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REPORTS
OF THE

SECRETARY OF THE TREASURY
THE UNITED STATES,

IN OBEDIENCE TO THE ACT OF MAY 10, 1800,
' SOPPLEMENTARY TO T H E ACT E N T I T I E D ' A N ACT TO E S T A B L I S H T H E TREASURY D E P A R T M E N T . ' "

TO WHICH ARE PREFIXED

THE REPORTS OF ALEXANDER HAMILTON,

PUBLIC CREDIT, A NATIONAL BANK, MANUFACTURES,
AND

THE ESTABLISHMENT OF A MINT.




/

V O L . V.

WASHINGTON:
P R I N T E D BY J O H N C. R I V E S .

1851.

•




TABLE OF CONTENTS.

R E P O R T BY M R . W A L K E R , D E C E M B E R ,




Mi

1845.




REPORTS
SECRETARY OF THE TREASURY OF THE UNITED STATES.

REPORT ON THE FINANCES.
DECEMBER, 1845.

, TREASURY DEPARTMENT, i?e6*m&er 3, 1845i
IN obedience.to the " A c t supplementary to the act to establish the
Treasury Department," the undersigned respectfully submits the following report:
The receipts and expenditures for the fiscal year endirig the 30th June,
1845, were as follows:
'
,
RECEIPTS AND MEANS.

\

From c u s t o m s . . . . . ' . . . . . . . . . . ^ . . . . fi . . . . . . .-^ . . .$27,528,112 70From sales^of pubhc^lands....._. -. - - ^ . , . . . . . . , .
. 2,077,022 30
Frorri miscellaneous sources.
,
..
163,998 56
Total r e c e i p t s . . : . . . . - . . . . .
:.
. . . . . . §9,769,133 56
Add balance in the Treasury 1st July, 1 8 4 4 . . . . . . . . . . 7,857,379 64
Total means . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ^ . . . . . . . 37,626,513 20
The expenditures during the same fiscal year amounted
to the sum o f . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29,968,206 98
Leaving a balance iri the Treasury on the 1st July, 1845,
df
. \ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 , 6 5 8 , 3 0 6 22
As appears in detail by accompanying statement A.
The estimated receipts arid expenditures for the fiscal year ending
SOth June, 1846, are as folloivs:
.
•
VOL.Y.—L



2

R E P O R T S OF T H E

[1845.

RECEIPTS, V I Z :

From customs, 1st quarter, by actual returns of the collectors .,-. ^ i . . . . . . . . : . . i ..,-•...:.-..^..:.;.,::,...,,:.,..,:--'$8,861^932 14
For the.2d, 3d, and 4th quarters, as estimated. . . . . . . . 15,638,067 86
Total froni c u s t o m s . . . . . / . . - . . . . . . . V.. . . . . . . . . .^ 24,500,000 00
From salesof public l a n d s . . - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . :2,200,6oO 00
From miscellarieous arid incidental s o u r c e s . . . . . . . . . . .
120,000 00
Total receipts. . . . . . : . . : . : : , . • . . .i .

. . . . . . 26,820,000 00

Add balance in the Trea:sury bn the 1 st July, 1 8 4 , 5 . , . . ; 7,658,306 22
<

Total means, as e s t i m a t e d , . . . : . . . . . . . . . : . . . , , . 34,478,306 22
,'.•'.'.••

•..V'.^'.'

EXPENDITURE Sj-VIZ:-

The actual expenditures for the first quarter
ending the S^Oth September^ • 1S455 :'.
•aniounted to the sum of,w.y^.^•,^
As appears in. detail by accomp.anying
' statement B .

,' , • •..'•
_

••,;.>•'

', -

'••'^•, '

"^

'

' . .
; • ^
'

•

. ' .':fi-'--r.^:'::'fi-:^'' ••'\..:"'-•' • / '
'

'-'fi.^- . '

The estimated expenditures fbr the pubhc
'. - . . \
seryice during the other three: q^
^^
,
:.v
/from 1st.-October; 1845, to 30
•
'
' \
lS46,-a:re.asfbhbwsv'viz-r--^^''^-\::'.'^^
.•••;.'•• -.'":^
fi''-^^'':-'
Givil list, foreigri iritgrG^
t -;
^ • v'.
- ^
lane;dus p u r p o s e s ^ . . . . ! : , . , . ....^..^^
6^730,211 06^
. : ' :.'•-).
Army pfdper. . : . . : : : ; . . . . . . . . .1 .V.. . y . 2^594,735 06
-, / /
Fortifications^ordriance, arrningipiliti^,^&e. 2^
' ^ '.
Indian d e p a r t m e n t : . . . . . . ^ i . l . . . . . . . . 1,649,791^S^
•
Perisions \ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ' . . . . . . . 1,356,556 02 •
Interest ori public debt and Trbasury notes . 856,976
Redemptibn of the* residue of the loan of
: •184fi.,fi..:y,f^ . : . . . : : . .\,\,^'..^^
• .. 29,300, 00//• ^-V^;:-: •
Treasurynotesyi^lfithajre yet outstanding
'
.' and payable when presented- - - . . . - -. • 6S7,764r; 18 !
Naval e s t a b l i s h m e r i t : . . : : ! . . . . . . . . ; . . . ^ 4,902,845 93
. •":

: : . ' ':•'• ••

••• ^ ^ • j ; -'

•

.

:

^ f i m f i i 5 i '90"

Which deducted from the total of means before stated,
. ./
'leaves i n t h e Treasury on the i s t July, 1846, an esti^ .; '•'•
mated balance o f . ; . . . - . - . ? : , . . .-•. J . : . . . - - . : . : : - . . . . 4,851,254 32
But this balance is subject to be decreased by such additional approprialions as Congress shaU m^kQ,:to. be expended during the fiscalyear
ending the 30th. June,, 184 and, to be altered by the sums wliich may
* The Slim of-11.,548,99:7. for supplying tke defieiericy pi" reyeH.uefor.postage, and also $300,000
for postages of Congress and of executive bfficers, ar;e included, in the above sum of
P9,627,051 90.
. '
'
.
[ :



1845.]

S E C R E T A R Y OF T H E TREASURY.

3

be presented for pa:yment of the old funded and unfunded debt and old
Treasury notes.
.; The estimated receipts, means, and expenditures for the fiscal year
commencing 1st July, .1846, arid ending 30th June, 1847, are as
follows, viz;: .
; \
From customs for the four q u a r t e r s . . . . . . : . . . . . . . . . .$22,500,000 00
Frorri sales of public lands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . : . . J , . . . 2,400,000 G
O
From miscellanepus and inciderital s o u r c e s . . . . : . : : . . .
100,000 00
Total r e v e n u e . ' . . . . : . . . - . - . . - . . . . - : : - V - ^
Add estimated balance to be in the Treasury on the 1st
;
. July, 1 8 4 6 . . . . . . . . : . . . ..^ ^:..:.:. .c : : . . . v . : . , . - , . . . :,; ; 4,851^254-32
Total means for the service of the fiscai year eriding the
30th J u n e , 1 8 4 7 . . . . . . . ^ . . . . . . . . : . . . . . . . . . . . . . .;29^851i254 32
' • ' : • E X P E N D I T U R J E S . . •• •

The expenditures during: the same pea^ipdi a,s estiniated bythe. .several Depart-.
ments of State, Treasuryj War, Navy, and
PostjGQaster Gerieral, viz:. -r.
.•
T h e balarices of former appropri^
which will be required to be exp^ride^^

• •. •

.
. . . .

. ;iri this yeaT.;.::..._::,..•.:.•.•.:..:.!

lo-.

.;••-'••..

Permanent and indefinite appropriations. '2,997,915 '72
Specific appropriations asked~for this
year..-...>....,.:......,........21,079,440:43 ;
Total estimated e x p e n d i t u r e . . . . . . . . . . .
This sum is .cbrnposed of the fbllowing
particulars:
For civil list, foreignintercoursej arid misr^
" c^lmiQm^.\^^
For Army p r o p e r . . . . . . . . . . ^ . . . . . . . . . . . :
For fortifications, ordnance, arming.militia,.
&C.1.....L................,...:....
For-pensions.,.;.:.... : . . . . . . . > . , . . , . _ - . .
Forlndiandepartment...:.,,...:,.,..:
For naval, establishment:.....:.:.............
Interest on public d e b t . . . . . . . . . . . . > . . . .
..'• ; • • - . • . . . . • : .

V'v-

•• ...."••
•.

.....

,25,518,813 25

: '
. .

.:

,
-

.. j

3^364,458 92

;

4,331,809 93 : ,
00 .. .
2,214,91:6 18.: .
,6^^
835;844 72:.,

.2,507,;LOO

. ;•

' ., / .
^
:• ;,•

.^5,518,813.25

Which deducted from the.total of means before stated, ;
;
.gives an estiniated balarice of the ist of July, 1847., of, 4,332,441 .07
* The sum of fl^ljOSO.of debt assumed foi^ the.cities in the District,of Columbia, tlie sum
;0f $1,000,000 for •supplying deficiency in the rsyenues from postage,-and $350,000 for postage's
for Gongress arid ex.ecutive departments, are included in the foregoing sum of $5,925,292 62.



4

\

R]£PORTS OF T H E -

[1845-

The receipts for the first quarter of this year are less, by $2,011,885 90, than the receipts of the same quarter last year. Among the
causes of' decrease' is the progressiye diminution of the importation of
many highly-protected articles, and the substitutiori of rival domestic
products. For the nine moriths ending June 30, 1843, since the present tariff, the average of duties upon dutiable imports was equal to
37.84 1-10 per cent,; for the year ending June 30, 1844, 33.85 9-10 per
cent.; and for the year eriding June . 30, 1845, 29.90 per cent.—showing a. great, dirriinutiori in the average percentage, owing in part to
increased irnportation ; o f / p m e articles bearirig the lighter duties, and
decreased iniportation of others bearing the higher duty.
The rpvenue from Aad valorem duties last year exceeded that realized
fi-om specific,duties, althoughlthc: average of the ad valorem duties w a s
only 23.57 per cent/, and the average of the specific duties 41.30; presenting another strong proof that lower duties increaise the^ revenue.
Among the causes tending to augment the, revenue, are increased emigration and the annexation of ^Texas: T h e estiinates for the expenditures of 1846 are based chiefly upon appropriations made by Congress.
The estima:ted expenditures of 1847 are fbunded .upon data furnished by
the severar DepartnientSj and are less by $4,108,238 65 ^ than those of
the precedirig year.
:
./.
'
' ,
These.estimates are. submitted in the full conviction that, whenever
Congress, guided by an enlightened eCbnoniy, can diminish thb
expenditures withput injury.to the--public interest, such retrerichnient
will be rnade, so as tb lighten" the burden of taxation, .and hasten- the
extinguishment of the ^ pubhc debt, reduced on the 1 st of October last .
to $17;075,445-.;52. ;,;.^.. •.fi'^'.'•"'''••' ^••" ••.•',.',••;. ^-''V ' ,V'--'\:-,:.- ' •' "fi\'^''''
In suggesting improyements in^ the •revenue -laws, the follbwing principles have beeri adopted:: /
1st. That no riiore money should "be collected than i s necessary for
the wants of the Governriient, economically adniinistered.
2d. That no duty be imposed on any article above the lowest rate
which will yield the largest amount of reyenue.
3d. That belpw, such rate diserirDinatiori may be, made desceriding,
in the scale pf duties; or, for imperative reaspns, the^ article .may be
placed in the list of those free from all duty.
^
. 4th. That the maximum revenue duty should be imposed on luxuries..
'• _^ . '•;;:..
.
• • •' .;
,
• : '; • , ' . . •
5th. ' T h a t a l l rninimums, a n d all specific duties, should b e abolished,,
a n d - a d valorem duties substituted in ;their place—care being taken t6
g u a r d against fraudulerit invoices arid uridervaluation, and. to assess
the duty upon the actual market "value.
6th.^ That the duty should be so imposed as to operate as equally as
possible thrbughout the Union, discriminating neither for nor against
any class:or section.
No horizontal scale of dutie.s is recomrnend
because such a scale
would be a refusal to discriminate for revenue, and might sink that revenue below, the wants of the Gpvernment. Some articles will yield the
largest revenue at duties that wpuld be wholly or partially prohibitory
in other cases. LuxurieSj, as a general rule, will bear the highest revenue



1845.]

S E C R E T A R Y OF THE. TREASURY.

5

duties: but even sorne very costly luxuries, easily smuggled, will bear but
a light duty for revenue, whilst other articles, of great bulk and weight,
wUl bear a higher duty for revenue. There is no instance within the
knowledge of this Department of any horizontal tariff* ever having
been enacted by any one of the nations of the world. There must be
discrimination fbr revenue, or the burden of taxation must be augmented,
in order to bring the same amourit of money into the Treasury. It is
difficult, also, to adopt any arbitrary maximum to which an inflexible
adherence must be demanded in all cases. Thus, upon brandy and
spirits, a specific duty, varying as an equivalent a:d valorern from 180 to
261 per cent., yields a large revenue; yet no one wPuld propose either
of these rates as a maximum. These duties are too high for revenue,
from the encouragement they present for smuggling these baneful luxuries ; yet a duty of 20 per cent, upon brandy and spirits would be far
below the revenue standard, would greatly diminish the income on these
imports, require increased burdens upon the necessaries of life, and would
revolt the moral sense of the whole community. There are many other ^
luxuries which will bear a much higher duty for revenue than 20 per
cent.; and the only true maximum is that which experience demonstrates
will bring, in each case, the largest revenue at the lowest rate of duty.
Npr should maximum revenue duties be imposed upon all articles; for
this would yield too large an income, and would prevent all discrimination within the revenue standard, and require necessaries to be taxed as
high as luxuries. But, whilst it is impossible to adopt any horizontal
' scale of duties, or even any arbitrary maximum, experience proves that,
as a general rule, a duty of 20 per cent., ad valorem' will yield the
largest revenue. There are, however, a few exceptions above, as well
as many below, this standard. Thus, whilst the lowest revenue duty
on rnPst luxuries exceeds 20 per cent., there are niany costly articles of
small bulk, easily sniuggled, w:hich would bring, perhaps, no revenue
at a duty as high as 20 per cent., and even at the present rate of 7 J per
cent., they yield, in most cases, a sniall revenue; whilst coal, iron, sugar,
and molasses, articles of great bulk and weight, yielded last year six
milhons of revenue, at an average rate of duty exceeding 60 per cent, dd
valorem. These duties are far too high for revenue upon all these articles, and ought to be reduced to the revenue standard; but if Congress
desire to obtain the largest revenue from duties on these articles, those
duties, at the lowest rate for revenue, would exceed 20 per cent, ad
valorem.
There are appended to. this report tables, prepared with great care
ahd labor, showirig the rates of duty ea:ch year on each of these four
articles, and the equivalent ad valorem from the organization of the Government down to the present period, with the revenue cpllected every
year upon each; from which tables Congress will be enabled to judge
how, far the present rates exceed the lowest revenue • duties, and how
much they must be reduced so as to yield a revenue equal to that now
obtained from these articles^
It-is believed that sufficient means can be obtained at the lowest
revenue duties on the articles now subjected to duty; but if Congress
desire a larger revenue, it should be procured by taxing the free articles



6

R E P O R T S OF T H E

[1845.

rather than transcend, in any case,, the lowest revenue duties. I t i s
thought, however, that, without exceeding that limit in any case, an
adequate revenue will still be produced, and piermitthe addition to the
free list of salt and guano. In one of his annual rnessages Mr. Jefferson
recpmmended to Congress **the suppressiori of the duties.on salt." A
large portion of this duty is exhausted in, heavy expenses of measuring
salt^ and in large sums paid for fishing bounties and allowances in lieii
of the drawback of the duty j both which expenditures would fall with
a repeal ofthe duty.; which repeal, therefore, can cause no considerable
reduction ofthe revenue. Salt is a necessary of life, and should.be as
free from tax as air. or water. I t i s used in large quantities by the
farmer and planter;_ and to the poor this tax operates most oppressively,
not. only in the. use of the a.rticle itself, but as combined with salted provisions. . The salt made abroad by solar evaporation is also mpst pure
arid wholesome, and, as conservative, of health, should be exempt froni
taxatiori.
. . :.
The duty on cottpn-bagging is equivalent to 55.20 per cent, ad valbrem
on the Scotch bagging, and.to 123.11 per cent, on the gunny-bag; and
yet the 'Whole revenue from these, duties.has fallen to $66j064 50.
Nearly the entire . amount, therefore, pf this. enormbus tax , makes, no
addition to the reveriue, but inures to the benefit of, about thirty manufacturers. As five-sixths of the cotton cropis exported abroad, the sahie
proportion of the bagging around the bale is exported^ and sold abroad
a t a heavy loss; growing out of. a deduction for tare. Now, as duties,
are designed to operate only ori the doriiestic consumption, there ought
to be a drawback of the whole duty on cottPn-bagging reexported around
the bale, on. the same .p.rinciples on which drawbacks are allowed in
other cases. The cotton planting is the great, exporting iriterest, and
Suffers from the tariff in the double capacity of corisumer a:nd exporter.
Cotton is the great basis bf our foreign.exchange, furnishing most of the
means to purchase imports and supply the reveriue. It is thiis the
source of two-thirds ofthe revenue, and. of our fpreign ff,eight and commerce, upholding our comniercial marine and maritirne powers It is
also a bond of peace with foreign nations^ constituting a sti'onger .preventive of war than armies or navies^ forts or armaments. At preserit
prices^ orir cptton crop will yield an annual product of $72,000,000, and
the manufactured fabric $504,000^000, furnishing profits abroad to
thousands of capitalists, and wages to hundreds of thousands o f t h e
working classes; all of whom would be deeply injured by any disturbance, growing out of a state of war, tothe direct and adequate supply
of the raw material. If Pur. manufdcturers consume . four hundred
thousand bales, it would cbst thern. $12,000^000 whilst selling the riian^
ufactured fabric for $84,000,000; and they should be the last to unite
in imposing heavy taxes upon that great interest which supplies them
with the raw material o.ut of which they realize such large p>rofits.
Accompariying the drawback of the duty ori cotton-bagging should be
the repeal of the duty on foreign cotton, which is inoperative and
delusive, and riot desired by the dornestic producer^
fi
•'•• .
: The conditiori of our foreign felations, it is.said, shpuld Suspend the
reduction bf the tariff. No Ameiican patriot can desire to arrest out:



1845.]:

S E C R E T A R Y OF T H E TREASURY.

7

onward career in peace arid prosperity; but if, unhappity, such should
be the result, it would create an increased necessity for reducing ouf
present high duties in order to obtain sufficient revenue to rneet increased
expenditures. The duties for the quarter ending the 30th September,
1844, yielded $2,011,885 90 more of fevenue than the quarter endirig
30th Septembier, 1845; showing a very considerable dechne of the
revenuCj growing out of a diminished importation of the highly-protected
articles and the progressive substitutiori of the domestic rivals. Indeed,
rriany ofthe duties are becoming dead letters, except for the purpose of
prohibition, and, if not reduced, will ultirriately cpnipel theif advocates
to resort tp difect taxation to support the Governmerit. In the event of
war, nearly, all the high duties would become prohibitory ^ from the
increased risk and cost of importations; and if there be, indeed, in the
opiniori of any, a serious danger of such an occurrence, it appeals most
strongly to their patriotisrri to impose the low^est revenue duties on all
articles, as the only means of securing, at such a period, any considerable
income from the tariff.
The whole power to collect taxes, whether direct or indirect, is conr
ferred by the'same clause of the Constitution. The words are, " The
Congress shall have the power to lay and collect taxes, duties, imposts
and'excises." A direct tax or excise, npt for revenue, but for protection, clearly wpuld riot be within the legitimate object of-taxation; and
yet it would be as much so as a duty iniposed for a similar purpose.
The power is "to lay and collect taxes, duties, imposts, and excises."
A duty rriust be laid only that it maybe collected; and if it is sP irriposed
that it cannot be collected, in whole or in part, it violates the declared
object of the granted power. To lay all duties so high that non^ of
them could be collected would be a prohibitory tariff. To lay a duty
on any one article so high that it could not be.collected would be a prohibitory tariff upon that article, If a duty pf 100 per cent, were imposed
upon all or upon a nurnber of articles, so as to.diminish the revenue
upon all or any of them, it would operate as a partial prohibition. A
partial and a total prohibitibn are alike in violation of the true object pf
the taxing power. . They orily differ in degree, and not in pririciple. If
the revenue limit^may be exceeded one pef cent.,; it may be exceeded
one hundred.. If it may be exceeded ,upoii any one article, it may be
exceeded on all; and there is no escape from this conclusion, but in
bontending that Gongress rriay lay duties on all articles so high as to
collect no revenue, and operate as a total prohibition.
The Constitution declares that, "all bills for raising revenue shall
originate in. the House of Representatives." A tariff bill, it is conceded,
cari only priginate in the House, because it is a. hill for raising revenue.
That is the only proper object of srich a bill. A tariff is a bill to " l a y
arid collect taxes." It is a bill for " raisirig revenue;" and whenever it
departs from that object, in whole or in part, either by tptal or partial
prohibition, it violates the purpose of the grarited power.
In arranging the details ofthe tariff, it is believed that the niaximum
revenue duties should be irriposed upon luxuries. It is deemed just that
taxation, whether direct or indirect, should be as nearly as practicable
in propoftiori to property: ^ If the whole revenue were raised by a tax



8

R E P O R T S OF T H E

[1845.

upon property, the poor, and especially those who live by the Wages of
labor, would pay but a very sniall portion of such tax; whereas, by the
tariff, the poor, by the consumption of various imports, or domestic articles
enhanced in price by the duties, pay a much larger share, of the taxes
than if they were collected by an assessment in proportion to property.
To counteract, as far as possible, this effect of the tariff—to equalize its
operation, arid make it approximate as nearly as may be to a system of
taxes in proportion to property—the duties, upon luxuries, used almost
exclusively by the rich, should be fixed at the highest revenue standard.
This would notbe discriminating in favor ofthe poor, however just that
might be within the revenue limit; but it would mitigate, as far as practicable, that discrimination against the poor which results from every tariff,
by compelling them to pay a larger amorint of taxes than if assessed and
eoliected on all property in proportion to its value. In accordance witb
these principles, it is believed that the largest practicable portion of the
aggregate revenue should be raised by maximum revenue duties upon
luxuries, whether grown,produced,pr manufactured at home or abroad.
An appeal has been made to the poor, by the friends of protection', on
the ground that it augments the wages of labor. In reply, it is contended
that the wages of labor have riot augmented since the tariff of 1842, and
that in some cases they have diminished.
Wheri the number of manufactories is not great, the power of the
system to regulate the wages of labor is inconsiderable; but as the profit
pf capital invested in manufactures is augmented by the protective tariff,
there is a corresponding increase of power, until the control of such
capital over the wages of labor becomes irresistible. As this power is
exercised frPm time to time, we find it resisted by combinations among
the working classes, by turning out for higher wages, of for shorter time;
by trades-unions; and in some countries, unfortunately, by violence and
bloodshed. But the Government, by protective duties, arrays itself on
the side ofthe manufacturing system, and, by thus augrnenting its wealth
and power, spon terminates in its favor the struggle between man and
money—between capital and labor. When the tariffof 1842 was enacted,
the maximum duty was twenty per cent. By that act, the average of
duties on the protected articles was more than double. But the wages
of labor did not increase in a corresponding ratio, or iri any ratio whatever. On the contrary, whilst wages in some cases have diminished,
the prices of many articles used by the working classes have greatiy
appreciated.
.
.
•
A protective tariff is a question regarding the enhancement of the
profits of capital, That is its object, and not to augrnent the wages of
labor, which would reduce those profits. It is a question of percentage,
and is to decide whether money vested in our manufactures shall, by
special legislation, yield a profit of ten, twenty, or thirty per cent., or
whether it shall remain satisfied with a dividend equal to that accruing
from the same capital invested in agriculture, commerce, or navigation.'
The present tariff is unjust and unequal, a s well in its details as in
the principles upoii.whicli:it is founded. On soriie afticies the duties
afe entirely prohibitory, arid on others there is a partialprohibition. It
discriminates in favor of manufactures, and against agriculture, by



1845.]

SECRETARY OF T H E TREASURY.

9

imposing many higher duties upon the manufactured fabric than upon
the agricultural product out of which it is made. It discriminates in
favor of the manufacturer, and against the mechanic, by many higher
duties upon the manufacture than upon the article made out of it by the
mechanic. It discriminates in favor of the nianufacturer, and against the
merchant, by injurious restrictions upon trade and commerce; and against
the ship-building and navigating interest, by heavy duties on almost
every article used in building or navigating vessels. It discriminates in
favor of manufactures, and against exports, which are as truly tlie product of American industry as manufactures. It discriminates in favor
o f t h e rich, and against the poor, b y high duties upon nearly all the
necessaries of life, and by minimums and specific duties, rendering the
tax upon the real value much higher On the cheaper than upon the finer
article.
'Minimums are a fictitious value, assumed by law, instead of the real
value; and the operation of all minimums may be illustrated by a single
example. Thus, by the tariff of 1842, a duty of thirty per cent, ad
valorem is levied on all manufactures of cotton; but the law further
provides that cotton goods " nPt died, colored, printed, or stained, not
exceeding in value twenty cents per square yard, shall be valued at
twenty cents per square yard." If, then,.the real value of the cheapest
cottpn goods is but four cents a square yard, it is placed by the law at
the false value of twenty cents per square yard, and the duty levied
on the fictitious value—raising it five times higher on the cheap article
consumed by the poor, than upon the fine article purchased by the more
wealthy. Indeed, by House document No. 306, of the first session of
the Twenty-eighth Congress, this difference, by actual importation, was
65 per cent, between the cheaper and the finer article of the 20 per
cent, minimum, 131 per cent, on the 30 per cent, minimum, 48J
per cent, on the.. 35 per, cent, minimum, 84 per cent, on the 60 per
cent, minim^um, and 84 per cent, on the 75 per cent, minimum.
This difference is founded on actual irriportation, and shows an
average discrimination against the poor ori cotton imports of 82 per cent,
beyond what the tax would be if assessed upon the actual value. The
operation of the specific duty presents a similar discrimination against
the poor and in favor ofthe rich. Thus, upon salt: the duty is not upon
the value, but it is eight cents a bushel, whether the article be coarse or
fine—showing, by the same document, from actual importation, a discrimination of sixty-four per cent, against the cheap and in favor of the
finer article; and this, to a greater or less extent, is the effect of all
specific duties. When we consider that $2,892,621 74 of the revenue
last year was collected by minimum duties, and $13,311,085 46 by
specific duties, the discrimination against the cheaper article must, amount,
by estimates founded on the same document, to ai tax of $5,108,422
exacted by minimums arid specific duties annually from the poorer
classes, by raising thus the duties on the. cheaper articles above w h a t ,
they would be if the duty were assessed upon the actual value. If
direct taxes were made specific, they would be intolerable. Thus, if
an annual tax of thirty dollars was assessed on all houses, without
respect to their actual value, making the owner of the humble tenement



10

R E P O R T S OF T H E

/

[1845.

or cabin pay a tax of thirty dollars and the owner of the costly
.mansion a tax of but thirty dollars on their respective houses, it would
differ only in degree, but not in principle, from the same unvarying
specific duty on cheap as on fine articles. If any discrimination should
be made, it should be the reverse of the specific duty, and ofthe mini^
mum principle, by estabhshing a niaximum standardj abov^e which value
the duties on the finer article should be highef, and below which
they should be lower on the- cheaper articlci The tax upon the actual
value is the most equal, and can only be accomplished by ad valorem
duties. As to fi-audulent invoices and undervaluations, these dangers
are believed to be arrested effectually by the stringent provisions and
severe penalty ofthe 17 th section of the tariff of 1842; and now, onehalf the revenue is collected from ad valorem duties.
Atleast two-thirds, of the taxes imposed by the present tariff are
paid, not into the Treasury, but to the protected classes. The revenue
from iniports last year exceeded tw^enty-seven millions ofdollars.. This,
in itself, is a heavy tax; but the whole tax imposed upon the people by
, the present tariff is not less than eighty-one millipns of dollars-^of which
twenty-seven millions are paid to the Government, upon the irriports,
and fifty-four millions to the protected classes, in enhanced prices of
similaT domestic articles.
, .
•
This estimate is. based upon the ppsition that the. duty is added tothe
price of the import, and also of its domestic rival. If the import is enhanced in price by the dutyj so niust be the domestic rival; for, being
like articles, thek price must be the same in the same market. The
merchant advances in cash the duty on the import, and adds the duty,
with a/profit upon it, and other charges, tothe price—which must therefore be enhanced .to that extent, unless. the foreign producer has first
deducted the duty from the price. But this is impossible: for such now
is, and long has been, the superabundance of capital and active compe*
tition in Europe, that a profit of six per cent, in any business is sufficient to produce large investments of money in that business; and if,
by our tariff, a duty of forty percent, be exacted ori the products of
such busiriess, and the foreign producer deducts that duty from his previous price, he must sustain a heavy loss. This loss would also soon
extend beyond the sales for our consumption to sales to our merchants
of articles to be reexported by them from our ports with a. drawback of
duty, which wpuld bring down their price throughout the markets of the
wPrld. But this the foreign producer cannot afford. The duty, therefore^ must be added to the price, and paid by the consumer-^the duty
constituting as much a part of the price as the cost of production.
If it be true that, when a duty of forty per cent, is imposed by our
tariff, the foreign producer first deducts thb duty from theprevious price
on the sale to pur merchant, it must be equa:lly true with a duty of one
hundred per cent., which is exactly equal to the previous price, and,
when deducted. Would reduce the price to nothing.
The occasional fall in price of some articles after a tariff' is nb proof
that this was the effect of the tariffV because, from improved machinery,
diminished.prices of the raw material, or other causes, prices may fall
even after a tariff, but they Would in such cases have fallen much more



1845.1

SECRETARYOFTHETREASURY.
•

-!

• •

.

•

11
0

•

(I

but for the. tariff.. The truest comparison is between the present price
of the same article at home arid abroad; and to the extent that the price
is lower in the foreign, market than in bur own, the duty, if equal to that
difference, must tp that extent enhance the price, and in the same ratio
with the lower duty. The difference in price at home or abroa;d isgen-^
erally about equal to the difference in the cost of production, arid pre- '
sents.-,.in a series of years, the surest measure of the effect of the duty:
the enhancement in price being equal to that difference, if the duty be
higher than that difference or equal to it; or if the duty be. lower, then
the enhancement is equal to the duty; and. if the article is produced^
like cotton, more cheaply here than abroad, the duty is inoperative.
The great argument for the tariff is, that foreign labor being cheaper
than our own, the cost of foreign productions, it is said, is lessened to
that extent, and that we must make up this difference by an equivalent
duty arid a corresporiding enhancement of price in our own market
both on the foreign article arid of its rival domestic product-—thus rendering the duty a tax on all consumers fof the benefit,of the protected
classes. If the marshal were sent by the Federal Gpvernment to 'collect a direct tax frPm the whole people,,to be paid over to manufacturing
capitalists, to enable therii to sustain their business, or realize a larger
profit, it would, be the same in effect as the protective duty, which, when
analyzed in its simplest elements, and feduced to actual results, is a
.mere subtraction of so much money from the people to increase the
respurces of the protected classes. Legislation for classes is against the
doctrine of equal rights, repugnant to the. spirit of. our free institutioris,
and, it is appreherided by many, may become but another form for
privileged orders, under the name of protectipn instead of privilege;
indicated here not by rank or title, but by profits and dividends extracted
from the manj^, by taxes upon theiii^ for the benefit of the few.
. No prejudice is felt by the Secretary of the Treasury against manufacturers. His opposition is to the .protective system, and not to classes
or- iridividuals. He doubts not that the manufacturers are sincerely
persuaded that the system which is a source of so much profit to them
is berieficial also to the country. He entertairis a contfary opinion, and
clairrisfor the opponents of the system a settled convictiori ofits injurious effects. Whilst a due regard to the just and equal icights of all
classes forbids a discrimination in favor of the manufacturers, by duties
above the lowest revenue limit, no disposition is felt to discriminate
against them by reducing such duties as operate in their favor below
that standard. Under reyenue duties it is believed they would still ,
receive a reasonable prpfit, equal to. that, realized by those engaged in
other pursuits; and it is thought they should desire no rriore, at least
through the agency of governmental power. Equal rights and profits, so
far.as laws are made, best corifofm to the principles upon which the
-Constitution was founded, and with an undeviating regard tp which all
its functioris should be exercised, looking to the wihole country and not
to ..classes or sections. •
Soil, climate,'and other causes, vary. very much in different countries
the pursuits which are most profitable in each; and the prosperity of all
of them will be best promoted by leaving them, unrestricted by legisla


12

R E P O R T S OF T H E

[1845.

tion, to exchange with each other those fabrics and products which they
severally raise most cheaply. This is clearly illustrated by the perfect
free trade which exists among all the States of the Union, and by the
acknowledged fact that any one of.^ these States would be injured by
imposing duties upon the products of the others. It is generally conceded that reciprocal free trade among nations would best advance the
interest of all; but it is contended that we must meet the tariffs of other
nations by countervailing restrictions. That duties upon our exports by
foreign nations are prejudicial to us, is conceded; but whilst this injury
is slightly felt by the manufacturers,: its weight falls almost exclusively
upon agriculture, commerce, and navigation. If those interests which
sustain the loss do not ask countervailing restrictions, it should not be
demanded by the manufacturers, who do not feel the injury, and whose
fabrics, in fact, are not excluded by the fbreign legislation of which they
complain. That agriculture, commerce, and navigation are injured by
foreign restrictions, constitutes no reason why they should be subject to
still severer treatment by additional restrictions and countervailing tariffs
enacted at home. Commerce, agriculture, and navigation, harassed
as they may be by foreign restrictions, diminishing the amount of
exchangeable products which they could otherwise purchase abroad,
are burdened with heavier impositions at home. Nor wiih augmented
duties here.lead to a reduction, of foreign tariffs, but the. reverse, by
furnishing the'protected, classes there with the identical argumerit used
by the protected classes here against reduction. By countervailing restrictions we injure our own felloW-citizens riiuch more than the foreign
nations at whom we propose to aiin their force; and in the conflict of
opposing tariffs we sacrifice our own commerce, agriculture, and navigation. As well might we impose monarchical or aristocratic restrictions on our oWii Government or people, because that is the course of
foreign legislation. Let our commerce be as free as our political institutions. Let us, with revenue duties only, open our ports to all the
world, and nation after nation will soon follow our example. If we reduce our tariff, the party opposed to the corn laws of England would
soon prevail, and admit all our agricultural, products at all times freely
into her ports, in exchange for her exports. And if England would now
repeal her daties upon our \vheat, flour, Indian corn, and other agricultural products, our own restrictive system would certainly be doomed'
to overthrow. If the question is asked. Who shall begin this w'ork of
reciprocal redaction? it is answered by the fact that England has
already abated her duties upon most of our exports. She has repealed
the duty upon cotton, a,nd greatly reduced the duty upon our breadstuffs, provisions, and other articles; and her present bad harvest, if
accompanied by a reduction of our tariff, would lead to the repeal of
her corn laws, and thc unrestricted admission, at all times, of our agricultural products. The manufacturing interest opposes reciprocal free
trade with foreign nations; it opposes the Zoll-Verein treaty; a n d i t is
feared that no other treaty producing a reciprocal reduction of our bwn
and foreign tariffs will receive its support. If that interest preferred a
reciprocal exchange of our own for foreign fabrics at revenue duties, it
would not have desired a tariff' operating, withput exception, against aU



1845.]

S E C R E T A R Y OF T H E TREASURY.

13

nations that adopted low as well as high tariffs, nor would it have opposed every amendment proposing, when the tariff of 1842 was under
consideration, a reduction of our duties upon the exports of such natioiis as would receive, free of duty, our flour and other, agricultural
products. If that interest desired reciprocal free trade with other nations, it would have desired a very different tariff from that of 1842. It
would have sought to confine the high duties to those cases where the
foreign impprter would sell, his imports for cash only, and admitted a
drawback of one-half of the duty where American exports would be
taken abroad in exchange-^not an actual barter of foreign imports for
an equal amount in value of our products, but without any barter where
a sum equal to the value of their exports was used in purchasing here
an equal amount in value of any of our products; a.nd the shipmerit
made abroad of these prpducts upon the same principle under which a
drawback of duties is.now allowed on the reexportation of foreign imports. This wpuld be less simple, and is not recommended in lieu of
that absolute reduction of the duties which will accomplish the same
object, of unrestricted exchange. But such a provision would be a selfexecuting reciprocity law, and should be desired, by those believing in
countervailing tariffs against foreign nations, but in feciprocal free trade
with all—thus enabling our farmers and planters to sell their products
for cheaper foreign manufactures, getting more fpr what they sell, and
paying less, for what they purchase in exchange. , It.seenis strange that
w^hile the profit of agriculture varies from one to eight p.er cent., that of
manufactures is more than double. The rea;son is, that whilst the high
duties secure nearly a monopoly of the home niarket to the manufacturer, the farmer and planter are deprived to a great extent of the foreign market by these duties. The fEirmer and planter are, to a gfeat
extent, fprbidden to buy in the foreign market, and confined to the domestic articles enhanced in price by the duties. The tariff is thus a
double benefit to the manufacturer, and a double loss to the farmer and
planter; a. benefit to the former in nearly a nionopoly of the home
mafket, and in enhanced prices of their fabiics; and a loss to the
latter in the pajmient of those high prices, and a total or partial exclusion from the foreigii market. The true question is, whether the farmer
and planter shall, to a "great extent, supply,our people with cheap manufactures, purchased abroad with their agricultural products, or whether
this exchange shall be forbidden by high duties on such manufactures,
and their supply thrown, as a monopoly, at large prices, by high tariffs,
into the hands of our own manufacturers. The number of manufacturing capitalists who derive the benefit from the heavy taxes extracted
by the tariff from twerity millions of'people does not exceed ten thousand. The whole number (including the working classes engaged in our
. manufactures) deriving any benefit from the tariff, does not excecji four
hundred thousand, of whom not more than forty thousand have been
brought into this pursuit by the last tariff. But this sniall number of
forty thousand would still have been in the country, consuming our agricultural products;. and in the attempt to secure them as purchasers, so
small, in number and not consuming one half the supply of many counties, the farmer and planter are asked to sacrifice the markets of the



14

R E P O R T S OF T H E

[1845.

world, containing a population of eight hundred millions j disabled froiii
purchasing our products by our high duties on all they would sell in
exchange. The farmer and .planter have the home market without a
tariff, and they would have the foreign market also to a much greater
extent but for the total or partial prohibition of the laist tariff.
We have more fertile lands than anyother nation, can raise a gfeater
variety of products, and, it may be said, could feed and clothe the people
of nearly" all the world. The home market, 'Pf itself, is wholly inadequate for such products. They musthave the foreign market, or a large
surplus, accompanied by great depression in price, must be the result.
The States of Ohio, Indiana, and llhnois, if cultivated to their fullest
extent, could, of themselves, raise more than suflicient food to supply
• the entire home market. Missouri or Kentucky could more than supply
it with hemp; already the State of Mississippi raises more cotton than
is sufficient for all the home market;. Louisiana is rapidly approaching
the same poirit as to sugar; and there are larids enough adapted to that
product in Louisiana, Texas, and Florida, to supply with' sugar and
molasses nearly all the markets of the world. If cotton is depressed
in price by the tariff, the consequence must be a cPmparative diminution
of the product, and the raising iri its place, to a great extent, hemp,
wheat,: corn, stock, and provisions, which otherwise would be supplied
by the teerriing products, of the West. The growing West in a-series'
of years must be the greatest: sufferers by the tafiff, in depriving them of
the foreign market and that of the ePttoii-growing States. We demand,
in fact, for our agricultural products, specie from -nearly all the world,
by heavy taxes upon all their manufactures ; and" their purchases from
us must therefore be hmited, as Well as their sales tP us enhanced in
price. Such a demand for specie, which we know in advance cannot
be complied with, is nearly equivalent to a decree excluding most of Pur
agricultural, products ;from the foreign markets. Such is the rigor of our
restrictions, that nothing short of a famine opens freely, the ports of
Europe for our breadstuffs. Agriculture is our chief employment; it is
best adapted to our situation; and, if not depressed by the tariff, would
be the most profitable. • W e can raise a larger surplus of agricultural
products, and a greater variety, than almost any other natiori, and at
cheaper rates. Rempve; then, from agriculture all our restrictions, arid
by its own unfettered power it wih break down all. foreign restrictions,
and, ours being removed, would feed the hungry arid clothe the po.or of
our fellowr.men throughout allthe densely-peopled natioris of the world,
But now we will take npthing in exchange, fbr these pfoducts but sp.ecie,
except at very high duties; and nothing but a famine breaks down all
foreigii restrictions, and opens, for a time the ports of Europe to our
breadstuffs. If, on a reduction of our duties, Englarid repeals her corn
laws, nearly all E.urppe must follow her example, or give to her manufacturers advantages which cannot be successfully encountered in most
of the markets of the w ofId. The tariff did notraise the price of our
breadstuffs ; but a bad harvest in Englarid does—giving us-for the time
that foreign market which we would sPon have at all times by that repeal
of the corn laws which must follPw the reduction of our duties> But
whilst breadstuffs rise with a had hafvest in England, cotton almost



1845.]

S E C R E T A R Y OF T H E TREASURY.

15

invariably falls; because the increased sum which, in that event, Engla.nd
must pay for our breadstuffs, we will, take, not in manufactures, but only
in specie; and not having it to spare, she brings down, even to a greater
extent, the price of our cotton.. Hence the result that a bad harvest in
Erigland reduces the aggregate price of our exports, often turns the
exchanges against us, carryingour specie abroad, and inflicting a serious
blow on our prosperity. Foreign nations cannot for a series of years
import more than they export; and if we close our markets against their
imports by high duties, they must buy less of our exports, or give alower price, or both.
^
Prior to the 30th of June, 1842, a credit was given for the payment
of duties; since which date, they have been collected in cash. Before
the.cash duties and the tariffof 1842, our trade in fbreign imports reex- .
ported abroad afforded large and profitable employment to our merchants,
and freight to our commercial marine, both for the inward and:outward
voyage; but since the last tariff", this trade is being lost to the country,
as is proved by the tables hereto annexed. The total amount, of foreign
imports reexported during the three, years since the last tariff, both of
free and dutiable goods, is $33,384,394—being far less than in any three/years (except during the war) since 1793, and less than was reexported
in any one of eight several years. The highest aggregate of any three
years was $173,108,813, and the lowest aggregate $41,315,705:—-being
in the years 1794, 1795, and 1796. Before 1820, the free goods are not
distinguished in this particular from the dutiable goods; but since that
date the returns show the following result: ^During the three years since
the tariff of 1842, the value of dutiable imports reexportedwas $12,590,811-—being less than in any one of seven years precedirig sirice 1820,
the lowest aggregate of any thre.e years since that date being $14,918,444, and the liighest $57,727,293. Even before the cash duties, for five
years preceding the high tariff of 1828, the value of dutiable goods
reexported was $94,796,241; and for the five years succeeding that
tariff; $66,784,192—showing a loss of $28,012,049 of our trade in foreign
exports after the tariff of 1828. The diminution of this most valuable
branch of commerce has been the combined result, of cash duties^and
of the high tariff of 1842. If the cash duties are retained, as it isbelieved
they should be, the oiily sure method of re storing this trade is the adoption of the warehousing system, by which the foreign imports may be
kept in store by the Government until they are required for reexportation
abrpad, or consumption, at home-^in which latter contirigency, and at
the time when, for that purpose, they are taken out of these stores for
consumption, the duties' are paid, and, if reexported, they pay no^duty,
but only the expense of storage. Under the present system, the merchant
introduces foreign imports of the value of $100,000. He must now,
besides the advance for the goods, make a further /advance in cash, in
many cases, of $50,000 for the duties. Under such a. system, but a
small amount of goods will be iniported for drawbacks ; and the higher
the duty, the larger must be the advance, and the smaller the impprts for
reexportation.
The imports, before payment: of duties, under the same regulations
now applied to our imports in transit to Canada, may be taken: from



16

R E P O R T S OF T H E

[1845.

warehouse to warehouse—-from the east to the lakes, and to Pittsburg,
Cincinnati, and Louisville—from New Orleans to Natchez, Vicksburg,
Memphis, and St. Louis—and warehoused in these and other interior
ports, the duties remaining unpaid until the goods are taken out of the
warehouse, and out of the original package, at such ports, for consumption; thus carr5ting our foreign commerce into the interior, with all the
advantage of augmented business and cheaper supplies throughout the
country. It will introduce into our large ports on or near the seaboard
assorted cargoes of goods, to be reexported with our own, to supply the
markets of the world. It will cheapen prices to the consumer, by deducting the interest and profit that are now charged upon the advance
of duty—building up the marts of our own commerce, and giving profitable employment to our own commercialmarine. It will greatly increase
our revenue, by augmenting our imports, together with our exports; and
is" respectfully recommended to Cpngress, as an iniportant part of the
whole system now proposed for their consideration.
,
The act of the 3d of March last, allbwing a drawback on foreign,
imports exported from certain pf our ports to Canada, and also to Santa
Fe and Chihuahua, in Mexico, has gone to some extent into effect under
regulations prescribed by this Departnient, and is beginning to produce
the most happy results, especially in an augmented trade in the supply
of foreign exports to Canada from our own ports. Indeed this law must
soon give to us the whole of this valuable trade during the long peiiod
when the St. Lawrence is closed by ice, and a large proportion of it at
all seasons. The result would be stiU mofe beneficial if Canada were
allowed, to carry all her exports to foreign.nations in transitu through
our own railroads, rivers, and canals, to be shipped from our own ports.
Such a system, whilst it would secure to us this valuable trade, would
greatly enlarge the business on our rivers, lakes, railroads, sind canals,
as well as augment our .commerce, and would soon lead to the purchase,
by Canada, not only of our foreigii exports^ but also, in many cases, of
our domestic products arid fabrics, to complete an assortment. In this
manner our commercial relations with Canada would become more intimate, and more and more of her trade every year would be secured to
our people.
^
Connected with this Department and the finances is the question of
the sales of the public lands. The proceeds of these sales, it is believed,
should continue to constitute a portion of the revenue, diminishing to that
extent the amount required to be raised bythe tariff. The net proceeds
of these sales paid intp the Treasury during the last fiscal year was
$2,077,022 3 0 ; and from the first sales in 1787 up to the 30th of Sep.
tember last was $118,607,335 91. The average annual sales have been
much less than two millions of acres ; yet the aggregate net proceeds of
the sales in 1834, 1835, 1836, and 1837, was $51,268,617 82. Those
large sales were almost exclusively for speculation; and this can only
be obviated at all tinies by confining the sales to settlers and;cultivators
in hmited quantities, sufl&cient for farms or plantations. The price at
which the public lands should be sold is an important question to the
whole country, but especially to the people of the new States, living
mostly remote from the seaboard, and who have scarcely felt the pres


1845.]

S E C R E T A R Y OF T H E TREASURY.

17

ence ofthe Government in locaf expenditures, but chiefly iri the exhaustion of their means for purchases of public lands and for customs. The
public lands are riot of the same value, yet they are all fixed at one
unvarying price, which is far .above the vsdue of a large portion ofthese
lands. The quantity now subject to entry at the mininium price of
$1 25 per acre is 133,307,457 acres, and 109,035,345 in addition, to
which the Indian title has been extinguished—being an aggregate of
242,342,802 acres, and requiring a century and a quarter to complete
the sales at the rate they have. progressed heretofore, without including
any of the unsold lands of Texas or Oregon,.or of the vast region besides
to which the Indian title is not yet extinguished., It is clear, then, that
there is a vast and anriually-increasing surplus of public lands, very little
of which will be soldwithin.anyreasonable period at the present price,
arid in regard to which the pubhc interest would be promoted, and the
reyenue augmented, by reducing the price. The reduction, of the price
of the public lands in favor of settlers and cultivators worild enhance
the wages of labor.. It is an argument urged iri favor of the tariff that
we ought to protect our labof against what is called the pauper labor of
Europe. But whilst the tariff does not enhance the wages of labor, the
sales of the public lands at low .prices, arid in limited quantities to
settlers and cultivators, would accomplish, this object. If those who
five by the wages of labor could purchase 320 acres of land for $80,
• 160.acres for $40,;or 80 acres for $20, or 40 acre lot for $10, the power
of the manufacturing capitalist in reducirig the wages of labor would be
.greatly dimiriished; because when these lands were thus reduced, in
price,, those who live by the wages of labor could purchase farms: at
theselowrates, and cultivate the soil for themselves and families, instead
of working for others twelve hours a day in the manufactories. Reduce
the price! which the laborer must pay for the public domairi ; bring thus
the means of purchase within his. power; prevent all speculation and
monopoly in the public lands; confine the sales to settlers: and cultivatofs in limited quantities; preserve these hundreds of rriilhons of acres,
for ages to come, as honies for the poor and oppressed; reduce the, taxes
by reducirig the tariff and bringing down the prices which the ppor are
thus compelled to pay fof all the necessaries and comforts of life,, arid
more will be dorie for the benefit of Ameiican labor than if millions were
added to the profits pf manufacturing capital by the enactment of a
protective tariff ;
The Secretary of the Treasury, on coming into office, found the revenues deposited with banks. -The law bstablishing the Independent
Treasury was fepealed,- and the Secretary had no power to reestabhsh
that system. Congress had not only repealed that law, but, as a substitute, had adopted the. present system of depbsite banks, and prohibited
changing.any.pne of those foj another bank except for specified reasons.
No alternative was left but to continue the existirig system until Congress
should think proper to change it. That change, it is hoped, will now
be made by a return to the Treasury of the Constitution. One of the
great evils of banks is/the constant expansion and contraction of the
cufrency; and this evil is augmented by the deposites of the revenue
with banks, whether State or national. T h e only proper course for the
VOL. V.—2.



18

R E P O R T S OF T H E

[1845.

Governmerit is to keep its owri; money separate from all banks and
bankers, in its own Treasury-^^whether in the mint, brarich mirits. Or
othef Govefnment agericies—-and to use only gold and silvef coin in all
receipts and disbursements. The business Pf the country will be more
saf6 wheri an adequate supply of specie'is keptwithiri ouf limits, and
its circulation encouraged by all the mearis withiri the power ofthe Government. If this Governmerit arid the States arid-the people unite in
suppressing the useof specie, an adequate supply, for warit of a deriiand,'
caririot be kept within ouf limits, and the conditipn of the busiriess and
currency of the country will be perilous arid uncertain. •• It will be completely within the power of the bariks, whose paper will constitute the.
exclusive circulation of the whole community. Nor will it be useful to
establish a constitutional Trea;sury, if it is to receive or disburse the pap.er
of banks.' Separation from banks in that case Would only be nominal,
arid no addition would be made to the circulatiori of-gokl arid silver*
Vaiious forms of paper credit have been suggested, as .connected with .
the operations ofthe consti tutionail Treasury; but they are all cprisidered
as impa,iring orie.Pf the great objects of such a • Treasury-—-riamely, ari
L
augmented circulatiori of specie. If paper, iri whatever form, of from
whatever source it may issue, should be iritroduced aS a .circulation by
the constitutional Treasufy, it would, precisely to that extent, diminish
its use as a means of circulatirig gold .and silver.
.
: The constitutional Treasury could be rendered a most .powerful .auxiliary of the Mint in augmenting the' specie cif culatiori.' The amourit of
public money which can be placed in the Mirit is now limited by law to
one million pf dollafs; -and: to that exterit it is now used as a depository,
and as a means'of iriereasing ouf coiriage. It is Suggested that this •
limitation may be so modified as to perrriit the use -of our Mint and bfanch• mints'fbf a much larger sum, in coririectiori with the coristitutional Trea:sury. The amount of public -money received at New York greatly
exceeds that colleeted at all othef points, 'and would of, itself seem to
call for a'place of public deposite there; in view of which, the locatibri.
of a branch of theMint of the Uriited States at that city Would be mpst
convenient and useful. -The arguriient used against'a constitutional
Treasury, of the alleged insec.ufity of the public funds in the hands of
individuals j and especially .the vast ambunt collected at New York,, will
be entirely obviated by such an establishments The Mirit ofthe United .
States has now been in existence fifty-two years. It has.had the custbd;y of upwards of $114,000,000, arid duririg this long jpeiiod of time there
never has been a loss of any of its specie in the •Mint by the Govefritoent. The Mint at Philadelphia is now coriduGted with great efficiency
by the able and faithful officer at the head of that establishirierit,
' whosb general,supervisbry authofity, without leaving the parent Mint,
might still be wisely extended ' tP . the brarich at NewYork. Besides
the utility of such a brancfras'a place for keeping safely and disbursirig
the public money j it is believed that the coinage might be great lyaug-^
riiented by the existence of a brarich of the Mriit at that grcM t^ity. It
is there that two=-thif ds'of the revenue is aririually cpllected-^the whole
of which, under the operation pf the coristitutioriar T r e a s u f y / w p u l d t e
received in specie. Of that amount, a very large sum Would be received



1845.]

S E C R E T A R Y OF T H E TREASURY.

19

in coin of other countries, and especially in foreign gold coins—aU which . J
cbuld be .speedily converted, upon the spot, into our own coins of gold [
and silver. The amount .also of such foreign coin brought by emigrants
to the city of New York is very considerable; a large portion of which
^ would find its way to the branch of the Mint for recoinage. The foreign
gold coins do not, and it is feared will not, circulate generally as a
Gufrency, notwithstanding .they are made a tender by law. The rate at
which thesb coins afe fixed by law is riot familiar to the people; the
'denomination of such coin is inconveriient; 4he parts into which it is
•divided are not decimal; the rates'at which it is takeri vary in different
parts of the Union. It is inconvenient in the way of ready transfer in .
counting; it .is more difficult, in common use, to distinguish the genuine
from the counterfeit foreign coin; and the stamp' upon it is not familiar
to the people-^from all which causes, a foreign gold coin does not, arid
will not, circulate generally as a currency among the people. . In mariy , .
of the banks, nearly the whole of their specie is kept in every variety of I ^
foreign gold coin;, and when it is tendered by them in payment of their '
notes, the great body of the people, riot being familiar with these coins,
do not receive them; arid thus the circulation of a gold currency is, to :
a great exterit, defeated., If these coins were converted at our Mint, or
branch mints, into the eaglcj the half-eagle, and quarter-eagle, we should
speedily have a large supply of American gold coin, and it would very
soon be broughtinto common use as a currency, and thus give to it greater
stability, and greater security to all the business of the country. A
considerable amount of foreign gold coin has, during the present year,
under the directions of this Departme.nt, been converted irito American
gold coin ; but the process would be much more rapid if aided by the
organization of xhe constitutionaL Treasury,: and the establishment of a
brarich pf the Mint at the great commercial emporium of the Union;
With the mint and branch Mints as depositories, the sum remaining in
the hands of other receivers of public money, whether of lands or customs,
would be inconsiderable, and the Government could be readily protected" .
from, all losses of such sums by adequate bbnds,~and the power by law .
to convict arid punish as criminals all who embezzle the public moneys.
It is believed, under such a- system, that no- defaults would take place,
and that the public moneys would be safely kept and disbursed in gold
and silver. This Government is made, by the-Constitution, the. guardian
of a sp'ecie currency. .That currency can only be coined, and its value
regulated, by this Government. It is brie of its first duties to supply
such a eurrency, by an efficient mint, and by .general regulations of the
coinage; but iri vain will it attempt to perform that duty, if, when coin
is made or regulated in value, this Government' dispenses withdts use,
and expels it from circulation, or drives it out ofthe couritry, by substituting the paper of banks in all the transactioris o f t h e Government.
There is ^nothing which will advance so surely the prosperity of the .
couritry as an adequate supply of specie, diffused' thrpughout every
portion of theUnion, and constituting^ to a great extent, the ordinary
circulation everywhere among the people* It is a curfency that will
riever break nor fail; it will rieither expand nor contract beyorid the
legitirriate business of the country; it will lead to no extravagant spbcu


20

R E P O R T S OF T H E

[1845.

lations at Orie time, to be followed by certain depression at another; nor
will labor ever be robbbd of its^ reward by the. depreciation of such
currericy. There is no danger that \te shall have too much igold and
silver in actual circulation, or too small an amount of bank paper,: br that
any injury ever \vill be inflicted upon the busiriess ofthe country, by a
diminution of the circulation of the paper of banks, and the substitution
in its place, to that extent, of gold and silver. Even their most ardent
advocates must admit tliat banks :are subject to periodical expansions
and contractions, and that this eviFwould be increased by giving them
the frinds of the Government to loan, and by receiving and disbursirig
riothing but their paper.
^
-;
It is believed that the permanent interest of every class of the people
willbe advanced by the establishment of the constitutional Treasury,
and that the.manufacturers.especially will derive great.benefit from its
, adoption." It will give, stability to all their operations j and insure them,
to a great extent, agairist those fluctuatioris, expansions^ and contractions
of the Currency so prgjiidicial to their; interests.; By guarding -against
inflations of the currehcy, it will have a tendency to check periodical
excesses of foreign importatioris purchased in fact upon credit; while
. loans from bariks, or .dangerous enlargements of their business, and
excessive issues of their paper, will be .greatly diriiinished. ^Whilst a
sound ahd stable currency guards,the manufacturer against excessive
iriiportations.frPm abroad, it protects him from disasters at home, arid from
those'ruinous revulsions iri which so many thousarids are reduced to
barikruptcy. "^. The tariff, i f followed, as.iu the absence of adequate checks
it certainly soon will be, b}^ an inflated currericy, whilst it thus enhances
the experises of manufacturing at hpm-e, will speedily and certainly raise
prices, up to the whple amount pf the duty, so as to repeal the operatibn
of that duty in favor ofVthe mariufacturer,:and eriable.the fbreign irnporter
again to flood the market, at the enhariced prices arising from ari inflated
currency. But soon the rbvulsibn corries, and ^ I are overwhelrhed in a
common rriiri. The curf ericy is feducedbelow.the wants of the couritry,
by a sudden and ruirious contr actiori'; arid tlie labor and. iridustry of :
years are required ^ to repair the rriischief. Stability, both in the tariff
and the. cuf rency, is what the :manufactu'rer should most i desire. Let
the tafiff be permariently adjuste'd, by a returri tbreasona;ble and iiioderate
revenue duties, which, evPn when irriposed truly and iri good faith fbr
that purpose, will yield sufficient advaritage to affprd reasonable profits;,
arid let this perriianent .system .(and .none, other cari be permarient) be
established, and accompanied by a stable currency, and the manufacturer,
in a series of yeiars, will derive the." greatest benefits; from the system.
•The present system cannot be permanent*. It is too. unequal and unjust,
too exorbitant arid oppressive,, and top cleafly in conflict with the fundamental principles of the Coristitutiori.; If the manufactufer thinks that
this system can be permanerit, let him look to the constant chariges which
have attended all attempts to establish and coritinue a protective tariff.
The;first tariff was based in part upori the principle of very moderate
protection to domestic nianufactures; and the result has been, as appears
by the t a b k heretb annexed, that the tariff has been changed and modified thirty times sirice that period-^being more than once, on ari average,



,

;

,

1845.]

SECRETARYOFTHETREASURY.

21

for every Congress since the Government was forinded; and one of these
tariffs was in itself a system of successive biennial changes, operating
through a period of ten years..' Of these changes, fourteen have, been
general,.andsixteeri special. From 1816 onward, these ;changes have
been mbst frequent; and it is vain to expect permanency from anything
but a reveriue tariff. . Stability is what the nianufacturer should desire,
and especially that the questipn should be taken but pf the arena of
politics, by a just and permanent settlement. A. great riumber of tables,
illustrative of the effects of the tariff, compiled from official docriments,
accompany this report. Some:of these tables exhibit the, operation of
each of our tariffs, frorn the organization Pf the Governmerit to the
present.period; In. order to enable .the Secretary to comply with the
direction of the acts of Corigf ess, f equiring him iri his aririual report to
suggest "plans for improving or increasing the. revenues," and.to give
"inforniatiPn to Congfess in adopting modes of raising" the revenue,
two:circulars: were is.sued, published, and generally distributed, propoundirig various questions connected with this subject, and requesting
replies, Some answers have been feceived, from,' friends as well as
opponents ofthe tariff; but the Secretafy f egrets thatthe manufacturefs,
with very few exceptibris, have dechned ariswering these questipns, or
communicatirig: any informatibn as regards their profits, arid surplus, or
in relatiori.fb;the wages of; labor. An abstract of all that is deemed
useful iu these, replies, together with a copy of both the circulars, is
appended to this report. .
'
. .\
The coast survey is rapidly progressing, having been; extended eastward to the eastern coast of Massachusetts, and southward neafly to the
dividing linp.of Maryland, and Virgihia,-bn the Chesapeake. T w o newcentres of operation have been bpened, Urider the^ sanction of this Department, in North Carohna, and on the Gulf of Mexico, from which the work
may be spread until the parts unite. Important positions for forts, nayyyards, harbors, arid light-houseS, present therriselves along this interesting
portion of the coast of Louisiana, Mississippi, and Alabama, and the
islands guarding the inteiior channel between Mobile and New Orleans.
.Great econoniy exists in the administration Pf the furid apprppriated for
the coast sufvey; and every effort is made by the superintendent to
press the;work,pnward to a completion; arid his report in detail will be
hereafter subinitted to CongfeSs. Three' charts, resulting frbm the
survey, have been published within the past yeaf^ and five more are
nearly ready for publication. This gfeat work is most honorable tb'the
science of our country, mPst useful to our Navy and commercial marine,
and, in cpnnectibn with our light-houses, miist decrease the cost of
freight arid insurance, as well as the risk of life and property. Great
attention has been, giveri by this pepartment to the very ifriportant subject
of our light-^hbuse system.; The various: improvements suggested by
experience.at home of abroad; the relatiye advantages of gas or Pil, of
reflectbrs, lenticular, arid' reyolving lights, the location and cbristruction
of the; buildings,, as well a:s the. mode of keeping the lights, are ah being
fully and carefully investigated, arid a report, it is belieyed, wiU be
ready during the.present sessibn of Congress.^ From the Chesapeake to
the capes of Flprida, and thence west\vard, our coast is badly lighted, as



22

R E P O R T S OF T H E

'

[1845.

well as the great lakes- of the Northv^est; and numefpus wrecks, ofteri
accompanied with loss of hfe and property, seem to require the interposition of Congress. ,
/
Such portions of the charts bfthe Exploring Expedition as were placed
under the^charge of this Department were distributed fof the benefit of
. our whale ships. These valuable charts embrace the survey of many
Kithertp almost unexplored^ regioris and islands ofthe Pacific, as well, as
a part of the coast of Oregon, and must be eminently useful for many
purposes, but espeeially to our seamen and merchants engaged in the
whale fishery. Iri pursuance of a resolution of Congress, a report is in
progress of preparation a.s regards the banks and currency,-and also in
relation to statistics; and these, with all other reports required from this;
Department, will be presented at the earliest practicable period ofthe
present session.
'
.
^ In presenting his annual report, in obedience to the law, the Secretary
ofthe Tf easury submits his views with undissembled. diffidence, consoled
by the reflectiori that all his errors ofjudgment will be corrected by the
superior wisdom of the two.Houses of Congress, guided and.directed by
that overruling Providjsnce which has blessed the unexampled progress
of this great and happy Union."
. . .
R . J . WALKER,
Secretary ofithe^ Treas'ury,.
Hon. GEOROE M. DALLAS,

'

-

Vice President ofiihe United States and
• : President pfi the Senate.




.

1845..]

S E C R E T A R Y OF T H E TREASURY.

23

Schedule of Papers and Tahles accompanying the Report ofi the Secretai'y of
^ • the Treasury.
.
,
A : Statemerit of duties, revenues, and expenditures, during the fiscal
year ending June 30,1845, agreeably to wafrantsisBued, exclusive
of trust funds. , ^
:
B. Statement of duties, revenues, and public expenditufes for the first
quarter of the fiscal yeaf, from the 1st July to 30th September,
. ' 1845> agreeably to warrants issued,'exclusive of trust funds,
C. Statement, of'quantity, value,.'and drity Pri the imports of theyear
ending 30th June, 1845, together with an. estimated rate of 20,
, 25, and 30 per cent.,, giving each article in. detaiL
'
D.. Statemerit of impbrts, exports.,., arid eorisumptipn of foreign mer chandise. fof the; year 1846, giving each article in detail.
E . Detailed statement ofthe several tariffs enacted by Corigress, and of
the duties, prescribed by each,.
F , Thirteeri separate tables showing the imports of the.various descriptions of iron arid its mariufactures impprted, each yeaf sirice the
orgariizationvof the .Government to the pfesent period, with the
value and rate of duty,.;
.
G,: Similar table to the abpve, as to coal,
H. Similaf table tP the above, as. to sugars,,
-;
I.; Similar table tp the above, as to mola,sses.
E , Similar table to the^above, as to cpffee.
' . , :.
<L. Similar table tP the abpve, as to tea. ^
. M. Circulars of the Secretary ofthe Treasury, and abstract of replies to
them, in regard to the tariff.
N. Statement ofthe aggregate annual amount of imports, and of foreign
goods reexported from 4th pf March, 1789j to the 30th June,
1845, showing also the amount retained in the country for consumption.
^ .'
O. Statement showing the amount .of foreign merchandise reexported
each year from 1821 to June 30, 1845, both inclusive, distinguishing free andidutiable goods.
P . A statement exhibiting the value of foreigri merchandise imported,
reexported, and consurhed, annually, from 1821 to 1845, inclusive. '
Q. A statement exhibitirig the value bfthe exports of domestic produce
and manufacture, and of foreign mercharidise reexported, annually,
from 1821, to 1845, inclusive.
R. Statistical view of the commerce of the United States, exhibitingihe
value of imports and exports, and also the amonnt of tonnage.,
employed in foreign trade, annually, from 1821 to 1845.
S. Values of the principal articles imported into the United States.
T . The same, continued.
U. A statement exhibiting the value of manufactures of cotton imported
from 1821 to 1845, inclusive.
V. A statement exhibiting the, value of manufactures bf wool imported
into the United States frPm 1821 to 1845, inclusive.
W . A statement exhibitirig the value of manufactufes of hemp and flax
imported into the United States from 1821 to 1845, inclusive.



24

R E P O R T S OF T H E

[1845.

X. A statement exhibiting the value of manufa:ctures of iron,_ arid iron
and steel, and of iron and steel unmanufactured, imported into
the United States from 1821 to 1845, inclusive.
; ^
Y. A statement exhibiting the value of h e m p a n d cPrdage imported into
the United States from 1821 to 1845, inclusive.
Z . A statement of the value of articles imported into the United States,
designating the countries from which received.
AA. Statement coritinued.
;
'
BB. A/statement exhibiting the value of certain articles of domestic produce and manufacture, and of bulliori arid specie, exported from
1821 to 1845,: inclusive, . : ; , .
CC.. A statement exhibiting the value of domestic and foreign produce,
and: manufactures exported, and the countfies to which the^ same
were Exported annually, from 1821 to 1845, inclusive.
DDi Statemerit continued.
.
E E . A statement exhibiting the value of mefchandise iinported from 1821
to 1845, and also the amount of duties which accf ued annually
, upon said imports during the said period.
:!
F F . A statement exhibiting the amount of duties on merchandise, tonnage,
. and light-money, passports and clearances, drawback paid on
foreign merchandise reexported, drawback on domestic refined
sugar and dpmestic distilled spirits, bounties on pickled fish
, exported, allowances to vessels ernployed in the bank and cod
fisheries, expenses of collection, and the net revenue which
accrued, annually, from 1821 to.1845, inclusive.
' >




1845.]
^

V.

25

SECRETARY OF T H E TREASURY.
•

: • •.
•

A .

Statement of Duties, Revenues, dnd.Puhlic Expenditures, during the fiscal-year
ending June 30, 1845, agreeably to fhfi warrants.-issued, exclusive ofi trust
fiunds. .
•
•.
'
The receipts into the Treasury duririg the" fiscal year ending
30th June, 1845, were as follows:
From customs, viz: ;
-*
During the quarter ending Septemb.er 30, 1 8 4 4 . . . . . . . .
During the quarter endirig DeQertiber 31,; 1 8 4 4 / . . . . . . .
During the,quarter ending March'31, 1 8 4 5 / . . . . . . . . *.
During the quai-ter ending June' 30,1845 / . . . V . " . . . . . . .

10,873,718
4,067,445
6,385,558
'6,201,390

04
15
83
68

From sales of public l a n d s . ; . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ; . . .
Frorh miscellaneous and incidental sources.,..'.'.'
.'.

#27,528,112 70
2,077,022 30
"163,998 56

Total r e c e i p t s , . . . . . . . . . . ^...'
Balance in the Treasury July 1, 1844..

$29,769,133 56
7,857,379 64
i$37,626,513 20

Total m e a n s . . . .
The expenditures for..the fiscal ;year ending June 30, 1845,
exclusive of trust funds, -were, viz:
'
' CIVIL LIST..
Legislature..... . , . . • . . i , . . . . . i . . . . . . . . . . . . •
•........
Executive..............:......... i........... .|.........
Judiciairy.^ . . . . . . . . . i . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ' .
......v.«........
Governments in the Territories of the United S t a t e s . ' . . . . . . . .
Surveyors and their c l e r k s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . i , . . , . . . . : .
Officers of the Mint arid; b i - a n c h e s . . . . . . . " . . . . . . ' . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Commissioner of the .FublicBuildings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Siecretary to sign patents for public lands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

$713,59416
847,342.28
628,012 ,17
93,206 60
-58,738.68
42,766 66
2,000 00
' 1,762 50
2,387,423 05

Total civil l i s t ; . . . . . i . . ; . . . . . . , . ' .
. FOREIGN INTERCOURSE.
Salaries of Ministers.
Salaries of Secretaries \>f ' L e g a t i o n . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ; . . . .
Salaries of Charges d'Affaires.....;
Salary of Minister Residient to T u r k e y ; . . . , . . . . . .^ . . . . . . . . .
Salary of dragoman to Turkey, and contingencies............
-Contingent expenses of all the missioni§. abroad............:...
Payments for certain diplomatic s e r v i c e s . . . . . . . . ; . . . . . . . . . . .
Outfits of Ministers and- Charges d'Affaires
Commissioner at the Sandwich I s l a n d s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Contingent expenses of foreign intercourse.
Salary ofthe consul at Londbn
..,..
Reliefand protection of American seaman.
.';......
Clerk hire, office rent, &c., to American consul at London...
Intercourse with iBarbary P o w e r s , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
ExpenseJs of for-warding mails, &c., between Chagres and
Panama.... . . . i . . i . . . i . . . . . -.. . v . . . . . . . . . . . i . . . . . . . . . ' ,
French seamen killed or,wounded a t . T o u l o n . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Expenses incurred by the.legation ..tovMexico.in. relation to
prisoners.s.... . . ^ . . . . . . . . . ; . . . . . . . . . . . i .
Payments under the-9.th airtitle of the treaty with Spain.......

$82,535 51
16,814 40
69,593 93
7,300 00
2,400 00
.13,421 69
14,879 40
. 61,191 00
2,800 00
30,879 89:
2,000 00
60,352 80
2,800 00
,6,266 79
500 00.
600 00
'^ . 3 3 13
25,300 00.
$399,668 54

Total foreign intercourse
MISCELLANEOUS!
:/
Surveys ofpublic l a n d s . . . . .^i...".,.'.',". i . . . ; . . ..'.'.-l ^..'.-....
Support and maintenance of l i g h t - h o u s e s . . . . ; . . . . . . . . . . . . . , . :
Marine hospital establishment...'......;....
:...,



$95,922 01
438,357 77
168,016 20

REPORTS OF THE

26

A—Coritinued.
Building marine hospitals.
Public buildings, &c., iii Washington
.;.
Support and maintenance of the penitentiary of the District of
Columbia.
'.. „
Patent fund:
.,
Distributiori ofthe sales ofpublic l a n d s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Payments to Maine arid Massachusetts for expenses incurred
in protecting the heretofore disputed territory on the northeastern fi'ontier of the United States . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Building custom-houses and w a r e h o u s e s . ' . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Survey of the coast of the United S t a t e s . . . . . . . . . . . ' . .v . , . . . : . /
Mint establishment...',.,
..'.•...' ^ . . ' . . . . . . . « . . . . . . .
R'elief of sundry individuals^ . . . . . . . . . ' . . . . . ' . . . . . . . . ; • . . . . . . . .
Surveying and marking the northeastern boundary... „
Three pef cent, fund to the State of Missou'ri. .••.;.'...„..'.;.,.
Five per cent, fund to the State of L b u i s i a n a ; : . . . . . . „ . . ' . . . .
Five per cent: fund to. the State of Arkansas
Two "per cent, fund to the State of -Mississippi'.";."...,..'...;,
Relief of the several corporate cities of lhe District ofColumbia
Debentures and other charges
V
.«...*..
Additional compensation to officers of the customs.'.'...."..'.-..
Duties refunded under p r o t e s t . . . . . . " . . . ' . . . . . . . . . . . . - . . . . . . . . .
Payment of horses, (fee, lost...'.
Repayment for lands erroneously sold
Refunding purchase money for. lands sold in the Greensburg
district, Louisiana.
Auxiliary watch for the city of Washington.
Expenses incidenttb the issue of Treasury, notes..............
Expenses incident to loaris.
.,.-...........;.
Testing the capacity and usefulness, of the. electro-magnetic
telegraphs
;
..•..
Results and account ofthe Exploring .Expedition--....;,...........
Preserving the botanical and horticultural, specimens, brought
home by the Exploring Expedition'.....:...
....;.'.
Preparing indices to the manuscript papers of Washington...
Information respecting foreign cornmerce............. „.,......
Payment of books ordered by Congress*
Conveying to the seat of government the -votes for President
and Vice Presiderit ofthe United States.
Completing State-house, Florida . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
indemnity for slaves on board the Comet and Encomium . . . .
Expenses in relatioii to insolvent debtors of the United States.
Support of insane persons in the District .ofColumbia!.......
Clerk to the commissioners to remit duties on goods destroyed
by fire in New York.'.
............... . * . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Manual for custom-chouses in relation to s u g a r . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
All other items of a miscellaneousynature.,....................

$35,800 00
28,916 15
7,652 84
39,798 07
19,7}6 23

.

•

'

••

•

10,792 95
. 288,933 39
85,110 16
100,087 00
126,067 9T
17,580 47
/ "11,602 63
6,665 91
7,617 56

340 ao

124,575 12.
283,500 00
'' 168,^380 79
398,730 30
19,811 75
41,532 75^
38,239 87
7,3ia 23
• .-4,000.00.
....^ 8,299.63.
4,881 00
35,000 00
2,200 00
1,252 00
., . .7,000 00
;
136,328 78
-

10,586 00
-20,000 00
~ 6,962 17
2,500 00
9;000 00
5,000 00
2,334 06
. 7,706.01
.

Total miscellaneoijs.................,............. . . ^.

' ^ -. ' .
^

•

$2,831,115 77

-

UNDER DIRECTIONOF T H E WAR DEPARTM ENT!
Army p r o p e r . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $3,155,027 30
Military Academy
.,.
• 142,874.85.
Fortifications and other'works pf d e f e n c i e . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - 591,7.22 26
Armories, arsenals, and munitions of w a r . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
786,155 04
Harbors, roads, rivers, &ic
i.
507,279 24
Surveys.......;.....;.
,.....,...,-..,..,,........
,72,810- 57
Pensions............,.......,....................,..... i
2,364,601 90
Indian department........,
1,383,916 78
Claims of the State of Virginia . . . . . . . . ' .
33,861 47
Arming and equipping militia
176,383 08
Payments to militia and volunteers ofStates and Territories..
274,442 62'
Jleiief of individuals and iniscellaneous.. -.
44,127 80
Total under the direction of the War Department...



• • '

-

;

$9v533,202 91

1845.]

S E C R E T A R Y O F T H E TREASURY.
^

'

27

A—-Coritiriued.

UNDER DIRECTION OF T H E NAVY DEPARTMENT.
Pay arid subsisterice, including medicines,'(feeIncrease,-repairs, ornaments, and equipments.
Contingent expenses.
.:..,
Navy-yards. . . . . . . . * . . . . . . , , . r . . , , . . . . . . . . . .
,Navy hospitals and a s y l u m . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . , . ,
Magazines....... ...= . . . . . , . , . . . . . . . ; . , . . . . , , . ,
Pensions.......................;..........
Relief of individuais arid miscellaneous........
"Marine corps
,

$3,380,564 06
1,405,946 44
549,129 83
321,680 99
11,106=54
249 78
133,589 16
73,830 03

352,542 26

To.tal under the diirection of the Navy. Departm;ent.
PUBLIC DEBT.

$6,228,639 09

•(-

Paying the old public d e b t . . . . . . . . . . .\.
Interest on loans of 1841, 1842, and 1843
Redemption of the loan of 1 8 4 1 . . . . . . . . . , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . , . .
Redemption ofthe loan of 1 8 4 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . , . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Riedemption of Treasury n o t e s . . . . . . . . /.
Interest on Treasury n o t e s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . , , . . . . . . . . . . . .
Prernium on the purchase of stock pfthe loan of 1 8 4 1 . . . , . . . .
Premium and commission on the purchase of stock of the loan
of 1843.

$35,756
996,256
5,623,894
400,000
.1,470,243
'43,775
3,268

33
76
71
00
13
26
93

14,962 50
3,588,157 62

Total public debt.
Total expenditures

$29,968,206 98

Balance in the Treasury July 1, 1845,.

$7,658,306 22

Octoher 23, 1845.
R . F i . G I L L E T , Register.

TREASURY DEPARTMENT, REGISTER'S O F F I C E ,

; ' .

:

•

•^

;^ ; :

^.-r-StateineM ofi: Duties., Revenues, and Public Expenditures fior. the first
quarter ofi the fiseal year, firom 1st July to SQth September y 18^5, agreeably
( . p warrants issufid, exclusive ofi trm
. ; .

. RECEIPTS. ^ ;
!,861,932 14
484,269 35
17,717 50

Yrom custoiYis . . . . . . . . , . . . . ; . . . . ; . , . . . . , , . , ..> ..
From sales pf"public l a n d s , . , . . . . ; . , . . ' . . . . . . . . . . . .
F.rom lYiisceilaneous ahd incidental sources.; .^...

»,363,918 99
\

; : :

EXPENDITURES.
$17792,173 11
1,352,859 19
1,239,479 45663\369 40
956,223 27
2,331,359 61
6,574 86
19,782-17
101,271 35

Civil, miscellaneous, and foreign intercourse.. .,.•-,.^., .v
Army proper . , * . . . . . . . . - . " . . ; . . . ; . . . % . . . . . . . . . . . ^.'..,
Fortifications, ordnance, and arming m i l i t i a . ; . . . . . . . . . .
Indian d e p a r t m e n t . . . . . . . . . . . . . , ; . . . . . , . . . , . . . . . . . ; . .
Perisions..... ,.,:\ . . . . . . . . . . . , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Naval establishment. : . . . , . ; . . . . i . . . . . . . . . : , . , . , . . . .
Interest, (fee:, ofpublic d e b t . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ' , . . . : - . . . . . .
Redemption ofthe loan of 1841
..,.,......
Reimbursement of Treas.ury notes, and i n t e r e s t . . . . . . .

3,463,092 41

Octoher 23^ 1845.
R . I l . G I I u L E % Register.

TREASURY DEPARTMENT, REGISTER'S OIPFICY,,




00

A statement exhibiting the quantity and value ofi Mercliandisi^ .imported firee ofi duty firom July 1, 1844, ^o June 30, 1845, with
:.''•.,.-•"
an estiincLte bfi. dtities thereon at 2Q, 25r and SQ per centum ad valore^^^
IMPORTED.
SPECIES OF MERCHANDISE.

Ciuantity.
Articles iinported for the; use of the United S t a t e s . . . . . ; . . - . . . . . . i . . . . . . . w...
Articles imported specially for the use of philosophical societies, colleges,
(fee, philosophical apparatus; (&(i.....;.... ? . . . ; . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Books, maps, and c h a r t s . . . . . i.
Statuary, busts', casts, (fec.-.7..'......... * . . . : . . . . ; . . . . . . . . . . : .
'.
Paintings, dra-SYin^s, etchings, and e n g r a v i n g s . . . . . . . . . - . . . . / . , . . . . . . . .
Paintings of Amei'ican artists residing a b r o a d . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Wood, dye, in sticks.;, v . . ' . , , . . . . . . . . . . ; . . . . . , . . ; . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . i . . . .
urimanufactured, not s p e c i f i e d . . . . ' . . . . . . . . . . . , , , . =», c.i;.
Specimens of botany, natural history:, arid mirieralogy..... i . > i . . . . . . . .
, Models of inventioris fand m a c h i n e r y . . . . . . . . . . . '
Anatomical preparations..:.. .> . . . ; . . . . . . . . , ; . . . . . . . . > . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ; . . . . . . . . .
Burr stones, unwrpught.
....;............ .V.......^........
Crude,brimstorie and sulphur*.... ..vi . . > . . - . . . . . . ; .>.> .. i . . . . i . . ; . .
Bark of-the c o r k i r e e ^ - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . • . . . . . : . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . * .
Clay, unwrought..... . ^ . . . . . . i . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ; . . . . . . . . . . . . . * . . . . . . . .
Anirnals for breed... I . . ; . . i . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . v . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
B a r i l l a . . . . . . . . . . . . . . : . M^.,....

Ntits arid berries used in d y i n g . . . . *.. i . . . , . . . . > - . . . . . . .•... i ; . . . . . . . .
Old p e w t e r . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . : .X . . . . . . . . . . . . , . . . ;
..>...
Brass, in pigs arid bars . ......;.• • •• • . • / • . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
'
. old, fit only.for.manufacture....,.. * . . . . . . . i . . . . . i . . . . I . . . . . . .
.Copper, in pigs and bars......:'....:... >..., . . . . . - . * . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I * . . .
plates, suited for the sheathing of s h i p s . . . . . . . . ; . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
o r e . i . . . . . i . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . i , . . . . , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..,•.,..;....

' old,,fitonly for m a n u f a c t u r e . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ^ . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Gypsuin, or plaster of P a r i s . . . . . . . . . . . . , . , . . . . . . . . . . . . ; . . , . . ' . . . . . . ; .



Value.

At 20 per cent. At 25.per cent. At 30 per cent.

• $15,279 00

. $3,055 80.

.; $3,819 75

.$4,583 70

• 4,167:00
.: 30,127'00
4,333 00.
: , 2,448" 00
. 4,161 00
603,408 00
87,315 00
.: 6,364 00
• 1,150 00
; 1,864.00^.
• 32,624 00
: 108,619 00
8,812 00
• 14,670 00
• 25,637 00
.•22,917-00
"132,490 00
59 00
... 12,0^7.00
1,665 00.
1,095,230 00
738^936 00
48j807 00
81,264 00
77,990 00

/

1,041 75
: 7,531 75
1,083 25
'612 00
1,040 25
150,852 00
21,828-75:
1,591 00
' : 287 50
.466 00
8,156 00
-^27,154:75
2,203 00
3,667 50
6,409 25
5,729 25:
33,122 5014 75
-3j009 25
.416 25
273;807 50
184,734 00
;i2,201 75
20,316 00
19,497 50

1,250 10
9,038 10
1,299 90
734 40
1,248 30
181,022 40
26,194 50
: 1,909 20
345 00
559 20
9,787 20
32,585 70
2,643 60
4,401 00
^ 7,691 10
6,875 10
39,747 00
17 70
3,611 10
499 50
328,.569 00
221,680-80
14,642 10
24,379 20
23,397 00

833 40
6,025 40
: 866 60
: 489 60
. 832 20
120,681 60
.17,463 00
: 1,272 80
230 00
3.72; 8o;

." 6,524 80
21,723 80.
1,762 40
: 2,934. 00
5,127 40
.' .4;583 40
26,498 00
11 80
2,407 40
333 00
'219,046 00
147,787 29
9,761.40
16,252 80
15,598 00

;

Adhesive felt for sheathing ships.......,
Epaulets and wings' of gold ;and silyer..
Bullion, gold.
;... ...k..,
silver..................."....
Specie, g o l d . . . . . . , . . .*;......."...'.,.'.<
, ' vsilver.............'...........
Teas...
.... .w......:.;..........
Coffee..........,.... i . . . : . : . : . ..^..
All other a r t i c l e s . . ' . . . . . . . - . . . . . . . . . . . .




206-40
1,032 00
3,845 00
.769 00
:• 66,103 oo:
, 41,275 00752,747 00
3,210,117 00
5,73a,514:00 .1,146,102 80
6,221,271 00 1,244,254 20
591,712 60
2,958,563 0 0
.

.

.pounds
.. .do..

. 19,630,045
107,860,911

127,490,956 22,147,840 00

3,615,519-60.

258 00
96125

,309.60
.1,153.50

1,432^028 50
1,555,317 .75
739,640 75

1,719,154 20.
1,866,381 3d
. 887,568 90

4;519,399 50

5,423,279 40

00 .

o
>

o
-ffl

cn

CD.

CO

C-^—Continued.

o

. A statement exhibiting the value 'ofi Merchandise imported firom July 1, 1844, .i^o. June SQ, 1845, with an estimate ofi the duties
payable under the^act ofi 1842, and also the amotint ofi duties accruing at a duty ofi twenty, twenty-five, and thirty per cent, ad
valorem.
.
^
.•
^

Rate of d u t y .

S P E C I E S OF M E R C H A N D I S E .

Ciuantity.

W o o l , unmanufactured, not exceeding seven cents per
p o u n d . . . . \ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ; . . . . " . . . . . ' . . . .pounds 23,382,097 $1,553,789
unmanufactured, exceeding, seven cents p e r •
450,943
pound
do.
136,005
W o o l J manufactures of— ,
"
*
5,411,850
Cloths and cassimeres . . . . . . . . . / . . . '
226,317
M e r i n o shawls of w o o l . ^
304,677
IBlankets not above seventy-five cents^ each.
above seventy-fivfe cents e a c h . . . . . . . . . . . . .
694,237
H o s i e r y , gloves, mits, caps, and bindings.
741,242
W o r s t e d stuff goods
.....'..-........
1,938,109
•
yarn.'........
...•...'....
...j,
^ 168,037
W o o l e n ya'rn. . . . ? ; . . . . . ' . . . . . . . . , . . . .
19,938
Coach lace . . . . . . , . , . . - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . > . . . . . .
• 59
Other manufactures of
553,409
Cottoris, colored,'exceeding thirty cents per square yard
3,390,145
'
;
not exceeding thirty cents per square
7 y^r^- ,• • •• • • •":: r •• • • •• • • •• • • .sq..yd"s. 25;027,699 5,182,401
381,791
uncolored, exceeding twenty cents per ^ . y a r d .
Cottons, colored', not exceeding twenty cents per square
n , 2 6 2 i 4 1 8 1,441,660
' • ' r '"yard. , j . . . . . . ' . . . .•.. I . . ..^ . . . .sq. y d s .
•velvet cords, &^c., exceeding thirty-five cents
548,974
J ;
>
per'squai-e y a : r d - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . s q . y d s .
;• velvet^cords, (fee, riot exceeding thirty-five perits
• '-. ;
;
p e r square y a r d . . . . . . .'.sq. y d s . ; 426,884 ^ 122,317




A t 25 per
cent.'

A t 30 per
cent.

$77,689 45 $310,757 80

$388,447-25

$466,136 70

27,201 00

34,20125

.40,801 50

A t present
rates.

Value.

5 per cent.'
30per cent.,
& 3 cts. perlb.

54,329 79

A t 20 per
cent.

40 per cent. 2,164,740 00 1,082,370 00 1,352,962 50 1,623,555 00
45,263 00 ; 56,579 25 '67,895 10
90,526 80
do.
40
76,169 25
91,403 10
60,935 40
do.
45,701.55
15
173,559 25
208,271 10
do.
138,847 40
173,559 25
25
185,310 50
222,372 60
do.
148,248 40
222,372 60
30
484,527 25
do.
581,432 70
387,621 80
581,432 70
30
do.
42,009 25 ' 50,411 10
33,607 40
^ 50,411 10
30
do.
4,984 50
5,981 40
3,987 60
30
5,981 40
14 75
17 70
35, do.
11 80
. ' 2 0 65
do.
138,352 25
40
166,022 70
110,681 80
221,363 60
30' do.
847,536 25 1,017,043-50
678,029 00
1,017,043 50
43.46 do.
30' do.

2,252,49291 1;036,48() 20 1,295,600 25 1,554,720 30
95,447 75
.76,358 20
114,537 30
114,537 30

46.87 do..

675,745 08

288,332 00

360,415 00

432,498 00

30

do.

164,692 20

109,794 80

137,243 50

164,692 20

36.64.do.

-44,822'.82

24,463 401

30,579 25

36,69510

. : twist,,:yarn-,, and thread, bleached or colored,
not exceeding 75 cen ts per\poun d .•.;.. i i ; '•. .pounds
%
twist,, yarn, and thread,, unbleached and' un-- • .
,
colored, not exceeding 60 cents per pound'.. do,
t\vist, yarn, and thread,-exceeding these minimums,^
. and on spools-. ;...•.....'.. . . . . . - . . . ' . . . . . . - . i'.•.-..•.'.•.'
•
hosiery,,glove.s, mits, caps-, and bindings. ..•.•...'.'...
other manufactures of.. .•..- ..•........'.'.; •'. ."•' .*•• •••' .-•-••
Silk floss, and other dyed,-prepared for manufacture, v. .:•.•... .•
••; shirts and d r a w e r s . . . . . . . . . . . - . . . . . . . . . . . ; . . . ..».•.'.% ..^'..
umbrellas and partisols. ?. .<.-.- .-.• .•-.. .•. . .•...- .•. .•;- ;• .\.-.- .,.•.'.'.
^
bolting cloths.^...-.....-. ...•.-.•.. .•..-. i.•.''.. .......-. ...•.•..manufactures of? mixed with m e t a l . - . . . . : . . . . . . . .•.•.^.'.. .• -; caps.,, turbans, (fee., for womeri....... .•.-....;.;.... v .•.-.-...
manufactures of, -not specified'. ..•,;.^.-. ..'.;•..'..•...•..'..-. .-.^
•
•
worsteci and silk g o o d s . . . . . . . . . . . ; . . . . . ...-,.••. • - . . . . . .
Camlets, and,other riian-ufactures ofvgoat's hair, or mohair....
Lace, thread and insertings...........-. . • . . ; . , . . . . . . • • . . . . . . . .-cotton, quillings, insertings, bobbinet, (fccv......"•.>
Gpld and silver tresses', tassels, knots,, stars, (fee..-....:..,.....
ahd silver leaf
'. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
or silver embroidery, iripther.tlian' clothing.
-...-.-.......
Flax, manufacturesof— .
. ' , . . ; . .v,
-. •
• linen'S,'bleached and unbleached.";.... v . ' . . . . . . . . . . .
hosiery,- gloves,, mits, and b i n d i n g s ; ; . . . . . . . - . . -..-...
other manufactures of...'.-. . . . . . > . . . . . . . . . . . - . . . . . . . .
Herrip,.sheetings, brown and w h i t e . . . . . ' . . . . . . • . . . . . . . i . . - . . .
ticklenburgs, osnaburgs, andrburlapsv., .......... •'.•.-.-....•
.'-^
other manufactures o f . , ; ; . . . . . . ' v . . . . . . • ^ . . . . . : . . . . ;
Clothing, ready-inade . . . . . V . . . . . . . . . . . • , . . . ' . . . . . ' . . - . . . . . . . .
articles not specified, worn by men, worrien, or
children
.'
Grass cloth.......'.
Carpeting, not specified
Matting, Chinese, of flags, jute,, or grass . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. mats; or matting, not specified.'...... .^.l....
Wire, 'silvered or plated. .•........ C
...... I ' . . . . . .
brass or copper.
;......
.'.....•..-...-.
Iron and steel,, manufactures of—
/ - . • ' ,
fire-arms, not specified..."
..-........^........'
side-arms
"..:.
....;.
Iron, drawing and cutting knives
;.....



103:,869

43,995. 00 44-:26 do-.«

19,475 43

20,0681

10,294 00 2^.24 dov

3,010 20

8,799. 00 . 10,998. 75
.
2,058;8'o|

2,573 50

13,198 50,:
3-,08g 2b

153,444 00 .102v296 00 127^870 Oo| 153,444 00
397,989 30 265,326 20 : 331,657 75 397,989 30
271,078 20 180,718 80 . 225,898. 50 271,078^ 20
10,223 25
.. 8,178 60
10,223 25
12,267 90
. 1,512 .80
756 40l . 945 50 ) 1,134 60
.
3,510 30
. 2,340 20
2,925 25,
3,510'30
5,907 20|
5,907 20
7,384- 00|
8,860 80 •
3,943 80
2,629 20|
3,286 50
3,943 80
218:40
145 60
• 182-00
218 40
278,326: 50 >,185,551 00 231,938 75 278,326 50
453.093 06 302,062 00 377,577 50 453,093 00
45,767 60]
45,767 60|
57,209-50
68,651 40
" 76,346 85 101,795 80 ; 127,244 75 152,693 70
122,803 60 122,803 60 153,504 50 184,205 40
5,643- 40| ' 7,054 25
-'4,232 55
8,465 10
1 00
1 00
. 1 25
1 50
.42 40
42 40
53 00
63 '60

511,480 obi 30
1,326,631 00 30
903.594.00 30
40,893 ool •25:
3,782 00 40
11,701 00 30.
29,536 ob: 20
13,146 00 30
'
728 00 30
927,755 00 30
1,510,310 00 30
228,838 00 20
508,979 00 15
614,018 00 20
28,2ir 00 15
: 5 00 20
• . 212 ool 20

do.do.
do.do.do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.'
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.

4v298,224 G
O
506.00
624,379 001
106,730 00
195.471.001
• 205,782 00
67,232 00

25
25
25
25
20
,20
50

d'o.
do:
do.,
do.
do.
do.
do.

1,074,556 O l . 859,644 80] 1,074,556 00 1,289,467 20
O
• 101 20
151 80
126 50
126 50'
156.094 75 124,875 80| 156,094 751 187,313 70
21,346 00
26,682.50
32.019 0 0 .
26,682 50
39,094 20! . 48,867 -751 5'8,644 30
39,094 20
•
41,156 40
41,156 40
61,734 60
51,445 50
33,616 00 : 13,446 40
2Q,169 60
16,808 00

1,105,796 00
18,314 00
.. 31,745 00
, 87,783 00
38,407 00
680 00
. 9,508 00

40
25
30
25:
25
30
25

do.
d6.>
do.
do;
do.
do.
do.

. 442,318 40 221,159 20 276,449 00 331,-738 80
3,662 80 ' 4,578 50
5,494 20
'4,578, 50
6,349 00
9,523 50
7,936 25 ; 9,523 .50
26,334 90
17,556 601 21,945 75
r 21,945 75
7,681 40
. 9,601 75
9,601 75 , 11,522 10
204 00
136 00,
204 00
170 00
1,901 60!
2,377 00
2,377 00 • • 2,852 40.

.

144,877 00 301,278. 00 30
9,003 00 30'

do.
do.
do.

43,463 10
3.83.40
. 2,700 90,

28,975 40
255 60
. 1,800 60

36,219 25
319 50
2,250 75|

43,463 10
383 40
2,700 90|

C—Continued.

Rate of duty.

SPECIES OF. MERCHANDISE.

Q,uantity.

Iron, hatchetSj.axes, and adzes..-. . . i i . . ; . . . . . . . . . . ; . . . . . . . .
'• . s o c k e t ( i h i s e l s . . . . ' ; . ; ' . . . . . . .-;i . . i . ; . . . . i-;. . i\; i . . ' v . . i .%:.

- plane ironsi>.;w.,>..:...- . . i . j . ' . . . . . . . ..V......--. a . . . . . . .
steelyards, and; scafe-beariis..'...'..'.......................
. vices;.;..:.'..:..:...........". ^ . - . . . ' . . . . . . . : • . . . . v;....-. .^..
sickles and reaping-hooks......i... • • • • . . . . . . . . . . . . ' . . .
scythes.. .-.•. .U ;,*'i..,v.:^..:....:......... .-.-'.-......•.....:i:.-.'-,-.
. spades and s h o v e l s . . . . . . ; . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ' . . i . . . . . . . . .
s q u a r e s . . ; . . . . . . . . . ; . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - . . . . . . . . . . . . -..% . . . . . ; . .
• ^chains, the links loriger than those used for chain cabjes
needles, se-wing,-knitting, and t a m b o u r i n g . . . . . . . . . . ; . .
all other, niariufactures of iron, ( f e e . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .\ . . .
Saddlery, common tinned and japanned., .^i-.:...:.: . . . . . . . . . . , . ' .
....
.plated, brass, and, polished steel. . . ^ . . . . . . . . . . ; . . . ' . . .
Brass, nianufactures o f . . . ..•••.,« i.>.'. i . . ? . v . , . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Copper, manufactures: o f . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - . . . . - . . ' . . - . . . . . . . . . , . . : .
Tin, m a n u f a c t u r e s . o f . . . . . . . . . . ; . . . . - . . i . . . . . ; . ; . .-..•.•. i . . . . .
Pewter,'mariufactures of.
.-.........; ...............
Lea'd, manufacturesof;;..-...;....;.-........ ..•..-. ..•.".-:.....
German silver, manufactures o f . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ;,.-.,-. • . . . .
Bell inetal, mariufactures of...... •.'>.. ........> . • . . . ; . .',:.•..•...
Zinc, manufactures of...... . i . . . . . ; . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ; , . ....w ...•:.
Bronze, ma;nufactures:.of...............;.i........ .•.-...-..-....
Leather, manufactures of.....,;...........'..;.;...- ,•.-. v . . - . . . .
Glass, plate glass, exceeding 22 by 1.4 i n c h e s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
silvered . . . . . . . ' . . ; . . . . . . . . . . . . , ; . . \ . " , . . . , .
J .
.. if fra.med ; . . ; . . . . . . . . '.•..\ . , . . . . . ' . . . . . i . - . , .
paintings on glass, porcelain, and c o l o r e d ; ; . . . . . . . . . ' . .
manufadtures of, not .specified.,........... r. i ^
Hats and bonnets, flats, .braids, plaits, (fee.—
Leghorn, chip, straw, grass, (fee. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .



05

' At present
. rates.

Value.

At 20 per ,
cent.

At 25 per
cent.

At 30 per
. cent.

.$5,123 00 30 per (jeri.t.
$1,536.90
$1,024 60
$1,280 75
$1,536: 90
: 9,529 .00 30
.•.2,858-70
do.
1,905-80 . 2,382 25 ' • "2,858 70
2,891 .00 30
do.
867 30
722 75 . . ;867 30
5'78 20
do:,
10,181 00 30
3,054 30
2,036 20
2,545 25
3,054 30
do.
.29,589. 00 30
8,876 70
. 5,917 "
7,397. 25
8,876 70
3,794 .00 30. do.
1,138 20 :.•
•948 50
758.80
1,138 20
^ 23,740 00 30^ do:
7,122 00
,5,935,00 . 7,122 00
4,748 00
dd.
14,428 00 .30
4,328 40
2,885 60
3,607 00
4,328 40
.3,117 00 30 ; do.
.935 10
779 25
623 40
935 10
do.
; 21,999 00 3b
'6,599 70
5,499 75
4,399 8b
6,599.70
do.
160,731 00 20
40,182 75 . 48,2i9 30
32,146 20
32,146 20
do.
3,729,465 00 30
1,118,839 50 745,893 00 932,366 25 1,118,839 '50
do.
- 125,750 00 20
25,150 00 .25,150 00
31,437.50
37,725 00
do...142,497 00 -30
. 42,749 10 .28,499 40
35,624 25
42,749 10
do.,
: 120,083, 00 30
36,024 90 . 24,016 60
30,020 75 . 36,024 90
do.
107,756 00 30
32,326 80
26,939 00
21,551 20
32,326 80
13,131'00 30- do.
3,939 30
2,626 20
3,282 75
3,939 30
do.
30
4,889.>00
1,466 70 .
977 80
1,222 25
1,466 70
. . 787 .00 30. do.
236.10
157 40
196 75
236 10
do.
4,698.90
3,132 60
3,915 75
15,663 00 30
4,698 i90
do.
621 00 30
186 30 .
124 20 • . 155 25
186 30
do.
:
931 00 30
279 30 ,
279 30
186 20
232 75
do:
.3,626 00 30
.1,087 80
1,087 80
725 20
906 50
do.
109,668 00 35
38,383-80 .21,933 60
32,900 40
27,417 00
do;
30
80,263 00
24,078 90
16,052 60
20,065 75
"24,078 90
274,281.00 37.74 do.
68,570 25 ' 82,284:30
54,856 20
103,513 65
15,347 00 .30 do.
3,836 75
4,604 10
3,069 40
4,604 10
5,772 00 30 do.
1,443 00
1,154 40
1,731 60
1,731 60
75,975 00 25 do.
18,993 75
22,792 50
18,993. 75
15,195 00
712,923 00 35

do.

249,523 05

142,584 60

178,230 75

213,876 90

leaf, rattan, willow,
air,
Ealm whalebone, (fee..»• (fee. . . . . . . * i * i
W o o d , manufactures of-—
cabinet ware
...;.............
<J
. other manufactures of
..i * . . . . . . . . . .
2 W a r e s , china arid porcelain . . ; . . . . . * . . - . . . . . . . . . . . . ^ . . . . . . . .
earthen and s t o n e . .
;
-< .
plated and gilt.
Y
japanned..
v . . .•
i F u r s , undressed, on t h e skin.
.
h a t s , caps, muffs, and tippets.
hatter's and other f u r s . . ' . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - . , . . . . ; . . . . .
' Hair-cloth and hair-seating
Brushes of all kinds.
Paper-hangings.
Coach and harness furniture
Carriages, and parts of c a r r i a g e s . . . . . . . ,
Slates of all k i n d s . . . . . . 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . , . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Black-lead p e n c i l s . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .'
Copper bottoms cut rourid, (fee.
Square wire, for umbrella s t r e t c h e r s . , . .=
*,.
i.
Z i n c , in plates or sheets
............;..,.........
Chronometers, ship or b o x " . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Clocks
,.....,....'.......,.........
W a t c h e s , and parts of watches
Gold and silver, platina, .manufactures of.... . . . . . . . . . . . . , . . . . .
J e w e l r y , gold and s i l v e r . . . , .
.^.........
'
•
.imitadon. p f . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
• Cluicksilver
Buttons, metal . . . . ' .
.'.,.
all other buttons and button moulds.
T e a s , p o u n d s , imported from other places than their growth or
production
'.
Coffee, p o u n d s , imported from other places than their growth or
production
C o r k s , pounds . . . ,
d u i l l s , prepared
^
all other
W o o d , unmanufactured—
mahogany
.^
rose
savtin
•




51,785 00 35
318 00 35

do.
do.

30
30
30
30
30
30
5
35
25
25

do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.

- 26,056 00
150,036 00
252,256 00
2,187,259 00
159,227 0 0
59,895 00
256,586 00
16,646 00
465,739 00
90,643 00
67,426.00
46,285 Ob
1,73.7.00
1,588 00
121,768 00
11,798 00
3,455 00
- 8,068 00
73,909 00
11,835 00
18,971 00
1,106,543 QP
39,380 00
54,662 00
84,877 00
54,993 00
19,168 00
90,062 00

30 ^

35
30
30
25

do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.

25 . do..

30

m

10
20
25

^

30
20
25
5
30
25

31,274 00 20
22,261 00
90,862 00
3,261 00
6,126 00

-do.

20
30
25
20

261,292 00 15
18,912 00 15
.3,240 00 15

do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do..

do.
do.
do..

do.
do.
do.

18,124 75
,111 30

10,357 00
63 60

5,211 20
7,816 80
45,010 80
30,007 20
50,451 20
75,676 80
656,177 70 437,451 80
31,845 40
47,768 10
17,968 50
11,979 00
12,829 30
51,317 20
- 5,826 10 . 3,329 20
116,434 75
93,147 80
^22,660 75
18,128 60
20,227 80
13,485 20
16,199 75
9,257.00
347 40
521 10
317 60
476 40
30,442 00
24,353 60
.2,359 60
2,949 5b
691 00
1,036 50
1,008 50
1,613 60
14,781 80
7,390 90
2,367 00
2,367 00
3,794 20
4,742 75
'82,990 72 • 221,308 60
7,876 00
11,814 00
10,932 40
10,9.32 40
16,975 40
21,219 25
10,998 60
2,749 65
3,833 60
5.750 40
18,012 40
' 22,515 50

12,946 25
79 50

15,535 50
95 40

6,514 00
T,816 80
45,010 80
37,509 00
75,676 80
63,064 00
546,814 75 656,177 70
47,76810
39,806 75
17,968 -50
14,973 75
76,975 80
64,146-50
4,993.80
4,161 50
116,434 75
139,721 70
22,660 75
27,192 90
20,227 80
16,856 50
11,571 25
13,885.50
521 10
434 25
476 40
397 00
36,530 40
30,442 00
3,539 40
2,949 50
1,036 50
.863 75
2,420 40
2,017 00
18,477 25
22,172 70
3,55b 50
-2,958 75
5,69130
4,742 75
276,635 75 331,962 90
.11,814 00
9,845 00
16,398 .60
13,665. 50
21,219 25 . 25,463 10
16,497 90
13,748 25
5,750 40
4,792 00
27,018 60
22,515 50
7,818 50 :

9,382 20

do..

6,254 80

6,254 80

do.
do.
do.

4,452 20
27,258 60
815 25
1,225 20

4,452 20
18,172 40
652 20
1,225 20

5,565 25
22,715 50
815 25
1,531 50

6,678 30
27,258 60
. 978 30
1,837 80

do.
do.
do.

39,193 80
2,836 80
486 00

52,258 40
3,782 40
648 00

65,323 00
4,728 00
810 00

78,387 60
5,673 60
972 00

•do.

C—Continued.

Rateof duty.

SPECIES OF MERCHANDISE.

Ciuantity.

Wood, cedar....
........'
Merchandise not enumerated,-value of—
At :1 per cent.
2j per cent
• 5 percent.
7 per cent
~..'..........
'
7 | per c e n t . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10 p e r c e n t . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
12| per cent. . , . . . . . . ,
,
15 per cent.
,
' 2 0 percerit
....";...,
25 per c e n t . . . . . , . . . , . . . . , , , .
30 .per cent.
35 per cent.
,

CO

At present
rates.

Value.

$15,638 00 15 per cent.
212,975 00
1,690,460 00
4,975,003 00
.32,576.00
. 29,685 00
170,64100
253 00
292,873 00
2,290,897 00
1,103,334 00
1,061,291 00
46,701 00

1
2|
5
7
7|
10

m
15
20
25
30
35

do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.

60,191,862 00
TREASURY D E P A R T M E N T , R E G I S T E R ' S O F F I C E , November 13i




$2,345 7b
2,129 75
42,261 50
248,750 15
a,2S0 32
2,226 37
17,064 10
31 62
43,930 95
458,179 40
275,833 50
318,387 30
16,345 35

At 20 per
" cent.
^
$3,127 60
42,595
338,092
995,000
6,515
5,937
34,128
50
58,574
458,179
220,666
212,258
9,340

At 25 per
cent.

At 30 per
cent.

$3,909 50

$4,69140

53,243 75
63,892
422,615 00 507,138
1,243,750 75 1,492,500
8,144 00
9,772
7,421 25
8,905
42,660 25
51,192
\ ' 63 25
75
73,218 25
87,861
572,724 25 687,269
275,833 50 331,000
265,322 75 - 318,387
11,675 25
14,010

16,278,117 22 12,038,372 40 15,047,965 50 18,057,558 60

O
cn
O"

K

-W

1845,

R . H . G I L L E T , Register.

00

C—'Continued*

00
0\
rd

Rate of
duty*

SPECIES o r MERCHANDISE.

Ciuantity*

. Silks, sewing silk, silk twist, or twist
of silk and mohair
lbs.
pongees, and plain silk (white)
for*printing, (fee
do.
manufactures of silk not specified..
, . , . . . . . do.
raw silk, comprehending all silk
in the gum,, ( f e e . . . . . . . . . . . . dp.
Silk and satin boots and shoes, (fee,, ' '
shoes or slippers for men and
women
^.. pairs
laced boots and bootees for meri
and w o m e n . . . . . , . , . , , , . . . do.
. shoes and slippers for children do.
laced boots or bootees for children..-,......,
" . . . . . , do.
hats for men,
No.
. arid satin bonnets"for women, do.
Flannels...... .^.
sq. yds,
Baizes and bockings
do.
Carpeting., Wilton
.......,..'.....,.... do.
Saxony
do..
Trebled ingrain
do.
Brussels
do.
Turkey. . * . . * . . . . . . . . . . do.
Venetian
do. •
other ingrained
do.
Sail duck
;
do.
Co.tton bagging
do.
bagging, or other materials
. than hemp or
flax.'.......
do.



.

Ctf - _ ^ .

IMPORTED*

Value*

-M

^
At present
rates*

1
^

13

Crg

. 13 a
At 20 per cent* At 25 per cent. At 30 per cent*

> •<«

H ?
$129,489 60

Per cent:
38;08 1

82,196

$431,632 00

$2 00

$164,392 00

$86,326 40

$107,908 00

130,858

469,499 00

1 50

196,287 00

93,899 80

117,374 75

140;849 7,0 1 -41.80

763,463

7,791,285 GO

2 50

1,908,657 50

1,558,257 00

1,947,821 25

2,337,385 50 • 24.49

62,697

208,454 00

50

31,348 50

41,690"80

52,113 80

2,509

2,016 00

30

752 70

4b3 20

604 00

206
6

379 00
4 00

75 80

94 75
100

154 50
90

1,326,
4,103
, 1,781
205,130
278,456
27,676
4,822
• 82
226,399
^ 771
29,473
17,223
744,211
1,551,044

672 00
8,413 00
9,426 00
76,055 00
100,332 00
75,870 00
10,919 00
73 00
308,664 00
1,510 00
20,776 00
14,102 00
272,031 00
117,331 00

331 50
4,103 00
3,562 00
218,718 20
38,983' 84
17,989, 40
3,134 30
53 30
124,519 45
424 05
'8,841 90
5,166 90
52,094 77
62,041 76

; 134 40
1,682 60
. 1,885 20
15,211 00
20,066 40
15,174 00
2,183 80
14 60
61,732 80
302 00
4,155 20
2,820 40
54,406 20
23,466 20

228,448

11,194 00

11,422* 40

2,238 80

^ 168 00
2,103 25
2,356 50
19,013 75
25,083 00
18,967 50
2,729 75
. 18 25
7,7,166 00
.377 50
. 5,194 00
3,525 50
68,007 75
29,332 75
2,798 50

. ^ 62,536*20
.

15.03

604 80

37.33

113 70
I 20

40.76
22.50

201 60
49.33
2,523 90
48". 76.
2,827 80
37.78
22,816 50
37.75
30,099 60
38.85
22,761 00
23.71
3,275 70
28.70
21 90
73.00
92,599 20
40.34
453 00
28.08
6,232 80
42.07
4,230 60 • 36.63
.81,609 30
19.15
35,199 -30
52.87
3,358 20

101.04 1

G^-^Continued.

Rate of
duty.

SPECIES OF MERCHANDISE.

Floorcloth, patent, printed or painted sq..yds
Oil cloth, furniture, on Canton flann e l . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . do.
furniture, not specified:... do.
• of linen, silk, (fee., for (iovers, (fee
.4.,..-. • do.
Wines, iri casks, bottles, and other.
-'"vessels— ". •.
•..'
•.'•''"
Madeira.
. . . . - . . . . , galls.
Sherry........;..
dp.
C a n a r y . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . do.
C h a m p a g n e . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . do. .
Port, in bpttles.....",.....;, dp.
'Burgundy, in bottles.;....-. do.
Claret, in b o t t l e s . . . . . . . . . . . do.
. . Port, in casks
. , . . . dp..
Burgundy, in casks . . . . . ; . . . • do.
Teneriffe, in casks or"bottles . do.
Claret, in c a s k s . . . . . . . . . . . dp.
Marsala, or Sicily Madeira., do.
Other wines of S i c i l y . . . . . . do.
Red, not enumerated, in
casks—
Of F r a n c e . . . . . . . . . . . . . do.
Of Austria.;
.....do.
Of Sardinia.
do.
Of Portugal and possessions
. . ; . . . do..
White, not enumerated, in
casks—



(Quantity,.

Value.

At present
rates. . .

At 20 per .cent. At 25 per cent. At 30 per cent.

•p.;o •

7,804

$5,714 00

$0 35

$2,731.40

$1,142 ,80^

$1,428 50

$1,714 20

Per cent.
47.80

6,903
'53,743

2,359 00
9,874 00

16
lb

1,104 48
5,374 30

• 4?71 80'
1,974 80

58.9 75
2,468 50,

. 707 70
2,962 20

46.39
54.42

47,671

: 14,917 00

• m

.-5,958 87

2,983 40

3,729 25

4,475 10

:39..94

101,176
.23,616
.1,778
101,46.4
2,384
• 218
"48,688
260,693
325
5,846
1,051,862
62,873
47,717

145.237 00
38,28^ 00
672 00
3b3,399 00
3,133 00
791 00
40.,.864.OO
162,358 00
366 00
. '6,426 00
249,633 00
31,669 00
14,364 00

60
60
40
15
35
35
6
15
20 .
6
25
15

20
60
80
60
60
30
80.
58
75
20
72
25
55

29,047 40
7,657 80
. 134 40
60,679 80
62660
158 20
8,172 80
32,471 60'
.7.3 20
1,285 20
49,926 60
6,333 80
• '2,872 80

36,309 25
9,572 25
168 bo
75,849-75
783 25
197 75
10,216 00
40,589 50
91 50
.1,606 50
62,408 25
7,917 25
3,591 00

43,571 10
11,486 70
201 60
91,019.70
939 90
237 30
12,259 20
48,707'40
109 80
1,927 80
74,889 90
9,500 70
^4,309-20

5.22
37.00
158.75
13.37
11.41
9.64
41.70
9.63
13.30
18.19
25.28
49.63
49.91

380,946
343
692

73,558 00
30 00
/
90 00

22,856 76
20 58
41 52

14,711 60
c;
6 00
18 00

18,389 50
"7 50
22 50

22,067 40
* 9 00
27 00

31.07
68.60
46.13

113,607

69,532 00

6 816 42

13,906 40

17,383 00

20,859 60

9.80

7,588
14,169
1,066
40,585
35776
17,040
15,635
48
1,169
63,111
15,718
7,157

Of France, i . . ^ . . ' . . . . . . ^ ...do.
Of A u s t r i a . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . d o .
Of Portugal and posses- •
sions
. . . . . : . . i ; . . .do.
W h i t e and red,-not enumerated, in bottles—
Of France
. . . . . . . . . ..do.
Of A u s t r i a . . . ; . . . . - . ' . . . . .do.
' . ' Of Portugal and possessions . . . . . i . . . . . . . . . . . . .do.
W h i t e and red, not enumerated in casks— .
Of Spain. . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..do.
Of G e r m a n y . . . - . ' . . . . . . . . :do.
Of Mediterranean
..do.
W h i t e - a n d red, not enumerated, ih bottles-^
. .do.Of Spain . . . . . « • • • • •
Of G e r m a n y . . . . . . . . . . . . ..do.
:
.Of M e d i t e r r a n e a n . - . . . . . . . ..do.
Other wines not enumerated. ..do.
Spirits, foreign, distilled-—
- . frorn grain.
1
.-. ..do!
from b r a n d y
. - . . . . . . . . . . . ..do.
- from other m aterials. ....•..-,.. ..do.from cordials. .*..-. . . . . i . . . . . . .do.
Beer, ale, and porter, in b o t t l e s ' ; . . : . ..do:
:
. : '
ill c a s k s . ; . . . . ..do.
Vinegar-.-,. . . . '
-..;
:..".. ..do.
.lbs'.
Molasses . . . . . . . . . . ' . . . . . . . i . . . . . .
Spirits of t u r p e n t i n e . ; . ; . . . ' . . , . . . . .
Oil, of whale and o t h e r . f i s h . . . . . . . .do.
olives, in' c a s k . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
.do.
castor....-.
. . . : : . .do.
linseed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ; .do.
of a i m o n d s " . . . . . . . . V . . . . : . ' . ' . . . . . .do.
' of cloves.
: . . . . . . . .do.
.lbs.
Cocoa..........i
-.
Chocolate . . . . - . . . . . ; . . . . ; . . - . . - . . . . . .do.,
Sugar, b r o w n . . " . ' . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .do.
.do.
white.
loaf, and other r e f i n e d . . * . . .do.




128,986 00
4 00

7
1

34,194 52
1 27

25,797 20
80.

32,246 50

7^
.

135,791

82,193 00

7|

10,184 32

16,438 60

31,586
49

14,630 00
10 00

20
15.

6,317 20.
7 35

1,005

1,806 00

15

150 75

73,535 00
7,782 00
12,900 Ob

121

455,927

300,609
23,746
61,484
63
3,931
'504
•

-2

. 50 00
7,453 00
423 00
.3 00

m

12^
20 ,

20
20 ^

65

37,576 12
2,968 25:
6,435 .50
10 60
786 20
100.80
1 30

374,578 94
606,311
262,5.43 00
61.78
1,081,314 00
1,081,314.
.819,540 00 1 00
270,484
167,105 02
78,957 00- 61.78
20,727
12,436 20
30,080 00
60
. . 100,256
20,051 2b:
93,214. 00• ' 0
2
.7,810
1,171 5b
3,3.84 00
15
38,287
3,062 96
6,252 00; .18.
201,311,364
905,901 14;
3,154,782 00 4i m.
33
3 30
27 00
10 •
259
• 38 85
. 23100
15
82,655
48,579 00
16,533- 00
20
9
3-60
18 00
40.
227,114
56,778 50
105,574 00
25
• 893^
80 37
456 00
9
2,372
711 603,074 00
30
1,655,094
16,550 .94
92,389 00
1
.5,027
201 08
. 1,627 00
4 •
111,957,404
2,798,935 10
4,556,392 00
2|
1,662,574
66,502 96.
91,172 00
4
2,044,862
122,691. 72
132,991 00
6

28,695 80
1 20

26.51
31.75

20,548 '25

24,657 90

12,39

2,926 00
.
2 00.

3,657 5b
. 2 50

4,389 00
3 00
.

43.72
73.50

361 20.

451 50

641 80

.8.34

1 op

14,707 00
1,556 40
2,580 00

18,383 75
1,945 50
3,225 Ob

22,060 50
2,334 60
3,870 00,

51.04
38.14
49.88

10 00
1,490 60
' 8 4 60
60

12 50
1,863 25
105 75
15

15 00
.2,235 90
. 126 90
. ^ 90

21.20
10.54
23.83
43.33

52,508 60
163,908 00
15,791 40
6,016 00
• i8v642 80
6 7 80
.6
1,250 40
630,956 . 0
4
5 40
-46 20.9,715 80
3 60
21,114 80
91 20
614-80
18,477 80
325 40
911,278 40
18,234 40
26,598 20

78,762 90
65,635 75
245,862 00.
204,885 00
23,687 10
19,739 25
7,520 00
. 9,024 00
27."^964 20.
23 , 3 3 50
'0
I,bl5 20
846 Ob
1,563 00
- 1,875 60
788,695:50
/ 946,434 60
' 8 10
6 75
-57 75'
69 30
14,573 70
12,144 75
4 50
5 4b
26,393 50
31,672 2b
• 114 00
" 136 80
" 768 50
922 20
23,097 25
27,716 70
. . 406 75
488 io
1,139,098. 00 1,366,917 60
27,351 60
22,793 .00
33,247 75
39,897 30

142.67
131.94
211.64
41.34
21.51
34.61
48.98
28.71.
12.22
16:81
34.03
20.00
•53:7817.62
23.14.
.17.91
12.35
61.42
.72.94
92.25

C—Continued.

SPECIES

OF

Rate of
duty.

MERCHANDISE.

Ciuantity.

Sugar candy.
.:. lbs.
syrup of sugar and of c a n e . . ' . . . . . do.
F r u i t s , a l m o n d s . . . . • . . . . _ . , , . . . . . . . . . . . . do.
currants.
,. .dp.
prunes
'..
dO;
figs.
do.
jdates
. . . u . . . . . . . . do.
r a i s i n s , i n j a r s , (fee
. . . . ' . : . do.
• ^
all o t h e r . . . . . . . . . . . . - . . do.
n u t s , not specified, except
those used for d y e i n g . . . ' , . . . do.
Spices, mace
do.
nutmegs
,
do.
. cinnamon.
,
do.^
c l o v e s . . . . . . . . . . . . - . . . , . . . - . . . . . do.
pepper, black,
do,
cayenne, (fee. .'.
do.
pimento ,
do.
cassia
do.'
ginger, g r o u n d .
.do.
- in r o o t . . . , . . . , . . . . . . . . . . . do.
C a m p h o r , crude . . , ,
dp.
refined
. . . do.
Candles, w a x and spermaceti
do.
tallow
do.
Cheese..'.
;
do.
Soap, hard
do.
soft
.bbls.
Tallow..
lbs.
Starch
....'..
do.




Value.

A t present
rates.

CO .
00

At 20 per cent'. A t 25 per cent. A t 30 per cent

3
3
3
2"
1
3
2

$102 24
. ^ 2 80
52,720 47
37,136 46
14,060 "79
28,193 26
.892 71
227,216 9i
63,306 46

$32 40
60
30,573 80
11,967. 60
.8,739 00
22,183 20
•222 80
104,394 20
36,924 60

$40 50
75
38,217 25
> 14,959 50
10,923 75
27,729 00
278 50
130,492 75
46,155 75

1
60
30
25
8
5
10
6
5
4
2
5
20
8"
4
9.
4
50
1
2

21,794 35
7,498 50
75,075 90
860 Ob
12,420 16
60,649 30
1,786 10.
141,637 50
47,111 55
259 80
13,557 70
35,281 60
2 00
42 32
24
5,859 81
327 56
3 00
1,686 81
483 58

• 13,746 60
2,543 80
35,244 20
,686 40
4,885 80
7,575 00
339 80
32,938 00
17,211 20
193 60
6,093 20
28,707 20X 20
52 00
40
1,768 20
157 00
9 20
1,901 00
259 00

17,183 25
3,179 75
44,055 26
733 00
6 1 0 25
,-7
9,468 75
424 75
41,172 50
21,514 00
242 00
6,366 50
35,884 00
1 50
65 00
50
2,210 25
. 196 25
11 50
2,376 25
323 75

1,704
112
1,757,349
•1,237,882
468,693
1,409,663
89,271
7,573,897
3,165,323

$162 00
'3 00
152,869 00
59,838 00
43,695 00
110,916 00
1,114 00.
521,971 00
184,623 00

I 06

2,179,435
14,997
250,253
• 3,440:
155,252
1,012,986
17,861
2,832,750
942,231
6,495
677,885
705,632
. 10
. • 629
.
6
65,109
8,189
6
168,681
24,179

68,733 00
12,719 00
176,221 00
2,932 00
24;429 00
37,875^ 00
1,699 00
164,690 00
86,056 00
968 00
25,466 00
143,536 00
6 00
260 00
2 00
8,841 00
•785 00
46 00
9,505 00
1,295 00

'B o

60
90
70
40
50
80
20
30
90

P e r ceht.
63^11
93.33
34.50
62.06
32.17
25.41
80.13
43.53
34,28

20,619 90
3,815 70
52,866 30.
879 60
7,328 .70
11,362 50
509 70
49,407 00
25,816 80
290 40
7,639 80
43,060 80
1 80
78 00
60
2,652 30
235 50
13 80
2,851 50
338 50

31.70
68.95
42.60
29.33
60.84
13.37
10.61
86.00
64.74
26.83
53.23
24.58
33.33
16.28
12.00
66.28
41.72
6.62
17.74
37.34

$48
,
45,860
17,951
13,108
33,274
334
156,591
55,38'6

Barley,pearl......................
Butter
Beef and p o r k . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
H a m s and bacon,
Bristles
Saltpetre, refined-.
partly r e f i n e d . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Indigo
W O a d , or p a s t e l . . . . . . . . ;
"...
I v o r y , or bone black . ; . . . ,
Alum.
,
Opium . . . ;
Glue.*..-.
..
Gunpowder
Copperas
Vitriol, oil o f . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - .
duinine.
Bleaching p o w d e r . ,
Sulphate of ba:rytes
Tobacco-^—snuff..'.................
cigars..^....... *
manufactured, other than
snuff and c i g a r s . . . . . . .
Cotton, unmanufactured.
T h i b e t , angora, and other gOats'
hair
Paints—ochre, d r y :
in o i l . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
white and red lead . . .
W h i t i n g , and Paris white
-....
Litharge
......;
Putty..:Sugar of lead
Cordage, tarred, and cables
untarred.
untarred y a r n .
T w i n e a n d pack thread
Seines.,...,
H e m p , unmanufactured
Manilla, s u n , and other hemps of
India, (fee




do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do*
do.
ozlbs.
dp.
do.
do.

1,729 00
48,334 1
^281 00
3,278
1,088-00
27,866 i
3,640 00
30,968 1
172,076 00
343,218
1,336 00
20,734
• 79,549 00
1,901,960
,862,700 00
1,131,266
3,194 00
108,166
1,243 00
12,861
. . - • 8 00
^
61
37,638 00
14,432
1,275 00
8,264
3,284 00
8,081
12 00
136
8,770
801 00
50,048 00'
23,079
73,174 00
1,882,473
10,020 00
1,327,375
167 00
^477
1,160,644 00
815,172

do.
do.
do;
do.
do..
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
cwt.

63,254
.2,119,639'.
1,890
231,171
26,584
1,703

18,443 00
1
22,023 00
1
145 00 '
I5
14,744 00
4
305 00
1
. 98 00
4
34 00
1|
A
1,009 00
5
67,209 00
4|
22,381 00
. 10 00
6
115,768 00
6
7
6,298 00
2 00
146,209 00

do.

48

70,708

238,179 00

282 75
161,741 50

339 30 . 63.98
194,089 80
61.54

6 3 54
.2
21,196 39
28 35
9,246 84
265 84
68 12
V 3 48
646 32
55,741 95
18,716 17
- 2*88
.
35,325 78
740 53
56,310 00

' 3,688 60
4,404 60
29 00
2,948 80
61 00
19 60
6 80
201 80
13,441 80
4,476 20
2 00
23,163 60
1,069 60
. 29,041 80

4,610 75
5,505 75
36 25
3,686 00
76 25
24 50
8 50
262 25
16,802 25
6,595 25
2 50
28,942 00
1,324 50
36,302 25

5,532 90
6,606 90 •
43 50
4,423 20
91 50
29 40
10 20
302 70.
20,162 70
6,714 30
3 00
34,730 40
1,589 40
,43,562 70

3.42
96.24
19.65
65.42
87.16
69.51
10.23
64.05
82.93
83.62
28.80
30.51
13.97
38.77

88,385 ool

47,635 80

59,544 75

71,453 70

37.10

723 60
397,198 05

. i

1,131 00
646,966 00

588,7.63
10,679
28,155

226 20
129,393 20

10
3

2

li
76
6
8
2
1
40
1

7,236
13,239,935

232

518 70 1
84 30
326 40
1,062 0 0
.
51,622 80
400 80
23,864 70
258,810 00
958 20
372 90
2 40
11,291 40
382 50
985 20
, 3.60
240 30.
15,014 40
21,952 20
3,006 00
- 50 10
348,193 20

12
40

1

5
1

do.
do.

16,158
1,114,839
416,915

432 251
70 25
272 00
885 00
43,019 00
334^ 00
19,887 25
216,675 00
. 7 9 8 60
310 76
2 00
9,409 50
318 76
821 00
3 00
200 25
12,512 00
18,293 50
2,505 00
41 75
290,161 00.

345 80 1
966 68 1 .
.56 20
163 90 i
217 60
567 32
708 00
929 04
3,432 18 - 34,415 20
267 20
414 68
15,909 80
4,754 90
172,640 00
56,562 80
638 8 0
.
1,081 66
, 248 60
96 46
1 60
91
7,627 60
. 10,824 00
255 00
413 20
656 80
646 48
2 40
2 70
160 20
87 70
10,009 60
9,231 60
14,634 80
18,824 73
2,004 00
6,636 87
33 40
67 24
232,128 80
326,068 80

2
5
2
3
1
2

125

55.90
58.32
51.21
26.24
. 1.99
31.03
5.97
6.55
33.86
7.76
11.37
28.75
32.40
19.68
22.60
10.94
18.44
25.72
66.23
34.27
28.09

C—Continued.
.IMPORTED..

^
.
S P E C I E S OF M E R C H A N D I S E .

.

•

I -

(iuantity.

jute, .Sisal grass,, coir, (fee, used as• hemp for cordage..'.
cwt.
24,339
Cordilla, or tow of hemp or flax
. (lo.'
8,433
Flax, unmanufactured
do. .
. • -8,879
Rags of all k i n d s . . . . . . . . . . . - . . .,...•. lbs.
10,903,101
Sheddy, or waste..
' . . . . . ; . . . . . . . . do.
. .780Hat bodies or felts, made in whole Or
in part of wOol. . : . . . . . . . . . . . . ..... do.
216
Glass—watch crystals.....;.
..; gross
^ 1,165
^glasses or pebbles for specta- .:
cles
i
do.
1,793
Cut glass,, cut one-third the height or
. ^.•.
length: thereof........... lbs.
1,360
cut above one-third, and .
not above one-half . . . . do.
865
•cut one-half, and exceedine"
do. - ; 5,677
cut chandeliers, ' candlesticks, ( f e e . . . . . . . . . . . . do.
41,701
_Plain glass, moulded or pressed,
weighing over 8 oz.. do.
12,882
moulded or pressed,
weighing 8 oz. or
•;
. under, except tunT- •
.biers...,..... i .
do.
• 4,248 •
moulded pr - pressed, • ,
. .w.eighing.over.'-8ozv
. when stoppered.... do..
2,035
.. : ,
moulded ; or pressed,
weighing 8.oz. or under when stoppered, do.
967



-

DUTIES.

R^te of - At present
duty.
rates.

Value.

$106,717
.46,602
, 90,509
421,080
8

o

00 .$1 25' •
00 1 00
00 1 00
00
i
.1
00

249 00

.. 18

4,588 00

2 00

.8,089 00

2 00

471 bo

. 25.

478 00

35

4,210 00

45

20,968 O.b

45,

$30,423
. 8,433
• 8,879
27,267
I

At 20 per cent.. At 25 per cent. At 30 per cent.

75 '• $21,343 40
$26,679 25
00,
• 9,320. 40
11,650 60
00 . .18,101.80- ~\ 22,627 25
76
84,216 00
106,27.0 00
95
1 60
2 0b

• 38 88
2,330 00:

49 80
917 60

' $32,015
13,980
27,152
126,324
' ; .2

,10
60
70
00
40

62 25
1,147 00

. .74 70
. 1,376 40
2,426 70

3,586 00

1,617 80

2,022 25

340 00

94 20

117 75

302 75

. 95 60

119 50.

.

14130
143 40

."B'.O'

Per. cent.
28.50
18.09
. 9.81
.64.74
24.37
15.61
50.78
44.33
72.18.
63.33

2,509 65

842 00

1,052 00.

1,263 00

18,.765. 00

.4,193 60

6,242 00

6,290 40.

-

1,288 20;

416 00

.520 00

624 00

89,49

2,080 00

10 .

.1,888. 00

12

509 .76

.377 60

472,00

566 '40

663 00

14

284 90

.132 60

165 75

198 90

497 00

16^

154 72

,59:61

61.93
' 27.00
• '.42.97
99 4b

124 25

149 10
31.13

plain,. '-moulded, or
.pressed tumblers.;. do.
plain, moulded, or
\
. . pressed, stoppered.
. and tumblers,....... do.
Cylinder -window glass, riot above 8
.
•
: b y l O i n , . sq.ft.
not above. 10
by 12 i n . . do.
- .. not abo-ve 14
.
, by 10 i n . . ..do.
.
, •-; not above 16
.
,
.
b y l i i n . . do.
;• • not above 18
>
':
. b y l 2 i n . . . do.
: above; 18 by
.1^ inches. do.
Crown Avindow glass,.not- above 10
,: .
.-.: ;.~ • by, 12 in.... do.
\ . not abo-ve 10
.
•
by 14 in...' . do.
• .
not above 16
by 11 in... do. :
not above' 18
by 12. in.,.. do.
•••'.'..-.

above

,380 00

10

523 30

.76.00

1,001

: 410 :00

14

140 14

...82 .00

102 50.

123 00

,3418
21.34

186 72

174.00

217 50

^'
31

943 06

557 4b

696 75

836 10

33.83

243 00

119 60

149.60

" 179 40

40.63

1,328 00

4

649 12

265 6b

332 00

. 398 40 '. 41.35.

10,225

1,161 00

5

511 25

232:20

290 25

87,957

7,935 00

6

6,277 42

1,587 .00

1,983 75

453

128 00

;. - 5

.22.66

.25 60

32 00

4,161 64

1,547 60

1,934 50

870 00

37,722

2,787:00

6,943

698. 00

13,728

6

.7,738 00'

1,017

233 00

1,227

534 00

do.

33,824

4,578 00

10

3,382 40'

do.

8,590
- 2,340
9,253
17,938
31,240

1,423 00
648 00
1,875 00
5,1840O
12,162 00

57
8
10
12

429 50
163 80
740 24
1,793.80
3-,748 80

M87

635 00

1 75

do.

150

584 00

do.

49

232 00

gross

137.71

2

9,286

69,194

do.
do.
do. .
do.

114.00

95 00

261 00

18 b y

.
' 1 2 inches..
Polished pla:te glass, not silvered^-:.
not above 12.by .8 inches
•
not above 14 by lb inches. . . .
" not above 16 by 11; inches. . . .
not above 16 by 12Inches. . v.
not above 22 by 14 inches.,.-..
Apothecaries'.vial's and ^bottles^ .
not exceeding the capacity of
6 oz. each..;.
". 1.........
exceeding 6, and nOt exceeding
" 16 oz. e a c h . . . . . . . . . . . . ' . . .
Perfumery vials and bottles—
not exceeding the capacity of
4 oz. each.



