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An Idea in Action:
New Teachers
for the Nation's Children

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
James P. Mitchell, Secretary
WOMEN'S BURIvAU
Mrs. Alice k. Leopold. Director
Pamphlet Two
1956




UNITED STATES
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE
WASHINGTON : L O I
OT

For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office
Washington 25, D. C. • Price 20 cents




Foreword
A N IDEA for community action to add new teachers to the Nation's
understaffed classrooms was presented originally two years ago by the
Committee on New Teachers for the Nation's Classrooms in cooperation
with the U. S. Office of Education and the Women's Bureau.
Along with other workable ideas growing out of our need to strengthen,
as well as to sustain, the schools in which our children are educated, this
idea is now in practice in communities throughout the United States.
Because the idea emphasizes quality as well as quantity and may
involve the initiation of new programs, time will be required before large
numbers of teachers are added by this method. But this progress report
shows its effectiveness.
Women of high qualifications, meeting fully the requirements the
laws of their States set for teachers, are already beginning to ease the
burden of the experienced teachers who have continued to serve well in
the classrooms under growing pressures and problems. The devotion of
these experienced teachers to the children in their classrooms and their
willingness to instruct others in the art of teaching have stirred the admiration of every citizen concerned about our children's futures. With our
support and encouragement, they will continue to attract other mature,
dedicated women to their ranks, as the following report indicates.
This summary was made possible by the prompt and generous cooperation of the chief school officers in the various States and of the teachertraining institutions who supplied information on their programs. Grateful acknowledgment for illustrations, too, is made to: the University of
Chicago Magazine, Chicago, 111. (Fig. 1); the National College of Education, Evanston, 111. (Fig. 2); the Michigan Education Journal, Lansing,
Mich., and Wayne University, Detroit, Mich. (Fig. 3); and Gonzaga
University, Spokane, Wash. (Fig. 4).




ALICE K . LEOPOLD,

Director, Women's Bureau.

i

Figure I.—A teacher trainee conducting a fourth-grade class in a laboratory school under the guidance of a regular teacher.




An Idea in Action:
New Teachers
for the Nation s Children
A report on programs

in action

The shortage of teachers is not new. But new is the action that
educators and citizens are taking to prepare well-qualified teachers for
the growing number of children who are entering already understaffed
schools. In 1956-57, our elementary and secondary schools must accommodate nearly 38 million children, almost one-fourth more than they
served just four years ago.
Estimates of the numbers of pupils to be taught in the next five years
are based not on imaginary figures but on children already born who will
reach our classrooms as they grow up. Some communities are preparing
for the certain expansion; others seem to hope that school will somehow
go on as before.
The many communities that have already taken action have used
various methods to prevent a reduction in the quality and quantity of
education their children receive. For instance:
Some have increased teacher salaries, which may have fallen behind those of other
occupations that compete for our limited supply of college graduates.
Some are reducing the clerical and nonprofessional tasks of teachers through the
use of teacher aides.
Some are encouraging experienced teachers to return to the classroom or are retaining the services of teachers who might otherwise leave.

This report describes the initial results of yet another method—
recommended by the Committee on New Teachers for the Nation's Classrooms in cooperation with the Office of Education in the U. S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare and the Women's Bureau in the
U. S. Department of Labor—that of recruiting and preparing carefully
selected, well-qualified, mature college graduates for teaching in communities
where the teacher shortage is acute or is expected to become so.
The story of why this method was recommended and how it came
about has been told in NEW TEACHERS FOR THE NATION'S CHILDREN—
AN IDEA FOR COMMUNITY ACTION.1
1 Women's Bureau Leaflet 23—1955, available on request to the U. S. Department of Labor, Women's
Bureau, Washington 25, D. C.




1

More than 100 colleges and universities in 27 States and the District
of Columbia now offer such programs, as the list which follows shows.
The Committee has emphasized that only mature college graduates who
have the necessary health, personal, and academic qualifications for
teaching be recruited for such programs. But it has maintained that a
woman with broad liberal arts training, often with children of her own,
ought to be able to acquire the additional knowledge and techniques she
may need to become a successful teacher in less time than a younger
woman. This assumption appears to be substantiated by the information
already available, presented here. A comprehensive evaluation of existing programs of this type is planned by the Office of Education in the
coming year.
The programs listed vary widely. They are affected by differing
State teacher requirements, as well as by the facilities of the institutions
which offer them. Many of them were inaugurated especially for mature
women college graduates; others also serve recent college graduates, and
men as well as women. Some programs were developed originally to
meet other needs, like those of returning men veterans, as at Indiana
State Teachers College at Terre Haute, or to enable teachers already
employed to meet newly established certification requirements, as at the
University of Maryland. But the teacher shortage demanded the continuance of these programs after the original impetus disappeared.




2

The programs

described

All the institutions listed admit for teacher training college graduates
without prior professional preparation in education who have been out
of school at least five years or more and meet the other requirements for
entrance. Each provides for meeting the teacher-certification requirements of the State in which it is located.
In any abbreviated listing of this sort, many relevant facts are
omitted. For instance, it is not possible to list all the entrance requirements of each institution, which has its own criteria for selecting students
and for assessing their suitability for teaching. Only degree, age, and

Figure 2.—A workshop in elementary education at the National College of Education,
Evanston, 111.

other requirements specially announced in connection with the programs
have been indicated; further details may be obtained by writing to the
institution, addressing your inquiry to the name of the faculty member
given in the list.




3

A few of the institutions given in the list accept candidates who do
not have a college degree and who, of course, need more study to qualify
for certification. Since the Committee feels that the college graduate
pool should be tapped first to obtain qualified potential teachers, it
has not suggested reaching below this educational level. In such cases,
the description of the program is confined to that part of it which applies
to the college graduate group only.
Many of the programs here described admit qualified college graduates regardless of age or sex, and do not serve mature women college graduates exclusively but as part of a group. However, programs that admit
recent college graduates only, like the experimental fifth-year programs
at Cornell University and Harvard University's Graduate School of Education, have been omitted.




4

Comments from two communities
have been evaluated
From Detroit's suburban

where

programs

communities

Questionnaire replies from 91 principals and 37 superintendents of
schools as summarized in Wayne University's 1956 preliminary report on its Off-Campus Post Degree Teacher Certification Program
show that:
1. Students, principals, and superintendents generally rate these
specially prepared teachers above average on each of the following, rating them highest on then warmth toward and acceptance
of children:
general methods and techniques of teaching
command of subject matter
understanding of children's behavior
pupil-teacher planning of work
individual and group evaluation
warmth toward and acceptance of children
improving human relations in the classroom
skills in individualizing instructions
utilization of community resources
working with parents and other people in the community
working with colleagues and administrators.

2. Teacher performance as compared with that of other beginning
elementary teachers was rated excellent or very good by 52 principals and 15 superintendents. Indications are that these
teachers have poise, maturity, and confidence; understanding
and insight concerning children's needs and problems; and
motivation.
3. The method used to prepare these teachers was rated as excellent
or very good by 50 principals and 18 superintendents. Only 7
principals and no superintendents gave it a poor rating.
4. Among factors making a major contribution to the competence
of the teachers trained under this program, the administrators
indicated:
more concentrated and better practice-teaching experience
more meaningful and realistic work
better methods of training in techniques and methodology.

5. There was general enthusiasm for the plan of taking the program
to the local community and for combining an integrated workshop in elementary education in the afternoon with directed
teaching experience in the morning.
From San Diego
As described in the first annual report on the San Diego Teacher
Recruitment and Training Program, June 1955: 2
3 The 45-page detailed report available from Dr. John A. Hockett (see list) gives individual comments
by principals, advisory teachers, the project coordinator, and interns, including suggestions for improving
the program.




5

The seven principals of schools to which 25 teaching interns were
assigned under the San Diego Teachers' College program in September
1954 were asked to give their impressions of these interns in October and,
again, in February. Their second report confirmed their initial impressions of the general competence and performance of the interns and their
acceptance by children, parents, and faculties. They predicted that all
the interns, with one possible exception, would merit permanent status
as teachers.
The 25 interns, in April 1955 with two exceptions indicated that
they expected to teach indefinitely or until retirement; the remaining two
said "for several years." When asked their chief satisfactions and rewards during their internship, the majority replied: working with children; helping children to learn; the progress of the children academically,
socially, and in personality adjustment: a sense of doing important work.




