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MISSOURIANS

ON

THE

MOVE

A Study of Intra-State Transient Men
and Boy3 Applying at St. Louis
April, 1934 — August, 1935

O
St. Louis




Bureau

for

St. Louis, Missouri

Men

MISSOURIANS

ON

THE

MOVE

o

A Study of Intra-State Transient Men and
Boys Applying in St. Louis, April, 1934 August, 1935

tSt.




Louis Bureau for Men
" St. Louis, Missouri

Issued By
St. Louis Bureau for Men
(Formerly Bureau for Homeless Men)
204 a North Eighteenth St.
St. Louis, Missouri




August, 1933

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page
PART I
PART II

THE INTRA-STATE PROGRAM
TRANSIENT INFORMATION
Points of Origin
Chart I - Sections of Origin All Transients
1
1
II Sections of Origin Negro Transients
Chart III Flow Map of Missouri
Methods of Travel & Destination
Home Left
Why They Left Home
The Incidence of Relief at Home
Time on the Road
Agency Correspondence
Case Work Results
PART III St, LOUIS INFORMATION
Time in St. Louis
Month of Application
Chart IV Month of Application
Time under Care
Amount of Relief Given
Later Applications
PART IV PERSONAL CHARACTERISTICS
Age
Social Status
Physical Disabilities or
Illnesses
Education
Employment
Previous Travels




1
9
9
10
12
13
14
16
17
18
19
20
21
24
2U
25
26
25
27
29
30
30
30
31
32
35
35

CONTENTS

APPENDIX 'A'
Table 1
» 2
H 3

" 4
n 5

-

" 6 i
i
7
" 8 » 9A -

TABLES
Method of Travel
Homes Left
Reasons for Leaving Home
Transients Seeking Medical
Treatment
Relief at Home
Time on the Road
Correspondence
Results from Correspondence
Case Work Results

II « B _. ii
II II c _ n

" 10
» 11
" 12
n 13

(Cont'd)

ti

II

II

n

- Time in St. Louis
- Time Under Care
- Amount of Relief Given
- Reapplications in St.Louis
" 14 - Age
it 1 5 - Social Status By Race
» 16 - Social Status by Age
i
i
- Physical Disabilities
1
1
18 - School Grade Completed
ii 1 9 - Age Left School
APPENDIX 'B' - COUNTIES OF MISSOURI WITH
NUMBER OF TRANSIENTS FROM
EACH
1 7




38

39
40

41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49

50
51
52
53

54
55
56
57
58
59-62

Publications of
St. Louis Bureau for Men
1* Case Work With Homeless Men and Boys
A pamphlet by Isaac Gurman, Asst. Secy, of the
Bureau, written "...to acquaint the student
social v/orker and those actually practicing
social case work with the problem of the homeless man and boy11 4.5 pp
2. Inter-City Records Speak
A report of the study of inter-city inquiries
received by the St, Louis Relief Administration
during the month of October, 1935* in the closing days of the Federal Transient Program
58 pp
3. Street Begging in St. Louis
An historical summary of anti-begging work in
St* Louis and a report of a Fact-Finding Survey
of Street Begging made during November and
December, 1936
50 pp
U* Non-Family Boys on Relief
A study of non-family boys, aged 16 to 21,
inclusive, on relief in St, Louis prior to
August 31, 1933
36 pp
5. Non-Family Men on Relief
A statistical analysis of non-family men
on relief in St. Louis, 1925 to 1936,
inclusive
46 pp
6, Missourians on the Move
A study of intra-state transient men and
boys applying in St. Louis from April, 1934
through August, 1935
68 pp
(Any of these pamphlets will be sent free upon
request while the supply lasts.)






1.

PART I
THE INTRA-STATE PROGRAM
This study of Intra-state transient men and boys
applying in St. Louis covers the period from April, 1934,
through August, 1935* It includes all such persons applying to the Intra-state Transient Department of the
Men's Unit of the St. Louis Relief Administration, the
local public agency, which was charged with the responsibility of administering this phase of the transient
program in St, Louis•
It may seem curious to those who knew the old Federal Transient Bureau that this part of the program was
not administered by the transient bureaus. The Missouri
transient program was inaugurated in the fall of 1933 and
St, Louis center, the first in the state, was opened on
Nov. 1, 1933. Prior to this time, the St. Louis Relief
Administration had been the source of all local relief
to transients and its transient set-up, including staff,
was turned over to the state bureau to start the new
center.
But, while the new center provided a full program
of relief and service to inter-state transients and
intra-state families, no provision was made for intrastate unattached men or boys. No state funds, but only
federal and local, were available for relief at that
time and under the regulations of the state program, any
relief given to intra-state transients was charged back
to the local community. Under these circumstances the
St, Louis Relief Administration decided that, as it was
paying for the program, it would also prefer to administer it.
It was apparent to many persons by March of 1934



2.
that the transient program was running into difficulties. It was believed that part of this trouble
could be traced to the local communities and that a
sound intra-state program would help to overcome it.
In order to do its part toward this solution, the St.
Louis Relief Administration worked out the following
plan:
INTRA-STATE PROGRAM

I.
We believe that the National Transient
Program is not as successful as was originally
hoped. This is due, in large measure,to the
fact that the states have concentrated their
efforts on the return of inter-state transients to their legal residence and have made
but feeble efforts to stop their own indigent
citizens frora migrating into other states. The
Relief Administration has interviewed from 150
to 250 men monthly, who are residents of the
State of Missouri but not the City of St.
Louis and who are headed east in search of
some mythical job or adventure• In order to
encourage and aid these men to remain in
Missouri and thus alleviate the national transient problem, the following plan is suggested:
Each applicant shall be given a complete
first interview in order to obtain all pertinent information and social history necessary,
not only to determine his legal residence but
to determine his reason or reasons for leaving
his residence in order to wander about the
country. This information will be sent to the




3.
worker in charge of the county of which the
client is a resident. (Form letter #1.) It
is hoped thereby to establish the following
points:
1. Information which client gives
will be chocked,
2. Prospects for a fair degree of
adjustment are reasonably assured
should he return to his legal residence.
3. That he is entitled to and will
receive relief, cr that ho is eligible for CWA or PWA work*
U* That said county accepts full responsibility for the client should
he return and will endeavor to rehabilitate him to the best of the
facilities available.

II.
During the interval .between the sending
of Form Letter #1 and its return to the Relief
Administration, the transient will be offered
full care at our Chestnut Street Lodge, or if
the situation demands, in available hotels or
rooming houses. It will be necessary for the
county officials to give us one week service
in order to move our load rapidly and to prevent, as much as possible, giving the client
an opportunity to imagine that his situation
is being neglected and fostering still more
the idea of the futility of his returning
home.
III.
Should a client refuse to accept any plan



4.
for his return to his legal residence, Form
Letter #3, accompanied by #2 will be sent to
states bordering Missouri to the north, south,
and east. This, of course, will only be done
after the county worker has verified his legal
residence in that county and accepts responsibility for client's care.
Form Letter #3 will serve as an incentive for client1s return to Missouri and to the
county of which he is a resident.
It is evident that Letter #1 will be sent
on all cases, whether the client desires to
return or not. This will have the advantage
of:
1. Obtaining the percentage accuracy
of information given by clients
and enabling us to some extent to
revise our policy if necessary.
2. Obtaining the necessary information
in order to inform the transient
departments of other states by
form letters #2 and #3.
3» Serving to acquaint the worker of
said county on the number (in part)
of residents who are leaving the
county and the reasons they assign
for leaving•
IV.
As this work will in the main be a correspondence job, it is our intention to incorporate
it with the Inter-City Department which is already trained for that particular kind of work.