5,233

7
•'

"8

71 19
•

98 16

348 30

44.03

2,380 50

66.50

.38.40. .. 17.69
2,321 40

;63.65

46 60

58 25

69 90.

'20,65

' 106 80.

133 50

160 2.0

18.38

1,144 .50

1,373^40 . 73.88

.284 60
129 60
375 00
1,036 80
.2,432 40

355 76
162 00
468.76
1,296 00
3,040 50

426
194
562
1,656
3,648

327 25

127 00

2 75

412 50

2 50/

122 50

915 60

90
40
60
20
60

30.18
26.29
39.47
34.60
.30.82

168 75

190 50

51.53

.116 80

, 146 00

176 20

-62..07-

46 40.

58 00

69 60

52.80

C—Continued.
IMPORTED.
SPECIES OP

R a t e of
duty.

MERCHANDISE.

Gluantity.

P e r f u m e r y vials and bottles—
exceeding 4, and not exceeding
16 oz; each.
Black and green bottles—- exceeding 8 oz. and not above
1 quart e a c h . . ,
do.
exceeding the capacity of 1 •
quart e a c h . . . . . . . . . . - . . . . . . do.
Demijohns and c a r b o y s ^ '
exceeding I gallon, and not
above 3 gallons e a c h , . . . : . . . . N o .
exceeding the capacity of 3
gallons each
- » . . . . , . . do..
Copper rods and b o l t s . . . . . . . . . . . . . lbs.
nails and spikes
do..
Patent sheathing metal.
, do.
L e a d , shot
.'
do.
' old and scrap..
do.
in sheets and forms, not specie
^
fied
i . do.
B r a s s , battery or hammered kettles do..
- screws
^ . 1 . do.
P i n s , solid headed j in packs of 5,000 .
-each
padks
pound p i n s .
. , V . . . . . . lbs.
Fire-arms, muskets.
No.
rifles
,.. do.
Cap or bonnet wire, covered with silk.' lbs.,
(iovered, with other
materials
do.




Value.

A t present
rates.

-Ss
At 20 per cent. A t 25 per cent. A t 30 per cent.

P e r cent
16

$111 00

P 00

$48 00

9,873

43,925 00

3 00

29,619 00

8,785 00

10,981 25

142

910 00

4 00

568 00

182 00

227 50

337 20

6,568

1,686 00

30

1,970 40

11,503
636
1,262
33,661
1,341
15,378

3,722 00
117 00
3,361 00
6,874 00
69.00
302 00

50
4
4
2
4

5,751
21
50
671
53
230

4,231
12,422
405

166 00
3,179 00
205 00

4
12
30

45,594
58,646
7,018
16
8,883
13,562

25,828
19,250
15,997
188
5,087

00
00
00
00
00

5,882 00

li

40
20
50
60
12

50
44
08
22
64
67

169 24
1,49b 64
121 50
18,237
9,729
,10,527
40
1,065

60
00
00
00
96

1,084 96

$22 20

$27 75

$33 30

43.24

13,177 50

67.41

• 273 00

62.41

421 50

505.80

40
40
20
80
80
40

930 50
29 25
' 840 25
1,468 50
14 75
75 50

1,116 60
35 10
1,008 30
1,762 20
17.70
90 60

154.52
18.32
1.49
11.42
90.91.
76.38

31 2b
635 80
. 1 00
4

39 00
794 75
51 25

46 80
, 953 70
61 60

108.42
46.67
69.26

744
23
672
1,174
11
60

5,165
3,850
3,199
37
1,017

60
00
40
60
40

1,176 40

6,457
4,812
3,999
47
1,271

00
50
25
0075

^ 1,470 50

7,748
6,776
4,799
56
1,526

11.09

40
00
10
40
10

70 6i
60.54
66.80
21.27
20.95

. 1,764 60

18.44

I r o n and steel wire— ' •
not above No.-14.
do..
above 14, and not above
No. 26......
. . . do.
...
above N o . 25.......... do.
T a c k s , brads, and sprigs^— :_
not above 16 oz. per M ........ . do..
above 16 oz. per M . . . . . . . . . . d o .
I r o n , manufactures of-^
wopd screws
do.
cut n a i l s : . . . . . . . . . . , . . . , . , . . . . . , . , . . . do.,
w r o u g h t nails.
., do.
spikes, cut or. w r o u g h t . . . . . . . . . d o .
• • chain cables, a n d parts . . . . . . . . . . d p .
chains, other than cables
, do.
w r o u g h t , for ships, locomotives,
and steam e n g i n e s . . . . . . . . . . . . d o .
• malleable irons,, or c a s t i n g s . . . . . d o .
mill-saws, cross-cut, a:nd pitsaws
,
i . . do.
steam, g a s , or. water tubes or pipes
.-.... do..
anchors or parts . . . . . . . . . . . . . d o .
anvils............
do.
• blacksmith's hammers and sledr
ges....)
do, castings, vessels of . . . , . . . . . . . . d o .
all other . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . d o .
glazed or tinned hollow w a r e ,
. (fee......-.
do,
sad irons, hatter's anti tailor's '
irons . . ;
do.
cast iron butts or hinges . . . ' . . . d o .
- axletrees, or parts thereof
do.
round or square iron, as brazier's rods, from 3-16 to 10-16
inches
"........
do.
nail or spike rods, slit, rolled, or
' hammered
......;...... do.
sheet iron, except tagger's .... do.
hoop iron
do.




61,575

9,040 00 :
639 00

2,453
. 13,336

.5,

323 00 •
1,355 00

"86,668
, 143
921,269
16,430
1,992,849
264,270
123,201
3,779
. 2,672
2,385
58,361
1,035,319

17,133
- 11
63,445
526
57,193
10,718

•

3,078 75

1,002 6Q

1,253 25

1,503 90 j

6L41

8

2,119 68
. 189 86

1,808 00
127 80

2,260 00
159 75

2,712 00
191 70 .

23.44'
29.71

^
5
5

. 5,013-00.

26,496
i;726

122 65
666 80

64 60
271 00.

80 75
338 75

3,426 60
2 20
12,689 00
105 2b
11,438 60
2,143 60

4,283 26
2 75
16,861 25131 50
14,298 25
2,679 60

-5,139. 9,0:
3 30
19,033 50
157 80
17,167 90
3,215 40

60.70
39-.00
58.01
93.70
87.11
98.61

1,122 60

1,403 25

1,683 90
98 10

87.79
46.22

2,098 80:

3819

00
00 •
00
00
00
00

-.12
^ 3
44

10,400 16
4 29
36,850 76
• 492 9049,821 22
10,570 80.

5,613 00 •
327 00

4
4

4,928 04
151 16

6,996 00

1 00

408 00
2,371 00
.,57,397 00

5

65 40

. 81 •75

1,399 20

1 7 4 00
,.9
102 00
592 75
14,349 25
1,409 25
4,569 00
. 1,198 00

2,672 00''
119 25
1,459 02
25,882 97

2|

2,931 56
9,457 77
1,483 36

81 60
474 20
11,4.79 40
1,127 40
3,647 20
958 40

33,917 00

2i

11,450 47

6,783 40

17,983
1,324,942
20,437

612 00
80,507 Ob
1,992.00

9|
4

449 57
33,123 66
. 817 48

596,549

25,814 00

2|

36,788
11,565,861
406,337

929 00
480,276. 00
9,252 00

117,262
630,518
148,336

5,637 00
18,236 00"
4,792 00

458,019

2r
-

2H
2|

96 90 • , 37.97
49.27
406 '50

122 40
- 29.22
711 30
61.63
17,219 10 ~ 45.09
i;691 10
5,470 80
1,437 60

52:00
51.86
30.95

8,479 25

10,175 10

33.76

102 40
16,101 40
398 40

128 00
20,126 76
498 00

153 60
24,162 10
"697 60

87.80
4r.l4
41.03

14,913 72

5,162 80

6,453 50

919 70
289,146 . 2
6
10,158 42

186 80'
96,065 20
1,850 40

232 25
120,069 00
2,313 00

7,744 20 278 70
144,082 80
2,775 60

58.77
98.98
60.24
109.79

C—Continued.
IMPORTED.^
SPECIES OF M E R C H A N D I S E .

Gluantity.

Iron, band iron, scroll iron, pr (basement rods, slit,, rolled, or
. hammered.......... i . . . . . . . . .lbs.
pig'.
..*,..........,....... .cwt.
oM and scrap.
...;.. do.
bar, manufactured by rolling.. do.,
manufactured ptherwise.. do.
Steel, cast, shear, and German....... do.
all other.-.-....-.....•••••• •:••. <io.
Leather, tanned sole or bend-leather lbs.
upper, not otherwise specified......
do.
. calf skins, tanned & dressed doz.
seal skins', tanned (fe dressed do.
sheep skins,-tan 'd (fe dressed do.
skivers
do.
goat skins,'tan'd (fe..dressed do.
•mProcco skins, tanned and
dressed
" do.
kid skins or rriorocco,.tanned and d r e s s e d . . . . . . . . . do..
; goat or sheep skins, tanned
. and not dressed . . . . . . . . . . do.
kid arid lamb s k i n s - . . . . . . . db.
fawn, kici,and lamb, known
as chamois
i... do.
men's leather gloves
do.
women's leatherhabitgloves do.
. women's extra arid demilength gloves . . . . . . . . . . . ' . .do.



Value.

Rate of
duty.

At present / At 20 per cent.. At.25 per'cent.
At 30 per cent
' rates.

'B o

Per cent.
216,255
650,209
116,950
1,023,772
363,530
57,910
6,373
2,799

$7;671 00 $0.02i
506,291 00
45 .
119,740 00
60
1,691,748 00
1 26
872,157 00 - 85 •
732,867 00
1 50
42j808'b0 2 60
. ..979 00
6

. $5,406.37
247,594 b6
58,475 00'
1,279,715 Ob
309,000 50
86,865 00
15,932 50
167 94

8
00
00
00 .
00 .
50

26 96
20,07.0 00
10 -00
. 2,478 00
13,726 00
707-.50

35 00
10,302 20
3 80
1,395 80
7,431 20
474 .40

$1,534
101,258
23,948
338,349
174,431
146,573
8,561
. 195

20
20
00
60
40
40
60
80

30
30
00
40
10
lb
40
70

: -7.07
48.90
48:81
76.64.
35.42
11:85
37.45
17.15

75
75
75
75
Ob
00

52 50^
15,453 306 70
2,093 70
11,146 80
711,60

15.'40
38.96
62.63
35.40
36.94
29.82

$1,917 '75
126,572 75
' 29,935-00
422,937.00
218,039 26
183,216 76
10,702 00
244 75

$2,301
151,-887
35,922
507,624
261,647
219,860
12,842
293

337
4,014
• 2
1,239
6,863
283

175 Ob
51,511 00
19 00
6,979 00
37,156 00
2,372 00

5
5
2
2
2

1,125

lb,943 00

2 50.

2,812 50

2,188 60

2,736 75

3,282 90

25.70-

• 1,187

5,617 00

1 50

1,78b 50

1,103 40

1,379 25

1,656 10

32,25

3,249
614

9,631 00
2,159 00

1 00
.75 .

3,249 00
467 50

1,926 20
- 431 80

2,407 75
639 75

2,889 30
647 70.

33.73
21.66

227
33,914
133,430

836 00
156,007 00
516,127 00

1 00
1 25
1 00

227 00
42,392 50
133,430 00

167 20
31,001 40
103,225 40

209 00
38,751 75,
129,031 75

250 80:
46,602 10
154,838 10

27.15
27.34
26.85

3,322

18,924 00

1 50

4,983 00

3,784 80

4,731 00

5,677 20

26.33

43
12,877
4
1,744
9,289
593

children's leather habit
g l o v e s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . do*
children's e x t r a and demi
length gloves . . . . . . . . d o .
Boots, bootees, and shoes, or leather and
other niaterials—
m e n ' s boots.and bootees . . . . . . . p a i r s .
m e n ' s shoes and p u m p s . . . . . . ; ' . d o .
w o m e n ' s boots s^d bootees . ; . . do.
womenjs double-souled p u m p s . d o .
w o m e n ' s shoes and slippers . , . do.
w o m e n ' s shoes and slippers "of
prunella.
do.
children's , boots, bootees, ^,and
shoes".,
do".
P a p e r , bank or bank-note . . . . . . . . .pounds.
folio and 4to post
do. .
antiquarian and d r a w i n g . . . . . d o .
imperial, royal, and siiperroyal
• . . . do.
medium, .demy, and foolscap,
,
pot and pith . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . do.
all other writing p a p e r . . . . . , ; . do.
copperplate, blotting, and cop y i n g . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . do.
colpred, for labels and nee. .. r dies
do.
marble and fancy colored . . . . d o . .
morocco paper.
do. paste iDoard, pressing board,
and sand paper
do.
tissue p a p e r .
. do.
gold or silver p a p e r . . . . . . . . . . . d o .
colored copperplate -printing
andstainer's.
• • • • do.
b i n d e r s ' boards; b o x b o a r d s ,
mill boards, (fee
do.
sheathing, wrapping, and cartridge...
do.
blank and visiting c a r d s . . . . . . do. .
playing cards
do.
all other paper.
do.




3,16.7
- 8
6,271
2,397
991
1,485
13,932

9,303 00 .

50

1,583 50

21 00

75

6 00

24,936
2,392
1,139
787
8,758

00
00
00
00
00

1 25
30
50
• 40
25

1,860 60
. 4 20

7,838 75
719 10
, 495 50
594 00
3,483 00 >

2,325 75
5 25

4,987
478
227
157
1,751

20
40
80
40
60

6,234-00.
69"8 00
284 75
196 76^
2,189 ,50'

2,790 90
^

6 30

17.02
28.57

7,480.80
31.43 '
717 60 . 30.06
341 70
43.50
236 10 • 75.47
2,627 40
39.76

3,838 00

.25 1

1,386 60

409
2,526
8,048
468

00
00
00
00

15
17
17
16

182
1,416
4,210
167

9,707

1,277 oo"

15

406 00

256 40

319 25

--7,198
42,124

2,014 00
5,912 00

15
•15

1,079 70
6,318 60

402 80
1,182 40

503 50
1,478 00

604 20 ^ 53.60
1,773 60 107.33

8,432

4,427 0 0
,

1,054 00

885 40

1,106 76

1,328 10

23.80

• ,§04
-2,624
1,076

. 497 00
2,187 00423 Ob

12i

100 50
316 60
134 60

99.40
437 40
84 60

124 25
546 75
. 106 75

- ,149 10
656 10
126 90

2a.23
14.42
31.79

8,629
28,283.
610

4,979 00
13,031 00
281 00

m

1,078 63
3,635 37
63 75

: 995 80
2,606 20
56 20

1,244 75
. 3,267 76
. 70 26

1,493 70
3,909 :3b
84 30

21.66
27.13
22.68

101 40

126 76

18 60

23 26

5,646
1,214
8,334
24,769
1,114

'3,108
233
7,842'
195
- 709
15,310

• 607 00

12i

• .12J
/

.1-0

93 00
798
292
141
3,823

10
78
73
10

310 80
6 99

'

00
3
12
00
25
00
00 • " 15 - j
^

235
23
177
2,296

767 60

26
40
25
50

81
505
1,609
93

.

159
58
•28
764

80
20
60,
60

60
40
20
60

959 60
102
631
2,012
117

'

25
5b
00
00

199 60
73 00
35 26
955 75

1,151 40
122
767
2,414
140

70
80
40
40 •

383 10

152 10
27 90

36.12
44.52
. 56.08
52.19
35.70
32.80

61,30
' 7.61

239 40
29.48
87 60
80.00
42 30 2.57.10
1,146 90
60.00

C-^Continued.
IMPORTED.
^

DUTIES.

SPECIES OF MERCHANDISE.

ciuantity.

.Value.

Rate of
duty.

^At present
rates.'

At 20 per cent. At 25 per cent. At 30 per cent.

•5,2
s o
«"1 •

•

$238 80
215 70

Per cent,
24.34
17.62

•

Blank books, bound
pounds.
unbound . •.
do.
Books, printed in Latin or Greek-^
bound
. . . . , . . . , . do.
unbound
do.
printed in Hebrew, Greek,
Latin, or English, 40 years
before importation..... .volumes.
printed in Hebrew, bound, .pounds.
unbound do.
printed in other languages
than Hebrew, Greek, Latin,
I
or Enghsh,' bound, or in
boards
volumes.
printed in other languages
than Hebrew, Greek,Latin, /
or English, in sheets or
p a m p h l e t s . . . . . . . . . . v...pounds^
printed in English, bound.... do.
unbound . do.
printed in English,-" printed
and published one year before importation, and not
republished in the United
States, or five years before
importation, bound
do.
printed in English, printed
and pubhshed one year before importation,. and not
republished in the United



969
845

$769 00 $0 20
719 00
15

$193 80
126 75

$159 20
143 80

$199 00
179 75

.

6,576
4,013

5,960 00
3,426 00

15
13

'986 40
521 69

1,192 00
685 20

1,490 00
856 50

1,788 00
1,027 80

16.55
15.22

27,402
15,415
511

19,967 00
12,965 00
. .487 00

5
10
8

1,370 10
1,541 50
40 88

3,993 40
2,593 00
97 40

4,991 75
3,241 25
121 75

5,990 lb
3,889 50
146 l b

6.86
11.88
8.39

81,995

59,192 00

5

4,099 75

11,838 40

14,798 00

17,757 60

6.92

12,077
5,994
50,402

8,447 00
7,926 00
51,831 00

15
30
20

1,811 55
• . 1,798 20
10,080 40

1,689" 40.
1,586 20
10,366 20

2,111 75
1,981 50
12,967 75

2,534 10
. 2,377 80
16,549 30

21.44
22.54
19,44

24,125

24,407 00

15

3,618 75

4,881.40

6,101 75

7,322 10

14.82

States, or five 'years before '
importation, un bou nd;
do.
printed reports of legislative
committees, (fee
.\ . . vols.
polyglots, lexicons, and die-tionaries
lbs.
Salt...'
; ..bushels,
Coal...... i
: . tons.
Coke or bulm . . . * . . . . . . : . .
bushels.
Breadstuffs, w h e a t . . . i . . . . . . . . . . . . . do,.
b a r l e y . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . do.
rye.....
do.
oats
. do.
Ihdian corn . . . . . . . . . . . do.
wheat
flour
cwt^
potatoes.
..bushels.
Fish, dried and pickled—
'dried or smoked
cwt.
salmon....'....,
. . . . ' . .barrels,
mackerel
' do.
, herrings.'
do.
all o t h e r . . . . . . . . . . .
do.

30,381
37

35 00

10

6,034
3,543,627
85,776
18,267
281
249
43
1,739
.13
14
211,327

4,934
898,663
223,919
564
. ^ 257
158
44
593
6
30
58,949

00
00.
00
00
00
00
00
00
00
00
00

1 75
5
25
20
16
lb
10
70
lb

1,297
7,827
19,769
660
2,350

9,646
78,688
187,791
3,968
10,172

00
00
00
00
00

1
2
1
1
1

00
00
50
50
00

3,038 .10

5,957 00

7,446 25

8,935 50

10.20

• 1 85

29,785 00

7 00

8 75

10 50

5.28

49
6
173
1
9
21,132

80
45
90
30
80
70

986
179,732
.44,783
112
61
31
8
118
I
6
11,789

1,297
15,654
29,653
840
2,360

00
00
60
00
00

1,929
15,717
37,558
793
. 2,034

301
683,482
150,108
913

70
16
00.
35

70 26

80
60
80
80
40
60
80
60
00
00
80
20
60
20
6b
40

2,411 50
19,647. 00
46,947 76
992 00
2,643 00
8,728,715 50
16,047,966 .60

'

1,480
269,598
67,175
169
77
47
13
177
, 1
9
17,684
2,893
23,676
66,337
1,190
3,051

20
90
70
20
10
40
20
90
50
00
70

60.94.
76.05
67.03
161.94
27.33
31.51
14.66
29.32
26.00
32.66
35.84

80
13.44
40 ^ 19.91
15.79
30
2L17
40
23.10
60

19,021,344 80 23,776,681 00 28,632,017 20
3,615,619 .60 4,619,399 60 6,423,279 40

Paying duties....Free goods '.

95,106;724 00
22,147,840 00

30,818,854 87

30,818,854 87 22,636,864 40

28,296,080 50

33,955,296 60

TREASURY DEPARTMENT,

REGISTER'S' O F F I C E , Novemher 29,




m
O
P^
t^
>

o
H

32.40

14,-540,737 65^ 6,982,972 40
16,278,117 22 12,038,372 40

117,254,564 00

50
75
76
00
26
60
00
26
25
60
25

-41.64
27:04

34,914,862 00
60,1,91,862 00

1

1,233
224,665
55,979
141
64
^ 39
11
148
1
7
14,737

10,474,468 60
18,067,5"58 60

Specific articles
'.
Ad valorem articles. ...^..... . > . . . . . . . . .

Totah value, (fee

00

1845.

R. H . G I L L E T , Register.

n

D.

00

Statement ofi Imports, Exports, and consumption ofi Foreign Merchandise, fior the year 1845,
MERCHANDISE F R E E OF DUTY.

S P E C I E S OF M E R C H A N D I S E .

Articles imported for the use ofthe United States,....'.., .•»
specially, for the use of philosophical societies, colleges, (fee: i . . .
books, maps, and charts; . . . . . . . . ; . . * . . .
statuary, busts, casts,.(fee.
.'.....
paintings, drawings,.-etchings, and engra. vings . . . . . . . . . ...^.
paintings of Americah artists residing
'
abroad... *
.;.....
Wood, dye, in sticks..
. . ^ . . . . . . . .*.
•
,..
unmanufactured, not s p e c i f i e d . . . . . . . . . . . . . ' . . .
Specimens of botany, natural history, and mineralogy.....
Models of inventions and; machinery..
Anatomical preparations.
.:.............
Burr stones, u n w r o u g h t . . . . . . . . . . ' . . . . . . . . . > . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Crude brimstone and sulphur.. *
Bark of the cork t r e e . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - . . . . . .
.Clay, u n w r o u g h t . , ; . ; . . . ; . . . ; . . . . . . . . . . . , . . . . . . . . . . . . . ; . .
Animals for breed..: . . . , : . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Barilla.^i...;. ;: . . . . . ; . ; . . . . ; . . .
-^...........,.,.....,...'.
*. *
Nuts and berries used in dyeing
Old p e w t e r . . . . . . . . - . . . . . . . . . . . . . ; . * . . .
Brass, in pigs and b a r s . . . . . . . . . . . . ; ; . . . . . . .
.\
old, fit only for remanufacture...
i.
Copper, in pigs and bars . . . ' . . . ; . i
plates, suited for sheathing of s h i p s . . . , . , . . . . . . . :



IMPORTED,

duaritity.

EXPORTED.

Value".

,Q,uantity.;.

C O N S U M E D A N D ON H A N D .

Value:

. Gluantity.

Value.

• "$15,279

$15,279

4,167
30,127
4,333

4,167
30,127
4,333

2,448

.2,448

4,161
603,408
87,315
6,364
1,160
1,864
32,624
108,619
8,812
14,670.
26,637
22,917:
132,490
69
12,037
1,665
1,095,230
738,936

$349,067
4,062

7,994

6,275
27,223

4,161
264,341
83,253
6,364
1,150
1,864
32,624
100,625
8,812
14,670
25,637
22,917
132,490
59
12,037
1,665
1,088,955
711,713

^
0
t*
^
•.
1
•4^

ore.
•;•.••'••
old, fit only for' remanufacture........".......'.".. 1
Gypsum, or plaster Of Paris.
Adhesive felt, for sheathing of ships.
Epaulets and wings, of gold and silver . . . . ; . . . . . . .
Bullion, gold".
;.;...............................
silver.............................
..:...
Specie, gold . , . .
..*..................... i..........
silver
Teas
:•....... .
Coffee...................:.........\.....^
........
All other'articles
..i......./....

19,630,045
107,860,911
127,490,956

Exportations over importations—^
Specie, g o l d . . . . . ; . . . . . J
silver....
^................i.




48,807
.81,264
;
77,990
1,032
3,846
66,103
41,275
752,7473,210,117
5,730,514
i6,22i,271
2,968,663
22,147,840,

28,780'
497

»- • ^

20,027
80,767
77,990
1,032
3,845
66,103
41,275

2,467,495
13,501,972

2,210,979
6,661,070
920,893
- 840,739
227,520

17,162,550
94,368,939

4,809,621
5,380,632
2,731,043

15,969,467

10,175,099

111,521,48.9

15,771,926

00

O

i;458,2,32
2,340,953
3,799,185
127,490,956

22,147,840

15,969,467

10,175,099

111,521,489

11,972,741

o

pi
>
m

a

D—^Continued.

-O:

FOREIGN

S P E C I E S OF M E R C H A N D I S E .

IMPORTED.

Quantity.

Value.

W o o l , unmanufactured, not exceeding 7 cts. per p o u n d . . :lbs. 23,382,097 $1,563,789
exceeding 7 cents per p o u n d . . . . . do.
136,005
450,943
. manufactures of, cloths and cassimeres ^
5,411,850
226,317
merino, shawls of w o o l . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
304,677
blanke'is, not above 75 cents e a c h . . . .
694,237
above 75 cents e a c h " . . . . . . . .
741,242
hosiery, gloves, mits, and b i n d i n g s . .
worsted stuffs.
1,938,109
woolen yarn.
<.
19,938
worsted y a r n .
168,037
.' . . . coach l a c e . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . " . . . .
. 69
... ,. . .all other........... .> .. ..<-.,.,..,..... . . . . . . . .
663,409.
Cottons, colored, exceeding 30 cents per square yard'.
3i390,145
not exceeding 30 cts. per sq. y a r d . .sq. y d s . 25,0.27,699 5,182,401
uncolored, exceeding 20 cents per square yard
381,791
V
not exceeding 20 cts.'persq. y a r d . .sq. y d s . 11,262,418 1,441,660
velvets, cords, molesldhs, (fee. j exceeding 35 cents, per
'square yard I \ . .-.'.'.'..' i'..." . . * . . . : • . . . . ' . . ' . . . . ' . . . . ' .
548,974
- ' veWets, cords, mdleskiris,'(fec., not exceeding 36 cents
per square y a r d . \ . . . . : . . . \ . . . . . " . . . . . . '. .sq. y d s .
122,317
426,884
twist, y a r n , or thread', bleached or' colored, (Costing
l e s s t h a n 75 cents per pound .\ . . . ; ' . . ' i . . . . . ' . : .lbs. . 103,869
43,996
twist, y a r n , or thread, unbleached or'uhcolored,'cost•
ing less than 60 cents per p o u n d . . ' . . . . . . ; . . ' . " . .lbs.
IO3294
20",068
all other,'exceeding such minimunis, and on spools..
611,480
" . hosiery, gloves, mits, and b i n d i n g s . ' . . " . . ' . . ' . ' . . . . . - . ' . .
1/326,631
all other manufactures of,- not s p e c i f i e d . ' . . . . . . . . . . . .
903,694




MERCHANDISE.

C O N S U M E D A N D ON

EXPORTED.

Quantity.

' 64,495

1,008,283
1,206,546

Rate of
. duty.

Duties.

HAND.

Value.

Quantity.

Value.

Per cent.
23,382,097 $1,553,789
5
386,448
113,852 30&3p.lb,
5,380,038
40
214,991
• 40
- 30.4,205
15
26
.690,357
30
• 738.787
30
.1,840,699
30
: 19,9.38
6,048
30
• 162,989
'
729
4,915
548,494
.40
80,088
3,310,b57
30
201,687 24,019,416 4,980,714
43.40
4,104
377,687
-30
158,495 10,056,872 1,283,165
47.02

$22,153
31,812
, 11,326
472
3,880
2,455
97,^410

20,187

$77,689
45,749
2,152,016
85,996
45,630
172,589
• -221,636
552,209
,5,981
48,896
219,397
993,017
2,161,747
113,306
603^352

528,787

30

158,636 10

5,941

1,484

420,943

120,833

36.57

44,199 01

2,111

1,526

101,768

42,470

44.92

19,079 62

11,779

• 5,582
3,816
2,455
.23,131

8,289

• 4,712
507,665
1,324,176
'880,463

26.38
30
30
30

1,243
152,299
397,252
264,138

35
50
80
90

Silks, floss, and other dyed, prepared for m a n u f a c t u r e . . . « i . . . .
shirt's or drawers,- made-up wholly, or in p a r t . . . . . . . . .
umbrellas, parasols j and s u n - s h a d e s . . , . . . a
bolting cloths.. . . . . . . ; < * . . . , . . . . , . ^
manufactures of, mixed,with metals...* . . . . . . . . . , . . . • : . . ^
caps, turbans, .(fee,, for women-.. . . . . . . i i i i .<. * . . . . . . ;
manufactures of, not specified..; . ; . . . . . . * * . . . . . . . * . . - .
silk and worsted g o o d s . . . . . . . . -.,-...%
.ii.i......
Camlets, and other manufactures of goai,S'' hair and m o h a i r . .
Liace,- thread, and insertings.*
<,.,.......'........;
-^ cotton'quillings, insertings, bobbinet, ( f e e . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Gold and silver lace, tresses, tassels, k n o t s , stars, ( f e e . . . . . . . .
leaf.
.,... i . . . . . . . . . . . . ' - . . . . - . .
Embroidery in gold or silver,-Qther than clo thin g.^.,*; .i i i * ; . . .
F l a x , linens, bleached and'unbleached-..;. - . ; . - - . . . . . . - ; . .
i
hosiery, gloves, mits,- a-nd bindings
.....•...•.'.. i .
other manufactures o f ; . ' . . . . . . . . ; - . . - . . . ; . . . . . . ; . . . . . ;
H e m p , sheetings, brown and whiter
..-...';
.• i ;
. ticklenburgs, osnaburgs, and b u r l a p s . . . ; .•
-....
Oither manufactures o f . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ^ . . . . ; .
;.;.
Clothing, ready m a d e . , . . . . ; . . . . . . .
^.........
articles hot specified, w o r n b y m e n , w o m e n , and
children . . . . . : . . , . .
-..-......'...-...;..
Grass cloth
;.-.
...-....'........
Carpeting, not s p e c i f i e d . : . . , . . . ; . ' ; . .•;.
;'
M a t t i n g , Chinese, of flags, jute., o r grass
,
not specified..
,
i......
W i r e , silvered or plated
.,...
brass or copper
Iron and steel, fire-arms, not s p e c i f i e d . . , . . . . . . . . ,
side-arms
drawing and cutting-knives
-.
.hatchets, a x e s , and adzes..
socket chisels
plane irons
steelyards and scale-beams
vices
,
•sickles and r e a p i n g - h o o k s . . . . . - . . , . . . . . . . . . . . ^
scythes.
spades and shovels
squares
..,.,,




• 40,893
3,782
11,701
29,636
13,146

5
212
4,298,224

606
624,379
106,730
1^5,471
206,782
•67,232
1,105,796
18,314
31,745
87,783
. 38,407

680
• 9,508
.
144,877
I,-278
9,003
• 5,123
9,529
2,891
10,181
29,589
3,79.4
23,740
14,428

.

a,ii7^i

•..?

s.

1,550

"
' ~'

-

r

A-

2,143

~
•
~

r

• ^

728
927,755
1,510,310
•228,838
^8,-979
614,018
28,217

.
S

i?

ir

.

A

-T

^

11,40^
15,916

..
r

.-

-

.
r

. '247
4,645

.r
.
A

^
.
*
. *

.

•

1,309
1,144

- _.
^ .
.
'3,347
. 362 .
.982

- .

-

^
^
-

-'

^

-

*
r
.T
••^

;
,
>
.
*
r

636

- •

-

r
.
?

59,333

..•
-•

.
_

-

*

20,718
31,251
17,727
2,670
5,651

*
- ,
.

J

-

138,913

• -

•

JS

_
-

-

.

. •
r

:
r

_ •

6-

•f -

•

• 1

1

- •

- •

97

•

-

-

•

.
c
. ..

^
-

1

40,8^3f
-2,232
11,701
27j393
13446 1
728i
916,352
1,494^394
228,838
508,732
609,373
,28,217

5
212
4,159,311
' 606
603,666
^ 755479
177,744
203^12
61,581

25 1

10,223 25
892 80
3,,5i0 3b
6,478 60
3,943 80
30
^ 218 .40
30
274,905 60
30
. 448,318 20
30
45,767 6b
20
76j,309 80
15
121,874 60
•0
2
4,232 -55
15
1 00
'0
2
42 40
20 .
. 1,039,827 75
25
126 50
150,916 50
25 ^
,
18,8.69 75
26
35,548 80
20
40,622 4b
30,790 60
50

.0 1 .
4
30 1
20

m

^m

40
1,046,463
17,778
26
31,745
30
86,474 . . 2
-5
37,263
25
- 680 " 30
9,508
25
141,630
30
. . 916 30 '
8,021
30
5,123
30
9,629
30.
. . 2,891 . 30
,
10,181
30
I
2'9,492
30 !
3,794
30 1
23,74b
30
14,428
30
3,1171
30 1

418,585 20
4,444 50
9,523 50
21,618 60
9,315 75
204 00
2,377 00
-42,459 001
274 80
2,406 30
1,636 90
. -2^858 70
867 30
3,064. 30
8,847 60
.1,1-38 20
- 7,122 00
4,328 40
936 10|

OJ

D—Continued.
FOREIGN MERCHANDISE.

Quantity.
Iron and steel -chains, the links longer, than those used- for
. ; chain cables.;.-i...... .-.'.i i-.i . . . i . . . . . . . . ; - . .
. ' needles, sewing, knitting, and.tambouring....-.
V
all other manufactures of.. v. i . . . . . . . i.-..";..
Saddlery, common, tinned and j a p a n n e d . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
plated, brass and polished steel. . . . ; ; . . * . . . . ; . . . .
Manufactures .of brass...... / . ; - . . . .
;...
.copper...'..;....... * . . . . . . . . . . . - . . . . . . . . . . .
.
: tin...... ^ i ...\ ...-.......;....-;•...•........
p e w t e r . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . w.'w
i....^......
•

l e a d . . . . . . . , ; • . . . - . .i...•.-.. . . . ^ ^ . ' . . .

i.....;..;.

German s i l v e r . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - . . . •..'..... •.;;.
. . . bellmetal...............;........;...... .'*.....-.
z i n c . : . i . . . . . . . i . . . . . . . : . . . . . i . . . . . . i . i...

... - b r o n z e . . . . . . . . . : . . . . . . . . . . . . . , . . ' . . .
' l e a t h e r . . ; . . . . . . . ; . ..•.....•...•.*-...•. ^ ..:.^.;..
Glass, plate, exceeding twenty-two by fourteen inches.... . i .
*
s i l v e r e d . - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . i.... ..•^. . . • . , . . . . . .
i f ^ f r a r n e d . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . i . . , . . . . . . . . . . . . *.".....
paintings on, porcelain o r . c o l o r e d . . . . . . . . . ; i . . . . . . . . .
manufactures of, not specified... * . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Hats and bonnets, (fee, Leghorn,ychip, straw,-gi;asSj (fee...-.
« . " palm-leaf, rattan V willow, ( f e e . . . . . . . .
,
hair, whalebone,. (fe(5...-; - . . : . . . . . . . . .•
Wood, cabinet w a r e . . . . . . . . : . . . . . . ; . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
- manufactures of/. -... . . . . . , • ; • . . - . . . . 1 . . . . . . . . - . . . . ' . . .^
Wares, china and pOrcelaini,,.,
•.'.-.,-.........



CONSUMED AND ON
HA^^D.
~

-EXPORTED.

SPECIES OF MERCHANDISE.

Value.

$21,999
160,731
3,729,465
i25v750
142,497
120,083
107,756
13,131
787
15,663
621
9.31
3,626
109,668
8b,263
274,281
15,347
-.•5,772
75,9.76
712,923
5i-,'785
318
26,056
15b,036
252,256

Quantity.

Value.

40,936
331
1,080
•667

1,156
381
53
112
32,655
2,277
c4-,879
1,442

Quantity.

Rate of
duty.

Duties.

Per cent.
30
20
30
2b
30
30
30
3b
30
30
30
30
30
30
35
30
37:74
30
30
25
35
35
35
30
30
30

$6,599 70
32,012 60
,106,558 70
26,160 00
42,649 80
35,700 90
32,326 80
3,769 20
4,-466 70
236 10
4,698 90
,186 30
, 279 30
.1,087 •80
37,979 2b
23,964 60
103,493 66
4,670 60
1,731 60
18,993 75
238,093 80
18,124 75
111 30
7,133 70
43,647 .10
75,244 20

Value.

$21,999
160,063
3,688,629
125,760
142,166
119,003
10T,756
12,564
• 4,889
•
-787
15,663
621
931
3,626
108,612
79,882
27.4,228
16,236
• 5.,-772
75,976
680,268
•51,786
: 318
23,779
145,167
25b,8i4

earthen and stone
•plated and g i l t . / .
japanned.......'.
,
F u r s , . undressed, on the s k i n . . . . . . . . . . . .
hats, caps,-muflfs, and t i p p e t s i . .
hatters',, and oth.er f u r s . . . . . . . . .
Hair-cloth and hair s e a t i n g . . . . . . . . . . . .
Brushes of all kinds.
P a p e r hangings . . . . . . - .
Coach and harness furniture..'
.
Carriages, and parts of c a r r i a g e s . . . . . .
Slate's of all kinds
Black lead p e n c i l s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Copper bottoms, c u t . r o u n d , ( f e e . . . . . . . .
Square.wire,Tor umbrella stretchers. . .
Z i n c , in' plates dr s h e e t s . . .
Chronometers, ship or b o x .
Clocks
.,
W a t c h e s , and parts of watches.....
Manufactures ofgold and sil ver, platina, (fee
J e w e l r y , gold and silver
. imitation of
Quicksilver . .
B u t t o n s , metal
'.
all other buttons,, and button m o u l d s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
T e a s , pounds imported from oth'fer places than their growth or
p r o d u c t i o n : . . . . . . . . . i . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - . .lbs.
•Coffee, pounds; imported from other places than their growth
or production
'..
. . . . . . ' \ . . . . . . . . . . . . . .lbs.
Corks
Quills, prepared
'.
Quills, other
....
W o o d , unmanufactured, m a h o g a n y
rose...
.i...
" • satin'.....'...
...
cedar....
*
..
Merchandise, not enumerated, at 1 per cent




Oi

c<

5
7

"
''

'

'

............:...

n "
10

."

.

.....

2,187,259
169,227
69,895
256,686
16,646
466,739
90,643
67,426
46,286
1,737
1,688
121,768
11,798
3,455
8,068
• 73,909
11,835
.18,971
1,106,643
. ,39,380
: 64,662
84,877
•54,993
19,168
90V062

-

. 1

21,259
1,745

. *
- .
• -

*

*

•

.

30,881

233

-

•

*

^.
-

•

17

.
-

•?

-

•

-

1^920

*
.

•

•

. .
.
*
^
' .
• -

311

-

-

.

.

;r

.

•

45

-

. . . .

. r.

.

.

•

.

-

-

;

.

-

•

•

31,274

15,813

272,458

22,261
90,862
• 3,261
- 6,126
261,292
. 18,912
3,240
.15,638
212,975
1,690,460
4,975,003
32,57.6
29,6,85
170,641

28,060

1,736
-3,974

166,642

-

-

25,010

244,398

6,264

-

20,525 •
.
86,8.88
3,261
.6,126
196,299
.16,867
• 1,531
3,128
211,660
1,682,812
4,756,88b
•
32,351
29,686
154,898

•

-

•

. • •

•

•

^

-

.
.
.
.. "

.

• • •

.

-

.

•

..

.

^

-

•

'

•

-

. -

.

.

.

182,455

•

.

• • 287
.
- , - .
1^4
-

.
-

. •

•

8.400

.
-

•

64,993
3,045
1,709
12,510
1,325
. . 7,-648
•
218,123
.225
15,743

2466,000
167,482
69,895
. 225,705
16,413
465,739
90,643
67,409
46,285
1,737
• 1,588
119,848
11,798
3,456
8,068
73,598
-. 11,835
18,926
1,098,143
. . 39,093
54,662 .
84,877
. 54,993
17',654
90,062

-..
•

"

•

•

-

'

-

-

•

..
.
•

.

• - . :

649,800 00
30
47,244 60
30
17,968 50
80
11,285 25
5
5,744 65
35
. 116,434 75
25
22,660 75
26
20,222 70
30
16499 76
35
521 10
30
476 40
30
29,962 00
26
2,949 . 0
525
1,036 50
30
1,008 60
121
- 7,3.59 80
10
.. 2,367-00
.20 '
4,731 50
25

25
5
30
25

82,360 72
11,727 90
lb,932 40
21,219- 25
2,749 65
5,296 20
22,515 60

20

5,002 00

ih-

• 30
20

-.20

30
25
20.
15
15
15
15^
1
21
6
7

•1
7

10

4,106 00
26,066 40
816 25
1,226 20
29,444 85
2,380 06
229 65
469.20
2,116 50
42,070 30
237,844 00
2,264 67
2,226 37
15,489 80

D-^--Continued. •
FOREIGN MERCHANDISE.

SPECIES'OF MERCHANDISE,

:

Quantity,
Merchandise, not enumerated, at 12| per cent, i
15
".
,.,,,
. .
..
20
w.,,,,..,.,..,-.,
26
"
.-...%.....,...,
.
.
• . 30
"
.;.............
.35

•

^'

.y

.V...........V.-.

Value$253
292,873
2,290,897
1\103,334
1,061,291
• 46,701
60,191,862

peduct excess of exportation" over impovtation-^scoach lace^-.,
••

..




•

EXPORTED.

IMPORTED.

.

^y

Quantity.

-.
n

_ r

Value.

'

^ C O N S U M E D A N D 0]S[
HAND.

Quantity.

$49,421
413,204
80,.607
60,452
20,472

T,

2,107,2^2

Duties. -

Value.
Per cent.
$253 • I2h
243,452
15"
1,877,693
20
1,022,727
25
1,010,839
30
26,229
35

$31 62^
36,517 80""
375^538 60
265,681 76
30.3,251 70
,9,180 16

-

2,107,292

58,085,240 av, 2.7.07 16,722,818 -46
•234 50
35

r

58,084,570

•5

60,191,862

Rate of
duty.

"

-

m
^:

o

m
o

16,722,583 96

00

'D—rC ontinued.
FOREIGN

00

MERCHANDISE.
^

S P E C I E S OF M E R C H A N D I S E .

EXPORTED.

IMPORTED-

.t^

Duties.

COis[SUMED A N D ON H A N D .

-^s
Quantity.
Silks, sewing silk, twist, or twist of silk
and m o h a i r . . , . . . . ' . . .
lbs.
Silks, pongees and plain silk, (white,) for
printing, ( f e e . . . . . : . .
.lbs.
Silks, manufactures - of silk, not'specified..
.lbs.
Silks, raw silk, comprehending silk in the
gum
..,-..lbs.
Silk and satin boots and shoes, (fee:
- shoes or slippers, for men and women. . . . . . . ' . . . . . . . • . . . . . . .pairs.
laced boots. Of bootees, for men and
women... i
.-. ; . . . .'.^.i'.pairs.
shoes or slippers, f(5r children.. .do.
laced boots, or bootees, for chil•• dren
.pairs.
hats, for m e n . . . . . . . . . . . . . . N o . of
satin bonnets, for women
do.
Flannels.
.sq.-yds.
Baizes and bpckings
' . . . . . . . do.
Carpeting, Wilton"... . ^ . . !
.'. do.
Saxony
do.
- treble ingrained.
do.
Brussels
do.
Turkey. . . . . . . ? . . • • • • •. do.
Venetian
do,all other ingrain . . . . . . . do.
Sail duck

.
-




do.

Value.

Quantity.

Value.,

Quantity.

Value.

m
-pq

82,196

$431,632

401

$1,268

81,795

$430,364

$2 00

$163,590 00

38.01

130j858

469,499

3,4.07

21,813

127,451

447,686

1 50

191,176 50

42.70

763,463

7,791,285

27,058

208,096

736,405

7,583,190

2 60

1,841,012 60

24.27

62,697

208,464

1,534

4,362

61,163

204,092

50

30,681 50

14.98

2,509

2,016

2,509

2,016

•30

^ 762 70

37.33

206
6
;

379
4

- 206
,
6

154 50
. . 90

40.76
22.50

1,326
4,103
1,781
205,130
278,466
27,676
4,822
82
226,399
771
2^9,473
17,223
744,2111

.-672
8,413
9,426
^ 76,065
100,332
76,870
. 10,919
73
308,664
1,610
20,776
14,102
272,031

331 50
3,971 00
3,562 00
27,743 10
38,983 84
17,926 35
3,134 30
53 30
124,439 15
371 80
8,841 90
5,166 90
46,858 66

49:33
48.66
37.78
38.36
38.86'
23.71
,28.70
73.00
40.33
28.37
42.56
36.63
19.31

•

132

237

6,965

3,747

97

' "291

146
.96

138
200

74,803 1 . .29,485 1

1,326
3,971
1,781
198,165
278,456
27,579
4,822
- .82
226,2,53
676
29,473
17,223
669,408

379
•

• .4

672
8,176
9,426
72,308
100,332
75,579
10,919
73
308,526
1,310
20,776
14,102
242,546

D—Continued. ^
«3^

FOREIGN MERCHANDISE.

.

SPEC^IES OF MERCHANDISE.

IMPORTED.

Quantity.

Cotton bagging.
.sq. y d s .
of all other materials than hemp
or
flax.
i.. .. ..sq.yds.
Floor cloth, patent, printed or painted do.
Oilcloth, furniture, on Canton flannel do.
not specified..... do.
of linen j and silk, for co-v^ers, (fee.
• - •
s.q.^^yds.
W i n e s , in casks, bottles and Oth er vessels—^
Madeira
..galls.'
s h e r r y . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ' do.
Canary...........
do.
champagne
.-do. .
port, in b o t t l e s . . . . . . . . . . ; . . do.
B u r g u n d y , "in b o t t l e s . . . . . . . do.
claret, in bottles
do.
port, in casks
do.
B u r g u n d y , in casks
do.
Teneriffe, in casks or bottles do.
claret, in c a s k s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . do.
of Sicily, in casks or bottles, M a r sala.or Sicily M a d e i r a . . . .;galls.
of Sicily, in casks or bottles, other
wines of Sicily..
galls.
red wines, not enumerated, ih casks,
, of F r a n c e .
galls.
red \yines, hot enumerated, in casks,
of Austria
galls.




EXPORTED.

Duties.

CONSUMED AND ON HAND.

Value.

Quantity.

Value..

a •
(2^

Valu e. .

Q u an tity.

1,551,044

$117,331

132,489.

$14,551

1,418,555

$102,780

$O'^04

•228,448
7,804
6,903
53,743

11,194
5,714
2,369
9,874

42,002
150

3,622
80

186,446
7,654
6,903
53,743

•7,572
5,634
2,359
9,874

5
35
16
10

47,671

14,917

-27

158

47,644

145,237
38,289
672
303,399
3,133
. -. 791
40,864
162,368
366
. 6,426
249,633

2,258
4,869

3,730
6,383

2,042
87'

6,107
121

8,948
2,522

10,183
.2,325

1,488
2,232

760
790

98,918
18,747
1,778
99,.422
2,297
, 218
39,740
'. 258,071
325
4,358
1,049,630

. 141,507
31,906
672
297,292
3,012
'
791
30,681
.. 160,033
366
5,666
248,843

B o
o^'-"

W
$56,742 20

-

9,322
2,678
1,104
5,374

55.2b

30
90
48
30

122.79
47.54
. 46.82
54.42

121

14,759

101,176
23,616
1,778
101,464
2,384
218
•48,688
-260,693
326
. 6,840
1,061,862

>. ,
^...>^ .
3
--g'^

^

J

^,965 50

40.35

7|
60
60
4b.
15
35
35
6
15
20
6

. 7,418
11,248
-1,066
'39,768
344
76
13,909
15,484
48
871
.62,977

86
20
80
80
65
30
00
26
75
60
80

5.24
35.25
158.75
13.38
11.43
9.64
45.33
9.67
13.32
15.38
26.30

62,873

31,669

5,705

3,009

57,168

28,660

25

14,292 00

49.87

47,717

14,364

233

109

- 47,484

14,256

15

7,122 60

49.96

-^380,946

73,658

7,130

2,434

373,816

71,124

6

22,428 96

31.53

343

30

343

30

6

2b 58

68.60

red wines, not enumerated, in
•casks, of Sardinia.
galls-.
. red wines, not enumerated, in
^
' casks, of Portugal and possessions
" white;and red, not enumerated,,in
casks, of F r a n c e . . . . . . . . . . . .galls.
white and fed, not enumerated, in
casks, of A u s t r i a . . . . . . . .galls.
white and red, not enumerated, in
^ casks, of Portugal and possessions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ' , . . .galls.'
white. a;nd red, not enumisrated, in
bottles", (Df .France
galls.
white,an(l. red, not enumerated, in
bottles, of A u s t r i a . . . . . . .galls.
white and red, not enumerated, .in
bottles, of Portugal and possessions.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . g a l l s . .
white and red, not enumerated,Hn
casks, of Spain..
. . . ..^.gd:lls.
white and red,-not.enumerated, in
casks, of G e r m a n y
...galls."
~ white and red, not enumerated, in
^
casks, of the .Mediterranean.
.•..,..
galls.
white and red, not enumerated,.in
"bottles, of Spain
.galls..
white and'red, not eriumerated, in
bottles, of G e r m a n y
...galls.
white and red, not enumerated, in
bottles, of the Mediterranean,
galls,
other, not enumeratad, in bottles.
•
galls,
other, not enumerated, in casks.,
galls.
Foreign distilled spirits, from g r a i n . . . . d o .
brandy...do.
Other materials., galls.
cordials..do..




692

90.1

692

- 4i 52

90

46.13

113,607

.69,532

4,502

2,046

109,105

67,486

6

6,546 30

9.70

45.6,927

128,986

12,69b

5,205

443,237

123,781

7i

33,242 77

-.'26.'85

"•-17

•'..4

7=

1 27

31.75

.134,469

81,665

-.7:

10,084 42

12.34

3b,813

13,304

2b

.6,162 60 " 46.32

49

10

16

'4
136,791

82,193

31,586

14,630

-528

1,332
773.

. 4 9

.

10

7 35

73.60

^ .'
1,006
300.,609

73,535

23,746

12,900

8.34

9,140

20,288

12i

35,040 12

54.41

121

2,968 25

38.14

570

s2,082.

12|

6,175 25

50.08

i,?06

15

280,321

64,395

23,746

7,782

51,484

150 75

.1,006

1,806

• 7,782

-49,402

12,330

20

53

60

3,683

1,318

3,931

7,453

72

.. 400

6,04

423

2

3

' 215.

606,311
1,081,314

262,643
819,640

616
3,156
23,403

• 897
2,943
30,664

603,155
1,057,911

270,484
20,727

78,967
30,080

94,264
227

62,058
292

176,220
20,600

7,063

20.

. 771 80

10.94

504
'

3,869.

423

20

100 80

-^23.83

66

413

259,600
788,87.6

61.78
1 00

372,629 16
1,057,911 00

143.52
134.10

16,899
. 29,788

61.78
60

108,868 72
12,300 00

644.23
41.29

0\
00

D-^Continued.
FOREIGN MERCHANDISE.

SPECIES OF MERCHANDISE.

IMPORTED.

Quantity.
Beer, ale, and porter, in bottles....
. in casks.,
do
Vinegar . . . i
.."...
-..do
Molasses.
.do
Spirits of turpentine".
.do
Oil, whale and other
fish
•• • . . ...do
spermaceti."
.;'. .d"p
olive, in casks
...".-... .do
castor. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
do
, hnseed
. . . . . . . . " . . - . . . . . . , . . .dq
of almonds
.......;.
lbs
of cloves
do
Cocoa..:
:.....
'
. . .do
Chocolate...".
-.............do
Sugar, brown...
,.... .do
white..
— ...........do
loaf, and other refined..;.......do,
candy
do,
sirup of, and cane
.do,
Te;
..
do.
Fruits, almonds..... . i . .
do,
currants.
.do
prunes . . . . . . . . . ;i
.do,
figs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .do,
dates..
do.
raisins, in jars, ( f e e ; . . . . . . . . . .do,
all, other..'. - . . : . . . . . . . d o .
Nuts, not specified, except those used
in dyeing
...,..-...;
do.



EXPORTED.

Value.

Quantity.

100,256
• 7,810"
•
.38,287
201,311,364
33
259

• $93,214
3,384
6,252
3,164,782
27231

.82,655
. 9
227,114
893
2,372
1,666,094
5,027
111,957,404
1,662,574
2,b44,862
1,704
112

48,579
• 18
106,674
466
200
3,074
92,389
1,888,781,
1,627
4,556,392 11,199,089
91,172
759,639
132,991 1,840,909
162
3
60
162,869
61,388
59.,838
17,342
43,696
34,615
110,916
68,662
1,114
444
521,971
101,385
184,623
136,251

1,757,349
1,237,882
468,693
1,409,663
89,271
7,573,897
3,166,323
2,179,436

68,733

4,361
'8,849
3,204
3,276,436
11,332
166
4,160
151
28,124

52,968

Value.

Quantity.

13,758
95,895
3,311
924
35,083
82,761 198,034,928
33
800
146
• 3,887
78,495
114
19,494
198,990
893
600
2,172
152,630
6,027
541,103 100,758,315
66,753'
902;936
186,396
203,953
' 1,704
112
30
8,102 , 1,695,961
1,708
1,220,540
4-34,078
5,168
1,351,101
6,363
88,827
31'
7,472,512
10,369
3,029,072
10,240
3,556

2,126,467

ValueT

-p o
cr

P^

$89,456
$0 20
73
15
6,328
8
3,072,021 mills 4^
27
10
15
26
44,692
20
40
86,080
26
- 456
9
2,474
30
1
1,627
4
4,015,289
2.
34,419
4
6
162
6
3
2;
144,767
68,130
38,627
106,553
1,083
511,602
174,383
65,178

"c'-b

Duties.

CONSUMED AND ON HAND.

3
3
3
2
1
3
2

$19,179 00

21.43

2,806 64
891,157 18
'
3 30

52.67'
29 ^
12.22

15,699 00

35.10

49,747 60
80 37
661 60

57.79
17.62
26.33

201
2,518,957
36,117
12,237
102
2

08
88
40
18
24
80

12.35
62.73
104.93

60,878 "83
36,616 20
13,022 34
27,022 02
88a 27
224,176 36
60,681 44

36.14
62,99
33.80
26.60
82.02
43.81
36.31

21,264 67

32.62

63.11
93.33 I

Spices, m a c e . ' . . . . . . . - . . . . ; . ; - . . . . . . . . d o ' .
n u t m e g s . . . .•..
-..do-.
c i n n a m o n . ^ . . . . . . . . . . . ; . . . . .do.
- c l o v e s . ' . . . : . . - . . - . . . ' . . - . . . . i . . . .do-.
pep23er, b l a c k . - . - . . . ; ; . . . - ; ; ; . . \ d o .
Cayenne-, ( f e e . . . . . . ' . .do.
pimento. . . . . . . > . . - . . . , . . ; . . - ; . . .do-.
c a s s i a . . _ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .•.'.. ;.- .do-.
, ginger, gfound.
do.
in r o o t ; . : ;
do.
C a m p h o r , c r u d e ; . . . . . ; . . . . . . . . . . i ..do.
refined
. . . . . . . . . . . . . ...do.
Candles, w a x and s p e r m a c e t i . . . . . . . . d o .
tallow.
; . . . . ' ; .•,,..;-i .do',
Cheese.
. ; . . . . . . .do.
Soap, hard
; . . ; . . . . - . . . . . . ; . . .do.
soft.. .•
".- .-.'.bbls.
Tallow
. . " . . • . . . . . . - . . ; ; . • . . ; . . • ; .Ibs.
Starch
. - . . . . . . . ; . • . . . . - . ; . . • . . .do.
Barley, pearl. . . . . . . . . . . . . - . • . • ; . . . • ; . .do'.
Butter
. ..;
.do.
Beef and pork.
.-. .-.do.
.Lard
. ; . . . . . . . . . . . .-.do.
H a m s and bacon. . . . . . . . ; . . - . . • ; . . . ..do.
Bristles.
-. . . d o .
Saltpetre, refined
. . . . . . . .do.
partly r.efined.'.'...-,.•.•.-... .do..
Indigo
..- i ' .
-do.
W o a d , or pastel
..do.
I v o r y or bone, black.. . : . . . . '
. . ..do.
Alum
,
. . . . . . . . ' . . . . . . .do.
Opium
do..
Glue
.do.
Gunpowder
•. .do.
Copperas
—
•
do.
Vitriol, oil of.
do.
Quinine
ounces.
Bleaching powder
.•
lbs.
Sulphate of barytes
do.
Tobacco, manufactured, snuff.
. ..do.
'
. c i g a r s . . . . " . ..M.
c i g a r s . . . . , . .lbs.




• 14,997'
260,253
. 3,440
155,252
1,012,986
17,861
2,832,750
942,231
6,495
6-77,885"
706,632

10
529
.
6
65,109
8,189

12,719
176,221
2,932
24,429
37,875
1^699
164,690
86,056

968

444

26,466
- 143,636

-

263

-'

• ' ,

-

-

6
' 260

- 582
1,261
6,904
11,874
89;329
.2,196
93,314
22,626

. 1,609
• 6,107
67,265
1,0155384
. 29,462
1,112,065
165,735
2,612
1,343

•

,

-2

-

- 8,841
. '785

9j713
6,815

6

46
9,605
1,295
1,729

114,891
9,234
1,178

281

480

-

- .

. 30,968
343,218
20,734
1,901,960
1,131,256
108,166
12,'861
. 61
14,432
8,264
8,081

3,640
172,076
1,336
79,549
• 862,700
3,194
T,243

135

, 801
•50,048
73,174
10,020

477

167

815,172

1,160,644

35,468.
2,835
.260

12

8,770
23,079
1,882,473
1,327,375

- ^
•

-

• 4-4,644
81;'920
88,263

_

8,089

618
140
60
•1,799
208'

20
129
2,622
4,463
94,686

-

8
37,638
1,276
3,284

7,017.
1,631
20,600

-

•

^ - . • ;

2,086
6,040

• -

119

50,693

^

.--

.

•

1,720,686
776,49,6
3,883
677,885
706,632

-•

.

^ 260

179
824
3

i

7,415
6,633

8,770

777

6,265

289

59.96
42.64

7,838 96

62.43

-8

- 4 .
•

9'

4

60 1
•

\

1

' 2
2
•

- 5

•

86,034
•3&,824
166
13,667
36,281

26
80
32
70
60

42 32 • 16.2812 .
• - 2 4
69.40
- 4,985.64
26.01
94 96
. 6.52
3 00
37.98
637 90
38 59
298 90
943 12 , 69 35
63.30
139 90

. 3,620
171,947

-

• 75,086
768,014
3,194
1,243
. 8
18,716
. 1,096
2,460

.9
^

20,993
1,877,433
1,327,375

• 801
44,783
72,886
10,020

167

764,479

1,086,888

3
1
2

O
i
6
1

• Oi
11
75
5
8
21
40
1

01
• 12 •

921 24
3,431 60
4,550
52,140
1,081
96

10
65
66
46

91
5,661 26
331 66

40

.26.17
1.99
6.05
6.78
33.86
• 7.76
11.37
29.71
.30.25

.10.94
87 70
18.75
8,397 20
26.76
18,774 33
66.23
. 6,636 87
67 24 • 34.27

990

73,756

120.63
61.20
22.03
63.23
24.68

2,

,

477

-

-

- •

-

•

365
46
1,416

1

5
20

2

1,689
. 221

1,820,040
1,042,993
108,166
12,861

-•/• 2

7,183

53,790
14i946
47,1562,79g
30,708
343,160

'8.
6
10 .
6
^ 5
•4 ^

•

. 71,376
63,431
^ 7b5
26,466
143,636
.

O
.7,276 50 1
74,623 20 !

25

•

.

55,396
2,374

61

18,922

:L45
-

- •

30

12,655

.'6

68

•

. -

1 : 50
.
1

-

-

529
6

1,658
. '420

12,137
174,970

97,987

• ^ '

168,681
24,179
48,334
3,27827,866'

• 1,088

851

.

-

14,663
248^744

305,791 60

28.13 1

D—•Continued.

o

FOREIGN MERCHANDISE.

IMPORTED.

SPECIES OF MERCHANDISE.

Duties.

CONSUMED AND ON HAND.

CO

Quantity..

Value.

Quantity.

Value;

Quantity..

Value.

m

Q-.

w,
T o b a c c o , manufactured, other than snuff
• or c i g a r s . . : — . - . ..".:. ^ . . . . r . . . . . .lbs.
Cotton, Unmaiiufactured. ... . . . , : . . . • . . .do.
T h i b e t , Angora, and other goats'hair..do.-'
P a i n t s , ochre, d r y . .-..:
. ' . . . . . •.. .do.
- in oil.
. : . . . . . ;.do-.
white and-red l e a d . . . . . . . . . .-.do.
• whiting; and Paris white. .•. . . d o .
• l i t h a r g e . - . " . . " . . . . . . . . . . . ' . . . . . .do.
- . p u t t y . ..,.-.
. . . . . . ;.
...do..
• sug^r of l e a d . . . . ; . . . . . " * . . . ; . d o .
Cordage, tarred, and c a b l e s . . . . . . . . . . d o .
. untarred.........,..;.....dp.
untarred y a r n . . .
;.;;..do.
T w i n e and p a c k t h r e a d . . . . . ' . . . - . . - . . . . d o .
Seines. — . . . . . : . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . d o .
H e m p , unmanufactured..........
cwt.
.. . ' ManUla s u n , and other hemps
of India, ( f e e . . . ; " . . . . - . ; . . . . . . d o .
J u t e , Sisal grass, coir,' (fee, used as ;.
hemp for cordage
U .'. ..do;
Cordilla or tow, pf hemp or
flax
..do..
F l a x , unmanufactured'.—.'
.do.R a g s Of all k i n d s . . .
............lbs;
Shoddy,- or w a s t e .
. . . - . . , . . .do.
H a t bodies, or felts, made in whole or
in part of w o o l . . . . . ' . . . . . . . . . . . . . N o .
G l a s s , watch c r y s t a l s . . . . . . . . . . . . .•;.gro.ss




.7,236
13,239,935
63,254
2,119,639
1,890
231,171
26,584
1,703
. .232.
16,168.
1,114,839
415,915
. -48
588,763
10,67,9
28,166

14,474
$1,131
646,966 13 ,564,973
6,727
18,443
6,043
22,023
145
14,272
14,744
305
.-•98
v-34
6,859
1,009
646,653
67,209
22,381
401,015
10
47,934
116,768
5,298
594
. 145,209

70,708

238^179

24,339
. 8,4.33
8,879
10,903,101
• 780.

106,71.7
46,602
90,609
421,080

.

216
,1,165

249
4,688

181

i;o70
84,300

$2,063
792,535^
2,018.
188.

$16,425
21,835
145
13,859
.305
.•'98'
34
259^
19,394

'4,837

,56^527
2,113,59.6
1,890
216,899
26,584
1,703
232
9,299
468,186
" 14,900
• 48
540,829
10,679
27,561

446

.^0;527

236,733

885

750
47,816
30,884
6,697

6,544
.4,945

24,339
v..8,433
• : 7,809
10,818,801
.;8
:7p
216
. A165:

10
109,071
5,298140,372

$0 lo:
3
1
1

¥
4
H
4
5

^
6
6
7
2 00
1 25
25
00.
00

$565 27:
21,135 96
28.36
8,-675 96
26'6'84
.68 12
•3 48
. 371 96
23,409 30
670 50
• - 2 88
. •
32,449 74
740 53
55,122 00

3.44
. 96.79
19.55
62.60
87.16
69.51
10.23
143.60
120:70
28.80
29.76
13.97
39.26

249
• ;4,588.

88,158; 75

38.60

Pi

106,717
46,;602
83,965
416,135

30,423 75
- 8,433 00
7,809 00
27,047 00
195

28.60
18.09
9.30
6.49
24.37

18^
00

. 38 88
"
:2,330 00

15.61
50.78

H

^o

glasses or pebbles for spec• • t a c l e s . . . . . . . . . . . ; . . . . : . . . ' . do.
Cut-glass, cut ^ the heightor length
th^ereof.> . . ^
.~.... lbs;
Cut" glass, cut above .^ and not
^ above | . . . . . , . . . . . i . . . • : . . . . . . . . do.
Cut glass, cut I, and exceeding.... do.
cut charidehers, (Candlesticks, ( f e e . . . . . . . . . . . do.
Plain glass,, "moulded.''Or pressed,
weighing dver 8 o u i i c e s . . . . . , . . . . do.
Plain glass, moulded or pressed,
weighing * 8, Ounces, or under,, ex- ;
cept t u m b l e r s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . do.
Plain glass, moulded or pressed,
oyer 8 ounces, w:hen stoppered,
(fee. ..w . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . do.
Plain glass, moulded of pressed,
weighing. 8 ounces, or undfer, .
stoppered, &'c.
1 , . . . . do.
'P,lain glass, moulded or pressed,^
tuinblers.
;. do\
Plain'^glass, moulded or pressed,
tumblers,. stoppered, (fee. . . . . . . ; -do.
Cylinder window glass, not above
8 by 10 i n c h e s . . . . . . . " . ' . . . . . . . ; . .sq.;feet.
• Cylinder window glass, not above
10 by. 12 i n c h e s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . do.
Cylindef window glass, not above
14 by 10 i n c h e s . . . ' . . . . . . . . . . ' . . . . . do.
Cylinder window glass, not above •
16 by 11 inches
.-.
do.
Cyhnder window, glass", not above
18 by 12 inches.
do.
Cylinder, -^window glas.s, above 18
by 12 i n c h e s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . do.
Crown window glass, not.above 10
by 12 inches.
, . do.
Crown window glass, not above 10
by 14 inches
do.
Crown window glass, not a^bove 16
by 11 inches.
do.



14

8,089

- •1»'793
1,360

1

471

.865
5,577

.178 :

4781
4,-21"0,.

•

-

•

••-

20,968

. 2,789

12,8821

2,080

. ' - .
- .

4,248

1,888

663

967

. 497

-

5,233

380

-

1,001

410

-

.5
2

471.

3,668 00

44.97

34a 00

74.31

478
.4,210

• .35
46.

302 75
2,609 66

63.33
69.61

19,G97"

46

17,510 40

' 91.69

12,882

:2,080

IP.

1,288 20

61.93

3,525

257

-

2 00 :

. 38,912
•

723

7,911

865
5,677.

• . . •

1,871

41,701;

2,036

1,360

I

•

>

1,779

1,631

12

423 00

25.92

2,035

•'•*••

^

.

284 90

42.97.1

497

16

154 72

31.13

380

10

523 30

137,71

1,001

-

14

5,233

••-

663

:^967

-

410

14

140 14.

34.18

' 2.

171 72

20.61

2|

920 55

33.51

31

176 50

33:11

1,207

4

433 12 . •.35.88
371 25

9,286

870

700

~ 37

8,586

833

37,722'

2,787

900

40-

36,822

2,747'

•

598.

1,900

65

::. • • •1,328

2,900

121

6,943 1
13,728

5,043
• • 10,828

533 • •

10,225

. 1,161

2,800

156

- 7,425

I,bb5

6

87,967

,7,936

9,100

.906, i

78,867

7,030

6

4,731 42

67-.29

463

128

1

453

128

5

22 66

17.69

69,194

7.,738

69,194

7,738-

1,017

1^

233

•

:.

=

•

.
.

-

.•

•

-

•

•

-

-

i'

• -

•

1,017

, 6

233 r . . 7

4,161 64

36.94^^

53.65

71 19 i 30.55

D-—Continued.

10

FOREIGN MERCHANDISE.

SPECIES OF MERCHANDISE.

Quantity.
Crown" window glass, not above 18 by 12
inches . . . . ; . . . .
. . . „ • ; . . . . .sq. feet.
Crown window glass, above 18 by
12 inches
.-..-."... do.
Polished plate glass, not silvered,
not above 12-by 8 i n c h e s . . . ; . . . . do.
Polished plate glass, riot silvered^'
not above 14 by 1 0 i n c h e s . ; . . . . . do.
Polishe(i plate glass,/ not silvered,
not above 16 by 11 i n c h e s . . . . . . . do.
Polished plate glass, not silvered,
not above 18 by 12 i n c h e s . . . . . . . do.
-Polished plate glass,"riot silvered,
not above 22 by 14 i n c h e s . . . . . . . do..
Apothecaries'vials and bottles, not
exceeding the capacity Of 6 oz.
each
gross
Apothecaries' vials and bottles exceeding 6 and not exceeding 16 ounces eacih....;
do.
Perfumery vials and bottles, .not
exceeding the capacity of 4 oz.
each
. . . . . . . . . : . . . ; . . . . do.
Perfumery vials ' and bottles, exceeding .4 and not exceeding 16
ounces each
. I . ' . . . . . . ' do.
Black and green bottles, exceeding
8 ounces and not above orie qukH
each.
\ . . : . . . do.



EXPORTED.

IMPORTED.

Value.

Quantity.

CONSUMED AND ON HAND.

Value.

Quantity.

Value.

Duties.

^'1

P^

1,227

^ • $534

a ,227

. $534

$0 08

• $98 16

•18.38

33,824

4,678

33,824

4,578

10

3,382 40

73.88

8,590

1,423

8,590

1,423

5

429 60

30 18.

2,340.

648

7

163.80

25.30

8

740 24

39.47

10

• 1,793 80

34.60

3,148 80

27.03

327 26

51.63-

.412 50

70.63

122 50

52.80^

.48.00

43.24

28,896 00

67.67

2,340

648

9,253

1,876

9,253

1,875

17,938

6,184

17,938

5,184

31,240

12,162

26,240

11,647

5,000

$515

187.

636

187

635

150

584

150

584

49

232

49

232

16

111

1.6

111

9,873

. 43,925

9,632

42,697

241

1,228

12
1 75
2 76
2 50
3 00
3 00

Black and green bottles, ex.c.eeeding.
the capacity of. 1 quart e a c h . . . . . do,.
Demijohns an.d "carboys, exceeding
half gallon and npt above 3 gallons each.
."............ No.
Demijohns and carboys, exceeding
the-capacity of 3 gallons each . . . do.
Copper, rod and bolts.
.pounds.
nails and s p i k e s . . . . . . . . . . . . , do..
Patent sheathing metal'
do..
L e a d , shot
do.
old,and s c r a p . . . . . . . . . . . . . . dp,,
in sheets, and forms not specified . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . do.
Brass battery,-or hammered k.ettles. do.
s c r e w s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . , . . . , . . : . . dp,.
P i n s , solid-headed, in packs .of 5,000
each . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . , . . , . , , . . .packs.
P i n s , pound
^pounds.
F i r e - a r m s , muskets
No.
rifles
do.
C a p or bonnet w i r e , coyered with
s i l k . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ^ . . . . . . .pounds,
C a p or bonnet wire, covered with
other materials..,.."..
; . . do.
Iron and steel-wire, not above N o .
14. . \ :
..,..,.:
do.
Iron'and steel wire, above 14 and not
above N o . 25
. . . do.
Iron and steel wife, above N o . 2 6 . . do.
T a c k s , brad'^s, and sprigs, not above .
16 ounces per thousand
M.
T a c k s , bfads, and. sprigs,.above 16
. ounces per t h o u s a n d . . . . . . . ; . . .pounds.
Manufactures of iron—
wood-screws
•
do..
cut-nails
do..
wrought-nails....
do.
Xspikes, cut or wrought
do.
chain cables, and parts
do.
chains, and other cables . . . . do.




142
6,568

1,686

142

910

11,603
636
1,262
33,561
. 1,341
16,378

3,722
117
3,361
6,874
59
302

4,231
12,422
;
405

•166
3,179
.205

45,594
48,645
7,018
16

26,828
i9,250
16,997'
•188

910-

4 00

568 00

1,626

30

1,934 40

118.96 •

,50 '

l
i

256 50
21 44
60 08
• 648 42
63 64
230 ^67

18.32
1.49
11.48
90.91
76.38

. 44
1,490 64
121 50

46.88
59.26

17,312 00
9,201 80

70.31
63.34

1,20

.60

' 6,448

10,990

4,748

513
536
1,252
32,421
1,341
16,378

1,.140

4,220

2,314
2,636
7,616
4

228

192

1,206^
2,000
20,631
106

_
117
,3,361
5,646

69
302

_

4
4
2
4

11
12,422
405

3,179

205

4'
12
30

43,280
46,009

24,622
17,250

40
20/

62.41

82

1 60
2 60

30 00

36.58

5,087

12

1,065 96

20.93

1,084 96

18.42

- •

12

5,087
13,562

5,882

13,562

6,882-

8

61,575

5,013

61-,575

6,013

6

3,078 76

61.41

2,119 68
189 86

23.44
~ 29.71
37.97^

26,496
1,726

9,0.40
: 639

26,496
1,726

9,040

639

8
11

2,453

323

2,453

323

5

122 66

13,336

1,355

13,336

1,365

5

. 666 80

86,668
143
921,269
16,430
1,992,849
264,270

17,133
11
63,445
526
67,193
10,718

86,668
143
.909,802
16,030
1,991,717
2.62,639

17,133

12
3
4
3

11,467
400
1,132
1,631

1,042
240
97
319

11
62,403
286.
67,096
10,399

2
i
4

10,400
4
36,392
480
49,792
10,506

16
29
08
90
92
66

49,20
60.70
39.00
58.31
168.14
87 20
101.02

D—Continued.
FOREIGN

S P E C I E S OP M E R C H A N D I S E .

IMPORTED.

Quantity.
Manufactures of iron—wrought iron, for ships, locomojtives, (fe steam-engines. pounds.
mallea:ble:irons, or castings... do.
mill-sa\ys, cross-Ci.ut,.and pits a w s ; . . . . . . . . . . . . ' . . . . . . . . ' . No.
steam, gas,,or, water tubes, or ••..
pipes
.pounds.
anch ors, or p a r t s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . do.
anvils
do.
blacks,miths' hammers and
sledges...
dp.
castings, vessels o f . . . . . . .^... dp.
castings^ all other . . . . . . . . . . . do.
glazed or tinned hollow
ware, cfec
do.
sad-irons, hatters and tailors'
irons,
do.
cast-iron butts or hinges....." do.
axletrees, or parts thereof... do. .
round or square iron, as bra-"
^ . ziers' rods, from ;3-I6. to
10-16 inches
do.
'nail or spike rods, slit, rolled,
or hammered
do.
sheet-iron, except tagger's .. do.
hoop-iron
do.




MERCHANDISE.

-EXPORTED.

Value..

Quantity.

C O N S U M E D A N D ON H A N D .

Value.

Quantity.

Rate of
duty.

Duties.

Value.

W

123,201
3,779

$5,613
327

112

^$20

123,089
3,779

$5,593
327

$0 04
4

$4,923 66
.151 16

2,672

6,996

• 18

18

2,654

6,978

1 00

2,654 00

38.03

2;386
. 58,361
1,035,319

408
2,371
57,397

1,132

97

2,385
57,229
1,035,319

408
2,274
57,397

5
2h'

119 25
1,430 72
25,882 97

29.20
62.91
45.09

117,262
630,618
148,336

5,637
18,236
4,792

1,067

102

7,955

. 376

116,195
630,518
140,381

6,535
18,236.
4,417

21
1
1

2,904 87
9,457 77
1,403 81

52.46
61.31
31.78

468,019

33,917

458,019

33,917

11,450 47

33.76

17,983
1,324,942
20,437

512
80,607
1,992

3,3U

14,672
1,324,942
20,437

419
80,507
' 1,992

.366 80
33,123 55
817 48

87.64
41.14
41.03

596,649

25,814

24,373

317

572,176

25,497

14,304 40

56.10

36,788
11,665,861
406,337

929
480,276
9,252

2,791
51,141

150
1,596

929
480,126
7;656

919 70
289,076 75
8,879 90

98.99
60.20
115.98

93

. 36,788
11,563,070
355,196

^
1

4

88.03
46.22

I ^ d iron, scroll iron, or casement rods, slit. Tolled, or
h a m m e r e d . . . . . . . . . . . . . . do.
^Iron, p i g : . . . . . . . . . . . . , . . . . . . , . . . : . cwt.
•^i
old and scrap
ao.
2 .
bar, manufactured by rolling do.
otherwise do'.
< Steel, cast, shear, and G e r m a n . . . . do.
'l
all other
i . . . do.
^ Leather, tanned sole, or bend leather lbs.
• Leather, upper leather, not otherwise specified . . . . . . . . . . ....".*. do i
Leather, calf-skins, tanned and '
,
d r e s s e d . . . . . . . : . . ' . . . . , . . . . . . doz.
Leather, seal-skins, tanned and ' .
dressed . . . . * . . . . . . . . *......... do.
Leather, sheep-skins, tanned and
. dressed
. X * . . . . . do.
Le'ather, skiver's"..... -. . . . . . " . do.
Leather,-goats'-skins, tanned and
dressed . . . . . . . . . . . . ' . . . - . . . . . do.
Leather, rriorocco skins, tanned and
dressed...'.
do.
Leather, kid-skins, aiid morocco,
tanned and dressed ,
' . . . do.
Leather,goat or sheep-skins, tahiied and not dressed
do.
Leather, kid and lamb-skins, tanned
and not dressed
do.
Leather, fawn, kid, and lamb,
known as chamois . . . . . . . . . . . do.
, Leather glovesmen's leather gloves . . . . . . . do.
women's leather habitgloves do.
women's extra and demilength gloves
do.
. children's leather habit gloves do.
children's extra and d.emilength gloves . . . . . . . . - . do.
Boots, bootees, and shoes, of leather
, , and other materials—
.
men's boots and bootees... pairs.



216,255
660,209
116,960
1,023,772
363,630
67,910
6,373
2,799

,

7,671
506,291
119,740
1,691,748.
872,157
732,867
4^,808
979

337

175

4,014

51,511

2,992
2,622
2,063
- 763
458,470

8,678"
9,639
13,912
6,140
31,057

54

770

19

450

6,979
37,166

40

480

7,671
504,237
119,740
1,683,070
862,618
718,965
36,668

2|
45
50
1 25
85.
150
2 50
6

175

'8

3,960

1,199
6,863

50,741

5 00

•- .

4,896

.2
1,239
6,863

, 2,054

216,255
548,342
116,950
1,020,780
360,908
55,847
5,610
337

1,867

2 00
2 00

. 26 96

14.80

5 00

6,499
37,166

5,406 37i 70.47
246.,753 90
48.93
48.83
68,475 00
75.22
1,275,975 00
35.66
306,771 80
11.65
83,770 50
38.24
14,025 00

19,800 00

39.02

2,398 00
13,726 00

36.89
36.94

-'283

2,372

283

2,372

2 50

707 50

29.82

1,125

10,943

1,125

10,943

2 50

2,812 60

25.70

1,187

5,517

1,187

5,517

• 1 50

1,780 50

32.27

3,249

9,631

3,249

9,631

100

3,249 00

33.63

614

2,159

614

2,159

'75

460 50

21.32

227 00

27.15

.227:

836

33,914
133,430

155,007
516,127

3,322
3,167

18,924
9,303
.

6,271

22T

836

1 00

153,987
516,095

125
1 00

18,924
9,303

1 .60
50

4,983 00
1,683 50

26.33
17.02

21

1,020
. 32

33,794
133,418
3,322
3,167.

120
12

75

6 00

28.57.

24,275

1 25

' 7,648 75

31.50

21

24,936

1 52

661

6,119

42,242 50
. 133,418 00

27.43
25.83

D—^Continued.
FOREIGN MERCHANDISE.
•icj ?>-»

. SPECIES q p MERCHANDISE.

Boots, bootees, and shoes, of leather and
other materials—•
: '
.
• - men's shoes and pumps . . . ; pairs,
women's boots and bootees. do.
women's double-soled pumps do.
women's shoes and slippers.' do.'
• women's shoes^and-slippers
of p r u n e l l a . . - . . . . . . . . . i . . do.
children's boots, bootees, and
shoes . . * . . . - . . ; . . . . . . . . . do.
Paper, bank, of bank-note..'..... .• lbs.
fplid and quarto p o s t . ' . . . . . . . do.
antiquarian and drawing . . . do.
imperial, royal, and superr o y a l . . . . . . / . . . . . . V . . . . . do.
medium, . deniy;^ and .foolscap, pot and p i t l i . . . . . . . . do.
all other writing paper . . . . . do.
copperplate, blotting, and
c o p y i n g . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ' . . do.
colored, for labels, and needles....
. - . . . . . ; . . . . do.
marble and fancyr-colored . . do.
mprocco paper... . * , . . . . . . . . do.
pasteboard, pressing-board,
and sand-paper . . . . . . . . . do.
iissue paper . . . ; . . . . . . . . . . do.
^ and silver paper . . . . . . . do.



Quantity.

^S

Value.

Quantity.

Value.

Quantity.

Value.

P^

o^

2,097
991
1,485
13,932

$2,201
1,139
787
8,758-

) 30
60
.40
25

3,838

5,546

3,838

409
2,526
8,048
.468'

1,214
8,334

2,397
991
1,48513,932

$2,392
1,139
-787^
.8,758

5,546
1,214
8,334
24,769
1,114
2,707
7',198
42,124

2,014
5,912

8,432

.497
-2,187
423

$191

10
60
00
00

28.53
43.60
75.47
39.77

25

1,386 50

36.12

24,769
.1,114

409
2,626
8,048
• 468

15
17
17
15

182
1,416
4,210
167

10
78
73
10

44.52
56.08
62.32
35.70

2;707.

1,277

15

406.05.

31.78

7,198

2,014

15
15

1,079:70

63.69

8,432

4,427

121

1,054 00

23.8Q

804
2,524
1,076

'497
.2,187
423

12i
12^

100 50
315.50
134 50

26.22
14.42
31.7^

8,629
28,283
510

4,979'
13,031
281

12i
12|

1,078 62i
3,535 37|
63 75

4,427

' 804."2,524
1,076

300

1,277

a,629
28,283 '
510

Duties.

CONSUMED AND ON HAND.

EXPORTEDi

IMPORTED.

4,979
. 13,031
281

48,489'

6,053

•

i2i:

$629
495
694
3,483

21.66
27.13
22.69 1

moved, copperplate, prlntr
ing, and stainers'...,....-. do.
binders-'boards,box.bo,ards,.. mill boaf ds, (fee............ do.,
sheathing, wrapping, .and
. c a r t r i d g e . . . . . . . . . . . . . , , , dov
blank and visiting cards .. „ do.
playing cards
do.all other p a p e r . . . . . . . . . . ' ; . do.
Blank books, b o u n d . . . ' . . . ' . . . . . . . . do.
unbound...........
do.
Books printed in Latin and Greek,
. ' b 6 u n ( i . . : . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . do.
Books printed in Latin and G-reelc,. °
unbourid........................
do.
Books printed in Hebrew, Greek,
Latin, or English, -forty years:
before importation . . . , . , . 1 . . . . . vols.
Books printed in Hebrew, bound. ' lbs.
Books printed in Hebrew, unboiind do.
Books printed -in other languages
than Hebf(5w, Greek, Latin, or - • •
English, bourid or in b o a r d s . . . . VCDIS.
Books printed in other languages
than Hebrew, Greek, Latin, of . >
English, in; sheets, or pamphlets, lbs.
Books^printed in English,.bourid. do'. .
Books printed in English, unbound'.. do.
Books printed in'EiiglisK,'prihted
. and pubhshed one. yeair before'
iniportation, cihd'not republish, ed. in the IJ. States,, or five years
befofe importation, b o u n d . . . . . . do.
Books printed in English, printed
and published one year before
importation, and not republished, in the U. States, or five years
before importation, unbound.... do.
Books, printed, reports of legislative committees, (fee
vols.
Books, printed, polyglots, lexicons
and di(itionaries
.lbs.



3,108

507.

' 3,108

233

93

, 233

7.,842
195
709
15,310
969
845

• 798
292
141
3,823
796
719

• 7,842
195
709
15,310
969

6,576

5,960

0,576

5,960

4i0l3

3,42^

4,013

27,402
15,415
. 611

19,967
12,965
487

81,995'

59,192

1,975

12',077
5i994
50-,402

8,447
7,926
51,831

616
94

24,125

30,381

507.

.10;

310 80

61.30

^ .3

93 •

6 99

7..51

• 798
• 3
292
-12
141 •
•26-.
3,823 • • 16.
.796
20^
719
15

26
40
25
50
80
75

- 29.488,01
125.71
60
'24.34
17.62

15

986 40

16.56

3,426

1?

521 69 • 15.22

27,402
15,416
.511

19,967
12,9§5
, 487

' 5
10
8

1,376' 10
1,541 50
40 88

2,1S^

80,d20

57,002

.-.5

4,001 00

7:ol j

551
140

1M61
5,900
50v402

7,896^
7-,786
51,831

-.15
30
20

1,719 15
1,770 00
10,080. 40

21.7^2-2.73..
-19.44

24,407

24,125

24,407

-15

' fi 10

29,785

30,381

29,785

37

35

.37

35

6,034

4,934

6,034

4,934

-

-

5
5

235
23
177
2,296
193
126

6.86
ir.88
8-.39

'
3,618 75. •" 14;82

3,038 10 '

10.20

1 85 ^

6,28

301 70

6.11 j

C5^

D—Continued.
FOREIGN

Quantity.
Salt..
i
.bush.
Coal.....;
tons
Coke, or c u l m . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . b u s h .
Bread stufifs, w h e a t . . . , . . . . . . . . . . . . do.
'
.
barley......
do.
^
r y e . . . . . . . . . . . . . , . ' . . . do.
o a t s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . do.
Indian e o r n . . . . . . . . . . . do.
wheat flour......... ^.. cwt.
potatoes'.
.bush.
. Fish, dried or smoked.... ^ . . . . . i . . cwt.
salmon.... .i
bbls.
mackerel
. ^ . . . . . . . . . . . . do.
h e r r i n g s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . do.
all other.
do.

8,543,527
85,776
- 18,267
.-281
249
• 43
1,739
13
14
211,327
1,297
7,827
19,769
660
2,360

MERCHANDISE

EXPORTED.

IMPORTED.

SPECIES OF MERCHAiJblSE.

00

Value.
$898,663
223,919
564
257
158
.44
593
6
' 30
58,949
9,646
78,588
187,791
3,968
10,172

.Quantity.

CONSUMED AND ON H A N D .

67,667
11,364

$15,304
36,967

-"
. .
-- '

.-"
- .
-

-'
-

300
"

-

•

1,125
6

'

•

506
21

100
•

Deduct exportation over importation—sundry articles, as per ahhexed statement..'.

.

-

.

•

34,914,862
60,191,862
22,147,840

•

-

•

: -

. 2,107,292

-

15,346,830

.117,254,564

-

-

3,064,439
10,175,099

-\

•

•

8,475,860
74,412
18,267
281
249
43
1,739
13
14
210,202
1,291
7,827
19,769
460
2,350

- •

117,254,564

Specific articles. ..•• • • • . V . ' . ' . . . . . . . . . . . .
Ad valorem
Free.

Quantity.

Value.

15,346,830

.-

% - •

Dutiea.

•

O
di .

"S

. Value.

$883,359
$0-08
187,962 , 1 75
564
5
257
25
158
20
44
15
593
10'
5
10
30
70
58,443
10
9,625
1 00
78,688'
2 00
187,791
1 50
3,668
1 50
10,172
1 00

^
32,223,244
58,084,670
11,972,741
102,280,555
'
;-':. .
372,821
-101,907,734

•II

•

.

-

• _

$678,068 80
130,221 00
913 36
70 25
49 80
6 45
173 90
1 30
9 80
21,020 20
1,291 00
15,664 00
29,653 50
690 00
2,360 00 .
13,200,118 41
15,722,818 46

76.76
69.28
161.94
27.33
31.51
14.65
29.32
26
32.66
35.96
13.39
19.91
15.79
18.81
23.10
40.96
27.07

28,922,936 87

-

51,300 41
^28,871,636 46

Mte.—^The foregoing table, when placed in the hands of the Secretary of the Treasury to be used in preparing his report, contained errors -which are now
greeted. The ad valorem duties were then stated at $13,692,966 25, when the true amount was $15,722,818 46; showing that ?nore than one-half of the
[le is now collected from ad valorem duties. The specific duties were stated at $13,311,085 46, when they were only $13,200,118 41.
A U Y DEPARTMENT, REGISTER'S OFFICE, January 23, 1846^
S R




R, H . G I L L E T , Re^ster.

00
0\

D«--»Continued*

00
CONSUMED AND ON
HAND.

E3£PpRTED.
SPECIES OF MERCHANDISE.

Quantity.

Value

Quantity.

Quantity.,

Value

Value.

Rate of
diity.

Duties.

E x p o r t a t i o n s over I m p o r t a t i o n s .

Wine, red, of. Spain, bottled
.gallons.
Wines, not enumerated, b o t t l e d . . . ' . . . . , . . . . . . . . . . . . . do.
in casks
do.
Oil, sJDermaceti.
i
dO.
whale, and other
fish
« . . . do.
castor..
do.
Cocoa.
'.
.ppunds.
Pepper, black
do. .
Cayenne...........
do.
Camphor, refined.
I . , do.
Beef and pork..
do*
Lard
do.
Saltpetre, refined...
..".....
do.
Tobaccb, unmanufactured, cigars. . . . . . . . . . * . . . . . . . . , M .
other thari cigars.........pourids.
Cottori, unmanufactured..
do.
Muskets.'......-...'........
No.
Leather, sole or bend. . . . . < . . . . .
pounds.
Seal-skins.
dozen«
Paper, writing, all other
' ; . . . . . .pounds,
"Untarred cordage
* . . . . . do*
Teas
...i
do.
Beer, in c a s k s . . ' . . . . . . ;
i
.gallons.
Demijohns
*
No.
Lead,,in sheets.
....:....'
pounds;
Loaf sugar
do.
Cinnamon
do.
Gunpowder.
,.
do.

3,530

. $1,268

213
615
15

410
897
146
569
96

11,073

142

233,687
2,398^
11,601
1,333
7,602
2,835
23,910

60,241
51,454

497
845
711
208
1,286-

119
7j238
325,038

697
455,671

448

990
932
145,569
4,634
30,078
4,877

6,368

60
465

•

30
-

•

1,026

-

-

•

141
8,503

•

2,667:
1^,519

AL

'*2

10
15
50

'$706 00
138 45
; 163 73
. 38 75
1,660 95
66 80
2,336 87
• 119 90
1,160 10
266 60
162 04
85 06
478 20
297 50
723 80
9,751 14
. 895 50
27,340 26
2,240 00
954 75
6 00
69 75

36

-

-

$0 20
65
26
25
15
40
1
5
10
20
2
3
2
2 50
10
3
150
6
5 00
15

53,405
3,972

,
372,821

666 75
1,001 62
61,300 41

*For duties, see the article m the general statemerit; the articles diflfering only in value.
TREASURY D E P A R T M E N T , R E G I S T E R ' S O F F I C E , .^'b^J6r)l6er 2 9 , 1845.




R. H . G I L L E T , Register.

CD

70

R E P O R T S OF T H E

[1845*

- ^E. • •

Detailed statement ofi the several. Tariffs enacted by Congressy and, ofi the
duties prescribed by each, firom 118^ to 18/12.

No.

1
2
3
4
5
6
-7;
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17

Successive Tariflfs.

Character.

General....
Do...;..
Do
D.o......
Special.....
General....
Do......
Dp
Special.....
Do......
Do......
Do..;...
Do......
Do..:...
.Do......
iGf-eneral....
Special.....

Do
.
' 18
19 G e n e r a l . . . .
Do...'...
20
21 Special.....
Do......
22
Do
23
24
Do......
25
Do
26 General....
27 Special.... -.
28 Compromise
29 G e n e r a l . . . .
Do
.:
30

Tariff......;,...^
Tarifi^... i.,;...
..:......
Tariff...,
.....'.............
Tariff..........-,.........:.,,.,-,..........
Tariff " A . B., sugar, snuff, internal dutie's".
Tariff...........
;.................
Tariff......,;....-.,...,..
..
Tariff..'...
...-;......,....
Tariff " o n salt," a d d i t i o n a l . . . . ; . . . . . . .
'..,
Tariff '^ oh sugar and wines"..
Tariff, "Mediterranean fuhd";.,........ . 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Tariflf,. "light money," (fee.. . . * . . . . . . . . . . . ' .
TariflT, (waf,) "'dbuble duties"
TariflT " on s a l t " . . . .
Tariff,." double duties" continued.
Tariff, "-minimuni system b e g a n " . . . . . . • . . . . . . . . . . . .
Tariff " on iron and alum, supplementary to act of
1816.:.....
.....:..,
•Tariff " o n wines"
Tariff, revised, " woolens, cottonsV' &G.
...<
Tariff "minimums extended " . . , . ^
Tariff "ori -wines".
Tariff " on coffee, tea," ( f e e . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Tariff " o n iriolasses"
Tariff " o n salt" ..-.
.........
Tariff " on French .wines"
.V.
Tariff, "modification of other acts," and did not go fully
into operation:
,.
.....;...........
Tariff "on hardware, copper," (fee.
Tariff, *' gradual "reduction .towards 20 per-cent." . . . .
Tariff, "the one year".
Tariff, * the present m Operation " . . . . ; . . . . . . . . . . . ' . . . ' . . .
*




Date of each
act.
July 4, 1789
Aug. 10, 1790
March 3, 1791
May 2,1792
June 5,. 1794
June 7,.1794
Jan. '29, 1795
March 3, 1797
July . 8, 1797
May 13, 1800
Mar. 26, 1804
Mar. 27, 1804
July 1, 1812
July 29, 1813
Feb.
5, 1816
April 27, 1816
April 20, 1818
Mar(ih3, 1819
M^y 22, 1824
May 19, 1828:
May 24, 1828
May 20, 1830
May 29, 1830
May 29, 1830
Jiily 13, 1832
July 14, 1832
March 2, 1833
March 2, 1833
Sept. 11, 1841
Aug.. 30, 1842

1845.]

S E C R E T A R Y OF T H E TREASURY.

71

E—-Cdn.tinued.
AVERAGE RESULTS OF f H R TARIFFS FROM 1821 TO 1844.
Tabular stcttement ofi the value ofi Imports from October 1, 182Q, to the SQth
June, 184:4:; the aggregate amount ofi duties payable;, the estimated aver• ^S^ T^'^ ^^'^^* which the duty hote to the aggregate amount ofi imports; the
value ofi imy orts liable to duty, and the estirnated average per cent, ofi the
duty arising!; thereon..
•

•

w

•

•

> •

J-"

L

PHfl

fl ' tfl

1

'-gs .

verage per cent,
imports liable to
ties for certain t£
periods.

<j

ber 31.t

.

at .

stimated average
cent, of duties on d
able imports. .

'

& X I _ _ i '•

p.'5.§
stimated average
cent, of duty on
aggregate value of
ports.

>

^^ <u • .

1

ggregate; aimount
duties payable in
years eridirig Deci

'

alue of imports in
years ending Septi
ber 30.*,
:

Year's.

(U

^a a

alue of imports pay
duties in-the years e
irig September :30..*

tf-

-B S-

W

^

182f $62,585,724 $18,883,252 30.171 $52,603,411: 35.695
76,942,833 31.728
1822 83,241,641 24,096,336 28.946
68,630,979 32.709
1823 77,679,267 22,416,277 28.S94
1824 80,649^007 26,616,966 31.678 . 67,985,234 37.533 i s e 302.2 1
86,392,565 37.102
. 1825. 96,340,076 31,683,096 32.639
72,406,708 34.676
1826 •84,974,477 26,108,254 30.725
67,628,964 41.346
. ' 1 8 2 7 79,484,068 27,962,145 36179
76,130,648" '39.362'
.. 1828 :• 88,509,824 29,966,472 33.856
62,687,026 44.299 S
1
1829 74,492,627 27,769,769 37.278
68,130,675 48.884 i 41 965.7
' 1830 70,876,920 28,417,055 40.009
1831 .103,191,124 36,623,270 35.489 :• 89,734,499 •40.812
86,779,813 33.828
1832 101,029,266 29,366,066 29.056
76,670,361 31.975
1833 108,118,311 24,196,103 22.379
68,128,152 32.666
18,987,962 15.007
'' 1834 126,521,332
71,966,249- 36.038
1835 149,896,742 26,931,233 17.299
97,923,664 31.648 1
1836 189,980;O35 30,991,510 16.313
71,739,186 26.357 ' 131 201.9
1837 140,989,217 18,191,605 12.903
52,857,399 . 37.835
1838 113,717,404 - 19,998,861 17.567
86,690,340 I 29.912
: 1839. 162,092,132 25,631,888 15.813
49,945,315 t 30.391
15,178,975 14.176
1840 107,141,519
19,941,090 • 15.585 .61,926,446 ! 32.201 i
1841 127,946,177
16,686,341 16.589 1 69,53.4,601 L 23.997
, . 1842 100,162,087
For 9 months
ending 30th .
^
.
64,753,799 , .7,508,627 11.595 .29,179,215 p 25.732 J
June .. ......1843
For the year
130 432.5
ending 30th.
\ " '^
June ... . . . . . 1 8 4 4 108,435,035 29,395,762 27109 j 83,668,154 35.133. J
- 1
J

•

•

:

'

•

Total averages..
* Authority, '''commercial statements," annually.
.......
t Authority, ^* receipts and expenditures," for respective years.




34 973.175

[1845.

R E P O R T S OF T H E

12

E—Continued.
1789,

J U L Y 4.

*JPor laying a duty on goods, wares, and merchandise iraported into .the
UnitedStates.'*^ .
Rates of duty.

Articles enumerated.

Spirits, distilled, of Jamaica proof..
all other
.
Molasses........ ^ . . . .
i.......
Wine, M a d e i r a . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
all o t h e r s . . . . j . . . . . . J
Beer, in casks.
T. ^
'Ale, in casks
Porter, in casks .
. . . . . . . -.....
Cider, in bottles. —
Beer, in b o t t l e s . . . . . . . .
..
Ale, in b o t t l e s . . . . . . . , . . . . .
.
Porter, in b o t t l e s . . . . . . . . .-^ - ^ - . . .
Malt
..........;.
.....
Sugar, brown. .
........:.....,
loaf. all o t h e r s . . . . . . . .
.,..
Coffee
. . . . . . . . . : . , . . . - ...,.>..Cocoa..... ^ - r - r - - ..i -> Candles, tallow . .
:..... --.....
spermaceti......... / . . .
wax..-.'-..;..'
-.._-.
Cheese. — . . . . . . . . . : . . . . . . . . - . . . .
Soap . . . 1 —
:1 —
Boots . . . . . . . . , . . . . . . . . - . . . . : . . .
Shoes, made of l e a t h e r . . . . . . . . . . .
Slippers,
do,...............
Galoshes, .
do
.
Shoes made of silk or s t u f f . . . . . . . .
Slippers,
do.
do......
.
' Cables...;............
......
Cordage, tarred
.
untarred.
—
Yarn,
do..
.—
.... .
Twine.
.........
Packthread
.............
Steel, all unwrought..
Nails.
..............
....
Spikes
....
Salt
Tobacco, manufactured
ShuC...
....\.........



10 cents per gallon,
do.
8
do.
2i
do.
18
10
do.
5
.do.
5
do.
5
do.
20 cents per dozen.
20
do.
20
do.
20
do.
10 cents per bushel. .
1 cent per pound.
3
do.
n
do.
/
2J
do.
1
: do.
2
do.
6
do.
6
; do.
4
do.
2
do.
50 cents per pair.
-7
do.
7
do.
7 .

• do.

10
do.
lb
do.
75 centsper 112pounds.
75
do.
90'
do.
90
do. .
$2
do. '
$2
do.
56
do.
1 cent per pound.
1
do. '
6 cents per bushel.
6 cents per pound.
10
do.

1845.]

S E C R E T A R Y OF T H E TREASURY.

73

E—Continued.
Rates of (iuty.

Articles enumerated.

Indigo.
...
Cards, w o o l . .
cotton.
Fish, pickled.
dried...
Coal.
On all teas imported from. China or India in
ships built in the United States, and belonging to a citizen or citizens thereof,.or in. ships
or vessels built in foreign countries, and on
the 16th May last wholly the property of a
citizen or citizens of the United States,, and
so continuing until the time of importation,
as follows:
..
, ,. .
Bohea t e a . . .
/.
Souchong tea, or other black..
........
Hyson t e a . .
..
.
-.-.---...
Green tea, all o t h e r . .
On air teas imported from Europe in vessels as
above:
.Bohea tea.
....,
Souchong tea, or other black
Hyson t e a . . . , .
...
..
Green tea, all others
• On all teas imported in any other inanner than
as above mentioned:
.
v..
Bohea tea - . . . . . . . . - - . . . .
-..
Souchong tea, or other black .
Hyson tea.
Green lea, all o t h e r . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
On all goods, wares, and .merchandise,.other
; than teas, imported from China or India in
ships not built in the United States, and' not
wholly the property of a citizen or citizens
therebf, nor in vessels built in foreign countiies, and onthe 16th day of May last wholly
the property of a citizen or citizens of the
United States, and so continuing until the
time of importation
Glasses, l o o k i n g . . . . . . . 1 . . . .^.
........
Glass, window.
..
.
other, Except quart bottles..
Ware, China
.
..
stone, c-. - : . ' - . . . . . . .
J
1
eartnen ............................... i.....,.,.,..



16 cents per
50 cents per
50' cents, per
75. cents.per
50 cents pef
2 cents per

pound.
dozen.
dozen.
barrel.
quintal.
bushel.

. 6 cents* per
.10 cents per
20, cents per
12 cents per

pound.
pound.
pound.
pound.

. 8 cents per
13 cents per
26 cents per
16 cents per

pound.
pound.
pound.
pound.

15
22
45
27

pound.
pound.
pound.
pound.

cents
cents
cents
cents

per
per
per
per

Advaior sml2J-per cent
do;.
10 do.
, do. ,.
10 do.
,10 do.
do.
do.
do. . 1 0
10 do.
do.
10 do.
do.

'74

[1845.

R E P O R T S OF T H E
E-^--Continued.
Articles enumerated.

Rates of duty.

Gunpowder.... - . . . . . . ^....
..
. , . .= Ad valorem 10 per cent,
Paints, ground in oil. . . . . . . . . . . .
..
. ^ „.
„ do.. .
do.
Buckles,'shoe .^... .^ . . . ^ . .
. . . . . . . . . . _ . , . .. d o . . /
do.
k n e e . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - . , ^ . . . . ..do.
' do.
Lace, gold . . . . . - . ' . . . . . f i . . . . . . . . . .
...
do. .
do.
.. s i l v e r . - . - . - . . - - - . , - . . - . - - - ..
do.. ,. .„ do. '
Leaf, gold
.-.-...',...
do;
: do.
silver....-.--..---.---.....-.. :t..'..
do.;
do. '.
Books, blank.
. . . . . ->.. j . .
\do.
per cent,
Paper, writing., . . - . . - J - . . - . . . - . , - . . - - J . . .
do.;
do.
printing
; . . . . . . . ...... . ^.,
do;
do.
do.
'
wrapping. . . . . . - ; . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
.;
do.
do.
hangings....
J . . . - -.->-... i ^.. J do.
do.
Pasteboard....... ^..
do,
do.,
Cabinet wares . . . . - - . . . - , - - . - - , - .
^do.
do.
,Buttons . ----.- .,- — - i . . - , - . . - . - --,-.- .^..fi-.
do.
do.,
Saddles......
.,.
......:.......
.
do.
do.
Gloves, of leather . . . . ...;. - - - - . . . . . . = ,
..
do. . ,
do.
Hats, of beaver .
.'...............-...-.
do.
do.
of fur.
. . -..
do.
do.,
. of w o o l . , . . . - . . . — . . . . . ,.
do.
do.
of mixture, of eithef . . o^..,
,. J.
do.
do.
Millinery,. ready m a d e . . J
do.
do.
Iron, castings o f . . . . . . . . . - . -»
. . . -.
do.
do.
do. . :
do.
rolled^ ..............
do..
do.
Leather, t a n n e d . . . . - . .
... - . . - .,--,.
:d0.
do.
tawed-...... .
J.
do. :
manufactures of,, except such: as shall
. do.
be otherwise r a t e d . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
do.
, do.
Canes .
,.
| . . . . . . - . . .v.:. - . . . .
do.
do.
do.
Walking s t i c k s . . .
. . . ^ . . . . . i-...:.. - . . -;.
do;
do.
Whips.
. . . . - - - - . - - - - , . --•Clothing, ready m a d e . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - .
do.
do. .
do.
do.. ::
Brushes.
.
. . ^ . . . . . . . - - .•..--.....-.....,
Ware, gold.
do.:
do.
do. do.
silver
- ^-r - - . . . . . . . ..^•'..:.
do.
do.
plated
.--.....-......-.:.
do.
do.
Jewelry . J . . . . - . . . . : . . . . . . . ^
...,.---.
do.
Paste-work.
. .\.
...
^
;.
:do. :
do.
Anchors . . . . . .
". - . - .
.-..--.-...
do.
do.
Tin, w r o u g h t . . - - . I . . . :
-.
.i... -do.
do.
Ware, pewter . . . . . . . . . . . .
do.
Cards, playing
'..
...,......:..,-.,.,.... 10 cents.per pack.
Poach,, or parts thereof.»•- ^...................,.. -.. - Ad yalorem 1§ per cent.



^n

1845.]

S E C R E T A R Y OF T H E TREASURY.

75'

E^-Cohtinued.
Articles enumerated.

Rates of duty.

Chariot, or parts thereof.
^ . Ad valorem 15 per cent.
do.
do.
Carriage, fourrwheeled, d o . . , . . . . . . . . . . . > do.
do.
Chaise, or parts thereof. .>
1...
do.
do.
Solo,
do.-,----..
--...
do.
do.
Carriage, two-wheeled, or parts- thereof.'.'...
do."
5 do.
AIL other.goods, wares, and mefchandise . . .,.
Hemp..-.-....
- -.,.. - 1 . . . . . . . . ' ^ . . . . 60 cts. per 112 pounds.
Cotton. - - - - ; . . . . - . . - - . . - - - - . . . . - . - i
: . 3" cents per pound.
Saltpetfe...............
. . . . . . . . . . . . . Free; ' - ' • ' •
Tin, in p i g s . . . . . - . . . - . •- ••... - . . . . ^ . . . ; . . . Free-.
• •
in p l a t e s . . . . -. - . . . . . . .
. . . . . Fme.
L e a d . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - . . - . . . . . . . , . . . , - - -.- ^ Free.
Pewter, old..
-. ' . . Free.
..
Brass.. .-v.... .
" . • . . • . ' . ' . . . - u - . . . . . . . . . ; . Ffee..
Free.
' ;
Wire, iroil. b r a s s . . . . . — — . . .^ ^. -..^.^. ^ . . ^ . . . ^ ^rFfee.^
Copper, in plates
.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . ^ . . Free.
W o o l . . ' . . . . . - . . . . . . . . . . . . - - . . . - . . . . . . . . . Free.
- •
Dying w o o d s . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . — - - - - — Free.
Free..
- Raw hides . . '
. . . . . . . - - - . . i:.^•;...-- ^.^ Free.
Fur, beaver..'.
. . . . . . . : . ^.;.^ . ^^ ^ . - . ^ Free.
all other
. . . . . . . . . ^. -. -. -. - . . Free.-. - .
Skins, d e e r . . . . . . . . . . . . . . i.-.....-.^. ^ / . . . ^ Free^ " T h a t a discount of ten pier cent, on all the duties imposed by this
'act shallbe allowed on such goods, wares, and merchandise as shall
''be imported in vessels built in the United States, and which shall be.
' wholly the property of aii citizen or citizens thereof,^ or i n vessels built
'in foreign countries, and on the 16th day of May last wholly the prop'erty of a citizen or citizens of the United States, and so continuing
'until the time of importation.''
•
Approved, July 4, 1789.




76

R E P O R T S OF T H E

[1845.

E-^—Continued.
1790, AUGUST 10.

.^^ Makingfiurtherprovision fior the payment-ofi the debts ofi the United States.^\
Rates of duty.

Articles eriumerated.

Wine, Madeifa, Loridon particular . . .
do.
other
.... — . . . . . . . . . .
sherry........
^
..-.-......,
others.
.....
'....
-. Spirits, distilled, of more than 10 per cent, below proof.
i.....,
-., - Spirits, distilled, of more than 5 and iiot more
than 10 per cent, below proof.
........
Spirits, distilled, of proof and not more than 5
per cent, below proof J . . -.,
Spirits, distilled, of above proof, but not exceeding 20 per C e n t . . . . . . . . . .
.....->.
Spirits, distilled, of more than 20" and not more
than 40 per cent, above p r o o f . . . - - - . - . . . ' .
Spirits, distilled, of more than 40 per cent,
above proof—.— . . . . - . . . . - - . . . . . ^ . . . .
Molasses- ....----.-.-..--- L Beer, in c a s k s . . . . . - - . - • . . .
Ale, in casks
....
.
-.---.-..
Porter, in c a s k s - , . . - . . " . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - . - . .
Beer, in bottles.
Ale, iri bottles.
.. .. . . . . - --.:
..
. Porter> in b o t t l e s . . . . . . ; J . . . . . . . I . . . . . . . . .
Teas from China or India in ships or vessels of
theUnited States:
Bohea:...............\...
.....
Souchong. . . . . . - . . , . . . . ; . . . . . . . .
^•..
and other black. ^ . . . . . . . . . . . ^ . . . .
Hyson
....
.... .
and other green . . . .
Teas from Europe in ships or vessels of the
United States:'
B o h e a . . . . .o. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . :
.,. j .
Souchong . . . . . . fi
and other blajck
Hyson.
,.
and other green
Teas from any other place or in any other
ships or vessels:
Bohea
...'..-..-..
Souchong..............................



35 cents per gallon.
do.
30
do.
25
do.
20
do.

12.
12i
13

do.

.
'

do.

15

do.

20

do.

25
do.
3
do.
5
do.
5
do.
5
do..
25 cents per dozen.
25
do.
25.
do..
10 cents per pound.
do.
.•
18 . '
18 • ^ do.
32
do.
20
do.
12 cents per pound.
21
do.
,do.
21
do.
40
24
do.
15 cents per pound.
27
do.

1845.]

S E C R E T A R Y OF T H E TREASURY.

77

E—Continued.
Rates of- duty.

Articles enumerated.

Souchong arid other b l a c k . . •.
Hyson,
------ - - --.
Hyson and othef green . ' . - . . . .
Coffee
--.-..---......
Cocoa..
-•.
Sugar, loaf.. ^ - — ^..'— . . . .
brown.
> .. - other kinds"-. - - - . . . - ,
Candles, tallow
wax
--..--.-..,
spermaceti...
.-.
Cheese. -.
.... .-.
Soap
.-.- - Pepper.'.-.
------ — - - - Piiriento.
........:,
Tobacco, mariufactured- - . . -,
Snuff...-..-..,.--...---..
Indigo
--....---.
Cotton
...---,
Nails...-...,..:.
.....
Spikes.
-Lead,' b a r . . . —
- -^.- - other- - . . . . . . : . . . . . . . .
Steel, unwrought.
- . -;
Hemp—
........
Cables.
Cordage, tarred.
...........
untarred
Yarn,vuntarred.....
-. - Twine. -.-,-..--..
Packthread- . - • - . . - -. .•- Salt...
-....-..-:...
M a l t . .

-.--•-

--..-..--•-

Coal.-.--.--.-...-..---..
Shoes, made of leather . . - . - SUppers, made of leather. -"- -.
Galoshes, made of leather. - - .
Shoes, made of silk or stuff...
-Slippers, made of silk or stuff.
Cards, wool
cotton - . . - . . . . . . - . . ,
.
playing
:........
'Boots
I
......
. -•Ware, China.
...--. 1 ...
Glasses, l o o l d n g . . .
.:„«;.



30 cents per pound.
27
do.
50
do.
.4 .
-do.
do.
1
5
do.
do.
do.
2- do.
6
do.
6
'
do.
• 4 -s
do.
2
do.
6
-do.
4.-do.
•6
-do.
10
do.
25---do.
3
do.: .
1
, do.
do.
1
'
1
do. .
1
•do.
75 cents per 112 pounds
54 do.
. ,
$1 00
do. •
-1-00
-do. .
1 60
do.
1 60 ' do. .
3 00
do.
• do.
• 3 00
12 cents per bushel.
10
do.
- do.
3
7 cents per pan-.
7
do.
do;
7
10
,
do.
;
10
do.
50 cents per dozen.
do.
50 •
10 cents per pack.
50 cents per pair. \
Ad valorem 12 J per cent
1.2J do.
do.

n
n

[1845.

R E P O R T S OF T H E

78

E^^Continued.
, Articles enum.erated.

Rates of duty.

Glass window . . . . . . .^^
, Advalorem 12 J per cent.
do.
. 12f do.
other
.- . . . . . ^
......do.
12 J do,
manufactures of, except quart bottles..
10 do. •
•do.
Marble . .
,
...........,............
do.
do.
S l a t e s ..,.-•
•-.,.,.'... 1 . . .•.•.,.....
do.Stones and other
..v...".
i -do.
do,
do:
Bricks.... ^ . . .
.......
.
.
.'.'
do,
do: .
Tiles.
,..,.. . . . . . : . • . . . . . . .
do.
do,
Marble, tables o f . . ' . , . , . . . . . , . . . . . . . ' . . . :
do.:
do,
'mortars of..
---.-;
do.
do,
other UtensUs o f . . . . ^.. ,^,
........
do,
do,
Slate, -tables of..
...
•.
....
do.
do.
• mortars o f . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
.......
do.
do,
other utensils of.^ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
do.:
do,
Ware, stone..
1 --- . . . ^....'............
do.
do,
earthenware^-. w . . . . . . . . . . . . J , . . . . .
do.
do.
Books, blank.
....:..^;...............
do.'
do.
Paper, w r i t i n g . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
.....
do.
wrapping
^ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ^ . . ' do.
do.,
do.
hangings........ . . • . . . . . . . . . .
, ^..
do.
do.
Pasteboard.......... J...
.,.'........
do.
do.
Parchment
. . . . . . . . . . L....
do.
do,
Yellum....
• .......;.... —
do.
do,
Pictures . . . . . . . . . . . . . .V.
....,..:
:..
do.
do. '
Prints.......
..
........
. Painters' colors, except'those commonly used
do.
do.
in dyeing . . . . . . . . : . . . . . . . i . .
..
...
do.
do.
Lampblack
do.
do. ,
Ware, gold... . • , - . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
.......
do.
do.
silver.. ..VV'- - - -. - . — . . . . . .
...
do.
plated....;..-.
i . ' do.
do.
dp.
Lace, gold.- - - - . . , . , . . . - . ' . : . . . . . , . . . . . . '
....
do.
do.
silver....-..,. ......... —
'..........
do.
do.
Jewelry...............
..'.....,.....
do. .
:.do.:
Paste w o r k . . . . . . . . • . . . . : . . . ^ . . .
....
do..:
do.
Clocks................... ..L........;..
do.
do;
Watches..'-....
........
.'
.
do.. •
do.
Buckles, s h o e . ' . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - .
do.
do,
knee
,.
do.
do. :
Cinna,mon.
........
....
do.
do,
Cloves....
...........
....."..'..
do.
do,
Mace.........
..'......'.....
......
• do.
do,
Nutmegs;... 1
...... —
,
..
do.
do, .
Ginger. .•. ,^ ...
. . . . . . J.
...
.
do.
,
do.
Aniseed".
...



1845.]

SECRETARY OF THE TREASURY.

79

.E-^^G ontinued.
Articles enumerated.

Currants. - . . .
. -..
. -.
D a t e s . . - . . - - - . . - . . . - . -....-.-

Rates of duty.

.. - . . . . Advalorem 10 per cent.
..........
do..
do.
'
do..
do.
Plums.....,
-:..,. - . - - . . . . . . do. .
do.
Prunes..
. . . - . j ^ . . . . . . . . . -,....,..-. -.-. do.
do.
Raisins . . . . . . . . .> -..- - ^ . . --..
: - ---.
• do..
do.
Sugar candy
--....-...-.... - - do.
. \ do.
Oranges -•.., . , . . -,.
.
-....do.
, do.
Lemons. .
- ,.'-..-i,.»
. do. .
, do.
Limes. .^
. , . 1,......
do.
\ do.
Fruits generally . . - . - . . . . . . . - . . - . . - . - , . . . ' . - - .
do. .
. do.
C o m f i t s . . . . . - - . . . -. .,
.^... , do. :
..do.
Olives.
-- , . . . . . - - -.-..--. - . .
do.
do.C a p e r s - - . . , . . . . . . ' . . . - . i : . j . . . . - - . -- - do.
•do;
Pickles..........
-..:. .^............
do.
do.
O i l . - ,^-. u . ; .
.-. . . . - - . . ..^.--. - - ^ . - . ^ ' - - - ,
do.
do. .
Gunpowder^.....;::.-.
. . . ^ . . . .'•.,.:.....
. do.
do.
Mustard, in flour . . . - . - . . - . - . - . ^. - . . . ^ . - . . ^
do.
do.
•Cabinet wares . . . . . - . . . . - , - - - - . . - . . . . . . . . . . .
7J .per centl
do.
Buttons................
. . . . . . . . . . . . - . - . . . . . ^ do.
- . do.
Saddles..............w. ....,.....<........
do.
do.
Gloves, of l e a t h e r . . . . . » . . . . * ^ - . - . . - . . . . . . . . .
do.
do.
Hats, of beaver . . .• .^
...
^ ^....:. . . . ^ .
do.
do.
felt
.--...
...,-..'
do.
do.
wool.
- - - . . . . . . . . . . . : ..........
do.
do.
or mixture of either........ . • . . . . . . . . . . . . .
do.
v
: do.
Millinery, ready m a d e . . - - . - - . . . . . . - . . - . . . . . . . .
do.
do.
Iron, castings of. . . . . . . . . . . . ,
.-..
. . . . . do. .
.do.
slit. . . . .
...----..-....-...............
do. ..
do.
do.
V .
' rolled...--.. i : - . . . . . . . . . ^ . . . . . . . . . . .
do.
do.
Leather, t a n n e d . . . . . - , . - - - - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
do.
do. .
tawed. - . u , -V-. -- "
.
..
do.
do.
•. manufactures of.
.
........^.•..
' do.
. Canes.. ^ . . .
. - ' . . . . . . -..-.-.-,-..^ ......
dOi
* do.
Walking sticks. - . .
,—.....
.
..........
do.
do.
Whips. . .
. . - . ; . . ^ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ^..,
do. .
do.
Clothing, ready m a d e . . - . - , - , - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
do. ..
do.
Brushes
....;.....
..
..
do.
do.
Anchors . . - . - - . " . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - - . . . . , . . . . . . , .
do.
do.
Wares of t i n . . . . . . . - . .
--....
.
do.
do.
pewter . . .
..........,.
do.
do.
.copper...........
._...do.
do. .
Drugs, medicinal, except those commonly used
in dyeing.
-'... ......,.
...-.-....,
do.
do.
Carpets and carpeting.. ^ .> .... „. ^ . , . . . . . , . .
do.
. do.



[1845.

REPORTS OF THE

80

E—Continued.
Articles enumerated.

Rates of duty.

Velvets.......
.. --.---...
- -'. - Ad valorem 7 J per cent.
Velverets............
'
..-. . do. «. _ :.. .do.
Satins—. .
. -....-.-...--,. - , .
do.
do.
- . do.
Silks, wrought..... .
........
- - - - - . ^ - ' ..do.
.do... ,
do.
Carnbrics
. — , i ^ . : : . - - -.. - ; . . . • . ; . . . . . . . . . .
do.
Muslins.. . • - . ' . . . . : . . . . . . •',.......,."......... .L:„ , do.
do., . . .
do.
Muslinets
. -. i. — , . . ' . . . . . . . . . . . . .
La.wns..
.. ^ . . . . . . i...............,....,...
do. . : . :
do.
do.
, . _ do.
Laces
...
.
-. - . - -..-....
. do.
Gauzes
.. . . . . -.... _ -....
^ . . . . . . . do.:
do.
)do.
Chintzes . . • . . . - . - . , . . • - . . . . . - - , . . ^ . . . . . .
...
do. ,
do.
Calicoes, c o l o r e d . - - . . . - . . - - - . . . . . . . . . , . . • - ,
do.
Nankeens . . .
. . - - . . ^.
.-..'=..
......,-. . do.
All goodsj wares, and merchandise,.,iniported
directly from China or India, in ships or vesr.
„do..
. 12J per cent,
sels not of the United S t a t e s . . . . . . . . .
...
do. .. 15J percent,
Coaches.
".. . . ^...,...-.....:..
..... ^ . . . .
do.,
do.
Chariots
. . . . . . . - i . , -.....,..,........,.-.
do. .
. do. i.
Phaetons.
.--.'.. .
'.
.. -•..-..
do. . ..
do.
Chaises.
, - . . . . . . . J..............
.-'...
do.
. . do.
Solos.
..-.,.
.,....... . . ^ . . . . . - . . . .
- do. .
Carriages, other, or parts thereof..... . . . . , . . . do. ,
do. .
5 per cent.
Upon all other goods, wares, and merchandise:
\ ' "
Bullion..'.
, . . . . --.-.-.-... -.-.-... - -:. -.-. .Free. :•;
do... .
Tin, in pigs
.^:. — -^.
> ..'............
do.
' .
plates ..
.
.........'.....-.- -.....; Pewter, old . . . . . . . : . J . . . , . , - - . . . . :
.......J., •do.
Brass,-teutenegue.. — ' . ' . . - - v . . . . -:..,-.. -• - . . do. ^ .
Wire, iron. . . . . . . . . , . . . . . ...\......
-.
... do... ,
b r a s s , . : . . . ' . . : . . . . . . . . . . . . --.--.'
.-... • d o . . ' .
Copper, in plates.. ^'..,..-.......
.
- - , d o . . :.
fi
;•
Saltpetre
. . " . . . . . .fi...............
do. ...
Plaster of Paris . . . . . . ; . [ . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
.
do.
^
W o o l . . . : . . . . - . . . . . . , , . . . . > . . . . . . . : . . . . : - -.... do...,
Woods used in dyeing....,......................... .do.
>
Drugs
do............
.-,..^.......,
-- . . do. . :'\ . .
Hides, r a w - . .
— .............,.... .U ....-,.... . do.
Skins, do
.'. ^ . . . . ! . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
^... do. . f i . : . .
Furs, undressed..
...;._..........;.,.:..,...'..
do. : : , .
Sea stores of ships or vessels.,
.. - . . .
do.,
Clothing of emigrants :..;...,.,........,.:...
. do. '
Books of emigrants
..•..,... •.....
. do. .
Household furniture of e r a i g r a i i t s . . . . . . . i - - .
do. Tools of.emigrants.- -- - - , . . . - . . - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . , ..do. ;, /
Implements of trade or profession of emigrants. .do.



.1845.]

:81

S E C R E T A R Y OF T H E TREASURY.
E—^Continued.
Rates of duty.

Articles enumerated.

Philosophical apparatus, especially imported,
for any seminary of learning.
. . - - . - . . Free.
All goods intended to be reexported in the
same ship or vessel in which i m p o r t e d . . . .
do.
All articles of the growth, product, or manufacture ofthe United States
. do..

E—-Continued.

• — -

1791, MARCH 3.

Repealing xhe duties heretofiore laid upon distilled spirits, and laying others
in their stead.
Articled enumerated.:.

Spirits, distilled, more than 10 per cent, below
proof.'.
.i..... .'jr............
Spirits, distilled, under 5 and not more. than
10 per cent, below proof.
Spirits, distilled, proof arid "not more than 5
per cent, below proof. - . . . : . . .
Spirits, distilled, above proof but not exceeding 20 per cent. .
.....: I.--.-'......
Sphits, distilled, more tha:ri 20 arid not more
than 40 per cent, above proof. . . . . . . . . . . .
Spirits, distilled, more than'40 per cent.' above
proof...........
1.::.::..-.-...:..
Spirits, 'distilled, within the Uriited States,
whoUy or in part from molasses, sugar, or
other foreign materials—
''
^More than 10 per cerit. below proof
Under 5 and not more than 10 per
cent, below proof.
Proof and not more than 5 per cent.
below proof.
Above proof arid not exceedihg 20
per c e n t . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
More than 20 arid not more than 40
per cent, above p r o o f s . - - - . . .
More than 40 per cent." above proof
VOL. v.—6.



Rates of duty.

20 cents per gallon.
21

do.

22

do.

25

do.

30

do.

40

do.

11

do.

12

do.

13

dp.

15

do.

20
30

do.
do.

'

;-

[1845.

R E P O R T S OF T H E

82

E-^Continued.
1792,

MAY

2.

For raising a fiurther sum ofi money fior the protection ofi the firontiers, and
fior Mher purposes.
Articles enumerated.

"Wines, Madeira, London particular
London market
other^ Idnds
.
Sherry
. . . .^•.. —
Saint L u c a r . . .
...... i
Lisbon
—
Oporto
.- - . : . -. - -.
Teneriffe
Fayal........
.--.
all others
.,
:.---.
Spirits, distiUed, fromgrain, 1st class of proof
2d
do,
3d
do..
do.
.
4th
5th
dp. . . . . . .
6th
do. . - - - - all other 2d do. and under
3d
do. . . . -\ .
4th
do. . . - . - 5th
do...---6th
do. . - . . . .
Beer..
Ale. -.
Porter.
Steel..
Nails . . . . . .
..-.--..
Cocoa
..... ^..---...
Chocolate
......:...
Cards, playing.
.----Shoes, of. s i l k . . . — ^.
Slippers, of silk. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
........
Shoes fpr men and women, of other materials
Shppers,
do.
do.
do
Clogs,
dp.
do.
do...'..
Galoshes,
do;
;
do.
do..
Shoes, aU other, for children:
Shppers
do. . . , . ' - . - - . . . . . . . . .
Hemp
'. r - Cables.....
....;.. --......:..
)y tarred . . . . . i
'.......-.



Rates of duty.

56 cents per gallon..
49
do.
40
do.
33
do.
30
do.
25
do.
25
do.
20
do.
20
do.
Ad valorein 40 per cent
28 cents per gallon.
do.
29
do.
31
do.
34
do.
40
do.
50
do.
25
do.
28do.
32
do.
38
do.
46
do.
' 8
8
8

dp.

do.
$1 per cwt.
2 cents per pound.
2
do.
'3
do.
25 cents per pack.
20 cerits.per pair.,:
20 .
do.
10
do.
10
do.
10
^ do.
10
do.
5
do.
7
do.
100 cents per 112 lbs.
180
do.
180
do.

1845.]

83

SECRETARY OF T H E TREASURY.
E-"Continuedi.
Articles enumerated.

Cordage, u n t a r r e d . . . . . . . . . . . . . - ^ - . . . . . . .
Yarn, u n t a r r e d . . . . . . . . . . . . . ^ - . . : . . . . . . . . ,Twine
- . - . . - • . : . . . . --. - -Packthread
- — —.....'.,..... . . . . . . i
Coal...'...-..-......:.........
.Salts, g l a u b e r . . . .
. . . . . . . . -.-...-•-....
Wares, C h i n a . . . . . . , . - . . - - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Glass, Iboking.. I . : . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - . - .
window.:..
... ----- r ------- ^
all manufactures of, black quart bottles
excepted . .
,.. - Muskets.
- - . - - . . . - - - . . . . - .Pistols......,-.
--.-..............
Fire-arms, all other
--..-.---.
--.....Swords
,.-•..."---- - . . . - . ' . . - . .
v^'.uclasses..-.-. ----.•.:-•--..-•.. .-•.-.•.-.- .i •....
Hangers-.
. . . - ..v—..-.-.'^.-•..-=
Side-arriis, all other
. . . . . . . . . -..•.-....Starch'..-..--...;
•.•--. . 1 . - - - . . . - . .
Hairppwder.................... -...-...
G l u e . ' . . ; - . . -----^
..'....-. .^.'.'fi........
LaceS", commonly used by upholster-ers,- coachmak:er:s, and saddlers.--..- J . . . - -..».----.-.
LineSi commonly used by upholsterers, coachmakers, and saddlers..------.
Fringes, commonly used - by upholsterers,
coachmakers, aad Saddlers-..
Tassels, commonly used- by upholsterers.
coachmakers, and saddlers..'. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Trimmings, conimonly used by upholsterers;
coachmakers, and s a d d l e r s . - . - - . . . - . . - . - .
Paper hangings :
i..-.-.-.........
.. .
Painters' colors, dry or ground in oil.-.
.^..
Iron, cast
- . . . ---..--.- ---.•.=.----.
slit. '-...... - - . . . . . . - - . . - . . . . . .
rolled
...---.;..'..-.-...--....
£dl manufactures of, -generally, or of
which it is -the article of chief value
Steel, aU manufactures of, generally^ or of
which it is the article of chief value..
Tin, all manufactures of,,generally, or ofwhich
it is the article of chief- value..
.
Pewter, all manufactures of, generally, or of
which it is the article of chief value.



Rates of duty.

225^cents per 112 lbs.
225
do.
400
ddi:
400^ do.
4J cents per bushel.
200 cents per 112 lbs.
Ad valoreni 15 per cent.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do;
dp.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.

do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do;
do.
dp.
do.
do.

do-

dol

do.

do.

dOi

odo.

do.

do,

dp.
do.
do.
dp.
dov
do.

' do.
do.
dp.
10 do.
do.
do.

do.

do-

do.

do,

do.

do.

do*

do.

[1845.

REPORTS OF THE
E^Continuedv
Articles enumerated.

Rates of duty.

Copper, all manufactures pf,. gerierally, or .of
which it is the article of chief v a l u e . . . . Ad valorem 10 per cent
Brass, all manufactures. pf, generally, or of
which it is the article of; chief value, not,
being. otherwise particularly enumerated,
brass, and iron wire excepted...^...,........
do.
do.
do.
do.
Cabinet w a r e s . . . . . . , , . . . . . . . . . . --.-.-.-.-....-^- -.- -.
do.
.do.
Leather^ tarined- .-.....,,...^......
do.
do.
, tawed . - . - - . . - , . . . . ^ . ^ . . . . , . . . . , . . . , . ,
manufactures pf, or. of which it is the
, . article of chief value, ^not other-,
do.
do.
wise particularly enurrierated^ . . do.
do.
Drugs, riiedicinal, except those.used>in dj^eing.
do.
do.
Hats, .of every sort
. -....................._.
do.
dp.^
Caps, .
do. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ^ -.....
do.
dp.
Bonnets,
do.
, ^.,,.. ^... . f i . . . . . .
do.
do.
Gloves . . . . . . . . : .
- --^ - - .^_.............^
-do.
dp.
Mittens
-:- :.-.-..-.-.- -.- ->.-.-.-,
dp.
do.
Stockings .
.,--,-,->,-..:...-.-,-.-.„-.-..;
do.
do.
Millinery, ready m a d e . . -.--..-.- - . . . . . - -->,-.,-.-..
do.
dp.^
Flowers, artificiaL . . . . . . . . ^..;....-..-.. - -....-.-.-.
dp..
.Feathers, for women's head-dresses............
do.
do.'
Ornamerits,
do., ' . d o . . . . . . . -.;..,-...
do.
do.
Fans ,._. .u
*.^.....;....,............. .,..^^..........
do.
do.
Dolls, dressed and u n d r e s s e d . . - . - - . . . . . . . .
do.
dp.
Toys.--.-.-..-........-.-.-.,-_.:.-.._..„...:
do.
do.
Buttons, of every k i n d . . - - ..^.'... . . . . . . —
do.
do.
Cai'pets and carpeting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . -..,.^..... .;.
do.
do.
Mats.
. - - . . ; . . . . . . . . . . —.:......do.
do.
Floor-cloths . . . ^ . . .
;.,............-.--.--.-.
:d6.
do.
Sail cloth
.....
i . . : .,- - - - - - - . . . . i i .
do.
Paper,, sheathing.
^... ,.^. ........ -...... -.-. do.
do.
do.
cartridge - . . -. - -,-.-/..-.-,...„......-„-.-...
.dp.
Powders, used as. sweet scents,.odors,, per^
•do.
db.
fumes, or cosnietics...
do.
do.
4 o . . . .^-..
Pastes, .
do.
do.
do.
do
Balls,
do.
do.
do.
do......
Balsariis,
do.,
do.
do.
do. . . . ...
Ointments,
do.
do.
do.
dp.'..,...
Oils,
do.
do.
do.
do. . . . . ;
Waters,
do.
do.
do.
do.^ - - -^ >
Washes,
do.
dp.
do.
do... -..
Tinctures,
do.
dp.
do.
do.......
Essences,
do.
do.
do.
db, . , . , ,
Preparations, do.



1

1845.]

S E C R E T A R Y OF T H E TREASURY.

85

E—Gontinued.
^^

Articles enumerated.

Ratesof duty.

Compositions used as sweet scents, &G. . . . . . Ad yalorem 10 per cent,
do.
do;,
Powders, dentifrice,'for the teeth.pr g u m s . . . .
do. •
do.
Tinctures^
do.
• do. . . . . . . . . . - . .
do. •
do.
Preparations fbr the teeth or gums......
do.
do.
Compositions,
do.
\ do........'......
Upon all goods, wares, and merchandise not:
above enumerated or d e s c r i b e d . . . . . . ; . . . . Ad valorem 7^ per cent.
Copper in p i g s . . . - . . : . - . - - . . . . - - - - . Free,
..,.,
,
'
.
' in b a r s . . . . . . . . . . . . . ^.- ^ . . . . . . . : . . . • • • • d o . •• •-.
Lapis calaminaris . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . - / d o . .... . - •••- . • .-•
Wool, unmanufactured. . . . , - - - - . - . . . - . . . . .' .do.. ' .........
W o o d . . . . . . V. : v , . . . . . . . . . . . ^ . . ; . . . . . . . . . . ..,do..
. . . . :.:.
S u l p h u r

. . .

