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A STATISTICAL ABSTRACT

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Prepared by the Bureau of the
Census with the Cooperation of the
Social Science Research Council

U.S. DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE, Frederick H. Mueller, Secretary




BUREAU OF THE CENSUS, Robert W. Burgess, Director

Bureau of the Census

ROBERT W. BURGESS, Director
A. Ross Eckler, Deputy Director
Howard C. Grieves, Assistant Director
Conrad Taeuber, Assistant Director
Morris H. Hansen, Assistant Director for Statistical Standards
Lowell T. Galt, Assistant Director for Operations
Walter L. Kehres, Assistant Director for Administration
Calvert L. Dedrick, Chief, International Statistical Programs Office
A. W. von Struve, Acting Public Information Officer
HERMAN P. MILLER, Historical Statistics Project Director
This volume stems from a joint interest by the Bureau of the Census
and the Social Science Research Council. It was planned, assembled,
edited, and published by the Bureau, with the advice and assistance
of the Committee on Historical Statistics appointed by the Council.
Many other individuals and agencies cooperated and made significant
contributions to this project. General acknowledgments for each chap­
ter are presented on p. VII; other acknowledgments frequently appear
in the text discussions of the various chapters.
The volume was prepared in the Bureau of the Census under the
general direction of Edwin D. Goldfield, Chief, Statistical Reports
Division. Herman P. Miller served as the Project Director and was
primarily responsible for the planning, organizing, and supervising
of all aspects of the compilation of the data. Dr. Miller also served
as executive secretary of the Committee on Historical Statistics, handled

liaison matters for the Committee, and participated in its selection of
experts to serve as consultants. 0. Halbert Goolsby acted as staff
assistant.
Morris B. Ullman, who supervised the preparation of the previous
volume, Historical Statistics of the United States, 1789-191+5, was re­
sponsible for planning during the early stages of the project.
William Lerner, Assistant Chief, Statistical Reports Division, was
primarily responsible for the planning and supervising of the publica­
tion aspects of the volume and for the review and editing of the text
and tables. Dorothy M. Belzer was responsible for the tabular presen­
tation of the data and preparation of the material for the printer.
The Census Library Branch, Louise H. Clickner, Chief, also lent
valuable assistance.

S o c ia l S c ie n c e R e s e a r c h C o u n c il
The Committee on Historical Statistics appointed by the Social data selection and format, for general appraisal of the quality of the
Science Research Council participated actively in the preparation of series suggested for inclusion, and for the selection of consult antthis volume, in the extension of the subjects to be added, and in plan­ specialists for the various subjects. The Committee as a whole, or
ning the general procedures for securing expert assistance on each through specially qualified members, reviewed the plans for inclusion
subject. As the project was developed the Committee, especially the of specific series and discussed areas of study which presented un­
Chairman, was primarily responsible for consideration of problems of usual problems.
Committee on Historical Statistics of the Social Science Research Council
(Advisory to the Bureau of the Census)
G.
Heberton Evans, Jr., Chairman
Herman P. Miller, Executive Secretary
Chairman of Department of Political Economy
Bureau of the Census
The Johns Hopkins University
Otis Dudley Duncan
Associate Director of Population
Research and Training Center
The University of Chicago
Solomon Fabricant
Director of Research
National Bureau of Economic
Research, Inc.

Maurice I. Gershenson
Department of Industrial Relations
State of California
Richard M. Scammon
Director of Elections Research
Governmental Affairs Institute

Willard L. Thorp
Director of Merrill Center for
Economics
Amherst College
Harold F. Williamson
Professor of Economics
Northwestern University

Paul Webbink, Vice President, Social Science Research Council, attended Committee meetings and acted as the Council’s
representative. Stanley Lebergott, Office of Statistical Standards, Bureau of the Budget, also participated in the meetings.

Suggested brief citation: U.S. Bureau of the Census, Historical Statistics of the United States, Colonial Times to 1957, Washington, D.C., 1960
Library of Congress Card No. A 60-9150
For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington 25, D.C. Price $6.00
II




Contents
[The numbers following subjects are series numbers]

Chapter

Acknowledgments for Chapter Contributions __
Introduction
A. Population

Page
VII
IX

i

Area and population (A 1-21) —Sex, color, age, residence, nativity, and race (A 22-122) —Popu­
lation for States (A 123-180)— Urban and rural places (A 181-209) —Marital status and house­
holds (A 210-263).

B. Vital Statistics and Health and Medical Care

VITAL STATISTICS_________________________________________________________________________________
Registration area and summary data (B 1-9) —Birth rates and reproduction rates (B 10-75) —
Life expectancy (B 76-100) —Death rates (B 101-175)—Marriage and divorce rates (B 176179).
HEALTH AND MEDICAL CARE______________________________________________________________________
Physicians, dentists, and nurses; and schools, students, and graduates (B 180-194) —Hospitals
and beds; and admissions to hospitals (B 195-274) —Reportable diseases (B 275-281).

C. Migration

INTERNAL MIGRATION____________________________________________________________________________
Native population, by place of birth and residence, by color (C 1-24) —Net intercensal migra­
tion, white and Negro, by States (C 25-73 >—Movement of farm population (C 74-79)—
Mobility status of civilian population (C 80-87).
INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION AND NATURALIZATION_________________________________________________
Immigrants by country of origin, occupation, age, and sex (C 88-138) —Aliens admitted, de­
ported, departing, and excluded (C 139-157)-—Naturalization and citizenship status (C 158184)— Nativity of foreign parents of native-white population (C 185-217) —Foreign-born
population, by country of birth (C 218-283).

D. Labor

LABOR FORCE____________________________________________________________________________________
Labor force status of the population (D 1-12)—Age, sex, color, and marital status of women
(D 13-45) —Unemployment (D 46-47) —Industrial and occupational distributions (D 48-572).
HOURS, WAGES, AND WORKING CONDITIONS________________________________________________________
Hours, wages, and earnings, by industry, occupation, profession, degree of skill, sex, and union
status (D 573-707 and D 728-734) —Supplements to wages (D 708-727) —Union member­
ship (D 735-763) —Work stoppages (D 764-778)—Labor turnover (D 779-784) —Work-injury
frequency rates (D 785-792).

E. Prices and Price Indexes________________________________________________

Wholesale price indexes (E 1-100) —Wholesale prices of commodities (E 101-112) —Consumer
price indexes (E 113-156)—Cost-of-living indexes (E 157-160) —Retail prices of foods
(E 161-176) —Retail price indexes for utilities and fuel (E 177-185) —Rent indexes (E 186).

F. National Income and Wealth

NATIONAL PRODUCT AND INCOME__________________________________________________________________
Gross national product in current and constant prices (F 1-9) —Value added, by industry
group (F 10-21) —National income, by industrial origin and type of income (F 22-43 and
F 49-66) —Gross domestic product, by major sector (F 44-48) —Gross and net national product,
by type of product (F 67-157).
NATIONAL WEALTH AND SAVING ___________________________________________________________________
National balance sheet (F 158-196)—National wealth, by type of assets (F 197-251) —Gross
private, personal, and Government saving (F 252-345).

G. Consumer Income and Expenditures

FAMILY AND INDIVIDUAL INCOME__________________________________________________________________
Distribution of families and individuals and personal income, by income level (G 1-98) —
Percent of income received by each fifth, and by upper income groups (G 99-117 and G 131146)—^Average family personal income before and after Federal taxes (G 118-130) —Median
wage income, by characteristics of recipients (G 147-190).
CONSUMER EXPENDITURE PATTERNS_______________________________________________________________
Personal consumption expenditures, by type of product (G 191-243)—Family expenditures,
for urban and farm-operator families, by income class of family, by type of product (G 244543)—Food indexes and nutrients available (G 544-551) —Per capita food consumption
(G 552-584).




3

3P
41

6r
7J

101
131

145

159

169

Ill

CONTENTS
Chapter

H. Social Statistics

SOCIAL SECURITY AND WELFARE ___________________________________________________________

Social welfare expenditures (H 1-45)—Workers and payrolls covered by social insurance pro­
grams (H 46-67)—Benefits and beneficiaries under social insurance and related programs
(H 68-114)—Old-age, survivors, and disability insurance (H 115-161)—Unemployment
insurance, and workmen’s compensation (H 162-185)—Public assistance, and old-age assistance
(H 186-212)—Child health and welfare services (H 213-222).
EDUCATION ____________________________________________________________________________
Elementary and secondary schools: Enrollment, attendance, graduates, teachers, public and
private, receipts and expenditures, and subjects taught (H 223-315)—Institutions of higher
education: Number, faculty, enrollment, degrees conferred, income, expenditures, plant fund
operations (H 316-373)—Enrollment and years of school completed (H 374-406)—Illiteracy
(H 407-411).
CRIME AND CORRECTION__________________________________________________________________
Prisoners in, and released from, Federal and State institutions (H 412-431)—Prisoners exe­
cuted (H 432-444)—Urban crime (H 445-451)—Lynching (H 452-454).
RECREATION ___________________________________________________________________________
National parks, monuments, and allied areas (H 455-470)—National forest lands (H 471474)—State parks (H 475-487)—Municipal recreation (H 488-499)—Recreation expendi­
tures (H 500-515)—Selected recreational activities (H 516-525).
RELIGIOUS AFFILIATION __________________________________________________________________
Church denominations, members, and edifices (H 526-530)—Membership of religious bodies
(H 531-543).

Page
189

202

215
219
226

J. Land, Water, and Climate

LAND AND WATER UTILIZATION ____________________________________________________________

K.

231
Territorial expansion (J 1-9)—Public lands, revenues and receipts from public domain, tim­
ber sales, grazing, leases, land sales and grants (J 10-48)—Land utilization and ownership
(J 49-79)—Drainage and irrigation (J 80-90)—Water use and water wells (J 91-108).
CLIMATE _______________________________________________________________________________
241
Temperature and precipitation, for benchmark stations (J 109-245)—Temperature and pre­
cipitation for long-record city stations (J 246-265).
Agriculture___________________________________________________________________________ 257
Farms: Number, acreage, value, and color and tenure of farm operators (K 1-52)—Farm mort­
gage status, and size of farm (K 53-72)—Farm employment, wages, man-hours, and produc­
tivity (K 73-97)—Crop acreage and production (K 98-103)—Supply-utilization of farm food
(K 104-115)—Farm taxes and insurance, cash receipts, income, indexes of prices received and
paid, and parity ratios (K 116-149)—Machinery, equipment, and fertilizer (K 150-161)—
Debt, loans, interest, and country bank deposits (K 162-180)—Associations (K 181-189)—
Livestock, meats, dairying, wool, and poultry (K 190-253)—Production, acreage, and price
for specific crops (K 254-315); for fruits (K 316-328).

L. Forestry and Fisheries

FORESTS AND FOREST PRODUCTS___________________________________________________________

M.

National forests: Areas, purchases, timber cut, and receipts from, and payments to, States
(L 1-22)—Lumber production, imports, exports, and new supply (L 23-60)—Timber products
and prices (L 61-97)—Forest fires (L 98-109).
FISHERIES ____________ _________________________________________________________________
Yield and value (L 110-115)—Landed catches of principal species, by region (L 116-154)—
Disposition of catch (L 155-163)—Production, imports, and value of fishery products
(L 164-202)—Sponge sales, sealskins obtained, and whale production (L 203-206).
Minerals_____________________________________________________________________________
Summary (M 1-12)—Value and production of mineral products (M 13-77)—Consumption
(M 78-87)—Fuels (M 88-177)—Nonmetals (M 178-194)—Metals (M 195-258)—Injuries
and fatalities (M 259-274).

N. Construction and Housing

CONSTRUCTION _________________________________________________________________________

P.



305
319
331

373
Value of private and public construction (N l-60)-^Indexes of building activity (N 61-67)—
Construction contracts awarded (N 68-84)—Cost indexes (N 85-105).
HOUSING ______________________________________________________________________________
387
Dwelling units started (N 106-115)—Units standing and in Federal programs (N 116-128)—
Residential wealth (N 129-138)—Occupied dwelling units and tenure of homes (N 139-146)—
Residential price indexes, mortgage debt, finance programs, afid foreclosures (N 147-195)—
Savings and loan associations (N 196-203).
Manufactures________________________________________________________________________ 401
Summary (P 1-10)—Capital in major industries (P 14-133)—Form of ownership (P 134-137)—
Wage earners (P 138-146)—Production, by industry and for commodities (P 11-13 and
P 147-232)—Capacity of industries (P 233-249)—Value of output of commodities (P 250-306).

CONTENTS
Chapter

Q. Transportation

Page

RAIL TRANSPORTATION___________________________________________________________________________________________

423

WATER TRANSPORTATION_________________________________________________________________________________________

438

HIGHWAY TRANSPORTATION______________________________________________________________________________________

456

AIR TRANSPORTATION_____________________________________________________________________________________________

465

Intercity freight traffic (Q 1-11)—Transportation indexes (Q 12-14)—Summary of early
railroads (Q 15-42)—Mileage and equipment (Q 43-65)—Passenger and freight operations
(Q 66-94)—Capital, income, expenses, and tax accruals (Q 95-123)—Mileage in receiver­
ship, grade crossings, fuel received, and crossties (Q 124-137)—Pullman operations (Q 138140>—Employment and accidents (Q 141-152).
Merchant vessels, by type and region (Q 153-190)—Persons entering by ship (Q 191)—Capac­
ity of vessels entered and cleared (Q 192-203)—Waterborne imports and exports and domestic
cargo (Q 204-229)—Freight on the Great Lakes and through canals (Q 230-244)—River and
harbor expenditures (Q 245).
Rural and municipal mileage (Q 246-259)—Federal-aid highways (Q 260-264)—State and
local highway finances (Q 265-309)—Motor vehicles, fuel usage, and travel (Q 310-327)—
Gasoline tax rates (Q 328-329)—Public transit summary (Q 330-341)—Oil pipelines (Q 342344).
Aircraft production and exports (Q 345-351)—Scheduled domestic and international air travel,
revenues and expenses (Q 352-375)—Airports, aircraft, pilots, and miles flown (Q 376-383)—
Accidents (Q 384-397).

R. Communications

TELEPHONE AND TELEGRAPH SYSTEMS_________________________________________________________________________

471

RADIO AND TELEVISION___________________________________________________________________________________________

487

POSTAL SERVICE, NEWSPAPERS, AND BOOKS____________________________________________________________________

493

Telephones, calls, and rates (R 1-13)—Bell System summary (R 14-27)—Independent com­
panies summary (R 28-42)—Domestic telegraph industry, and rates (R 43-71)—International
telegraph industry and rates (R 72-89).
Stations, sets, and families with sets (R 90-98)—Advertising, finances, and employees
(R 99-119)—Safety and special radio stations (R 120-138).

Post Office finances, rates, and volume of mail (R 139-164)—Books (R 165-168)—News­
papers and periodicals (R 169-186).

S. Power_________________________________________________________________ 501
Horsepower of prime movers (S 1-14)—Electric energy production (S 15-35^Consumption
of fuels (S 36-43)—Generating plants and installed capacity (S 44-69)—Residential service
and average prices (S 70-80>—Use of electric energy, by type of user (S 81-93).

T. Distribution and Services________________________________________________ 513
National income originating, and persons engaged, in selected industries (T 1-22)—Retail
sales and establishments, by kind of business (T 23-182)—Chain stores (T 183-187)—Retail
margins (T 188-207)—
^Wholesale trade sales and summary, by kind of business (T 208-302)—
Wholesale trade margins (T 303-309)—Selected services establishments and receipts (T 310345)—Advertising (T 346-351)—Farm-to-retail price spread (T 352-358)—Index of depart­
ment store sales and stocks (T 359-360)—Hotel operations (T 361-365)—Inventories
(T 366-386).

U. Foreign Trade and Other International Transactions

FOREIGN TRADE___________________________________________________________________________________________________

529

BALANCE OF INTERNATIONAL PAYMENTS AND INVESTMENT POSITION_______________________________________

557

Exports, imports, and duties (U 1-45)—Trade related to production (U 46-50)—Value of
trade, by customs districts and economic classes (U 51-72)—Value of selected products
(U 73-115)—Value, by destination and origin (U 116-151)—U.S. trade, as reported by Canada
and Great Britain (U 152-167).

Balance of international payments (U 168-192)—International investment position of U.S.
(U 193-207)—Direct investment in foreign countries (U 208-213).

V. Business Enterprise

BUSINESS POPULATION___________________________________________________________________________________________

567

CORPORATE ASSETS, LIABILITIES, AND INCOME________________________________________________________________

574

Firms in operation, new firms, failures, and turnover (V 1-19)—Firms and employment, by
size of firm (V 20-29)—Mergers (V 30-31)—Corporations, by industry (V 32-44)—Distribu­
tion of corporate income (V 45-56)—Concentration in manufacturing (V 57-64).




Balance sheet and income items, by industry and by assets-size classes (V 65-127)—Electric
utility industries (V 128-202)—Value of plant and equipment in regulated industries (V 203216)—Large manufacturing corporations (V 217-237).

CONTENTS
Chapter

W. Productivity and Technological Development

Page

PRODUCTIVITY INDEXES__________________________________________________________________________________________

593

COPYRIGHTS, PATENTS, AND TRADEMARKS______________________________________________________________________

603

RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT____________________________________________________________________„ ____

609

Productivity per man-hour and per unit of labor and capital input (W 1-11)—Mining per
man-hour (W 12-21)—Manufacturing per man-hour (W 22-38)—Transportation per worker
(W 39-44)—Electric utility and distribution output (W 45-47)—Farm output (W 48-51).
Copyright registrations (W 52-65)—Patents filed and issued, by type (W 66-76)—Trade­
marks (W 77-78).