5*
The following chief difficulties have
been encountered in encouraging a man to
return home;
1. The memory of past disappointments
and hardships in the home town are
too fresh and there is a natural
reluctance to return*
2. Pride often will not permit a man
to return after he has been away
but a short time.
3« Difficulties with relatives makes
the uncertainty of the "road" preferable to security in uncongenial
surroundings.
U* The client's assumption of inadequate relief facilities within the
county.
From the above points mentioned it is
apparent that the services of a skilled case
worker are indispensable together with the
utmost cooperation from the county worker.
V.
In order to make the program one of full
state cooperation, it will, of course, be
necessary for Kansas City to adopt a similar
plan, as St. Louis and Kansas City are both
marginal cities as well as through cities.
This plan was presented to the State Relief Administration and received its approval and promise of
full cooperation. The county workers of the state,
as later portions of the study will show, were very cooperative at all times. The plan was placed in oper-




6.
ation in April, 1934, and continued through August of
19355 at which time all transient activities were absorbed in the general program for unattached men and
the dividing line between programs was obliterated.
The use of form letters #2 and #3 to notify the
transient bureaus of neighboring states of Missouri
residents headed their way and to ask their cooperation
in getting transients home was started at the same time
as the balance of the program, but was discontinued
after a few months . None of the letters were acknowledged by the other bureau3, and no inquiries were
received from any of them, and a later check up on our
part showed that the states had no intention of taking
advantage of these notifications.
Almost from the start, this new plan was" highly
successful in heading off potential inter-state transients and was also valuable in adding to our general
knowledge of Missourians who were "on the move*11 The
report on cases completed during the first month of
operation shows that of the 88 cases, authorizations
were received for the return of 34% and 20% were
actually sent back home, the balance leaving the city
before the plan was completed* The most significant
part of the report was that 75% of these transients
left home heading for St, Louis, 66% had been on the
road less than 5 days, and 90% applied for relief within 5 days after arriving in St. Louis. Those figures
showed the type of persons applying and the values of
such a program - we were getting transients, principally young men, fresh from home, on the road just
long enough to be dirty, tired, and hungry, and in a
frame of mind to be readily persuaded of the advantages of returning to their homes.
The highest percentage returned home in any one



7.
month was 4-0% in Juno, 1934? and the next highest was
35% in August. It is interesting that during this same
period, the Missouri Transient Bureau, administering
the program for intra-state transients in the balance
of the state, returned only .2 of 1 J of those applying.
$
Remembering that the chief purpose of our plan was to
prevent Missourians from taking to the read, this
should be a fair measure of our success.
As the plan continued in operation, however, we
found a gradual change taking place in the character of
our applicants and a consequent decrease in the percentage of returns. We found that our success in returning intra-state transients to their homes depended
to a large degree upon the length of time they had been
away from home - the shorter the time away, the better
the chances of returning. During the early months of
the program from 3/5 to 3/4- of those applying had been
away from home less than 5 days and our percentage of
returns varied from 20% to 4-0%. But in the follo?;ing
winter the percentage of those on the road less than 5
days dropped as low as 29% and our percentage of returns also dropped. In the summer of 1935 we found tha
more than half of the men applying had been on the road
for months instead of days and that we were not getting
Missourians at the start of their travels, but transients who had been out of their home state for some
time and were now merely traveling back through it.
All of this worked against the success of the program.
The following table gives the figures on this for
alternate months during the life of the program:




a.
Percentagei of Applicants

Returned
Month
April,
1934
1
!
June
t
l
August
t
i
October
1)
December
February
1935
!
f
April
I
I
June

Home

20

AO
35
17
11

6
3
6

On Road 5 Days

or Less
66
61
69
29

39
56
46
AT?

Another factor which affected our returns was the
age of the applicant. It was well known that during
the summer months when school was not in session,the
proportion of young transients increased tremendously.
Most of this increase was from school boys who had
taken to the road largely in a spirit of adventure and
most of them for the first time* We generally had a
high degree of success in returning these boys to their
homes. In the winter months, on the contrary, most of
those applying were old timers who had either been on
the road for a long time or had made a number of previous trips. Most had definite plans, knew where they
wanted to go and why, else they would not be traveling
in the winter. Our percent of returns among these transients was consequently low.
This summary of the Intra-State Transient Program
has been given to serve as a background for the de~
tailed sections of the study reported later.




9.
PART II
TRANSIENT INFORMATION
This portion of the study sets forth the pertinent
information regarding the intra-state transient men and
boys from the tine they left their home until they were
returned to it, or until they left the relief agency
for parts unknown. Personal characteristics of transients involved are given in Part IV.
Points of Origin
75 of the 114 counties of the state furnished 1
or more transients to the group which trekked into St.
Louis while this program was in operation. The heaviest representation came from Jackson County, which
includes Kansas City, with 135 persons or 29S5 of the
total. The next heaviest were a series of counties
in the southeast corner of the state (often facetiously
termed "swamp-east Missouri") where Pemiscot furnished
35, Dunklin 23, Mississippi 21, Butler 15, New Madrid
12, and Scott and Cape Girardeau 10 each. St. Francois
County, in our nearby tiff mining district, sent 11.
The only other large contingents came from Greene
County (Springfield) with 8, Jasper County (Joplin) with
11, and Buchanan (St. Joseph) with 12, and Cole (Jefferson City) 9. These last represent the more populous
centers of the state. (Appendix ! B ! gives a complete
list of the counties of the state with the number of
transients from each.)
The state was divided into 8 districts containing
from 11 to 17 counties each with Jackson County as a
separate district, to facilitate the tabulation of the
counties of origin. The southeast district had the







10.
CHART

I.