. .

.

- ..,..•-..:.. . .

._ .,. ^ .

E^—Continued.
'.

•

.do...

. r

-—

" 1794,-JUNE ^7.. - ^

... .

•, 1
^

; •
-;,-.•

Additional duties on goods, wares, and merchandises imported into the United
, \

."' V S t a t e s . : ' ' -

Articles enumerated.

Coffee.
Sugar, clayed.
lump. - . .
Cocoa i -.
Cheese.
Boot§
Shoes, for men or w o m e n . . . — . . .
Slippers,
do.
Clogs, •
;
d o . . . . . . . . . . . . . .'.
Galoshes,
do;'..............
Shoes, for c h i l d r e n . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Slippers,
do.'..--.. .:.-.-...-..
Goal. - - . . . . . . - - .
- ^.......
MiUinery, ready r r i a d e . . . . . . . . . . .
Flowers, artificial..
.......
Feathers^ for women's head-dresses.
Ornamerits,
do.
do......
Dolls, dressed and u n d r e s s e d . . . . . .
Iron, cast
....-.-.


. T:

. - " ^ '•.••'- •
'

Rates of duty.

5 per.cents pound.
^6 .
do.
6:
. do.. - .
4
do.
7
. . do.
75 cents per pair./
15 .
do. .
15:
do.
15
do.
15 .
- do.
10
do.
10 .
do.
5 cents per bushel.
Advalorem 15 per cent
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.

[1845.

R E P O R T S OF T H E

86

E—ConUnued.
Articles enumerated.

Iron, s l i t . . . , . . . . ......;—..,...,..-;.--....... 1.
rolled..
. . . . . - - - - . - . -.., -^ . . - ^ -^ ^,
raanufactures of generally.. - . - . . - - . . . . .
Steel,
do.
do. . . - - , . . . . , . , ^ , . . , . . .
Tin,
do.
dp......... , . „ - - . , . . , . . .
Pewter,
do.
dp. ^ . .v,,. . ^ , . - . . . . ,
Copper,
do.
. .dp...^.,..,.,.,-.-..^-^^.. - . .
Brass, manufactures of generally,, not beirig
otherwise particularly enumerated.., - . -_,,,;
Locks
- - - . . . - . - .,^.^,,,,,.--^ ,.^^.--...-.
H i n g e s . . . . . . . - . . , : . . . , - - ^ . . . . -^ - - , . - . . . .
Hoes
- - --:-.. - -., ^, ^ -, ^.., ,^ - . . - - ,
Anvils.
..:..:.............. . ^ . . . . . . .
Vices
-: -..- -..
Carpets and c a r p e t i n g . . , . . .......,^-...^
.
Drugs, medicinal, except those commonly used
in dyeing..
. . z — — . . . . . ^ ->;-... -. Mats....
..fi.............
Floor cloths . - - . . .^.....,.,......
.
Leather, tanned. —
^.1
tawed
-.-.-.- -,r - . . -r— -.
-- . manufactures of gerierally, or of
which it is the article of chief
value, not otherwise particularly
enumerated
Hats of aU sorts.
.---..
Caps,
: d o . - . . - . . - . ^ ^...-..,.. ^.,,, ...-.-.-....^
Bonnets, do.
. . . . . ; . , , . , . . . , . , ^,,.,,., =,
Gloves.
— - ,;..- - . . . . . . , . - . , . . . . . . - , ^,
Mittens.... ^
..: L . , ^ . , , . , . ^ . . ^ ^ , , , .
Stockings
— I - . . . . . , . , . , ^^,,,., ^
Fans .;
•
!-.../...;...,
, , ^, , . • - . . . . ,
B u t t o n s . . . . . . . . . — . .> ^. ^ ^ . , , , . ,
.... ^
Buckles........ - . - . . , - • - . . , . - - ^ . , . , . . . . . \ . , , , . ,
Paper, sheathing.
. - ^ - , . . , . . . . . - , . . , . -. .„,._ -.,.
cartridge- . . . . . . . ' . , . . ^ / , , , . . . . . , , . . . .
Powders, used as sweet. scents, pdprs, pei'r
fumes, or cosmetics.> . . . . , . . . . . , , - , , / . , . ^
Pastes,
do.
.
d p . . . . , --r . ^ ,^
Balls,
do*
. . ; , . do.; , . , - - . - , . . .
Balsams
. do.
„,_ . do,-.........,,..
Ointments,
, do.
dp.... ^ . , : - . . .
Oils,
do.
. . . dp,..,, ^.. 1 ^
Waters,
do.
do...,.,,...
Washes,
do.
d o . . . , . . . , ,^



liates of duty.

^aiprem 15 per cent.
do..
do.
do. ,
do.
do.
do.
do.
"dp,.
dp.
do..
do.
do.
do.
dp
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.

; : do.
10 .per cent
do.
do. :
do.
do.
15 per cent.

do.
do.
dp.
do.
do.

do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
^

dOo
do.

do.
do.

4o. .

do.

do..
dp.
do.
do.
do.
do.; :
do,
do..
dp. ;
do. ':>.
dp.
do.
,.
do. : :
do. ,
do.
do.
doo

dp.
dp.
do.
do.
do. :
do.' ^
do.
do.
dp.

do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do,

,
>
:^
:
:

1845;]

S E C R E T A R Y OF T H E TREASURY.

87

E—Continued;
Articles enumerated.

Tinctures, used as sweet scents, odors, &c.
Essences,
do.
. do.
Preparations,
do.
do.
Compositions,
do.
. do.. — .. Powders, dentifrice, for the teeth or gums .
Preparations,
do.
do.-..-..
Wares, gold
. silver
....
.
.
p l a t e d . . . . . . . . — . . . . . . - -.
Lace, gold . . ^ . . ^ . . . . . . . . . . .
.;.. - - — silver
-..
..........
Jewelry.
.
.. -^...... — .
Paste work.
.,...,........... —
Clocks, and parts thereof..
,
.
Watches,
do....
.
.-.
Cinnamon...
Cloves, u..
.
.
...........
..
Mace.;. .^
...,...-..Nutmegs i
.-..-. .t
.
.— .
Ginger ; . . . . . . . . .
Aniseed...-.-;---..,..
..«......
Currants.
Dates . - .........
Prunes•'....
...
Raisins -?-. -..
Candy, sugar
Oranges
.:- ................
Lemons .
. . . . . . . — '... S.
Limes................
...
....
Fruits .generally, a l l . . . . . . .
.......
Comfits,
do......... ,
Olives. - - . . . . . --......-..
Gape
Pickles
Oil
Mustard, in flour
Marble
Slate
Stone of other kinds . .
Bricks.
- -- -- -Tile
.-:...-..-Tables of stone
Mortars, d o . . . .
Glass, on all generally
window . - = - .



Rates of duty.

Ad valorem 15 per. cent.

do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.

do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
. do.
. do.

do.

do..

. do.

do.

do.
do.
do.
do.
do.

do.

do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do-

.do.
- .do.

do.
do.
do.
do.
•do.

do.
do.

do..

do.
do.
do.
do.

.-•do.

.

do.

'

do.
do.

do. ,

-do.

do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.

do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
20 per cent.
15 per cent.

88"

[1845.

R E P O R T S OF T H E
E—^.Continued.
Articles enumerated.

Rates of duty.

Ware, s t o n e . . . . . .
'
. . 1 . . . Ad valorem 15 per cent,
earthen
,
.
do.
do.
Cabinet waxes
. do..
do.
Wood, manufactures of^ or of •w:hich.it is the
material of chief value:
......
. do, 1 2 i per cent.
Cotton, manufactures of, -or of -which it is the
material of chief value, being printed, staiur
ed, or colored . . .
...
.
do,
do,
Linen,
do.
. ..
do...
do.
do,
Cotton or linen, do.
..
do...
do,
. do. .
Muslins,
do.
..
do..
do.
do,
Carriages, or parts thereof
do.
20 per cent.
Saddles.
•.
do.
10 per cent,
do,
Iron, castings o f . . . . . . . . . . .
........—
do.
do,
Canes...
..;......
.........
do,
:db,
. . do, .
Walking sticks
..:......
.do,,
do.
Whips,..
.
do.
Clothing,,ready m a d e . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
do,.
do,
Brushes
. . .\
do,
do,,
Anchors
...
do,
do.,
Velvets.
— .
. do,
do.
do,
Velverets
- • • - - - -- •• -'-.
do,
do, .
Siatins . . .
.—. —
do,
do,
SUli, wrought
;..,,.,.... ^w .i...
do,
IS^percent;
Cambrics, cotton goods..
,..:
do,
do,
Muslins..
do,
do,
MusUnets
...,.....'.,.......
do,
Lawns
i
.....
.
do,
. do,
Laces
do,
Gauzes . . . . . . . . . . ;
.....
do,
do,
Chintzes
..,,,.,.,.
..
do. '
do,
Calicoes, colored . . . . . . . . . . . . \
..,.,. i . .
do,
do.
Nankeens . .
. do.
do.
Upon all goods, wares, arid mei'chandise not
above enumerated or d e s c r i b e d . . . . . . . . . . ' ,
do,
lOpercent,




1845.]

S E C R E T A R Y OF T H E TREASURY.

891

E^—Continued.
j
1795, JANUARY 29.—-Supplementary to the several acts imposing duties on
goods, wares, and meixhandise.
Articles enumerated.

Types, printing .
,..--.
.
Girandoles . ,
. . . . . . - - - . - . - -..-- Sugars, white, clayed, or p o w d e r e d . . .
all other, clayed, or powdered
Wine, Malaga
.
Burgundy - Champagne.... •
..........
Teas, i n i p e r i a l . . . . .
gunpowder or gomi.

Rates of duty.

Ad valprem 10 per cent.
;
do. 2a . do.
3 cents per pound.
1J cent perpound.
r20 cents per gallori.
40
.
do.
40
do. '
32 cents per pound.
40
do.
^0 >
do.
32
do.
40
do.
50
do.

^
' E—^Continued.
1797, MARCH S.-^-^Additional duties on certain articles.
Articles enumerated.' .

R,ates of duty.

Sugar, b r o w n . . . . . . . . . L . .

2 cents'per pound.
-12 ^ ' do.
Tea, bohea
-< 14
do.
17
3o.
Molasses- — - - - - , :
- - - - - --.- -•
- - 4 cents' per gallon.
Velvets, whether printed, stained, colored, or
otherwise
. . . . . . . . . . . . . Ad valorem 15 per cent.
dp.
do.
Velverets,
do.
do.
do.....
do. '
dp. .
Muslins, not printed, stained, or c o l o r e d . . . . .
do.
do.
Muslinets, ' do.
do.
do. . . . . . . .
do.
do.
Cottori goods, do.
do..
do. . . . . . . .
9 cents per pound.
•Sugar candy
...
Cocoa
2
do.
. 1
Balance same as tariff of 1795.
E—Continued.
1797, JULY 8.^—Additional duty on salt.^
Article enumerated.

Salt.

.




Rate of duty.

20 cents per bushel.

[1845.

REPORTS OF THE

90

E—Gontinued,
180P,

MAT

13.
'

" Articles enunierated.

Rates of duty. '

Su^ar, b r o w n — . . . . . . . : . . . : . . . . -...-... . . ' . 2J cents per pound.
do.^
Candy, sugar.'.
v . : . . - .*..:.-...: -. H i
Molasses.. . . . . . . . . . . - . : . . : . - - : . . . . . . . . . . 5 cents per gallon.
All previous duties on wines abolished, and
the following substituted : • — • • • • - Wines, Malmsey, in -casksj botttesj or- other
• vessels...
: . . - . . . . . - . . . - . . : . . . . ^ 58 cents per gallon.
do.
do.
Madeira,
do.,/
do
do;
do.
London particular - d o . . . . .
50 cents . do.
all other,
do
45 cents
db.
Burgundy, do. /
do.
do.
'
do.
Champagne, do. . ^ - -^ do.....
do.
do.
Rhenish,
dp. '•
do.....
do. .
do.
Tokay,
do.
do.....
St. Lucar,
do. /
d o . . . . . 40 cents
do.
do.
do.
Sherry,
dp. . ^ .
do..'...
Claret, in bottles and c a s e s . . . . . .
35 cents
do.
\ other, not enumerated
do.—^
do.
do.
Lisboni
do.
do
30 cents
do. ^
do.
do.
Oporto,
do.
d o . . .V.
Portugal, other
. . . . . . do.....
do.
do.
Teneriffe,
do. .
do
28 cents
do.
do;
do.
Fayal,
do. •
- do.....
Malaga,
do.
do.....
do..
do.
do.
do.
St.- George, do.
do..:..
do.
do.
Western Islands, other
>do:....
all other, imported otherwise than in
casks, bottles, or -other v e s s e l s . . . . . . 23 cents
do. •
Types, printirig . i.......
" . . . . Ad valoreni.l2 J per cent.
Locks . . . . . . . . . .
.,.......-....
do.
do.
Hinges
. . . . . , - -'-:--.::.'..
;
do.
do.
• Hoes . . . . --.. ..:::... J....... .
do.
. do.
Anvils. . . . . . .'
; . ; , . : . . . . . : - - - . - ..
do.
do.
Vices
: . .-.
: . . . . . . . . ' . . .-•.„,...-.
do.
*. . do.
Marble, other utensils of, not enumerated.
do.
do.
' Slate
do.
do
do.
do.
Books, blank.
- .---.--.--.-do.
do.
Paper, writing. . . : : _ . . . : . . . . . . .:..•..
-,
do.
do.
wrapping
. -- .
do.
' do.
hangings..
........
.
....'.
do.
do.
Pasteboard
.
do.
'do.
Parchment
,
. . . . „ do. .
do. .
Vellum - - . . . . . . - . . .
...---..
do.
do.



. . .

.

.

. .

•

-

•

-

.

.

1845,];

S E C R E T A R Y OF T H E TREASURY.

91

E—Continued.
Rates of duty.

Articles enumerated.

Ad valorem 12 J per cent.
..
do.
do.
^ --.-......
do.
do.
.'
do.
do.
...--..---.-.---..-----...,..
/ do.do.
X i m i i o . - - - - - . . - . ^ - - . - ..•.-.-.-.•-'........--.-.-.•..!.
do..
do.
Gunpowder
- . . - . . - --:., ^ -.. : do.
do:
Saddles
--...
^ - ^ . . . . . -. -..
do.
do. ;
Canes - . -1 - . . - - . - - . . . . . . . .
do.
. do.
Walldng sticks
.--;.---- —
.•
do.
Whips.
..;....-.
.
do.
do.
Clothing, ready made
..
....
do.'
do.
Anchors - - .
.-.--- - -.. -..
Ao..
Satins'- - ^ - -.-^ -,
.
-..
do.
Ao.
Silk, wrought.:..:.- - . . : - - , . - .
.
do.
do.
Brushes
-•...........'.........
do.
do.
Upon all other goods, wares, and merchandise,
paying a duty of ten per ceiit. in the act of
29th Januaiy, 1795, and .not therein enur
merated . . . . . . . . . . . .
.
...
......
do.
do.
Pictures
Prints
Larnpblack
Figs.

-

-.

-

E—Continued,
1804,

MARCH 26.

Further to protect the commerce and seamen ofi. the United States against the
Barjyaiy Powers.
. . .
Articles enumerated;

Additional duty of 2J per cent, ad valorem,
in addition to the duties now imposed by
law, upon all goods ,paying an ad valorem.
duty.
. ' . . . . fi . . . . . .
Continued.in force until 3d March, 1815.




Rates of duty.

[1845;

R E P O R T S OF T H E

92

E—Continued.
1804,

MARCH

^V,'

Imposing more specific duties.
Rates of duty..

Articles enumerated.

Rags, of linen ...-- -.- - . . . . . . . . . -.
cotton . - - ---..,..,.
woolen . - . . . . . . - , - - . - • . . . . . . . . . . ^ . . ....^
hempen c l o t h . . . . . . . . . . .
......
Bristles of swine . . - - - . .
...-.---.
Antimony, regulus of.. - 1 .
...........
Clay, unwrought . .'•- - - - - - . . . . . i . - Burr stones— - - . / - ....
. . ^... —
Cork .tree, bark of..
. — . . . . . . -. - . -..., - - - .
Fish, foreign caught, dried............ - . . -.
.
pickled,.as follows:
, salmon.--'-.-v-->,-..
rnackerel - - - - - - . . . .
all o.ther . . . . . .
.
Cables
.. .f.... -......
. , - . . . . . ..^
Cordage, tarred
.
Lead, white. - - . — . . —
red
-.
Almonds
.-..........
Currants... ^
Prunes
..--......
Plums . .
.
. - . . . - . . - - - . . . . - --.>-....
Figs . . . y .
Raisins, in jars and boxes
.............
Muscatel......":
....'..
...
all other k i n d ^ . . . .
..
......
Tallow
......... --.-...::......'...
Yellow, ochre, in oil.
Anchors
Iron, sheet
Spanish b r P w n . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . :
Yellow ochre, dry
.......^
Iron, s h t . . . .^ - . ^
. . .-•.:•
hoop
. . . . ; - . . . -^
Starch.,.. ;
-;Powder, hair
Ghie
Seines
..,
Pewter plates
dishes . - . -.
Cordage, untarred.
^



Free.* .

do.
do..

.:
. „.

.: : ;
„

'

. do., r ;
;d0.
.do.:
do.
, .
do.
do.
- -.
.50 cents per quintal.
100 cents per barrel.
60
do.:
40
vdo.
2 cents, per pound.
do.
2
do.
2
do.
2
do.
2
do.
2
do.
2
do.
2
2
do.
2
do.
2
do.
do.
li
do.
li
do.
li
do.
li
do.
li
do.
1
do.
1
do.
1
do.
1
do.
3
do.
4
do.
4
do.
4
do.
4
do.
4
do.
2i

1845.]

93

S E C R E T A R Y OF T H E TREASURY.
E—Continued.
Rates of duty.

Articles enumerated.

Quicksilver
Cassia, Chiriese
Gunpowder
Cinnamon

...-.

- -.. —^

..
-.
....-....-.,

-

Cloves.,. .
Mace.

.

-..:-.

........
...•:...

Nutmegs . . .
--^ Glass, black quart bottles. . ^ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
window, on all not above 8 by IQ inches.
not above 10 by 12 i n c h e s . . . .
on all abpve 10 by 12 inches..
Cigars.....Shoes, kid- - . . . - - .
liiorocco
Lime, foreign, per cask containing 60 gallons.
Wine, Sicily.
--..-..

E—Contiriued.

6 cents per pound.
do.
4
do.
4
do.
20
do.
20
12.5
. do.
do.
50
60 cents per gross,
160 cents per 100 sq. ft.
do.
175
do.
22520O .cents per thousand,
15 cents per pair.
do.
15
50 cents per cask,
30 cents per gallon.

•

1812, J u L Y l .

'
^

^

Imposing additional duties upon all goods, wares, and merchandise.
R;ate.of duty.

. . . Articles enumerated.

Additidnal duty of 100 per cent; upon the_pefmarient duties now imposed by law. ;

E—Continued.
1813, J U L Y 29.

'

Laying d diity on imported salt.
..

.Article enumerated.

.

^

Rate of duty.

Salt, 56 lbs. coniputed to be one b u s h e l . . . . . . 20 cents per bushel.



[1845.

R E P O R T S OF T H E

94,

E—Continued.
, 1816,

FEBRUARY 5.

Continuing in fierce act ofi July 1, 1812.
Articles enumerated.'

Rates of duty.

Double duties imppsed by the act passed 1st
July, 1812, continued until June 30, 1817.
Additional duty.- until a new tariff of duties
shall be levied by law,' after June 30,1817.
This never went^ into ^ operation, the act of
April 27,. 1816,,'" to regulate the duties on
imports and tonnage" being passed.

I
I

E—Continued.
1816,

A P R I L 27.

To regulate' the duties on imports and tonnage.
Articles enumerated.

Drugs, dyeing, and materials for composing dyes
not subject to other rates of duty
Gum Arabic
.:.....
Senegal.
.......— -.-...-.-.
Saltpetre
......'
•Jewelry
L . -..
Watches, gold, or parts thereof.
. silver,
do.
do. . . . . . .
...
Lace, gold'..
^
silver.
i............:....-:
Embroidery
^-.-.,...
•Epaulets
L ....
.....
Stones, precious^ set pr not s e t . . . . . . . .
,.
Pearls,
do. j
:
.........
Stones, Bristol or paste w o r k . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Gold, aU articles composed wholly or chiefly of
Silver,
do. :
. L-do.
Pearl,
do. \
. do.
Stones, precious,
do. ' •
do.Laces of thread
J.



Rates of duty.

i^alore m 7 J
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.

do.
do.
do.
do.

per <
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
dodo.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.

1845,]

S E C R E T A R Y OF T H E TREASURY.

95

E—Continued.
Articles enumerated.

Lace veils of thread. - - . , - . . - .
...... Lace shawls do
,.;..•...-.......
Lace shades do. . . . . . : . . ; . . . . . . ^ . . . . . . . .
Laces of silk
.........
".
Lace veils of silk.
;
.--.--......
Lace shawls do
-----..
Lace, shades do
.-..-.... Leaf, gold.. - ,
- -Articles, all, not free and not subject to any
other rate of duty
... --..:.. -.
Cloth, hempen or sail. . . . . . . . . . . . . . -..
Stockings, of wool
.,.. - .
of cotton . . . . . . . -...
, . . -.
Printing types . :
..........
Brass, manufactures of.... -..— : . . . . . . . . .
-..
;Copper,
do.
...........-.--.-.......
Iron,
do.
- . . . . - . - - . — ,...-.-...
Steel,
do.
...........
...
Pewter,
do.
. 1 . . .^....;... ^.-.--.-.-... -..
Lead^
do.
.
..
. . . . . - . - -, -..-.
Tin,
do.
...................
....
Wire, b r a s s . . . . . .j
.........
.........
Cudery
.....
...-............
Pins'.
...
........................
Needles
.-...
....-...-.-.....,
,^.:
Buttons-.;.........:...
....,.-.-Button m o u l d s . . .
.... .
=
,....
....
.' Buckles of all k i n d s . . .
. . . -...
...... - _
Wares, gilt
'..-..
. -...
....
plated
, - -...... -.- - . .
japanned
.....
.
Cannon
.....
...................
Muskets
.......
..
.....
Arms,
fire
......-,. ...1..........
side
.^.....--.....-.....--.
Prussian b l u e . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ^ . .
-....
Ware, China
,,
.
earthen
. . -..
.
^ stone-^
----..--..
porcelain . . . . . . . . . . . , . . . - . _ . . . . . . . . . .
Glass, manufactures of..--.-.-...-..
.....
, Woolen, manufactures of, or of which wool is
the material of chief value..
.......
(a) Cotton, manufactures of,- or of which.cotton
/ i s the material pf chief value - - - - 


Ratesof duty.

valore m 71 per cent
do.
do.
do.
do.
do. _
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do. .
do.
do. . 15 do.
do,.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.;,
do.
do.
do.
do. .
do.
do.
do.
do..
do.'.
do.
do.
do.
do,.
do.
do.
do. .
do.
do.. -

do.
20 do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do..
do.
do.
. do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.

•

do.
do.

do»25 and20pr.ct
do..

do.

[1845.

R E P O R T S OF T H E

196

Err—Continued,
Articles enumerated.

Rates of duty.

(b) Cotton twist, yarn, oij thread..
............
(Minimum features introduced.). Cotton, cloth,
costing less than 25'cents per. yard,, shall,..
with certain additions, be taken .and„deemed,
to have cost 25 cents per.y ar.d,.and. pay a duty.
thereon of 25 and 20 per. cent. ad. valorem. ..
ICotton, unbleached and uncolored,.twist,, yarn,.
j or thread, less than 60 .cents,, taken ,at. 60
j cents; bfeached and (::;olored twist, yarn, or
j thread, less than 75 cents, .taken,at 75 cents:..
jUmbrellas, of whatever
riiaterial.
.......
Parasols,
.
do. ..-,..-.-..—........,.„..-.--.
Sticks, for umbrellas or parasols
-,-.-^......,....
Frames,
do.
. . dp. .-...^.,......,..:-........
Bonnets, fbr w o m e n . . . ,
...
...................
paps,
do...........
...,-.....
F a n a . . ' . . . . . . . - . . . . .^.,..........
..„..,.,..,.........
Feathers
= . . : . . . . , ^.............,.,.;.....................
prnaments for head dresses.. ,.......... -,-.......-.
Flowers, artificial.... .,...^.............-„.....,....
iMilhnery, of all s o r t s . . . . . . . . . . . . .
.........
Hats, of wool
. . . . . . . . . . . . - -..................

Ad val, 25 and 20 pr. ct.

I
leather...........................
. ..
i
.:' chip ..,....-.(.-........,...
.-...-...,
I
straw..
• ^...........-„....
i
i •
silk...,.
;i-..........--.-..
...-Caps, of w o o l . . . : . . . . . . . . .
-- - . - -,
i
fiir
.....'-...
.,.
.............
i

leather....

,................. . . . „ . . . , . . . ...„

straw.. - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

....

osmetics^ - - -... ^?.. ..i- - .^.
Vashes
.---.. . i . . . . . .
-.,....,....
balsams
„,.........,......,..,,
erfumes
.J,^ . , . , . .
yioths, painted floor . . . . . . . . . . . - . - . . . . . . . . , . ,
[fats, of grass.- - -^--..
.. - j .,
flags..,.,
; . . ...^ ^-„.,....,.........-i|)il, salad . . - , . , . . . . . . . - ,
fickles
.\_....
.......
[apers . . . . . . ' . . ,
. . . . . . . . . ^ . . . . . . . . ^ . ..[Hves.
LUbbCtl-Cl

..
. . . . . .

•^.". . ^ i " . i ^ . . . . : ' . . . . : - .
.Q. . . .

. a s a A . a




• . • . . . . . . • . * .

. . ' a .

Advalorem 30 pr, cent,
. . do.
, do,
.do.
.
do,
. .do..
do,
• do.
do.
do.
do.
; do.
do,
do. .
do,
, do.
do.
do.
do. . >
do.
• '' '
. do. . .
. . . do... .
do,
. , do.
do.
.. do.. . .do.
do..... ...do. .
. do.
. . . do..
do.
. do.
•do.
- do.
do.
.. do. .
do.
._ do.
do.
do.
do,
do
.do.
..do, .
do.
.do.
..
do.
do..
.
do.
do.,.,
do.
. . do. .
do.
. ...do.
do.
do,
do,
. do,.
d'o,
: do,
do,
do,
do,
do.
do,
do.
do.
do.

1845.]

S E C R E T A R Y OF T H E TREASURY.

•97

E—Continued.
Rates of duty.

Articles enumerated^

Comfits, prpserved in sugar or brandy ,
Sweetmeats, do.
; do.
...
Wafers . J
^..
.. — ^
.Wares, cabinet
. -...
Wood, manufactures of..
.
Carriages, and parts thereof
.
Leather- - - - - . . . — . . L .......
Leather, manufactures of.
,— .
Saddles
«
Bridles ...
... -.-..i.-...
Harness
•..
. . . . . -...
Paper, of every description..
.......
Pasteboard
.
........,....
Paper-hangings . . . . . . .
.,...
.
Books, blank..
,.......
Parchment . . . - . ; . . . .
Vellum
..'. i . . .
......
Brushes . . . ^
— ...... vycLllCo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ^ - . .

. . . . . .

Walking s t i c k s . . . . . . : . . . , . . . .
.
Whips . - .•
. . . . . . -.
Clothing, ready-made . . J
Ale, in bottles . . .
. . -•
..J
Beer, do. . . . . . . . . ^ . . . . . . . . . . .
Porter, do. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
...
Ale, otherwise than in bottles
.....
Beer, . do.
do. . . . . . - . - , .
,
Porter, do. .
do. . . .
........,
Alum...
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . — .^..^..
A l m o n d s . . . . . . . ^.
. . . . i -.........,
Glass bottles; black, quart ....
...,.
Boots
...
. ---.........
Bristles.-.- -.
....................
Cards, playing..
.-..-..-.
Cables, tarred - - . . . . . .
..: 1
.,
Cordage, tarred . .
untarred. Yarns . . . - - . .
..
Twine
..
Packthread,'.
,
Seines . . - . . . .
..
Candles, tallow .
^...
..........
wax.
...
spermaceti
^Cassia, Chinese
VOL. V.—?•



valore m 30 pr, c
do. .
do.
do..
do.
do.
do.
do..
do.
do,.
do.
do.
. do.'
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do. . . . ,do.
.do.
.. do.
do.. .. do.
do.
do.
do..
do.
do.
do.
15 cents per gallon.
15
do.
15
do.
10
do.
10
do. ^
16
do.
100 cents per cwt.
3 cerits per pound.
144 cents'per grosSi
150 cents per pair.
3. cents per pound.
30 cents per pack.
3 cents per pound.
do.
3
do.
4
do.
4.
do.
4
do.
4
do.
.4v
do.
3
do.
6
do.
6
do.
6

[1845.

REPORTS OF T H E

98

.'•

• E—.^Cohtinued.
Rates of duty.

Articles entimerated.

Cinniamon.. ..
Cloves.......
Cheese.--....
Chocolate . . -.
C o c o a - : . - - -.
Coal V . . . . . .
Cppperas .
Copper rods . .
Copper.bolts.,
•

nails.---.i-:--1...........-^

...

'Coniposition rods. • — - . i . ^ . . - . . . . . . . . - - . . . ; . ,v
bolts^.----..i.....-...-.........!.
spikes . . - - J . . - . - . . - . . - . - . - , . . - . -..
nails : . . . . J - . - . . . - • . . - . - . 1 - . . Coffee. - . . - - -., ii.^- - - - , j . . - . - . . . - - . . . - . . . . - . . . .
C o t t o n . . . . . . . . . . - • - . . . . . — ^ . . . -.--,--. -. - C u r r a n t s i . . . . . . i . . . . . ^- - . - - . - - . - . . . . -,--.-.-.^
Figs. ^•-.-..- - -.- - -. - -'- --1. .-. ...'.-.-.;..-^- ............^
Fish, fbreign c a u g h t . . . - . . . . . . . > - . . . ! . . . . . -,
mackerel- - - . . - . . . - : - - . > - . . . . . . > - ---^...:
salnion . . . . - i . . .Jf...-.-,-.-......--.'....-..;
all other pickled. - . - • . • . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . , . . . . .
felass, window, not alDbve 8 by 10 i n c h e s . . . . .
do^ ...10 by 12.: do..-^....above 10 by 12 i n c h e s . . . .
_$lue . . . . . . . : . - . . . . . . . . . -•-•;-•-....

. . . . . . . ' . •.

Gunpow;der;..
. . X. --;i - - - - - -^ -.- -- ' l l e m p . . . . - . : : . - . . . . . .•.:-'^ >•...'. . • . . . : . . • . . . . . . . . . .
Wire,- steeV not exceeding No. 1 8 . . . . - . , . . . . .
•. -over. No^:i8 .?.., ..^J.......:..-...^. .-....
iron,'not exceeding JNo. 1 8 . . . . -.-..
•
•
•
•'ov^rNOi'^lB-. .^Lu ..J._
..
.-'...
lron,vih bars -or bolts, excep ting iron rnanuafac- tured by rolling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
in sheets . . . . . - . . . .^..
. —............
in r o d s . . . . . 1.--..-. 1 ^ . . . : . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
in bars, or bolts, wben manufactured, by.
roHing . ' . . . . . . . - .
.............
Anchors . . .
. . . . - - . . . , . . -.-... ^ . . - - . : . . . .
Ihdigo........-..... —
Lead, in pigs
....
.
in bars
•.. . . . .^.
......
in shteets . ^ . . ^ . . . . . . . . . . . . ^ « „ , . . . . .



25 cents per pound.
25^
: do.
;
.9.
do.
3
do.
;
2
do.
• : :•
5^ c.pr .heaped :bush.
100 cents per cwt.
4 cents per ^ppund.
4
do. .
4 ..:
do. .
4 :
do. ,
;
4
do.:
4
do. .
:4': ;.. .:do.:'"'
4 . . do.
' :
5
. -.do.
.3 , . do,.
:3

: ,

•: d o . . - ,

:--.•'

3
.do.
/
$1 per quiritai.
$1 50 per barrel. !
;$2- : -..do.
'$1-..••.• • d o . \
•

$2 50.per 100 square ft.
• • $ 2 7 5 : ' ^ : ••••

m-W-fi:

^ d o ; •".

:

do.

5 cents per poiind.
8 .
do.
f l 5 0 per cwt.
5 cents per pound. ' •
9
do.
5
.
- do.
•9 :
.do.
"v
45
$2
|2
$2

cents per 100 lbs'.
50
do.
•
50
do. ~
50
-do.

$.1 50
. $ 1 5b..'

do.
. . d o . - . : •.,••:•.

15 cents per pound.
-1 cent per pound.
1
-do. •
1
>:do.- ,';.

^

SECRETARY OF T U E TREASURY.

I645.J

99

E^-^G^titiriuedv
-Rat'es of duty.

Articles enumerated.

Shot, rnariufactured of l e a d . . . . - ' . ; u. - - ^...-.- . 2 cents per pound.
V do.
Lead, red, d r y . .
:.J.c-^i^.^.;-^--^-.:^.: 3
' grbund in bill ^;i^w :v v ^^ - ^ ^ i w - ^ 3
T
^
^ -. do.
.
do.
white, dryX X . -... |. - - - - i .i--'V ^ i ^.j: .^ r ^ ^ 3
J
do.^
ground in oil .^ > - - . ^ - ^ . . i . - - - - 3
-$1'^ •

• • • • d o . ^ - " •; '

•

Molasses . . ^^.i. ^v;- fi-.-.. ^•r.^^^^-^'c^:-^-.^--. ^ 5 cents per gallon.
Kails . . .'-•. - :•-.
-.. j.-^.^w-.-v. ^^ ^^-^^^ ^, 3-cents -per
:doC
• N u t m e g s . . v^.. . . - - . .• .-.•l.-^ ^ v - - - ^ ^ ^^ .r .r X^- J ^ SB
do.
P e p p e r . - . - - ; ^ . . . . . -::: .-^^.-V.-.;:.;---= - - ^ . i 8
Pimento . - - - - . . - . . - - - -6^ V
do;
Plumbs i -':•.-',. .:v w . - - . . ' . . ^ = - ^ ^ ^ j ^ . r - - ^ - . - ^ ^ . ^ 3
do.
• . P r u n e s ... . j - i . . . . . . : . . . r - ^ . ^ ^ / ^ ^ ^ r ; . - : c > ^ :: 3
do;
Raisins, muscatel.. ...•.\. ^-----.?^. .^.^.v. .^v. .;^ 3
do;
injarL-..-j.-^^ j ^^ . .r.^. .-.^.^rj^.i^ 3^ ^
do.::
do;'
in boles ...--•-.i.;^-^.:^-vv.;-^^^^^.r 3 :
do.
all # t h e r . . . - V i . :>• .^-.-i.-^..; ^.;. ^- .^ ^.- 2« Salt, 56 lbs.> . - - — - - - - - - i--^,- i>- - - - - - - 20' cerits per bushel.
Ochre, d r y . . . . . . . . - - .:>. .^i- . . . - : -v. i . . - . 1/cerit.per
in oil
......i...
- . - - . . . - . . . . If '
do.
S t e e l - - . - - . . . i--. ,-.- - . .„.^-..- .f-•-/X—— .r-.-^.r^f ^X^'^' $ 1 per cwt.
- . ^ e g a r S . . . . .^.. . J-. . . ^ ' - - . ^ r . ' ^ ^ ^ : ^ - . r j . ^ . v ^ . r j ^ j 2 50-p^r 1000
Spirits, from, grain, 1st proof.'.- -.;..-.-.- - - i.-. - 42 cents per ' '
^
" do.
^
M ; ;doi .^ - - - . ^ ^ ^ - . r - ^ c 45
do.
3d: do; - ^ - - . . . . . . .: ^^^ 4 8
do;
. :
4th do. .-..-.^.^crcri. 52
do.
5th do. . . ; . . ; - . - ^ ^ . ^ ^ ^ 60
do;
above 5th- proof. j . -.-: j .- 75
frorri other materials-than grain, 1st
db^
and 2d proof.... i . - . - , . . . : . . . - . - -.-.- -.- 38
' do.
.M
d o : f i . z z ^ - • , , , , - , — i ^ 42
-do,:
.. 4 t h d 6 . . - - r j : : v v j ^ i - . - > ^ ^ . r ^ j ^ 48.
dpi
5th do..j-- — -.--.. .^.r.-^.-.-.- 57.
do.'
a b 0 V e ' 5 t h d o . - :! - ^^^.-.r.^-.^.r.r.^v.r.---- 70
S h o e s , o f s i l k . - - . : . - ..-. . . ^ . ^ ^ j - ^ .^-.rj^.;:.r- -^ --^ 30 cents per pair.
do. •:S l i p p e r s , ^Of Silkl . .i . . . . . ^ ;^;: z^ .'.- J J J J - - - - - . 3 0 Shoes, leather. . • . . . . . . \ ' . : . .^.•.-.-.-,-'.--- - . . . . ^25.. •-' m . - '•
- do. "
Slippers, do.. - -.- -...-.-. .^^ .-.-.-• _--•. .-.• ^ ^ - 25
do.
Shoes, ehildreh's^. - . . - 1 . -^'^^^.^-•---.r:^-.-'...- 15
Shppers, d o . . . .-..-.-.-.-.-.-.-...-.-.-.•..-...-." 15 - ^ d o ;
Spikes
. / . r - - . . - \ ^ . - - - . . : . . ' 2 cerits pe'r pound.
do; ;
fooap......'......
. -«..----.'.,."..'.- -' -• - -'-,"..' w 3 '
Sugar, brown - - . . . . - . . . . . . - , -..;. - . . .- 3 -do. ••
white, clayed, or p o w d e r e d . , . - . , . . J , . • 4,:.
.do. • •
W
do.
'
Ali-llxLy .

• a n a

m « » o a n ' « j a « o o ' a ' a ' - a «a" «' a •<a' a"^..)"o' a J- »"




REPORTS OF T H E

100

[1845,

E—Continued.
Articles ehumerated.

Sugar, loaf
:.,.,--,-..... --.... Candy, sugar
Snuff
...;..._.-..,..;...:...
Tallow
.- . . . . . . . . > . . . . - - - - - . . .
...
Tea, frorn China, in ships or vessels of the
United States, yiz:
Bohea.-—..-.1..................
Souchong - --...-.L - . - - . . - - .
^ - -....
other black
......
-...--:...
Imperial. — . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 . . .
Teas, from China, &c.: , .
Gunpowder . . . . . . - . . - - - . . . . . . - - - . .
Gomee .
-..--..,......... ^.....
Hyson
. . . - . - . . . . . . - . , - - - . . - -,-.
^ Young hyson . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . , . . . . . . .
Hyson skin
. - - , - . . . . - . . . . . - -.
other green
- . . - . - , . ^- - -,-,-,---, - vTeas, from any other place, or iri any other
than ships pr vessels of the United
States, viz:
.'
Bohea.
.....-;.
--...........
Souchorig-.......1.... -. - . . . . . . . . . .
other b l a c k . .
-i--............
- Imperial
. . . I . . . : . . . . -...--. -. Gunpowder
.. I . - - . . - . . - -...
.
Gomee......
.---..- - - - - -.
Hyson.
,.—:.--4.- . . . • ' . . . . . . . . . . . . - .
Young hyson . . . . . . . . .
----.
Hyson s l d n . . . fi .•
...
. - -..
other green . . . . . . : i . . . . . . . . . . . . . ^ . . . .
Tobacco, manufactured J. - . - . - - . - , . . . . . , .
Whiting .
,.
--..-..---Paris w h i t e . . . . . . . . . . . . . - . . . . - - . . . - - - - - Wine, Madeira . . . . . . - - i : . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
B u r g u n d y . . -- .:..L - -- ^ - . . . . . . . . . . .
Chanipagne ..;
i-.. - - . . . . . - . . . ; . . .
Rhenish.
- . . . - --^.,.. -. -. -.,.
Tokay...........-,-..............
Sherry . .
. . . - i--,- - -.. - . ..-„- ---....
St. Lucar
- - - i -. - -,-. -.- -.-.-..- -,-.- -. - -.
others not enurnerated, when iinported
in bottles or cases
......,......
Wines, L i s b o n . . . . . . . ; - i > . . : . . . . . . _ . . . .......
Oporto..
. J.;. •> • . .^ . . . . V , . . .

Rates of duty.

12 cents per pounds
12
do.
12 '
-do.
1 cent per pourid.
12 cents
25.
25
50,._

50 cents per pound.
50
do.
40
do.
40 ^
do.
28
do.
28
do.

14
do.
34
do.
34
do.
68
do.
68
do.
68
do.
56
do.
5&
do.
38
do.
38
do.
10;
do.
1 cent per pound.
1
do.
$1 per gallon. ^
$1
do. ,
$1
do.
$1
do.
.$1
do60 cents per gallon.
60
do.

70
50
50
odier, of PortugaJj ^,. o,...,,,, ^,^.«^„.,. 50




per pound.
do,
do.
do,

do;
do.
do.

do.

1845.3

S E C R E T A R Y OF T H E TREASURY.
.

'

101

E—Continued.

-Articles enumerated.

Rates of duty.

- . - . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 cents per gallon.
. do.
. . . . . . . . . . i . 40
do.
• F a y a l . ....'-•.......•.•-.,-.•,'-;-..^.'---'.-.-.' 40
do.
other, of Western Islands . . . . . . . . . . •40
on all others, when imported otherdo.
wise than in cases and bottles....-. 25
i)uck, Russia, not exceeding 52 archems each
$1 25 per piece.
piece
...
- ^....
do.
d o . . . $2 50
Holland,
do.
do.
25 cents per gallon.
Oil, spermaceti, of foreign fishing
15
do.
whale,
do.
dp...
15
do.
other fish, do.
do...
25
do.
Oil, oHve, in c a s k s . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Ad valorem 15 percent.)
Woolen, manufactures ;of—blankets.
do.
do.
do.
do.
worstedgoods..do.
do.
stuff g o o d s . - - - i r Wines, Sicily
Teneriffe

.

,A11 articles imported for the use of the United
States . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - . . . . - . . . Free,
do.
Philosophical ,apparatus . . . . . . - . . - . . . . . . . .
do.
Instruments . . . . . . . .
..
^
•...
Books
-..
- - . . . - . . . . . - . - . - - . . . .^.. do.
Maps...
.....
. . - ^ . . . . . . . ^ ^. w . . . . - , do.
do.
Charts,.
..
do.
Statues
'.
do.
Busts
......--.......
do.
Casts.
- . . . - - . -. . . . . . . - - - - . . . . . . Paintings .
. do;
Drawings......... -..
. . . . . - - . . . - - . . . do.
do.
Engravings
^
:
do.
^Sculpture, specimens of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
^Coins, cabinets of. - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ^ . . . . do.
do.
Gems, do.
. . . ' . . . . . --;.-'.....
....
do.
Medals, do..
...... -...-.-..
Antiquities, collectipn of. ^ ^ . . . . . . . . / . i . - . . do.
do.
Statuary - - - --.,..
...... ^ ---.....
do.
Mpdellirig . . - . . . . . . . . . . - . . . . . . . . . . . . .
do.
Painting . . . . .
. ..;..
..,-. - - .
do.
Drawing.- - - . . . . . . . . . . . • • . - . . . . . . ; . . . . . . . . .
do.
Etching..-......-..
'....-...-......'. JEngraving
- — . , . . . . . . . . . , ^ . . . . .•.^.. do.
[Specially imported by order and for the use
of any society iricorpPrated for philosophical
and literary purppses,;or for the encourage


REPORTS OF THE

102

{184^

E—.Continued.
Rates of diity.

Articles enumerated.

, m m t -of the fine 9:rts, or by .ordpr and for the
use of any seminary of learning. J
Natural history, specimens .pf^,-..-.-.--.-,-.- --.-.-.-. Free,
Mineralogy,;
dp.". .L .:-^...., ^ ^ ,-^,-...... dp. '
Botany
do. . . . . . . . ^>> . - ^^ -;- r -:- doy
Anatoriiical preparations. ...... .> ....,..,;.•....- dp.
Models of m a c h i n e r y . . . . > v . . . J......;....-.. - - - - dp.
Models of inyerition:s,X)!ther....^^. - . ^ . . . . . . .
do.
Plants - . . : . V . ^...;..,...'. - . . . - . . . - . ^ . . . . . . . d o ;
'Trees . . . . . . . - . . . • . : • . . , ..^^....fi,.... ..•-.- .V.- do.
Wearing apparel in a^tuiai u s p . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ^ ^ Personal baggage in actual use . . _ . . . . . . . , . . . dp.:
Implements of persoris arriving in the .United do.
.St.ate.s . . . . . . . - . - . • . . . - i . . . L ^ , , . . . . . . . . , ; . . . . . . • . . . ;
do,
TPOIS of trade of persoriS; arriyijig iri the .Uni- do.
ted. S t a t e s . . . . . ..!•
. ; . - . ,;.v^>--...--. - -dp..
Antimony, regulus pf.
,-.--- T -> -•- - -.->.-•- - - do..
.
Cork tree, bark of, unrnanufactured. - - . . - - - .
do..
Animals, imported for breed..r. - - - - - - r - - -. - - - do.
Burr stones; unwrpught. - . . . , . , . ^ - - . > . - . . -,-. . dp,
Coin, g o l d . . . . . . - .
. . . . . . . . y . . . . . . . - - - -,..',.
do..
Coin, silver.
--i^-. ^ . . . . . ..-.^... .^
dp.
Bullion, unwrought.......................,...,....
dp.
Clay, unwrought. . ^ . ^ . . . . . . . . . . - . . . - - - . . . .
do.
Copper, imported in any shape for use of Mint_.
dp;
Co^pper, in pigs, ") .• i
dp.
Copper, in bars, > S;hite^ to sheathirig sW
dp.
Copper, in plates, j
dp.
Brass, in pigs, ^ :
,
do.
Brass, in barsy > Suited tp sheMhmg sbij^^. j . .
dp.
Brass, iri plates, y
•
;
_
.dp..
Copper, old, fit only to be reiTia.nufactured. - .
dp..
Brass, old, fit only to be rernanufactured....
do.
Pewter, old, fit only to be. remanufactured...
do.
Tin, in p i g s . . ' . . . . . . . . . . : . . ^ . , . . - - . ' . . . . . . .
do!
Tin, in b a r s . . . . . . ^ . . - : - . . . - - . . . ^-. . . - - . . . . .
dp.;
Furs, undressed...,. ^ . . . ' . . . . . . . . . . . _.......;....
do.
Hides, r a w . . .
.^..... . . i ^ . . . . . . . ' . - . . ^ , . - . , . . . . . dp.
Skins, raw.
. , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - . . . . . ' : dp.
Lapis calaminaris ._..... . 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
do.
Plaster-of-Paris . . . . . . . ' . , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
dp/
Rags of any kind of c l o t h . . . . . . . . . . . ' . . . . . .
dp.
Sulphur.. - . . . . . . . . . . J , ^,.--•...;....,-•-^..
do^
Brinistone . . . . . . . . . . . . ^ . . , . . . . - - - - - , . ; . . ;
dp.
Barilla
.
.J...... . ^ . . - . . . - . . . - . .
dp*.



h^

1845.3

S E C R E T A R Y OF T l i E TREASURY.
E-T^Cp^ipuedf

103
^

Articles enumerated.

Brazil w o o d . . . . . . .
-- V- -......
Bra5:elletto
...
...
...........
Redwood;........ - . . - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Camwood...............
Fustic........,..,..,..-. - . . - - . - . . . . . . - . . ' . . . . . . .
Nicarag.ua..
. . . . . . . . ':\ . . . . . . . . . . ^... - - Dye-wppds, other.- - - - - . - - : - . - - . - - .,....:-..Wood,, unmanufactured, df any k i n d / . . . . . .
ZinqV.., -.---- - fi:r - - -.-,— r'-':- -•---''-'Teutenegue^.^ l . - , - ^ . . , . - ' - . . . . " . . . . . " . . -V
•Spelter. . . . ; . - . i.......'.-.'.-.'Si.'fi.".'.. . . . ^
. \ - • :•.•• --^ :•

>

•/•• • .^NOTES^

• '• •

•.-._ •

(a.) That all cotton clpths, or cloths of which cotton is the material of chief value, (excep.t;ing nankeens°imported directly from China,) the^original cost of which, at the placewheri.ee
imported,, with the addition of twenty per centum, if importted froni the Gape* of-Grood Hope,
or from places heyond it, anid- of ten per centum if .'imported fr.om any other place, shall be less
ithan twenty-five cents per square yard, shall, with such additiorij.be taken arid deemed to have
,cost twenty-^iive cents per square yard, and shall be charged with duty-accordingly.
(6.) That all unbleached and uncolored cotton .twist, yarn, or .thread, .the original cost of
which shall be less than sixty cents per pound, shall be deemed and taken to have cost sixty
cents per pound,.and shall be charged with duty accordingly; and all bleached and colored yarn,
the original cost of which shall have been less than seventy-five cents pier pound, shall be taken
and deemed to have cost seventy-five cents per pound, and shall be charged with' duty accordingly-: . . ' • • . '
•
• ' • • ' : ,

E—Cohtinued.
/ ;:

.1818, APRII.:20. ;

;.

To increase the duties on certain manufiactured articles.
' Articles enumerated.

Rates of duty.

Iron, in p i g s . . .
- - -.-.^.- - - - . . - - - , - . . . , -. 50 cenjis per cwt.
castings
.^ ..v-^->^ J ^ - . . . . , 75:
' dp...
Nails ..:........... •-.:- -. v . ^ . . . . . . . . . .,.'... .•...,... 4 cents per pound,
i S p i k e s . - • • . : • . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - - . . . . . . . . . . . ......-...,-•,..

Iron, in bars and bolts,, manufactured without
75 epulis per p ^ o
A n c h o r s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ^. - . . . . . . . . . . . , , . . , . . . • 2 cents per pound,
A l u m . C.J.:.....:,..- i
$2. per cwt. '



104

[1845.

R E P O R T S OF T H E
E-—Continued.
1818, A P R I L 20.

To increase the duties on certain manufiactured articles.
Articles enumerated.

Copper, manufactures o f . . - - - . . . - . .
....
Saddlery, silver p l a t e d - . . . . . .
.....
Furniture, cPach
J.. - - . . . — . . . . -. -.
harness....:—...............
Glass, cut
J.........--- — ...
Tacks, not exceediiig 16 Pz. M.
—....
Brads,
do.
; do.
.........
,Sprigs,
do.
: do.
Tacks, exceeding 16 oz; M
...
.
Brads,
do.
do'.
-. - Sprigs,
do.
do.. - - . . . . . . - - - - - - —
Sheetings, brown Russia, not exceeding 52
archems in each piece - . - - . - - .
white, do.!
do,
.- . .

Rates of duty.

Ad valorem 25 per cent,
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
30 per cent.
5 cents per thousand,
do.
do. ,
do.
do.
3 cents per pound,
do.
do.
db.
do.
$1 60 per piece.
$2 50 per piece.

'

E—Continued.
1819, MARCH 3.

To regulate the duties on certain wines.
Articles enumerated.

Rates of duties.

On wines notenumerated inthe act "toregulate
the duties on imports;and tonnage," passed
the 27th April, 1816, when imported in bottles or cases j and paying a duty of 70 cents
per gallon
......
. . . . . . . . . . -.
30 cents per gallon.
On wines not enumerated in the act * to regulate
*
the duties on imports! and tonnage," passed
the 27th April, 1816^ when imported o^Aerwise than in bottles pr cases, and paying a
duty of 25 cents per g a l l o n . . . .
. . . . . . - 15 cents per gallon.



1845.]

S E C R E T A R Y OF T H E TREASURY.

105

E-^Continued..
1824, MAY 22.
To amend the several acts imposing duties on imports.
Articles enumerated.

Rates of duty.

Sail duck
. - . . — . . . . Ad valorem 15 per cent
Osnaburgs
:
-.. - . . . . . - -...-.
do.
do.
Burlaps
.--...........
....
do.
do.
Ticklenburgs-......
...
........
do.
do.
Wool,,manufactures of, until 30th June, 1825
do.
30 do.
after 30th June, 1825
do.
33J do.
Blankets
........
do.
25 do.
Worsted stuff g o o d s . . . . - . . - - . . . . . . . . . . . . .
do.
do.
Wool, certain manufactures of, the actul value
ofwhich shall not exceed 33^ cents per square
do.
yard........-..-.- -.................
do.
do.
do.
(a) Cotton, manufactures o f . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
do.,
do.
Flax
do
u....
.....
do.
do.
Hemp
do.
Silk
do. coming from beyond the
do.
do.
Cape of Good H o p e . .
20 do.
do.
do.. all other . - .
.......
do.
do.
Wool, unmanufactured, tiU 1st June, 1 8 2 5 . . . .
do.
25 do.
. 1st June, 1 8 2 6 . . : .
do.
30 do.
afterwards
unmanufacturied, the value, actual, of
which, at the place wherice imported, shall not exceed 10 cents per
15 do.
do.
pound
...---...
50 do.
do.
{b) Hats, Leghorn
do.
do.
straw
....
do.
do.
chip......
.....
-.
do.
grass. -.-...
do.
do.
Bonnets of Leghorn
-..
do.
do.
straw do.
do.
chip - — . . . : . . . . .
do.
do.
. grass. . . . . . J.!;.. -••
-...--.-•
do.
dp.
Flats, for maldng hats or bonnets.
do.
do.
Braids
do.
do..............
do.
do.
Plats
do.
do......
.....
do.
do.
Wares, japanned
25 do.
do.
plated
do.
do.
Brass, manufactures o f . . . . . . .
.
....
do.
do.
Iron
do
.................
do.
do.
Steel
do..
do.
do.
Pewter
do
.:.
do.
do.
Lead
do.
do.
do.:
Tin
do
do.



[1845.

REPORTS OF THE

106

ETTr-Gontinued.
Rates.of duty.

Articles,enurnerated. •

Cloths, b o l t i n g - . . . . . . . . . : . . . - - . - - - . . - . v.
Hair c l o t h . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ; . - -.
-. - - . . . ,
.seating. ..^:.^..:.. j f i --.-;-. . -_-.^- -... - •
Marble . . . . . . . , . ^
>-.-- - . - - . . . - . - -•-.--.,
manufactures o f . - - - , - - . - - - . . . . - - Paper hangings^ . . - - . ^ - - . . . . . . - . . . - . . Cottori, coach lapes of.. - - . . . . . . ; . . . - -... - -,
Othpr inaterials ^ dp. - - - fi.......,...:.... -:...,
Lapes, all other j . - . . . - - . - - . . . _ . . . . . - - . . , . - .
Lead in p i g s . . . . . . - - . . : . . - - . . . . . . . ,^-.s h e e t s . . . - . . - . : . ^.....--... ^.>-^ -,
S h o t , . . . . . . . . , - : , . . . ^ . . V . . . ^ . . ] . . -;- ^-^-...
Leadjf^ r e d , . d r y . - , - . . . . ^ . - - - - . - . . - . - - -,
\ white, d r y : . . . . . .i. - . . - - . . : . - - . . . - ,
red, ground in o i l . . i - . . . 1 . . . . . . .
wbite
d o . . . . . . . . . : . ,:-^,.,.-;-,--\
Carpets and carpeting, Brussels.•........ - -

Ad valorem 15 per cent
30 do.
do.
do.
do.

do.

do'
do.
do:

dp.
40 do.
3.5,. do.,
dfi.
do.
do.
124 do.
do.
2 cents per pound
^ ' do,
2y
dp.

do.- J

aj
.4"

\-^

. /"^'dO,.

•, . :

4t
;
do. :
4
do. .
4
.
do.
50 cents per sq. yard.
, . ,
.. • • • . ' .
. T u r k e y , ; , . - . - - , - .....•
50
do.
5D
dp. . , .
.... :
^ Wilton.::..:.^..,.-^r>^.2Q
\
do,
/
: ptherkindspf \fppL,.i.p
20
do.
:
fiax.
- -., ..
20
do,
... do.
: .cotton.-^ ;^ 4... 20
: -.;. or pajjts pfpithpr
Oil clpth'carpeting,. - - . . . , . . . . . . . . . . , . . . - . Ad valorem 30 per cent
i: dp, A •
Oil cloths pf every d e s c r i p t i o n . . . . . . . . . . . . . . fi ' do.
dOi
do.
Carpets and carpeting j all o t h e r . . . .
.....
do, :
do.
i v J L a t s . . . . . . . . . . ^ . . . i . - -.; 1 . - - _ . . . . _ - . . . . . - . . do.
do.
Cloths,, fioor, of tow, . . . . . ; . . . . ' . . . . . . . . . - - - .
dp,
d o . .V
flags.-..:..-......-..
...
do.,
do.
ariy pther material. . . . . . . . . Henip^.... -->.> - . . . - .... - ' . - . - . . . . - . $35 ^ e r torn
4 cents per pound.
•Cables, t a r r e d . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . : . . . . . . . . . . . .
4 '
do.
Cordage, tarred,.,.,
........
....;,,.
5 ^
-do.
'
untarred...
..................
5 :
do. .
Y a r n s , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . , . . . . . . . . ...^ .
5
do.
Twine. • . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . i . ' . . .
: do;
Packthread..................... ,,....... 5
dp.
•
Seines...:. . . . , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ' :
. . .5
Cotton bagging. . /
........
. . . . . . . . 3f cents per sqiyard.
Iron,.in bars and bolts, npt manufactured in
whole or ill part by rolling. . . . . . . . 90 cents per 112 pounds.
round or braziers' rods of 3-16 to 8-16
of an inph diair^eter, i n c l u s i v e . . . . . . 3 cents per, pound.



1845.]

S E C R E T A R Y OF T H E TREASURY.

10?

E—Continued.
Articles enumerated.

Ir^n,: nailrods . , . . ^ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
spike rods . _ - - - . . . . . . . . . . - . - . - . . .
^ -sht / . - . . . . ' . . , . - - .V_V .-'.•-'.'.....
sheet - - ' . . - - . . . - - - . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
h o o p , ; . . . . . . . . . . . . . --— . . -.^ - - - - -.
slit or roUed for band . . . .
.
..
scroll ....--,.-,.- - . . . . . - . - . . .
i..
casement r o d s . . . . . . - . . - . . ; . . . . . . .
Spikes:. . ^ . . ' . . . . ^ • . . . . . . . . . - - - . - V .
.
Nails, cut . . , - - - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. , 'Wrought . : , . , . . . - ^
- - -...
Tacks, .ript exceeding 16 ounces to the M.
Brads,
do.
dp.
Sprigs,
do.
dq.
Wire, steel. not epceeedihg No.. 18
^over.
?
do.
iron, not excpeding do. - - - - - - - - -pver
. do. . . . . , . .
square, used in theo rnariufacture of
. stretcher^ for u m b r e l l a s . . . . . . . . .
• Anvils..'.
-,,-.--. - . : . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ,
Anchors . . . . - . , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Cables of irpn, or parts, therebf .
....,,..,
Chains
dp.
. do. „
...,., -,..,.
Mill cranks, of wrought iron.
-.,,..
irons,
dp.
Mill saws . - . - - - - . , . . , . - . . . -.......
Blacksmith's hammers and sledges . . . , . . . . .
Muskets
,..-...

Rates of duty.

3 cerits per ppun.d.
do.
3
:do.
3
do.
3
do.
3
do.
3
do.,
3
do.
3
do.,
4
do.,
•5'
do.
5
do.
5'
do,
-:5.:
do.
5
do.
.5..
dp.
9
do.
5
do.
9

Ad valorern 12 per ct.
2 cents per pouild.,
2
- do;
3; ,
: dp,
.3 ; ; \ do,
4 .
do.
4
^ dp.
;
$1 each. "
2 i cents per pound.
$1 50 per stand ,
$2 50 each.
ArmS:,, flrp . . . . . . . . ^ . . ,
. . . • . - . . . . . - . Ad valor.em.SO p.er et.
Arms, side - , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . fi . . . . . . . . . .
do.
do.
.Cutting-knives, of irpri or steel . . . ' . . . . . . . . ,
do.
.do,
Scythes,
dio.^
...:...-....
do.
do.
Sickles,
'
do.
".
.,....'..
do;
dp,
Reaping-hqpks,
: do.
._....
,
do.
do....
do.
do.
Spades,
do.
. --- -.
do.
do,
Shovels,
' do;
------- do.
Screws, of iron, weighing 25 lbs. or upwards - do.
do.
do.
Screws., of iron, for wood called wood-screws
Vessels of cast iron, not otherwise specified.. 1J cents per pound.
All other castings of iron not specified . .
. 1 cent per pound.:
. Copper, vessels of, all. , . . . . . - - : - - - ^ . ' - . . . . . . Ad valorern 35.per ct.
Quills, prepared or rnanufactured . . . . . . . ; . . : do.
' 25: do.,
Slates, for building . . . . . . . . , . . .
-.,... ...
do."
do.

Rifles .,,,.,:.-::,t,v,:./::..v.,^:..:,v.-:;




[1845.

R E P O R T S OF T H E '

108

E—Continued.
Articles enumerated.

Tiles, for building,. ....
----..
Blacklead p e n c i l s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - - . . .
Candles, tallow
-......---.-.-.,
Candles, s p e r m a c e t i . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Soap . . . . .
....................
Lard
....
Wheat
..................:.....
Oats . . . . . - . - ---........
Wheat flour . . . , . . . . . . . . - . . . . . . . . . .
Potatoes
,
Coal . . . . . . . . . . . . . : . . . . . - - - - . . . . - .
Corks - - ......
: -..
Shoes, of prunella, stuff, or nankeen ....
Slippers, of prunella, stuff, or nankeen\
Boots or bootees, laced .
..........
Linseed oil
Rapesped oil . . . . . . . . - . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Hempseed oil.......
Castor oil
Ale, in bottles . . . . . — . - . . - - . .
Beer, in bottles . . . . , . - .
- - -.
Porter, in bottles . . .
.............
Ale, otherwise than in b o t t l e s . . . . - . . . .
Beer, otherwise than in bottles.
Porter, otherwise thaii in.bottles
...
Beef.....!--.......----...
Pork
...----.....
.........
Butter
Vinegar . . - - ---......-.....-..
Alum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Saltpetre, refined . . . . . . .
.....,....
Vitriol, blue . . .
..!.-.:........
.
Vitriol, Roman
..................
Vitriol, oil of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - . . --.
Salts, Glauber - - - . . . . . . - . . . . . . . . . . .
Salts, Epsom
"....
Camphor, crude . . .
.
.....---..
Cariiphor, refined. . " . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Copperas .
.
-...
^........
Cayenne pepper . .
..............
Ginger
.
,...
. -1
Chocolate . - - . . - . : f-^"... - . . . . : . . . \ ....
Currants
..^.............
Figs . . . . . . . . - . . . . . . . . . - . . : , - . . . ; . . . .
Plums
.-..-..-..-.
- -....



Rates of duty.

Ad yalorem 25 per ct.
do.
40 do.
5 cents per pPund.
8 do.
4
do.
3
do.
25 cents per bushel.
10
do.
50 cents per cwt.
10 cents per bushel.
6 cts per heaped bush,
12 cents per pound.
25 cents per pair.
25
do.
$1 50
do.
25 cents per gallon.
25
do.
25
do.
40
do.
20
do.
20
do.
20
do.
15
do.
15,
do.
15
do.
2 cents per pound.
2
do.
5
do.
8 cents per gallon.
$2 50'per cwt.
3 cents per pound.
4
do.
':
4
do.
3
do.
2
do.
4
do.
8
do. 12
do.
$2 per.cwt.
15 cents per pound.
2
do.
4
do.
3
' do.
3
do.
4
do.
s

1845.]

S E C R E T A R Y OF T H E TREASURY.

109

E—Continued.
Articl es enum erated.

Ratejs of duty.

Prunes . 2
--.- — Raisins, Muscatel . . . . . . .
.........
Raisins, in jars and b o x e s . . . — . . . . . . . . . . . .
Raisins, all other
.--. -,
Glass, window, not above 8 by 10 inches.
Glass, window, not above 10 by 12 inches^...
Glass, window, above 10 by 12 inches.. - - . .
Glass, window, in plates
..
.....
Black glass bottles, riot exceeding one q u a r t . .
Black glass bottles, exceeding one ^ quart and
not more than two q u a r t s - , . . - - - - , . . . .
Black glass bottles, over two quarts and npt
exceeding one gallon..
....
.....
Demijohns . . . . . . . . . . . . .
............
Vials, apothecaries', capacity 4 oz. and less..,
above 4 oz. arid not exceeding 8 oz. ,
Wares of cut glass, not specified...
.....

4 cents per pound.
4
do.
4
do.
3
do.
$3 per 100 square feet.
$3 50
do.
$4

• • do. • •

$4
do.
$2 per gross.
$2 50

do.

$3
do.
25 cents each.
$1. per gross.
$1 25 do."
3 cents per lb., and ad
valorem 30 pr. ct.
Articles, all other of glass.
2 centsper lb.,and ad
valorem 20 pr. ct.
Books, printed previous to the year 1775 . . . . 4 cents per volume.
Books, printed in other language than Enghsh, except Latin or Greek • . . : . - - . - . - - - 4 \
do.
Books, printed in Latin or Greek, b o u n d . . . . 15 cents per pound.
do.
Books, printed in Latin or Greek, riot bound . 13
Books, all others, bound .^
. . . . . . . . . . 30
do.
Books, all others, not bound
26
do.'
Paper, folio, of all kinds
T. . . . . . . '
. 20
do.
Paper, quarto post, of all kinds
,.,
. . . 20
do.
Paper^ foolscap
17
do.
Paper, drawing, all.
. . . . . ^ . - . . , . . . - . . . . 17
do.
Paper, writing, a l l . . . . . - . - - . . .
17
do.
Paper, printirig
10
do.
Paper, copperplate
..,. 10
do.
Paper, stainers' . . . . - . . . - - - - ....
. 10
do.
Paper, sheathing . . . . . - - . .
-,... 1..
3
do.
Paper, binder's b p a r d s . - - . - - . - - . - . .
..
3
do.
Paper, box b o a r d s . .
3
do. Paper, wrapping . - , - - 3
do,
Paper, all other . . . . . .
..
... ^....
15
do.
12 J.pr. ct. on all articles
not herein specified,
and now paying a
duty of 7J per cent,
ad valorem.



il845;

R E P O R T S OF T H E

110

E—Continiied.
Articles enumerated.

Rates of duty.

Patent adhesive felt, for covering ships', bottoms . . . . . . . . ... — . . :.....-. - . . ' . . . . . . . Free;
Drugs, dyeirig, and niaterials for composing
dyes, not subject to other ratesof duty. . . . Ad valoi-em 12-J.pr.cerit.
./>
do.
:
Gum, Arabic-.'...,. i ^ , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ^ . . . . . .
do.
Gum, Senegal
. . . .........'— ...........
. : do.;
dp,
,
Watches, gold, or parts: t h e r e P f : . . . . . . . . . .. do;
Watches, silver, or parts- t h e r e p f . . . . . . . . . . .
do.
Lace, gold . . - : . - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - — . . . . '
do, .
Lace, silver . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . : . . . .
do.
\
Embroidery . . . . . . . . . . . ..'^.- - ' . . . - . . . . . ...-.
Epaulets-..:............ isfi.. ........:•
"^ do.
Stones, precious, set or not s e t . . . . . . . . . . - . .
do..
:
Pearls,-precious, set or not s e t , . ^ . - . . . - . . . . . . .
do.
Stpnes, Bristol or paste work , . . . ^ . . - - . . . . ."
do.
Gold, all articles coriipbsedwholly or chiefly of.
do.
Silver,
;
do. •
do.....,,...
V do.
Pearl,,.
do.
do...:.....
dp.
Stones, precious, do.^ .
do...... —
do.
Laces of thread . . . . . . . . . - -:... - . ' . . . . . , - . . . ,
dp.
Lace veils of t h r e a d . . . . . . . .
...........
do. • '
Lace shawls of t h r e a d . . . . . . . . . . . , ; . . . . . . . .
do.
Lace shades of t h r e a d . . . . . . . - . . T. .^ — . . .
do. . Laces of s i l k . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . i . . . " . . . - - . . .
:
do. :
'
Lace veils of silk. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
do.
./
Lace shawls bi s i l k . . : • , ' . : . . . : . . . . . . . . . . . . .
•
do. .
• •"
•.
• d o - - '
;
^ •.-'••'
Lace shades of silk . . , . . . . . . . . , . - . . . . . -.;. - .
Articles, all, riot herein specified - . . . . . . . . . .
do.
•

,•

• '

.

. NOTES.-.

(a.) " T h a t all cotton cloths, whatsoever, or cloths df which cotton shall b e ' a coiViponent
material,, excepting nankeens imported directly from". China, the, original cost o f w h i c h at thd
place whence imported, with the "addition of twenty per centum .if imported from the Cape of
Good H o p e , oi' a n y place beyond it, and of ten per centum if imported from a n y other place,
. s h a l l b e less than thirty cents p e r square yard,-shall,-with-such additi-on, be taken and deemed
to have cost thirty cents p w square y a r d , and shall b.e charged with duty accordingly. A n d
that all unbleached cotton twisty yarn-, or thread, the original cost of which s.ha.11 be less ,than
s i x t y cents per pound,, shall Be deemed and taken to ha'veedst s i x t y cents per p'ound, and shall
be charged with dirty abcordingly., And all bleached or.colored cotton y a r n , twist, or thread,
the original cost of which shall-be less than .'=!eventy-five cents per pound,-shall be deemed and
^aken to have cost s"everity-five cents per pound, and shall be charged with duty accordingly."
(6.) " T h a t all Leghorn hats and bonnets, and all hats or bonnets of straw, chip, or grass,
which, at the place whence imported, with the addition of two p e r c e n t u m , shall have cost less
than one dollar each, shall, with such addition, be taken and deemed to have cost one dollar
each, and shall, be charged with duty accordingly."




1845.]

SECRETARY OF THE TREASURY.

Ill

E^—Contiilued'.,;. • ,

;'.. '

•.. . 1828,

MAY

19. ..

''

In alteration of the sevm'al acts imposing duties on imports.
Rates of duty.

Articles enumerated.

Iron, in bars • or bplt$, nPt rnariufactured in
whple'or in part ,by r o l l i n g . . . . . . . . . '
bar and bolt, made wholly or in part by
r o l l i n g . . . . . . - - . - . . . ^ ....:.:•!..-..-..
' , pig.....--..........•.;:_....•....,•..........
wire, not exceeding No. 1 4 . . . . - - . . . . .
over
' db...---.-....-,
steel, not exceeding Np. 1 4 . . . . . . . ' : . . . ' . . .
over
do..-.
---.
rourid or braziers' rods' of/3-i6! to 8-16
of an inch in diameter. . . . . . , . . . . . ...-.:
nail rods, slit,or r o l l e d . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
.spikerods - . d o . . . . . . . . . . . : . . . . . .
-•; ' "sheet •.•>•.:. . f i , . . . . . -^. -•--.-'- - • - . . . ' . . ' . -.'.;

1 cent per ppurid.
$37 per 1
ton...
62J cents per 112 lbs.
6 cents per pbund.
10
do.
6
do.
10
do.

do.
do.
do.
SJ
.do.
Si
do.
Si
band, sht of rolled. .> . . . . . 1 . . . L . . '
do.
Si
scroll
d o . . , . . . . . , . . . . . . . . .. 1 . H
do.
casement rods, slit or rolled
- -'.- - -.do.
3J
A x e s : — . ' . . . . ' . • . . . . : : . . . . . - . . - --...•.. 1 -:.v-.,Vr' Ad valprem 35 per cem
do.
Adzes ..:.'...
..,
. . > . . . - - - . . . . . . . . -•
do:
do.
Drawing knives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ; . . . . / .
do.
do. ^ 40 do.
Cutting
do..
,-...-.•...-....•.-......'
do.
Sickles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . J . . . . . : . . . . . . . . . . . .
do.
do.
Reaping hooks:.-.:^ -..-.
................
do.
Scythes.I..:.':..
'.:.'..-....
....,......••
do.
do.
Spades . . . . . . - - . . : . . . . - ^ . . . . ; . - - , . . . . . . . .
do.
do.Shovels.,...... -.
^..........
-..,..
do.
•do.
Squares, iron . . . . . ; . . . . . . . . . . . • . . . . . . ' . . . . . . ; . . ;
35 do.
do.
^:
.steel.....:..... . . : • . . . . .
.•.....
do.
-do.
Bridlebits.......:..., j . . . . .
,;..-........
do.
do. •
Steelyards;^
. . . . . . . .:•.--.%:-..........
do.
do.
Scale beams. - - -.,
......
.-.
^..'....'...
do.
do.
Socket c h i s e l s . . . . . . . . 1 . . . . . fi.: . : . . . . . . . . . .
do.
do.
Vices.•.•-.. - . . - . . . . . - .V..'.'
•.•:.
'......'...
do.
do.
Screws of iron for wood, .called wood-screws.
40 do.
do.
.Steel. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - . . • . . ' , . . - - - . _ . ^ . . . ^ $1 50 per 112 -pounds.
Lead, in pigs ,:
. . . . . ...•.•..;—::..:..
3 cents per pound.
bars
-..........' 3
do.
sheetJs..
. . - . --.-..•.".-.„
... 3
do.
Shot, leaden . . . . . . . . . . . . - . : \ .-... - . . . , . . . . , 4
do.
Lead, red, dry
, „..«.«o-.,^. „\.««. ^ . « , . . ,•: • 3
do.



3*
,3*

[1845.

REPORTS OF THE

112

E—Continued.
.

/

-

•

Rates of duty.

Articles enumerated.

Lead, red, ground in oil.
- - - -,
Lead, white, dry L. . . . . . .
........
.
' ground in oil
Litharge
.-...... i.
Orange, mineral..
Lead, manufactured into pipes
sugar o f . . .
....
.,
Wool,-unrnanufacturedj four cents per pound.
and in addition thereto an ad valorem
duty of forty per cent, until 30th Jurie,
1829, when an additional duty of 5
per cent, is added, and that amount
annually till the additional duty ad
valorem amounts to 50 per c e n t . . : . . .
.

•

•

.

'

"

^

,

.

•

•

•

{a) Manufacturesof, or of which'it shall be
a component part, to 30tli June, 1829,
40 ner cent. .
. .
......
{a) After the 30th June, 1829, 45
per cent.
(a) The actualvalue of which shall exceed
$4 the square yard to 30th June,
1829, 45 per cent
(a) After 30th June, 1829, 50 per cent.
Manufactures of, except flannel and
baizes, the actual value of which at
the place whence imported shall not
exceed 3S'i cents per square y a r d . . .
Blankets
Hosiery.
..
Mits........-..,....,....,..-........
...
Gloves.............^
J.
..
Binding
1— ,
----Clothing, ready made . . . . . . . . . " . ...-.
Carpets and carpeting, Brussels.. Turkey..:..........
Wilton..---....
Venitian'.
^
ingrain
wool, or parts thereof..
sH
f
flax
do.
...

.

5 cents per pound.
5
do.
5
do.
5
do.
5
do. .
5
do.
5
do.

4 cents per pound and
ad valorem 50 per cent.
Ad valorem 40 per cent.
do.

45

do.

do.
do.

45
50

do.
do.

14 cts. per square yard.
Ad valorem 35 per-cent.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
70 cts. per square yard.
70
do.
70
do.
40
do.
40
do.
32
do.
32
do.
32
do.
hemp
do.
32
do.
cotton
do...
Floor cloths, patent, printed, or painted..
. 50
^ do.
Oil cloth, other than the a b p v e . . , . . , . . . , . . . 25_ . . do-




1

1

1845.]

S E C R E T A R Y OF T H E TREASURY.

113

E—Continued.
Articles enumerated.

Rates of duty.

Oil cloth, furniture. . •..
Floor matting, of flags — . - . - - , . - . . . . . . . . .
Floor matting, of other materials. —
Hemp, manufactured, until 30th June, 1829
from which time $5 per ton in addition
per annum, until, the duty shall amount to
$60 per ton.
Cotton bagging, until 30th June, 1829. - .
after
do.
do.... -..
Flax, manufactured, until 30th June, 1 8 2 9 . . .
from which time an additional duty of $5
per ton per annum, until the duty shall
amount to
^
.
.
Duck, sail
^ and in addition thereto one half cent
. . yearly, until the same shall amount t o . .
Mplasses^
---V
-. .- - - -.- Spirits, distilled from grain, 1st proof.
...
2d dp. . . . . . . . .
3d do. . . / . . , - ' " 4th do
.-....
5th. do. . - - .
above 5th do. . . - - - . . .
of other materials, 1st do. . . . . . . . .
'
. 2 d
do.
.3d
do. . - - - . . . .
.• ,
4th do. . - - - - - . 5th do. .. i . . . . . .
.
above 5th do. : . Silk manufactures, or of which it shall be a
componerit part,, from beyond Capeof
Good Hope
......
all others. —
Indigo, from 30th June, 1.829
and from that time an additional duty
of ten cents per pound each year,
until the whole duty shall amount to
Glass, window, above 10 by 15 inches
in plates, or sheets, uncut.
Vials and bottles, not exceeding capacity of 6
ounces each
Slates, roofing, not exceeding 12 inches in
length by 6 w:ide .
>
.
exceeding 12 and not exceeding 14 in length.

15 cts per square yard
15
do.
15
do;
$45. per ton.

VOL. V.—8.



per ton.
4|-cts. per square yard
5
do.
$35 per ton.
per ton.
, 9 cts. per squarp yard
12J
do. .
10 cts. per gallon.
57
do. :
60
do.
63
do.
67 . do.
75
do.
90
do. \
53
do.
^
53
do.
57
do.
63
do.
72
do.
85
do.

'

Ad valorem 30 per cent,
do..
20 do.
20 cents per pound.
50
ou

do.
QO.
$5 per 100 square feet.
$5
do.

$1 75 per gross.
$4 per ton.
$5

do.

REPORTS OF THE

114

[1845.

E—Continued.
Rates of duty.

Articles enumerated.

Slates, roofing, exceeding 14 and not exceed^
ing 16 in length. . . . . . . . . . $6 per ton.
exceeding 16 and not'exceeding 18 in l e n g t l i . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7 per tori.,
exceeding 18 and not exceeding 20 in length . . . . . . . - . . .
8 per ton.
exceeding 20 and not exceeding 24 in length . . . . . .
• 9 per ton.
imported, c i p h e r i n g . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Ad valorem 33 J pef ct.

NOTES.
(a.) Shall not exceed 50 cents, shallbe deemed to cost 50 cents.—^" On mariufactures of wool, or
of which wool shall be a component part, (except carpetings, blankets., worsted, stuff goods,
bombazines, ho.siery, mits, gloves, caps, and bindings,) the actual value of whicli at the place
whence imported,shall not exceed fifty cents the square yard, shall be deemed to have cost fifty
cents the square yard, and be charged thereon with a duty of forty per centum ad valorem until
the 30th June, 182i9, and frorii that time a duty of forty-five per centum ad valorem."
Shall exceed 50 cents, and not exceed ^1,'shall he deemed to cost ^ 1 . — " On all manufactures of
wool, or of which wool shall be a coniponent part,'except as aforesaid, the actual value of
which at the place whence imported shall exceed fifty cents the square yard, and shall not
exceed one dollar the square yard, shall be deemed to ha:ve cost one dollar the square'yard, and
be charged thereon with a duty of forty per centum ad valorem until the 30th June, 1829,
and from-that tiriie a duty of forty-five per centum ad valorem."
Shall exceed §1, and not exceed $2 50, shall bedeemed to cost^2 50.—^'* On all manufactures of
wool, or of which wool shall be a\component part, except as aforesaid, the actual value of
which at the place whence imported shall exbeed one dollar the square yard, and shall not
exceed two dollars and fifty centsthe square'yard, shall be deemed tohave cost two dollars and
fifty cents the square yard, and be charged, thereon with a duty of forty per centum ad valorem
until the 30th,June, 1829, and from that time a duty of forty-five per centum ad valorem."
Shall exceed $2 50, and not exceed $4, shall be deemed to cost $4.—" All manufactures of wool,
or of which wool shall be a component part, except as aforesaid," the actual value of whichj at
the place whence imported shall exceed two dollars and fifty-cents the square yard, and shall
not exceed fpur dollars the square .yard, shall be deemed tohave cost at the place whence
imported fpur dollars, the square yard, and a duty of forty per centum advalorem shall be
levied, collected, and paid on such valuation,-until the 30th June, 1829, "and from that time a
duty of forty-five.per centum ad valorem."
^ .
'




1845.]

S E C R E T A R Y O F T H E TREASURY.

11^

E-^Contiriued.
•

/

^

1828,

MAY

24,

Altermg the dtdies on wines..
f

ilates of duty.

Articles enumerated.

Wines,- of France^ wheri imported in casks-. .
Germany,
• do-.
- do,-. Spain,
do*
do.Mediterrarieari, do*
do. (unless specially enumerated.)
md, of France, when not imported in
b o t t l e s — r . --•---•.--•....... - • . . . . .
mdj of-Spain, , - dos ,
do.
of all countries^ when- imported in bottles or cases, unless specially enumerated
^----.....-..-....
of Sicily, whether' imported in botfles.
cases, or c a s k s —
^11 not enurnerated, db,
do.
Sherry, in bottles, cases, or c a s k s . . -• .
Madeira,
d o . do.
....
•••

-•

^ • • ^ > • t

:

:

:

.

15 cents per gallon.
.15
do<
15
do.'
15
do.
vio
,10
.

. .doi

.30

do.

30
30
50
30

do.
do.
do.
do.

ds.

~~-.'.-'-"7-u-

E—Continued,- 1^30,

MAY

20,

To reduce the duty on coffee, tea, and cocoa.
Articles .eriumerated^'

Coffee, after Slst Deceniber, 1 8 3 0 . . . . .
. .
afier 31st Deceriiber, 1 8 3 1 ; - . - - . . . . .
Cocoa i . . ^ w - . . . . . . . . . .
.....'....
.J..Teas imported fi'om China, or other places
east of the Cape of Good Hope, in vessels of the United States—
Imperial.
.-. - ^.; i. w^.. . ^ . . ,
Gunpowder;.-...-. - . , . - - . . . . . . Gomee . . . -^.
...-.
-.-.-..
Hyson.
Young hyson
Hyson skin
-...
»Other green tests....^^..;^.;...*^^.. ^^..^^^^ ^
Souchong .
- . L ..^^.rv^^--^^-^^- - i i
Other black . . ir.^ ^^.^^^.^^^^^^-^ i^ i--.:.^^
Bohea».
-.--.......
. . .



lliates of duty.

2 ceiits per pound.
1 cent per pound.
1
do.

25 cents per pounde
25
do.
do.
25
do.
18
ISdo.
IS
do.
ddi
v^ •
10 •
do.
10'
do.
do.
4

|

E E P O R T S OF T H E

116

[1845.

E^—^Continued,.
Rates of duty.

Articles enumerated.

Teas imported from any other place, or in vessels other than those of the United
States—
Imperial ^ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ; . . .
Gunpowder . . ; .
.-.-....
Gomee .
. .fi................
Hyson....
. ^.............
Young hyson ,.:
. . . . J.-.....
Hyson s k i n . . . ] . . . . . . . . . . . , . - . . .
Other green teas. ^......................
Souchong .
'.....
;.......Other black . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Bohea.......
- - . - . . . . -;.. -

I,

37; cents per pound.
do.
37
do.
37
do.•27
27
do.
20
do.
20
do.:
18
do.
18
do.
6
do.

E—Continued.

1830, M A Y 2 9 . — - T O reduce the duty on molasses.
Article enumerated.

Molasses-

..-...!.

Rate of duty.

:.. - - - - - • ; , - - . ' - . - - .

5 cents per gallon.

E^—Continued.
1830, M A Y 2 9 . — T O reduce-the duty on salt.
. Article enumerated.

Rate of. duty.

Salt, bushel of 5^ pounds -, - - -..-.•.....

r

,- 15 cents per bushel.

. .E=—^Contir^ued.

1832, JULY 13.—Wines ofi France.
Articles enuriierated.

'

^ "" "

Rates of duty.

Wines of France, red, in casks. - . , . . . , . . . . . . . , . . 6 cents per gallon.
white, in casks.. .„.............. 10
do.
all sorts,.in bptdes.,.....,..,.,, 2 2 ;
do. .



1845.]

S E C R E T A R Y OF T H E TREASURY,

117

E—-Continued.
1832, JtJLY 14.
To alter and amend the several acts imposing duties on imports.
Articles enumerated.

Rates of duty.

Wool, unmanufactured, not exceeding 8 cents
per p o u n d . . . . . - - - - - - . - - - , . . . . . . Free.
exeeeding 8 cents per p o u n d . . . . . . . . 4 cents per pound, and
ad valorem 40 per ct.
Cloth, milled and fulled, kriown by the narnc
of plain, kerseys, and Keridall cottons, of
which wool shall be, the pnly material, the
value whereof shall, not exceed 35 cents per
Square yard, i
. - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Ad valorem 5 per cent,
do. 10
do.
Worsted stuff*,, of. silk arid w o r s t e d . . . . . . . . . .
. do. 10
do.
Shawls, of silk and w o r s t e d . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
do.. 10
do.
Manufactures of other of silk and w o r s t e d . . . .
do.. 20
do.
Yarn, w o r s t e d . . . . .
'... - . . . - - - - . . . . . . . . >
woolen . . . . . .
......-. 4 cents per pound, and
ad valorern 50 per ct.
Mits.
\ .
. - - . - • - - - - . . . - . . . . . . . Ad. valor ern 25 per cent,
do.
do.
Gloves
w
...---.. ^ . . - - . - - do.
do.
Bindings - .
- . - . - . . . . - . - - . — ......---.
. , do. ;
do.
Blankets:.
-..-.---.. 1 ---...-.......
do,
do.
Hosiery.,.
,.
•-.-..
do.
. do.
Carpets and carpeting, except those, specified.
63 cents per sq. yard.
•Brussels. - ...
'-. ^ do.'
do.
Wilton.--.,..,.,...
do.
do.
treble i n g r a i r i . . . . . . . .
do.
ingrained,, all o t h e r . . . 35 do.
do.
do.
Venitian
Blankets, the value whereof at the place whence
exported shall not exceed 75 cents e a c h . . . . Ad valorem 5 per cent.
Flannels . . . .
.
. . . . 1 . . . . . . . . — . . . , 16 cents per sq. yard.
do. '
do. . ,
Bockings. — ^ . i
-........-.'.......
do.
do.
Baizes. - . . . . . . . . . . . - - - - - . . . . . . , . . . Laces,, c o a c h . . . . . ^ . . . . . . , . . . . . : . . . . . . . . Ad valorem 35 per cent,
do. 50 do.
Shawls, merino, made o f ' w o o l . . . . . . . . . . . . Wool, air other, manufactures of- - - - - - - - - - - do: 50 do..
do. 50 do.
Ready-made clothing.
-•.....------....
do; 25 do.
(a) Cotton, manufactures o f . . . . . . . ......
do. 25 do.
(b) twist, yarri, and thread
do. 20 do.
Nankeens,, imported from China.
43 cents per sq. yard.
Floor cloths, stamped. - .
-\.. -'.
do.
do.
printed, or p a i n t e d . - - - . . . - - . - .
do. ;
Cloths, oil, of all kinds not s p e c i f i e d . . . . . . . . 12^ do..
Matting, fioorj of .flags. 1
. . . . . . . Ad valorem 5 per cent.



118

R E P O R T S OF T H E

[1845.

E—Gontinued.
Articles enumerated.

Rates of duty.

Matting, floor, of other m a t e r i a l s . . . . .
. . Ad valorem 5 per cent.
Iron, in bars and bolts, not manufactured in
whole or in part by r o l l i n g . . . - - - . . . . 90 cents per 112pounds.
bar and bolt, rnade wholly or in part by
rolling
.-;...--. .;-->-. - . . . $30 per ton.
50 centsper 112pounds.
vessels of cast, not ptherwise specified..
1J cent per pourid.
castings of, all Pther,
do.".
. . . •.- 1
do.
wire, not exceeding No. 1 4 . . ' .
.. 5 cerits do.
exceeding No. 1 4 . .
.. . . . . . . . . . ' 9
do.
of steel, riot eij^ceeding No. 1 4 . . . . . ' 5
do.
exceeding No. 1 4 . . . . . •... - 9
do,
silver... i - - . . - . . ^ . : . . Ad valorem 5 per eent.
plated . . . - - - ^ . . i . . . - . - ^ - - . - . . .
do.
do.
cap, covered .with silk, cotton, flax,
or t h r e a d - - ^ - - ; . . . - - . . i . . . . . - 12 cents per pound.
bonnet '
do.
. do..^-.
' do.
do.
round, or braziers' rods, of 3-16 to 8-16
of an inch in diameter. ^. -.; ....
do^
do.
nail rods.--,. .^:
^-..;-do.
do.
spike rods. - . : . . . ^ - - - . - - - - . . - . i
do.
do.
do.
nail plates, slit, rolled, or h a m m e r e d . . . .
do.
do.
do.
. sheet
.-; .. - - - - i- - ^ - - --- - ^- -.
do.
do.
hoop . . . . . . . - -. -.....-.--do.
do.
band, slit, rolled, or hammered- . . - . - . do.
do.
casement r o d s . . . 1 . .
^.. ^.. i
... .
dp.
do.
Spikes. 1 . . . . . .
V . ..^L......... ..:
do.
do.
Nails, cut
--.. — . . - . - . . .
do.
do.
wrought.-— -...^-.....-..
Tacks, not exceeding 16. oz. to the M , . - . . - . 5 eents per thousand.
Brads,
, - do.
do.
dp
do.
do.
Sprigs,
do.
; dp.
do.........
do.
- • do.
Tacks, exeeeding 16 :oz, to the M. .
..;... 5 cents^ per pound.
Brads,
do.
dp,
do
—
do.
- do.
do. "
dp.
Sprigs,
do.
do.'
do....
i....
Wire, squareV used for the. manufacture of
stretchers for umbrellas . . . . = , - . • . , . . . . . . . . . Ad valorem 12 per eent.
3 cents per pound.
Anchors, and all parts; thereof..
;.-....-.do.
do.
4 do.
do.
Mill cranks, of-wrought i r o n . . . . ....
do.
dp.
irons,
d o . . , . . . ; . - - . . . - . .^ . . . . . . .
'
^ saws,
do. - - t - - . . . . . ; . . . . . - . $1 each
Blacksmiths' hammers and sledges-.. . ' . . . . . - 2 i cents.per pound.
Muskets - .
. : . . . - - . "-i - . -.
- - - - . $1 50 per stand.
Rifles
J.i . . . . . . . .
.-.--. - . . $2 50 each.



'.

.

,

"i

.

1845.]

SECRETARY OF T H E TREASURY.

119

Er—Continued.
Articles enumerated.

Rates of duty.

Arrns,.fixe............
. -.
Axes
.. --;,
- -.'
xiLQ.zes . - - • . , . . . . . - . - - - . . . . . . . . . . . . ' . . . . . . . .
Hatchets
^,. . Drawing knives - , - - - - ^
i
Cutting knives
•...., -......;—..-,...Sickles . - - - - . - . .
..^ -.
.
Reaping hooks . ^ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . -,.... - - - . - .
Scythes . : . . . . . , . , . . . , . ..L.. — . — . . — . . — .
Spades . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..,..,...Shovels . . . . - . . . . - , - - - ^ - - -.r
Squares, of iron . -,., - . . , . . . . . — . . , .
....
' '
steel - . . - - -.-.-.
Saddlery, plated
........... - . . . . . . . . .
brass...-.-...-.-.-......-......
pohshed s t e e l . . . . . ^ . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Furniture, coach, of all descriptions - - -. ^..... -..
harness,
do..
Steelyards ..,-.-.,...
.—
Scale beams
- .............................
Socket chisels . - - . . . - - - -'
-.......
Vices.....:.,...........-.,. . ^ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ,
Screws of iron, called wood-screws
•.,.
Saddlery,^ cornrnon . , . - . .
..,,.- - . , . . .
tinned . . . . . . . ' . - . . . . ^ . . . . — . - > ,.
japarined
—
Steel..... . . ^ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . — . . . . - . . . . . . . . , . . . . . ' . .
Wares, j a p a n n e d : ; . . , . . . . . . .
plated .,.:,..-.....
Brass, manufactures of, not specified
.Iron,
dOi
do.
.'........
Steel,..
do.
.
do.
...---Pewter,
do.
-do.
Tin,
.do.
do.
'.
Iron, scrap
^ — :>.
..
• old
..;...... ......fi
Hemp,,.manufactured....
..— - - - . - - - . . - .
Duck, sail:
—
Cotton b a g g i n g . . . , . L
Felts,. or.ha.t bodies, wholly or in part of wool
Silk, manufactures of, beyond the Cape of
Good Hope.
—
all o t h e r - . - - - . - . : . ' . . . . .
Sewing silk
,
Sugarf brown
•—.'.
'..

Ad valprem 30 per ct.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.,
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.:
do.
dp.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do10 do.
do.
do,
do.
do.
$1 50 per 112 pounds.
Ad valorem 25 per ct.
do.
dp.
do.
do.
do.
do. .
do.
- do.
•
do.
do.
.
do.
do.
$12 50 per ton.
do.per tpn.
Ad valorem 15 per ct,
3 J cents per square yd.
1.8-cents each.




Ad valorem lO'.per ct.
do.
5 do.
do.
40 do.
2 | cents per pound.

[1845.

R E P O R T S OF T H E

120

E-—Continued.
Articles en,

Sugar, syrup of cane, in casks . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Sugar, white, c l a y e d : . : - - . . . . . - - - . . . . : . . . . .
Salt..-.....--...:.;---.
---.-..---:
Lead, old
-i - . . . . ' . . — : - - - - - . . . . ' .
scrap.-- - — . j - . . . . — - - . - - . . . - . . . .
Teas, of all kinds^ imported from places this side
of the Cape of Good. Hope, or in vessels
other than those of theUnited States:..
Slates - .
....----.----...........
Glass, window, not above 8 by 10 i n c h e s . . . .
10 by 12 inches-:...
abovie 10 by 12 inches . . . - , .
in plates uncut . . . . . . . . . . . .
Vials and bottles, perfumery, not exceeding,4
oz. each :
.:
exceeding 4 oz. and not excieeding 16 oz.
fancy, not exceeding 4 oz.
each
.
:...-...'.
exceeding 4 oz. and not exceeding 16 oz. . - . - - - . . . Glass, wares of, cut,, not specified . : . - . . . . . .
black bottles, not exceeding 1 quart, i :
\. exceeding 1 quart . . . . .
demijohns . . . . . . . : . . . . . . . . . . . . : . . .
all other articles, not specified . . . . . . .
Paper hangings
...--.
Hats, of Leghorn . i
..
...
......
straw. . .
fi....
. fi.. I . . . . . . . . .
chip . . . . . ; . . . . - . . . . . :
grass . . . . . . . . ^ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Bonnets, of Leghorir
straw. i
................
chip . J
......::.. ^.:...
grass .'>... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Flat braids, for making hats or bonnets..'.
Plaits,
;
do.
do.
;
...
Whalebone, the product of foreign fishing . . .
Silk, r a w . .
..---Furs, dressed . . , . . ; . . . . . . . .
.'..
Boards
i.
.......:.........
Planks........... J
Walking canes . . . J'



Rates of duty.

erated.

3J cents per pound.
3^
do.
10 cents per 56 lbs.
; 2 cents per pound,
do.
do.
.10
Ad
$3
$3
$4
$4

cents per pourid.
valorem 25' per ct.
00 per 100 sq. feet
50
do.
00
do.
00
do.

$2 50 per gross.
$3 25

do.

$2 50

do.

$3 25
do.
3 cents per pound, and
ad valorem 30 per ct.
•'$2 00 per gross.
$2 50
do.
25 cents each.
2 cents per pound, and
, ad.valorem 20 per ct.
Ad valorem 40 per ct.
do.
30 do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
- do.
do.
12i 'do.
do.
do.
do.
. do.
do.
25 do.
do.
do.
do.
do.

1845.]

S E C R E T A R Y OF T H E TREASURY.

121

E—Continued.
Articles enumerated.

Walking sticks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Frames for umbrellas and parasols . . . . . .
Sticks, for umbrellas and p a r a s o l s . . . . . . . .
Wood, manufactures of, not specified.^....
Copper, vessels . . . . : . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ' . .
Copper, rnanufactures of, not specified . - -.
Hemp,
do.
do. - . - - - . - . . .
Flax,
-. do.
do. . - _ - - . . . - ,
Fans .
...........................
Artificial flowers . . .
. . . . . . -- ----..-.
Ornamental feathers ^ -.
Ornaments for head-dresses
--........
Caps for w o m e n . .
...-..--.
Millinery of all k i n d s . . . . . - . . - - . ,
-.
Comfits, preserved in sugar or brandy . - -,
Sweetmeats, do.*
- do. - - - - • - . . . - ' .
Umbrellas . . . - - . . . . . . . . . . . . . - -.
Parasols
---. :.
Parchrrient... - . Vellum - . . - - - - - - - . . -,
Wafers
Black lead p e n c i l s . . . . .
Brushes, of all k i n d s . . .
Cabinet wares
. . . -.
Hats, o f i f u r . . . . . - l e a t h e r . . . . .K.
wool
Caps, of fur
'-...---.......
leather
wool"
-1 --^^.
Leather, w h i p s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. bridles. L . . -..-.. saddles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
all manufactures o f . . . . . . .
Carriages, and parts thereof..----.
Boots '-•----. J;.
J ..
Bootees.
....
....
Shoes of leather--... ^.....
prunella, stuff", or nankeen.
Shppers, do.
do.
- do. . . .
Ware, porcelain...
^
-:
China
.:.'
.-.
stone
-...
.
.....
earthen
-....
Musical instruments.
./..----..



Rates of duty.

Ad valorem 25 pr. cent.
dp.
do.
do.
- do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do,
do.
do.
, do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
;
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.^
do.
do. '
do.
do.
do.
dp..
do.
do.
dp.
dp.
^ . do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do. ' 30 do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.'
do. ^
do.
do.
_ do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
' dp.
do.
do.
do.
' do.
do.
do.
do,
$ 1 50-per pair.
do.
25,cents per pair,
do.
do.
Ad valorem. 20 pr. cent.
dp.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
,30 do.

122

R E P O R T S OF T H E

[1845

E—Continued.
Articles enumerated.

Rates of duty.

Marble, manufactures of, -.... -, -..,., -.-... . ^ . . . . . . .
Olive oil, in casks...
....,-_-...-..-,-,-.-,-..,,...'
Wines of France, red, in cas.ks ..-.-....'..........
white, in,casks.....,.,-^ ^-'.
^ of all sorts., in bpttles ----,-.
Until 3d. March, 1834; after that,.pne. half
of those ratea respectively..
'•
Wines,, of Germany, in ca:sks,.,- -.-. -.,.-:.^.....:..
Spain,
do;-.-.. .^^,-,-.-.^....-...^.
Mediterranean, in casks......... .^........
. .^
(uEiless specially enumerated.)
red, pf Spain, when not impprted in bottles..
of all countries,, when imported in bottles or
cases, unless specially eriurnerated.....
of Sicily, whether impprted in bottleSj
cases, or casks
. -,,.....-.-._...,........
all, not enumerated'.........,. . ^ . . . . . ^ . . . . - .
Sherry, in bottles, cases, pr casks
Madeira,
dp.
dp. - - -,...
Barley
^..-.
Baskets, grass .... ^..
straw . . . . . .
Composition b e a d s . . .
Wax
do..
Amber
do, -.
. .^._..._._.^._.^._....^...
AU other
do.., not enurnerated.. -, -. -.Lampblack
Indigo .^,
Liriens, bleached..
unbleached
. -,.^-,. - . , . ^ - . . . . . , . . . . .
Boxes, shell
....,.,-.,_ .-,-.-^-I-,.^.....
paper
, , . . . . . ^,;.^.-^..,,.^... .^.^,
.Hair bracelets . . „ - % - : . . . . , . . . . . . _ . . „ . . . . . . . . . .
not made up for head-dresses^...^-.. .U.^.,
Bricks...
. . . . ..^.... .^^,,.„.^-.-...-......,.
Tiles, paving . . . . . . . . . . . . .^.....^..,._._. . ^ . . . . . .
Brooms of hair, ^
....^.^.^-.,.-,-„....-.-.. .
palm leaf. ..*.::..^..._._.....^........,.
Cashmere of Thibet
,. -....,..,...:...,.,.
Down of all kinds
'---,.,... - - - -. -,-, -,,. - -.
„
Feathers for beds.; ^ . . . . . . . . . . . . . , . , , , . , . , , . . . . .
Articles, all not herein specified either as free
or as liable to a differerit duty, and which,
by tliC;existing laws, pay ari ad valorern duty
higher than 15 per cent. .........^..,.._.,.._,..

Ad valorena 20 pr. cent.
go cents per gallon.
do. •
6
do.
10
22 ... do.




/

do.
do.
do.

7*

H

n

do.
15

do.

15
15
25
25'

do.
do.
do.
do.

Ad valorem 15 pr. cent
do.
. do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do. .
do. '
do. - . d o . •
do..
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
..do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.

dOi.

dp,

J

f

1845.]

123

S E C R E T A R Y OF T H E TREASURY.
E-r-.Continued.
Articles enuitnerated.

.Rates of duty.

Yarn
-----Cordage, t a r r e d . . . . . . . . ^
--.._,,.,..,
uritarred- - .
'............
...^^..
Ticklenburgs
....
...
.
....
Osnaburgs
-.
,,,,
Burlaps-.
--.--.--.-,.._,-„
Potash, bichromate . . . . . . . . . . . ^ . . . . . . . . . .
prussiate o f . . . , ^ - - . - -. ^ , . . . . ^ , , , ,
chromate
. 1 . . ^ .^..
iNitrate of lead
. . . . - - -,-...,,.............
Aquafortis .
-. ^ . : . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Tartaric acid
.---.,-.
- ^«r -^
Tartaric emetic . . . . . . . . . . .
.,...,..-.
Salts, Rochelle
......
..-,..,,
Sulphate of quinine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .^,
Calomel
.
. . . . . ^ . . . . .....^'.,
Corrosive s u b h m a t e . . . . . . . . . . . . ^
,...,.
Sulphate of magnesia
,
,..,.,,,.
Salts, glauber
.
-...,,...,,...
Alum . . . . - - .-...-.-,...,.,.,
Copperas
...
...
Manganese
,;
Acid, muriatic
.-.........
sulphuric
Saltpetre, refined . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . , . .
Blue vitriol...
,
...........^
Carbonate of soda .,
..---..--..
Lead,red . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
..,.,
white
.'..........
Litharge . . . . . . . . .
- - -.
Lead, sugar of
i
Combs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ^ . . . . . . .
In addition to articles exempted from duty b.y
the existing laws, (see previous acts,), the
following are added, viz:
,.
. .
Teas, of all kinds, imported from China,, or
other .places east of the Cape.of Good Ho.p^.,
' and in vessels of the United States
...
Cbffee
......
Cocoa
,
..
........
Almonds
Currants
Prunes
,
....
....
.
rigs.-"v:'....
.Raisins in jars or cases.
"...

5 cerits per pound.
..4:
do.
.5,
.dp.:
Ad valprem 15 pr. cent..
do.
do.
do.
do.
12^ do,
do,
do.
dp.
do.
do.
do.
do..
do.
dp.
do.
. dp/
15 do.
do.
do.
do..
do.
. do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
. 4 cents per pound.
2
do,
$2 50 per cwt, $2. 00 . do.
Ad valoreni 12 J pr. ct.
do.
do,
. 3 cents per pound.
.3
.. do.
4
do.
Advalorern, 15 pr. et.
5 cents, per pound.
.5
do...




-5

:

do.

• ^

d.
dp.. ^
Ad yalorem. I S pr. ct.

Free.
do.
. do,:
do.
do.
do.
. do,
do.

R E P O R T S OF T H E

124

[1845.

E—Continued.

\
Rates of duty.

Articles enumerated.

Raisins, a,ll o t h e r . . . . . - . ; . . - . .
Pep]3er, black- - ..
...
Ginger . . - -•
Mace
- -. - . -'.--Nutmegs
.,
Cinnamon.
...:.
Cassia - . ^,
-...
Cloves
--Pimento . . . . .
.........
Camphor
---...Saltpetre, crude - - - - - - Flax, unmanufactiiredl - - . . . .
Quicksilver .
..
......
Opium...
Quills, unprepared
Tin, in plates and sheets .
Marble, unmanufactured
Argol
-.-...
Gum A r a b i c - . - - - - . - - . . : . . .
Gum Senegal.
Gold e p a u l e t s . . . . , . . . . . . .
Silver . do
Lac dye . . ----•
Madder.. . . . . . . -^-.. . .
Madder root
-..;..Nuts, used in dyeing..
-.
Berries, do..
Saffron . .
.-....
Tumeric.. - Woad, or p a s t e l . . . . . . . . . . . .
Aloes.
.................
Ambergris . . . . . . . . : . . i . . .
Burgundy pitch
^....
Peruvian, bark ... .^
Cochineal..
............
Capers .
Chamomile
flowers
..•.
Coriander s e e d . . . . . . .
Cantharides . . ..
Castanas
...-"..
Catsup
.,.-.-...
Chalk..
Cocculus indicus . . . . . . " . . . . .
Coral.. - •
Dates -.
.-----..



Free.
do.,
:do.
do.
do.
do.,
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.:
do.
: do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
-do.
do.
do.
do.
do,
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.

1845.]

SECRETARY OF T H E TREASURY.
E-—Continued.
Rates of duty.

Articles enumerated*

Filberts....-.--.--.--...Filtering stpnes:..-..
...
Frankincense .
...
..
Grapes
- -..
Gamboge
.
.:
Hemlock
-. , . . . . . - . . . .
Henbarie..
-o...... - -,,
Horn plates for lanterns.. - Ox horns
.—..... —
Horns and tips, and others .
India rubber
....,•
.
Ipecacuanha
Ivory,manufactured.'.......
Juniper berries..,..".
Musk..............
Nuts of all kinds..-->Ohves
..--..-.
Oil of juniper..
. . . . -.,,
Paintings.......-.Drawings . - . .
..
-..
Ratans, unmanufactured
Reeds,
do. .
>
,..
Rhubarb
- - - . . -,
Rottenstone
Tamarinds
.^
Tortoise shell.'.. . ^ . . . . . . .
Till
foil-.
^....:....:
Shellac - - - . - . , - - - - - - . . . .
Sponges..
-. - - . . . -. Sago - - - - - -,,
Lenlons.
Limes
---.-.-..-.-..
Pineapples . - - - - . - . - - . . . CPcoanuts .1
.
Shells
--------Iris, or orris root. - - - . . . . . .
Arrow root - .
---.,..
Bole ammoniac. i - Colombo r o o t - . - . - - . - . . - .
Annattp- -.^.......
Aniseed.
.-..-.
Oil of aniseed
. -.
..
cloves-.,.,.—...
Cummin seed.. . , ^ - . . . . . . .
SarsapariUa:- - -,o . . „ . „ , . . ,



Free.
do.
do..
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
..do.
do.
do..
do.
do.
dp,
do.
do.
. do.
do.
do.
: do.
do.
dp.
dp.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
dp.
. do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do..
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.

125

R E P O R T S OF T H E

126

[1845.

,E-.^Continued.
Articles enumerated.

Balsam .tolu
-... -.-.--.
.........
Assafoetida - . . . . . . . . . - . . . . . . - . . - - .
— .
Ava root
.............:
.....
Alcornoqui.-...- . ^ ' . . . i . . . . , . .
.'
,.
Canella alba..
-^.........'
....
Cascarilla*'
- - - -...---- Harlaem oil
-,;. - - . . . . ..;•-..
.........
Manna and Senna . .
..L..
- -..
Tapioca..'...
..
.. - -- ^
Vanilla beans
.Oil. of almonds
.
-......
Nux vomica
............ Amber.
.......--..,--.
Platina
..--.....
Busts of marble, .metal, or plaster
Casts of bronze, or of plaster. 1
........
Strings of musical instruments... - .
.....
Flints. - . .
- -.. - . ,
Kelp
Kermes
•.
.. -. Pins
...:.......
Needles
....-....'
--..-.....----Mother-of-pearl... .•
.•-.--.
.
Hair unmanufactured
..
Hair pencils
----Brazil paste....
..
-Tartar, crude . - - - . . . . - . . . . . . Vegetables, such as are used in dyeing and iri
composing d y e s . . . - . 1..'
..
Weld:...................----Articles used principally for d y e i n g . . . . . . . . . .
Drugs, medicinal, all. other.
.,.
All articles not enumerated in this act rior the
existing laws, and which are Hable.to an ad.
. valorem duty of 15 per.cent." . . . . . . . . .
•..
V ./:
. NOTES.- - . ,. .
' - . • • >
(a) 1832, July 14.—*' That all manufactures of cotton, or of which cotton shall'b^ a coniponent part, not dyed, colored, priiited, or stained, not .exceeding in value 30 cents the square yard,
shall be valued at,30 cents the square yard; and if dyed, colored, printec^, or stained, in whole
or in part, not exceeding,in value 35 cents the square yard, sliall be valued'at 35 cents, per
square yard."
...„
.
, ,
.
(b)-1824:, May 22.—*'Apd, that all unbleached and uncolored cotton "twist, yarn, or thread,
the original cost of which shall be less than 60 cents per pound, shall be deerried and taken to.
have cost 60 cents per pound, and shall be charged with duty accordingly; and all bleached or
colored cotton yarn, twist, or thread, the original cost of which shall be less than 75-cents per
pound, shall be deemed and taken to have cost 7'5 cents per pound, and shall be charged with
duty accordingly."
fi-:



1845.]

S E C R E T A R Y OF T H E TREASURY.

127

E-^Contihued.
1833,

MARCH 2.

To explain and arnerid act ofi July 14, 1832, so fiar as relates to hardware^
copper, ^c.
'
Articles eriumerated.

Rates of duty.

Ad valorem 25 per cent,
Copper bottoms, cut round
C
do.
do.
cut rourid to the edge -^-... do. ,
do._
Still bottoms, cut round
- . -.
..
.
do.
•
do.
turned up on e d g e . - . - . . - - .
Copper plates weighing more thari 34 ounces
per square foot, commonly called brazier's
do.
dd.
, copper
do.
do.
Copper sheets,
do.
do.
do.
do.
Tobaccp leaves, unmanufactured
...... do. . 12 J do.

1841,

SEPTEMBER 11.

Relating to duties and drawbaclcs.
'

Articles enumerated.

Rates of duty.

Cloth, milled arid fulled, known by the name
of plains, kerseys, and- Kendall cottons,.of
which wool shall be the only material, the
value whereof shall not exceed 35 cents persquare y a r d . . - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Ad valorem 20 per cent
Worsted stuff*; of silk and worsted.. - . . . . . . . .
do. .
do.
Shawls,
. do.
do.
do.
Manufactures of other, do.
.
.
do.
do.
Blankets, the value whereof at the place whence
exported shall riot exceed 75 cents each..
do.
... do;
-Matting, floor, of
flags.............
.,
....'.
do.
do.
of other materials-. - -- .- -.....do.
do.
Wire, of silver.
..,
^--.
.
do.
do.
plated u
- . . . . . . . . . - -..;..........
do. , . . do.
square, used for the manufacture of
stretchers, for urribrellas.,,-.
do.
do.
Saddlery, common
, ..•. -.--.-.-..
.-.
do.
do.
tinned . •. . . . 1. -:--.........
do.
do.
japanned . . . . : . . . . . ^ ^ .........
......
do.
do.
Duck, sail
. . , , . . ....-•. , .
......
do. •
do.



[1845.

R E P O R T S OF T H E

128

E—Continued.
Articles enumerated.

Rates of,duty.

Silk, manufactures, beyond Cape of Good
Ad valorem 20 per cent,
Hope, all other...
do.
do.
r a w . . . . r. do.
do.
Furs, dressed
• do.
do.
Barley
do.
do.
Baskets of g r a s s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . i ! . . . .
.
do.
do.
.^
straw . . . . . . . . . . .1
/.
do.
do.
'
Composition beads
.'.'.....-. -..,....
do.
do.
Wax
' do. . . . . . - - . - - - . - - - 1 . . - , , . .
do.
do.
Amber
- dp. - . ,
do.
do.
.
All other
do. not e n u m e r a t e d . . . . . . .
do.
do. -'
Lanipblack............'..........'.. 1.... do.
^ do.
Linens, bleached . . . - : . .
do.
do.
unbleached
...-----..
-- do.
do.
Boxes, shell
"
do.
do.
paper . . . - do.
do.
Hair bracelets
-...
.
do. ^
do.
,not made up for head-dresses
...
do.
Bricks
................
do.
do.
Tiles, paving..
.
...--.....
do.
Brooms, of hair - - - - - - - - - - - ...
do.
do.
. palm leaf. - - . - - - - . . . . , . . . ,
do.
do.
Cashmere, of Thibet. — . - - - - - . . . . . . .
do.
do.
Down, of all kirids.. - . - . . .
^ do.
do.
Feathers for beds. -,. ...•.-.--do.
do.
Ticklenburgs..........
. . . ^ . . . . . . . . -" - .
do.
do.
Burlaps.
-.....----- — .........
do.
do. ^
O.snaburgs.
- -.- do.
do.
' Articles, all, not specified either as fi'eeor as
liable to a different duty, and which, by the
existing laws previous.to July 14, 1832, pay
an ad valorem duty higher than 15 per cent-.
do.
do.
Acid, muriatic
-.- .^-;
do.
12fdo.
sulphuric, or oil of v i t r i o l . . . . . . . ' . . . . . 3 cents per pound.
Alum...fi.'
. . - . - - - - . . . . $2 5.0 per cwt.
Acid, tartaric . . - . . — . . . . . - ,
.^
, Ad valorem 12J pr. ct.
Aquafortis......'- - . . . -.
.....
do.
do.
Blue v i t r i o l . . . . ; . . . . . . . . - .
...... 4 cents per pourid.
Calomel
.....
. . . . . . . Ad valprem 15 per cent.
Carbonate of soda
... --.........
do. ,
do.
CoiTOsive sublirnate..
..
. -......
dp.
do.
. Combs
:
..........
do. ,
do.
Copperas
- $2 per cwt.
Indigo - - ............. Ad valorem 15 per cent.
Nitrate of lead
,,..•....,..
. . do.. . 12^ do.



1845.]

S E C R E T A R Y OF T H E TREASURY.

129

E-—Continued.
Articles enumerated.

Lead, red, d r y . . . . . . . . . white,.dry..............'
red,- grpund in oil
. white, ground in oil. 1
sugar o f . . . .
. . . . . - -.
Manganese . .
.....
Sulphate of magnesia
..
-,
Potash, bichrorhate . - . chromate -. •.
-..
. ^ prussiate . . . . . . . . .
..
. Salts, glauber
.•......•
..
Rochelle...-...-"
.'. . .
Sulphate pf quinine.. _.;:
.,.
Saltpetre, ' r e f i n e d . . . : . . . . - . , 1 . . ,
Cocoa . . . . . . . • - , . V l .
.....
Almonds. - .......
.•:
Currants . . .
.. . ' - • . . . . . . . . . . .
Prunes
..,.,...:
Figs_.:.^...—................
Raisins, in jars or b o x e s . . . .
all others
.........-.,
Pepper, black........ ^ . . . . . . . . .„..
Ginger
. . . . . . . . . .„
Mace...
.......
Nutmegs
,...........;
..
Cinnamori
'...;.
Cassia'1
_.........",......
Cloves
,....
Pimento, .J
:........
,
Camphor
...
Quills, prepared
.-.......-....,
Tin, in ^plates
.'.•...--:.
.,
. sheets
......."...
..
Maxble, urimanufactured..---.-.
Capers
------ -.....-•Coral. - . . . . . . . . . . 1 . - . . - -... -...
Dates
-....-.-,
.
F i l b e r t s . - . . . . . . . . .^.,..........;
Filtering-'stones
; .....
Frankincense
.-....-,
Grapes —
---....,
Nuts of all kinds ..;
.
. •..•,
Olives
-----Tinfofl-^
-..
....:...
Lemons.
-.....•..«...,
«...
VOL. V,—9.




Hates of duty.

,5 cents per pound. .
do.
do.
do. .
do.
Ad valorem 12 J per cent.i
4. cents per pound.
Ad valprem 12^ per cent.
. d o . . . . do.
• do.
.
do.
2 cents per pound.
Ad valorem 15 per cent.
, . do..
. do.
3 cents per pound. '
Ad valorem 20 per ceht.

do.:.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do. •

do.
do.
, do/
; do.
.do.
do.
•do.

do.
do. . • d o .
do.
do.
do,..
- do.
do.. . . . d o .
do. .
-.do.
do.
do;
do. .
do.
do.
do.
do..
- do.
do.. .
do.
do. ...
do.
do. . do.
-do. . , . do.
do;,
do.
do. .
do.
do. .
do.
do.
do.
. d o . . • • do.'
do.
do.
do.
do.
do..
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.

R E P O R T S OF T H E

130

'

E^—Continued."
Rates of duty.

• Articles enumerated.

Limes'1 ...::^ . . : .•...>.'.•...-....',....[
.....-.
Pineapples . . . . . . . . \
v.-:...........'...-.
Cocoanuts
.. "
-.'
.... . . - . . • . . : . ' . . . Shells.,.. •,....-•-.- - . . . . - . . . . . ; - . . . . . : . : . . ' . : .
Oilof c l o v e s . . . . . . . . . :
, . ' . . . . > . . . . - . -'- Strings for musical iristruments- .*-.- - - - - • _ - . .
P i n s . . . * .

- . • • . . : • . -. j > . . . . .

.^i...:. ..•••:.•..•.

Brazil paste . I . - . - . . : . . . . . . . . Rosewood.......'-.'..... .i
Satin wood*.. , * . . . 1 . . . . . . . . . - .
Mahogany....-. -:.. - - - - - . . . ' .

-

•

........
. , . . - . -.....
.. , . - - . . . . . .
--.

Tea-'..".....:.;: • . - . . . ' : . : . - . . . . . . . . . . ' : . . . . ' . . - . .

C o f f e e . : . . . . _ : . . . . " - , . . . . . . . . , . . . : . ! . . . . .^
Paintings, the production of American artists
. abroad. - , - . : - • . - . :^ . . . . - • . . . . . . . . . •
-.•.
Statuary,
do. '
-do.
;. d o . . . - .
All articles importedfor the useof United States
The- follpwing articles, when specifically irnp o r t e d b y order and for the.use of any society, &Ci, Or for the use of any college,
academy, &c., in the United States:-—
Philosophical apparatus . . . . - - - - . .
.,..
Instruments
.
..............
Books . . - /.
..
.
Maps.-- - - . . . . . .-•. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - -...
Charts.. - - J
- -.
- -.................
Statues . '----. -. .\.'..
....:....
Busts of marble..
.....'
. . ' . . ..-_-bronze -...- - . . . . . . . . . . . , . . . . . _
/alabaster . ------ — - - -. .
plaster of Paris..-.
,-.-.C a s t s . . . -•.
... - - - .
.
- , -.
Paintings , - - .........................,
Drawings
..->.-- --- .1
Engravings.
--.-•- - . - -.
,,
.-.
Specimens of sculpture
:,:.
...
Cabinets of coins. . . . . . . .
.........
gema..----.
......
•....-..
medals,^
-.
Collections, all, of antiquity- - . . . 1 . .
.-.,
Statuary, collections of.
. - -.,.
...
Modelling,
do- - ....
Painting,
do
......
.....
Drawing,
do. ..,...-..... .„...
EtchiAg,
do..
......
....



[1845.

Ld.valore m20per(
• do.
do..

do.

-do.
. do.
do.
do.
do. ..
do.
do. .
do*
do.
do.
do.
. do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
Free,
do.
do. .
do.
do. .
•.do.

dp.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.^
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.

i845.]

. S E C R E T A R Y O F T H E TREASURY.
,
E-^—Continued*
Articles enumerated.

Rates of duty.

Engraving, c o l l e c t i o n s ' o f . . . . . > . , , . . ' ^ . . . . . . . .
Natural history, specimerisin ... - . 1 -.-.- - . . - ,
Mineralogy, specimens in. ->-.-.>.-.,- .........
Botany,
do.
..:
...-.. - . - - , . - . .
Anatomical preparations...... - . . . . . ...
Models of machinery.
: - -.. - . - . . -. - - -. - . . . . . .
inventioris ............... I . . . . . . .
Plants.... -

. ..;.-^.-—.--U ..•^.......;'--.:

•..

Trees-'.
..:..........'.........
Apparel, wearing, iri actual* use. - . . . . -:
"
Baggage, personal^ .
do. . . . . - , - . - , -:.,..'..
Implements- of trade of persons arriving in" the
' United States . - - , , . - . - . - . ^ ^ . - , > . . . ' . . . . .
Tools of trade . db.
do. - - d o —
Aritimony, crude - , . , - - . . , . . - . . , L..:...— .
regulus of---..-:..-,--,.'..-....;.-Ariimals imported for breed ...,.-......
Argol, - - -L1 - - -...-•-'................. ^
.
Araliic gum . ,
fi,;.. - , . - , - -.,-.........
Aloes^-- -..- - -. — . - - -- ^.-.. ..w.-'-.-.-- .-....-,..
Ambergris
. - --,- - , . . . - ---,--.,.,..--.:.
Arnieniari bole . -..- /
- --.:
-— - - . .
Arrow root. - . - ...^''. — ....-.— --.--..,.--,.-- —
Annatto,-........ ^....
-:——-.
Aniseed - - - - - y.......
--.,.......,..-..,...-..
'

^oil o f . . . - . V . - j . ^ - - - - .

.—,-.-.,..

Amber . . . . . . . . . L - . . . . . . . . . --..-.,.- -.>.l,..-.-. - .
Assafoetida,•. -.- -^
•.., - -.
-- . . . . . .
Ava r o o t . . . . . . . . . . . i . . .
. . . . . . . / , . . , . , L..
Alcornoqui i
........,-...........—.....:... ^
Alba c a n e l l a . . ' . . . . . . . . . . . . .
....,...,....
Cork tree, bark of,.urimanufactured.......-.: ...
Burr stPnes, u n w r o u g h t . . . . . . : . . . . . . , . ..........
Brassy in pigs. - - . . . : - . . ' . -....-.,.....-.:.........
. old, fit orily to be rema.nufactured.. - Brimstone, or sulphur
: -.. -.."....
.... 1... • . . .
Barilla
.
.-..:.................^-..:.....:.
Brazilletto. - - - - - - , . 1..... .. -^.,-. ............
Boracic a c i d . . - . .,1 - - ...,.,....
.Burgundy pitch ........
—:.-.-.:„.--....,,„.,.,,..
Berries used fP'r dyeing............................
Smalts..............l:^
..,,......
, ..,.:-..
Lastings used in the: manufacture ..of buttons
and shoes
.. -.:
^.,...,.-,...,.,...........:....



Firee*
do.
do..
. .do.- =
do.
do.,
. do.
do.
do.
-do.
-.do..
do.
-do.
' do:..
do.
. vdo..,
dor:
- do.,
do. .
do.:
. do..
. do.
do.
: do. .
Ao.
- ^o.,
-do. .
do.
-do.
do.
do.do,.
doc
-do.
doi' do.
. da.
do. do.
- do.'
do.
do..
do.
Ao,

131

[1845:

R E P O R T S OF T H E

132

E—Continued.
.Articles enumerated.

Prunella used in the inanufacture of shoes.-,.
Vanilla beans
. . . . . . - -.- - - , . -. .- - .
Balsam tolu . . . . . . . . . .
.......
i....:.
Coins of gold
...,..
;.,;-...-,......---.-.-...
silver
...:
;.
....
. . -..,..,..
Bullion . . . . . . . : . . . : . - . - . . . . . . . : . —
..
Clay, unwrought....-'.....-....'...,........... .„.::..
Copper, in any shape, fbr the use ofthe Mint.
Copper in pigs
: . -..........,.......,....
plates..:...
.. ,..
-.,-....
plates or sheets, of which it is the material of chief value, suited .to the sheathing of ships.. - . -..' ...i —
: - - -.
old, fit only to be. remanufactured
Lapis calaminaris.-..>...
.
•-..-..-...,.
Cochineal. -.-.
. - . . . . . . ,....,-.......... J.
Chamomile flowers ..
.....
/
.,.
..-.
Coriander s e e d . . . - -- . . -.. -.
.,,
Catsup
- -,.-.-:..
-.-.,..-.
Cantharides - - . « — - -...--- - --.--.,......
Castanas.. --..--..-.......
....
Chalk . . - . ' - . . . . -,....•:
^ . . . .^....................
Cocculus indicus .
. .-.r.
.«,-..
.-.,..
Colombo r o o t . . - - . , - - — -.--.-.
Cummin-seed
-...>
,.Cascarilla
- - -. - , - -.-.-.--.-:-...
Cream of tartar. . . . . . . . . . . . . - . - , - - -.
.
Vegetables used principally in dyeing...:
..
Nuts, of all kinds,, do.
. . do.
•-.-.
Lac dye . . . . . .
.
-..
...
..-.
Emery
..- -- .-.'•.:.
Epaulets, of g o l d . . . . . . . . .
........
,-„..
silver,.....
...,.., - , •
Wings, of g o l d . . . - -•
..-..-.,.,
-...
silver..,-...
............. j.
Furs, undressed, of all kinds..,
-..\Flaxseed
L.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Linseed
.:.. - ..........
Flax, unmanufactured
Fustic
-....,.
^ ...,.
Ground
flint
..-•...
Grindstpnes . . ..Iv^ J-


„...
.....
.
..
^ , . i.'.. . w . . . ; : . .

Rate (!#duty.

Free.
do.
do.
. do.
do.
do..
do.
.do.
do.
do.do.
do.
do.
do.
do..
do.,
do.
do. .
do. ..
do.. ,
do.,
do. .
.do.,
do. .
•do.,

do. .
.do. .
:do..
.do. .
do. :
do.
. do...
.do...
do.
do.
do. :.
do...
do.do.
do. .
do.;.
do.
do.

1845.]

S E C R E T A R Y OF T H E TREASURY.
E-—Contiriued.
.,

''

Articles enumerated.

Hides, raw . . . . . .
. -..,-.
.
,..
H e m l o c k . . . . . . - -- - - . - -...
....
Henbane..... - - - . . . . . . - - . . - . .
- - - ..
Horn plates, for l a n t e r n s . . . — . . . . . . . . . . .
Ox horns.
.
Horris, other.,
,.
Oil, Harlaem.
.
Hartshorn. ,
Hair, unmanufactured. — . . . . . . . . — • • . . . .
Hair p e n c i l s . . . . . . . . . . . . .
..—...
Ipecacuanha.
...
Ivory, u r i m a n u f a c t u r e d . . , . . . ; . . . . - - - . . . .
Iris root
..
. • } . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ......
Juniper b e r r i e s . . . . - . ....
Oil ofjuniper
-•
Kelp-.-,---.....-...-,...--.
Kermes
.-.
,-..:.:..!.......
Madder
..
Madder root^.
..,...
......
Musk
-'j^...'.
-'-.....,
Manna
.-^.
-- -..
Marrow.
,
-,*-...... .
Soap, stocks
--'------.— .
stuffs
fi..:
. . . - --- - - - - -.
Palrn oil
------..-,..
Mohair . . .
..
-•....
.
Mother-of-pearr..
.
Needles
-..-....-.
Nux vomica
,
Orris r o o t . . . - - ........
Oil of almonds
Opium
".........
Palm leaf.
..:,
..........
Platina.....
,
Peruvian bark
.•
1......
Pewter, old, fit only to be remanufactured.
Plaster of P a r i s . . J
. -.
Quicksilver.....
...
...........
Rags of any kind of c l o t h . . . . .
India r u b b e r . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
.
--- Reeds, unmanufactured
-.. - - Rhubarb
---.Rottenstone
.
Elephants' teeth.
Animals, other, teeth of.



do,
-do,
. do.
- do.
db.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
.do;
do,
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.

133

REPORTS O F T H E

134

E-^Gontiriued.
-Articles eniimerated.

Polishing stones.--.-......:.-..—..

.....,.....:.....

Bristles

........].:..

..

:-..........:

Ratans, unrnanufactured.
....-..
.- -..
Skins,raw
-.......-,-.-_...,.
. . -,..
Skins, undressed . .>. . • . . . . - . . . . - - . - . . , . ' - - - - .
Spelter .
. . . . . - . fi . . . . . . .
.-,--,...
Saltpetre, c r u d e . . . . ^ . ,
.,.
....:..,,,...-.
Gum Senegal
•. ,•- - - -.'...
-^........
Saffion
...
^.:.....-:....,.
...:...
Shellac
--.,...... -•-..-•-'.. '...'...
Soda a s h . . .
- - . . . . . . . . . . . . . .•...-...-.-.-,.Sponges
-......-.-,-,- -..^^.....-.-•. -,-,Sarsaparilla
-"... i..;....
'.......,,-....,..
Senna. . . . . . . . . . .-^. i . . . . . . . . . . . . : . ^ . . . . .:
Sumac
J... -.-,,--- . ' . . . . '.^:...
Tapioca.... . — . . . . ) . .... .^:.... ^ . . . . . . . . . . .
Taniarinds . . . . . . . . . . . . ' .
..........-,......
Tartar, crude. — . . . .
. , . . . •.... • . . , , , , . . .
Tortoise s h e l l . . . - . . - . . . . . .
, . . . : . . , • . . . .^
.Turmeric ,
- , - . - - - . , ...,
. -.-..,,--,
Weld.-.-........-.-.-.,--..-,-:,-...:..
Woad, or p a s t e l . . . . . . . . . . . . ,
....,,.,,,
. Brazil wood
.•: ^ . . . . . . . . . . . : . . , . . . . , . . . . .
Nicaragua w o o d . . , . - . . .
, . . . . . - , -......
Red wpod
... .fi....,,.
. . . . -..- - - - . . ,
Camwood
.--...,
..'
-..;.',.-.
Logwood. - - _ . . . _.-,... - - , . - • , . - , . . - . . - , - - - Dye-woods of all kinds.-... - - -. .1, . . -,.., - - .
Woods, unrrianufactured, of any kind
....-.
Whale oil, of American f i s h e r i e s , , . . . . . . . . . . .
Other fish oil,
.
do. . . -• - - . . - . , , - , . . . . . .
Articles, other, produce of'American' fisheries
-Zinc
:,..-..:.. -........^-,.1..- Wool, unmanufactured, the value .whereof, atthe place of exportatipn, shall ribt exceed
eight cents per p p u n d . . . . . . , : . . . - • , : . . . . .




[1845.

1845.]

SECRETARYOFTHETREASURY.

135

E—Contiriued.
.

V

1842,'AUOUST 30.

'

'

,

".

To provide^ revenue.firom imports, and to change and modifiy existing laws
imposing dtities on inipoi'ts,.and fior other purposes.
.
Articles enunierated.

iElates of duty.

Wo.ol, coarse, costing 7 cents per ppund and
under
..;..,,....,, Ad valorem 5 per cent.
( Ad valorem 30 per ct.,
all other unmanufactured . . . . . . . . . . . .
( and 3 cents per pound.
rnanufactures of, except carpetings, &c. Ad valorem 40 per cent.
Carpets' and carpeting, W i l t o n , . , . . - . . . - . . . 65 cents per square yard,
do.'
Saxony . . - - . . . . . . . - 65
do.
treble ingrain ; ! , - ; . . , . Q5
do.
A u b u s s o n . . . . , . , , . . , 65
dp.
•,
•
Brussels . . ^ . . . . . . . . . 55
do.
T u r k e y . . . . . . . . . . . •. 55--'
do.
Venitian . . . . . . . . . . , , . 30
do.
. ;.
/
other i n g r a i n . . . . .^ ... 30
pf w : o o l . . . . . ; , . , . . . . Ad v^lQ^sm 30 per cent.
do.
do.
ofhernp.,.-.....:,.
do.
• do.
,
offiax;. .^^ . . . ' . . : . . . .
do.
•"
pf cottpri . . , . . . , . . . . .
do;
Blankets, riot exceeding 75 cents each , , , . . .
. do. 15 do.
. . do.. ,25 do.
all others
- . . . i.... - . . . . . . . . .
Worsted, all not s p e c i f i e d . . . . . , , , . . . . . . . , . . . . .
do. 30 do. ,
40 do.
do.
Hearth rugs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Yarn, woolen
----.............
do. 30 do..
worsted ,.. . . . .
...'........-........
do.
do,
Woolen and. wor sted n i i t s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ^...;.
do;
do.
gloves . . . . . , . . . . : . . , . .
.do:
do.«
caps and binding ..
...
do.
do.
do.
.
hosiery . : . . . . . . . . . . . . . . :
do.
Flannels, except cotton . . . . . : . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 cents per square yard.
Bockings arid baizes . . . . . . . . . . ; . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . H ,
: , do
Coach laces . . . . . v . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ^ . . . . . . . . Advalorem 35 percent.
Goat's hair, or• mohair
.........
. , . , . . 1 cent pef pound.
Goat's.hair,' or mohair, manufactures of......... Ad valorem 20 per cent.
Clothing, ready made, by tailors, &c..'..'.
do.
50 do.
by hand in part pr wholly
40 do.
do.
Thread laces, and insertirig
. . ^ . . . . 1. .-.-•do.. 15 • d o .
Trimming l a c e s . . , . . . . . . . , - , . - . . . - . . - . . , . ,
do.
20 do..
Bobbinet laces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ,*. • . d o . . : . .20 do.
Laces of gPld or s i l y e r . . . . . . . . . . ^ . . . . . . 1 ^.,.
, do.- -15 do.
20 do.
Articles embroidered. .............,.,.
:'vdo.
, Clothing, e m b r o i d e r e d . . - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . >,
do,.
50 • d o .
Cotton, unmanufactured .
'. ^ . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3 cents per pound.



[1845.

REPORTS OF THE

136

E—Continued.
Articles enumerated.

Rates of duty.