6

Statements of educators
programs

who have sponsored

these

From other parts of the country, too, there are expressions of satisfaction with the results of programs of this type, even though evaluation
studies like those under way in Detroit and San Diego have not been made.
Dr. Finis Engl em an, former Commissioner of Education for Connecticut, in discussing Connecticut's emergency teacher-training program
was quoted as follows in the New York Times, April 1, 1956:
"This program has saved our lives in Connecticut. . .

He added that the emergency program has yielded almost 50 percent as
many teachers as the regular program.
Dr. Ben A. Sueltz, Director, Summer Session, State University of
j\ew York, State Teachers College, Cortland, wrote in a letter, June 15,
1956:
"Some of these people [who complete the intensive teacher-training program] make excellent teachers, a few are not successful. In general, we have
found these people to be very sincere, to do a good job, and to be more discerning
and appreciative than undergraduate students who are training to (each. The
added maturity seems to be a determining factor. Our screening of applicants
helps to make the program successful."

Dr. George W. Angell, President, State University of New York Teachers
College at Plattsburg, wrote about his similar program, June 25,1956:
" W e feel that this program has been quite successful, mainly due to the fact
that we have carefully selected experienced teachers who have organized the
formal courses around firsthand observation of, and participation in, classrooms
with elementary-school children during the Summer Session."

l)r. L. W. Dean, Assistant Dean, College of Education, Michigan State
University, Lansing, in a letter, June 11, 1956, stated:
"The [accelerated teacher-training] program has been in existence such a
short time that no good evaluation of the results is yet available. Reports from
school administrators who have hired teachers that completed this program,
however, have been very satisfactory. We feel confident that the people we have
selected have the maturity and other personal characteristics that will make
them successful teachers.""

403090 0—56




2

7

Dr. Harold E. TTyde, President, Plymouth Teachers College, Plymouth,
N. 11., in a letter, June 13, 1956, reported:
'"This conversion program, or adaptation of it, has been quite helpful in the
recruitment of good liberal arts people. I do not have detailed statistics to
support this, but can simply say from personal contacts with people who have
gone through the program that it makes a definite contribution to the teaching
supply of our State."

Dr. John A. UaCoste, Chairman, Department of Education. Whitworth
College. Spokane, Wash., in a letter, June 4, 1956, wrote about the
"28-48" (age group of enrollees) program at that institution a? follows:
'"The students attracted into the program are, we think, outstanding personalities that will be an asset to the profession. They have completed their
first courses. They are enthusiastic, maturely eager, and looking forward to a
teaching career. Their work has been of uniformly high quality."

Programs

discontinued

Two institutions are known to have tried a program and to have
discontinued it for different reason?. The College of St. Elizabeth,
Convent Station, \ . J., offered a special evening program for a year but
discontinued it when nearby State teacher's colleges offered more accessible
programs of this sort.
The University of Rochester, N. Y., in cooperation with the Rochester
Public Schools offered an emergency teacher-education program to train
college graduates for elementary teaching in the Rochester Schools from
September 1954 until June 1956. About twenty-five married women,
mostly between 35 and 45, were enrolled each of the 2 years in an afterschool, 2-semester program which earned the six credits required for
paid teaching on an emergency certificate. Forty women completed
the program and were in great demand as teachers. Dr. Howard R.
Anderson, Dean of the University of Rochester's University School,
writes that: "All the information we have received suggests that they
have become successful teachers. We feel that the emergency program
attracted mature and able women who made excellent teachers." The
program was discontinued, however, when the Rochester Hoard of Education increased its beginning salary for fully certified teachers to 81,000
and was able to obtain an adequate supply. Dr. Anderson comments,
" I suspect the program will be revived when a new shortage develops."




8

\ew teachers preparing through these

programs

In Hrooklvn (College's f)rogram for housewives with college degrees,
14 of the 29 mothers of school children who enrolled in 1935 had majored
in science or mathematics. Many had graduated during the depression
period when they were discouraged from entering teaching. They are
now fulfilling an old aspiration as well as preparing to meet a critical need.
As one mother put it:
"1 haven't had such a good time in 15 years. All the experiences one has had eontribute toward learning to he a teacher. I would like to convince more women
who are young and vigorous to go into teaching. It would solve their needs for
constructive activity and a greater family income and the needs of the schools,
loo."

A woman who retired from the business world at 55 years of age is
teaching this fall in a rural school in Vermont following preparation
through the Lniversitv of Delaware's conversion program. She has an
M. A. in chemistry and enough hours to qualify for a doctorate in
science.
A woman, 37 years of age, the mother of three teen-age children, who
worked as a social worker for 2 years before her marriage, is teaching in a
Philadelphia junior high school under adverse circumstances but is making
a very satisfactory adjustment, according to the director of Temple
University's Pilot Project l\o. 2, in which she is enrolled.
Another woman, 48 years of age, highly intelligent, a graduate of an
eastern woman's college, active in the League of Women Voters, without
children of her own, at first had difficulty with leaching in a city junior
high school. Hut, transferred to a school in another community, she
adjusted sa lis facto ri I y.
A filth-grade teacher in a suburban community near New York
City, who prepared in the special curriculum at New York University,
writes of teaching as compared with her former office job:
'"Although I work harder in the classroom than in an office (children are tiring)
1 find more satisfaction in my work. F think the best part of leaching is the
challenge that each day brings, the unpredictable situations that can arise, and
the certainty that the teacher, as well as the children, will grow in knowledge." 4
Teacher Kriucation News and Notes. -New York Cit> Division of Teacher Education, 500 Park Ave..
New York. November 18. 1955, pajre 4.
4 Mount llolyoke Alumnae (Juartcrly. Summer, 1955.




9

Figure 3.—On




these pages a Michigan college graduate and homeinaker is shown
training for teaching.

C . In

an

workshop
tains

afternoon
she

helpful

gestions.

obsug-

[). She does practice teaching in a school a mile from her home.

E. She teaches a second-grade class in her community after completing her training.




11

Unique, perhaps, is the experience of the president of a local Connecticut PTA, mother of two teen-agers and a 10-year old, who started to
recruit women with bachelor's degrees for the teaching profession. She
became so interested she enrolled at Willimantic State Teachers College
and became a teacher of 30 first-grade youngsters in a housing project 13
miles from her home. Her enthusiasm was so contagious that her husband
took the course too. They now comprise the total faculty of a two-room
country school which serves four grades. She warns that new teacheis
may not be able to teach in the place, school, or grade they prefer at the
outset and they must expect to continue their preparation, while working,
until they are fully qualified. And the most important factor, she says,
is that you sincerely love children.4

4

Mount Holyokc Alumnae Quarterly, Summer, 1955.




12

How many aew teachers are these
producing?

programs

Only a rough estimate can be given of the quantitative results of
these programs at this time. Many of the programs, of course, have not
been under way long enough to have produced graduates; others have been
under way for some years. Statistical reporting also is complicated by
the fact that in many institutions no distinction is made between enrollments of college graduates without prior professional education preparation and others enrolled in summer, extension, and off-campus or regular
programs. It is even more difficult to get statistics by sex, or to obtain
information on age or on recency of graduation from college.
At least 5,400 college graduates had already completed standard
certification requirements for teaching under these programs by June
1956, and more than 5,500 were currently enrolled in them according to
information from the 55 institutions that supplied actual statistics or estimates. About 4 out of 10 of these new recruits to teaching had been out
of college 5 years or more, according to estimates received from colleges
enrolling about half of them.
The problem of recruiting suitable applicants for these programs is a
major one. A number of institutions, including Western Michigan College, Lake Erie College in Ohio, and Madison College in Virginia, reported
that they would conduct programs of this type if candidates were available.

Figure 4.—Mdthers of school children enrolled in Gonzaga University's accelerated
teacher-training program read in the curriculum library during their noon hour.




