Indianapolis
Kansas City
Los Angeles-Long Beach
Miami
Milwaukee.
Minneapolis-St. Paul
New York _
Philadelphia
Pittsburgh
Portland
San Francisco-Oakland
St. Louis.
Pantry Workers:
Boston
Chicago
Denver
Los Angeles-Long Beach
Miami
Minneapolis-St. Paul..
New York
Philadelphia
Portland
San Francisco-Oakland...
Washington, D . C
1

Men

Workers,

Average hourly earnings
Women

Men

Difference1

22
17
120
33
19
33
37
51
47
65
18
15
10
43
24
23
49
18

64
54
409
43
77
98
22
86
328
361
59
47
852
86
55
44
252
114

$1.55
1.42
1.52
1.31
1.36
1.52
1.29
1.00
1.52
1.23
1.64
1.53
1.85
1.34
1.54
1.47
1.96
1.39

$1.50
1.48
1.67
1.45
1.52
1.47
1.27
1.32
1.49
1.59
1.75
1.58
2.01
1.78
1.54
1.65
2.14
1.24

+$0.05
-.06
-.15
-.14
-.16
+.05
+.02
-.32
+.03
-.36
-.11
-.05
-.16
-.44

85
173
52
38
24
77
122
43
28
16
108

94
56
22
59
134
16
340
47
11
71
19

1.36
1.32
1.23
1.97
1.29
1.36
1.66
1.18
1.59
2.03
1.16

1.68
1.28
1.18
2.05
1. 51
1.34
1.73
1.32
1.53
2.15
1.34

-.32
+.04
+.05
-.08
-.22
+.02
-.07
-.14
+.06
-.12
-.18

- . 18
-.18
+.15

Refers to amount by which women's earnings vary from men's earnings.

Source: U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics.




13

Table 11.—Comparison of Average Weekly Hours and Earnings of Women and
Men Workers in Private Hospitals,
Mid-1960
Number of workers
Occupation and area1
Women
Physical Therapists:
Buffalo
Chicago
Los Angeles-Long Beach.
Minneapolis-St. Paul
New York
Philadelphia
San Francisco-Oakland-.
X-Ray Technicians:
Baltimore
Boston
Buffalo
Chicago
Cincinnati
Cleveland
Dallas
Los Angeles-Long Beach.
Minneapolis-St. Paul
New York
Philadelphia
Portland
San Francisco-Oakland.. _
Nursing Aides:
Baltimore
Boston
Buffalo
Chicago
Cincinnati
Cleveland
Dallas
Los Angeles-Long Beach.
Minneapolis-St. Paul
New York
Philadelphia
Portland
San Francisco-Oakland.. .

