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Z. 3-3? 33SS

Working Women
A Chartbook
U.S. Department of Labor
Bureau of Labor Statistics
August 1991

Bulletin 2385







Working Women:
A Chartbook
U.S. Department of Labor
Lynn Martin, Secretary
Bureau of Labor Statistics
Janet L. Norwood, Commissioner
August 1991

Bulletin 2385







ii

Foreword
Today, more women—and mothers—are in the labor force than ever before. Women make up

significant proportions of workers in a broad and growing range of occupations and industries.
They are staying in the labor force longer and are earning more than ever before.

Asa primary source of data on women in the labor market, the Bureau of Labor Statistics has
been tracking the profound changes in women’s labor force participation for the past three decades.

During this time, the Bureau has published many reports and introduced several new data series
that have helped measure different aspects of women’s labor force participation, the progress

they have made, and the problems they face.
As the 20th century nears its end, it is appropriate to take stock of the status of working women.
With pictures, words, and numbers, this chartbook summarizes the main characteristics of women

in the labor market today and the changes that have occurred in the recent past. And, it provides

us with a reference point from which we can observe and analyze the changes in the economic

role of women that the approaching century is sure to bring.

Janet L. Norwood
Commisioner of Labor Statistics




iii




Preface
This chartbook presents an array of data on women in the labor force, highlighting their labor
market status today and its changes over the past three decades. It is the latest of several databooks
and chartbooks on women issued by the Bureau of Labor Statistics.

The chartbook is divided into four sections. The first summarizes the current labor market
situation of women and the major trends in their labor force activity over the past 30 years. The

second section examines the employment characteristics of women, including their occupational

patterns and earnings. The third section focuses on unemployment, and the fourth provides a
glimpse of the family dimension of their labor force participation.
A special feature of this chartbook is that each chart has a companion table that can be found
in appendix A. These tables were designed to supplement the information contained in the charts,

helping to place them in a broader social and economic context. Appendix B provides informa­
tion about the sources of the data for the charts and tables and definitions of basic labor force
concepts. Appendix C lists several additional BLS sources on women.

This chartbook was prepared in the Division of Labor Force Statistics, Office of Employment

and Unemployment Statistics, by Howard V. Hayghe and Stella W. Cromartie under the direc­
tion of Harvey R. Hamel. Valuable assistance was provided by the staffs of the Data Users and

Publications Services Group and the Data Development Staff, also of the Office of Employment

and Unemployment Statistics. Keith Tapscott of the Division of Production Services, Office of

Publications, was responsible for the overall design of the publication.
i
Material in this publication is in the public domain and may, with appropriate credit, be reproduced
vithout permission.




v

Contents




Page

Section I:

Overview and trends ................................................................................. 1

Chart 1.

Selected labor force indicators for women, 1990 annual averages .... 2

Chart 2.

Labor force participation rates of adult women and men,
seasonally adjusted, 1960-90 ...................................................................... 4

Chart 3.

Labor force participation rates of women and men by age, 1960
and 1990 annual averages.......................................................................... 6

Chart 4.

Labor force participation rates of adult women by race and
Hispanic origin, 1973-90 annual averages.............................................. 8

Chart 5.

Labor force participation rates of women in nine industrialized
countries, 1990 annual averages...........................................................

10

Section II:

Employment.......................................................................................

11

Chart 6.

Employment growth among women and all civilian workers,
1960-90 annual averages........................................................................

12

Employed adult women by full- or part-time status, 1990 annual
averages......................................................................................................

14

Occupational distribution of employed women, 1990 annual
averages.......................................................................................................

16

Women as a proportion of total employed persons in selected
occupations, 1972 and 1990 annual averages.....................................

18

Women as a proportion of wage and salary workers on nonfarm
payrolls by industry, 1990 annual averages.......................................

20

Ratio of women’s-to-men’s median weekly earnings for full-time
wage and salary workers by age, 1979 and 1990 annual
averages.......................................................................................................

22

Section III:

Unemployment.................................................................................

23

Chart 12.

Unemployment rates for adult women and men, seasonally
adjusted, 1960-90 .....................................................................................

24

Chart 13.

Unemployment rates for women by age, 1990 annual averages ....

26

Chart 14.

Unemployment rates for women by race and Hispanic origin,
1990 annual averages...............................................................................

28

Unemployment rates for women by household relationship,
1990 annual averages...............................................................................

30

Chart 7.

Chart 8.

Chart 9.

Chart 10.

Chart 11.

Chart 15.

vi

Contents—Continued




Section IV:

Family aspects.................................................................................

31

Chart 16.

Labor force status of women 25 to 54 years, 1962 and 1990
annual averages.........................................................................................

32

Percent of married-couple families with both husband and wife
in the labor force, March, selected years, 1960-90.........................

34

Labor force participation rates of mothers by age of youngest
child, March 1975 and March 1990 ....................................................

36

A. Supplementary tables...........................................................................................
B. Sources and concepts...........................................................................................
C. Where to find additional BLS data on women ................................................

37
51
53

Chart 17.

Chart 18.

Appendixes:

Section I: Overview and Trends

Women play an important role in
the labor market




• Women accounted for 45 percent of
both the employed and unemployed
in the United States in 1990. Of all
full-time workers—that is, persons
who work 35 hours or more a
week—41 percent are women.

• A little over half the workers in
professional specialty occupations are
women, as are 40 percent of those
in managerial jobs.

• About 4 out of 5 workers in
administrative support jobs (clerical,
secretarial, etc.) are women.

Chart 1.
Selected labor force indicators
for women, 1990 annual
averages




Women as a proportion of...

2

Adult women’s labor force
participation has risen
dramatically




• The proportion of adult women (20
years old and over) working or
looking for work rose from about 38
percent in 1960 to nearly 60 percent
in 1990. Over the same period, the
participation rate for men, while
remaining above that for women, has
declined.

• As a result, the gap between adult
men’s and women’s labor force
participation rates has narrowed
substantially. In 1960, there was a
46 percentage-point difference
between the two groups; in 1990, it
was just 20 points.

• During the 1980’s, the number of
adult women in the labor force grew
by about 1.2 million a year, on
average, as the post-World
War II baby-boom generation
completed its entry into the labor
force. This rate of growth has
slowed somewhat since mid-1990,
partly because of the recent
recession’s effect on job oppor­
tunities. However, even after the
current recession ends, it is
anticipated that labor force growth
among women will continue to be
slower than in recent decades,
because fewer will be entering the
age groups where labor force
participation is highest.

3

SESFdgSSHS
Chart 2.
Labor force participation rates of
adult women and men, seasonally
adjusted, 1960-90




Percent

Percent

1960

1965

1970

1975

NOTE: Shaded areas represent recessions.

4

1980

1985

1990

The pattern of women’s labor
force participation rates by age
is becoming more like men’s




• In 1960, the impact of marriage and
motherhood on the labor force
participation rates of women was
strikingly evident. The participation
rate reached its initial peak among
women ages 20 to 24, dropped
sharply for those 25 to 34, rose to a
second, higher peak for women ages
45 to 54, and then gradually
declined, assuming the classic letterM shape.