SECTION OF ORIGIN
ALL TRANSIENTS
Percent of toj
shown thus {6)

11.
largest representation with 14.6 of the 468 transients,
or 31%* (See Chart I) Jackson County was next with
135? or 29%, and the east central, including the 1£
counties immediately surrounding St. Louis, was third
with 48, or 10$. The other six districts varied from
18 to 27 in number and from L$ to 6% of the total. It
can easily be seen from this that two sections of the
state are largely responsible for intra-state transients
in St. Louis - Jackson County and southeast Missouri
together furnishing 60$ of all those applying. These
two districts are different in character; Jackson
County containing the state's second largest city and
industrial section, and the southeast consisting largely
of the blighted cotton counties.
These two districts furnished an even higher proportion of the Negro transients. Southeast Missouri
furnished l&% of all the Negroes and Jackson County
35$. (See Chart II) The only ether large districts
were the central and east central with % each. One
district had none and three had less than 1% each.
All of these figures are illustrated by the flow
map in Chart III which shows the directions of travel
and in approximate proportions, the volume cf transients
coming into St. Louis from each direction* The transients from the northeast corner of the state generally
started their travels by going to Kansas City, and,
finding little opportunity there, decided to try their
luck in St* Louis* The U% from the north-east district
added to the 2B% originating in Jackson County, made
3355 starting from Kansas City eastward across the state.
As this group progressed it picked up an additional &%
from the west and central districts and near St. Louis
added llj£ from the southwest. These vdth % from the
counties near St. Louis made 55$ of the total coining
into the city from the west. Similarly the \% origin-







12.
CHART II
Section of Origin
Negro Transients
Percent of Total
Shoum Thus

JLJ*

CHART III
FLOW MAP OF MISSOURI
Figures show percentage
of total volume of transients accumulated to
that point.
Kansas
City




t, Louis

14.
ating in "the boot" in the southeastern corner of the
state picked up enough recruits along the way to make
3656 by the time they reached the southern edge of the
city. Only 9% came in from the north across the
Missouri River.
These lines of travel are based principally upon
the railroad lines known to carry the largest portion
of the transients coming into St* Louis (later sections
of the report show that 65% travel by rail) although
in all cases these main rail lines are paralleled by
the main highways from those sections of the state.
Methods of Travel and Destination
All surveys of transients, 'either inter- or
intra state, have shown that the largest portion of
them travel by freights The figures in this study bear
out these previous observations. (See Table 1, page 38)
65$ of the transients came into St. Louis via freight
or used this as their principal method of conveyance,
while 19$ hitch-hiked by highway. There is some variation in method of travel as between races, a higher
proportion of the Negroes traveling by freight than
by highway. This is not surprising as it is practically
impossible for a Negro to hitch a ride with a stranger
on the highway.
79/6 of the transients gave St. Louis as their
destination and the other 21$ stated that they came
through St. Louis on their way to more distant points.
Of these 21$, 10% were headed west, 7% south, and 2%
each east and north.
One of the unusual things brought out by this
portion of the study, however, is the fact that 42, or
9%, paid their fare into St. Louis either by train or
bus. In a special study made of these 42 cases, we find




15.
that they do not differ greatly from the general run
of transients covered by the study* Surveying the type
home left, which presumably determines whose money they
used for fare, we find that 19 of the 42 had been on
their own, 11 with one or both parents including one
step-parent, 6 with other relatives, 5 with wives, and
one left the county poor farm, apparently on money he
had saved. As to reasons for leaving home, we find
that 29 were ostensibly seeking employment, J+ seeking
medical attention, 3 because of domestic difficulties
(one of these was an elderly man whose sons gave him
sufficient money to reach St. Louis in order to be rid
of him, one was a bey put out by a stepfather, and the
other a boy here to see the Federal probation officer.)
2 came to prosecute veterans claims; 1, the poor farm
inmate, wanted to live- in St. Louis; and 1, a boy, was
"just traveling."
Checking on their points of origin, we find that
Jackson county, central and southeast Missouri and the
territory near St» Louis were more hoavily represented
than in the general run of transients. Another interesting point is that 19 of the 42 applied for relief
before they had been in St. Louis 3 days;- 16 of them
on the first day, apparently having used all of their
money to pay their fare here. The other 23 were here
from 1 week to 7 months before asking help, 10 of them
being here 3 months or more. These 10 apparently represent the group who were successful in securing employment, but not in keeping it*
Another interesting point brought out by Table 1
is the fact that 32, or 7%, of the transients came in
by truck. Although a few of these came from Jackson
County, most of them were "commuters" from nearby or
southeast Missouri towns who arranged rides with a
truck driver en a regular freight run into St. Louis.




16.
Most of these rides were based on friendship with the
driver and a return ride was available to the transient
whenever he wished to return. He need only meet the
driver at some loading or unloading point on his regular route, such as the stockyards, "produce row", or a
warehouse, to secure the ride. Many of the transients,
also, when they wished to return home, would frequent
the trucking stations and look for a truck from home
regardless of whether or not they knew the driver.
These points give a new slant on intra-state
transient travel and open up the possibility of what
may be rather radical changes in its character in the
next few years.
Home Left
While these transients were all traveling alone
and so were classed as "unattached" or "non-family" men
and boys when they applied here, only slightly more than
1/3 of them were actually in the "non-family" class when
at home. Table 2 (see page 39) shows that only 169,
or 36%, of the 4-68 were on their own ?/hen they started
their travels. Some of these had families and had merely
been away from home on jobs. 35% left the homes of one
or both parents, 15% left a wife, and U+% left the homes
of various other relatives. 13 of the 69 who left wives
at home were also known to have had one or more children
there. These figures show the fallacy in considering
all unattached transients as "homeless men" and also
show how we were actually preventing the break-up of
families and perhaps re-uniting families when we persuaded these folk to return to their homes.
As might be expected, there is a wide variation
between men and boys, v/hite and Negro. A higher percentage of the men were on their own or were living with
wives before starting their travels, while a much smaller




17.
percentage were living with parents, this variation
being about the same for white and Negro men. 88 of
the 121 boys, on the other hand, left the homes of
parents and 20 of relatives, while only 11 - 7 of them
Negro - were on their own and only 2 were married and
living with their vaves. Only half of the Negro boys
were with their parents while one-fourth were with
other relatives and one-fourth were self-supporting.
A later section of this report, that on Social
Status in Part IV, gives additional facts along this
line*
Why They Left Home
One of the most important parts of any study of
transients and at the same time one of the most difficult upon which to secure accurate information is that
portion dealing with reasons for leaving home* Most
transients give search for employment as the reason
although there is generally some other contributing
factor which furnishes the final incentive for leaving.
Consequently we always try to go behind the reason given
and find the real one. Because of our high percentage
of correspondence with the home community on the cases
covered in this study, we were ablo to uncover additional reasons on many cases, but even then "looking for
work" was still the only ascertainable excuse on over
four-fifths of the cases. (See Table 3, page 40)
$3% of tka cases fell in a "general" classification
which could; not be broken down.
It is interesting, however, that in the other 11%
of the cases where we could find the real reason for
leaving home, the largest single group left to secure
medical attention in the city* % were in this group
and % were on their way to visit relatives. 2$ left
because of friction at home. (Most of these have been




18.
mentioned in previous sections) and 1.5% each left to
go to a prospective job and to arrange a veterans pension or other financial matters in the city. Those in
the "prospective job" group are distinguished from the
"seeking work" group by having a definite promise of a
job instead of the vague hope that they might find one*
There is little variation in reasons found between
the men and boys and the total group. Both men and boys
shon about the same percentage in the general group.
No boys were on the way to prospective jobs and none
left to arrange finances, while an unusually large number, 6 of the 10, left becaaise of home friction. The
Negroes had more than their share in the general group
and correspondingly fewer in others. Six Negroes left
seeking medical treatment and 2 Negro boys went to
visit relatives.
A special analysis was made of those seeking medical treatment. There were 30 in the total group - 22
men and 8 boys. (See Table 4> page 41) The largest
single group was 11 with venereal disease. 7 of these
were men and 4 were boys. Other groups were 3 each
with cancer, crippled, and blind, and 2 each with
cardiac trouble and tuberculosis*
The Incidence of Relief at Home
A previous study by the Bureau, of St.Louisans who
applied for relief at transient centers (See "InterCity Records Speak") showed that only 32% of the 219
men, 7/omen, and families included in that study had ever
been known to any relief agency in the city, either
before their departure, or within six months following
their return, and indicated that standards of relief in
the community or the absence of relief facilities could
have had very little effect upon the volume of transiency.
This study of intra-state transients brings out