Advalorem 30 per cent.
Cotton, rnanufactures of, not specified
' (a) not dyed, not exceeding 20 cents per sqr.
'^
.
yard, shall be valued
do.
do.
at.20 cents . . . - . - . .
if dyed, not exceeding
.
- 3 0 cents per square'
.
yard, shall be yalued
do.
do.
a>t 30 cents
...
•
if dyed, not exceeding
-35 cents per square
yard, shall be valued
do.
do.
'
at 35 cents . •.. - - . .
Cotton twist, yarn, and t h r e a d . . . . . . . . . . .
do.
do.
(i) uncolored, less than 60 cents
per pound, shall be valued at
dp.
25 do.
60 cents per pound . . :
.
colored, less than 75 cents per
fi::
pound, shall be valued at 75
; '.
cents per p o u n d . . . . . . . .
do.
do.
Silk, manufaotures of, not s p e c i f i e d . . . . . . . . . $2 50 perpound of 16 oz.
bolting c l o t h s . . . . . . . . . . : . . .
Advalorem 20 per cent.
mariufactures of, mixed with gold, silver.
' or other'metal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
do. - 30 do.
sewing silk . . . . . . ^ . . . . .
.....
$2 per pound of 16 oz.
silk twist . . . .•
- . . . . . . . . . . . . - •.. $2
do.
do.
twist of silk and mohair . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . %2
do.
do.
, pongee and plain silk
....
. . . . . . $1 50 do.
do.
floss. silk, purified from gum, dyed and
prepared for manufacture
Advalorem 25 per cent.
raw silk, comprehending all- silks - in the
gum, whether in. hanks, reeled, or
otherwise..'..:. - . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . 50 cts.perpound of 16 ozuriibrellas, para^sols, and sun-shades..-.. Advalorem 3.0 per cent.
silk or satin shoes or slippers, for men or
women . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 cents per pair.
• silk or satin boots or bootees^ fPr men or
- • women • • . . . • . . . . . . . . • . . • . . . . . . . . , . . . . 75
do.
silk or satin shoes for c h i l d r e n . . . . . . . . . 15
do.
-do.
boots or.bootees for children' 25
men's silk hats . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . •... •Sl each. .
silk or satin hats or bonnets for women., %2 do.
; .
• silk shirts or drawers, whether made up.
wholly or in part -. — . ' . . . ..•.-.. -... -. Advalorem 40percent.
caps, for w o m e n . . . . . . . . . . . . . -... - -.. •. -.
do.
30 do.



V

i

-•m

\
-\^
•

1845.]

S E C R E T A R Y OF T H E TREASURY.

137'

E.^—Continiied.
Articles enumerated;

Rates of duty.

Silk turbans, for women. - . . - . - — - -. - - - - - ' ornamerits for head-dress - - - - - - - - - - - - v
aprons
:...
.>. , . . . . - - . - . ^ - v. collars
:
...-..•..-.. - - . . . . . . . .
^ caps, cuffs, braids, curls, frizettes . - . . . -:. •
chemisettes - - - - - - - - - - - -.
mantiUas
--..
..:..
.
pellerines, and all other articles of silk
made up by hand in whole or in part,
and not otherwise provided for
...
Hemp, unmanufactured. - - - . . . . . . . . . . 1 — .Manilla, sunn, and -other hemp of
India, &c..
..-.. .-...'.'
- used for cordage (sisal grass, coir)
,
cordilla, or tow of hemp . - . . - .
-.,
tarred cables and cordage.. - - — r - - untarred cordage.
yarn......:.
yarn,, twine, and p a c k t h r e a d . . . . . . . . . seines. ..-. .
...................
cotton bagging . , . -------.. - . . - . . , — .
gunny cloth
—
sail duck.
-..
Russia sheetings.
.-....... -1.-...
manufactures Pf, not specified... - - . .
Flax, u n m a n u f a c t u r e d . . . - . ; . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
= hnens....... 1 . . . . . . . . . . : . . : . . . . . .
manufactures of, not s p e c i f i e d . . . . . . . .
grass cloth.. - . . - \ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Oil cloth, for fioors. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
furniture, made of Canton or cotton
flannel.
^ .................
furniture, other kinds - - - . . . - .
of linen, silk, or other m a t e r i a l . . . . .
medicated oil c l o t h . . . , . - . - - . . . - :
Floor m a t t i n g - . . : .
...:..
Iron, in bars or bolts, not- manufactured in
whole or in part by rolling. . . . : . . . .
iri bars or bolts, wholly or in part manufactured by r o l h n g i . . ' . . . . . . . . . . - . .
in slabs, blooms, &c., except castings.^
railroad i r o n . . . . . . . . . .
....
....
pig iron. .':,..,..-.-.•-•.--.-.'.•..--^-•.-.•
vessels of irori cast, not specified: — . .
castings of iron, not otherwise specified.

Ad valorern 30 per cent,
- do, .
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
• do.
do.
,
do.
do.
do.




do;.
$40 per ton.

do.

$25

do.
do.
^— . d o .
5 cents per pound.
4i
do.
6
do. "
6 do. .
7 do.;
4 cents per sq. yard.
5
do.
7

•

do.

Advalorem 25 per cent
do.
20 do. .
$20 per ton.
Ad valorem 25 per cent
do.
•
do.
do.
\
do.
35 cerits per sq. yard.
16
do.
dp.
10
do.
do.
12 J
do.
do.
12J
do.
do:
Ad valorem 25 per cent,
$17 per ton.
per ton.
do. . .
. do;
$9 per ton.
IJ cent, per pound.
1
do.

R E P O R T S OF T H E

138

[1845.

E—Continued.
Articles enumerated.

Iron, glazed and tinned hollow ware and castings.
........
.... - -.,.....
sad i r o n s . . - . ; , - - - - - . . . . . . - .
..-...
• -hatters' arid tailors' i r o n s . . . . . . .
-cast-iron butts - , . , . - . . . - - . . . - : - , . , . .
iron and steel wire, not exceeding No. 1.4
over 14 and not ex. •. • ceeding No. 2 5 . . . ,
over.No.25.---.-.Silvered or plated wire
,.......,^.
Brass or copper w i r e . . . . . . : • . . , • . . . .
....
Cap or bonnet wire, covered with s i l k . . . . , . . . .
do., cptton thread or
, .
other niaterial
Round or square iron, or braziers' rpds of 3-16
to 10-16 of an inch in d i a m e t e r . . . . . . . . . . . .
Nail or spike rods.
Nail plates, slit, rolled, or h a m m e r e d . . . . . . . .
Iron in sheets..
..> -->;-- -.
.- - - . - -U^: Hoop i r o n . . , . . . . . - - ; - . . . . . . . . . -, - - - - . - .
Sht, rolled^ or hammered, >for band i r o n . . . . .
Scroll iron, or casement r o d s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
• Iron cables or c h a i n s . . . - - . - . . - - - , - , — - - .
parts thereof-- -....
Other chains of iron, not specified.-- - - . . . . . .
Anchors,.or parts thereof,
.---.- - -.-- - - Anvils. -,. - . - - - - •
-,.- -..
- -.
.... -..
Blacksmiths' hammers and s l e d g e s . . . . . . - . . . ,
Iron spikes, cut or wrought
---.--.
Cut-irpn, nail.s- - - - . - . - . - . . - - - - "
------.,.
Wrought-iron n a i l s . . . . . . . - - - : , , . . . . . . . . . . . ,
Axletrees, or parts thereof... - - . . . . - . - . . . . .
Mill ..irons and mill cranks
.............. .
Wrought iron for ships, locomotives, and steam
eiigines
..
-•-}•,-.--.- - - - - -- - - -% Chains,.other than-chain cables.. 1 . . . . . . . . . MEilleable iron in caatihgs
-.. -.,-..
. -.
Steam, gas, or water t u b e s . ' . . . --- -.,. - . . . . ,
Mill saws . . .
-•- - - -----'.'... . . - - , . Cross-cut saws..
..'...-*- . . . ;
"........
Pit saws . .
v..
. . . . . . . . . -.-•- .J
..
Tacks, not exceeding 16 ounces to the thqu-^
sand...
......., ............
exceeding 16 ounces to the thousand..
Taggers' iron. . - . ^ . . , . . . . . , . . . . . . . . , . ' . . . . . .



Rates of duty.

2J cents per pound.
.do.
dp.
do.
do.
do.
do.
5 do. : do.
8 do.
do.
11: do.:
do.^
Ad valorem 30 per cent,
dp,
25 per-cent
12 cents per pound.
8 do.

do.

do.
2J do.
do.
:d0.
.'do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
^ do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
Ad valorem 30 percent.
2J cents per ppund
do.
do.
• do. -' °
do.
3 do;,
do.
(Jo.
do,
4. do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do. .
do.
do.
5 do.
$leach.
do.
; do.

do.
do.
do.
do.

5 cents per thousand.
5 cents per pound.
Ad valorem 5 per cent.

1845.]

, S E C R E T A R Y OF. T H E TREASURY.

139

E-—Continued.
•Articles enumerated.

Rates 0: 'duty.

Old, or scrap iron, - - . . . ,
. . . . . , - . . : . . - - . . $10 per ton.
•Muskets.,^...'...'. ,,•.•..-•-.-•..:- - - .r................ 1 50 per stand.
Rifles . . . . . . . . , - ^ . . . - . . . I ' J . . . . . . .
. , . . . 2 ' 5 0 each.
• A x e s . . . . -.,-:-.. - - -- - . . ' . . . . J . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Ad valorgm 30 per cept.
-Adzes
. , . - . . - - - . -^- - . - . - . - - ..> ....
,.
do.
do.
do.
Hatchets'..--,^^,:..,-............ ..^.
. •• d o . '
•
do.=
do.
Plane irons. - - -.....-- -% --•- - . , . . . . 1 . . . . . . .
do.
••
Socket c h i s e l s . . . . : - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . : • . - . . . . / . - d o .
do.
do.
.
do.
Drawing k n i v e s . . . . . . - J. J-.. . , .,•- -.. - . - -. : do. •
Cutting k n i v e s . . . . . . . . . . . . v....'.:....-.....'-,_ - .. • do.
.. . do.
do-. ,
Sickles, or reapirighooks.,.. -,.,-' - -.-.. - . . . - • .do. " .
Scythes-. ^ . . . ; , , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ; . . . . . J . .
do,
do.
' Spades . .",>.>. 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
do-.
do. '
• Shovels....:.........,.....................
do.
.. d o . ' .
Squares, of ironror.steel. . . . . . . . . . . . .
..','
. do.
do. ,
Plated or pohshed.steel s a l d d l e r y . . . . . . . - - . .
do. '
do.
Brass s a d d l e r y . . . . . . , . . . . . . . ' . . . . . , . , . . • . . . - . . do.
.." do.
Coach, and. harness furniture, pf all descript i p r j s . . . . . . . . - - - - - - - - . - . . . . . . .1 -^ . . . . . . • do.
-do• Steelyards . . . . . ; . - . - . . . . . . . . . . , , , . . . . : . . • do.
do. .
• Scalerbeams.......'. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . , .
do..
do.
All fire-arms other.thari rnuskets or r i f l e s . . . .
,do.
do.
Side-arms.
^ - - - - - - - -:- - - ^
.
do.
doi -.
; Square iron, for umbrella' stretchers. . . . . . . . . . • do. • l S | d o .
WoQd-s'crews, of iron. . . -. - > . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . : 12 cents per pourid
All other screws;ript ^specified. . :
Advalorem 3.0 per cent
Brass . screws...".. .."... . . . . . . . . , . . . . . .
30 cerits per* ppund.
Sheet and rolled, brass. . . . . . . . . . . . ^ . . . . . . ' . Ad valorem 3.0 per cent.
Brass -cutlery or hammered kettles. . . . . . . . . t. 1 2 cents per.pouhd.
*
Steel, cast, shear or German,'in bars. . . . . . . . Sl*50per 112. lbs.
all other in bars, . . : . . - - . . ' - . : . . . .$2 50
do. .
Solid-headedpins, and all other package pins
not exceeding 5,000 to" the package of 12
papers.
.-.':......
. . . . . . J 40 cents per pack.
Pound pins
. . . . . . - . : . . . . , . : . 20 cents per pound. Needles, sewing, tambouring, darning, netting,
. . and knitting.•.. ••..... > . . . . . . . - - - - . ' Ad valorem 20 per cent
all other kinds....
.do.
do.
Saddlery, common, tinned, and j a p a n n e d l . . - .
do.
•do.
Japanned ware^ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - . . . : . . , : .
do.
30 do.
Plated and gilt ware of allkinds. . . - . . . . . . . . . .
do.
• do.
•Cutlery, of all kinds . . . • . . , . . .
....:
do..
do.
Manufactures of brass, iron, steel lead, copper,
pewter, or tin not specified. . ; . ;
. , . . . -.
do.
do.



140

[1845.

R E P O R T S OF T H E
E—Continued.
Articles enumerated.

Rates of duty.

Lead, in pigs and b a r s , . , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - . , . 3 cents per pound.
. old scrap . ^ . : I
... ^ . . . . . . v - . ^ . . . . . i 1J cent per pound.
Lead, pipes . • . . . .
. . . . . . . . . - - - . . • . . . . . -.. .4 cents per pound.
do.
in sheets . . . . . .
....-.'..
.-.-...... 4
S h o t . . . . . . . . . ^ . . . . . . . . . . . . : : . . . : . . . . . . •4.
do.
Type rnetal and stereot3^pe plates.-. . . . . - . . . - Ad volorem 25 per cent.
Types, new or old.
- ^ . . . . . . . - - -.
do.
do.
Copper bottoms, cut r o u n d . . . . .
.. - - -...
do.
30-do.
do.
- do.
round at the edge.
......
Still-bottoms, cut round,, and turned up o.n edge
do.
do. <
Copper plates or sheets, weighing more than
34 oz. to the square f o o t . . . .
do.
:
do. ^'
Copper rods and bolts
-.--.. . . . . . . . . - 4 cents per pound.
do.
nails and spikes..-•- - . . . . . . . . . . . . -.. i 4 do.
Patent sheathing metal. . . " . . . , . . . . . . . - . . . . . . 2
Tin," in pigs, bars, or blocks.,..-...-.-..Ad valorem 1 per cent,
•'in plates or sheets.
...-•----....-.-.
dp; . 2J do. .
term plates
. . . . . . . . . , -..
do.
do. .
ta2;gers' iron
....
doi
do.
fbil..-.•....;...:.,...:.-.....-.---.--.do. -...-••••'dp.
Silver plated metal, in sheets. •_.
.^ . . . * - . . .
do".
30 do.
Argentine, alabata, or German s i l v e r . . . . . . . .
do.
do.
Bellmetal
•...-...
........
o .
. do. '
Zinc .
...-..-...:.-:.....-..
-....-.
do.
do.
Bronze
:-...-....•........
do.
do.
Zinc in sheets.!
.... -.......
.'...do.
10 do.
Bronze p o w d e r . . . . . . . . . " . . - . . . . . . . .
•
do.
20 do.
liquor
.
.........."
do.
do.
Iron liquor.'-...
...-.-.-..
..--.'...
do.
do.
Red liquor...
.'..'.•...
do.
. do.
Sepia.-....--•.
...............
do.
do.
C o a l . . . . . . : . . . . . . . . . . . : . : . . . . . : . . . . . . : $1 75 per ton.
Coke, or culm of coal
5 cents per bushel. Glass: On all vessels or wares, articles arid
.' manufactures of cut glass, when thecutting on the. article does not exceed
one-third the height or length thereof. ^ 25 cents per pound.
Exceeding one-third, and not one-half
the same.,
•'.. . .-.. . . . . . . . .
. . • 35
. do.
One-half the length thereof. . . . . . .
45
do.
Cut-glass" chandeliers, candlesticks,
lustres, lenses, lamps, prisms, and
. .parts of the same.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
do.
'On all drops, icicles, spangles, arid
ornaments,, used for m o u n t i n g s . . . . 45
/ do.



1845.]

SECRETARY OF THE TREASURY,

141

E—Continued.
Articles enumerated.

Rates of duty..

Glass: All articles of plain, mpulded, or pressed
'
glass, weighing over 8 o z . . . i .
, . 10 cents per pound.
weighing 8 oz.pr u n d e r . . . . . . . 12 cents per pound.
do.
Plain, mpulded, or pressed tumblers. 10
On all plain, moulded, or pressed.
. ; when stoppered, or the bottoms
do,'
grpund.
, . . . ; . . - - - . - - . . . . - . , - - 14" ,
. apothecaries' yials and bottles, not exceeding the capacityof 6 oz. each. $1 75 per gross.
. apothecaries'vials and bpttles, exceeddo.ing 6 oz., and not exceeding 16 oz. •,$2 25
V .
perfumery and fancy vials, uncut, riot
do.
exeeeding 4 oz. 'each
. . . - - . - $2 50
perfumery and fancy. vials,.^ uncut, ex: .^ceeding 4 oz., and not exceeding 16
^
oz., e a c h . . . . . . . . . . ; . . ' . . . . . . . . . . . . $3 00 . dp. •
black or green bottles and jars, exceedj/ . , ;ing 8 oz., and not excee.ding 1 quart $3 00 • ; d o .
black or green bottles.and jars, exceeddo. . • .
. ' ing .1 quart...-^..,...---.-,...-..,.... .$4.-00
. demijohns and carboys, of^ gallon or
|
dess......
...........^..................-." 15. cents each. '
• demijohns and carbpj^s, exceeding i
1
' •
gallon, and not ex.ceedirig 3 gallons./ 3 0 . '• d o . ,,
, vderiiijohns and car.boy.s, exceeding 3
„ . gallons - - . - . . . . . - .
. - - . . . . - - . . ,- 50 • do.
.
.window, cylinder or brpad, not exceed2 cents per .square foot.
ing 8 by 10 inches. -.
.........
. . abpve that, and not exceeding
•
10 by 12 iriches..
. . : 2 i dp. •; ,do.
above that,, arid npt exceeding
.1^ by 10 i n c h e s . . . . . . . . .^. ;3J do.
do.
. . . • .-. ^ above that, and.not exceeding
16 by 11 i n c h e s . , . . - . . ; . - . 4 do. .
do.
• above that,, and not exceeding
,5 do..
do.
18. by 12 inches-.
do.
above 18 by 12 inches"..... . e do. - crown, not exceeding. 8. by
3J do.
do.
10. inches
.
.
...
above that, and-not exceeding
5 do. .
do.
10 by 12 inches..............
above that, and npt .exceeding
• do. '.
14 by 10. inches....,.,.,. . . . . 6 do.
' -1 above that, and not exceeding
do.
; 16 "by 11 i n c h e s . . , . . . : . . . 7 do.



J

•

•

[1845.

R E P O R T S OF T H E

142

E—Continued.
Rates, of duty.

Articles enumerated.

. Glass: Window, above that,- and not exiceediiig
. •
18 by 12 inches. . . . . . : . . crown, all exceeding 18 by'
• 12 inches . . . . . . . . . - - . . ; . • :
plate glass polished, riot-silvered,-and
not exceeding 12 -by S inches
above that, and not exceeding
,
" 1 ^ by 10 inches-.\ . . . . : . . .
above that, arid, not exceeding
1,6 by 11 inches! - - , - . . 1 . .
above that, arid riot exceeding^
18'. by 12 inches. -• - - - •.. ....
above that, and not exceeding
22 by 14 inches. - . . - - . . . . .
All above 22 by 14 i r i c h e s . . . .
plate gl ass; polished and silvered .^...
plate.glas.s, polished arid framed..v. .
porcelain . : . ' . - . . . . . . . . . - . . , . . . i . . . . . . - colored-.:---..-..:... ....,.•...:-..
paintings on glass.
. . - - -•-•.-.. . . .•
Airarticles of glass not specified, cPri^
nected with other m a t e r i a l s . . - - - - .
China ' w a r e . . . . - • . . . . - - . - . . , - : . . . . . . , . . . ' .
Porcelain w a r e . . . . - , - - . . . . . . . . , 1 . - . . . . ...:.
Earthen ware, - - - -.".... ---,'..-..-. ..'....•...:.
Stone w a r e . . . . . . . . . . ' . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ^ . . .
Other wares, not s p e c i f i e d . ; . . . . . . . . . .i - . . ; . . . .
Leather, tanned,-sole or;bend.-.•..— . . - . . , . . .
all upper, not other wise .specified..
•'
.calf-skins*, tanned and dressed.,..'. i
sheep-^kins, do.. ^ • '
d o . ' - . , . . . .•
•
skivers . .•. . . ^ . . . . . . . . .,..•.'. -••-.'. _••. , .;•.
goat skins, tanned,arid d r e s s e d . . . . , .
morocco,
dp.
do.-".•--..
, ;
-kid skins,, do. do...'-'--morocco, do. .»'
- dpi. . . . - ^
gpat and §heep.skins,, tanned, arid riot
dfessed . . . , . . . . . . . . : ...fi . . . . . . . .
•
on all kid and lamb skins, tanned and
f
not d r e s s e d . . . . . . . . . - •...;....*.':...
chamois s k i n s . . . . . ! . . . . . ' - . . . . . . . . .
Men's boots.,and b ' o o t e e s . . " . . • . . . . . : . : . - . . . . .
Men's shoes or pumps. /....,'-,.- -..- - . , , . . . .
Women's boots arid b o o t e e s . . . . . ' . . . . . . . - . . .
Children's boots arid.bootees,.arid shoes..-.-..



8 cerits per square foot;
10

do.

do.

5

do.

do.

,7

do-

do..

8

do.

do.

10

do-

do.

do..
12 do.
Ad valorem 30 per ct
50 do.
do...
do.
60 : do:
do.
. 3 0 do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
.do.
do.
do.
do.
....

-do.
do:-

25- do.
30 do.
do.
. do.
do.
• : ; . ' do.

6 dents per.lb.
8 cent's per lb.
15. 00 per dozen.
$2 00
do.
$2- OO- do.
do.
•IS SO
do.
• $ 2 . .SOdo.
.$.•1 SO •
do.
f l 50
$1- 00

do.

75 cents do.
do.
• $ 1 00
• $ 1 25, per pair.
30 cents do.
50 cents do.
15 cents do.

1845.]

S E C R E T A R Y OF T H E TREASURY.

143

E-—Continued.
Rates of duty.

Articles enumerated.

Womeri's dpubled-soled pumps or w e l t s . . . .
•Women's shoes or slippers, except silk.. --/. Raw hides^
-:
... .'.'.i.. . f i . . . . . . . .
On all skins, pickled and in casks, not specified.
Men's leather gloves
.............-..-..
Women's leather habit gloves.
...---...
Children's leather habit g l o v e s . . - . : : . . . . . . . . . .
Women's extra and demi-length g l o v e s . . - - - . .
Children's extra and demi-length g l o v e s . . . . .
Leather caps or hats..
-.,:..:.......;..
•Leather braces or s i i s p e n d e r s . . . . . ; - . . . . . . . .
All other braces or suspenders, except cbm• posed of India r u b b e r . ' . . . . . . . . . . . .
.
Leather b o t t l e s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \ . . .
Patent l e a t h e r . . . . .
...-.. . . . v . - . - . . .
All other m^ariufactures of leather not specified.
Furs of all kinds on the skin, undressed
..
Furs of all kinds on the iskiri, dressed. ; • - : : . .
Hatters' furs, dressed or undressed, not on the
s k i r i . . . . . . . . i . y........

.............

40 cerits per pair. *
25 cents per pair;
Ad valorem 5 per cent.
Ad valprerii 20 per cent,
$1 25 per dozen.
$1 per dozen.
50 cents per dozen..
$1 50 per dpzen.
75 cerits per dozen.
Ad valorem 35 per Cent,
do..
' 'do.

do.
do.
do.
• do.
do.
do.

-•

. 5

25

do. do.
do.
do.
do. r
do.

•

do.

do.

Fur hats and all other articles not specified.,
3S do. •
do.
Fur hat bodies, frames, or felts, not manufac25 do. tured. . . ' . . . . . . . • . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 'do.Hats of w o o l . : . , . . . . . , . , . . . .
: . . .....'. : 18 cents each.
Hat bodies or felts rnade wholly or in part of

do.

d6.

Hats and bonnets of any vegetable substance. Ad Valorem 35 per cent.
'
. hair,, whalebone",, or other.
do.
niaterial not specified.
do.
. all flats, braids, and plats
do.
do.
used fpr making sarne-.
Feathfers and artificial flowers , . , . . . - . . . . . . • d o . • 25 do.
Curls or braids of hair, & c . . . . . . . , . . . . . . - do.
do. .
Fans -of all d e s c r i p t i o r i s . . . . . . . . . . . : . . - . . . . .
• do.
do.
Human hair, or otherwise . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
do.
10 do. ^
Hair cloth or s e a t i n g . . . , , . - : . , : " . . . . , - . . . . . ' . .
do; -25 do.
Hair belts and gloves ^ . . : . . . : . . . . . . - - - - - -'
do.
do. .
Curled hair and moss . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . , . . . . : . .
• do.
-10 do..- . do.
25 do.
Feathers for b e d s : . . . . . ; . - - . . . . . ' . • . . . . . . , . . .
do.
do.:
Down of all kinds. . . . . . . : " . . . . . . : . . i . . . . -India rubber oil c l o t h . . . , . . . . . . : . . : - - . . , . : '. -do. ' 30 do.'
do.
do.
webbirig. i . . . : . : : . ; . . . . . " . .
do.
do.
shoes.............-.;---...'."
•do. •
(t) braces or s u s p e r i d e r s . . . . .
do.
other fabrics not specified... do.
do.



.••

..-

.

R E P O R T S OF T H E

144

[1845.

E—Continued.
Articles enumerated.

Rates of duty.

Clocks.
Ad valorem 25 per cent,
Glaziers' diamonds, when s e t . . . . ,
,....
do.
do.
Ship.or box chronometers.
do.
20 do.
Watches, or parts of watches.
,
do.
7J do.
Watch materials not specified
do.
do.
•:^Ore diamonds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . , . . . . . . . .
do. .. : . do.
Watch crystals or .glasses. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - . . ;
per gross,
Glass or pebbles for spectacles and eye-glasses.
do. . '
Gems, pearls, or precipus stones . . . . . , . . , . . . Ad valorem 7 J per cent.
do.
Imitations thereof.
.... .........-.-......
do.
do.
do.
Cornpositions of glass pr p a s t e . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
do.
do.
Cameos, and imitations thereof.
.
. . -.-.
. do.
do.
Mosaics.not specified... - r - - . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
do.
20 do.
Jewelry of gold, silver, or platina.... ^ . . . . . . .
do..
-do.
Gold and silv'er leaf. . . . . . ' . . . ' . . . . . . . . . .
• Gilt, pkted, or imitatiori l e a f . . . . . , . . . ' . .•
i.
do. ..25 do.
Dutch metal of leaf.................., . . . . . . j .
do.
., do.
do.
Scagliola table tops. L . . . . . . . . . . . .
.....
30 do.
Table tops of marble or composition, inlaid
do.
with precious s t o n e s . ' . . - . , . , . . . . . . . . . , . .
do.
do. •
Table tops of various colored m a r b l e s . . . . . .
do.
do;
do.
Alabaster arid spar ornamerits . . . . . " . . . . . . , . .
do.
Manufactures of gold arid silvery not specified.
do.
Wood, manufactures of, not otherwise specido.
do.
^
fied.............'._.......:..--.
timber, to be used in building wharyes,
do!" . 20 do.
and firewood .
'.
...
rough boards, planks, staves, scantling,
do.
do.
• and s a ^ e d lumber jiUot p l a n e d . . . . . .
do.
15 do.
rose, satin, maliogariy, and c e d a r . . . . .
do.
30 do.
Walking canes and s t i c k s . . . . . . . . . . . , . . . . . . .
do.
do.
• Frames knd sticks for urnbrelias. . . . . . . . . . . v.
do.
do.
• for.parasol^ and sun-shades..
db.
do.
Cabinet wares . . . . . . •.:: - . - - - - - - - - -. -.- r. do.
do.
Household furniture not otherwise specified..
doi .
do.
Musical instruments. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .^.. .
do.
do.
Carriages, and parts thereof. . . . . . . . . . . : . . .
15 do.
do.
Catgut, or whipgut. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
.......
do.
do.
• Catgut strings, or thread of similar materials.
Marble unmanufactured, in the rough slab or
do.
25 do.
. block . . . . . . :
do.
30 do.
., busts or statuary. . . . .
,.........
do.
do.
All other mariufactures pf marble not specified.
do.
25 do.
Slates, of all Idnds.
............
..
do.
do.
Tavirig tiles and bricks.... . ^ . ' . . . . . . . . . . . . .



1845.]

SECRETARY OF T H E TREASURY.
.

145

E—Continued.

Articles enumerated.

Rates of duty.

Baskets of straw, grass, ozier, or w i l l o w . . . . , .
Other manufactures of straw,.grass, ozier, .or
willow, not s p e c i f i e d . , . . . : . . . » . . . . . . . , . . . . . .
Wax, ariiber, or composition beads . , . . . . . . .
All other beads, not enumerated ,
-,...
Shell or,fancy boxes, not otherwise specified...
Combs, for the hair . J....'.^........... ...-i,.,...........
•Brushes and brooms . . . . . , . . - . - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Bristles . . . J . . . . . — . . . . . . . - . . , - - - . :
. ...•. - .
Dolls and toys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
.-...:.- ,....
{d) Metal buttons, not exceeding, in .value $1,
.and valued at that' price . . - : .
......,.,.
All pther buttpris, and button moulds . . , , . - . - .
Lastings, prunellas, and. similar fabrics, dn..
strips, not specified, for. manufacture of
buttons, &c. . . . . . . . . - -.-....
.........
Mohair, figured arid satin,.for the same.-. --,-.
Tortoise s h e l l . . . . . . . - , - , . . . - - - , . . , : , . - - , .
,-..
Ivory, or teeth of elephants,.unmanufactured.Horns and teeth
. . - - - , - , - - , ............
..,
Horn and bone 'tips . . -^-...,,.,..--;....
..,......
White and red lead , .
- . . , , . . . - . . .,-..----.Litharge . ' . , . . . . . . , . . : . ' . . . . . . .-c:...••.
Acetate, or chromate of lead
'.
Whiting, br Paris white,"dry ......
inoil.....
Ochres, or o.chry earths,.dry., in oil ,
-^^''
Sulphate of barytes.
Liriseed o i l . . . . . . . .
Hempseed o i l . . . . . . ,
.^........
Rapeseed o i l . , . . . . .

Ad yalorem 25 per ct.

Paper, bank, folio, and quarto-pbst,, of alLkinds
letter and bank n o t e . . , : ; . . . • . . . , . . . , . . . .
antiquarian ,.,.....^.. ^ ^ . . . . . ^ . . , , . . . . .
, d e m y / . . . - . . ; . - . . . .,...•.v..^.•^- — ---'. drawing . . . . . . . . , . . . . , . • " : . . , . , , . . . . . - , . : :
- ' ' . elepha;nt . . . . . . . . ' . .,..,.--...•..;-.^....,
double elephant . .>;... ..:ii....—.,...,.....
^foolscap:....'..-'.. ..fi.^... > .... . . ^ . . 1 - . : . . . ; .
imperial . , i . . . . . .u....^^ . . . . . . : . . . . , . ..
medium ...,..:-.:-,.,::.^.,..
........
L «

*

•

JL/ILIJ.

1-^^

•

• • • •

•

•

•

m •

a

•

* s « «

VOL. v.—10. .




. t t ' o~ s

o

AaQ-t

» 'e '.•

«'*« f « • ' • • . « ' • ' A

•.'••Q'^'o

*

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do.• do.
do.
do.do.
do.
do:.
do.
do.
do.
30 do.
do.
1 cent per pound.
A d valorem 30 per ct.
: do.
do.
Ad valorem 25 per ct.
Ad valorem 5 per ct.
do.
dp.*
<:do.. do.
..do.
do.
• do.
'
do.
. do.
do.
. 4. cents per pound.
4
do.
4
do.
.1 .
.do.
IJ- . i do. • '
1 •
do.
H
do.

i:

;do..:

25 cents per gallon.
25

••.. d o .

25 :
do. : .'
.1$ cents, per pound.
do.
17
17
do.
15
: do.^
15
do.
15 .
do.
15.
do.
i5:
. do.
15
do.
15:
.do..,
15.
. do.
iS
do;
15
do.

[1845.

R E P O R T S OF T H E -

146

. • E—Continued. •
•
Articles enumerated.

Rates of duty.

P a p e r royal . . . . . . . ..^...... . . . , , . • . . . ' i . . . . . .
'-super royal
. - - . . : : . . . • . . . ' . . .....,•.-..:
•
writing.. . . . . : . . . ; . . , - . . . ' . . . — . . . - . . . . . .
:.
." copper-plate '. . . . . . . . . i . -y.. . f i ^.-•,. i ,

15 cents per pound. .
15 ^
do.
15
. do.1 2 ^ . ' :.\dd.
.12 J
,::'d0.
12J
.: do.
1 2 J ' : do.
12J;
do. • . :U
1 2 i . . .do..
12J
do.
12i
.do.
I2I;
do.
12I ,• \ do.
12i
..do."
12J
do;
12i.
Ao:

blotting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
--,-.-1 - • ' copyirig.^-.-.:.-,.,--....:....-.,--.
• colored, for labels -.- - . - . - . r--r •• '
needles.
:..,-........
marblpj or faricy c o l o r e d . . — . . , .
. glass
..,.--'-.,-•.--..;-,....
mprocco . - . - - . . . - - . . . . . . . - - - - - - . - - - , . . . •
'•pasteboard...-..,---.---,---^....
pre-ssing .board - -; - - — . . . . . . . . . , . . . . •
sand .
-.
. . . . . - , . - . . -..
tissue
. . . . - -:..'. - - - . , . . . . . . . , ^.
gold or silver, in iSheets or strips . . , . . ,
. .
colored copper-plate
. , . . . . . . , . IQ •- vdo. ..'
printing....... —
. . , .•.-,.- -.-. .10 : _ do, :, ... do.
stainers'. - . . — . . — -... -... — 10
do.
binders' boards . . - -,- -- — -.-.- -.- . a . . ,
3
: do. . V
box boards . . —
,,-,..,......,...
do.
mill boards.
.;..,
. —,..,.... . 3
3
; : . do.
paper makers' boards
. - - . • . ,„-..
3
: do.
sheathing . . - . . . - - , - - . , ...
-,....
3
, do.
wrapping — , . . . . , . . . . . - . .
.........
3
do.
cartridge . . . . . . . . . . . . .^.. — . - . - . .
erivelppes-, plain, ornamental, pr colored - Ad valorem 30 per ct.
do.
do.
billet-doux, or fancy, note , . - -..
music paper hnes
. . . — — . . . . . . ; . Ad valorem 25 per,.ct.
gilt, covered with metal, other thari .gold.
or silver — . . . . . . . . . . . . .
'. . ^ .
do.
do.
Paper snuffboxes, japanned or not japannedr^.. Ad valorem 25 per ct.
do. . . ., .do.
Fancy paper boxes . . . . •
,..
........
Paper hangings — . . . . . . " . . . . — ' - - . - - - - - - . Ad valorem 35 per ct.
do.
Paper for screens, fee. - — - - -..-, -,.,.— . - -. . do.
12 cents pe.r pound.
Blank or visiting cards . . — . . . - . . 1 .
.
2.5 cents, per pack.
Playing cards.
.......
Blank books, b o u n d . . —
2
... 20 cents per ppund.
do..
unbound . -.- - . . . , . , . . , ,
. 15 .
Parchment' and. vellum . -,.-.-..... - . . , — . . . . , Ad valorem 25 per ct.
do. .
' do.
Asses' sldn, and imitation
.@.- -.
......
do.
-dp.
Wafers . . . .
. . . --.
:
. - . . , . . 1-..
.do._
do.
Seahrig wax . .
.- - - - - - . . .
,..-..
\. do.
Black lead pencils-..'
....,. . . . . do. ,
. do.,
, ' do.
Crayons, of.all kinds.. , . . - . : . . —
,



1845.|

S E C R E T A R Y OF T H E TREASURY.
E—^Contiriued.
Articles enumerated.

147

'
Rates of duty.

Metallic peris-,. - - - - -'- -v. - - -... -— - -^^ Ad valorem 25 per ct.
do.. : ; , , do,.
Ink and,ink powder. .^. 2......... .•-.........,.. . . . .
.Quills, prepared or.rnaLnufactured .,',.:............. .dp.,. .. . do. ; •
dp. .
unprepared pr unrnaiiufactured............ . .do.; .
• ,J cent per pound.,
All other p.aper not erihmerated.- - , .,.,.-....-.• 15 cents per pound. •
do;
.
Books, printed in the English language, bound 30
do.
• .,.' sheets or.boards 20
do.
, •
printed arid published-abroad more
than one year, and riot repubhshed
do.
, in this country, bound
,.
. , . 15
do..
•
do.
do. in sheets.or b o a r d s . . 10
do.
Latin or Greek, bound.^,...-.--.-.. 15
do.
unbound . . . . , . . ^ . . 13
dp.
Hebrew, bourid.....,;.:........
... -. 10
do.
unbound.^...
.....
,..,
Foreigri languages^ , except. Latin,
Greek, and Hebrew,, bound,,.......... 5 cents per. vpliirrie.
' Foreign languages, " except .Latin,
.
Greek, and Hebrew,, in sheets or
. . p a r n p H l e t s . - - - - - , - - , . - - - . . . . . . . - - - . . - 15 oents per pourid.
\ Greek,- Hebrew, Latin, or English language, printed 40. years previous to.
importation....:.-. .............. - - , , . , „ . , . 5 cerits per. vohime.
: do. „
do.- ;
. a l l reports of legislative cpmmittees,..polyglots, lexicoris, anddictionaries..,. 5 cents per pound. ,
books of engravings, with or without.
letter: press, bound or unbound....,... Ad valorem 20 per cent.
' dp.
do.
' . maps and charts. - . . . . : - -,- -... > -. -,- Sugar, browri, raw . . . . — . . . . . ; -.--.. - . -- - - - - ' 2^ cents .per pound:;
... , do.;
do. . syrup .of sugar 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
do.
do. ,
brown, clayed . . - . .
.-,--clayed,or clarified- -..,..-..— -- -.. . 4 cents per pound. .
6
. . . d o . . . . [.fi
refined .....--...-,-.:..^-.-—----.--.--.6 ,: ; do.
:"
sugar c a n d y . . . .v
............,.°. „ , — . .
m o l a s s e s . . . . - . . - - - - . - . - ^ - - ^ - - - - ^ -- 4^^ mills per pound..
comfits, o . . . i " . . . . . .
. - , ,v-, Ad valorerii. 25 per cent.i
do.
. do.
sweetmeats....,-...--,- —.
fruits preserved in mplasses, sugar, or;
do.; s : do.
brandy . - - - . . . .
...... . . . . . . .
do.: \' . do. •
confectionary of all kinds, npt specified
1 cerit per pound. '
vy'Ocoa . . . . . -.-- •'.. - . « » - - .ii-- - - -«'-'-'- - . - . . .
C h o c o l a t e . " , . . . : . . ' . : . - , - .-^.^^ - ------. ^ - - - - - . .4 cents per pound. .
'^. :.. do. •
;
Mace
- - . - - . - . - , - - i . — 50
30 , ,
do. ^
Nutmegs
-.---,..-....



R E P O R T S OF T H E

148

[1845.

E—.Continued.
Articles enumerated.

Cloves. - - . . . , . - .....:
......
Cinnamon.'-..............
,..,...,,.,_
Oil of cloves
: . . . . ....=....
......
Chinese c a s s i a . . . . .
.^...............
\
Pimento.
..,,.,,.,..,.
,,,..,..
Black p e p p e r . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
......
....
Cayenne, African, or Chili p e p p e r . . . . . . . . . .
' Ginger, g r o u n d . . . . . . . . . . . . - - - ....:...
in the root, when not preserved... -.,.
Mustard
. . . . . - . . . . . • . . . . . . . . . ,..Mustard seed . . . . . . . . . . , . , .....
.:...,- Linseed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . : .
.........
.
Camphor, r e f i n e d . . . . ' . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
crude.
.........
. , . : S..- .•,
Woad or p a s t e l . . ' . . . . - . : . . . „ . . . . . - . . . . , . . ; . . . . . . . .
Indigo
Ivory, or bone b l a c k . . . . . . . .
. . . . . , . . /.
Alum
....
..... .-.,,1,-,..,..........
Opium. - - . . - . - - . . . .
....."..-...
Quicksilver
-. . .
..
....
.....
Roll b r i m s t o n e . . . . . . ^ . . . . . . . . . . . , . . .
J.
Calomel, and other mercurial preparations...
Corrosive s u b l i m a t e . . . . . . . . | . . . . . .
.....
Red precipitaite. 1 . . . . . . . . . , . . . . " , . , . . . . . . . ,
Glue.
...:......................
Gunpowder - -, ,
..
.......
Copperas J. . .
. ---............;..
.
Green vitriol- - - . - --.•.'
.\
Blue, or Roman vitriol, or sulphate of. copper
Oil of vitriol, or sulphuric-acid,..
--...,.
Almonds or prunes
---^. --,.--,:-,.-.,.
.
Sweet oil of ahnonds
—.,......i..
Currants...... - ...-.....
'..............
Figs... .i^
....
i..;.....-.:
,:
Nuts not specified, except those.used for.dyeing,
- Muscatel,.or blpom raisins.,,.,
........
-,-.
Raisins, all other kinds.
...,.,-.<........,.„..
Olives.
-..,...
Olive oil in casks...
. ..-^...-.
,.
Olive, salad oil in bottles.
......
....,
AU other ohve-oil, not salad and ..not. specified.
Spermaceti pil of foreign fisheries
Whale or other fish oil of = foreign fisheries not
S p e i m

. a a . . .

. . . . . • « . ' . . ' . - . ' . . . e . . . . . . . . . . . .' . . . .




Rates of duty.

8.cents per pound..
do*
:
25
do.
30
do.
5
do.
. -5.,
do.
5
do.
10
do.
4.
dp.
2
Ad valorem 25 per cent.
. do.
. 5 . do.
do.
do.
20. cents per pound.
5
' do..
1
do.
5
do.
i
do.
li
do.
75
do.
A(i valorem 5 per cent.
..
-dp. 25 do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
5 cents per pound."
8
do.
do.
2
do.
2
• do.=^
•4 '
do.o
1
do.
3
, do.
.9
do.
1
do.
.3.
do.
.2.
do.
1
do.
3.
do.,, .
,2
AvdvalorefiGL 30 per cent.
20 ,P.0rits per gallon.
Ad valorem 30 per cent
, . y d p . . , , 2 0 . do.
25,cents ,pe-r gallon.
15

do.

1846.]

SECRETARY OF THE TREASPRY.

149

E^.^Continued..
Rates of duty.

Articles, enumerated.

Whalebone, product of foreign
fisheries:.... Advalorem 12jpr.cent
Spermaceti or wax c a n d l e s . . . . . . _ . . . . . -.--....: 8. cents per pound. '
8;
dp. fi ^
•
^
Spermaceti and wax candles.combined.......,
Wax t a p e r s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ^ . . . . . . . . . . . Ad valprem 30 per cent.
4 cents per pound.
Tallbw candles. •... .'-..•..
...........
do.
T a l l o w . . . . : , . . . , . . . . . : , , , . . . . J.^.'.... .V. i .•
Beeswax, bleached or unbleached..,......... , Ad valorem 15 per cent.
do.
do.
S h o e m a k e r s ' w a x ; . . . . . : . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - -.
dp.
30 do.
Windsor s o a p . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
do. ^
do.
Shaving, perfumed, or,fancy spap. f . . . . . . . .
do. ,
do.
Wash balls.
do.
do.
Castile s o a p . . : . . . ,
- - - -- - ..|->.-- -- - - All other hard soap
- . - - - - -„ - — V- • - - - - -. - 4 cents per pound...
Soft s o a p l . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - . - . . . . . . 50 cents' per barrel.
Marrow, grease, soap stocks and stuffs.. - . - - Ad valorem 10 per cent.
Starch:....
^ . . . . . . . . . 2 cents per pound.
2
] ] db.^ ^
Pearl or hulled b a r l e y . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Ad valorem 30 per cent.
Corrks . . . f i
do.
25 do.
Manufactures of c o r k . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . — . .
Sponges or s p u n k . . . . . . i - - . ; . - . . . . . — . . . ^ . ' d o . 20 do.,
do.
do.,
Oranges, in^boxes, barrels, or c a s k s , . . . . — ,
Lemons,
do.
do.,..
do.
do.
do.
do.
Grapes, not dried, in kegs or j a r s . .
...... .
,Sah ._:.--...,.----...-.-.,;..J.l...... : . . , „ , 8 cents per bushel.
: i cent per pound.
Saltpetre, pai:tially refined. . J . . .
. . . . . -•..
2 ^ / do.
completely refilled . | . . . . - . . . . , - . .
.do.
Bleaching powder, or chloride of l i m e . . . . . . . - 1 .
S.cents per gallon.
V i n e g a r . . . . . . . . . . : . .'.> .*.. : | - . . . . . . . .
;..
do..
r
Spirits of turpentine
. . . . L]... .,.^
.-...., 10
2 cents per pound.
Beef..., - -. : . } . .\
......,
do.
Pork.,-..,.:..,..-. . . • . : . . : . ] . . . , . - - ' : , . . . ' . 2
3
do.
H a m s
-..-- . j .•
. .... . . . .
3
do.
Bacon . ' - . - . - . . . . . ,
. . . . . . ; . . . . . . . . . . . .. Pi-epared riieats . - , - . - - - . . . . ] . - . . . - . - - - - - . . Ad valorem 25'per cent,
do.
do.
Poultry or g a m e . . . . . . . . . . . . . fi . . . . . . v . . . . .
do.
do.
Bolpgna s a u s a g e s . . . . . .
-.;-•.--..,......
9 cents per pound.
Cheese:^ . - . , . . . . - - '
.....!..<...............
5
do.
Butter
- - - -'
-..
3
^ . .do. . '
L a j d ..,
..,..-.-•----...;.
. - . . - .
Macaroni . .
. . . . . . . . . . , L . . . . . . . . . . . . . Ad valorem 30 per cent
dp.
do.
Vermicelli
-\...
fi.......:.
dp.^ ^
do.
Gelatine, jellies, and all siniilar pireparations..
W h e a t . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . J . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 cents per busheh
do. "
Barley
........... ...:..........
.'. 20
do'"
Rye—
•-.. -.^
. . : : . - . . . . . . . . . • 15
-

.

-.

.•




•

.

•

.'1

•

•

. '

.

••

-

.

• .

150

R E P O R T S OF T H E

[1845i

E—Continued. •
' Articles enum.erated.

^ O a t s - J l . . ; . . . - • . • . . • ' . . • . " . . . . . - . - J . ' . .-..'-.

Rates of duty.

.':'..•.:..:

Indian corn, or rriaize. . . . .--•-..• .>•_. . \ . , - . . - . .
Wheat flpur...... . j . . : ' . . . . - . .^..-v....
.. .Indian r n e a l . . ' . . ^ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .•...•...;,
PotatPes 1J-...."-. : : . - J . . . . . . . . .-....•
.....
Foreign fish, dried or smoked .•.-.-..' .•. j . . - ' . - . - . . .^
Mackerel, pickled or salted....- .•. . • . . . . , . - - .
Herrings, pickled or s a l t e d . . . . - . . . . . . . . . . . .
Salmon, pickled . . . . . , . : . . . . . . . . . . .•.'.., . . - -.
Au other fish, pickled, in barrels . . ^ . . . . . . . . .
All otherfish, pickled, imported otherwise than
in. barrels and half barrels, and not specified
SardinPs,' preserved in oil. . .•. .•.-.....-- -•,. -•.
Other fish, preserved in' oil.- -•.:.-.,-- .• -^ - . . . .
Fish glue ror i s i n g l a s s . ' . . , . . ; . . . . : ' . . . . ...i ..^
Pickles . . - . : . . ' . . . . - - - - . . ; . - - . . ^ i . . . ^ . - . - .
Capers ...:..:, . . . . . . , . . „ . . . . . - . . . . . . . . . . . .
Sauces of all kirids, riot .enumerated. - . . .
Castor o i l . . :
-,-..... .•........
Neatsfoot oil- -- -.:.. - . ...i^.-^. . • : . . . . . . . . . . . .
Animar oil, of other k i n d s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . : .
Volatile p i l . . -•_ - . . . . --.'..-- . ^ . . . . . . .
:..
Esse.ntial oils, not specified. ^:. ^ . . . . . . . - . . . , .
.Gums -•-•-:,:..-. . ' . v . ' . . . \ . ^ . : .^
• . . . . . . fi...
Other resinous substances, not specified, iri a
crude state . . . . . . . . . . . . . • _ / . . . . . . . . : ' . . . .
Pastes. -:.•
. . . . . . . . . . r^ -. . . . . i . . - . i . :^.
Balsams . . . . .
..;.
. ^...
.........
Essences-..:..,
. . - . . . . . . . . . . . . - . . . J. .-.Tinctures . . . . . . ' . . . . . ' , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
°..,..
Extracts •.'•
^........... .
Cosmetics...... . . . . . . . j . . . . , . , . . . . . . . ' . . .
Perfumes
. : . . . . -^ •..-: ^ . . . . . . . . . .
Other articles not enumerated,.... .'.:.•...., t r.
Benzoin acid
^ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ^..
Citric-acid...................... -........
White or yellow muriatic a c i d . . . . . . . . . . . -..
Nitric acid.
•.: - . -• ^ . . . . , ,
Oxalic acid
............................
-Pyroligneous acid . . ^ . . . ^ . . . . ; : . . . . . . . . . . .
Tartaric acid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . — . . . . . .
Boracic a c i d . . . . . . . - . . - . . . , - . . . . . , . . . . . . .
Borax . " . . . . . . . : . - . ' . . \ \ . . . . . . . . ' . - . . . . .^ ... ...^
Tincal......
. . ; „ . . . . . . . . ; . . . . . . . . ^.
Amber.....
...-....-.-....-...



10 cerits per bushel. : ;
io
. • dov •
70- cents per 112 Ibsv'.;
20 -: . . . d o .
: •: i
10- cents -per bushel.- •;
$1 per 112.,pounds. '"[
$1 50 per barrel,
dov-^
do.
:$2-- • .- ^ '^do. •
$ 1 ••.

•• d o .

'. \ ' ' - - - ^ - .

Ad valorerii-20 per cent,
'. do.. ^ .-do.- : .
- . do.- . -..do.
•do . 30 do.
.-. , do.
.
.do..
•

doi-

do.

'

>,

do. : - . . - d o . . ^ •
40 cents per. gallon..'.
Ad valorem 20 per cent.
• .do. . : :
: do.
do.
do;'
doi
do. S
.
do.
: do- •
• .
.do...
do.
'• do.
.. do.
do.
do. .
do.. do. .
do.. •
. .do..
•
do. ,
. . do.
do. •

.

do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
.do.
do.

15 do.
,.,.dQ.

•.

25 do.
.do;
;.:..:
.

do.

-

-do.
. do.
..do.

•

,
. -

do.

.'

20 do.:
do.
do.

do.,
do.

do.

•.
•

:

- '

. ^do. • '
5 do.
25 do. . •
20 do.
do.

1845.]

S E C R E T A R Y OF T H E TREASURY.

151

E—Coritinued.
Articles enumerated.

Ambergris . . - - - - . . . . . " .
...-•---.Ammonia.
.'... .....
....::.
Annatto...;.. ••.".. .'•.'•./...^......- - - - - . , Aniseed
:. fi . . . . - . . . . .
..
'.....
Arrowroot . - > . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . , . . , . . . . .
Vanilla beans . . , . . , . . . . . . . . . , . . . . : ....i. :>....
French c h a l k ; . . . . . . . . . . . . , . . . . . . ' . . . . . . . .
Red c h a l k . , , . . .
..,..,.. . ^ . . . , , . i....
Juniper berries.. -. -—'-.'....,, - - . . . . , . . . . . . .
Manganese. .•
: .^.•... ..:,:.\> . . . . : : . . .
Nitrate pf lead . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . j •.•:./,
'Chromate of potash
:•...-,.-.-.....;...:.,.
Bichromateof potash , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ^ . . . . . . .
Prussiate pf potash,.^...,
...............
Glauber s a l t s . - . . . . . . . . . .
, . , . . . . . .^..........
Rochelle salts-...
.;. . ^ . . . , . . . . . . . . . - . . . , . . . . .
Epsom salts -..,
J . .....'..... . 1 ; . . . . . . . . . .
Srilphate pf magnesia.:
.........:.....
All other cherriical salts and preparatioris of
salts not enumerated
-.r- >.- -T --.-.- .r —•
Smalt. - - . ^ L . . . . . . ' . - . . " . . . . . . . . . . . . . - - - . .
Sal soda - .•.. - . . . . . . - x j . ; . . . . . , . . . . : . ^ . . . . . . . ; . .
Carbonates..of soda, all. except soda ash, barilla, and k e l p . . . . . . . . - - Sulphate of quinine . 1..................,,.,..........., .
Soda a s h . . :•-.•..
. -r.>.............................
Spirits, brandy. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. other distilled', from grain, 1st proof...
;*
/
,
2d d o . . . .
I'
.
/ Sd ; d o . . . . .

[
1

1
I
1
1
1

.Rates of duty.

Ad valorem 20 per cent.
do:
do.
.do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do!
do.
do.
do.
do.

do.
do.
do. .
; do.
;do. .
do.
per gallon.
cents per ga:llon.
do.
do.
do.
db.
do.

$1
60
60
65
,
. '•:•
_ 4 t h . d p . . . . 70
5th , d o . . . . . 75
above 5tli> d o . . . . 90
distilled from other materials-^— .
do.
. •••1st ..prop'f... .......-..-.--.-.•:. .- 60
•
2d
do. . . . . .
- - - 1 - , - 60;
do.
do.
3d
d o . . . . . . . . . . . . . . , . . / 65
4th
d o . . . . . . . - . . - - - - . . , - 70
, do.
. 5th
do.
. , . , . ^ - . . , . . . ; . 76.do.
above 5th
do.
. . , . . - - - - . - - . 90 :
do.
do.
Wines, in casks or bottles, Madeira................ 60
. . . . .
' Sherry...-.----...., !50 . do.
. ;..' .St. Lucar..
. . . . 60do.
do
'-\
C a n a r y . . . . - , , , . . , . 60
do.
. ~
, ..
Champagrie....-. - 40
. ^




do.
do.
do.

[1845.

REPORTS OF,THE

152

E^—Continued.
Articles enumerated.

Rates of duty.

Wines, in bottles, p o r t . . . . . . .
.. ,
. . .35 cents per gallon.
do.
^Burgundy . . - . . - , , . - 35
do.
claret . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
do.
in casks, port. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15
do.
' Burgundy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
-do.
in casks or bottles, T e n e r i f f e . . . . . . . . 20
do.
' in casks, claret
.6
do.
white,, in casks, France . . . . . . . . . . . . -7ido.
;
A u s t r i a . . . . . . . . . . . . • 7i
do.
Prussia............
-7J.
do,
'
Sardinia.
.
...
Portugal, and its posdo.
sessions..-.
. . . ^7i
do.
white,- in bottles, France . . . . . .
. 20
6
- do.
red, in casks, France . . - . . . . . . . .
do.
Austria...... -. - . . . . - • 6
-do.
P r u s s i a - . . -. - . - - . . . . . . > 6,
do.
Sardinia.............
Portugal, and its posses6
do.
sions . -"-- - ---•.do.
in bottles, same as a b P v e . . . . — . . - - 20
do.
white arid red, in casks, Spain . . . . . . 12i.
do.
G e r m a n y . . . . 12i
'Mediterranean 12i
do.
in bottles, bf Spain . . •...
. - . . . . . . 20
do.
Germany
. . . . . . . . . . . . 20.
do.
Mediterranean..-.--.--^.... 20
do.
in casks or bottles, S i c i l y . . . .
— 25
do.
25
Madeira . do.
-V,
~ - M a r s e l q i ^ . . . . . . . . 25
do.
15
other wines of Sicily
do.
all other wines ;not enumerated, and
other than those- of Erance, Austria,
Prussia, Sardinia, and Portugal and
its possessions, in-bottles.....-. — . 65
do.
all other wines not enumerated, and
other than those of France, Austria,
Prussia, Sardinia, and Portugal and
its possessions, in casks . . . . . . - . - . . . 25
do.
Bottles in which wine is impoited,fiuideGISLSS.)
60
Cordials
do.
Liqueurs
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . : . . 60^
do.
60
Arrack . .
........
.,
do.
60
Absynthe . .
do
60
Kircherwasser.. . . ,
.-...:
do



1845.]

SECRETARY OF THE TREASURY.

153

E^Contiriued.
Articles'enumerated.

.

Rates of duty.

Ratafia and other beverages, not specified..... 60 cents per gallon.
20
do. •
Ale, in b o t t l e s . . . . . , . . . : . . .
do.
Porter, in bottles .-•:::. . - . . . . . . . . . ' - . . 20^
do.
Beer, in bottles... ::y J . . . . . . - . - - . - - . - 20
15 .
do.
Ale, otherwise than in bottles-. -,.-----"
15
do.
Porter, ,
do. ;
do. . . .
15
do. • .
Beer,
-do.
do....
Tpbacco, manufactured .".
. . . . . . . . . . . . Ad valorem 20 per cent..
"40 cents per pound..
Cigars, of aU k i n d s , . . '
..,.
Snuff .
.-- • .: •
-•--- 12
do.
Tobacco,'mariufactured, other -than snuff" and.
do. .
cigars
----- - - - - - - - - - - - .10
Articles for the use pf the United States- - - ^ - - .Free.
AU goods, wares, or merchandise,.the. growth
produce, or manufacture of-the.United States,
. exported to a foreign country,., and brought
back to the United States -- , . -..-...
... ,. ..dp..
.
.
Bopks of citizens of the United States, dying,
abroad.... - - . . . . . . . . . , . . . !.
.. . . d o ^ l
do.
.
•
Personal effects not merchandise of do.
do:
do.
Household effects '
do; ^
do.
do.
Paintings, the production of American, artists
residirig a b r o a d . . . . . . . . . - : . . - . - . . . . . . . . . . - . dp.
Statuary,
do.
-do.
do.
do.
Wearing apparel in actual use of persons arriving in the United States.
.......
do.
Personal effects not merchandise of do. ' do.
do.,
Professional books of
do. ^ do. do.
Instruments of trade, occupation, or employment, of persons arriving in the United States
do.
do.
Implements of
do.
-. d o /
do.
do.
Tools of
do.
do.
do.
Philosophical apparatus, specially irriported for.
philosophical or literary purposes, or for the
encouragement of fine arts, or" for the use
and by the order of any college, academy,
school, or seminary of learriing. in the United S t a t e s . . . . . . . . . . ..-.•..,, . 1 . - — • : . . .
do.
Instruments, imported for. same.purpose. — '.
do..
•
do.
Books,
do.
^do.
do. . : . . . :
Maps and charts, do.
do.
do. .
do.
.
Statues,
. do.
do.
do. .........
do.
•
do.
.
"
Statuary,
do.
'. dp. ..
do. . . . .-.
Busts and casts of marble, bronze, alabaster,
do.
.
, or plaster of Paris, for same purpose.-.. .*.



R E P O R T S OF T H E

154

[1845.

E-T7-Continued..
Articles enumerated..

Paintings, imported for the same p u r p o s e . . . .
Drawings,
do. . . .dp.. [ ; d o . , . . . . .
Engravings,
do.;
. do.. . do. . . . . .
Etchirigs, ^
dp.
dp.
dp. ........
Specimens of sculpture,
do. ... . d o . . . . . . . .
Cabinets of coins,.'
,
do.
,.do.,.,.;..
medals,
'
do.
do........
• gems, and all o t h e r , , : . d o . . . . . - .
collections of antiquities,, do. . , , , -.
Anatomical preparatipris.,
...--. ^,,
Models of machinery
•..................:.
Inventions and'irriprovements. in .the arts. , , - . .
Specimens iri natural h i s t o r y . . , . . , . . , . • . . 1 . .
niineralpgy, .&c. - - . - - - . . . ^ 1 . . 1
^
botany . . . ; . : . . - - - - 1 - - . -^ . . - .
Trees.'....-.:..
. : . . - - J . .... .•...'•.'. •.•.-.
Shrubs.. - - - -- - - -'- -. - . ' . , :,.,
...,..:.:.: ;
Plants . . . . . . . . . . . . J . . . . . . . . . . . - - 1 . . . - - - ' .
Bulbs or roPts..
. i.......,..,-*.,;-.,,..:....:
Garden seeds, not Ptherwise specified- - - . . - .^
Berries,, used principally in dyeing or. cpnipos.-,
irig dyes, i . . . . . , . - . ..'...'...'..:......:-.•. -. Nuts,
do.
dp.
. do. - , . - . - - ,
Vegetables, , do. .
doi
do. - - - - . . •
. All dyewoods'in stick . . . . . . , . . . - . - . , . . . . . . .
Whale oil, of American fisheries....,.,.- - , - Otherfish oU of . ,do. v d o .
.:...--.-.'.* AU Pther articles, produce of do. - - , . . . - . . : . .
Animals imported for b r e e d . - - • . - - - . . . . . . • . , . .
Fish, fresh caught, dmported for . daily c.o'n. sumption. .J
- . . . . . ' . . .-.L . . . . . . . . . . - . . .
Fruit, green or ripe, from the West. Indies in
bulk.--.......:..,,...----;....:.:'..:
Tea, when imported in America.n vessels from
the place of its growth or p r o d u c t i o n , . . . . .
Coffee,
: do:.
do./do. - - - . - . Adhesive felt for sheathing v e s s e l s , : . . . . . . . .
Alcornoqui.....
. . . . ....•.,.,...,.......-.
AlPes
......
.''........:...... ..•-.- -.Antimony, crude . . . . . . -,.
.
;A r g o l . . . . . : . . . . . - - : - , . .
...;.
.......
Asafoetida.-..--...
..-..-,' - .
Ava root . L . . . . . . . . . . . . .
, ....
...
Barilla:
..............
Bark) of cork tree, unmanufactured. . . . 1 . . . ' .



Rates of duty.

Free.
do..
do.:
. do...
do.
do.
do.
do.
;do.:^
..do..
do.
do.
do.
do,.
do.
do;
do.
do;
.do.
do.
do.
. do.
do.
.do;:
do;
do.
do.
do. .
:do.
dp.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.

1845.]

SECRETARY OF T H E TREASURY.
E—Continued;
Articles enumerated.

Rates of duty.

Bells or bell metal, old, and only fit to be remanufactured j. or parts, thereof,., - - . . . . . . Free.
Chimes of b e l l s . . . . . . . . . . . .
...: . . i - - . . . . . . . do.
do.
Brass, in pigs or b a r s . . . .
do.
.Old brass, only fit to be remanufactured...- - . do.
Brazil wood - - - . - . . . — -. - - -.-,--.-.- . - , . . . Crude brimstone ... - - - -.-.. — - . - - - -...-.. -•. ^ dp.'
Flour of sulphur.. -- - --- - 1 , . ; - . , ^ - - . . . . ; . .
do.
BuUion - - - - - - ^ - . - - . - . . - . - - iw - -'. V - - - - - ^ - do.
do;
Burr stones, unwrought- - - - - -... - -.--'- V . . : . : .
Cantharides . . . . \ . . . . . . . : . . . . . i->;^ - • - . - . . . . . .; do.- ~
Chalk . .
-.-.-- - - ..._... - - - - ::-.^ . - - -- - - - .: .; 'do.
do.
Clay,, unwrought -...'.. . ' • ' . . . . . . . . . .^..^ J . .-..
Cochineal. . . * . , ! . . . . . . . - . . . : . . . . , . . - - - ^ i i. :d0.l
Coins of gold.and silver .--.i..-. ^ • , . . : . . . . - - . . . ^do.
.Copper^ imported for the. useof the M i n t . . i .
do.
Cppper, in:pigs or ba:rs. -. *=.-.. ,.•;-----.-.•.>.. do.
Copper ore
. ' - . - - - . , . - . - . . . . . ^.-.- -• - : ^..-. - ^do.
Plates or sheets of copper^ for sheathing. ves"' sels, which is 14 inehes wide and 48 inches lorig, arid weighing 'from 14 to. -34 ounc0s
: the square foot. .-. .^ .;. ^. -•^^.-- - . ^-. - - - - do.
Old copper, fit only to- be remanufactured - - .
do;
Cream of tartar . . . . . . ' • . . : . - . : . . . . . . , . . v ^ . . . .
do.
Emery. - . . . . - - -.--..-. - - - - -.', - . J . [ . : . . . . . .
do.
.Flints. . , . ^.-r.-^.. , . . . . . — J : . . . . . ..'.•.
do.
Ground flint . ^ . . . . . . . . . 1 . - . -.".-.:. .^-^^.. : .-. do.
Gold b u l l i o n . . . . . . . . .
, . - J -- -. - -- . . . .
do.
Gold epaulets and wings . . . . . . . .
...-...•.
do.
Grindstpnes . . . . . . . . ' . . . . . . . . . . . . J . . . . . : . . .
do.
Gum: A r a b i c . . - - - - . - - - - . - - . . . . . . . . - - . . - . .
do.
- . Senegal. - - - - - : > . . . , ' . : — . . . . . , . • - . . . : . . .
clo.
.. • • T r a g a G a n t h . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . : - . ' . . . ; . . : do.
Iridia rubber, in' bottles, sheets, or otherwise,
unrrianufactured.....
. . . . . , ' . . . . . - - . . : .• do.
" Oldjunk-. . V . . . . . . . . : . . , . . . . . . . . . . . . '.... do.
Oakum . . . — . ' . . . , . .
.
do.
do.
Kelp;, ..^;. - -•-.--:-,.:.:.-^ . • - . : . . ; : . • . . . . - • - •
do.
Kerrnes, . . . . . . . . . . . . . : . , , . . - ; . . . . . . . . . . . . .
do.
Lac d y e . . . - ' J . J.
. . ; . . - . . ' . . 1... J , . ,>-...
do.
Leeches . , . . . . . . . . . . . . .
J..........;..:
\ M a d d e r . . . . - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..fi. , 1 . .
do.
do.
Madder root. . , , . . . - - . - . . . : . . ' . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
do.
Mother-pf-pearl..........................',
Nickel.:....
.... '..'.........;....'..... dp.



15'5

[1845.

REPORTS OF THE SECRETARY, &c.

156

" • '. .

E—Continued.
Rates of duty.

Articles enumerated. .

Free.
. '
Nux vomica
do.
Palm leaf, unmanufactured.'....
do.
Palm o i l . . :
Peruvian bark . . . . . .
.. r - T - -. - ----.-.- do. , .
Pewter, when old aiid pnly fil.to be renianudb.
. factured . . . ..-..,----.----.-- — .
Platina, unmanufactured - - - , . . - - , - - - - - - - - . • d o .
Ivory, • unmanufactured . - - . . . - - . - - — --.-,-- 'do.
Plaster of Paris, unground . . . , , , . . . , . • . . . - do.
Ratans; arid reeds, unmanufaptrired . . . . . . . . .
do. "
Rhubarb
j
.•
; :• do.
Saltoetre. when crude
. . 1 . . . . . . . . ' . d o . . • •• • , . , , . . . .
Sarsaparilla
-.:....
.^
:. d o .
Shellac
....:'.:.-.
do. .
Silver b u l l i o n ! . . . . . . . . . . . . ' . . . . . . . . . , , — ,
do.
' :
Silver epaulets and -wings..'.
do.
; . .
Stones called polishing stones .,. -:- . . . . . . . , :
do.
Stones called rotten stone
do.
Sumac :
........-.....,:...'..
do.^ Tartar, "when crude.
.
do.. .
Teutenegue . . . .
do.,
Weld.
dp.
Woods, of all kinds, when unmanufactured,
not herein enumerated
d o . .. V
'
Fish, .fresh caught, brought in for daily con• sumption
•do.,
; •.:
;.:.
.
On all articles not herein enumerated or proAd valorem 20 per cent.
vided for
•NOTES.
(a) 1842, .August 30.—"That all manufactures of cotton, or of which cotton s.hall be a^
component, part, not dyed, colored, printed",,or stainedj not exceeding in value 20 cents, per
square yard, shall be valued at 20 centsper square yard ; and if dyed, colored,, printed, or ^
stained-, in whole or in part, nqt exceeding in value 30 cents the square yard, shall be valued
at.30 cents per square yard, excepting velvets, cords, moleskins, fustians, buffalo cloths,"or
goods manufactured by napping or raising, cutting or shearing, not'exceeding in value 35 cents
the square yard, shall be valued at 35 cents per square yard, and duty be paid thereon accord(6) 1842, .August SO.—"All. cotton twist, yarn, and thread, unbleached and uncolored, the
true valiie of which at the place whence imported shall be less than 60. cents per pound, shall
be valued at 60 cents per pound, and shall be charged^ with a duty of 25 per*, centum ad..valorem ; ail bleached or colored cbtton twist, yarn, and thread, the true, value of which at the place
whence imported shall be less than 75 cents per pound, shall be valued at 75 cents per pound,
and pay a duty of 25 per centum ad, valorem."
. •
;
.•
'

.

•

.

•

-J

.

• •

•

.

-

•

•

.

•

•

,

•

•

•

(c) 1842, Jlugust^SO.—" That-braces or suspenders, of that material, not exceeding in value
two dollars per*dozen, shall be valued at two dollars per dozen, and pay duty accordingly." •
'(d) 1842, August 30.—"That all such.buttons, not exceeding in value one dollar per gross.,
shall be valued.at one dollar, and be charged with duty accordingly.'.'


THIRTEEN SEPARATE TABLES,
SHOWING THE

IMPORTS OF THE VAUIOUS DESCRIPTIONS OF IRON,
.-AN-D I T S MANUFACTUKES,

.-.

IMPORTED EACH YEAR SINCE THE ORGANIZATION OF THE GOVERNMENT
'
TO THE PRESENT PERIOD;
WITH

.

THE VALUE AND RATE OF BUTY.




'

.

•0\

.00

Tahles showing the Imports ofi the various descriptions ofi Iron j and its manufiactures, imported each year since the organization ofi
the Government [tothe present period; withthe value and rate ofi duty.
• ;•

•

I R O N .

.

•

Gtuantity.

"

Value.

.

- .
"

Rate of duty.




-

•

•

•

-

"

''. . '

•

-

•

.

"Value.- ,

.

.

.

.

^

STEEL,

•

•

Value.

Gluantity.

.,

1 cent.per lb.

_•

1 cent per. lb.

.'- -

---. "

•

.Rate of duty.

. -

• "

.

•

^

•

Rate of duty.
iQ 75 per 112 lbs.
1 00 per cwt.

-

•

..

•

.

-

.

280,237 lbs.
279,553 "
.353,485 "
,275,934 "
457,189 • "
407,936 "
• 284,742 .•-•." •
812' " 176,960 "
280,215' *
*
48,808 "
" 94,874 "•
23,115 "
2,560 "

'

_

w
O

K
•

•

•

o

.

.. " '
^

.

• " .

-

- •

•

•

•

SPIKES.

Q^uantity.

'
'. . 1 cent per lb.
...
1790
1791
1792
-" 2 cents perlb.
1793
1794
1795
1796
1797
1798
1799
1800
1801
3,120,6911bs. .
1802:
3,113,083 ' *
• . 1803
3,674,769- ' «-.
1804
3,819,198 * '
- - . . .- -..
1805
3,503,379 ' '
1806
3,059,529 ' '
,1807
3,072,238 ' '
- .
1808
156,253 ' *
1809
1,021,483 ' ' • •
1810
2,112,223 ' '
-.
.
.1811 . 212,389 ' ' . . .. - ^
.4 cents per lb..
1812
739,462 * *
1813
. 206,771 *< .-._ .
-'
1814
86,568 ' *
-

^

-

NAILS.

Years.

:

'". --

•

'

'

.

-.
,

-

-• - ':
-

"

.

•

•

•

"

;

.

•

'

•

•

•

' .

-

-

'

.

•

•

.

. -

.

;

-

•

-

.

•

-

•

- . •-'.
2 cents.per lb. •
- .:.
- .
-

' { '

.

•

:

•

14-,844 cwt.
11,326 : '
7,394 '
10,]98 '
9,717 '
12,228 '
.^ 10,604 '
7,079 '
12,452 *
11,043 * *' .
3,411 * (
7,958,435 lbs.
5,424 cwt.
.6,378,117 lbs. ,

.
• 2 O per cwt.
Q

-.
'

00
C71

.1815
- ;•
1816
i»'
18171818. \ 1,087,889 •*«
364,563 "
1819
220,682".
1820
678,554 "
1821
890,643 *-'
1822
' 581,639 ^'.
1823
404,617 "
1824.
393,863 '- .
1825 •
230,996 '
1826
502,457 '.
1827
1828. ' . . 653,655 '
532,407 ' '
1829
613,704 '
1830,
' 814,748 ' .
1831
746,544 '
1832 '
1833. •. • 686,228 '
'610,833 '
1834
1,068,733 "
1835
1,261,554 ".
1836
619,165 "
1837 •
837,661 " .
1838-'
1,659,534 .'
1839
715,191. "
1840.
939,899 • "
1841
1842-.- • 773,936 *
149,473- " ,
1843.610,694 "
1844




•

3 cents per lb.

.

4 cents per lb.

--, '
- •
' - - • •

$41,953
23,739
46,080
46,625
36,723
40,906
52;597
47,130
48,399
51,886
77,647106,283
66,315
70,159
140,88962,477
81,951
65,792
13,260
43,423

- .
_
.
'' .-,-•.-.5 cents per lb.
..

-

•

•

_

5 cents per lb.
.

- . - - -

^

•

-

. -

-

'

• • . -

•

5 cents per lb. •
Compromise.

•

-'
-..
- ...
- . .
-

'

• - . . •

•

-

"

•

•

•

3&.:4cts. pri lb..
.

•

•

. '

•

-

.

.

•

•

2 cents per lb.-

,

262^664 "
165,679 " .
38,625 "
' 87,798 "
182,100 "
77,028- . " r
103,555 "
25,B87 " ^
.34,426 "
. 52,011 "
82,59.8 "
80,511 . "
37,873 "
. 75j999 "
150,623 "
108,263 "
226,444' •"
159,994 "
295,324 "
•974,448 "
, 353,073 .'"
468,988 " .
104,134 ."
105,390 "
; 13,687- "
• 6,'247 ."
19,243 "•

..
- .'
-.
-.
-

$1,191
1,328
2,624
3,598
3,315
• 1,391
- 3,175
5,635
4,134
11,240
6,885
15,804.
49,614:
18,556
24,957
5,032
5,436
523227
713

'

3.centsper lb;

. \

•

-

•

•

-

•

'

•

4 cents per lb.
' .

_

-

-

'•

•

•

- .-

4 cents per lb.

'"
.

•

.

-

• -

. . -

4 cents per lb. ..
Compromise."

•'•

•

\ :

•

•

-

•

-

'

•

'

•

•

.

-"

.

•

. -

-

.

-

'•

.. '
- •

.

•

'

;

.

•

•

.

•

•

-

-

_

-

•

3 cents per lb.
•

"

•

-

.

,

.

•

.

-

'

•

.

-

.

• "

•\ »^

t o o per cwt.

11,343 cwt..
8,461 •" . .' . . 0
7,802 • "
11,570 "
$131,291
16,098 "
189,613"
20,551 "
224,595
'21,954 "
236,405 1 00 per cwt.
26,675 ."
291,215,
36^525 "
384,235
25,012 " . 310,197
35,660 "
430,425 1 50 per cwt.
24,000' "
289,831
24,472 "•
•291,957
34,203 " 399,635
54,929 " :. ,645;510 1-50 per cwt.
42,629. "
523,116. Compromise.
48,623 "
554,150
52,116- " • • 576,988
57,570 "
686,141
. 61,234 " - 804.,8'17
38,145 " . 487,334
59-,174 "
:•• 771,804
44,506- "
528,716
'" ' ' '\
51,270 "
609,201
.55,428 "
. 597,317
16,624 1'
201,772 $i50&$250pr.'cwt.
42,704 "
,487,462
" •

•

•

'

00-

w

o

g
>

• ^
!>

w
cl

CD

F—Continued.
:
A N C H O R S AND S H E E T

IRON.

o

IRON.

IRON AND S H E E T W I R E .

. .

T A C K S , : B R A D S , A N D SPRIGS.

Years.
R a t e of d u t y .

' Value.

Gluantity.

Gluantity. .

Value.

- Gluantity.
^ '

R a t e of duty.-

Advalorem.7|p.ct.
1790
1
^ u • • r
Free
• .1791.
. ^-s - • '
A d v a l o r e m l O p . ct.
Free. '
• " - "
1792
fe§. •
• ^ ^ f>-l
•
1793
_ '- .. .Free
- - A d valorem 15.p. ct.
bSi-P'
• * fl ,
1794.
• • - tUOo
1795
1796o
-1797
. •. 1 1 ,1798
:• ' < v n
•
•
•-- ^ ^ § ' - • ^
' . - - -- - . - - -^ ''
1799
•
^ a
•• ' "
-.- '.
^*^,
1800
" ]'• ' : ' ' '
' ' ' \'
.2 ^ ^ 1801. . • . s | ^ ;
•
, ' " ' - - . , " ' ',
•
•
;
r
. - • - ' .
' •
•
.1802:
'. .^803: J - ' ..fX4. . . . . . . . . . . I
^
o
- •
•
.- -.
t3-.«3
:
^ 2^
A d valorem'17| p . ct.
• ^ 1 8 0 4 : . : .-.•:.-278,642Jbs.'
...- . .-••
^.^..|1B05-. , -•!^742,28TfV^}
. -fl
-'-•- ZX:.'^-^-^^---r^ . - - - • fl TiJ ..w . ••. "• -. ••-,-.
-- > • . v .
..r--l'806-" T^ - : ^ 8 2 ; 2 3 r % i ^.>»-rtc.w.,^l:.'
.i^:--^ .s_.^^.g... ^ 1807;: :'^ -846,008 " - %fi''^'••^•^^,fi - ^ ' • • . i ! : ' - - • : • - " . . ' : i . , . - ' . - - w - | ; ^ / , • . . . - : . ,
sa: - •
-.'•v.
. . . . . .
• -Isogt- ^: •-323,757 '.' - . ' : • / ? . . - - . • , ' • ' ' " ''3M:-^fi'^^-^-::fii'fi':^. :-....'.-.•t:H''S>-iiv.••..'•''. .,^-J. ._.•;.- ' .
---•
0-.
"
^. ..gvO^.-.... ... ...
. •'• - " ^ V - . -^••'
:.- 804,679- " ' •fij'^^jif::^: y-. •
. .. - - , 0 - l 3 - .o
'
: ^852,949-^^.
:' :'^fi- ''•>x '•:':-" -\' ••^ • . -05. ' ^ - •a-•- . . .
cn- Ui .o
/^- :286,286^-:"'
• ' • - ' ^ • ^ - fl.>:::::566:;i50:."
A d valorein 30 p i c t .
•1812
Free
. . ' . ' : =5.1
•. •
fl
• cj
^.. - i-"^
.
rt• '•••
r
.' •
• 18,13, : . - 2 2 6 , 8 6 5 .-M
O o .5. •
. -1814' *-:^ 1:53,736.:-'j
. - f£ - ' v
"
_
:
1815
1816
. A d v a l o r . * 2 0 p . ct.
-- -. .
. ". -. '.
1817
. <J
1818
81,588 lbs. (fcM. ,.
: . - . . • - . -. ^,. 286,662 lbs..
309,477 "
1819
21,113
•*
.
•

• •

-•

:

"

-

•

•

"

•.

.

•

-

•

•

-

•

•

•^s -

•

1803 inc
I aggrega
.ying ad
y importa

-

• _ _

.

_

' ^

'

>

" ^

-

:

•

•

^

^

•

•

"

'

:-mfy^

-'

•

-

.

.

'

.

-

.

.

_

•

;

-

•

"

•

- '

-

.

-

•

•

•

•

'

•

•

-

.

.

-

.

.

.

_

-

•

• •

_

•

•

•

•

'

^

•

•

' .

"

-

:

•

-

.>

'

.

•

" -

•

-

-

•

- . . - . ' .
- . .

. . ' • - . .

_ • •

••''

'•

-

:

•.':"•-...

• :

>

-

• ' - : ^ ' -

.

•

•

•

'

-

• - • - • ' • ' '

.

-

.

•

-

'

•

•

"

• • •

'

'

.

.

'

•

•

•

-.,

' ; > • • .

-

. . ' • - •

•.

.

.

.

.

-

-

.

•

.

.

'

•

"

.

Ad valorem 1 7 | p . c t .

.

•

:

:

-

:'• -

.

'

•;•'

'•••

.

-

' •

- •

.

.

.

.

.-

A d v a l o r e m 3 0 p . ct.

-. .- "

A d valorem 20 p . ct.

•

.

•

.

.

_

•

• .

-

•

•

••,.. . v>l •

• •

.

'

...

-

'.

:

•

'

• •

>,.

•

•

•

:

-

..•••-'

•

.

.

- .

•

-

•

•

• -

; ;

- . .

- -

15p.ct.

.

~ * . ^ . - ^

fifi-'Wfi-'
•

- d valorem
A

§>^' .

'•

-

-

. - V

•

-

.'•

•

_

-.- -^1' -.

;

. . - " • • • - - " • . .




-

.

:

#1!:

'

•

'.•--.-.•

- - - • . ' •

•'••-"•'

im.

.

. . - • •

. . .

• ; ^ - .

-

. . -

- " — ' . " '

•

.:

"'.

•

Ad.valorenl 10 p . ct.

-

'

.

•

•

•

•

.

•

A d valprem 5 p . ct.
•

•

.

'

.

R a t e of d u t y .

-

'

•

Value.:

-

-

-

'•

.

•

.

,

'

•

-

-

.

:

•

.

.

.

.

.

.

-

•

•

•

5c.p,M.&4c.p.lb:"

,

^
1820
1821
1822
1823
<i 1824
O 1825
^ 1826
<j 1827
^ 1828

.•




.

.

, =
-

I 1829
! ; 1830
^ 1831
1832
1833
1834
18351836
1837
1838
1839
1840
1841
• 1842
1843
1844

^

• .

-

•

"

•

-

•

-

127,866
305,389
784,491
618,922
769,377
826,994
756,660
846,910
1,338,524
463,145.
592,733
608,779
662,995
519,756
236,572:
260,388;
533,135
649,086
183,510
547,999
220,474
201,134
474,095
55,9:68
105,524

"
" .
* •i
*
**:
" '
."
*'
" ,i
" •
"
«
<
< . .
«
"
**
"
**
"
"
<
*
"
*'
"
" :'
."
" :

- 23,506
47,908
$35,884
102,361 ,--- • - 41,256
123,044
"
77,139
101,203 Ad valorern 25perct.' 39,343
37,485
91,539
90,401 : :- - 19,163
22,533
- 79,257
M.
117,467 '6 and 10 cts. .per lb: 21,859
18,714
<
«
51,170
14,499
59,485 : - • . " 29,877 . ."
67,718
91,069 5 and 9 cts. per lb. 32,8851bs.&M.
8,270,.
"
52,643 Compromise. "
; 6,803
32,284
«
*
35,063
-, ' . - - 12,195
.13,752:
«
. 52,854
6,385 ' *
*
62,428
4,463- . **
19,496 6,917
«
«
44,874 - •
15,696
•. - . 4,234
.7,808
**
15,146 ; -27,846
- - '• - 4,379
6,154 5, 8, (fell cts. perlb. '2,649
16,321
'
' ' .' 161,877
:

.

'

-

•

.

-

-

1 - .

1

-

-

•

.

' . -

-

•

-

'

•

;

•

'

.

.

.

.

-

.

-

.

.

;

.

•

.

-

'

.

-

' •

'

V

-

'

'

'

.

•

'

-

'

-

-

.

'

00
C^

•

LIJ

-

,

.

-

-

•"

.

•••

-

•

>-*

-

•

-

-

'

'•

-- . -

^ " • • -

•

Sc.prM.&'Sc.prlb.
$9,293
4,135
4,391
5,133 5 cents p e r M .
4,249
2,799
4,297
3,394 5c.pr«M.&5c.prlb.
1,435 Compromise.
1,210
2,008'
2,914
• 1,188
773'
1,102
874
1,064
698
344 5c.prM.&5c.prlb.
1,908

'

w
t^
o

s
H
H
>
^
^
O

1-^

-

-:

>

w

a
n

Oi

F—Continued,
iN3

IRON.
NAIL OR SPIKE RODS. .

S H E E T OR H O O P .

Gluantity;

• "--^i
y

.

cd c~i

^ B>-§

• .
Ad valorem 10 pr ct.
- Ad valorem 15 pr ct.

.
•

M

Ad valorem 7 | pr ct.

'

"73

•43

-

Gluantity.

Rate of duty.

•

Id

-

•

-

-

.

Ad valorem 10 pr ct.

CD

•

,.^
_
..^
.,

.

'

.

Ad valorem 17g pr ct.

hSS^

.

•

-

'

. it
. ' • ^

••"''

- .
'-

•

.

Ad valorem 15 pr ct.

..fcUO--'

Advalorem 17| prct.
-

Ad valorem 10 pr ct.

:'^^ '

^

-.- i ^
•
.
_
• .-^p .Ti fl
- ? = .<
^
'
fl '^'
0 c
d
Ad valorem 30 pr ct.
.
0 >->
r
•
' 50 per cwt. _ • - 0 s.' .
_
•$2
^• S •
-' •
•S
-.
- ' • fe.
- , .
.
^

Advalorem 7 | pr ct.

0

ed

- •.

-

_

• -

•

_;. • ! § . .
,.
•' •
%M
.
0 c
d
fl >
_
_ - . -. : . "TT^
- •
S cd
Ad valorem 30 pr ct.
0 0 bf) '
rH fl.
. - _"' — _
,^'^
_
. .
• s> ^
..
' - •
Ad valorem 20',pr ct,
' ._
-

•

•

.

-

_

-

.

•

"

.

-

•

-

-

•.

,

•

_

•

.•

•

•

•• l : : ;

_

''•
•
' • '

•

Advalorem 17| prct.

-

.. . .S2 . ..
Jl
- • '

. - - •

Rate oif duty.

Ci

•

_
Ad valorem 15 pr ct;
" '' .

- ^

Value.

TQ

•

• -

:

•




Value.

Ofl

17,856'cwt.
18,315 "
12,520 "

Gluantity.

Ad valorem 5 pr ct.

r

15,355 lbs.
169,525 "
271,063 *'•
834,200 •"
'390,959 "
217,272 "
759,337 '"f
175,856 "
599,553 "•
183,739 "
..358,956 "'.

Rate of duty.

Value. •

' ^ "^feOT

From -17!dO to 1803 in(
the ge neral aggrega
' articles1 paying ad
'rates, i f any importa

1-790
1791
1792
1793
1794
1795'
1796
•1797
1798
17991800
1801
1802
1803
1804
1805
1806
.1807
1808
1809
1810
1811.
J812
1813
1814
1815
1816
1817
1818
1819
1820

^

B A N D , S L I T , OR R O L L E D .

gregate'bf all
portations.

Years.

-

:

_
'-

'

•

_

-

;

• •

-

' - '

' B
0

.

.

•

'

-

'

- -'

Ad valorem 30 pr ct.

Ad valorem 20 pr ct.

24,122 "
1821
37,424 ."
1822
39,914 "^
1823
1,088,858 lbs.
1824
18'25 . 2,106,677 "
2,407,867 ^'
1826
4,419,732 '«
.1827
6,551,642 "
1828
2,441,024 "
1829
2,326,796 "
1830
5,6.72,779 "'
1831
6,391,578 "
1832
7^505,246 ".
1833
4,960,516 *'
1834
4,508,005 "
1835
8,115,800 '.*
1836
11,293,703 "
1837
5,679,796 *'
1838
7,412,382 "
1839 .
5,529,585 "
1840
8,166,550 '''
18-41
8,061,941 ":
1842
2,608,548 "
1843
4,456,018 "
1844




..

..

-

«

•

r
: 3 cents per pound.
$88,111
^
88,438
^
.135,759
236,794 31 eents per pound.
' 89,057
59,822
151,909.
182,559 3 cents per pound.
245,848 Compromise.
190,237
133,639
325,671
- ^
504,473
208,192
354,933
235,809
-.
376,075
296,679
. 134,206 2 | cents per pound.
152,771
.

-

•

.

\

-

-

-

•

•

' . -

*

•

•

•;

*

.

.

-

'

•

2,307
3,249
: 240
840,986
985,909
7,282
32,848
227,160
126,542
214,240
1,553
3,702
24,925
1,064
3,191
80,404
1,108
3O,?60
40,269
11,902
43,165

lbs5.
"
"
'' :
" .
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"

$339
. 106
17
13,273
28,176
234
784
4,585
2,063
6,080
. 77
: 244
1,301
. 33
- 94
2,291
24
613
860
515
1,324

'

.

&

(*)

00
Ol

'•

Scents perpound.
•

-

.

'. -

- ; •: r ..'3g cents perpound.

- .
"
-

3 cents per pound. •
Compromise.

.

-

-

-

'

J

-

-

.

.-.
-.
-

- • :

...

.

^

i . .

- •

•

^

__

•.

-

•

.

-

2 | cents per pound.
-

.

- •

.

6,832 lbs.
70 "
2,458- "
111,286 "
97,909 "
2,845
23,234
7,334
26,556
8,625
• 85
137
458
121,998
23,213
34,470
• 33,404
• 49,714
26,408
- 130,184

"
*'
"
"
**'
"
"
"
"
"
<
*
"
"
,"
«'

$457 3 cents pet* pound.
7
3,946
6-,489
2,931 3 | centsper pound.
81. 724
176 3 cents per pound.
2j063 Compromise^
230

w
O

P^

• 5
•

5
-36
2,712
886963
1,161
1,023
1,292 2 | cents perpound.
6,109
........

O

M

'^See page 166—Manufactures of iron paying ad valorem rates not specified.

w

a

CO

F—Continued.
IRON.
J.

PIG.

BAR, HAMMERED.

BAR, ROLLED;

—.

Year.
Ciuantity.
1790.
1791
1792
^ o
1793
cd"i2
•1-794.
1795
1796
1797
... :t.c3:'fl
1798
1799
^.•:Si^
1800"
1801
1802 ,
1803 • "• - s "
1804 '
••U'P'
.1805 :
1806 ;
1807
1808- . - . : c r > ' ^ '
1809
:E^:^
1810
1811
.:0.^
1812
1813
• ^ ^ 1
1814
1815
1816 J
fe
1817

1 "
^
«*H

. -

—

;
;

-

'

:••

/

•

•

•

-

•

•

&

•

. - '.
10 per ct.

-Ad~val. 4-5-per et.

_
-

'

^

.

.

:

'

•

•

"

'

•

•p.

-

Rate of duty.

^
^ ,;;
O M

_.

Ad val. 5 per cent.

-

Ad val. 10 per ct.

Ad val. 71 per ct.

.

-.Ad val.

•

lO.per ct.

-.:

-^

,rt:-;




cu fH

^'
_ '.

.-.-.;•

n3 'O

^:.cd

-

•

•

0 0 .fl

•

-

..
.

'

•

•

-

•

.

A:d..val. 30per.ct.
^

• • —

•'II :

-

•

.(3^

'^.'S

.

-.

'
-

$1 50 per cwt.

<U.

J

.fe

I

.

.

'

-

' -.

t

.

•

.

-

••'.§>.g--

.

.-

..-"

'•

;

.

:

• ^ .

-•-

i

!
-

.

.

;

-

•

-

,

•

.

.

'.

'

'«'i:'
fl''^-,

i i

^ o

•

- i Ad val. 175 per ct;.

•'

f :
^

-

•

..

• l
-

i

•

'.'

1

' ' ' . '. ' 1
'

'. I-I r—{

L-Cb-^

•^"•g^.-

-•

'

• ' ;

.

.

-

S fl
C 03

:&.^

..-

.- '.
.- .
.- .
_ : ., 'Ad-val. 171 per ct.' •
•
_
. .." °
i
.:
.—
,.
.—
'- •
-. '
.

-

......
•

. 'J

-

- . - . « •

-

>.fl ''^..

'••'

-

.
-'.-.

.
.

-Ad.val.lS-p-^r'ct. •:

Ad-val. IS-per-ct.

. — .
•
--..
'

.

Ad-val. 171 per ct..

•

.

:^"fi
fl «

•

-

•

' ;- .

,

,

-

•.

Qi t t u

,

.

-

:|l

'. . * •--.
.:
:.

•

:..
, ...
-.'

'•
.

- •

,

.

•

inclu
dval

.

-

- .'
..

,;-

^

,

.

•If. :
^

•

~ **^ .1
^-fl

_

Value.

'•cd '-3

• - • § • " ' • •

:

.Ad val.

-

^^f:
'

•

Ad val. 7^ perct.

i.

.-

, .

Gluantity,

Rate of duty.

Value.

Gluantity.

Rate of duty.

Value.

; ; ,

'

\

.

•

;

- - •;
-

:

.

.

•

•

.

.

•

-

-

; ; • &
•

^

Adval. 30per ct..,:

.-

•

.

• o .•

'

•

-

. .

•;

•

:

i.

Ad val. 30 per ct. •
i

r - I O

•. j

-

45 cents per cwt. "', J
•

: . - | i
fe

•..

i Ad Vd. 20 per ct, ;

:

53,97,9 cwl
1818.
51,290 "^
1819. i
59,385^ "•
1820 \
.
1821 [ c 43,684.^ **
101,334 *'
1822. i
106",933 *'
1823
115,809 "
1824
85,010 "
1825
88.j741 '
*
1826
162,052. "
1827
205,897 "
1828.
66,.408 "
1829.
138,981' "
1830
304,918 "
1831
• 427,745- "
1832.
560,566 "
1833
577,927 "
1834.:
568,204 <*
1835
933,514 *
*
1836
956,792 "
,1837
723,48a "
1838.
1,205,697 "
1839;
656,574 "
1840
1,261,118.' "
1841.
1,231,985 "
1842:
1843 . 315;i57. "
757,824 *'
1844




$1 50 per cwt.
$224,497
223,259
347,792
441,000
119,326
226,336
544,664
701,549
1,002,750
1,187,236
1,050,152
2,131,82.8..
2,573,367
1,825,121
3,181,180
1,707,649
2,172,278
2,053,453
511,282
1,065,582

$1 85 per cwt.

$1 50 per cwt;
Compromise.

$25 per ton.

298,438 cwt*
324,933 '•389,797 "<
343,094 *'532^805 *'
591,880 "
425-^906 *
*
492,998 "
467,515 ".
440,200 "
667,849- "
.66,039,460-lbs.
68,752,943 "
52,232,192 "
85,456,164 "
722,486 cwt.
.-635,698 "
630,584 "
658,752 *
*
626,512 "
' 426,389 *
*
711,153 "
576,381 "
; 592,108 *'
390,236 *'
125,081 "
236,451 "

75 cents per cwt.

90 cerits per cwt.
$1,562,146
.1,590,350
1,323,749
2,141,178
1,884,049
1,730;375
1,260,166
1,929,493
1,837,473
1,742,883
1,641,359
1,891,214
2,017,346
1,166,196
2,054,094
1,689 r831
1,614,619
1,041,410
. 327,550
583,065

1 cent per lb.

90 cents per cwt
Compromise.

.3,970 cwt.
6,634 "
6,584 "
18,356 "
23,614 "
49,607 "
15i856 "
16,309 "
34j092, <«
35,118 "
69;937 "
22,771 "
22,499 *
»
138,967 "'
203i025 "
186^60r "
222,265 "
245,917 "
170,822^ "
282,571 "
243,830 "
250,154 "

il0,3ll "

$17 per ton.

245,353
373,881
• 77,461.
298,880

"
"
**
"

50 cents per cwt.

OQ...

Ol

50 cents per cwt.
$36,513
67,004
• 46,881
93,025
28,811
25,644
160,681
222,303
217,668
270,325
289,779
272,978
422,929
319,099
285,300
114,562
223,288
295,284
48,251
200,522

621 cents per cwt.

a
pi

50 cents per cwt.
Compromise*..

•

$9^perton.

^

g,
pi-

§

Ol-

F-—Continued.
IRON.
ANCHORS

Years.

•.
Value.

Gluantity.

Ad val. 15 per ct.
'

•

•.

_

.

.

"

• ^ -"cd

,'

-

•

.

.

rH hD
OOfl

-

-

_

' ' '^ >^

-

.

•;• i § .

T

•^ '

•

%

••.
.

•

.

faj)-^

,

•

.^

,.
.

•

.

.

_

-

•

'

'•

r

.

.

'

Ad val. 30 per ct.

-"

.. ^ _
:
•• • ' • '

' •!•

.

'

^

^

00

tUD

o/F^ - *^

O

cd

&H

• -

•

. ^^
r-=H
s-^ •

FH

fe

W)g.

•

-- ,
'"

-'""'"" '

15,915 cwt.
19,099 "
6,202 *'

••

Ad val. I 2 | and .
17| per cent;
•

•'

<U JH

'

i t '

. >^ o .
' -

' w

. ^

•
•

Ad val. 30per ct,

•

-

'

R tOD

o

75 cents per cwt.
p

- ....

...
/ ,

- . '

s,

•

" .

•Ad val, 10 and 30
per cent.

"..

Ad val. IQ per ct,

•-

^

^

. g f

-

-

•

rH

2 cents perlb".

•'

• .Ji-:-

r-

-

.. '" -. .,\

''•

- -^1' " '

' ^ • ^ . 1
Id' >:.
. '^ fl

.

~

r

L

:

Ad val.:iO and 15 "
per cent.

03

- .

•-.:

• ~

•

-

.

r

$1 50 per cwt:

• ' - _

'

•'

Ad-val. 5 per ct.
Adval. lOper ct.

•

'

"cd'-^

•

"

Ad val, 171 per ct.

•
; . . '

.

. ~
•

•

fi

%

O

'-.
'-_
"

-:
-

Rate of duty.

• fl ^

- :
•

fi^

--

~
-

•

•

.

•^.

" " ' • : ' •

:

-I

•

(7,

• •-.:-

'

-

._
\

'
. ''^'.,

•

Value.

cd

Ad val. 15 p..er ct.
-

-

-

^

.

...

Ad val. 17| per ct,

-

-

•

:

_

Gluantity.

•

_

'

.

113,8571bs.
205,370 '^
79,252 «
.
*




•

-

°g. •

is-"
: | l -.
- tL, : '

• .

'

•

••

^

:ti • •
1^ • .
- z ^

-

?^ o

,

fl

•

Ad val. 10 per ct.

§)3 •

cd --12

_
>.' .
'1dv>~. . ,
, -. . _
_
. ^^- ^ .
- . :
-

Ad val. 7 | per ct.

o fl •

Ad val. 10 per ct.

' .M

Rate of duty.

_
-

Ad val. 7 | per ct^

M

•

Value,

;:_-.. _

Rate of duty.

• fi

^3
O

^

i

Gluantity.
1790
1791
1792
1793,
1794
1795
1796
17971798
1799
1800'
1801
1802^
1803
1804
1805
1806
1807
1808
1809
1810
1811
1812
1813
1814
1815
1816 J
1817
1818
1819
1820

M A N U F A C T U R E S O F I R O N P A Y I N G AD V A L O R E M
RATES NOT SPECIFIED.

CASTINGS.

'

^

"

^ .

•

/

^

-

Ad vaL 20 per ct.

72,580
1821
193,817
1822
114,580
1823
147,064
1824
49,262
1825
46,680
1826
67,371
1827
55,640
1828
54,023
1829
22,672
1830
54,771
1831
. 78,921
1832
322,904
1833.
224,763
1834
222,152
1835
235,419
1836
183,708
1-837
.195,252
.1838
' 291,728
1839
154,227
1840
251,867
1841
1842
196,594
1843
52,839
1844^ ^ 84,434




1

$3,050
/2,502
2,901
3,535
2,979
1,121
2,287
•4,987
17,891
11,940
11,496
13,007
11,063
11,741
16,347
•8,876
13,466
9,911
2,944
3,397

\

7,037 " !
10,663- "
14,221 "
'
12,925 '*
2 cents per lb."
1,618,975 lbs. •
1,432,976 '*
...•(.1,103,113 "..
- '
1,133,140 "
2 cents per lb."
• 1,248,157 "
1,157,256 "
1,174,510 "
2,999,039 "
2 cents per lb."
6,080,156 "
Compromise - , 6,831,109 "
1
2,077,088 - "
2,025,054 "
3,016,026 "
.' - "
- ' 2,190,588 "
-^2,921,877 "
. . .
.
3,624,488 " |,
3,981,002 "
' "
- 2,769,095 "
852,205 " ,
2i cents per lb.
1,146,724 "
-

'•

-

-

. . .

V

-

•

-

".;•

-

_
-

- • 1

-"-

•"

'

••

-

^-'

$67,275
55^,526
44,402
44.192
4l',782
38,686
32,14359,545
123,448
152,733
65,683
77,625
105,695
69,698
79,740
115,496
129,633
78,755
33,058
63,264

larid lucent per ib,

1 | cent per lb.

.If cent per lb;
Compromise -

l,li,2i,4&5c'.p.lb

|$1,630,129
2,767,757
2,568,842
'2,486,164
3,029,510
3,592
3,202,058
3,225,907
2,725,430
2,908,978
3,735,010
3,894,298
2,831,715
3,470,543
4,116,104
5,870,240
4,495,352
2,635,884
4,949,642
2,204,311
3,455,907
2,617,601
681,281
2,708,923

00

Ad valorem 25 p.ct.

Ad valorem 25 p.ct.

w
Advalorem 25 p.ct.
Compromise.

O
>
pi
Kl

O
Ad valorem 30 p.ct.

H
pi
>

F—Continued.
00

IRON.
B L A C K S M I T H S ' HAMMERS AND SLEDGES.

-AN vii. S'o

;
•

Gluantity.
1790 •

13

^

'. ^-^i

•

II

•

•

-

•

—t

• .

. -

•

,

:

'

•

• -

•

-

<D

'

.

y

•^S-.
• %§•
- ^

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•

^

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fl-TS.
" ^ cd

- J '

•

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•

-

-

.

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•

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^

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rH

...
'
;

.
^
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--

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!

-

-

Adval, 20 per .. "
cent.
.

'

.

.

"

-•

' '

- :

-

•

!

"

•

•

•

.

'

•

-

;

.

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.

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-Ad-vaW-S-per-eent—

w
O

• fcUD'fl

.

•

:

-

f; PH.
. , o -•"

--fl;:,.

r:i >^
?3. 'fl

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^

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.

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-

.

'

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-

•

•

-

" ' •

-

-g^l

•

-s-^

.

'...
-

'

.

-

-'

Ad val, 30 per cent.
-

•

1 '

.

-

-

:

'lS->

Ad val. 17|perct.

'

'• •

.-:-

^-too
OD ^

^'>.'o 'cd

-

•

Adval. 30 per cent.

-

-

- .',
- .
-'
Ad val.,20.per -cent.
:'",-,
..

: . "-. , '

•S.^

' _
•

•-

hrj

-.^:S

..

^

P^
hri

' o

:|l-

.•

•

-

.

'^ -

•

^

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.

'

CT5

'

-

'

•

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-

^

oi

•

• il^;

^ •

"

'

•

**^ fl
..QB

._
..'

-.

.-

•-'1.1 -.

•

Ad val. 30 percent.'

-•

Adval. lOpercent.

.—>

Adval. 17| perct.

•"

.

C^.

^:>^'
• ss.
s •




.

^

i§W

fS.;

•

.

'

Ad val. 17| per ct.

.

Ad val. 5 per cent.

-S

. - .

_Ai_v.aL_15_p.er_cent...

i the gen
rates,-if

-

o) cd

"

'-

•-3

-

•
.

Rate of duty.

S

Adval. lOpercent.

••-

o

Value.

IS

.--o.g

• ^

• •

•

Gluantity.

Ad val. 5 per cent.

.

-3
^

' Ad val. 15toercent.

;
Rate of duty.

Value.

S

Adval. lOpercent,

.,..

'43

-

Ad val. 5 per cent. •

1 the geri
rates,if

1793
1794
-179-5"
1796 .
17971798
1799
1800:
1801
1802
1803
1804.
1805^
1806.
1807:
1808
1809
1810
1811
1812
1813
1814
1815
1816
1817
18181819
1820

. -

02
<U

'mr
1792

Gluantity.

Rate of duty.

Value.

I the geri
rates, if

dears'.

CABLES AND CHAINS, OR PARTS THEREOF.

Ad val. 20 per cent.

-

o'

"

J

2-.
o
-fe

--

.

I

1—1

C

;
1

GO

O^

1

1821
1822,
1823
1824 '
1825
1826
1827
1828
1829
1830.
1831
1832 ' 1833,
1634
1835
1836
1837
1838:.
1839
18.40'
1841
1842
184.3

116,387 lb£ .
596,426 **
.
407;344^ "
1,011,412 "
972,129 -."
699,836 **
677,246 ^"
1,253,450 "
1,393,295 "
943,203 <
^
989,091 ' "
1,386,293 ' '
1,573,367 "
1,177,735 «•' '
524,343 "
1,026,497 "
- 324,698 "
558,237 "
518,3,61 *'
266,45'2. "

1844;

. 894,565

\ (*)

"




(*)

"..

' $2,683 2 cerits perpound.
- 34;505
r
24,560
.: '
-52;643.
49,171 2 cents perpound.
37,873
. 31,249
64;06477,139 2 cents per pound.
: -56,545 Compromise.
: 61,260
-":
. 83,105
-'
99',283
83,395 ... -:
34,158
."
71,087
23,203
i
35-,720,. 33,134
:
15,153 2 | cents perpound.
- • " :

:

-

_

•

52,573

-

_

•

"

•

-

"

.

-

-

-

.

.

.

•

•

'

.

;

10,144 lbs Jl
7-2',897 " h
22,153 *' \ .
4i;003 " :
5§,855 ' ' ;
65,896 " \\
75,616 *' ; .
116,166 *' i
90:,637 .*' '
63,418 *'.
76,888 • *'
•
120,328 **
' 180,329 "
93,931 " :
60,740 *'
116,271 • "
35,729 " ; .
36,150 "
-45,231 "
19,307 • *' i
62,528

"

\

P02

(*)

:'"

; '-

00.
OT»

2 | cents per pound;

3;049
3,096
4",249
3;699
2,648
3,769
5,624
9,282
5,253
3V283
6V125^
1,922
2,015
2,308
1,177

21Q,550 lbs .
423,766 "
.-' . . . ' - ' - ' •
431,766 "
-- - :
388,893 "
- -.
--, . •
21 cents per pound.
847,655 "
810,372 "
.'\ .:
.
-i""'
540,628 "
: 1,004,5.40 '^
•2| cents per pound. : 2,45.4,360 " .
Condpromise.
4,216,261 "
2,931,936 "
-'
i 2,023,332 "
:, 2,925,527. " .
\ ..'
-"
i 2-,332,8'78 '* .
2,089.,259 •"
3,486,810 ** r
\ "
— '
2,114,760 "
3,825,038 "
'
! ''
."
• 2,488,852 " h
;2| cents perpound.
884,259 " \' • -

-

?'6^^

i

"

4,460
1,683
2,071

3;o8i

"

'

-

'

•

•

'

-

.

.

-

•

. - ' :

;.

• •

'

_

-

-

.

"

- . . .

....

' -

.

'

'

-

.

-

•

"

•

•

•

.

• ' .

-

'

•

"

-

"

•

•

*
*

2,39,0,1%;." :;

^ See page 166—Manufactures, of iron paying ad valorem rates not specified.

$10,491 •3 cents per pound.
33,568
29,140
j
25,624
45,611 3 cents per pound.
41,097
25,855
51,341
106,576 3 cents per pound.
192,022 Compromise.
121,487
86,515
139,731
116,815
'88,597
143,979
89,643'
150,442
92,134
28,858 : 2 | and 4 cts. perlb;
.average 30 per cent.
91,943

W

a

I

1

o

d
CD

3.

F—Continued.

o

IRON.
RIFLES.




Rate of duty..

Value.

Gluantity. ~

- Rate of -duty.
Ad val. .5 per cent.

Ad vaL 5 per cent.
Ad val. 15 per ct.

"

Ad val. 17| per ct.

Ad val. 30 per ct.

Ad val. 20 per ct.

Gluantity."

-•

Ad val. 15 per ct.
•

-

.

.

.S,

•

-

-

Ad val.-15 per ct.
h

. ' ' '15«+H

f

Rate of duty.

Value.

Ad val. 5 per ct.

<u
1

...

Adval. 17| perct.

Ad val. 30| per ct.

Adval. 20 per ct.

r

t

CO

From 1790 to.l820 included in the general aggregate c
' paying ad valorem rates, if any importatior

Value.

From 1790 to 1820 included in the general aggregate of all articles
paying ad valorem rates, if any importatio-ris

1790
1791
1792
1793
1794
1795
1796
1797
1798
1799
ISOO
1801
1802
1803
1804
1805.
1806
.1807
1808
1809
1810
1811
1812
18]3
18 J 4
1815
1816
1817
1818
1819
1820

Gluantity.
From 1790'to 1820 included-in the general aggregate of all articles
• paying ad valorem-rates, if any importations.

Years.

SIDE AND F I R E A R M S .

.'

MUSKETS.

c
I
I

c
1-

Adval. 171 perct.

V
h
H

t

•

-

• '

Ad val. 30 per ct.

Ad val. 20 per ct.
rH

c

1821
1822
1823
•1824 .
1825
1826
•-1867
1828 •
1829
1830
1831
1832
1833
1834 •
1835
• 1836
-1837
1838
-18.39
1840
1841
1842
1843
1844

(*)

-

2,140
$2,754
28,125
91,998
65,689
18,188
"4,110 . 13,176
• . 7,09126,679
13,937
44,7l5
8,341
25,142
1,079^
2,946
4,399
14,239
34,421
11,160
71,876
23,749
• 17,108
40,093
• 18,807
53,617
• 3,584
13,343
6,409
21,114
3,294
•8,438'
•' 8,824 . • 34,200
7,879
21,506
7,405
17,739
1,035
447
12,359
17,945

(*)

'




2

^
•

•

.

• V
V

•
-

•

-

.

-

^

•

'

-^

$1 "50 per stand
. Coinpromise ^
•

•

•

'

-

.

.

•

•

,

'

•

-

^

,.
- ' ^
'
.

. .

-

.

'

-

•

.

-

'

-

•

-

.

•

-

'

.110

56

-

_'

. -

•

^

69
24

17

$1 50 per starid

"

:-

-6
=
10
8
18
23
41
97
224
148
227
126

' . ~-

781
1,841
-. 277

12 . .

^

$1 50 per stand
•

-

•
^

14

- '

•

•

-

'

•

-

"I

"

;

-

,

-

'

'."

.

'

976

'

771
354

"

.

-

•

.

'

"

'

•

-

-

.

.

•

•

.

;

'

-

"

"

-

-

•

.

370 $2 50 each
196

Ol

"-

•

.

-'.
' -:

'

".
".
•

•

•

'

-

' -'•
-. •.: -

"-

.

'•-

• 349 $2 50 each . ' 663 Compromise 1,283
"1,362
1,410
".
3,530
-- . .'.
.V1,722
1,086 ." "^
:
'

.

'.

96 $2 .-50 each
125
85
193
".

•

GO

-

$15 $2 50 each

46

.

•

_

(*)

158

$1 50 per starid
.

-

• • . . " . "

.

-

-^.

fi^'

-

•

.

$7,820
134,88f
111,207
105,175
106,887
132,224
179,153
214,194
305,205
231,903
289,577
351,135
658,306
577,033
193,683
267,517
134,785
125,116
101,647
27,615
73,214

Ad val. 30 per cent. '

Adval. 30 percent.

W.
Adval. 25 &30 pr.ct
Compromise.

•

^

-

'

o
>'

?
o

Ad val. 30 per cent.

.ffi

* See page 166—Manufactures of iron paying ad valorem rates not specified.

>
w
d

3

F---IContinued.
IRON.
WOOD-SCREWS.

B R A Z I E R S ' R O D S , OR R O U N D S .

S C R E W S W E I G H I N G 2 4 POUNDS AND U P W A R D S .

Years.

Value.

1790
1791
1792
1793
1794
1795
1796
1797
1798.
1799
1800 •
1801
1802
1803.
1804 •
1805'
1806.
1807
1808
1809
1810
1811
1812
1813
1814
1'81'5
1816:
1817
1818 .
i:8i9
1820,

Rate of d u t y .

-

Gluantity.

A d val. 5 per cent.

(Quantity.

. Value.

(Quantity.

R a t e of d u t y . .

-

A d val. 5 per cent.

•}

Adval. lOpercent.

-

C
d
'id
•

A d val. 15 per « . . .
cent.

'

-

—
,,

A d val. 10 per cent.

r

.

cd-

• " •

"3 !>. -

"

* •

rr-i B
^

U,

n^ O

«^

• 'fi^

•

L

. .s^'•

-

00 fl

.g*^. .
TH

'

_

. ,"-•
•
^.
!
_

.

- I d t>>
JH

-H •

•

,

.

•

-

!

br>

,

•^-'. Cd
fl ' ' ^

' :. '
.
..
_ - '.
_ .. •
„
_ '
. _ .. "
'
A d v a l . 30 per cent.
._ .'
_
•

-

"

o

fe.

-

.

A d val. 20 per cent.

- ^

- •• •
:

•

•

-

-

- -

-

/

'

•

•

J

_

S'^

_

r

*

j

- s

j

-

'

• •

.i
.

i

•

-

•.'-;

-

:,

•

il

fl

-5^

;

-S a

\

A d v a l . 1 7 | percent.

- ^S^

:

'.\
I
!Ad val. 30 p e r c e n t .

-

g

i

- - .

J

CJ cu

fl

>

^ i^
'-H fl

, "'

A d val. 30 per cent.

-.

Ad val. 20 per cent.

2 >
,•

'

•

-'

.

<

-

-

- • .

A d v a l . 20 p e r c e n t .
_- r

1 .• I

i. •

fe

.

I

;

:

-I'S. '

fl .03

•

a

O) SH

^Id
' o ;>

'g'^.
S fl-

A d v a l . 1 7 | per cent.

.(
1

: ' I'l : ;•

.

..'•.

.'

.

'

1




<u. o :

•

- .. .
-.- :, '• A d v a l . 1 7 | per cent.
-

^

•

„- "

^

bS)

A d val. 15per cent.

bD2
<o u,
-

..

A d val. 10 per cent..

eg

.

-

feJ3P.

A d val. 5 per cent.

•

•—t

A d val. 15 per cent.

<D.O ,

^t: :

-

ia
13

"

Rate of d u t y .

. Value.

_

-

..."

g"^

g
o
Ut
fe

1821
1822
1823
•1824
1825'
1826
1827
1828
.1829.
1830
1831
1832
1833
1834
1835
1836
18371838
1839
1840
1841
1842.
18431844.

..'

(*)
,
2,128
224;086
498,404
771,944
730,031
169,531
^218,428
487:^0.13
525,313
506,447
297,529
254;665
537;817
450,817
319,474
852,695
433-,620
367,090
1,178,374
378,415
805,906

lbs.
":
"
'»
"
«
"
' "
*'
**
"
"
' "
«
«'
"
" ,
" .
"
«*
"




•

>

"

.

.

•

.

' • •

•

•

.

'

°

.

•!

.

-

•-

.

\

—

-

•

•

•

^

••

•

-^ 1
"
i

.r

- I

-

"'-'

j1

•.<*>

I

$5,206| Advalorem 30 prcti;
I'
67,316; . . - , - • . -..--.'• _ 1
j.
86,285:
112,790:
•'--"
"' t
87,100 Ad valorem 40;:pr ct.;
-•
- '•
'-'- . . j
61,967:
''
66,817:
""
!
-- • • - "' ' 1
-"
• ' -. ' j 112,545 . - '
;
- •
• 11
•
133,698i Advalorem 3(>prct/
\
11-0,3431 . Coriipromise."
•' •
.
I
141,560;
. "
i
150,9631
•I
f
16-1,769;
-.1 1. 145,565j
r. .
';
107,2561
.... \ 166,570'
131,986:
.'
138,527 i
!
. . . .
•
[
113,469;
•;
40,260 lbs.
-7,551 12 cents per lb-.
30,488 " .
6,135

'

"
--

'

i

•

;•

•

'

'

-

"

•

'

'

•

•

-

'

. - • •

-

.

- •

'

•

-

•

"

-

•:,

•

.

.

.

'

•

-

.

;

i

Ad valorem 30 pr c.
Compromise.

.-

;

•

. !

'•?

• ;-

'

••'

•Ol

• $ 6 ' Advalorem 30 pre.
160
954
• 81..
2,598 Ad yalorem 40pre.
- -2,640
17

..

•-

' I

•'••-

00

. ^

!

;

• • - . .

^ '

.

.

-

1
;

!

j
-. $67' 3 cents per lb.
1-2,578 . "- . -. - ' r • .1
23,600
{
2-7,308
25,833 3 | cents per lb. i:
^,164
5,945
'- • i
13,660
13,727 3 cents per lb.
]
12,834 Compromise. •
10,017.
:. . .
-7,428
.
21,764
21,792
... ' .
10,648
27,942
47,78212,843
37,767
( "
11,005 2 | cents per lb.
29,452*
*
: >

,(*) •

— i j.

.

.

1

"

•

;

. •
';
i

1

w
o
P^
>
P^
O

. j

1Adyalorem30prc.

i
•

.

•

-

-

•hrj

\

W
* See page .i.66^^Manufactures oif iron paying ad valoreiri rates-riot specified.

>

.w

CO

F—Continued.
IRON. '
CUTTING KNIVES, SCYTHES, SICKLES. REAPINGHOOKS, SPADES, AND SHOVELS. .

MILL SAW5

Years.

/, . .

xx
/
•

^

cd

Id
. - . •

^

f
OT

<^
C3

Ad valorem 5 pr ct.

"

fl
O

S)5,. •

-

fl

'

•

. .

<U.tw

^1.
-3 g
CM bJD

S.5

••

(5 ^
(3^

• .: V




-

'

- .'
-^
.

:

OT

_

•

I d ;>>

^

res B
cu OJ
r ^ SH

•

Ad valorem 30 prct.

O oi.

S fl

-.

1
1—i

,

B

_
.

-

'

-

2

P^

•

^.d^

•

•

-

.

.

,

.

-

•

'

•.

•

-

.

-

'^
^'

•

.

_

.'_ .
: -.
.
.
_
-

•

Advalorem 15 pre.

.

•• t 4 _ . .
, 0 OT

-

-

-

'

• .

-

-

'

-

.

-

-

•

'

cd ,g -

-'

Ad valorem 17| pr c.

-

Ad .valorem 10 pre.

-

•

_
•

Ad valorem 5 pr c.

OT
C
U

_

-

Rate of duty.

Cd "43
'

._

-

-

•

.

b fl

_
, ' • : . . .

_

•

•

;

'

• .

-- .
'

'

-

-

•

•Value.

Gluantity.

Ad valorem 15prct.'
.

il

,H cd
^ f l SH

•

Ad valorem 10prct.

•

=&l -

Ad valorem 20 prct.

TH

s
s
fe'

.

-

" ^

O j5

Ad valorem 171 pre.

- ..
-,

. -gt :

•

..

Ad valoreni 5 pr ct.

r

cd -

- . . -. : -. :
:

-. .- . . . . .
-

•

OT

-

Rate of duty.

<u o

•<U OT

; . g .

•

Value.

13

• ' V

• .

-

-"
,
"
*

•

1 •

•

-_
' -Ad valorem 15 prct.

"
. -'

fl ^

-

Advalorem 10 prct.

-"SBr -f-'

'

•-

le gene
s, if an

1790
1791
1792
1793
1794
1795
" 1796
1797
1798
1799
1800
1801
1802 .
1803
1804.
180.5
1806
1807
1808 ,
1809".
1810
1811
1812
1813
1814
1815
1816
1817
1818
1819
1820

.

Gluantity.

Rateofduty.

Value.

he gene
es, if a

Gluantity.

MILL CRANKS AND MILL IRONS, OF WROUGHT IRON.

...

_.-

Ad valorem 30prct.

fi '.'fi:

-_ '.
•

_' .
•

-

Advalorem 17| pre

- "

u

i§
•

1 1 -

.s cd ^.•
o
00 bJi' ^ fl

Advalorem 20 prct.
_

• •

fl S

.-...-. ... .: -. ,

'

:

s'?
. g""-

, -,..
-

rH

B
O

fe

"

Ad valorem 30 pre.

Ad valorem 20 pr c.

1821
1822
1823
1824
1825
1826
1827
1828
1829
1830
1831
1832
1833
1834
1835
1836
1837
1838
1839
1840
1841
1842
1843
1844-

(.*).

(*)




$6,095
80,621
81,457
105,329
. 119,849
77,262
95,004
118,743
133,677
97,071
114,003
97,626
137,378
133,949
49,520
88,126
63,515
60,035
52,953
10,602

Ad valorem 30 p.ct.

Ad valorem 40 p. ct.

Ad valorem 30 p.ct,
Compromise -

Ad valorem 30 p.ct.

1,073 No,
li559 "
1,499 " :
1,357 "
2,758 "'
4,126 "
4,395 "
5,679 "
4,121 ''
2,540 "
2,445 "
3,055 ' '
4,161 " •
3113 "
1,752 ''
2,241 "
575 "
635 " ,
1,498. "
/225 "
1,481 "

--

$1,573. 6,022
6,076
5,322
8,766
12,536
^2,252
16,160
11,964
7,865
. 7,578
^•^8,813
13,936
10,271
5,572
7,385
1,874
2,255
5,253
- 846^
4,344

.

00

_

$1 each
.

(*)
4 cents per lb.

• -

- .
. -

$1 each

-:

- ' ".
w.
-

$1 each
Compromise -

-

354 lbs
'- 37 "
557 •"
300 "
2,781 "•
20 "
-

•

617 *'

52

235 "

- ..

- : - ' • -- ' •'
^

$1 each

61
10
20 4 cents per lb.
50
200
3
4 cents per lb..

11

H

o
>

o
--

4 cents per lb.

ffl

* See page 166—Manufactures of iron paying ad valorem rates not specified.

>
in
%

Ol

F—Continued.
IRON.
DRAWlNG-KNIVES, AXES, A D Z E S , AND SOCKET
CHISELS.

BRIDLE BITS OF ALL KINDS.

STEELYARDS, SCALE BEAMS, AND VICES.

Years.




Ad valorem 5 p.ct.
Advalorem id p.ct.
Ad valorem 15:p..ct'

• -

'

i

Advalorem 17|p.ct.

. .

. ..

Ad valorem 30-p. ct.
r

. •

Ad valorem 20 p. ct.

Gluantity.

• Value.

Rate of duty.

Gluantity.

Ad valorem 5p. ct.
Ad valorem 10 p. ct.
Ad vailorem ISp.'ct.

Advalorem 17|:p. ct:

Ad valorem 30 p. ct.

Ad valorem 20 p.ct.

...
a.

-i-

•

From 1790 to 1820 included in the general aggregate of all articles
payirig advalorem rates,-if any importatioris.

Rate of duty.

Value.

From 1790-t;o 1820 in eluded, in.the-general aggregate of all articles
paying ad valorem rates, if any importations:

1790
1791
1792
1793
1794
1795
1796
1797
1798 •
1799
1800
1801
1802
1803
1804'
1805
1806
1807
1808
1809
1810
1811
1812
1813
1814
1815.
1816
1817
1818
1819'
1820

From 1790 to 1820 included in the. gen eral aggregate of all articies
paying ad valorem rates, if any importations.

Gtuantity.

Value.

Rate of duty. .
Ad valorem 5 p.ct.
Ad yalorem. 10..p. ct.
Ad yalorem 15p.ct.

1

Ad valorem 17| p. ct.

!
Advalorem 30 p.ct.

Ad valoreni 20 p.ct..

1821 ' ,
1822
1823
1824
1825..
1826
1827 •
1828:
1829
1830
1831 •
1832
1833
1834
1835
1836^
1837
1838.
1839
1840
1841
1842
1843
1844 '.".
• •

<j
O
^
<j
?
1
S^
•
.
.

•

•. -

p)
.

: -' " >
•

.D

_ '^ Ad valorem 25 pr ct.

( * )

^- " -'
'

e.) •

-

-

•

'

-

•

.

. (*)

• . '

Ad yalorem 25prct.

.

00
Ol'

(*)

i • - -•

,

Ad. valorem 25 pr ct.

*

- .
--'
- -.
.,.•

.

--.

C)




. $6,392
19,287
,
29,007
30183
62,774
40,126
41,935
• 48,852
68,422
62,458
' 46,812
. 54,873
22123
24,732
14,552
_3,575
•

^

"

.

Ad val. 25 & 30 prct:

.-:
. -•
-

-..- ': ' -'
- -

( . * )

-- . .
-

,

.

•

-

-

-.
•

-

•

•-

.

.

-

'

.

*

•

'

-

'

Ad valorem 30 pr ct. .
• ^ .

•

.

•

-

'

-. - 1
. _ •

Adval. 25 &30'prct.
Compromise.

$7,445 Ad valorem 25 prct.
.4a,331
* 62,27i
- 80,,637 , ' • 99,977 Ad valorem 25 pr ct.
Cornpromise.,
"

•

.

' -.
• '.

.. -•- .
•; ---.. -:
.
• -.
•

-. .: (*)

-

-r

.

.

-

-

.

•'

"

•

•

-

-

.

'

_

•

•

•

:.- - •
. .--.-

•.

-

•

..-.'..'

'

"

-

..: -.

-

.

-

•

'

-

-

•

,

- ,

•

"

-

:• . -

:.
•

•

-

.

"- .
-

'

•

-

Ad yalorem. 30 pr ct.

-

.

.

-

-

•

-

•

-

- .

"

-

• , :

•

"

.

-

'

-

.

•

-.

. - '
(*),

$3,804
•32,484
-30,899
67,609
67,613
47,560
... 37,880
56,386
92,028
68,286
32,482
51,548
15',468
22,197
17,509.
4,016

Ad valorem 35 prct.

Ad valorem 30 pr ct.
Compromise. ' -

W .

o
>

oAd valorem 30 pr c .

.

' See^page 166—iVtanufactures of iron paying ad valorem rates riot specified.

>

.w

a

5

F—•Gontinued.

00

IRON.
O L D AND; S C R A P .

Gluantity.

From. 1790 to 1820 included in the-general aggregate of all articles
: • paying .ad valorem rates, if any importations. :

:1790 :
1791
1792
1793
1794
. 1795 :
1796
1797
1798 .
.1799:
:i800.
•1801
•1802
1803
1804
1805
1806
1807 1808
.1809.
.181.0
1811
1812
1813 •
.1814
.1815.1816
1817
1818
1819
1820



, Value.

Rate of duty.

,. Gluantity...

Ad valorem 5pr. ct.
.
-••-

^

Rate of duty.

Gluantity.

Ad valorem 10 pr ct.

JH

"2

Ad.valorem 15 pr ct.

:-.

: ^. . .
^ ro
•Ofl

'- a o

^ ^li bJ)pL,

.

• " .^ -fB-

' r

Ad val. 17| pr. ct.

- , - p . .cd
a3t.<+H..

Adval. 17| pr. ct.

.flS

•

•

- . - *^ a
<u <u

Ad valorem 20 pr.ct.

.;>

0> cd
00 ^
rH fl

Ad valorem 30 pr ct.

o"^
. , -^ rt
. o P^
•

^

- -tVIRE, C A P , A N D B O N N E T .

Ad valoi^m 5 pr. ct:

ro
13'

Advalorem lOpr'ct.
Ad valoreni 15 pf ct.

; Value. ^

STEEL.

'From 1790 to 1820 included in the generabaggregate of all articles •
' . paying ad valoreni rates, ifan'y importations.

Years

SQUARES OF IRON AND

:

. - S o

.p

fe-"

o . . <^ : ^ ' ° ' . . .

Ad yalorem 30 prct.

Ad.yalorem 20 pr ct.
•

-

•-

.

-

. .Value.

Rate of duty.
Ad valorem 5 pr. ct.
Advalorem 10 prct.
Ad valorem 15 pr ct.

Ad val.. 17| pr; ct.

'

'

-

•

Ad valorem 30 pr ct.

Ad valorern .20.pr ct.

1821
1822
1823
1824
1825
1826
1827
-1828
1829
1830
1831
1832
1833.
1834
1835
1836
1837
1838
1839
1840
1841
1842.
1843
1844

1

(*> ^
«
(*)

•

•A

.

.

.

•

•

^

-

i •

Ad val. 25 per ct.

'

•




(-*)

.

62i cents per cwt.

"

'

-

•

-

.

-

-

-

.- -

,

.

-

.

'

-

-

•

.

•

.

•

'

•

,

-

•

—

.

,

^

' .

-

Ad val. 30 per ct.

(*)

-.

Adval. 30 perct;

w

.

Ad val. 30 per ct.
" $2,864 Coinpromise.
4,867
6,395
.13,261
-.
5,968
4,370
.. 6,787
3,041
'- '
1,986
1,767
47 Ad val. 30 per- ct.
-

-

•

-

-

'

•

•

•

-

.

-

.

•

(*)
. 6,205
29,106
10,161
1,223
1,499
7,355
3,543
10,514
1,435
911
4,160

•o
*See page 166-—Manufactures of iron paying ad. valorem rates not specified.
•

-

.

OO
Ol

(*). ' ,

Ad val. 35 per ct.

.

-

:

(*)

'

^

r

.

...

Ad val.. 25 per ct..

-

(*)

'..

i..

'iS

(*)
^

.

62| cents per c-wt..
.(*)
19,963 cwt.
$24,035 Conipromise
32,746 " • •' 33,243
_ -r 12,806 "
11,609
24^953 "
28,224
:- .
A
£
15,333 "
18,391
'r
8,739 "
7,567
r
',
11,783 **
10,161
.
i
14,142 "
15,749
15;670 "
10,537
13,713 ''
8,207
3157 "
2,743 $10 per ton
7
42,663 "
43,396

"i

• ( * )

-

.

.

-

•

'

'

lbs.
",
"
*^
*'^
"
"
"
"
'*
"

^
--

12 cents per pound
Compromise.

$1,079
2,931
1,394
-'• .378
1,019
3,899
2,262 ' ' . .
6,366
393:
541 8&12cts.p. pound
1,983

a
>

o
•ffl

>

w

a

<l
CO

F—-Gontinued.

00 .

o

IRON.
SCREWS, OTHER THAN w o o l ) ]

~ .

•

NEEDLES.—-SEWING, KNITTING, &C.

.

SAD,

H A T T E R S ' , AND TAILORa' IRONS.

Years.
Gluantity,;
•

.Value.

•Rate of. duty. '.

(Quantity:.;.

; Value; -

. .Rate of duty.

. :"Gluantity. ••.• • Value;-;

Rate of duty. .

- i .

1790
1791
1792
1793:
. 1794
1795
17961
179:7
1798.
1799
18O01801.
1802
1803
1804
• 1805
• 1806
• 1807.
18081809
1810
1811
1812
1813
1814
1815
1816
181718,18
• 1819
1820' 1



Ad val: 5 per cent.
•

"

Ad.val. 10 per-ct.
Adval. 15-per ct.

Ad val. 17| per ct.

Ad val. SO.per ct.

Ad val. 20. per ct.

• Ad val. 5 per cent.
Ad val. 10 per ct;-.
Aid'vak 15-per;cti

-A

..

- ' .

Adval. 17i.per ct.

•

- ..

Ad val.'30/per c,t.
- J

,Adval-.:20pe'r ct..

From 1790 to 1820ancludedin the gejierfil aggregate of all arti cles. pay• • - ing ad valorem rates, if-any importatio.ns.. '

^.

From 1.790 to 1820 included in the general a;ggregatie. of all articles .
• paying ad valorem rates, if. kny iniportations.'

.

From 179.0 to 1820"included in the general aggregate,of a.11 articles • .
-paying ad valorern rates,, if any i.mp:o.rt.aLt^
. '-.

• • . . . . - .

Adval. 5 per cent.
Ad val. 10 per ct.
Ad val.: 15.per ct.

.

- ,

- . '

• * ,

Ad val. 17i per-ct.

Adval. 30 perct,,

Adval. 20 perct.

1821
1822
1823
1824
1825
1826
1827
1828 .
1829
1830
1831
1832
1833 .
1834
1835
1836
1837"
-1838
1839
1840
1841
1842
1843
•1844

. .f)

-(*>..••

f

00
•Ol

r)
• e)

A d vai. 25 per cent.

Ad vaL 25 per cent.

'(^fi-'l

Ad val. 20 per cent.

Ad val;. 25 per cent.

Ad val. 20'per cent.

Free
v :.-.Compr.omise •*.

A d v a l . 25 per cent.

Ad val. 20 per cent.
Compromise.

w
A d vaL. 25 per cent.
C o m p r o m i s e .-

o.

•I
o
m

See'value

(^.)




-"$256- A d val. 30 per cent.

See-vJilue.

$T,345- :Ad val. 20 per cent.

"28^474 lbs.:
261646 " ;

* See page 166—^Manufactures of iron paying ad valoreni rates riot ^specified.

.: $1,275 2^ cents per lb.
.- -852

•

^

F—Continued.

00

IRON.
A X L E T R E E S , OR P A R T S

CAST BUTTS OR H I N G E S .

Years-.

Gluantity.

1790
00
1791
13
1792
•X3- ,. •
. 1793
d
1794
1795
p fl
1796
.2^-2
1797
.1798.. ^3 1799
1800
1801
1802
m. fl
.-.1803
- 1804
pfl 2
1805-'
1806
fl >1807
'^ B '
1808
QJ cu
1809^
1810
1811
O) ai
1812
1813.
1814'
. S'S- •
o 1^
1815
o>
t1816
1817
• s
1818 •
o
1819:
• fe. .
1820


•

JH

,_
'_
-.• .
-

.

'

"

-

.

' .

•

,

'

•

•

-

.

,

:

.

.

-

.

•

._ ...
-

'

.