Men

Average weekly
hours
Women

Men

Average weekly earnings

Women

Men

Difference2

9
65
80
31
105
32
39

9
18
20
7
41
8
9

39.5
39.5
40.0
40.0
37.5
40.0
40.0

40.0
40.0
40.0
40.0
38.5
39.5
40.0

$81.50
81.00
99.00
95.50
80.50
85.50
95.50

$91.00
98.50
91.00
120.50
89.00
100.00
99.50

-$9.50
-17.50
+8.00
-25.00
-8.50
-14.50
-4.00

44
144
36
195
30
79
12
107
65
159
152
24
69

24
34
12
96
10
19
10
40
20
178
14
7
16

40.0
40.0
39.0
40.0
40.0
40.0
40.0
40.0
40.0
38.0
40.0
40.0
40.0

40.0
40.0
40.0
40.0
39.5
40.0
40.0
40.0
40.0
38.0
40.0
40.0
40.0

69.00
69.50
70.00
81.00
64.50
70.00
66.50
86.00
66.00
79.00
65.50
82.50
85.00

74.00
74.50
75.00
86.00
72.00
76.00
74.50
87.00
71.00
79.00
68.50
89.00
89.50

-5.00
-5.00
-5.00
-5.00
-7.50
-6.00
-8.00
-1.00
-5.00

1,726
1,640
1,294
4,987
839
1,634
417
3,209
1,146
6,232
1,849
511
1,037

395
387
96
380
91
381
87
268
171
1,271
520
54
228

40.0
40.0
40.0
39.5
40.0
40.0
40.0
40.0
40.0
39.5
40.0
40.0
40.0

40.0
40.0
40.0
40.0
40.0
40.0
40.5
40.0
40.0
39.5
.40.0
41.5
40.0

37.50
49.00
46.00
50.00
40.00
45.50
35.00
57.00
55.50
46.50
37.50
56.00
64.50

44.50
52.50
52.50
58.50
47.00
54.50
41.50
60.50
60.00
49.50
39.00
61.00
65.50

-7.00
-3.50
-6.50
-8.50
-7.00
-9.00
-6.50
-3.50
-4.50
-3.00
-1.50
-5.00
-1.00

-3.00
-6.50
-4.50

1 Includes all areas in survey in which both men and women were working as physical therapists, X-ray
technicians, and nursing aides, and were paid on a time basis.
2 Refers to amount by which women's earnings vary from men's earnings.
Source: U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics.

14




Table 12.—Comparison of Average Hourly Earnings of Women and Men
in Eating and Drinking Places, June 1961
Occupation

and

area

Number of workers
Women

Bus Oirls and Bops:
Atlanta
Baltimore
Boston
.
Buffalo
Chicago
Cincinnati
Cleveland
Dallas
Detroit
Houston..
Indianapolis
Kansas City
Memphis
Minneapolis-St. Paul
Newark-Jersey City...
New Orleans
New York
Philadelphia
Pittsburgh
Portland
St. Louis
San Francisco-Oakland
Washington, D . C . _ _
Counter Attendants:
Baltimore
Boston
...
Chicago
Cincinnati
New York
Philadelphia
St. Louis
Washington, D . C .
Pantry Workers:
Atlanta
Baltimore.
Boston
Chicago
Dallas
Denver
Detroit.
Houston
Kansas City
Los Angeles-Long Beach
Miami
Newark-Jersey City
New Orleans
New York
Philadelphia
San Francisco-Oakland
Washington, D . C
1

Men

Workers

Average hourly earnings
Women

Men

Difference *

53
104
163
24
276
105
141
312
165
162
132
112
35
51
36
86
523
208
72
29
336
218
238

367
66
861
127
2,551
309
620
386
680
409
106
263
126
231
114
181
3,524
419
122
158
565
1,268
1,133

$0.66
1.00
.98
.95
1.03
.88
.92
.56
.83
.59
.74
.92
.48
1.00
1.17
.52
1.17
1.06
1.05
1.16
.91
1.63
1.08

$0.63
.73
.98
.88
.99
.96
.88
.69
.92
.63
.82
.81
.44
1.06
.82
.54
1.16
.92
.92
1.23
1.02
1.54
.90

+$0.03
+.27

382
797.
971
112
951
1,300
377
394

36
344
721
126
1,262
132
122
169

1.16
1.18
1.02
1.10
1.46
1.04
1.16
1.23

1.00
1.23
1.12
1.49
1.56
1.17
1.72
1.29

+.16
-.05
-.10
-.39
-.10
-.13
-.56
-.06

252
100
269
760
108
92
382
153
185
248
119
38
105
621
427
98
474

48
92
249
199
57
52
31
13
38
369
119
169
54
1,424
172
433
98

.80
.93
1.36
1.30
1.01
1.40
1.31
.81
1.05
1.83
1.12
1.53
.69
1.43
1.27
2.02
1.08

.79
.93
1.69
1.84
1.01
1.21
1.84
.98
1.03
2.12
1.66
1.73
1.18
1.93
1.27
2.27
1.09

+.01

+.07
+.04
-.08
+.04
-.13
-.09
-.04
-.08
+.11
+.04
-.06
+.35
-.02
+.01
+.14
+.13
-.07
-.11
+.09
+.18

-.33
-.54
+ . 19
-.53
-.17
+.02
-.29
-.54
-.20
-.49
-.50
-.25
-.01

Refers to amount by which women's earnings vary from men's earnings.

Source: U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics.