Federal and private industry expenditures, by agency and industry (W 79-121).

X. Banking and Finance

BANKING____________________________________________________________________________________________________________

615

MONEY SUPPLY AND GOLD________________________________________________________________________________________

644

MONEY RATES AND SECURITY MARKETS_________________________________________________________________________

650

CREDIT AND OTHER FINANCE____________________________________________________________________________________

661

PRIVATE INSURANCE______________________________________________________________________________________________

665

Early State banks and Second Bank of the U.S. (X 1-19)—All banks (X 20-41)—National
banks (X 42-63)—Nonnational banks (X 64-96)—All commercial banks (X 97-128)—Bank
deposit insurance status (X 129-154)—Branch banking (X 155-164)—Banking suspensions
(X 165-191)—Bank earnings and expenses (X 192-215)—Bank debits, deposit turnover, and
clearings (X 216-229)—Savings and deposits (X 230-239)—Postal Savings System (X 240244)—Federal Reserve banks (X 245-265).
Bank deposits and currency outside banks (X 266-283)—Currency stock and in circulation
(X 284-298)—Gold stock (X 299-304).
Short-term interest rates (X 305-313 and X 322-329)—Commercial paper and bankers’ ac­
ceptances (X 314-321)—Bond and stock yields and prices (X 330-354)—Private and public
security issues (X 355-372)—Stock exchange sales (X 373-377)—Margin requirements
(X 378-380)—Market credit and brokers’ loans (X 381-388).
Federal loans (X 389-402)—Credit unions (X 403-414)—Consumer credit (X 415-422)—
Net public and private debt (X 423-434).

Life insurance in force and sales (X 435-444)—Finances of life insurance companies (X 445468)—Medical care insurance (X 469-482)—Private pension plans (X 483-500).

Y. Government

ELECTIONS AND POLITICS_________________________________________________________________________________________

679

GOVERNMENT EMPLOYMENT AND FINANCES____________________________________________________________________

694

ARMED FORCES AND VETERANS__________________________________________________________________________________

731

Methods of electing presidential electors (Y 1-26)—Electoral and popular vote for President
(Y 27-128)—Legislative activity (Y 129-138)—Political party affiliation (Y 139-145 and
Y 201-204)—Vote for and apportionment in House of Representatives (Y 146-200).

Employment and payrolls (Y 205-253)—Federal Government receipts, expenditures, and
debt (Y 254-263 and Y 350-383)—Internal revenue collections (Y 264-279)—Income taxes
(Y 280-332)—Estate and gift taxes (Y 333-349)—Federal, State, and local governments
revenue, by source, and expenditure, by character, object, and function (Y 384-714).
Characteristics of Armed Forces, by war (Y 715-762)—Military personnel on active duty
(Y 763-775)—Veterans in civil life, by war and by age (Y 776-800)—Expenditures for veterans,
by war (Y 801-811)—Expenditures for veterans benefits, services, and pensions (Y 812-854).

Z. Colonial Statistics______________________________________________________




Population (Z 1-20)—Foreign trade: Value of trade, tonnage of ships, coal, fur, indigo, silk,
iron, tobacco, tea, rice, slaves, timber products and timber (Z 21-311)—Whaling (Z 312-315)—
Wages and prices (Z 316-354)—Money and currency (Z 355-381)—Taxes (Z 382-386)—Diets
(Z 387-404).

Index.

___

743

775

Acknowledgments for Chapter Contributions
[See Introduction for description of consultants’ responsibilities]

Chapter A. Population
Principal consultant—Population Division, Bureau of the Census
Review consultant—Irene B. Taeuber, Princeton University
Other contributor—Donald S. Akers, Bureau of the Census
Chapter B. Vital Statistics and Health and Medical Care

Chapter G. Consumer Income and Expenditures
FAMILY AND INDIVIDUAL INCOME

Principal consultant—Selma F. Goldsmith, Office of Business Eco­
nomics
Review consultant—Dorothy S. Brady, University of Pennsylvania

CONSUMER EXPENDITURE PATTERNS

Principal consultant—Faith M. Williams, Bureau of Labor Statistics
Review consultant—Rose D. Friedman, Chicago, Illinois
Principal consultant—Robert D. Grove, National Office of Vital Other contributors—Joseph A. Clorety, Anna-Stina L. Ericson, Helen
H. Lamale, Bureau of Labor Statistics; Marguerite
Statistics
C. Burk, Agricultural Marketing Service, and Jean
Review consultant—Irene B. Taeuber, Princeton University
L. Pennock, Agricultural Research Service
Other contributors—Joseph Schachter and Mildred L. McKinnon,
National Office of Vital Statistics; Wilson H. Grabill,
Bureau of the Census
Chapter H. Social Statistics

VITAL STATISTICS

HEALTH AND MEDICAL CARE

Principal consultant—Maryland Y. Pennell, Public Health Service
Review consultant—Antonio Ciocco, University of Pittsburgh
Chapter C. Migration

SOCIAL SECURITY AND WELFARE

Principal consultant—Ida C. Merriam, Social Security Administration
Review consultant—Eveline M. Burns, Columbia University
Other contributor—George Rohrlich, Bureau of Employment Security

EDUCATION

Principal consultant—Emery M. Foster, Office of Education
Principal consultants—Everett S. Lee and Dorothy S. Thomas, Review consultants—Helen M. Walker, Columbia University; John
Walton, The Johns Hopkins University
University of Pennsylvania
Other contributors—Henry G. Badger, W. Vance Grant, and Rose
Review consultant—Irene B. Taeuber, Princeton University
Marie Smith, Office of Education; Charles B. Nam,
Other contributor—Anne S. Lee, University of Pennsylvania
Bureau of the Census
INTERNAL MIGRATION

INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION AND NATURALIZATION

CRIME AND CORRECTION

Principal consultant—Edward P. Hutchinson, University of Penn­ Principal consultant—Ronald H. Beattie, California Department of
Justice, State of California
sylvania
Review consultant—Thorsten Sellin, University of Pennsylvania
Review consultant—Niles Carpenter, The University of Buffalo
Other contributors—Helen F. Eckerson and Gertrude D. Krichefsky, Other contributors—Benjamin Frank, Henry C. Lanpher, James A.
McCafferty, Bureau of Prisons
Immigration and Naturalization Service
RECREATION

Principal consultant—Marion Clawson, Resources for the Future,
Inc.
Review consultant—Thomas C. Fichandler, The Twentieth Century
Principal consultant—Seymour L. Wolfbein, Bureau of Labor Statistics
Fund
Review consultant—Clarence D. Long, The Johns Hopkins University Other contributor—George D. Butler, National Recreation Asso­
ciation
HOURS, WAGES, AND WORKING CONDITIONS
Principal consultants—H. Gregg Lewis and Albert Rees, The University RELIGIOUS AFFILIATION
of Chicago
Principal consultant—Benson Y. Landis, National Council of the
Review consultant—Harry M. Douty, Bureau of Labor Statistics
Churches of Christ in the United States of America
Review consultant—Edmund deS. Brunner, Columbia University
Chapter E. Prices and Price Indexes
Chapter J. Land, Water, and Climate
Principal consultant—Ethel D. Hoover, Bureau of Labor Statistics
WATER UTILIZATION
Review consultants—Arthur H. Cole, Harvard University; Geoffrey LAND AND consultants—Ernst H. Wiecking and Hugh H. Wooten,
H. Moore, National Bureau of Economic Research, Principal
Agricultural Research Service; Walter L. Picton, Busi­
Inc.
ness and Defense Services Administration
Review consultant—Marion Clawson, Resources for the Future, Inc.
Chapter F. National Income and Wealth
CLIMATE
Principal consultant—Richard A. Easterlin, University of Pennsylvania Principal consultants—Helmut E. Landsberg and J. Murray Mitcnell, Jr., Weather Bureau
Review consultant—Simon Kuznets, The Johns Hopkins University
Other contributor—Raymond W. Goldsmith, National Bureau of Review consultant—George S. Benton, The Johns Hopkins University
Economic Research, Inc.
Other contributor—Milton L. Blanc, Weather Bureau
VII

LABOR FORCE




Chapter D. Labor

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS FOR CHAPTER CONTRIBUTIONS
Chapter K. Agriculture
Chapter V. Business Enterprise
Principal consultant—Department of Agriculture (Earl E. House­ BUSINESS POPULATION
man, Coordinator)
Review consultant—Theodore W. Schultz, The University of Chicago Principal consultant—Morris A. Adelman, Massachusetts Institute
of Technology
Review consultant—Irwin Friend, University of Pennsylvania
Chapter L. Forestry and Fisheries
FORESTS AND FOREST PRODUCTS

Principal consultant—Dwight Hair, Forest Service
Review consultant—William A. Duerr, Syracuse University
FISHERIES

CORPORATE ASSETS, LIABILITIES, AND INCOME

Principal consultant—Sergei P. Dobrovolsky, Rensselaer Polytechnic
Institute
Review consultant—Irwin Friend, University of Pennsylvania

Principal consultant—Harvey L. Moore, Fish and Wildlife Service
Chapter W. Productivity and Technological Development
Review consultant—F. Heward Bell, International Pacific Halibut
Commission
PRODUCTIVITY INDEXES
Other contributor—Edward A. Power, Fish and Wildlife Service
Principal consultant—Leon Greenberg, Bureau of Labor Statistics
Review consultant—John W. Kendrick, George Washington University
Chapter M. Minerals
Other contributors—Robert T. Adams and Julian Frechtman, Bureau
of Labor Statistics
Principal consultants—Sam H. Schurr and Elizabeth K. Vogely, Re­
sources for the Future, Inc.
COPYRIGHTS, PATENTS, AND TRADEMARKS
Review consultant—Vivian E. Spencer, Bureau of the Census
Principal consultant—Jacob Schmookler, University of Minnesota
Other contributor—Robert E. Herman, Bureau of Mines
Review consultant—Fritz Machlup, The Johns Hopkins University
Other contributor—P. J. Federico, Patent Office
Chapter N. Construction and Housing
RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT
Principal consultant—Leo Grebler, University of California, Los
Angeles
Principal consultant—Kathryn S. Arnow, National Science Foundation
Review consultant—Raymond W. Goldsmith, National Bureau of Review consultant—Irving H. Siegel, Council of Economic Advisers
Economic Research, Inc.
Chapter P. Manufactures
Chapter X. Banking and Finance
Principal consultant—Daniel Creamer, National Industrial Conference BANKING, MONEY SUPPLY, MONEY RATES, AND CREDIT
Board, Inc.
S. Burr and
Review consultant—John W. Kendrick, George Washington University Principal consultants—Susan of the FederalCaroline H. Cagle, Board
of Governors
Reserve System
Other contributor—John A. Waring, Washington, D.C.
Review consultant—Milton Friedman, The University of Chicago
Other contributor—Clark Warburton, Federal Deposit Insurance
Chapter Q. Transportation
Corporation
Principal consultant—Thor Hultgren, National Bureau of Economic PRIVATE INSURANCE
Research, Inc.
Principal consultant—Albert I. Hermalin, Institute of Life Insurance
Review consultant—George R. Taylor, Amherst College
Review consultant—James J. O’Leary, Life Insurance Association
Other contributor—Bureau of Public Roads
of America
Chapter R. Communications
Chapter Y. Government
Principal consultants—Hyman H. Goldin and Robert E. Stromberg, ELECTIONS AND POLITICS
Federal Communications Commission
Review consultant—Melville J. Ulmer, American University
Principal consultant—Richard M. Scammon, Governmental Affairs
Institute
Review consultant—V. O. Key, Harvard University
Chapter S. Power
GOVERNMENT EMPLOYMENT AND FINANCE

Principal consultant—Lawrence D. Jennings, Federal Power Com­ Principal consultants—Jacob M. Jaffe, Bureau of the Census; James
mission
M. Jarrett, Internal Revenue Service; I. M. LaboReview consultant—Herbert B. Dorau, New York University
vitz, Library of Congress; and Flora M. Nicholson,
Civil Service Commission
Review consultant—I. M. Labovitz, Library of Congress
Chapter T. Distribution and Services
Principal consultants—Reavis Cox and Charles S. Goodman, Uni­ Other contributors—Paul B. Trescott, Kenyon College; Paul P. Van
Riper, Cornell University
versity of Pennsylvania
ARMED FORCES AND VETERANS
Review consultant—Harold Barger, Columbia University
Principal consultants—Milton C. Forster, Veterans Administration;
Michael S. March, Bureau of
Chapter U. Foreign Trade and Other International Transactions Review consultant—Irving H. Siegel, Council ofthe Budget Advisers
Economic
FOREIGN TRADE
Other contributor—Sydney M. Rat cliffe, Department of the Army
Principal consultant—Herbert B. Woolley, New York University
Review consultant—Douglass C. North, University of Washington
Chapter Z. Colonial Statistics
BALANCE OF INTERNATIONAL PAYMENTS AND INVESTMENT POSITION
Principal consultant—Nancy F. Culbertson, Office of Business Eco­ Principal consultant—Lawrence A. Harper, University of California
nomics
Review consultant—Richard B. Morris, Columbia University
Review consultant—Walter S. Salant, The Brookings Institution
Other contributors—Robert E. Gallman, Ohio State University; Jacob
Other contributors—Douglass C. North, University of Washington;
M. Price, University of Michigan; Stella H. Sutherland,
Matthew Simon, Pace College
Oakland City College, Indiana
VIII




Introduction
This volume is the second in the Historical Statistics series issued
by the Bureau of the Census as a supplement to the annual Statistical
Abstract of the United States. The first volume, Historical Statistics
of the United States, 1789-191*5, was published in 1949. It provided,
in a single volume, a wide range of series quantifying various aspects
of the economic and social development of the Nation. A Continuation
to 1952 was issued in 1954 to provide data for 1946 to 1952 for the
series shown in the first volume.
Limited resources confined the scope of the first volume to those
data most readily available, usually from governmental sources. Never­
theless, some 3,000 statistical time series were presented. Because of
the huge and intricate task of inspection, evaluation, and selection
of time series, the compilers recognized from the outset that the first
volume would have to serve as a working document to break the ground
and set a pattern for a subsequent more comprehensive and definitive
volume. The present publication is intended to achieve the purpose
foreshadowed in the original volume.
The Historical Statistics volumes are designed to bring together
historical series of wide general interest and to inform the user where
additional data can be found. All of the broad subject areas covered
in the first volume have been included and expanded in this volume,
and a number of new subjects have been added. The new subjects in­
clude consumer expenditure patterns, social security, education, crime
and correction, recreation, religious affiliation, climate, communica­
tions, distribution and services, business population, corporate assets,
research and development, private insurance, Armed Forces and veter­
ans, and colonial statistics.
This volume also presents the results of a complete review of the
subject matter shown in the earlier volume. In a number of cases,
series in the latter have been replaced or supplemented. Finally, an
attempt was made to reduce the unevenness in scope and quality which
characterized the text materials in the earlier work. Critical notes
have been added along with further bibliographic material, cross
references to other statistical compendia, and previously unpublished
data (in some instances).

Origin of Historical Statistics of the United States
The volume, Historical Statistics of the United States, 1789-191*5,
was formally initiated by a recommendation in 1945 by the Social
Science Research Council that the Secretary of Commerce consider
compilation and publication by the Bureau of the Census of a source
book of economic statistics.
Earlier the same year, J. Frederic Dewhurst urged the development
of a historical source book in a proposal to the American Statistical
Association and the American Economic Association. A joint committee
to explore the practical problems of preparing such a volume was
named by these associations, joined by the Economic History Associa­
tion. Dr. Dewhurst’s proposal coincided closely with Bureau of the
Census plans, then under consideration, to prepare a historical supple­
ment to the Statistical Abstract of the United States. The formal decision
in 1945 by the Bureau of the Census to compile and publish such a
volume led to the reconstitution of the joint committee, which then
became the Social Science Research Council Committee on the Source
Book of Historical Statistics, Advisory to the Bureau of the Census.
After the first volume was issued in June 1949, the Economic History
Assocation, in response to a request from the Bureau of the Census,
appointed an advisory committee in September 1950 to evaluate the
volume and to make specific recommendations affecting the question
of its revision. This committee, formally designated as the Committee



of the Economic History Association on the Revision of Historical
Statistics of the United States, 1789-191*5, was under the chairmanship
of G. Heberton Evans, Jr., The Johns Hopkins University, and included
the following as members: Arthur H. Cole, Harvard University;
Shepard Clough, Columbia University; T. C. Cochran, University of
Pennsylvania; and Solomon Fabricant, National Bureau of Economic
Research, Inc. In April 1952 the committee submitted a report to the
Bureau of the Census entitled “On the Revision of Historical Sta­
tistics of the United States, 1789-191*5.” The conclusions and comments
presented in this report were subsequently influential in getting under­
way the project for a revised volume.
Both Historical Statistics volumes have been prepared by the Bureau
of the Census with the cooperation of the Social Science Research
Council. A description of the relationship established for the first
volume between the Bureau and the Social Science Research Council
appears in the introduction to that volume. For the present volume,
the Bureau designated a project director who served also as secretary
of the Committee on Historical Statistics appointed by the Social
Science Research Council to guide the Bureau in the program. The
Bureau again assumed the responsibility for publishing the volume as
a part of its Statistical Abstract program. The Social Science Research
Council, in turn, obtained a grant from the Ford Foundation which
provided funds for the procurement of services of experts in each
field. More than 125 such specialists were engaged (although not
all were paid) to serve as consultants. To make further use of the
information assembled for this project, the Council also made ar­
rangements with some of the consultants for the preparation of bib­
liographic essays on statistics in selected fields. Several of these essays
have been published in the Journal of the American Statistical Association.