.

-

•

.

••

•

-

.

-

•
'

I f ••

-

s^p.

_

.

•

fl
•

•

-

•

•

'

. . .

•
_
-r

-

. -

_

*

.^ .
"

•

^
•-

r

..

Ad yal. 15 per cent.

• r

Ad vai: 171 per ct.,

&!'

:
-

cd_g
<u c .
fl ai
bX3-pH

Adval. 17i.per ct.
r-

-- ,

Adval. lOpercent.

o-g.
^ o.

. . . T' •

. •

Ad val. 5 per cent.

-

^ .:

•

'.

-

' I . '

-

^

_

Rate of duty.

.-

•s-

. . • ? - .

Adval. 15 percent.

.fl «S .
(D fl

-

Ad. val. 1 7 | per ct.

-

.
^

Ad val. 10 per cent-

'T'"'

1^

-

. -

°fl
<u - o

••
•

: y -

'

,

>

-.

:

.

•
.•.

:

.

•

Value.

. <v

-'

-.'

Adval. 15per cent..

•

_

'

13' •43
.
JH

• - ;•

• _

-

Gluantity.

Ad val. 5 per cent.
<u ,

'

Ad val. lOpercent.:

- ' ..

"WROUGHT I R O N , F O R S H I P S , L O C O M O T I V E S , &C.

Rate of duty.. .

Ad. val. 5 per cent.

^

^s-

. Value.

Gluantity.

Rateof duty.

•Value.

THEREOF.

. - -

rfl cu
• -

.fl . s

.

-

0) a;

..

.

.

••

-

It

o> rt

Ad val. 30 per cent.

.

- - "

:,
-: '

-§ ° .

•-

-

"

-

•

'_ •
-

.' • - '
_
Ad val.'20 per cent.
.
-•^
•

-

.

.

S ^
g

s
J^

_
.

'•2S
^
•

fe
o
-

-

•

-

-•
_
.r

. - fl t=*

•

o cd

Adval. 30 per cent:

-

-

. . .

- .'
_

-s^ •

-

.

.

r''' •

.

.

Adval,,gOpercent.

-

"-i.fl
•

•

•

•*-' c d •

_

O-P.

'

05
t—

Ad vai. 20 per.cent:
• •

"

f

'

-

.

Adval, 30 per cent.

. TTi
'•

"

J'

•

B

o
fe'

-•

:

L

_

- •

. " . . ' ,
T
1821
'.: - O
.•
1822
1823
*. Ad val. 25 per.cent.
_
:
1824 .
1825
1826
.1827 .. - .,
> Ad val.. 25 per cent.
.
1828 •
:.
::..
1829,
1830
1831
Ad val. 25 per cent.
1832
Compromise.
1833
• .1834
1835
''
1836
1837
1-838
1839
1840
1841
-1842
$19,043 2§ .cents per lb.
312,789 lbs.
1843:
:987,7-3'5 - " :•."• 53,877:
•1844
~ -'
" '
.

• ;

(

• •

-

<

:

•

•

••

-

•

( * )

-'•^M:

.'-^

>

-

. .

.

(*)

.

•

-

-

.
( • * )

• .

.

.

-- . •

•

Ad val. 25 per cerit.

.

(

*

)

,

-

:

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Adval. 25per cent.

-

(*)

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Ad val. 25 per cent.

•

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Ad: val. 25 per cent;

(*),

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Corimpromise. .

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Adval. 25 per cent.
Compromise.

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8,681 Xb's:. 8,322 "•

'. $441- 4.cents per lb...
1,153

. See page 166—Manuifactures of iron paying ad valbre^^^

. .

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$450.

12,195 lbs.
'

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4 cents per lb..

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G.

GO

Tahle showing the quantity bfi Goal imjjorted into the United States each year .since the organizdiion.ofi the Government.to the
present period^ with the value and rate ofi duty.
COAL.
Years.

Gluantity.

1790....
.1791 .
• 1792.....

Rate of duty.

Remarks.

3 cents per bushel.
4 | cents per bushel.

1793
: 1794....
1795
•1796
.1797
1798
,

1799 •
1800
1801.;..
1802....
1803....
1804....
^1805.....
1806....'
1807...^,
-180a-.-.-^
1809. -....
1810.....
1811......
1812
1813.....
1814
1815......
1816
1817
1818
1819.....
1820.....

Value.

j5 cents-per-ibushel. -

616,483 bushels.
- 445,417
" •
.419,460
"
281,269
"498,543.
"
311,146
''
569,425
«r
-140y928364,618
392,857.
96,512
101,193
25,333
25,121

From annual reports of the Secretary of the Treasury from 1790vto 1820.
10 cerits per bushel.

5" cents perbushel, heaped.
921,832
785;,077
673,711




I
$91,352
627,737
**
1821...... 1
_
139,790
970,828
"
1822.......
~ - ' 1 F r o m annual, statements furriished b y the Register- of the T r e a s u r y , and
)• submitted to Congress b y . t h e Secretary.of the T r e a s u r y , in obedience to'
111,639
854,983
"
1823......
the act of F e b r u a r y 10, 1820. _
111,541 6 cents per bushel, heaped.
764,815
"
:
1824........
108,527
1825......
722,255
"
-. .
970,021
"
.. . 1 4 5 , 2 6 2
1826......
142,677
.' 1 8 2 7 . . . . . .
-1,127,388
"•.
.
. '"' .
1828
906,200
V
*
.
104,292
" • •
1 8 2 9 . . . . . . . . .,
1,272,970
**
':
145,993
"
204,773
1,640,295- •''
• 1830......
.' '"' , .....r . . : J
108,250.
183Uv-....
1,022,245
" :- ^
211,017.
1832......
2,043,389
«'.
2,588,102
''
261,575 Compromise act. 1833
.xlComirierce and imvigation of the IJriited States.
•
200,277
1834
• 2,005,522
'-'^
1835.......
1,679,li9 -'•'
143,461'
-•
244,995
1836......
3,036,083 . "
.
•.
• -362,079:
1837...:..
4,268,598
*'
..:1838....'..
3,614,320
«'.
•308,591'
•5,083,424
*'
415,761
1839......
"
: 1840.
4,56'0,287
•''' • • '
387i238-1841......
4,351,032
''
369,352
- 1842
3,962,610 • '?
380,635
.- :i Comrnerce and navigation of the United States, (nine m o n t h s only.)
116,312 $1 75 per ton..
• 41,163 t o n s . "
1843..;...
Commerce and navigation of the United States.
236,963
1844
..
87,073
"
"
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M a y ! J4, 1828.

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May :19, 1.828.-:

May 22, 1824.

March.3, 1819.

Aprii;20, 1818.

, Aprii 2b,, .181.8. '

April 27,1816.-:'

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Sept;! ] 1,1841.

J u l y l 4, 1832.
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July 29,1813.

.July 1,181.2.

March 27, 1804. ,.

March 26,1804.

; May 13, 1800.

.'July 8,. 1797.

March'3,M797-.

Jan. 29., 1795. •

.June 7, 1794; ,

May 2, 1792.

March 3j 1791.

-August 10,1790.

-July 4,1789.

98t

H.

00
Ol

Table showing the quantity ofi Sugars imported into the United States each year ^since the organization ofi the Government to the "-^
. present period; with the value and rate ofi duty.
SUGARS.
Years.
1790...
1791...
1792...
1793...
1794...
1795...
1796>.;
1797...
1798...
1799...

isoo:.-.

Ciuantity.
, 22,719,457 pounds.
21,919,066
"
.22,499,588
"
37,291,988 ••''•
> 33,645,772
"
•37,582,-507 • ".
25,403,581 . "
•49.767,745 "•
33,206,395 ^
'
57,079,636 ' ' '
'
50,537;637 . "
.47,882,376 ."
39,443,814. *
'
151,066,934 '
*
55,070,013
" .
68,046,865- • ' I
73,318,649
" .
65,801,81-6
^' •
84,853,633
"
12,381,320 " .
^
29,312,307
" '
55,332,214
'•''
60,166,082
"
31,364,276 •
'
20,^670,168- "
54,732,763
"
35,387,963
"
65,591,302 >'•
51,284,983
" "

1801...
1802.:..
1803'...
1804...
1805.'..
1806:..
.1807...
1808...
•1809...
1810...
1811..-.
1812...
1813...
1814:..
1815...
1816..-.
1817...
1818...



'

Value.

Rate of duty.
lg, 2 | , and 5 eents per lb.

Ig:, 2g, and 6 cents per lb.
lgarid.3 cents per lb.'
Ig, -2, and 3,cents-per lb.
1 g, 2g, and 3 cents per lb..

3g, 5, and 6- cents per lb.

.3, 4, and 12 cents per lb.

Remarks.
From annual reports of the Secretary of the Treasury, from
do.
do.
do.do.
do.
do.
do.
.
do.
do.
db.
;
do.
..
do.
• do.
do.
.
do. .
do.
do. \
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do. .
-.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
'-'•
do.
do.
do.
do.
do. .
do.
: do; . . . .
do.
do.
do.
do..
do. '
..^0do. .
- • .. do..;
-.
. . . do. . L
. -' do..
. . • "do.. . . .
. ,
< do. .:• . ••:
do.. :. . . .
do.
* .
• do..,
do.
do.
do.
• do.
.: do.
•: .
do. .
do,
do.
,•
dp.
do. ^
do.
• . do.
do.
do.
- do. . .
do.
do.
do. do.
. doV - -: •'• '
..do.do.. .. / .
do.
do.
do.
do..
do.
do.
do.
do.
.
do.
do.
do.
do.

1790 to 1820,
do.
do.
do:
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do./.
do.
do.
do.do.
do. do.
do.
do..
-do;
do.
do,
do.
do.

H-^—Continued,
.
^ Years.

;

.Gluantity.'

Value.

•00
.GO

SUGARS.

Rate of duty. •

-Remarks.

•3, 4,and 12 cents per lb.
From anhual reports of the'Secretary ofthe Treasury, frorh 1790 to 1820.
1819,.,.-..-' 71,665,401 pourids.
db.
do. ,
do.
do.
^ 1 8 2 0 ' : . . . . . •51,537,888 . "
• -'
1821......
59,512,835
"
$3,553,582
From annual statements furnished by the Register of .the Treasuryj. and •
•1822.'..-...
88,305,670
"
5,034,429
- submitted to Congress by. the Secretary of the Treasury, in obedience to
1823......
60,789,210
" •
3,258,689
the act bf Februar.y 10, 1820. . . .
'..,,-•
-'-1824.V.'..-.
94,37.9,76'4. i.' :
5,165,800
. 1825'.-...:-.. 71,771.,.479 : ": '
- 4,232,530"
. L
' .
- • -..
Commerce-and navigation .ofthe .United States.
1 8 2 6 ; . . . . V .'84,-902,955
"- . '
5,311,6.31.
do.
do.,
do.
1827.'.-....." •76;-70i;'629. " •
4,577,361 •-... • '-. . •
do.
do.
' . do.
1828. . . . r . " . 56,935,951
" ' '
3,546,736
,- .do. . .
do.
: do-.
.
1829......
63,307,294
"
3,6-22,406
:
db. ...
do.
do'..
1830
•86,483;046
" '
4,630,342
--'.'
do.
do... ' .
do.
. ' .
1 8 3 1 . . . . . . , 109;014;654
*'
4,910,877
do.
. do. . .
do.
1832:......
66,452,288
"
• 2,933,688 2 | , 3-|, and 12 cents perlb.
'
do.
^do.
do.
1833:.....
97,688,132
"4,752,343 . Compromise.
' do.
'do.
. do.
•
^
1834...-..-. -115,389,855-. :-''- .
5,537,829
do.
do;
•
.do.
, .:
1835^..'...; 126,03-6v239. • " . - ^
-6,806,174
do;
do. •
do.
1 8 3 6 . . . . . ' . 191,426,115 < ' '
12,514,504
do.
do. ..
do.
. 1 8 3 7 . . . . ; . 136,139,^9
*'
7,202,668
... . -'
do.
do.
do. •
,
1838.-.-.v.. 153-,879,143
" - '
7,586,360'
--.
• .do^. ^..
do. .
. . do.' • ' ••
. . ..
1839
195,231,273
"
9,919,502
'db.- ••
•
do. '
do.
1840... •... 120,9.39,'585 '**
'5,580,950
do.
do.
do.
.
1 8 4 1 . . ' . . . . 184,-264-,881 *'
. 8,-802,708
do.
do.
do.
1842..
173,863,555
'.'
6,503,434
- .'
•do.
do.
do. (9•months-only.-')
1843......
71,335,131
*' '• •2,532,279 2 | , 4, "and-e cents'per lb.
do.
do. .
do.
^
.
^
1844
.186,804,578. " .
7,195,700
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B r o w n . . . • . . . ; . ^ . . . . . . . . . ' . . . ' ' . . . .1 ct. p.er lb.. l i Ct. p e r l b .
"yV-hite..^...-.-...^. . . . . . . . . . . v . ' . . . . l | c t . p e r l b . 2g c t s . p e r l b .
Clayed, or clarified-;.
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5.Cts. p e r l b . 3 Cts. per lb.
.3-cts. p e r lb. •4 ctSi per lb. -.
•.
' . . .' 6;cts. per lb. "12 cts. p e r l b .

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3^cts-.per-lb'.
12 cts. per lb.

CM

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21 Cts. per l b .
•21-cts-.per lb.
4 Cts.'per lb.
6 cts. per lb.
2 | cts. per lb J

fd

•

. ' ,

-

•"

'

I -

l^ahle showing the quantity ofi Molasses..imported into the United' States each yecir fironi the organizatioi^
ofi the Government to the
'• • '
'"
present period, with the value and rate ofi duty4
"•..'.

'•:'.'

. -.

• . • " ; - , MOLASSES./ '

Years.

Remarks;
1
2
3

1790
5,664,345
1791
6,354,148
-1792 .
4,250,874
•4
1793 .
4,236,222
5 • 1794 • 3,144,225
1795
6
• .3,853,905
7 ' .°1796
3,896,241
8
^ • 1797
3,724,369
.
0' 1798 . . 4,079,145
i7'99
10
• 3,889,084
1800-.
11
. 3,?J7,359
12 • 1801. < '5,447,545
•1802 13
6,317,969
14
-1803' :
5,963,275
15
1804 .
6,535,513
.1805 . . 9,226,446
16
.1806 - , 8,533,590.
17
1807
18
: 8,255; 753
19
1808- ' • 6,456,073
1809
20
5,336,686
1810 '
21
7,651,682
22
1811
8,500,019
1812
23
7,373,448
1813
24
3,220,710
25^ ' 1814 .
2,879,283
26
1815
6,110,957
27
1816
8,643,972
1817
28
10,877,670




gallons
"
"-^ ^ ''

2 | cents per gallon:
3 cents per gallon

fd
hj

"

^'
-•"
"
"
'•'
"
"
"
"
'"
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"
"
"
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'4 cents per gallon

GO

•O

5 cents per gallbn

fflFrom aririual reports of the Secretary of the Treasury, from 1790 to 1820.

10 cents per gallon

5 cents pergallon

cc
Ol

Mi

1 1818 1
1819
. 1820.
1821. .
1822.•
33^
1823
34
35 ^ 1824
1825
36
1826
37
1827.: :
38
39.. . 1828
1829
40.
41 : 1830
1831 .
42
1832
43
1833
44
1834
45
1835
46
1836 .
47
• 1837
48
49 . 1838
1839
50
1840
51
1841
52
1842
53
1843* :
54

-° _
12,315,023
".
11,910,729
&'
; - ^
10,786,905
«' .
..
9,086,982
." ^
$l,719-,227
11,990,569
2,398^,355
13,019,328
''
2,634;222
13117,724
*f .
2,-413,643
12,535,062
*'
2,547,715
. 13,843,045
"
• .2,838,728
13,376,502-' .<-.''- • • 2,818,982^
13,393,651'' *"" ^ '2,78B,47i
10,150,224
-".
•1,484,104
• 8,374,13^-^''
. 9 9 5 776
17,085;'878.: .,". .'./^ . 2,432 488
. 15,860,553
"
2,524 281
15,693,050 • •*
2,867 986
2,989,020
17,086,472, 0.'.'
18,971,60'3 , ." . . .. 3,074,172
18,051,784 . . " '. • 4,077,312/
16,451,182
" ,
. 3 , 4 4 4 701
21,196,411
*'
3,865,285
-23,094,677 '" *'
" 4,364,234
19,703,620 :./^.
. 2,910,791
•19,355,028." " ' . . 2,628;519
17j83.4,927 ••• " 1,942,575,
129,53^,523 pourids
1,134,820.

55

249,428,872..: . " " : ^

29
30
31
32

1844

2,833,753-

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.

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•

.

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;

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y F r o m annual reports of the Secretary of the T r e a s u r y , from 1790 to 1820.

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From annual

' - ' '
'
- ^ • ' . -.
furnished by the .Register of the Treasury, and

statement's
I submitted to Congress by the Secretary, of the Treasury, in obedience to
\ / t h e a c t o f February 10,^820. . . . /
•

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10 cents per gallon
'

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5 cents per gallbn

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4,5 mills per pourid,-equivalent "to 5.cerits per gallon. 1

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k Commerce, and navigatibn o f ' t h e "United States.
-

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.

.

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Commerce and navigation of the Uriited States, .(nine m o n t h s o n l y . )
C o m m e r c e a n d navigation of the U n i t e d S t a t e s .

• -.

-

.^ .
>

^ F r o m r e p o r t b f t h e Secretary of the T r e a s u r y , J u n e 15, 1844.




" G e n u i n e molasses weighs from 10 tb 12, arid usually but 11 p o u n d s p.er gallon.'

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*-Report of the Secretafjy ofthe Treasury,^ June 15, 1844.
the duty bf 4 | mills per pourid "is'equal to 5 cerits per gallon.




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'Genuine molasses weighs from 10 to 12, and usually but 11 pounds per gallon;" consequently

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18'45.]

SECRETARYOFTHETREASURY;

' 193

K..'-, .

:

/

Table showing the quantity ofi Cofi'ee imported into the United States each year
firom the organization ofi the Government to the present period y with thevalue
.and rate ofi duty.
COFFEE.

Years. • Gluantity.

- Population. ^-

1
2
3
4'.
5
6
-.'. - ' -'
7
'8
,
-. . '
910
. . .: , ^ . .^. . .
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
, , . . . . - ^. .\'.. . .:
...........
r '
•18
19
20
21
. - .
22
..,._..
23
.•'-,.
24
25
26
27
28
29
.
30
31
. . -...,.:..:,,_;. .. : .
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39 - ' . .
- •. .
40
-. ,
41 '
42
43 ,.
- .
44
45
46 .
47
48
49
0

:

-

,

-

r

'

'

:

'

.

•

•

..s

'

"

-

'

'

•

•

"

•

•

•

•

-

_

.

.

.

•

.

•

.

.

-

.

.

,

-

;

.

•

-

.

,

:

-

-

.

.

-

.

,

-

. •

,

•

.

.

,

.

.

,

.

,

,

.

.

.

.

.

"

•

.

•

•

,

.

.

•

•

-

.

.

-

-

:'/•

•

-

.

\

-

,

•

.'

'

.

-

.

.

.

,

•

•

.

•

•

•

•

_

.

•

,

'

•

.

•

-

:

.

•

'

:

.

•

.

•

.

• V

.•

•

_

.

"

.

-

•

••

.

.

'

•

.

- .

^

.

"

:

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-

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•

, -

••

•'

•

.

. . . .

_•

.

•

.

. . .

'

-

•

•

.

' • *

,

.

.

'

•

•

• :

' •'•

'

'

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' -

;

.

•

•

'

_

•

. . : • - . -

.

.

. -

. .

.;

- i

'

.

.

.

•

.

-

'

. :

•

..

•

'

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:

.

•

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-

1

.

.

.

-

. .

•

'

-

.

^

-

.

•

.

^

Per. lb.
Pounds:
17:90
4,150,754
j $0.04
^. •
1791
2,588,970
1792
4,769,450
1793
11,237,717
1794 ;
6,033,618
.•5
1795
14,674,726
*1796
1797' - 13,511,'877
. 1.79a
4,178,321
1799'
10,800,182^
' 1800 :
7,408,196
- 1801
8,471,396
1802 .'
6,724,220
1803
8,495,260
^'1804.
6,101,191
1805
4,816,274
1806
17,345,188'
• 1807-•
11,016,419
1808'
- 30,895,495
- 1809: •
'
-6,649-,293
1810
, 5,852,082
1811
17,648,398''
1812
16,150,176
:
10
1813
8,202,072
1814
.6,528,238
1815 .
14,238,319
1816
17,809,018'
'" -5
•1817••21,900,104
- 1818 •
19,199,403
1819
'20,-825,869 •
^ ;1820 ., r3:,291,857'
11821 : .21,273,659
$4,489,,970
10 21.
• 1822-.
• 25-,.7-82,390
5,552,649.: ai,
1823
191
37,337,732
' 7,098,119.'
.
1 8
1824
-30,224,296
5,437,029
• 1825. '45,190,630
5,250,828.;.- • . 1 1 . ^
• • m
'1826
• 37,319,4^7 : • •-4,159,558
1827
9:\
50,051,986 :. 4,464,391
1828
55,194,697
5,192,338
91
1829
51,133,538
4,588,585
9
1830
51,488,248.
4;227,021
8
2
1831'^
1
^81,757,386 .. 6,317,666 1
' ^
1832
91,722,329
Free .
9,099,464
1833
. 99,955,020
10,567,299
1834 - 80150,366
-8,762,657
lOi
1835
103,199,777
10,715,466
1836
. 93,790,507 1
9,653,053
1837 •
88,140,403
• 8,657,760
1838
88,139,720
7,640,217 1 ,-

•

,

-

.

.

:

"

•

.

-

..

.

•

.

•

•

':-

•

.

•

.

•

.

•

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:

.

•

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-

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•

•

.

.

-

.

.

-

,

•

•

.

.

•

]

'

•

Rate of Value
duty. per lb.'

-

.

'

.

'

•

•

•

• '

.

.

.

"

'

_

,

•

'

-

.

.

'

.

-

.

,

•

'

'

-

'

.

.

.

.

• Value.

•"

•

'

• '

' .

•

'

-

''

"

.

'

-

-

-

.

-

'

"

-

•

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•

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:

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•

n\
m\
ml
m\
n\

i

'* Excess of exports over'imports, 5,526,269 p.ounds.
t From 1821, inclusive,t-he whole importations.are given ; previous to this.time, the amounts
only on which duties had'accrued.'

VOL. V.—13.



[1845.

REPORTStOF THE

194

R^CohUnued.
'•---'•,\

•

• '.

'

50
51
52
53
54
55

•u •
.;•..
Population..

"•

•'

':.;,'.•

^

'

.

•

: ' •

:

•

-

•

,

•

.

•

•

•

/COFFEE.-

Years.

• .1839
1840 '
1841 ^
18.42^..1843-.
'1844 •

^ > " • ' • ' ' ' :'^-V

.Gluantity. ' • • Value;.
Pounds.
• 106,696,992• 94,996,095
- 114,984,.783
. ,112,865,927. 92,914,557
160,461,943

' • ' - ' , - -.NOTES.

'.

Rate of Value
duty.'- perlb.
' Perth.
$0 09
9
9
8
- -7.
•61

9,744,103
- • 8,546,222
10,444,882
8,938,638
,6,399,189
9,764,554

> . Average-value per pound, from 1821 to 1844 :•

- , ..
^

• :..':'
•

-

-.

-.

$0 11

- : .;
•

Average value per .'pound, bn all importations, from 1821 to 1844.

Cents.
.11

Highest value per pound, on all importation^, from 1821:to.l827,'paying5 cts. per lb;.21
Lowest value per pounds on all importations, from 1821 to 1829,'paying 5 cts. per l b . . 9
-A-v.e'rage yalue per pound, bn all importatioris, from 1,821 to 1829, paying 5 cts. per lb. .14 5-36
Value per pound p/i all importations, in 1830, paying 2 cents' per p o u n d : . . . . ....'...*. o -8
' Value per pound on.,all importations in 1831, paying .1 cent per pound . . . : . . - . . . . . . . . 7^
Highest value per pound, ori-^11 importations:,-from 1832 to 1844, a;dmitted. free . . . . . . .10|
Lowest value per'pound, on all iniportations, from 1832 to1844, admitted . f r e e . . . . . . . 6| . :.
• Average Value per pound, pn all importations, from 1832 to. 1844, admitted free . . . . . . . 8
The operation of the.act of 1816,- iniposing.a duty of :5 cerits per pounds will be seen
. • in.the impbrts from 1821 to 1830, inclusive.
.
.'• •
Highest value per'po^und, on "all importations, from 1821 to 1830, paying 5 Cts. per lb. .21
Lowest value per pound, on all importations, from 1821 to ,1830,. pay ing 5 cts. per l b . . 8
Ayerage value per pound, ori all,importatipns, from 1821 to 1830,:paying 5 cts. per lb. . 1 3 |
The operation of the act of 18;30,"imposing a duty of 2 athd 1 cent per pounds will be
. seen in the imports of 1831 and-1832.
•

.

- Value per pound on all importations in .1831,- pay.ing.2 cents per pound
; . . . 7^ .
Value,per pburid on all importations in. 1832.,.paying 1 .cent per pound . . . ^ . » . . . . . . . . 9f
The operation of the-act of 1832, adniitting coffee, free, will be seen in the imports
•• from 1833 to 1844, inclusive..
• ' :••"
..
',
_ . , : : .

•
j.

Highest value per pound', on all importations, from 1833 to 1844, admitted free
10^ '"
Lowest value per.pound, on all impor tations,.froni 1833 to 1844, admitted .free. .> . . . ; 6^.
Average yalue per pound, on all importations, from 1833 .to 1844', admitted free . . . . ; . .9 1-lG




..

-

-

fi

• :

.

;::"

•;.

;

;

.

'

.••••••••:-•.

. - . •

L , - ^

'

. • " ^

••

•-••'•-.•-;

- - . - .

V

-

'

:'

'

"

-

'

-

•

'

'

Table showing the quantity ofi Tea imported into .the tlnited States each year firom the orgamzation ofiihe Government to the present
•
. ,
.peiiod, with the value and rate of duty.'
:.

.

; Popula:tion. . Years;. •

.Gluantity.

. -. - •

24
25
26

..•

.• . . P o u n d s . •••
'

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
'21
22
23

-

-

.1790.^

. .
-..

••

.1791
1792
1793
- • ' - ' ; : 1794
1795
-'
. 1796.
1797
1798
1799
- .
• 1800
1801
1802
*
lf03
1804
1805
. 1806.
1807
.-'.''
1808
. -1809*
.
1810
1811
.- - - .'
1812"
• - '_

/

• ;

-

'

.•

•

-_

•

-

-

-

.

' • ' " " ' •

.

- ~

"o"

•

' - " • '

.

•

- -

•

'

•

*

•

•

•

-

- "

.

'-•

•

•

-




1813
1814
1815

6,647,726
2,557,329
2,644,329
• 524,888
354,038
2,172,940

'•

-•

.

' T E A .

..

.

• . ' • ' •

:

."

'•'

Value per lb.

Rate of duty!. .

w

o
- -

985,997
:. .2,614,008
2,009,509
2,460,914
- 2,374,118
2,310,259
: 2,008,399
1,890,965
4,501,503
3,797,634
2;e69,831
2,406,938
3,174,370
2,432,074
3,354,381
4,750,881
6,173,151
.4,800,142

•

••".•

Value. , -• ' :

..3,047;242

• . ' • • .

.,-

GO

o«

-"-:'-'

-.

.

-

:

'

.

• . • . •

-

-

'

.

•

-

.

'

.

-

•

•

.

.

'

'

'

:

•

:

.

From Ghi-ri.avlO, 18,20, and 32 cents per lb.; from Europe j.12, 21, 24, and 40
\ : cents per ib.-,. frorii any other place, 15,- 27, 30, and 50 cents per lb*

fd
|>O

ffl'
--

,-..'.."
• •

'

.

'

'

•

•

•

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•

'

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•

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:

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'

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fd
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w
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fd

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•

•

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.

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•

.

'

-

.

-

-

.

' . "

'

-

.

-

.

.

.

•

.

-

From China, 20, M^ 4dj arid 64 dents per lb;- from Europe, 24, 42, 48, and 80
cents per lb.; from any other place^ 30j 54j 60j and 100 cents per lb.

•

.

.

•

.

.

.

•

-

•

'

.

•

-

-

* Excess ofexports bver. imports, 318,302 poUrids;

"

.

"

.

Ol

-Continued.

.CO.

TEA.
Population.

Years.
•„.'-

27

s .

28
29.
30
31 ..
32
33
34
35 1
36
37
38
39 ^
40
41
•

'

•

.

- ' -

:

•

-

•

.

-

•

.

•

.

•

.

-

•

^

-

.

'

•

-

1831
1832
: 1833
, ...... " 1834
1835
1836
1837'
•1838
1839
1840
. . 1841
.
•
1842.
1843
*
1844
; .

:

•

Pounds.
.3;864;604

Value.

;

. . .

'

'




' • ^

.

•-

=

Rate of d u t y .

• .

. : " '"

Value per lb.

F r o m China, in ships or vessels of .the United States, 12, 2 5 , 2 8 , 40, a n d 50
cents per l b . ; frorii a n y other place, in other vessels, 14, 34, 38, 56, a n d 68
cents per lb:
•
.

• -

4,586,153
-• 1817
4,842;963
• 1818
• .5,480,884
1819
' 4,891,447
-1P20
4;975,646
••. 1 8 2 1
182-2-'
6,639,434 : •
8,210,01.0
1823
1824
• 8,920;487 :
10;209,54&
1825
:10a'08,90O'
1826
5,875,638.
• 1827:
- 7;707,427
• 1828, :
6,''636;790
1829
8,609,4:15
1330 .

*.
•
^
.
^
-.. .
*
•
.
•
.

42
43
44
45 . - ..y . :^,
46
47
'4849
50
-.
51
52
53 • : ' ' " . . . v . . .
54.55
'

1816

Gluantity.

$1,322,636
$0 261
1,860,777
•
28
2,361,245
281 •••
2,786,312
31i
• \
•
.
'
.
.
_ •
•
3,728^935
36^
3,752,281
37"' • i
•1,714,882
291
.:
2,451,197
.' .
311
:
2,060,457
31
2,425,018 From China, in ships or vessels of the United States, 40, 10, 12, 18, and 25
centsper.lb.; from any other place, in other vessels, 6, 18, 20, 27, and 37
. cents per lb.'.: ' :
.•
.
. •
28
1,418,037
.•'5,182,867
;
27|
^ -9,906,606
, . 2,788,353 F r e e
. . . - . •-. . . .-^-v '
•'. .:;• : > - , -. • ~ - ^ - '.. - . ' ,
_
. 28
i
14,639,822
5,484,603
37i
:
" - ' - . ,
• • - ' . ' ' ' r
•
.
:
•
'
•
.
'
•
'
'
. • - - • • • _ _
. •
. . ^
16,282,977" •"•: 6,217,949
-,: 381'-;, -;
.
r
.
_
.
ff
. .
^
: 4,522,806.
14,415,572
-•:3r|.:. 1
16,382,114
5,342,811
- • : 321 ^'^ 1
16,982,-384
5,903,054
341
14,418,112
•
3,497,156
24|
9,349,817
2,428,419
26
20,006,595
5,427,010 ,
27
•
, .11,560,301
. 3,466,245^
30. ^ '
• 15,692,094 •.••'. 4,572,108
29 ? .
13,869,366
3,849,662.
271
15,656,114
4,120,785
"261
•Average value per lb.,.from 1821 to 1844
-.
.- • 30 17-48
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1845.]

SECRETARYOFTHETREASURY.

.

197

Circulars^ ofi the Secretary afi the Treasury, .in .relation to the:. Tariff fias
refierred to in the accompanying ahstracts.
: .'

; .:.

.

ciiiciJLAR:No. t.-^auESTiom^^

, 1 . State.and countyin wbicla the: manufactory is situate^^
v
2. Kind or description of the manufactory | .^and whether-water, stearn,
or other power?
,. ;' : •
'
/ . •••[ . f i y . - . ' ^ ' f i '
3.* W & i i established;: and .whethef a.jointrStoGk concerri?...
:
'
4. Capital irivested in ground.and buildings, arid wa
and
in machinery?: •
• • - • - . . :
• ' .- '
o. Average amount, in inaterials, and in cash for the purchase of materials j and payment of wageS:? :
"
•-,'-.
:fi : -.
. 6; Annual rate of profit ori.-the capital irivested:since the.establishmerit
ofthe rnaiiufactory > distinguishing between the rate of profit .upon that
portion of the Capital which is borrowedj .after prQviding for- the interest
upon it, and the irateof profit:upo.n that".portion %hich is-n^^
•
7. Cause of the mcrease:(or decrease, as th'ie case niay be) of profit? '
. -.8. iftates'of, prpfit on :capitai otherwise em^^
same State
andrcdunty ?:
:- :
- '.
;.
; -; ' •
, 9..:Amourit of article.s*-annually iiianufactured sinise, the establishment
of th0 :manufact6ry ?--^description, quality, and value of each ,kind ?
• 10., QuaMity arid value:of different kinds of lajw
distinguishing between.for eign p-rodiicts arid, dpiiies^^^
' '
'. :11. C.ost in the ^.United States of similar .articles "of: niaiiufacture
irnported froni abroad, and from what couhtri.es? ' • •
-12l Niimber .of rneii, worneti, :and childireri,: ernplpyed, and;average
waofes of each class ? :
• •.'
.- ''' : V ' '13. How many hours a day employed,-and what pprtiQiliof the year ? :
: 14. Rate of wages of similar, classes Ptherwise employed' in the same
Stateand County, in other States, and in fpreign couiitries? . •'
15. NuiTiber of horses qr'other aniiiials employ
. -' .; ' . • , ' • •
16. Whether the maiifactures fiiid a imrket at the uiaiiiifactory ? If
-no.t,.how far they ai;e: sent to a: market? .:
'.: '
. :"
17. "Whether^ foreign: .articles of the hke kinds .enter into • competitipn.
with'theiii at such place of sale? and to what: exteiit?
/ .
18. Where are the manufactures consunied^? ' .
-.:..•
19. Whether any;of. the manufactures 'are exported,-tq foreigri coun. tries?, and if so,: where?
. ' . '
-.
20. .Whether the manufacture is sold bythe. riiahufacturer for cash ?
and if ;on credit,, at what credit? if bartered, fbr.what? .^
21. Whether, the costof the manufactured article (to the manufacturer)
has increased or decreased? and how much in each year- fiomthe establishmentof the manufactory? and whether, the increase has been in the.
materials or the labor, and at what rate?;
';
*Copi6s of tliese Circulars were sent to-individuals, throiighout. the Uriited States. The
various answers,Which were received.are inserted immediately after -the Circulars. The States
are arranged in the usual order; and the numbers prefixed to the answers show what questions
are referred to.
.
;'-, '



198

R E P O R T S OF T H E

[1845.

M—^Continued.
. . . 22. The prices at which the mariufactm:es have' been sold by the manu-facturer since the establishment ? .
:
23.- W h a t rate of duty is necessary to enable the-manufacturer to enter
into competition in the home market with.similar articles imported?
24. Is there .any. change necessary iri- levying or collecting the duty on
siich articlesy.tp prevpiit.fraud? ,
i.
;
Y
'
' "
2.8:. What has been the rate of your profits, annually, for the last three
years ? .and if. it be a joint-stock, company, what dividerids have been
received,. and -what portion.of the income ofthe company has been converted into fixed capital, or retained .as a fund for contingent or other
objects, and.therejFore riot divided out aririually?
-.
.
/
.
26. What portion ofthe cost of your mariufactures consists of theprice
of the rawmaterial,; what portion of the .wages of labor, arid what
pprtion of the profits of capital ? ,.
*
. ' 1
. 27._ What amount of the agricultural prod.uctions.of the country is con- .
surii^d.ill your establishment, and. what ampurit of other domestic pro,ductipns? .
,-.:• .
' ^
. :•
;.
• 28. What quantity or aniount of manufactures such as you mal^e are
produced in the United States, and what amount in your own State?
29. If the duty upon the foreign manufacture of the kind of goods,
which you. make were reduced to 12J jDercent., with a corresponding
reduction on all the imports, would it cause 5^ou to abandon your business, or would you continue to manufacture at reduced prices?
30. If it would cause you to abandon your business, in what way.
. Avould you employ your capital?
^ 31. Is there any pursuit in which you could erigage, from -which- you
could derive greater profits, even after a reduction pf the import, duties,
to 12^ per cent. ?•
\
32. Are notthe mariufactures of salt and iron, remote from the ppints. of
:importation, out .of foreign competitiori within a certain circle around
thein? and what is the extent of that circle? ,.
. . .
'
'33. Amount of capital; and what proportion the borrowed: capital
bears to that which is real ?
.. •
,34. What amount of reduction in the duties would enable the actual
or real capital employed to yield an interest of six per cent. ? and how
, gradual the reduction should be ?
. 35. If minimums should.'be abolished, and the duty assessed upon
the actual value of,the iniported article inihe American port, what rate
of ad .valoren) duty,would be equivalent to the present with the minimurn?:
-.
;: .
, 36\ What would be the operation of this change upon the frauds .at
present supposed to bp practised?
•
37, Proportion which the production by the Americaii rnanufacturer
bears to the consuriiption?
-. .
. 38. Exterit of individual and household mariufactures in theUnited
States, and how much it has iricreased since the tariff'of 1842?.
39. Average profit of riioney or capit.al in the Uhited States ?
40. A verage rate of wages ?



.1845.].

- ' S E C R E T A R Y - O F . T H E "T-RI^ASURY.^
: :

"''•.•'••

: '

•••.199-

M—Contiriued. •.'
CIRCULAR NO. 2 . — a U E S T I O N a '

'
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1st. What agricultural products are raised in your State, and which,
if any, of the staples pf cotton, rice, or. tobacco?. *
•
-.^ .• fi , .'^ f-^ .
'
2d. What por-tipn of its Capital, is engaged .in their prpSuction ?' • \: •
3d. To what-extent is its .'.coriimercral,..riiechariicalj ri^
. and navigation interests. immediately .epniiected with, .or dependent .-upon
them?::'.....

.'• -.fi,.-:i

••.-. I

'.:•:-•'••.::'^fi. : f i - . ' ' . :

•••^^'••'•••-.••

';

••-••V-..-":'-•-./•••

-

.. :4tb;. •What.:lias.be^ the-.tonu-al.average.pfo
in.,
their^ ppo.ductipn., -pri weltcP^^^
farms,.'.or piaiitatio'ri|,-:-for the' last,
three years,: since, tile' pas-sage of the:taiiff of. 1842, ineiuding the ."crop- of;
that year, and deductiiig all expeiises: incidpn^
pf thp ,
articles, th.eir preparation foi^ maxket, the transporiatipri tP; the place: :of:--.
/sak, aild the sales theiriselyes f-'^
.• .' •
- .: j . . : . .
:•.'"'•
•5th. •What.has beeri.this aiinual-profit of the capital so.:.eriiployed.^.fpr^^
the .ten years precedirig'.i842, under the re.ductipn bfthe dutie s:.by .the'
:act of 1832, and the conipromise act- pf .the next year,~'estima:ted irl- the;,
^same.Way?-''.v-'^^ ' •: -. - > '••'..- :: ;,V;--.'' ••/..:; . :•-"-;: " -•"',•.• 'V-' - \ -"[ ' -•.-•• '
'
6th. W h a t has. been, the 'annuai average pr:icepf-these.:agricultur:^^^^^
products-a-nd staples: during the sanie- periods- respectively?" and what
.the annual average income per:-h.axid, or-laborer,' de due tirig,.:a:ll expen se.s,\.during'the same periods respectively? ' . :.
. :- • • :-v .': . ^-^• .7th. How far have prices and profits .during the,;,peHpds:.referred- tb?^^
beeri affected', by the operatiori. of the tariff laws, and how far by'the ;
state of the. currency?' ,;
•
...
. .,: • : .:' : .: ,: '^
8th,, Does.the .State raise a sufficierit supply of horses, riiules,'hpgs'jand of'cattle, riieats, and other provisions?, if. not, from .what places does.
it draw its. supplies? .-Arid what has beeri the ayei'ageann-ual amorint,.
arid what the prices for the last thre.e years, and ,also for'.the ten preceding? If there has been-a difference-between, therii, to what do you.
attribute'it? ,
: ^
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: . •
9th. Are the commerci^^l, mechanical, and manufacturing,, and riavir
gation interests of the State so immediately corinected with and depend-^
ent upon the agricultural products and staples,, that .their profits increase
. or diniinish in the same, .or very .nearly th.e same, proportion with them?:
lOthp Have the average prices of what are called the protected articles beeri as low in proppftion to the average prices, of the sta.ples forthe
last three years, as in the precedirig teri, making allowance for the effects
. which the average: prices .of the raw riiaterials during the .respectiye.^
••peripds referred to must have had. bri.'the- cost of making, such •articles'?.^
If not, to what, do you" attribute it, and tp what extent liasit affected the '
growers of the staples, and • the.- State at large, iri the iricreased..cPst Pf'
their prpd,uetiori, a:nd the general experise of living?" ..
: •,.. .
, l l t h . Does the State export anyother articles, of its ov^iiprpduct,-^
besides the agricultural .products arid staples.? : If it does, of.^^hat descrip-tipn .are they, arid to what extent have tlieir prices, and. the. aggregate
amount.in value, beeri. comparativelj^^ affected during the same periods?



200

R E P O R T S OF T H E

[1845.

M---C ontinued i
12th. What proportion of; the aggregate amount of articles of every,
kind, that the State makes for export, are exported and consumed abroad?
are their.prices governed by the foreign or home demand?' tp what foreign
markets are they principally- shipped? do.you meet cornpetitors in them
from other couritries with similar articles for sale? do the high duties
.imposed by the' present tariff* lessen your, ability to meet them •successfully? and if they do, state hpw? .
13th. Is there anysuch immediate connection between imports and
exports that a country cannot coritinue to import for any great length of
time a greater amounfin value than it" exp:orts, or, vice versa, export for
any great length pf time riiore than it is permitted to import, estimatirig
fairly, the value ofeach; and if there be, to what,extent mustthe preserit
duties affect ultimately the value of the^exports ofthe coriritry?. •
•14th. Have you. any manufacturing establishments.in your State? arid
if so, of w-hat kind are they, what is their number, and what amount of
capital is invested in them? what descriptions of "goods do they make,
and what has been the profit on their investment for the last three years?
Are the present duties riecessary to keep thern in operation with prPfit?
ifriot^ what.amourit, if any,, would :be required to give a profit equal in
ariipurit to- the average profit pf growing the great staples of the State^ for •
the last: three years, or the ten preceding?'
.
V
15tli.-Is 5^our State now, or have its citizeris been, at any former period,
erigaged in the business of ship--building, or that of riavigation, and to
what extent? what is the present conditiori of thpse iriterests? how have
they been, affected by the tariff'laws? and what is t h e effect of. the
piresent duties upon: thern? : .
• .
16th. W h a t proportion does the capita! invested byyour citizens .iri
cPrnrnerce .bear to the value of its agricultural products and staples?
Have the comniercial interests of the State been affected by the tariff*
laws? if so, hpw,. and to what extent?
17tli. Would the establishment, of a warehouse system promote the
trade-and .increase the commerce of 3^dur State?
18th. :How would the abohtion of 'drawbacks, in connectipn. with a
warehouse systerii, operate upon the comrnerce of your State?19th. Are there any, arid, what articles, on which a debenture or.drawback ought to be allowed, on their reexportatiori which would - operate
-beneficially Lippri the trade of the country, and equally to all classes of
citizeris, but on which no debenture or drawback is now allowed? '
20th. What .articles are there -of foreipii manufacture which come into
.*.
....
.
. '-.^
conipetition with sirnilar articles maiiufactured in, the United States, the
duties ori which are sP high as to amount to* a prohibition of. the foreign
articles?
" . • -•. . •
'' . ••
' . ',
21st. How are the iriterests of the. several great interests of ybur State
affected by .the minimums of the present tariff J and the rule requiring
duties to be paid in cash, "^without the. establishment of .a warehouse systern or admitting goods in entrepot?
•
,22d-. What articles are there now in the hst of those duty free.,, oii



-1845.]:.

S E C R E T A R Y OF T H E TREASURY. •
M—•Continued.

201
.

which a moderate duty might be levied "without b.eing onerous to any
class, and which worild operate equally on-all?, and what amdunt of
, revenue might be levied by sifch a .duty on these articles?
.. • 23d. What is the comparative operation ofthe present tariff'upon the
mariufacturers, arid the Pther classes of our-citizens, as to articles used in
manufacturirig and other'articles corisumed by them respectively? State
the particular articles ?
•
: ,
•
24th. W h a t i s the effect of the present system of duties upon articles,,
especially, those extensively, cprisurned, which are; manufactured" only to.
a very.hmited extent in the'United States? and how ;do these duties
operate upon the interests ofthe other industrial class.es of. the cpuntry?
, 25th. Are there any, and what descriptions of -goods, or other conirnodities, consumed in your own Stale, which are either very greatly enhariced
in price, or altogether excludpd by the operalion of the presenttariff*? for
what prices, rnight such gobds, or cpmrriodities, be. irnported, independently of the .drity ?• and, what are the prices actually paid by the . cPnsumers fbr these articles, or such others as are.substituted for them? is
lhe corisumption ofthese articles, or their substitutes, extensive in your
State, and is it peculiar, or nearly so, to.your State,:or^any bther:particular States? what is the aggregate arnouritpf duties riow paid to the
Governrnent.on such articles? arid what ariiount: would-be paid under a
tariff^graduated entirely with- a view to fevenue? :
.;
26th. Do the present duties, benefit in: ariy respect.those, engaged in
growirig the agricultural products arid staples referred to ? arid if not, can
they be -so modified, in ariy pther. way than by.reducirig thern, as: to
benefit the growers? has the State prospered, or not, underthose duties?
if not, to. what do. you attribute its cause? if the high duties, explaiii to
what exterit, and in what rrianner,-,: they have affected the pfosperity of
the State?-'
.: , . -•'• / •
'" '':.
^ .-. •;fi' ' • -,
]
27th. What qriantity of wool is raised in your State, what is its price
per pound'since the tariff" of .1842, and what its price" per pqurid for .the
ten years preceding?
. •' '
;.
: '
• •28th. What mines are worked in your State? what quantityof metal
or rnineral has been produced ? what has been the-pricevsinee the .tariff
of 1842, and for the ten years preceding? .
- »




202.

'.

,

•

R E P O R T S .OF T H E .;'

.:

M—-Continued..

•[-1845..

. ".

ABSTRACT OF ANSWERS'^TO CIRCULARS NOS. 1 AND 2.

.• ••'

..... ^ M A I N E . ^

'"

' •

"•

'

• ^ ;.;,•:

ANSWERS TO.CIRCULAR NO. 1.

- ^

^

Washington County._ F-roiri Hon. .J.C'-'Noyes, ofi. Eastport, enclosed in letter
firom. Bion Bradbury, Collector. \ ;
li State of Maine, Washington county.'
2. Plaster mill for the manufacture of calcined, and grourid plaster,
3.. Established in 1845. Joirit stock.-r
4. Capital in grounds, buildirigs, &c., $10,000.
5. Average arnount in materials, $5,000. '
•
; ':
6. No estimate can be had," as orie year has not elapsed*
.
.., 7,-8. Not answered.
..
'
. •
• 9. About 2,000 barrels-^-value-$3,000.^ ,
lo. Not answered. • '
. .•.-'-..-•
•'-•""..11. Similar articles are not'supposed to, be imported.
12. Sixteen rneri, at $1 per day.
.
'
. .
' ,
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13. Twelve hours per day, for" 8rnonths. .
' •
14. Not knoAvn. - , .'
:
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'"• 1 5 v N o r i e . '

"•-..-'• ' .

,:

:•••'•••

•: ..

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• ' •

16. Usually sent from 500-to 1,500.miles,.
•
•
17. Supposed to be norie. '
, '
• 18. In the Uriited States. - ' •
.- -'^
:•
19. None exported.
''..-';
. '
20. None sold at the mill,
21,22. Not answered;
.
.
'. : •
''•
• 5 3 , 24. Free.
"
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.25 to 40. .Not ariswered. ;
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-'Bion Bradbury, Collector, encloses a/mwersfirom.Samuel'Fowler ofi Lubec. '
"1. Washington cpunt}^:, Maine..
2. Plaster and lumber mills,-Water power.
,
''-•.•''
..3. In 1834. Joint stock.
4. Capital iri buildings' and machinery," $75,000. . .
5. Average cost of materials per 3^ear, $18,000; labor, $13,000.
6. From 5 to.6 per cent, per annum, ;after the first three .years. '..-..
7. Operiing the ports ofthe Uriited States to the British colonial trade,
he thinks,, will ultimatel}^ put amend to the plaster'trade o.ii the.lines,
8. .Unable to give a general ariswer; but says a small farm adjoining
the mills, .which cPst $1,000, has, paid an arinual profit of | 2 0 0 .
.9. $35,000.; 10,000'barrels calcined, plaster, $15,000;. 20,0'00 tierces,
of ground plaster, $20,000; iriciuding-750,000. .sta/ves/ 180,OQO- headings, and 300,000 hoops, all made at the niaririfactbry. '
. ,'"



1845.]

, S E C R E T A R Y O F - ' T H E .TREASURY.

• 203

M—Continued.
10. "Of foreign products," 8,000 tons pf plaster, at $1 25 per ton,
produce of Nova Scotia and New Brunswick, $10,000; ^'of domestic,
products,." such as. logs, hoops, slabs, round wood, kettles, and flour,
valued af $8,000. per annum. Reconimends a review of Hon. Secretary
Bibb'§ decision in regard to the lumber. - •
..
11. Importations very limited.
,
.
-.
. .
12. Ayerage nurnber of harids employed^ 42 men, no women or children; average wages $310 each.:-highest wages $2 per day^; lowest $20
.per month.
• ":
/
-.
13. Twelve hours per day.
14. Not answered satisfactority.
• '
.
: .15. None.^^
, " . . .
'._
. 16. None sold at the manufactory; sold all alorig t h e coast from
Maine to-New; Orleans. .
•'•
. 17. Before the preserit tariff, had.to cornpetewith foreign ground and
calcined plaster, but not. since,^ except at Hallowell and Augusta, in this
: State.-

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•

: ' . • • . ' • . ^

^

'..-

18. Same:as No.. 16. ,
^
.: , '
:
19. Some to West Indies, principally to Cuba.
20. Sold at 3 and 4 months generally; never bartered.
• .
21. There has been no decrease in thecost ofthe materials, pr maurufacture, in, proper tion to the decrease in the price ofthe. article.
: 22.. The first two or. three years grourid plaster sold In market at
$1 12 to $1 25 .per cask,"and, calcined at | 2 and $2 12J per barreh;;
The last year at $1 for ground, and $1 .62J and $1 75 for calciried. 23. A less rate of duty than the present w.ould give the foreig.n manufacturer a decided preference in our: market.
,
' : 24. To prevent fraud, duties should be as.:far as possible specific,' or.
on a home valuation. .
:
'. - ' • 'i
25; Ariswered in reply to. questioris No. 6. No part ofthe inconie hasbeen cPnverted into fixed capital, &c.
' -. •
26. See reply to question No. 5.
. 2 7 . $10,000 is-aboutthe amount used annually.
- 28. Supposes the amount of ''foreign" plaster 'used in the UnitedStates to be about 200,000 toris annually. '
.
"
^
29. A reductipn of the diities so as. to. admit:the ground and calcined
plaster from Nova Scotia would effectually, destro}^ us.
30. ''After a loss of the capital, could not employ it in other busi- ness."' • " ' . : "
. "' • ' - - , ' • . •
',,'
;\.-.
31. Says both '.'.mercantile and farming are rnore profitable than the
manufacturing of plaster with a duty of 20 per cent, instead of 12J per
cent."

'

••

-

' •

. 32 tp 40. Cannot answer.

'

,

-

.

•

• ' . . ' .

Pembroke T^own.- Bion-Bradbury, Esq., .Collector, .encloses^ answers 'firom
Joseph Barrell. .
.' '.
1. Townbf Pembrpke,. State of Maine,-.'.



• "•.

. ..

204

R E P O R T S OF T H E

[1845.

M—•Contiriued. "
., .^.^ Rourid and square^iron 5-16 to 7-8 i r i c h . '
- '. • .. - .
^
• .. 3. In 1832. ••.Npw a j Pint-stock coric.ein.
. 4. Capital established: by the:last Eegislatuire ript to exceed $150.,.0O0.
• • 5.: Amourit:consuriied equal.tb eight tons per day, priricipally'American pig, averaging from $1,500 to>'$2,000 per rnonth. ' ; 0 •
6 to 9. Not answered..
: : . .. •.
- . . : ' : •''
10. Nearly, all the iron^exceptirig scrap, is of the manufacture: of the
United-States.;:.;,. . .'
- •. •'
-'.'.,-•
' .. ,•
.• ' •- .'•* ..'
12. Men and boys, eriiployed-, about 50; when wprking day and night,
100 will be required..
,:
" -, •.
.

13. From'6^A. M.-'to 6':p. M..' --'•.'/.•.":. •;.;::•:•

.••.•:-: '"'./ :^

.15. 12 oxen,eniployed constantly.
,> : -, . .
i"6. All sold, iri Boston..
.:
; *
.;. ..
17. Foreign irPn" entet.s into .cornpetitiPn with the"same quality :o:f
Ameficanv and is sold for less price.;
' .
. 18. Nearly all corisumed iri New. Englarid. : ' '"'.'•-'.
-"'•.
.'
19. None exported..
. '
.
;
..
.•• .; .
20. Iron is usually sold on a creditpf six tP nine moriths; seldorri .for
c a s h . - .

•

• • - . _ '

. ;•

•:

••

:•.

'

. " - . • - : ' •

-.'•

'

:

>

.•••:.•..

22. Prices according to quality* ...
\•W
\. ,
•
23: to 39. Unanswered.
:
^ ..'..-•'. ' i- • ' : ' f i - '
4-0. Wages from $1 ..to- $2.• 50, according to the pccupation of the
men; consuriies- about:8. tons of .coal ^per. day,, all pf which is of fpreign
growth. Is of the- opiniPn that a.-duty of 12 J .per cent, will not be sufficient to eriable them to compete'.with: the foreigri article,:
Washington. Count fi B i o n - B r a d b u r y , : CoUector y encloses answers firom. W i h - ,..: '. lifim P'llie, ofi Calais. : •• ' ' - . . - . . \ " [ ':"...
.1,
2/
3.
4.
, | 3 o o : .

Stateof Maine, county of Washington.
. ,-.
Saw mill; water povver.
-•
. '• : • • : ,' -.
' 'V- ^
Established fort)^ years'ago; joint-stock concern. .
• '•
Ground.and buildings, $1,700; water power $1,000; riiachiriery
-••'

\

••.'.•

•-

••

.•

-.;•

• 5. Materials $3,300; labor $i,l'50;'both $4,450.
-6. Profit, if not borrowed, 10 per cent.; if borrowed, less.
..
7. Owirig to the demand for the: article. . .
. §. Thinks about-10.per cent.
-,.- .
' -'
" .:9. About 600,000 to a saw; half spruce and piriC; 600,000 laths;
•average price,-pine 9 J ; spruce 64-;.'-laths 85 centsi
• ' . :"••'•
. 10..; 300,000'pine logs, $1,950'; spruce, $1,125;, domestic-products. :
11. Cannot answer.
12. Six riien to a saw.
'
,. : •, ' • * 13. Fourteen hours per day, for six months in the year.
. . 1 4 . Irithe country,, on a;n average, about five shillings, per day.
. 15. About t"wo hprses to a sawV
•'
16. Mostly sold atthe riiill, and shipped tb West Indies, Perinsylvania,
New York, and the Ne-vv England.. States. 


1845.] •
" .•.

S E C R E T A R Y . O F T H E TREASURY.
.

':

'. 205

, M-^Cohtinued.

: 18. ,Iri the W^estIndies, Pennsylvania, New Ybrk^ and New EriglandStates.
•
,. .
19. :Principally in t h e W e s t IndieSo ,
• '. . " .
•
'. 20. G.erierally for cash; som.etiiiies on credit;:'seldoni bartered. .
21. The'raw raaterial has increased in pric-p within the last-eight or
ten.years. : ; •
\
^. ' ' .
22. From $8 to $15 ;-last year,.for 'pine-,.$9 50;•spruce,. $6 :50; laths,
85 cents. .; ' ' . . - . . '
•
'•'.-'•-'
25. About npthing. The profits about pay the interest on the.capital.
..-26." Material,;$3,300; labor, $1,150,i.p^^^^
' 2 9 . No; 'should contiriue as long as a spruce or .pine tree could be
found.
. . . .
• 30. Cannot answer.
.'
, ' '
•'
' .31. Thinks thereis.
. , .. . - . . • . ' ] '. ;•
' ' .32. Carinot answer. /
' •
. ..
.'
:33. Amount of capita;! for one saw and niaterials, .:$7',:500o
34 to 40. Not answered.
.-fi .

Kennehunk, County ofi'YorJc.

•:..-'''•

.

/.

:

: 1.: Mairie^ York county.. . •' ' >
• ' 2 . Cotton; w a t e r power,
:".
-/: : :' :^ •/.
.:.;
'
.;• ;3v in'183:4,;:joirirt-stPck concern. .
:-' : • :
:':,
.r:l: 4. Capital, $855,000.
• "
•..••.
'. ,.
- :<pi,:Ab0ut2--.per cent.
. ••
.; . - • -.-^ - . •; ,
. •
: : ^ . . 1;,'0Q0,©00 yairdB bf 2 8 j inch.printirig:cloth. : • ';.;
•. . .;;
. d o . 450,bales, cptton, ;l:,:600gH^^
starch, .&c.
:: ; 1 ^ . gl^rnen, 14^pys,'artid,M,girisv . •
" •-.•.•.:.'
•'::'•.'••. :-^'' ' •
.. .'13,.,'llf bours-,.•;•....-:^.,-:,. ..,:.^ ' - - ; ' ": -'.-''^ -.••':.\---.-: •'•.\.."••.'•'v--' '
••
16.-Philadelphia, N e w York, a n d .Boston-.
•'''•'•-. ' ,'
:i8..Prkreii)ally:in'i:bis country. • ,
' • • ••
. ' ' '
• .xSOVOn credit.':..-. • •...'.•.• '• ••'..^.'-•'
.' :':••' '-'''^^:' '. ' • '
.-Sl to 40^-Unanswered. : . . . . - ' • .
'-•-••'-.:•
:..-:•

• ' •:. Belfiasti . F r e m N . 'M-. lowry, -Colleetor.- .•.. •:.

'• "

Regrets his inability^to procure.information from reliable sources..-.. .
Saco, YorJt 'County.
• •• . "
•

Ichahod Jordan, polle.ctor, encloses'answers firom- X
; • WilliUmsfiSaco. • :
"' .

::-l.'Maine, Saco.. ..
••: .'
••';•''' -' •
fi-2: Irprivfoundry.' •
v ••' '
V.
' •
: 3.-In 1844; private c P n c e r m : - •:
-'^ . : . . ;
:^ 4. Capital, $10yOOO---4n buildings^ machinery^ .&c. ,
5. $6,0,00 forthe purchase of stock, &c.
/ 6 , 7, 8.. Not answered.
.
.
••• .
.9. ^Od tons of machiriery arid rriiih castings,'
. '



' •'" '
•-'-./
"
•
'':'•'

'

206

R E P O R T S OF THEM—Continued.

:

[1845.
• .

10. 200 tons of pig iron, and 300 tons of various qualities of American
iron.
.
;
/
"
11, 12, 1.3, Not ariswered.
." ^
. ^.
14. Average rate pf wages, eight shillings per-, day.
1 6 . " F i n d a market near by." . <
.
' •'
17. Foreign articles do en.ter into competitiori when not protected.
20. Sold for cash, or on 4 months' credit.
21 to 40.. Not answered.' .
•
Saco, York County.

Ichahod Jordan, Collector, encloses answersfii'omSamuel Batchelor.
' '
. \"'--

1. Mairre; Saco, York county.
2. Cotton; water power.
3. Iri 1831; joint stock.
4. Capital in ground, buildirigs, water power, and .-machiriery,
$550,000.: ' ' '
\'
• ^ •. ' ^ ....•
. 5. The business capital, invested in materials and for payment of
wages, is $450,000.
t:
6. The York Manufacturing Conipany purchased, for about. $60,000,
the property which.had cost .a former, company..$234,000. : T h e first
company haid sunk their whole capital, ariiounting to $300^000, with a
considerable loss, in addition, to individual stockholders, after: carrying
on the business for four or five years without any dividend. ' On- this
second capital, invested by the York conipany witb additional improvenients and machiriery, the profits have been as follows-: 1831, 1832,
and 1833, 4^ percent, per .annum; 1834, 9J; 1835, lOf; 1836,; l l f ;
1837, 5 J ; 1838 10^; 1839, 9f; 1840, 14f; 1841, 13J; 1842, 5 ; 1843
9 J ; 1844, 20J;—being an.;average of 9J. per cent, for the 14.years on.
capital actually paid. No borrowed capital.
.
: .
7. The increasie and decrease of, :prPfit,.as w i l l b e seen, above, has
.cpnforrned very nearly with l h e general prosperity of the country, and
with the rise and fall of prPfits in other branches,of business. The
greate'st increase, within the. last two years, has,been owing, in addition
to the general causes abovementioned, to an iricreased demand for goods .
for .exportation to-foreigri cpuritries,.and tp the rnariufacture of a new arid
successful style of goods.
.,^.:
•'
. - " ' ' -"^.:
8. Capital emploj^ed in trade and-navigation has experienced similar
varialioris in profits during the same peripd, andin navigation particularly; for p a r t o f the.time, the profits have even exceeded the highest
rates on manufacturirig.
.
.9. The amount of goods manufactured has beeri, as follbws, coni:puted
at the actual cost: . In 1831, 1832', and 1833, $145,0-45; in il83.4,
$176,985;, 1835^ $233,234; 1836, $277,159; .1837, $296,630; .1838,
• $357,307; . 1839, :$516,896.; 1840,' -;$455,812; 1841,,-" $.422,1-35;'-l',842.,'
$328,138; 1843, $267,351; and in .1844, $457,424;—consisting entirely
of cotton goods,mostly of heavy strbrig articles^—say 12 skeins to the
.pound for sumrner clothing, and to a considerable extent differing in



1845.] ,

: S E C R E T A R Y ' O F T H E TREASURY.

207

M—Continued. .
style and fabric froni the .ordiriary .rnanufactures of cotton irr this
country.
.:
-.
10. The raw materials used, and the ambunt.of wa,ges for the last
two years, have been as follows:
Years. •

1843...
184-4.... •

Cotton.

$116,917
- • 218,925

Wages.

Other domesiic materials: Foreign materials.
$16,065
34,903

•..'•••' • •-..$36,:353
. . : .
46,026

.

$98,014
157,566.

The domestic materials, other than cotton, consist principally of oil,
starch, coal, and dyeirig materials.. The foreigri are confiried almost
. entirely to indigo and some other dye-stuffs.
11. The only similar articles imported have been from,England and
France,-and the cost of importing goods of. equal quality, and made of
the same kind of cotton, would be niore than the cost of those made
here, arid ours, have uniforrrily beeri sold-at a lower price.
.
• 12. The riumber of men ernployed, on the average, is about 200; the
number of women from 900 to.1,200. No children ernplyed under the
age of 14,.and very few younger than 16.' The, rate of wages for men
varies from $8 to '$12 per month, at the differerit seasoris of the year,
except for mechanics and.experienced manufacturers, who receive frpm
$1 25 to $2 per dayl The wages of females is from $1 to $2 per week,
exclusiveof board, accbrding to their skill and experience; but there
are rhany instances where they earn $3 or more. - /•
13. The average time the mills are in operation though the year is. 12.
hours 1 3 minutes per day. The principal part of what can be called labor
is perforrned by machinery, which only requires the attendance and skill
of hands to direct it. ^ This is so .easily done, that it is not uriusual for
one to attend to the duty of "two, for hours or days together; and in this"
-way, some in turn get released; so that it does not follow, because :the
machinery works 12 hours per day, that the.hands employed do the
same; they do not labpr, on an average, more than ten months in the
year, and many come into the mills orily for a few months at such Reasons of the year as they can best be spared frorn their schools or. occupations at home. .
•
14. The rate of wages for men in other employment, is presumed to
be 'something lower, frprn the fact of .the nuniber of applications for places
in the mills.
15. E m p l o y from 4 to-6 horses.

:

-

•

.'•.,.

16. The gbods are riot. sold at the manufactory, but are sent .100
miles to Boston, where they are'sold or distributed to other markets..
17. There.is generally very little" conipetition of .foreign., articles y/ith
such as are made liere,; but occasionally there has been a considerable
import of siniilar goods j when the -stagnation of business .abroad-has




20:8 "

. •
•
. ,

R E P O R T S OF T H E
.

•

.

" .

[1845.-

M-^Coritiri'ued..

. reduced:theratepf "ivages andthe cost of goods rnuch below the ordinary
price; at -whiGh times goods of an inferiPr quality, made with a mixture
of Madras and other .low-priced cotton, and sornetimes expressly in
imitationofAinerican fabrics, arid with similar marks, .are thrown into
Pur own as well as foreign rnarkets, to the great injury of the manufacturer, and in the end of the purchaser and consumer also.
:- 18,, 19. They-.are consumed in ail.parts of the United States, some in
Canada, and expprted to A-frica, China, South .Anierica, and other parts
ofthe world. . . ' - . :
•/„.:':
20. Areriotspld by barter,, b u t generaUy on a credit of 8 nionths.
. • 2 1 . There has been a coristant decrease in the costof articles'manufactured, on account of the decline in .the price pf cptton and the. improverrients in •machinery, so that a. particular de.scription of goods, which cost,
for a certain'•.quantity, .in 1834, for cotton, $.5 :33.; kbor, $2. 4 1 ; other
.expenses, 93 cents---tpt.al.$8 67;:;-in.l844 cost,.fo^^^^^
$3 05;.labor.,
$1 74; Pther experises5:$l 0.5---total, $5 84; yet the rateof wages paid
at the lalter period was: 10 to 2:0 per cent.:higher than at the fprmer.
22. The price atwhich the; gpbds have beeri sold has been reduced
fully in proportion.:to the cost. : The greater.profits,of the latter .period
have been, derived,from the larger quantity of goods produced by the
employnient of the. same capital; -principally by reason of the iniprovement in the cpnstructipn, and the reduction in the: cpst, of machinery'.
.: 23. As niany of the goods made by this cornpany .are sold in foreign
oo.uritries, in;. cPmpetitiori .\iath Sirnilar
of course Can reqnire no duty to- secure the market at, home in
the ordiriary. cpurse of business;, rior would the price of the goods here
be afiected by the duties ori .similar..foreign goods, any riiore than the
price of C(?5tton.was affected .by the :duty,of-3 cerits- per .ppund on foreign,
cotton. In this he .refers'.tp such heavy goo:Gis' as,are made at this niill,
where the cost: of the cottori.andsPther inaterials bears so large apropPrtion tothe cost of the mari rifacture:d article.. With fine goods, where the .
cost of the material would beiless arid the labor :mor.e.,.,the. case might
•be different. .. " / , : . : ' • ^ - .. ' ;
•
. '.
"
,24. .Thepresent regulations seern.lo:be sufficient for,the purpose,
iinless with .-refererice to-a/:Z^
duties an.d frauds by false invoices.
Such frauds are beat guarded agairis,t:> by..the. iniriimurn or' square-yard
duty,: as.it is iri effect the same as a .specific duty, estirnated upori the:
qriantity of: "the. article.imported, about \yhieh there, can'be no' question,
as ifl relation to the cos.t.; ,. ' .
. . .. '
;'
25.: ..Refers.to answer- tp questipn No; .6, with reference to: anniial
.profits. • .Within three .years:haye appropriated 'something over'$20,000
ofthe profits there stated, to rnake up for depreciation inthe value ofthe
buildings." •' : ' :
.'
'-^ ;
. ••
: : ' : ' -•.'>.
• '26, •Refer to ans w^er to question 10, •: • ./.^ ^^
^
:27; It-would be .'difficult to .'niake a •correct account ^,^ the amount of
domestic productipris corisumed in this;establi-shrnent,. and' to distirrguish
those deriyed fi'om-agriculture.;' butv,prie,.itern.Qf expenditure'-is at least
|l,*200;per week, or rriore than $60,0'00 per year, paid for board of those



1845.]:

SECRETARYOFTHETREASURY.

209

M—^.Continued.
employed in the factory. Almpst the. whole. of this would be of dorriestic
origin, and the greatest part the produce of agricultui;e.
•
^. fi-''
28. Carinot answer* ..
—
.
:
•
.
•
•.'29.. A general reductipri of duties to, 12:J per cent, might not produce .
any imrriediate.effeGt upon the prices:or salesof such goods as wemake^
as there would be httle direct competition, with similar goods imported.
But those manufacturing companies which are inakirig .finer goods, or
which have not been so long in operation* as-to become well established
and able to contend with foreign conipetition j would, have to give up
their business; and the la-bor and capital thus emplpyed, together with
the buildings arid niachineiy, so far as they were suitable, would .bp
, directed to other branches of manufacture, and.thri's overstock the market
withall-articles that coiild riot be''sold for exportation*' Another effect
of a .low- rate of duties -would be, that whenever the rrianufacturirig busi-ness in other, countries should be so much depressed,' as is sorrietimes
the-case,.that goods for tw:o or three season^ are sold for less than thp
cost of producirig. therii, we should have such quantities: thrown upon the
market here as vvould be rriinous to any regular busiriess, and riiust stop
the mills for a" time, and throw the workmpri outof 'eniplo.y, or reduce•
the profits of capital and the, price of labPr to the same low rates as in
foreign countries. All such changes, in the gerieral course of bu'siriess,'
as'produce a charige in-the employmerit of labor and the'applicatioii of
capital, :haye an effect rappn the general prosperity, and an irifluence uppn
the ability of the consuhier of goods to make his purchases, much mpre
destructive to the business of the nianufacturer than any competition in
the supply of gpods merely,^ foreign or domestic.' Competition, either at^
home or abroad, will, tend, to reduce the price of labor. and thb cost of
production of goods,so as to meet' the market price;, but & y "general
distress in the country,-like .that produced by-the. defarigerrient of the
currency a few years ago, takes frorn.the.-consumer the ability to purchase:
or to pay, and causes an •eritire-prostratioripf business. ' ' : •.
30, 31. Should not probably be'.induced to abaridon the-busiriess,
except thrpugh the operation of causes which would 'produce general dis^,
tress, arid rerider it equally discouraging to engage in any-other :pursuit.
32. Cannot answer.
,
' . .• , '
- .
'33. The capital of the Ybrk Mariufacturing Compariy is $l,600;d00. .
,Db not use borrowed capital.
: . "
•
34. See answer;to question 23.
' •
.
"
.•. ^ " : .
:35 to. 40. -Cannot ariswer. ^ •
' .
•. ' . ...
•
Pdrtland.

From Augustine Haines, Esq.,. United' States District Attorney.^

Aetenowledges thcjreceipt of the circulars,, arid has distributed them,
but. has received no answers.
.
Cumherland,

John Anderson, Collector, encloses answers from H . ./S'^itK
.agent ofi Portland Manifiactufing. Company,

1.-State of Mairie, county of Cumberland.VOL. v.—14.



210

R E P O R T S OF T H E

fi:

.

[1845.

M—Continued.
,. . .2. Cbtton; water.power.
.
• - :
.3. Iri 1833; joint''stock. .
,.
'
. -'
• 4. Capital in buildirigs, water power, and machiriery, $185,000. .
5. Present annual payrnent of wages $36,000. The'average ainount of
. cotton used fi^orii 1833, 433,000 lbs. per anrium. The first year"280,000
lbs., the.last year 727,386 lbs.; ayerage. cost for the cotton for the
whole period 12 4-10 cents-per lb.
'
.
• 6.'The average prPfit. on'capital borrowed, over 6 per-cent.,.1 per
cent.; .on capital invested,, 7 per cent.
...
•; 7.. This depends upon .the great law of,trade—demand and supply.;
The manufacturing.business has been gpod for the last two years, from •
two • causesr^the home and export demand. The home demand isd-wing to the general, prbsperity of the country. This prosperity has.
arisen from the enactments of the General Governmerit, protecting the
labor-of the country against the labor of foreign countries, and the general impression that this is to be the .settled pohcy of the Goverriment.
.The protective policy reaches directly or indirectly all classes of the
.community—the" farmer, rriechanic, and' the day laborer. Cottpn
fabrics are all American labor,, frorn the seed to the article.
• • 8.- .Have rio statistics- by w.hich to judge specifically, but presume it
varies from 5 to-15 per. cent*.
.9. About 2,000,000 of yards per year of heavy sheetings, at 7J to 7f
cents; white drills at .8 cents; striped drills, (indigo blue,^) 10 cerits.
These w^re the gross prices of sales at eight mPnths' credit.
10. Partly ariswered iri. No. 5, as -to the cost and quantity of the
principal material. Iri additiori to which, there is consumed the value
of $6,000 in pptatP starch, oil, leather, iron, coal, and sundry^ other
articles for repairs'; t,o° which may:be added $12,000 of agricultural
•productions for .food. Of fbreign productions, from $2,000 to $3,000
per annum for iridigo blue.
;.
11. •;None imported, but a large amount exported.
12.- 45 "males, .180 females. Average wages of men, $1 80 per day;
young rnen .and boys, "42 to 75 cents per day ;',fernales frorn. $1 to $2
pier week. :
... ^ .
.
^
•'13. About .12 hours.
' .
" ^
14. Less wages in all. other employments in this couritry. In Europe,
females earn fi^om one-third to one-half less. • .
..
• .
15, 4 horses.
V
• 16. The principal markets are Portland, BostPn, New York, Philadelphia, and Baltimore; from'which poirits they are distributed through the
country, and exported.> . .
.
'
17. No foreign articles corne" in competition in the home market.
18. In this and foreign, countries. .,
. . .
:.
19. Asia, Africa, and :South America.
\
20. On 8 months'credit.
21. The cost of the manufactured article is varied very materially by
the price of the material. .The experise of labor,, although wages have




1845,]

S E C R E T A R Y OF T H E TREASURY.

211

M—Continued. . '
essentially adyanced, is. somewhal less, .owing to the improvement in
machinery and the experience in manufacturing.
22. It has varied from 12J to 6 i cents per y.ard.
"
23, 24. Speaks of the great'improvements in machinery; the policy
ofthe British Governmtotin relation to her nianufactures; and concludes
by recommending that the rninimums should be re:tained, and the tariff"
remain as it now is, as it has been a blessing tb the land.
25. Itis a joint-stock cornpany; the^Jdividends have been $7 p'er share.
The excess of profits oyer the dividends has been apphed to the payment of loss sustained in selling goods at 6J cents per yard. '
26. The cost of labor already stated. The cost of the material has
varied from 17 to 6 i cents per lb. The profit on the capital irivested.
has not averaged 1 per cent, per annum, over the value 'of money invested in .stocks.
'
27. Already Answered.
28. Carinot answer with any precision, but it is vast in amourit and
quantity.
'
.
29. As the present tariff" has a most salutary influence on all the departments of labor, there seems no good reason why it should be altered.
A settled policy is the only method to make this a great and strorig nation.
We have all the elements to^produce great results, and they are now in
active exercise, and in the right direction. He would use the mariner's
language,—" steady, steady, as you ai'e."
,
30. " I f our business is abandoned, our property is worthless."
31. The property being of no value, it could npt be applied to any use.
32.^ Cannot say.
33. Amount of capital already stated. Bprrow .occasionally, to stock
the rriill with cotton.
34. This is altogether problematical.
35.^ Cannot say.
^
36. A home valuation. If men of unquestionable integrity, &c.,
should be, employed, it is to be presiimed that the business would be
done correctly.
^
•
37. Cannot answer with precision; but has np doubt that the great
mass of the people are clothed with American manufactures, and that
the proportipn is increasing.
38. To a small extent. .' The farmers who raise wool exchange it for
woolen goods at the factories, their daughters being better employed
than in spinrring at home, in a cotton factory,
;
>
39. Not arisweredt
'
* 40. Not answered. . i .

(

ANSWERS .TO CIRCULAR No. 2.^

Belfast.

From N. M. Lowry, Collector.

1. Wheat, r3^e, barley, Indian corri, hay, potatoes, with other succu


212

R E P O R T S OF T H E
M—Continued.

[1845o
-

lents, and pulse. Apples in lai:ge quantities and .of^ good quality; but
none of the staples rnentioned.,',-. ''• • •: ,'
'
- C o / .,
2. It is estimated that, exclrisive of ship-building, tM manufacturing
capital is not more than one-eighth, ship-bpilding two-eighths;: the o-thpr
five-eighths are embraced urider the terrn''agriculture.. 'o < ^'
>
3. The general prosperity of the State,: as a'comrriunity, is judged to
depend-upon the success ojf the seyeral interests in the proportion above
stated. .
:-..[.:•
.^ "
. 4. The average of riet profit on capital employed in agriculture is
estimated to be-not more than one per cerit. for the last four years., . :.
5. It is estimated to. have been something better for the .ten yeai's .pripr
. to that tirne-^saj^ two p.er- cent.; but since that, tirne a general corriplairit
has preyailed that farmers have beeri unable '^-to make- both ends rneet."
6. The.average price.for wheat for the first period riamed has' been
$1, rye 75, oats 25, Indian corn 75, potatoes -30, beans $1. 25, peas
$1 20; since 1842 there has been but little variation, though,.•including
1842, and excluding 1845, potatbes have averaged less---say 25'; corn
less—-say 70; wheat 90; 'arid other aigricultural products iri hke proportion.' The average price per hand fpr agricultural labprers has -been, for
the last-period, about $10 per riionth and board, and a trifle less for the
first period. It is estimated that a frugal man would have done well tP
have realized $75 per year above his expenses^ for either of those periods,
in agricultural labor; a n d n b man can support hiriiself and. wife at that
kind of labor at the average wages that cpuld have lieenofe'ed for that
time.'

.

.

. \

•

••

'

•

'

•

.' •

7.. It is judged, from a consideration of all the informatiori that could
be obtained, that with, the exception of ship-building, manufacturers'
profits have largely increased for the last four years,, while the-prpfits of
ship-buildirig and agriculture have diriiinished in a sorrie what less proportion; but, with the exceptiori of certain periods, it is -not understbod.
to have been l h e result of ariy peculiar state of the currency, and it is
riot supposed that there has been any violent contraction or expansion; bf
the circulating medium for the last four years.
•'•••'
8. .The State raiises horses for e-xportation;. also hogs, neat cattle, and
other prpvisions. For the last three years the average price of beef upon
the hoof has been about $3 75 per cwt.; pork about $4. It is so diffi^
cult to fix any average .upon tbe price of horses, .that an estimate'would
be deemed'of little value, there being no price-current rioticed to which
Tcference can be had, and as the .qualities are so various, though it is.
thought that all the horses in the State, at this time, would riot; average
more than $40 per head. The causes of variatiori in- the ..price of "beef
are. various, such as the state of the hay crop, the increase of the lumbering business, w.hich emplbys lai^ge numbers of the best oxen. The
best judges estimate that the exports of provisions, with the exception
of flour, have been nearly balariced by the iniports. The imports of
flour have been for the last ten years pripr to 1842 about 50,;000 barrels
peryear, and about the same price for the period named. The price<^of
flour has averaged about $4 for the ten years, prior to 1842, and ab"dut



1845.]

SECRETARYOFTHETREASURY.

213

M—Continued.
$-5 for. the •period; since, excliiding 1845. The relative differences of
•price noticed are attributed to the state of the' crops.and supply at the
giyeri points of demand,-thpugh the- advantage given to certain kinds of
.manufactures by law is deemed tP very much increase the profit of the
particular class: protected, and, in like proportion, burden all the others..
9. In this State there is. les.s relative dependence of the other classes
upbri the agricultural of. the Stale'as a -whole, but.the commercial and
riavigation interests in a great degree depend; upon the greal staples of.
the Gountry.,'viz:: cotton, rice, &c.; and their profits-greatly depend upon
them,"as a large portion of the riavigation derives emplpyment. from,
them.
10. .The average prices of protected articles have not been as low, in
. proportion to the. average price of the staples, for the last three, as. the
\ preceding ten years, making all allowarices for the effect of any relative
differerice of price in the raw inaterial for the sever.al periods. referred
to; meaning by staples, not the articles produced by this State, but,the
great staples of the country; and the cause, it is believed, will be fpurid
in the desire of .those erigaged in manufacturing the great staples, of the
country to make great • profits.;-increased, no. doubt, b y a fear that a
change rnust soprier or later take place. The effect upon the State has
• been irijurious, as -these profits are returned, to' the. State of Massachus'etts, w:here a la:rge portion of the capital employed is owried, though it
has not had any very visible effect r^pon the expenses of living.. '
11. The State exports large quantities of lumber of various kinds,, and
some cotton fabrics. The amouiit of lumber and the prices thereof seem
"to have been but.little affected during both peripds inquired of, by any
cause, except the regular and increasing demand, which, our p.ecuhar
situation and riieans have enabled the . comrii|Uriity tp meet with .corresponding supply; The cotton fabrics which have beeri exported have
ge.nerallybeen sent to Boston, and the inforniation respecting them will,
it is supposed, be more full- and certain from -.that source. ^ The effect
tipon this community is only that produced by carrying on the cotton
vmills and returning the proceeds to the merchant at Boston. Very small
' parts of the fabrics made in this State are sold here without first beirig
. taken'.tb Boston..
i .' .
-.
:, .,12.. Itis.estirria.ted that three-fourths pf all articles of every kind that
the State makes for export are. consumed abrPad. The prices are gpverried generally by. the foreigri demand, niodifi.ed by the circumstances
that, coiitrol br affect the general supply al hpme. • The AVest, India
market receives mostly, our lumber and surplus produce of various kirids.
.-It is stated- by shippers that the duties on West India products materially
affect the prices bf our exports in thqse markets, althougb thereis but
little cbmpetition with our-particular produce in. those markets..
•. 13.. The,connpction' between the Exports an.d iniports of our country
is.,deerned to be such,, that. no pne couritry can rely totally upon its
exports, for itis apjparent that such a course rnust ultimately prpduce a
revulsion, which will paralyze the productionof the articfes^of export,
unfess the exporting. country has a riionPpoiy of production of a giyen



214

R E P O R T S OF T H E ^

[1845.

M—Continued.
article, and the market which receives that production has a monopoly
ofthe market ofthe. world; and then a crisis would arise from the want
of a rnedium to carry on the business for any length of time. And'it is
judged that the present tariff'must, if continued withbut niodification, in
a great measure reduce the exports and oblige their home consumption
at a very reduced price, which is understood to be the real working of
the theory that "high duties make low prices;" and these changes can
only be effected through terrible revulsions in the commercial world.
14. W e have cotton and woolen manufactories; the exact riumber
cannot by me be readily ascertained at this time. They produce common cotton fabrics and the cheapest cassimeres. It is judged that the
capital invested in ihem is about one and a half milhon, and if any
reliance is.to be placed on the ordinary sources of information, their
profits for thelast three years liave been from 20 tp 40 per cent.. It is
adrnitted by all that our cottori manufactories can compete with the
world without the present duties.
"
15. Having already stated that the State is largely a ship-building
State, I have only to reply to the other brarich pfthe inquiry. It is supposed that every one must know that the duties on articles that go into
the manufacture of vessels are onerous upon this State, and benefit no
other branch of our iridustry, as we do'not produce any of them. The
present condition of that interest is much less prosperous than before the
act of 1842, though the enterprise of our citizens has been able to endure
it thus.-far. The general interest of navigation is only ^^ofe?*tt^&/e,
16. Is answered in the fbrmer replies.
17. I t is not supppsed that the wareliousing system would affect
materially the commerce'pf .Maine. . • .
IS. It is supposed that if a systeni cari be adopted which should prevent frauds in the transactions,^ it would be favorable to allow them as
now.
>
.
^ . .
19. The irnporters of Maine, ofwhom inquiry has been made, do not
name any articles which should be entitled to debenture, which are not
so now.
•
•
.^
20. Cotton fabric's of various kinds.
' ..21. It is not apparent that the rninimums of the present tariff' affect
very materially the general interest of this State; nor is it known that
there is any objection to cash duties, without lhe warehousing, system,
that would materially affect the State as a community.
22. After a careful exaniination of the.list of free articles, it is not
discovered that there are any of them that would furnish any consider• able revenue, or which, if a small duty were laid on'thern—say. 20 per
cent, ad valorem-—would be attended by any evil in consequence.'
23. There are a few articles of dye and d3^e compositions, which are
now free, which are used solely by manufacturers, which are protected
iin the rnariufactured fabric; but i t is deemed .immaterial whether the
evil be corrected by reduction^of duty on the fabrics, or by a duty on
the articles used, or both: ,
fi
'•
. • 24. There are some articles of general consumption which are now



1845.]

SECRETARYOFTHETREASURY.
. -M—Contiriued:

.

215
;;

heavily dutied, which are produced, in.'but. small, propprtioris : to the
arnount consumed in the United States, which operates:very unequally .
upon the poorer classes. The article-of sugar .is quoted • in the.: New
York Trifeyzeprice-current, 1.842, at 3J.c.eiits per p p u n d a t New .Orlearis^;
The same paper-.quotes the sarne.artic.le.at same place, 1844, :at 7 cerits.
per pourid. If one cent of this duty goes into, tlie hands, of the United
States sugar planters, by a reasoriabl.e estiniate of the.-crop of .1844 it
gives those prpducersriearly three mihions. of-dollar.^ o:^t,bf", the pockets •
ofthe community at large. ..This is considered as grievous to Maine,, in
the prpportion her populatiori bears to the whole ofthe cbrisuriiers o-f .the
States.
: •.:••.•. .
.. 25. The above "answer is considered as answering ihis inquiry, so faras relates to the article of sugar. The common fabrics of cotton, sheeting, :shir ting; calicoes, ticking, &P:?-, are all much.enhanced in price, and
.the .additional price is considered to average about 30 per pent, as' far as
it is possible tb ascertain. There are many pther articles whi.ch it is
deemed unimportant to mention.'' The article of irori, which goes into
the coristruction of vessels, is extensive and somewhat peculiar to Maine,
as she does not produce any iron. The arnount of duties-paid upon these'
articles cannot now be ascertained here. •
.'
26. It is not understood how the present duties can in-^any way benefit
the producers of Maine, except on the articles of cbrd-woPd, potatoes,
yarious kinds pf lumber, and .wool. These should be increased, iri.ord,er
to balance.the accounts, yery considerably. It is thbught that in evei'y
other 'instance the farming iriterest is very heavily burdened. . • The State
has not prospered under the present tariff-as before, arid itis attributed to ,
the bindirig her interest in agriculture and cornmerce, to favPr manu-.
facturersv
• " , . . - .
..
-^
-27. T h e S t a t e produces about one and.a quarter million porinds of
wool of the coarser kinds. Its average price per pound' has been 31
cents since'1842, and about 42 cents before that time. Itis not assumed
that the present tariff has caused the difference, though the wool raised
in Maine is not that kind which- receives .the greatest prPtectiori. It is
an article which can be increased or .diminished in amount. about .100
per cent, per annum. .
^
• 28. We have no mines-in this State, though we haye extensive quarries of granite and limestone.
'•'
• ' . -

N E W HAMPSHIRE.
.*
Strafford.

ANSWERS. TO CIRCULAR :No, 1.

From Salmon FaUs Manufiacturing Company^ per J, D. Watson,

1. NewHampshire; Strafford county.
2. Cottbn factory.. Water power.
3. 1822.' Joirit-stock company.



.

.V. .
•, -

•-

216

R E P O R T S OP T H K

[1845,.

. M—-Continued.
"4. When completed, .will have cost $250,000..
'
. ''
. '
. 5. About $50,000. : ' -.. •••
: 6. No profit, but a loss of three-fourths ofthe capital by goods and by
fire. A new capital was paid in a yeai: ago. •. .
7. Accounts have not been made tip; probably some profit at preserit,
8'. Six per cent. '
.
*
.
: 9.- Do not know; havirig:been connected with the concern only sirice
converted from a woolen to a cotton factory.
:
,,.
10. 35,000 pounds of cotton per-week, or 1,820,000 pourids per annurh;. 300 tons of coal;. 3,000 gallons- of oil; and $1,000 worth of potato
starch.
'.
11. Do not know.
^'
/
12. See answers to 13.and 40. About 1,000 hands employed.
. •- 13..-From-11 to 12* hours' a day. Principaily paid 6y the quantity,
and not by the day.
;.
. 1 4 . The. rate of wages of persons similarly emplpyed the same as
here;» beirig higher ihan in other States' in. common employments, and
yery niuch higher than iri foreign countries. . • .
15. Never more i h a n four'.hor ses and oxen. •"
".
16. Sold chiefly in Boston, to be distributed.
•
:-.
17. None of the same descriptfon brought to this market.
.
•
18. Chiefly in this couritry—^some exported tp South America.
19. Answeredi' • .:
•
"
,
20. • Sometimes for cash; generally on eight riipnths' credit.
2.1. Cost of riia:nufacturing has diminished, partly frPm a decrease in.
the price pfthe raw material, and from the imprpvement in machinery.
Labor, is rather higher.
' • . ,^
/.
22. Similar. goods have' been sold, withiri ten years, for 14 and 15
cents.; n:ow for 8, and pay a profit.
:
,
.'
: 23. .-A protective duty is riecess.ary to protect us" against the low:-prices
produced by a glut of siriiilar goods in foreigri countries; They are not
npw sent to" this countiy,_but wbuld be but for the -duty imposed; and.
Avould have corne into ruinou$ compeiitipn with our own manufactures.
•'.24; No; the specific'duties, prevent fraud effectually" eriPugh.- 25.- Canriot say.- ' Other similar coricerns have done well within the:
last twp years, diyiding from-4to 8.per cent, semi-annually, and in some
cases 10 per cerit.
-. •
\
. . •
26. The raw rn.a:terial costs three cerits a yard, and other expenses,
amount to about the same. The principal part of the cost, besides the.
raw.material, is the labor.
27. Cannot say; no iinporta.nt agricultural productions corisumed in
the process oT mariufacturing, except potatoes for. starch.
28. Would require a great deal of examination;- -The.cerisus givesthe amount of cotton rnanufactures, or an approaoh to it.: I should think
one-third, was in gPods pf this niimber of j^arn.
29. Cannot be answered until the expeririient is tried; think itwould
be ruinous.
- . • . : •
30. No answer. '
\'o- • - • ' : • . . • • • '



18:45.]

S E C R E T A R Y OF T H E TREASURY.

217

M—Cpntinued.
- $1.^ No answer.. '
.- -^ . / . • • -'-^ ' :'} '."'.;-...- •'• I'32.. Iron can be imported >nd delivered in all places on the great
water courses'and railroads cheaper than it can be produced,'provided
there were no protective duty -upon it.: Not acquairited with the cost of
manufacturirig salt. . •
" '
. '
' •
'
33. $300,000. W e may at tinies owe $50,000.
34. Do not know.
'
35. About 80 per cent.
.:
,
.36.' No rate of ad valprem duties will prevent frauds as. well as specific, duties, There are no frauds in imp.prting heavy cottpn goods that
.1 know of
'• -:
'
. . . .
37. Do not know precisely. Iri the northern States all the low cotton
goods consumed, are prodiiced here.
'
, .
38. Do not know. ' .
,
39. See American Almanac, where the rates- of interest of all the
States are put down.
•'
40. I should s.Uip.pose.75.''cents.a day for men./. Strafford County.'
.1,
2t
3.
^ 4.

From P . 2^. Jackson,- Trecisurer ofi th'e Great Falls
Manufiacturing Company.
• •'
<

In the State pf New Hampshire, county pf Strafford,..
Cotton cloth of various qualities; water power, • . .
A joint-stpck concern, chartered in 1823... .
:.
Capital paid in September, 182,3, on '780 s h a r e s : , . .$780,000^ 00
Dp.
-November, 1838, on 1,220
" ' . > . . 488,000 00 •
.
" Do.
Septernber, 1840, Pn 2,000 "" . . ' . . lOO^^OOd.OO .
Do.
Novembei, 1841, on 1,000, " . . . . /21Q,:000 >00 "

Whole amount ofcapital paid in . . . . . . . . . .•.•....... • . .$lv878,00Q "00
of which I. cannot designate. how much has been\e:5^p)ended from l^Ke ;
beginning in ground, buildings,- water power, , and machiner^y,, but: that. ^
portion of the property was Valued and charg.ed' in', the. last ^annual
account, Junfe 30, 1845, at $670,000..
.
^-^ • fi • / ' . ' '.> / , ' '
- 5'.- The amount charged in the-sarne accourit for-materials and^cash,' '
was $211,447 12; de]its due.lo the company (less ambunt they owbd) '• /
by the same aecbunt,'$392,929 60, '
— ' ' ' . . . ' .
-6. The-$768,000 paidin 1823 was employed iri •manufacturing-cbttpn
• and woolen cloths cand carpeting. I carinot state what amount was '
employed in each branch, neither can I distinguish the profits on borrowed oapital from those on capital paid in. Iri: 1838 .the stockholders ^
found that thej^ had lost so much that they must raise moire rnpney or
stop their works; accordingly, they created 1,220 shares, which were sold for'$400. each,, adding $488,000 to the capital.- Up to this period,
the dividends paid were $399,194, and the simple iriterest on the capital
paid in was $702,000.
\
•
From 1838 the company confined their operations to the manufacture
of cPtton goods. • In the.summer of 1840, it appeared that, after paying



218

R E P O R T S OF T H E
,M—Continued.

[1845.
.

'

the,debts,, there would be left only $40,000 for active capital; and the .
mills aild machinery required sorne alterations and heavy repairs to
place them on a par with sirnilar establishments. 2,000" shares were
created, and; sold for $400,000'; in 1841, l,000rnore-shares Were sold .
at auction for $210,000; making the whole capital paid in (in 5,000
shares) amount to $1,878,000; the simple interest-on which, frpm the
several dates of payrnent to 1845, amounts to $1,402,8.60—say capital,
.with interest, $3,280,860. The dividends paid to 'June, 1845, were
$804,194; add-iriterest, $268,911, is $1,07,3,105, which, deducted frorn ^
the capital and interest,' leaves $2,207^755. From this deduct the
actual market.value of the stock in 1845, viz: 5,000 shares, at $300.
each, is $1,500,000; arid the loss to the stockhpldersls $707,755, after
crediting all dividends received, with simple interest on payments- and
receipts. I have given this statemerit of the losses-of this compahy,
because I know that, in, doing this, I am 'also giving the history of mariy
ofthe cotton manufactories in New England.. Hayirig had some experience in the business, I venture to give it as i n y opinibn, that,if a true
account were obtained of all of thern from the commencement to this
time, they would not return the capital invested, with the cornmon rate
of interest. • •
^
" .r.
. 7. No doubt a portion of the loss sustained by this compariy may be
ascribed to the want pf skill in the early stage of the business; but much
. may very properly be attributed to the. frequent and sudden variations
in the markets from. 18S6 to 1842; since which year the business has •
been more regular and profitable. •
.
'
• ' ^-. .
8. I cannot state with accuraby, but certainly not lessthan six per :.
cent.
'
,
.
.
.
• 9. I can only go back tb 1840; since which we have made—
S h i r t i n g s : . : . . . . . .No. 30 yarn, 14,200,442 yards, worth $973,458 .00
Printirig cloth. . . . .No. 30 " 18,336,228 •'"
'^ " 1,009,444 ^00
" , Do. '- . . . . . N o . 38 "
1,007,145 " . ^ "
79,014 00 :'
Sheetings . • : . . . . . .No. 14 . "
10,551,718
" • '' • .643,332 00 .
Drillings....
. .No. 14 "•
3,942,220 - "
' -"
280,870 00 .
Madein5years.

-...--•....48,037,748

:

$2,986,118 00

The cost of manufacturing the above Was—
,.
For labor, &c., &c.:..'...
.$1,141,092
•For'12,557,672 Ibs.of c o t t o n . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1,118,437
^$2,259,529 00
l o . We are riow using per annum—• . .
., ,
Of cotton, about 3,500,000' lbs.—value at preserit price,
(8 cen.ts)
..fi......
' $280,000 00
. Of fuel, mostty wpod,. value, at present price, .(90 cents)..
• 5,700 .00Of oil, 8,000 gallons per annurn^—value at preserit price,
(90 c e n t s ) . . .
. . . . . . ; ' . . . . . . . . - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . f i . : ', 7,200. 00
Of soap, value at present price - - . . . - . . . . . . . - , . . . . . - . • . . . 600 00
Of leather, value at present price
......-.-...-.'.-..
3,500 00



1845.]

SECRETARY OF T H E TREASURY.

219

M—-Continued.
Of potatp starch, about 100,000 lbs., value at present
, price, (4 cents)
Of sundries for repairs—as luniber, iron, steel, charcoal,
&c., say . ............

$4,000 00
5,000 00

All domestic products, except part pf the iron . . . . : . , . . , $306,000 00
11. Carinot answer.
12. The nuniber of persoris employed in June last was^—
M e n . . . . . .258, average wages, iricluding board, $1 05 cents p.er day.
B o y s . . . . . . 35,
do'.
do.
35
do.
Girls . . . . . 9 2 1 ,
do.
do.
53
do. ^
13. Average hours of labor through the year, 12 hours per day.
14. In New Hampshire the wages of mem average al30ut the. same as
we pay. There is no standard rate for.wages of^girls, but we believe
they do nPt generally get so much as we pay.
15. No animals employed.
\
16. 18, 19. Our goods are'sold, for consumption, alLover the'United
States. Mbst of our sales<>are made in Philadelphia, New Yprk, and
Boston. Sbme o f t h e drillings and sheetings are sold for export to
China, South America, and the Mediterranean.
17. I cannot answer ; we do not export, pn our own account.
20. We generally sell on eight to twelve months' credit.
21. The cpst has decreased. The cost, of shirtings. No.. 30 yarn,
was, in—
1828, 33 cents per pound for manufacturing; cotton 1 2 |
cents.
1830, 22
do.
do.
do. 12 84-100
"
1835,20 :
do.
do.
do. 1 6 |
1840, 14J.
, do.
do.
do. 1181-100
"
1845,11 J
do.
do.
do.
7
For sheetings, No. 14 yarn, the cost wa.s, in—. '
1835, 14^ centsper pourid for rnanufacturing; cotton 15f
cents.
1840,. 9
do.
do. .
do. 10
1845, .5-1
do. .^
. do.
do.
5|
/ "
The principal cause, of the decrease in the cPst of manufacturing, is
to be found in the irnprovernents made in niachinery.
- 22. Prices obtairied— ••
:

1841.."

1842.

1843.

1844. •

1845.

7 50-100 7 •
For shirtings. No. 30, .7 20-100 6 75-100 6 .
6
For printings. No. 30,-. 5 85-100 . 4 75-100 ' 4 25-100 7
6
. For sheetings. No. 14, 6 30-100 5 50.-100 5 75-100 7:
8 50-100 7..
6
For drillings. No. 14, none. . "none.
:. 23, 24. In.answerlp these I can only say, we are content with the
revenue laws as they riow exist.
25. The profits made in three years, frprn June 30,1842, to June,
1845, were $562,000^^0 dividerids paid durihg the same period were
$405,000; leaving reserved prpfits of $156,000-, which has..been expended in puttirig the mills and niachinery in good repair; for'which



220

R E P O R T S OF T H E

[1845.

M-^Continued.
purpose about $120,000 more will be required, to be reseryed. put of
future profits.
" \.
. :/
:•
'
,' : .
26. The cost of No.. 30 shirtings and p r i n t i n g s Labor 8 cerits, other expenses 4 cents, cottori 8 cents per pound;
The cost of No. 14 sheetings and drillings-—
. '
Labor 3 6-10 cerits, other.experises 2 cerits,-cotton'6 1-6 cent-s per pound.
27, 28; Have no mearis of fqrmirig a judgment. * •
' .
29, 30, 31. Reducing the duty to 12'|-per cerit. would reduce very
much the value of. all l h e rnills and machinery now in operaltibn;. it
would also cause a great reductiori in the price of labbr,..arid"perhaps
in the price of cottori. In this case, skillful persoris might be: enabled
to operate them with some profit---small,:but perhaps equals to what
could be made in*other pursuits, in the state of, things which would be
produced by s.uchj a change.' If. this should fail, and we are compelled
to abaridpn the business a:ltogether, w.e shall be" situated very rriuch as
w e were when the , policy of the Government obliged us to . abandon
a portion of our commerce, and niust employ what httfe :capital we may
have left as well as >we can. ,
. ,
^
,. "
32 to 40. I have ..hot the means of answering the remainder of the
questions.

ANSWERS TO CIRCULAR No. 2.

'Keene,

,

From Hon. S: Hale,^ enclosed in letter fir oin' Cyrus Barton.

1.. Wheat, barley, oats, rye, buckwheat, corn, potatoes, cpcoons,. and
rriaple sugar.- No cotton, rice, or tobacco.
.' '
' ' • . ' . fi.
2." The proportion of capital invested in farming operations- he estimates at four-fifths of the'whole, or $58,000,000.
. • :
3 , 9 . " The' commercial, mechanical, /manufacturing, and. riiayigatibn
interests." of New^ Hampshire are not so much conriected with, and dependent upon the agricultural as is the case elsewhere. They are all,
however, and more especially the mechanical and nianujfacturing iriterests, ^beneficial to the agricultural, arid,each to the other..' Biit the benefit
whi'ch agriculture thus receives is mbre than couriterbalanced by disadyantEiges arising from other sources.- Tp this seaport, and to almost every
factory in the- State, the flour and: corn of the West-and the,oats of Vermont find easy ^cPess. ' F o r the consuiiiptiori.of only a -part of the county of
Cheshire. 5^000 bbls. of .flpur are brought annually ^ and into the whole State
probably 100,000 bbls.' The factories, howeyer, prevent this disastrous
effect from falling-sb heavily'on the farrriers living I n the neighborhood
by taking from t,l%Gm,. besides their grains °.at reduced prices, potatoes, &c.
4, 5i 6, 7.; Carinot aiis\ypr the.sb' questibns except in general, ternis.
From 1832 to. 1842, .considered as one peripd, the!profits'of-farming in
this State, though yariable,4were''higher^than they haye been since;.but
the reduction of profits has not been-occasioned liy any single cause.



J845.]

S E C R E T A R Y OF T H E TREASURY.

221

M—Contiriued.
The currency has been an efficient cause. The irnpulse giveri to rnan•ufactures by the tariff of 1828 continued to operate tilh 1836* Before
that year a vast riumber of persons, ceasing l o produce, became- consumers only, of agricultural products; afterwards an equal or greater number, before consumers, only, became prpducers.. Suppose that one, two,
or three huridred thousarid riien, whp have consurried one barrel pf flour
each for seyeral.years, thus.raising the price, should be. cornpelled to
..change their emplby merits, and'.each, instead of taking, one barrel from
niarket, should send three or more into it, this a:,lorie would be sufficient
tp accourit for a considerable fall, in the .price of agricultural products.
Theforrher state of things hasriotbeen restored; at-present there are '
too rnariy,.f)rodueers in proportion to the consumers, and,,pf course, the
profits of farmirig capital have, .until receritly, been comparatively 16\Y.
.8. New Harripshire raises a srifficient supply-of horses, rnriles, cattle,
sheep, and .hogS' for its own 'use and consumiDtiqn, and spme to spare. Of"
wheat> corn, arid oats,.it does riot raise eriough. . .Wheat cbmes in'flour,
priricipaily.frorn the -West, and so much of it and cPrri as tb reduce the
prices of: all. grains raised here, and the value of real estate.
10. " The average prices of what are called •protected/articles" have
not, in his opiniori, been as low, in comparison, with those of staples,
arid irideed of all agricultural products, for the last three :ye:ars as forthe preceding ten yeai'S:; but he .expresses this opinion without" haying
gone irito a particular examination of the subject. This state of things
may be'attributed to causes already alluded to. Before 1840 a. large
number of people, from.being coiisurners merely,:became, producers of
agricultural products, and remain such still. Thb supply was thus increased, the demand lessened, and, pf course,' prices fell.
; 1.1;..Besides agricultural products, such as cattle, sheep, wool, pork,&c., the State exports large quantities of.manufactured articles, of the
vaiueVaiid.ariiountof/which he can form no estirniate.
^, .
12. It is irnpossible to tell what prpportion of the articles- exported
frorri New Hampshire are consumed abroad. A large amourit goes to
Boston, and sorne to'New York. He doubts .whether,.'when any con-'
siderable: portion of ariy comrriodity, and not all, is exported, the price
is ever:" governed " exclusively^" by the foreign, pr the hoine demand^"
Each has rriore or.less influence, according tp circumstances. If a market [.requires but a. tenth part of a commodity, it affects,, if it does not
"goverri.j" the price of the rernaining nine parts.^. . . :
13. -A country can export only its surplus products, and these it will
export; it GariimpPrt Pnly ^as .much as its surplus products will pay for,
arid so rnuch it,will irnport. .These are-.gerieral rules, arid must be ap. plied, not to single years, but to periods, of several years; and he-enters
into a long argumerit on theisubject. '.
.
...
•
14. There are maiiy manufacturing establishments, large, and. sniall, "
mostly pf: Cotton and wool; but his iriformation does not eriable hirn to
gi,ve: any .-account of their number, "nor of the capital invested, nor pf
their profits.. He has been, coricerned in but one, which is of cotton, and
that has riot, for the last twent}'' years, jnelded.two per cent, per arinum



222

R E P O R T S OF T H E

[1845.

M—Continued.
on the cost; and for the" last three years has paid no dividend, the profits
being expended in repairs. Others have yielded less, and a few havebeen prpfitable.
.
'
.
•,
22. If rnore revenue is needed, tea and coffee would bear a moderate
duty. He i s n o t aware of any reason why these, articles should be
exempt from duty. It is by no means certain that a moderate duty
would enhance their cost to the consumer. ^ "
26. Manufactures beriefit the farmers in this State, especially in the
neighborhood of the factories, by furnishirig them a near and certain
market -fbr their products. In his opiriion the preserit duties can be so
modified as to benefit a portion of them (those whoi-aise sheep) directly,
and the rest indirectly, by imposing a higher duty on wool costing less,
than seven cents per pound. Much of this wool comes in coriipetition
with, the wool raised here. For the last twenty years this State, if it
has prospered at all, has prospered slowly; does not attribute its want
of prosperity to high duties, but to a want of skill and rnanagement in
the cultivation of the soil, and to the amount of ernigratiori from the
State, &c.
- .
.•
' 21. The number ofsheep in 1844 was 497,633. Estimating each sheep
' to 3deld two pounds twelve ounces of wool, the whole amount would b e
1,368,475 pounds. The price of wool has fallen this year-—domestic
competition, stimulated by the present duties, having increased the
quantity raised.
. Hanover, Grafiton county. From Alfired Morse, Postmaster.
1. Speaks only of Gra,fton county, which he says is an agricultural
county, raising aU kinds of grain and vegetables. No cotton, rice, or
tobacco.
\ •
2. Nearly three-fourths of the capital is engaged in agriculture, including the raising of live stock.
' .
4. The annual average of prpfits on capital emplbyed on well-cpnducted
farms for the last three years has been very small, if an actual loss has. not
been sustained. F o r t h e ten years preceding 1842 was about six per
cent greater than for the "last threeyears. The operation of the tariff'
laws and the currency have undoubtedly produced this result. .
8. This county raises a supply of horses, mules, hogs, and cattle, and
a supply of all provisions except flour, the deficiency of which is obtained from the West. The average price of this, as weU as. all other
agricultural products, has been lower sirice 1842 than in the ten years
preceding; while the average prices of what are called the protected
articles have been higher in proportion.
»
•
There are eight smalll manufacturirig establishrnents in this county for
the manufacture of woolen goods,..principally cassimeres and satinets,
the value "of which and their machinery ih 1844 was $38,350; capital
for the purchase of raw materials, $5,000 each. The prPfits for thelast
three years have.been large... The present duties might be somewhat
lessened without irijuring them.
'. • ,



1845.]

S E C R E T A R Y OF T H E TREASURY.

223

Mr—Gontinued.
.23. The articles of iron, sugar, &c., which are extensively used and
consumed by the producing and laboring classes, are undoubtedty greatly
enhanced in price by the operation of the present tariff.
• 27.; Wpol is the great staple of this county, of which there is used
annuany about 450,000 ppunds. The. duties on foreign wool."which
comes in competition with much of this, are almost.nominal,.and afford
httle protection to the wopl-groWer; and the only benefit from the present duties to those erigaged in growing the agricultural products and
staples referred to, is through the manufacturer; that is, they perhaps
find a quicker mari^et, though. not at any adva^nced price. It would
seem evident that, tp be equal, if the present duties are continued on the
manufactured articles, the duties on the raw material ought to be considerably iricreased. - The price of woolin this county sirice the tariffs
pf 1842 has been, rtpon an average, for good quality thirty-five cents per
ppund, and for lhe ten years preceding about forty-five .cents...
28. There is an iron mine worked in the town of Franconia, in this
county, the fixtures andrnachinery of .which are valued by the assessors
of that town at $3,000, and in the working of which some $20,000 capital is employed. The quantity of irpn produced, or its value,, he has
not been able tb ascertain. The business is better than it has been for
several years-past..

• VERMONT.
ANSWERS TO CIRCULAR No. 1.

Burlington,

Archibald W. -Hyde, Esq., late .Collector, encloses answers
firom Norris Dodge.

1. Arlington, Burlington county, Vermont.
2. Woolen.. , Water power.
' •
,
3. 1833. Joint stock.
• 4. Capital $7,000. '
^, , :.; :,. '
5. N P answ:er.
.
.
.
. : .
6. Has made no dividends as yet. Prospered till January, 1837,
when the whole, was lost by fire. Very soon rebuilt, and agairi lost by
the failure ofa commission house in 1840.
7. Causes of increase and decrease are vaiious. A good, established
Government policy—one that can be relied on as permanent—gives
life, and health to the rnanufacturer; whereas an unstable one is death
to all improvement, and to business.itself There are pther causes. ..
8. No answer.
9. About 12,000 yards per annum o f f goods.
p
10. No,answer. „ .
11., No answer.12. On an average about 12.



224

.

R E P O R T S OF T H E

[1845.

M—Contiriued.
13. Thirteen hours.
-j .
14.'No-answer. .
« ' '•": . :
.. 15. No answer. : •
'•••'•
1 6 . Clocks are sent to Troy,;, Albany, and New York.*
. 17. They: db, but to what extent carinot say.
18. In nearly all the States. ' * . •"
' .
• . * 19:. Not any. _ .fi.
. ' •- .
20. Sold ori comriiissipri a:t six months. .
21.-There has been a decrease in .Porisequerice of improvement i n '
• .machinery, and an increase in. stock at times, but nbt ariy in labor.
.'22. Varied from .95 to 40 cents. .
23.' The preserit rate of .duty;-\X^ill answer very well.. None less.
24. No'.answer. '• ;
• ' ' • ' , . ' "
• " •
'>
'
2:^.. No-answer.'• •' ' ^ :" ' • • '''.fi '
V
'':
•26. Neariy .three-fourths of the raw niaterial; one-fourth for labor,
and profits, of capital. :
' ' '•
.
- "
'27.- Five families, are fed arid clothed mostly, by American productiphs. •

• ' . ' . :

-

• '.. • •

, : '

.

'28.' N Panswer. •
'

'..•••

' •'. '

29. Should .be obliged l o abaridon.the'busiriess.:
30. Till the soik
^
.
,. ;
• 31. Could make a comfortable living by farmirig; but m.anufacturing
could only be done at a loss.
34. Not .any.
. fi
35.10 40. Not ariswered. " "
,
,!>

•'MASSACHUSETTS..

;•

ANSWERS TO CIRCULAR No. 1..

Plymouth.

From W. M. Jackson, CoUector.

1. Massachusetts, county of Plymouth.;.
• 2. Two rolling, and nail mills; water -power.
3. In 1807. Individual concern. . ^
4. $100^000.
:
" :
. . .
• 5.. $85,odo. '
••--.6 to 9. Nbt answered. .
*
" -. .
10.-Scrap and.pig iron.
.•
11. Not answered.

12.
13.
14.
16.
17,
20;

.'.•--'--•

Fifty men; average $1 per day.
'
Ten hours average tinie.
15. Not answered. :
Sent principally to Boston and southern ports.
18, 19. Not answered.
On a credit of six, months. '




•

1845.]

SE'CRETARY OF T H E TREASURY.

. 225

M-rrr<>pntinued^
. - ' 2 1 . Not. ansWered.
22.. From 3J to 5 cents per pdund.
23, 2.4, 2§..-Not answered.
•
26. Raw material cost about 50 per cent.
27, 28. Not "answered.
/
'' 29. Could n o t be cpritiriued.
,.
30. Unknown. A heavy loss would be incurred.
•3i to 40. Not answered. ^
Plymouth.

From W. M., Jackson, Collector,

. :.""-

'

-

'- ..

:

/

. . .

1. Massachusetts, county of Plymouth.
: 2. -Cordage manufactories. Water; .and stearn power.
;
3. In 1828 and 1838. Joint stock! '
., '
4. $7o,oo(j.
;
5. $65,000.
6. About 1 per cent.
7. 8. Not answered.
9. About 900 tons.
,
10. Rnssia, Manilla, and American^ one-third .each.
11. Cost about the same to import.,
\
12. 139 men and bbys; average about $1 per day.
\
13. Average 10 hours per day.
14. 15. Not answered.
16. Principally sent to Boston. , '
. •
17, 18. Not answered. •
19. Sorne Manilla cordage sent to Havana and,South Arnerica.
20. Six .months' credit. . •
. '
21. Not answered.
' .•
, 22. Tarred cordage for 11 cerits; Manilla, 10 cents per pound.
2 3 l o 27. NPt answered.
..28. 5,000,000 in the.United States; 1,500,000 in this S^^^
29: Could not be continued.
; 3.0. Not answered. . •
:
..
3 i . Would.be nearly a to.tal loss..
, 32 tb 40. Urianswered.
'
,

-

;

Plymouth.. From W.'M. Jachson, Collector^
2. Cotton mills. Water power.
3. In 1812 and 1830. Joint stock.
4. $2.0,-000 capitaL
5. $10,000.
^
. 6, 7, 8. Not answered.
9. $16,000.
'• .
.
10. 187,000 ibs. of cotton.
11. Not answered.
'
12. About,31 riiales-arid 47females; males average about $1, females
75 cents per day.
VOL. v.—15.




.

226

R E P O R T S OF T H E
"
^

.

[1845.

M—-Continued.

13. Average about l o hours.
14, .15. Not answered.
^.
16. Sent.to Boston principally.
• Plyinouth.

.

-—
.

;•

From W. M. Jackson, Collector, :

• - '
•-• .^

• 2.'Rivet manufactory. "Water power. :"
:. '.
,- .
. 3.. In 1844. -• . - ....
•
• .•
4. $10,000. .
. •
:
5 to 9. Urianswered. .
:•
' . ' /
10. 75 tons of wire, "domestic," value $50,000. •
I L Not answered. ' ' .
""
,• .
12! 15 men," at $1 25* per day. ,
.
' .
.:".
, ..
13 to 15. Not replied tp.
• ./
16. In this country.'
,
. ^. .
17 tb 19. Not answered. ,
20. Six months.
21 to 40. Not answered.
Essex.. Frorri Williarn Nichols,-CoUector, fir oin Amesbury Mariufacturing
• . 'Company.
1. Massachusetts, county of Essex, r
•
.
./ ,
2. Woolen. Water power. :
3./Estabhshed in 1822. Joint stock. "'
4.. $400,000.
5/About $100,000. •
6. After paying iriterest on amount borrowed, have not averaged
more than 5 per cent. .
;
7... Causes'various.
•
"
-.
.
• ..
8. From 6 per cent, tp 12 per cent.
, 9. Frorii $200',000.to $300,000. Flannels and satinets principally;
• about two-thirds flannels,' and orie-third satiriets.
10. Wool 400,000-lbs. per annum; all raised in this' country; value
$140,000. Value of other domestic products per arinum $8,000; foreign
pro.ducts $12,000.
I L From the variety of qualities, impossible to state.
12.. About 180 males and females. Wages; males $5 to $8 per week,
.females $3 50 t o $ 5 per week; younger class of females from $2 50 to
$3 per week.. • . °
, . • :
. 13. About IOJ hours a day, on an average,'the year through.
14. Not answered.
"15. Two horses.
'
•.
, ,'
16. Manufactures sent to Boston arid there sold .to different parts of
the country.
17. Notto a great exterit.
.
,18. Cpnsumed in every part of the country, chiefly in the North and
West.
'.
'



1845.]

. S E C R E T A R Y OF T H E - T R E A S U R Y ,

• 0 -

227

• M—Continued.

19. ^None expprted.
20, -Sold by commission mercharits Pn a credit of 8 months.
21.- Decreased; • Sorne of the materials cheaper, and some- not. By
improvement in machinery, manufacture for less- than formerly; operatives receiving the same wages as ever.
\
:
22. Prices have varied almost every year, more or less.
.
23. The preserit duty is none too much.
24. For securing 'the duty a specific square-yard: duty is the, most
desirable. In ad valorem duties, false invoices are easily m a d e .
25. For 3 years, including the present, about 30 -per cent, for the
z(;A.o?e. .tee—10 per'cent, per anriurn.
26. Cost of raw^ materials, including wool, about 70 per cent.; .labor
20 per cent.; interest, commission,freight,&c., about 10 per cent.; profit
about 5 per cent, per annum.
^
• '
27. See-ariswer to question No. 10. .
28. Not answered.
29.- If the duty should be reduced to 12J. per cent., it would cause
us to abandon the busiriess..
. ,
: :
^
30. Cannot say.
31. The business done by a certain class of brokers would be rnore
profitable thari manufacturing, should the duties'be reduced to anything
like 12J per cent.
--.:..;
;
3 2 , 3 3 . Not answered.
•.
• "
.
34. Has not giyeri 6 per cent, throughout. Cbuld expect nothirig
good from a reduction of duties.
—
'
35. About 40-per cent, ori flannels.:
36. l i practicable to carry into effect the system of honie valuations,
(which seems impossible,) that would operate equally at all ports, and
prevent frauds by the importer. :
'
>
>
37. All consumed here.
'
. •.
'\ '
38. 39, 40. Not ariswered.
Essex.

From Wm. Nichols, Collectm',firomBartlett.steam mills, Newburyport,

1. Massachusetts, Newburyport, Essex cpunty.
- fi '\
2. Cotton manufactory. Steam ppwer>
'3. In 1838. Joint stock.
;
-. 4. Capital $300,000.
/:
5. Average aniount of materials, ^ c , $50,000.
;'
6. Annual profit 8^per cent*' 7. Competition and. state of the market.
8. Not answered.
^:
.
•
" .
9. 2,000,000 yards of cotton cloth. No. .40--rvalue $200,000..
10. 500,000 ibs. cotton, Louisiana. 100 bbls. flour per anrium.
11/Not answered;
.'..''.
12. Four hundred.
-.
13. Eleven hours throughout the year..
.
14.. Not answered*•
•"
.
'
• .



228

•-

. REPORTS OF T H E
-. M-^Coiitinued.

. .;15, None.."'

'

'.:..-•

..,

[1845<>

,

• / ; ^ • " .'
'

o

/'• . _

. ^,

' "

:'''';

. -16., Bostori, New Yo.rl?,PMiadelphia,'-arid Baltimorco. . .0 9.
"1.7, Unknown.' ,:, ..-• ",
•. - .'•'•.'.
- ; ^.--'
1 8 . I l l t h e U n i t e d •S.tates..
' ^ 1 9 . N P n e . . ' . •' " ' '.-' ' ...

•

20-." Ori credit, 8 to-9 •months.
21. W a g e s pretty uniform.

.
- . ,• .
" -''^-^ ' - ". .: .... '. •

.•..•'--..
.

:., * .,

'
.

'

- - -.

:

. • • - ' . • .

22. I.nl839, 25 per Gent, higher than the present-rates.
•
23^ Not answered.^ - . ' \
'^ ^ .
:. • '
24; Unknown. - ; • ^ : , .
,
. •
. .
' • •
?
• 25.- bividend^ average 9f per cent., and in the last four.years have.
-•carried to profit and loss accourit $33,-000. ' - : \
• .
' .
-26; LabPrj .bne-half; raw material, one-fourth;'profits ofcapital,".onefourth.
....
fi.'.•'. \- - . '
••
• •
' - '27. $45,000, in-cottori, flour,.arid starch made frorn potatoes... .-.•
'28, 29, Uriknown. ••.
" . '
- ': :
•.''[•' . • .. ^ ^30;. The larger proportion of the capital being iri..-buildings ari-d machi.
netj,.would he lost. ' :.
: •
.;.' ..• ' •
- •: '.
31. Know of none.
' . •
"
•
. . . .
- 32.. Not answered*.
:•'
•
'- • •
'
.
• 33.'$3:50,000 paid in, of:which $50,:000. is actiye capital; rernainder .
buildings,'machinery, &c. .. .
'
:' . - . '
34 to'40.'Not answered."
.
.. :. ,: ..
Essex.

Frdm William Nichols, Collector., 'firom- Globe steam mills, .New-.• .
.hurypdrt. . - '- '- '-

.1." Massachusetts, • Newburyport, Ess'ex couri'ty. .
. .•
2.^ Cotton drilhngs. . Stearn power.•
• fi' .'
•3. In. 1845. Joint stock.
' ' : •"'
. 4. Capital $2.00,000.'
. 5 . Not yet in operation. ./ - ., ^ . .•••-...
.
6 , 7 . Not answered.
••'. •"-. .
. ;.
//'"'" .
•':'•••
8. 1 to 50 per cent.
.
':
9,10'. Not answered. •..•) . "'.
'. 'fi • .••
.;.•*/
11. None-imported. .
\ ".
*•
12, 13. Not answered.
^' .
•'
• . . ;
14. Too various, to name.
'
15, 16. Not answered...
...
.
17. Not much competitiori" in this particular aiticte^
•'
•
.
. 1 8 . United States, South Arheriea, and China,..
19. Not answered. " .
.
•
.
•
20. Usually 6-to 8 nionths' credit.
• . • ".
• -.
21. 22. Not answerpd. • •
•
\
:• •
23. The tariff would riot affect-this, article so much "as fine goods/'
24. Think nbt.
. '.
'
c
25. 26, 27, 28. Not ariswered.
^^
V o
29. The proporti^on of raw material for this manufacture .'being so



1845,]

SECRETARYOFTHETREASURY.
M—^Continued..

229

. -.

large, cpmpared to the labor, should riot require so rriuch duty as articles
requiring more labor,
•
.
; > • .*
:
.'
30. The capital, consisting of buildings and machinery,, would become
- useless... •
• :-.
•• _
.::..
•.••:• •' '•,
• ; _'
. - 31, 32. Cannot say.
V• "'
^
. 33. Real capital $200,000; - '
•' ; .. >
34 tP 39. Unanswered. .
: .
/
40. Ayerage .rate of wages pfnia:les $1,50;. females 50 to 60 cents per
d a y - '

Essex.

-..'

.

.

'..

\, •

•-.

•;.

'.^.^

\./-."v'

' _

;_•-',

;

From WiUiam Nichols, CoUector, firom Essex steam mills. New.buryport,
.:
:'
- ;,

- " 1 . Massachusetts, county :of Essex, and town of NewburypQrt.
• 2. No; 30 printing cloth, three-fourths.of a yard wide. Steam power.
3. Built in 1835. .Joint-stock concern. ,
. •
. •
•.
4. Original cost pf buildings, niachinery, &c., $80,000; failed, and
sold for $21,500; afterwards, ad.ditional improvemeiits,-riiachinery, &c.,
riiade^ to theamount of $131,500.
:
, .
5; •$27,000.:'i --..•; • .;':
• : '
-. . f i - - . .. '
-.' 6. . T h e " Newbur5nport Steain, Cptton Conipany ".rnade Pne dividend
of 10 per cent., br $60,000.' The present company rnade one in 1844.
'of $12,400, and another in 1845 of $29,750, pr.4gt} per cent, upon a
• capital of $70,000. A new mill of this capacity;would cost $100,00.0.The costto the forriier and present proprietors is $131,500, consequently
a loss pf $31,500, which, if dedricted frorri- 'the dividend of $48,850,
Meaves a net profit of $17;050. Earnirigs, from 1835 to 1845, is 1 70'-100
per cent, pel annum upon a capital, of $100,000. - If the capital is estirnated at $100,000, niaking no allowance for loss, the miU has ^earned
$48,850 in 10 years, or 1 .86-100 per cent.-,per annum. The present
proprietors, by a purchase at - a very.low rate,- have made .a: profit of
$42,550 in theiast'2 years,":all of which has been ^experided iri imprpve'irients. < . . . ' " .
\ ' - ' • .'. ' • • • ' / • •,:^ •
7. Increaseof demarid for the goods manufactured.
-:
•
.. 'S; Presume frprii 4J to 25 per cerit. per annuni.' . .
• 9. The Newburjrport Stearn Cottpn Cornpany niade per %iinuni.aborit
.• 700,000 yatds of ]Np..30 pririting' clpth, wortji^ frorn 5 to 10 cents .per •
•yard. The'Essexstbam riiilis have made l,i00,O00-yards per arinum,
..worth from 6, to 7 cents per yard; the-'present price is 6^;—all sold bn ,
a credit of 6 mbnths..
..
• .
.
., ' •
•10. The Essex mills have.used, in 2. years,. 489,156 lbs. cotton j costing $38,138;.'l,139 tons. anthracitecpal,,$5,766';- 2,239 gallons- of-oil,.
$1,898;-1.9,568 lbs. starch,^$905; "be'side.s; in sundry articles., $5,OQO;
all of wiiich is of domestic production. '
i -, 11. • None imported.
. i - •.
'
/
.:,
"-. ' ' •
. 12. About 150,in all, viz-: 32 men,.103 females over 16'years of age,^
15' children from 10 to 16 years pf age. 'Men, per da}^^ $1 28;',wbriien,
• 61 cerits; children, 33 cents. ••. •
" - . , ' ' . ' ' ' . .. : • .
. . '



230

.

R E P O R T S OF T H E

.

1845.]

M-—Continued.
'13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
-•

11J hours. Mill in operation about 50 weeks.
About the sariie i*ate of wages in this neighborhood.
Npt answered. •'
:
• .
Soldin Boston.
, No.
. - . , • - / .
Consumed in this couritry.
. .

1 9 . ' N o .

. .

•

.-:•

•• • : ; - . '

'

•

20. Sold on 6 months'credit.
. /
-'~
'.
21. To the Essex steam mills the increase of cost of the second year
over the first was 10 per cent.; labor increase, 25 per cent.; cotton
decreased 17 per cent.; coal increased 10 per cent.; starch increased
25 per cent.; oil increased 20 per cent.; incidentals, 10 per cent.
22. The'Steam Cotton Compariy sold at from 10 to 5 cents per yard.;
the Essex at from 6f to 6J, on six months' credit.
. 23.. Cannot answer..
- .^^
.'
24. No.
•
..- ..•':.
' 25. See answer to No. 6. .;
/
.. :. /
26. Our goods cost'us about.4^ cerits per - yard; they net, in cash, •
5 85-100 cerits. Of the cost, cotton is 35:per cent.; labor, 47>per cent.;,
other expenses j 18 per cent. Of the price received, labor: is 47 per
cent.; cptton 26 per cent.;,other expenses, 13 .per cent.; profit of capital, 27 per cent,
.'fi
. .'
27. See answer to questiori 10.
-. .
\.
,• •
- 28.'Don't kriow... • : .
.
' /
/
:.,..:' ^ : :
29. " I t would, without dpubt, cause us to abandon our busiriess." '.
30. The rernainder (if any) should bedivided among the stockholders," as'by the act of incorporation they are confined to. the manufacture
of cottPn.'
.•
•..
'.
31. A multiplicity; if the duties were reduced to 12J per cent.; could
not realize the cost of thegoods.
: •. •
32.'.Don't know.
....
...
33. Capital is:$100,000; no part borrowed, .
: .
34. As they have-not as yet realized a profit of 6 per cent, per arinum,
think no reduction of the duty would enable them to db so.
35. CannPt tell, as it would depend upon the quantity imported.and
. manufactured in this country.-.
'
•
36. Are not aware of any frauds upon -the revenue being practised,
as no goods of this kind are iniported; thinks an ad valorem duty would
lead to fraud by false invoices, and strongly opposed to. the abolition of
• minirnuriis.
,
.
„
'
37. The printirig cloths printed b y t h e printers of this couritry are
allof domestic products,
38. 39, 40. Canriot answer.
Essex.- From William Nichols, Collector,firom lames'^s.steam.milL :
1. Massachusetts, Essex countyo.'
2. Cottori steani mill.



^

1845.]

SECRETARYOFTHETREASURY.

231

.M—Cbritiriued.
3. Commenced 1.8,42, erilarged in 1.844, and just completed.,,
.: 4.: Capital, $250:,000.' ".
.
:
\
5. The ;whole capital stock is in buildings arid machinery.: - ' .
•6; Semi-annual dividends of 3 and 4 per cent. "
•.- '^.
.
-. 7. Iricrease or decrease of profit depends'.upon l h e deinand, "which
will be goverried:.by quantity of similar goods iiiipprt^
8. The profits.of other inyestrnerits, managed with the same .skill, will^
be aboutthe same. . Agriculture, in many, eases,pays larger, profits.
• 9. 1,800,00.0 yards of No. 40 shirtings and sheetings; value, $220,000.
.. : 10. 1,000 to 1,,200 bales of cotton per annum_;-value, ^40,000. In
making this, there will be used 3,000 gallbns -sperm oil ;value, $2,700;
1,000 tons coal, $5,500; 600 bushels charcoal, 1,00. barrels superfine
.flour,, 60 casks of potato starch, &e.
•. :
.:
. 11. Aboutthe same cbst. . ' '*'
. 1 2 . Of men, 7 5 ; wages, $ 1 37.per day. Women, 16.0; wages, 67
'cents. Children, IOQ; wages,. 30 cents.
13. Eleven to twelve hours per day through the j^ear. . :-: ^
. ,14. Higher wages than is paid for any otlier labor, or for any similar
labor in .other countries.
.. : :
15., None.- ' ^
'•• . r - •.:.•.:
.
^
16. Into the-Atlantic.cities..
,
, .\
;. ' ••./
17. Sufficient to reduce the.price, since 1836,.bf the article which w e
manufacture froni 22.cerits to 14 cents per square yardi . ,
' -.
.18..,In our own couritry.
/ .,
^•
..- l"
19. Answefed above.
'
:
\ '
.20; Sold usually on a credit of 8 riionths.
:, • . >
.
21. Decreased,'fi'om. the greater facilities of manufacturirig afforded
by protection and encouragement to our own labor,, and the imprbveriient'
in machinery. Wages-as high as they have beeii fbr :the.last 15'years.
22. Has not been in operation lorrg. The price- now is 14 cerits'. per .
square yard. Sirnilar goods .were sold iri 1836 at 22 cents. T h e reduction has been.gradual.
•. ; 23. Thirty per cent, on a Aame ?;aZ2^atio?z.. v .: . . .
: .".
24. Not prepared to say:what change, if.any. . ,.
• • . ,'
.25. All the profits divided.. See No. 6. •
•26. The labor amounts to about one-half' of. the cost. ,
; •.
27. Sufficient for the suppprt -of the operatives.' Potato starch and.
flour in maiiufacturing.
,
.
•.
28. Not able to state. Several mills" are niaking tiip same description
of goods. , "
• . •
*
•'
•
\
29. The'busiriess w:ould prpbably be abandoned, pr the wages:of labor
reduced,.to enable-the manufacturer to rneet the surplus product of the
foreign article..
s ,.:.:-.'
- V
:,
30. Such property \yould be spld for 25 per cent, of its cost, and
would'depend upon a reduction of wages of the operatives for its Continuance.
.'
-.
.
••
' .
31. Nbt answered.
,
.
- :'
. 32. No." •



232:

REPORTS OF THE
.:

/

M^^Contiiiued.

.'., 33.. Npt ariswered. .
. . -• ' "- .-,'-. -.' ...,;.
- - / .-. .34.. The.preseriPrate would not be rriore ihan srifficient to pay 6 per
cent., arid keep the. property good-^^that is-, at pair value-^for a series of
years.- ' •,'
'
;
.'.,—•<•;.'.'•
• ^^S. .^.'If'minimurris shpuld :be abolished," it would be; difficult to
'determine what rate of ad valorem duty, would be sufficient, ^' or equivt
atent"'tb the.present duty. The change would open the dobr to' extensive
•fraudsi;'^: '
:" '••':'.' . '
.
,-•
- ., .
. .
.•..-.36. Greater frauds \vould pr^^^
•' ,
..
".. 37 to 40.-Not answered..
.-Essex.^. From Williani Nichols, Collectbr,fironfiEnoch Huse, tohacco a'nd
• • cigar rnamfiac-turer, Newburyport.-.
'
^ - .1... Newbtuypbrl^ Essex courity,,Massachuse^^^^^ : .\
- .:
.. 2. Tobacco, .snuff, and. cigar manufactory.'. Hand arid Water' power.

3. Inl816.

.