• Reflecting the profound changes in
women’s roles that have taken place
in our society, this pattern was no
longer evident in 1990. Instead,
women’s labor force participation rate
pattern has now come to resemble
men’s (an inverted letter U).

5

Chart 3.
Labor force participation rates of
women and men by age, 1960
and 1990 annual averages




Percent

Percent
100

100

90

90

80

80

70-

70

60

60

50

50

40

40

30-

30

20-

-20

10-

10

16
to
19

20
to
24

25
to
34

35
to
44
Age

6

45
to
54

55
to
64

65
and
over

White women are now almost as
likely to be in the labor force as
black women




• Over the last two decades, the
historical gap between the labor
force participation rates for adult
white women and black women
nearly closed. In 1973, 44 percent of
white women were labor force
participants, compared with 52
percent of black women. By 1990,
these proportions had grown to 58
and 60 percent, respectively.

• The labor force participation rate of
Hispanic women also rose on a
sustained basis during the 1970’s and
1980’s. However, they remain less
likely than their white or black
counterparts to be in the labor force.

7

Chart 4.
Labor force participation rates of
adult women by race and
Hispanic origin, 1973-90
annual averages




Percent

Percent

American women are among the
most likely to be labor force
participants




• In 1990, U.S. women ranked near
the top among those in nine indus­
trialized countries in the extent of
their labor force participation; only
Swedish and Canadian women were
more likely to be in the labor force.
Over the past two decades, the
participation-rate gap between U.S.
and Swedish women narrowed.
During the same period, the rate for
Canadian women grew rapidly and
now surpasses that of U.S. women
by a narrow margin.

• Other countries that have shown
notable gains in women’s labor force
participation since 1970 include
Australia, the United Kingdom, and
the Netherlands.

• Only about 30 percent of Italian
women were in the labor force in
1990, the smallest proportion of the
nine countries for which data were
available.

9

Chart 5.
Labor force participation rates of
women in nine industrialized
countries, 1990 annual averages




NOTE: Data for the Netherlands are for 1988, the latest available.
10

Section II: Employment

The number of employed women
more than doubled over the past
three decades




• In the past three decades, the
number of employed women more
than doubled, rising from 21.9
million in 1960 to 53.5 million by
1990. They accounted for 60 percent
of the total increase in employment
over the period, as their share of
employment grew from 33 to 45
percent.

• As the post-World War II babyboom generation matured, the
number of employed women ages 25
to 34 nearly quadrupled, rising from
3.9 million in 1960 to 15.1 million
in 1990. Employment growth among
women 35 to 44 years old was also
substantial, from 5 million to 14
million.

11

Chart 6.
Employment growth among
women and all civilian workers,
1960-90 annual averages




Millions

1960

Millions

1964

1968

12

1972

1976

1980

1984

1988

Three out of four employed adult
women work full time




• In 1990, 77 percent of employed
adult women (20 years and over)
worked full time, that is, 35 hours
or more a week. Moreover, about
80 percent of those who were
unemployed were looking for full­
time jobs. Among adult men, 93
percent of the employed were full­
time workers and an equal pro­
portion of the unemployed were
looking for full-time work.

• Although the proportion of adult
women who were full-time workers
has varied little over time, their
number has nearly doubled since
1970.

• More and more, women are working
all year at full-time jobs. Between
1970 and 1989—the latest year for
which such data are available—the
proportion of employed women who
worked year round, full time, rose
10 percentage points to 51 percent.

13

Chart 7.
Employed adult women by fullor part-time status, 1990 annual
averages




14

Despite sharp growth in the
number of women employed in
professional occupations,
significant proportions still work
in clerical and service jobs.




• In 1990, about 59 percent of
employed women worked in just
three broad occupational groups—
sales, administrative support
(clerical), and services. Eighteen
years earlier, the proportion was 64
percent.

• Over the same period, women made
important gains in managerial and
professional occupations. The
proportion working in executive,
administrative, or managerial
occupations increased from 5 percent
in 1972 to 11 percent in 1990, while
the proportion in professional
specialty occupations rose from 12 to
15 percent.

15

Chart 8.
Occupational distribution of
employed women, 1990 annual
averages

Percent
100 n

Executive, administrative,
and managerial

90 -

Professional specialty

80-

Technicians and related support

70 -

Sales

60 -

50Administrative support,
including clerical

40 -

30 -

20-

Services

10-

Precision production, craft, and repair
Operators, fabricators, and laborers

Farming, forestry, and fishing

0J




16

Women’s share of employment
is growing in many
nontraditional occupations




• Between 1972 and 1990, the
proportion of lawyers who were
women rose dramatically, from only
4 percent to 21 percent. In 1990,
19 percent of physicians were
women, nearly double their 1972
proportion.

• Substantial gains in women’s share
of employment also occurred in
other occupations where they had
long been underrepresented. For
instance, 56 percent of bartenders
were women in 1990, double the
proportion in 1972. Over the same
period, their proportion of bus
drivers increased from 34 to 52
percent.

• While women rapidly entered many
occupations previously dominated by
men, men did not enter the so-called
traditional “women’s” occupations
in significant numbers. Thus, job
categories such as nursing or
secretarial work remained
overwhelmingly female.

17

Chart 9.
Women as a proportion of total
employed persons in selected
occupations, 1972 and 1990
annual averages




18

Women work in all
sectors of the economy




• Women make up the majority of
employees in a broad range of major
industry groups. For instance, a little
over half the employees in retail
trade and government are women, as
are about three-fifths of those in
finance, insurance, and real estate,
and services.

• At the other end of the spectrum,
women account for only 11 percent
of the employees in construction and
14 percent of those in mining.

• Among specific industries, women
account for about three-fourths of
the workers employed in apparel and
accessory stores and in hospitals and
other health services.

19

Chart 10.
Women as a proportion of wage
and salary workers on nonfarm
payrolls by industry, 1990 annual
averages




100

20

Women’s weekly earnings now
average 72 percent of men’s




• In 1979, women working full time in
wage and salary jobs had median
weekly earnings that were 63 percent
of men’s. By 1990, the ratio had
risen to 72 percent.

• Increases in the women’s-to-men’s
earnings ratio have occurred across
all age groups but have been greatest
for younger women. For example, in
1979, the ratio among 16- to 24year-olds was 79 percent; by 1990,
it had risen to 90 percent. For 25- to
34-year-old women, median earnings
rose from 67 percent of men’s to 79
percent.

• Studies have shown that the gap in
women’s-to-men’s earnings is largely
determined by differences in
occupational employment.
Differences in the years of work
experience and the number of hours
usually worked also contribute to the
gap. Discrimination in labor market
practices may also play a role,
although it is very difficult to
measure its specific effect on the
overall earnings of large population
groups.

21

Chart 11.
Ratio of women’s-to-men’s
median weekly earnings for full­
time wage and salary workers by
age, 1979 and 1990 annual
averages




and
over

24

22

34
A
Age

44

54

and
over

Section III: Unemployment

Unemployment rates for adult
women and men are not very
different




• In the 1960’s and 1970’s, the
unemployment rate for adult women
(20 years and over) was typically
higher than that for adult men. Over
those two decades, that difference
averaged 1.3 percentage points.