The Problem of Historical Statistics
Statistics are an indispensable adjunct to historical analysis. Few
fields exist in which qualitative historical records cannot be clarified
and enriched by quantitative data. For some time, however, it has been
evident that users of historical data are faced with the paradox of over­
abundance and scarcity. On the one hand, a burdensome multiplicity
of sources has frequently to be consulted in order to reconstruct one
quantitative aspect of a particular subject. On the other hand, users
are confronted just as often by a discouraging barrenness of data, dis­
coverable only after much costly work and delay.
The scattered sources of historical statistics of the United States
include the annual reports of the executive heads of the agencies of the
Federal Government, reports of special Federal commissions, the
volumes of the censuses of the United States, printed debates of the
Congress, published reports of committees of the Congress and tran­
scripts of hearings on important legislative measures, published reports
and documents of the State governments, statistical publications of
private research foundations and organizations and of the universities
and colleges of the Nation, together with the great mass of statistical
volumes printed by other private organizations and individuals.
It has been noted that on occasion compilers, desiring to save the time
and effort required to obtain data directly from the original sources,
make use of successive issues of the annual Statistical Abstract of the
United States to construct long-term time series. The results of such a
procedure are not always sound, since the space available in the Sta­
tistical Abstract for describing major revisions in time series may not
permit adequate clarification. Of the many revised figures appearing
IX

INTRODUCTION
in each issue, most revisions apply to the immediate preceding years,
All series begin with the most recent year for which data have been
but revisions of much earlier years are not uncommon. Moreover, the obtained and run backward in time. This arrangement was selected
revisions shown have followed no systematic pattern and may be because it lent itself to more compact, less space-consuming presenta­
scattered irregularly over many issues.
tion than the alternative of beginning with the earliest year. Insofar
Impediments to the use of historical statistics, then, include the as possible, there are uniformly placed spaces above every year ending
initial difficulty of determining whether the data in fact exist, of in 0 or 5. No data are shown for years subsequent to 1957, because
identifying the public or private document in which the data may be most of the 1958 figures were, still unavailable or preliminary at the
found, of constructing time series where the data may not be arranged time this volume was in preparation. Figures for 1958 and later years
in suitable form, and of identifying and interpreting changes in concept for most of the current series are presented in the Statistical Abstract
and coverage. Definitions employed in published historical tables, of the United States beginning with the 1960 edition.
Basic guidelines. Before work was begun on the volume, certain
moreover, may have to be sought in separate publications if, indeed,
guidelines were established to aid the Census Bureau staff and the
they have been published at all.
The objective of the Historical Statistics volumes is to provide a con­ consultants in the selection and presentation aspects of the operation.
venient reference source which has two functions, collecting and re­ These guidelines, however, were not always rigidly adhered to. The
ferring. The collecting function consists of assembling, selecting, and problems encountered because of the scope and the variety of the sub­
arranging data from hundreds of sources and making them available ject matter and the attempt to achieve a relatively balanced presenta­
within a single source. The referring function consists of text annota­ tion between subject fields made it necessary to modify the rules in a
tions to the data which act as a guide to sources of greater detail. The number of places. The guidelines applied and the elements subject to
annotations also define terms used in the tables and include essential application are discussed below.
Area coverage. Unless otherwise specified, data are for continental
qualifying statements.
United States as of 1958 (i.e., excluding Alaska and Hawaii). In some
instances, the sources used for data failed to specify the area covered.
Planning and Compilation
Where practicable, the data were examined and the appropriate quali­
As a first step in the actual preparation of this volume, the Bureau of fications were added.
Because of limitations of space, data are not generally shown for
the Census, with the advice and cooperation of the Committee on His­
torical Statistics, prepared a working outline and statement of basic regions, States, or localities. Some exceptions were permitted, however,
premises to guide the selection of material. After an agreement on a in the following instances: Where regional statistics are essential for
basic framework, responsibility for the duties of “principal” or “review” correct interpretation of data, such as presentation of merchant marine
consultant for specific subjects was assigned either to a Government statistics separately for each coast and for inland waters; where data
in the subject field cannot (by definition) be summarized effectively
agency or to an individual specialist.
As stated previously, a number of subjects are included in this volume for continental United States, such as internal migration data; where
which were not included in the first. Principal consultants responsible summary data for a given subarea or market are indicative of general
for these subjects had to prepare their material from inception, advise trend or level, such as prices on the New York Stock Exchange or
on the series to be used, and prepare descriptive, analytical, and biblio­ cattle prices at Chicago; where data for a given area effectively repre­
graphic notes to accompany the tabular data. All other principal con­ sent the national picture because of concentration of production, etc.,
sultants were required to examine the presentation of data in their as Pennsylvania anthracite; where data are available for only a given
fields in the first volume and to make detailed recommendations for area as in the case of many series concerned with early American his­
additions, deletions, and other changes. The relative importance of tory which are limited to the Atlantic seaboard.
Time coverage. In general, only annual or census-period data which
the data in the first volume had to be judged in light of historical
series made available from more recent studies. These studies often cover at least 20 years are presented. Exceptions were permitted pri­
contained an abundance of data from which consultants had to select marily in the case of newly developed series of basic importance.
specific series for inclusion here. The accompanying text also had to be
The general requirements as to time coverage were specifically de­
prepared. Principal consultants were also called upon to resolve prob­ signed to permit inclusion of “lapsed” series, particularly those fall­
lems that arose during the processing and editing of the material. ing within the nineteenth century. The lapsed series, which begin
Review consultants were responsible for critical review of the data and and terminate in the past, represent major fields of interest during
text to be included during each phase of their preparation.
various phases of American historical development; frequently they
Coordination, final processing, and editing of the materials were must be sought in out-of-print documents which are available in few
carried out by the Bureau of the Census. A multitude of source publi­ libraries.
The identification of time-periods was complicated by failure of
cations was assembled. Data were excerpted, reviewed, and arranged in
appropriate form and sequence. Source citations’, text, titles, headnotes, some sources to state whether the data were prepared on a calendarand footnotes were brought into a consistent style and reviewed for year or on a fiscal-year basis; by shifts in time coverage from calendar
clarity. Problems that emerged during preparation and review of the to fiscal year during the period of the series, and, in some instances,
by the lack of identification of the beginning or ending date of the
material were resolved in consultation with consultants.
fiscal year where this basis was used. In all such cases, particularly
where time shifts seemed likely to have occurred, an effort was made
Technical Notes and Explanations
to identify the correct basis.
Frequency of data. Annual data are given preference but certain
Arrangement of the data. Data are arranged by subject in lettered
chapters and numbered series. Subject-listing under chapter titles in series are presented only for census years (years in which a national
the table of contents, together with the index, will facilitate reference, census was conducted), and, in some instances (for example, telephone
chapter titles being necessarily somewhat arbitrary. Each series or and telegraph rates), only for the few dates for which the data are
tabular column is assigned a number, the first series in each chapter available. Where both annual figures and decennial or quinquennial
beginning with 1. Each series is further identified in the table titles benchmark or census data exist, both series are sometimes shown.
Series linkage. No formal attempt was made to extend a single series
and cross references by prefixing the chapter letter. Thus, the 44th
series in the chapter on agriculture is designated K 44 to distinguish back through time by linking it to another series which terminated at
it from the 44th series in the chapter on transportation designated or near the date on which the first began. In a number of instances,
Q 44. Because of possible confusion with numerals, the capital letters however, such series are presented in adjoining columns, with an over­
I and O have been omitted in identifying chapters.
lap for a period of years when available.
X



INTRODUCTION
Unpublished figures. In general, only published materials or unpub­
lished estimates from the files of a Government agency or from a re­
sponsible private organization like the National Bureau of Economic
Research were used. Unpublished estimates of private scholars, with
rare exceptions, are not included in the volume.
Subject detail. Because of space limitations, series selected are con­
fined to those regarded as of major importance in each field. The criteria
of selection varied broadly, depending upon the subject. Within each
subfield, the amount of subject detail was held to a minimum. Generally,
only summary measures are shown and detailed cross classifications
and information of a highly specialized character have been avoided.
Presentation of data in excessive detail, such as for specific commodities,
was discouraged. Exceptions were allowed, however, wHfere it was con­
sidered more meaningful to present long series for selected specific
commodities than to present an aggregate which is difficult to inter­
pret.
Presentation of absolute rather than derived data. Primary emphasis
was placed on the presentation of absolute figures rather than on de­
rived data since the absolute figures offer somewhat greater flexibility
to the user. The major exception was the presentation of index numbers.
In general, percentage distributions of absolute data already shown
are not presented. Other percentage data, and averages, medians, ratios,
and rates were used only where they resulted in a significant economy
in space or where they facilitated interpretation. No attempt was made,
in view of the technical problems involved, to convert various series
of index numbers to a common base year or period.
Omissions of data, “blank” cells. The significance of dashes in
tabular cells varies from series to series. In general, the presence of cell
“leaders” or “dashes” indicates merely that no information was pro­
vided for this volume. Dash entries may mean that no information
exists for the given year; that the entry, if shown, would be zero;
the information was not available; or the information is believed to
exist in published form but it was not practicable to do the research
necessary to locate the appropriate source. The user will have to judge
from the context which meaning is appropriate in each particular
instance.

The practices of the various sources of information differ as to the
meaning of dashes in cells, the extent to which they label material as
“not available,” the meaning of the term “not available,” the use of the
zero entry, etc. In general, the policy adopted in preparing this volume
was to retain “not available” notations where they appeared for inter­
mediate years in the series; to change them to dashes where they ap­
peared at the beginning or end of the series. Where cells were left
blank in the sources, they were filled with dashes in this volume.
Since series of varying length taken from different sources are fre­
quently found in adjoining columns in a table, the stub listings for years
necessarily encompass the earliest and latest date for which any of the
series in the table are shown. In itself, this tends to create many ad­
ditional blank cells since missing entries have been replaced by dashes
in order to make it easier for the user’s eye to trace the entries for a
given year across the entire table.
Text. For every series used, the text presents the precise source of
the data. Where possible, the text also includes the definition of the
concepts used, and sufficient methodological and historical information
to permit intelligent use of the data. For many series the text includes
a reference to where more detail can be found. Unusual values in a series
are explained and major changes which affect comparability are noted.
Where adjusted or derived figures are used, the methods used are de­
scribed, often with a reference to a more complete description.

Responsibility
Because of the multitude of sources and the varied subject matter
covered, the Bureau of the Census cannot accept responsibility for th0
accuracy or limitations of data other than those which it collects
Every attempt has been made, within the limits of time and availablepersonnel, to verify and correctly identify the material. Final responsi­
bility for selection of the material, and for its accurate and proper
presentation, rests with the Bureau of the Census, even though carried
out with the cooperation of many individuals and agencies who devoted
much time and energy in providing data and descriptions of series for
this publication.

The information presented in this volume supersedes all similar information presented in Historical Statistics
of the United States, 1789-191+5, and in Continuation to 1952 of Historical Statistics of the United States, 1789-191+5.
FOR ADDITIONAL INFORMATION ON DATA PRESENTED
write to the agency indicated in the source note in the descriptive text for the given statistical series.




SUGGESTIONS AND COMMENTS
should be sent to:
The Director
Bureau of the Census
Washington 25, D.C.

XI

chapter A

Population
A 1-263. General note.
The principal source of population data is the Decennial
Census of Population, a house-to-house enumeration made
by the Bureau of the Census. In accordance with a Constitu­
tional provision for a decennial canvass of the population, the
first census enumeration was made in 1790. The primary reason
for the Census of Population, as set forth in the Constitution,
is to provide a basis for the apportionment of Members of the
House of Representatives among the several States. Until
1902, the census organization was temporary. In 1902, the
Bureau of the Census was established as a permanent agency
of the Government charged with responsibility for the decen­
nial census and for compiling statistics on other subjects as
needed. Currently, this Bureau supplies intercensal data
based on surveys and estimates in addition to making the
comprehensive decennial census enumeration.
In accordance with Census practice dating back to 1790, each
person is counted as an inhabitant of his usual place of resi­
dence or usual place of abode, that is, the place where he
lives and sleeps most of the time. This place is not neces­
sarily the same as his legal residence, voting residence, or
domicile, although, in the vast majority of cases, the use of
these different bases of classification would produce identical
results. Indians living in Indian Territory or on reservations
were not included in the population count until 1890 and in
earlier censuses large tracts of unorganized and sparsely set­
tled territory were not covered by enumerators.
Most of the population data presented are based on com­
plete counts. However, some of the 1950 data were obtained
from representative samples of 20 percent or SVz percent of
the population. A few series also include 1940 data obtained
on a sample basis.
Several series present statistics based on the Current Popu­
lation Survey, conducted monthly by the Bureau of the Census.
Until May 1956, the Survey covered a sample of approximately
21,000 interviewed households spread over a sample of areas
throughout the United States. Since then, the sample has
been expanded to approximately 35,000 interviewed households
in a larger number of areas.
Exact agreement is not to be expected among the various
samples, nor between them and the complete census count,
but the sample data may be used with confidence where large
numbers are involved, and may be assumed to indicate pat­
terns and relationships where small numbers are involved.
Detailed statements regarding the sampling errors are given
in the original sources.
Many errors appear in the Censuses of 1790-1840. The data
for these censuses were adjusted by county and color, and the
revised estimates were published in the 1870 Census. Later,
the data by sex and age in the 1790-1840 Censuses were ad­
justed to agree with the estimates published in 1870.
The Bureau of the Census has always been concerned about
the degree of completeness of enumeration in the decennial
censuses. Prior to 1950, the population counts were evaluated
by indirect methods only since no method had been devised
to give an over-all direct measure of the completeness of
enumeration for the total population. For the most part, dis­



cussion in Census reports was confined to qualitative state­
ments. In the 1950 Census, the population was reenumerated
on a sample basis in a carefully conducted postenumeration
survey, thereby providing a direct check on a case-by-case
basis. The results of this survey indicate a net underenu­
meration in the census count of the total population of the
United States of about 2,100,000, or 1.4 percent. It is also
estimated that the net underenumeration was about 1.6 per­
cent in 1940 and about 0.7 percent in 1930.
One of the indirect methods of evaluating the completeness
of enumeration for censuses prior to 1950 is a comparison of
rates of change with respect to consistency and reasonable­
ness. On this basis, it is believed that the figures for the
South show unreasonably low rates of increase for the decade
1860-1870 and abnormally high rates of increase for 18701880. The differences are so great that it appears evident
that the enumeration of 1870 in these areas was seriously
incomplete, undoubtedly as a result of the unsettled condi­
tions of the reconstruction period. For the portion of the
United States outside the South, the rate of increase for
1860-1870 was almost exactly the same as for 1870-1880.
Therefore, the number initially enumerated in 1870 for the
South was revised on the assumption that the rate of increase
for these two decades was the same.
Comparisons of census data with independent counts of cor­
responding segments of the population are sometimes possible
in the case of certain age-sex groups. For example, there
have been several studies for both World Wars I and II re­
lating figures for males of military age from the census to
registration figures. Interpretation of the differences is
complicated by the fact that there are no adequate measures
of the Selective Service figures. Nonetheless, these studies
do suggest an appreciable underenumeration of males in ap­
propriate age groups, particularly among Negroes, in the
Censuses of 1920 and 1940.
A 1-3. Estimated population of the United States, 17901957.
Source: 1790-1899, Bureau of the Census estimates based
on linear interpolation between decennial census years; 19001957, Bureau of the Census, Current Population Reports,
Series P-25, Nos. 71, 114, 173, and unpublished Census Bureau
records.
Estimates for 1900-1909 are sums of State estimates pre­
pared from local data indicative of population change. Esti­
mates for 1910-1957 are based on decennial censuses and
statistics of births, deaths, immigration, emigration, and
Armed Forces. These estimates are as of July 1 and there­
fore may differ from other estimates in this section which
are as of the date of the census.
A 4-16. Population of continental United States and outlying
areas, 1880-1950.
Source: With the exceptions noted below for series A 6 and
A 8, U. S. Census of Population: 1950, vol. I, pp. 1-3, 51-4,
52-5, 53-6, 54-3, 54-5, 54-7, 54-9. Series A 6, population
abroad, 1900, Twelfth Census Reports, Population, vol. I, part
1, p. xxiii; 1910-1920, Fourteenth Census Reports, Population,