Plant Workers
Comparative earnings of men and women classified in three plant
jobs and employed in identical establishments were analyzed in the
Bureau of Labor Statistics community-wage survey of 1958-59.
Again, it is pertinent to note that individual plant averages for men
and women in a specific job may be influenced by variations in job
content and length of service.
The differences in average earnings of men and women were found to
be least among passenger elevator operators and greatest among janitors. Men and women elevator operators had similar average earnings




15

in a majority of the establishments. However, for janitors and packers,
the women's averages were below the men's in at least 70 percent of
the establishments. In the latter firms, the difference was typically
15 cents an hour more, as shown in table 13.
Table 13.—Distribution of Establishments by Relationship Between Establishment
Averages for Men and Women in Selected Plant Occupations, 20 Labor Markets,
Winter 1958-59
Janitors,
porters,
and
cleaners

Relationship of women's hourly earnings to men's

Packers,
shipping

Elevator
operators,
passenger

1,232

110

16

14

3

2

1
5
2
2
6
2
2
4
13
18

25 cents or more
23-25 cents
21-23 cents
19-21 cents
17-19 cents
15-17 cents.
13-15 cents
11-13 cents.
9-11 cents
7-9 cents
5-7 cents
3-5 cents _

185

58

Total number of establishments
Establishments with women's average higher than men's *

2
2

1

3

3
3
3

1
1
2
7

Establishments in which difference was less than 3 cents

284

39

61

Establishments with men's average higher than women's i

890

130

35

52
64
63
63
63
56
45
52
47
38
28
319

9
10
8
14
14
6
6
2
6
6
6
43

3
7
6
6

3-5 cents
5-7 cents
7-9 cents
9-11 cents.
11-13 cents
13-15 cents
15-17 cents
_
17-19 cents
19-21 cents
21-23 cents
23-25 cents
25 cents or more

_

_ ___

_
__

2
5
1
2
3

i Limited to establishments in which the difference in average hourly earnings is 3 cents or more.
Source: U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics.

Another study 8 gives information on the comparative average
earnings of men and women employed on similar jobs in the same
establishments. This analysis was based on earnings data collected
by the Bureau of Labor Statistics in the winter of 1952-53 from plants
which manufactured machinery. For the seven plant occupations
studied, the average earnings of time-rated women workers were
lower than men's average earnings in from two-fifths to two-thirds of
the establishments.
It was suggested in the study report that different distributions of
men and women workers within an established range might account
for from 5 to 10 cents of the total difference in men's and women's
hourly earnings. Therefore, it is particularly interesting to note that
men's earnings exceeded women's by at least 5 cents an hour in from
one-sixth to one-half of the firms, and by at least 10 cents an hour in
s U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics, Report No. 98, "Women Production Workers
in the Machinery Industries, Their Employment Distribution and Earnings," January 1956.

16




from one-ninth to one-third of the firms. Table 14 shows comparisons of women's earnings with men's based on data given in the
special report.
14.—Percent

of

Than

Table

Men

for

Establishments
Plant

with

Workers,

Lower

Average

29 Machinery

Earnings

Centers,

for

Women

1952-53

Percent of establishments in which women's average hourly earnings were—
Occupation

Lower
than
men's

Lower by
over 5
cents
68
70
70
65
42
42
44

Assemblers, class B_
Assemblers, class C
Inspectors, class B
Inspectors, class C
Drill-press operators (single or multiple spindle), cl£iss C
Grinding-machine operators, class C
Milling-machine operators, class C

Lower by
over 10
cents

47
50
44
47
32
17
33

26
30
20
36
19
17
11

Source: U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics.

The occupation of "operatives" included 3.4 million women and 8.7
million men in 1962, but relatively few of these workers appeared to
be doing similar work. The numerous wage surveys made by the
Bureau of Labor Statistics in manufacturing industries yield relatively
T a b l e 1 5 . — C o m p a r i s o n of Average
in

Wood

ments,

July

Household

Furniture

Hourly

Earnings

(Except

Upholstered)