19.
the same fact, (See table 5, page 42) Only 33% of the
4-68 men and boys had ever received relief at home and
only 23% were receiving relief at the time of their
departure from home. There was not more than a few
degrees variation in percentage for men or boys, white
or Negro, The percentage among the whites was generally
a few degrees higher than the Negroes, It is evident
from this that the relief standards in effect in rural
Missouri could have had very little effect upon the
number of persons taking to the road. This is also
borne out by the fact that none of the transients, when
applying for relief in St. iouis, gave this as their
reason for leaving home, although many, particularly
from southeast Missouri, complained at various times
of the inadequacy of relief given.
Time on the Road
In Part I we said that one reason for starting this
intra-state transient program in St, Louis was that we
believed that through it we could stop Missourians be-,
f03© they became confirmed transients and return them
to their homes. One test of the effectiveness of the
plan, then, is the length of time the transient had been
on the road before applying to the agency. When we tabulated this point from our schedules (See table 6, page
A3) we found that approximately one-fourth of those
applying had been away from home only one day and that
over 60% had been away one week or less. Only 16$ had
been on the road 3 months or more and so might be considered eligible to the lists of "confirmed transients".
There was some variation in the figures on men and
boys as the men had generally been on the road for a
longer period of time. The Negroes also had been away
from home a few days more than the whites.
We have already pointed out that the length of time




20.
on the road before application in St, Louis became longer as the program grew older, so that while in the
beginning over 2/3 had been on the road less than 5
days, a year later less than half were in this classification* The efficiency of the program was decreased
in the same way.
Agency Correspondence
Our original plan called for a letter to the home
county on every person applying, but we were not able
to carry out this policy. While we secured a high
degree of cooperation from county workers in the state,
they did object to carrying on an investigation on men
who had already left our agency. Also when we abandoned the letter of notification to surrounding states,
we had less need for a home investigation so that we
eventually returned to the usual procedure of writing
only when we wished to return the transient to his home.
Letters were written or telegrams sent on 92% of
the cases. (See Table 7, page 44) There was little
variation in this as to type of case. The highest percentage was 96^ on Negro boys and the lowest was 91% on
white boys. The splendid cooperation of the county
workers in the state is shown by the fact that C)Q$ of
the correspondence was answered. There is more variation here", the highest percentage of answers being 93%
on Negro men and the lowest, &5% on Negro boys.
The results obtained from this correspondence are
still more interesting. (See Table 8, page 45 •) Residence was verified and return authorized in 64$ of the
letters answered. Authorization to return was refused
for various reasons in only 24 cases, or 6% of the
total, and the correspondent was unable to verify the
information in only 30% of the cases. Some of these
could probably have been verified through additional




21
correspondence, but in most instances the man had left
our agency before tha answer 7/as received. These
results speak well for the accuracy of the information
given by the transient at the time of interview.
There were some wide variations in results. The
highest percentage of returns authorised was 80$ for
white boys and the lowest was 47$ for Negro men. The
highest percentage of unverifiable information was,
correspondingly, 51$ for the Negro men and the lowest 14$
for white boys. Percentages on authorizations refused
varied from 0 to 8.
Another interesting point is that the 24-9 cases
upon which return to legal residence was authorized
represent 53% of the cases covered in the study. This
is another indication of the effectiveness of such a
program and of the splendid cooperation of the county
workers.
Case Work Results
The real test of the effectiveness of the program,
however, is in the ultimate disposal of the cases.
(See Table 9, page 46-48) 27£ of all the persons served were returned to their homes by the agency and 6.5$
returned of their own accord, this latter group being
counted only whore this return was verified. This
makes a total of 33,5$ who returned to their homes. An
additional 6$ were tauten care of in some other satisfactory way; 3,5$ referred to another agency for care,
1$ referred to health agencies, 1% securing employment,
and *% sent to relatives. A total of 39.5$, then, were
satisfactorily cared for before the case was closed.
59$ of the group left the agency without any knowledge on our part of the solution reached ("lost contact11) and 1,5$ were refused further relief because
they refused to accept the case work plan offered. This
is a total of 60.5$ closed for unsatisfactory reasons.



22.
All
Resulting in effective plan
No effective plan

Men

Boys

39.5$
60.5$

38.5/5
61.5$

43$
57$

There was some variation in results by rate.
37$ of the white persons returned home, but only 22.5$
of the Negroes. A slightly higher percentage of Negroes
received employment or were referred to other facilities
for care, while the agency "lost contact" on a much
higher percentage of Negroes. The figures here were
67.5$ for the Negroes and 56$ for the white persons.
Satisfactory results were generally below the
average for the whole group on the men, and above the
average on the boys with the same variation by race as
noted above. 32.5$ of the men returned home, 36.5$
of the white men, and 22$ of the Negro men. 36»5$
of the boys returned home, 39$ of the white boys and
26*5$ of the Negro boys.
It is interesting to note that while 83$ of the
entire group (See Table 39 page 4-0) gave a search for
work as their principal reason for leaving home, and
1.5$ had actual jobs in view when they started for St.
Louis, only 1$ secured employment here. The odds would
seen to be overwhelmingly against success on such a
venture.
Another interesting point is that 17, or 71$, of
the 24. boys who stated that St. Louis was merely a
way station in their travels, were returned to their
homes, as compared to 33$ of all the boys. They apparently had had enough of traveling and were not anxious
to continue, while those who had reached their des-




23.
tination, St. Louis, were not so easily persuaded of
the values of returning home.




24.
PABTJCIi
ST, LOUIS INFORMATION
This portion of the study gives information pertinent to the St. Louis end of the program.
Time in St. Louis Before Applying for Relief
369 of the 4-68 transients applied for relief on
their first day in St. Louis. This represents 79$ of
the total. An additional 8$ applied on the second day,
and 3.5% on the third day,, while a total of 93$ applied
before they had been in town 6 days. (See Table 10,
page 4-9) This indicates that most of them were traveling without funds and were dependent upon relief
facilities almost from the time they loft home.
There was little variation in percentages as
between men and boys, Negro and white.
Even those who had been in the city for several
months before applying for relief were not getting by
entirely upon their own resources. A check was made
of the 5 boys who had been in St. Louis more than one
month. We found that only 2 had been self-supporting
during that time. One had worked for 6 months and
applied after he lost his job, and the other had
worked for 3 months as an errand boy. Of the other
three, one had spent the entire period with his father
and stepmother (he was returned to his mother out-state)
one had been living for 5 months with a sister; and the
other had spent his entire 6 weeks in the City Workhouse on a vagrancy charge.