• During much of the 1980’s, how­
ever, the jobless rates for adult men
and women were much more
similar, as women’s labor market
activity became less intermittent.

• The 1990-91 recession caused
increased unemployment among both
women and men, but the increase
was sharper among men. In the first
quarter of 1991, the unemployment
rate for adult women was 5.5
percent, compared with 6.1 percent
for adult men.

23

Chart 12.
Unemployment rates for adult
women and men, seasonally
adjusted, 1960-90




NOTE: Shaded areas represent recessions.

24

Older women are less likely to
be unemployed




• Teenagers and young adults are far
more likely than older persons to be
unemployed. In 1990, the unemploy­
ment rate for 16- to 19-year-old
women was 14.7 percent, and for
20- to 24-year olds, it was 8.5
percent. In contrast, for more mature
women, those 55 to 64 years old,
the rate was just 2.8 percent.

• Differences in unemployment rates
between women and men are most
pronounced among teenagers, with
the 1990 rate for teenage males 1.6
percentage points higher than for
teenage females. The difference
narrowed to only six-tenths of a
percentage point among young
adults, and for those in the central
age group (25 to 54), jobless rates
were the same.

25

Chart 13.
Unemployment rates for women
by age, 1990 annual averages




over
Age

26

Black women are more likely
than either white or Hispanic
women to be unemployed




• Overall, black women are more than
twice as likely to be unemployed as
white women. In 1990, the
unemployment rate for black women
was 10.8 percent, while that for
white women was 4.6 percent. For
Hispanic women, the rate was 8.3
percent, about halfway between the
rates for white and black women.

• The significantly higher unemploy­
ment rates for black women are
evident across all age groups. For
black teenage girls, the unemploy­
ment rate was 30 percent, more than
twice that of white teenagers, and
half again as large as that of
Hispanic teens. Even among women
25 to 54, the black-to-white ratio
was more than 2 to 1.

27

Chart 14.
Unemployment rates for women
by race and Hispanic origin,
1990 annual averages




Percent

Percent

20 i

r 20

16 -

16

12 -

12

8

4

White

28

Black

Hispanic
origin

Women maintaining families are
twice as likely as wives to be
unemployed




• In 1990, women maintaining families
(no spouse present) had an unem­
ployment rate of 8.2 percent.
This was over twice the 3.6-percent
rate for wives and more than three
times the 2.3-percent rate for women
living alone.

• Contributing to the high unemploy­
ment rate for these women is the
fact that about a third were under 35
years old, and one-fourth had
preschool children, whose care often
conflicted with the demands of the job
market, especially when there was no
other parent present to share in the
responsibility, Moreover, a dis­
proportionately large share of the
total was black.

29

Chart 15.
Unemployment rates for women
by household relationship, 1990
annual averages




Percent

Percent

r 20

20 i

16

12

12-

8

-4

Women
who
maintain
families

Wives

30

Women
living
alone

Women
living
with
nonrelatives

Section IV: Family aspects

With increasing labor force
participation, fewer women fill
the traditional full-time
housekeeping role




• In 1962, the majority of women 25
to 54 years old were keeping house
full time. Just 43 percent were
working or looking for work outside
their homes.

• These figures have changed
dramatically as women’s role in
society has changed. By 1990, about
74 percent of women 25 to 54 years
old were in the labor force, and only
about 21 percent were full-time
homemakers.

31

Chart 16.
Labor force status for women 25
to 54 years, 1962 and 1990
annual averages




Others
not
in labor
force

1962

Others
not
in labor
force

1990

32

Dual-worker couples make up
over half of all married-couple
families




• Over the last three decades, the
proportion of married-couple families
where both spouses were in the
labor force almost doubled. In 1960,
28 percent of married-couple
families were dual-worker couples;
by 1990, the proportion was 54
percent.

• Over the same period, the proportion
of “traditional” families in which
the husband, but not the wife, was
in the labor force shrank from 61
percent of all married couples to just
25 percent. This was not entirely a
result of expanding labor force
activity of wives, as the proportion
of families where neither spouse was
in the labor force grew from 9 to 17
percent.

• The growth in the number and
proportion of dual-worker couples
has had a significant impact on many
areas of family life, especially
childcare. Since 1970, the proportion
of children in two-parent families
where both parents were in the labor
force grew from 36 to 61 percent.

33

Chart 17.
Percent of married-couple
families with both husband and
wife in the labor force, March,
selected years, 1960-90




34

More than half of mothers with
children under 2 years old are in
the labor force




• Today, the majority of mothers are
in the labor force. Their labor force
participation rates range from about
75 percent for those whose youngest
child is of school age, to 52 per­
cent for those with children under 2.

• Up until the mid-1980’s, married
mothers with children under 2 years
old were less likely than single­
parent mothers of very young
children—who were frequently the
sole support of their families—to be
labor force participants. Today,
however, the situation is reversed,
and married mothers are more likely
to be in the labor force.

35

Chart 18.
Labor force participation rates of
mothers by age of youngest
child, March 1975 and March
1990




Age of child

36

Appendix A. Supplementary Tables




37

Table A-1. Labor force status and occupation of the employed by sex, 1990 annua! averages
(Numbers in thousands)

Women
Characteristic

Total

Men

Number

Percent
of
total

Number

Percent
of
total

188,049
124,787
117,914
97,994
6,874
63,262

98,399
56,554
53,479
40,011
3,075
41,845

52.3
45 3
45 4
40.8
44 7
66 1

89 650
68 234
64 435
54,982
3 799
21,417

47.7
54.7
54 6
59.2
55 3
33 9

14,839
15,818
3,842
14,191
18,641
15,759
13,641
17,775
3,408

5,943
8,095
1,888
6,983
14,870
9,470
1,159
4,526
544

40.0
51 2
49.1
49 2
79.8
60.1
8.5
25.5
16.0

8,897
7 723
1,954
7 208
3,771
6,288
12,482
13,249
2,864

60.0
48 8
50.9
50 8
20.2
39.9
91.5
74.5
84.0

LABOR FORCE STATUS

Civilian noninstitutional population ........................................................
Civilian labor force................................................................................
Employed ..........................................................................................
Full-time workers.............................................................................
Unemployed........................................................................................
Not in labor force ...............................................................................
OCCUPATION

Executive, administrative, and managerial...........................................
Professional specialty ............................................................................
Technicians and related support...........................................................
Sales occupations ...................................................................................
Administrative support, including clerical .............................................
Service occupations................................................................................
Precision production, craft, and repair..................................................
Operators, fabricators, and laborers.....................................................
Farming, forestry, and fishing ................................................................




38

Table A-2. Civilian labor force participation rates of all persons, teenagers, and adults by sex, 1960-90
annual averages
(Percent of population in labor force)

Men

Women

Year

Total,
16 years and
over

16 to 19
years

20 years
and over

Total,
16 years and
over

16 to 19
years

20 years
and over

1960 ................................
1961 .................................
1962................................
1963 .................................
1964................................
1965 ................................
1966 ................................
1967 ................................
1968 ................................
1969 ................................