Women

and

Men

Manufacturing

Workers
Establish-

1962
Number of workers

Occupation and area

Women
Assemblers, Case Goods:
Chicago
Indiana.
Los Angeles-Long Beach..
Winstcn-Salem-High Point
Oluers, Rough Stock:
Indiana
Off-bearers, Machine:
Chicago
Indiana
Jamestown.
Packers, Furniture:
Chicago
Indiana
___
Winston-Salem-High Point
Rubbers, Furniture, Hand:
Winston-Salem-High Point
Rubbers, Furniture, Machine:
Winston-Salem-High Point.
Sanders, Furniture, Hand:
Chicago
Grand Rapids
Hickory-Statesville
Indiana
Los Angeles-Long Beach
Martinsville
Winston-Salem-High Point
Sanders, Furniture, Machine:
Miami
Sprayers:
Los Angeles-Long Beach
Winston-Salem-High Point
1

of

'

Men

Average hourly earnings
Women

Difference1

$1.90
1.58
2.52
1.41

-$0.24
-.32
-.36
-.11

1.47

1. 55

-.08

1.58
1.34
1.55

1.58
1.52
1.40

-.18
+.15

55
104
230

1.54
1.31
1.20

1. 72
1.53
1.32

-.18
-.22
-.12

43

108

1.28

1.29

-.01

6

88

1.30

1.34

-.04

43
47
50
125
10
88
216

69
12
605
171
244
150
238

1.45
1.45
1.28
1.32
2.10
1.15
1. 21

1.76
1.57
1.27
1.64
2.07
1.28
1.30

-.31
-.12
+.01
-.32
+.03
-.13
-.09

42
129
9
41

203
350
500
395

$1.66
1.26
2.16
1.30

23
.

Men

49

6
55
25

84
127
46

16
63
34

8

66

1. 39

1.44

-.05

6
94

177
338

2.53
1.31

2.40
1.44

+• 13
-.13

Refers to amount by which women's earnings vary from men's earnings.

Source: U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics.




17

few examples of men and women in the same occupations and paid on
a time basis. The examples which may be found virtually all show
women receiving lower average earnings than men, as illustrated in
the three manufacturing industries reported in tables 15, 16, and 17.
T a b l e 1 6 . — C o m p a r i s o n of Average
in Paint and

Hourly
Varnish

Earnings
of
Plants,
May

Number of workers

Occupation and area

Women
Labelers and Packers:
Baltimore..
Boston.
Chicago
Cleveland
Detroit
Houston
Kansas C i t y . —
Los Angeles-Long Beach
Louisville
Newark-Jersey City
Paterson-Clifton-Passaic
Philadelphia
Pittsburgh
St. Louis
San Francisco-Oakland
Fillers, Hand or Machine:
Chicago
New York
Philadelphia

Men

Women
1961

and

Men

Workers

Average hourly earnings
Women

Men

Difference1

30
8
135
72
29
18
10
19
17
45
8
25
15
28
24

50
40
283
77
36
25
42
64
31
123
31
51
17
20
69

$1.44
1.93
1.84
1.73
1.78
1.43
2.25
2.17
1.56
1.97
1.91
1.43
1.69
1.99
2.46

$1.59
2.07
2.16
2.23
2.50
1.64
2.27
2.31
1.92
2.23
1 91
2.08
2.12
2.17
2.67

-$0.15
-.14
-.32
-.50
-.72
-.21
-.02
-.14
-.36
-.26

18
13
33

292
119
140

2.02
2.08
1.45

2.15
1.94
2.14

-.13
+.14
-.69

Earnings
of Women
and Men
Establishments,
May
1961

Workers

-.65
-.43
-.18
-.21

i Refers to amount by which women's earnings vary from men's earnings.
Source: U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics.
T a b l e 1 7 . — C o m p a r i s o n of Average
Hourly
in Work Clothing
Manufacturing

Number of workers

Occupation and area

Women
Janitors:
Georgia
.
Indiana
Kentucky
Mississippi.
North Carolina.—
Tennessee
Texas..
Virginia
Work Distributors:
Georgia.
Indiana
Mississippi
Tennessee

...