25.
Month of Application
The heaviest part of the applications under the
intra-state transient program came during the first
5 months of its existence, 329$ or 70$, of the transients applying between April and August of 1934, and
the other 30$ during the 12 months following. (See
Chart IV, page 26) 62 applied in April, the first
month of operation, 50 in May, 64 in June, 74 in July,
and 79 in August, September accounted for only 32 and
the low month of the winter was February, 1935> with
only 3.
The summer months, that is during the school
vacation period, are always the high months of transient travel, particularly for boys and young men.
77$ of the boys applied during these first 5 months.
There were, of course, additional reasons for the
rather sharp reduction after September 1, the principal one being the change in character of the program.
This, and other&ctors affecting the number of transients cared for, has been discussed in Part I,
Time Under Care In St. Louis
This and the following section are important in
the consideration of any transient program which is
organized with a case work rather than a group emphasis,
as they show the comparatively light financial burden
placed upon the local community by such a program*
20$ of the transients received relief in St.Louis
for less than one week and an additional 50$ were under
care for just one week. (See Table 11, page 50) 70$,
then, received relief for one week or less, while 15$
received two weeks1 relief, 7$ three weeks, and 8$ four
weeks or longer*
These figures are even more promising with the boys



26.
CHART IV
Number of
Persons
Applying




TRANSIENT APPLICATIONS
BY MONTHS

2?.
where 3356 were under care for 6 days or less and 41$
for 1 week, while with the men, 5356 received 1 week's
relief and only 16$ less than a week. Generally speaking, the group receiving less than one week!s relief
represents those who were returned home in a few days,
while the 1 week group represents those who received
relief for 1 week at the time of application and failed
to return to the office when the week was up,
A detailed analysis was made of the 8 boys who
remained under care for U weeks or more. 4 were under
care for just one month, 2 for two months, 1 for five
months, and 1 for one and one-half years. In the case
of the last 2 boys, they were accepted by the local
agency while definite treatment plans were being carried out and were cared for on the same basis as local
boys; the first was returned home after a course of medical treatment was completed, while the last left town
after medical treatment was completed. (This boy cost
our agency alone $430 for relief. Service costs and
medical treatment would increase this considerably.)
Two of the boys kept for one month were also held for
medical treatment; one was returned home and one was
referred to the State School for the Blind,
Amount of Relief Given
3% of the 468 transients received less than $2 in
relief while under care in St, Louis; while 31$ received between $2 and $5, and 2156 between $5 and |10.
This is a total of 9156 who received less than $10 each.
(See table 12, page 51) An additional 5%, or 25 cases,
received between $10 and $15, 12 cases between $15 and
$20, 3 between $20 and $25, while only 5 cases cost the
agency more than $25 each. All of these figures include
transportation charges as well as direct relief, where
this was paid by the agency.




28 .
An analysis of the 5 cases costing more than $25
shows that 2 of the 3 men cost #29.70 and $29.80 each
and the other $86.50, while the 2 boys cost $90 and
$430. These last 3 cases should hardly be counted as
"transient" cases, as they were accepted for long-time
treatment on the same basis as a resident man or boy*
Even more significant are the figures on the total
relief costs for the program, A total of $2,608.63 was
spent during the 17 months on the 4-68 cases. If we
eliminate the 3 most expensive cases, we find that the
total cost on the other 4-65 cases was only $2,003 or an
average cost of $4.30 per case. The following compilation shows the total and average costs for men and
boys by race with these 3 cases excluded:
Group
All Cases
All Men
White
Negro
All Boys
White
Negro

No. Cases

465
346
246
100

119
92
27

Amount
$2,003.00
1,534.12
1,131.03
403.09
4.68.88
350.83
118.05

Avera

4.30
4.43

4.6£
4.03

3.94
3.82

4.35

Here again we find illustrated in dollars and
cents the value of speedy and intensive case work service. A larger percent of the white boys were returned home than in any other of the four groups and
the white boys, as a group, were consequently under care
in St. Louis for a shorter period of time and cost less
per case. Prompt return of a boy to his home, then, is
not only the best case work plan for the boy (according
to our belief) but by these figures is also proven to
be the cheapest plan for the agency.




29.
Later Applications in St* Louis
Very few of these intra-state transients ever reapplied in St. Louis for relief up to two and one-half
years follo?/ing the close of the program; that is, prior
to Jan. 1, 1938. Only 30, or 6.4$, of the 4-68 had reapplied during that period* 24, or 5-1$, of these
reapplied once, 5 twice, and 1 three times, (See Table
13, page 52.) Most of these re-applications occurred
within a few months after the original closing of the
case and in most instances any assistance other than
emergency relief was refused.




30.

PART

IV.

PERSONAL CHARACTERISTICS
This portion of the study deals only with information regarding the transients as individuals and gives
some insight into their personal characteristics.
Age
A tabulation of the ages of the 468 transients
covered by the study (see table 14, page 53) shows that
about one-fourth of them were 21 or less, 36$ were under
25f and 60$ under 35 years of age. The most popular
years seem to be 18, 19, and 20, as a larger percentage
were traveling during these ages than any other.
Previous sections of the study have pointed out
that the average age of the transients varied for dif-»
ferent seasons of the year. During the summer months
when school was out, the transients were predominantly
youngsters, while during the winter months, most of
them were middle-aged or older men. This was equally
true of inter-state transients during the life of the
Federal program.
The white transients were as a general rule younger
than the Negroes. 28$ of the whites were 21 years or
less in age while only 21$ of the Negroes were in this
group. Similarly 50$ of the "whites were under 30, with
only 4-7$ for the Negroes. The Negroes were also short
in the extreme older groups. The average age for the
white men and boys was 31.5 and for the Negroes 32*&.
Social Status
Some difficulty was experienced in tabulating the
results of this portion of the study. Some of the case




31.
workers on the original cases misunderstood the meaning
of the social status blank on the face sheet and interpreted it to mean status at time of application*. Naturally, under this interpretation, there could be no
married men applying and all such men who had been with
their families before starting on the road were entered
as separated. We interpret this to mean status at home
and are so using it in our study. A careful check was
made of the records and we believe we have eliminated
all of the errors, although it is still possible that
the "separated" group is too large and that some of
them should have been counted as "married."
Almost two-thirds of the transients (see Table 1$,
page 54) were single, while 14$ were married, 11$ were
separated but not divorced, and an additional 2% were
divorced, 8$ were vddowed. A previous section on the
homes left by those transients has shown that many of
those classed as single actually left the homes of
parents or relatives so that only a small percentage
could really be counted as unattached.
There is a wide variation between men and boys as
regards their social status (See Table 16, page 55)
Only 2 of the 121 boys were married and the other
119 were all counted as single. For the men, only
5156 were single while 1% were married and at home,
15S6 were separated, 3*5% divorced and 11$ vddowed.
There was a variation of only a few percent between
whites and Negroes. (See Table 4> page 41)
Physical Disabilities or Illnesses
Only 71 of the 4.68 transients reported physical
disabilities or illnesses at the time of application.
This represents 15JS of the total* Most of these were
permanent handicaps or established illnesses or ones
that required long time treatment and only 2 or 3 were