37.7
38.1
37.9
38.3
38.7
39.3
40.3
41.1
41.6
42.7

39.3
39.7
39.0
38.0
37.0
38.0
41.4
41.6
41.9
43.2

37.6
38.0
37.8
38.3
38.9
39.4
40.1
41.1
41.6
42.7

83.3
82.9
82.0
81.4
81.0
80.7
80.4
80.4
80.1
79.8

56.1
54.6
53.8
52.9
52.4
53.8
55.3
55.6
55.1
55.9

86.0
85.7
84.8
84.4
84.2
83.9
83.6
83.4
83.1
82.8

1970
1971
1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979

................................
................................
................................
.................................
.................................
.................................
................................
.................................
................................
................................

43.3
43.4
43.9
44.7
45.7
46.3
47.3
48.4
50.0
50.9

44.0
43.4
45.8
47.8
49.1
49.1
49.8
51.2
53.7
54.2

43.3
43.3
43.7
44.4
45.3
46.0
47.0
48.1
49.6
50.6

79.7
79.1
78.9
78.8
78.7
77.9
77.5
77.7
77.9
77.8

56.1
56.1
58.1
59.7
60.7
59.1
59.3
60.9
62.0
61.5

82 6
82.1
81.6
81.3
81.0
80.3
79.8
79.7
79.8
79.8

1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989

................................
................................
................................
................................
................................
................................
................................
................................
................................
................................

51.5
52.1
52.6
52.9
53.6
54.5
55.3
56.0
56.6
57.4

52.9
51.8
51.4
50.8
51.8
52.1
53.0
53.3
53.6
53.9

51.3
52.1
52.7
53.1
53.7
54.7
55.5
56.2
56.8
57.7

77.4
77.0
76.6
76.4
76.4
76.3
76.3
76.2
76.2
76.4

60.5
59.0
56.7
56.2
56.0
56.8
56.4
56.1
56.9
57.9

79.4
79.0
78.7
78.5
78.3
78.1
78.1
78.0
77.9
78.1

1990 .................................

57.5

51.8

57.9

76.1

55.7

77.8

Table A-3. Civilian labor force participation rates by age and sex, 1960 and
1990 annual averages
(Percent of population in labor force)

Women

Men

Age

16
20
25
35
45
55
65

Total 16 years and over .................
to 19 years.......................................
to 24 years.......................................
to 34 years.......................................
to 44 years.......................................
to 54 years.......................................
to 64 years.......................................
years and over ................................




1960

1990

1960

1990

37.7
39.3
46.1
36.0
43.4
49.9
37.2
10.8

57.5
51.8
71.6
73.6
76.5
71.2
45.3
8.7

83.3
56.1
88.1
97.5
97.7
95.7
86.8
33.1

76.1
55.7
84.3
94.2
94.4
90.7
67.7
16.4

39

Table A-4. Civilian labor force participation rates of persons 20 years and over by sex,
race, and Hispanic origin, 1973-90 annual averages
(Percent of population in labor force)

Women, 20 years and over
Year

Men, 20 years and over

White

Black

Hispanic
origin

White

Black

Hispanic
origin

1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979

43.5
44.4
45.3
46.2
47.3
48.7
49.8

51.6
51.4
51.1
52.5
53.6
55.5
55.4

41.3
42.7
43.8
44.6
45.1
47.2
48.0

81.6
81.4
80.7
80.3
80.2
80.1
80.1

78.4
77.6
76.0
75.4
75.6
76.2
76.3

85.9
86.0
85.5
84.2
84.8
84.9
85.3

1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989

50.6
51.5
52.2
52.5
53.1
54.0
54.9
55.6
56.3
57.2

55.6
56.0
56.2
56.8
57.6
58.6
58.9
60.0
60.1
60.6

48.5
49.7
49.3
49.0
50.5
50.6
51.7
53.3
54.2
54.9

79.8
79.5
79.2
78.9
78.7
78.5
78.5
78.4
78.3
78.5

75.1
74.5
74.7
75.2
74.8
74.4
74.8
74.7
74.6
74.4

84.9
84.7
84.0
84.1
84.3
84.0
84.6
84.5
85.0
85.0

1990

57.6

60.0

54.6

78.3

73.8

84.1

NOTE: Data for persons of Hispanic origin,
beginning in 1980, are not strictly comparable with

data for prior years because of revisions in the
estimation procedures.

Table A-5. Civilian labor force participation rates of women in nine industrialized
countries, annual averages, selected years, 1970-90
(Percent of population in labor force)

Country

1970

1975

1980

1985

1990

United States ..............................

43.3

46.3

51.5

54.5

57.5

Australia.......................................

40.4

44.5

45.5

47.0

53.1

Canada.........................................

38.3

44.4

50.4

54.6

58.4

France..........................................

39.8

41.7

44.3

45.5

45.9

Italy...............................................

26.4

26.8

30.1

30.7

32.6

Japan ...........................................

48.7

44.8

46.6

47.6

49.1

Netherlands.................................

(’)

29.5

34.3

38.6

42.2

...................................

50.0

55.2

59.3

61.5

63.9

United Kingdom ..........................

42.2

46.2

47.8

49.6

53.3

Sweden

1 Data not available.
NOTE: Data for 1990 for France, Italy,
Sweden, and the United Kingdom are preliminary;




data for the Netherlands are for 1988, the latest
year available.

40

Table A-6. Employed persons by sex, 1960-90 annual averages
(In thousands)
Year

Total,
16 years and over

Women

Men

1960 ............................................................
1961
........................................................
1962' ...........................................................
1963 ............................................................
1964 ............................................................
1965 ............................................................
1966 ............................................................
1967 ............................................................
1968 ............................................................
1969 ............................................................

65,778
65,746
66,702
67,762
69,305
71,088
72,895
74,372
75,920
77,902

21,874
22,090
22,525
23,105
23,831
24,748
25,976
26,893
27,807
29,084

43,904
43,656
44,177
44,657
45,474
46,340
46,919
47,479
48,114
48,818

1970 ............................................................
1971 ............................................................
1972’ ...........................................................
1973' ...........................................................
1974 ............................................................
1975 ............................................................
1976 ............................................................
1977 ............................................................
1978' ...........................................................
1979 ............................................................

78,678
79,367
82,153
85,064
86,794
85,846
88,752
92,017
96,048
98,824

29,688
29,976
31,257
32,715
33,769
33,989
35,615
37,289
39,569
41,217

48,990
49,390
50,896
52749
53,024
51,857
53,138
54728
56,479
57,607

1980 ............................................................
1981 ............................................................
1982 ............................................................
1983 ............................................................
1984 ............................................................
1985 ............................................................
1986’ ...........................................................
1987 ............................................................
1988 ............................................................
1989 ............................................................