4. CommPncedwith sm'all'capital—now $20,000...
. 5 , AbPut $10,000.
.. '
....
•:•
-: •'
6.. Not ariswered satisfactorily.7. Increased to three times its former amount-sirice the tariff of 1842;
has aban doned the making of tobaccp fpr chewirig to the southern rnan-.
ufapturer, in consequerice ofthe access to; the imported article; has
a:dvantage'oyer the southern manufacturer for cigars^-&c.
8. Cannot give an opinion, approaching to accuracy..' •-. 9.. Previous: to. the tariff of 1842, 2^000,000 ,cigars--yalue, $6,000,; "
. also,-600,000^value,-$5 per thousand; snuff*, $2,000 ;^-^arinually. Since
thelariff of 1842,!6,000,000 to'.7j^000,000 cigars7%)ribe ribt increased;
the low-priced Ariierican tobacco now fills the place of the same articleof foreigri-; iricrease three-fold; value of same, $18,000 to $2.0,000. '
.•• 10.. About 150 hogsheads of Arnerican tobacco, ann ually—value
$10,500; 200 bales foreign—value, $6,000; -20 barrels flo,ur, $100; foreign guriis, a small quan tit}^ "
11. Cost of Cuba and Havana cigars, $4 or $5 per thousand;-can. be
rnadb here.at$,2 to $4.
-.
•12.. 45; females and 4 males;, to 1842, wages $1 per day for men, 4Q.
cents for women;...since 1842, 90 ferriales and 10 men. •
13. Ab.out.lO hours per day.
' •^
14. Not answered.- . • -. . '
..
- 15. None.' .
:
'16. Atthe factory, for both foreigri arid:domestic consum:ptiori.
' • .17. A t the present.rate of duty, the American cigar will take the place
of the foreign, so long as the raw.material can be had at low.duties. •
'. 18.- Almost inevery pa;rt bf the;United'States; many exported;
- . 1 9 . Tp all couritries where the ,Guba.cigarfind.s a market.
20. Generally sold on a credit of .4 and 6 moriths..
,
21. Increase.of cost to maniifacturer.for. labor, 30 per cent.22. Prices about uniform. .
^



1845.]

. SECRETARY OF T H E TREASURY.
'

,

.

'

233

. M—Coritinued.''

23. The present duty ample—-.any less will, prevent the use of American .tobacco:.
-. ^ . •. •
-24. No change neededv .
"
25. As there is; bul one owner, no dividends are rriadei .
26. About one half of, the cost is for material—the other labor;
27. 28. Not answered.
-,..
29v?.''Abandori the busiriess.
: ; ',
•
'.
•' .
30. As an impprter of cigars, niade of Cuba and Calcutta tobacco.
•31, 32. Not known.,
"
^
' ^ .,...: .
33. About 25 per cent.
. •
.j
. • .
34. Will not admit of reductipri. . •
'
.
- /
. 35. Sufficient tb rnake t h e d u t y as it is now. -,.
36. Not answered.. • .
•
, ,
"; / ;
37.. F.ormerlyy about .one-eighth^-^under preserit duties, four-fiffis.38, 39. Not answered. ; '•
;•':
•:
... • '
.. • •40. Men, $ 1 per day;: females, 40 to 50 cerits.
. Barnstahle. 'From.Pacific Mamfideturing Company,.Falniouth. ' :
1. Barnstable county, Massachusetts.
2. Woolen manufactory; water ppwer.
• ^
.3. Established in 1830; jpint stock;.
'-'.''
- :.
-L $10,000. :
.' .
• , •
... ^ . :• '
. 5. .$14,000.,.
'..'.-• • ...,:•
' :. :
•- -• '
. 6. None bbrrpwed;.ayerage profit not over'3 per cent.'before 1842.7.-.Profits have increased to-6 per cent, since 1842.. •
, . S-. Npt-answered.. .
••
'.
: .9*. .50,000 yards kersey flannel;-25 to 40 cents .per yard.
• 10. 35,tf6o lbs., mostly dorriestic wool; value, "$10,500. .
1-1; .Not answered. • . . • . . •
- '
• . '- .: .12. .9 m e n a t 75--cents per day, and 14 .wornen at 40 ceiits per. day.
: 13.-.11 to-:12 hours; - ", ''• fi ' ' f i ' f i '
• • .
14. Not ariswered.
:•
:
^ '.
- 15." 1 horse. \
•: . "
•
^
16. .40 to 80 miles.
. ,
17. They do, and .probably to three tirnes the hoine nianufacture.
18. Withiri about 100 niiles. . ":
,
.-•
-^
19. Not any. . '
.' ' :
-' -. '
"
" . . . •
. 20. Usually on 6months' credit:. - • •.,• ,' .. •
. . • : '.
21. Decreased nearly 40 per cerit.; i q r l O per cent, on labor,, and f
or 3,0 per cent, on material.
.'
. .' ' .
, •
22, Frorii 45 cents dpwn to 30 cents, at different times.
,. 23-. Certainly not less.than thepresent.
•• .
24. Not answered.
. ,
•
25. 6 per cent, retained, .or not yet paid out.
"
s2,6. Three-fourths for ra\^.mater iai.
.
• . .
. • .
27, 28. "Not ariswered.
•;
. . . .
29. Corild not continue at reduced pricesl



234

R E P O R T S OF T H E

[1845.

• M—Continued. " '
30. Uncertain..
:.
31 to 40. Not answered;'
Barnstahle.

...
"

•
'

'

'

.

Moonarkis Manufiactiiring Company, Falmouth,

• 1. Massachusetts, Barnstable county.
• : .',
.2. Woplen; water power.. ' •
'
.V
• '.'•
3..In 1831. Joirit stock.
' ..
.
•
- -4. $8,000;
, ' •' . . . . ' ' • '
.-••...
• •-:,,."• •
5. $9,000.
•
. -"
.
. - :-:./- .V
'6. All borrowed;'no p.rofit over interest.
7. Since tariff'of 1842 profits have increased. .
•
8. Not answered".
<
,
-. . . 9. 7,000 yards satinet, 3,000yards, 4,000 pounds yarn.10. 18,000.pourids of wool—cost $6,000—-domestic.
11. Not answered. "
.
": •
12. 5 rnen at 65. per day, and 3 women at 3^. per;day.'
13; 11 hours. ... -. ; •: • ,
14, 1.5. Not answered;
,
. . •
• 16. 40 miles.' ,
, • ''
. '
17.°They'do.' ; • .
•
'.
y fi fi- .• •' •
18. Within a circuit of 50 miles mostly. /
. ,
•
19. No.'

• .

,

•, .. >•_

20. Cash, and 6months.
•
.- .
•:
21..Decrease LJ per cent, in materials.:
22. Satinet frorii 7^.6^. to 50 cents; kersey 50 to 35; yarn 7i. 6i. to
45.

6^.

-.

-°-

. '

-'.

•••

•23, 24. Not answered.
'
.:..;..
25. 6 per cent.; no dividends; into fixed capitak ,.
26. 15-20ths raw-material; 4-20ths —
[So in the originaL]
27. 28. Not answered.- ' '
: ' • • • . .
29. Very probably should;
...
. . .
30. Convert the streani into a herring
fishery.. '.
31. Uncertain.
32 to 40. No answers.
Barnstable.

From Anthony Killry.

1. Massachusetts, Barnstable county.,
" :.
2. Cotton; water. . J
:
' ,
»' . '.
^
3. In 1825; joint stock.
. •
-. •
4. Capital $9,360.
' 5.. $500.
• .
- • • • - • • .
. - • .
6, 7,.8. Nothing.
•
.
'
• -"••.• :•
.9. Sheeting, shirting, warp-yarn, and wadding, &c.; difficult tb give
the amount rnanufactured.
10. 6,000 pounds dornestic cbtton; value, $500.
11. Not answered.
• • . .



1845.]

SECRETARYOFTHETREASURY.

235

M—Cbntinued.
12. 1 man, $2 per d a y ; 6 wornen pr children at.$2 per weeko
.13. Twelve hours per day, orfelhird of the year;
14. Not answered.
.. -.
15...None.. •

:•..-

:.

"

'

• •" .

•• -

"

.:'- '

16. Partly at the factory and partly at Boston.
17. Not answered. • • . ,.
^ 18. In theregion of the factory and in Boston..
19. Norie. " .. . '••
:20.' Generally sold for cash or on a short credit. •
21. Cost of materials and labor variable.
/. ^
.
22. Sarrie as in other parts of the State. ., •
23,.24..Not answered.. .•
25. Nothing.; '
:
. ,
/
26 tp 40.. Not answered. .

.'
Salem.

ANSWERS TO CIRCULAR No. 2.
B. F . Browne, Postiriaster^ encloses answersfiromJohn W. Treadwell.

John, "W. TreadAveli selects such .questions as he thinks applicable, and
begins with No. 14, viz: '
14. "Says there are a large riumber of manufacturing establishments,
private and incorporated, in proportion to the population, and cornpared
v^ith the other States ofthe Union. The oapital invested in them is
about $60,0p0,000, arid the annual product about $100,000,000. The
principal article.s manufactured are cotton arid woolen cloths, oils, the
product pfthe fisheries, leather, boots and shoes, iron, castings,, nails,
brads and lacks, paper, books, and stationer)^, glass, candles, and soap,
clothing, machinery,: salt, brass and copper utensils;-the profit o n t h e
irivestment has averaged, probably, about,six per cent, per anrium. The
present rate of duties he corisider s necessary tp sustain this rate of income.
15.. A portion of..our citizens have always-been engaged- in the busi' ness of ship-building and. navigation; to the extent in ship-building of
about a milliori and a half of dollars per annurii, The condition of these
interests is abput the same as the average of the .other iriterests of the
State. The effect ofthe tariff laws is salutar}'' upori these as well as all
the other .interests ofthe country, inasmuch asour own labor is empiloyed,
instead of foreign labor, in theproduction of the manufaclurps consumedin the country. This einployment of labor, and the consuniption ofthe
domestic raw niaterial,:is mpst beneficial to tlie agriculturalinterest; it
^enableslhe laborer to consume more ofits products, as well as the products of the manufacturing establishments; and this universal ability to. '
consume is the fouridalion of the prosperity which the country has
enjoyed sincethe passage of the tariff act of 1842; and, on the other
hand, the inability to consume which marked the three j^ears imrnediately
precedirig that act (the last three yearsof the^ dis astrous cPrn promise-act)
was the main cause, in his opinion, of the prostration of business, .arid



236
•:•:.:

.

R E P O R T S OF T H E

, '

... M-—Coritinued..

;

[1B45.
' ' • ' . ' -

the consequent poverty and - distress of that period. A portion of- our
riavigation finds prpfitable-employriierit in the purchase, in -foreign
cpuntries, pfthe raw. materials used in our "manufactures, and the transportatiori and sale, of our manufactures abroad, which are becoming,
every succeeding year mpre arid more in deinand, arid- compete siiccess. fully with sirnilar articles manufactured in Europe.
17,18. I consider that tlie-establishmerit of a wareliouse system, under
proper regulations and safeguards,.would proniote the trade arid increase
the commerce-, of thp State; arid .that clrawbaclis, runder its ope-ration,''
niight be safely abolished.: '.
/
. . ' : fi'[ • .
•
• 20.' There are a nuniber of articles of foreign manufacture which come
into coriipetition with similar articles manufactured in the United States,
the duties on which-are so high as to amount to a' prohibition of the
foreign "articles; and the price of. the-dornestic article has • been - sp.
"
reduced by domestic competition, in bur .market, that the duties on the •
fpreign article might now be safely abolished, were it riot that we should,
thereby open a door to the foreign manufacturers, to -throw uppn our .
market any surplus in theiroWri, which would^so reduce the price here
a s t o effectually ..destroy our own manufactures: among Ihese articles
may be nariied iron, cut nails, and alum. ...
21. The interests pfthe country have"" been herbtpfore rnost favbrably
^affected'by the rninimums of the jiresent-tariff; and the anle requiring
the' duties to be paid- in cash is a gPod one, arid has been salutary iri- its
effects upon the busiriess pfthe country. .'•
•*-/
27. The quan titj^ of'wool grown in the State is of about the annual
value of half a riiillion of .dollars. Its price, .sirice the tariff .of 1S42, -has
been-abo.ut thirty-five cents per pound, and'for'the ten yeai-s preceding,
about forty-three-cents per pound. - ' T h e different state of .the currency
in the two periods, it should be considered, had an impprtant bearing on
.prices. * ' '. -." ; \ , '-;. • ' • • - '
.
[ •- . ; • - ,' .
• . . '^
: Bostori.

Ndthcmiel.-Greene,'. Postrn.riste7''''y encloses answers firom, Mr.. Payne. '.

Mr. Payne, after givirig the statistics of "a very large number of rrian--,
ufactories of various, descriptions, their capitals, nuniber of persons
eriiployed, and value .of rnanLifactures,- answers as follows-:
'
. -_ .
1. Neithpr.pf the; .great staples narned is-produced in •'Massachusetts,
but Indian corn, pptatoes, apples, &c.,.
"
'-:.-• ^
." ;
: 2. A very small prpportipn,of capital is thns ir-iyested—and refers to
the.a:s'sessbrs'returns-for ari appropriate answer. . . '
.,' * " '
. .3. • It may be .Sa:id that yery little employment to^our shippingis derived '.
frorn. agricultural produce of this State;, rie'aii}'' all the •'biilky exports,'of.
other .than rnanufactures. or handicraft, beino: derived^ frorii ice and
granite. :••":• •' '
" -•'.'' ^ •• • .
.
"- :.-•': ' •' —
- • -4. Only a. general, answer can b e gi.veri,. and. that is to .the effect of
reporting a.net profit'of six to-, ten-pbr cent, on other than ihose farms
•which "supply the d.aily wants: of. la:rge towns.. On- sonie of the latter .
establishmerits very .large profits have.beeriliiade from.,.the sale, of veger.
tables, fruit,: &c.- • .'v ... ;. ' "
•
• -•
.^''
. ''
'
• •.



1845.] .

SECRETARY OF T H E TREASURY.

237

..:-M—-Continued.-.
5. An equally gerierabans wer must.be given, and that is to this effect:
;agreater prbfit has-been derivedfrprn farniing in.this State, for the last
five years, than for many years before; but'.rnuch of that prosperity in
that interest has .iirisen fi-pm a spurid currency and the success of handici'aft in. the: srriall towns, nearly all-havirig- now some-kind of-.-estaMish:ment to make eithef clocks, tubs and pails, palm leaf hats, chairs, &c.
. 6.. Cannot ans wer with the accuracy it demand's. ,7. Has been •..answered b}'" the reply to the 5th,- which refers the'
pfosperity in-Massachusetts rather to a sound currency than 'to an:ultra '
:syste;m 01 protectiouj a§ that of 1842.
- ;.
'
8, May be 'answered'so far as to say, decidedly,- that,we doiiot raise
asufficient supply of cattle, .&c., and liave to rely" on New York, Vermont,
New Hampshire, a:nd Ohio, for that supply. The ^average of prices is
lower Ihan ;it'has been, but the "quality •'is so' various :that a. definite':
^answer ^canriot be given.
\ . '. • - . .. . '
v
..:...
. ' '
:9. They-ajre not-;, and the reasoris may be'fourid in replies tp. 1,2,
: a n d

3 .

' • ' • • • ' :

-.'.

.

.

.

.-

10....Theyhave not been; and the canse may be found in the cur- ,
rency, backed by.'alariff provision which,, in the case of a specie currency or its equivalent, acts to prohibit a certain class of irnports. The
expenses of liying are greater than before; . '•
.
"/ •
'.
11,-12. Would say that-we have .no .exports of .agricultural prpduce,
of.any .note;.. Ice or:granite is not competed, with in any other"market. .
*. 13. As--a general -remark, would -.say that custbrri-house yalues are
"bad criterions from which-to deduce either profit or loss~ on exports and
imports. .T-lie general prosperity of ^me.rchar'its and traders,, and, by
coiisequence, the' whole eountrj'', must depend upori the: profit or loss.
, upon the aggregate of-adventures., • If pfofitableT^the'returri entry must,
of. course, represent an increased: value, as also the freights of ouf ships;
both bfw^hich.gp to swell, an adyance balance-of trade, if custom-house
aggregates are relied^ upon---^arid no otliers are -accessible.
•-14; .IriTeference to the profits.of cotton factories' iri the' State, it may
• be remarked,'that' since 1842^ which Avas..a period of great depression
for that interest,: they have revived, and make •sp-lendid returns of- profits',
• besides keeping their stock good b'y depreciation accounts andlargereserr
vatioris. • FPrlhe y|.ars 1843, '44,-and-'45, tli^^^ average prpfits earned
must .have been fully 25 percent.
. ••
•
z'.:
' '•. .15;' This/State was fprmerly to a large, and :is' now to some extent
engaged in'ship-buildirig:; .butthe freighting, business has for the last two
years been so'bad m its returns-that builders are discouraged frprn those
extensive operatioris, pnce carried, pn. -The cost bf ships is, of course,
much -enhariced- by high duties on heriip and •iron; but the fprmer article
has recently been derived frorii the westerri States,, of good quality, and
- at low.rates. . •• , .
.".
.^
/
16. Conimerce .has a vast preponderance iri capital oyer agricultural,
products, other thanfor dornestic use of the grower; and the tariff" laws
have until receritly had an injuripus effect upon cominerce; but a turn



238

.

REPORTS OF THE

[1845.

M—^Continued.
has been effected, within a few years, by the natural tendency to increase
in our population,• and requirements of an iridustrial supply in raw
material, &c.
; ,
^ ^
-1.7. May be ans AVer ed in the affirmative, if it can be properly regulated and fraudulerit exports preverited; and the abolition of drawbacks,
as named in th© 18th question, would be injurious in its effects upon oUr
.manufacturing industry.
•^-:
.19. ..Should answer by naming hemp and,iron usedin ships j and coal
in stearii ers. • .
..
-,.
v.
,^
20. Cannot-ariswer in'detail; but i t i s obvipus that many descriptions
of cotton and woolen goods, hardware, and cutlery, are thus prohibited;
while Pur local currency is sound and not inflated, so as to break down
this prohibited-difference.
21. In answer, it may be said that the minimums of the tariff of 1842
have, while our local currency is equiyalent to specie, a prohibitive effect
upon nearly all articles: thus. protected. The. cash-duty system works
well in practice, but a -vyarehouse system, with due restrictions, would
;do away Avith some hardships to those of smah capital and facilities in
.busiriess.,
•
. ,.
". . '
22. If the AV'ants of the Goverriment require a duty on tea arid coffee,
then it should be levied; but not unless imperiously demarided, to raise
sufficient revenue for the economical adniinistration thereof. '
,. 23. -Cannot understand, so asto give a distinct .ansAver ;• but if it means
cottPii and. Avopl as: a raAV material, and their manufacture as goods
used by the people, the. answer w.ould be that those great staples haA^e
fallen, and the^.articles' inanufactured therefrom generally advanced
within a short time. 24. Railroad iron rnay be stated as an important articlelhat.the tariff
of '42 has injuriously affected the general interest of, by. a prohibitive
duty, when it carinot be .produced .in the country in any considerable
quantity. A reduction to, $10 per ton,with the proviso that the rnail
and other Governmenf : service shall be freely and cheaply performed,
would be an adyantage tP all classes and the country, generally.
/
25, 26. Are already, so .far as possible, ansAveredj; except that it may
be • said to , be undeniable - that: \sorne modificatiori of the existing
tariff would' be. agreeable to all but^the very large and flourishing
corporations and their agents ; such discriminations being made as would
prevent an overfloAv of foreigri riianufactures, and the breakirig doAvn of
our domestic iridustry. Very little objection -NA^ouid ;other-Avise be rnade
to the abolition, of riiinirnurn scales of duty by the mass of our State.
'27. But little AA^OOI is noAy raised in other tbari Berkshire and'Hamp/ shire cbunties:, and its,price is so seriously depressed as to induce a
disposal or slaughter pf very rriany [sheep.] this^ fall. . If no direct and
unaA^oidable duty upon'low-cost Avool is imposed, its productiori must
soon.cease in the eastern States, as. our woolen factories irnppft a large
porlion of their supply sp as to have" it at seyen cents or urider, and pay
but five per cent. duty..




1845.]

S E C R E T A R Y OF T H E TREASURY.

• . .•

239

M—Coritinued.

• Boston. -Isc^acO. Barnes, Esq., United-States Marshal, encloses answers firom^
: - Hon... Isaac Winslow. • - •
.
'-' 1. The great: staple of "the NCAV .England farms is hay. No cotton,
rice, or tobacco groAvn.
2.. The fixed or inactive capital of. agriculture (land and buildirigs)
•must be. very great; its active . capital in live stock and productions is
considerable. I t is impossible to state what pprtion of l h e capital of
Massachusetts or. NCAV England is absorbed in agriculture. .
: 3. As furnishers, of ..produce for expprt, either at home or abroad, the
.-three iriterests rnentioned are not,-to ariy importarit extent, connected
with .agriculture; but a l l l h r e e more especially'and beneficially con.nected with agriculturists, as c.onsii/mers, both of foreign and home productions.
: . . : ' :
. .- .-. •/
•
: 4,: Iriippssible to answer. The profit of a New Englam.d-farmer is
principally.from, his labor, combiried with his sons (if he has sons,) as
they groAvup to riiarihood.- A farm 10 miles frpm :Bost.on, of 80 acres,-.
with'l).uildingSj &c., sold for $.2,000. The owner Avould have to .expend
$500 in repairing buildirigs. This is cailedfixed.capital; his active capital,
consisting pf 15.CPAVS,_ 2 yoke of oxen, 2 horses, wagons, &c;,. would be
$1,000. Frbrii this he expects to cut 150 tons of hay; pne-half he keeps
for.his .pAvn use, a n d t h e other he:;sells at.$15 per ton;. which, deducting
extra labor in cutting, curing, and carting to. the buyers, ($3,) AVould
leave $900.for the hay crop. :: But 1 tori per acre is a inedium crop; if .
sp, onty-$450 would beleft; deducting interest :on $2,500 cpst,.-$300 is
. left. "Then, in winter, he.can bring in:Avood, poultry, eggs^ butter, ifec,
to market, arid fatten hogs, thereby making'an i-ncbrne:of $700 to $1,000
per annum.' Being .principally a grazing countrjr, cattle, hogs, sheep,
. butter, arid cheese are.raised in great iabundaricein Ave stern-Massachusetts, Verrnont, NCAV Hampshire, and Maine—nearly all pf which Corrie
to Boston-niarket. . The very low prices prevalent from- 1837 to 1842
iio doubt affected iheir profits very sensibly. ' Imputes, the low prices to
the-inability of the riierchants-to buy for exportation, because from the
principal markets (West Indies, Newfoundiand, &c.,) the returns Avere
snbject-tos. prohibitive duty..:
• 5. The operiing of the ports of Great Britain to, agricultural .products
is a most beneficial -event for all 'agriculturists .in. the United States,
bspecially the. West. As to the high prices supposed IP be caused by the
tariff, this is of little, iraportance to farmers, as regards all.but clothing
and utensils, tools, &c. .
. ;'
6. It may be observed, generaUy.that agricriltural products are at low
prices in a languishing state of trade. The price-of flour, for instance,
has increased or decreased for thirty years back, in proportioii to the
increase Pr decrease of. tlie net revenue; :in other Avords, as national
prosperity increases or decreases, •
••'
7. Pric'es and profits of farrner^ are alAVays injuriously affected by
the operation of laws: which preA^ent their produce being exchanged.
The state of the currency has a most impprtant bearing on the prices of



.240

R E P O R T S OF T H E
M-^CJontin-ued. - '

agricultural produce, as well as >every' article .of trade.- .Ari inflated
currency-causes prices to adA':anCe ; a contracted, one produces.a decline.
-ThuSj in 1837, 1838, and 1839, years of excessively inflated, currericy,
flour (Avhich from. 1819 to 1830 averaged about $5 25) rose to $9'.50-^
$7 75 and $7 25 average price; from 1840 tolhe present^time,-ata^avprage
has riot been" $5, till very recentty. , . . . ' • .
8. This State, and • all .NCAV Erigland,-raise a superabun-darice .of
-horses, cattle, .and eatables adapted to the climate, es.pecially potatoes. •
- Prices for:thelast two orthree years cannotbe stated; generally,-however, it -may be affirmed that lhe prices of meats, bntter, cheese, pota-.
-.toes, &c., Aver:e:as IOAV or lower than they werebefore the Revolution.
Considers this as partly-OAving to .the le&tiietwe system, which prevents cm
.excliange of :d.oriie.stic.fbr foreign articles by the prohibitive duty on so
mariy articles of foreign produce. Asks respectfully to suggest to .the
honorable Secretary the expediency -of obtainirig^ from Congress ppwer
for the Executive to permitlheirripPrt-ation -of eatables, in-case ofi.riecessity,
:or bad hsuY.ests, dutyfiree—-a.power the Executives of all countries "have.
9. Does riotihink that the profits.of the -four •occupations, inquired of
depend at all on, or are closely connected (at least, only generally) -Avi-th
the profits of agriculture; because the consurners. amongst the iinprofit-...
able occupalions can buy but sparingly of either dornestic Pr foreign,
articles. It is for the interest..of every class of society that all classes •
should be profitably ernp:loyed, .and buy largely*'
- 10. Very much reliance: has been placed, on the p a r t :of both tariff
and anti-tariff" writers, on the :e.ffect of a protective system and prpliibitory duties •to influence the prices of-articles; the prie conteridirig the systeni
..-in question really reduced the prices—the other, that it had the effect toincrease thern.- ' In the face of a. high .tariff, prices- of. the high duty
articles certainly sornetimes .have falleri, and risen in price :in face of ;a
tariff nierely for revenue; but other circumstances than the tariff produced the fall orrise of prices. Were it possible to "adjust the supply,. ^
• ' t o the demarid exactly,'no.do.rrbt,. the.duty ;being:an" irnportant element""
•in price, lhe latter Avould be regulated by :the former; but supply and
• demand arejiever equally balaric'ed, :nQr can be-r—and^ herice a rise or
foil .of price is not riecessarily regulated by, the rise br-fall-of duties.
^.^
11.-The State exports .no agricultural product abroad,;but exports
- 1
some fish and fish oil; but these articles are now rnpstly consumed at
home. It .expprts al^G .to Brazil, the'.Pacific, arid. China, .and Calcutta,
perhaps aboutthe valiie of IAVP millions of doll.afs in manufactures. Its
•exports are.principally to our own ports, especially to NeAv-Orleans, of
soap, candles., Avliale oil, -AA^ooden. ware, pots, kettles, nails, brooms,
'Cabinet ware, shoes—;in short, a little of ever5lhing. Does not .think
the tariff or protective systein .has had any effect on the export trade.12. The prices of all articles of produce •pr.mci^allj consumed at Jiome,
as meats, fi-esh fish, butter, cheese, potatoes, grain and flour, hay, fruits,,
shoes, hats, furniture: of all kinds,:Avith.a vast number of other articles,
are regulated almost entirely by the home market, or the proportion
of suppiiy to deniand. .ThPse partly ..consumed at'home and partly



1845.]

SECRETARYOFTHETREASURY.

241

M—Continued.

r

exported are generally regulated by the foreign price; such as pickled
fisli, pot and pearl asiieSj naval" stores, (trirpentine)—the leading exports,
such as'Cotton, tobacco, rice, and lately butter, cheese, lard, and similar
articles;almost eiitirely by the Lorrdon prices. The bulk.and value of
the vast riumber of niinor manufactures, household furriiture and apparatus, mechanics' and farmers' tools, shoes, hats, &c., shipped, (some to
the West Indies, Brazil, and.the Pacific—-but few, comparatively, to
foreign places,) are not benefited or injured by the tariff, either at home
or abroad.
.
,
. . ;
13. It is my firm opiniori that exports arid imports are intimately connected ; not, hoAveyer, in all cases, as in the trade to China it could not be
carried on without her takirig our produce instead of specie; but .tlle^
latter can only be obtained from Pther buyers of our surplus productions.
14. To the first part of tliis query, has not sufficient tirne for investigation to mal^e a pr.pper reply. ' To the latter part, says : In proportion
as lhe varipus products of all climates, .and the rnariipulations bf all
people, can be naturalized in th'e Uriited States, in such proportion will
imports become unnecessary, and therefore cease. - Agriculture, except
perhaps cotton,, rice, and tobacco,, and with it trade and riavigation,
Avould decline, and, of course, the revenue amount to little or nothing.
15. Ship-building is one of the oldest, and perhaps the most important
occupatipn in New England. From the cutting of the-wood in theforest
to the launching, all is deriyed frpm ..rnariual labor. Yet this doinestic
manufiacture is most shamefully taxed by heavy duties on its hemp, duck,
iron, and sheet cables, to benefit, or rather introduce Kentucky hemp
into the United.States. A ship of 1,000 tons pays a duty on iron of
$750;. copper bolts, of $700; canvas, $300; anchors, $200; chain
cables and bhains, $1',000; cPrdage, $950—in all $3,900; of course, in
proportion for srnaller vessels. And yet the ship-oAvners, set on probably by the tariff people, complain of the fort}^ pr fifty reciprocity vessels
that frequerit our ports.—^principally NCAV York and Baltirnore. The'
effect of the tariff laws has, not been so injurious to ship-building .as
might have been expected, owirig to lhe vast iricrease of cotton from lhe
South, augmented and bulky cargoes from New Orleans to the North,
and steani navigation ori our lakes and rivers. ^ But the high tax on it$
inaterials is most unjust..
16. Cannot answer the first member of this query. 'The commerce
of the State.has not declined, as he. and other anti-tariff people antici-.
pated; this only proves that the internal commerce of the country is^
vastly more irnportant than its external. The preserit duties prevent
wholly, or in a great measure,theirnportatron of spirits, of Russia goods
generally, of coarse cottoris, woolens, .flannels, baizes, wool over 8 cerits,
prints and calicoes,, glass and glass ware, carpeting, floor cloth, liriseed
oil, &c..
.
\
:
17. A warehouse system would essentially benefit the wholesale
merchant whp imports for exportation. In fact the principle of the
warehouse system exists by a sectibn of the act of 1799, never repealed,
by which vessels in distress may unload, deposite their cargoes under
VOL. v.—16.
^




242

- REPORTS OF THE

[1845,

M—Continued.
lock and.key of the collector, reload, and prpceed on their voyage. A
warehouse system, would not.benefit, indeed, the importers for corisumption; but what Avould accommodate thern, would be to direct the collectors to suffer'the entry and receive theduties on any part..of fii p.acka.ge
shipment, not less than one paokage. ..In this-way they Avould only haveto pay moderate sums of cash, receive the articles immediately Avanted,
and. Avail till the.press of business.is partly .over. , This is :often so great .
here and inNew York, that clerks are, brAvere, feed tp get the •importersentries passed. (Such directions-might be given at once.)
18. The abolition pf draAvbacks is a necessary consequence of a warehouse system, saving to both merchant, and Governrnent pfficers a v a s t
deal of unnecessary trouble and expense; speaks of. the systern introduced from Great-Britain by .Alexar-ider Haniilton; giA^es the form of ..a.
biU, to be passed by-Congress, which he thinks would establish the
warehouse system,, and,by which the, coniplicated machinery of entries,
ascertainment pf duties,.debenture^, -&c,,-&c., would be done aAvay Avithi
and.the coriimerGe. of the State and country, gerierally greatl.y benefited.
. 19, Answered iri the preceding.
20. Allthe high-dutied articles of foreigri' grpwth or .manufacture
similar to pur own, especially white lead and carpets, floor cloths, &c. '
21. The establishment of minimums has already been touched upon
as to its first introduction;,being then supposed to be on cottori.gopds
25.per cent., (at that, tiriie thought a very high ad valorem, duty.) I t h a s .
degenerated into a complete.deception; ashamedlo call fpr a:-prohibition:
in a free country,, or so calling itself, (or, w h a t i s the .same thing, open,
prohibitory duties,) minimums have become a concave mirror, reducing
the giant to a dAvarf; Avhereby a 30 per cent, duty . becorn.es, in a feAv
extreme cases, 180 and' 190; iri nunierous ones 100 per.cent.;' in a feAv.
comparatively, (arid in none.Ayheri.inirii.munis.exist.j). 25.or 3Q., or 50.per
cent., as the law-giversintended;. cpusiders minimums- a disgrace.tp o.rii;
reveriue system.
22. A duty pf 5 per cent, ad yalorem might safely be imposed'on all
the articles free of duty now, except .to the 5 th paragraph' of. the • 9 th
section of the act of 1842. . The articles in the - 6th paragraph might
well pay 5 per'.cent, except tea and coffee; .some raAvmaterials in this
paragraph might indeed- come free; but Avhen the, .ship and, wood
manufacturers are so .enorrnously taxed for th.eir raAV- rnaterials, the
consumers of dye-woods-might pay somethirig; but dye-AVOods have
always been free of dut5S and had better continue so.
23. This is of a yery comprehensive .character. If it means, for
instance, to ascertain whether anthracite coal comes' dearer to lhe pri-^
vate .corisumer than to the i.ricprporated cornpany, should say, -certainly,
not. The consumption of aU the. manufacturers, together is as.nothing
to the great mass of cons ame rs—-perhaps, of coal, a 20tli or SOth ofthe
quantity used by the mass. So in regard lo. the consumption .of foreign
.articles .by stockholders and operatives, (the latter of whpm are on
wages)—they consume as muchv and no more.than other indiyiduals of
the game revenue../
.
.'
" .
:



1845.]

S E C R E T A R Y OF T H E TREASURY.

243

, .M-r-Continued.
24. The effect of duties .on articles generally consumed, and manu-.
factured here only to a limited exterit, is to enrich at first, the manufacturers; then: cornpetitiPn arises, and profits decrease or.become.nothing.
In the mean time agriculture arid commerce decline, because the manufactured article takes the place of the foreign, for AA'^^hich there is no
demand;: '
. ^ ."
.
:
" •
•
.' ;
25. To answer this requires statistical inforrnation I:canriot obtain.
26. I believe agriculture to be the, chief sufferer in all countries from
restrictiye duties. . . ,27. I arn entirely.unacquainted with the wool trade, and "only know
this fact, that the greater part ofthe wool used is. imported from Buenos
Ayres,...Smyrna, Gibraltar, &c... ^
,.«. •
28. No niine.s are Avorked/in this, State. .
NOTE.—The uridersigned, .fearing lie rhay haA^e overlopked some fact
in the above synopsis of Mr. WinsloAy's ans.Avers, as he has entered very
largely irito a discussion of most of the interrogatories, would mPst
respectfully-refer the honorable Secretary t o l h e letter^of Mr. Winslow
itself, enclbsed in one from .Isaac" O.. Barnes, Esq., Uriited States Marshab Boston.
; '
E.G.
Newhuryport, Essex Cottnty. William Nichols, Collector, sends answers firom
' .'
..
' Edmi Bartlet.. ; '
L Corn, potatpes, onions, ha^y, beef, pork, horses, sheep, swine, neat
cattle; no cotton, rice, or tobacco.
. * .
2; ^Three-fifths of 350^000,000 of dollars in value.
3. Three-fifths of all.that is produced.
4. The agricultural interest gives but. a small percentage over the
support of the laborers.
5. Four per cent.
. . . . .
.
;
6. Fluctuating; present prices 30 per cent, higher than in 1842,'
7. In 1842. pribes Avere depressed by the currency; since 1842 prices
higher. ' .
. , . . _ . :
'
'
8. The State -does npt raise sufficient; from the West; a revival of
business-, and more confidence. .. . ,
,. .
9. They iricrease or diminish slightly by commerce; by manufactures
and mechanical operations, they increase.
' 10. The prices are loAver; competition and improvement have caused
i t .

i

•

.

•

,

•

'

.

•

'

.

•

•

"

'

•

'

.

11. Largely of its products of industry; aggregate greatty enlarged. ^
12. Competition and industry are the hfe of all.
13. Keep up the tariff, and we will soon- supply articles for expprt,
which we now iniport.
' '
14. Have aU kinds' of manufactures ofthe raw niaterial, and many
articles made frorn rnaterials imported, to the arnorint of mPre than
$100,000,000; invested capital, $120,000,000; profits 8 to 12 per cent.,
clear. They are riecessary, with shght riiodifications on some articles.




244

. R E P O R T S ..OF T H E

.[1845..

• M^--^Continued.
The profits ori the inanufacture of certain articles fluctuate as the times
are.

• • • • • '

^

• _

'

[

15. Largely, in shipbuilding. Heretofore, the duties on some articles
AVere heavy; UOAV little affected, by reason of supplies, of irori, hernpj
Copper, &c., being our own products, and also conipetition. ^
16. Two-fifths in commerce. The tariff has benefited cornmerce 10
j)er cent, of A-alue of iriipPrts.
.
/
17. It would be berieficial in many respects,
18. It operates unfavorabty.
19. There are soriie such ar'ticles.
.
i
20. I think of none.
^
21. The interests of the State are promoted by the tariff. T h e cash
system is good foi^ large capitalists; but lhe Avarehouse systerii Avould
•benefit all irnporters, if optional.
>
22. Coffee, tea, and some others; 20 per cent, specific duties.
23. This informatiori-cari best be obtairied from rnanufacturers or their
agerits.
• ,'
24. Encourages new enterprises.; brings out talent and capitali
25. None; riot pecuhar to'MassachrisettSi
. '
.
' 26. Yes; greatly prosper^ed by the tariffof 1842.
27. Large quantities—^25 to 30 cents per pound; previously 18 to 20
cerits.
•.
- .
28. Some coal, some iron, little copper, sorne other minerals,. large
quantity of granite, marble, some slate, ochres, ifec. Since thelariff of
1842, the -prices ofsaid articles have gradually loAA^ered, and are now 10
to 15 per cent, less than before 1842.
Neipburypoi't.

William Nichols, CoUector, encloses answers firom \name not
given.']

1. Hay, potatoes, butter, cheese, stock, &c.
- ,• •
2. Should suppose about one-fifth.
.
3. The success-of agriculture in the State mainly deperids upon the
prbsperity of the cpmmercial, manufacturing, and •mechanical interests,
as its chief busiriess is to supply the tow.ns and cities in which these:are
carried on-\vith the products of'the farm.
. ,
4. The profits on capital ernployed in agriculture were, probably,
gre'ater from 1830 to 1837 than at.any time before. Since 1887, the
increase of the products of the West has gerierally operated to reduce
the price of agricultural products.
'
5. The profit of capital ernployed in agriculture in Massachusetts,
and managed under the eye of the OAvner, with a proper regard to
system and economy, has prbbably been .pretty uniformly about six per
cent, on a fair valuation, the valuation changirig Avith the general prosperity or depression of business.
^ '
6. The first part of Ihis questipri riiay be answered accurately by
refererice to the books of some of the, large prPvision-dealers in Bostori;
and the secorid by the judgmerit :of some farriier of large capital, who,
Goriducts his business with a systerriatic regard to prPfit.



1845.]

SECRETARY OF T H E TREASURY.

245

M-^Contirined.
7. Not ariswered.
.8, This State does not raise a sufficierit supply for its consumption;
the deficiency is. draAvnfrom^ Maine, NCAV- Hampshire, Vermont, and the
western States. The average annuaL amount, prices, &c., rnay be
ascertained of the large provisiori dealers in^ostpm
9. See answer to No. 3.
. ^
.
'
10. As a general rule, the prices of all articles of domestic manufacr
ture are lower than those of irnppf ted articles;. arid the prices are usually
low.in proportion to the lerigth of time during Avhich the manufacture
hasbeen carried on in this couritry, subject o.nly to temporary variations,
by the increase or diminution of conipetition, and the general prosperity
of this and foreigii couritries.
• 11. A: corisiderable quantity o f t h e manufactrires of this State, of
various kirids, are exported to differerit parts of the world, where they
are. allowed admission. The statistical tables within reach of the
Department will aiiSAver the latter clause of this questioiiT
12. The statistical tables in the possession of the Department will
give an answer to the /first three divisions of this question. Foreign
competitors to most descriptioris. of mercharidise (Avooden clocks are,
perhaps, the only ^exception) expprted, are met .almost everywhere. The •
English and Germans are tlie principal competitors who meet our manufactures in foreign countries; arid in soriie, oAAiiig both to long, experience in the manufacture, to, the establishment.of agerits concerned in
their manufacture and ac^quainted Avith the tastes and habits preyailing
iri. the foreign market, aided by their cheaper labor, they.undersell us.
Arn not aware that the present tariff lessens the ability, to export. If it
does this to any extent, it must be in consequerice of increasing the
horne market and keepirig up the price of labor. There is no limit to
the increased production of nianufactured goods, unless the parties
engaged in it are in possession o f t h e rrionopoly of some patented
machinery, so long as they pay a profit equivalerit to the customary rate
of interest. Many articles, mariufactured in Massachusetts are prohibited
as contraband, or" excluded to a great extent in large fPreign markets by
high duties. '
,
•,
•
'
• 13. There is, undoubtedly, an iritirnate connection betAveen the amount
of foreign exports and imports of a cbuntiy. -The iniports cannot, for
any long series'of years,, exceed the aniount of expprts more than the
gains on traffic^ and the profits bn freight, which sometimes may reach
25 per cent. • The tariff may be considered, among an industrious'
people, as diminishing the foreign traffic of a country just in proportion
as it increases their internal trade.' This will hold where the tariff is
placed upon articles susceptible of being produced to advantage Avitliin
the country itself.
14. The ansAver to the first five divisions of this question maj^" be
found in the statistical returns of Massachusetts industry. The present
tariffls probably (more needful to the success of newly-established manufactories, than of those which have been iri operation for a course of
years. An estabhshment which is just putting up its buildings, placing



246

R E P O R T S OF T H E

[1845.

M—Continued.
its machineiy in operation, arrd procuring its agents' and. operatives,
necessarify.does..this at more or less disadvantage. Other things beirig
equal, the.longest experience in the nianufacture of an article gives the
fabricator a manifest advantage. The profits of manufactures are less
equable than those of agriculture, aiid even those of commerce. -They
are affected by the legislation of foreign countries, by the general prosperity of theAvorld and of our own country in particular, bythe legislation bf our own Governrnent, and by many pther contingencies;
, .
15. ^ The tabular statemPnts anriually published by the Department
Avill show the arnount ofthe ship-building, and theextent of the navigation of Massachusetts. The general condition of those branches bf busi- .
ness has not been better for many years than during the last three. The
.cotton and tabacco carrying trade alone has :been depressed, and their
profits reduced tP; an exceedingly IOAV figure, by a g-reat influx of shipping belonging to England and. the. Hanse Towns. The .shipping
employed by thfe : Hanse . Towris,OAving to the' cheapness 'with Avhichthey are sailed aridcbnstnicted, a u d i o the niirrierous branches of German commercial houses from Hamburg and Brerrien established in the
United States, possess an. advantage in'some respect over our own .
shipping. The English, also-, from' their vast colonial trade and their
navigation laAvs, added to the / a c t that their irnmense timber fleet is
shut out-from almost all its timber trade during the busy season, when'
the great staples of the Uriited States are pressing on the market, thus ,
enabling thern to make .two timber freights a year, and then, iristead of
hauling up during the winter, coming over to the U.nited States, and
makirig one or lAvp freights j renders it not only a. formidable riyal, but
. giA^.esit a manifest advaritage over the, shipping of the United States,
whichis excluded from this great colbnial trade.
• ' •
16. The, capital invested in. commerce^ includirig all branches of the
fisheries, is probably gi'eater thari that iriyested, rn agriculture. The
foreign commerce^ of the..State rriay have been someAvhat unfavorably
affected bythe tariff';.but its coastAvise trade and fisheries have undoubtedly-been benefited by this tariffto a still gfeater. exterit^ .
.'.
.17. The establishment of a warehouse system Avould undoubtedly
.benefit the importing interest, and particularly the large cities, .especially
if no charge should be'made for stprage. At this time, on ..some articles
upon Avhich the duty is high the preserit tariff operates very unfavorably f
for instance, on a cargo of pepper, theimporter is obliged to raise about
$50,000 in cash on what cost him only half this sum, befare he cari
touch or sell a single pound of it.'
: . " 18, 19.- There is little or no foreign merchandise exported from this
district.
' - •
. .
.
•• - " .
'
20. It is difficult to decide what foreign articles are shut out from
competition Avith domestic .nianufactures. by high duties-. . The fairest
Ava}^' seeriis to be to ascertain the .present prices of article.s of tlie same
quality in the United States and foreigri countries. The prices at home
ma.y be readily ascertained, and those in foreign countries, accompanied
by samples, ma.y be obtained through the consular agenfs ofthe United



1845.]

S E C R E T A R Y OF T H E TREASURY.

247

Mr—'Contiriued.
S.tates. I t i s believed that,, with the exception- of woolen goods, the
firiest quahties of white cotton goods and of prints. Iron,, hemp, canvas,
and perhaps- coal and. shpes, all articles Avhich enter extensively into
the consumption of the people, and are produced in the Uriited States,
are quite as chea:p,:and in" many cases cheaper thari in any other part
of the Avorld.. : ;
:,
.-<'..
• 21. Not answered.
22. There are sPme articles now on the.free list, upon which a moderate duty riiight be levied, withput, perhaips, affecting the price at .all,
except at the outset^-by s.peculatipri. They are such articles as are
most cheaply and aburidantly produced in foreigri couritries, and for.which:the:United States afford an importarit and valuable market.
Experience has shoAvn to a. certain extent, in such cases, that the duties
come out pf the pockets of the producer, and not of the consumer.' He
fiiids it better .to diminish his price and reduce his profits sornewhat,
rather than tp check the consumption, which is always the tendency^of
high prices. :
•
. - .
<
23. The duty on articles used in manufacturirig is probably rather
lower than the average pf other articles, owing to the high dutips on
sugar, hernp,* iron, and dry goods, which enter so largely.into the general consumption: but, with the exception of the cheapest kind of
foreign AVOOI and dye-stuffs, very few foreign articles- are used by' our
manufacturers. "Ori these, it is beheved the duty is quite as high in the
United States as in England.
24.: High duties upori articles extensiyely consumed, and manufactured only-to a lirniLted exterit iri the United States, are unquestionably,
for the period during Avhicli such a state of things: exists; irijurious to
the commerce;. but if they should lead t P a l a r g e increase of tiie manufacture, sufficient^ AAdthin, a reasonable time, to :supply the wants of the
cpuntry, at a-price nPt much above the cost of the same articles if
brought from foreign couritries free of duty, they woukl in the long run
be berieficial. -The infancy bf manufactures needs as much care and
attention in order to cause them tP thrive, as does the irifaricy pf human
existence.:. •
'
. ^
25. The articles on Avliich the prices are the most enhanced by t h e \
duty are probably sugar, pepper, iron, canvas, Avoolen and worsted
goods, spirits, and high-priced pri.rits. •
26.. Inasmuch as l h e present duties .tend .to increase and cheapen the
rnanufactrires of l h e conntryby competitiori, and advance the general
.prosperity of the community,: they enlarge the demarid and the home
iriarket for agricultural products. :
.27,'28.. Not satisfactorily answered.
'
Vue de r E a u , Seekonk.

From Hon. Johnson. Gardner.

' 1 . A reply to this may be fourid at length in the cpm'pendium of the
6th census, pages. 107,, 108.
•
, •
-2. .Of this I will only say, that in this State there Avere, accordiriglo



248

R E P O R T S OF T H E

[1845,

M-^Con tinued.
the last census, 87,837 persons employed in agriculture, 8,063 in commerce, arid in manufactures and trades of aU kinds only 85,176; yet the
manufacturers would like to have it inferred that they possess all the
wealth and influence of the State.
3. It would conduce to the permanent welfare of the other great interests ofthe country,were agriculture, Avhich is after all the great interest
of the country, to be equally regarded in our tariff with the other interests, instead of being taxed for their benefit. •
4. In his judgment the annual average of profit on capital employed
in agricultural pursuits in. this State lor the last three years has not been,
after deducting the incidental expenses, preparation for market, transportation, to place of sale, and sales theriiselves, niore than two per cent.,
ifi indeed it. has been more than one.
, ''
6. Should think", from sales made from his own farm, that the average
for the ten years previous, estimatedln the samp way, would, be about,
five or six per cent.
6. The price of products has been about one-halfior two-thirds as much
since the passage of the^unjust act of 1842, as it was the three years
previous.
/.:
,
.
.
;
7. The prices and profits have not, in his judgmerit, been as much
affected by the state of the currency, or by any expansion of the same,
as by the operation of this same tariff. •
8. Many cattle and other prpvisions are transported hither from other
States,
.
• 9. While the agricultural interest is depressed, the manufacturing may
flourish and prosper, if the te^er, can receive a bounty frpm the Government at the expense of the fiormer..
-. 10. Says a protective-t3.nff benefits a few wealthy capitalists at the
expense ofthe great mass of the people'; and therefore is unwise, unjust,
and intolerable, &c.
I L Under high, tariffs there has been a diminution of the exports of
agricultural produce, and a correspondirrg fall of prices in the market.
No greater absurdity ever existed than the idea-'advanced by the manufacturers, that by protecting them with a high tariff Ave are afforded an
adequate horne market for our produce. .
:
12. Not .answered.
13. Is ofthe opinion that a protective tariff like the one of 1842 has a
tendency to diminish the export trade. _. •
',
'
' 14. There are iri the State manufactures of all kinds. Their profits
for the last three years have rrot been less than 25 to 30 per cent. Contrast this with the profits of agriculture and cornmerce, crippled and,
depressed as they have been by ihis aggra.vated injustice! Beheves
that the manufacturing.: interest needs np rnore protection than the
agricultural..
15. Some of the citizens of this State are engaged in ship-building,
and that interest and the interest'of navigation are injuriously affected
by the tariff.
20 to 23. Articles principally used by the agriculturists, such as iron



1845.]

S E C R E T A R Y OF T H E TREASURY.
(

249

M-—Continued.

implerrients, rrianirfactures of iron, leather, salt, &c., are subject to a cZ^/^y
almostprohibitory, while articles used by rnanufacturers, such as machinery,
Ay e-w oods, S^e., are admitted duty
firee!
.
24 to 28. Has not time to answer.
[Encloses some resolutions of his introduced into the- Senate of the
State, in 1843, in relation to the interests of agriculturists.];
Barnstahle.

From Josiah Hinkley, (Collecior: V

, Ajcknowledges the receipt bf the circular, but cannot answer either
question satisfactorily. ,
.
.
,V'.

. \

;^

• _ ''^

V

,.,'

' .

•-

"•

'

•

[[ fi[' [ ANSWERS TO CIRCULAR No. 1.
Lowell,

From Thomas G, Cary, Treasurer ofi the Hamilton Manufiacturing
Company,

1. The manufactory is situated at Lowell, iri the county of Middlesex,
and State of Massachusetts.
2. It is' a cotton factory, rnoved by water power.
3. It was established in 1826, and is a joint-stock concerri.
4. The capital invested in ground and buildings, water power, and
machinery, is $700,000.
'
5. The average amount in materials, and iri cash for their purchase,
and for-paymerit of wages, is $500,0Q0.
6. The annual rate of profit on the capital sinCe the- establishment of
t h e manufactory has" been,, orl an average, 9 J per cent., allowing for fire
insurance, and loss of interest' during the building, or 10j per cent,
without any such allowarice; the profit having been .as high as. 23 per
cent, in one year, and there having beeri in other years no profit at all.
No part of the capital is borrowed.
-7, The causes of the increase and decrease, when they have occurred,havebeen similar to those which have produced fluctuations in-other
branches of business;, but the decrease has 'been particularly owirig to
over-importations of foreigri goods; and competitiori at horne.
.^8. The rates of profit on capital otherAvise employed in this State vary
from 2 or 3 per cent, to 20 per cerit. or more.
9. The amount of articles annually manufactured is as follows, (the
value fluctuating like that of other goods):
J n one mill of coarse yarn. No, 14, bedticks, shirting stripes,
and deriims, valued at 9 to 12 cents per yard, | Avide.. . . . $240,0,00
In one mill of finer yarn. No.. 20, jeans, cotton flannels, and
pantaloon stuffs, of different yalue, from 8 to 15 cents per
y a r d , , | wide - . . .
...............
.... i . / . , . . . . . 200,000
In a third mill, also of finer yarn, (from No. 22 to No. 36,)
sheetings and •printing cloths, valued at S t o 12 cents per
square yard. / . . . . . : . . . .
170,000



250

R E P O R T S OF T H E

[1845.

M—Continued.
I n a set bf print-Avorks'belonging: to the same company are
printed annually 750,000 yards of piinting clpth, rnade iri :
the third mill mentioned above, and about 2,000,000 more:
which are purchased. . The-whole are valued, Avlieri printed, :
at a b o u t . . . . . . . . : . . . . . . . . . - . . . . ; . . . . . . - . . . ' . , . : . . . . . . . . , . : . - 300,000
.

Total amourit annually manufactured.. - - - - - . . . . - . . $910,000

^10. The quantityand value of different raw materials used are—
Domestic—Cotton, 5,000 b a l e s . . . . . : . . . . . . . . . . . . - . . . . . . . . . . . . $140,000
• St3i(^ . ^ . . . : . : . . \ . : . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . : . . . . . . . J . .

: .S,SO^^

Leather.....'-.-....:
..:..-..-....
Oil.:. . 1 . . . . , ..
Coal..,.-...-.......:.....
Lumber.
...-.
-.,.-.-:..:...
DyestuflEs..-.......:.:.... . • . ' . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1,500
6,000
15,000
18,000
24,000

;• • ;• •

••': '$207,000

Foreign—Madder. .......
'-.'.........
...
Indigo. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . , . . : . : . . . . . : . . . . . . . . . . . .
Other d y e s t u f f s . . . . , . . . :
...:.......,,......
• ; • - • '.:• .• ••
•

••-•"

;-',.• •.'. • . . : . ' • . ;••

$18,000
30,000
;28,000
..$76,000

11. The cost in the United States of similar articles' ^ of manufacture
^
imported firorn: abroad" canriot be giyen, because similar, goods are
scarcely ever imported. Some of them, probably Avould not be iri any
stateof duty, as they appear to be made cheaper here than in-any other
part of the wprld; the Pthers are made nearly as cheap here as anywhere. . ..•
-• ••. • •
-.
: •:
12. The .number of persons employed is. as folio AVS: V
M e n . : . - 1 . . - — . . . . .245;' average' Avage's . . : : $ 1 03.per day.
Women. . . . . . . . . . . . 6 6 9 ;
do......:...
.53 do. , :
Children, (boys,).. .L 34;
do...........
44 -do.>The wages are ahvays paid, Avhether the. manufacture yields any prPfit
or not. In 1^42, Avheii there were hardly any diAaderids, and when this
company made:riorie at all, there was a reduction of wages; .but it was
small iri propoftiori, and the reduced ,Avages. Avere sufficient to enable
those who are prudent to lay by a part of their earnings. The laboring
classes employed in mariufactures,-, therefore, suffer but little frorri the
depressiPn of prices until the AVorks are stopped, as they have been
when the importations A ere excessive.
V
'- .
13. They are emplpyed about 12 hours a day, and have work through
theyear..
' *.; • " •
. '. /. • • • - ' '
'•' • ..
14. The rate of wages of similar classes otherwise employed in this
and other States, is j as. far as I am informed, for men about the sariie,
and for wonien.and children cpnsi der ably less.. In England, it appears,
by pariiarnentary returns^ that they are less by about 40 per cent. .
15. The nuniber of horses employed is 2 ; no otlier animals are used.



1845.]

S E C R E T A R Y OF T H E TREASURY.

251

M-—Coritinued.
16. The manufactures do not find a market at the fa-ctpry.. They are
sent lb Bostori and other Atlaritic cities; and sPrne of them are pf epared,
by order, for shipment to South America and elseAvhere.
17. Foreign articles of like kinds do not enter into competition Avith
them a t l h e places of sale in the Uriited States; although foreign articles
of finer qriality and higher cost are constaritly imported and sold in consider ai)le quantities, everi to the people Avho are eniployed in the factories/
The consumptipn of foreigri goods m :LoweU, for instance, is iriiportant.
If the'manufacturing establishrrients at such places were .to be broken"
up, the prirchasers there would cease tp have the means of purchasing
fpreign goods; arid, the dismission of such people froni profitable employments Avouid affect foreign trade. The repeal of the tariff, therefore, is more likely to diminish tlian;tP.in.cre'aseimportatipn; a n d i f the
•prosperity of the;South deperids" upon that, the South-is likely to suffer
with the rest of the co"untry:by the repeal, for the. returns. shoAV t h a t i m portatipns haye increased under the tariff of 1842.'..
18. The manufactures. are consumed in various' parts of the United
States, in; South America, in the islaiids of the indiau Pcean,- and to a
small extent in China. .^ - • '
.
19.. Soine of the cloths are^exported as above in considerable ..quantities to South Arnerica, and in srnall quantities to the West Indies and
the British coloriies.
20.- They are usually sold on a credit of six or eight months; they
are not bartered. :
.
•• . 21. The cost of the manufacture'd article, to the manufacturer has
decrea:sed, both in materials and labor. The decrease has not been at
ai regular; annual' rate, but subject to partial fluctuations. The fluctua-^
tions of the principal rnateriak(cptton), are well knoAvn. The decrease,
.in the cost of labor has not been produced by the reduction, of Avages,
but by improvements in machineiy-and skill-, which enlarge theproduction of cloth Avithbut adding t o l h e number of hands ernployed. The
whole decrease since the estabhshment of the manufactoiy has been
aboutone-third of the cost.
'
/
22. The prices at which the manufactufes have been sold.since the
establishmerit have been various, fluctuating to ;tlie extent of riearly 100
per cent, from 75' per cent, aboye the present rates to 25 per cent.
beloAV;
'
23. " To enable the manufacturer to enter into competition in the home
ma,rket Avith :similar articles imported," such rate of duty is necessary as
Avfll secure him a.gainst the excessive impprtations that sornetimes occurAvhen there is.an over-prpduction abroad; such importatipns being of
• no perin anent advantage to the consunier, beca.use the depression Avhich
they cause is followed by a short supply, and great advance in prices.
It-is Avell kriown that our cotton cloths are. furnished so loAA^that oniy a
small portiori pf the present duty on most kinds is added, in the price
paid by the consumer, tO; what would be the cost of similar, foreign articles. 'But paying, as the mariufacturer does, wages sufficient to make



252

REPORTS OF THE

[1845.

M—Continued.. ,
those iri his employment indeperiderit, he Avishes that he and they may
be relieved from the uncertainties caused by the competition of foreigri
pauperism, whose labor is occasionally procured at any rate that will
preverit starvation.
'
'
.
The duty necessary, fbr this varies with the fineness of the cloth. • For
the goods made in the mill first nientioned from No. 14 yarn, and frprn
the coarser numbers, little: duty, if any, is required, except to prevent
our beirig flooded with spurious imitations made from Bengal cottpn,
the Avarit of intrinsic -value in which niight iiot be -fully known uritili.
much mischief had been done to our establishments. W e sell such
goods in foreign rnarkets as low as they can be sold by any nation..
Foreigners then could not send them,here advantageously under any
circuriistances; and as to those goods, therefore, Avhich are chiefly used
by the laboring classes, the tariff is wholly inoperative; they are as cheap:
as if there Were no duty at all. , Fpr cloth a grade or two better, a rriodr
erate duty would be sufficient;" and for the finer fabrics, the duty as it
now stands is necessary to effect the purppse intended.
; '
24. I am not aAvare that ariy change is riecessary in cpllecting the duty,
undef the preserit tariff to preyent fraud, except a, more careful examination of the goods. If the duty should: be assessed upori the-value, I
• think there w^ould be great frauds, Avhich could not be prcA^ented.
25. The rate of our annual profits for the last three years, to June,.
1845,"Avhen the accounts were last made up, has been 12 percent, on
an average. The dividends during that time have been 8^ per .cent,
annually. The differerrce, amounting in all to 11 per cent., has .been
appropriated to the renovation of the mills and machinery, Avhich b.eing
old, required new outlay to fit them for competition AAath .ncAver estab-lishments.:
26. The proportion of price of the raAvmaterial to that of the labor
in the cost of the cloth varies Avith lhe price of cotton, Avhicfrhas fluctuated from 6J to 20 cents per lb. since the establishrnent of the factory.
It varies also Avith the fineness of the cloth. At preserit, in our coarse
cloth, theprice ofthe raw material is about double the price ofthe labor
of making it. In the finest cloth that we make,' the price ofthe labor is
about one-fifth more than that of the raw material. The profits pf the
capital are not reckoned in the cost:of the cloth. Sornetimes there are
no profits.
27. The agricultural productions of the cpuntry consuriied in our establishment amountto $140,000;: other- domestic productions so consumed
aniount to $67,800.
,
'
• • . ;
.
«> •
28., The nianufactures of the Hamilton Cornpany are so various that
to ansAver this question with precision AVould I'cquire a comparison with
most branches of the cotton manufacture of the United.States.
29; If the duty were reduced to 12 J per cent., it AV ould probably
cause us, in a great rrieasure, tP abaridon the business. The manufacture ofthe coarser cloths might,,as has been stated, be contiriued Avithout
interruption, except from one cause—that is, the prpbable. change of



1845.]

SECRETARY OF THE TREASURY.

'

253

M-—Continued..
machinery from the finer descriptions,, to increase, the quantity of the
coarser, so that the manufacture of the latter would be greatly overdone.
'
.
30. The capital beirig furnished by the stockholders, I carinPt say Avhat
they would severally do in such a case. More than half of it being in
fixed property, whicli could not be converted to ncAv uses, rnust be
riearly a total loss. •
. 31. No doubt there are pursuits'in which they could employ Avhat
they would haye left, so as to derive gi-eater profits than from the manufacture of the finer cloths, for there Avould probably be little or no profits
on them after such reduction.
32. I am not particularly acquainted Avith the manufacturesof sa:lt
and iron.
^
3-3. The amount of our capital is $1,200,000; no part of ^which is
borrowed.
34. It would be irnpossible to tell " w h a t amount of reduction in the
duties would enable the real capital einployed to yield an iriterest of 6
per cent."
..
To regulate the profit in thai way Avould probaHy require a: monthly
change of tariff—a shdirig scale; for it must be obvipus "that such a limit
as would prevent the profit from ever, rising above 6 per, cent, would
probably, have the effect to destroy the profit altogether; since it Avould
leave our. niarket exposed to-any influx of goods Avhich might/suit the
temporaiy convenience of the foreigner, and subjbct the manufacturer
here to uncertainties thalAvould be ruinous.
• When business is sP nicely balanced, a srnall addition to the importation is sufficient to turn the scale. Instead of cPmpetitiori among purchasers to get the goods, there comes conipetition among the sellers to
get rid of them, at l h e sacrifice of all profit and part of the cost.- Then
begin failures among the merchants:, discharges of hands fr-pm the factories, and bad tinies to most people; for, though a yard of cloth that
usually costs a'shilling may be .bought for sixpenpe, it is more difficult,
at sucii tirnes, to. get the sixpence to pay for it than it had beeri to earn
the shilhng before. This was eminently so in the depression of 1841
and 1842, just preceding the operatiori of the present tariff; .goods could
scarcely be sbld, even at half price.
35. It ap.pears from a statenient, made by the Treasury'Departnient,*
that if (as is suggested in the 35th inquiry) ''minirriums should be abolished,.and the duty assessed upon the actual value of the irnported article in the American port," the rate of ad valorem duty, equivalent to
the present with the .riiinimum, as actually collected, would be 38 per
cent. It appears, too, that this is chiefly collected upon articles of the
highest cost, and therefore approachingmearest to what are called luxu. ries. -, The rate per cent, charged upon the cheaper cloths would appear
*Senate Doc. No. 109, 2d Session'28th Congress:
Duty frpm goods costing above the minimum 30 per cent.
.$1,121,000
Duty from .printed and colored goods, at 9 cents per square-yard, 43 per c e n t . . . . . 2,574,000
Duty irom'plain good^, at 6 cents per square yard, 454 P^^' ^ ^ n t , . . . . . . , . . : . . . , , . . .
544,000



254

R E P O R T S OF T H E

[1845.

M—Cpntinued.
higher than the.average; but, as, has been .shown, this becomes almost
nominal as the cloth. declines in quality, because the coarser fabrics
could, not be imported with advantage under any arrangement of the
duty.
•
• :• •
.i •
. , /
36.- The operation of the change upon the fraudsat present supposed
to-be practised, would probably^be greatly to increase them.
,, :
37. In coarse cotton good.s, the production by the American •rnanufacturer supplies - the Avhole. consurription of the country/ . In firier goods,
the propPrtiori of the production to the cpnsrimptipn yaries, dirriinishing
as the goods iricrease in .fiiieness.
, '
. . .'- '
38. I think the individual and household, manufactures of the United ,
States have dirninished since the tariff „pf 1842.
•
39,40. I arn not particularly iri formed as to the average prPfits of
rrioriey or capital, or of wages, iri the United States. So far .as I have
observed, they are occasipnally,liigher in the southern and Avestern States,
than in the northern.:
'

'

Lowell.

•

'

'

•

'

-

.

•

.

< ^

'

'

'

'

•

-

'

-

"

From Thomas G, Gary., Treasurer Appleton Company,

.

•

' .

\

1. I t i s situated at"LoAvell,.Massachuse:tts.':
'
. . ^
2. It is moved by Avater poAver.
•
3.-It was established in 182.9, arid is a joint-stbck concern/.
4. The arnount invested in grourid/arid buildirigs, water power, and
niachinery,'is $375,000.
\
i
. 5. The average amount in rnaterials. and cash is $225,000.
6. The annual rate of profit since the establishment of the factory,
allpwing for fire insurance a:nd losspf interest during the building, has
been 8f per •cerit,or9|- per cerit. without any such allowance, • No part
of the capital is .bprrowed..
7. The cause of increaLsepr decrease, when they "haye occurred, has
been of the sarrie nature as the cause of fluctuations in other branches .
of business, arid also honie: competition.'
• 9. The amouiit of articles anriually manufactured has been about
1,700,000 pounds of heavy .shbetings and. shirtings^ pf abput:3 square
yards to the pound. T h e cloth is all rnade from onp- kind of yarn, IN^o.
14, and is nearly, similar in quality, jthough•varying in Avidth. • '
10.. Tiie raw materials used are as follows::
1,500 bales-of c o t t o n . . " . . : . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . / . . . . . .$120,000 .
Starch. . ' . : . . . l v . . . . . . . . . . . . ; . \ . . .^., .
. , . . . . . . . / . i . : . .\2,500
Leather.--....../.... ...;.• . . . . . . . . / , . / . / . . - . . . . . . . . . . .
500
L u m b e r . . . . . . . . . . . . . J, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
...../...
2,00,0
Oil.
..-.
/
3,000
Coal
_....;........./.....1,500
Total

../....

$129,500

. 11. No similar articles are imported from any foreign, country.
12. Tlie riumber of men employed is 89—average wages $1 ,05 per



1845.]

S E C R E T A R Y OF T H E TREASURY.

255

M—Continued.
day. The number of wornen employed is 326—average wages: 51 J
. cents per day. Children rione.
: '
'
23,24. No.duty is necessary, unlpss to prevent.spurious imitations;
nor would it be for that if Bengal cottPn were ,adniitted..free. There
are no fraud's, I presunie, therefore, in, respect to goods like the -fabrics
of this company, for no such foreign cloth is made, cheaper.
-25. ^ The rate of profit for the last three years has been IOJ per cent.
The dividerids during that time have beeri'. 7f per cent.' The rernainder
of the income,.amouriting to 8J per-cent., br 2 5-6 per cent...annuaily,
has beeri appropriated to the improve rnerit of the rriills and niachinery,
w^hich are:now old. and .require UCAV outlay to 'enable.them to starid in
. competitiori with ncAver establishmerits.
' 26. Theprice of the raw material.i.s usually about, Glouble thecost of
the labor in the price of the cloth; but it varies with the market for
cottori.
, - - . ' '
27. The amount of agricultural productions of the country consumedin the establishment is $120,000; .other:, domestic, produc tioris amPuntlo
$9,500. • . / / ' • . .. .
"V .'/ .
28. The quantity or a.mount of nianufactures, such as we, make, • pro^
duced.in the United States, must be. nearly one-fourth pf the whple
cottori:manufacture.
-.
29. If-the duty were reduced to 12 J per cent, prithekind of goods
made in the Appleton factory, I do not think it Avould-. induce ris to
abandori the business unless the duty were reduced on,finer goods, so
that machinerywould.be turned from.the manufacture of fine to that of
coarse goods. .
'
" . . .
.'
'
33. 'The arnpuiit of capital is $600,000, arid none of itis.borrOAved.
34. The duty beirig wholly inoperative on cloths frpm • No. 14 yarn,
the reduction would probably have no effect.
35. If minimums, which are inoperative as to the goods of this company, were abolished, the rate of duty ad valprem. Aypurd be equivalent
to-about 75 per cent. But, as has been stated, it is/merely nominal and
is never levied, because such goods are not imported, and could not" be
at any rate of duty, unless it might be a spurious imitation from Bengal
cotton.
.
.
.
36. The cliange, therefore, would have .no effect upon frauds..
• 37. The production of the American manufacture cpvers the whole
consumption of .the country.
. . • .
For answers to questions Nos. 8, 13 to .22 iriclusive, 30,. 31, 32, -38, 39,
and 40, reference is had to the answers annexed hereto in respect to the
Hamilton Manufacturing Company. - .

ANSWERS TO CIRCULAR NO. 2. ,

Groton.

From Noah Shattuck.

1. Hay, wheat, rye, corn,.pats, barley, apples, peaches,.pears, plums,



256

R E P O R T S OF T H E

[1845.

M—Continued.
cherries, grapes, potatoes, and other usual garden vegetables; fruit trees,
of various kinds, and butter and cheese.
2. A large proportipn of its oapital is engaged in their production.
3.. To a very considerable extent.
'
4. Not more than 3 per cent.., as a general rule. 5. About .4 per cent., as a general rule.
6. Cannot ariswer. '
.
'
7. Cannot answer.
8. No; it draAvs its supplies from the various quarters of the United
Stales and from abroad. Carinot answer last tAvo branches.
9. -The commercial, mechanical, and riavigation, I think do, but not so.
with the manufacturing interest.'
: ;.
10. I should think not; I attribute it tothe tariff; canriot ansAver..
11. We export cotton cloths to a great extent.
.•
. '
12. Cannot ansy^er.,
.
13. Cannot ansAA'er..
'
14. We have, of A^arious description's; and a great ariiount of capital
irivested in them. Goods of various descriptions, but I cannot ansAver
. as to profit, or investment. With the present duties the manufacturing
interest is preferable to the agricultural or mechanical interest..
.'
15.' Yes; but to Avhat extent I carinot ansAver.
16. Cannot ans AVer.
•
17, 18. I canriot say.
19,^20. I leave these questions tP be ansAAT-ered by the mercantile part
of the conimunity.
.
21, 22. I cannot answer.
23, 24. I an S V er, that the present duties bperate more favbrably to
A
the manufacturing interest than to the other industrial classes of our
comniunity.
,,
' ,-/
25 to 28. I shall not risk an- opinion. I confine i m y anSAA^ers, in
particular, to Middlesex county,.Avhere I am engaged in agricultural
pursuits.
' . ..
•
•.

ANSWERS TO CIRCULAR No/1.

Boston.

From C. W. Cartwright, Treasurer ofi the Uxbridge Cotton Mills.

1. Massachusetts., Worcester county.
2. Half throttle and half mule spinriing, five spindles.
3. Present corporation, in 1840.
'
\
4. Eighty thousand dollars.
5. Forty-five thousand dollars.
6. Seven per cerit. since 1840; prior thereto a great loss. W e have
no borrowed capitaL
* :• /
7. Supply and demand.
8. I don't knoAA^.
9. About Orie riiillion yards of-cloth; value•$100,000; all shirtings.



1845.]

SECRETARY OF T H E TREASURY..
M-^Coritiriued.

257

.^

10. 600 bales of cotton; 12,000 lbs. of starch; 1 ;&bO galloris of oil;
400 cords of wood.
^ .11. I do not knPw.
12/ About 50.meri, and 120 girls; men's wages .fl 50 per day, arid
girls' 40 cents per day, clear of board, and lodging,
;
13. About tAvelve hours the year round.
14. I dori't kribA\)^.
- 15. Orie.hprse^ ,
.
•
': •
16. Our goods are sold iri the various seaports in the"-.United States;
sonie for" corisuniptiori, arid sorrie for Mexico. ^
.
^
17. I am not a-^areIhat any foreigri goods corrip'into oPriipetitiori with
ours iri tlie United States; but in Mexico this may be so; ' " . \ -'
18. They a:te distributed withiri and" without the United.States for
consuriiption.
/
,
.' ' / '
•
19. AnsAvered; in NP. 16;
20. Gerierally sold .Oii 6 arid 8 rii-briths' crjedlt; never bartered.
2 i . It has constaritly'varied .as cPttpri .has/vaiied; arid tiiis variatioiii
. sirice 1840, has been CPrifinedlilmost exclusively tP the cottori, the labor
.being nearly-statipnary;; the goods sbld Iri. 1840 at ,12 cerits per yaord
now sell at 9 cents'.
:
. ' '
22. AnsAvered above, feo.far ais' regards the preserit company;' but
about 1828 the goods now seliirig at 9 brought 16' cerits per yard* .
23. I do not know.
. 24. I shouldihink noti
,
.
:; ;^ ^
25. Ariswered iri No; 6, so far as prpfits arp bbncerried; all of Av^nich,
excepting one dividend of six per cent., has been added to the ca||ital,
raising'said capitak from $100,000 to $125,000, arid shares h a t e been
issued to the stockhplders' for such addition, i /
:
, ' '' '
- 2&. About orie-half for labpr, 35 per cent, fpf stock, arid 15 per beni
for prpfit for the past year, owing to thelow price of cottPn arid fee^dy
sale of gpods; but frequeritly ou'r gPods. haVp reriiairied on hand,- arid
the loss of interest and expenses on them'has left no profit/
27. Our hands nbt being furnished by us with board, 1 dp nbt krib-vv;
but,, beirig well fed and clothed from their wages!,' I preduriie they consume as much as any other equal number of harids.
28. I carinot form an opiniori based on facts within rny own knowledge; buf suppose we make ofthe nrirnber.pf yarri woven into shirtings
about one-twentieth of what is made iri the United States.
29. The reductiori of duties on. goods to 12J per cent., other than
cotton fabrics, Avouldmot reduce the cost of our goods; but a reduction
bn cotton goods tP 12i per: cent. AvPuld be very likely tP create'such a
competition in the home market from European manufacturers as would
be destructive of our busiriess/ /
; ^
- 30. If our busiriess was destroyed, so far as Pur capital is iri build• ings, machinery, and Water pbAver:, it AvPuId be lo'st, and we should ri'ot
of course have it to employ in any other: busiriess;" Pur quick or;#orki-rig
capitalwe could convert into mPriey atmore Pr less sa,crificeV arid div^
VOL. v.—17.



258

R E P O R T S OF T H E
M—Continued.

[1845,
.

it,among our stockholders, Avho would use it no doubt with proper dis- .
cretion.
31. in case of reduction,.I have no doubt that circumstances Avould
arise by Avhich those who had rnoney might speculate on thpse in distress to great advantage.
.- ,
.
. 32. So far as I am informed, there is rip poirit in the United States
where iron is m a d e in any quantity; but Avhat is within, the reach of
foreign competition the most remote frPm the seaboard, so far as regards
the home market, Avould be the least operated on; but so far as thesame
furnaces depend pn the seaboard for a market, it would be ruinous to
them at present to allow foreigners to cpmpete in the home market; but
as the skill and necessary econorny are 'acquired at bur furnaces, our
iron ore arid coal being so much mPre abundant than in .any foreigri
country, and generally above' the level of tide-water, (which is not tlie .
case in England,) all that rs required to reduce theprice of iron here iri
a few years is the security ofthe home market: this secured, capitalists
would be induced to enter into the business with a m p l e m e a n s t o iritroduce the most approyed machinery and skill in this fabric;.. and I have
no doubt that i n a few years all bur railroad iron wpuld be niade in the,
United States, and that hammered and rolled iron Avouid be ranked
among our articles of domestic export. Salt .made west of the AUeghany mpuntains, and in western NCAV York, I think is placed beypnd
foreign competition.
:
33. I do not know.
34. This involves tpo many contingencies to be susceptible of an an-,
swer.'. • .
. . , , • " • .
35. I do not knoWi.
.,
36. Its operation would be to have different rates of duty existing in
the.different ports of the United States; the trade would of course
centre where the officers were the mostpliable: then, in guarding against
foreign frauds, Ave should encounter unequal duties atour various custpmhouses at home.
37. I don't know. ,
38. 39,, 40. I dori't.knpw.
•

RHODE ISLAND.
ANSWERS TO CIRCULAR No/ 2.

Newport County* From E , \ Wilbur, Collector,
1. Hay, cbrn, rye, oats, barley, potatoes, onions,-and garden vegetables; together witli beef, pork, and poultry. No cotton, rice, or tobacco.
2. About tAvo-thirds ofits capital employed in their production;
3. All these interests have been, so nearly blended that it is. difficult
to decide which is the dependent interest.
:
: •



1845.]

SECRETARY OF T H E TREASURY.

259

M—Gontinued.
4. Four to six per cent,
• 5. Six to eight per cent,
; • From 1832 to 1842.

From 1842 to 1845.

. $12 per ton.
Hay, $15 per ton. .
. 7 0 cents per bushek
Corn, 92 cerits per bushek
87
do.
•' Rye, $1
•'
do.
37-.
do.
Oats, 42 cents
do.
Barley, 67 cents do.
67 V ' do,
Potatoes, 33 cts. do.
30
do.
Onions, 37 cts. dp.
25
.do.
Beef,
6 cents per pound.
4 cents per pound.
.Pork,
10
do.
6
'. do.
Poultry, 10
do.
10
do.
. Garden vegetables about the same during both periods. AA-erage
income per hand, during the first: period,, about $125; during the last
$150.'
7. Perhaps somcAvhat by both; much mpre by the currency than the
tariff; perhaps as 4 to 1.
:
,
. .
8. The country does not raise a sufficient supply. It draAvs its
supplies mostly from .New Yprk, Virginia, Louisiana, Massa.chusetts,
Vermont, New Hampshire, MainCj Connecticut, Maryland, and Cuba.
The average amourit has been estimated as follows, together with the
prices:
.
Articles,'
Flour;.:..
Beef:
,....,.,.,
Pork
Bacon
Fish . , . ; . .
..^..
Butter
:...
Clieese... ^
Lard..,
,> . . . . . . .
New Orleans molasses.
Corn
Rye.......
,,...
Buckwheat,;
..,
Beans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Cuba molasses
Horses..,
:,..
Neat cattle,
Sugar.

Amount,
11,500 barrels
700
"
800 '» '
300
"
1,000
"
100,000- "
60,00,0 '*
150,000
10,000 gallons
50,000 bushels
4,000
"
1,500 barrels
500
25,000 gallons
200 head
. 2,000

Price, 1832
to 1842.

10,
12, .
15,
12 cts.
8 cts..
Sets.,'
30 cts.,
60 cts.,
75 cts.,,
$5,
6,
25 .cts.,
$75, •
30,

$69,000
7,000
9,600
4,500
3,500
12,000
4,800
12,000
3,000
30,000
, 3,000
7,500
3,000
6,250
15,000
,60,000

Price, 1842
to 1845.

7,
10,
12,
3,
10 cts.,
6 cts.;
6 cts.,
28:cts.:
50 cts.
60 cts.:
5,
20 cts.
$60,^
20,

$57,500
4,900
8,000
3,600
3,000
10,000
. 3,600
9,000
2,800
25,000
2,400
6,000
^ 2,500
5,000
12,000
40,000

The difference in prices may be traced to various causes: the extensive railroad operations which were forced onward in .the teri years
preceding 1842, beyond the ability of the. countr:y to sustain; the state of
the currency; to facilities afforded to speculators b y t h e Bank of the
United States and other banks; tp the diversion of labor from agricultural
to manufacturins: pursuits and internal improvements.
9. No.
- " ^'
- . . . • • • . . - ' ' ' .



260

.

^

REPORTS O F THE

[1845.

M—Gontinued.
10. The average prices of protected articles have npt beeri so low
during the last three years as in the ten preceding. This is owing, in
part, to the operation of the differ'ent tariff laAvs, but perhaps more to the ^
imprpved conditipn:of the currency, and the consequent stability pf trade.
The amount of protected articles is mot so- large but that the general
expense of living has been less in the last three years than in the prepeding ten.
11. A large-amourit of cotton and woolen goods exported; but the
manufacturers, refuse to answer the questions propounded to' them, so
that I cannot ansAver exphcitly as to the difference in valrie; probably
about teu: per cent, higher during the last three years than in the preceding ten. The county also exports oil and- other articles to a large
amount, which have not beeri materially affected. Cotton and woolen
/goods nearly, or quite $1,000,000; oils and other articles, $190,000.
12. "The direct .expPrtation from this' courity to foreign markets is so
sriiali that this questiori canriot be fully ansAVered. The direct foreign
exports,, to any considerable ampunt, are garden vegetables, cheese,
pork, potatoes, onipns, sperm andlalloAV carid;les, cordage, fish, and
poultry; norie of Avhich are materially .affected, if at all, by the tariff.
13i No ansAver.
14. "We have in this county 4 Av:bolen and 8 cotton manufactories; the
woolen rrianufactrires are riibstly coarse goods, coriirnorily Called ^^negro
cloth,'' satinet, the coarse kinds of broadbloth, and a small quantity of
firier and medium broadcloths. The cotton manufacturers - use about
No. 40 sheetings, and,Nos."28 to 30 printing cloth; sheeting, 1,230,000
y a r d s ; printing clpth",-i2,200,000 yards. The bthers make cotton yarn
about Nos. 8 to 10; these are small mills;; capital about $640,000/ T h e
manufacturers refuse to answer questions aa to their ; profits; a. fair estimate is, probably, 20 to 30^ per cent. A profit at least equal to agriculr
tural profits (under a-discriminating tariff, bf 25'^ per cerit. advalorem on
manufactured articles, rejecting; the-lninimum) might be made by the
manufacturers in this county; perhaps/more.'
- •:
. . . . .
15> .Tbis= cprinty has. but little interest .:in. ship-building, at preserit,:
compared Avithforrner years. , T t e
laAvs' have had sonie effect
upon/this bimich of business', by engaging pur' citizens in manufactures-:.
Another reasori is found in the fact, that the supply of ship timber in tiiis-:
State is nearly exhausted/.
: :
."\'.^..'.fi.',.
16v About 1 to 10; theaitentipri of our citizens haying been diverted
frorn commerce to manufactures has caused the •dechne ofthe former...
Cannot tell how far the tariff laws have operated to produce this effect.
17. Not materially. ,,
18; The sarrie ariswer.
^
19. Cannot specify Avith certainty,
20. Cotton fobricsgerierahy, and low-priced wPolens.
21. 'The mariufacturing interest orify directly affected; all the others
iricideritaliy; and the effect upbn all beneficial, as- it destroys foreign
competition.
22. Cannot give a definite ansAver. A duty on tea and coffee and



1845.]

; SECRETARY OF T H E TREASURY.

261

M-r-Continued. '
fruit would fall Avitli about equal Aveight on the poor as pri: the Avealthy ;•
and the tax would therefore, be unequal in comparison Avith their ability
t o - p a y . . ' • • • . .

• ^:
•

•".

: '

'

:

23. The duty pn wool affebts the agriculture of the State materially;
upon all .other articles the present duties seem to operate equally.
24;. The duties on silk and on some articles pf woolen inanufactures
operate injuriously upon this class; not necessarily perhaps, but froni a
desire to dress as'fashionably as their more Wealthy neighbors.
25. Answered in the foregbirig as far as.my rneans .of-knpAying.will
justify.
; ^
26. The benefit to the agriculturist is only incidental,, and the effect of
modification will also beonly :inciden:tal? except in the case of silk and .
some articles of .wpolen manufacture referred to in No: 24. 1 know of
n o w a y to reniedy'the evil but "by a reduction of duty/. The country"
has, prospered under the present duties, but it is believed that under a
.system of duties for revenue, y^ith a judicious discriniination in favpr of
the manufacturirig interests, it would be equally prosperous.. •
27. Abbut 80,000 lbs. in this county. . Sirice 1842, the average price
has beeri abriut 37 cents;: in the ten years preceding, about 30 cpnts.
28. We have only one coal mine, which produced last year about
2,800 tons of anthracite coal; .the price at the mine' has ^uniformly
been $3 per tPn; it is now abandoned; never havirig been profitable.
. The above return from Edwin^Wilbur, eoliector,,district of NcAvport
Rhode Island, is connected Avith a obmmunication: address.ed to ' the
Secretary of the Treasury, acknowledging the receipt of the circrilar,
stating, thatlhe had " frirnlslied the several agerits- of manufacturing
companies with copies bf the questions.;" that tlie "agerits refuse to
an swer;'' that ^ Vthe facts set forth. in the return refer to the county of
NcAvport alone, .and are l o be regarded as mere estimates fi &c., &c/
B. Anthony, United States rnarshal,,, Providence Rhode Island, fur .
nishes a list of iridividuals and companies tP whom he had. sent copies
of the questioris.
Newport,

From Joseph Joslen.

-V

1. Similar products to those in the rest of NCAV Eriglarid.
8.. .The greater pprtion of. the capital; but investments iri other pursuits involve that also to a considerable extent.
•
^ ,:
3. The general'cPmiection is, intimate, but not so vital in a given
space but these may flourish, at least for a time, while agriculture is
languishing.
^
, 4. Farmers, in general, are 'understood to say, "'^ Not more than 3. per
cent, since 1842;,"-^
•.
• • • ' . ' . /.- . • • '
5. And '^4 or 5 per. cent, for the ten preceding yiears." But add
that, sirice 1842,.they.have had to compete- with a gfeater quantity in^
this market irom other States, as well as gerieral Ibw prices." •



2G2-

.,

R E P O R T S OF T H E

[1845.

M—Contiriued.
6. The variation is inferred to be in about the same proportion.
7. As far as those laws have increased or diminished the rate of
liAlng and cost of cultivation, or left operi to a, greater or less coriipetition ffom abroad the produce of the soik The fluctuation of the currency considered as incidental only.
•
8. Not a sufficient supply of the animals mentioned. Not of provisions of all the kinds consumed. Supplies of grain and flour from the
South and .West; meats frorri bordering States. Prices lower in the
latter period; attributable to the fact that agriculture has not been fostered so much as other interests. '
9. Theseinterests, in this State, always tend to an equality of profits
with one another, and Avith agriculture. Pursuits are changed as profits
invite. That interest w.hich, for the tirne being, is mPre profitable than
any other, will for that reason constantly tend, if undisturbed, to become
the least so in its turn. Legislation may cause one to flourish at the
expense of another, for a season; may check the tendency to equality ;^
if despotic enough, arrest it. Still, under ,a fair operation of law, the
degree in which agriculture flourishes is the best test of general prosperity. If there are exceptions, they, are not to be looked for Avhere the
agricultural is the chief iriterest.
10. The protected articles have been, on an average, higher in the
latter than in the former period. Attributable to special protection,
operating as a tax upon, and a general tax.
11. This State exports few agricultural products, and these to a very
limited extent. The ^export of rnanufactures, coastwise at least, is
considerable. Their value has been enhanced during thelatter period.
12. Not a large proportion in foreign couritries. Prices are governed
by the general demand, home and foreign. Similar articles from other
countries do come in conipetition with those from this. High duties
must stand in the Avay of successful conipetition abroad, so far as they
are a protection, by raising the home value; at least :so far' as the home
profits fail to rnake up to the exporter that differerice.
. .
13.^ The general conriection is such, that at a fair value, if excessive
importations coritinue a sufficient length of tirne, the indebtrnent of the
couritry importing Avill become oppressiA^e. And if the exportations are
in the same nianner, continued, the balance in its favor may result in
loss. Supposing the difference removed, in course, by the transport of
specie, the otherwise creditor countiy, is exempt from loss AAdiile it
exports. But the debtor country suffers a drain of specie mea.iiAvhile,
arid must fail to receive as its ability to exchange fails. The present
duties tend to- lessen, therefore, the value of agricultural exports, so far
as the ability to purchase is thereby lessened in the couritry receiving
thern.
.
.
«
1 4 , Numerous..' Of cotton, wool, machinery, &c. Comprising from
one tp three-teriths of the Avhole capital, and increasing. Cottori and
, woolen rnills together between one and tAvo hundred, and about bnethird as many of various other estabhshments. ^ Not less than 276,000
cotton spiridies, rna:king 925,760 yards per week. Profits are admit


1845.]

SECRETARYOFTHETREASURY.

263

M—iContinued.
ted to have ranged, for the last three years, from .8 to 15 per cent.
'The preserit duties on coarse goods are not necessary for therii to operate Avith profit Thcspresent profits induce so rriany to embark in the
business that it will soon be overdone. If the duties should be changed
in the mean time, agairist their inclinations, as a matter of course the
manufacturers will attribute the failure of their business to that circumstance.' But 20 to 25 per Cent, is, undoubtedly, as the most intelligent
now admit, enough to make the manufaoture of coarse goods equally
profitable with the growing ofthe best products in this State in either of
those periods.
:^
15. Comparatively much at former periods; ship-building has evidently declined; the business has been unfavorably affected by tariffs;
thepresent not an exception. They have increased the cost o f building by increasing the price of important materials for that pufpose and
for equipment.
'
'
16. Less to greater. Commerpe has declined less than shipi-building; manufactures, and the transport of materials for them, supply in
some degree that deficiency. .,
>
. 1 7 . Undoubtedly.
18. Very well.
19. Spirits permanently without reductions.
,
20. Some of those paying high duties; the domestic having taken
their place..
: .
^ :
' 2 1 . Agriculture and commerce, especially the latter, unfavorably;
manufactures favorably; at least there is heard no cPmplaint on their
especial behalf. ;
.
. ^
22. Articles of luxury, and those which-may well be produced inthis
couritry, rather than those of the.most common use which are not, because less burdensome in general, and more equal as to the means of
contributing.
1
- . \ .
23. Many articles used by the riiost numerous class are taxed higher
than others more: especially in request for manufacturirig purposes: as
wool, hides, some materials for dyeing, and other raAV materials, whichare or may be prpdueed in this country, notlaxed so high^as the cheaper
kinds of clothing and several articles made of materials of hke origin
for general use.
24. To increase the cost to consumers, arid so tP protect the maniifacture of them in the United States; unequally, at least while such protection lasts, upon those interests. ^. , '
/
'
'25. The idea of special protectipn supposes there are; cpnsequently
they might be imported for less, the duty aside, or sufficiently reduced.
The consumption of such is considerable and not peculiar. Were there
no fears of competition, as with respect to someis the case, the evidence
would have a different bearing.
26. The opiriion is general in this State that the present duties, by
stimulating rnariufactures/and collecting consumers in vill ages, rnake a
home market for agricultural products; but they do riot appear to have
stimulated agriculture in an equal degree, to say nothing of commerce;



264

R E P O R T S OF T H E

[1845,

M!-rTrGpn.tinu:ed.
From s.p.rne causeVthe^profits of farms are less, while those.pf manufactures are: greater s nevertheless, the State ori the whple has prospered
thrpugh its m.anufaptories, howev.er less in degree in other pursuits.
27/" Prpbably .200,000: pprinds-of Avool annuaily, and double at least,
of that quantity manufactured.-. The wool raised for market is mostly '
of .fine quahty,: but lariguishirig in price-^^25lo 28.cents, and no demand.
Woolen factories mostly work'coarse wopl from S.outh America, under
the eight cents miriirnuni. The AVOOI of this Stajte has declined -30 per
cent, or more in the last tAvelve or fifteen ye.ars;./and h.ad nearly reached
the present low price as early as 1842.
.2:8/Soni.e .of cpal, but not Avith repia
-

CONNECTICUT.
ANSWERS TO CIRCyLAR No. 1.

New London County.

From Increase Wilson, •. '

. :

1. Connecticut, New Londori county.
•
' ^
.2. Miscellaneous hardAVarp; steam power. '
..
3. In 1830; individual concern.
:
'
4... Preserit.capital invested in grounds, buildings, poAve.r,.and machinery^ about $35,000.
V: :, '
'
.. •
5. Average a,mount expended annually for the last ten years, fpr rnaterials ari.d w.ages, about $3^,000.- '
/ • - .
.6-tp 8. No answer.
•; 9. Amount o f goods manufactured siricp 1830 froni: $20,000 to
$50,000 per annum, consisting of a variety of articles. [A list of these
articles is apperided.]
10. Materials annually used for a few years past, 100 to 150 tons, pig
iron; abput Pne half Scotch, and the remainder American. Also from
20/to 30 tons Americari bolt and bar irpn, rpds, and wire, arid about the
sarne ,quantity "of English, Swedes, and.Russia irori? and riparly the same
quantity of old copper, block tin, zinc, &c.
...11, No-ariswer..-,
.•,
'
, • - . . , •
12,. Forty to sixty nien; average wages $1.25 per day; twenty to
forty bo3^s, average Avages 60' cerits per day./
.13. Ten hours per day throughout the year.
14, ,15. Np answers/•
.'
, :.
16. Sales made to merchants directly, in different parts ofthe coun^
try, and through agents in Boston, NCAV York, Philadelpbi.a, and
Baltirnore.
.,
17. Similar articles are iniported in large quantities, and sold at less
prices,, brit are supposed to be gerierally inferior in quality.
, 18. The manufactures are prp.bably consumed iri every State in the
Uniori.
.
\



1845,]

S E C R E T A R Y OF T H E TREASURY.
.

265

MTTT-Contiriried.

19. No answer:.
20. Sold principally on,a credit of six months, but in. some cases for
cash, with a discount of five per ceiit.
*
".
21. The cost of'the manufactures has gradually decreased., in consequence of greater experience in the workriien, imprpvements in rhae-hinery, tools, &c., and a slight^reductiori in the cost pf materials. The
' price of labor has not rnaterially-yaried.
22. Many articles are UOAV sold from 20 to 30 ppr cent, "lower than .
they were ten years since; .and other articles 15 to' 20 per pent. .loAver
than they A ere fiye years since.
y
..
23. The present rate-of duty on general hardware is cpnsidered
necessary tp enable .rn.anufaGtur.ers to .cornpete with' similar ar.ticles imported; but if no mpre thari .a. cprresporidirig duty were placed ori pig
and bar iron, many "articles .riow exclusively imported'cpuld be made in
thi^ cpuntry,
,:•
'
:
.^
^'24..Np ariswer.' .'•
•,• 25; Profits never precisely ascertained, but -^ni.all and hithertp expended in irnproving th.e cpnpern.
26 to 28. No answers.
..
, fi^fi .i
•• '
29.- Urider a duty of /12| ,p,er cpnt. pn irnported gopds mpre than one
half the articles now made here would probably be abaridoned.
30 to 40. No:answers.'
.'
'
Tolland County.. Name not given; received in a letter ofi Charles F . Lester,
. Collector,. Neup London, .October 2, 1845*, \_Namje supposed to be Rufius
G. Penney.']
• . , - :
1. Connecticut, Tolland county.
2. Satinet;. Avater power. /
.
^
.
.' .
3. In 1839;'joint-stock concern.
' -•,
4. Capital invested, $24,000.
5. Not-able to answer.
. 6. Not over six per cent; no portion of.capital borrowed.
7. Fluctaatiori of prices.
§. No answer.
" •
9., About 70,000 yards satinet good quality; .aA-erage value about 60
cents'per yard.
10. Severity thousand ppurids doniestic woob 35 cents per pound;
75,000 yards cotton warp, 4J cents per yard; l,?OO.gallons lard oil, 70
cents per gallon; 400 gallons sperm oil, $1 per gallbn; dj^e-stuffs, wood,
&c., about $3,000.
..
•/
11. No ansAver,
12. Fourteen men, average AA^ages • $1 per day; 13 women, $2 per
A^eek; no children.
./
13." Twelve hours per day throughout the year.
14. No answer.
. 15. Npne.; teaming done on contract.'
16. Sent to Bostorr, New York, and Philadelphia, to market.



266

R E P O R T S OF T H E

[1845.

MT—Continued.
17. LoAA'-priced imported Avoolens to a considerable exterit.
18. Principally in the United States.
19. Do not kno A that any part are exported.
V
20. Sold bj^ our agent in market for cash, and credit at eight months.
^ 21. Varies from year to year; prices fluctuating.
:.^ 22. From 50 cents to $1 per yard.
...
23. Satinets are riot imported to any extent; but low-priced imported
woolens compete Avith them. , .
; ^'^:
24. Is unacquainted Avith the frauds practised.
:'
25. First three years a loss; since, $8,000 have been converted into
fixed capitak -. . ;.
.
/
26. Domestic wool is the principal article consumed by us.::
27. Wool, cotton, and all others, probably $34,000. '^
28. No answer,

.

; •.

*.

29. If the duties on woolens AA^ere reduced to 12^ per cent., and cbrresponding imports, it wPuld pfobably cause us to abaridon Pur business.
30. Should be governed by circumstances.
31. At present know of: none better than to loan at six per cent.
32. Unacquainted with these interests. .
33. Amount of. capital, $24,000; none bprrowed.
. 34. No answer.
.
35/ Carinot say certainly; probably 30 per cent.
36 to 40. No answers.
Middlesex County.

Name not given; received in letter firom P . Sage, Collector, Middletown, Connecticut.
- r .

1. Connecticut, Middlesex county. .
'
.
2. Cotton factory; water poAver.
3. In 1838; joint-stock cbrnpariy.
4. TAverity-five thousand dollars.
•
5. The property is leased at $1,400' per annum; from, which sum is
deducted, say $400, for insurance and taxes, &c. The lease expires
April, 1847.
./
. -'
7. Home Competitiori, by additional factories,- as Avell as foreign importations, diminish profits.
8. Legal interest six pel cent.. Bank stock pays about seven per cent.
, 9. Three.hundred and fifty thousand ya.rds printed cloths; formerly
sold at nine cents per yard, but are now selling at about five cerits.
16. Sold principally in New York.
18. Purchased by calico printers in this country.
'
'20. Cash and credit.
.
. 21.' Mknual labor has diminished by improvement in machinery.
22. Printed cloths now sold at five cents per yard were a fcAV years
ago sold at about eight or nine cents.
/
The other questioris not ansAvered.
NOTE.—The first and second returns given above Avere received in a



1845.]

S E C R E T A R Y OF T H E TREASURY.

267

M—-Continued.
letter from-Charles F.Lester, CollPctor, NCAV London, Conriecticut, October 2, 1845, who states that he had "spared np pains in .distributing the
^questions,, and seeking to obtairi all necessaiy informatiori from^the
^manufacturers;" t h a t ' l i o response had been;received, except in the.
UAVO; cases"'given above. Mr. Lester adds: " The great reluctance
'exhibited by the manufacturers to ansy^er openly and frankly,- gives
'strong evidence that they are uriAvilling to riiake a free expose of their
^ business, which is owing to,, the fact of the immense profits thereof,
'growing out of the present' protective tariff. I am Avell satisfied that
'the average net profit of the cottPn and woolen establishments of Con' necticut is equal to forty per cent, per annum," &c.
.:

ANSAVERS TO CIRCULAR No. 2.

Litchfield.

From George C, Woodruff, Postmaster,

1. Rye, maize,-oats, flax, potatoes, turnips, and a httle tobacco;
beef, pork, horses, sheep, &c.
2. Say four-fifths.
7. I tliink not riiuch by the tariff—^^a little by the currericy.
8. Yes; except wheat, which has beeri draAvn-from the Avestern
States, New York iricluded.
9. J thirik npt.
10. No; I attribute it to the duty.
14. We have manufacturirig establishrnents of Avoolen and cottori
goods, buttons, brass, clocks, iron, &c., &c.; (and being in successful
operation before the tariff of 1842, I conclude they w^ouldxpperate Avith
profit without it, though: the profit would be less.
23. On most articles rnanufactured here the tariff is beneficial to the
manufocturer to a rnuch greater extent than the agriculturist.
24. Increase of price at the expense of other classes.
27. Price increased by tariffof 1842.
28. Lon mines in this section.
L1TCHFIE.LD,

CONN.,

October 4, 1845.

S I R : I herewith return the questions propounded - by you, with
answers annexed to such as are in my power to ansAver., I canriot,
without great expense, procure informatiori necessary to eriable rne to
answer the others.
,
fi
. .^
"Very respectfully 3^ours,
.
GEO. C. W O O D R U F F , P . M .
P. S, By an act of .our Legislature in May last, the assessor's in each
town, in this State are to.procure and return to our Secretary of State a
vast ariiount of statistical information relative to t h e matters contained
in your inquiiies; an abstract of Avhich the Secretary is to make,'print,
and-return to the Legislature in May next. This is probably the only



2.68

R E P O R T S OF T H E

"

[1845.

M^—Coritiriued.. .
way in AVhich much of the iriformation. ybu seek can be. accrir ately
obtained^
,
•, .
; :
• ' .
Hon. R, J, WALICER.,
I^To this latter set pf questions, .D, Browning, P . M., Hillsbpro', states'
that he ''has: not the rneans of pbtainirig the necessaiy information,"
&c., &c.]. -. •/
.
• ^^ : ;
•
New. London, From Sidney Miner..
1. Potatoes, onions, corri, pats, wheat, rye, and barley, sufficient-for
the consuniption of the State; some tobacco; cptton arid rice, rione.
2. About one-fourth. . .
/
' 3. Not connected Avitli or dependerit on them to any extent.
4. Not rnore than 3 to'5 per cent, per annum, and generally uniform.
5. Profits on agriculture uniform, but generally small for iO years
past, b u t improving.
. .; .,
6. Prices have averaged fpr, 10 years, past as. follows: Potatoes, 25
cents per bushel; corn, 65 cents; oats, 40: cents; -wheat, $1 12; rye,
67 cents; barley:, 67 cents;labor, per .band, $10 to $14 per month and

found.

•

; ,

,.

'...

''

;

7. Prices have not been materially affected either by thelariff or: the
currericy.
: . .
"
/ ::^ ' • •.
8. .Raise's..a sufficierit supply, of horses, hogs, and cattle, and provisions, (except flour, hprses, and mules, for shipping purposes.). Flour
is, supplied, from NCAV York, and horses and mules frPm the. westerri
States. Arnounts have been- small,, and :(varyirig with the season) used
for comniercial purposes, which is large, and purchased principally in
NeAV York for the whaling interest only: 13,000 bbls.. proyisions,,3,000
bbls, flour, 600. bbls. fneal, 1,200 bbls.. rn classes, 150 tierces, peas, 400
tierces beans, and 120,000 lbs. bread, yearly.
/
"9. These interests;are not depe.ridei-it on the agriculture, of the State
to any extent.
.
10. Little or no difference in prices;: does not think there is any effect
on the groAA^ers of the .staples, or the State at' large, in production or
living.
'
. .
.
f ,.
l i . None to any amount; some fcAv potatoes, onions, and tobacco;
their prices have .not been affected, to any exterit for several years past.
12. None to ariy extent exported; piices governed b y hoine deinand;
none shipped to,foreign markets, except some fpAV manufactured articles.
/13. No arisAver.
. .
14. A cpnsiderable number; cottori, Avopleri^ Avorsted carpeting, clocks,
nails, combs, chairs, Avooden ware, candles, oil, soap, oakum, sash and
windoAv blinds, foundries and rope walks; profits not kriown;. generally
good; cotton and wboleri factories, large profits; AA'-OUM bear a great
reductipn of duties.
, ,
..
,
/
15. Engaged at present, to.'sorne extent, in ship-building, but not as
largely as formerly, owing to the scarcity of ..timber arid the high duties
on iron, copper bolts,, duck and rigging, anchors, chains, fee.; largely
engaged in navigation, ino stly. whalirig;" con sider ably iri West India and



1845.}

SECRETARY OF THE TREASURY.,

269

M-^Cbntinued.
iri..cPastirig and general freight; her present condition is flourishing; the
effect ofthe tariff is detririiental, to individual enterprise, particuiarly in
ship-buildirig.
.
\
16. One half of the capital employed in • conirriercial interests, which
have been affected to soriie exterit by the tariff pn the before-mentioned
articles, viz:-iron,-copper bolts, &c.
..:
. ,
17.: A Warehouse system AVould ribt be of use in this State.
. IS. The drawback-Avould not be beneficial to any great: extent.
., 19 to 22; No answers; :,;
' 23. By the ppefatiori: of the preserit tariff the duties on cottons and
woolens give a gieat profit to the mariufacturer, to the injury of the consumer, and especially of the labpririg* classes. ' The .preserit duties on
iron,: duck, cordage^ ^ copper bolts,' chains, &c., operate very hard on
,commercial interests..
24. The effect ofthe tariffon the 'before-mentioned articles, mariufactured to.a lirnited exterit in the United States, is 'detrimental to shipbuilding and the commercial iriterests "to a considerable extent; the
bperation of a high tariff is^ irijurious to the. commercial and mechanical
:interests.
.
,
25. Cotton and woolen goods particularly are rriuch erihanced in price
owing to the protection; iron, cPpper bolts, duck, cprdage, and chain
cables, could ,be reduced without ^ great injury to. those manufacturing
therii; the consumptiori is. large,: arid" Would increase with a reduction of
the duties.
' /
'
' '
• •
.
.V
' .26. The duties do- nbt beriefit the .groAvers of the articles referred to,
but give a greater profit l b the manufactrirer;:does hot thirik t h a t l h e
State has been irijufed by the tafiff generally;: sorne have been, benefited;:
ship-building has declined,- while cott.on and wboleri factories havP
greatiy increased.
27; Not a great amorint; ,price:s vary accor ding to quality and demand,
but prices generally fair.
28. No answer.' • •:'
-''."'''
' ' • .' ; -

' •

' ': 'Milfiqfd. From D. L.'.WidMt. :

4. The average profit ^on capital ernployed ori weU-cuitivated farms
is beiAVeen 2 and 3 per cent. Arid as to;the arinual prpfit on capital
employed for the ten preceding-years, my answer is, betAveen 3 and 4
per cerit; that is to say, the profits on farming, undet the tariffof 1842,
have lesseried Avith hs- abbut 25" per cent, as' compared Avith the like
business for the ten years precedirig. It rnight seem strange iri a Con^
necticut rrian to say that this depreciation is in- Corisequence of the
preserit tariff;:but the fact is.so, although other causes besides the tariff
have opef ated./
6. -Agricultural prpducts brought aboiit 25 per cent.-mpre duririg most
o f t h e ten yeafs precedirig 1842. thari they have brought for the last
threeyears.
/
.
:'
7. It is difficult to say precisely hoAv far prices have been affected by



270

,

R E P O R T S O F THE

^

[1845.

M—Continued.
tariff laAVS, for our prices and profits are much regulated and controlled
by agricultural productions Avliich come to us from the ^rm^ West. Still,
I hesitate not to say that the tariff of 1842 has not benefited our agricultural interests; that is, more than tlieywould.be aided..by a lower
tariff*.
8. Horses, mules, arid cattle are exported, but many of theni are first
brought here from "Verrnorrt, New York, Pennsylvania, and Ohio. .Their
prices AA^ere raised by the bloated currencyof 1835 and 1836; b.ut prices
have lessened since our eurrency-has' become sound, and bills are equal
to dollars, as has been the fact since the United States Bank ceased to
regulate the currency.
.,
/
.- .
10. The average prices of protected docticles have been higher .since'
1842 than they Avere the ten preceding years. The high duties have
prevented importations, and manufacturers have fixed their own prices,
12.: You will have learned the extent and character of manufacturing
establishments from our eastern^ fiiends. I think that profits, for the last
three years, have been three times greater than the profits of agriculture.
If duties Av^ere reduced about one-half on many articles, the manufacturers would then make gbod profits, and this reductipn would lessen
prices to consumers...
•
f
15. The extent of ship-building and navigation, you AAIU have learned
from other sources, but both interests are injured by high tariffs..
17. A warehousing system Avould riot affect our trade and commerce
as, materially as it would those of large importing States.
20. Coarse cottons; soriie coarse woolens; hats, (fur imported;) if the
tax on iron wexe\ow ered, more would cprrie in, and at cheaper rates for
consumers, (butPennsylvania would scold!) so, as to sugar and molasses,
(but Louisiana would scold!)
21. T h e " minimums" of the tariff suit the manufacturers, but the
mass of the consumers are beginning to understand and cbmplain of their •
operation.
^
/^
22. Tea and coffee; moderate duties would collect much revenue
without raising their prices.
23; The present tariff. helps manufacturers much, but burdens other,
classes.
"
^
. • -' '
«
25. Coarse cottons, some Avooleris, iron, sugar, and molasses, are among
the chief articles; .duties on soriie might be lessened half, and pn others
a quarter.
.
,
..
26,.Present duties do not lielp_ agriculturists arid other consurners;
duties shpuld be lessened. Our State, as a Avhole, would be helped by
the operation.
•
,
, ,
•,
For many reasons, I thirik the tariff tax better than the direct tax
systeEG; but the tariff can be improved, andthen the system, will.be mpre,
lasting and satisfactory; High tariffs, like all other disjointed things,
place men and business in false positions, and always produce agitations.
Modify the tariff and it will bearmore equitably on all classes; then the
middling and poorer classes AvillPnly bear their proportionate burdens;
now they are oppressed, while the rich are favored, if not privileged.



1845.]

^

SECRETARY OF T H E TREASURY.;

.,

271

M—Continued.
:- -.NEW YORK.

:

.

,-•

ANSWERS TO CIRCULAR, No. 1.

Schenectady.' From Archibald Craig, President ofi'the Factory, enclosed in
letter firom C. W. Lawrence, Esq., CoUector.
1. State of New York, Schenectady county.
.
.
2. CottPn m'anufactory; AvaterpoAA^er...
3 ; In 1841; joint stock. .
4. Capital in real estate $20,000; in machinery, &c., $36,000.
5./Capital in stock, niaterials, &c., $20,000.
6. Profits about 2J per cent; riPne borrowed.
.
8. No capital employed in other business.
9. Amount manufactured last year about 225,000 yards 3-4 coarse
cotton, and,175,000 yards 4-4 do; both valued at about $25,000.
10. 100,000 lbs. cottPn used annually, with, other domestic produc- ^
tions valued at $10,000. /
12. Twelve rrieri-—average wages perdiem $1 06; 18 young women,
at 50 cents; 30 boys and girls, at 25/bents.
13. Working hours,, winter and surririier, about 12 hours.
16/ Abput one-fburth sold at home, and the other three-fburths sent to
N e ^ York city.
,/ .
,
. 20. Sold mostly on a credit of six to eight months.
22. ThreeTquarter brown cottons have sold ffpm 37^. down to 4 cents.
25. Last three years abput 5 per cent, per annum."
.
26. Raw material, &c., about 40. per cent; AA^ages of labor, repairs,
&c., 45 per cent. Profits on amount of manufaetures (riot on capital)
about 15 per cerit.
27. About $15,000 agricultural productions; $5,000 other doniestic
productions.
«
40. No arisAver.
.
, ;
Troy, Rensselaer County, From Benjamin Marshall, Esq., enclosed in letter
firom. C. W. Lawrence, Esq.
1. Troy, Rensselaer coririty. New York.
2. Cotton factory;/water poAA'-er. .
-<
>•
3. In 1 8 4 3 ; private, oAvned by B. Marshall.
4. One hundred thousand dollars.
5. Fifty.thousand dollars.
• .6. About 7 per cent.
7. An increased demand*
8. None otherwise employed.,
9. About 250,000 yards plain, and twilled shirtings, at 13 cents;100,000 yards colored | , al 13 cents; and 50,000 yards ginghams, at 20
cents per yard. "
10. Three hundred bales of cotton, about $12,000; oil, 1,000 gallons,



272

R E P O R T S OF T H E

[1845.

M—-Continued. .
$900; coal, 100 tons, $500-; iron, $500; leather, $500; lumber, $500:
say $15,000 domestic, including $1,500 foreign.
11. All his rnariufactures could be iniported. from England, at'an advance of 10 per cent, on the above prices. •
, 12. Twerity-five men, at $ 1 ; 15 boys,, at 50 cents; 80 females, (chiefly
women,) at 50 cents per day. . : . ,
.^ . /
13. Twelve, hours all the year.
,
14. In Erigland about two-thirds the price, and. on the contirient of
Europe one-third to One-half the price. • , ,.
,
*,.
:
- •
15. Two horses.
• , .. . : ^
16- Sold, chiefly in New York,. Philadelphia/. arid-' Baltimore, and
thence scattered all over the United'States.", / •
17. Ginghams,and J colored goods are chiefly imported. (
18. .All-over the Uriited States. .
/.
19. A: small port at South. Alii erica,.
20; Chiefly sold at.eight months' credit.;.
. ,
' -,.
21, Cottons>:liave fluctuated^ .but .generally declined; labor steady,
and rather advaricing.
/,
22. Goods of the above, niake have declined frorii 20 to M cents
duririg the last 20years.
. . :•
/ V
.
,..23. Not less than 5 centsper squareyardi; ;, ..
.
.'. ,-;
24. Not able tp recomniend any,
, ' . "'
25. Norie except iriterest, .on capital which has b.een inypsted in
improvements of buildirigs arid machinPry./
...
. ..
.. 26.- About 20 pef, cerit./raw rnateiial, 60 per cerit. labor^ a n d 20 per
cent, interest.
,.
' - . '
: • /: ;
.27.' Includirig cotton,.40per cent, agricultural,:40/per cent* domestic
mariufactures, arid.about 20 per:cerit. iniported articles.....28. TAVO-thirds Uriited States, one-third this State.
' 29. The high price of labpr. would: not enable him to compete with
the foreign importations at 12J per cent; duty, and Avould cause,him to
abandori his business.
,
.
. .
30. Capital; chiefly in buildings and riiachinery, would be lost, and
therefbre leave but little lo •employ pther^wise;- but,'/if able,- would iriippft
cotton goods, and ship cbtton... :
/ : ^ •
31. Made all liis capital in importing and shipping,. and-at the high
rate of duties has only been able tb exteri'd his rriaiitifactuMng concerns,
which would not, this day, realize riiore than the capital comriienced
w i t h .

-

.

•

'

•• '•

' ' • • • — • • . • •

32. Not acquainted,
/• 33.. About one million of dollars, original capitak
34. The increase of manufacturing establishments: will reduce the
profits and make it an interest business of 6 per cent, in threeyears,^ and
no reduction beyond 10 per cent, on the^ amionrit of: duties' per anrium
could be sustairied by the inariufacturers.
v
.
'
35. About 40 per cent. Pri firie goods, arid 50 to 100 per cent; on
coarse.
.
:
•
'
36. Not acquariited. ,



1845.]

SECRETARY OF T H E TREASURY.

273

M^-C ontinued.
37. In cotton goods, thinks three-fourths are noAv manufactured in the
United States.
38. Not acquainted.
39. Not exceeding the lawful interest.
40. Boys and girls under 15 years, 37J cents; boys of 20 yeafs, 62J
cents; 25 years and upwards, $ 1 ; Avomen, 50 cents per da}^
Buffalo, Erie county.

From Calvin J. Mills, Eagle Furnace, Buffalo.

1. State, of NCAV York, Erie courity.
2. Iron castings; stearn power.
3. In 1836; "is not a joint-stock concern."
4. Capital in buildings and machinery, $35,000-.
5. Materials $30,000, wages .$15,000 during the year. ^
6. Profit 10 per cent.; no borfoAved capital.
. '
7. Decreased in corisequence ofthe increase of manufactories ofthe
same kind in this vicinity.
9. Manufactured annually, $40,000; sales in 1836, $12,000; in.
1844, $60;000; iron castings, average value of each $ 7 0 per ton.
' 10. Seven hundred tons of pig iron, at $ 3 0 per ton; 200 tons Lehigh
coal, at $ 7 per ton; 100 bushels of charcoal, at 4^- cents per bushel;
350 cords of wood, at $ 2 per cprd; all domestic products.
^
11. No articles of the same kind imported.
12. Eighty men; average wages, $ 1 50 per day. .
13.. TAVCIVC hours per day during the yeaf.
14. About the same ihroughout the. country; in foreign countries less,
but does riot knoAV.. ,
15. Three horses.
,
,
.
16. Finds a market at factory.
,
:
17. Foreign articles do not-enter into competition.
18. The manufactures are consumed partly in westefri New'York, and
the western States, and Canada.
19. A small portion exported to Canada.
20. Part for cash and part fpr credit of 6 months; some bartered for
wood.
°
,
21. Has continued about the same.
22. In 1836 castings sold for-5 cents per,pound; noAV for 3^-.
23. As no castings are IIOAV imported, itis presumed the tariff is sufficient.
25. Annual profits for the last three years about 1 0 per cent.
26. Costof niaterial 50 per cent.; labor 40 percerit.; and profits of
capital 10 per cent.
: ^
^
29, Any reduction of duties would cause an,vabandonment of business.
, .
31. Cannbt tell; thiriks there-would be if the duties Avere reduced.
33. Fifty thousarid dollars; no borroAv'ed capital. ^
34. Thinks any reduction Avould have that effect.
VOL. V.—18.



274

R E P O R T S OF T H E

[1845.

M—Coritinued.
38. Amount not knoAvn; thinks it has increased since the tariffof
1842 50 percent.
39. 40. No answers.
Erie County.

From Calvin J. Millsf Buffalo Steam Engine Works.

1. State of NCAV York, Erie courity.
2. Stearn engines, mill gearings, and castings generally; steam power.
.3. In 1842;. a joint-stock company.
•
•
. 4. In buildirigs and machinery, $60,000.
5. In niaterials and Avag'es, $20,000.
".
6. Annual profit, about 10 per cent.
7. No difference.
- 10. Sixty-five thousand dollars annually; all domestic.
11. No importation.
^
12. About 75 rnen; average Aya:ges, $1 25 per day.
13. Labor 10 hours a day the whole year.
. 14. Thinks men generally receive $1 per day in Ihis-place; don't
know as to other places.
15. Two horses.
'
• .:
16. Two-thirds at the factory—the remainder is. sent to Michigan,
Illinois, arid Wisconsin.
17. Foreign articles do riot enter into competition.
18. Two-thirds iri this vicinity; one-third iri Michigari, llhnois, and
Wisconsin.
19. Perhaps one-twelfth sent to Canada.
20. One-half is sold for Cash, and one-half on a credit of 6 months;
21.. The Cost to the manufacturer has iricreased 10 per cent. It 'has
been gradual, and almost equally in material and labor.
22. The castings for $80 per ton, and the wrought work $200 per ton.
23/ Thinks 40 per cent, duty necessary.
.
25. The profit of 10 per.cent, has been cPnverted into fi^xed capital.
26. Cost of material, 50 per.cent.; labor, 40 per cent.; and profit on
capital 10 per cent. .
,
.:
29. Should abandon the business.
31. Thinks there.is.
32. With iron this is partly the case; cannot tell to what exterit.
33. Amount of capital, $80,000. ~
3.4. Thinks the duty might be reduced 5 per cent.
40. Thiriks average rate of wages not equal to 75 cents per day.
Erie County.

From Calvin J. Mills,.Black Rock Iron Works.

1. State of New York, Erie county. .
'
2.. Manufacture o f wrought-iron; water poAjver.
3. In 1844; individual property.
4. Capital in buildirigs, machinery, and water power, $4,500.
. 5, Average cost of'materials, $2,400; wages, $750.
6. Annual rate of profit, 12 per cent..



-

1845,]

SECRETARYOFTHETREASURY.
i

275

M—Continued;

12. Employ. 12 rrierr, who receive $16 for every 2,000 lbs. of iron
wrought.
'
13. Thirteen hours a day throughout the year.
16. At the factory and at Buffalo, 4 miles distant.
23.. If the duty of $17 per ton should be;Struck off, it Avoukl cause a
loss of $2 per ton.
24 to 40. Not ansAvered.
. . '
Erie County,

From Calvin.J, Mills, Buffalo Cotton Factory.

1. State of New York, Erie county.
2. Manufacture brown sheetings; steam power.
3. In 1844; joint stock..,
' .
4. Capital in buildings and machineiy, $35,000..
5.- In the.purchase of materials and payment of wages, $5,000.'
9. Thirty-five thousand dollars wprth ^made in one year of brown
sheetings; value, 7J cents per yard. .
10. Cannot answer, as the factory has nbt been long in. operation.
11. Similar goods not imported.
12. " W h e n in full operation calculate to pmploy 50..men, Avomen, and
children; wages for men, from 75 cents to $ 1 25:per day; women, 25
to 50 cents; children, 12J to 25 cents per day."
,.
13. Twelve hours per day the whole year.
.15.-None.
16. A market at the factory for two-thirds, and the balance in New
York, Ohio, and Michigan.
17. For eign. articles do not now enter into competition; but.by redu-r
cing the tariff to 1 2 | per cent, they would, and would ruin the business.
18. Consumed in all parts of Arnerica, and exported to Mexico,
Canada, and China.
19. Answered in 18.
20. One-fourth is sold for cash, one-half on credit of two to eight
inPnths, and orre-fourth battered for all kinds of goods..
21. The cpst pf the manufactures to the riianufacturer has decreased,
in Gonsequence of the extreme low price of raw cotton.
22. Piices have been from ,7 to 8 cents pei yard.
23. The preserit tariff enables the manufacturer to enter into competition with the foreigrier.
24. No change necessary.
25. No profits divided; they have been expended in and upon the
buildings, &c.
'
. 26. Cost of manufacture; three-sevenths of raw material, threesevenths of labor, and one-seventh of profit of capital.
29. Such a reduction Avould cause us to continue manufacturing by
reducirig the wages of labor.
- :
•30/.Same as 29.
:/ .
:
31 to 40. NotansAvered.



276

R E P O R T S OF T H E
M-T-C ontinued.
Erie County,

[1845,
^

"

From Calvin J. Mills, .Niagara Mills,

1. Erie county, NCAV York.
',
2. Flouring mill; water poAver.
3. In 1840. " N o t a joint-stock concern."
4. Capital in buildings, machinery, and water power,,$62,000o
5. Capital in material and wages, $10,000.
6/ Arinual rate of profit uncertain.
7. Wheat is ahvays too high fpr the price of flour.
9. Make annually 35,000 barrels flour; average pfice, $ 4 5 0 ; value,
$157,500.
10. Use annually 160,000 bushels of wheat, wbrth $128,000.
12. Employ 12 men: Avages$30 per month.
'
13. Eighteeri hours per day for 8 months in the year.
16. The manufactured.article is sent to the northern Atlantic citieslbr
market.
17. Foreignarticle does riot enter into: corripetitiori;
.18. Consumed aniong the manufactories of the eastern cities;
19. Not expbrted.
20. Sold for cash.
«
, ,
,26. The price of the manufactured article corisists of the price of raw
riiaterials, nine-tenths; the wages of labor and profit of capital, orietenth.
27 to 40. Not ansAsrered,
Erie County,

From Calvin J, Mills, Tannei'y,

1, Erie courity j NeAV York.
2.. Leather tannery; Avater and steam power.
.
3. Established i n 1831; Private concern. .
•
4. Capital in buildings, machinery, and water poAver, $10,000.
5 to 8, Nb/ansAvers.
'
9. Amount of liianufactufed articles arinually, about $50,000.
10. Aniount of raw materialiised annually, about $24,000-^-^one-third
of raw hides from Sbuth America.
11. There is not eriough,of foreign manufacture imported to affect the

price.
12. Twenty-five rnen at $18 per month.
13. Ten hours per day the whole year.
15. Orie horse.
—
16. Market principally at the factory.
'
17. No foreign articles eriter irito'corrijpetitiori.
18. Principally consuined in the Uriited States.
19. A small portiori expprted IP Cariadk,
,20. Sold half for cash and half bn credit of 2 to 6 mPnths.
2 J. Has decreased to manufacturer in cbnsequence off eduction of
price of raw material and price of labor.
\



1845.]

S E C R E T A R Y OF T H E TREASURY.

277

M—Continued,
22. Sole leather, the principal article, has decreased,' sirice 1831,
from 20, 18, 15, to 13 cents per pound.
' \
23 to 40. Notanswered,
Cattaraugus County,

From Calvin J, Mills, Persia Woolen Factory,

1. Cattaraugus county. New York.
2. Woolen factory. Water power.
3. Established in 1844. Private concern.
4. Capital in buildings, machinery, &c/, $4,000. . '
• 5. Average amount in materials, purchase ofthe same, and wages,
$1,000.
6. Profit annually 10 per cent.
9. Annually manufacture 4,000 yards'woolen cloth, valued at 60
cents per y a r d ; wopl carding valued at $1,000 per annum.
10. Quantity of raw material not stated. Value of American wool
from 26 to 31 cents per pound.
12. Six men and three women. .. Wages of men 90 cents, and of women
50 cents per day.
13'. Twelve liours per day, 8 months qf theyear.
14. In mechanical pursuits about the same; in agriculture, less. •
15. One horse. :
16. Part sold at the factory, and part at Buffalo, 35 miles distant.
17. Foreign articles-do not enter into competition.
18. Consumed in this country.
19. None-are exported intp foreign countries.
20. Partly sold on a credit of three and four months, and party bartered for provisions, &c.
22. The manufactured goods have been sold from 50 cents to $1 per
yard.
23. Cannot say whether or not similar goods would be imported if
there were no duty.
29. Should continue to nianufacture, with a less reduction of price
ofthe manufactured article, than, in the raw material, and thus make a
better profit than now.
30. Answered in the foregoing.
31 to 40. Unanswered.
'

•

.

'

•

-

/

•

Erie County.

'

"

•

.

••

.

.

•

.

'

From Calvin J. Mills, Collins Woolen Factory.

1. State of New York, county of Erie.
2. Woolen ; water poAver.
3.. Estabhsiied in 1837 ; is not a joint stock.
\
'.
4. Capital in buildings, machinery, aiid Avater power, $i0,000.
5. Average amount in material, purchase of same, and wages,
15,000.
6. Annual rate of profit 12 J per cent.
_ ,
,
7. There has been an increase in cost to the inanufacturer,lii conse


278

R E P O R T S OF T H E

[1845.

M—Coritinued.
quence of the increase of establishments, of the same kind, and of the
increase in demand for raAV inaterial/- ,
.
9. Made about 15,000 yards of woolen clPth the presentyear; value
65 cents per yard.
" '
.
10. Used 17,000 poririds of wool; value'25 to 31 cerits perpound.
12. Fprirteen men, forir women, and one boy; wages of men 90 cents^
women 50, and boy 37J per day.i
13. Twelve hours per day, eight mPriths iri the year.
15. One horse.
16. Part ofthe goods are sold-at Buffalo, 30 rriiles off, for cash;, part
bartered at the factory.
17. Foreign articles do not enter into competition.
18. Are cpnsumed in this country.
19. None are exported.
.
20. Some sold on credit of three and four inonths, and some bartered
for all sorts of goods.
21.. The cost ofthe r a w material has decreased about three per cent,
per annum; (?) there has been a gradual decrease in the value of
goods.
.
J
,
. _ ',
22. Sold for from 50 cents to $Lper yard.
25. Annual rate of profit about i o per cent.
'
29. Should continue to manufacture at a less reductipn of price of
cloth than of raAV material, arid thus make greatef profits.
30 to 40. No answers.
Cha2itauqtie County.

From Calvin J. Mills, Westfield Edge-tool Factory.

1, State of New York, Chautauque county. '
2.'Edge tools ; water pbwer. '
3. Established, in 1840", private concern.
4. Capital in buildings, machinery, &e., $8,000.
5. Annual arnount paid for raAV niaterial and A ages, $20,000, .
V
12. About 45 m e n ; wages from $16'to $40 per month. '13. Twelve hours per day all they^ear.
18, Mostly consumed in tlie United States; some exported to Canada.
19 to 40. No answers.
Chautauque ^County.
1.
• 2.
3.
4.
5.
9,
12.
16.

.From Calvin J. Mills, Westfield Pearlash Manufidctory,

Chautauque county. New :Yorko
:
Ashery.
.
\
In 1842; private concern.'
'
Capital in buildings, machinery, &c.y'$1,000.
Annual amount for materials and wages $2,200.
Amount of rnanufactured articles produced annually, $4,300.
Four men, at $15 per month.
Articles sent to New York city for market; sold on credit.




1845.]

S E C R E T A R Y OF T H E TREASURY.

, 279

M-^Continued.
Chautauque. County.

From Calvin J. MiUs, Westfield Distillery.

1. State of New York, county of Chautauque.
2. Mariufactory of high wines; steam power.
3. Estabhshedin 1843; and enlarged in 1845.
. :^
4. Capital in grounds, building.s, &c., $6,000.
5. Annually expended for raw. malerials and wages of labor, $9,000.
9. Value o f wines, beef, and pork, annually made, $15,000.
12. Eight men at $15 per month.
,
16. The productipns.sold for cash in Buffalo and New York.
17 to 40. No answers,:
'^Rossie, St. Lawrence County. D, C. Judson, Cbllector—-From Geo, Parish^
Esq., proprietor ofi the Rossie Iron Works, ,
, 1. Rossie j St, L awrence county. New York.
. ,; :
,•
2. Iron furnaces; Water power. ' .
3. In 1825; private property.
.
4. Sixty thousand dpllars.
': '
5. Forty thousand dollars.
: r .;.
6. None so far.; $100,000 over and beyond interest have been sunk in
the establishment.
,
^
7.. The low price of iron; the high price of labor; the expense of
getting to market. •
9. Abo.ut 1,500 tons of pig iron annually, of which one-sixth has been
riaanufactrired into castinsfs.
-o

- .

• 12. From 40 to 50 men, at average wages of $1 25 per day,
.15. Twelve to; sixteen horses annrially, and from 150 to 200 teams
during the winter to supply stock.
' .16. Chiefly at Buffalo, 300 miles;, and at Rochester,-250 iniles.
17; Scbtch and English, pig. iron reach the same inarket .through New
York and Cariada; the facility "of transportation from the seaboard is
such that the cpst of laying doAvn British iron invariably regulates the
niarket price.
20. Usually on six rnontlis'credit. .
•
21. Decrease in cost of manufacturing pig iron, since established, 30
per cent., and progressing; owing to: the increased scale of manufacture
and to improA^ements introduced.^ '
.
^ ^
22. Pig iron has sold at from $20 to $40 per tPn, and castings from
$50 to $100.
.
23/ Nothing less than the present duty on:pig iron; even urider its
operation the British riianufacturer competes • with and regulates the
price in the markets.
2 5 . None..

.

•••.-•:

26. The s.tock and material for the manufacture of iron being prepared
| t and near the works, is calculated at its cost in labor; the entire cost
expended in Avages of labor, deducting only for interest on capital
Ivested; equal to $4 per ton;



280

R E P O R T S OF T H E

[1845.

M—Continued.
29/ Any reduction of the present duty on pig iron would cause the
business to stop.
.
'
32. The expense of transportation on pig iron must always limit the
sale to a certain circle around the place pf manufacture, the extent of
which must depend upon the facilities of transportation and the cost of
the article.
33 to 40. No answers.:
,
/ '
NOTE.—D. ,C. Judson, Esq., in his letter enclosing the above,, says
that the manufacture of woolen fabrics is iriereasing in the valley of lire
St. Lawrencp/ and where Avell conducted, with sufficierit capital, has
been prosperous. Instead of pwing their prosperity to the high duties,
on irnported wpolens, they have deri-ved very much of their profits fi'om
sales in Canada; and the demarid there for American woolen fabrics of
the common wool, adapted to ^ ordinary wear, is constantly increasing,
and at prices affordirig a fair profit to the manufacturer. The duties to
be paid on the entering of them on the Canadian side are equal to about
13 per cent. It I s scarcely necessary to say, therefore,iHat the high
duties on Avoolens are not at all essential to the prosperity of the manufacturer of the article so far as this locality is concerned.
In relation to the duties on wool, it is to be observed that the present
rates interfere with the manufacture,.of Canadian wool in our manufactories, which Avould be carried on to a considerable extent were the duty
a mere ad valorein duty of 20 per cent., and to a much larger extent if
it could be m.anufactured and returned in the plpth Avithout duty, or Avith
the retention of the usual amount in case of importations, with the
benefit of drawback.
.
The same remark m a y be m a d e in relation to the flouring of wheat.
The grinding of Canadian AAdieat would be carried Ori to a considerable
extent on the frontier could it be donewithout the payment of duties, or
if the exportation of the flpur would' give a draAvback of the duties on
wheati
•
. ;
Town ofi Salina, 131 - miles firom Albany. George H. McWhorter i Esq.,
Collector at Oswego, encloses letterfiromE . Marks, Superintendent ofi Onondaga Salt Springs.
1. On the Erie and Oswego canals, in the town of Salina, 131 rniles
from Alban3v
.
-,
2. Salt springs.
,
'
32. The quaritityof salt, sent to the Hudson river, and thence distributed throughput the New England States, the counties bordering on the
Hudson river, NCAV Yprk city,^ and the ports still further south, even to
Baltimore, Avas 878,769 bushels; the quantity shipped this year will be>
greater. The Onondaga salt is brought into competition with the fbreigr '
article^ throughout, the-Northern, Eastern, Middle, and Western State|
and along the Mississippi to New Orleans; The quantitj^ niade in 184^
was 4,003,554 bushels.
\ ;
.



1845.]

SECRETARYOFTHETREASURY.

281

M—Continued.
Rochester, Monroe County. L . B..Langworthy, Esq., Collector; firom Samuel
Moulson.
'
1. Rochester, Monrpe county. New Ybrk.
^
. .
2. Soap, candles, salaeratus,-oil, and white lead; water poAver.
3. A part in 1829, and part in 1844; joint stock.
4. Capital in grourid, buildirigs, machinery, and water poAv-er,
$22,700.
5. Materials, $8,000; for materials, payment-of wages, &c., $6,400..
6. Cannot answer.
7. " H a s arisen from the fluctuations in the currency."
,8. Capital loaned yields 7 per cent.; in agriculture about 6.per cent.;
in sorne favorable branches of manufactures it may yield 12 to 18 per
c e n t .

• "

•-

•

:

:

•

•

• -

-.

:

••'

"

9. Cannot ansAver satisfactorily.
10. Does not answer the question.
11. Soap and candles seldom irnported; Avhite lead in small quantities
from England sells 25 per cent, higher thari the American.
12!!! From 10 to 40 men; 1 boy to 10 men; average wages of men 69
cents per day.
13. Eleven hours per^day all the year. ^
1.4. In farming, wages about the same, 69 cents per day^in this State;
in Germany, 40 cents; in England, 421- cents per day.
15. TAVO horses.