13

Recruiting

for these

programs

To locate women college graduates who have the essential qualifications for becoming successful teachers is necessary to the continuing
success of these programs as well as to their initiation. Many women
have been reached through publicity. The leaflet, NEW TEACHERS
FOR THE NATION'S CHILDREN was widely circulated through the coopera-

tion of educational and other organizations.
Such public interest
was created by the idea that there were many requests for information
for articles, which subsequently were published in such journals as:
Better Schools, Changing Times, the Ladies' Home Journal, Student Life,
the Saturday Evening Post, and Woman's Day. College and university
alumni magazines throughout the country have reproduced a short article
on the subject which was distributed by the American Alumni Council.
Parent-teacher associations, civic, and women's organizations have
been at work checking their local situation. A few communities do not
have a shortage, but most communities either have a shortage or anticipate one. Some groups have offered their services to the local superintendent of schools; others, to teacher-training institutions in their area.
The American Association of University Women, for instance, long interested
in the teacher shortage and including many teachers in its membership, has
encouraged its State divisions and local branches to concentrate on this
problem. In some CQmmunities, surveys of local members available for
teaching have been made; in a few, wider surveys to reach all eligible women
college graduates have been initiated. In some small communities, no
formal training programs were set up but the efforts resulted in arranging
individual programs at nearby teacher-training institutions for a few women.
But, in many, the A A U W has been successfully recruiting mature women
college graduates for programs of this type. In Delaware, a recruitment
committee meets regularly at the University of Delaware's College of
Education.

If you are interested in a program of this type—as an eligible college
graduate who wants to teach or as a citizen who wishes to help recruit
new teachers for our children—the following list will guide you to institutions now preparing women college graduates for teaching. You may
also, through your local clubs and organizations in cooperation with local
educational authorities and colleges, help to expand the list, if this type
of training is needed in your community. A supplementary list will be
issued as new programs are added or as those not included in this initial
survey are reported.




14

Programs that prepare mature women college
graduates to meet State certification requirements f o r teaching

403090 0—56




3

15

Programs

that prepare

Institution; faculty member to
consult; date program started—

mature women college graduates to meet State
requirements for teaching—Continued
Minimum qualifications for
entrance

certification

Nature of program

Arkansas
Harding College, Searcy, Ark.; Dr.
George Benson, President; began
June 1955.
University of Arkansas, Fayetteville,
Ark.; Dr. H. H. Kronenberg, Dean,
College of Education; began September 1953.
California
Claremont Graduate School, Claremont, Calif.; Professor Peter L.
Spencer; began spring 1954.

College of the Pacific, Stockton,
Calif.; 3r. Lloyd H. King, Director
of Elementary Education, School of
Education; began June 1954.
San Diego State College and San
Diego City Schools, San Diego,
Calif.; Dr. John A. Hockett, Associate Director of Teacher Train-




Bachelor's
degree;
acceptable
scholastic proficiency; satisfactory character.
Bachelor's degree with a minimum
of 48 semester hours in libera]
arts, no courses in professional
education, but minimum preparation in at least one public
school curriculum subject area;
suitability for teaching.
Bachelor's degree earned at least 2
years prior to admission; preferably no previous professional
study in education; recommendation of a participating school
system.

Bachelor's degree.

Bachelor's degree; preference given
to those who have received degree over 3 years ago and are
not over 45 years of age; U. S.

For elementary and secondary teaching: 2 semesters or 3 summer
sessions (30 sem. hrs.) qualify for standard teaching certificate
and master of teaching degree.
For elementary and secondary teaching: A 12-week summer
session (12 credits) qualifies for paid teaching on temporary
certificate as candidate continues study (6 credits) and completes the requirements for a master's degree and standard
teaching certificate in a second summer session (12 credits).
For elementary teaching: 16-month program starting with 8-week
period in which a minimum of 100 clock hours of observation
and participation in classrooms and 8 days of study and lecture
are completed, followed by a 6-week summer session, a year of
paid full-time teaching experience as an intern on a provisional
teaching credential supervised jointly by the college and the
employing school district and by a second 6-week summer
session qualify for general elementary credential. Fund for
the Advancement of Education finances cost of instruction for
4H years.
.
For elementary teaching: 2 semesters of approved study including 10 semester hours of directed teaching in elementary
schools qualify for general elementary certificate.
For elementary teaching: 1 summer session of 9 weeks preceded
by spring semester evening course and school observation
experience and followed by intern teaching on provisional
certificate (4 interns paid % regular salary for % time, super-

ing, University of California, Los
Angeles, Calif.; began spring 1954.

citizenship; San Diego area
resident and acceptable for
teaching in San Diego city
schools.

San Francisco State College, San
Francisco, Calif.; Dr. Mary M c Carthy, Supervisor, Teacher Recruitment and Training Program,
San Francisco Unified School District, 135 Van Ness Ave., San Francisco 2, Calif.; began fall 1954.

Bachelor's degree from liberal arts
college with no professional preparation in education; indication
of intent to pursue teaching
career, and suitability for teaching.

University of Southern California,
Los Angeles, Calif.; Dr. W. E.
Cannon, Director of Teacher Education; began summer 1954.

Bachelor's degree earned at least
2 years previously; selection for
teaching by a participating
school district.

vised by an experienced teacher giving full time to the program)
with additional course work during the year and the following
summer qualify for general elementary credential. Fund for
the Advancement of Education is financing evaluation and
consultation services.
For elementary or secondary teaching: First semester divided
about evenly between professional study and classroom experience (16 sem. hrs.); second semester of practice teaching
(3 full days and 2 half days a week) and late afternoon seminars
(12-15 sem. hrs.). 1 or 2 summer sessions as necessary to
make up individual background deficiencies to meet requirements for California teaching credential. Fund for the Ad-:
vancement of Education provides scholarships, instruction,
and evaluation. San Francisco Unified School District provides administrator, secretary, supplies, office space, accounting
services, library facilities.
For elementary teaching: 1 summer session of study (10 credits)
followed by paid teaching on provisional certificate and Saturday morning classes and an additional summer session (8
credits) qualify for general elementary certificate. Fund for
the Advancement of Education is financing most of the cost of
instruction for 4 years.

Connecticut
Danbury State Teachers College; Dr.
Frank W. Knight, Coordinator, Intensive Program for College Graduates; began summer 1949.
New Britain State Teachers College;
Dr. Bill Bennett, Coordinator, Intensive Program for College Graduates; began spring 1949.
New Haven State Teachers College;
Dr. Paul F. Lowe, Director of
Placement and Coordinator of Intensive Program for College Graduates; began spring 1949.

Bachelor's degree with evidence
of breadth of general education
and good record; U. S. citizen;
interest in teaching in Connecticut and suitability for teaching
as indicated by physical and
written exam and personal interview.

*At Danbury and New Britain may start also in February or September.




For elementary teaching: Summer session* including laboratory school observation and practice teaching (8 sem. hrs.)
qualifies for paid teaching on emergency certificate renewable
annually upon evidence of successful teaching and completion
of 6 sem. hrs. each year toward the 30-34 hours (depending on
undergraduate courses) required for provisional certificate. A
standard certificate is issued after 3 years of successful teaching
on a provisional. On completion of the initial 8-week session,
and after an approved year of teaching, supervised from the
Teachers College, student may continue work for certification
on the graduate level and thus obtain substantial credits
toward the master's degree.

Programs

that prepare

Institution; faculty member to
consult; date program started—

mature women college graduates to meet
requirements for teaching—Continued
Minimum qualifications for
entrance

State

certification

Nature of program

Connecticut—Continued
Willimantic State Teachers College;
Miss Elizabeth Hood; began spring
1949.
Hillyer College, Hudson Street, Hartford 1, Conn.; Dr. Irving Starr,
Director, Teacher Training; began
February 1955.

(See other Connecticut State
Teachers Colleges, p. 17.)

(See other Connecticut State Teachers Colleges, p. 17.)

Bachelor's degree including 30
semester hours in 1 or 2 fields
of concentration appropriate for
secondary teaching.

For secondary teaching: 2 semesters of evening study covering
principles and methods of secondary teaching (12 sem. hrs.)
plus 10 weeks of student teaching in third semester (6 sem. hrs.)
qualify for paid teaching on a 4-year provisional certificate.
NOTE.—Candidates with a major in mathematics or science
may teach for pay in the public schools on a temporary certificate and complete the 18 semester hours of professional education while on the job.
For elementary and secondary teaching: Summer session (9 sem.
hrs.), fall session (15 sem. hrs.) plus spring session (15 sem.
hrs. including 6 sem. hrs. of student teaching) qualify for full
certification and for master's degree (if term paper completed).
May enter fall, spring, or summer. Also available on parttime basis, except for student teaching.
For secondary teaching: One academic year combining advanced
study in field of specialization and sufficient professional
study, including practice teaching, to meet certification requirements in most States. Program leads to master of arts in
teaching degree.

University of Bridgeport, Bridgeport 4, Conn.; Dr. Arthur E.
Trippensee, Dean, College of Education; began summer 1955.

Bachelor's degree.

Yale University Graduate School,
New Haven, Conn.; Dr. Edward S.
Noyes, Director, Master of Arts in
Teaching Program; began September 1951.