99,303
100,397
99,526
100,834
105,005
107,150
109,597
112,440
114,968
117,342

42,117
43,000
43,256
44,047
45,915
47,259
48,706
50,334
51,696
53,027

57,186
57,397
56,271
56,787
59,091
59,891
60,892
62,107
63,273
64,315

1990 ............................................................

117,914

53,479

64,435

1 Not strictly comparable with prior years
because of revisions in the population levels
and/or estimation procedures used in the




Current Population Survey (CPS). For an
explanation, see the Explanatory Notes of
Employment and Earnings.

41

Table A-7. Employed full- and part-time workers, 20 years and over, by sex, 1968-90 annual averages
(Numbers in thousands)

Employed women, 20 years and over
Full time

Employed men, 20 years and over

Part time

Full time

Part time

Year
Number

Percent
of
total

Total

Number

Percent
of
total

Total
Number

Percent
of
total

Number

Percent
of
total

1968 ...............................................
1969 ...............................................

25,281
26,397

19,600
20,454

77.5
77.5

5,681
5,944

22.5
22.5

44,859
45,388

42,720
43,100

95.2
95.0

2,139
2,288

4.8
5.0

1970 ...............................................
1971 ...............................................
1972’..............................................
1973'..............................................
1974 ...............................................
1975 ...............................................
1976 ...............................................
1977 ...............................................
1978’..............................................
1979 ...............................................

26,952
27,246
28,276
29,484
30,424
30,726
32,226
33,775
35,836
37,434

20,654
20,769
21,536
22,495
23,181
23,242
24,406
25,587
27,326
28,623

76.6
76.2
76.2
76.3
76.2
75.6
75.7
75.8
76.3
76.5

6,297
6,477
6,741
6,991
7,243
7,484
7,820
8,187
8,511
8,812

23.4
23.8
23.8
23.7
23.8
24.4
24.3
24.2
23.7
23.5

45,581
45,912
47,130
48,310
48,922
48,018
49,190
50,555
52,143
53,308

43,138
43,321
44,476
45,637
46,158
45,051
46,175
47,402
49,007
50,174

94 6
94.4
94 4
94.5
94.3
93.8
93 9
93.8
94.0
94 1

2,443
2,591
2,654
2,673
2,765
2,967
3,015
3,152
3,136
3,133

5.4
5.6
5.6
5.5
5.7
6.2
6.1
6.2
6.0
5.9

1980 ...............................................
1981 ...............................................
1982 ...............................................
1983 ...............................................
1984 ...............................................
1985 ...............................................
1986’..............................................
1987 ...............................................
1988 ...............................................
1989 ............................................

38,492
39,590
40,086
41,004
42,793
44,154
45,556
47,074
48,383
49,745

29,391
30,041
30,007
30,680
32,404
33,604
34,812
36,121
37,299
38,408

76.4
75.9
74.9
74.8
75.7
76.1
76.4
76.7
77.1
77.2

9,102
9,549
10,079
10,324
10,388
10,551
10,744
10,953
11,084
11,337

23.6
24.1
25.1
25.2
24.3
23.9
23.6
23.3
22.9
22.8

53,101
53,582
52,891
53,487
55,769
56,562
57,569
58,726
59,781
60,837

49,698
50,092
48,895
49,264
51,624
52,425
53,317
54,381
55,353
56,386

93.6
93.5
92.4
92.1
92.6
92.7
92.6
92.6
92.6
92.7

3,403
3,490
3,996
4,223
4,145
4,137
4,252
4,345
4,427
4,451

6.4
6.5
7.6
7.9
7.4
7.3
7.4
7.4
7.4
7.3

1990 ...............................................

50,455

39,036

77.4

11,419

22.6

61,198

56,640

92.6

4,558

7.4

' Not strictly comparable with prior years because of revisions in the
population levels and/or estimation procedures used in the Current

Population Survey (CPS). For an explanation, see the Explanatory Notes
of Employment and Earnings.

Table A-8. Percent distribution of the employed by occupation and sex, 1972 and 1990 annual
averages
Women

Men

Occupation

1972

1990

1972

1990

Total, 16 years and over (thousands) ..........................................
Percent .............................................................................................

31,257
100.0

53,479
100 0

50,896
100 0

64,435
100 0

Executive, administrative, and managerial..........................................
Professional specialty............................................................................
Technicians and related support..........................................................
Sales occupations..................................................................................
Administrative support, including clerical............................................
Service occupations...............................................................................
Precision production, craft, and repair................................................
Operators, fabricators, and laborers....................................................
Farming, forestry, and fishing...............................................................

4.6
12.4
2.4
11.1
31.5
21.2
1.6
13.4
1.9

11.1
15.1
3.5
13 1
27.8
17.7
2.2
8.5
1.0

11.5
9.7
2.3
10.0
6.4
83
19 4
25.9
6.4

13.8
12.0
3.0
11 2
5.9
98
19 4
20.6
4.4




42

Table A-9. Employed women in selected occupations, 1972 and 1990 annual averages
(Numbers in thousands)
1990

1972
Occupation

Assemblers ........................................................................................
Bartenders
...............................................................................
Bus drivers
...............................................................................
Computer programmers ..................................................................
Lawyers ..............................................................................................
Physicans...........................................................................................
Registered nurses.............................................................................
Secretaries.........................................................................................
Teachers, except college and university ......................................
Telephone installers and repairers................................................
NOTE: Data for 1972 and 1990 are not strictly
comparable due to changes in the occupational

Total
employed

Percent
women

46.8
27.9
34.1
19.9
4.0
10.1
97.6
99.1
70.0
1.9

1,022
202
253
188
305
332
807
2,964
2,852
312

Percent
women

Total
employed

1,130
307
443
594
729
575
1,673
3,956
3,993
193

43.5
55.6
51.6
36.0
20.6
19.3
94.5
99.0
73.7
11.3

classification system beginning in 1983.

Table A-10. Women on nonfarm payrolls by industry, 1990 annual averages
(Numbers in thousands)

Employees
Women

Industry
Total

Number

Percent
total

Total nonfarm .........................................

109,971

52,147

47.4

Total private ..........................................
Mining..................................................
Construction .......................................
Manufacturing....................................
Durable goods................................
Nondurable goods .........................
Transportation and public utilities ....
Wholesale trade................................
Retail trade'........................................
General merchandise stores.......
Food stores .....................................
Apparel and accessory stores .....
Eating and drinking places ...........
Finance, insurance, and real estate
Services1 .............................................
Business services ..........................
Health services................................
Educational services......................
Social services ................................
Government...........................................
Federal ................................................
State ....................................................
Local....................................................