16. Sold principally in this city; spme sent to various^ places; say one
thousand miles off.>
17. Foreign articles enter iriio eompetitiori to an extrernely, limited
extent. ~
18. Consumed in western New York, Michigan,'a.nd a sinall part in
Canada.
19. Exported to Canada to a limited exterit.
20. Sold for cash, and on credit pf 3 and 6 rnonths; sorne little bartered for goods for the Avorkrnen. . .
21. Wages decreased; ashes decreased; lead decreased, although it
is rioAv 18 per cent, higher than last spring. ^
22. Price of soap has varied from 8 to 4 cerits per pound;, candles,
frorn 12J to 7 cents; salaeratus, frorn 10 to 3f cents; white lead, from 6^
to 8 cents.
^23. A tariff of 18 to 20 per cent. Avould be ample; this applies to lead,
24. No change Avould be necessary.
, ^
25. Armual rate of profits about 15 per cent.; surplus conver.ted into
fixed capital.
26. Tallow 80 per cent.'; labor 11: profit 9; white lead, 50 per cent,
ir matericd,.30 for labpr, and 20 profit.
Not answered satisfactorily.
No ans-wer.
The duties on soap, candles, and alkali have no effect, as the raw
Irial is loAver here than in Europe; goods made of such niaterial do



282

R E P O R T S OF T H E

[1845.

M—Continued.
not nePd protection. White lead requires a duty; might manufacture at
12J per cent; duty; could certainly at 18 per cent.
30. Would probably ernploy bapital in agriculture.
31. A reduction of duties to 12J':per cerit. (except on white lead) would'"^
rather increase thari diminish his profits. . .
33, Varies; borrowed capital about 10 per cent.
,34. All may be taken off soap,-candles, alkali, tallow, and soap materials; on lead a gradual reduction to 18, or probably to 12J per cent.
. 35, Thiriks,it would be extremely difficult to levy duties on actual
value, as the A^aluations in some ports a r e 30 per cent, loAver than in
others,/ . , ;
36. It would change the perpetrators of fraud from manufacturers to
foreign importers.
37. Nine-five per cent, of the articles manufactured.
.,
39. Probably 7 per cent.
: \
/
,
40. Probably 70 cents per day for men;
Rochester, Monroe County.

L . B.Langworthy, Collector; firom Lewis Selye,
Mamfiacturer. ' .

1. Monroe county,'New York.
2. " M a c h i n e r y ; " water ppAver. ,
'^
' ;
/: '
3. In 1821, Individual enterprise.
.
4. Fifty thousand dollars, .
5. For material$12,000;; wages $18,000,
7. Increase of profit since 1842.
" . ' •.
12. Forty men; average wages $1 50 per day,
13. TAVCIVC hours, per day, the whole year.
1.6. A portiori at the factory.
17; The competition is great.
'
. . .
18. All in the United States.
20. Fpr cash and six months',credit; never bartered.
21. Increase since 1842 in labor, but mostly in niaterial.
. . i
23. The present rate of duty is sufficient, to protect the manufacturer.
24. No clrarige necessary in collecting.
'
. Monroe County.

From Horatio N. Cwtis, Manufiacturer.

1. MonrPe courity. New York..
2. Manufactory of wood, such as lasts, bootlrees, &c.; water poAver.
3. In 1841. Individual enterprise.
4.: Capital $50,000. .
5. Wages and material $50,000.
7. Busiriess increased, from protection afforded mariufacturers, &c,
12. Men 75, women 40, boys 25; Avages of men $1, women 37^ centsj
and boys 25 cents per dayi
13. Ten hours the year round.
- .
•
16.^In the United Stales and Canada.
•
.20. Cash, and 4 months' credit; none bartered.



1845.]

S E C R E T A R Y OF T H E TREASURY,
M—Continued,

283
i

23. The present tariff of duties prevents all competition.
24, No cliange is necessary,
Monroe County. . L.B.Langmorthy, Collector, Rochester; firom D . S/' T,
'
Graws, Mamifiacturers. '
.

,

1. State of,"New York, Monroe county,
2. Leather. "Waterpower,, =
3 / I n 1830. Joint stock,
4. Capital $50,000,
, ..
5/ Seventy-five thousand dollars* .
7, Canada tariff arid surplus stpck have caused a decrease.
12, Forty men; $1 per day,
13; Teri hours per day allthe year,
'
15, Seven horses..
16, In part at home.
17, They do enter.into competition,
' /:
':
18, in the .United States and Canada,
19, To Canada,
2.0, Cash, and 4 months'credit; no barter,
21, Decrease, because of a surplus.
23. An increased amountof duty is necessary.
24. No change is necessary.
. '.
29. " I t would cause us to abandon our business."
30 io 40,. Not answered.

Monroe County.

L . B. Langworthy; firom D. R. Barton, Manufiacturer,

1. State of NCAV York, county of Monroe.
2. Mechanics' and agricultural tools. Water poAver. .
3. In 1831. Private.
4. Capital $32,000.
5. Fifteen thousand dollars;
. '••.
;
6. About 20 per cent.
.
'
7. Increased; owing chiefly .to the protective pohcy of the'Government.
. '9. Began Avith abbut $4,000—noAV about $30,000.
:
12. About 35 men; $1 per day.
13. Ten hours per day the entire year.
•
14. In foreign countries about 25 cerits per day.
. "l^. None.
• ^- •;;.'
16. At home.
: • .•
17. " T h e y d o ; but being inferior articles, theycannot coriima:nd the
liigh price w e are enabled to obtain; Without the prptection at present
afforded bj^ the Governmerit Ave could not successfullycompete Avith the
oreign manufacturer—the difference of AV ages being so great."
8. Chiefly in this and the westerri States.
. . .
A' fcAV to England for manufiacturers'' samples, and a small arnount
nada for competition. .
. . .
Forcash, and 4 months''credit.
.
•



284

R E P O R T S OF T H E

[1845.

M—Continued,
21. It has decreased iri price; but the profits are as great, owing to
the increased demand and the experience in manufacturing.
,
23. " The present'rates of duty on the articles we manufacture are as
low as A ould enable us to compete with the foreign article, so much of
V
the cost being in labor."
24. Knows of none. .
25. About 16 per cent.
^
29. It would; Ave can now make, more pfofit on foreign articles than
on those of our own make.
30. In purchasing and vending the foreign article.
31. " I don't knoAv; Yankees are disposed to try.''
32 to 40. Not ansAvered.,
»

•

Rochester, Monroe County.

'

.

.

•

•

-

.

•

.

L . B.Langivorthy, Collectqr; firom Roswell G,
Benedict, Manufiacturer.
, ' •

1. State of New York, county of Monroe.
v
2. Castings, wrought irPn., machinery, &c. Water power.
3. In 1832. Individual enterprise.
4. Fifty thousand dollars.
.::
. v ,
.
5. Fifty thousand tw^o hundred and twentyTthree dollars.
jy
7. Increase; caused by the price of iron*
12. Fifty-seven men; average wages, per day, $1 25.
.
13; Ten hours the whole yeaf, , .
16. At home and abroad. •
17. No competition.
. 19. Exported to the Canadas.
.- .
20. Cash, and credit 6 months; barter for agricultural products..
23. A reduced rate of duty on Scotch pig iron is necessary.
,24. No change is necessaiy. /
25 to 40. Not answered.
* .' : Monroe County.

From Gatens ^ Price, Manufiacturers.

1. State of New York, county of Monroe..
2. Woolen factory; water power.
3. In 1845; joint stock.
4. Capital, $31,000.
5. Twenty-six thousand dollars material; five thousand dollars wages.
7. Increase caused by the low price of WOOL
12. Nine men, 12 women, and 10 children; Avages—men, $ 1 ; women,
50 cents; children, 25 cents;
,
'...''•••.
13. TAvelve hours per day, the whole year.
,. .
23. The present rate of duty.
,24. No change necessary.
"
25 to 40. Not ansAvered. .
NOTE.—L. B. LangAvorthy, Esq., enclosing the "above answers, s |
' Without professing to be auficuctin the just views of a financia""



1845.]

SECRETARY OF THE TREASURY.

285.

M-—Continued.
protecting systern of duties, I cannot see the fallacy of taking the ground,
as a basis br general rule^ that all those articles which Ave possess the
most ample ability to manufacture, and for w.hich we produce the raAV
material in abundance, and of which the material is the principal item
of value, are the true subjects ofi protection;' and all those articles of Avhich
we do not produce the raAV material, or not in abundance, and of which
the chief value corisists in labor, should be taxed only nominal duties, if
at all—else, to operate as a protection against the pauper labor of Europe,
the duty must be excessive and unjust, and the prices exorbitant.
" The IOAV 5 per cent, wool duty must, I conceive, be abolished, arid
the higher grades reduced; it is all a sham—the plea for the admission
o f t h e cheap wool o f t h e South American States for; carpet purposes.
Urider it the greatest possible frauds on the fevenue are practised,.by
means of double agerits.; the last agent m?ioce?^% purchasirig of the ffrst
agerit, who actually sells the supercargo, or agent, AVOOIS worth 30 cents
for 7 ; and all the ceremony of drafts actually passes in good faith on
one part, and all the proofs are easily made complete Avithout any false
swearing. At ouri late State fair, I saw 16 samples of the large lot of
Lowell wool, (lately seized by the GPverrimerit agents,) both in tiie.rough
and Avashed state; it Avas fuUy equal to bur 30 cerit | blooded, merino
AVool, and in the grease could ribt lose rnore than 33 per cent.; a monstrous fraud riot orily On the 'Goverriment, but upon the gxbAversin the
. cbtiritry, if pf otectiori is an item of consideratiori, which I coriceive to- be
gopd doctrine. If any class is lb be protected, the agricultural productions ha.Ye the ^troho^est claitn.''^
' Oswego County. ^George H.-McWhorter, GoUector; firom WiUiam Foster,
Manufiacturer,, -1. State of NCAV York, OsAvego cburity.
2. Hemlock sole leather.
. ':
3. in 1831;: private concern.
4. Capital, $50,-000; of which $12,000 is invested in buildirigs, riiachinery, and water pPAver.
'
5. Thirty thousarid dbllars,for the purchase of rnaterials, and $8,000
for the paymerit df wages.
.- .
6. 'For the last three years the "anriual profit has been but a fi-action
above 7 per cent.
7. The usual profit is from 12 to 20 per cent., arid the cause of the
decrease is the bver^pfeduction; or supplygreater than demand.
-9. About $50,000 AvPrth pf sole leather per annum; descriptipn and
quality hght in comparison Aviththe English afticle.
10. About $30,000, or $35,000 per annum of foreign hides, and about
),"000 bf bark and wood frorii our own forests.
From 25 to 30 riien.
New York arid Boston.
There is no :foreigri-: competition that affects prices. ;
In every part of the Union, :



286

^

REPORTS OF THE

[1845.

M:—Continued.
19. Considerable has been exported to England this season.
20. Generally sold on a.credit of from 4 to 6 rnonths.
23. No duty whatever.. The duty imposed by our tariff of 6 cerits
per ppund on sole leather is totally, inoperative for protection or revenue,
for the simple reason that Ave can manufacture at a less price than any
other nation; and so long as it remains on the list of duties it will be one
of the items of import which justify retahatory duties by other Governments.
.
"
• .
25. Answered in answers to 3d, 6th, and 7th questions.
26. AiiSAvered in ansAver to 5th question. .
^
27. Cannpt say. .
29, 30. AnsAvered in 23d.
31. If the British Gpvernment keeps the trade free Ave can undersell
them in their OAvn markets. B u t should the: British Government impose
the same duty which is iniposed by our.tariff it Avould prohibit the trade.
32 to 40. Not ansAvered..,
.
Cayuga. County. . George H."McWhorter, Collector; firom R. Muer, Manu-^
facturer,
' .
• * ' •

*

'

.

•

.

•

1. Cayuga county, NCAV York.
2. Two cotton riiills, for spinning yarn and weaving cloth, 4r-4. sheetings,-and 3-4 shirtings,yarns No.. 16, and 18; water poAver. .
3. The one at Auburn was commericed in 1818, the other at Moravia
in 18—; the first a private cpncern, the other joint stock,
4. Buildings, Avater power,' &c., at Auburn, $8,000; buildings for the
operatives and land, $5,000; machinery, &c., $12,000.
* /
5. About $5,000 in cash, for the purchase of cotton, oil, and wpod,
and. the paymerit pf wages.
. .
^6..From 1828 tP 1840 about 7 per cent., all of -which was used in
repairs and supplying new machinery, &c. Since 1841 has paid in improvements and interest about 20 per cent.
7. The increased profits arise principally from the reductiori in .the
price of cotton, a small. percentage in labor, and the goods selling at
about the prices as when,cottbn was 4 cents a pound higher.
8. In improved farms, 4 to.5 per cent.; bank stock, 9 per cent.; railroads, 9 and lO per cent.; money at legal interest, 7 per cent. •
'
. 9. About 180,000 yards of 4-4 sheeting, 120,000 yards 3-4 shirting,,
made from No. 18 yarn; the 4-4 sells from 7 to 7J cents per yard;. 3-4
shirtings from 5 \ to 51: cents a yard, running measure. ,
.
10. The* quaritity of cotton used is about 130,000 lbs., valued at 6^
to 7J cents per pound,, groAvth pf the United States; about 300 gallons
sperm oil, at 90 cerits per gallon;.and 100 cords of wood,^ at from $2 25
to $2 50 per cord.
11. None such irnported; the valueof such sheetings at Marichestei^
England, is.about 4dcsterling, or 7f br 8 cents per yard.,
12. About 8 rnen, 26 women, and 20 boys and girls under 16 ye
of a^e. Men's wages average $1,20 per day; wornen's 50 cents,j
children from 25 to 33 cents per day.



1845.] •

S E C R E T A R Y OF T H E TREASURY.

287

M—-Continued.
13. Thirteen hours in all seasons.
14. Laborers' wages in the field-about 60 cents per day; Avornen, for
common Avork, 30. Cannot say as to the othef States and Territories.
16. A large, part are sent aAvay to a riiarket; some to. Buffalo, 130
miles, thence to Canada; some to NCAV York, ihence tb China and South
America; those sold ^at horne are for consumption. New York is 320
miles distant. .
•
17. There is no foreign competition, as regards these goods. '
18. Consumed all; over the Uriited States.
19. Almost all the 3-4 shirtings are sold for the South American market; some have gone to China.
'
20. " They are mostly sold by commission merchants^ always for cash,:
after a credit of 6 and 8 months-^mostly at 8:months' credit." o
21. The cost has generally decreased, principally in laAv cotton, by
improvements in machinery, and a small percentage in labor.
22. The prices of sheetings and ^ shirtings have changed from 6 to 10
cents per yard. The cause of fluctuation has ahvays been controlled
by the high or low price of cott.on. ^
23. It would require rio duty, or at least a very small one, to carry
on this factory; the sheetings weigh about. 1 lb. to every 3 yards.
. 24. None imported.
,/
25. Theprofits^ for the last threeyears are fully 20 per cent., besides
keeping the machiriery in repair.: .
'
.' .
.26. About three-fifths for raw material, cotton, oil, and. wood; about
three-teriths for labor.; residue interest, profits, and commission.
. •
27. About 40 bbls. of flour for starch, or its equivalerit in potato starch.
28. Canriot say.: •
.29. It would make no difference; would continue at less prices, and
at one-half the present prpfits.
30. It would still be more profitable than farming.
31. Knows, of none. . '
35. About 90 to 95 per cent. •
i
37. Aniourit manufactured is greater than the amount consumed in
the United States.
NOTE.;—The above answers will apply to the Moravia: mills; the
goods find the sarne.markets. Sheetings are mostly made at this nii.il
fromyarns No 16. . It produces about 350,000 yards per annum.: Last
year it made in profits 21 per cent/ to its- stockholders, besides expending $3,000 for.new machinery; this year it will pay 25 per cent on its
capital. In the. last 16. years great losses have been sustained by the,
manufacturer in consequence of the high prices paid, for raw cotton.
The fluctuations of the tafiff have had little or no effect upon this kind
of goods.
Oneida.

George H. McWhorter, CoUector; firom Kellogg Hurlburt, Agent
ofi New Hartford-: Cotton Mills,

1, Oneida county. New York,



288

R E P O R T S OF T H E

[1845.

: M-—Continued.
2. Cotton shirtings; water power,
3. Comriienced in 1812; joint-stock concern.
,- 4, 5. Capital about $60,000, exclusive of about $20,000 reserved
profits, used for purchase of stock, and paying Avages and other current
expenses.
6. Has had no immediate charge of this factory till within the last
eight years; but from Avhat knowledge he has, is inclined to think the
annual net profits riiay have been, previous to 1837, frPm .6 to 8 per cent.
Sirice 1837 the profits have been very irregular, varying from a positive
loss in one or tAvo years, tb 15, 20, and even '25,per cent, in others.
During the la.st tAvo years the profits have been nearly or quite at the
latter fate.
7. The changes in the general conditiori of the trade of the countr}^
and consequerit fluctuation of prices of goods and raw material.
8. Unable to state.
9. For the last few years about $60,000 in value, •wholly unbleached
sheetings, now Avorth 7 cents per yard.
10. About $25,000 worth of cotton, and perhaps $3,000 Avorth of
other rnaterials almost exclusively of dornestic products.
11. No goPds of similar description imported.
.
. ,
12. Eighteen men, average wages about $1 25 per day; 60 girls', at
45 cents per day.; 20 boys, at 50 cerits per day; all boarding themselves.
13. Twelve hours a day the whole year.
14. Cannot say; but thinks tiie Avages in this factory better than in
other employments.
• 15. None, except for a small amount of team work.
16. Mostly at home; a small portion sent to New York and Boston.
, 17.None. ,
18. Answered in 16.
^
19. Large quantities of goods, sirnilar to thPse made at this factory,
are exported to foreign couritries; Chiria, India, South Americaj nortliwest coast of America,^ West Indies, Mediterranean, :&G.
20. Partly for cash, but mostly on credit of 6 to"8 months.
21. A gradual decrease has occurred in the cost of labor, owing partly
to diminished Avages paid, but mostly to improved inachinery, and a
gi'eater skill and experierice in the operations. A yard of goods can be
manufactured now,-without regard to the cost of materials, for little
riiore than half what it Cost 10 years ago. The cost of cotton has varied
within the time from 18 to 6 cents,' such as is used in this factory. It is
noAv Avorth about 8 cents.
22. In 1813 such •sheetings were worth about 40 centsper yard; in
1816 abbut 25 cents; from which price . they "gradually declined, with
various fluctuations, till, in 1842, they were Avorth but 6J cents; since
Avhich time the price has improved, and they are now worth 7 J cents on
time, or 7 to 7^ cerits cash.
:
23. No duty whatever is required to sustain the manufacturer of such
goods, or of the heavier sorts of plain cotton goods.
24. Answered above.



1845.] •

SECRETARY OF THE TREASURY.
" M--^Cbritiriiied. .
^

•'

'

° ' ° 28#
^

;

, 25. Previously answered.
''" 26. At the present, price of:cotton, (say 8 cents: per pourid,), about
3-7ths fpr material, 2-7ths for labor, and 2-7ths profits^ It sho'uld be
remarked, ho wever, that the rate of profits for the last, t w e years^ has
been unprecedentedly large, OAving to various causes, which carinot con*
tinue long. ^ The extensive preparations noAvin progress, and rapidly
coming into us^,'must very greatly reduce .the present rate of profits, in
the course of one or two years, by the competition which will be created
i n i h e cotton rhanufactrire.
27. Exclusive of cotton,^only" so rriuch as: is necessary fe;f the siistenance of ol 0,0 persons^ einployed and their families.:
:
*
28. Has no rrieans of answeringc
' 2 9 i o 31. Has ansAvered.
. 32. Cannot answer.
33. Capital $60,000; reserved profits $20,000; none borrowed.
34; Any addition or dimiriution of duties Avould be altogether inoperative, directly, in this business. What indirect effect a feductiori of
duties on other manufactures might hav'e- Pri this, he canriPf say.
' 35, About 86 per cent, on the kind of goods madC' here.
"
36 to 40. Cannot answer.
Oneida.r From Geo, H,. McWhorter, Collector;:Manchester Cotton'Factory,
1. State of New Yorky Orieida county.
.
:.: :
2. Cotton sheetings; AV ater power.
. \ . :,
"••?,-;;3;-In-1814j-joint stock;'' -•'^:\
"^/-••.-•/>- ,/' . •' '
4 , 5 . Capital $10J&yOOOv exclusive of $18^000^ reseryed p
purchase stock arid pay wages, &c.
6. For the last four years the average annual prPfits have bePn about
10 per cerit.
9. For thelast four years $3^^000 per year, wholly fof sheeting^ aiid
drillings.
10. About $20,000 worth^of cotton, and $4,000 worth df other goods,
all domestic.
> —
11. None imported of this description.
12. Ten men, 25 boys and girls; wages for men .$l<per day; boys
and girls 38 cents.
. •
.
13. Twelve hours per day the-whole year*15.: Noncy except for team.work. . ;
16. Mostly sold in New York, and some at hoirie;
17.-None.";
•': /
^ •
" 18. Answered in M . ;
19/. Large quantities^ siriiiiar to oursy exported' to China:, India?, Sbuth
America, nbrthwest Coast of America, West Indies, Mediterranea!n,,^C..
20. ^ Principally for c a ^ , but sonie ori a Credit of 60^ to- 9§ days;
22. For the last four 5^ears prices hayp" ranged from^ 6f to.) 8f centsper
yard; now worth 8J cents.
23. Thinks no duty necessary bn such goods as are made al this-factory, or on any of the heavier sorts^ of plain cotton goods;
VoL.v.—19.
:



290

R E P O R T S OF T H E

[1845.

M—Continued. '
?

.

.

•

-'

'

'

'

•

.

,

o'" 25. Previously answered.
26. At tire present pfice of cotton, (say 8 cents per pound,) about 3-7ths
for material, 2.-7ths fbr labor, and 2-7ths for'profits.
27. Only so much of agricultural productions (exclusive of cottori) as
are necessary for the support of the persons emplpyed in the factory;
.-28.. Cannot say.
.:
'/ • ':o,.^
'29. Shpuld continue to manufacture;.
•'• '\ - ' '.^P, :\.
c- ,
30, 31, 32- Not answered; , i
> :_ / .
; ''^' •'•
33/ Capital $100,000, reserved prpfits $18,000; none borrowed, t , '
35. About 86 per cent, on the goods manufactured at Ihis.plaee. ,
36 to 40. Not answered.
. .
^ "> *•, . /
oo: ^-.(j:^,:^,,^'
•

Oneida.

:

.

-

•

•

•

•

'

•

•

•

•

:

^

^

•

•

•

«

'

;

-

"

•

:

/

-

o

"

From George H . McWhorter, Collector; New York Mills, [Upper
• •
Mill.)
..-•-.. :fifi - - .
•

•

•

.

'

'

-

'

•

'

*

.

"

,

-

'

'

•

.

'

•

1. New York, county pf Oneida.
2. Cptton; Avater.power.
3. In 1813; not a joint-stock concern. ' ,
4. Seventy-five thousand dollars. : .
5. Seventy-five thousa.nd dollars arinually. •
6. Not over 7 per cent.; none borrowed.
7. The changes of policy in the administration of the Governriient of
the country has been the great cause of. fluctriations in business matters.
8. Unable to say.
...
9. Eight hundred thousand yards of cotton goods annually; princi:pally heavy jeans for paritaloons; average value 18 cents.
10. Five hundred and twenty bales cotton annually; $32,500. :
•' 11. From 15 to 25^cents. From Great Britain and.France.
12. 33 men, 102 Avomen, 36 boys and girls; average wages of men
$7 50 per week, women $2 75,^ boys, &c.,-.$l 75. to $2 per week.
13. Twelve hours all the year.
•
"
. . . .
: 14. Cannot ansAver.
..
• , . •
15. Two horses;
16. Articles manufactured sent to: New York, Philadelphia, and Baltimore, : ,
•
-•
•
- :'
17. They do tb some extent.
'
' ..
18. Principally in the United States.):,
19. Not aware of any expPrtalion. ' • ^
.
: :
20. All at eight months'credit.
" '
21. The cost of the inanufactured article has decreased iri consequence
ofthe improvements in machinery, and depreciation iri. the .price of the
raw material; but the decrease in the pricepf thegoPds hasbeen greater
than on the cost.
"
.
-22. Prices have varied from six to tAventy cents;
. - 2 3 . : The present rate, and not less.
,
24. Not a V are of any,
A
:
^^
. . •
..
.s ' 2 5 . ' No dividends. / . '•
'
.
^.
26. One-third labor; one-haif raw. material.
' '



1845.]

S E C R E T A R Y OF T H E TREASURY.

291

. M—Continued.
. 27. From $12,000 to $15,000 anriually.
' 2 8 . Unable to answer.
29/ Abandon the business. .
, .
. . .
30. Uncertaim If the prpperty could be made, available, should want
to look about and ascertain what would pay best; not in manufacturing.
3 1 . Y e s , '• .

i-\/-; . /

•

•-'.-;

32. Should think not. The facilities for transportation are so great
that the manufactures of salt and iron can hardly be so remote as to be
Ayithout the circle of foreign ;Competition..
33,to 40, Not answered. .
.
•
Oneida County.

From George H . McWhorter, CoUector; Oneida Manufiactwring Society,

1. Oneida county. New York. ,
2, Cotton; water power.
3,. In 1809; joint stock,
4. Capital, about $100,000,
5. Amount of materials, about $40,000;, wages, $30,000,
6. No borrowed capital; average rate of interest is four per cent.:
7. A very great variety of causes.
8. Not knowri.
.
.9. Principally domestic sheetings; as nearly as can be ascertained,
about $80,000.
'
_.
10. Cotton averaging fairT—amount about $35,000v . .
11. No cottons are noAv imported of a similaf description; formerly,
an article: for which.this is a substitute was irripprted from China at a
-cost of from three to four shillings per yard.
12. Thenumber of meri, women, and children, is about one huridred
and fifty;-, The average wages of men is aboutIAVeive shilhrigs per d a y ;
womeri four shillings per d a y ; and children tAvo shillings. ,
13t TAVCIVC hours per day the whole year.
• ,^
14. In this State,.should say, meri eight shillings; women, three shillings; children nPt generally employed. .
,
15. One span of horses, and no other anirnals.
16. The manufactured goods mostly find a market in- the vicinity of
the factory.
17. No foreign article, to any extent, enters into competition with the
description of gopds made at tills factory.
.
18., Throughoutthe country generally. .
19. Similar goods are extensively exported to China, South America,
and many other corrntries.
20. Both cash and credit from three to eight months.
21. The. cost of the article has decreased, both iri the material arid the
expense of manufacturing, by the intrpduction of labor-saving niachinery,
Tiie labor has not materially varied.
22. The price, since the establishment, has varied very materially—
frorn fifty cents per yard to seven cents, ;In 1809 the same kind of fabric



292:

R E P O R T S OF T H E

[1845»

M—Continued.
then sold for fifty cents—would riot be worth now more than seven
cents. • ^
.
23. From twenty-five to thirty per cent.
24. As there are no goods of the description made at this factory imported which directly enter into, competition, no changeiri levying or
collecting the duty is necessary while we have the control of the home
market.
25. The rate of profits, for the last two years, has been about twelve
and a half per cent.; for the threeyears previous, nothing; and, in many
instances, worse than nothing.
26. About fifty per cent, materials, &c., and about thirty per cent^
labor; arid, for the last three years, ten pef cent, profits.
27. The amount of agricultural production consumed in many ways
may be $70,000.
28. Cannot say.
29. " I verily believe if the duty were reduced to twelve and' a half
per cent, generally, we should have to abandon:the business.'^
30 to 40. Not answefed.
New Hartfiord^ Oneida County, From George H, McWhorter, Collector;
Half Century Manufiaetwing Gompany,
1; Oneida counly, New York.
2. Cottpn; water power.
3. Commencetl in 1826—enlarged in^ 1830; joint stock.
4. Capital, $10,000.
5. Capital employed for stock and wages of hand^Sy $4,000;
6. Not known—but some years a: loss, OAving to fluctuations in trade;
other years, froni fiA^e to twenty per cent.
7. The changes in trade and consequent fluctuations of prices of good^:s
and ofthe raw materiak
8. Unable to state.
9; Amount nianufacturedy$15'j000;r—goodsj six-quarter bed/ticking,
wicking, and batting. At this time, say:$14,000 in tickirigj and $1,000
in wicking.
W, Quantity, fift3rlwa thousand pounds of cotton, at this tiriie worth
ajbout $5,OOQ, exclusively domestic. Other materials, $1,0:00, mostly
d!omestic. .
'
"
11. No goods o f a similar description are imported.
12. Four men, | 1 each per day; eight girlsy at $1 75^per A^reek ;^ eight
boysj at $ 1 25 per Aveek.
13. Twelve hours a day the year round.
14. Not known.
15.. One horse at horiie, and teamirig b y others as=wanted<,
16/ City^ofNew-Ybrfcmostly^:; distance 25:0^ miles.
17. None.
18. Mostly in the State of New-York,
'
^
19. A few may b e sent to China and South America,



1845.]
. ,,;

S E C R E T A R Y OF T H E TREASURY. .
^

; !M—Centinued. :

2m

f

;

20. Some sold for cash; sorne:on 6/and'8 months' time.
. 2 1 . Decreased ajbout one-balf in cost, owing to the decline of labor and
stock, and the imprpvements in machinery.'• .
22; Our gPods have varied from 56 to 15 cents'since we comuienced;
are worth now 2 2 i to 23 cents per vard, bri 8 months' credit, in New
Y o r k -

; • ; .

• . ; . • .

^--••.••••

••-•

• - : -

^

-;

r

^

•

. /

^

/ .

..•'.

. 2 3 . W e do ript know of any goods similar to ours beirig impprted.;
consequently no foreign competition; b u t \ v e go up of down Avith finer
factories., A^^liich have competition from abroad .and .need some pf otectiori^;
-fi/:' • ••^,.; • /'•_ . '
'• ; . ^.- ': '•:.-'.
'
• .' 24:. Not known. .
/
•
l
25, Three years ago run at aloss, andtill the fall of 1843 the-sarne;.
since that time froiri 15 to 25 per cent, profits :have been.realized. • .
26. Cost of cotton, a t present rates, $80,,and Avages to hands, &G.,
about $50, pef Aveek.
.
. . ':
27, .The excbange for produce at this, e'stablishment is sufficient to
,support:20 persons and the families to whicii they belong.
28. Confined mostly to New. York State; .amount riot knowni
..^9, .Cannot say.
i
30. Accbrding tp: our best judgment.
31, 32, CannotteU,
. .. ,
^
33. Ten thousand dollars capital; $4,000 stock in trade, and $2,000
t)PrroAved,
:
34 to 40.'Cannot answer.
^
Oneida County.
. 1,
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
c

e

n

t

.

From George H.fiMcWhorter, Collector; FranM
Fcictory, hy A. Brownell & Co. ,
"

Cotton

Oneida county. New York.
'
,.
/ . :
Cottpn,: Water poAvef.
In 1826.. Individual concern.
Present capitar$50,000.
Materials about $20^000. Wst^es about $15,0^0^^^^
No borrowed capitak Average rate of interest is about 4 per
•

••••.

_.

•

.

.'

• ,"•

_

•

• . ,

.'•'

.

.^

.

, - • '

'•

-

.

-

'•

7. A variety of causes.
8. Not known.
'
9. Domestic sheetings and shirtings about $40,000»
.10; Cotton, middling fine; aniount about $16,000,
11. None ofa similar description irnported.,
:
12. Numbef of men, women, and childf en, about 100, The average
wages of men about $1 25 per day;.women 44 cents.; children.22
cerits,
- \ - . . - ' ' • ' • ' .. :•
•..
13. Twelve hours per day the whole year.
14. In this State children are riot generally,employed; but men's
wages say $1, and women's 37^ cents per day.
15. Three horses.
16. No; the manufactured goods are generally sent aboutr^SO miles
to New York city..


294

R E P O R T S OF T H E

[1845.

M-—^^Continued.
17. Not to any extent, of the kind made here.
18. Through the country generally, and exported.
19. To South Arnerica, China, and othef countries.
*
20. Credit generally, and at 8 mpnths-principally.
21: The cost of the article has decreased fi'ornyear to year, both iii
the manufactured article. and expense of manufacturing, by the introduction of labor-saving machiriery. The price, of labor has not riiaterially varied.
/
/
.
'
22. The prices of our goPds have varied—say from 11 cents per yard
to 6J cents in 4-4 goods; and the shirtings in about the sarrie proportion.
23. Probably about .30 per cent./
24. Np change is necessary while we have the privilege of the home
market.
./
"
_:
25. The rate of profits for the last tAvo years may have been 11. per
cent.; but say, for the last three years previous very trifling, if anything.
26. About 50 per cent, rnaterials, &c., and about 30 per cerit. labor;
and for the last 3 years 9 per cent, profits.
27. The amount of agricultural productions cons.umed in various
Avays may be about $34,000, cotton included.
.28. Not possessed of inforrnation.
29. Most likely wiU have to abandpn the business.
30 to 40. Cannpt answer/
..
^
Oneida County.

From George H . McWhorter, Collector; Stone Manuelfiactory.

. 1.,Oneida county. New York.
2. Cotton sheetings and drilhngs; ^water power.
3. In 1844; individual/
.4. Twenty thousand dollars.
5. Materials fbf Pne week, $144; wages, $1.87 -13."
"
6 to 9. Cannot ariswer.
10. TAVO thousand pounds cotton per Aveek; value $144.
12. Seventeen menat $1 12 J per day; 21 women at $2 75 per week;
13 children at $1 l 2 J : per week.
13. Twelve hours per day; every day..
15. Four horses employed.
16. Two hundred and eighty niiles to a rnarketu.
17. No competition.
18. 19. Cannot answer.
^
20. Sold at 8 months'credit.
22. Five and three-fourths cents per yard. /
25. Has been in operation only a year.
.
/
26. Cotton, $144; laborj $187 13; profit for capital, $50 per Aveek^"
27. Agricultural; other than cotton, $80.
.28 to 32.'Cannot answer.
^
.
33. Four thousand doUars, borrowed; $16,000 real.



1845.]

SECRETARY OF T H E TREASURY.

295

M-—Continued.
^
34 to 39. Not ansAvered.
40. Cannot say.
-

':

.

-

Oneida County.. George: H. Mc Whorter, Collectpr; firom M. T. Eggleston^
Superintendent ofi Utica Cotton Manufiacturing. Company. .
1. .County.of Oneida, New York.;
•;•
.
. 2 . Cotton.
- '
: •
;
3. About the year 1812; joint-stock company.
4. Capital, $100,000.
;
' .
.5, Value of materials about $35,000; wages j $25,000.
6, As near as can be asceftained, about 3 per cent,
7, Various causes,
.,
8, Does not knoAV,
.
v
9, As near as'can be ascertained, the value o f t h e manufactured
article, as answered in No. 2, is $60,000,
10. Cotton, about $25,000, at the present low prices...
• 11.. None/ •
' '..,.'."
12. About 150; average wages of men, IO5. per day ;/women, 4^, per
day; children, 20 cents.
.'
.,
13. Twelve and a half hours a l l t h e year*. .
14. In this State about 65. per day; women. I5. .6.6?.
A
^
15. One span ofhorses;
16. NeAV Yorkand Philadelphia markets; a small portion at home,
17.° None impprted.
^
• ..
18. United States, East Indies, and South America.
19. Answered in 18.
20. Cash, and credit on 8 months.
^ 2 1 , The cost has. decreased iriaterially by the: irifrodubtion of laborsaving inachinery.
. •
'
0 " ' • ^'^
22. Previous to the introduction of power-looin%, slieptirigs Averp sold
for 50 cents per yard, inferior in quality.
.',%
:,... .
>
.
.23.; Thirty per cent. ^
'fi • ' - ' . ^
^5. , : /
. :24. No means .of knowing.
\ .
, ',-,..".
; , ..
25. AbputolO per cent'profits have been expended iri improvemeiits
for the last three years,.
"
.
. 2 6 . About 50 per cent, materials, 40 per cent, iabor, and 10"per Cent,
profits.
' ;
27. About $50,000.
.
"
•
29. Would cause an abandonment of present business.
(, 30..,Cannot say.
"
.
•
'
'.
-. 31. .None.^ ' '
"•
.-^'
.'^ '' . " •'
' 32 to 40. Cannot say.
Oneida County. George H.- McWhorter, Collector; firorn S. Newton Deleter,
• Agent ofi the Oriskany Manufacturing Company, .
1. Oneida county. New Yprk.
2„ For the manufacture of broadcloths; water power/ 


296

R E P O R T S OF T H E
•

[1845.

M-HGontinued, "
^

3. In 1811. Joint stpck.
. 4. Capital $110,000.
5. Not answered.
6. Notable to say ;.profits better, however, than fornierly.
7. Since the tariff of .1842, haye increased in skill arid had a better
market for the goods. From 1837 to 1842 (except 1838 and 1840) lost
rnoney.
*
8. Has not the means of answering this question. .
9. Not able to say for want of proper records,
.
,
10, Use none but American wool,-and of this about 210,000 l b s , "
worth this year about $70,000. The yalue of all other materials, such
as soap, dye-stuffs, oil, fuel, teazle, urine, iron, lumber, &c.;, in. 1844,
$16,356 09; all these articles were of American growth, except the
dye-stuffs and whale oil, amounting tp about $3,700. 11. Not answered.'
^
• .
12/ 49 men, 58 Avomen, .26 boys.and girls. Wages for men is 8 8 |
cents per day; wpmeri, 47 cents; children, 31 cents per day..
13.. Five days in the week, 12 hburs; Saturdays, 11 hours. ^
'
, .
15. Two hours.
16. About 35 percent, sold at the factory; the residue: sent to Boston,
New York, and Philadelphia.
17. Foreign articles do enter into competitiori, and to a very great
extent; but to what extent unable to say.
' ' •
IS.'In nearly allthe States and Territories of the Union,
19. Knows of none having been exported..
20. Some sold for cash, some bartered for wool or other materials, but •
the greater part sold on eight months' credit in the cities narned above..
21. The cost of^thp manufactured article has decreased. This is
partly owing to ciriorP^'skillful management, and partly owing: to the re-'
duced price of the raw materials and the improvements in riiachinery.
22. Not able.to stated
•:'-^ ^
,^''
. > v/^
^23. j^ot less thanthe present duty.
'^^^
. -24. < Cannot say. t '
i
.25. There have been only three dividends of five per cent each, since
'October 28, 1841; no particular sum has been reserVed Br^set^apart;
have made improvements worth $6,000 or $7,000^; capital has not otherwise increased from profits. '
.
In the year 1844 the expense of. labor, including agent and superintend- .
. . ent's salaries .
,.................
. . , . . . . . . . . . , $24,763 9 3 ^ ^
Materials, exclusive of wool. „.
....;..
16,356 09 -^
Wool....
: . , . . . . 71,451 '4:&/a
Insurance- and interest p a i d . , . ^ ^ , . , . . . . . .

.

112,571 4 8 "
6,190 53
$118,762 01

Profits not >oyer 10 per pent.



1845.]

SECRETARY OF THE.TREASURY.

297

M—-Continued.
27. Believes the .company consuriies of agricultural prbdubtioris, annually, from $80,000 to $83,000, besides what is consumed by persons
in its employ.
29. Should abandon the business.
' 30. Cannot tell. .;;V
:
=31:. Many, he has no doubt.
33. H e has very little iriforrnation on the subject.
33. Capital is $110,000, and generally oAve nearly half as rnuch more.
34. As there is not now. realized an income of six per cent, on, real
capital, could not if the duties were less.
35/ The minimum pririciple dpes not apply to broadcloths. :
36 to 40; Cannot answer.
y
"
^
Oneida County, George H, McWhorter, Collector; firom S, Newton Dexter,
Agent ofi the Dexter Manufiacturing Company i \
1. State pf New, York, Oneida county.
2. Woolen;; water po>yer.
-: .
' :'
. i
/
3. In 1834; joint ;St0ck.
\ •.'
. 4. About$40,000,
-^
"'''\i
/;
.5. Materials, $12,291 17; Av:a:geSj $17,859, This is exclusive of wooi, /
.6. There have been dividends to the amount of 40,per cent,
7.. The tariff, a ;bettef market for .goPds, and more skill in making.
8. Cannot tell. .
•
9. In 1844 made 46,525 yards of broadcloth, at an average value of
about $1.55 per yard; cannot say of preyious years,
10. Use none but Americari wool, and-of :this last year 116,250 lbs.
The value of all other materials, as stated above,, is $12,291 1.7:.
•12.. Twenty-nine: rnen, 30 women, 12. girls,, and 20 boys; average
wages 55 J cen.ts.
13. Twelve hours 5 days each week, a n d : l l hours one day.
15, Two horses.
16, About 33 per cent, are sold at the factory; the residue in B.altir
more, Philadelphia,iVew York, and Boston.
17, Foreign articles do enter into competitipn to a yery great extent.
--18. In nearly, if notin all the States.and Territories.
19. These are riot exported,
.
... " ' : " . . - . \
30. The goods are sold and bartered in almost every way^, (that is,
those^that are sold at the. factory,) for cash, on a credit, or fpr fuel,
-tesizles. Sec,fi•''•.•'•• .
•-•.
/; '..J^;."
%21.. The costohas decreased,. oAving to greatef skill in the manufa:cture,
the reduced pribe of materials, and improyed machinery.
2-3. The preserit duty is low enough.
24, Has .no| giyen his-atterition to the,subject,
;; , ;
25, SinceDl839. aodiyidend of 20. per cent.; should estimate'abbut 20
per centi has been added in buildings arid machinery out of the profits
since 1834—say ^|)^5per^en$. in aik
26, At this time^shojLi|d tj^n\ about 65 ..per cerit, for materials, la^Q>r
23 per cent.—-liaving about ol2 per cent, for profit.
. ,,



298

R E P O R T S OF T H E

[1845..

M—Continued.
27. Cannot tell exactly, but thinks about $54,500.
29. Should abandon the business as soon as he could. •
31. Believes there are many.
' '
33. Capital paid in is $30,000, and frequently owe as much as
$25,000, and sometimes more.
./
34. Profits probably Avilfnot be sixper cent., even at the presen trate
of duties; this year they, will probably amount tp 12 or 15 per cent., in
consequence pf the IOAV price of American wool. :
35. It would not affect bis business. •
; .
36 to 40. Not answered.
.
,
Oneida County,-. ' George H . McWhorter, Collector; firom .Alfred Thompsori,
Agent ofi Oriskany Falls Woolen Factory.
1. New York, Oneida county,
,
2. Woolen; water power.
•
3. In 1834; joint stock.
: '
4. Capital $6,000, in ground, buildings, machinery, & c . '
5. Four thousand doUars; reserved profits used for purchasing stock
and paying wages, &c.
6. The concern has manufactured at a. loss until 1841; since then
should think from 12 to 15 per cent, profit has been, realized..
7. The changes arid fluctuations of trade.
8. None.
9. Amount $12,000; wholly woolen goPds, worth 55 cents per yard.
10. Seven thousand dollars worth of, wool; $500 of other materials;
all domestic production.
11. None of the kind of gPods made at this factory are imported.
12. Six men, average Avages 88 cents per day; five girls, 40 cents
per day.
.
°
13. Twelve hours per day; ten months in the year.
14. The rate of wages in this district i s altogether higher than in foreign couritries.
,
:
'
15. None. ,
'
.fi ^ ^
16,. SentmPstly to New York; some are consumed at the factory.
17. None.•••
18. Answered in 16.
^
19. Some are sent to Canada, and sPme to Illinois and the }vestern
States.
•
^
• _ ; - ' • •. \ , o : ' : ° \ .
20. Partly for cash and partly for credit; those sold^Pn credit frbriioSix.to eight months, i • :
.
' .
'
'^ •*
^'oC
21. The reduction in the expenses of business, improvements irf m^. chinery, and the red.uced price of stock, have occasioned a decrease''.
22. Sold the cloth for 68 cents up to 1840; ^ince that tirne fore53 cents.
23. None of this kind are imported, therefore needsmo protection/**
.24... Cannot say. . - - . , •
: fi^ •• ^ . f i ^ . ' - ' ' _
: • .;•
25. Previously answered, as far as couldobe.j > o^o :
oo .
26. Present price of wool 27 cents per oponn4; th|;ee-^fths for material, one-fifth labor, and one-fifth p r o f i t . ' o
,. ^ o" o



1845.]

SECRETARY OF T H E T R E ASURY.

299

M—Continued.
27. Six hundred dollars, the aggregate amount of the productions used
at this establishment; ordinary sustenance of'20 persons.
2810 32. Cannot say.
\ ;
33. Capital $6,000; borrowed $4,000.
34 to 40. Not answered.
'
Oneida County.

George.H^.McWhorter, Collector;

'' '

Factory,

1. State of New York,, Oneida county.
.
2. Woolen; water and steam power.
• 3. In 1817. ..
-. •, . .- .
4. Twenty-five.thousand dollars.
:
5. Wages and materials, $21,000 ; wages, $7,005.
.
/
6. Nothing.
:
7. Fluctuating times, &c,
;'
. >
8. Nothing.
' ,/
9. For the last seven years have manufactured satinets and woolen
plain cloths; about$20,000 annually.
10, Average price of the domestic wool about 33J cents; the foreign
wool, 30 cents; quantity, 75,000 p.ounds.
11, Fifty cents per yard,,
12, Twelve men, 12 women, and.4 boys; wages of men.$1 per day;
women, 50 cents; boys and little girls, about 37J cents,
13, TAVCIVC hours each day the year round,
. .
/ 14, Cannot say,
15, Five-horses.
:.
16, New York, Philadelphia, and at home; mostly to New York city.
. 17, Unable to state,
18, All over-the United States.
19. None.
20, Sold on six tp eight months credit,
21. Has not increased in the material, and not in labor on the average,
22. From $1 25 doAvm to 50 cents per yard.
. . .
23. Thinks the preserit tariff will answer if it cari be continued,
24, Cannot ans AVer. .
25, Have not made any dividends, but haye extended the works out
of Avhat it has made.
26, Cannot say,
27, Three thousand dollars,
' .
28. Cannot .say, but a large amount.
29. ShPuld be obliged to stop,
30 to 37, Cannot say,
38. Thinks it has increased.
.
. 39, 40. Not answered.
, .
Oneida County. George H. McWhorter, Collector; Hollister Woolen Factory.
1. State of NeA\^ York, Oneida courity,
2. Woolen; water power.



300

R E P O R T S , OF T H E
.

[1845.

M—-Contuiued.

;

3. In 1842; not a joint stock.
4..* One hundred and twenty thousand .doUaQ-s.
y5.^ Sixty thousand, dollars.
. 6. -No borrowed capital; .profits invested in irriprpvenierits/
. 7 . The unsettled-state of the tariff is the cause..
9. One hundred thousand yards wooleuj different styles, frorii three(juafters to six-quarlers wide, varying in price from 45 cents to. $3, 10,' Two hundred thousand pounds wool; value $50,000;
11. Unable l o say,
•.
•
.
12. Fifty individuals; average sixty-five cents. ,
13.'TAVCIVC hours through the year.
14; Wages abput the same in this county and States
.15. Six horses and two yoke of oxen.
16.. Partial market at home; majority New York, Boston,' and Philadelphia/ .
/
'
•' \- ^
17. .Great competition in finer quahties.
". fi '.
18.. In the United States.
. .. '
•.
. 19. Not exported to foreign countries.
,
20./Credit eight months.
21. Variation riiostly in raw matefial.
' .
•
22." Three-quarter goods at 45 centSj six-quarter at $1 75 per yard. .
23. Nothing less than the preserit rates.
:
24. Uriable to say.
25. No reserved prbfits;.profits iriyested in. iniprovemerits.
26.: One-half raw inaterials, one-fourth labor, and one-fourth profits.
27. From $10,000 to $15,000. •
«
* 28. Uriable to say.
-:
29.'Will be obliged to abandon the business.
.30/Uncertain; property would be useless.
" 3 1 . Yes.
32 to 40/Not answered.
Oneida County,

George H , Mc Whorter, Collector; firom HoUister Checkerville Woolen Mills,
-^ ;

1/New-York, Oneida county.
2. Woolen goods; water power..
- 3.-. In 1842; joirit stock.
<
4. One hundred thousand dollars.
- 5.. One hundred and twenty-five thousand dollars anriually.
6.-No borrowed capital.
7. Agitation of tariff.
8. No answer..
9. One hundred and twenty thousand dollars annua;lly; style three^
quarter woolens.
•
_
10., Three hundred thousand pounds foreign wool.
11. No answer.
'
12.. One hundred hands; average price per day five shillings.



1845.]

S E C R E T A R Y OF T H E TREASURY.
M—Continued.

• 301

.

13.' Twelve hours per day through the year, 'fi
V
14, Wages 50 per cerit..less in foreign countries.,
' •
15, Eight horses.
.
W, Find a market everywhere;
17. No.
18. United States.
•
19. Export none.
20. Sold at eight months'credit.
"• .
2^1. Little variation, taking materials and labor.
22. Average 50 cents,
23..Fifty per cent.
^
24. No answer,
25. No excess; any profits arising haye been expended in imprpye- »
ments.
/
^.
26. One-half raw'materials:; balance diyided betAveen labor a n d "

profits.

. ^

27. Fifteen thousand dollars per annum.
28. N oanswer;'

^ ^-'

' fi. ^ _ . / -^
.

' l ''

29. Abandon the business.
30. Profit would be thrown away,
. 31. Yes,.,
•, ' .' ^ \ " 32 to 40. Not ansAvered.
,
Orieida County,

- „
<:"

.o

^^^

>, ^ - ^ •"

o

"
"

,

From George H , McWhorter^ Collectdr—New York Mills,

1. NCAV York, county of Oneida, t, .^
2. Cotton; Water poAver.
,
;
3/ Iml825; Not a joint-stock concern.
4. Capital $350,000, '
5. For materials, &c.; $126,&00.
, 6 . Seven per cent. No borroAved capital.
' 7 . The agitation of the tariff question has probably produced as' much
variatiori as any other cause.
8. Unable to say;
'
9. One milhomyards annually; average price 13 cents; The style
is 4-4 shirtings, of _^No. 40 yarns.
10. Seven hundred and eighty bales of cotton annually; value,
$41,000.
11. Price about the same. ^
12. Forty-six men, 190 women, 62 boys and chiMren, Men. average
per week $7 50; women, $2 5 0 ; boys, $1 75 and $2..
13. Twelve hours through lhe year.
14. Wages dp not'differ niaterially in this country; say 33'per cent,
less in foreign countries;
>
15; Six horses;
.^
,'
16. Articles manufactured sent to NCAV York, Pftiladelphia, and Baltimore markets—principally to New York,
17. There is a competition of a foreign artiole to some extent.



302

R E P O R T S OF T H E

[1845.

M-—Continued.
18. In the United States.
19. Exports very hmited, if any,
. •'
20. Sold at eight months' credit.
21. Much thesame as at the, commencenient, taldng rnaterials and
labor together.
.
•'
22. At an ayerage of 14 cents per yard.
23. The present rate, and not less.
24. Do not know of any. ^
.^
25. No surplus profits; any profits arising have been expended in extending the business,
26. One-fourth is raAv material; one-haff labor.
27. From $25,000 to $30,000 a year.
28. Cannot say. . : ., .
29. Abandon the busine.ss, in all probability, from necessity.
30,, Uncertain; the property would b e unavailable,
S l . Yes.

/ ' •

:,

S2^to39/ Not answered.
40. Answered in No. 12.

. '.

.

•

. -

Oswego County. "^George H . McWhorter, Collector; firom Stevens^ West,
- '
- 'Woolen Manufacturers.
• ,1. New York,. Oswego county.
,2. Wpolen. Water power. ^ < '
3. In 1830. Not a jointrstock concern. ,
4. Capital $9,000.
fi
5. Say $6,000; about one-hsLff cash and one-half,inaterials.
6. Cannot say; but the rate of profit has not exceeded 7 per cent.
7. Canriot say; in 1840 and '41 the profits were greater than.since.
8. Np capital employed in any/othPr°place.
,
9. Say $7,000. Coarse woolen cloths.
10. About 18,000 lbs. native wool, at a cost of about $5,000; foreign
dye-stuffs, value $400.
^^. ^.
12; Ten men, at $1 per day; 5 Avomen, at $2 25^per week.
13. TAvelye hours the whole year.
- .
o
;>
14. Men's wages about 75 cents; women's-50 cents per.day.
15. One horse.
.
:\
16. Part sold at home, surplus about 300 rniles to a market.
17. Yes; toIvhat extent unable to say.
. 18, Generally in the country..^
19. None so'exported. ..
.
,
20. Such goods as are sent to market are .-sold for cash, and credit at
eight months, some bai'tered at home for all kinds of prod.uce.
21. Decreased say 40 per cent, since the estabhshment of the concern ; one-half by the introduction pf labor-saving machinery, and onehalf on materials employed.
: _
22. From 42 cerits to $1 per yard.
23. Twenty-five per cent.
/



1845.]

S E C R E T A R Y OF T H E TREASURY.

303

M—-Continued.
24.^ Cannot say.
25, Ten percent.
* .
26, About one-half in materials, three-eighths in labor, and oneeighth of profits.
27, About $2,000. Say about $5,000.
28, Carinot say.
. •
29, Would be compelled tp abandonlhe business.
30 to 32. Cannot say.
33, Real capital $9,000; none borrowed.
34. To about 25 per cent.
35 to.37. Cannot say.
•
38. Thinks there has been a considerable reduction in such manufactures,
"c a ;
"
39. Seyen per cent;-\ ;^ ;
40. Should think, about 75 per cent. .
Oswego County. .\'Geo%ge H.\McWhorter, Collector; firom Tallmage, ^
. ^ / °V •,.-*/,•
Wright ^ Co. '" . ..^':'>^ ^ • /
.^. c
''''' 1.: State of .NCA^/YorkrOswego county.'^; ; ^. / ^^
2 . P a p e r ; Avater p o w e r ;

; -.-'^ ' v ^ ^ <:•

, . /'

r

}

* . o c... . - . o ^o*'

3. In 18^7; not a jointrstock concern. '
-*
.' •
. ;4. Capital $14,.000. -fi-^
«
^^
>
.• '" 5/ Twelve thousand dollars for materials, &c.
.
6. The profits have not exceeded 7 per-cent,
-' 8. None. - . ^
9. Caiinot say. '
^ 'o
, 1 0 . $8,000domestic, $2,000 foreign.
11. Similar articles of paper, of French and English make, are much
cheapef than Ave can well.afford them.
12. Thirteen men^ eight to ten girls ; men $ 1 per day, girls 12J cents
per day and board.
:
^
,
,
;;
13. Ten hours aU the year. '
' 14., Cannot say, ~
^ :
15. Five hofses.
. ^
-.
'
1'6. At the manufactory in part, but most ofthe articles (say printing .
f paper) sent 300 rniles.
17. They do, but canriot.say to what extent.
18. Generally in NCAV York city and county,
19. None.
20. Articles sent abroad sold for cash, and. at from 3 to 6 months'
credit; some bartered at home for rnaterials and produce for consump- tion. ,
'./
.
.
21. Cannot say, but probably about the same.
22. Printing paper, at the establishment of the concern, sold for 12J
•cents per lb..; now at only 10 cents per lb.
^
.
23. Forty per cent.
24. Fpreign paperis often done up three rearris for twb.



.

304

-

;.

R E P O R t S O F THE^

:

-

[1845.

M^—Cpntinued.
25. Cannot ans wer.
27, $l,500%gricultural,.$l,200 domestic and foreign.
29. Should abandori the business. .
• ."
/ 30. CannotvSay.
i .
31. " Yes; >buying ..bonds and riiortgages at a share."
33. $26,000 about one quarter;
34. No reductiori, or not niore thanfive pef cent.
.35 to 37. Not ariswered. /.
. . .
. 3 8 ; There is none. ;
'•::-•
" .
39/"^ T e n p e r c e n t .

.

.

^
. •

., .-.• -.

40, Six;, shillings per day for; men, and for women one shilling and
.boards
"'^ • . /
.fi
.fi... fi .fi.. /'. :.'.. •,:;.••- /.-•.:.. '
Niagara,

R.„ H, Broughton, Collectdr; firom George Field, Agent ofiihe:
Niagara.Manufiacturing Company^. .

1, New: York, Niagara cprmty. . V ^,
^
^ o < '/^>
•^ "
' 2 . Cotton^; water poAver.
\ ' : < , ' ^ . • ' ' > ' ' ' ' • -'fi
'.fi'-'
S. By th'e'originah owners J n 183.5; oy the pres.ent incl841*. Joints

stock,'

:^

\ y

r ; > .• :. ^
^

' '^'fi'fi^

-•>

..' „ ^-

4,^^ Capital of original OAvnefs $60,0t)0, Avhich Avas all lost. Capitalof
present oAvners $60,000.
"
^
^ '
o
5. From $16,000 .to $18,(!00 for m'atefialsj annually, $750-per nionth
for labor, • ,
'
f
%.- - . "
^^
'ik6. The first company m^de . np.; profits, andlost their whole capital;
the present. OAvners lost moneyln 1841 and 1S42| in 1;843^ :at!nd 1844
made barely sufficient to cover losses.;pf thp. tAvo^.lprpceding years ;^
during the last yeaf .yfriade about 7 per cent., beinglhe first:actual profits
made by the establishment.
^' :
"fi
'^
/
7. Losses occasioned partly by the descPriding scale of duties on
importations previous to the j'-ear 1841.
8. Money is worth 7 per cent.; some farmers make 10 to 15, while
some make only 5 per cent. Mechanical labor yarious.
9. Make 4-4 brown sheetirigs, Aveighing about rune lbs, to each thirty
yards—^yarns nunibered 16 to 18—^which have varied frorii 6^ to^ 8 cents
per y a r d . .
:
10. Consume domestic products almpst entirely.
.
•
12. About eighty men, women, and- children; the wages- of the men
about $1 25 per day, wonien $3 per Aveek, and- the children $1 7^ per
w e e k . -

-'

..

^'^"^^

•..;•

•

• '•

•

13;: Twelve hourS'per'day, expept Saturday—then, nirie and: a hatlfl
M.. Some expert spinners- and weavers al this' factory receive more,
by three dollars per month, than similar ones-elseAvhere. The wages bf
the younger persons aboutthe same in the county.'
16. Aiboutoncrthird-find: a market .at home, while the residue is sent.
to the commercial marts, to be distributed in the- countiy. ; Some few
sent out ofthe coriritry.
•
.
>
. :
•, •
17. Is not aware of any^ fbfeijgn article coming into competition.



1845.]i

305

S E C R E T A R Y OP T H E TREASURY.
.M-^Coritinued.

19; Some few exported.
: 20. Generally sell at home and abroad^ on a.credit/of six months.
21. The cost of manufacturing has varied with the cost pf the raw
material and the rate of interest; the Avages of labor continuing about
the same.
23. In this, as in nearly all branches of doriiestic manufacture, a protective duty sufficierit, urider ordinary circumstances, to insure the home
market to our own manufactures^ is iridispensable to their-stability and
success.
•
-.
.
26. The cost of the raAv materialis about 2-5ths, the wages of labor and
other expenses about the same, to whicli is to. to be added waste and
ordinary wear of machinery and interest of capital.
27. Consume but few domestic productions except cotton, about
$1,000 worth of flour, and the riecessary supplies to the machinery.
30. Capital invested in buildings.and.'machinery carinot be withdrawnj
and to discontinue the business- Avhicb. has in^it all one's capital, or tO'
work at a certain loss, is equally disastrous;: and, generally speaking,
thpse who are driven fro.m any kind of manufacturing have no capital
left to employ.
'
«
. New, York.

From William A. Hadden,

' Tdble of? dvities o n carpetings i m d e r ' t
oa'
<
u
.si:
o

Description.

a>
'bJi-

^ S

'^ m

f.
36^

. a*

!l

P .
s. d.
1 3

• -5

Floorcloth baiz;e.........

-•

W.S:

:.s:

Super i n g r a i n . . . . . . . . . . 36
Inferior Brussels
27
Better Brussels;........ 27B^est Brussels
• 27
Three-ply ingrain........ 36
AVilton
; . . . . . . . . 27'
Axminster
27
Hearth r u g s ; . . . , . . . . . . .

tuo

•
•- erf

o

Pine ingrain

.

^ S•

'S'

h

Remarks.

Itf' o-

6 ^ ..
cts.
30:05

cts.
30

cts.

30

Q

44.37
30
110
55
68.57'
. 2 10
55
: 3 6 • 84.70=
55
4^ 0 • 96:80. 3 0 ,72.60 . 6 5
65
7 6 18r.50
65
10 0 242.00

•

••
o

14

30
4ii:
411
41i
65
48i
481

'per ct.
Prohibitory; none n o w
100
imported.
Do.
do.
:67i60
Do.
do.
49Do,
do.
4 2 | : A few stiir imported.
•
90 .Prohibitory..
26
Still imported.Do.
20
Prohibitory; v e r y ' few
40^
no-w imported.
100 to .Prohibitory, as to lOV/er
qualities-.:..
30.

NEAV YonK,-September 19, 1845.

SiRo I t being generally understopd'that a report is, about to emanate
from ybur Departrrierit iri relation to our revenue laws, and our presenttariff in particular, I b e g to hand you a table showing its effect upon the
article of carpeting, in the^ importation of which I have been-rathpf
extensively engaged for years past* You Aviil observe that the law, asit now stands,; virtually excludes all but the most costly descriptiori of
VOL. v.—20.




306

R E P O R T S OF T H E

[1845.

M—-Continued.
carpets, such as are used by a coniparatively small class of consurners,
namely, the most Wealthy.
Very, respectfully, your obedient servant,
W. A. HADDEN.
Hon. SECRETARY OF THE TREASURY, Washington.
Orange County.. From Daniel Ja.ckson,
Speaks of the hue and cry raised by the Whig papers about the circulars npt being sent to Whig manufacturers, and requests that 15 copies
be sent him for that purpose.
.
;
Alhany.

From Albert Gallup, Deputy. Collector. • .

States that, he sent the circulars to manufacturers with Avhom h e i s
acquainted, but as yet has received no ansAver to the interrogatories.
Thinks.more information can be derived from the census returns of the
State thah thrpugh any other channel.

ANSWERS TO CIRCULAR No. 2.

Rochester, Monroe County: From L . B. Langworthy, Collector.
1. The principal sta.ples of the State are wheat, Indian corn, oats,
barley, potatoes, and rye; neither rice, cotton, nor tobacco are grown.
2. Probably three-fourths of the capital ofthe State invested in agriculture.
3. Nearly wholly dependent upon them.
4. Deducting necessary outla)^ probably 4 per cenl.
5. Two per cent, more,than in the precedirig period.
6. Since 1842 the.avera.ge value of wheat has been about 84 cents;
Indian corn, 37 cents; oats, 18 cents;: r5;-e, 40 cents; -potatoes, 18 cents."
Previous to 1842 the prices, during some years, Avere so affected by the
currency that.it is'difficult to state the average price; yet it Ayas considerably higher than since that period.' From this cause, too, it is
nearly impossible to tell the.real effect of the tariffof 1842 on the value
of agricultural productions. '
. "
7. Prices, however, have lallen, arid it must be admitted that since
1842 the currency of the Stale has been comparatively steady. We
have not been visited by any monetary conAmlsion consequent upon a
paper-money inflation.
8. The State raises (Avrth the exception of horses, probably) rnore than
sufficient of the articles enurnerated in this interrogatory for its OAVU consumption; and, as a general thing, prices have follen since the passage
ofthe tariff act of 1842; and for-the ten preceding, years no correct data
can be given, as the piices rose and fell in the exact ratio ofthe inflation,
and curtailment of.our rascally currenc)^
• 9; Althpugh dependent upon agricultural products in a great degree.



1845.]

S E C R E T A R Y QF T H E TREASURY.
M—Continued.

307
»

the profits on mariufactures do not diminish in the same proportion;
nevertheless, the value consumed of the latter must be'affected by the
prosperity of the former. The tariff act bestows a bonus on the one
and not on the other. •
^ 10. The average prices of prptected articles have not been as IOAV, in
proportion, as the staple pirodu'ctions of the State for the last threeyears
as in the preceding ten. The prices of manufactured goods, in general,
have been higher, and an increased expense to the farmer has.been the
consequence.
11. The State exports chiefly manufactured goods of AVood, [wool?]
iron, and leather; canriot say further.
20. WindoAv glass is manufactured in the State,: and the duty on it
amounts to a prohibitipn of the article.
'
.
26.: The duties do not benefit those engaged in agricultural pursuits.
The duty on wheat is not needed, and that on wool affords little or no
protection to the grower. That on cheap wool of South'Arnerica, which
more immediately comes into competition Avith that raised by our own
farmers, is by far too IOAV. The tariff, in this respect, is made for the
especial behoof of the manufacturer, enabling him to buy the raw material as low arid sell his goods as high as.possible.
27. Not answered.
Rochester, Monroe County. L . B. Langworthy, Collector, encloses answers
\,
firorn—
—. \_Name not mentioned.]
1/ Wheat, rye/Indian corn, oats, barley, potatoes, AVPOI, butter, and
cheese.
2. Three-fourths-of the entire capital ofthe State invested in agricultural pursuits.
':
3. About one-half of the ma^ermZ that goes to make up the commercial,
manufiacturing, and mechanical business, and the riavigation of western
New York, are dependent upon the agricultural productions,of this State
and the western lakes; balance from other States and foreign productions.
4. From 4 to 5 per cent.
5. The annual profits, for the ten years preceding, AA^ere greater than
during the three years succeeding arid including 1842, Avhich has been
more or less influericed by the increased productions of the far West, the
immense immigration, the increased facilities of transportation, and the
operation ofthe 2^ar?yof 1842.
6. The average value of Avheal from 1832 to 1842 was, in this market,
where frprn 500,00010 600,000 barrels are manufactured annually,
$1 03; corn, 50 cents; and wool, 37 cents. For the years 1842 to 1845, ^
wheat has averaged 86 cents, corn 40 cents, and AVOOI.31 cents/ It is difficult to estimate the average, profits per hand, from the manner iri
which agricultural labor is performed.
7. The excessive prices of the ten years precedirig 1842 were materially affected by the inflation ofthe currency; arid every article of agricultural production in this quarter of the'Statp has declined since the
passage of the tariff act, particularly wool, contrkry to expectation.



308

REPORTS G® THFT
/

,

[1845.

Mr—Continued/

8/ The State produces more than its supply of all those articles-; the^.
value of all has receded: since the passage of this tariff
9. As far as. Avestern New York is cPricernedy yes-.
10. They have not, although competition is now gently operatirig upon;
prices;. but, in many cases,, those foreign articles which, are; all but
excluded from our rnarkets: arelurnished b y our manufacturers, at pricesr
close, uponlhe rate that foreign articles can be sold for, Avith the duty
added—as cotton and woolen goods, iron?, glass,. .&c.
11. The Avestern part of this State and lake coast export some-lea.th.er,.
rnachinery, arid agricultural, implements, • but at prices: considei^ably
lower. than fair rates, partly OAving. to; lhe: countervaihrig; imperial and:
provincialiduties of Canada. .'
. .
.. .
12. Cannot ariswer satisfactorily.;
•
13. If a country's im2.?.07.t5 greatly exceed^its exports-,, and the balance
has to be paid in coin, it Avould: seem to b e a necessary consequence that
the: couritry Avould be drained of the precious metals.; but it i& proved tO:
the-contrary by many- years' experience, and. may in a nieasure be.
accourited for by the irnmense quantities brought into the country, by
emigrants, the production of our mines, and the payments riiade h j stock,
and-paper. Excessive- duties must haA^e aii:unfavorable effect on exports-,.
especially on mariufactures, not only from countervaihng duties of foreign
governments, but from the inflated prices ofi labor consequerit on the exclusion ofi competition.
14. The western district of the State o f NCAV York is strictly an agri- ^
cultural region, .and therefore canriot ansAver this question, satisfactorily.
15. In this section, only for the lake trade.
16 to 18i Not ansAvered.
19. As far as the lake trade.is concerried, all imported •merchandise is
entitled to draAvback; there is no discriminatiorimade by thelaw of 1842,.
20. All articles (or many of thern) of Avhich iron, cotton,.and AVOOI
are the chief componeiits,..together Avith glass and leather. This question, can only be correctly :answered: by manufacturers and irnporters;,
and there is a rnanifest. repugnance in a certain class to giYO the Irue facts
inihe case, :
'
.'•.
';•
. .
21. This rinterrogatory must be ariswered by the experienced among
cpri^iri^i'oial men, I n the absence of-experience oh the "subject, the ca^Ii:
systm: would: seern to; claim a preference over, the warehouse or credit:
'system,
.
22. Mariyarlicles which: now p a y a Aeat'^^i^^j^^vshou^
or:nearly
so., viz; all such articles as we imperiously:require, and whicli Ave do not
nor ever can produce, and many, of thpse of which: labor, is -the. chief com:ponent of value, and that; of a cheap description?: to enter into.-competi^
tiori with which presupposes a most abject state ofi population. Of articles
now firee, which might pay a moderate dutjs.3,r.e. dye-woods, copper in all
shapesy.giindstones,.^and] India.: riihben; fov reasons that they are used.by
manufacturers: and cornpanies that Ayill be iricidentaily Or otherAvise
protected^-^spme of them;, the: subject ^^' gfeat prqfitSito^the manufacturer^
aiid4yth^slsii.ge!!^:pwd^^
,,
.
.



1S45.3

S E C R E T A R Y OF T H E TREASURY.

309

M-i^Gontiriued.
As far as the lake is concerned, the articles firesh fish, staves', shingles,
pail dndtid) holts, (blocks,) re^Z, white, and yellow cedar posts, and flat hoopstuff, should pay about. 10 per Cent.
« 23. Not answered.
24. Its operation is bad on all the articles which are the prirrie necessaries of life, which causes general complaint on account ofthe unequal
duties of the present tariff .when compared with the non-tdxdiion of the
luxuries and higher grades of articles. .
25. Cannot answer.
26. The agricultural community "are only benefited by the operation
of the tariff in the case where the manufacturers who are consumers can
only sustain themselves by its heavy discriniihating dutiesi
The State .of NCAV York is undoubtedly steadily progressing in prosperity* From its favorable location, its S5^stem of internal comrriurrication, and its fertile lands, (not being strictly a manufacturirig State,) it
will Continue to do so, under a fair and equalized revenue tariff, based
upon ad valorem duties, at a ra^io that the manufacturers AVho .are consumers to a considerable amourit may live and make as fair a profit as other
investments.
.
S7. The prices of AVOOI, from reliable sou/rces, fot severi years priorto
1842, in this region was 37 1-10 cents; and since, including '42, is 31
2-10 cents—average of all grades. The produoe has doubled since
1840, increased in fineriess of staple and:weight df fleece, and decreased
in price, notwithstanding the protection given to the manufacturers. Of
the absolute fallacy of its, necessity there is no better proof than the fiact
that they are enabled to compete in fioreign markets with fioreign goods.
28. As there are no mines in this State^except iron, therefore cannot
. answer this question. "
.
'
-•

Cortland village. New York.

From Henry S. Randall.

In ansAvering the interrogatories cpntained in your circular, I shall
confine myself to those pertaining to agriculture, the only branch of
physical industry with Avhicli I have any extended practical acquaintance.
' .
Those of my ansAvers Avhich erribrace facts affected by local position,
as, for examplcj the prices of products and staples, are designed to
represent the southern or grazing sectioris of New York., I iriclude under
this head all that'pait of the State lying southof thelirriestoneor wheat-^
producing region. The line of division, with soriie exceptions, would
nearly correspond with a right line drawn from Buffalo to the mouth of
the Mohawk river. The great triangle, bounded by Oswego river. Lake
Ontario, and the St. Lawrence ori the Avest,,east by Lake Champlain
and the Hudson, and south by the Erie canal, though presenting differ-^
ent geological features from the southern section above specified, is also
a glazing, as contradistinguished from a wheat-growing region. Though
the prices of its rriiriPr agricultural products and staples, take thewhole
legion tpgether, riiightj for a term of years, considerably vary from those



310

R E P O R T S OF T H E

184^.]

,M—Continued.
of the southern section, by reason of the sterility of considerable portions
of it andthe new settlement of others, still it is probable thatits agricultural interests Avould be similarly, affected by legislation designed to
modify the riatural course of production and trade.
: i
^
The courities and parts of counties comprising l h e southern section)
taken as a Avliole, produce a surplus of wool, butter, cheese, pork, and
beef;, about a supply of Indian corn, barleyj oats, and buckAvheat; also
pease and beans; and less than a supply of Avheat. West of the Catskill mountains this region has no outward niarket for its sui*plus products,
excepting on the .Erie canalon the north, reached, from some portions
of it, through the lakes and lateral canals; and th.e southern markets^
reached through the Susquehannah, the DelaAvare, and the Alleghany
rivers. From the greater pprtion ofit much land transportation is necessary to reach outAvard or domestic rnarkets of any extent; and, consequently, though the prices' of the articles whicli will bear transportation
are regulated by lhe large outward markets, those of the: minor and also
the less portable products, such as oats, pease, beans, hay,.potatoes, &c.^
are, to a certain extent, only nominal, and are considerably affected by
local circumstances. Though one hundred tons, of hay, or one or two .
thousand bushels of potatoes, would glut the market for an entire year
in many towns in southern • New York, still the nominal price wo.uld
remain the same, and would frequently exceed those of the canal or city
markets. This Avill appear in the tables of prices hereafter given. These
high prices, therefore, are no index of that prosperous agricultural condition Avhich they'would, at first vicAV, seern to indicate. The coarser
•grains, pulse, roots, and hay, have in fact. I n the main, in the whole''
southern region, to be reconverted into wool, dairy products, beef, pork,
&c.,.before they-find any cash market.
'
'
'•
I have judged it best, in giving prices and in making all estimates, to
conform to the .home, rather than the city market standard. I have supposed it your object to ascertain, the profits of the producer. The intermediate purchaser, the drover, packer, wool, butter, or cheese buyer,
expects to receive a profit considerably-exceeding disbursements and
transportation.,
1. The agricultural products ofthe State of New York arelhe cereal
gra,ins, live stock, products of the dairy, wool, potatoes, hay, sugar, hops,
•products of the orchard, hemp, flax, silk, cor.d-Avopd, Avax, &c. No
cotton or rice is cultivated in the S.tate, and not to exceed 1,000 pounds
per annum of tobacco.
2. Probably nearly four-fifths of the capital ofthe State is invested in
agricultural productions. In 1839 the capital invested in manufactures
was $55,252,779; in commerce, fisheries, mines, and other interests,
$107,425,593. The valuation of the real and personal estate that year
Avas $519,058,782. This would show that a fraction above three-fourths
of the capital of the State was invested in agriculture. But in this
estimate the capital employed in agricultural lcd)or is not taken into
account, and it is also'Avell known that it is the practice of assessors to
assess real and personal estate at not much beyond one-half its actual



1845.]

SECRETARY OF T H E TREASURY.

311

M—Continued.
value/ Probably $1,000,000,000 would not exceed the Avhole actual
arnount-of capital now invested in a.griculture in the State.
3. I know of no data by which the facts involved in the question can
b e settled Avith precision. It is the province of both the mechanic and
manufacturer to prepare the raw material of the products and substances
of the earth for human use, A great share of these products, and by far
the mpst indispensable of them, are supplied by agriculture. Commerce
and navigation are the media ofthe exchange and transportation. The
connection, therefore, between these interests and agriculture is necessary and intimate*
^
4. The average netprofits of agricultural production,.where a considerable section of the country is included in the estimate, must necessarily
be, to some exterit, conjectured. More light Avill be throAvn on this
subject, so far as this State is concerned, by the publication of the census
taken this year, which will contain Inany statistics of importance not
embraced in the United States census. The-United States census,
though giving gross amounts of products, does not give the number of
acres cultivated, the amPunt of labor, or the animals employed to obtain
them. Dairy- products, for example, are stated, but not the number of
coAvs milked, acres depastured, or laborers employed. On sheep alone
are we enabled to obtain the product per anirnal. It appears that in
1840 the number of sheep in the Sta.te was 5,118,777, and the product
. in wool 9,845,295 pounds, or less than two pounds per head. It is to be
hoped, and it is probably true, that this miserably low, average weight
of fleece was improved in 1842, and has continued to improve since.
We. will assume that the average for that and the three succeeding years
has been 2 pounds per head. The average price for that peiiod has been,
as will be shown hereafter, 31 1-16 cents. It.Avould require land of
-more than medium quality, ''on well-managed farms," to sustain-fiye
sheep to the acre during summer, or the hay from half an acre to sustain
the same number during winter.* The land Avhich would do this AvPuld
be Avorth at least tAventy dpllars per acrpit The average price of sheep,
immediately after shearing, has not been far from $1 25 per head; lambs
a t t h e same time 75 cents. The average annual increase in lambs is
probably not far from, eighty per cent.; or, where.the number of lambs
is less by reason/pf the number of Avethers in the flock, the growth ofthe,
latter wpuld give a corresponding profit.
The profit and loss account, then, with one hundred sheep, would
stand thus:
100 sheep, to interest on purchase money .
:
. . . . . . . . . . . $8 75
To iriterest.on 30 acres^ at $20 per acre .
......._.,...
42 00
To curing and storing hay on 5 acres of above . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 25
To expense of shearing
^.. .
------....
. . . . ..^. -. 3 00
To loss by death—-say two per centum over and above yalue of
^ pulled w o o l . . . . - . -2 50
~

'

•

s

.

.

•

•

•

•

.

•

-

•

•

.

•

^It is ordinarily estimated that, on the average,, one acre -w-ill keep three sheep a year.
f.The grazing lands ofthe southern sectionar'e far lower priced than the wheat region, though
they wiir produce probably as m.uch or more grass-and hay.



312

R E P O R T S OF T H E ;

[1845.

M—-Continued. '
To labor of fodderuig d.uring Ayiriter—-tsay...,^...............--,., $5 ^00
To salt," tar, and summer c a r e . . . . .
.-.--., - - . . -r-r -r -. -—— -^ 09
To intereston winter .shelter .(worth., say |2.5)^^ -....;....,- -..=.. ..,-V 1 75
•

•

^ • . "

•. •

.

'• •

_ ,
•

•CR.

• • 173 25
^

.

:

By 200 pounds wool,, at .31 1-16 cerits per p o u n d . . .
. . . - . . , $6.2 12
By 80 lambs, at 75 cents per h e a d . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ^ . . . . . . . . ; .... 60 00
By -manure . . - - . . - . . . .
.
.,
. . . . . - . - . . . . - . . ^ . . . . . 5 00
.
Balance,.,....,

.

...,,.. J

127 12
/.:

. . . f 53 87

Making:a net profit of $1 79 17-30 per acre on lands worth $20.'
Now, 100 acres of cleared land of aboA^e quality (and this would at
least equal the ayerage in the southern sectipn pf New York) would support 333J sheep, and give an income of $179 5 6 | . On the average, at
least thirty acres of Avood land Avill belong to every farm. Avhich contains
one hundred acres of cleared land. The interest on this would be $42.
Deduct from this $11 25.for thirty cords of wood, for use of family,
(Avorth not to exceed 37J cents per cord, standing;) leaving the account
pf an exclusively sheep farm ofthe above specified size to stand thus:
Farm: ofi 1^0 acres.
Tp interest on capital. . . , . . . . . , . . . . , . . . . . . „ . . . ^ „.,...,......,..... ..$182 0.0
To taxes and insurance—-say . . , . , . . ' , . . , . > . ^ . , , . . . . . , . ; • . . , , . . 12 00
To repairs to fences and buildings . . - - . . . . . . . . . . -. - - . . . . - . . . . . - 20 00
'^•\-

•

' $-214 00

By keeping 333 J sheep, yielding a profit of
$319 56
By 30 cords of wood, at 37^ cents per c o r d . . . . . . . . . . . \ - . . .
11 25
330 81
Balance,..

..-.

$116 81

I will now give a profit and loss accpunt of rearing neat stock; selects
ing steers, which give a better return t o t h e breeder and grazier than
COAVS. I shall here be under the necessity of abaridoning estimates by
acres, as nP farmer in the Uriited States, has, so far as .1 am informed,
made experiments to determine the average amount of land required to
supply the summer feed of neat stock of the various ages, from which.
reliable data can be drawn. I shall therefore estirriate by the average
price of pasturage, hay, & c . : *
...
Cost of rearing a calf up to the first winter
. , . . , . . , :$4 00
Hay for first Avinter, half ton, at $ 6 per t o n . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . / 3 00
'-'•'•:

.'.

' ."'

•

'

-$7

m -

Summering a yearling, 26 weeks, at 10 cerits pel A v e e k . : , . , . . - , 12 60



Ig45.|

SECRETARY OF T H E TREASURY.

313

M—rContinued.
Hay for second winter, one ton.
interest on first year's .'disbursements.

$6 00
• 49
$9 0.9

^ Summering a two-year old,:26 weeks, at 16 cents per w e e k . . . . $4 16
Hay for third winter, I J ton
.
...=
. .9 00
interest on previous year's disbursements . . . . . / . '
/
1 12
.-.••'•

$14 28

Pasturing 8 Aveeks to ordinary time of sale,; at 22 cts. per week.' $1 76
Interest on previous •disbursements, 8 weeks.....,
.;...:..
. 35
Previous d i s b u r s e m e n t s . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . ^.,.../.... .'..'..•.•........ 30 ^7
Total cost of raising a steer until three yeai's and two months o l d . . $32 48
Average .price of grass and hay-fed steer, at that .age, notto exceed.: $ 18 00
I have not estimated the pasturage as high as it will average in this
(Cprtland) and some of the better southern counties; perhaps a trifle
higher than the price in some of the more sparsely settled and remote
from markets. At all events, 1 feel authorized in saying that no farmer
can rear neat stock on grass and hay alone to "three years old past,"
and obtain within ten dollars per head, of the nominal prices ofthe grass
and hay consumed by them. In the a:bove estimate I have let manure
offset against labor in feeding, &c.
Dairying, though sufficieritly familiar with the estimales of others, I
have not had sufficient personal experience in to undertake to speak of
its. various processes with entire accuracy. The average profits are not
far from those derived from sheep husbandry, but it is attended with
much more hard and confining laibor. It also, reqriires better soils and
a larger investment of capital.
\
Fattening pork beyond what is necessary for family use, is not generally considered so profitable as wool-growing or dairying.
The same reniark will apply to the rearing of horses.
The expense of preparing the .soils for the cereal grains (Avith the
exception of Indian corn) is not far from the same. . In the following
table allexpenses are included:
'
-

UH

•o
t-l

1

%H

. •
di'
t-l

li

•S 0

• ^

^

•

•

'r5 '^

1

ai

0)

i ' ^>-• e •
•

. . '^ • - ;

•§

•.:3 53 u ci^ •

•'

u

a;
•P.

Cost per acre.

-. i ' ^
(D

•

o

'« m

^

- 1^
i^..
v30
Indian corn, $ 1 5 . , . . . . . . . , . . . . .
Spring wheat, 9 . , , . , . , . . . . . = . -12
.Barley,
9 . . . . . , , . , . . . . • . 28
bats,
7..
......
38



..

.

•

• ^ .c S ;>»
•-;
ro

c H - . ^ <D
>- -^ >.

•
•

> ba cutc , ,

^•n%^M •

$5
1
1
1

00 $20 00
00
12 40
25
13 29
25
10 18

a •

««
p
a. _ 1

$5
3
4
3

00.
40 l
29
18

314

REPORTS OF THE
I

V

-

[1845,

M—Continued.

In considering the profits of these several.branches qf husbandry, we
are.not to forget that there are a fcAv farms where we can select a single
branch, theit Avhich appears mpst profitable under favorable circumstances, and pursue i t t o the exclusiori of all others. There are lands
and grasses on rriost farms adapted to one kind of animals, and not to
anpther; and the same is true in relation to grains. Wet lands and
coarse grasses are unsuitable for sheep; they rnust be depastured by'
grosser feeding animals. High poor lands and steep declivities, on thP
other hand, could not be as profitably grazed by neat cattle as by sheep.
He who has lands adapted tothe cultivation of Indian corn:Avill.alwa3^s
find it a highly profitable crop; but there is rarely- a farm in NCAV York
Avhere the whole, or even a half, is suitable for Indian corn. Ifit were,
it would be impracticable to obtain the necessary manure. If that was
obtained, it is out of the power of any ordinary farmer, to raise force ^
enoughlo get in, hoe,.and finally harvest such a disproportioned crop.
If we cultivate Indian, cprn, we must have cattle or horses to consurire
the stalks, arid SAvme to eat the soft or .unmarketable corn. To crop our
lands with any reference to an ecoriomical preservation of their fertility,
we must resort to a rotation of crops,' requiririg at least three kinds of
grain, or two kinds of grain and one kind of roots.; arid so on through
the Avhole circle of husbandry.
Whatever theoretical reasons there may be in favor of a division of
labor on the farm, as Avell as in mechanical occupations,-and however
well the theory rnight Avork pn favprable soils and near large markets,
Avhere CA^ery product can be sold without converting it into another product, it.is a reasoning which Avill not apply in the inland agricuUural
regions of the United, States. I have already stated that, although in
those inland positions all products bear a nominal price/ rnany of them,
such as hay, potatoes, and eyen the coarse grains, find a cash market
only, to a veiy limited extent.
,
On thewhole, it is my ppinion that ten percentum is realized on agricultural ^investments only by farmers of skill and under favorable circum-.
stances; that frpm six to seven per, centum is not far from the average
profit from and including the.year 1842.
* •:
5. For the ten preceding years thp a.verage profits wpuld be someAvhat higher. Aninspectipn of the tables of prices below will enable
you to determine this question with as muc;h accuracy as could the prac-;
tical farmer. Duririg the years of high prices the expense of producing
Avas increased, the price of rrian" arid horse labor being higher, but not
sufficiently so to counterbalance the increase of profits. The cost of
production Avas, say, from one to two per centum higher ad valorem
on the products"; I feel confident not to exceed this. Now the price of
wheat from 1832 to 1842 averaged $1 33J; frorn 1842 to 1845, inclusive, 9 2 | cents; making an avera.ge differe:nce of 41^ cents perbushel!*
The prices of other products and staples, as will be seen by the tables,
bore about the same ratio to each other diiring those periods.
*The prices of 1845 estimated up to the 15th of October,



1845.]

S E C R E T A R Y OF T H E TREASURY.
M—Continued.

315
,.

6. In giving the tables of prices asked forin your sixth question,. I
have thought it not expedierit to rely simply on farm, books. These,
though correct as far as they go, could not indicate average prices. I
have, therefore, resorted to the books of extensiye dealers in the several
prpducts,; giving in all cases the average prices paid to the producer.
For the .following table of prices of the cereal grains, pulse, &c., I am
indebted to Mr. Abrabam Mudge, a miller of staiiding in this place,
(thirty miles.south of the Erie canal.)
BuckOats. - wheat.

Years.

Wheat.'

Indian
corn.

1832../..
....
1833
1834._..../...,...
1835.
1836
.
:
• 1837 . . . i . : . . . . . . . . . .
1838...
1839.....
1840..............
1841
:
1842....../../...'.. .
1843..............
1844.....:.....-:...^
1845^..-.....:'
.•

$112
1 12
1 06
1 25
1 38
2 00
1 60
1 50
1 25
1 07
1 06
88
. 85
90

$0-56,
35
65
38
56
65
62
60 .
•37.
69
• 75. ' 3 8
40
•87 . 75
1.00
44
: 75
42
88 • 7 0
80
38
62
. 62
50
30
62
50
.28
25
60
45
20
44
40
20
40
44
25
40
' 50.

Barley.
Cts.

Cts. .

Peas.
Cts.

CIS.

60 .
62
62
40
56
75
75
50
80
• .62
75
50
5 0 . 62
50
38 50
•38
50
38
31 . . 40.
44
30 .
40
31
44
44

To enable you to compare the prices of the southern counties Avith
those of the markets orr the Erie canal; (which are supposed to correspond, with those of NCAV York, bating the price of transportation,) I
append the followirig table. I am indebted for it to George Geddes,
./Esq., of Tyler, (one of the rnost intelligent and correct of our New York
agriculturists,) who collated it for me from the books of the most extent
sive grain riierchants in Syracuse. The averages are taken betAveen the
1st of April for each year, except" 1845, which only extends to August/
'

Years.

Wheat.

Indian corn.
Cts. .

1840
/...
1841. . . .
1 8 4 2 , . . •..:,-............
1843w
1844
•./.....
1845....

$0-S6
98.7
1 06.7
'87.5
90
91

44
:52.l
44.2
•. 47.7
43.1

Oats.

Barley.
• •

Cts.

Cts. -

43.1
46
35
36
53

•28
31.5
• 26• •

1 9 ;

'•

22 ;.

*I think the disparity was less between the average prices in lhe canal and city markets of
these respectiye periods. Local circumstances had a bearing on them iri the southern counties.



316

R E P O R T S OF T H E
Mr-^Gontinuedv.

For the prices of pork, eggs, and feathers, I aim iridebted to "Messrs.
J . Barker & Son, extensive dealersN of Homer; for those of butter and
•cheese, to James, Van; Valen & Co., of this place, who purchase those
•articles :to the valueof $100,000 annualy; for those of beef, to Rufus
Boies & Sons, of this town, extensive.dealers and packers; for those of
wages, to niy own recollections, aided by those of varioris agriculturists
with whom I have conferred on the subject. I have found it impossible
to ascertain the average prices of talloAv, lard, and several other pro.ducts, there being httle commerce here in those articles. Hay and
^potatoes I have omitted, as the prices, as befPre stated, would be merely
nominal.
.
.
.
Years.

1832..
1833..
1834..
1835..
1836..
1837-..
1838..
1839..
18-40...
1841..
1842..
1843..
1844/.
1845..

Wages per| Pork per Beef :per
month.
cwt.
cwt.
^10 50
10 50
10 25
11 50
12 50
13 50
14 00
14 00
12 00
ll 00
10 50
10 00
10 00
10 00

P 00
00
00
GO
00
00
00
50
50
50
00
75
50'

Butter.
Cts.
10

.f7 00
9 00
10 00
10 50

121
14
ISIS
18
15

-Cheese. Feathers.
Cts.
5
6
6
• 7 .
• 8

•lr

m
13
111
10.
iir
14

4|

^
5h

Cts.
-37i
37i
44
^50
50
62|
62i
62|
56
37,37g
37^

Eggs ,per|
ozen.
Cts.
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
1
6
6
6
6

372

37.

For the following table of prices I am indebted to Messrs. Rufus Boies
and Sons, the drovers above mentioned.
Years.

Oxen in
yoke.

1835...
•• $70' ;
1836......
• 85 •
18.37
.........
100
105
18-38
18.39.....-•
.... • • 85 •
.70
1840
' 65
1841.......
1842-.
...........
55
1843
.;........
60
1844
65,
1845:
......:
70

Three-year, Two-year Dairy cows. Wethers. |
old .steers. old steers. :

$24
• 28
30
82
28
24
20
14
16 .
17
20

$14 : •
. .20
22
. 24
• 20
.
14
•
13
9
10
12
14

$27:
35
38
35
25
20
18
13
14
17
18

$2 2§ .
. 2',75
2 75
2 00
1 75
1 50
1 25
1 06
1 25
2 12J
1 25

In the above table each animal is priced sepai^ately, with the excep*
tiori of oxen iri yoke, Avhere the price of a pair of yoke is given.



1.845.]j

S E C R E T A R Y OF T H E - TREASURY.
M—^Continued/

317
,

I have not: included Avool in any of the above products, aS; you make
' it a separate subject of inq.iuiry in your 27th interrogatory;.
It would be difficult to state, with precisiori (iri answer to the latter
clause of the 6th iriterrogatory) ''the net income per hand," on account
of the variety pf avocations Avhich the riorthern laborer engages in.. In
the estimates in ariswer to your 4th:, interrogatory, I have reckoned in
labor,;in; all casesj as chargeable to,, or to be deducted from.,lhe gross:
proceeds ofeach crop or animal; and this Avill afford., perhaps, sufficient
data to the fact.you. desire to ascertain.
• .
•
7. Prices of agricultural products have been; raised by the operation: of.
tariff* laAvs;.; but; far more, however,.-ini m y judgment,, from the: confidence
or fear these; laws, have been the" means of inspiringv than from any
natural or legitimate consequences;: groAving out of them. Wool is;thegi'cat protected: article ofthe northern agriculturist—the only one whichreally enters-materially into his/estimate of the benefits .which he expects
to derive from, the tariff";, but Avool averages; higher in price urider the"coHiprpmise tariff^,:" than that enacted i n l 8 4 2 . ; ,
The reason for this brings me: to the second branch pf your inquiry,;.
'viz,: the effect- of the state of the currency on agrieultural prices and
profits. One has.but.toinspect.the table of prices, above jlo perceive the:
direct consequences, in the markets: of those, great, expansions and contractions of the circulating, mediuni: Avhicli occurred between: 1832 and
1842.. At one.peripd the agriculturist waS: incited, to extravagance and:
injudicious, irivestments of capital by unreasonably high; prices—the
. effect of the cheapness of pamper, money, rather than, the increasing demand:
for^ the product;, and:at ariother. he-vA'as pressed to/the earth bj^ the reaction and panic- follpAving; such periods,- and the depreciatiori: of his capital
in unprofitable investmerjts;.
' .
.
'
Thus- far I have spoken df prices;; but your inquiry: further- embraces
agricultural profits.. The.effect.of the tariff has. been to raise the value
o.fAvool,but.^ls.o to enhance the prices of articleS:"of foreign production'
consumed by the farmer; I. think, the.balance of grain has been in faA^or
ofthe wool grower, but I think such, gain-isvfar below the popular estimate. Few fa.rmers. in: this- State, in propprtion. to the .Avhole- number,.,
are benefited .$25: in the sa.le of their AVOOI,. by the oper ation. of the tariff*..
He must be a plain hA^er, and use fcAV ofthe necessaries and luxuries of
life-,. Avho does not: pay an approximation to this sum, in duties, on foreign
articles: consumed by him, or doniestic articles, whose prices are enhanced
by those duties. - HOAV mucliis: to be dpducted frorii what the tariff costs
him,.by reason of"one of its supposed indireet effects, viz: the crealionof aliom,e: market: for his; other products besides wpol, by building up a .
manufacturing: interest, I -do:ri.ot consider if rny pro-vince; here to discuss.
That; riiore benefits. Av.ould resultr to the. Avoobgrowing farmer from
the present tariff* were it not for certain frauds and evasions practised.,
b.}'- those imposing: wool.under-certairi of its provisions, I have no doubt.
These willbe alluded, to:in answering: a; subsequent inquiry.
8; The State of NCAV York raises a sufficient supply; of "horses^



318

R E P O R T S OF T H E

[1845.

M—Continued.
mules, hogs, rmeats,- and other proAdsions." By the Uriited States census of 1840 it appears that there Avere then in the State—
Horses and mules
474,543
Neat c a t t l e . . .
. . . . . 1,911,244..
Swine. . . . . . . . .
^
. / . 1,900,065
.9. To this interrogatory, I will simply express my decided conviction that the connectipn betweeri the iriterests alluded to is so intimate
that their profits increase or diminish together.
26. To the first clause of the iriterrogatory I have already made
ansAver under the 7th question.
In ansAver to the second -clause, I Would say that I believe the present
duties ''. can be so modified in some other Avay than by reducing them
so as to benefit the groAvers." I Avould specify particularly the duty on
wools Avorth seven cerits or under at the place of exportation.
The diity on AVOOI, ''the value AA^hereof at the last port ol" place
Avhence exported irito the United States shall be seven cents or under
per pound," is not, I think I am fully authorized in saying, believed by
the most intelligent and leading agriculturists of this .State to be sufficient, or to bear any just proportion to that on other wools, viz: 3 cents
per pound and thirty per centum ad valorem'. If the wool thus invoiced
were all of the quality Avhose admission was contemplated under the
tariff act of 1842, viz:, that of a quality coarser than any groAvn in the
United States, still its adniission at such rates of duty Avould prevent
the extension of a branch of industry Avhich might be productive of
widely-diffused beriefit.. The high inferior lands of Virginia, the Carolinas, Tennessee, and, in short, all the southern States, and to a certain
extent the prairies of the West, niight be grazed with sheep. A warm
climate is no bar on the healthy groAvth . and Avool-producing qualities
of this animal. • Spain, the native.country of by far the best variet}^
for the production of AVOOI, lies betAveen 36° and 44° north latitude, corresponding Avith a section of the United States extendirig from Nashville, in Tennessee, on the south, to OsAvego, iri New York, ori the north;
and it is.a Avell-established fact that isothermal do not correspond Avith
latitudinal lines as betAveen this couritry and Europe. At similar latitudes, the mean temj)era.ture of Europe is considerably higher or warmer
than that of the United States. *
It is asked if these regions, or any other in the United States, could
profitably produce wool of a similar quality with that UOAV imported
from South Americci, &c., under the "five per cent, duty? ; Not certainly
the most profitably, for itcosts.no more to raise a pourid oYmedium, than
a ppund of these exceedingly coarse wools.. After considerable experience Avith^every important variety ofsheep, I am willirig, unhesitatingly,
to hazard the assertion, that more pounds of mediuni (say the coarser
* I might adduce much more, proof—the experience of many highly intelligent agriculturists
. ofthe South—to determine this point, if such proof were needed. During the p e r i o d ! acted
as corresponding secretary of the New "York State Agricultural Society, I made this a subject
of particular inquiry and investigation in my southern corresporidence, and soon became perfectly convinced of the feasibility of growing wool in any portion of the United States where
the land is dry and there is a supply cfnutntious and not over-coarse grasses.



1845.]

SECRETARY OF THE TREASURY.

319

M—Continued.
grades of merino) A\[OOI can be produced from the feed on an acre of
land, than of the excessively coarse South American wools. With
suitable encouragement this branch of industry might be established in
the regions alluded to; and, when firmly established and .Avidely
extended, I believe those foreign coarse wools Avould be driven from the
market, though admitted duty free.
There is no good reason why fleeces shpuld average only tAvo pounds.
It is a fact discreditable to the American farmer. Not only medium,
but fine wools may be made to average at least from three and a half
to fbur pounds per fleece; * and medium wools still more. It is certainly
a profitable irivestment of capital when the fleece brings one dollar.
Medium wool, averaging four pounds to the fleece, would bririg this
sum, sold for tAventy-five cents per pound. To cleanse them as AVCU as
our domestic wools are ordinarily cleansed for • market, (deprived of
" t a g s , " and Avashed on the back ofthe sheep as thoroughly as it can be
done in SAviftly-running cold Avater,) they Avould lose. probably full half
of their present weight. Thus a pound ofthe coarse foreign AVOOI Avould
cost (washed) twerity cerits. The same amourit of good riiedium AVOOI
could be growri in the United States for twenty-five cents.
NOW it is a Avell-knoAvn fact that the felting property of wool, (its serrations or " beards,") which gives adhesion and strength to.cloth, increa.ses,
in all ordinary cases, in the same ratio Avith its fineness. If a pourid of
medium AVOOI would make no riipre cloth than a pound of A^ery coarse
wool, the cloth thus produced would exceed that manufactured from the
coarse, in..value—whether carpets, slave cloths, or other fabrics—by
more than five cerits, or double that, amount. But the .finer wool voill
make the most cloth. It will bear beirig spun.finer, still retaining equal
pr superior strength and. durability, arid will thus make enough more,
cloth to coyer the extra expense.
When the America.n farmer learns to depend upori his own skill and
perseverance rather than the arm of legislation—to call upon his OAvn
energies instead of: the Hercules of the State—the tariff on all kinds of
wool Ayill, I believe, soon become as niuch a dead letter as thai rroAV
imposed on foreign provisioris. Indeed, I believe the United.States may,'
at no distant day,, profitably eayor^ A ool.
y
Iri speaking of the foreign "scA^en per cent. AVOOIS," I have hitherto
proceeded on, the supposition that thpse t.hus invoiced AV ere actually
Avhat was contemplated in the tariff act of 1842, viz: a much coarser
article than any groAyn in the United States.; It is beheved, however,
thai frauds ofan extensive and serious charactef have been, perpetrated
*In a flock of merinoes on w h i c h i drew the first State premium in 1844, as " the best
ifnanaged and most profitable flock,'! the full-bloods averaged over five pounds per fleece, though
many of them had not.arrived at maturity. The wool" sold for thirty-eight cents per pound.
This year the fleeces of my' full-bloods averaged over six pounds. Ten sheep, (one ram and
nine ewes,,) on which I drew the first premium on rams arid the first and second on e^ves, at
the State fair the same yearj cut this year over seventy-five pounds of washed wool, though
tiie ram was but a yearling. ''We. have far better sheep, in my opinion, (the acclimated
rrierinoes, imported originally by Livingston, Humphrey, Jarvis, &c.,) than any now in Spain
or any other foreign; country; and there is no excuse whatever for a farmer to fear sheep cutting
only two pounds to the fleece.



320

R E P O R T S OF T H E

(:1845.

M—Continued.
in the invoicing ofthese wools. Numerous specirrieris of A\^OO1 equalling;
our choicest Saxon are in the hands of yarious individuals-.throughout the'
country,. Avhich men of well-knoAvn standirig and- veracity ahege they
obtained of importers and manufacturers—such importers stating that
they were-, from bales of South American, wool admitted urider the five
per cent, ad yalorem duty; and conceding that large quantities of a
similar quaht}^ were received by them from the same source.-^ It is
alleged that some of the smaller riianufactoriesof good-cloths- receive^
their principal suppl5r in this way. HOAV such a-fraud couid elude the
provisions applicable to our custom-houses j I aril uriable to say. .
These- sta:tements-j as I present them,, assume but the questionable
fbrrn of mere reports. But they are based on the authority of highly
respectable men, and they' are, I hehoYe, generaUy credited. It would^
perhaps hardly be ex-pectedlhal those A ^ o could fiirnish the best testiAh
mony in the premises would, if guilty, vpluriteer to throw-that testimorry
in an authenticated form before the "public. B e the facts as they may,
the public mind AAdllhardly rest satisfied until the subject shall receiA-e
competent investigatiori.
In conclusion of this: topic, though perfectly satisfied that all legislative
protection on wool,, after the business-of growing- it is Avidely extended
and well understood, will becorrie nugatory, I am of the opinion that, in-,
the present conditiori of thirigs, while the average quality arid quantit}^
per fleece is so-IOAV; and especially while popular opiniori^ and feeling
remain whai tliey rioAV are ort this tPpic, all the incidental protection^
Avhich can be yielded, in- justice^ to- the rights of all, under a revenue
tariff; is necessary to foster this importarit. interest. If is necessary t o /
encourage the extension of this branch of industry to encourage^the w^ool• groAving farrher to persevere, uritil obtaining more skill, possessing himself of better breeds ofsheep, learning to rely on his own efforts, instead
of legislation, for success; he shall cease to be dependent upon legislative,
protection frorii foreign competitioni The folio Aving vie AVS of Judge
Beatty of Kentucky, (publishedin the Americari Agriculturist) if correct^
show the importance, in a national point of vieAv,^of • this great interest. '
I believe they are substantially correct.
.-.
" The returns ofthe late census shoAv- that: the riumber ofsheep in the
United States in 1840 Avas a fi'aGtion less than 20^000,000.. TAvice this
number AA^ould probably not funiisli'more AVOOI than Avould be needed by
a- populatipn: of 17,000,000, if we Avere to manufacture all our' OAVU blan7
kets; carpets, and every other description pf woolen fabrics; The period
is riot A^ery distant AA^heh this Avill be done, Avith- the exception of some
very fine goods. W e shall then need about 100,000,000 lbs. of wool
for a population of 17,0 00,000; and iri that proportion; for home consumption, even supposing none should be exported. Now, as our population
increases (as past experience demonstrates) at a;,compound.ratio of threeper .cent, per annum, we shall have a population of 34,000,000 in the
year 1864, 51,000,000 in;1878, and-60,000,000 i n l 8 8 8 / W e shaU need
at these respective periods two, three, arid four hundred millions of
pounds of wool. If we estiriiate sheep, upon an average, toa produce 2^



Jt845.]

SECRETARY OF THE TREASURY.

321

M-rrnContinued.
lbs. of Avopl ,per .head, Ave shall .require in the.year 1888 (a little-:more
than forty-years :hence) 160,000,000 .of sheep. This view of-the-subject,;
without looking to a foreign market, holds. out strong iriducement to
engage in sheep husbandry."
And I believe, to give effect and consistency to present' protection, as
Avell as to do equal justice to all connected with the iriterest, there.should be
no essential disparity in ad valorem duties on coarse and fine foreign AVOOI.
• To the third clause of your/question I would say, t h a t i haye nordoubt
the -State of NCAV Ydrk .has prospered under the present, duties. .:T thirik,
however, as a whole, those .duties have benefited the nianufaeturing
far more than the agricultural interest. The gains of the/ai'mervare
moderate, as has been shown befpre; he rarely/attains Avealth by the
mere profits of ordinary farming. If he attains even competence, it is
rather by economy; by savirig, tha-ri -by large pr rapid accumulation.
Low as the prices of agricultural products are, the .markets are comparatively steady and equable. This tends greatly to alleviate the evils
which would otherwise result from their depression. I attribute this
partially .to the steady, and .settled .state of .the .currency. :If-.the same
settled and steady character .could be giyen lo.our tariff laAvs, our prosperity would be greatly augmented. T h e farmer wants to kno AV what
he can depend upon. H e asks that-the -fruits of his labor shall not be
subject to constant variations in value by reason, of •va.cillatinglegislation;
he asks that ihis ;G0vernment shall not one year enact laAvs to encourage
him ; to embark his capital in one branch of industry, and the next,: by
-adverse legislation, destroy or depreciate the value of the investmerit.
Jn;a word, be asks that the tariflf be settled on -a :=fixed and permanent
basis..; one;admitting.of no fluctuations but those rendered indi^iensable
by important:.naturaL;cliariges, or discoveries lleA^elpping new interests,
or anpdifying existing ories.
'
27. The quaritity of wool raised in -the iState of.^New York in 1840,
..was 9.:,845,2951bs. .
• .For the follewing table-of prices I-arn indebted to George T. Taylor,
Esq., ofMadisonj Avho has bought wools-extensively through this^section
of couritry for a:series of years. .He reniarks that the table beloAv gives
the prices about 3 cents per pound higher than his OAvn average purchases, -as he buys lor a satinet manufaGtory Avhich eloes not require. the
choicest quality^ of wool.. My OAvn opinion, hoAvever,. based on l h e
average purchases of others, Avould. be, that the average of the Avhole
State would be betAveen the prices paid by hirn and the table beloAv,
viz: about 1J per cent, below the fpllowing table:
Per Pound.

1 1832, average price, 40 cents.
1833,do.
50
1834,
do.
45
1835,
do.
48
1836,
do.
64
1837,
do.
30
1838,
do.
36
VOL. V. —21.




Per Pound.

In 1839, average pr ice, 50 cents.
1840,
do.
33
do.
1841,
35
1842,
do.
30
1843,
31
do.
40
X 1844,
do.
1845,
32
do.
0

322

R E P O R T S OF T H E
'

[1845.

M—Continued.

The following ayerage prices have been paid by Rufus Boies & Sons,
of this tOAvn. On these I founded the estimates given in answer to your
4th question:
In 1842, avera.ge price paid, 28^ cents per pound.
. 1843i
do.
28i
do.
1844,
do.
39J
do.
1845,
.xdo..
28
do. .
^
- The following table of prices paid by William Randall, Esq., of this
town, shows about the average prices received by the growers of small,
including average and rriedium lots of AVOOI:
In 1840,- average price paid, 30 38-100 cents per.pound.
1841,'
do.
32 22-100
do.
1842,
do.
27 73-100
• do.
1843,
do.
25 63-100
do.
1844,
do.
34 25-100do.
'
1845^.
do.
26 75-100
do.
New York City,

George A. Dwight-—encloses a letter firom Edwin Hunt,
. . containing two., statements.

Speaks ofthe great impositions practised-upon the consumer pf glass,
owing to the yet imperfect state ofthe manufacture.
EdAvin Hunt, at the request of Mr. Dwight, has made oat .a calculation ofthe ad valorem rate ofthe present specific, duties on certain hardware goods, on many of Avhich the duties amount to an entire prohibition,
such as wood-screws; iron and brass ; brass battery or hammered kettles; thf chea.p or common butt hinges.; sad, srnoothing, and tailors'
irons ; pins and iron Avire; Avhich articles are not now imported.
The correctness of the statenient is attested by five ofthe largest and
most respectable importing houses. •
v,
In 1841 he imported Avood-screws to the amount of- .£1,986 10s. 6d.,.
and brass kettles, to the amountof £1,218 125., payirig about $3,500
duties on these two alone; since which time he has not iniported any,
except one cask for the purpose of testing the percentage. Also, encloses a staternerit from an, importer of Avindow glass, sboAVing the duties on that article; both of which are given, marked Nos. 1
and 2.




M—Contiriued.
••

00

•

r r -

No. l.—^A statement ofi the sterling prices ofi various hardware articles now paying specific duties, and the percentage rate ofi duties ^-^
. . o n t h e same.
Par value, at $4 44
the £ .

Duty*

Ad valorem
rate of duty.

l5s. 6d. sterling per cwt., delivered in Liverpool
19.5.
do. ,
do.
do
125s. per cw.t., or i s . l^d. per l b . , delivered in Liverpool.. •
Common k i n d , 8 2 | p e r cent., -a cask a m o u n t i n g to
.<^15 2s. 7tZ. n e t . .

$3 44 per 102 l b s .
$4 22
do
241 cts. per l b . . . .

21 cts. per lb*,-or $2 80 per cwt.
Do.
do........
12 cts. per lb

815 per cent
66|
do.
50
do.

s|54 57,. value . , , . .

S m i t h s ' h a m m e r s . . . . * . . . . . . . . . C o m m o n , 17s. per-cwt., ;delivered. iri ^ L i v e r p o o l / . . . . .
D6.
Best steeled,. 19s.
do. .
d o , . . . . . . .4.
Sad or smoothing, tailors a n d hat- " S w i n d e l l ' s ^ " 9 s . 6d. per cwt., delivered in.Liverpool.
t e r s ' irons. ; .
"
.
I r o n wire, N o s . 0 to 6
A bundle of 63 lbs.,cost 6s. dd. net/sterling.
W r o u g h t rose-head nails, a b a g 2Is. 3 j d . net, sterling, delivered in L i v e r p o o l / . . . . . . . .
of 100 lbs. .8d.
Pins, mixed..
;.
T h i n k , i s . 2d. per l b . , n e t ; . . / ;
,..
,,,
S a w s , c r o s s - c u t . i . . . .^..
6-feetGerman steel,22s.-r-70 p e r c e n t . , is 6s. 7|rf. each.
-Screws, iron, called " W o o d - A cask of " J a m e s > , " amounting: to <f 69 15s. Od. . . .
screWs."
S c r e w s , b r a s s . . . . . . . . . . . V . . . . . A lot,:costing £ ^ ls.:'10d.-....
. . . . . . . ..;.-,•...^....

- p -78 per 112 lbs.
14 22
do../..
| 2 11
do.....

2 | cts. per lb.; net weight in this
cask, 1,624 lbs.; amount of
dutypaid, $40 60.
74i
2^ cts. per lb., or $2 80 per cwt. 733
Do.do
67
Do.
d o . . . . . . . . 135

do.
do.
do.
do.

$1 50 per bundle..
p 72 for lOOlbs..

5 cts per lb., or $3 15 for 63 lbs. 210
4 cts. per lb., or $4 per bag
85

do.
do.

26 cts. per l b . . . . .
$1 46 each.... * . .
$310......

20:ctsperlb
.....
$1 each s a w . . . . . . . . :
.....
12 cts per lb. on 2,250 Ib^.; actual duty paid, $270.
Duty paid, 66 lbs. at 30 cts. per
lb., is $19 80..
2 | cts. per lb,, 351 l b s . , = $ 8 87

do.
do.
do.

Articles.-

Price in England.

Anvils J comnion.. . < « . < . . . . . . . .
warranted....:.....,...
Brass, battery or hammered kettles
.; . . . . . . . . . . . .
B u t t hinges, cast

.Kitchen furniture, as saucepans,
kettles, & c . .
-

A cask, amounting to £ 4 7s. 6^., net

>

$41 74-.
$19 4 5 .

W e , the undersigned, have examined the above calculations, and: find them correct.
R I C H , KINGSLAND & CO.,
WOEFER GILLESPIE,
A. W . SPIES & CO.
N E W YORK, Octoher 31, 1845.




GO

75
683

O

ffi

;>^

87
do.
471
do.
45

HYSLOP & BROTHER,
C. V. S. ROOSEVELT,
EDWIN HUNT.
CO

^!)

CO

•

CO'

M—Continued.
No. 2.—Duties on Window Glass,
Sizes.

Description. ,

Prices in Eriglarid..

Par value.

British sheet or cylinder glass..-,,
-.
4 X 6 to 6 X 8 ^ • 6s. sterling per 100 feet. $1 33per
1 78
do
Do.
do......----"-7 X 9 to. 8 X 10 8
do.....
2" 67
Do,
do
9 X 11 to 10 X 12 12
. d o . . . . . . v . ; . : 3-00
Do,
do/....
3
14 14
. •.. •.; 10 X l15 tto ll 0 x 16 16
d o . . . . . . . . . . : 3 56
Do.
do.....
10 X
o l X
16
do.
3 56
Do.
do . . .
i l X 17 to 12 X 18
do......V.V,'
. . . . i . . 12 X 18 to 16 X 24 18 4 00
Do,
do.....
d o , . . . . ; , , ; . 4 88'
;..., ._;^Do. ., ,^ ^. :^ . d o . . . . .
_
; 18 X 2 4 t o 3 l X 4g 22
do........,, 178
(3rown .window glass;
,
4 X 6 to 6 X 8 8
. « . . . ; . ^' 7 X 9 to 8 X 10 10
2 22'
Do.
do.....
do...;..
Do,
do
..
do...;/.....
3 56
9 X 10 to 10 X 12 16
Do'.
do
do...;...,.;
4 00
^ 10 X 13 to 10 X 14 18
Da. .
do
4 66
do
;..,
10 X 15 to 11 X 16 21
Do.
do
. 5 37
do
• 11 X 17 to 12 X 18 24
Do.
do.....
6 66
30
do,,.;..,-..:.
12 X 19 to 18 X 26




: : : : : : : : : • :

•

.

.

.

•

*

.

.

-

;

Americari duty.

lOOfeet.
do.,;;-'
do..,.
do.,,.
do.;.,
do.,,
do.;.
do;,.
do...
do...:
do...
do.;. ;
do;,.
do..;
do...
• . - '

: $2 00 per
i 2 00
2 50
35a
4 00'
5 00
6-00
600
3 50
3 50
5 00
6 00
: 7 00
,8 00 .
10 00

100 feet,
do
do....;
do.;;..do;....
do
do..;..
do.,,;.
do....,
do.;;;;
do.,;;.
do.;;.^.
do;....
do.;...
do.,;..

Ad valorem rate
of such duty.
150' per cent,
112i do.
^ 94
do.
112i: do.
• 112i do.
140" do,
150
do.
123 do,
198 do.
• 165 do.
• 145 do,
150' do.
150- do.
1 150
do.
150
do.

W M . CHANCE, JR.,
Per JAMES H , HERVV.

pi

w
O

m

1845.]:

325

S E C R E T A R Y OF T H E TREASURY.
M—Contin.ued,

Port: ofi Black: Rock, Distriet ofi Buffalo Creek, From C P , Turrier, Deputy
CoUector,
Abstract.-r-T'TSot doubting but that your official position, has freqrierrtly
brouglit. you in contact with the., fi'arids. and deceptiorrs: ,prae.ti.sed upori:
the reyenue b.y importers,, under that, most arijple. shield, for corruptiori,
the tariff of 1.842,, Lhave thought it not out. of place for me, nor perhaps.
toQ much a tax- upoU: your time, tOr direct your attention to the operation
of the sys:tem upon a portion of our northern frontier..
In that portion of Canada. West bordering on. Lake Ontario, the Niagara river,, and Lake Erie, agriciilturists,/for the last two or three years,,
have erigaged somewhat extensively in the growing of wool. In consequence of a lack of manufactures in that portion of Canada, growers, of
necessity,; have had to. resort to. a United States^ market. A majority of
the wool grown in Canada, and imported to the United States, I am sat-,
isfied, from personal observation, will vary in value from two to three
cents per pound less in our niarkets than a rnajority of the wool grown,
by our farmers and. sold in the. same markets. It is geneirally a. coarserquality. It is. probably safe.to. assume that the: Canada wool has, on an
average,.been worth iaour markets the present season from 23 to, 25 cents
per pound, and would average 18f cents per pound in'Cariada as its
cash value; last season the prices were somewhat higher. Importers,
for the purpose of avaihng. therriselves^^
5;pe.r cent... duty, resort to
the expedient, of irnporting the wool on the; skin.. This, you will per-^
ceive by theerrtries which I copy frorn the books of this office, made by
the ex-daprity collector last, season, and also at the port o^f Black Rock
Dam], under the sanction of an appraisal,, furnishes a two-fold system of
fraud:. First, it will appeax that a mere nominal duty was, collected
upon wool last year, in consequence of underrating the value and quarrr
tity of wool upori^ the pelts, aS; the following examples of the entries: will
show:
•
Date, of entry/

'Amount of wool Amount of wool
No, of peltSi Value of pelts. • entered at 7 cts. entered at 12 cts.

j:' .
Septembers, 1 8 4 4 . . . . . . . .
September 12, 1844
September 26:, 1844.,......;. :
October 3, 18.44
....,...,.
October 10„ 1 8 4 4 . . . . . . . . . . .
October 1 2 , 1 8 4 4 . . . . . . . . . .
October 17,18.44..;
December 13,1844
January 2, 1 8 4 5 . ; . . .
•'
February 11„1845..,..,,...
Total..............

1,200
1,030
1,00.0
1,5.10
1,800
800 i
1,60,0
1,30.0
812 .
1.26
11,168

$48 0.0
51 SOSO 00
60:00
72 00
40 00
80 00
6S00
40 60
6 30.
$513 50

550 pounds.
^ 1,615
"
i
6.75
•*.* .
.
900.
^'
^ 1,500
"
1,200
"
> 1,500.
**
1,170
"
' 1,1^20
^'•

i

-lao; "10,360 pounds.

50.- pounds.
150
'^
75.
"
100
^\

:

100
100
100
80

20

^'
" .
" ' 1
i*
1

^^

1

775 pounds.

It appears, by this table that the quantity of wool upon the pelts was



326

R E P O R T S OF T H E

[1845,

M—Continued.
. averaged at less than one pound each, and the valueof the skins less-than
4f cents each, and the amount of wool entered at over 7 cents; averaging
a little over 13 pounds'to the 100 pounds.
Itwould appear to-be somewhat remarkable, that i n t h e ten entries
made at different dates there should, be in each entry so near an average
of coarse and fine wool, and from September to February no more difference in the amount of wool upon each pelt;, but such are the entries,
sanctioned by the oath of, the importer, or his age:nt. There may be ia
reasonable doubt of the propriety of such entries, contrasted with the
entries made by the same importer of purchases made in the same
mar'kets, the present season, at correspondirig dates, as follows:
No. of pelts. V'alue of pelts. Amount of wool Amount, of wool
entered at 7 cts. entered at 5 | cts.

Date of entry.

September 27, 1845/
October 20, 1845
October 24,1845

..

Total... i

1,152
r,372

> 5m
3,024

P 1 5 20
• 17150
62 50

3,487 pounds.

$349 20

3,487 pounds.

3,600 pounds.
1,500
"
5,100 pounds.

•

The qtrantity df wool upon the pelts, in these entries, it seems,
averaged nearly three pounds each, and the skins at nearly twelve
cents each; thus exhibiting a somewhat remarkable increase, in the
quantity of wool realized from pelts purchased this season over that
realized from pelts purchased at corresponding periods of last year;
and a somewhat nrore remarkable advance in the value of skins. These
differences, however, are accounted for not in so wide a difference.in the
yield of wool, nor so great an advance in the market value of skins, but
from the fact that after Mr. Rogers, the present collector of this district,
became acquainted with the frauds which before had been practised, he
directed a different criterion to be "observed, and the only one which it is
believed the present law. contemplates; that is, to estimate the value of
wool on pelts the same as other wool, and collect duty upon the "value
of'the wool in the principal markets of the country where it was purchased.". In consequence of the deputy collector refusing* to receive the
last entries as rriade, the importer asked ari appraisal under the 16th
sectionof the law-of 1842, which resulted in sanctioning an entry of the
wool at 7 cents per pound,'and the skins at 10 cents each; the inrporter
introducing his agents a,nd workmen to prove that the pelts cost in gross
about 28 cents each, and that the skiris, after the wool was piilled, were,
worth 12 cents each in Canada,'and .would averages pounds of wool
each. Thus, by overrating the value of the skins, and the quantity of
wool, the importer was furnished vidth a successful stratagem to avail
himself of the 5 per cent. duty. i
I respectfully suggest that the appointment of one appraiser on the part
of the Government, who would have a general supervision over the



1845'.]

S E C R E T A R Y OF T H E TREASURY. .
M—Continued.

327
,'

valuation of articles to be entered, and whose business it Would be to
obtain such information as is unavoidably beyond;the control of the
several collectors, would not only produce uniformity in entries, but in a
great measure guard the revenue against frauds that may be practised
under any sys.tem that fixes an ad valorem rate of duty to be collected.
One appraiser, I have no doubt, could perform the duties incumbent
upon him, upon all that portion of the frontier extending from Oswego, in
this State, to Erie, Pennsylvania; and in case of an appraisal, could act
in conjunction with one appointed by the collector at the port where such •
appraisal, should take place.
New York city.

From William Depew.

Ahstract.—-In view of the contemplated revisai of the tariff, takes the
liberty of .calhng the attention of the Secretary to the inconsistent rates of
duty which are now charged on wines. ' His predecessor, the late Nathaniel Cogswell, was engagedin, and
carried on for many years, a trade with the island of Grand Canary,
inrporting from that place the article known as Canary wine, and making
returhs for a large portion of the proceeds in our products. Since the
business came into Mr. Depew's hands, not a gallon of Canary wine has
been imported into this country in consequence of the prohibitive and
extremely unjust duty of 60 cents per gallon.
Speaks ofthe duties on different kinds of wine, and of Judge Bibb's
construction ofthe treaty with Portugal, under which Madeira is adr^nitted
at a duty of 7J cents/ and Port at 6 cents per gallon, while Sherry is
imported as white wirie of Spain, at a duty of only 12 J cents per gallon,
and points out other inconsistencies in regard to other wines.
New York city.

From C. A. Secor.

Abstract.—^-^e^ks of the duty on sheathing copper and vSheathing
metal; ofthe advantages the European mechanic has over the American.
• Ta,kes the liberty of suggesting the only renr.edy which will materially
promote the general interest, viz: that of striking off the duty on " sheathing metal,"-on a revision of the tariff.
Oswego. .From Hon. D . P . Brewster.

'

^

Abstract.—Acknowledges the receipt, of the circulax, and regrets that
he cannot furnish any information other than that contained in a speech
delivered by him in .the House of Representatives in 1842, which he
encloses.
.
Rochester.

From Aaron Erickson.

Abstract.—The collector of this port, Mr. L. B. Langworthy, has
requested me to address you a letter, communicating such views as a
somewhat extensive experiehce in the domestic wool trade ofthe couritry
rnay have suggested to my mind.



328^

R E P O R T S OF T H E

E1845.

M-—Cbntinued^^
The average price of wool in western' New York, as realized by the?
growers for the last eleven-years, is as follows:
1835,: average price 35 cents per pound.
1836,,
36
do.
do. , do.
1837,.
37 .
do..
do.
do.
35*
1838,"
do.
do.
do.
1839i
do.:
do.
do..
1840,
33
do.
do.
do.
1841,
db.
36|
do..
do.
1842, '
30J
do.
do.
dd.
1843,
28.
. do.
do.
do.
1844,
39|
do.
do.
do.
29i
1845,
do.
do;
do.
Although the manufacturers and 'dealers purchased the clip of 1839'at
the avera.ge cost, as above stated,- in the autumn of the same year wool
declined to nearly the,price of 1840.
I have, the present season, shipped fo England about 40,000 pounds
of Americari fleece wool,- grown in western New York. This wool cost
at the hand ofthe growers 33 cents per pound, a.nd averaged in quality
about the second grade of fine wool. The eight sample bags of these
shipments (and they determine the value of the whole) have been sold
in Leeds at a price which, by axlding the difference of exchange, is equal
in Federal money to 40 cents per pound. To arrive at the relative value
of wool in this country and England, it will be necessary to add to the
American cost, for collecting, packing, and transporting to tide water, or
to the factories of New England, not less than 2 cents per pound, which •
added; to the price paid the grower, makes the home value 35 cents,
leaving a difference against the British manufacturer of 5 cents per
pound; and as, from the great expense of shipping to and selling wool
in England, the present experiment will rather pay a loss than a profit,
the difference-must be still greater before, successful exportations can
take place.
>
Having given /such, statistical evidence as may be justly regarded as
contradicting the necessity for ai highly protective tariff,- so far a s t h e
growth and manufacture of wool is concerned., it will,- nevertheless, be
necessary, in order to arrive at just conclusions, to consider other causes
than the mere tariff laws inconneetion with this-very important subject.
It will appear fronr the above statistics that the wool grower realized a
higher average price for the seven years preceding the enactrnent ofthe
present tariff law, than for the four succeeding years; but it, should; be
remeriibered that up to the period of 1844 this country had imported,
under heavy impost duties, large quantities of foreign wools of differeht
grades, and these importations, controlled the price of American wool.
In 1844 the growth of wool in this country had so far increased that, with
the importation of low wools, which still continued, the supply was found
to be greater thah the demarid, and the still further iricrease of the present
5rear frirnishes a very considerable excess beyond the demand for domestic consumption, and that excess is now being, exported;, Gonsequently



1845.]!

S E C R E T A R Y OP T S E TREASURY.

MS

M^—Contrnued;the inrportatioh and/exportation: pricesv the trade being reversed, are tO;
be r^egarded a^s determining the prices of American wools' at the different
periods stated.
'•
. ^
The question, theh,-naituraly arises, in view of the&ets stated, what
benefit does the Ameriean wool grower receive frorln^ the action of thepresent tariff? The answer to- my mind is clear,, that he receives- none
beyond that incidental- benefit that may be supposed^ to flow from the
general prosperity consequent .upon the: well-employed and well-paidindustry of the country.: Fdr whilst he is obliged to look abroad for the
sale of so much of his production- a;S determines the price of the whole,/
large quantities of foreign wools ai^e introduced into this country paying
only a nominal duty. It is a fallacy that any description of wool can be
imported into this country that does not compete directly with the American
article. The different, grades of wool are • so. minutely removed frora
each other as to be imperceptible; and when one grade is relatively
higher than another,, .the next grade is substituted, until the whole isbrought to a corresponding: price. • All the wools that are imported into,
this country really at a cost of seven cents, or under, are- only so imported
for the reason that, an average of not less than one-halfi of the whole;
weight is GomiDosed of the impurities contained in them. These evils
can be remedied only by a- specific d.uty on such wools, or by horrre valiiation, subject to. the same rate of duty as wools: of higher cost. .
Hitherto this country has been, the chief comipetitor with England for
the purchase of the surplus wools ofthe world, and it is: highly interesting,
at this time to; contemplate our altered relations. The history of the
introduction of the cotton culture in. this, couritry, its extraordinary progress and wonderful results, is> hardly more rernarkable than-the consequenees that have followed theintroduction of a few fine-wooled. sheep into
this eountry from^ Spain and Germany a.t a still much later period; which,:
blended with our. native ^tock, have not' only sirpplied the domestic
demands of twenty millions of people, but the countries from which these
first germs were imported are at this moment actually menaced with the
•reaction of a large excess—a. fa;ct that cannot:but be regarded with the
most lively interest both in the: Old World and the New. And here the
mind is: brought to contiemplate an ample field for corrjeeture; but it has .
not. been my purpose to enter into any arithmetical ealculation of the
'"progress of demand and snapply, or; to speculate uponthe cha,nce s o f
successful rivalry; the prudent merchant, however, will,. I think, ;proceed
cautiously with a customer whohas; the world for his rnarket,. without a
competitor. This is literally the case with England at this time. ^
If I have not been mistaken in any important point in the view I have
here taken, it would seem evident that neither the wool grower .nor the
manufacturer of wool, as suchy is or can be interested hi a high rate of
duty. Thelatter ha,s a protection in the relative low. price of the raw
material much more likely to be permanent than any lav^ of Congress.,
The tariff on woolen goods is,, therefore, purely a revenue question.
In conclusion, allow rne to say that I have here stated such facts and
opinions as have seemed to mie to be: important, without, considering, what



330

\ R E P O R T S OF T H E

[1845.

M—Continued,
their bearings might be upon the great question of a protective tariff that
now- divides the political parties of the country. I will only add that
what is true of wool and woolens, is not true of many other branches of
industry. It could hardly be expected that human wisdoni could frame
a law for the commercial regulations of a great nation so perfect that
experience would not detect err'ors as well as suggest improvements;
and in this light I regard the present tariff. No one could regret more
than myself to see its essential principles abandoned.
Hoping that tlie spirit of comproniise and devotion to the public good
may give stability to a law of such vital ihrportance,
•
I am, &c. ^
New York.

From T. F . CorneU.

" ., :

Abstract.'—I take the liberty to call your attention to a subject, at present
coming within.the scope of your ofl&cial duties, in which the citizeris of
this State, as well as those of all the western States, have a deep interest.
The articles of pot and pearl ashes, it is known to some, form one of
the most iniportant staples ofthese States, and, until the last two or three
years, entered largely into the consumption of all our glass manufacturers
and bleachers, soap boilers, &c., throughout the United States. To the
detriment of the manufacturers of these ashes, and all others dealing in
therir, embracing almost every merchant throughout the country and in
the cities, au article known as soda ash has lately found its way into this
country, which, by being admitted by thepayment ofa mere nominal duty,
has lately usurped the place of our pot ashes, and reduced them in price,
much to the injury of all interested in theirproduction, and to the benefit
of only a few individuals whb import this article from Europe, where it
is produced in large quantities; and by being subject.only to a small ad
valorem duty, and invoiced at the place of exportation at a low figure,
the chief benefit accrues to the European houses. If I mistake not,
this article of soda ash was formerly subject to a duty of 33^ per cent.;
b u t i t now stands at a rnere nominal duty.
If there be an article within'the whole range pf the tariff requiring a revision, it is this article of soda ash. By imposing a duty, the object of an
increased revenue is obtairied, and an incidental protection afforded to
thousands of our settlers, in the new western States—to all the nrerchants,
inthe country and city^—in fine, there is no limit to the incalculahle
benefit that would be produced to all parties interested in ashes, by
adopting the suggestion which I have made.
Our rnembers from this State, as well as those from the western States,
will be addressed on this subject, ahd will unite in their efforts to bring
about the desired object.
\ ^
There are two other articles which are admitted from abroad (I think)
free of duty, which seriously conflict with the home use of our ashes,
viz: barilla and sal soda.
' • . . . '
New York.

From Cogswell, Crane if Co.

^

Abstract.—We hand you, herewith, a request relative to a landing cer


1845.]

S E C R E T A R Y OF T H E TREASURY.

331,

M—Continued.
tificate, and now address you on the subject of bounty or returh duty
on molasses distilled in this countr}^ We are extensively erigaged in
this business, and feel seriously the loss of bounty which occurs under
the present law. We feel that we are entitled to the same treatment as
the refiners of sugar for export. Our business is injured materially by
the present law; and as we haye understood that you'.are engaged in
revising the existing tariffj we have taken the liberty of drawing your.
riotice to the above matter, as the manufacturing aswell asthe commercial
iriterests ofthe country would be promoted. .We sincerely hope that you
may give this matter your usual thorough examination, as it really is very
unjust towards a large interest of the people of this country. W e trust
that you will pardon the liberty which we have taken, but a sense of the
importance of a revision of this subject compels us to intrude these
remarks upon your notice. '
Considerations on the Tariff—by a Farmer.
[From the Westchester Herald.]