Bachelor's degree; evidence of
high achievement in field of
specialization and the personality and purpose required for
successful teaching.

Delaware
University of Delaware, Newark, Del.;
Dr. William O. Penrose, Dean,
School of Education; began September 1952.




Bachelor's degree; wish to be
certified to teach in elementary
schools in Delaware.

For elementary teaching: 30 semester hours graduate work
(18 in education and 12 in subject matter, the general pattern
of the graduate degree program) plus 6 hours of student
teaching or 1 semester of supervised teaching experience,

plus a 1-hour course in Delaware history, plus 9 additional
hours of undergraduate credit education courses if undergraduate program included no education courses. If candidate
takes required courses in education first, he may teach on a
temporary certificate while completing the balance of courses.
Program takes from 2-4 years of part-time study or 2 semesters,
and possibly a summer, full time. Leads to Master of Education degree and a 1-year collegiate certificate in elementary
education. Full collegiate certificate will be granted after an
additional 12 hours in education or when the candidate has
acquired 30 total hours in education courses.

District of Columbia
The George Washington University,
21st and G Streets, NW., Washington, D. C., Dr. James Harold Fox,
Dean, School of Education; began
summer 1955.

Bachelor's degree from liberal arts
college.

Idaho
University of Idaho, Moscow, Idaho; j Bachelor's degree
Dr. J. Frederick Weltzin, Dean, !
certification.
College of Education; began 1953. !




for

standard

For elementary and secondary teaching: Successful completion
of 12-week summer session (12 sem. hrs.) of specified education
courses, and additional courses and teaching observation in the
fall semester (15 sem. hrs.), followed by student teaching in
the spring semester (12 sem. hrs.) qualifies for standard certificate in most jurisdictions, including the District of Columbia.
The following summer session provides an opportunity to
meet additional certification requirements of other jurisdictions. Night classes are also offered, but more time is required
to complete program. For secondary teaching, the entire program may usually be completed in 2 semesters and 1 summer
session.
For elementary and secondary teaching: 1 summer session (9
sem. hrs.), or 9 semester hours in education courses earned by
correspondence or in extension courses enable candidate to
qualify for paid teaching on provisional teaching certificate.
This experience properly supervised may be counted as fulfilling the directed teaching required along with 20 semester
hours in education for standard certificate for either elementary
or secondary teaching.

Programs

that prepare

Institution; faculty member to
consult; date program started—

mature women college graduates to meet
requirements for teaching—Continued
Minimum qualifications for
entrance

State

certification

Nature of program

Illinois
National College of Education, Evanston, 111.; Dr. Robert F. Topp,
Dean, Graduate School; began June
1952.

Bachelor's degree

North Central College, Naperville, 111.;
Dr. A. R. Schwarz; began September 1956.

Bachelor's degree with above average academic record.

Northwestern University, Evanston,
111.; Dr. Jack Childress, Assistant
Dean, School of Education; began
September 1954.

Bachelor's degree and usual requirements for graduate school.

Roosevelt University, 430 S. Michigan
Ave., Chicago, 111.; Dr. George H.
Ivins, Chairman, Department of
Education; began September 1954.

Bachelor's degree

University of Chicago, Chicago 37,
111.; Dr. Kenneth J. Rehage, Asso-

Bachelor's degree from liberal arts
college.




For elementary teaching: 2 semesters of graduate work including
professional laboratory experiences qualify for standard elementary teaching certificate. An additional summer session
qualifies for master of education degree (a total of 30 sem. hrs.).
It is possible to qualify for paid teaching after a summer
session and 1 semester including student teaching while continuing work for master's degree, but it is considered preferable
to complete 2 semesters before teaching full time.
For elementary teaching: 2 courses in general education and
methods (6 credits) offered in convenient off-campus locations
prepare for cadet teaching last half of the semester (1-5 credits);
this followed by summer session (3-6 credits) qualifies for
standard elementary teacher certificate.
For elementary teaching: Fall, winter, spring, and summer quarters of study including 25 clock-hours a quarter on out-of-class
work with children or youth, directed observation in fall quarter
and student teaching in winter or spring quarter qualify for
M. A. degree and standard elementary teaching certificate
(54-58 quarter hrs.). Paid teaching also possible after three
quarters spent partially on full-time and partially on part-time
schedule on Evanston or Chicago campuses.
For kindergarten and elementary teaching: 2 semesters and
summer session including student teaching (38 credits) qualify
for master's degree (provided other requirements are met) and
elementary teaching credentials. For city credential, an examination is also required.
For elementary teaching: Intensive 3 quarters of study including
practice teaching in final quarter earns 30 semester hours of

credit fulfilling requirement for standard elementary certificate
and advances student toward master's degree. Half tuition remitted to students who enroll in program.

ciate Professor of Education; began
October 1954.
Indiana
Bachelor's degree

For elementary teaching: 2 semesters (30 sem. hrs.) including
courses in 3 elementary teaching content fields and in regular
elementary education courses including student teaching
qualify for provisional general elementary or standard elementary certificate. After 30 semester hours, qualifies for
paid teaching on temporary certificate.

Friends University, Wichita, Kans.;
Dr. Wendell E. Hadley, Director,
Summer Session; began 1955.

Bachelor's degree; suitability
teaching.

Kansas State Teachers College, Emoria, Kans.; Dr. Don E. Davis,
[ead, Department of Education;
began—date not available.

Bachelor of arts degree.

Kansas State Teachers College, Pittsburg, Kans.; Dr. Norland W.
Strawn, Director of College Extension; began 1951.

Bachelor's degree

Mount St. Scholastica College, Atchison, Kans.; Sister Mary Austin,
O. S. B.; began—date not available.

Bachelor's degree

For elementary teaching: 1 semester (17 semester hours) of professional education courses following which candidate may
teach on provisional elementary certificate renewable annually
as she completes the 24 to 30 semester hours required for
standard certificate, depending on undergraduate background.
For elementary teaching: Summer session including 8 semester
hours of specified elementary education courses (can earn up
to 12 semester hours by attending June through August) qualifies for 1-year provisional elementary certificate, renewable
annually upon completion of 8 hours of credit toward the 24
to 30 hours required for full certification, depending on undergraduate background.
For elementary teaching: 8 semester hours credit in summer session with 6 in elementary teaching qualify for paid teaching
on temporary 1-year elementary teaching certificate. Thereafter, 8 semester hours annually until the 24 or more additional credit hours required for 5-year certificate (the number
depends on undergraduate background) are completed.
For elementary teaching: 8 semester hours credit in summer session qualify for paid teaching on temporary elementary teaching certificate renewable annually as candidate earns 8 semester
hours credit each year toward the 18 to 36 semester hours
needed altogether (depending on undergraduate background)
toward standard certification, which also requires student
teaching available at a State College.

Indiana State Teachers College, Terre
Haute, Ind.; Dr. Lloyd N. Smith,
Professor of Education; began 1946.

Kansas

S




Programs

that prepare

Institution; faculty member to
consult; date program started—

mature women college graduates to meet
requirements for teaching—Continued
Minimum qualifications for
entrance

State

certification

Nature of program

Kansas—Continued
Mount St. Scholastica College, etc.—
Continued

Bachelor's degree

Municipal University of Wichita,
Wichita, Kans.; Dr. Jackson O.
Powell, Dean, College of Education; began February 1956.

Bachelor's degree; qualify fully for
employment in public schools
except for academic deficiencies;
promise to teach as soon as
qualified.

Southwestern College, Winfield, Kans.;
Dr. Leonard S. Laws, Director,
Summer Session; began June 1953.

Bachelor's degree




For elementary and secondary teaching: Arrangement 1—Candidate may earn all credits for standard certification in a summer session and 1 semester, or 2 full semesters thus earning a
total of 18 to 36 semester hours depending on the undergraduate background. Arrangement 2—3 semester hours credit in
evening classes (5 or 7 o'clock) and 8 semester hours in summer sessions qualify for paid teaching on temporary elementary
teaching certificate renewable annually as candidate earns 14
semester hours in a year. This program includes all courses
leading to standard certification except student teaching.
The latter must be taken at 1 of the State colleges conducting
a laboratory school during the summer session.
For elementary teaching: Assigned for 3 months to master
teacher; mornings spent in observation and practice teaching
(3 credits), afternoons in seminars in elementary education (8
credits). Six additional weeks of classes in language development are followed by paid teaching on provisional certificate
renewable as 8 semester hours credit are earned annually to
complete deficiency credit hours required for full certification
which vary with individual undergraduate backgrounds.
For elementary teaching: 9 semester hours credit earned in
9-week summer session qualify for paid teaching on provisional
elementary teaching certificate renewable annually as candidate earns 8 semester hours credit each year toward the 24 to
30 semester hours credit needed altogether (depending on
undergraduate background) for standard certificate. These
may be earned in a Saturday program during academic year
or in summer sessions.