91,649
711
5,136
19,111
11,115
7,995
5,826
6,205
19,683
2,516
3,229
1,178
6,565
6,739
28,240
5,241
7,844
1,652
1,811
18,322
3,085
4,303
10,934

42,423
96
554
6,297
2,969
3,329
1,711
1,903
10,462
1,727
1,640
891
3,659
4,259
17,141
2,493
6,456
934
1,409
9,725
1,258
2,139
6,328

46.3
13.5
10.8
33.0
26.7
41.6
29.4
30.7
53.2
68.6
50.8
75.6
55.7
63.2
60.7
47.6
82.3
56.5
77.8
53.1
40.8
49.7
57.9

1 Includes other industries, not shown separately.




43

Table A-11. Median weekly earnings ratios for full-time wage and salary workers by age, race, and
sex, 1979 and 1990 annual averages
1979

1990

Women

Men

Ratio of
women’s
to
men’s
earnings

S182
154
194
196
199
195
192
187
188
170

$291
196
314
315
295
335
337
305
312
219

62.5
78.6
61.8
62.2
67.5
58.2
57.0
61.3
60.3
77.6

$348
254
370
374
357
391
377
342
348
300

$485
283
514
512
452
563
592
526
545
402

71.8
89.8
72.0
73.0
79.0
69.4
63.7
65.0
63.9
74.6

184
155
197
198
190

298
199
321
322
313

61.7
77.9
61.4
61.5
60.7

355
257
378
382
348

497
287
529
525
554

71.4
89.5
71.5
72.8
62.8

169
144
177
179
159

227
167
245
249
216

74.4
86.2
72.2
71.9
73.6

308
234
320
321
303

360
249
386
387
381

85.6
94.0
82.9
82.9
79.5

Age and race

Women

Men

Ratio of
women’s
to
men’s
earnings

TOTAL

16 years and over.....................................................
16 to 24 years ........................................................
25 years and over..................................................
25 to 54 years .....................................................
25 to 34 years...................................................
35 to 44 years...................................................
45 to 54 years...................................................
55 years and over ...............................................
55 to 64 years...................................................
65 years and over ............................................

White
16 years and over.....................................................
16 to 24 years ........................................................
25 years and over..................................................
25 to 54 years .....................................................
55 years and over ...............................................

Black
16 years and over.....................................................
16 to 24 years ........................................................
25 years and over..................................................
25 to 54 years .....................................................
55 years and over...............................................




44

Table A-12. Unemployment rates of all persons, teenagers, and adults by sex, 1960-90
annual averages
(Percent of labor force that is unemployed)

Men

Women

Year

Total,
16 years
and over

16 to 19
years

20 years
and over

Total,
16 years
and over

16 to 19
years

20 years
and over

1960
1961
1962
1963
1964
1965
1966
1967
1968
1969

................................
................................
................................
................................
................................
.................................
................................
................................
................................
................................

5.9
7.2
6.2
6.5
6.2
5.5
4.8
5.2
4.8
4.7

13.9
16.3
14.6
17.2
16.6
15.7
14.1
13.5
14.0
13.3

5.1
6.3
5.4
5.4
5.2
4.5
3.8
4.2
3.8
3.7

5.4
6.4
5.2
5.2
4.6
4.0
3.2
3.1
2.9
2.8

15.3
17.1
14.7
17.2
15.8
14.1
11.7
12.3
11.6
11.4

4.7
5.7
4.6
4.5
3.9
3.2
2.5
2.3
2.2
2.1

1970
1971
1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979

.................................
.................................
................................
................................
................................
................................
................................
................................
................................
................................

5.9
6.9
6.6
6.0
6.7
9.3
8.6
8.2
7.2
6.8

15.6
17.2
16.7
15.3
16.6
19.7
18.7
18.3
17.1
16.4

4.8
5.7
5.4
4.9
5.5
8.0
7.4
7.0
6.0
5.7

4.4
5.3
5.0
4.2
4.9
7.9
7.1
6.3
5.3
5.1

15.0
16.6
15.9
13.9
15.6
20.1
19.2
17.3
15.8
15.9

3.5
4.4
4.0
3.3
3.8
6.8
5.9
5.2
4.3
4.2

1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989

................................
................................
................................
................................
................................
................................
................................
................................
................................
.................................

7.4
7.9
9.4
9.2
7.6
7.4
7.1
6.2
5.6
5.4

17.2
19.0
21.9
21.3
18.0
17.6
17.6
15.9
14.4
14.0

6.4
6.8
8.3
8.1
6.8
6.6
6.2
5.4
4.9
4.7

6.9
7.4
9.9
9.9
7.4
7.0
6.9
6.2
5.5
5.2

18.3
20.1
24.4
23.3
19.6
19.5
19.0
17.8
16.0
15.9

5.9
6.3
8.8
8.9
6.6
6.2
6.1
5.4
4.8
4.5

1990 ................................

5.4

14.7

4.8

5.6

16.3

4.9




45

Table A-13. Unemployment rates by age and sex, 1990 annual
averages
(Percent of labor force that is unemployed)

Age

Women

Men

Total, 16 years and over.....................................................
16 to 19 years ..........................................................................
20 years and over....................................................................
20 to 24 years .......................................................................
25 to 34 years .......................................................................
35 to 44 years .......................................................................
45 to 54 years .......................................................................
55 to 64 years .......................................................................
65 years and over .................................................................
65 to 69 years.....................................................................
70 to 74 years.....................................................................
75 years and over ..............................................................

5.4
14.7
4.8
8.5
5.6
4.2
3.4
2.8
3.1
3.4
2.4
3.0

5.6
16.3
4.9
9.1
5.5
4.0
3.7
3.8
3.0
3.2
3.3
1.8

Table A-14. Unemployment rates by race, Hispanic origin, age, and sex,
1990 annual averages
(Percent of labor force that is unemployed)

Age, race, and Hispanic origin

Women

Men

White, 16 years and over....................................................
16 to 19 years ..........................................................................
20 years and over....................................................................
20 to 24 years .......................................................................
25 to 34 years .......................................................................
35 to 44 years .......................................................................
45 to 54 years .......................................................................
55 to 64 years .......................................................................
65 years and over .................................................................

4.6
12.6
4.1
6.8
4.5
3.7
3.2
2.7
2.8

4.8
14.2
4.3
7.6
4.7
3.5
3.4
3.6
2.8

Black, 16 years and over....................................................
16 to 19 years ..........................................................................
20 years and over....................................................................
20 to 24 years .......................................................................
25 to 34 years .......................................................................
35 to 44 years .......................................................................
45 to 54 years .......................................................................
55 to 64 years .......................................................................
65 years and over .................................................................

10.8
30.0
9.6
19.7
11.9
7.2
4.4
3.7
5.8

11.8
32.1
10.4
20.2
11.5
8.5
6.3
5.5
4.6

Hispanic origin, 16 years and over....................................
16 to 19 years ..........................................................................
20 years and over....................................................................
20 to 24 years .......................................................................
25 to 34 years .......................................................................
35 to 44 years .......................................................................
45 to 54 years .......................................................................
55 to 64 years .......................................................................
65 years and over .................................................................

8.3
19.5
7.4
10.4
8.0
6.6
6.0
4.2
6.4

7.8
19.6
7.0
8.3
6.8
6.5
6.8
6.5
5.8




46

Table A-15. Employment status of women by race and household relationship, 1990 annual
averages
(Numbers in thousands)

Civilian labor force
Sex and household
relationship

Civilian
noninstitutional
population

Unemployed
Total

Percent
of
population

Employed
Number

Percent
of
labor force

Not
in
labor
force

TOTAL

Wives
............................................................................
Women who maintain families' .....................................
Women who live alone....................................................
16 to 24 years ...............................................................
25 to 59 years ...............................................................
60 years and over.........................................................
Women who live with nonrelatives ...............................
16 to 24 years ...............................................................
25 to 59 years ...............................................................
60 years and over .........................................................