1

A 17-44
POPULATION
vol. I, p. 13. Series A 8, Philippine Islands, 1900-1940, His­ density. For a discussion of these different definitions of the
torical Statistics of the United States, 1789-19U5, p. 25.
urban population, see U. S. Census of Population: 1950, vol. I,
A 17-21. Area and population of continental United States, pp. xv and xviii. The population is shown classified in ac­
cordance with the urban definition used in the 1940 Census
1790-1950.
for 1790-1950. Classification in accordance with the definition
Source: Reports of Fourteenth, Fifteenth, Sixteenth, and
Seventeenth Censuses, Population, vol. I, and other reports and used in the 1950 Census is given only for 1950.
The first official publication of figures formally presenting
records. See also Sixteenth Census Report, Areas of the
the urban population was made following the Census of 1870
United States, 19J+0.
in
The popula­
Area figures for each census year represent all continental tionthe Statistical Atlas ofof the United States. or more was
of cities and towns
8,000 inhabitants
area under the jurisdiction of the United States on the indi­
the
population.” In the reports of the
cated date, including in some cases considerable areas not presented as and “urbanCensuses, the urban population was
1880, 1890,
1900
then organized or settled, and not covered by the census. variously defined as the population living in places of 4,000
Area figures for prior years have been adjusted to bring them
or more. The first
into agreement with remeasurements made in 1940. For a inhabitants or more, or 8,000 inhabitants places having 2,500
publication in which the population of
further discussion of areas covered by the censuses, see U. S. inhabitants or more was officially designated as urban was
Census of Population: 1950, vol. I, p. xi.
the Supplementary Analysis of the Twelfth Census (1900).
A 22-33. Estimated population, by sex, color, and age, 1900- This definition, with minor modifications, was used in later
1957.
censuses up to and including 1940. For purposes of compari­
Source: Bureau of the Census, Current Population Reports, son, the data for 1950 were also tabulated in accordance
with this urban definition.
Series P-25, Nos. 98, 114, 146, and 170.
In the Statistical Atlas for 1870, the rural population was
These estimates are as of July 1 and therefore may differ
from other estimates in this section, which are as of the defined as the population residing outside the cities or towns
of 8,000 inhabitants or more, but the data were used simply
date of the census.
The age estimates for 1900-1919 were prepared by mathe­ to calculate the density of counties. A new definition of the
matical interpolation for identical age groups within color-sex rural population was presented in the reports of the Census
groups from five successive censuses. For the 1900-1909 of 1890. In that year, the rural population was obtained by
decade, the 1880-1920 Censuses were used; annual estimates subtracting from the total population, county by county, the
for 1910-1919 were based on the 1890-1930 Censuses. The population of “all cities or other compact bodies of population
estimates since 1920 are based on censuses and vital statis­ which number 1,000 or more.” In the report of the Census
tics ; estimates of net migration and mortality rates were of 1900, the rural population was presented as the population
living outside incorporated places. For 1910-1940, the rural
computed from life tables.
population was defined as all of the population not classified
The classification of the population by color is not ordi­
urban.
narily based on replies to census questions asked by the enu­ as For a discussion of the development of the urban-rural
merators, but rather is obtained by observation. This concept
does not, therefore, reflect a clear-cut definition of biological classification, see Bureau of the Census, Current Population
stock. The non white population consists of Negroes, Ameri­ Reports, “The Development of the Urban-Rural Classification
can Indians, Japanese, Chinese, Filipinos, and some other in the United States: 1874 to 1949,” Series P-23, No. 1.
The farm population for 1950 included all persons living on
groups. Persons of mixed parentage are placed in the color
classification of the nonwhite parent. Persons of Mexican farms, as determined by the question in the 1950 Census of
birth or ancestry who are not definitely Indian or of other Population, “Is this house on a farm (or ranch) ?” Persons on
nonwhite stock have been classified as white in all censuses “farms” who were paying cash rent for their home and yard
except that of 1930. The data for 1930 used in these series only were classified as nonfarm, as were persons in institu­
have been revised to include Mexicans as white. For a more tions, summer camps, motels, and tourist camps. The defini­
detailed discussion of the definition of color, see U. S. Census tion of farm population prior to 1950 differed somewhat,
but remained a residence rather than an occupational classi­
of Population: 1950, vol. II, part 1, Introduction.
fication and depended primarily upon the respondent’s con­
A 34-50. Population, by sex, residence, and color, 1790-1950. ception of what was meant by the word “farm.” Conse­
Source: See detailed listing below.
quently it reflected local usage rather than the uniform appli­
See also text for series A 22-33 for definition of color.
cation of an objective definition.
The Bureau of the Census has employed several definitions A 34-35. Total population, by sex, 1820-1950.
of urban population. According to the definition adopted for
Source: 1820-1840, reports of Fourth, Fifth, and Sixth Cen­
the 1950 Census, the urban population comprises all persons suses, and unpublished Census Bureau records; 1850-1950,
living in (1) places of 2,500 inhabitants or more incorporated U. S. Census of Population: 1950, vol. II, part 1, p. 1-88.
as cities, boroughs, and villages, (2) incorporated towns of
2.500 inhabitants or more except in New England, New York, A 36-38. Total population, by residence, 1790-1950.
Source: 1790-1950, urban and total rural population, U. S.
and Wisconsin, where the term “town” is used to designate
minor civil divisions of counties, (3) the densely settled urban Census of Population: 1950, vol. I, p. 1-5; 1920, rural-farm
fringe, including both incorporated and unincorporated areas, and rural-nonfarm population, Sixteenth Census Reports, Pop­
around cities of 50,000 inhabitants or more, and (4) unincor­ ulation, vol. II, part 1, p. 18; 1930-1950, U. S. Census of
porated places of 2,500 inhabitants or more outside any urban Population: 1950, vol. II, part 1, p. 1-87.
fringe. The remaining population is classified as rural. Ac­ A 39-44. Population, by residence, by sex, 1900-1950.
cording to the definition used in 1940, the urban population
Source: 1900, Fourteenth Census Reports, Population, vol.
was limited to all persons living in incorporated places of Ill, p. 15; 1910 and 1920, Sixteenth Census Reports, Popula­
2.500 inhabitants or more and in other areas classified as tion, vol. II, part 1, p. 20; 1930-1950, U. S. Census of Popu­
urban under special rules relating to population size and lation: 1950, vol. II, part 1, p. 1-87.

2



COLOR, SEX, AND NATIVITY
A 45-122
The category Indian includes unmixed American Indians
A 45-50. Population, by color, by sex, 1790-1950.
Source: 1790-1840, first six population censuses and unpub­ together with persons who are of mixed white and Indian
lished Census Bureau records; 1850-1950, U. S. Census of ancestry if they are enrolled on an Indian reservation or
agency roll. Persons who are part Indian are included as
Population: 1950, vol. II, part 1, p. 1-88.
Indian if they are one-fourth or more Indian, or if they are
See text for series A 22-33 for definition of color.
regarded as Indians in the community in which they reside.
A 51-58. White population, by sex and nativity, 1850-1950.
The Census of 1860 was the first in which Indians were
Source: See detailed listing below.
distinguished from other classes in the population. Prior to
1890, enumeration of Indians was limited to Indians living in
See also text for series A 22-33 for definition of color.
A native is defined as a person born in continental United the general population of the various States; Indians in
States, Puerto Rico, or the Territories or possessions, or born Indian Territory and on Indian reservations were excluded.
abroad to American parents. Persons for whom place of In 1910, a special effort was made to secure a complete enu­
birth was not reported are included with the natives. The meration of persons with any perceptible amount of Indian
1890 Census was the first to make the distinction between ancestry. This probably resulted in the enumeration as In­
native and foreign parentage. Data on aliens are not shown dian of a considerable number of persons who would have
for 1890, 1900, and 1910, because the information collected been reported as white in earlier censuses. There were no
in those censuses was restricted to males 21 years of age and special efforts in 1920, and the returns showed a much smaller
number of Indians than in 1910. Again in 1930 emphasis was
over.
placed on securing a complete count of Indians, with the re­
A 51, 55. Total native white, by sex, 1850-1950.
sults that the returns probably overstated the decennial in­
Source: U. S. Census of Population: 1950, vol. II, part 1, crease in the number of Indians.
p. 1-88.
A 71-85. Population, by age, sex, race, and nativity, 17901950.
A 52, 56. Native white of foreign or mixed parentage, by
sex, 1890-1950.
Source: Total population: 1850-1870, Ninth Census Reports,
Source: U. S. Census of Population: 1950, vol. IV, Special Vital Statistics, vol. II, pp. 552-558; 1880-1950, U. S. Census
of Population: 1950, vol. II, part 1, p. 1-93. Male and white
Reports, Nativity and Parentage, p. 3A-11.
population: 1790-1840, reports of the first six censuses and
A 53, 57. Total foreign born, by sex, 1850-1950.
unpublished Census Bureau records; 1850-1950, same as source
Source: U. S. Census of Population: 1950, vol. II, part 1, for total population. Foreign-born white: 1870, Ninth Cen­
p. 1-88.
sus Reports, Vital Statistics, vol. II, pp. 552-558; 1880, Fif­
teenth Census Reports, Population, vol. II, p. 580; 1890-1950,
A 54, 58. Foreign-born aliens, by sex, 1920-1950.
U. S. Census of Population: 1950, vol. IV, Special Reports,
Source: 1920, Fifteenth Census Reports, Population, vol. Nativity and Parentage, p. 3A-3. Negro: 1820-1840, reports
II, p. 405; 1930 and 1940, Sixteenth Census Reports, Popula­ of the Fourth, Fifth, and Sixth Censuses, and unpublished
tion, vol. II, part 1, p. 30; 1950, U. S. Census of Population: Census Bureau records; 1850-1870, Ninth Census Reports,
1950, vol. II, part 1, p. 1-178.
Vital Statistics, vol. II, pp. 552-558; 1880, Thirteenth Census
Reports, Population, vol. X, p. 323; 1890-1920, Fifteenth Cen­
A 59-70. Nonwhite population, by sex and race, 1820-1950.
II, p. 580; 1930-1940, Sixteenth
Source: With the exception of series A 60 and A 66 (slaves, sus Reports, Population, vol.vol. II, part 1, p. 22; 1950, U. S.
Census Reports, Population,
by sex), data are from following sources: 1820-1840, Fourth, Census of Population: 1950, vol. IV, Special Reports, Non­
Fifth, and Sixth Censuses, and unpublished Census Bureau
records; 1850-1950, U. S. Census of Population: 1950, vol. white Population by Race, p. 3B-16.
See text for series A 51-58 and A 59-70 for definitions of
II, part 1, p. 1-88. Series A 60 and A 66 are from the fol­
race and nativity.
lowing sources: 1820-1850, The Seventh Census of the United
States: 1850, p. xxxvi and revisions on record; 1860, The A 86-94. Median age of population, by color and sex, 17901950.
Eighth Census of the United States: 1860, “Population Reca­
pitulation,” p. 595.
Source: 1790-1940, Sixteenth Census Reports, Population,
Data on the population classified by race (but not by sex) vol. IV, part 1, p. 3; 1950, U. S. Census of Population: 1950,
for 1790-1840 and estimates for 1870 appear in Fifteenth vol. II, part 1, p. 1-92.
See text for series A 22-33 for definition of color.
Census Reports, Population, General Report: Statistics by
Subject, p. 32. Data for slaves (not by sex) for 1790-1860
The median age is that age which divides the population
appear in Negro Population in the United States: 1790-1915, into two equal groups, one-half being older and one-half
younger than the median. The median age is ordinarily 1
chap. V, p. 53.
The classification of the population by race is not ordinarily or 2 years younger than the average or mean age of the
Medians have
of
based on replies to census questions asked by the enumerators, population. intervals, except been computed on the basisthan
5-year age
those for censuses earlier
but rather is obtained by observation. This concept does not,
therefore, reflect a clear-cut definition of biological stock. 1840, where broader age groups were used.
“All other races” include Filipinos, Koreans, Asian Indians, A 95-122. Population, by race and nativity, for regions,
1790-1950.
Indonesians, Polynesians, and other Asians. The Asian groups
Source: See detailed listing below.
are identified largely in terms of country or area of origin.
Persons of mixed nonwhite parentage are classified according
See also text for series A 22-33 and A 59-70 for definition
to the race of the father, except that mixtures of Negro and of color and race and A 51-58 for definition of nativity.
Indian are classified as Negro unless the Indian stock is clearly
Figures for 1810 include in the North Central Region the
predominant or unless the individual is accepted in the com­ population of that part of the Louisiana Territory which sub­
munity in which he resides as an Indian.
sequently became the State of Arkansas (a southern State).



3

A 95-229
POPULATION
The divisional and State composition of Census regions is as A 181-194. Number of places in urban and rural territory,
follows:
by size of place, 1790-1950.
Northeast Region:
South Region—Con.
Source: U. S. Census of Population: 1950, vol. I, pp. 1-6 and
N ew England Division:
South Atlantic Division— Con.
Maine
V irginia
1-7.
N ew Hampshire
W est V irginia
Vermont
North Carolina
The number of places shown for 1790-1940 and for 1950,
Massachusetts
South Carolina
according to the urban definition used in the 1940 and prior
Rhode Island
Georgia
Connecticut
Florida
Censuses (see text for series A 34-50), represents the num­
Middle Atlantic Division:
East South Central Division:
New York
Kentucky
ber of incorporated places (cities, boroughs, villages, and, in
N ew Jersey
Tennessee
certain States, towns) and the number of places urban under
Pennsylvania
Alabama
North Central Region:
M ississippi
special rules. The number of places shown for 1950, accord­
W est South Central Division:
East North Central Division:
ing to the urban definition used in the 1950 Census, represents
Arkansas
Ohio
Louisiana
Indiana
the number of incorporated places and those unincorporated
Illinois
Oklahoma.
Texas
Michigan
places delineated by the Bureau of the Census for the 1950
W est Region:
W isconsin
Census which had 1,000 inhabitants or more.
Mountain Division:
W est North Central Division:
Montana
Minnesota
Idaho
Iowa
A 195-209. Population in urban and rural territory, by size
W yoming
Missouri
of place, 1790-1950.
Colorado
North Dakota
New Mexico
South Dakota
Source: U. S. Census of Population: 1950, vol. I, pp. 1-6
Arizona
Nebraska
Utah
Kansas
and 1-7.
South Region:
Nevada
Pacific Division:
South Atlantic Division:
See text for series A 34-50.
W ashington
Delaware
Oregon
Maryland
A 210-227. Marital status of persons 14 years old and over,
California
District of Columbia
by sex, 1890-1957.
A 95, 102, 109, and 116. Population, for regions, 1790-1950.
Source: 1890-1940, U. S. Census of Population: 1950, vol.
Source: U. S. Census of Population: 1950, vol. I, pp. 1-8 II, part 1, p. 1-179; 1947-1957, Bureau of the Census, Current
and 1-9.
Population Reports, Series P-20, Nos. 10, 23, 26, 38, 44, 50,
A 96, 103, 110, and 117. White population, for regions, 56, 62, 72, and 81.
Marital status (single, married, widowed, and divorced) rep­
1790-1950.
resents the status of persons at the time of the enumeration.
Source: 1790-1910, Negro Population in the United States:
1790-1915, chap. 3, pp. 43-45; 1920, Fourteenth Census Re­ Persons classified as “married” include those who have been
ports, Population, vol. II, chap. 1, p. 31; 1930, Fifteenth Census married only once, remarried after having been widowed or
Reports, Population, vol. II, p. 35; 1940, Sixteenth Census divorced, separated, and living in common-law marriages.
Reports, Population, vol. II, part 1, p. 52; 1950, U. S. Census Persons reported as never married or with annulled marriages
are classified as single. Since it is probable that some di­
of Population: 1950, vol. II, part 1, p. 1-106.
vorced persons are reported as single, married, or widowed,
A 97, 104, 111, and 118. Native white population, for regions, the census figures may understate somewhat the actual num­
ber of divorced persons who have not remarried.
1850-1950.
Percentages shown are standardized for age to offset the
Source: 1850-1890, Fifteenth Census Reports, Population,
vol. II, p. 53; 1900-1930, U. S. Census of Population: 1950, effect of changes in the age distribution of the population.
vol. IV, Special Reports, Nativity and Parentage, p. 3A-12; Using the civilian population in March 1950 as a standard,
1940, Sixteenth Census Reports, Population, vol. II, part 1, the age-standardized proportions of each sex in each of the
p. 52; 1950, U. S. Census of Population: 1950, vol. II, part 1, marital status categories were computed for the age groups
14-17 years, 18 and 19 years, 20-24 years, 25-34 years, 35-44
p. 1-106.
years, 45-54 years, 55-64 years, and 65 years and over. The
A 98, 105, 112, and 119. Foreign-born white, for regions, age-specific proportions of persons in each marital status cate­
1850-1950.
gory during a given year were then each multiplied by the
Source: See source for series A 97, 104, 111, and 118.
proportion of persons in that age group in the 1950 civilian
A 99, 106, 113, and 120. Negro population, for regions, 1790- population. The sum of the products is the standardized
proportion of persons in the given marital status category.
1950.
A 228-229. Median age at first marriage, by sex, 1890-1957.
Source: See source for series A 96, 103, 110, and 117.
Source: 1890-1954, Bureau the Census,
A 100, 107, 114, and 121. Negro slaves, for regions, 1790- tion Reports, Series P-20, No.of72; 1955-1957,Current Popula­
Bureau of the
1860.
Census and Department of Defense, records.
Source: Ninth Census Reports, Population and Social Sta­
The median age at first marriage, as shown here, is an
tistics, vol. I, p. 7.
approximation derived indirectly from tabulations of marital
A 101, 108, 115, and 122. Other races, for regions, 1860-1950. status and age. (See source for detailed explanation of com­
Source: 1860-1890, Fifteenth Census Reports, Population, putation procedures.) These estimates differ from those
vol. II, p. 53; 1900-1950, see source for series A 96, 103, 110, based on annual marriage records or census questions on age
at first marriage. Data on age at first marriage are available
and 117.
only for certain States and from census questions only for
A 123-180. Population, for States, 1790-1950.
selected dates. Moreover, median age at first marriage based
Source: For the population enumerated in continental on records is affected by changes in the age distribution of
United States and in the several States, U. S. Census of Popu­ the population, whereas the median age at first marriage
lation: 1950, vol. I, pp. 1-8 and 1-9; for the boundaries of the shown here can be interpreted as applying to the cohort born
States and Territories for 1790-1900, Twelfth Census Reports, “n” years earlier, where ‘V ’ is the median age at first
A Century of Population Growth, 1790-1900, pp. 52 and 53.
marriage.
4