Bachelor's degree.

For elementary teaching: 8 semester hours qualify for paid
teaching on provisional certificate, renewable as candidate
completes 8 semester hours each year toward the hours required
for a standard degree certificate, which vary with the undergraduate background.

Aroostook State Teachers College,
Presque Isle, Maine; Mr. Clifford
O. T. Wieden, President; began
September 1952.

Bachelor's degree.

Farmington State Teachers College,
Farmington, Maine; Dr. Ermo H.
Scott, President; began 1952.

Bachelor of arts degree

University of Maine, Orono, Maine;
Dean Mark R. Shibles, Director of
Summer Session; began 1954.

Bachelor of arts degree

Washington State Teachers College,
Machias, Maine; Dr. Lincoln A.
Sennett, President; began 1952.

Bachelor of arts degree
credit hours.

For elementary teaching: 6 semester hours in elementary education materials and methods taken in summer or regular session
or extension courses qualify for paid teaching on a provisional
grade C certificate limited to grades 7 and 8 and renewable
annually only if teaching is satisfactory and 6 additional hours
of study are completed toward the 18 hours required for a
3-year certificate. For a standard grade certificate 32 are
required.
For elementary teaching: 1 academic year or successive summer
sessions witn 16 credit hours in professional education and 16
credit hours in directed practice teaching. Leads to a B. S.
in education and limited certification renewable until the 6
additional credit hours required for standard certification are
completed.
For elementary teaching: 1 academic year and in some instances
an additional summer session. Professional courses in teaching
of reading, arithmetic, social studies, science, language arts
and measurement. Supervised student teaching included.
Leads to master in education degree and full certification for
elementary teaching.
For elementary and junior high-school teaching: 1 academic year
with 16 credit hours in professional education and 16 credit
hours in directed practice teaching. Leads to a B. S. in
education and limited certification, renewable until the 6 credit
hours required for full certification are completed.

University of Kansas, Lawrence,
Kans.; Dr. Kenneth E. Anderson,
Dean, School of Education; began
1954.
Maine




Programs

that prepare

Institution; faculty member to
consult; date program started—

mature women college graduates to meet
requirements for teaching—Continued
Minimum qualifications for
entrance

State

certification

Nature of program

Maryland
Goucher College, Baltimore 4, Md.;
Director of Admissions; began 1956.

University of Maryland, College Park,
Md.; Dr. Vernon E. Anderson,
Dean, College of Education; began
1930.

Massachusetts
State Teachers Colleges at:
Boston, Dr. William F. Looney,
President; began summer 1953.
Bridgewater, Mr. Charles E.
Foth, Director, Summer Session; began July 1955; (Summer session at Hyannis).
Lowell, Dr. Daniel H. O'Leary,
President; began summer 1953.




Bachelor's degree in liberal arts For elementary teaching: A 4-week pre-session (6 sem. credits);
1 semester of study (18 sem. credits); a second semester of
with good undergraduate record;
classroom teaching (for which student is paid $1,550) and
evidence of interest in children
course work (6 sem. credits) qualify for master of education
and teaching but without teachdegree. Financial assistance from Fund for the Advancement
ing experience; successful exof Education.
perience in informal work with
children and ability in arts
valuable.
Bachelor's degree and interest in For elementary teaching: 6 credit hours in summer session fulfills
requirement for emergency certificate. Then, while teaching
becoming a fully certified teacher.
full time, at least 6 credit hours must be taken annually until
30 credit hours required for Maryland certificate are completed.
Practice teaching requirement waived after 2 years of successful teaching.
For secondary teaching: Same, except that only 16 credit hours in
education are required for certificate.

Bachelor's degree; suitability for
teaching.

For elementary teaching: 6-week summer session, with observation and student teaching of children in elementary grades in
mornings and classes in afternoon (8 sem. hrs.), qualifies for
paid teaching on temporary certificate. Candidates advised to
complete 10 additional semester hours required for regular
certificate by taking 6 each year in extension or summer sessions.

North Adams, Dr. Eugene Freel,
President; began summer 1954
(Summer session at Pittsfield).
Salem, Dr. Frederick A. Meier,
President; began July 1955.
Worcester, Dr. Eugene A. Sullivan, President; began summer
1954.
Michigan
Michigan State University, East Lansing, Mich.; Dr. L. W. Dean, Assistant Dean, College of Education;
began January 1955.

Bachelor's degree with a major and
2 minors, or 4 minors.

Wayne University, Detroit 1, Mich.;
Dr. J. Frank Campbell, Coordinator, Off-Campus Programs; began
spring 1954.

Bachelor's degree; 21-50 years of
age; interest in teaching and
freedom from defects that would
adversely affect teaching suc-

Missouri
Harris Teachers College, 5351 Enright, St. Louis, Mo.; Mr. L. H.
Diekroeger, Director of Education
in Charge of Personnel, Board of
Education, St. Louis, M o . ; began
January 1956.




Bachelor's degree or more; must
plan to qualify for State of
Missouri certification; under 51
years for appointment as regular teacher; under 70 for substitute teaching.

For elementary or secondary teaching: A 12-week term of education courses (15 term credits) followed by a 12-week term of
full-time apprentice teaching (15 term credits) qualifies for
provisional certificate valid for 5 years. A permanent certificate can be earned by teaching successfully for 3 years and
earning 10 semester hours (15 term credits) of additional credit
during the 5-year period for which the provisional certificate is
valid.
For elementary teaching: 1 semester of student practice teaching
in morning and workshops 3 afternoons a week in outlying
communities followed by a 6-week summer session earns 20
semester hours credit and qualifies for paid teaching on provisional teaching certificate.
For elementary teaching: Accelerated program requires 6 credit
hours in The Practicum including 2 credits each in educational
psychology, technique of teaching, and supervised practice
teaching. Substitute teaching with pay may accompany
study in late afternoon classes but the supervised practice
teaching is unpaid and requires 1 full day a week in a St. Louis
public elementary school. A 1-year provisional certificate is
granted with the stipulation that at least 4 semester hours in
courses listed as deficiencies be taken to renew the 1-year
certificate. When deficiencies are less than 20 hours, a 2-year
certificate is granted but deficiencies must be reduced at the
rate of 4 semester hours each 2-year period. When all deficiencies are removed, the person receives a 5-year certificate,
which, after 3 years of successful teaching may be converted
into a permanent certificate.

Programs

that prepare

Institution; faculty member to
consult; date program started—

mature women college graduates to meet
requirements for teaching—Continued
Minimum qualifications for
entrance

State

certification

Nature of program

Missouri—Continued
St. Louis University, St. Louis, Mo.;
Rev. Trafford P. Maher, Director,
Department of Education; began
February 1956.

Bachelor's degree or more; plan to
qualify for certification; under
51 years for appointment as
regular teacher; under 70 for
substitute teaching.

Washington University, St. Louis,
M o . ; Dr. Earnest Brandenburg,
Dean, University College; Dr.
Robert Schaefer, Director, Graduate Institute of Education; began
February 1956.

Bachelor's degree or more; under
51 years of age; plan to qualify
for certification.

New Hampshire
Keene Teachers College, Keene, N. H.;
Dr. Llcyd P. Young, President;
began May 1949.
—began summer 1956 .




Bachelor's degree.

Bachelor's degree with 18 semester
hours in major field of teaching.

For elementary teaching: Complete 6 credit hours in required
elementary courses, including supervised teaching, in late
afternoon classes, arranged so that substitute teaching can be
done. Thereafter paid teaching on temporary certificate
renewable by completing 4 semester hours in each 2-year
period toward completion of the 64 credit hours required for
regular 2-year certification.
For elementary teaching: Complete 6 credit hours in required
elementary courses, including supervised teaching, in late
afternoon classes, arranged so that substitute teaching can be
done. Thereafter paid teaching on temporary 2-year certificate renewable by completing 4 semester hours in each 2-year
period toward completion of the 18 semester hours required for
regular 5-year certificate. Certificates may be earned through
extension courses while teaching full time. After 3 years'
successful teaching with the 5-year certificate, teachers may
apply for a life certificate in Missouri.
For elementary teaching: 6 credit hours in summer school qualify
for supervised paid teaching, credited as student teaching.
Permit renewable annually for 3 years if holder progresses toward full certification (30 sem. hrs. in education including 6 in
student teaching and 18 in elementary education).
For secondary teaching: 6 credit hours in summer school qualify
for paid teaching on emergency permit, renewable annually for
3 years,if holder works toward full certification (15 sem. hrs.).

in education and either 6 sem. hrs. of practice teaching or 1
year of successful teaching experience).
NOTE.—The program described for Keene Teachers College is
offered at Plymouth Teachers College alternate summers.