51,365
11,154
13,952
572
5,022
8,359
5,369
1,707
3,273
389

30,005
6,925
5,949
502
4,291
1,157
4,178
1,354
2,740
84

58.4
62.1
42.6
87.7
85.4
13.8
77.8
79.3
83.7
21.7

28,912
6,357
5,753
481
4,155
1,117
3,930
1,254
2,594
82

1,093
568
196
21
136
40
248
100
146
3

3.6
8.2
3.3
4.2
3.2
3.4
5.9
7.4
5.3
3.2

21,360
4,229
8,002
70
731
7,202
1,191
353
533
305

46,223
7,448
12,215
491
4,179
7,545
4,597
1,506
2,773
318

26,724
4,761
5,117
437
3,634
1,046
3,657
1,219
2,370
68

57.8
63.9
41.9
89.1
86.9
13.9
79.6
80.9
85.5
21.5

25,801
4,463
4,967
421
3,532
1,014
3,461
1,138
2,256
66

923
298
150
16
102
32
197
81
113
2

3.5
6.3
2.9
3.6
2.8
3.1
5.4
6.7
4.8
(2)

19,499
2,687
7,098
54
545
6,499
940
287
403
250

3,471
3,360
1,483
62
708
713
554
138
359
57

2,279
1,967
696
50
546
100
381
97
273
11

65.7
58.5
46.9
(2)
77.1
14.0
68.8
70.2
76.1
(2)

2,158
1,710
656
46
518
92
338
82
246
11

121
257
40
4
29
7
43
15
27

5.3
13.1
5.7
(2)
5.2
7.4
11.2
15.7
9.9
(2)

1,191
1,393
788
12
162
613
173
41
86
46

White

Wives
............................................................................
Women who maintain families' .....................................
Women who live alone...................................................
16 to 24 years ...............................................................
25 to 59 years ...............................................................
60 years and over.........................................................
Women who live with nonrelatives ...............................
16 to 24 years ...............................................................
25 to 59 years ...............................................................
60 years and over.........................................................
Black

Wives .................................................................................
Women who maintain families’ .....................................
Women who live alone...................................................
16 to 24 years ...............................................................
25 to 59 years ...............................................................
60 years and over.........................................................
Women who live with nonrelatives ...............................
16 to 24 years ...............................................................
25 to 59 years ...............................................................
60 years and over........................................................

' Refers to never-married, widowed, divorced, or separated
women.




2 Data not shown where base is less than 75,000.

47

Table A-16. Labor force status and reason not in labor force for persons 25 to 54 years of age by sex, annual averages,
selected years, 1962-90
1962

1965

1970

1975

1980

1985

1990

Civilian noninstitutional population (thousands) ..............................
Percent.............................................................................................

34,458
100.0

34,856
100.0

36,371
100.0

39,700
100.0

43,603
100.0

48,493
100.0

53,856
100.0

In the civilian labor force ................................................................
Employed........................................................................................
Not in the labor force ......................................................................
Keeping house...............................................................................
Other reasons ................................................................................
Going to school ..........................................................................
Unable to work............................................................................
All other reasons ........................................................................

43.4
41.2
56.6
55.5
1.1
.2
.3
.6

45.2
43.3
54.8
53.4
1.3
.3
.3
.7

50.1
47.8
49.9
47.9
2.1
.4
.4
1.2

55.0
51.0
45.0
41.9
3.2
.7
.6
1.9

63.9
60.1
36.1
32.2
3.9
.9
.6
2.4

69.6
65.3
30.4
26.1
4.3
1.1
.5
2.7

74.1
70.7
25.9
21.1
4.9
1.2
1.0
2.7

Civilian noninstitutional population (thousands)..............................
Percent.............................................................................................

31,758
100.0

32,121
100.0

33,612
100.0

37,071
100.0

41,095
100.0

45,973
100.0

51,641
100.0

In the civilian labor force ................................................................
Employed........................................................................................
Not in the labor force ......................................................................
Keeping house...............................................................................
Other reasons................................................................................
Going to school ..........................................................................
Unable to work............................................................................
All other reasons ........................................................................

96.8
92.9
3.2
.1
3.1
.4
1.0
1.8

96.7
94.1
3.3
.1
3.2
.4
.9
1.9

95.8
93.2
4.2
.1
4.0
.6
1.5
2.0

94.4
89.0
5.6
.2
5.4
.8
1.9
2.7

94.2
89.4
5.8
.2
5.5
.8
1.6
3.2

93.9
88.7
6.1
.3
5.7
.8
1.3
3.6

93.4
89.2
6.6
.5
6.1
.8
1.9
3.3

Sex, labor force status, and reason

WOMEN

MEN




48

Table A-17. Families by type of family and labor force status of members, March, selected years, 1960-90
—
Type of family and labor force status of members

1965

1960

1970

1975

1980

1985

1990

Number of families (in thousands)

Married-couple families ......................................................................
Husband in labor force, not the wife.............................................
Husband and wife in labor force....................................................
Wife in labor force, not the husband.............................................
Neither husband nor wife in labor force .......................................

39,335
23,864
11,177
813
3,477

41,648
23,060
13,485
985
4,118

44,436
21,715
16,924
1,217
4,579

47,438
20,066
19,355
1,755
6,262

49,132
17,179
22,728
1,942
7,284

50,395
14,747
25,041
2 345
8 263

52,385
13,081
28,043
2 451
8 810

Families maintained by women' .......................................................
Householder in labor force .............................................................
Householder not in labor force ......................................................

4,494
2,243
2,248

5,006
2,548
2,458

5,580
2,952
2,628

7,330
3,988
3,342

9,009
5,377
3,632

' 10,524
6,419
4,105

11,309
7,088
4,221

Families maintained by men' ............................................................
Householder in labor force .............................................................
Householder not in labor force ......................................................

1,233
908
325

1,182
850
332

1,221
877
344

1,513
1,127
386

1,769
1,312
457

2,313
1,786
527

2,929
2,285
644

Percent distribution
Married-couple families ......................................................................
Husband in labor force, not the wife.............................................
Husband and wife in labor force....................................................
Wife in labor force, not the husband.............................................
Neither husband nor wife in labor force .......................................

100.0
60.7
28.4
2.1
8.8

100.0
55.4
32.4
2.4
9.9

100.0
48.9
38.1
2.7
10.3

100.0
42.3
40.8
3.7
13.2

100.0
35.0
46.3
4.0
14.8

100.0
29.3
49.7
4.7
16.4

100.0
25.0
53.5
4.7
16.8

Families maintained by women1 .......................................................
Householder in labor force .............................................................
Householder not in labor force ......................................................