32.
emergency situations* (See Table 17, page 56) As
examples of what we term "established illnesses" we
might give tuberculosis and cancer which involved 3 nien
each. Permanent disabilities were blindness, crippled
condition, speech defects, and similar handicaps.
The most prevalent of all conditions on the list
was venereal disease, present in 12 of the 71 cases.
9 of the transients were blind or had seriously defective vision, 8 were crippled, 5 had a bad hernia, and
5 cardiac trouble. Other conditions occurring more
than once on the list were mental defects 4, cancer 3,
tuberculosis 3> malaria 2, defective heading 2, serious
infection 2, and speech defects 2.
The prevalence of such health conditions was higher
for men than for boys, the ratio for men being 1756 and
for boys only 11%. U of the boys were suffering from
venereal disease, while no other complaint occurred more
than once vath them.
A previous discussion of those transients who came
to St. Louis to secure medical attention (see section
on "Why They Left Home", page 17) gives some additional
information on this subject.
Education
An analysis of the school grades completed by the
transients (see Table 18, page 57) shows that on the
average they are low in education. The median grade
completed by all transients covered was 7. The median
for the white group was 8 and for the Negroes 6. U%
of them did not attend school, while only /+8% completed
the eighth grade. Only 23^ completed 1 year of high
school, I656 2 years, 10$ 3 years, and 8$ finished high
school. Only 3% attended any college.




33.
There was a wide variation between the whites and
Negroes on these figures. 55% of the whites finished
the 8th grade-, but only 29$ of the Negroes, Similarly,
% of the whites finished high school, but only % of
the Negroes, 7% of the Negroes had never attended
school, but only 2% of the whites.
Comparative figures on the educational level of
the male population of out-state Missouri are not available, but we do have figures on inter-state transients
in general. John N. Webb* found that the median grade
completed by white unattached transients in city centers
was 8 and by the- Negroes 6, the same figures we obtained.
But he also found that 3&$ of them had had from 1 to A
years of high school, while our study shows that only
235? entered high school. It is apparent from this that
an unusually large percentage failed to enter high
school after finishing the 8th grade, while the lower
grades were more heavily weighted.
Similarly, George E. Outland** in a study of
3,300 transient boys in California centers found that
59£ had had at least one year cf high school, while our
study shows only 23£. Our figures are pulled down, of
course, by the inclusion of the older men in the study,
but if we take the figures for boys only, we find that
only 36^6 completed the first year.
A similar analysis of the age at which the
Missouri transients left school gives further evidence
of retardation. The median at time of leaving school
for the whites was 15 and Negroes 16. The Negroes
*

Webb - "The Transient Unemployed" - WPA Research
Monograph No. Ill
** Outland - Educational Administration and Supervision, November, 1937#




34were only slightly higher on the average age, 15»8, as
against 15•3 for the whites.
We find a very heavy concentration around the ages
14 and 16 for leaving school. The state law requires
attendance to age 16 except that under certain conditions children may quit at 14 to go to work. Apparently many boys took advantage of this. Another possible explanation is lax enforcement of attendance laws
in the rural districts*
Only 33% of the transients continued in school
beyond the age of 16 and only 8% beyond 18. Or, stated
differently, while one-half of the 16 year olds were in
school, only one-fifth of the 18 year olds were. We
also find after the age of 14 is reached, drop-outs
are very rapid. 19$ dropped out at 14 > 13% at age 15,
18% at age i6, and 14% at age 17. 95% of the 12 year
olds were in school.
Curiously enough the Negroes continued in school
longer than the whites. For example only 16% of the
?/hite boys aged 18, but 28% of the Negroes, were in
school. Similarly, 54% of the 16 year old Negroes, but
only 50% of the whites. We also find, however, a higher
percentage of Negroes dropping out early so that the
average age for the Negroes is very little above that
for the whites.
Using age six as the time for starting school end
assuming normal advancement of one grade per year, we
find the following average retardation:
Both
White
Negro
Eedian grade completed
7
8
6
Median age left
16
15
16
Average retardation
3 yrs.
1 yr.
4 yrs.




35.
General school experience has shown that an average retardation of one year is not unusual so that in
view of the backward rural districts from which many
of these transients came, these averages were not too
far away from expectations.
Employment
It was difficult to make any general classifications of employment because of the wide variety of
jobs held. However, the rural background of many of
the transients is illustrated by the fact that about
26% of the men and 32% of the boys had worked only as
cotton pickers or general farm hands. 21$ of the men
and 18)5 of the boys had worked as general laborers.
U+% of the boys had never worked and % were classed
as students. These account for U% of the men and 6A%
of the boys. There were no other large groups•
Previous Travels
Transiency as such was not a new experience to
most of these men and boys. lfi% had made at least
one previous trip on the road and 335? had made enough
trips to be classed as "chronic11 transients. One interesting point here, however, is that practically all
of the chronics were chronic commuters; that is, most
of their trips had been made from home to the city.
This ties in with previous sections of the study,
particularly the discussion on the large number traveling by intra-state transport trucks.
The figures vary somewhat for men and boys. 41$
of the men had made previous trips but only 3&% of the
boys. The variation en chronics is still wider; from
37£ for the men to 23% for the boys.
It is significant that, in spite of this high percentage of chronic transients, we were still able to




36.
return over 1/3 of all applicants to their homes within
a few days after their arrival in St* Louis*







37.

APPENDIX 'A'
TABLES

38.

TABLE 1
All
No.
42

Cases

Method
Fare Paid
Freight Train

305

| 65

Hitch Hike

89

Truck

32

Totals




1 9
%

1
!

1

19

7

468 | 100

METHOD OF TRAVEL
Men - No.
White ! Negro Total
25 i 10
35

White
6

Boys - No.
Negro i Total
1
7

142

i 72

214

67

24

91

57

15

72

15

2

17

26

6

6

347

94

27 | 121

22
246

101

39.

TAELS 2.
Totals
No. i

Home Left
Own .

169

%
j 36

Parents

163

| 35

Wife

59

16

75

75

20

67

67

| U

Totals

4.68

| 100

1

Boys
Negro

7

2

(12) !

Relatives




Men
White • No T O i Total White
4
53 ; 158
105

47

69

(with children) ( 13)

i

HOME LEF1

35

1

88

2

(13)

< !)
12

47

246 j 101 i 347
I
!
\

13

Total
' 11

\

13

94

7
27

20
121

40.
TABLE 1

General

Totals
No.
! %
390 1 83

Medical Treat.

30

Visit Relatives

Home Friction

Men
Negro ! Total
93 | 291

White

198

7

17

5

!

23

Prospective Jobsi

REASONS FOR LEAVING HOME

15

5

6|

2

10

22

1
5

1

1.5

7

|

31

1 !
•

11

White

! .BQjrs
Negro

75

24

7

Total
99

1

6

8
,

8

7
i

4

6

;

6

c

.Arrange finances1
Totals




8

:

1.5

468 ; 100
i

7I
1

246 !

1 |

i

8

101 | 347

94

27

121

41.
TABLE A.

ANALYSIS OF TRANSIENTS SEEKING MEDICAL TREATMENT

Men
Diagnosis

Total

Negro

White

11

3

3

Cardiac

2

2

Blind

3

2

Tuberculosis

2

2

Crippled

3

2

Others

6

3

30

17

4

3

Cancer

Boys
Negro
White

Venereal Disease

1

1
1

2

5

7

•

J

Totals




I

i

•

!