Plymouth Teachers College, Plymouth, N. H.; Dr. Charles B. Kinney,
Dean of Instruction.
New JerseyState Teachers Colleges at:
Glassboro, Dr. Thomas Robinson,
President; began summer 1953.
Jersey City, Dr. Michael B. Gilligan, President; began 1950.
Newark, Dr. Eugene G. Wilkins,
President; began 1947.
Paterson (P. O. Box 2259), Dr.
Marion E. Shea, President;
began summer 1953.
Trenton, Dr. Roscoe L. West,
President; began—date not
available.

Bachelor's degree from liberal arts
college. Those without 6 semester hours each in English and
social studies and 24 additional
hours in at least 3 of the following: English, social studies,
science, fine arts, mathematics,
foreign language must make up
deficiency for standard certificate.

For elementary teaching: Special program in summer session (6
sem. hrs. credit) qualifies for paid teaching on a provisional
certificate renewable if candidate completes at least 4 credits a
year toward the 30 required for standard certificate. At Glassboro, for instance, a 4-point course, designed as a followup is
given in the fall semester.

Bachelor's degree with sound liberal arts background; some experience with children, evidence
of fitness for the teaching profession.

For elementary teaching:
Regular Program: 1 academic year with 3% days per week
spent in practice teaching. Leads to master's degree and
certification.

New York
Bank Street College of Education, 69
Bank Street, New York 14, N. Y.;
Dr. John H. Niemeyer, President;
began 1931.
—began fall 1955

Brooklyn College, Brooklyn, N. Y.;
Dr. Carleton Washburne, Director, Teacher Education Program;
began fall 1955.




Bachelor's degree; mother of a
school child; those under 39
years of age given preference
(maximum number of 30 can be
admitted each semester).

Experimental Program: 1 semester of courses and practice
teaching followed by a paid teaching job and continued
study and supervision by the College. Leads to master's
degree and certification after 18 months. Supported by
the Fund for the Advancement of Education.
For secondary teaching: 2-year, part-time program with classes
(10 sem. credits) 10 a. m. to noon first year and student
teaching and courses in teaching methods 9 a. m. to noon
second year (10 sem. credits) qualifies for standard secondary
teachers' certificate. Subject-matter courses as needed in
addition.

Programs

that prepare

Institution; faculty member to
consult; date program started—
New

mature women college graduates to meet
requirements for teaching—Continued
Minimum qualifications for
entrance

certification

Nature of program

York—Continued

Brooklyn College—Continued
—began September 1956

Bachelor's degree

The City College, New York 31,
N. Y.; Dr. Arthur Mallon, Chairman, Advisory Committee, School
of Education; began September
1954.

Bachelor's degree with high academic standing and 28-30 undergraduate credits in major.

College of Mount Saint Vincent, New
York 71, N. Y . ; Miss Mary O'Donnell, Guidance and Placement Director; began February 1955.

Bachelor's degree; desire to teach. .

Hofstra College, Hempstead, Long
Island, N. Y . ; Dr. George Mannello,
Director, Intensive Teacher Training Program; began summer 1951.

Bachelor's degree from liberal arts
college; well qualified for teaching.




State

For secondary teaching: 1-year, part-time program (23 sem.
credits) with special classes set up with consecutive hours,
largely in the morning, and certain prerequisite requirements
made "co-requisite" with methods, observation, and practice
teaching.
For secondary teaching: 3 semesters or 2 semesters and 2 summer sessions, completing 38 credits (18 in education and 20
in major). Leads to master's degree, full State certification,
and eligibility for a New York City license examination. 1
year of paid teaching experience may be substituted for the
term of student teaching required and 160 days of paid teaching experience may be substituted for the 1 term of apprentice
teaching normally required (in addition to student teaching).
For elementary teaching: 6 semester hours completed in evening
or day program qualify for substitute teaching on temporary
certificate in parochial schools. 12 additional semester hours
credit (which with evening work can be completed in less
than 2 years while teaching full-time) qualifies for a substitute
teacher license examination in New York City and a provisional teaching certificate in the State of New York.
For elementary teaching: Summer session (8 sem. credits) qualifies for paid teaching on temporary certificate renewable
annually as student completes the 30 semester hours required
for full certification. Usually takes 2 additional summer sessions (16 credits) and 1 school year of evening courses (up to
8 credits) or 1 summer and 2 school years of evening study.
An additional 4 semester hours qualify for master of science
degree in education.

New York University, 90 Washington Square, New York 3, N. Y.;
Dr. W. C. Spencer, Director, Graduate Program 891; began September 1956.

Bachelor's degree; suitability and
serious motivation for teaching.

State University Teachers Colleges at:
Brockport, Dr. George Anselm,
Director of Teacher Education;
began summer 1948.
Buffalo, Dr. R. E. Albright, Director, Graduate Division;
began June 1948.
Cortland, Dr. Ben A. Sueltz,
Director, Summer Session; began July 1949.
Fredonia, Dr. Harry K. Foster,
Chairman, Education Department; began July 1948.
Geneseo, Dr. Francis J. Moench,
President; began July 1948.
New Paltz, Dr. William J. Haggerty, President; began summer 1948.
Oneonta, Dr. James A. Frost,
Director of Summer Session;
began Summer 1948.
Oswego, Dr. Charles S. Turner,
Director, Division of Elementary and Junior High School
E d u c a t i o n ; began summer
1948.
Plattsburg, Dr. Edward E. Redcay, Dean; began summer 1949.
Potsdam, Dr. Alfred Thatcher,
Dean; began June 1948.

Bachelor's degree; suitability for
teaching; good health; United
States citizen.




For elementary, junior-high, and high school teaching: A fulltime resident program (42 points) in an academic year plus a
summer session involving intensive work with children and
youth and including supervised student teaching, leads to the
master of arts degree and eligibility for certification as a public
school teacher. Individualized program for part-time students
who want to prepare for elementary teaching may be arranged.
For elementary and kindergarten teaching: 6-week summer
session (8 credits) qualifies for paid teaching on temporary
certificate renewable as candidate completes the 30 semester
hours (possible in 3 additional summer sessions) and the 2
years of successful teaching experience required for permanent
certificate. The master's degree is awarded to those who
complete 32 semester hours in a prescribed program and meet
additional requirements.

Program offered at both New Paltz and Farmingdale, Long
Island.
The first summer session offered at Oneonta and Schenectady
centers; later sessions at Oneonta and Albany centers.

Programs

that prepare

Institution; faculty member to
consult; date program started—
New

mature women college graduates to meet
requirements for
teaching—Continued
Minimum qualifications for
entrance

State

certification

Nature of program

York—Continued
Bachelor's degree and usual requirements for admission to
graduate school of education.

For elementary teaching: 6-week summer session including
observation and experience in demonstration school qualifies
for paid teaching on temporary certificate renewable annually
as candidate completes at least 6 semester hours each year
toward the 36 required for a M. S. in education and a regular
certificate.

Bachelor's degree from liberal arts
college; interest in becoming a
secondary-school teacher.

For secondary teaching: Summer session (12 sem. credits) followed by a semester on campus (15 sem. credits) qualifies for
paid teaching positions in Charlotte, N. C., schools during
second semester. In this semester candidates also complete
seminar in secondary-school teaching (9 sem. credits). Candidates earn master's degree and qualify for standard secondary
teaching certificate.

State Teachers College, Dickinson,
N. Dak.; Dr. Charles E. Scott,
President; began—date not available.

Bachelor's degree from liberal arts
college.

State Teachers College, Mayville,
N. Dak.; Dr. 0 . A. De Long,
President; began 1954.