100.0
49.9
50.1

100.0
50.9
49.1

100.0
52.9
47.1

100.0
54.4
45.6

100.0
59.7
40.3

100.0
61.0
39.0

100.0
62.7
37.3

Families maintained by men1 ............................................................
Householder in labor force .............................................................
Householder not in labor force ......................................................

100.0
73.6
26.4

100.0
71.9
28.1

100.0
71.8
28.2

100.0
74.5
25.5

100.0
74.2
25.8

100.0
77.2
22.8

100.0
78.0
22.0

maintaining the family is in the Armed Forces, either living off post or
with their families on post.

' Refers to families maintained by never-married widowed, divorced,
or separated men or women.
NOTE: Data include families where the husband, wife, or male




49

Table A-18. Civilian labor force and labor force participation rates of mothers by marital status and age of youngest child,
March, selected years, 1975-90
(Numbers in thousands)

Civilian labor force

Civilian labor force participation rate

With children:

With children:

Category and year
6 to 17
4 to 5
years
years
old
old
_________

Total

Under
2 years
old

2 to 3
years
old

4 to 5
years
old

6 to 17
years
old

Total

Under
2 years
old

2 to 3
years
old

14,121
17,391
19,068
21,156

1,727
2,293
2,839
3,309

1,830
2,190
2,562
2,915

1,817
1,825
2,168
2,515

8,750
11,081
11,500
12,418

47.2
56.7
62.4
67.0

31.8
39.1
48.0
52.0

41.0
51.0
54.6
61.2

45.4
54.8
61.7
65.8

54.7
64.4
69.9
74.7

11,447
13,558
14,766
16,296

1,526
2,024
2,562
2,828

1,512
1,768
2,097
2,351

1,428
1,375
1,639
1,924

6,984
8,390
8,469
9,192

45.0
54.3
61.0
66.4

31.0
39.0
49.4
53.6

39.3
49.6
54.5
61.5

42.8
51.9
60.8
64.7

52.4
61.8
67.8
73.6

2,674
3,833
4,302
4,860

201
269
277
481

318
422
465
564

389
450
529
591

1,766
2,691
3,031
3,226

60.0
67.0
67.8
69.2

39.0
40.1
38.0
44.0

52.0
57.8
55.3
60.1

58.5
66.4
64.4
69.9

66.2
74.0
76.6
77.9

TOTAL

1975
1980
1985
1990

.......
.......
.......
.......
Married

1975
1980
1985
1990

.......
.......
.......
.......

Single parent
1975
1980
1985
1990

.......
.......
.......
.......

’ Includes never-married, widowed, divorced, and separated mothers.
NOTE: Children refer to own children of the husband, wife, or person
maintaining the family and include sons and daughters, stepchildren, and




adopted children. Excluded are other related children such as
grandchildren, nieces, nephews, and cousins, and unrelated children.

50

Appendix B. Sources and
Concepts

Sources of the data

Most of the data shown in this chartbook are from the Current Population Survey
The CPS is a survey of about 60,000 households that is conducted monthly
by the Bureau of the Census for the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS). It provides
comprehensive information on the labor force status and earnings of persons in
these households by a wide array of demographic characteristics. The data collected
relate to the calendar week including the 12th day of the month.
The only two charts (and their related appendix tables) that are not CPS-based
are charts 5 and 10. Chart 5, which shows women’s labor force participation rates
in several countries, was prepared from data compiled by the Bureau’s Division
of Foreign Labor Statistics and Trade. Chart 10, which shows women’s employment
patterns by industry, was derived from data collected in the Current Employment
Statistics Survey (CES). The CES is a survey of over 350,000 business establish­
ments conducted by the BLS in conjunction with State employment security
agencies. This survey collects data on payroll employment, hours, and earnings.
For more information on these surveys, see chapter 1, “Labor Force,
Employment, and Unemployment from the Current Population Survey,’’ and
chapter 2, “Employment, Hours, and Earnings from the Establishment Survey,”
in BLS Handbook of Methods, Bulletin 2285, U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau
of Labor Statistics, and the “Explanatory Notes” of the BLS monthly periodical
Employment and Earnings.
(CPS).




51

Basic labor force concepts

Employed. Persons are classified as employed if they did any work at all as paid
employees; worked in their own business or profession or on their own farm; or
worked 15 hours or more a week as unpaid workers in a business or farm operated
by a member of their family. Also counted as employed are all persons temporarily
absent from, their jobs because of illness, bad weather, labor dispute, or personal
reasons, whether they were paid for the time off or whether they were seeking
other jobs.
Full- and part-time employed. Employed persons are divided into full- and parttime categories based on their usual status. In this context, full-time workers are
those who (a) worked 35 hours or more during the survey week, (b) worked 1
to 34 hours for economic or noneconomic reasons, but usually work 35 hours or
more, and (c) were with a job but not at work and usually work 35 hours or more
a week. Similarly, part-time workers are those who (a) voluntarily worked 1 to
34 hours during the survey week, (b) worked 1 to 34 hours for economic reasons,
but usually work 1 to 34 hours, and (c) were with a job but not at work and usually
work 1 to 34 hours.
Unemployed. Persons are classified as unemployed regardless of their eligibility
for unemployment benefits or public assistance, if they meet all of the following
criteria: They had no employment during the survey week; they were available
for work at that time, except for temporary illness; and they had made specific
efforts to find employment sometime during the prior 4 weeks. Persons laid off
from their former jobs and awaiting recall and those expecting to report to a job
within 30 days need not be looking for work to be counted as unemployed.
The civilian labor force. All persons classified as either employed or unemployed
are considered to be in the civilian labor force.
The civilian labor force participation rate. The civilian labor force as a percent
of the civilian noninstitutional population.
The unemployment rate. The number unemployed as a percent of the civilian labor
force.




52

Appendix C. Where to Find Additional
BLS Data on Women

Employment, Hours, and Earnings, United States, 1909-90, U.S. Department
of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics, Bulletin 2370, March 1991.
This publication contains trend data on women from the Current Employment
Statistics program. Data are available on nonfarm payroll employment, hours,
and earnings by detailed industry.
Employment and Earnings
A monthly periodical containing data on the employment status of the
population by sex and many other demographic characteristics. The January
issue contains annual average data for the previous year.
Employment in Perspective: Women in the Labor Force
A quarterly report devoted solely to data on women in the labor force.

Geographic Profile of Employment and Unemployment
An annual bulletin that has information on women’s employment status by
Census regions, States, and metropolitan areas.
Handbook of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor
Statistics, Bulletin 2340, August 1989.
A bulletin that is a compendium of data from the Bureau’s major statistical
programs, some of which include data on women.

Labor Force Statistics Derived from the Current Population Survey, 1948-87,
U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics, Bulletin 2307, August
1988.
Commonly called the “CPS Databook,” this publication contains trend data
on women from the Current Population Survey. Data are disaggregated by
a variety of demographic characteristics, including age, race and Hispanic
origin, presence and age of youngest child, etc.
Monthly Labor Review
A monthly periodical containing scholarly articles and statistical tables. Articles
on women and families are frequently featured. The December issue contains
an index of that year’s articles by author, subject, and title.




53

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