42.

TABLE 5 INCIDENCE OF RELIEF AT HOME
Totals
468

All Cases
| Received Relief No.
%
At Dep<arture




No.
%

Men
White 1 Negro Total
101 . 347
246

154

88

24

33

36

24
1!
5

107

58

23

White
94

112

33

32

I

35
„

i

26

21

24

73

28

Boys
Negro I Total
27 | 121
!

42

33 |
,
8 |
30 |

35

9

34
28

43.
TABLE 6

Time
Totals
1 Day
2 Days
3 "
4-6 «
1 Week
2 Weeks
3. "..„. .
1-2 Months
3 mo. up




Totals
No. ! % iCum. %
468 1 100. i
110 I 23.5! 23-5
48 | 10.5! 34.
45 ! 9.51 43.5
28 ! 6. ] 49.5
57] 12. | •6r.5~"~
17
3.51 65.
21
J&&
84.
67
75 I i6. ;100

TIME ON THE BOAD

Men
White

Negro : Total
101 i 347
246
20 i 73
53
33
19 •
u
34
24 \ 10
20
10 I 10

~32 r i2'
11 i 3
16

35
46

tt

14
. 19

1 12 1 4T "
1 3
63
I 17

1

Bays
White )Negro
94 ! 27

30
14
8
4
•—io

Total
121

1I
11
I T

2
2 1
!
15 T
9 !

37
15
11
8

15
3

l
5
^

2
~
:

2D"
I2

44.
TABLE 7

Correspondence
No. o:? Cr.se.3

Totals

CORRESPONDENCE

Bovs
Men
White i Negro j Total White Negro | Total

246

101

| 347

94

27

| 121

Ho.

432

227

93

320

86

26

| 112
!

%

Sent

468

92

92

92

92

91
96

|

22

1 100

85

|

„

Answered

No.
*%

390
90

* Percent of those written




204
90

86
93

290
91

92

78
89

45.
TABLE S
Results
No. of Cases
Return Auth'd

390
No.

RESULTS FROM CORRESPONDENCE

Mon
, Wiiite !Negro | Total
204 |
8 6 S 290
i

132
%
Auth. Refused

No.

\

249
40

j

64
24

59
65

i

|
17 1 I
!

%
Can't Verify




No.
%

172

;

Bovs
White 1 Negro ' Total
78 ! 22
100

62 j
80 j

15

77

68

77

;

2

19

5
6

!

K 1

6

3

i

2

7

117

55

|

44

99

30

27

\

51

34

• 5
7

u

18

32

18

46.
TABLE 9

CASE WORK RESULTS

A_._. ALL CASES
Totals
No. j %
111. Cases
Raiuraed by Agency
Heturned of own accord*

468
126
31

Sent to Relatives

|

5

Ref'd to Health Facilities

!

6.5

3

Employed

1 100
| 27

Wha,te
No. !
. *
3/+0
100
10^ ;
30.5

.5
1.

128

*

TOO

17

22

'

7

5.5

.5

2
3

Negro

1

1.

1.

2

1.5

7.

i

1.

3

1.

2

1.5

16

3*5

10

3.

6

4.5

Refused Plan

6

1.5

2

1.5

Lost Contact

276 .

I56.

R e f d to Other Agencies

*

5

59

Counted only when verified




!
190

86

i

67; 5

47.
TABLE 9
B.

Contd.

CASE WORK RESULTS

Men
Totals

No; !

White

3-47 j

%
100

Returned by Agency-

86 j

25

Returned of own accord*

27

Employed

A

Ref. to Health Facilities

3

All Men

NO: \

Negro

$

246 1 100

No.
101

t
100

16

16

70

28.5

7.5

21

8.5

1.

3

1.

1

1'1
-

2

1.

1

1

A

8

3.5

6

6

1 1.5

3

!
!•
1 56.5

2

2

69

1 68

6

Sent to Relatives

"

to Other Agencies

Refused Plan

U
5

208 !
Lost Contact
* (Jaunted only when Verified.

i__



—

60

139

1
!

1

48.

TABLE 9 Contd. CASE WORK RESULTS
C. Boys

.All Boys
Returned by Agency

Total
1
%
No.
121 . 100
40
33

White
No. i %
94 1 100
34
i 3b

Negro
No.
%
27
100
fa
23

3

1

2

1

Returned of own accord*

4

3.5

3

Sent to Relatives

3

2.5

2

Employed

1

1

Referred to Health Facil.

2

1.5

1

1

" to Other Agencies

2

1.5

2

2

Refused Plan

1

1.

1

1

51

53

68
Lost Contact
* Counted only when verified



1

56

1

3.5

1

3.5

1

3.5

17

63

49.
TABLE 10

TIME IN ST. LOUIS BEFORE APPLYING FOR RELIEF

All

Men

No. )

White \ Negro

Totals

468 | 100

2^6

|

101

1 dcy
2 days

369 i

200 i

71
14
7

Total

3
4
5
6
1
2
3
1
3

"
"
"
"

38 !
16 !

"

"

week
woeks
»
to 2 months
months or more




•
'

5

6
1
7
5
4
7
10

79
8
3-5
1" '
1.5

1

11 :
8 .
3
4

2

1
.

1.5

i

1

i 1

I 1-5
j 2

j

4 i
4 1

2

i
i
|

2
2
1

2
3
6

347
.

271
25

1 15
J 5
f
4
i
l
i

6

1

4
5

94

27

74

24 .
1

12
. 1 .

1

7

1
3

98
13
2

1

1

| 121

1 „..
..

2

4

!
!

Boys
White I Negro j Total

1

i
2
3

50.
TABLE 11

Tims
All Cases

TIME UNDER CAEE

Totals
No.
%

246 | 101.

347

94

27

121

47

8

55

34

6

40

50

132

52

184

39

11

50

67

15

32

19

51

11

5

16

34

7

14

13

27

5

2

7

38

8

21 j

9

30

5

3

8

468

100

95

20

1 Week

234

2 Weeks
3

6 deys or less

"

4 Weeks or More




Boys
Men
White ] Negro Total White Negro Total

51.
TAELE 12
Amt.

of Relief

Totals
No. | %

AMOUNT OF RELIEF GIVEN

Men
White

1 Negro 1 Total
'•

Boys
White | Negro i Total

'•

All Cases

468 100

246

j 101 • | 347

94 j

n27

121

$o

-

$1.99

182

39

100

140

36 \

6

42

$2

-

4.99

U3

i 31

I& 1
26

100

29

U

43

$5

-

9.99

44 I 27

71

23

4

27

$10 -

14.99

25

;" 'is

4

3

7

-

19.99

12

&20 -

24.99

Over $25
—"ST



98 i 2 1

!5

1'
I 2.5

3!

•=

5 ii .

74 |
14

9

1 3

3
2

I 12
!
|

!

•

i

3

!