Bachelor's degree

For elementary and secondary teaching: The State Department
of Public Instruction accepts 24 quarter hours in education
taken in summer or regular sessions to qualify for first-grade
professional teaching certificate. Work may be speeded up
through Saturday classes offered at convenient centers and by
correspondence courses. The College recommends completion
of 28 quarter hours in education courses for secondary teachers
and 44 for elementary teachers.
For elementary and secondary teaching: 2 semesters completing
21 semester hours in education (including 8 semester hours in
practice teaching) qualify for accredited first-grade professional

Syracuse University, Syracuse 10,
N. Y . ; Dr. Virgil Rogers, Dean of
the School of Education; began
July 1952.
North Carolina
Duke University, Durham, N. C.;
Dr. William H. Cartwright, Department of Education; began summer 1956.

North Dakota




State Teachers College, Minot, N.
Dak.; Dr. A. M . Rempel, Dean of
College; began—date not available.

Bachelor's degree

University of North Dakota, Grand
Forks, N. Dak.; Dr. Martelle L.
Cushman, Dean, College of Education; began 1955.

Bachelor of arts degree with 30-35
hours in 1 teaching subject and
20-24 hours in another.

Ohio
Baldwin-Wallace College, Berea, Ohio;
Dr. W. E. Harrington, Director of
Teacher Training; began 1953.

Bachelor of arts or science degree
with a " C " average for the entire college program.
Bachelor of arts or science degree
with " B " average in subject
field.

Bowling Green State University,
Bowling Green, Ohio; Dr. John A.
Gee, Dean, College of Education;
began June 1956.

Bachelor's degree with a f f C plus"
cumulative average for undergraduate work.

Capital University, Columbus 9,
Ohio; Dr. L. J. Schaaf, Dean and
Counselor for Students; began
September 1952.

Bachelor's degree with good balance of arts and science subjectmatter fields.




certificate, valid for 3 years, and, after 18 months of successful
teaching experience, valid for life.
For secondary teaching: 28 quarter hours of professional education, including 8 hours of student teaching, qualify the candidates for a regular secondary school certificate. The entire 28
quarter hours may be earned in 2 quarters, including student
teaching. In certain cases, not as a regular policy, an emergency certificate is granted for 1 year upon the completion of 12
quarter hours of professional education.
For secondary teaching: 2 consecutive semesters preferably, or
1 summer session and a semester (completing 21 semester
hours in education, including 4 in student teaching in a secondary school) qualify for accredited first-grade professional
certificate valid for 3 years and, after 18 months of successful
experience, for life.
For elementary teaching: 9 quarter hours of elementary education qualifies for teaching on temporary certificate and 2
semesters or 45 quarter hours qualifies for elementary provisional certificate, valid for 4 years.
For secondary teaching: 2 college quarters or 6 months (27-29
quarter hours including 12 in student teaching and 1 in exploratory experience gained in 2 weeks prior to college classes
and a subsequent 1-month seminar) qualify for Ohio high
school provisional certificate valid for 4 years. Certificates
are renewable upon successful teaching in the classroom.
For elementary teaching: 11-week summer session taking elementary education courses qualifies for paid teaching on
temporary certificate. During second semester supervision of
teaching and an evening or Saturday seminar required; in 2
additional summer sessions can complete the 31 semester hours
required for regular 4-year provisional certificate and master's
degree in education.
For elementary teaching: 2 semesters of 15 semester hours each
including 6 semester hours of student teaching, qualify for
4-year provisional certificate.

Programs

that prepare

Institution; faculty member to
consult; date program started—

mature women college graduates to meet
requirements for teaching—Continued
Minimum qualifications for
entrance

State

certification

Nature of program

Ohio—Continued
Fenn College, Cleveland 15, Ohio;
Dr. John C. Matthews, Chairman,
Department of Education; began
September 1953.

Bachelor's degree (not too specialized); candidates over 45
years of age discouraged because
of difficulty of placing.

Kent State University, Kent, Ohio;
Dr. C. M. Schindler, Associate
Dean, College of Education; began
spring, 1952.

Bachelor's degree with broad range
of undergraduate work and average or better grades; competency
in English; desirable personal
characteristics.

Miami University, Oxford, Ohio;
Dr. E. V. Thesken, Director, Division of Extension and Summer Session; began September 1954.

Bachelor's degree

Muskingum College, New Concord,
Ohio; Dr. Glenn L. McConagha,
Administrative Vice President; began 1952.

Bachelor's degree

Ohio State University, Columbus,
Ohio; Dr. Donald P. Coltrell, Dean,
College of Education; began 1953.

Bachelor's degree without prior
professional education courses.




For elementary teaching: 12 semester hours (including required
courses in elementary education) qualify for paid teaching on
1-year temporary certificate renewable annually if candidate
completes at least 6 semester hours each year until the 28
required for standard certificate are completed.
For elementary teaching: 20 quarter hours earned in a quarter or
intensive 10-week summer session qualify for paid teaching on
a temporary certificate. A year's successful experience under
supervision of the college with accompanying seminars plus a
final quarter or summer session completes the 46 credits required
for a 4-year provisional elementary certificate.
For elementary teaching: 12 semester hours of basic professional
education courses qualify for paid teaching on a temporary
certificate; complete 18 or more semester hours of additional
courses (depending on content of undergraduate work) to
qualify for a 4-year provisional elementary certificate. Classes
arranged for late afternoon and evening in centers at Dayton,
Hamilton, Middletown, Norwood, and Piqua, Ohio.
For elementary teaching: 2 summer sessions of 5% weeks each
(12 sem. hrs.) or fall semester (12 sem. hrs) qualify for paid
teaching on temporary certificate renewable annually as candidate continues study toward the completion of the 30 semester
hours required for 4-year provisional elementary certificate.
For elementary teaching: 1 quarter (19 quarter hours) qualifies
for paid teaching on emergency certificate. An additional full
quarter's work in combination with a practicum (including
observation, participation, practice teaching, and conferences
regarding same) during the first and second year of employment

Ohio University, Athens, Ohio; Dr. F.
N. Hamblin, Dean; began August
1953.

Bachelor's degree with a least 9
hours each in English and
natural sciences; 18 in social
sciences; 2 in general psychology.

University of Akron, Akron 4, Ohio;
Dr. Howard R. Evans, Dean of
Education; began June 1952.

Bachelor's degree with good general education background.

University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati
21, Ohio; Dr. Ralph L. Pounds,
Assistant to the Dean of Undergraduate Studies; began 1950.

Bachelor of arts degree.

University of Dayton, Dayton 9,
Ohio; Dr. Louis J. Faerber, Head,
Division of Education; began June
1953.

Bachelor's degree with recommendation by dean; 35 years of age
or under; suitability for teaching as determined by an interviewing board.

University of Toledo, Toledo 6, Ohio;
Dr. Lewie W. Burnett, Dean, College of Education; began fall 1956.

Bachelor's degree




completes the 55 quarter hours required for the standard 4-year
provisional certificate.
For elementary teaching: Must complete 30 semester hours of
required courses for regular 4-year provisional certificate but
can begin paid teaching after 12 semester hours of specified
courses offered at this University or one of its branches, some
available by correspondence.
For secondary teaching: Must complete 17 hours of required education courses for regular 4-year provisional certificate but may
begin paid teaching on temporary certificate after several hours
of required courses, with concurrence of Ohio State Department
of Education.
For elementary teaching: 12 semester hours in summer session
qualify for paid teaching on temporary certificate renewable as
candidate continues evening or summer sessions and supervised
teaching experience to complete the 32 or more hours required
for B. S. degree in education (depending on undergraduate
courses taken) and regular 4-year provisional elementary
certificate.
For elementary teaching: Intensive summer session (12 credits)
qualifies for paid teaching on emergency certificate. The
remaining credits required for standard 4-year elementary
certificate may be completed over a 3-year period while
teaching.
For elementary teaching: 12-week intensive summer session
including laboratory experience in Dayton public schools (12
credits) qualifies for paid teaching on temporary elementary
certificate. Evening and Saturday morning sessions for 2
semesters (12 credits) and an additional 6-week summer
session (6 credits) qualify for the standard 4-year provisional
elementary teaching certificate.
For elementary teaching: 1 semester or summer session on
campus (12-15 sem. hrs.) followed by paid teaching in elementary school on temporary certificate under college supervision;
courses taken evenings and/or during following semester or in
summers to complete the 30-32 semester hours required for
4-year provisional elementary certificate.