A 230-257
HOUSEHOLDS
A 230-241. Households, by sex and age of head, 1890-1957.
the average size of farm households in conjunction with an­
Source: 1890 and 1950, U. S. Census of Population: 1950, nual estimates of the farm population (see joint report of
vol. IV, Special Reports, General Characteristics of Families, Bureau of the Census and Bureau of Agricultural Economics,
p. 2A-10; 1930, Fifteenth Census Reports, Population, vol. VI, Estimates of the Farm Population: 1910 to 1950, Series
Families, p. 27, and Sixteenth Census Reports, Population, Census-BAE, No. 16A). Since the annual changes in the num­
Families—Size of Family and Age of Head, p. 123, and un­ ber of households which are implied in these series may be in
published Census Bureau records; 1940, Sixteenth Census Re­ substantial error, caution should be used in the interpretation
ports, Population, vol. IV, p. 28; 1956 and 1957, Bureau of of small changes.
the Census, Current Population Reports, Series P-20, Nos.
The farm household series for 1910-1946 relates to the total
72 and 81.
farm population, whereas that for 1947-1957 relates to the
According to the current Census Bureau definition, a house­ rural-farm population. There were 88,000 urban-farm house­
hold includes all the persons who occupy a house, an apart­ holds in 1940 and 96,000 in 1950.
ment, or other group of rooms, or a room that constitutes a A 245-247. Married couples with or without own household,
dwelling unit. In general, a group of rooms occupied as sep­
1910-1957.
arate living quarters is a dwelling unit if it has separate
Source: Bureau of the Census, Current Population Reports,
cooking equipment or if it constitutes the only living quar­ Series P-20, Nos. 17, 59, and 76.
ters in the structure. A household includes the related family
A married couple, as defined for census purposes, is a
members (the head of the household and others in the dwelling
unit related to the head) and also the unrelated persons, if husband and his wife enumerated as members of the same
any, such as lodgers (if fewer than 5), foster children, wards, household or quasi-household. The married couple may or
or employees who share the dwelling unit. A person living may not have children living with them.
alone in a dwelling unit, or a group of unrelated persons A 248-254. Population, by household relationship, 1910-1957.
sharing a dwelling unit as partners, is also counted as a
Source: 1910, Thirteenth Census Reports, Population, vol. I,
household.
p. 1285, and unpublished Census Bureau records; 1930, F if­
All persons not living in households are considered to live teenth Census Reports, Population, vol. VI, p. 10, Current
in quasi-households. A quasi-household is a group of persons Population Reports, Series P-20, No. 53, and unpublished
living in quarters not classified as a dwelling unit, for exam­ Census Bureau records; 1940, Sixteenth Census Reports,
ple, in a house with at least 5 lodgers, or in a hotel, dormitory, Population, vol. IV, p. 26; 1947, Bureau of the Census, Cur­
rent Population Reports, Series P-20, Nos. 10, 17, and 55;
institution, labor camp, or military barracks.
The figures for number of households are not strictly com­ 1950, Current Population Reports, Series P-20, No. 55, and
parable from year to year. In general, the definitions of unpublished Census Bureau records; 1954 and 1957, Current
household for 1790, 1900, 1930, 1940, 1950, and 1957 are Population Reports, Series P-20, Nos. 56 and 81.
See text for series A 230-241 for definition of household.
similar. Very minor differences result from the fact that in
1950 and 1957 dwelling units with 5 or more lodgers were
Prior to 1947, persons living in houses with 5 to 10 lodgers
excluded from the count of households, whereas in 1940 and were classified as living in households rather than quasi-house­
1930 dwelling units with 11 lodgers or more were excluded, holds. Thus, the figures for 1910, 1930, and 1940 include such
and in 1790 and in 1900 no precise definition of the maximum persons in the total number living in households, whereas the
allowable number of lodgers was made. The definition of figures for 1947, 1950, 1954, and 1957 include them as living
household for 1850-1890, 1910, and 1920 differs slightly from in quasi-households.
that given above. For these years, no distinction was made A 255-263. Selected characteristics of households, 1790-1950.
between households and quasi-households, and thus the num­
Source: See detailed listing below.
bers include both households and quasi-households.
See also text
In 1950 and 1957 the number of households has been equal, hold and A 59-70for series A 230-241 for definition of house­
for definition of race.
by definition, to the number of occupied dwelling units enu­
merated for housing statistics. In 1940, the definition of house­ A 255. Number of households, 1790-1957.
hold was not completely the same as that of occupied dwelling
Source: 1790, Twelfth Census Special Reports, A Century
units. In that year there were 95,000 more households than of Population Growth, 1790-1900, p. 96; 1850-1880, Eleventh
occupied dwelling units.
Census Reports, Population, part 1, p. 914; 1890-1950, U. S.
Census of Population: 1950, vol. IV, Special Reports, General
A 242-244. Households, by residence, 1900-1957.
Characteristics of Families, p. 2A-8; 1957, Bureau of the
Source: 1900-1946, Bureau of the Census, Current Popula­
tion Reports, Series P-20, No. 92; 1947-1957, Current Popu­ Census, Current Population Reports, Series P-20, No. 81.
A 256. Median size of households, 1790-1940.
lation Reports, Series P-20, Nos. 59 and 76.
Source: Figures for 1790-1900 computed from following
See text for series A 230-241 for definition of household,
sources: 1790, Twelfth Census Special Reports, A Century of
and A 34-50 for definition of residence.
Data for 1900-1946 represent estimates of the number of Population Growth, 1790-1900, p. 98; 1890, Eleventh Census
married women with their spouse in their own household, and Reports, Population, part 1, p. 951; 1900, Twelfth Census
the number of household heads in the remaining population. Reports, Population, vol. II, part 2, p. 611; 1930, Sixteenth
These estimates were based on available census and survey Census Special Reports, Families—Size of Family and Age of
data and on additional information on construction activity, Head, p. 3; 1940, Sixteenth Census Reports, Housing, vol. II,
vacancy rates, marriage rates, divorce rates, economic indexes, part 1, p. 32; 1950, computed from U. S. Census of Housing:
etc. Although the figures are shown as of a given date, they 1950, vol. I, part 1, p. 1-8; 1957, computed from Bureau of
should be regarded as an approximation of the annual aver­ the Census, Current Population Reports, Series P-20, No. 83.
age number of households.
A 257. Population per household, 1790-1957.
The estimates by residence were made by subdividing the
Source: 1790-1880, computed from Twelfth Census Special
total into farm and nonfarm components, using estimates of Reports, A Century of Population Growth, 1790-1900, p. 80;
488910 0
- 6 0 - 2


5

A 258-263
POPULATION
1890-1950, U. S. Census of Population: 1950, vol. IV, Special Families, p. 2A-8; 1957, Bureau of the Census, Current Popu­
Reports, General Characteristics of Families, p. 2A-8. Popu­ lation Reports, Series P-20, No. 83.
lation figures used in computing population per household for A 261-262. Sex of head, 1890-1957.
1957 are from Bureau of the Census, Current Population
Source: 1890, Eleventh Census Reports, Farms and Homes:
Reports, Series P-25, No. 169.
Proprietorship and Indebtedness, p. 172; 1900, Twelfth Census
These figures were computed by dividing the total popula­ Reports, Population, vol. II, part 2, p. ccviii; 1930, Sixteenth
tion (the total free population for 1790, 1850, and 1860) by Census Special Reports, Families— General Characteristics, p.
the number of household heads. As explained previously, 32; 1940, Sixteenth Census Reports, Population, vol. IV,
the number of household heads for 1850-1890, 1910, and 1920 part 1, p. 26; 1950, U. S. Census of Population: 1950, vol.
also include the heads of quasi-households. Since these are IV, Special Reports, General Characteristics of Families, p.
such a small fraction of the total number of household heads, 2A-10; 1957, Bureau of the Census, Current Population Re­
the population per household is only slightly affected by the ports, Series P-20, No. 81.
change in definition for these years.
A 263. Median age of head, 1890-1957.
A 258-260. Race of head, 1890-1957.
Source: 1890 and 1930-1940, Sixteenth Census Special Re­
Source: 1890-1930, Sixteenth Census, Special Reports, Fam­ ports, Families—Size of Family and Age of Head, pp. 3 and
ilies—General Characteristics, p. 4; 1940, Sixteenth Census 123; 1900, Twelfth Census Reports, Population, vol. II, part
Reports, Population, vol. IV, part 1, p. 26, and Sixteenth Census 2, p. ccx; 1950, U. S. Census of Population: 1950, vol. IV,
Special Reports, Population—Characteristics of the Nonwhite Special Reports, General Characteristics of Families, p. 2A-10;
Population by Race, p. 30; 1950, U. S. Census of Population: 1957, Bureau of the Census, Current Population Reports, Series
1950, vol. IV, Special Reports, General Characteristics of P-20, No. 81.

6



A 1-16

POPULATION

Series A 1-3. Estimated Population of the United States: 1790 to 1957
[In thousands. As of July 1]
Total
population
including
Armed
Forces
overseas

Total
population
residing in
the United
States

171,229
168,174
165,270
162,417
159,636
157.028
154,360
151,683
149.188
146,631
144,126
141,389
139,928
138,397
136,739
134,860
133,402
132,122
131.028
129,969
128,961
128,181
127,362
126,485
125,690
124,949
124,149
123.188

170,333
167,259
164,303
161,191
158,313
155,761
153,384
151,234
148,665
146,093
143,446
140,054
132,481
132,885
134,245
133,920
133,121
131,954
130,880
129.825
128.825
128,053
127,250
126,374
125,579
124,840
124,040
123,077
121,770
120,501
119,038
117,399
115,832

1

1957_
1956_
1955_
195419531952_
1951_
1950_
1949_
1948_
1947_
1946_
1945.
1944_
1943_
1942 _
19411940_
1939 _
1938_
19371936_
1935193419331932_
1931_
193019291928_
1927_
19261925_

Civilian
popu­
lation

Year

168,406
165,339
162,307
159,086
156,046
153,366
151,082
150,202
147,578
145,168
142,566
138,385
127,573
126,708
127,499
130,942
131,595
131,658
130,683
129,635
128,639
127,879
127,099
126,228
125,436
124,694
123,886
122,923

Total
population
residing in
the United
States

19241923.
1922192119201919
19181i1
1917
19161915_
1914_
1913_
1912_
1911_
1910_
19091908_
19071906_
190519041903_
1902.
1901_
190018991898_
1897_
1896_
1895_
1894_
18931892 _
1891-

114,113
111,950
110,055
108,541
106,466
104,512
103,203
103,266
101,966
100,549
99,118
97,227
95,331
93,868
92,407
90,492
88,709
87,000
85,437
83,820
82,165
80,632
79,160
77,585
76,094
74,799
73,494
72,189
70,885
69,580
68,275
66,970
65,666
64,361

Year

18901889_
1888_
1887_
1886_
1885.
1884_
1883_
18821881188018791878_
1877,
18761875_
1874,
18731872 _
1871_
1870_
1869 _
18681867_
186618651864,
1863,
186218611860.
1859_
18581857-

Total
population
residing in
the United
States
63,056
61,775
60,496
59,217
57,938
56,658
55,379
54,100
52,821
51,542
' 50,262
49,208
48,174
47,141
46,107
45,073
44,040
43,006
41,972
40,938
39,905
39,051
38,213
37,376
36,538
35,701
34,863
34,026
33,188
32,351
31,513
30,687
29,862
29,037

Year

Total
population
residing in
the United
States

18561855
1854_
1853
1852
1851
1850
1849
1848
1847
1846
1845
1844
1843
1842
1841
1840
1839
1838
1837
1836
1835
1834
1833
1832
1831
1830
1829
1828
1827
1826
1825
1824
1823

28,212
27,386
26,561
25,736
24,911
24,086
23,261
22,631
22,018
21,406
20,794
20,182
19,569
18,957
18,345
17,733
17,120
16,684
16,264
15,843
15,423
15,003
14,582
14,162
13,742
13,321
12,901
12,565
12,237
11,909
11,580
11,252
10,924
10,596

Year

1822
1821
1820
1819
1818
1817
1816
1815
1814
1813
1812
1811
1810
1809
1808
1807
1806
1805
1804
1803
1802
1801
1800
1799
1798
1797
1796
1795
1794
1793
1792
1791
1790

Total
population
residing in
the United
States
10,268
9.939
9,618
9,,379
9,139
8,899
8,659
8,419
8,179
7.939
7,700
7,460
7,224
7,031
6,838
6,644
6,451
6,258
6,065
5,872
5,679
5,486
5,297
5,159
5,021
4,883
4,745
4,607
4,469
4,332
4,194
4,056
3,929

105,063; civilian

101,488; 1919: 104,158.

Series A 4-16. Population of Continental United States and Outlying Areas: 1880 to 1950
Year

Total
4

1950
1940_____
1930_____
1920_____
1910
1900_____
1890_____
1880

154,233,234
150,622,754
138,439,069
118,107,855
102,370,018
84,371,985
62,979,766
50,189,209

Continental Population
United
abroad 1
States
5
6
150,697,361
131,669,275
122,775,046
105,710,620
91,972,266
75,994,575
62,947,714
50,155,783

3 481,545

118,933
89,453
117,238
55,608
91,219

Total
7

Philippine
Islands 2
8

Puerto
Rico
9

2,210,703
3,054,328
18,834,546 l6~356~600~ 1,869,255
15,574,570 13.513.000 1,543,913
12,279,997 10.599.000 1,299,809
10,342,144 8,886,000 1,118,012
8,286,191 7,100,000 10 953,243
32,052
33,426

1 Excludes U. S. citizens temporarily abroad on private business, travel, etc.
2 Estimates derived by extrapolation and interpolation of the censuses of 1903,1918,
and 1939. No figure shown for 1950 since Philippine Islands were granted independence
in 1946.
3 Estimate based on 20-percent sample of reports received.
4 Includes population of Canton (272), Corn (1,304), Johnston (46), Midway (416),
Swan (36), and Wake (349) Islands, and Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands (54,843).
6 Census taken as of October 1 of the preceding year.




Outlying areas
Hawaii
Alaska

Guam

10

11

12

499,794
422,770
368,300
255,881
191,874
154,001

128,643
5 72,524
5 59,278
55,036
64,356
63,592
32,052
33,426

59,498
22,290
18,509
13,275
11,806
11 9,676

Canal
Zone
13

Virgin
Islands
14

52,822
51,827
39,467
22,858
9 62,810

26,665
24,889
22,012
8 26,051

American
Samoa
15
18,937
12,908
10,055
8,056
• 7,251
5,679

All
other
16
4 57,266
•2,083
7 36
7 31
7 35

6 Includes population of Baker, Howland, and Jarvis (10), Canton and Enderbury
(44), Corn (1,523), Johnston (69), and Midway (437) Islands.
7 Population for Midway Island.
8 Population as of 1917 Census.
9 Population as of 1912 Census.
10 Population as of 1899 Census.
11 Population as of 1901 Census.

A 17-33

POPULATION

Series A 17-21. Area and Population of Continental United States: 1790 to 1950
Area (square miles)
Gross
area

1950 (Apr. 1) __
1940 (Apr. 1) __
1930 (Apr. 1) __
1920 (Jan. 1) __
1910 (Apr. 15) __
1900 (June 1) __
1890 (June 1) _ _
1880 (June 1) __
1870 (June 1) _ _

Land

17

Year

18

3,022,387
3,022,387
3,022,387
3,022,387
3,022,387
3,022,387
3,022,387
3,022,387
3,022,387

2,974,726
2,977,128
2,977,128
2,969,451
2,969,565
2,969,834
2,969,640
2,969,640
2,969,640

Population
Water
19
47,661
45,259
45,259
52,936
52,822
52,553
52,747
52,747
52,747

Number
20

Area (square miles)

Per square
mile of
land area
21

150,697,361
131,669,275
122,775,046
105,710,620
91,972,266
75,994,575
62,947,714
50,155,783
139,818,449

50.7
44.2
41.2
35.6
31.0
25.6
21.2
16.9
113.4

1860
1850
1840
1830
1820
1810
1800
1790

(June 1)___
(June 1)__
(June 1)___
(June 1)___
(Aug. 7)__
(Aug. 6)__
(Aug. 4 )__
(Aug. 2 )__

Gross
area

Land

17

Year

18

3,022,387
2,992,747
1,788,006
1,788,006
1,788,006
1,716,003
888,811
888,811

2,969,640
2,940,042
1,749,462
1,749,462
1,749,462
1,681,828
864,746
864,746

Population
Water

Number

19
52,747
52,705
38,544
38,544
38,544
34,175
24,065
24,065

20
31,443,321
23,191,876
17,069,453
12,866,020
9,638,453
7,239,881
5,308,483
3,929,214

Per square
mile of
land area
21
10.6
7.9
9 .8
7.4
5.6
4.3
6.1
4 .5

1 Revised to include adjustments for underenumeration in Southern States.

Series A 22-33. Estimated Population, by Sex, Color, and Age: 1900 to 1957
Year
1957_________________________
1956_________________________
1955__ ______________________
1954_______ ________________
1953_____ _ _ _ ___________
1952_________________________
1951_________________________
1950_________________________
1949_________________________
1948_________________________
1947_________________________
1946_________________________
1945_________________________
1944_________________________
1943_________________________
1942_________________________
1941_____ ___ ____________ _
1940_______ _ _ ___________
1939_________________________
1938_________________________
1937_________________________
1936_________________________
1935_________________________
1934_________________________
1933_________________________
1932
1931
- _
1930 . _ _______ __ ___ _
1929_________________________
1928 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
1927__ __ _ . _ _________ _
1926
_
_ _
1925.
__ _ _ _ _______ _
1924- . _ ___ _ _ ___ _____
1923_______ _ _ _ _________
1922
1921_____ ___ ___ _ _______
1920 ________ ______________
1919_ _ ___ _______ _______
1918__ __ _ ___ _______ _
1917________________ ___ ___
1916. _
_ _ _ _
1915- ________________
1 9 1 4 ______ _________ ______
1913. - _______ _____________
1912_ ___ _ _ ___________
1911- _ _ _ _ _ _ ___________
1910_ _ _________ _________
1909_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
1 9 0 8 ._______ _ ___________
1907_ _ _ _ ______________
1906_ _ _ ___ _______ _____
1905. ___ __ _
_______
1904_________ __ _________
1903 _
___ ______ _________
1902__ _____________ _______
1901
_ _
1900