3

2

1

2

52.
TABLE 13

REAPPLICATIONS IN ST. LOUIS

All
All Cases
Reapplied once

>

r t -

Reapplications

468 \ 100
24 |

5.1

TThite

Total

246

101

347

94

• 27

11

7

18

5

1

3

1

1

2

1

0

0

0

22

6

Reapplied twice

5

1.1

Reapplied thrice

1

.2

0

Total reapplied

30

6.4

13




Boys

Men
Uegro

1

9

wHte Negro

Total
121

1 8

53.
TABLE 14 AGE
Ago
All Ages
16
17
18
19
20
21
.. 2 2 - 2 4
.
.
25 - 29
30 - 34
35-39
40-44
45 - 49
50 - 54
55 - 59
60-64
65 - 69
70 up
Average Age




Totals
No. i %
|Cum. %
i 100
468
14 i 3. i 3
17 ! 3.6 i 6.6
25 ! 5.3 1 11.921 I 4.5 1 1 6 . 4
26 i 5.6 1 22.0
18 • 3.8 1 25.8
.48.. 10.2 i 36.0
59 • 12.6 ! 48.6
11.7 ! 60.3
54
48 " 10.2 i 70.5
37
7 9 ; 78.4
.
7.5 85.9
35
23
4.9 90.3
17
3.6 94.4
2.6 97.0
12
9 . 2.0 99.0
5 ; 1.0 100

White

| Negro

340

1 128
!
2

12
13
20
18
19
12
36

38
37
29
26
28

' 15

I

4

I

6

i
i
i

5
3
7

: 12
! 21
! 17
i 19
11
7
7

13
2
8

3
31.5 :

4
1
2
32.8

54.
TABLE 15

Status

SOCIAL STATUS BY RACE

Totals
No. 1

Totals

468

Single

297

Ne.g£O

White

%

100
63.5

N o .

••'

% "

No": r %

340

100

128

220

65

77

100
i

60

i

Married

69

U-5

4-9

14

20

Separated

53

11.5

36

11

17

13

Divorced

12

2.5

12

3.5

Widowed

37

8

23

6.5

U

11




|

16

55.
TABLE 16

SOCIAL STATUS BY AGE

Totals
Status

%

Men
No. !
-

Boys

%

No.

%

100

121

100

119

98

2

2

Totals

468

Single

297 l

63.5

178

Married

69

14-. 5

67

19

Separated

53

11.5

53

15

Divorced

12

2.5

12

Widowed

37 [

8

37




100

347

51.5

3.5
11

56.
TABLE 17 PHYSICAL DISABILITIES OR
ILLNESSES REPORTED
Totals

Men

Boys

Totals

71

58

13

Venereal Disease
Blind or Def. Vision
Crippled
Hernia
Cardiac
Mental Def.
Cancer
Tuberculosis
Senility
Malaria
Deaf or Def. Hearing
Infection
Speech Defect
Others

12
9
8
5
5

8
8
7

1
1

2
2
2
2
11

2
1
1

Percent Involved

1%

17%

Disability




A
3
3
3

5
5

" "' "
"£
3
3

rj

1
1
1

U
11%

57.
TABLE 18
Grade Completed
Totals
None

3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
Over 12
Not given
1 Median Grade




SCHOOL GRADE COMPLETED BY M C E

Totals
No. S % \ Cum. %
468 !
\
16 1 4. i U)
96
87
39 1 9
78
38 ! 8
70
44 I 10
54 ! 12 60
.
108 r 25 i 48
31 i 7 1 23
28 i 6 ! 16
1 0 i 2 ! 10
i
21 I 5 ! 8
,
14.!' 3 i 3
24 1
.

as 9 i

I
7j

White
No. i
Cum. %
340 1
7 !
22 I
98
91
25
83
25
76
33
65
35
92
55
27
26
20
18
1
12
9
19
\
9
10
j
3
16

I?)

8

i

Negro
No.
; Cum. %
128

(7)

...
?._

19
14
13
11 .
19
16

93
77
65
54

45
29
16
12
6
5
3

4
8
1
2

4
8
6

:

58.

TABLE 19
Age Left
Totals

AGE LEFT SCHOOL BY RAOE

Totals
No. ' % Sum." %

White
No". "I Cum, %

Negro
No.
| Cum. %

468

340

128

|

•

11 or less
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19 or more
Not given

22
21
27
82
55
77
60
46
34
44 i

Median Age

16

15

16

Average Age

15.5

15.3

15.8




5
6
19
13
13
14
11
3

95
90
84
64
51
33
19
8

15
15
22
68
37
66
42
30
20
25

i
!
i
!
i
j
!

100
95
91
84
62
50
29
16
6

7
6
5
14
18
11
18
16

14
19

,t

100
94
88
84
71.
54
44
28
13

59.
APPENDIX 'B'
COUNTIES OF MISSOURI WITH THE NUISER^OF
TRANSIENTS FROM EACH BY RACE
County
Adair
Andrew
Atchison
Audrain
Barry
Barton
Bates
Benton
Bollinger
Boone
3uchanan
Butler
Coldwell
Cullawr.y
Camden
Cape Girardeau
Carroll
Carter
Cass
Cedar
Chariton
Christian
Clark
Clay
Clinton
Cole
Cooper
Crawford
Dade
Dallas
Davies
Dekalb



Total

7/hite

3

3

2
1

2
1

1

Negro

1

4
5

12

2
11

3

15

9

6

2
1

2

10

6

u

A

2

1

1

1

2

1
2

9

7

1
1

1

1

2

1
2

4-

1

2

60.
County (cont'd)
Dent
Douglas
Dunklin
Franklin
Gasconade
Gentry
Greene
Grundy
Harrison
Henry
Hickory
Holt
Howard
Howell
Iron
Kackson
Jasper
Jefferson
Johnson
Knox
Laclede
Lafayette
Lawrence
Lewis
Lincoln
Linn
Livingston
McDonald
Mac on
Madison
Maries
Marion
Mercer
Miller
Mississippi
Moniteau
Monroe



Total
2

White
2

Negro

23

20
1
2

3

2
2

8
2

7

1

2

2

1

2

1

1
2

2
135

91

11

11

6

6

3

3

1
2

1
2

U

3

6

6

2

1

2

5

5

1

3

3

21
1

8
1

1

1

13

61.
County (Cont'd)
MontgomeryMorgan
New Madrid
Newton
Nodaway
Oregon
Osage
Osark
Pemiscot
Perry
Pettis
Pholps
Pike
Platte
Polk
Pulaski
Putnam
Rails
Randolph
Ray
Reynolds
Ripley
St. Charles
St. Clair
St. Genevieve
St. Francois
St. Louis
Saline
Schuyler
Scotland
Scctt
Shelby
Shannon
Stoduard
Stone
Sullivan
Taney



Total

White

1
12

1

3
3

3
3

3

35
U
6
7

6

3

9
3
5

Negro

6

26
1
1

7

2

2

5

5
6

6
1
1
1

5
2
11

1
1
1
2

1

2
11
1
1
1

10

6

3
3

3

1

1

3
3

3

3

2
2

62.

County (Cdnt'd)
Texas
Vernon
Warren
Washington
Vvayrie
Webster
Worth
Wright




Total
1
1
1

White
1
1
1

A

A

1

1

2

2

3

468

Negro

3

340

128


Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, One Federal Reserve Bank Plaza, St. Louis, MO 63102