Average hourly earnings
Women

Men

Men

Difference i

14
8
7
14
16
18
16
11

38
27
7
17
18
42
35
11

$1.00
1.17
1.03
1.03
1.01
1.05
1.11
1.05

$1.10
1.27
1.03
1.06
1.04
1.08
1.09
1.07

-$0.10
-.10

20
17
21
27

148
32
51
91

1.07
1.24
1.15
1.24

1.12
1.27
1.13
1.17

-.05
-.03
+.02
+.07

-.03
-.03
-.03
+.02
-.02

i Refers to amount by which women's earnings vary from men's earnings.
Source: U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics.

Salary Schedules of Teachers
Teachers' salaries hold special interest for two major reasons:
teaching is the most popular profession among women, and there are
large numbers of men and women teachers. In October 1962, there

18




were 1,278,000 women and 569,000 men teachers in elementary and
secondary schools.
Sixteen States and the District of Columbia have laws which require
that men and women schoolteachers shall be paid the same rate for
comparable teaching positions. These States are: California, Colorado, Connecticut, Illinois, Louisiana, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, Montana, Nevada, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina,
Oregon, Washington, and Wyoming. In addition, in States where
equal pay is not required by law, many school boards have set salary
schedules which provide the same rate for men and women schoolteachers. However, higher salaries are often paid for teaching certain
subjects, and high school teachers may be paid higher salaries than
elementary schoolteachers. Men teachers generally benefit from such
provisions, since the majority of them are in high schools and many
teach the subjects which pay more.
Teacher salary schedules with differentials based on sex have
decreased in number during recent decades, but a few still prevail.
A National Education Association study of salary schedules for the
school year 1962-63 showed higher rates for men than for women in 14
out of 792 reporting school districts. As table 18 shows, the differentials ranged from $100 to $400 a year.
Table 18.—School Districts with Salary Differentials for Men
room Teachers, by Enrollment of School District,

and Women

Class-

1962-68

Salary schedule provisions

District
Minimum
100,000 or more enrollment
50,000 to 99,999 enrollment
Wichita, Kans
25,000 to 49,999 enrollment
Columbia, S.C
12,000 to 24,999 enrollment
Kansas City, Kans
Topeka, Kans
Ann Arbor, Mich
Anoka-Hennepin, MinnMidwest City, Okla
6,000 to 11,999 enrollment:
Salina, Kans
Albert Lea, Minn...
Biloxi, Miss
Anderson, S.C
Wauwatosa, Wis
Suburban Districts:1
Edina-Morningside, Minn
Westlake, Ohio
1

Maximum

$4,500

$8,500

$200 additional for men.

4,008

5,688

$204 additional for men.

4,600
4,500
4, 500

7,900
7,550
8,800

4,800

9,120

4,100

5,850

$400 additional for men assigned extra duties.
$200 additional for men.
Men start at $300 above scheduled minimum
but do not exceed scheduled maximum.
$300 additional for married men, and for widows
and widowers with dependent minor children, up to maximum.
$150 additional for men.

4,400

7,400

4,600
3,500
3,624
4,900

7,800
5,055
6,500
8,400

4,850

10,100

4,600

8,300

Differential
None.

$400 additional for men until maximum is
reached. Maximum for men is $200 above
schedule.
$150 additional for men.
$200 additional for men.
$300 additional for men.
$100 additional for single men and $200 for
married men.
$300 additional for married men until maximum
is reached.
$100 additional for men.

Enrollment not reported.

Source: National Education Association Research Report 1962—R 11, "Classroom Teacher Salary Schedules, 1962-63, Districts Having 6,000 or More Pupils." 1962.




19

Salaries of Recent College Graduates
Comparative salaries of recent college graduates are particularly
pertinent, since length of service and work experience generally may
be excluded from the list of possible factors related to differences in
average salary data. Such information is available in a study of
college graduates made by the Bureau of Social Science Research,
Inc., for the National Science Foundation.
In this survey of college graduates of the class of 1958, 2 years after
graduation—again women generally were found to have lower
salaries than their male counterparts in the same occupational classification. The occupations allowing comparisons, relatively few in
number, are listed in table 19—except for teachers (who were considered previously). The differences in average salaries for the men
and women baccalaureate graduates, when compared by occupation,
ranged from $290 to $1,560 a year—all in favor of the men.
Table 1 9 . — M e n and Women College Graduates of 1958:
Later, by Occupation and Degree
Number

Occupation

Women
GRADUATES WHO EARNED A
BACHELOR'S D E G R E E IN 1958
Pharmacists..
Writers
Artists
Accountants
Personnel workers
Research assistants
Mathematicians
Chemists
Social and welfare workers. _.