[In thousands. As of July 1, 1940-1957; includes Armed Forces outside continental United States]
Sex
Color
Age (in years)
Total
Male
Female
White Non white Under 14 14 to 24 25 to 34 35 to 44 45 to 54
22
24
28
29
30
31
23
26
27
25
25,502
171,229
84,858
86,371
152,464
18,766
49,206
23,341
23,767
19,711
24,711
83,399
168,174
84,775 149,877
18,297
47,915
24,014
23,080
19,296
17,848
46,406
24,358
82,016
83,255 147,423
165,270
24,152
22,825
18,911
44,788
24,215
80,656
81,761
162,417
22,585
18,562
144,995
17,423
24,235
24,204
159,636
79,337
80,299 142,633
17,003
24,241
22,360
18,242
43,148
78,104
16,616
41,617
24,230
157,028
78,923 140,412
24,199
22,145
17,960
77,536 138,120
16,241
24,286
21,894
154,360
76,825
40,110
24,083
17,691
75,530
24,458
151,683
76,153 135,818
15,865
38,605
23,926
21,569
17,413
15,590
37,238
24,709
149,188
74,335
74,853 133,598
23,729
21,187
17,260
73,130
73,502 131,308
35,865
25,008
146,631
15,323
23,494
20,794
17,107
72,180 129,059
25,286
144,126
71,946
34,499
23,236
20,421
15,067
16,970
70,757 126,565
14,824
25,565
20,073
70,631
32,906
22,954
141,389
16,820
32,360
70,035
69,893 125,266
14,662
25,922
22,734
19,787
139,928
16,642
69,020 124,009
14,388
31,827
26,269
138,397
69,378
22,511
19,505
16,419
68,546
68,194 122,605
14,134
26,390
22,194
31,389
136,739
19,226
16,199
67,597
67,263 120,992
13,868
30,765
26.454
134,860
21,911
18,950
15,976
66,482 119,731
30,545
66,920
13,671
18,692
133,402
26,468
21,691
15,759
132,122
66,352
65,770 118,629
13,494
30,521
26.454
18,422
21,446
15,555
65,166 117,524
30,671
26,267
18,178
130,880
65,713
13,355
21,176
15,336
64,590 116,592
30,844
18,001
129.825
65,235
13,233
26,133
20,953
15,077
64,035 115,706
31,091
17,866
128.825
64,790
13,118
20,723
25,969
14,785
63,594 115,022
128,053
64,459
13,031
31,478
25,817
20,505
17,783
14,495
63,140 114,309
12,941
31,900
25,612
20,275
17,712
127,250
64,110
14,208
62,648 113,527
32,294
12,847
25,401
20,022
17,640
126,374
63,726
13,933
17,569
62,195 112,815
12,764
32,742
25,221
19,750
125,579
63,384
13,684
17,504
61,770
12,686
33,141
25,092
19,484
124,840
112,154
63,070
13,481
61,314 111,433
17,412
124,040
62,726
12,606
24,984
19,242
33,442
13,296
123,077
60,780 110,559
12,518
24,852
17,270
19,039
62,297
33,638
13,096
121,770
61,684
60,086 109,385
12,385
16,917
18,942
33,863
24,498
12,761
120,501
12,256
16,538
59,401 108,245
33,966
18,952
61,100
24,138
12,431
16,173
12,099
119,038
58,636 106,939
33,960
23,733
18,949
60,402
12,093
57,809 105,469
11,930
33,822
18,866
15,845
117,399
23,315
11,786
59,590
115,832
57,012 104,065
18,724
15,578
11,767
33,677
58,820
22,939
11,523
56,126 102,513
11,601
33,406
18,557
15,339
114,113
22,537
11,276
57,987
18,230
15,070
111,950
55,086 100,511
11,438
33,032
21,974
56,864
11,068
14,824
54,164
17,924
110,055
98,768
11,287
32,691
21,537
55,891
10,898
14,666
11,124
17,748
108,541
53,250
97,417
32,308
21,230
10,721
55,292
52,171
106,466
95,511
10,955
31,756
20,858
17,417
14,383
54,295
10,503
14,007
51,405
93,681
10,831
31,384
i 104,512
20,468
16,911
10,402
2 53,107
13,880
10,849
51,234
92,354
31,360
20,047
16,445
10,290
1103,203
251,968
16,914
13,647
50,481
92,437
10,829
30,911
20,822
i 103,266
10,069
2 52,786
91,202
10,764
30,488
20,837
16,776
13,390
9,845
49,728
101,966
52,238
13,131
10,699
16,578
48,977
89,850
30,063
9,620
51,572
20,789
100,549
12,876
48,229
10,635
16,370
88,483
29,643
20,718
9,398
99,118
50,889
10,522
47,266
16,074
12,564
86,705
29,095
20,538
9,134
49,961
97,227
12,254
84,924
10,407
28,560
20,334
15,769
46,311
8,875
49,020
95,331
10,339
28,174
12,005
45,576
83,529
20,190
15,528
8,661
93,868
48,292
82,137
10,270
27,806
20,024
15,276
11,761
47,554
44,853
8,454
92,407
10,153
27,394
14,924
11,472
43,945
80,338
19,656
8,204
90,492
46,546
43,114
78,659
10,050
27,049
19,281
14,585
11,203
7,974
88,709
45,595
77,051
9,950
26,729
14,256
10,945
7,755
42,321
18,911
87,000
44,679
9,861
26,452
10,706
18,564
13,950
41,600
75,575
7,553
85,437
43,836
9,760
10,460
26,153
7,351
40,852
74,059
18,203
13,635
83,820
42,968
10,211
72,516
9,649
25,832
7,149
17,833
13,315
40,083
82,165
42,082
9,544
9,975
25,538
17,491
13,019
6,963
39,369
71,088
80,632
41,263
9,747
9,440
25,249
17,167
12,736
6,787
38,680
69,721
40,480
79,160
9,504
12,440
6,608
37,936
68,270
9,315
24,910
16,827
77,585
39,649
9,271
6,439
16,514
12,162
37,226
66,901
9,193
24,581
76,094
38,869

55 to 64 65 and over
32
33
14,954
14,749
14,753
14,407
14,548
14,069
14,333
13,698
14,107
13,333
13,883
12,995
13,655
12,644
13,424
12,287
13,145
11,921
12,824
11,538
12,528
11,185
12,244
10,828
11,988
10,494
11,719
10,147
11,472
9,867
11,220
9,584
10,959
9,288
10,694
9,031
10,487
8,764
10,310
8,508
10,132
8,258
9,949
8,027
9,739
7,803
9,502
7,583
9,249
7,362
8,992
7,146
8,735
6,929
8,477
6,706
8,315
6,475
8,176
6,298
7,999
6,131
7,804
5,961
7,604
5,788
7,389
5,609
7,161
5,415
6,952
5,229
6,793
5,077
6,620
4,929
6,457
4,883
6,358
4,823
6,191
4,712
6,026
4,604
5,867
4,501
5,712
4,401
5,539
4,283
5,371
4,168
5,234
4,076
5,101
3,985,
4,965
3,877
4,841
3,776
4,724
3,680
3,592
4,620
4,514
3,504
4,409
3,416
4,311
3,334
3,256
4,218
4,121
3,176
3,100
4,027

1 Estimates including Armed Forces overseas (in thousands), 1917: 103,414; 1918:
2 Estimates including Armed Forces overseas (in thousands), 1917: 52,934; 1918:
104,550; 1919: 105,063.
53,316; 1919: 53,658.

8




A 34-70

SEX, RESIDENCE, RACE, NATIVITY

Series A 34-50. Population, by Sex, Residence, and Color: 1790 to 1950
[In thousands. For total population, see series A 20]
Total by sex
Male F emale

Year

74, 833
66“
1062
62,,137
53;,900
47.,332
38;,816
3 2 ;237
,
25,,519
19.,494
16.,085
H i ,838
8,,689
6,,530
4,,897

1950 (1950 urban def.) 2__.
1950 (1940 urban def.) 2__.
1940_____________________
1930 3____________________
1920_____________________
1910.
1900.
1890_
1880_
1870_
I860.
1850_
18401830_
1820_
1810_
1800 _
1790_

75,,864
~65~'608
60.,638
5i;,810
44 ,640
37 ,178
30.,711
24.,637
19;,065
15 ,358
11 ,354
8.,381
6.,336
4,,742

Rural Rural
nonfarm farm
37
38

Urban

96,468
88,927
74,424
68,955
54,158
41,999
30,160
22,106
14,130
9,902
6,217
3,544
1,845
1,127
693
525
322

31,181 23,048
38,693 23,077
27,029 30,216
23,663 30,158
20,159 31,393
49,973
45,835
40,841
36,026
28,656
25,227
19,648
15,224
11,739
8,945
6,714
4,986
3,728

202

Residence1 by
Male
Rural
Urban non­
farm
39
46,892
43,117
36,364
34,155
27,203
21,496
15,087

sex

Color by sex
Male
Non­
Non­
White white White white

Female
Both sexes
Rural Urban Rural Rural White Non­
non­
farm
white
farm farm
41
46

15,863 12,079
19,622 12,094
13,758 15,940
12,118 15,864
10,337 16,360
25,836
23,730

49,576
45,810
38,060
34,800
27,101
21,127
15,294

15,318 10,970
19,071 10,983
13,272 14,276
11,545 14,293
9,710 14,999
23,513
21,885

134,942
118,215
110,287
94,821
81,732
66,809
55,101
43,403
433,589
26,923
19,553
14,196
10,537
7,867
5,862
4,306
3,172

48
67,129
59,449
55,923
48,431
42,178
34,202
28,270
22,131
17,029
13,811
10,026
7,256
5,363
3,998
2,988
2,195
1,615

15,755
13,454
12,488
10,890
10,240
9,185
7,846
6,753
4 4,969
4,521
3,639
2,874
2,329
1,772
1,378
1,002
757

7,704
6,613
6,215
5,470
5,154
4,615
3,967
3,388
2,464
2,274
1,811
1,433
1,166
899

49
67,813
58,766
54,364
46,390
39,554
32,607
26,831
21,272
16,560
13,111
9,527
6,940
5,174
3,869
2,874
2,111
1,557

8,051
6,841
6,274
5,420
5,086
4,571
3,880
3,365
2,505
2,247
1,828
1,441
1,162
873

3 Figures for color by sex in 1930 revised to include Mexicans as white. Mexicans
were classified as nonwhite in the 1930 reports.
4 Adjustment for underenumeration in the South (see series A 20 above) shows a
population of 39,818,000 of whom 34,337,000 were white and 5,481,000 were nonwhite.

1 Residence for both sexes tabulated according to the old urban (or 1940) definition
(series A 36-38) from 1790 to 1940, and for male and for female separately for 1930
and 1940. Tabulations of residence for male and for female from 1900 to 1920 are
according to the definitions current at those censuses.
2 See text for series A 34-50 for explanation of definitions.

Series A 51-58. White Population, by Sex and Nativity: 1850 to 1950
[Prior to 1920, citizenship figures restricted to males 21 and over]
Female
Male
Foreign born
N ative
Native
Foreign
Foreign
or mixed
or mixed Foreign
Total
Alien 1 Year
Total
Total
parent­
parent­
born
age
age
57
58
56
55
51
52
53

Male
Year

Native
Foreign
or mixed
Total
parent­
age
52
51

1950_ 61,952,802
1940 _ 53,437,533
1930. 48,420,037
1920. 40,902,333
1910_ 34,654,457
1900. 28,686,450

211,426,110
211,558,280
12,824,751
11,265,552
9,425,239
7,836,603

Foreign born
Total

Alien 1

53

54

5,176,390
6,011,015
7,502,491
7,528,322
7,523,788
5,515,285

2804,395
1,502,023
2,912,960
3,696,£44

62,828,058
53,358,199
47,883,298
40,205,828
33,731,955
27,908,929

212,152,265
211,599,300
13,077,632
11,420,652
9,472,598
7,809,414

4,984,778
5,408,123
6,480,914
6,184,432
5,821,757
4,698,532

1 Includes those with first papers; excludes those with citizenship unknown, of which,
for both sexes, there were 698,695 in 1950; 825,072 in 1940; 491,263 in 1930; and
790,823 in 1920.
2 Based on 20-percent sample in 1950 and 5-percent in 1940. Comparable sample
totals differ slightly from figures based on a complete count.

21,130,400
1,841,791
2,684,461
2,746,128

1890_
1880_
1870.
I860.
1850_

Female
N ative
Foreign
or mixed Foreign
Total
born
parent­
age
56
55
57

23,318,521 5,781,571 4,951,858 22,660,870 5,722,104 4,170,009
18,609,265
3,038,044
3,521,635 18,234,026
(3)
(3)
14,086,509
2,942,579 14,009,156
2,551,133
(3)
(3)
11,619,157
2,192,230 11,206,627
1,904,523
1,239,434 8,525,565
1,001,101
8,786,968

3 N ative white of foreign or mixed parentage, for both sexes, amounted to 8,274,867
in 1880 and 5,324,268 in 1870. (See Fifteenth Census of the United States: 1930, vol. II,
p. 33.)

Series A 59-70. Nonwhite Population, by Sex and Race: 1820 to 1950
Male
Year

Negro 1
Total
59

Slave
60

1950
7,298,722
6,269,038
1940.
5,855,669
1930_ _ _
1920_
5,209,436
1910_ _
4,885,881
4,386,547
1900_
3,735,603
1890
1880- ____
3,253,115
42,393,263
1870
1860__ ____ _ 2,216,744 ~1~§82~625~
1,811,258 1,602,535
1850
1,432,988 1,246,467
1840_ __ _
1,166,276 1,012,823
1830
1820
898,892
786,022

Female

Indian

Japanese

Chinese

All
other

61

62

63

64

178,824
171,427
170,350
125,068
135,133
119,484
125,719
333,985
312,534
323,924

76,649
71,967
81,771
72,707
63,070
23,341
1,780
134
47

77,008
57,389
59,802
53,891
66,856
85,341
103,620
100,686
58,633
33,149

1 Sex not reported before 1820. Total for both sexes from 1790 to 1810 is as follows:
For 1810, total 1,377,808, slaves 1,191,362; 1800, total 1,002,037, slaves 893,602;
and 1790, total 757,208, slaves 697,681.
2 Includes persons of mixed white, Negro, and Indian ancestry in certain com­
munities in eastern United States.



272,844
43,223
46,960
8,674
3,092

Negro 1
Total
65

Slave
66

7,743,564
6,596,480
6,035,474
5,253,695
4,941,882
4,447,447
3,753,073
3,327,678
42,486,746
2,225,086 ~l~971~i35~
1,827,550 1,601,778
1,440,660 1,240,888
1,162,366
996,220
872,764
752,000

Indian

Japanese

Chinese

All
other

67

68

69

70

65,119
54,980
57,063
38,303
9,087
985
259
14
8

40,621
20,115
15,152
7,748
4,675
4,522
3,868
4,779
4,566
1,784

164,586
162,542
162,047
119,369
130,550
117,712
122,534
332,422
313,197
320,097

237,396
7,244
4,018
814
83

3 Excludes Indians in Indian Territory and on Indian reservations.
4 Adjustment for underenumeration in Southern States shows 5,392,172 Negroes
for both sexes combined.