Programs

that prepare

Institution; faculty member to
consult; date program started—

mature women college graduates to meet
requirements for teaching—Continued
Minimum qualifications for
entrance

State

certification

Nature of program

Ohio—Continued
Western Reserve University, Cleveland 6, Ohio; Dr. Clifford L. Bush,
Chairman, Department of Education; began April 1953.

Bachelor of arts degree with at
least a " C plus" average; recommendation of a public school
superintendent interested in employing candidate.

Wittenberg College, Springfield, Ohio;
Dr. W. C. Nystrom, Dean of the
College; began 1953.

Bachelor of arts or science degree. .

Youngstown University, Youngstown
2, Ohio; Dr. George M . Wilcox,
Head, Department of Education;
began May 1952.

Bachelor's degree and usual personal and scholastic requirements for admission to Department of Education.

Oregon
Eastern Oregon College of Education,
La Grande, Oreg.; Dr. John M .
Miller, Director of Education;
began January 1956.




Bachelor's degree; no age requirement, but no one employed
over 65.

For elementary teaching: Completion of 2 summer sessions
(6-week and 5-week) of required elementary education courses
(12 sem. hrs.) qualifies for paid teaching on temporary certificate
during which candidate continues late afternoon, evening, or
summer courses until she has completed 33-semester-hour
program and passed the master's comprehensive examination
qualifying for master of arts in education and regular 4-year
provisional teaching certificate.
For elementary teaching: 12 semester hours of specified elementary education courses (taken in the summer by completing
the 2 sessions offered each summer or in 34 weeks of night
school) qualify for paid teaching on temporary certificate
renewable annually if candidate takes 6 additional semester
hours of work and is recommended by the superintendent of
schools where employed. Completion of 30 semester hours
required for full certification and B. S. in education if other
institutional requirements are met.
For elementary teaching: 12 semester hours of required courses,
which may be taken in 1 semester, qualify for paid teaching
on temporary certificate, renewable as candidate continues
evening or summer classes and completes 30 semester hours
required for standard 4-year provisional elementary certificate.
For elementary teaching: 1 term or summer session (12 quarter
hours including 3 in supervised teaching) qualifies for elementary emergency certificate valid for 4 years. Paid teaching
thereafter while completing the 45 quarter credits or approxi-

Oregon State College, Corvallis, Oreg.;
Dr. Franklin R. Zeran, Dean, School
of Education; began July 1, 1956.

Bachelor's degree and desire to
teach in elementary schools in
Oregon.

Southern Oregon College of Education, Ashland, Oreg.; Dr. Elmo N.
Stevenson, President; began 1950.

Bachelor's degree.

University of Oregon, Eugene, Oreg.;
Dr. Paul E. Kambly, School of
Education; began September 1955.

Bachelor's degree.

mately 3 terms (the exact number of necessary hours depends
on undergraduate work) for standard elementary certificate.
For elementary teaching: 12 quarter hours of specified courses in
elementary teacher preparation including 3 quarter hours of
elementary supervised teaching qualify for paid teaching on
emergency elementary certificate. For a regular certificate,
candidate must complete 12 or more (depending on undergraduate training) additional hours in education courses.
For elementary teaching: 1 summer session or 1 term of 12
quarter hours of specified elementary education courses qualifies for paid teaching on emergency certificate valid for 4 years,
during which candidate can complete the additional 15 quarter
hours required for standard elementary certificate.
For elementary teaching: A 3-month term (17 quarter hours of
elementary teacher preparation including specified work in
child growth and development and methods of elementary
education) leads to paid teaching on regular certificate.

Pennsylvania
Temple University,** Philadelphia 22,
Pa.; Dr. Joseph Butterweck, Director, Experimental Program in
Teacher Education; began summer
1954.

Bachelor's degree without previous
professional training in education; potentiality for success at
teaching as assessed by examinations and interviews.

For secondary teaching: 6-week orientation course (7 credits)
followed by a weekly seminar and paid teaching in junior or
senior high school as a member of a team (whose other 2 or 3
members are experienced successful teachers who instruct same
3 or 4 groups of pupils in their respective fields). Team members meet 2 periods a week and also receive help from project
supervisor. At end of third year, Pennsylvania College provisional certificate is granted as well as master's degree. Financed
by Fund for the Advancement of Education which provides
for evaluation through study of a control group of beginning
teachers with usual preparation for certificate.

Bachelor's degree with at least 2
years of liberal arts.

For elementary teaching: 1 summer session (6 sem. hrs.) and 1
full year (30 sem. hrs., including a semester—12 sem. hrs.—
of student teaching on half pay) qualify for provisional elementary certificate valid for 3 years. A professional certificate
valid for 5 years is issued following 3 years of successful experience on provisional certificate.

Rhode Island
Rhode Island College of Education,
Providence, R. I.; Dr. Fred J.
Donovan, Vice President; began
summer 1954.

"Cooperating colleges in Pennsylvania are: Albright, Reading, Pa.; Franklin and Marshall, Lancaster, Pa.: Lebanon Valley, Annville, Pa.; Muhlenberg, Allentown, Pa.; and
Ur sinus, Collegeville, Pa.




Programs

that prepare

Institution; faculty member to
consult; date program started—

mature women college graduates to meet
requirements for teaching—Continued
Minimum qualifications for
entrance

State

certification

Nature of program

Utah
University of Utah, Salt Lake City,
Utah; Dr. Sam McLaughlin, Head,
Department of Elementary Education; began summer 1956.

Bachelor's degree with superior
undergraduate record; suitability for teaching.

For elementary teaching: 3 quarters of work, beginning in summer or autumn quarter ana including student teaching in third
quarter supply the 49 quarter hours needed for standard elementary certificate. Classes scheduled late afternoons, evenings, and Saturdays to make it possible for housewives and those
employed in business to attend.

Bachelor's degree

For elementary teaching: 6-week summer program earning 3
semester hours credit, qualifies for provisional certificate, valid
for 1 year. Candidate is expected to continue work toward
standard certificate, the amount of which depends on past
experience. Concurrent enrollment in Developmental Reading, 3 semester hours credit, is required.

Bachelor's degree with major in
field in which candidate wishes
to teach and 70 hours in other
fields appropriately distributed;
undergraduate cumulative average of at least " C plus."

For elementary and secondary teaching: 2 semesters, consisting
of a coordinated study of phases of teacher education, planned
to meet specific needs of candidates to prepare them for certification in the State in which they plan to teach and for M . A. in
education. Financial assistance provided during the initial
experimental phase of the program by the Fund for the Advancement of Education.

Vermont
University of Vermont, Burlington,
Vt.; Dr. Earl A. Koile, Director,
Summer Session; began 1951.

Virginia
Hampton Institute, Hampton, Va.;
Dr. William H. Martin, Dean of
Faculty; began September 1956.




Washington
Gonzaga University, Spokane, Wash.;
Rev. John P. Leary, S. J., Dean of
Education; began January 1956.

Bachelor's degree or the equivalent
of 4-year college status.

Whitworth College, Spokane, Wash.;
Dr. John A. LaCoste, Chairman,
Department of Education; began
February 1956.

Bachelor's degree with a minimum of 16 hours in 2 subject
areas commonly taught in elementary schools; 28-48 years of
age; interested in public school
teaching position.

For elementary teaching: 5 weeks (6 sem. credits) of concentrated
class work followed by 9 weeks of practice teaching and one
month of study (6 sem. credits) followed by 6 credit hours of
summer work qualify for paid teaching on a provisional general
certificate, renewable for 4 years if teaching is satisfactory and
work is continued to complete 20 additional hours required for
standard general certificate.
For elementary and secondary teaching: Candidate takes 11
semester hours classwork followed by 6 weeks (6 sem. hrs.) of
student teaching; then is a paid teacher on a temporary certificate for 1 year. An additional 9 semester hours in summer
school qualify for provisional general certificate, renewable for
4 years if teaching is satisfactory and she continues work for
standard general certificate which requires 20 additional semester hours and 1 year of service on provisional certificate.
During teacher shortage, college pays one-half the tuition up
to $100 for candidates who will teach in public schools in
Washington.

Wyoming
University of Wyoming, Laramie,
Wyo.; Dr. Harlan Bryant, Dean,
College of Education; began—date
not available.




Bachelor's degree.

For elementary and secondary teaching: Summer session (10
sem. hrs.) qualifies for paid teaching on provisional certificate.
Extension courses make it possible to complete the 20 semester
hours of course work usually required for full certification.
x4dditional courses sometimes necessary to make up undergraduate deficiencies.





Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, One Federal Reserve Bank Plaza, St. Louis, MO 63102