Their Salaries 2 Years

Median annual salary in 1960

Men

Women

Men

Difference1

31
115
49
42
56
171
67
50
247

273
123
78
910
127
336
146
205
181

$5,500
3,990
3,720
4,290
4,290
3,940
5,520
5,540
4,180

$7,060
5,380
5,100
5,490
5,400
4,920
6,090
5,960
4,470

- $ 1 , 560
-1,390
-1,380
-1,200
-1,110
-980
-570
-420
-290

36
126
62

46
92
22

5,000
5, 340
5,080

5,690
5,710
5,170

-690
-370
-90

GRADUATES WHO EARNED A
MASTER'S D E G R E E IN 1958
Psychologists
Social and welfare workers
Librarians.
1

Refers to amount by which women's earnings vary from men's earnings.

Source: Bureau of Social Science Research, Inc.

Federal Salaries
The Federal Government compensates its employees in accordance
with the principle of equal pay for equal work. The principle was
first written into law in 1870, but was not fully implemented until the
Classification Act of 1923 established a uniform system of job grades
and salaries.
For many years, under an interpretation of the 1870 law, agencies
had the option of specifying sex in their requests for qualified appli-

20




cants. This option was abolished in 1962, when the President directed
agencies to make appointments without regard to sex, except in
unusual situations where such action is found justified by the Civil
Service Commission on the basis of objective nondiscriminatory
standards.
According to statistics collected prior to the new order, the majority
of women Federal employees are concentrated in the lower salary
levels; whereas most of the men are in the middle levels. A Civil
Service Commission survey made in October 19619 showed that job
grades 1 through 5 accounted for almost 77 percent of the women
Federal employees but only 26 percent of the men. On the other
hand, in the top grades of 13 through 18, there were less than 1 percent
of the women and 14 percent of the men.
Reasons that women's grades are lower than men's include such
factors as the differences in kinds of jobs held, nature and amount of
education and training, length of service, and preference for men
or women in certain types of work.
The grade distributions of men and women white-collar workers
in Federal service are shown in table 20.
Table 20.—Distribution of White-Collar

Employees

Grade and Sex,

of the Federal Government,

Women
Grade
Number

by

1961

Percent
distribution

Men
As percent
of all
employees

Number

Percent
distribution

Total

498, 766

32.1

1,054,295

Grade specified

430,500

100.0

41.7

602,107

100.0

GS-1GS-2
GS-3--.
GS-4
GS-5
GS-6
GS-7
GS-8
GS-9
GS-10-.
GS-11
GS-12
GS-13.
GS-14
GS-15..
GS-16
GS-17
GS-18.

832
18,272
109,001
123,185
79,626
31,318
30,404
6,374
16,300
1,984
7,548
3,444
1,531
495
162
13
8
3

0.2
4.2
25.3
28.6
18.5
7.3
7.1
1.5
3.8
0.5
1.8
0.8
0.4
0.1
0)
0)
0)
0)

32.2
53.6
71.0
72.7
63.4
58.4
32.6
28.3
14.8
13.3
7.8
4.8
3.1
2.2
1.4
1.0
1.4
1.2

1,749
15,805
44,584
46,234
45,968
22,286
63,003
16,136
93,615
12,916
88,657
67,998
47,628
22,283
11,159
1,271
561
254

0.3
2.6
7.4
7.7
7.6
3.7
10.5
2.7
15.5
2.1
14.7
11.3
7.9
3.7
1.9
0.2
0.1
0)

1

Less than 0.05 percent.

Source: U.S. Civil Service Commission.

9

U.S. Civil Service Commission, "Federal Employment Statistics Bulletin, April 1962."




21
U.S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE: 1 9 6 3

O—689-573




^ o e P A R T ^

•/f,

YEARS.OF PROGRESS
O/r .
U b o r

« *

*

c,.


Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, One Federal Reserve Bank Plaza, St. Louis, MO 63102