9

[Age at last birthday, except for 1890 which is age at nearest birthday. For total population, see series A 20]

Year
TOTAL

Under
5 years
71

5 to 9
years
72

FOREIGN-BORN WHITE

15 to 19
years
74

20 to 24
years
75

25 to 29
years
76

30 to 34
years
77

35 to 39
years
78

40 to 44
years
79

45 to 49
years
80

11,119,268 10,616,598 11,481,828 12,242,260 11,517,007 11,246,386 10,203,973 9,070,465
11,745,935 12,333,523 11,587,835 11,096,638 10,242,388 9,545,377 8,787,843 8,255,225
12,004,877 11,552,115 10,870,378 9,833,608 9,120,421 9,208,645 7,990,195 7,042,279
10,641,137 9,430,556 9,277,021 9,086,491 8,071,193 7,775,281 6,345,557 5,763,620
9,107,140 9,063,603 9,056,984 8,180,003 6,972,185 6,396,100 5,261,587 4,469,197
8,080,234 7,556,089 7,335,016 6,529,441 5,556,039 4,964,781 4,247,166 3,454,612
7,033,509 6,557,563 6,196,676 5,227,777 4,578,630 3,866,161 3,185,518 2,731,640
5,715,186 5,011,415 5,087,772 4,080,621 3,368,943 3,000,419 2,468,811 2,089,445
4,786,189 4,040,588 3,748,299 3,075,118 2,562,829 2,314,976 1,939,712 1,578,932
4,021,248
2,614,330
5,726,400
3,720,780 3,361,495
1,841S,660
2,82;5,819
4,27 7,318
2,890,629 2,529,792
5,660,399 5,311,342 5,606,293 5,972,078 5,624,723 5,517,544 5,070,269 4,526,366
5,952,329 6,180,153 5,692,392 5,450,662 5,070,312 4,745,659 4,419,135 4,209,269
6,068,777 5,757,825 5,336,815 4,860,180 4,561,786 4,679,860 4,136,459 3,671,924
5,369,306 4,673,792 4,527,045 4,538,233 4,130,783 4,074,361 3,285,543 3,117,550
4,601,753 4,527,282 4,580,290 4,244,348 3,656,768 3,367,016 2,786,350 2,378,916
4,083,041 3,750,451 3,624,580 3,323,543 2,901,321 2,616,865 2,255,916 1,837,836
3,574,787 3,248,711 3,104,893 2,698,311 2,425,664 2,051,044 1,654,604 1,418,102
2,907,481 2,476,088 2,554,684 2,109,741 1,744,308 1,527,159 1,243,773 1,078,695
839,578
990,021
2,435,585 1,989,695 1,835,946 1,515,671 1,273,633 1,179,366
1,392,223
2,129,017
2,911,558
1,900,868 1,650,012
967,573
1,490,135
2,194,469
1,473,116 1,237,680
536,606
866,452
756,106
.1,322,453
879,530
367,840
592,535
956,487
669,734
573,196
5 766,283
4776,150
3612,535
5 572,347
4547,597
3468,183
5432,428
4392,846
3343,150
8814,942
9,694,529 9,330,520 10,179,187 10,924,804 10,356,331 10,058,473 9,190,290 8,169,354
10,352,695 10,964,047 10,340,149 9,904,270 9,206,478 8,516,660 7,936,083 7,532,756
10,694,424 10,248,779 9,612,669 8,708,998 8,210,912 8,278,268 7,266,892 6,381,570
9,369,322 8,314,155 8,185,341 8,141,690 7,338,790 6,965,805 5,755,547 5,188,040
7,918,408 7,968,391 7,986,411 7,257,136 6,267,276 5,731,845 4,780,272 4,061,062
6,959,238 6,543,189 6,335,044 5,762,980 5,004,444 4,460,575 3,852,143 3,105,678
5,991,972 5,675,347 5,448,467 4,646,687 4,144,832 3,439,930 2,865,648 2,449,220
4,880,531 4,351,650 4,402,472 3,541,701 2,979,254 2,648,492 2,190,735 1,861,892
4,136,461 3,511,036 3,235,028 2,681,552 2,265,065 2,047,320 1,715,255 1,406,615
2,282,332
4,917,349
3,503,591
3,113,753 2,852,581
1,588,788
3,627,561
2,416,939
2,402,129 2,128,716
1,038,789
2,576,043
1,645,572
1,716,160 1,548,329
723,886
1,874,898
1,148,066
1,308,590 1,169,450
31 ,217,921
41,557,521
51,502,883
3916,507
41 ,109,265
51,116,503
3666,939
4794,453
5 844,449

50 to 54
years
81

55 to 59
years
82

60 to 64
years
83

65
and over
84

8,272,188 7,235,120
7,256,846 5,843,865
5,975,804 4,645,677
4,734,873 3,549,124
3,900,791 2,786,951
2,942,829 2,211,172
2,326,262 1,672,336
1,839,883 1,271,434
876,552
1,367,969
1,585,879
1,101},540
4,128,648 3,630,046
3,752,750 3,011,364
3,131,645 2,425,992
2,535,545 1,880,065
2,110,013 1,488,437
1,564,622 1,145,257
1,208,922
871,663
966,702
674,927
469,495
740,360
835,350
575,685
314,538
229,284
495,066
364,736
262,654

6,059,475 12,269,537
4,728,340 9,019,314
3,751,221 6,633,805
2,982,548 4,933,215
2,267,150 3,949,524
1,791,363 3,080,498
1,458,034 2,417,288
1,104,219 1,723,459
778,971 1,153,649
1,347,982
9518,792
3,037,838 5,796,974
2,397,816 4,406,120
1,941,508 3,325,211
1,581,800 2,483,071
1,185,966 1,985,976
917,167 1,555,418
758,710 1,233,719
584,858
867,564
407,491
578,230
679,194
479,962
278,966
211,002

7,535,439 6,695,732
6,680,307 5,426,845
5,445,743 4,319,301
4,317,266 3,305,671
3,555,313 2,564,206
2,633,981 2,021,217
2,090,949 1,531,659
1,627,892 1,154,915
1,204,243
794,771
1,399,675
958,171
619,390
452,788
957,854
703,114
501,758

5,652,606 11,373,687
4,416,693 8,379,431
3,496,777 6,239,973
2,771,433 4,583,026
2,069,323 3,640,003
1,620,658 2,806,719
1,323,110 2,202,112
977,308 1,543,558
686,679 1,030,782
1,182,555
819,871
560,370
420,840

Age
unknown
85
94~022
148,699
169,055
200,584
162,165
5,161
51,511
14,285
5 l7816
92,875
114,443
127,423
103,529
3,795
27,890
9,173
6,100
8,275
2,459
766
_
78,602
123,663
134,224
145,052
121,141
3,063
25,158
10,307
6,100
11,130
848
766

787,020 1,057,480 1,225,405 1,325,015 1,314,805 2,695,110
207,555
352,645
322,255
527,035
92,245
63,260
63,550
62,035
1950 10
709,091 1,048,395 1,263,070 1,503,905 1,565,568 1,318,750 1,068,875 2,059,258
209,509
424,276
53,751
164,785
8,321
21,584
1940
10,716
925,893 1,679,855
747,188 1,114,932 1,320,810 1,702,431 1,745,900 1,610,052 1,345,130 1,048,476
377,106
178,534
142,373
34,009
1930 9___ _ __ _
20,264
908,722
715,731 1,328,227
926,844 1,454,363 1,651,475 1,737,805 1,428,099 1,299,675 1,167,377
527,942
331,362
44,984
169,884
1920____ _______ _ _
26,211
925,055
627,583 1,183,349
693,520
673,761 1,430,381 1,662,696 1,505,715 1,408,093 1,303,475 1,146,360
298,509
358,330
1910____________________ 102,507
24,880
950,347
803,392
545,031
840,220
643,003
966,112
919,482 1,097,229 1,173,683 1,177,566
561,746
52,369
147,192
311,565
1900__ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
24,617
682,304
709,220
477,647
859,954
787,815
525,131
942,320
870,592
917,374 1,072,239
86,629
248,351
396,379
521,295
1890 1__ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
401,598 __________
577,087
712,890
630,941
373,114
310,463
671,116
762,631
789,265
528,255
62,371
122,697
378,812
238,439
1880___________________
1,593
220,029
369,778
180,931
600,749
452,826
203,516
708,526
667,992
609,068
689,595
83,912
174,233
205,538
325,426
1870____________________
NEGRO
859,268
386,444
973,127
862,950
516,197
704,789
1,884,219 1,530,885 1,356,764 1,226,930 1,235,035 1,253,520 1,111,950 1,142,520
1950 11
615,942 ________
295,904
815,096
692,807
397,219
992,879
985,833
550,435
1940 ___ ___ _________ 1,249,080 1,294,546 1,330,660 1,304,606 1,195,227 1,145,284
13,731
372,719
242,169
630,065
309,397
864,514
890,900
687,423
504,590
1930______ ____________ 1,230,206 1,368,381 1,251,542 1,250,528 1,203,191 1,071,787
23,503
332,713
200,118
559,701
551,589
399,110
229,980
909,739
697,865
773,931
1920 ___
_ - _____ 1,143,699 1,266,207 1,236,914 1,083,215 1,054,847
31,040
294,124
186,502
455,413
385,909
326,070
209,622
881,227
668,089
633,449
1910____________________ 1,263,288 1,246,553 1,155,266 1,060,416 1,030,795
48,811
261,363
161,687
969,172
367,216
326,384
290,987
179,176
982,022
737,479
524,607
474,687
1900___________________ 1,215,655 1,202,758 1,091,990
35,813
211,684
26 8,320
731,548
559,551
707,581
49!9,679
871,118
409,977
1890 1__________________ 121,047,574 121,093,494 121,033,701
179,901
_
685,300
538,920
227,553 | 211,991
116,519 | 126,911
834,655
659,765
389,689
351,927 | 278,076
1880 13_________________ 1,114,365 1,037,241
1 Exclusive of Indian Territory and Indian reservations with a population of 325,464 not distributed by
10 Based on 20-percent sample; figures for total white population in series A 71-85 based on complete count,
age, of whom 169,221 were male, 117,368 were white, and 18,636 were Negro. These areas were not enu11 Due to processing errors, the sum of the various ages of Negroes in 1950 (series A 71-85) will differ
merated prior to 1890.
slightly from the number of Negroes shown elsewhere.
2 White males only.
3 10 to 15 years old.
4 16 to 25 years old.
5 26 to 44 years old.
12 Estimates based on total Negroes under 15 and age distribution of nonwhites.
6 Age detail partly estimated.
7 Under 16 years old.
8 16 years old and over.
13 Nonwhite population. Age not tabulated for Negroes separate from other nonwhite races.
9 Revised
 to include Mexicans classified as nonwhite in the 1930 reports.


POPULATION

16,163,571 13,199,685
1950
10,541,524 10,684,622
1940
11,444,390 12,607,609
1930
11,573,230 11,398,075
1920
10,631,364 9,760,632
1910
1900___________________ 9,170,628 8,874,123
7,634,693 7,573,998
1890 1
6,914,516 6,479,660
1880
5,514,713 4,814,713
1870
4,842,496 4,171,200
I860
3,497,773 3,241,268
1850___________________
MALE
8,236,164 6,714,555
1950
5,354,808 5,418,823
1940
5,806,174 6,381,108
1930
5,857,461 5,753,001
1920
5,380,596 4,924,123
1910
1900____________________ 4,633,612 4,479,396
3,884,869 3,830,352
1890 1
1880
- - 3,507,709 3,275,131
2,797,257 2,437,442
1870
2,449,547 2,109,545
1860
1850____________________ 1,769,460 1,640,407
1840 2_
- - - - - 1,270,743 1,024,050
782,075
972,980
18302_
1.34 5,220
1820 2_
1,035,258
1810 2
763,461
1800 2 6 _
7800,492
1790 2«_________________
WHITE
14,184,504 11,596,572
1950
1940
_ _ _ _ _ _ 9,229,505 9,328,951
19309
____ _ _ 10,142,169 11,161,663
10,373,921 10,087,245
1920__ _ __
_
1910
_ _ _ _ 9,322,914 8,475,173
1900____________________ 7,919,952 7,638,326
1890 l_ _____ 6,579,648 6,473,168
5,800,151 5,442,419
1880
_ _
1870______ ____________ 4,719,792 4,151,715
1860__ _ _ _________ - 4,117,445 3,528,098
1850___________________ 2,896,458 2,704,128
1840________ _________ 2,474,062 2,010,990
1830 _ ________________ 1,894,914 1,532,816
2,62 5,770
1820___________________
2,016,684
1810
1,489,081
1800 6__________________

10 to 14
years
73

A 71-85

Series A 71-85. Population, by Age, Sex, Race, and Nativity: 1790 to 1950

AGE, SEX, RACE, NATIVITY

A 71-122

Series A 71-85. Population, by Age, Sex, Race, and Nativity: 1790 to 1950—Con.
Under 5 5 to 9
years
years

NEGRO— Con.
1870_________________
1860_________________
Free colored-------Slave-----------------1850_________________
Free colored_____
Slave____________
1840_________________
Free colored_____
Slave____________
1830_________________
Free colored_____
Slave_______ ____
1820_________________
Free colored_____
Slave____________

5 26 to 44 years old.

10 to 14 15 to 19 20 to 24 25 to 29 30 to 34 35 to 39 40 to 44 45 to 49 50 to 54 55 to 59 60 to 64 65 and Age
years
years
years
years
years
years
years
years
over unknown
years
years
years

791,421 659,831
719,084 637,806
65,918 61,857
653,166 575,949
601,315 537,140
60,821 58,052
540,494 479,088
955,395
111,346
844,049
797,167
96,004
701,163
17 763,747
17 93,551
*7 670,196

Year

645,311
601,647
60,399
541,248
488,500
52,308
436,192

14 10 to 23 years old.

,854 379,048 284,749 258,838 216,820 168,968 161,362 80,857 91,314 122,058
520,550
783,603
500,598
324,519
183,693
163,029
501,593
85,562
61,732
44,726
27,991
26,966
52,747
698,041
438,866
155,702
448,846
279,793
136,063
138,921
649,757
408,880
257,872
401,076
151,369
77,547
43,794
55,225
37,940
24,353
24,169
572,210
353,655
219,932
127,016
114,752
357,282
^ 552,114
343,099
132,320
14 890,720!
^ 77,003
16 58,635
24,912
14109,397*
475,111
16 284,464
102,408
14 781,3231
15 431,562
16 277,365
109,994
14 712,5541
60,191
25,589
“ 46,598
14 91,2171
15 371,371
84,405
16 230,767
14 621,337 (
5367,156
18 456,372
184,381
36,494
5 50,741
18 52,848
147,887
5316,415
18 403,524

15 24 to 35 years old.

16 36 to 54 years old.

17 Under 14 years old.

28
26,258
172
26,086
3,978
286
3,692

1814 to 25 years old.

Series A 86-94. Median Age of Population, by Color and Sex: 1790 to 1950
[In years. Because of change in computation procedure, medians for 1850 to 1930 differ slightly from those published in the population census reports for 1930 and previous years]
Year
1950._
1940._
1930._
1920._
1910._
1900_ _
1890__
1880._
1870_ _

All classes
Total Male Female Total
86
88
89
87
30.2
29.0
26.5
25.3
24.1
22.9
22.0
20.9
20.2

29.9
29.1
26.7
25.8
24.6
23.3
22.3
21.2
20.2

30.5
29.0
26.2
24.7
23.5
22.4
21.6
20.7
20.1

30.8
29.5
26.9
25.6
24.5
23.4
22.5
21.4
20.4

Nonwhite
White
Male Female Total Male Female Year
94
90
92
93
91
30.4
29.5
27.1
26.1
24.9
23.8
22.9
21.6
20.6

31.1
29.5
26.6
25.1
23.9
22.9
22.1
21.1
20.3

26.1
25.2
23.5
22.4
21.1
19.7
18.4
18.0
18.5

25.9
25.4
23.9
23.1
21.5
20.0
18.5
17.9
18.2

26.2
25.1
23.1
21.9
20.6
19.5
18.3
18.0
18.9

1860__
1850_ _
1840_ _
1830._
1820._
1810
1800
1790

All classes
Total Male Female Total
86
87
88
89
19.4
18.9
17.8
17.2
16.7

19.8
19.2
17.8
17.1
16.6

19.1
18.6
17.7
17.3
16.7

White
Nonwhite
Male Female Total Male Female
90
91
92
93
94

19.7
19.2
17.9
17.2
16.5
16.0
16.0

20.2
19.5
17.9
17.2
16.5
15.9
15.7
15.9

19.3
18.8
17.8
17.3
16.6
16.1
16.3

17.5
17.4
17.3
16.9
17.2

17.5
17.3
17.0
16.7
16.9

17.5
17.4
17.5
17.1
17.4

Series A 95-122. Population, by Race and Nativity* for Regions: 1790 to 1950
[For total population, see series A 20]

Year
1950._
1940. _
1930. _
1920. _
1910._
1900..
1890._
1880. _
1870._
1860_ _
1850__
1840 L
1830 l1820..
1810. _
1800._
1790__

Total
95
39,477,986
35,976,777
34,427,091
29,662,053
25,868,573
21,046,695
17,406,969
14,507,407
12,298,730
10,594,268
8,626,851
761,082
542,381
359,916
486,675
635,576
968,040

Total
96
37,398,684
34,566,768
33,244,081
28,957,919
25,360,966
20,637,888
17,121,985
14,273,844
12,117,269
10,438,028
8,477,089
6,618,758
5,417,167
4,249,192
3,384,438
2,552,510
1,900,616

Northeast
Negro
White
Slave
Native Foreign
Total
born
99
98
97
32,204,834 5,193,850 2,018,182
28,545,927 6,020,841 1,369,875
26,135,432 7,108,649 1,146,985
22,174,690 6,783,229 679,234
18,720,401 6,640,565 484,176
15,898,900 4,738,988 385,020
13,247,119 3,874,866 269,906
11,465,448 2,808,396 229,417
9,599,990 2,517,279 179,738
18
8,419,243 2,018,785 156,001
236
7,153,512 1,323,577 149,762
765
142,324
2,780
125,214
110,724 18,001
102,237 27,081
83,066 36,370
67,424 40,354

Other
races

Total

101

102

61,120
40,134
36,025
24,900
23,431
23,787
15,078
4,146
1,723
239

44,460,762
40,143,332
38,594,100
34,019,792
29,888,542
26,333,004
22,410,417
17.364.111
12.981.111
9,096,716
5,403,595
3,351,542
1,610,473
859,305
292,107
51,006

103
42,119,384
38,639,970
37,249,272
33,164,249
29,279,243
25,775,870
21,913,813
16,961,423
12,698,503
8,899,969
5,267,988
3,262,195
1,568,930
841,045
285,173
50,371

North Central
White
Native Foreign
born
39,407,638
35,291,033
32,902,458
28,569,009
24,598,792
21,624,468
17,860,356
14,049,225
10,367,625
7,357,376
4,617,913

Negro
Total

Slave

Other
races

106
108
113,502
2,711,746 2,227,876
83,044
3,348,937 1,420,318
82,594
4,346,814 1,262,234
62,468
4,595,240 793,075
65,801
4,680,451 543,498
61,383
,151,402 495,751
65,492
4,053,457 431,112
17,067
2,912,198 385,621
9,528
2,330,878 273,080
1,542,593 184,239 114,948 12,508
650,075 135,607 87,422
89,347 58,604
41,543 25,879
18,260 11,329
6,934 3,304
135
635

1 Excludes persons (6,100 in 1840 and 5,318 in 1830) on public ships in the service of the United States, not credited to any region.




11

A 123-180

POPULATION

Series

Population, by Race and Nativity, for Regions: 1790 to 1950—Con.