-

'

^

1st. What equivalent does the farmer get for the ta.x he pays on goods ?
The tax on foreign goods, at the custom-house, is said to average about
40 per cent., on which the inrporter has his profit, and the country merchant his; so that it brings it up to fifty dollars on the hundred, or thereabouts; and that is about double the amount that would be taken by a
tariff for revenue. Now, what equivalerit does the manufacturer rerider
the farrher, for such an extravagant protection to hi$ pursuit ?
No doubt he would say, I make a home market for your produce, and
if. you will only consent to stand the tax, I will increase the number
-of my worknren, who, instead of being producers, will become consumers; there will be less breadstuffs produced when laborers are
abstracted from agriculture. I grant it; the farrher will produce less, and
have to pay more for his goods. Yes, he will have to pay you a handsome profit; perhaps four times as much as he makes on his farm capital.
But, say you, there being fewer producers, and- rirore consunrers, the
price of produce must consequently rise. That by vho means follows;
for there is so rn.uch produced, that all the nrariufacturers necessary to
supply this country with such things as can be made here will be fed;
and so far as related to cottons, the whole country will be clothed, and
still a large surplus- be left for exportation. "Ther'efore, the price will be
what it is Worth to export, and no more: more likely less, from our
refusing to take -manufactures in exchange, for no- nation can buy that
does not also sell.
. • 2d. If .a tariff raised the price of othej things to correspond with the
price of goods, wherein would the manufacturer be benefited? Surely,
he would have to pay more for the raw material, more for his foctory
la.bor,. and the laborer more to the farmer for his bread and meat,—and
so on to the end of the chapter. Therefore, if protectionists' assertions



332

;

R E P O R T S OF T H E
M—Continued^

be true, that all other classes, professions,, and, trades-are to. he alike;
benefited, the nianufacturer would=not be protected at all by a.tax om
foreign goods..
^
I want this truth ta be deeply impressed, on thef minds of a,U—that
favor to everybody is.favor to nobody; and that unless' there be some.body else to grind up to feed the: favored orres,. it is^ rio: favor at all.
. 3d. Any tariff that lies against the .trade of a natiori, lies against thei
nation itself. A tariff which, makes- against the iirrporting- trade: of a;.
nation,, makes also: against the exporting trade of that nation, as. a riiatter
of cohsequence; because no riation can export that does-, not also importv
And. a tax which lies against either- the importing- or exporting trade of
a nation,-lies against the nation itself, and is felt in. full force by that
nation as a whole or. unit,, although, a part of that nation may be bener
fited—even/as the mass suffer by the burning of a city,, although, brickr
layers and dealers in old iron may be benefited.
4th. The ma.nufc£cturer's- gain and, the nation's-loss, contrasted: The
manufacturer who is protected, is not protected and benefited to the
extent ofthe tax. . If that were the ,ease,he would need little or no
protection; because his business would already have been on a par with .
other employments; but it is in this manner: A.certain manufacture
eannot b e carried o,n in this country without a loss of 2.0-per cerit., unless
somebody else is taxed, to support it, or protect it, as the tariff manwould say. . Well, if the tax.be 40 per cent., then the manufacturer earii:
carry on tha;t branch of business at,a.profit of.20:per cent.; but allthe
rest of the nation: that consumes tha/t article is taxed 40. per cent., that
the manufacturer may make a profit of 20 per cent.. And the less the
manufacturer makes the greate.r the sum. lost by the- nation in supporting
him;, thus, if he made but 5 per cerrt., we should be paying .35 per cent,
for nothing. Where the manufactrirer makes,. b.y the aid of a. tariff, a
.larger percentage than is: made. in . other employments, the overplus is
.drawn from thos:e: other employments, which ar:e: thus made poorer;, for
, whatever one man.or set of men nrakes in moriey clear is drawn frorh
others who^are losing.. This is right whenit is obtained by a. c:0mpeti>tion that is.fair, open, and free; but when the transfer is made by legislation, it is worse than agrarianism.
.
^ •
6th. How other tra-de^s and ertaployments are injured:, and the dependence of one employment, on ariother exemplified.:. ,
.
. .
The farmers, under a high tariff,, get no more: or not so much.for their
produce, and have to pay more for their goods, and groceries: being the
principal consumers of the countr}^, they bear the burden of the tax. The
common trades of the couritry suffer still more, than the farmirig interest.
Take the shoem'als:ers, for example, and they are far more numerous
than any other manufacturers—their trade requires nothirig more than a
revenue tariff*,, if it does; ,that, to keep out. foreign competitivn;. the few
boots and shoes that are imported, coxcombs will, have at alnrost,. any
price. But he pa3^s more for goods and groceries. The farmer, suffering by the tax, cannot affbrd to pay the common mechanic as much a.s




4B45.|

S E C R E T A R Y OF T H E TREASURY.

. 333

M—Continued.
teetherwise
could, jbecause ihe has not-wherewith to pay;; therefore
we:must endeavor to get alorig with less boots and.shoes, or get them at
a.less price.
The blacksmith hammers iron taxed forty dollars on .the hundred dollars' worth, besides the riiierchant's profits, and :gets back :as riruch of the
t a x a s h e c a n rf the farrxier; :but the loss, from obvious reasons, is borne
between them. He false pays :-more to the ^merchant for the same quantity :or'amount ^o^f goods, hnt ihis means being less he .must do with less;
mid therefore, under the restrictive ^system, he has to excha.nge'.ihe same
amount of labor ifor a.:less amo.unt of erijoyment. There axe no houses
impdrted, that-Ldmowof, to come ;in competitiiotn w-ith/carpenters and
masons, ::and I trattier .think the tax :is a dead weight on them. The
butcher ^'and feker must also be injured, the farmer'isioss having.to be
borne iin-part ^byoOther trades.;'their market is irijured for bread and'
meat, and thus ahightariff or t a x injures ;all iriterests except those which
' axe protected.
-It is therefore true that all employments are dependent on each other,
•and whatever injures ©he vuseful employment .injures, ^in the aggregate,
all the rest.
,
"-Sth. A tariff ibr protedtion contrasted with; a tariff for revenue, &c. .
A high tariff is clearly injurious to t h e b e s t iriterests of the country;
but the evil:is =-mitigatedif the t a x i s laid for revenue purposes, protection •being the .incident, i f :it be laid for revenue, dis criminating, in favor
of t h e poor^who would ^otherwise have to-pay, as at present, far more
than^their-share,in^so.fer ;as'this:tax goes to:support the Government in
lieu -'of other taxes, its inequality might ibe no very serious objection to it.
But in .so far a s i t enhances :the price-of similar" : articles made at home
itis^a tax onthe consumer, for which .lie receives-little or no beriefit.
Thus, if domestic -goods of like-.character equal in amount the imported,,
theyare erihanced in price to-mi equal amourit; and in order to collect a
reveriue of twerity millions ofdollars :ori foreign goods under a tariffof
2Qiper cent., the consumers pay twenty millions more to :doriiestic manufacturers. ;0r,in other words, the consumers have to p a y a t a x of ibrtj?, millions-on both foreign/and doniestic goods in-order that twerity millions
hiay be realized for the support of Goverriment. -Now, .that is the case
under a tariff for revenue—the.cansumer. pays two dollars to get. one into
the Treasury, •which is bad enough in all conscience.
:Eut if. the tariff be dike .the preserit, ohe of protection for protection,
and the tax be 40 instead of .20 per cent., the design of which is to increase the amourit of goodsmade inthis country, and one-half theimports
are -cut off by such ^a tariff, the reverrue would still be twenty millions of
dollars; but now •three-quarters of our goods of like character would be
made at home, "and would be. enhanced in price: by the tariff equally
with the;iraported goods of like descriptioh; then, in order to ra;ise a
revenue of twenty millions of dollars, t h e consumers would pay a tax of
eighty millions, or -four-dollars to fget. one into t h e Tr.easury, which is the
state the protectionists are now bririging us to as fast as they can.
-Now, farraers :and mechanic's,'you-areiri].ured .by.:any:and all tariffs.



334

R E P O R T S OF T H E

[1845.

•,' M-^Continued.
Which would you rather do, pay two dollars to get one under a revenue
tariff of 20 per cent., which James K. Polk is in favor of? or pay four
dollars to get one under the present tariff of 40 per cent.,, for which
Henry Clay stands committed ?
. •
Here Iwill notice a fallacy of Daniel Webster's, delivered atthe mass
meeting at Albany, and which was the only point he madein political
economy in all his great flourish of words; which I will notice for the
purpose of showing up the sophistry and deceit of the high tariff advocates. He says: **Suppose a man has to pay five dollars towards the
* support of Governmerit—it makes no difference to him whether he pays
* it directly out,of his pocket, or in the shape of. a tax on foreign goods,
' b u t that it may make a great difference to his next neighbor, who is
* manufacturing the same kind of goods." But Daniel did not tell us
who paid the raise on his neighbor's goods. Now, thq difference is this:
for the five dollars paid at the custom-house, there has to be perhaps
fifteen dollaxs paid to the domestic manufacturer—making twenty in all
—that the Government may, get five or four to one; but in paying the
tax-direct, he pays but one for one. This is a fair specimen of the sophistry of the high taxiff men.
. '
'
• 7th. The excuse for a high tariff, on'the ground of being independent
in the event ofwar, considered: It is urged, when all beriefit to the agriculturist is given up, t h a t we must be taxed into the support of certain
manufactures, lest the importatiori of them be cut off by war. • In answer
to that, I.would, say that there is no prospect of this country being engaged in-war one yeaxin twent)^ . The chances are altogether in favor
of peace; therefore we ought ndt to suffer a war penalty throughout the
reign of peace. Our polic};^ should be the peace policy. Why prohibit
goods for fear ofwar, when the war itself would, or riright,'-be the most
effectual prohibition after all? But suppose the war conies; all heedful
and necessary articles would be made now urider a taxiff. for revenue,,
and.for that matter without any tariff at all; and why.not then? All
articles that are regularly exported carinot be protected by any tariff, the
price being the exporting price. Alf comm.onvmanufactures, .all good,
plain, substaritial waxes, Would be made here without ahy .tariff other,
than the natural orre of cost of transportation. Then why endeavor to
tax us into a. stateof indeperident "poverty in tim:e.of peace?
/
All articles that axe regularly exported at a profit would be exported
at still greater profit, were it rrot for the taxiff tax on other articles that
have to be used by those producing the articles fbr-export. .For instance,
coarse, cottori goods axe exported; butthe machinery is rnade. of taxed
iron ; th.e workrnerr wear protected woolens and calico; tliey. use pro-,
^
tected sugar and molasses, (for the.beriefit,of six hundred sugar plahters
in Louisiana,) and numberless other. things, whicli increase the costef
living, and add to the cost of the rnanufaeture they are erigaged in;, so
that it is exported at^a less profit.. The interests of the mariufacturers
of articles for export, then, are the same as those of the producers of
* bread and meat.
'
,
'
•
The less, the expense of Hving in any country, the cheaper they can



1845.]

SECRETARYOFTHETREASURY.

335

M-—Continued.
manufacture, and the sooner they can export any particular kind of
manufacture at a profit; therefore a high tariff' retards and puts off' the
time when the exportation of an article can comraence. It defers the ,
time for another reason: it retards the. accumulation of capital; without
capital and labor united,, we cannot manufacture. If I, b}^ six days'
work, urider a moderate tariff, can obtain as much as I could by eight
days' .work under a high tariff, I lose one quarter of my time, w^hich
would otherwise be employed in rnaking improvements which would add
to the capital and wealth of the couritry. And if I am so taxed that in
order to live I have to occupy my whole time, then I make^ no increase
of capital at all. The restrictive system, then, instead of hastening the
^ time wheri we shall be independent of other nations, actually puts it off'.
8th. An inquiry, as to which party is most likely to reduce American
labor to a par with British pauper labor : It is said, that by a tariff for
revenue -we will be supporting British pauper, labor in preference to
American la;.bor; but those who make the assertion seem to overlook thefact that the imported goods are purchased with the products of Araerican
• labor, which can be raore profita.bly exchanged for the products of foreign
labor (or it would not be) than eraployed in rnaking the sarae kind of,
goods at horae; and therefore it is the true raode of protecting Araerican
labor, for by that raeans it gets the best returns; and if the starving
millions of Europe are benefited by it, so are^we, the benefit being reciprocal. But the protectionist is wilhng to sacrifice the interests ofthe
American laborer, if by so doing he can prevent bread from entering the
mouths of the foreign poor. What philanthropy of the dog-in-the-manger
. school! '
.
: It is .stated again that we have manufacturers of certain articles who
•must be protected, or they will be turned back into agricultural and.
other employm.ents, and so reduce the rewards of labor there. I would
say in answer, that I ara not sure but that we could support that portion
of our raanufacturers in idleness by direct taxation, under a S5^stem of
• freer trade, cheaper than we support them how by indirect taxation, which
. raises the price not only of what they manufacture, but also of all similar articles imported. ' But there is another answer to that assertion,
. which is, that this is a new and agricultural coimtry, and that there, is
room in agriculture for a hundred tirnes as raany as are now engaged in
raanufacturing such articles as would notbe raade under a revenue tariff^
for the whole nuraber of persons thus eraployed at. this time, so soon
after the imposition of this high tariff*, does not probably equal the foreign
immigration of a single year. So far from the prohibitory systera protecting Arnerican labor, it plunders.it. The farraer gets no raore fbr his
produce, and pays more for his goods; consequently gets less for his
own kbor, and has less with which to pay for that of others,—-whilst the
mariufacturer, if he could affbrd to pay a great deal rnore, pays but just
enough to get the labor away from the farmer, which may not be as "
much, after 'all, as the farrner would pay under a moderate tariff^—the
laborer, in the mean time, payihg more for his goods.
The faxrn laborer, rinder the republican character of farmers^ is gen


336

REIPORTS OF T H E

[1S45.

^--Continued.
erally treated as an equal in their families, whilst the factory laborer's
mlation to his rernployex is sufficieritly well :defined by fhis beirig .called
an ''operative," which we might imagine to :be some kind of machinery
[belonging:tothe .establishment, ^ h i c h .is most like British pauper labor-?
So far from the high tariff men being :sincerely opposed to putting American labor-on a -par with British pauper labor, they advocate the only
system that can bring it to that result. ;I-n the :first..piaGe they tax .the
labor ofthe : whole nation:; curtailing the enjoyment of those in: easy
.circumstances.; bringirrg a great middle -.class nearer to poverty, '.and
.pauperizing the .po'br. In .the second place, :.they, by transferring from
agriculture to manufactures, take thern frorii an ernploymentthat.isrnatural
easy, and free, jand..-coopthem.up within factory walls, where they are
subject to the same kind of :.prispn discipline "with the .British paupex
laborer. And but for t h e .-arbitrary, restrictive :pdlicy, thos,e :laborers,
thus.tra:risfen'e.d, would have been better xewaj-dedther^
In agriculture, if .men can make more by growirig woofthan wheat,
they wiU grow less wheat and more wool. Jf they can.make niore by
.pork than. :either, they will grow less wheat .and wool, and rrnake raore
pork. And :they will .naturally go .into, that business-which jdelds the
best returns, without the aid. o.f Congress. :.Reason ;and eomrnon sense
ought to teach the-sarne men, that in any country the :business of agriculture and raanufactures starid in a certain ..relation tp;each other, the
same as .the differerit branches of'farm industry alluded t o ; that each
'business .ministers to the wants of the other, and that the freer the trade
between them the nearer on a par will their profits :be;:that if there be
an excess of labor in rnanufactures, it will go over to agriculture, .where
it will .-be-better paid. ;:But if the excess be in agriculture it will go over
to rnariufactures of its own accord, and thus restorethe -equilibrium of
profits.
. ~ "
- •.
These are the /natural laws,of trade, fourided on the daws of nature,
and belonging -to the riatural rights of man. ..But ruatural rights :are
equal rights.; therefore you cannot, infringe m a n ' s natural rights without
violating-his equalrights. Neither can you violate or infringe his:natural
lights without injuring the social system. Now what does the present
tariff law do? Why, it says :to agrieultrire, you ^AaZZ give up a portion
of your labor to the manufacturirig interest. :But I .ask, why did not
.labor go there of its own accord"? .The answer is, because it -was
better paid..in agriculture-^therbest of reasons. Had it inot ;beeri, there
would have been .no .necessity for a tariff t a x to . driveft out. But the
fbrcing s.ystem, beirig artificial,. not .-natural, is supported, nqt;by taxirig
the •manufacturer, who ought ;to pay his-.own laborers, but-by taxing the
.farmer and the mechanic, who, instead .of eraploying thenr, have irad
thern bought away'by the manufacturer by the-use of their own money,
which the mariufacturer^ has been .enabled to itake by lawj which is a'
:viola.tiorr of justice and the natural rights of man. "
9th. • Can there be a home niarket for. all. our produce? The protectionist says, tax us .on, tax us on, nntil -we have a. home market for all
our:agricultural produce.. 'Their policy tendstothat result,«,in-this way:



1845.]

S E C R E T A R Y OF T H E TREASURY.

337

M—Continued.
the more you tax imports, the more the farmer and mechanic have to pay'
for their goods, and the more the raanufacturer will get for his g o o d s as farraing goes down, manufacturing goes up, of course; according to
natural laws, meri will go over from the irijured side to the benefited;
side. But will enough go over to eat up aU our surplus flour and rneat,
and manufacture all our: cotton? If hot, then is the farmer's and
planter's price the exporting price still. But if enough do go over to
effect that result, and we have no raw produce to send abroad, how are
We to get our tea and coffee, and nurnberless other things that we cannot
produce at horae? The answer evidently would be, that they must be
purchased • by hianufacturers. And in very truth, when. eriough have
been driven into raanufacturing to raake a home raarket for all our produce, they would be huraerous enough to manufacture two or three times
as much as this couritry could consurhe, and the surplus would have to
find aforeign market^—the priceof manufactures would be the exporting
price, worth no more here than what they were worth to send to fbreign*
countries. They would have to compete with Erigland for the fdreign
market; and then, in truth and deed would Arnerican factory labor, and
agricultural labor too—for all eraployraents find their level—-be reduced
to a level with British pauper labor; a state for which the Whig party
seera to have a pious abhorrence. As protection will then be coraplete,
they raust resort to direct taxes for at least a part of the :reveriue. Under
the protective systera one of two things must happen; either the farmer's
and planter's price for raw produce rnust be the exporting price, whilst
they pay raore for their goods, (or there is no protection,) or else Araerican labor raust be reduced to a par with British pauper labor. Gentlemen, take either horn of that dilemma, and acknowledge it honestly, and
see how many 5''ou will get to sustain you.
. '
, 10th. Ofthe laws which govern the amount ofcurrency; or, can the
country get rich through the aid of a high tariff, by getting a balance of
trade in specie? which I shall call the specie humbug ^of paper money
men.
If we take specie from dne side of the Atlantic arid put it in circula-'
tion on the other, it will lower prices where it is taken from, and raise
prices where it is taken^ to. If it conies frorri Erigland here, it must
depress prices there and raise prices here^^depress the price of dur
staples there, and raise the price- of their godds here; of course, our'
staples bririg less, and their goods more. We expoit less in value,
and iraport raore in value. In fact, the balance of trade raust then turn
against us, and be paid in specie.
The same thing is true if the case be reversed, and specie taken from
here to England—prices would fall here and rise there. Their goodswould bring less here, and our agricultural staples more there. They
would get less and pay rnore.
Many good-hearted and well-disposed raen support a high tariff for no'
other reason, as they allege, than to keep our specie in the country. To
such I would say, that orily a certain portion of the currency ofthe whole
world belongs to us, or can be supported, kept, or maintained by us, and
VOL. v.—22.




338

R E P O R T S OF T H E

[1845..

M—Continued..
that portion is. fixed by the laws of trade; that the more specie foreign
traders take of us, the less price they will get.for their goods; and it is only
when our currency is in excess: that specie will be drawn from us, until
prices are restored to their natural level, despite all tariff men's;theories. ^But a country under a high tariff can support more currenGy than,
linder a low one, because, for a limited tirne, by dirainishing iraports it
protects specie frora exportation. The importation of goods will be less
profitable, they being taxed at the custom-house; but the exports will
go forward to a rather poorer rnarket, and be exchanged in part for such
articles as can be:still brought in, and the balance taken in- specie. As
soon as a sufficierrcy of specie has been brought in. by that operation of
trade tp raise the price of goods as much: pex cent, as the duty laid- upon
them,, they can be imported again, and the imports and exports of specie
will again, be regulated by the laws of trade. The increased, price of
goods through the accumulation ofcurrency under a tariff, again adraits
of foreign competition, and thus the more protection our rnanufacturers
get the more they will ask for. This is proved by the operation ofthe
present tariff Last year there-were twenty millions of specie irnported;
the price of goods raised;- and this year they are- again iraported at a
profit; so that a further increase of specicj by raising prices, of goods-,
must soon be reduced to its natural level.
But. this inflation of prices does not reach the farmer's produce; The
price of all articles of which a portiori is exported must remain depressed,
whilst- all articles iraported, or like articles made here, advance in price.
The farmer bears the brunt ofthe loss. B.ut the domestic manufacturer
still has the advaritage of the fbreign in what he is: able to sell, the tax:
still continuing-—^the difference in affairs now being, theit a part of the
tax we had been pa.ying to the doraestic raanufacturer is now paid at
the custora-house on foreign goods, forthe beriefit of the Governmerit, and
to that extent the people are benefited.
But supposing we could exchange the products of our labor for specie
continually, (which is not the case, for no nation can sell much that does
not also buy,) and have it accurnulate on our hands: what good would
it do- us S long as we kept it, and did not exchange it for something to
Q
eat,.drink, wear or use in some other way? Those who are so fearful
of losing pur s.pecie, had better.turri their attention to the banking system
of this, country; for: a bank irifla.tion drives-out the specie, .and a ruinous
contraction, which goes as. much below, brings it back. I think it must
be evident froni this article that, the consumer here, riot the foreign:
manufacturer, pays, the tax. The agricultural interest pays it.
..So- also in England the consumers;of imported articles pay the tax.
But. there the ma;nufacturing interest is the eX:porting; interest,, and agriculture is the interest protected;-—they import, breadstuffs, and, as a.
consequence, the consumers of breadstuffs pay the tax. Bythe accumu-.
lation of currency there, .under, the high: tax on imports,, floux is m a d e to ,
bear a price about double what it. is worth here,, and. hence- w e caU:
export it tO: them,, they paying us. what it is worth, here—the. costs j
charges, arid profits,.arid their duties.besides.



1845.]

S E C R E T A R Y OF T H E TREASURY.

339

M-^Contiriued.
A most dishonest atteriipt has been made for political purposes, in the
Juriius tracts, to make people believe that, for the want ofa high protective dr prohibitory tariff, the balance of trade has been against us
about four hundred millions ofdollars since 1789, and that the cduntry
is that much poorer thanit should be; because our balance of imports
over exports amoririts to niearly that sum. The question is summarily
disposed of by James BateSvof Norridgewockj Maine,4ri a letter td the
Albany Cultivator, ih the following manner:
" If a wagoner, from Verrnont should tal^e a load of notions^to Boston^
*arid a Idad of groceries back, as the avails of his export load, which
^ was not worth ariy raore on his> returri than he gave for his load at
^ starting, how long would i t take hira to get rich, or for the town in
* which he lived to become rich, by a thousand sucb transactions?
' When ships are employed on similar errands to all parts of the globe, ,
* the ma:,griitude ofthe affair seems to involve it in a fog, and every little
^ while ^ome wiseacre is crying about the ruinous effects of the balarice
* of trade, &c."
Again, that "our exports are valued at the' place of departure, and
* our imports, until 1833, were valued at the foreign invoice, with 20
^ per cent, added to those beyorid the Cape of Good Hope, and 10 per
* cent, for all others, as cost of transportation and profit. Sirice then
^ they are valued by the true price at the port of entry. Now it is easy
'
' t o see the value df imports should be so much greater than that of the
^exports a s t o cover the use of ships, wages of rnen, finding, insurance
*and profits."
l l t h . Do the farmers ask protection—arid has any class Arightto
demand it?
I riever yet heard a farmer of any party, at any time, say that he was
in favor of taking of the manufacturer or mechanic more price by nine
cents per pound on cheese, or a dollar per barrel on flour, or IOO- per
cent, on beef, more than the article was worth iri the raarket at the time
of sale; arid if he was tdld that he should not orily have the. right
to, but should riiake them pay to him that much in addition to
what they now pay, he,would rio doubt say, I do not wish to be
dishonest; I do not wish to take the advantage of an unjust law.
H e would not find it in his heart to tell the shoemaker, who furnishes him with boots and shoes, arid takes his pay in flour arid meat^
a little at a tirae, for the iraraediate support df his faraily, that he
must pay the accustomed market price, and an addition of 40 to^ 50 per
cent, by way of protecting him, or making him a legahzed robber. In
dther words, he Would not like to give him in exchange for the same
amount- of work ten pounds of chedse instead' of twenty-five, or five
bushels of wheat instead of six^ of on^-half a- quarter of beef instead of
a whole one,-—all of wliich the present law says^ he may do if he cam
No; he would shrink frorii such grinding oppression. If 1,^ a;S a-farmer;
were corripelled to take, through the operation^ of ari^ oppressive law, one
dollar and fifty cerits for that which otherwise could have beeriiboughl
by the consumer for a dollar, I should feel bound in good conscierice td



340

R E P O R T S OF T H E

[1845.

M—-Continued.
refund the fifty cerits. The tariff leaders, iricluding tlie God-like Daniel, sneer at the idea of the protection incidental to a revenue tariffin other words incidental protection—and call itaccidental, and say they
go for protection for. the sake of protection; but urider the present state
of the, country they have no rnore. right to protection frorn rne on that
ground than they have to steal ray corri. It is not a whit raore honest.
It is the producer.of .raeat and breadstuffs that gets the accidental protection,^perhaps once in a generation, whilst the cotton grdwer's protection does not amount.to an.acciderit, he never getting any.
All protected alike mearis all irijured alike. All cannot under any
tariff be- protected- alike, because the farmer, planter, and comraon
mechanic canriot be protected at all; and inasriiuch as foreign. goods
would notbe imported at all if it were not cheaper than to make thern
here, itis plain,that a prptective or prohibitory tariff^ by preventing our
buying to the best advaritage, is a national injury; but as a certain portion of our people are benefited by this national injury, it foUows that
the whole natidnal loss falls upon the portion not benefited, to whicli is
to be. added the amdunt which the protected interest gains by.that
which caused the riational loss. Now if all are to be protected alike,
arid protectidn causes national loss, it follows that all ought .to be
affected alike, which being for evil, the-manufacturer ought to lose as
well as the farmer and mechanic; but if the manufacturer causes the
farmer to lose by indirect taxation at the custom-house, and the farmer
cannot cause the mariufacturer to lose at the sarae place, because agricultural products, are not irnported, and thus rnade susceptible of, arr
increase of price to the rnanufactures by. faxing them, it follows that, to
equalize the protection and distribute the loss, it will become necessar}^
to levy internal custoras ori all the rnanufacturers and tlieir operatives, on
all they consurae and use which is the produce of farmers and mechanics, or else tax them direct and distribute the amount amongthe injured
classes; that would be equal protection,, or protecting all alike. I t i s
Whig protection, equahzed and distributed according to their professions
of benefiting aU ahke; hut not according to their practice, which is to
benefit the. few at the experise df the many. If you would protect all
alike, let trade alorie^
13th. When will manufactures flourish naturally? This is, and ought
to be, emphatically an agricultural countryi But manufactures also
are destined to flourish here. And each particular branch will be
engaged in and flourish without taxing, other, eraplpyrnents to support it,
wBenever individual sagacity (which is better than legislative wisdom
in such matters) can perceive that la,bor will be as well or better
rewarded in that branch than in agriculture. For if it will not be as
well rewarded without taxing other interests to support it, it goes
to show that there is not yet asufficient accumulation df labor and
capital in the country to be diverted to it, and therefore it is premature.
Who cannot perceive that under such circumstances a low, revenue
tariff, such a s all are wilhng to subrnit to, is a sufficient tax to pa}^ fdr
any contingent benefit that rhay ensue in case of war or non-intercourse?



1845.]

S E C R E T A R Y O F T H E TREASURY.

341

M—Continued.
This concludes my examination of the protective system, which has
necessarily been hasty in consequence of pressing engagemerits on the
farm. I am weU. assured that that which is wrong in theory cannot be
correct in practice, and that the present tariff will be tolerated' no longer
than the time when the subject is understood. Let those who are .
determined to think that the more toll the miller takes the more meal
he gets, give verit to their patriotism by paying tribute to the manufacturers to their hearts' content; but Polk Wright rnen protest against being,
compelled to join in the tribute, as their patriotism runs in quite a different channel. . W e had rather stick to the old toll-dish, but are wilhng
that they should allow the miller to ma:ke theirs, high enough to agree
with their philosophy. W e do not believe in the doctrine that the more
a thirig is taxed^, the cheaper it is; that the rnore we pay for an article,
the less it costs us.
. • .
A variety of charming expressions are rnade use of to tickle the fancies of our people into a love for the doctrine of protection. They are
told that it is to''stimulate industry." And irr truth that will be the
effect, if we are to realize as ranch as under a systera of freer trade, for
w e W'ill have to work one quarter harder to obtain the; sarae araount
of enjoyment. And many of those who are in debt will very likely, in
utter despair, stimulate ih sorne other way.
It is to "develope resources;" but it is- the resources of necessity,
burdened with tax, seeking out ways and nn^ans to get along. I t i s
called the ^' American system f but what a prostitution of terras! Can
that system be American which shackles trade and deriies to us the
markets of the world ? which .prevents'our selhng where we can get the
best price, and buying where we can buy the cheapest? which taxes
the rnillions in order that a few factory owners raay amass princely
fortunes in kinds of business for which the country is not ripe? No;
there is nothing about it which partakes ofthe freedom which we associate with the name of "America."
•
A FARMER.

N E W JERSEY.
ANSWERS TO CIRCULAR No. L

.Paterson.

From John Travers.

1^ New Jersey, towri of Paterson, Passaic county.
2. Cotton arid flax carr vas chiefly; water power. . . .
. "
3. Incorporated in 1824;
^ :' ;
4. Total cost about $400,000. '
.-, ..
. 5.. About 60,0,000 pounds cotton arid 250,000 pounds flax; $75,000
materials and $50,000 wiages per annum,
)
6. Profit varies. We have divided, since 1824, 40 per cent, in 21
years. •
' ' ;
.
'^
y
7, The demand for the goods fluctuates according to the importa


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R E P O R T S OF T H E

[1845.

M—Continued.,
tions and. the wants of the Government, at whose instance and for whose
uses it was first established.
8. No. answer.
' J*. Cotton yarns selling from 16 to 30 cerits per pound; flax and tow
yarns selling fronr 8 to 32 cents; .cotton duck from 12J to 30, cents pex
yard.;.fl.ax arid tow cloth from, 11 to .40 cents per yard; ahout 3,000
bolts cottpn and 2,000 bolts flax duck. The balance iri various kinds of
yarns.
.
1-0. Partly answered in No. 5 ; the cotton is all domestic, and about
pne-^fifth of the flax; the reniainder is irnported froni Russia and Ireland*
11. Cotton duck cannot^be impprted? as when the yalue of an article
G.orisists chiefly in the raw material, cotton, there is no foreign .competition. Taldng the weights as the. criterion of value, the foreign and
domestic fla.x goods are about the same price. The. bette.r. quality of
the domestic enables thern to sell somewhat higher.
, 12, There are about three hundred and fifty hands, employed, at from
10 shillings to $9 per week; children earn from 10 shilling.s (but only
two at this) to $3 per week; girls (growri) from $3 tp $5 per week; and
rnen frorn 75 eents to $1 50 per day.
•33. Twelve hours the year rourrd.
14. The difference in factory wages between Erigland. and this country
is about .40 per cent.; in Russia a person earns in a year what;is paid
him here in a week, (see Tooke's Account of Russia;) men, in this Statesreceive about the sarae wages at inconstant service; girls, put of the factory, earn fr^orn 25 cents to 37J cents; boys are idlers when not engaged
in a factory, and leave .the neighborhopd,
-15, .None,
16.. Sold in Baltimore, Philadelphia, New York, and to the United
States Navy.
. 17. The foreign article enters into competition in every place with our.
cotton and flax duck.
.
18. Chiefly consumed at home, though cotton duck is exported to the
Brazils, Cuba, and the West Indies.
19. Answered in the preceding.
20. Sales sometimes for cash, or on a credit of six raonths; never
bartered.
, .
21. The cost of raanufacturing has decreased, from imprpvements in
machinery; the wages are the samje as paid 20 years since; the cost also
fluctuates with the variations in the price ofthe ra.w material; but, from
the improveraents in the machinery, in 20 years we have reduced the
cost from 30 to 40 per cent.
22. We originally obtairied $25 for duck, made half flax aud half
tow; it is now made much better of all .fl,ax, sanie weight'and lengths,
at $13 50 per bolt; cotton has also been reduced from 42 cerits to. 26
cents pex yard, same weight and length. The reductipn has been
gradual, from $26 tp $22 50, $21,. $19, $18, and so pn, as it could be
afforded. •
'
23. We have never had any protection pn duck but one session of



1845.]

SECRETARY OF T H E TREASURY.

343

M-^-^Contiiiued.
Gongress, when tke professing tariff men reduced it at the succeedirig orie.
I believe the duty i^ now less than it was at the first orgariization of the
Government. The comrnercial interests have always opposed any protective laws, although canvas is an indisperisa.ble article in time of war,
and is a contraband article; yet our Navy and the whole marine of the
couritry is dependent on the foreign manufacturer, as all fail who undertake it exclusively in this couritry. If the mercharits would perrait 30
per cent, duty, and provide against procuring ducks iri foreign countries,
as all nations have hitherto done, particuiarly Great Britain, it would be
quite sufficient o n t h e home valuation. But this will be difficult to
accomplish, as all raeans are devised for the protection of the raerchant,
who would not hesitate to abandon his couritry for his " b a g of coffee."
24. Russia raven's duck is daily imported into New York as she etings
or cloths, paying less duty than ducks would pay.
25. Have divided 40 per cent, to our stockholders in 21 years. In
the last three years have paid 5 per cent, per annum, with" a reservation
t)rily in reference to the payment of our debts.
26. In flax, as 15 to 40 of raw material; in cotton, as 8 to 30; wages
about the same proportion.
27. Cannot answer satisfactorily; we use coal, flour, pot-ashes, oil,
and wood, in the processes.
28. There are five flax factories in this State, Penrisylvariia, Massachusetts, and New York. I suppose they consume 3,000,000 pounds of
flax; arid of cotton duck I suppose there are 30,000 bolts per annuni
made^, requiring 4,500,000 pounds of cotton per anrium.
' 29. I have been frank, and it nray be easily determined what would
be the result of 12J per cent, duty, unless we could introduce some
machinery to compensate for the reductiori.
.30. If I could now find a purchaser at two-thirds of the cost, every
stockholder would sell. I should then retire to a farm, and invest what
I might have in United" States stocks.
31. I do not believe that there would be any profits at 1 2 | per cent,
duty on imports, and any other business would be rnore inviting.
32. Some ofthe manufacturers of salt and iron live rernote from the
points of importation, and, having a riiarket at home, never see foreign
iron.
33. Does not like to answer this question, and hopes that'he will not,
therefore, be chaxged with a want of candor.
34. If we had 30 per cent, on the home valuation on all canvas, flax,
and tow goods and yarns, it would be eriough to equalize our earriings
with those of the foreign manufacturer; and foreign duck should pay this
duty, "whether in use or not," as the Enghsh have it.
35. I have never looked into the matter. Have never beeri ari advo5 for very high duties, but should think the duty I now proposp on
and tow gpods, with a similar mode of estiniation, would be quite
icient.
Frauds would be preverited, as the article would have to undergo
JTSOrial examination, in order to determine its value, and one mer


.344

R E P O R T ^ OF T H E

[1845.

M—Continued.
chant would take care of his ow:n interests by watching another; and in
this manner the Goyernment, and those collaterally interested, would be
protected.
37. We produce entirely for honie consumption.
38 to 40. No answers.
^

•

•

Hudson County. Name not given. Endorsed as firom ^'Ruchuntte ^ Andrews.^^ This is probably a mistake, as the Collector, A. Gifford, at
Newark, refiers to a return ofi.these g.entlemen, and.gives their location a s
'.^ BellviUe, Essex County.''^ I find, however, no such paper in those which
have reached the:Departrnent.
• 1. New Jersey, Hudson county, Harrison township.
2. Patent woolen manufactory; steam power.
3. In 1845. • Only two partners.
i
4. Capital invested, $25,000.
' ;
./
-:
5. Refer to No. 4 ; wages, drugs,, coal, &c.; average about $300
weekly.
^
6. Profits not yet ascertained.
7. 8. No answers.
.
9. From 30 to 40 pieces manufactured weekly, 6 to; 8 quarters
broad; average value about $30 per piece.
10. Raw material; sheep's wool; domestic produce; quantity about
2,000 pounds per week, at an average of $700.
11. From England, and we are governed by the English prices.
. 12. Men, women, and children; about50; frora$2 50 to $8 per week
wages.
,
. .
^
13. Eleven hours per day,
14. Our men average $6 per week; same work in England is done
for $4 per week.
15. Two horses.
. 16. New York, Philadelphia, &c. .
.
17. The Eriglish, largely.
18. Principally South and West, and the United States.
19. No answer.
. .
.
20. Six and eight months' eredit.
21. Cannot yet answer.
;
•:
22. Average $30 p e r piece.
23. The present tariff 40 per. cent..
24. Vigilance arrd honest men to prevent • bribery.25. No sto'ck taken.
.
.
26. Answered in 6 and 10.
,
27. All we consume i s the produce of the United States.
29. It would be a great injury, if not the ruin, ofthe concern.
30. Should be at a loss, as rapst manufactures would be abandoij
3 i . Norie that we know of except farming.
. 3 2 , 3 3 , No answers.
:"
,34. Any reduction wpuld be ruinous at present.



1845.]

SECRETARY OF T H E TREASURY.

345

M—Continued.
'35 to 39. No answers.
40. Answered irr No. 12.

^

Further remarks on No. 14.
W e pay workmen ,$6 per week; in England they receive $4; difference in wages .30 per cent, in favor of England. The difference in cost
of wool, drugs, and coals, is 20 per cent, in favor of England—together
50 per cent, against u s ; showing that 40 per cent, tariff is not too much.
The manufactures of England have made it rich and powerful; it may
be so with Arnerica. If manufacturers are injured, agriculturists must
suffer also. Their interests are the same. The manufacturers of America
consume raore Araerican prpduce than all Europe. England can buy
wheat cheaper in Poland and Odessa than the Araerican farraer can
afford it, Und will not take a single barrel raore.than suits her purpose.
If the tariff is reduced we shall be flooded with foreign goods, and
drained of hard coin to pay the wages of the English workraen. This
would create a balance of trade aga;inst us whicli would be ruinous.
Araerica should be an exporter of wool, npt an iraporter. If the farraers
would turn their atterition to this, nothing would pay thera as well. The
export of cotton and wool would enrich us, and give the balance of
coraraerce greatly in our favor..
.-

ANSWERS TO CIRCULAR No. 2.

Atlantic County,

From Robert B. Risley, Collector^ Great Egg Harhor.

1. Corn, wheat, rye, potatoes, &c.; no cotton, rice, or tobacco.
2. Is answered in ray answer to the 1st; no capital engaged in the
production of rice, cotton, or tobacco.
3.. Not dependent, nor irhraediately connected.
4. Answered by ray answer to the 2d. >
5. Canriot answer, as there has been no capital eraployed in Egg Harbor township after that raanner.
6.. Cannot answer.
7. Cannot answer.
.^
8. Egg Harbor township does not raise a sufficient supply ofhorses,
mules, hogs, cattle, meats, and other provisions; draws its supplies
chiefly from Philadelphia and New York. Township is large; cannot
answer what has been the aver'age annual arnount for whole township,
nor what the price for- the last three years or for the ten preceding. If
there has been a difference between thera, cannot answer to w h a t it is
lattributed.
9. Cannot answer.
:10. Cannpt answer.
11. This township does not export a:riy articles of its own product to
''oreign maxket.



346

R E P O R T S OF T H E

[1845.

M—^Continued.
12. Answered in my answer to the l l t h question.
13. Cannot answer.
' "
14. No manufactories of any kind or description in Egg Haxbor
township.
15. Citizens of this township have been, at a former period, engaged
in the business of ship-building to a considerable extent, and some are
now engaged to a very small extent. Two vessels building at this time
in the towhship; owning no vessel property, eannot answer the xemain-ing part of the question.
16. Cannot answer.
1 7 . Cannot answer.

<
-

'

'

'
-

'..
\ •

- . '\

18'. Caririot answer.
19. Cannot answer.
20. Iron, glass, sugar, duck, and cottori.
21. Cannot answer..
22. Cannot answer.
'
,23, Cannot answer.
24. Cannot answer.
'
2^5. Cannot answer.,
' ,
26. Cannot answer.
'
27. There is raised in EggHarbor township abdut 2,320 pounds pf
wool per year; it is now worth about 37^ cents per pound, and ten years
preceding the tariffof 1842 it was worth 50 cents per pound.
• 28. There are no niines worked in this township.
Salem,

From S. H.-Merritt, Postmaster.

1. Wheat, corn, rye, oats, potatoes, fruits; no cotton, rice, or tobacco.
2. About seven-tenths ofits capital eraployed in their production.
3. The raechanical interest is iraraediately dependent upon thera; the
commercial and manufacturing remotely..
4. The average profit on capital ernployed on well^cohducted farms
does not exceed four per cent, since the tariffof 1842. .
5. The average profit for the ten years preceding was greater. - The
tariffof 1842, has affected injuriously the interests of the middle class of
farmers.
6. Average price of wheat, 90 cents; corn, 4 5 ; rye, 5 5 ; oats, 30;
hay, $8 per ton.
.
.
7. Prices have been affected somewhat by the currency, but more by
the tariff, which is felt by the farmer both in his-purchases and in his
sales.
/•
8. The State raises a good supply.
9 to 12. No answers.
13. There is; and a country cannot long coritinue to import a much
larger amount than its exports without injury. The present high duties,
affect the country in two ways: 1st, in the excess over the average profits
of.other comniercial or agricultural interests; and 2d, by its moral effect
on the intercourse of nations. They will buy in preference of those wh
do not unnecessarily restrict their interests.



1845.]

SECRETARY OF T H E TREASURY.

347

.M-—Continued.
14. We have cotton, woolen, saddlery, carriages, calico, pririting, &c„
&c. Capital about $5,000,000. The present tariff benefits these in a
high degree.
15. But shghtly engaged in ship-building.
16 to 27. No answers.
'
28. The quantity of wool raised ..is not large; its price per pound,
since 1842, about 30 cents.
Rahway.

From WiUiam G. Lathrop.

1. Indian corn, potatoes, oats, wheat, buckwheat, rye, barley, wool,
mutton, hay, fruit and vegetables.
2. Not less than nine-tenths. The .census of 1840 is referred to.
3. Its comraercial and raechanical interests are iriirnediately connected
with, and dependent upon, its agricultural, manufacturing, arid navigation interests, to an extent proportioned to the capital respectively
engaged in.each,
.
,
Its manufacturing arid riavigation iriterests are mairily indeperident of
its agricultural interests, consuraing the pro.ducts pf other States and
countries, and looking beyorid the bounds ofthe State for their principal
market.
4. Average annual profit for the last three years, nothing..
5. No answer.
6. For the past three years, wheat, $ 1 ; maize, 56 cents; oats, 30
cents; buckwheat, 50 cents; rye, 62J cents; hay, $8 per ton of 2,000
pounds.
7. From 1832 to 1842 the currency mainly affected prices and profits.
During the years 1842, '43, and '44, the currency having become regulated, the tariff of 1842, carae in aid of a reviving industry, and with
decided benefit to the agricultural interests in this region.
8. The State supplies herself
9. Ariswered in No. 3.
10. Answered in No. 3,
" •
11, 12. No ariswers.
13. [This question is answered by referring, at great length, to the
past history and present condition of China, as a strong illustration of
the principles involved in the question.]
14 to 16. No answers.
' . ' • " .
17. As the iraporter is, in one sense, an agent of the cornmuriity who
consume his imports, the facilities afforded by a wise and liberal " warehouse system" must affect beneficially the trade of the State.
18 to 21. No answers.
22. On tea and coffee, and hides, (if now free—a drawback being
allowed pn the export of leather,) 10 per cent.
23. No answer.
24. One effect ofthe present high duties on iron is to enable the manufacturer to pay to the skilled workmen the extravagarit wages exacted.
by them, and maintained by means of a thorough understariding arrd



348

R E P O R T S OF T H E

[1845.

M—Continued.
combihatiori among them; wages amountirig to from $3 50 to $5 per
day, and exceeding the wages received by the same class in England
and Wales three and four-fold.
25 to 28. No answers.

• PENNSYLVANIA..

^.. '

ANSWERS TO CIRCULAR No. 1.

Clarion County.

Buchanan Furnace—From P . Cermer, Cary & Dale.
f

1. PennsyIvarria, Clarion county. "
^
2. Water power; a.blast furnace.
. 3. Iri 1844; partnership concern.
4 to 8. Not answered.
' -;
9. Four hundred and fifty tons pig metal—value, $12,500.
10, 11. Not answered.
12. Forty men, ten children; average wages of men, 87^ cents.
13. Ten hours all the year.
- "
14. Not ariswered.
15. Twerity horses, six yoke of oxen.
.
\
16. None at home; 100 miles, by water, to Pittsburg.
17. Not at present.
'
.
• ';
18. Pittsburg.
19. Thinks not.
20. Cash, and,credit frora three to six mpnths.
.
^
21. Iricreased on labor twelve per cent.
22. Thirty dollaxs per tori, cash.
23. The same as at piresent.
24. Do not know.,
25. Not ariswered.
26. The material costs but iittle, except labor.
,27. Five thousand, dollars agricultural; $3,000 other domestic productions.
,.
28, Very little idea, but large.
'
29. Yes, and would not continue.
.
.
.31,.32. No.. . •
, • '. ^' • '
33. Not answered.
34. No reductipn. .
35,36. Does not know;
,,
37 to 40. Not answered.
.,
. " ."
Pittsburg.

From George W.Smith..

1. Perinsylvania,. Allegheny county. •
2. Brewery and malt house; steam power. .
3. In 1811; individual.
.



^
^

1845.]

S E C R E T A R Y O F T H E TREASURY.

349

M—Contiriued.
4. Buildirigs, rnachinery, &c., $23,000..
5. Average araount of grain used 25,000 bushels; hopSj 15,000 lbs.;
cash paid for raaterials, $17,000 ; for wages, $4,000.
6. Profit, $3,000; no borrowed capital.
• 7. General prdsperity, or general.depression^
8. Not answered.
9. Four thousand barrels of ale, porter, and beer.
10. No answer.
. .
11. The cost of Eriglish ale and porter is double .the price of that
manufactured here.
12. Fourteen men at $1 per day.
13. 14. No ariswer.
15. Four horses. ,
16. About half the articles manufactured are sent to tlie. western
States.
17. The importation of foreign ale or porter does not injure the
brewers here.
18. Not answered.
. 19.. Veiy little exported.
21. The.cost in material and labor has increased.
22. No answer.
. •
\
23. No protection needed.
24 to 40. No answer.
; Pittsburg.

From John B. Sheiiff. .

1.. Pennsylvania, Allegheny county.
.' '
• 2; Sheet iron; cooking stoves; copper, tin, and sheet iron; no stearii
or water power.
^
3. In 1843; joint stock.
4. One thousarid two hundred dollars invested in buildiria:s and
tools.
^
5. No answer.
6. 7, 8. The rate of profit, exclusive of labor, is a.bout twenty-five per
cent. No borrowed capital. The profits have iricreased, in consequerice
of a general increase of busiriess, since 1843; no capital otherwise
invested.'
9. Cannot say with certainty; probably about $3,000; canriot
describe all the articles without-writing a volurrie; cooking stoves vary
fi'orii $50 to $300; copper pipe at 40° cents.
•
. 10, 11. Canriot tell the quantity of copper and tin plate used; its cost
is, for copper 30 cents per pound, and for tin plate $11 50 per box;
tin plate iraported; is not aware of any tin or copper ware imported
from foreign markets.
12,13. Four men,:three boys; wprk 11 hours per day in summer,
10 hours in winter.
14. From $1 to $1 75 is paid, depending upon circumstances.



350

R E P O R T S OF T H E

[1845.

M—Gontinued.
15. No answer.
16. They do.
17 to 19. No answer.
20. Generally for cash; when ori credit, not to exceed four months.
21. The cost of the mariufactured article has-increased in consequence
ofan advance of two cents pex pound on copper, and $2. 50 per box on
tin plate; no increase in wages.
22. No answer.
23. A specific duty of twenty per cent, would be an abundant protection, provided the tin plate should be admitted free of duty; the tin
plate not being manufactured in this country, there is no competitiori,
and the importer is enabled to add the duty to the first cost of the
article, thereby making us pay higher by the arnount of dirty.
24. 25. No answer.
" .
26. Three-fourths material, one-eighth wages or labor, and one-eighth
profits.
V
27. None, except such as are used in families.
'.
28. Canriot tell.
29. If the duty on ware and tin plate were reduced to 12 J per cerit.,
with a corresponding reduction of all imports, the result would be felt
only indirectly; all the large manufacturing establishments, upon which
I depend, would close, and, as a necessary consequence, I should have
to close also.
..
30. If corapelled to close, having capital, I would eraploy it in
importing.
31. No answer.
32. Salt and iron are not protected from a ruinous competition by
their distance from the sea-shore, but bythe duties now laid upon foreign
salt and iron; if the present duty on salt is taken offer reduced, at least
one hundred furnaces in this State must be abandoned.
3,3 to 37. No answer.
38. Has greatly iricreased since the tariffof 1842.
NOTE.—The foregoirig returns were forwarded to the Department by
J . B. Guthrie, Surveyor and Inspector, Pittsburg, Pennsylvania, who
furnishes a. list of the names of manufacturers (188 in riumber) in the
adjoining counties of Pennsylvania, to whom he had furnished the "questions;" together with a copy of his note to each, soliciting their attention
to the: subject. He states that "only four of the manufacturers have
returned answers."
The letter^ of Mr. Guthrie enclosed, in additiori to the above,- a communication Trom S. Morrow, who states that he i s " not sufficiently
acquainted with the subjects of inquiry to give satisfactory answers;"
that, in his "own business (the manufacture of tin, copper,.tod sheet
^irori ware) there has been no foreigri competition;- the bulky nature of
'the article, and the small proportion of value which the labor bestowed
' bears to the material, preclude it."



1845.]

S E C R E T A R Y OF T H E TREASURY.

351

M—Cbntiriued.
George F . Lehman (post office, Philadelphia) regrets his inability to
furnish answers to the questioris, and gives his own views, generally, on
the tariff.

ANSWERS TO CIRCULAR No. 2.

Gettysburg,

From C . W . Berbechy, Postmaster,

1. Wheat, rye,, corn,, and all cereal grains.
2. Canriot answer."
.
'
3. Depend on the success of the farmer.
4. Average profit small, in consequence of low prices.
' 5. The farming interests more encouraging previous to 1842 than
' since.
6. Average prices for wheat, previous to 1842j $1 2 5 ; since that
time frora 90 cents to $1.
[Nd other questidns answered.]
Hollidaysburg.

From Joseph Kemp.

1. Wheat, rye, corn, oats, potatoes, buckwheat, &c.; no cotton, rice,
or tobacco.
.
"
• ^2. Atleast five-sixths.
3. To a very great^ extent; but not so great as to the mining^and
manufacturing interests.
4. The average profit on capital (after paying labor and supporting
famihes) has been about as good as the average of manufacturers or
merchants. Farms wiU, not rent for raore than 3;|.t0 4 per cent, (clear
df taxes) on. the capital invested in thera, or the amourit they would
bring.if exposed to sale; but this is cdnsidered a safer business and
investment. The price of larid, compared with the profits, has been
high. Since 1842 rather lower, owing td a nearer approximation to a
specie standard. Land was higher in 1837, 1838, arid 1839, w h e n t h e
country was full of paper, and.niatters unsettled, than since, as persons
were willirig and anxious to invest their paper dollar in land, as soon as
possible.
•
5.. The arinual profit for the time referred to was rather higher than
now. True, the price of flour was' about double what it now is, but
that was,, in part, owing to., a failure of crops.
6, No answer.
7. The tariff laws have.always affected agriculture inimediately in
the vicinity of mariufacturing .establishmerits favorably, by furnishing a
raarket for their productions; it aff^ects those at a distance,;also, by leav-ing to thera the city or foreign market. The condition of the currency
has more to do with prices and profits than the tariff.
. 8.. About the same as the^ ten- preceding years.
9. They are.



352

R E P O R T S OF T H E

[1845.

M—Continued.
' 10. The prices of the staple manufactures- are .considerably Idwer
than they were for the ten precedirig years, averaging them; they are
manufactured cheaper. Iron is cheaper. The price will still decrease,
by reason of the iraraense quaritity now raaking, and the nuraber of new
works going into operation. One county in.this State alone is now putting up twerity-seven new furnaces, capable of manufacturing nearly
one-half of the entire amourit manufactured iri the State in 1830. The
impression that the tariff is tp perform woriders, has put in motion capital and exertions that would astonish persons not conversant with the
facts; the result must be over-production, low prices, and ruin to those
who have made debts in the construction of their works. The present
rates afford a sufficient rernuneratidn. Iron that in 1837 and 1838 cost
$100 to $110 per ton, can be bpught at $65 and $70. Pig iron commands from $30 to $33 now. ; In 1837, 1838, and 1839, when the tariff
was neairlyoff, it commanded ,$45; showing that the currency produced
this effect, and not the tariff.
.
11. It exports vast quantities of coal, iron, &c.
12. The: foreign mari^et, although consuraing little,, has much to do
with the price of products. We could supply the entire seaboard with
coal; Erigland and Nova Scotia interfere.
•. * .
13. There is a. verj^ intimate conriection. We ought not to irnport as
much as we export; we might as well throw the cost of premiums for
excharige on our foreigri friends, as to pay them ourselves. To do that
we rnust tax their fabrics so high as to rnake it the iriterest of artisans to
corne ampng us, uritil we learn, and get fully established. A n d t h e n t h e
next raost importarit step is to keep our currency good; keep prices low
at home, and our mariufacturers will make rnoney; riot by xeason of high
profits oh a small quaritity riiade, but by srnall profits on much made;
then they, can ship fabrics a.broad. The present tariff canrrot affect the
exports, in the aggregate, othex than to iricrease. them. Instead of sending flour, we. may send steam-engines and cotton fabrics to the places
heretofore supplied by England; and when a failure of crops occurs,,
they must buy our flour ..in addition; and, without a failure, they wiU
not take it.
14. A s i t regards.the duties, I cart only say that it does not- affect them
any riow; at the preserit rates of irorr but little can be imported. A
terrific storm impends over the heads of rnany who are just going into
business, ori -account of over-production, low rates, ,&c. I expect,a decline of 10 to 15 per cent, in the price pf hon within the next six or mnemonths; and it would be better to avoid any panic, as they might weather
oiit the storm; and when pnce under way, the tariff will affect them but
httle, as competition will cprapel them to manufacture so cheap that they
will not be aifected by a reveriue tariff.
15. No answer.
:
.,
16. They are said to be greatly benefited.
17 to 20. No ariswers. ,
'\
21. The rule requiririg cash duties is much preferred; lower than the
preserit rates, and cash, I would prefer.



1845.]^

- S E C R E T A R Y OF T H E TREASURY.
M—Coritinued.

353

"

2 2 . N o a n s w e r . •'"'• • • „ : • • . •

•' ' • •

23. Considerable prosperity prevails, but this is not to be ascribed to
thelariff. ^" A "reaction must always take place in a country like pur's after
a suspensipn of business. . Public, opiniori makes trade; raanufactures,
and business generally, start iritP life, when that on which their hopes
. were founded is really in ppieration for good or evil. All are in better
spirits riow than in 1840j 1841, and 1842, except lawyers.: [The writer
had stated previously that he was a lawyer.] ^ \
24. 25. No answers.
^
,
26. The tariff' has been a benefit to'the. agricultural and laboring poor, .
as it has given eraployraent to raany, and purchased the s;urplus provisions ofthe farraer. The raanufacturer labors under a delusion as to the
protecting shield of the tariff; but othfers-have been, benefited notwithstanding, by .reason of new'.works which have been erected under the
behef that a tariff would exclude foreigri iron,'
27. No ariswer.
.
.' 28. Coal andiron are the ehiefniinerals of this State; and the amount
produced now is full 50 per.cent, greater than in 1840 and 1841. -

: DELAWARE.
ANSWER T P CIRCULAR,No. 2.

Georgetown^ ^ From Charles Tunnell, Postmaster,
Cannotsay that the tariff has had any effect in the county of Sussex;^
no cotton, rice, o.r tobacco raised, and no nianufactures of any kinii;
principle staple Indian corn..
..
" ,
:

; ^"MARYLAND.

;•

ANSWERS TO CIRCULAR No. 1.

•_

;•
-

Prince George^s, Anne Arundel, and Baltimore. From Covington Manufac^
turing Company—'Messrs. Ellicott.. 1. Maryland; Pririce George's, Arine Arundel, and;^Baltimore counties.
2. Pig iron, bar iron, boiler iron, nails, and spikes. Water and;
steara.
,
,
,
;
3. H a s b e e n conducted under,various names fpr forty years.
4. Cost of the various establishments about four hundred thousand
.dollars.
'•: .
.
.
.'
5. Current stock on hand'(incliiding iron and nails unsold) is about
one hundred thousand doUars.
,
6. Has not averaged six per cent, per annum; no differencein profit
between thefeatl -and borrowed capital, except the interest paid on the
latter.
VOL. Y , — 2 S . '



354

REPORTS OF THE

[1845*

M-—Continued.
7. The tariff is the general cause of the iricrease pr decrease of the profits, the comproniise act having caused great losses.
. 8 . Capital generally does not pay over six per cerit per annum.
9. Generally Pur product is about $300,000 per annum.
10.. The manufacture being iron, the raw material has no value except
that which is given to it by labor. • ^
.^
11. About the same as ours at the present rate of duty*
..
12. About 500 men. ; . /
'
13. Twelve hours the year round.
^
. 14. About the same throughout the U rri ted States; in Europe wages
axe less than one-half the rates in this country.
^:
15.. About two hundred and fifty. '\
> '
16. Our manufactures are sold to all parts of the United .States.
17. Foreign articles do enter irito competition' with ours at all their
places of sale, except in the case of cut nails, which are not made in
foreign cpuntries.
'
.18. In this cbuntry.
.
'
19. Few or none exported.
/
20.^ Generally ori credit. .
'
.
. 21. The value and cpst pf our manufactures are constantly fluctuating, as is also the costof labor.
22. Prices generally, since the establishment of these works, have
decreased about one-lia;if; too general to be answered with any correctness.
. '
23. Fifty per cent., becanse the cost of iron is produped solely by
labor and agricultural products.24. The preserit tariff has proved effectual except in relation to scrap
" iron.
•'••'..
25. No dividend has been declared; but the works have been somewhat iraprp ved,
.
'
. •
26. See answer to 10th question.
'
/ ' r
27. Agricultural production^ about one-half.
. 28. Cannot answer. , ,
:
29i The business would be abandoned, and the property worthless.
30. Capital would be annihilated, and our people would resort to
agricultural pursuits. ^
c
.
,
" 31. Answered in the preceding.,
\
,32. They are not;-.the largest iron estabhshments are tributary to the
seaboard; but there are some 100 to 200 miles in the interior, and
should those on the seaboard be destroyed by the reductiori of 12J
per cent, duty, the interior establishmerits would seek a market in the
West._ •
- .
" :
^
'
.
• •
33. .Unimportant.^
34. Profits do. not -average; over six.per cent, at the present rate of
duty., . -. . ..-;,_ ^
- •• . .
'- "•; . •
.
35. Answered previously.
>/
3 6 , 3 7 , 3 8 . Cannot answer. '
39, About 6 per cent.



i845.j

SECRETARY OF T H E TREASURY,

35S

•M—^Continued,
40. About seven-^eighths of a dollar.
. NOTE,—-The above return, from the Messrs. Ellicott, is forwarded to
the Department by General W. H. Mairriott, Collector at Baltimore, with
a lettex from Messrs. Robert Neilson and George W. Burke, to whom
, the Cpllector had eonfided the daty of obtainirig information called for
by the circular of the 16th of. April last, and that of the 10th.of July.
. These gentlemen state t h a t their "labors were alniost entirely unaided
by any official statistical records on which they could rely;" that they
[ *' had to depend in nearly every case on the; voluritary informat io ri of
gentlemen connected withthe various interests referred; to in the circular;"
and t h a t , " with few^ exceptioris, their inquiries were responded to with
readiness and frankness;" that, in relation tp the latter circular, they had
*'placed in the hands df several gentlemen engaged in the nianufacture,.
of wool, cotton, iron, and tobacco, copies of the questions;" and that,
"with the exception of the Mes^r's. EUicott, proprietors ofthe Covirigtori
iron works\ they ha:d all decliried answering:''
Since the above„was written, several communications have been received in reply to questions'riumbered i^!;(?o.. They are hereto annexed.;
T h e return from John Dukehard and the letter from J . T. Ducatel were
received in communication from Moreau Forrest, marshal, &e., October
31,1845."'

/

; '••-

•

^. . • • ' . > .

_.

ANSWERS TO CIRCULAR No. 2.

Baltimore,

From J, Dukehard.

20. In .answer to this question, (to which^Mr. D. confines hiriiself,)
-hefurnishes the follpwing table:
Cost of wood-screws, (it the prese:nt duty, ofi 12. cents per pound*
'
. Weight.

Size.
'

-

-

;

-

liinch,No. 6
il

^i
1
a
li
1|
2
2i
3
3|
4

"
"\
."
"
"
*
*
«
«
"
"

8..

•

Net sterling
.cost, reduced
dollars and
'
cents.

Remarks oil question 20»^

•

-.

' 1

Diity.

7

' .

8
9
10
11
12
15
16
18
19
20

\

.

•

•

.

4 ozs. • ' $ 0 0 3 .
J O 07
6 « '
04|
;08i
• 8i -;
06
091 V
12i * ' ,
«
- 09
111
•lib. |:oz.
12
^
13
- l i b . 4 | ozs, .
15
.16
1 * i4i:"
*
221
20
-. • ,. 3 | lbs.
. 4^
35
- .43 « '
«
57 ,
46
6| «
*
79|
68
10 " ^
1 20
92 .
12 "
.I'U ^
110




From the foregoirig calcuia'tiori,
. it-win be seen that thie. diity of
12 cents per^pound, on wood-;
screws, from the sm'sdler sizes
up to 1 of an inch, enables
: dealers to import th em. , f As;
the size, and consequently the^
weight, is iricreased, the ;duty'
.rapidly advances; so that .agro ss of screws,: 4: in ch.es, No.
20, the "cost of which is J l 10,:
.; pay^, the' weight being 12'
; pounds, f 1.;:44 ^and-- duties,^BrJ^
130 per cent.^
'

356

R E P O R T S OF T H E

{1845.

,M^—C oritinued.
Baltimore.

From J . T. Ducatel, State Geologist.

, 28. Is wilhrig. to furriish inforination iri reply to questiori No.-28, if he
can be paid for the labor and expense.
:.

\

Kent County.^ From Jarnes M. Spencer..

1: Wheat, corn, rye,, oats. Tobacco is raised in some of the southern
courrties on the westerri shore.. . '
2. Capital irivested ir:i agriculture, about $150,000,000;-in comraerce,
. $9,246,170; in raanufactureSj $6,450;280; the two-last narned including
all the mechanical and navigating interests. About nine-tenths of the
capital of the State-is invested in agriculture ^
\
3. The manufacturing and commercial iriterests,unaided by protective
tariffs, are as dependerit upon agriculture as'agricultural property is
dependerit [on], the :causes which regulate and contrdl the value;of
agricultural products^ It is the sariie from which comraercial and raanufacturing profits are derived. They are coririected with and dependent
upon each other'tp a very great exterit; uriless, by a systera of legislative
robbery, the.agricrilturist is plundered, to increase the;gains of the mdihnfdftnrer, or vice versa.
"
'
;•
4. Average profit on capital, employed in agriculture ori the Eastern
Shore of Maryland for thedast three yeaxs, has been.very trifling, if any..
Some of the best farmers have not, been able to pay expenses; tenants,
if npt gopd managers, have not beeri able to pay their rents; and raariy
farraers who have had to hire laborers to cultivate their farras, have found
at the end of the year that thdir expenses have exceeded the, proceeds
of their farras. For the last three years agricultural products have been
low, and manufactured goods high.
5. Is not prepared to furnish a defiriite ans wer. The prpfit on capital
was, however, much greater upon an average than durirrg the eight years'
previpus to the cohiprornise act, or than it has been since.. Refers for
particulars to Commercial List of Philadelphia for 1840.
6. No answer.
7. The conditipn of the; currericy of this State for thelast three years
has been very good. The price of produce low, which proves that the
operatiori of the tariff, rrot the condition of the currency, depreciates the
value of agricultural products. The currency has, no doubt,, sdnie influence upon the price and value of the staples of the country; but not so
great as a protective tariff;- .
, ^
'.
8. The State raises cattle, hogs, and provisions sufficient for its owri
use.- Horses and mules are brought into the State principally from Indiana and llhnois. The prices ofthese have varied, as the prices of
produce, and frpm the seime causes.
.
';
•'9. Unaided.by prptective tariffs, commerce and nianufactures would
be dependent upon, agriculturei^ Uriless it prospered, they cpuld ndt.
B y t h e operation of the protective system, the dependence is destroyed.'
The manufacturer rides and .rules over the plundered ploughman, and



1845.]

SECRETARYOFTHETREASURY,

257

M-—Continued.
commerce and raanufactures are injured and depressed by this systeni
of legislative fa;voritism.
.
[The other questions are not answered.] •
,
; "
;.
Baltimore.

F r o m Robert Neilson a n d George W, Burke, Inspectors ofi the
: > •
Cmtoms.
'

1.'Wheat, corn, and tobacco..
,,
2. The whole capital of the State (assurning the last assessraent of the
reaf and personal property within its liraits to constitute said capital) is
. a b o u t $200,000,000; about $90,000,000 of that amount erigaged in
agriculture. . . .
•
- •
.-• .
,; ...
' •
3. The interests mentioned are very,intimately cdnriected with and
dependent upon the agrieultural productions of the State, as they afford
the mercharit, mechanic, mariufacturer, arid ship-owner; objects for the
profitable employment of ^tlieir ca;pital and industry..
4. It is difficrdt tb answer this question, the profits of farming, deperidfim.g so m n c h on. soil, location, nnd management. The dutieis orr" iraports
but incidentally affect prices of product^; the great, regulators in this
raatter are supply and demand. The average net profits' of welUconducted
farms-cannot be estimated at more'than about 5 pericent*
5. Taking the annual average prices of the staples referred to in the
first answer fdr the. last thirteen years,,we do not perceive any material
oc^^^aZ difference in ..the" profits of the two periods; for although prices
may have adva;nced after the suspension of specie payments in 1837,
yet; the expense of production kept pace with the advance of price.
. 6. We refer to a paper hereto annexed. (See table on page 359-60.)
7. See ansv^er to questiori 5. "
;
;
'
' „8. The State raises but a small proportion. The supply pf horses and
mules is priricipally from Ohio: and.Keritucky; cattle, sheiep, and hogs,
from Virginia, Ohio, and Pennsylvania. Cannot telf the riumber of
horses and mules imported frprn other States.. Number of cattle about
.50,000; sheep, .40,000; hogs; about .100,000. ^ About one-eighth of the
cattle and hogs leave this for other rnarkets. The prices have averaged
for the last three years about $5 per cwt.; for the ten precedirig years,
about $6, which m a y b e attributed to the fluctuations iri the money
:maxket.^ •'• \ . ', ^
• • '. . '•
•_: •. • ./''••'•. -\'^' ••'•9. Any decided adyance in the prices of our products raust be caused
either by deficiency at horae or derriand abroad. If to the latter, the
interests referred to in this question will be more or less affected and
their profits influericed. ; '.
.
^ ,
.
.
10.. W e understand by "protected articlesv" manufactures of cottori-,
wool, iron, and sugar; their priees have not varied much, during the last
three years, from.the prices of the preceding ten. This is .attributed,
mairily, to increased' supply, produced by conipetition',-,improvements in
; machinery j and other facihties in their mariufacture." What proportion
these prices bear to the prices ofthe staples duririg these peripds respec-tively,'we..cannot say.. . >
,
.
.
"
11. -The State exports a large arnount of her cotton rrianufactures;-and



358

K E P O R T S OF T H E

[1845.

M—Coritinued.'.
sorne rnanufactured tobacco. Thp export of cotton goods ^ has been
increasing for years, particularly since the tariff pf 1842, their prices in
forei,gn ports being regulated by thedemand.
12. Nearly the whole of the tobacco crop (averaging 30,000 hogsheads
per annum) is .exported to and sold in Europe. Flour, corn, beef, pork,
fish, arid other provisions, are sent tp South America, the West Indies,^
arid England; cotton nianufactures to South America and China:;, the
prpportion exported ;to what is raised arid made, not known. All the
articles above named, with the exception of tobacco, meet With compe- titiori abroad. The high duties imposed on impprts must, uriquestionably,
lessen the demand for our exports.
. . .
13i There is this conhection between imports and expprts, that if a
country continues, fpr any length of time, to import more than she can.^
expprt, a balarice will be created .agairist her, whifch must b e m a d e good,
by the' export of the precious metals, and- vice versa.. The present rate
of duties operatirig to the exclusion of rnany articlesef fdreign production,
i t necessarily follows that the countries producing them do not take as
niuch of our products as they worild were the duties such as^tp enable
them to send their goods to our rnarkets.
14. There are many^and extensive manufacturing establishments in
prrr State, consisting principally of :flour, co.tton goods, woolen goods,
iron, soap and candles, liquors, gunpowder, glass, tobacco, chemicals,
leather,, refined sugar,; &c., &c. The number not kriown; capital invested about $7,500,000. As their profits cannot be ascertained, we
canriot say what rate of duty on similax articles would enable them td
sustain themselyes^
,
' •
15. Our citizens have been,' and still are, extensively engaged in the
business of ship-building and navigation. T h e present conditipn of these
interests is progressive and prpsperpus. Cannpt say how they are
affected by the tariff.
, .
' \ -^
' . ' ,
16. Cannot say. •
. '
-,
17. As regards the effects of a warehouse systern, there are different
arid conflicting opinions. Those in favor of the • system coritend that it
would greatly facilitate commercial pperations in general, and he parties
ularly favorable t o r n e n of lirnited capital,,affording them advantages
which they do rrot possess under the present rule of Cash duties. On the
other side itis urged that it would enable foreigners t o cojnpete injuriously
with our own merchants,, and conceritrate nearly the whole ofthe irnport
trade in the city of New York.
.
^
18. The abolition of drawbacks would operate injuriously on the comnaerce of the.country.'
,:
. 19. There are but few.articles, under the present sj^stem, that dp not
enjoy the benefit of drawback. No important beneficial effect would be
produced by extendirig the privilege. ;,
.
. ^ ,
20. Low-priced cottpn gpods, the inferior qualities of carpetirig arid
other' woolens, low-priced silk goods, wood-screws of larger size than' f
inch, and some articles of hardware.
21. The mininiums of the preserit tariff and cash duties affect favor


1845.]

SECRETARY OF T H E TREASURY.

359

M—Continued.
ably—the former the marihfa;cturer, the latter theiriiporter of large capital.
The other great interests of the State are injuriously affected by their
operation.
,
^
.
22. Tea and eoffee. An average duty of six cents per pound on tea,
and one cent Pn coffee, would not be felt by any class ofthe coraraunity,,
and, at the same time, prpduce considerable fevenue.
23. No answer.
.
- o
\ 24. Ail the "protected articles" are extensively corrsiinied, and, with
the exception of Ipw-priced cotton goods, not manufactured in sufficient,
/quantities to supply the demarid for home cpnsumptiph. W e may mention, in addition to the "protected articles," glass bottles, glass tumblers,
demijohns, baizes, flannels, ox and trace chains, cigars, railroad iron,
pig irpn^ salt,,'molassfes, wood-screws, cordage, &c., &c., as- being in
constant demand, arid manufactured only to a limited exterit. The
effect of the present system of duties on the above articles, and many
others that might be riientioned, is to enhance their price to the consumer,
and thereby operate injuriously to all classes except the manufacturer.
25. In the precedirig answer several articles are enumerated partially
manufactured in this country, the prices of which are greatly enhanced
by the operation ofthe present tariff law. Black pepper and raisins are
extensively cpnsumed, and are subjected to very high duties. Other
parts of the question not answered.
"
26. The present duties on imports have induced capitalists to engage
extensively in manufactures; thereby creating, at various points, increased
consumptiori of the fruits bfthe earth. In the vicinity of manufacturirig
establishments lands have increased in value, and most of the agrieul^tiiral products are rjeadilyidisposed of, either for money or in exchange
for goods. The-State is now prosperous-—all her interests are in a
healthy condition. \How a modification ofthe preserit tariff would affect
hex prosperity, we are unable to say.
' ;
- .
^
27i^ T h e average price of wool in this market, since the tariff of 1842,
is; 26 cents per pound'. For the ten preceding ^years the average price
was 33 cents.. The quantity raised in the State not known; the princip.al
supplies derived from the West.
v
- " ^
28. Iron, magnesia mineral, chrome, and qoal. The ainnual product
of irori ore 130;,000 tons, worth $4 per ton; 300 tons magnesia'mineral,
worth $7 per ton; chrome, 300 tpns, worth $18 per ton; coal, 12,000 >
tons, worth $4 75.to'^^$5 per ton, in this (Baltimore) rharket.
A statement showing the annual;^average prices ofi wheat, corn, and tobacco:^, in
the Bdltimore rnarket, fior three years,firorn. 1%4:2 to 1844, inclusive.
Years.

Wheat/

1842i......
. . ; . . . ...f...
1843............;.
.....:...
1844

105 cents.
92 " :
'91 **




;, Corn.

51 cents.'
49
"
41
"

Tobacco.

No. of hogsheads Maryland;
tobacco inspected in Baltimore.

'.$5 00
5 00
5 50

'*33,'653
29,848 '
32,101

R E P O R T S OF T H E

360

[1845.

M—Continued.
And fior the ten preceding years.
, Years.

Wheat.

Corn.

1832...
1833
1834.........
1835
.
,
1836*............
.:.:..
1837*.
1838*
1839
........:........;
1840.......-^.•.•.
.............
1841............

113 cents.
115
"
102
"
126 . *'
t72
"
.177
"
166 ."
138
".
100- "
112
"

69 cents.
. 61 ''
61
"
82 ..-"
80 . "
90
''
75 • "
75 «
«
50
''
-56
"

Baltimore,

No. of hogsTobacco. • heads Maryland
tobacco inspected in Baltimore.
$4,87-. •
5 60
5 56
6.00
'5 81
4 75
6 00
6 00
5 00
5 00

20,643
• 18,099.
19,386
24,930
'
23,804,
• 25,788 .
23,464
22,558
31,211
29,404 .

From'C. E . Wethered, fia Manufiacturer.)

1. Wheat, Indian corn, tobacco, hay, and fruit.
.
,
2. Not known.
3. All links of the same chain, depending ori each-other.
4. Carinot be stated with precisiori.. Farming and planting,'^raust
pay better on the" capital invested than anything else. The State has
been iraproving ;since the tariff of 1842.
'
• 5. No answer.
-;
,
. . • . •
6. Prices of agricultural products deperid on thp supply arid demand.
Othpr parts of question not answered. '
'
'
7. TKe operation ofthe tariff has .'given a stability to currericy which
would not exist without. Prices and profits have been niPre'uniforrri.-^^
8. Does riot iaise a suflicierit supply; of horses, but draws its suppliers
from, other States. There is constantly a fluctuation in prices, depending pri supply—-perhaps greater "regularity at preserit than before., the
passageof the tariff of 1842.,. .. >
9. They are so far dependent that when, from any cause, the farnier
"realizes good returns, all derive, advantage. At.tinies, the profits of
sorae do not depend so. iraniediately upon, the others. For instarice, the
cotton manufacture, withiri the last year or two, owing to the opening of
the Chiriese raarket, and the demand being greater, has beeri rnore
profitable. The cotton manufactures of other countries have been equaUy
profitable during the same time, from the same cause.
. ^
10. The average prices of what are called protected articles have
been lower for the last three years than the preceding ten, taking into
consideration the raw material arid the price of labor.
.
.. "
11. Exports, principally cPtton goods, and some manufactured tobacco. ^ Prices abroad have depended on the conditiori pf the foreign
mar'ket—sometimes netting good returns and sornetimes loss.
['*In consequence ofthe partial failure of thewheat crops of 1836 and 1837,_pricesadvanced,
and large quantities were imported from foreign, countries. l,671,572^bushels of wheat were
received into the port of Baltimore during these three years. : ; ,..'[[.,, .,; . ; . , . . . , . ' ' 


1845.]

SECRETARY OF T H E TREASURY.

361

M~r-Contiriued.
12. All goods exported are consumed abroad. Prices are governed
by the demand, whetherhorap or foreign; but when shipped are generally sold. The products of this State are shipped priricipally to South
Araerica, the West Indies, tod tobacco to Eurepe. They raeet with
cprripetition frorii pther points.. . We cannot see hpw the tariff* prevents
our meeting them.with success, unless in the article of breadstuffs and
,provisions; much the larger market for which is. the home market, arid
the prices ofwhich would be lower but for that market.
\
13...No country can long coritinue to import where the iraportation
exceeds the exports; for com would .be drawn to meet the difference,
which would soon derange the currency and prbduce distress.
14. We have a riumber of manufacturing estabhshments of cotton,
wool, leather,"irpn, &c.. The profits have been greater the last three
years than immediately hefore that period, particularly the cotton—caused,
as be.fore stated,.by the opening of the China market. ; The profits depend upon skill, riianageraent, i&c. Sorne make nothirig; others do well.
A fair tariff, not lower than 30 per cent., is necessary tp keep thera in
operation. Nothing would raake thera realize as ranch profit as the
.farming and planting interests.
.
,
" ,
15. Is.extensively engaged in ship-building; not so much so as before
' the West India treaty;, that treaty irrjured the^shipping interests more than
everything else. Npt affected by the tariff.
16. .Irapossible to say what proportion. The cpraraercial interests are
beriefited by strpng tariff laws,, by giving greater security to comraerce.
1. 17. The wa;rehousirig systerri is calculated to" give an advantage to
the European over the Araerican raerchant—the interest on capital or
money beirig Zes5 abrpad than in this couritry.
^ ; ' .
18. Some adyaritage raight be derived from the establishinent of a warebousing, systera to those erigaged iri exports of goods to foreign raarkets,
but not sufficient to do away with the injuries to other branches of trade.
19, 20.. Not known.
. ^
;
21.'No driswer.
; -.
22./Tea and coffee.
^
: - ' '
23,tp,25. No answer.
26. Thepresent duties are advantageous tothe agricultural products.
TheState has been irnproving under the systera, caused b y t h e certain
horae;raarket.
27.; Considerable wool raised in the State. Prices depend on quantity, quality, dond condition. Prices lower npw than they have been, owing
to the tariff—giving the horae raarket to the producer pf the article. Increased protection has had the effect of bringing down the price.
28. The raineral products of the State are principally iron, coal, and
chemicals. JPrices npt known.'
' ' \
'

-

^

'

.

•

,

'

•

'

•

.

Baltimore. An importing merchant^ [name not given,']'received with the
^
returns.firom William''H.:Marriott, Collector,
17. The warehouse system would be irijurious to-Baltiniore, by throwing aU the.trade into New York, arid;that in the Hands pf foreigners.



362

R E P O R T S OF T H E

[1845.

M—Gontinued.
20. Flannels, baizes,> fustians, cords, and velveteens, lowrcolored cotton goods and white. cPtton goods of all descriptions, are prohibited, or
nearly so, by the excessive high duty.
.
.
' ,
21. The miniriium duty of the present tariff acts so as to make the
poorer classes of people pay higher rates of duty than the rich. The
cash system is preferable to the eredit. The warehpuse system wpuld
throw all the business into New York.
23. The operation ef the pre sent, tariff upon the manufacturers is to
enable: them to make^ large profits on their goods without being required'
to use extraordinary skill. The articles on which large profits are made
are woolen cassimeres and brown cotton goods of all lands.
Vienna,. From B.. H . Crockett, .Collector,
1, The' agricultural productions of this, portion o f t h e State-are
wheat, rye, corn, oats, pPtatoes, &c.; no cotton, rice, or tobacco.
2 to 7. Does not know.
.,
^
8. This portion o f t h e State does not raise a suffiGient supply of
horses, mules, and Hogs. Horses are siipplied frorn Kentucky, Ohio,
Pennsylvania, and some froni New York; mules from Keritucky; bacon
from the city of Baltimore--originally, he believes, froni Ohio. Cannot
answer the remainder'of the questipn.'
.
.
,.
9, 10. Not answered.
11. This portion of the States exports lumber, and wpol, but to what
amount he does not know.
'.
.
12, 13. Cannotsay.
;
^
•
15. Iri this portion of the. State vessels are built-^some cpasters, but
principally for the bay and river trade. Has not the inforn[iation to. answer this further.' ,
16 to 27. Cannot answer.
'
.
28. No mines are worked in this portion of the State.
In closing his letter^ he says that he enclosed the circulars to seyeral
geritleraen-of both political parties, whora, frora their general intelligerice
and political stariding, he considered qualified to give the desired inforjnaation, frora Pnly two pf whorn he received answers.
•

'

•

•

,

.

^

• • '

,

,

• . .

,

\

'

.

.

•

•

.

•

"•

"

^

Indian Town. Hon. .John N. Steele; enclosed i n a letter firom B. H .
^ '
Crockett, Esq.
'.
Regrets that he can give no., answer to the questidns ofthe Secretary
in regard to the operations, of the tariff. The general impression^ prevails here that the only.regular and certain demarid for the products of
agriculture is the. home market, and that that will increase with the extension of manufactures at home, and increased diversity of employment'
of capital. Speaks of Mr. Rush's report on the subject of niariufactures while Secretary of the Treasury. Speaks of Mr.; Cambreleng's
report .fro;m the Coraraittee of Ways arid Means of the House of Representatives in .1836 or 1837, showing, from pfficial sources, that the
importation of the protected articles since the tariff era of 1816 has



1845.]

S E C R E T A R Y OF T H E TREASURY.

363

M—Cbntinued.
steadily iricreased, and the duty, of course, still a tax. How the high
wages and high rate of iriterest in: this country are to .compete with the
low wages and low xate of interest in other couritries he cannot see; but
supposes the agriculturist to be compensated by the production of his
products at home, as he can find no demand abroad. Speaks of the
large profits made by the manufacturerv and supposes that competition
will eyentually reduce their profits and prices.
.
, Cambridge,

From James A, Stewart,

Regrets that he has not the time to answer the questions in detail;.
Can only say that the operation of the present tariff is highly iniurio-us
to the general interests of this sectiori of the State, and that the reduction of the duties on iniported articles tp the revenue standard would be
highly advarrtageous.
^
.
^
"
Baltimore.. From William Miles.

.

H a s been deahng-very much for the last two years in the article
of salt, and begs leave to present certain facts^ in relation to it. The
duty charged on Turk's Island salt, of 8 cents per bushel of 56 lbs., is
equal to a duty pf 10 pr 11 cents per Winchester (comraon) bushel. The
cost of the article, per English Winchester bushel, at Turk's Island,
during the last two years, has been 6J to 7 cents per bushel raeasure,
(Winchester.) There is an export duty there of one cent per bushel;
so that it ^ C sts, on board the vessel, .about 7^ to 8 cents per bushel, free
O
of other expense, as the sellers there put it on board M^ithout further
charge.
;
^ The freight from Turk's Island to the United States has been at about
an average of 8 cents per Winchester bushel measure, or as follows:
.. To Norfolk, 7 and 8 cents; to Baltirnore, 5 to 8 cents; New York, 8
to 10 cents; Philadelphia, 8 cents; Bostori, &c., 8 to 10 cents; New
Orleans, 8 cents. He supposes 8 cerits to be a fair ayerage.
RECAPITULATION.

1

Cost of a bushel measure at Turk's Island.
. . . . . . . . . . . . 7 cents.
Export duty t h e r e . . . . . . . .
.-.,.....
. . , - . . - . - . . . 1 . '^
Freight to the United S t a t e s . . . . . ,
. . , . . . , .^,. .,1..;,.... 8 . " ;
Duty at the rate of 8 cents per 56 lbs. — . . ..^._........;..,. . 1 1

*'

Cost of a bushel measure (Winchester) in the United'' States.. 27
"
Turk's Island was settledby the English,, from Bermuda, about orie
hundred and fifty years ago. Their only business is salt-making. They
are entirely dependent on the United States for a .market for their salt,
except what they sell to. Npva Scotia, &c.; They.draw their supplies
frorn this country almost entirely. Does not know why: the duty on salt
was fixed so high, but.supposes it was to protect the salt-makers of New



364

.

R E P O R T S OF T H E

[1845.

. M—Continued.
York, Kentucky,:Virginia, &c. Butthis he does know': thatthe people,
of Turk's Island are extreniely anxious to have the duty reduced, because th^j know that if .it is, the price of their salt will rise several
centsperbushel at the Islands. If the duty were taken off he thinks it
-would rise .5 or 6 cents per bushel there. Such has been the case/before, and on the iraposition of the duty of 1842 the price fell there.
He is a ship-owner, arid is in favor of free trade, but will state what
he knows.
• .
Gets salt alsp frora Bonaire, a. Dutch island near Curagoa, on the coast
'of New Gxanada, eff Maracaibo, at 6 cents; also frora Cadiz, St. Ubes,
in Portugal, &c.
•' The Gerraari vessels that come to this country to transport tobacco to
Europe often call at St. UbeSj near Lisbon, and bring salt (under our
reciprocity treaties) as favorably as ouf own can; and they are well satisfied if they can earn 5. per cent, interest ori the capital employed in
vessels, .&c. They pay less wagps than we do to seamen.
Speaks pfthe quantity of salt raade at Key West, and of the riumber
of mariufactures of yaripus kinds that will spring up in this country
urider the protection afforded by the present tariff.

VIRGINIA.

'

'

ANSWERS TO .CIRCULAR No. 1. ,

Richmond City.

From Charles Cumberson.

1. Virginia, city of Richmond.
2. Lock raanufactdry; no-power^ used.
r
3. In 1840; an individual estabhshraent.
4. In grourids and buildings about $6,QOO.
5. About one-third raaterial, and two-thirds wages.
-.
6. Not answered.,
7. Very little change in the last three years.
^,
8. 9. Not answered. ;
• '
. ,.
10. Morethan seven-eighths raw raaterial, consisting of copper, at 16
to 17 cents; sheet irori, at 8 to 8J cents; bar and rod iron, from 4 to 7
cents; and spelter,, at 8 to 10 cents; this last-named article is-enormously high; has knpwn it t p b e as low as 2f to 3 cents per pound;
advance caused by the iraraense duty upon it.
^' - 11. Iraported articles from England about 25 per cent, cheaper, but
inferipx.
- ->
12.''Four men, and four bpys. '
'
13. Ten hpurs per day the whole year.
fi:'^
14. Not ariswered.
' .^
^15. No horses or other animals eraployed.
16. Sold from the rhanufactory to" consumers.
^, 17. Where regard is paid tp thequahty of. the article no competition



1845.] '

SECRETARYOFTHETREASURY.

365

M—Continued.
exists; but where it is otherwise,; (as in the case of contractors to firlfill
the lettex of their contracts,) then we come, into competition with the
imported article.
.
.;
; ' 18, In Richmond, and the adjoining towns and couritry.
19. Npne exported.
'
' ,
20.- Sold on a credit.of three months.
\ .
:.- 21, 22.,Not answered..
' '
'—. •' ..
23. The duty on locks is not essentially too high, on accourit of the
unfair :competition with the English nianufacture, as explained in ariswer
to questiori 17; oar articles beingrsuperior to the imported^
24 to 26. Not answered.
27. About $400 of agricultural productions, and about $600 of other
domestic productipns.
28. Not ariswered.
,
, .'
29; ;The reductiori pf the duty to 1.2J per cent, on articles siniilar to
those rnanufactured-by me would rerider my business unprofitable. ^
30. Not answered;
.
31. This being my legitiniate busiriess, (havirig served an apprenticeship of severi years,) I should regret being obliged to abandon it.
32 to 40. Not^answered. • .•
•
•NOTE.-—The above was enclosed to the Departraent in a letter of Septeraber 27, .1845, from Thomas Nelson, Collectpr, Richmond,.. Virginia,
who says that,. " as soon as practicable afterthe, receipt of the circular
of July 10, he sent copies of the questidns to the various rnanufacturers
in the city, with.a request to be furnished with answers as soon as converiient. • No person had furriished: returns except in the above case.''
Mr; Nelson says, ''raost of t h e gentlemen are strorig tariff hien, and are
therefpre unwilling to answer., the questions, lest they might have ah
unfavorable effect upon their business."
^
East River. ' From., William WiUiams, Surveyor.
Says that "there are no manufactories of any kind withiri his limits."
.Yorktown,. Froni WiUiam Nelson.

\

Says, that "there are no manufactbries in the country, and nothing
from which inforniation can be obtairied in regard tp the tariff;" brrt that
in relation " t o the, products ofthe country," he will collebt and forwai'd
all the information in his power.
/
.
^.

ANSWERS TO CIRCULAR No. 2.

,.

The annexed, from James Pointz, Marshal western district "of Virginia^ under date of :October 27, 1845, has reference to the questions
numbered from 1 to 28, (being Ch^cular No. 2.y



366

R E P O R T S OF T H E

[1845.

M—Contiriued.
Staunton. , From James Pointz,
1. Horses, cattle, mules, sheep,'swine, poultry, wheat, barley, oats,
rye, buckwheat, corn, wool,; hops, wax, potatoes, hay, flax, hemp, and
tobacco.
,
^
'
2 to 7. No answer. :„
.8. My district does, and exports to Eastern Virginia, Maryland, &c.
9. No answer.
.
10. Average price of produce less in the last three years than in the
ten preceding.
'
.
"
^
•
11. No answer.
12. No data as to aniount;. but flour arid tbbacco are the principal
articles exported.
^
13; No answer.
:,.
,
/
.
1,4. The manufacture 'of iron-has increased since 1842, say 10 per
cent.
. "
15. No ships built.
. .
'
16 to 25. No answers.
/
^^
26. The opinion is, that the agricultural interests are riiaterially
injured by the tariff of 1842; and for this, and other reasons-^its inequality, (fee—my district is opposed to it, but is in favor of a revenue
tariff, which will be made to operate equally on all the great iriterests
ofthe country.
27, 28. No ariswers. Residing: in the interior of the countryvandmy
district being almpst entirely agricultural, and the State having made no
provision to ascertain its resources,^ &C;, it is impossible to answer the
questions satisfactorily.
. '
;

,

.

N O R T H CAROLINA. .

There are no returns from this State. J. Ramsey, 'Esq., Collector,
Plymouth, North Carolina, under date of July 30, 1845, acknowledges
the receipt of " copies of questions," arid proposes to "forward them to
the estabhshments in that State." Under date of September 24, 1845,
Mr. Ramsey says that the copies had been "forwarded through the
Governor to the several establishments in the State, with a request that
answers should be forwarded," &c. Only one answer had been
received, which is enclosed in Mr. R.'s letter. This isfrom Battle &
Brothers, Rocky Mount, North Carolina, who dechne answering the
questions; first, because no manufacturer can answer them correctly;
and. second, because any manufacturer-who would answer thehi incorrectly shpuld not be relied on.
.
'
Since' the above was written, a, letter has been, received by the
^Department from M. V. Jones, CplleGtor, Wilrriington, North- Carplina^^
dated''October-20, 1845, furnishing the. following iriformation. '<-.



1845.]:

S E C R E T A R Y O F T H E TREASURY.

367

, M—Continued.
ANSWERS TO CIRCULAR No. L

Wilmington,

From M, F; Jones, Collector,

1, In Cumberland county there are six cotton factories. ;
^ 2, AU water ppwer.
3.. All established previous to 1840; three are joint-^stock conipanies.
4. Rockfish factory is thp most extensive ; its, capital $143,000; the
other five will average $40,000 each.
;
6., Annual rate of profits does hot exceed 14 per cent..^
8. The lumber business and that of procuring turpeutine is as good
as the manufacturing.
11. No similar articles of foreign manufacture are" sold in this State;
{these factories only turn out yarns and plain web.) •
13. Ten-hours per day.
16. A large portion is sold in the northern cities.
17. No foreign cbmpetition:
18. Almost entirely'in the United States.
19. A small portion is expprted tP the ^ritish North American
Provinces, but no shipments are made direct from North Carolina to
foreign portS:.
'
20.,Generally three months'credit.
23. Nothing sirnilar is imported into North; Carolina.
,"
; 32. No manufactories of salt now irioperation. The western portion
ofthe State is supplied with dorriestic iron; the factories are remote from
navigation and from the points of impprtation, and.consequently Httle, if
any, affected by foreign impprtations.
The other questions not answered.

ANSWERS TO CIRCULAR No. 2.

Neiuhern,.\ From Thomas S, Singleton, CoUector,
. 1. North Carolina-produces cotton,;rice, tobacco, corn, wheat, and
oats.-

•' '

• , . • - . ' •

^

-. , ,;.

11. The State exports boards, plahk, scantling, square timber, masts
and spars, staves, shingles, heading, hoops, tar, pitch, rosin, turpentine,
and spirits of iurpentine.
17. The warehouse system would be preferabletd the present systeni,
which has almost entirely destrpyed^ the little foreign, comraerce of this
place; and I think the old bpriding system would b e ' best in this State,
as the irnporting merchants generally have warehouses of their o^yn.
The present'high cash duties will destroy the comrrierce of this State
entirely. N
X
Elizabeth City.

Ffoin William D,Pritchard, Collector.

i . Cotton, tobacco, rice, wheat, corn, &c.; the last two. forrning
almost the entire exports.
' .
•



368

R E P O R T S OF T H E

[1845.

M^—Continued.
2. Nineteen-twentieths of the capital employed in agriculture.
3. All other interests dependerit on agriculture..
4. Annual average profits for the last three years have not exceeded
two per cent..,, partly i n consequence, pf a failure of crops.;,-,
5,.6. The agricultural prosperity.of the State was never so great as
from 1832 to 1S41—capital paying fxom 5 to 8 per cent. . The year
1842 was disastrous'from loss of air crops. .
7. The prices from' 1832 t o ' 4 1 resulted, in a great measure, frpm
the act of 1833, and as but partially the.effect of a redundant currency.
8. The State; produces' a sufficiency, and an; excess, except horses
and mules, which a;re brought here, in limited riumber, from Olrio, Indiana, Tennessee, Kentucky, and Western Virginia.. The prices have been '
S3 per cent; lower the l a s t three years.;than the ten preceding. The.
decline I attribute to the reduced rneans of purchasing,- in consequerice
of the low price of wheat and qorri.
9. The commercial, rnechanical, and navigation interests, (and the
manufacturing, also, to' some extent,) are so connected and dependent
on the agricultural prosperity, that, their s.uccess is in nearly the same
ratio;" : .'
.
;
" \
. '
'
10. The prices of protected articles haye not been r:educed in anything
like a fair proportion to the staple products within the last three year^s.
A monopoly has been enjoyed in the manufacture ofthese articles; and, ^
:
in a corresporiding ratio,' the means of purchasing our staples have been
cut off. We suffer niore from dirainu.tion in the price of our staples than
we do from the increased price of their goods.
1 1 . We export tar, turpentine, luriiberj-salted fish, &c,; it is difficult
to s.ay whether they have been affected by the tariff'of 1842.
•,
12.. We export but little direct, owing to the peculiar situation of our
State arid its bad putlets to the ocean; most of our prpduce finding its
way to New York, (through the ports of Yirginia,) and to South Carolina
and Georgia. , Some lumber, corn,, arid beans, go directly to the West
Indies. The prices are. regulated by^the foreign demand.
13. The idea that one country can continue to impprt or export alone
is absurd. The preserit tariff must have the effect to reduce our expbrts
to the extent that it prohibits the importation of foreign goods.
14. We have twenty-fiye or thirty manufacturing, establishments
(rriostly cptton) in the. State. They are said to be doing well. '•^' .
15. Ship-buildirig was once followed to a great extent, but at present
there is riot enough tonriage tp dp the coasting- trade, having to rely on
the'canalboa;,ts of Norfolk, and the New England vessels. .
16. The capital ernployed in comrnerce is about as one to two of the
agricultural products and staples fox sale and export. The effect ofthe
tariff is very injuripus on comrnerce.
'
22. I. merely remark that salt, rholasses, and a small quantity of sugar,
form almost the only articles of direct importation; and under the
present system of cash duties, the importer is forced to sell very often at
a great sacrifice.
: :.••,•. /• .
^
'
\ , ••' .
. . ;
23. No answer,
. ^.
. . ^
'
•



1845.]

SECRETARY OF T H E TREASURY.

369

M—Continued.
24,, 25. The article of salt, (say Turk's Island, most used .here,) the
duty on which is neaxly eleven cents per bushel, (riiPre than its original
cost,) is ranch cpraplained of Other parts of the question not answered.
26. The present duties do not benefit the agricultural, coraraercial, or
mechanical iriterests of the country in any manner;, and these interestsrequire that the present rate of duties should be reduced.
27, 28.'No-answers.
• : ' /'^ ' ' : • ' ' . ' ' ^ ' • '

SOUTH CAROLINA.
A N S W E R S TO CIRCULAR No. 2.

\

,

From P . - W . Fraser..
1. Wheat, corn, rice, cotton, tobacco, potatoes, sugar, hay, hops, silk,,
wine, &c. Rice, cotton, corn, wheat, and potatoes, are the principal
staples of South Carolina. In 1840, 60,590,861 lbs. of rice were produced, 61,710,274 lbs. cptton, 14,722,805 bushels corn, 968,354 bushels
wheat, and 2,698,313 bushels of potatoes., .
^
2. Lands, and raahuallabor principally.
'
.
3. For a successful operatiori of each, require those fpur iraportant
interests ; but to what extent carinot say. ;
'
4. The price of rice has been very low for seyeral years, until the
present tiriie; and ray estiraated average profit on capital for the last
three years 6 per cent., after. deductirig all expenses. I confine my
answer to this pne particular.
5. Am riot aware thkt there has been any great difference, withiri the
time stated, in my annual profit on capitaL
,
•
-. -6. The price of rice from the year 1832 to 1844, has varied alraost
eyery yeax from .60 cents per bushel, rough rice, to $ 1 ; cleamrice $2 40
to $4 per 100 lbs.. I estimate ray average priceof rice at about 70 cents
per bushel rough rice, or $2^80 per 100 lbs. clean rice,, in corisequence
of rice, selling oftener at thedower than the higher point of the market..
Irideed,, it has seldom happeried that-rice sold in the Charleston market
at | 4 per hundred'clean rice\ or $1 per bushef rough rice.
\
The annual average income per hand or laiborer, deducting all expenses,
can be easily estimated by the hire, by which standard I am disposed
to be governed; arid I consider .full^task hands .must have brought
annually.during those years. $60;per head, and the furnishing $15, leaving
$45. Many plariters realize:$100 or more; but ranch depends upon the
quality ofthe soil, arid its situation, whether safe ,or unsafe, old or new,
and many other circurastances.
\ •
, 7, I ara not prepared to say that there is; any material difference in
my annual profit on-capital for the ten. years alluded to; and I might so
say as to the prices arid prpfits, [they having] been affected by the
operation of the tariff laws." As long as these unconstitutional and
oppressive duties prevail, it will be a difficult rriatter to proye whether
VoL.'v.—-24. ' • ^ •



37a

R E P O R T S OF T H E

[1845.

M—Coritinued.
We are richer or. poorer to-riiorfPv(^. We have felt severely the effects
of taxatiori fPr years; arid all that we desire is to witness the effects of
drities reduced to a reveriue standard.-^^ All duties lessen the ability of
the planter, arid, lessen the ihcome by iriereasing the prices of such articles
a s a r e riecessary for consumption. The essential articles pf blankets,
plains, and implemerits of husbaridry,^cpst to the planter every cent of
the duty; which so ranch increases the price as to render it exceedirigly
onerous, particularly to the poorer classes. If a systera of taxation on
domestic manufactures'could be placed on an equality with the foreign,
we.would soon discover the difference in the prices of our agricultural
staples; and until a nionopoly ceases in our Governraent, there is little
hope of better thingSi
8. The Stateof South Carolina is not dependent on any State, arid
raises largely • of every kind;. but many horses and mules are brought
irito the State and sold, from .Kentucky, Tennessee, &c. Nuraber of
horses in 1840, 129,921; but caririot give the average annual araount or
price for the years specified. ; :
9 to 25. Np answers.
' .
.
"
^
26. As a rice planter I have rieVer been benefited by .any duties.
(See answer to 7th question.) ; South Carohna iraproves but slowly in
proportion to the northern arid easterri States, where they have all the
beriefits, arid we all the evils and burdens of taxation. •
27. Aggregate araount of wool in 1840 was 299,170 lbs; Previous
to arid alter I darihot say; prices gerierally prevailihg frora''25 to 50 cents
per.lb.,

. ,

\

•

"'

• ' . . . • ' " " • '

/

28; In 1840, iron 2,415 lbs., salt 2,250. ^ Gold, granite, marble, and
other stones, are found in this State, but. cannot say whait quaritity or
price for the year's specified.
Waccdmaw Beach, near. Georgetown,

From R. F , W, Allston.

As sorrie argumerits arid reasoning are found in-the accPrapanyirig
comrnunicatiori, (as weh as facts'stated,) which caririot possibly be
coridensed without destroying, to some extent, their force, the original
corrirnuriication is hereto apperided.
,
:7ieaf Georgetown, S. C , October 24:, 184:5.
Being requested to reply to certain "questions propounded by theSecretary of the Tieasury," the uridersigned^ willing to furnish tP the
Adriiiriistratiori any iriforhia,tiPn iri his power, yet earnestly protesting, in
the riame, of the .Constitutiori, ftgainst 4 tariff, fourided on any pretext
whatever, fpr ariy other than the bona fide pnripose of raising revenue, and
that in the most equitable raanner, cheerfully responds, according to the
best of his knpwledge arid belief, to the interrogatories as.riurnbered.
The time is quite too Itrriited to reply riiore fully. Responses 4, 5, and
6, are fourided chiefly on his own experience/-iri bis own affairs. Owing
tp a secondary (not choice) location, the want of facilities, and other
circurristances, he beheves that he has met with orily the ordinary success
WACCAMAW BEACH,




1845.]

. S E C R E T A R Y OF T H E TREASURY.

371

. M-rContiriued.
of every^" well-conducted plaritation." He therefore regards the following results of his experience-as being very near the truth, (beyorid, rather
than short of itj) when considering the rice-planting interest of the State
:/

. V e r y respectfiilly/

•.

^ • R . T , W. A L L S T O K

1. Cptton arid rice are the agricultural staples ^of St)Uth Carolina.
The following statements will be understood as relating to the latter
staple exclusively, unless cotton should be expressly mentioned.
2. In the business of cultivating and preparing rice for rnarket, the
amourit of capital engaged is estimated, approximately; at $18,000,000.
3. Oh cotton and rice to the extent of nineteen-twentieths.
4. As a.inere investment of rnoney,'^seyen and one-third (7^) per
centum on the capital, estimating both real.;a:rid personal estate at the
,^upposecl average rii^arket value.
'
:
^
5. Estimated, in the same way about eight (8) per cent.
. 6. Froni 1832 to 184^ the annual average price of rice was a;bout;$3
per cwt. ;* i n 1842-'43, f 2 56; iri 1843-'44, $2 6 3 ; in 1844-'45, $3.
The anriual average iricpriie per »hand or labprer, duririg the first terrin
often years, was about •$130; in 184^-';43j,$83; in 1843-'-44,J96 7 1 ;
in 1844-'45, $:128.
•• ^ • •
. In 1844-^',45, the general crop was short some 12,000 barrels, which
caused prices to rise towards t h e last.
In 1845-'46, it is estimated that the gerieral failure w i l be douMej'
say 25j0,00 barrels; prices, therefore, will range over.$3.
7. An answer to this rnay be derived from a Qonsideration. of other
rpplies herein. The state of the currehcy, it may reasoriably be supposed, had some effect on prices a few years back, for example the
year 1839j and cpnsequently on profits; but the effect wa;s ephemeral,
as was the immediate cause. • Trade, on the priiiciple of Irusseznoiis fiaire,
will regula:te itself arid the currency.
.
-8. This State does not; the supply is drawn chiefly from Kentucky.
I have no means by which to ascertain the amount annually experided
in this\way; although less than formerly, it is still considerable. Many
planters rear, as I do, about orie-half the number of horses or mules, andall the oxen used in faxrriing;' /For pork and bacon, i n t h e year 1841 arid
prior, I expended $200 per anrium where I d o not now .lay Put $40,
riotwithstandirig the quantity consumed on the plantation^(aibout 10,000
ibs.) has been increased to this extent. •
•
^
••

V 9.

Y e s ;

'•

"

••

.'

/

'.-;.'

•

•'• • "•

.

.

-

10. I canriot answer satisfactoriiyc
•
,l i ; Boards, scantlihg,-shingles, staves, tar; further I carinot answer.
• 12. Ofthe rice.cr.op nearly the whole, fifteeri-sixteenthsi Of the cottori
crop about five-sixths. Prices-of both axe principally gpverried by the
* In 1832 "thie average price was $2 811; -in 1833, $2 62i; in 1834, p 1 8 | ; in 1835, $3 25;'
in 1836, $3 431; in 1837,^3 681; in 1838, | 4 06|; in 1839, $2 50; in 1841 ,-$3;—average, $3 12|.
For 1840 I am not furnished j liaving mislaid my accourit for tliat year* . ,



372

R E P O R T S OF T H E

[1845.

M—Continued.
foreign demarid, though the competition for horae consuriiption helps to
put up the price of the la.tter, or rather to keep it up. . •
The exports of cotton are principally to Great Britain and France;
about one-eighth goes to the north of .Europe, the Mediterranean, &c.
The quaritity rnanufactured in the United States is about one-sixth of
the crop.
The exports; of rice are principally to the north of Europe, Great
Britain, and Cubav . To Great Britain it is shipped chiefly in the rough
or crude state, in which state it is called.j7a^^2/'' Sorae shipraents are
made also, to France, both cleaned and. in the rough;, the choicest.samples are selected for the French market. , About one fourth of the crop
is shipped coastwise, principally to New York and JBoston,' whence, for
the riiost part, it finds its way to the north of Europe and the West
Indies. In Cuba the consumption of Carolina rice is about 17,000 barrels, (average 600 lbs.) Competition isrriet with here in rice grown in
Old Spain, in Maranham, and Campeachy.
;
In England, and the riorth.df Europe, the competition encountered is
•great; being from the Java and East India rice, which can be afforded
much lower than ours. In England there are miUs (constructed by.Mr.
Lucas.pf this State) which will prepare over 300,000 bushels.. Whenever it becornes the inter.est of their capitalists not to purchase, our rough
rice, the East India.paddy is.put under.the pestle, and,thus thrown irito^
the European markets^ in a better condition far than they.can possibly
put it in.iri India or Jaya. , The present tariff operates very unfavorably
to us by levyirig .high duties on such articles as would best, suit-for shipment to this State in lieu. of xemittances. For exarnple, the rice shipped
to Cuba, would partly.be paid for by return cargoes of sugar, but.fpr the
almost prohibitory duty Pn srigar.. Again: the rice shipped to England
would .be paid-for by return cargoes riia;de up of hardware, cottori goods,
woolens, and salt, (which are the principal articles required in exchange
for our produce,) but for the sarae alraost prohibitory duties^ Thus is
our ability lessened .and our trade crippled by the unwise legislation of
our own couritryriien.
.
In the year 1843 the amount of duties accruing Was . $10,544,135,
being; an average rate pf 36 per centum on the .value of merchandise
irriported paying duty. In 1844 amount of duties^ $29,137,000, beirig ^
an average rate of ^34.82 per ceriturn ori the value pf; dutiable raerchandisCp - Owirig. to niiriimurn valuations,, tpgether with the^heavy duties on
the particular articles consumed by them, the rate of duty paid by southern
corisuraers is greatly more than this.
13. As much connection as there is between.individuals trading horses.
. If A carinot sell his saddle-horse in B-—r— market, withoutpaying
;thirty per centurii orr his value for the privilege, he carinot purchase C s
draught-horse at that place, but must look elsewhere for a raore favorable
market. Five ships arrive at Charlestpn from Europe. The supercargo
of each; is instructed to lay- in a cargo of rice. One having ori board his
ship Welsh'plains, {excellent woolen go.odsV with which our l^-borers are
clad,) says to the rice factor, " A s soon as I.dispose of iny plains, worth



1845.]

SECRETARYOFTHETREASURY.

373

M—Continued.
.

.

.

''

.

•

.

.

/

- ^

45; cents the yard, (original cost.arid transit charges,) I will take of you
a ship load of rough; rice, at 80 cents perbushel.". Ongoing to Mr. L.,
the merchant, he finds there a supply of "Chelmsford plains" (made at
the North, and very inferior to the other^ both in weight and substance)
selling at 50 cents. Mr. L.. tells him, "Sir, yours are greatly superior;
,but, to enable the manufacturers of the Chelmsford to cpmpete with you
in selhng to. the planters. Government has iraposed onthe introduction, of
your wpolens a preraiurri tax, in the shape pf an inipPst,^pf 40 per cent,
ad valorem. Now, to inderanify you for payirig this duty, together with
commissions, I must sell your goods at 65 cerits, and it will require
neafly two yiears to work this supply."
. The supercargo, returning to the factor, says: " M r . Factor, I have
left ray woolens with Mr. L. the merchiant,^ to be disposed of at kn
advance of 20 cents the yard beyond the price I mentipned, this being
rendered necessary by the exactions of your Governraent. The impost
duty of 40 per cent. w;e can.not pay; this is out of the questipn; we cpuld
not live at it. The consumer, your own countr}^raan, raust pay it; and
the quiet way to do the thing is the best. So we'll just add the duty; imposed by your tariff on the. pripe; (a majority of those who buy it will
not be at all the wiser.) But, mark you; I cannot come back here for
two years, arid t h e n i rnust fetch only one-third of my present cargo;
(the plariter, trusting xto Providence for a mild winter, will too often prefer
buying the ChelnasfordV or sorae other goods,,at 50 cents, to riiy Welsh
plains at 65 cents.) , I will take your rough rice again; but inasmrich as
I shall have to fetch out two-thirds of its value in specie at a certain
risk and Ipss of profit, or in bills of exchange, I w i l l only be able to pay
you 70 cents, per bushel instead, of 80 cents. After that, unless more
wise and liberal .counsels shall prevail in. your national legislation in
regard to your trade with our country, I shall be compelled to give up
trading with ypu altogether.
."Although the rice of Carolina is the best in the world, yet to secure
to myself and rny principals alegitimate profit on our investment, I must'
'trade with Jaya of the Indies:"
,
, , .
: One ofthe aforeraentioned ships is laderi with hardware, another with
caxpeting (at 55 per., cent, duty) and blankets, (82 by 72 inches, at 25
perf cent, duty,)/another with osnaburgs, another with sa;lt—all ofwhich
articles are extensiyely used among plariters; the same arguraent, in
substance, will apply to eaeh car gp.
^- .This sujpppsition will, in some measure, serve to illustrate the effect
of the preserit high tariff on the imports, and ultimately on the exports,
of the plaritation S t a t e s . ; , f
•. ; s ^
. '
The course of trade,.once interrupted, is with great difficulty, if ever,
induced to resuhre its accustomed channel..
14. There are several cotton factories irithe State operating ori a., small
scale: In Peridleton, in Greenville, (one here of paper also,) in Spartariburg, (one. here of iron also,) in Darlingtori, one owned by Colpnel J .
W . Williams, in which he employs from 40 to 50 operatives.- There
was one in Marlbprpugh, with superior watex powex; but I believe it



374

R E P O R T S OF T H E

[1845.

M-7-.Contin-ued.
has been abandoned ox converted to some other use. • In Barriwe.Il, the
"Vancluse" is very successful; in Lexington, near Columbia, the
" S a l u d a " company divided 5'per cent.the last half yeax. Limited as
is the number of these factories, it is beheved they are not dependent
fox their profits on the^present duties; but it eannot be doubted t h a t a ,
nurnber pf them^ were brought irito existence by tlie patronizing countenance of Governraent, and stimulated by the temptation to share a por-^
tion of the immense profits derived from their peculiar tariff protection
by the similar establishmerits at "Lowell," Fall River,-Paterson, and
elsewhere.
•
15. I am unable to answer.
16. The capital thus irivested is very limited, nearly all the exports from
this State bfeing paid for in bills-of exchange upon the countries to which
they are: shipped. The present high duties, and the theory bf protection,
so fatally for us applied,- forbid the importation to any extent of foreign
productions, and fabrics in'return for our exports. Thus are both the
comrnercial and agricultural interests of the States materially affected
by the " tariff laws."'
17. It would. By this means, the surplus productions and fabrics of
any country could be shipped here, iri order to be exchanged for produce,
and be held for a rharket eithex on the spot or'in the neighborhood of
the mart, without the importef being compelled, to pay the import before
a sale could be negotiated. When such compulsion exists, it is often
necessary to sell a part ofthe goods at an unfavorable mornent, in order
to raise the means of paying, the duty on tke whole; whereas, urrder a
warehouse system, the experise of storage only would be incurred.
18. Unfavorably, by hampering the tfeedorn of trade, abridging the,
privilege ofthe merchant iraporting to seek the best market for the time'
beirig. It would ser've to lessen the induc'ements , to native citizens to
invest in commercial adventures, and to foreign capitalists to engage in
our trade.
..
19. I cannot answer satisfactorily. '
20. Manufactures of iron and steel, of cotton, of hemp, of wool, of
leather, of copper; glassware of all kinds, paper, books, paints; all of
which we would take in 'exchange for produce. The importation of
these articles has been gradually diminishing latterly; thus showing that
the high duties are becoming: virtiially prohibitorj^ '
21: The system of miniraums affects the great interests of our State ,
by oppressing our people having small means; denying them the privilege of buying, at the legitimate ^price, the Ipwer-priced fabrics best
suiting their fancy and the condition of their pockets; again,,'by its
general imrnoral tendency;. for the rest, see 17th.
22. On tea and cbffee an ad valorem duty oncrhalf in rate of what is
riow levied on articles of more essential use to us, wpuld yield a revenue
of $2,000,000; the value pf these impPrts exceeds $13,000,000, and
they are consumed i n t h e United States more universally than anything
else, excepting salt and sugar, perhaps.
* •
'\. ' >
.
23. I kriow riot.



iS^&O:

S E C R E T A R Y OF T H E TREASURY.
M-^Cpntiriued,.

375
;

24. The effect has be.eri very rnaterially tp dirnini.sh the irnpprtation.
of such articles, and.to enhance their price.
The dutie^ upon woolens, cotton bagging, and. such articles of hardware as are extensively used in th.e agriciilture pfthe State, viz: spades,
scythes, chairis.,. nails, .guns, castings of all, kinds,' &c., operate injuriously
on all the other ind ustrious classes, inasmiich as they, are compelled to buy
what they want out of a mpre liririted supply, consequently at enhanced
prices, besides getting sometimes an inferior article; sugar and salt are
two of the most irripprtant arnorigst the necessaries pf hfe—pn one the
duty is aborit IOQ per centurn ad valorem, pn the other even, rnprp than
that.
25. See 20th. I have no mean.s pf saying what is the.aggregate paid
tp Gpvernment; but I cari speak cbrifidently as to the surn paid (incprporated with the price) by an individual; arice plariter, wprking about
one hundred hands, finds that his pfiantation experises during the, years
1844_'45 amounted to | 3 , 4 0 6 ; of this sum he has paid $296 20, in the
s^hape of Gpvernment duties onwpplens, blankets, psnaburgs, salt, irpn,
leather, arid hardware, for the necessary use of his laborers; if we were,
tp include his personal expenses, articles purcha.sed for use during the
same year, other than those of ordinary necessity, rifimely, for hpusehpld
use, the arnount of irnposts would exceed $400 for one individual cpnsuiner, whose habits are not extravagarit.
These imposts operate;unconstitutionally and urijristly, as a premium
iri favor of the nprthern nianufacturer, at the expense (uricprnpensated.
by aught) of the sputhern and sputbwestern planter and cpnsurner;
whereas, by taxing some of the Irixurips .of life which are. now admitted
duty free, and putting a moderate duty on the articles, §prne of which
are enumerated .in reply tp the twentieth questipn, the increased impprtation of srich gpodjS would, iri a few years, rnpre than n:iake up for the
diriiinution of the rate of duties, and altogether would r.aisp;^ sufficient
rpverrup to meet the expenses pf the' Government, rediiced, as thpy
should be,- to the fair and just standard o f a liberal ecoripmy,
Such-^ap.oli.cy should recornrnend itself tp .enligh.tene;d statesmen by
the consideration that itwould tend greatly to effect a most desirable
end, riamely, to remoye from the rninds pf the pepple pfthe Sputh and
Southwest the impressipn that they are bearing ari unjust arid onerpus
share pf th.e burdeps pfthe Goverhment.
The supplies heretofore enurrierated are receiyed chiefly frpm Great
Britain and the Contirient, in excha;nge for pur rice, on which (the rpugh
rice in particular) the duty in England is trifling, in cpmparison with
our duties on their manufactures of iron, wool, and cotton.
Many of our cottpn planters ha.ye already set abpiit: riranufacturing
at home\ their woolen and cptton goods; I have received, as a present,
.sprae pf the goods thus made, now and heretofpre ;^.they will wear
almpst .as lorig.again as the goods for the sarne purposf cprning frprn
the protected factories ofthe North. ,
.
26. They do not; they cannot be rnpdified in any.ppnceiyable way,
sp as tP benefit the "grpwer3..''
•
, , /



376

.

R E P O R T S OF T H E

[1845.

M—Continued.
By the blessing of God the State has prospered; not in consequence,
but in spite of the present high duties on the articles imported in
exchange for her agricultural produce. Her imports,, however, have
been less and less. The unequal action of the Federal Governraent in
collecting and experiding the general revenue having had the effect to
render the planting States tributary to the northern ports, raost of the
supplies, for the interior especially, are received coastwise. '
/
The average anriual iniports for ten years, from 1833 to 1842, were
$2,089,463; ayerage annuall exports for the same time, $10,291,735.
. The average annual imports for two years,. 1843 and 1844, were
$1,213,112; average annual exports, same time, $7,597,045. In the
year 1800 the produce of the Sta;te Was exported from her own ports,
at which were also received the return, cargoes which paid for it. Then
trade was brisk; all the interests of the State flourished in a high degree.
Then the iraports at the port pf Charlestpn yielded a revenue of
$2,203,812, (less: expense of collecting.) Now, (1843,) the duties
collected at the sarae port are $158,405, gross. The great portion of
our iraport business is done in the northern ports, where the chief
revenue is collected on thera. South Carolina produces for exportation as ranch rice now as then; but the profits of the commerce based
upon her great.staples inure to other ports than her own.. One-fourth
of the rice crop is^ shipped coastwise, to be exported chiefly to Europe
and elsewhere from, riorthern ports. The consumption of the State is
. as great now as then; but the supplies and merchandise demanded for it
(especially for the interior) are sent to us mostly frorri the Nprth and East;
and'thus we, as consumers, pay on oiir supphes, either to the Government (in the one case) the ..duty collected, «^ the North on the imported
article, or (in the other) the preraiura (secured by. the tariff) to the
riianufacturer at the North of the doraestic article. This effect has been
produced, though not entirely, raainly by the operation of the tariff
laws, tpgether with the glaring inequality v^ith which the public:raoney
fox a long series of years has been experided.
. 27. Wool is raised in sufficierrt abundance by many planters. • I have
no rnearis by.which to ascertain the aggregate quantity. I have never
known it held at more than 25 cents per pound. It is chiefly paid fox in
barter; planters having a surplus being in the habit of supplying their
more needy; neighbors in the country,-at a very low rate, with enough,
when mixed with cotton, for their annual (home-made) stock of winter
clothing. These last must suffer seriously by the continuance of a high
tariff
'fi
••"-•-.-_.
,. ;
Anderson Court House.

From Edwin Webb, Postmaster:

1. Cotton and rice ar*e the great agricultural staples of this State ; no
tobacco worth mentipning. We raise pf the cornrnon grains'near about
as much as consumed. .
. '
2. One-fifth ofits capital in rice, and four-fifths in cottori.
3. These interests are immediately connected with the agricultural



1845.]

S E C R E T A R Y OF T H E TREASURY.

377

M—-Continued.
productions of our State, and their profits increase or diminish in the
same proportion with thera.
.
4. The profits on well-conducted farras in the ripper part of this
State have been, I should say, 3J ;per cPriti on the capital, and 5 per
cent, in the lower part, since and including 1842. The average price of
cotton, in Chaflestori,'6J cents.
_
:
5. The capital thus eraployed for the ten years preceding 1842 had
a profit of 5 per cent., and the price of cotton in Charleston was, on an
average, about 9 cents. :^
;
-,/
6. About 6J cents- per lb. since 1842, and 9 cents preceding that
time; and the annual inconie per hand, deducting all expenses, during
the sarae periods, was about $35 and $50 respectively.
7. The tariff laws haye had but little effect on prices and profits;
they.haye beeri raainly affected by production and corisuraption and the
state ofthe currency.
, ' . ;. ,
: 8. The State does not rg.ise a supply of horses, raules, arid hogs, by
perhaps one-fourth of the two latter arid Pne-tenth of the former. These
are brought mostly from; Keritucky and Tennessee, she raise's her cattle
mostly,-and other proyisions. generally; have rio means of stating the
amount—several hundred thousand dpllars, though;' prices for good
horses, the last three years, sixty-five dollars, mules fifty dollars, pork
from 2^ to 3 cents gross; and for the ten years precedirig, horses $80,
riiuies $i50 to $65, and pork 4 to 5 cents; the differerice mainly owirig to
the scarcity of rnoney the last three years compared with the ten years'
preceding.
•
.
9. I answer this question in the affirmative. ,
10. The average prices of protected articles have been as low, for the
last three years, under this view of the question, as in, the ten preceding;
arid had a reasonable portion of-the capital and influence ofthe State
been embarked in the manufacture ofthese articles some fewyears past,
they would have been lower than they now are, and cotton would have
been worth something raore, I -must think, arid the general expense of
living less than it riow is.. ,
.'
11. The State exports but very little except its agricultural products..
12. The State makes but little for exportation except rice and cottPn.
Ipresume half the rice,>or raore, is consuraed. abroad, and almost all
the cotton is exported; their prices are influericed principally by the
fpreign deraand, especially that pf cotton. The cotton shipped raost to
Liverpool; some to the: northern States. There is considerable competition in the Toreign market; I think it very questionable whether a
protectiveta;riff lessens our ability to meet that competition; if it does, I
aril unable to say iu what way.
,
:
13.'The cprinection "between imports and exports; is such that it is
difficult to conceive how a country can, for a length, of tirne, contiriue to
import a greater amount in value than she exports, without an injury to
herself The reverse is more, intelligible. Almost any cpuntry whose
agricultural and manufacturing interests are kept weU-balanced and



378

R E P Q R T S OF T H E

[1845.

M^—rContiriued.
highly improved rnay export more thanshe iniports, especially pne wlip.se
resources are abundant in raw materials.
.
14. We have a few cptton and iron, factprie.s iri this State—twelve or
fifteen of the first, and fiye pr six of the latter, The cptton factories'
niakey arn raps tly, and weave some coarse: clpths;. the iron factories make
bar and sheet iron, nails, castings, &c.; cannpt stat.e their ca;pital; they
are, however,.on sinall scales; their profits are less fpr the last three
years than they were the teri preeeding I should say,^ as. they sell ^heir
articles frorn 50 to 100 per cent, lower.than sorae years pas.t,*; yarn now
$1 per bunch, teri ypars ago $2;. nails 6 cents per pound, ten years past'
10 cents. Still their profits are rnuch better than.t!^Q5^ engaged in raisirig.
the great staples of the State, .
15. But very few of our citizeris are engaged, in; navigation, and fewer
iri ship-building.
•
*
16. The capital invested by our citizens in corame.rce bears a very
sinall proportion tp the capital invested, in the agricu.ltural products and
staples of the State.. If its iriterests have been, affected by the tariff laws,
I arn unaMe to say how or to what extent.
•
.
.
17. My cprnmercial knowledge and preserit mearis dp npt a.ffprd any
information which would be of service to you pn this question, nor pn
the 18th and .19th questions. _
'
'
20. I know of, but few, if any; there should be noiie, Ithink, except
such as are dfiveri out by the low price of the domestic article,, under a
reasonable duty, which, I am iricliried to believe, would be the case,
with many pf them in a few years, were the capital and labor of the
country properly diversified.
. . .
21. My mformation on this question will ript enable rn.e to say anytliirig worth comraunicating. ' -- '
22. I cannot, with the, rneans riPw befpre me, name thern; b u t l
should say ou all such afticies as are, or cpuld be^r:ea.dily manufactured;
in the United States. As to. the amorint of reyenue which might, be
cpllepted on these articles, I cannot say.. ^
23. My knowledge of the articles used in manufacturing generally
will not enable me to say anythirig satisfactory on this question. '.
24. A wellr-regulated protective tariff will have a favorable teridency
to increase the rnariufacture pf all such articles as can be.manufaptured
extensively in this country, and will'ultiniately operate to the advantage
pf all, while a .high duty pri. such articles as cannot be made in the.
country to advantage will pperate partially, and shpuld not be.laid. As
to the present systern of duties, I think the tariff law pf 1842 is riot as
well regulated as it rnight be, and too high on many articles.
25. I know of .but few prohibited; the article of raw cottpn, arid perhaps a few others, rnight be set down as such. As tP.the erihanced
price of such.as are not prphibited, there is rriuch variety of opiriion.
My own view is embraced by the principle laid .down in the auswer to
the last (24th) question.. As to the .aggregate ampunt of duties now paid •
pn such afticies, or what would be paid und.er a, tariff graduated eri.tirely
with a view to revenue, I canriot say.



18:45.]

S E C R E T A R Y OF T H E TREASURY.
«
•

'

879.

M—Cpntinued.

2.6. The present duties, so far as they increase the ihanufactpries of
the country,.benefit those engaged in agriculture,.as well, as all other
classes, . by diversifying capital and labor by producing a greater
demand for agricultural prpductions; thereb.y enhancing the value of
lands, &e. And I presume that the most, indeed all the manufacturing
States, are enjoying a reasonable state of prosperity, taking into consideration the state of the world, the currency, &c.' Had a suitable portiori
ofthe capital and labor of our State been inyested a few years past in
the various manufactures to which her riatural advantriges are so well
adapted, I think there can be no doubt but that her condition wpuld
have been entirely prosperous to what it ripw is, and that she,, would,
have retainedvthousands pf her hardy yeomanry who have fled befpre
the withering, prospects of poverty and want. .
.
27. Canriot state the quantity of wool raised in the State, though it
'Ss small—^hardly sufficient for the small use made of it in families. It
has sold for the last two ox three years for.40 cents per pound; previous
to"^this time its price was 50 cents.
28.. W e have n o miries in the State worth mentipnirig, except-a few .
gold rnines, hardly worth working. .
/
\ .' '

From the President ofi the Chamber of Commerce, Charleston, S. C.
CHAMBER OF COMMERCE, CHARLESTON,

•
November 13., 1.845.
.At an extra, meeting, held this day a t t h e hall ofthe B.ank ofCharleston, Mr. M. C. Mordecai, from the comniittee on the questions proposed by
the Secretary ofi the Treasury resfecting the operation ofi the tariff, submitted
a report, accompanied with tables, which was read.-; whereuppri the fpl-^
lowing resolutions were moved, seconded, arid,adopted:Resolved, That the report, with the accompanying papers, be printed
under the direction of the Secretary, forthe use of the -members of the
Chamber, and that a copy of the same be transmitted to each inember,
with ,a notice of the time fixed for final actiori thereon.
. Resolved, That the President be directed tp call a meeting.of the Charn^
ber forthe consideration of the report, at as early a period as possible
after the. preparation of the papers, as contemplated in the first reso^
lution. Extract from minutes:
'
WILLIAM " ^ . B ^ m y Y , Secretary. .
Report ofi the Committee ofi the Charleston Chamber, of Commerce.
The 'committee of the Charleston Chamber of Commerce, to whom
were referred the letter of the Secretary of. the Treas.ury, arid the questioris propounded b y him in relatipn to the tariff, with iristructions to
adopt such measures as riiight be deemed rrecessary to procure the inforriia.tipn desired by hin]^, and^to; repprt thpreon, respeptfully si^binit: ^



380
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R E P O R T S OF T H E

[1845.

M—Continued.

That they have discharged the duty assigned to them in the best
manner that circumstances would perrriit. They deeply regret the very
short tinie allowed by the Secretary of the Treasury tp, ariswer these
questions, for, in consequence, they have been unable to enter upon the
examination pf the tariff with that full detail of facts, and With that
carefulinvestigation which so important a subject demands. They have,
therefore, corifined themselves to a simple stateraentof such leading facts,
drawn from authentic sources, as will exhibit the unequal operation of
, the existing tariff, system, its devastating influence upori the' industry of
the country,:generally, and upon the interest of the planting States more
especially. The inforniation furnished, has been arranged urider the
heads of agriGulture, cornmerce, ship-building,, arid a'sj^sterri pf warehousing, and will be found to cover all of the more important questions
ffom the Treasury Departrnent.
M. C. MORDECAI,
T H O S . J. ROGER,
;
^
F.H.ELMORE,
HENRY GOURDIN,
H. W. CONNER,
JAMES GADSDEN,
CHAS. EDMONDSTON,
A N D R E W McDOWALL.
Answers by the Charleston Chamber ofi ^Commerce, to questions propounded hy
fi '
the Secretary ofi the Treasury.^
. v
^
Cotton, rice; and Indiari corn, are the principal staples grown in South
Carohna; the two former only areexported. ^ V:
The comraercial, raanufacturirig, raechariical, and navigation interests
are entirely dependent on the agricultural interests of the Stated—raore
especially on the staples of cottpn and rice. Reraunerating;-prices for
these staples diffuse prosperity throughput all branches of industry, and
the eraployment and the profits of every class depend chiefly, if not
entirely, on the products of the soil. • • fi •• : . •
; : ; :
. *
The capital erriployed in their production carinot be: estimated' at less
than $150,000,000. The average prpfit is generally estiraated at 3 to
4 per cent., and the difference in the average profit for the nine years
preceding 1842, and for the three last years, raay be inferred from the
statements iri another part of this repdrt, in ariswer to other questions
connected with the subject.. T h e average price of cotton for the nine
years preceding 1842, that is to-sayj from 1833 to 1841, was $12 334^,
and for the three years from 1842 to 1844, $7 33i;; of .rice, from 1833
to 1841, $3 per 100 lbs.,'arid from 1842 to 1844,' $2 54 per 100 lbs.
Thecurrency of the coiintry has.had rro effect on prices of produce'
beyond'what it has had on all other articles. ^Money has been abundant both in Europe and in the Urrited. States for;the last three years,.
and the depression in pripes of cotton arid rice cannot be attributed to
the eurrency. The tariff*, by preveriting corapetition, and raising the
price of ^cotton gpods to thp home epnsumer^, dirainishes;c;onsuraptionaiid
lessens the price pr value of the raw material from which they are made.
The State does not raise a sufficierit 'supply of cdttle, rriules, hogs, Indian
corn, or oats. They are obtained from Virgiriia, Mary land,North Caro


J 845.]

S E C R E T A R Y OF T H E TREASURY.

381

M—Coritinued.
Iina, 'Tennessee, Keritucky, and Louisiana. The cornmittee carinot give
at this mornent their ayerage price or value. All^cotton goods, especially
the coarser kinds, which are the most protected, have been higher inthe
last three jrears, while cptton has been lower than it was ever kriown;
rice, also, has ayeraged $2 54 in the last. four, years] and. in the four
years preceding 1842 $3 51 per 100 lbs. It is. now bringirig a much
higher price, the crop being one-third short, but mpre particularly in
GPnsequence of the failure, of the crops in Europe.' Iron and cottpn
goods, and the cparser kirids of other goods, are among the articles rnost
protected by the tariff; many of them are excluded,! the duties being
prphibitory. The coarser mariufactures of every kirid, which enter into
the daily wants pf the rnasses,: are always the raost extensively consumed,, and all of these articles have been: relatively high in the last
three years, as compared with the prices of cbtton arid rice. Timber
'arid lufnber afethe only articles of any consequence, the product of the
State,; besides the staples, that are expprted. The icoramittee cannot
furnish the relative prices for the ten years; preceding 1842, and.the
three years subsequent.
' .
..
Five-sixths:of the cotton grown iri: the United States is exported and
consumed abroad, andr the same proportion may be;assumed. as correct
iri felatipn to that portion pf the crpp raised in Ca;rolina,* Three-fourths
of the rice growri in Carolina is exported arid consuraed abroad. T h e
price of t h e fornier i s governed alrnbst entirely by; the ioreign deraand,
arid this latter also, except in the surnrner: nionths, when .the suppty
is sufficient only for the .horae consumptipn, and there is a cessation
of export.- . B o t h articles meet competition .in the fpreign maxkets, by
similar articles growniri other .cprintries.: The tariff diminishes irnports.
The stateraerU-frprii the Departrnent (table I) shows! that the. less we
import in a series .of .years, the less do we export in value, although the
quantity may be increased^ High drities increase, the cost of production, by increasing the experise pf all ^articles; esseritial tp- subsistence,
and lessen the ability of the planter-to rneet the competition abroad.
The experience;of all countries has esta.blished the ifact, that there is
such a eonriectipn betweeri imports and exports that ariy greatinequality.
betweeri the two cannot long continue. The tables, in this report cpur
firm this principle, (see table-Ij) arid they show that with increased prosperity in Europe, .and with erihanced prices of all kinds of cottPri gopds,
the, raw material is.lower, than was ever known. The Europeari manu-,
facturef: has obtained from . us. more cotton for l e s s money,, while- the
* Mr. Webster,- in a speech delivered at one of the fairs in the interior of New .York, in 1843,
stated that the consumption of cotton in the-United. States was equal to one-third of, the cotton
crop, Mrl Webster.dis'played great, ignorance, or he practised a great imposition upon his
hearers. -The cotton crop of 1842--43 was 2,378,875 bales, and the; consuniption (1842-'43)
325V129 bales, or one-seventh only ,of the crop, in round numbers. The crop of 1841-'42 was
1,683,574, and the .;consumptioh 267,850, being less than one-sixth; and the crop of 1844.
2,400,000, and the consumption 389,000, or less than one-sixth of the crop also. There is a
good deal of cotton manufactured on .the plantations foi' domestic use, ;and by mills in the-interior, of the southern States,^but this can make ;no. difference in the; statement, as the whole
quantity is: relatively small^, and the cotton so iised is not taken from the ports, and isnot consequently included in the crop, so that both items niay be thrown out with perfect fairness. • • ' ^



382

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R E P O R T S OF T H E

[1845.

M-^Continued..
Americari cotton grower.has had fewer goods fof more money. Such a
trade rnust, sooner or later, be ruinous to the exports; of the cou.ntry.*
There have .been several cotton factories established within the * State
in the last fewyears. Npt enough is known of thera to give the information asked. They are reported, however, to be doing a prpfitable
business, and it is believed that they, would be equally thriving with a
fair revenue duty. -, - , '
Tables B, C, and D„ furnish a list of many articles of foreign mariufacture which come into competition with similar articles mariufactured
in the United States, the duties pn whicli are riearly, if not entirely,,
prohib