A 95-122.

South
Year

Total

West
Negro

White
Total

Native

110

111

1950______ 47,197,088 36,849,529 36,092,010
1940______ 41,665,901 31,658,578 31,032,902
1930______ 37,857,633 28.371.969 27,571,198
1920______ 33,125,803 24,132,214 23,285,022
1910______ 29,389,330 20,547,420 19,821,249
1900______ 24,523,527 16.521.970 15,959,395
1890______ 20,028,059 13,193,453 12,672,558
1880______ 16,516,568 10,555,427 10,113,361
1870______ 212,288,020 27 ,863,209 7,467,542
1860______ 11,133,361 7,033,973 6,642,201
1850______ 8,982,612 5,630,414 5,390,314
18401_____ 6,950,729 4,308,752
18301
5,707,848 3,545,963
1820______ 4,419,232 2,776,560
1810______ 3,461,099 2,192,462
1800______ 2,621,901 1,703,565
1790______ 1,961,174 1,271,390
1 Excludes persons (6,100 in 1840 and 5,318 in
of the United States, not credited to any region.

Foreign
born

Total

Slave

Other
races

Total

White
Total

Native

112

Negro
Foreign
born
119
1,498,053
1,423,684
1,727,171
1,487,093
1,298,358
760,852
672,649
397,019
249,888
143,603
26,783

Total

Slave

Other
races

114
116
113
115
117
118
120
122
10,225,407
122,152 19,561,525 18,574,431 17,076,378
570,821
416,273
9,904,619
102,704 13,883,265 13,349,554 11,925,870
170,706
363,005
9.361.577
124,087 11,896,222 11,421,418 9,694,247
120,347
354,457
8,912,231
81,358 8,902,972 8,566,533 7,079,440
78,591
257,848
8,749,427
92,483 6,825,821 6,544,328 5,245,970
50,662
230,831
7,922,969
78,588 4,091,349 3,873,468 3,112,616
30,254
187,627
6.760.577
74,029 3,102,269 2,872,007
199,358
27,081
203,181
5,953,903
7,238 1,767,697 1,612,276
215,257
11,852
143,569
4,000
910,396
24,420,811
990,510
660,508
73,734
6,380
618,976
4,097,111 3,838,765 2,277
550,567
406,964
4,479
63,930
3,352,198 3,116,629
178,818
177,577
150,794
1,241
2,641,977 2,427,986
2,161,885 1,980,384
1,642,672 1,508,692
1,268,637 1,160,977
918,336 857,097
689,784 657,327
1830) on public ships in the service 2 Adjustment for underenumeration shows a total for the South of 13,548,098, of
whom 8,611,124 were white and 4,932,974 were Negro.
757,519
625,676
800.771
847,192
726,171
562,575
520,895
442,066
395,667
391.772
240,100

Series A 123-180. Population, for States: 1790 to 1950
[Insofar as possible, population shown is that of present area of State. For U. S. total population, see series A 20. However, in 1830, series A 20 includes 5,318 persons on
public ships in the service of the United States not credited to any State; the corresponding figure for 1840 is 6,100]
Series
No.
123
124
125
126
127
128
129
130
131
132
133
134
135
136
137
138
139
140
141
142
143
144
145
146
147
148
149
150
151
152
153
154
155
156
157
158
159
160
161
162
163
164
165
166
167
168
169
170
171
172
173
174
175
176
177
178
179
180

12

State
New England _ _
Maine
_
_
New Hampshire
Vermont
Massachusetts
Rhode Island- _ _
Connecticut _
Middle Atlantic.
New York
New Jersey
Pennsylvania
East North Central
Ohio
_ _ _
_
_ _
Indiana
- _
Illinois
Michigan
Wisconsin
West North C en tra l---_
Minnesota
Iowa _
_ _
Missouri
North Dakota
South Dakota _ _
Nebraska _ _
Kansas
South Atlantic _
Delaware
_
Maryland
Dist. of Columbia
Virginia
_
_
West Virginia _
North Carolina
South Carolina _
Georgia
_ _
Florida
East South Central
_ _ _
Kentucky
Tennessee.
Alabama _
_
__
Mississippi _ _
West South Central- __
_ _ —
Arkansas
Louisiana
Oklahoma _
_
_ _
Texas
Mountain _ _
Montana _
_
_
Idaho _ Wyoming
Colorado
New Mexico _ _
_
Arizona
Utah________________________________________
Nevada _
_
__
Pacific __ _
_____ ________ __ _
Washington _____
___
Oregon _ _ _ __ __ _ _ _ _
C aliforn ia___




1950

1940

1930

1920

9,314,453 8,437,290 8,166,341 7,400,909
913,774
847,226
797,423
768,014
533,242
491,524
465,293
443,083
377,747
359,231
359,611
352,428
4,690,514 4,316,721 4,249,614 3,852,356
791,896
713,346
687,497
604,397
2,007,280 1,709,242 1,606,903 1,380,631
30,163,533 27,539,487 26,260,750 22,261,144
14,830,192 13,479,142 12,588,066 10,385,227
4,835,329 4,160,165 4,041,334 3,155,900
10,498,012 9,900,180 9,631,350 8,720,017
30,399,368 26,626,342 25,297,185 21,475,543
7,946,627 6,907,612 6,646,697
5,759,394
3,934,224 3,427,796 3,238,503 2,930,390
8,712,176 7,897,241 7,630,654 6,485,280
6,371,766 5,256,106 4,842,325 3,668,412
3,434,575 3,137,587 2,939,006 2,632,067
14,061,394 13,516,990 13,296,915 12,544,249
2,982,483 2,792,300 2,563,953 2,387,125
2,621,073 2,538,268 2,470,939 2,404,021
3,954,653 3,784,664 3,629,367 3,404,055
619,636
641,935
680,845
646,872
652,740
642,961
692,849
636,547
1,325,510 1,315,834 1,377,963
1,296,372
1,905,299 1,801,028 1,880,999 1,769,257
21,182,335 17,823,151 15,793,589 13,990,272
318,085
266,505
238,380
223,003
2,343,001 1,821,244 1,631,526 1,449,661
663,091
486,869
437,571
802,178
3,318,680 2,677,773 2,421,851 2,309,187
2,005,552 1,901,974 1,729,205 1,463,701
4,061,929 3,571,623 3,170,276 2,559,123
2,117,027 1,899,804 1,738,765 1,683,724
3,444,578 3,123,723 2,908,506 2,895,832
2,771,305 1,897,414 1,468,211
968,470
11,477,181 10,778,225 9,887,214 8,893,307
2,944,806 2,845,627 2,614,589 2,416,630
3,291,718 2,915,841 2,616,556 2,337,885
3,061,743 2,832,961 2,646,248 2,348,174
2,178,914 2,183,796 2,009,821 1,790,618
14,537,572 13,064,525 12,176,830 10,242,224
1,909,511 1,949,387 1,854,482
1,752,204
2,683,516 2,363,880 2,101,593 1,798,509
2,233,351 2,336,434 2,396,040 2,028,283
7,711,194 6,414,824 5,824,715 4,663,228
5,074,998 4,150,003 3,701,789 3,336,101
591,024
559,456
537,606
548,889
588,637
524,873
445,032
431,866
290,529
250,742
225,565
194,402
1,325,089 1,123,296 1,035,791
939,629
681,187
531,818
423,317
360,350
499,261
435,573
749,587
334,162
688,862
550,310
507,847
449,396
160,083
110,247
91,058
77,407
14,486,527 9,733,262 8,194,433 5,566,871
1,736,191 1,563,396 1,356,621
2,378,963
953,786
1,521,341 1,089,684
783,389
10,586,223 6,907,387 5,677,251 3,426,861

1910

1900

6,552,681
742,371
430,572
355,956
3,366,416
542,610
1,114,756
19,315,892
9,113,614
2,537,167
7,665,111
18,250,621
4,767,121
2,700,876
5,638,591
2,810,173
2,333,860
11,637,921
2,075,708
2,224,771
3,293,335
577,056
583,888
1,192,214
1,690,949
12,194,895
202,322
1,295,346
331,069
2,061,612
1,221,119
2,206,287
1,515,400
2,609,121
752,619
8,409,901
2,289,905
2,184,789
2,138,093
1,797,114
8,784,534
1,574,449
1,656,388
1,657,155
3,896,542
2,633,517
376,053
325,594
145,965
799,024
327,301
204,354
373,351
81,875
4,192,304
1,141,990
672,765
2,377,549

5,592,017
694,466
411,588
343,641
2,805,346
428,556
908,420
15,454,678
7,268,894
1,883,669
6,302,115
15,985,581
4,157,545
2,516,462
4,821,550
2,420,982
2,069,042
10,347,423
1,751,394
2,231,853
3,106,665
319,146
401,570
1,066,300
1,470,495
10,443,480
184,735
1,188,044
278,718
1,854,184
958,800
1,893,810
1,340,316
2,216,331
528,542
7,547,757
2,147,174
2,020,616
1,828,697
1,551,270
6,532,290
1,311,564
1,381,625
790,391
3,048,710
1,674,657
243,329
161,772
92,531
539,700
195,310
122,931
276,749
42,335
2,416,692
518,103
413,536
1,485,053

1890

1880

4,700,749 4,010,529
661,086
648,936
376,530
346,991
332,422
332,286
2,238,947 1,783,085
345,506
276,531
746,258
622,700
12,706,220 10,496 878
6,003,174
5,082,871
1,444,933 1,131,116
5,258,113 4,282,891
13,478,305 11,206,668
3,672,329 3,198,062
2,192,404 1,978,301
3,826,352 3,077,871
2,093,890 1,636,937
1,693,330 1,315,497
8,932,112 6,157,443
1,310,283
780,773
1,912,297 1,624,615
2,679,185 2,168,380
190,983
36,909
348,600
98,268
1,062,656
452,402
1,428,108
996,096
8,857,922 7,597,197
168,493
146,608
1,042,390
934,943
230,392
177,624
1,655,980 1,512,565
762,794
618,457
1,617,949 1,399,750
1,151,149
995,577
1,837,353 1,542,180
391,422
269,493
6,429,154 5,585,151
1,858,635 1,648,690
1,767,518 1,542,359
1,513,401 1,262,505
1,289,600 1,131,597
4,740,983 3,334,220
1,128,211
802,525
1,118,588
939,946
258,657
2,235,527 ~~I~59l~749
1,213,935
653,119
142,924
39,159
88,548
32,610
62,555
20,789
413,249
194,327
160,282
119,565
88,243
40,440
210,779
143,963
47,355
62,266
1,888,334 1,114,578
357,232
75,116
317,704
174,768
1,213,398
864,694

STATES

Series
Series
No.
123
124
125
126
127
128
129
130
131
132
133
134
135
136
137
138
139
140
141
142
143
144
145
146
147
148
149
150
151
152
153
154
155
156
157
158
159
160
161
162
163
164
165
166
167
168
169
170
171
172
173
174
175
176
177
178
179
180

State
New England_____
M aine__________
New HampshireVermont________
Massachusetts —
Rhode Island___
Connecticut_____
Middle Atlantic _
New York___
New Jersey—
Pennsylvania _
East North CentralOhio_____________
Indiana_________
Illinois__________
Michigan________
Wisconsin_______
West North CentralMinnesota________
Iowa_____________
Missouri_________
North D akota___
South Dakota____
Nebraska________
Kansas___________
South Atlantic______
Delaware_________
Maryland________
Dist. of Columbia.
Virginia__________
West Virginia_____
North Carolina---South Carolina----Georgia__________
Florida___________
East South Central _
Kentucky_______
Tennessee_______
Alabama________
Mississippi---------W est South Central _
Arkansas_________
Louisiana________
Oklahoma________
Texas------------------Mountain_____
Montana___
Idaho_______
W yoming___
Colorado____
New MexicoArizona_____
U tah_______
N evada_____
Pacific________
Washington _
Oregon-------California__

A 123-180.

Population, for States: 1790 to 1950—Con.

1870

1860

3,487,924
626.915
318,300
330,551
1,457,351
217,353
537,454
8,810,806
4,382,759
906,096
3,521,951
9,124,517
2,665,260
1,680,637
2,539,891
1,184,059
1,054,670
3,856,594
439,706
1,194,020
1,721,295
2,405
11,776
122,993
364,399
5,853,610
125,015
780,894
131,700
1,225,163
442,014
1,071,361
705,606
1,184,109
187,748
4,404,445
1,321,011
1,258,520
996,992
827,922
2,029,965
484,471
726.915
818,579
315,385
20,595
14,999
9,118
39,864
91,874
9,658
86,786
42,491
675,125
23,955
90,923
560,247

3,135,283
628,279
326,073
315,098
1,231,066
174,620
460,147
7,458,985
3,880,735
672,035
2,906,215
6,926,884
2,339,511
1,350,428
1,711,951
749,113
775,881
2,169,832
172,023
674,913
1,182,012
7 4,837
28,841
107,206
5,364,703
112,216
687,049
75,080
1,219,630
376,688
992,622
703,708
1,057,286
140,424
4,020,991
1,155,684
1,109,801
964,201
791,305
1,747,667
435,450
708,002
604,215
174,923
34,277
10 93,516
11 40,273
12 6,857
444,053
1311,594
52,465
379,994

1790
2,728,116
583,169
317,976
314,120
994,514
147,545
370,792
5,898,735
3,097,394
489,555
2,311,786
4,523,260
1,980,329
988,416
851,470
397,654
305,391
880,335
6,077
192,214
682,044

2,234,822
501,793
284,574
291,948
737,699
108,830
309,978
4,526,260
2,428,921
373,306
1,724,033
2,924,728
1,519,467
685,866
476,183
212,267
530,945
426,814
643,112
383,702

1,954,717
399,455
269,328
280,652
610,408
97,199
297,675
3,587,664
1,918,608
320,823
1,348,233
1,470,018
937,903
343,031
157,445
4 31,639

1,660,071
298,335
244,161
235,981
523,287
83,059
275,248
,699,845
,372,812
277,575
,049,458
792,719
581,434
147,178
55,211
4 8,896

1,471,973
228,705
214,460
217,895
472,040
76,931
261,942
2,014,702
959,049
245,562
810,091
272,324
230,760
224,520
312,282
44,762

140,455

66,586

19,783

140^455

66^586

~l9~783

4,679,090
91,532
583,034
51,687
1,119,348
302,313
869,039
668,507
906,185
87,445
3,363,271
982,405
1,002,717
771,623
606,526
940,251
209,897
517,762
212,592
72,927

3,925,299
78,085
470,019
33,745
1,025,227
224,537
753,419
594,398
691,392
54,477
2,575,445
779,828
829,210
590,756
375,651
449,985
97,574
352,411

3,645,752
76,748
447,040
30,261
1,044,054
176,924
737,987
581,185
516,823
34,730
1,815,969
687,917
681,904
309,527
136,621
246,127
30,388
215,739

3,061,063
72,749
407,350
23,336
938,261
136,808
638,829
502,741
340,989
1,190,489
564,317
422,823
127,901
75,448
167,680
14,273
153,407

1,233 ,011
151 ,719
183 ,858
154 ,465
422 ,845
69 ,122
251 ,002
1,402 ,565
589 ,051
211 ,149
602 ,365
51 ,006
*45 ,365
2 5 ,641

1,009,,408
96,,540
141,,885
85,,425
378;,787
68,,825
237,,946
958,,632
340,,120
184.,139
434.,373

2,674,891
72,674
380,546
15,471
877,683
105,469
555,500
415,115
252,433

2,286,494
64,273
341,548
8,144
807,557
78,592
478,103
345,591
162,686

1,851,806
59,096
319,728
691^737
55,873
393,751
249,073
82,548

708,590
406,511
261,727
89,046
931,306
77,618
1,062
76,556

335,407
220,955
105,602
81,250
97,600

109,368
73,677
35,691

61,547
11^380
105,891
141,201
12,093
92,597

1 Territory northwest of the Ohio River.
2 1810 includes population of area separated in 1816; 1800 includes 3,124 persons
in those portions of Indiana Territory which were taken to form Michigan and Illinois
Territories in 1805 and 1809, respectively, and that portion which was separated
in 1816.
3 Illinois Territory.
4 Michigan Territory as then constituted; boundaries changed in 1816, 1818, 1834,
and 1836.
5 Includes that part of Minnesota northeast of Mississippi River.
6 Includes that part of Minnesota lying west of Mississippi River and a line drawn
from its source northwards to Canadian boundary.




A 123-180

7 Dakota Territory.
8 Those parts of Mississippi Territory now in present State.
9 Those parts of present State included in Mississippi Territory as then constituted.
10 Includes area taken to form part of Arizona Territory in 1863.
11 Utah Territory exclusive of that part of present State of Colorado taken to form
Colorado Territory in as organized in 1861.
1861.
12 Nevada Territory
13 Includes population of Idaho and parts of Montana and Wyoming.
14 Parts of Oregon Territory taken to form part of Washington Territory in 1853
and 1859.

13

POPULATION

A 181-209

Series A 181-194. Number of Places in Urban and Rural Territory, by Size of Place: 1790 to 1950
[In 1930 each pair of the following was counted as a single place: Bluefield, Va., and Bluefield, W. Va.; Bristol, Tenn., and Bristol, Va.; Delmar, Del., and Delmar, Md.; Harrison,
Ohio, and West Harrison, Ind.; Junction City, Ark., and Junction City, La.; Texarkana, Ark., and Texarkana, Tex. Texhoma, Okla., and Texhoma, Tex.; and Union City,
Ind., and Union City, Ohio. In all other years they were counted as separate incorporated places. For description of urban definition, see text]
1950

Series
No.

Class and population size

181
182
183
184
185
186
187
188
189
190
191
192
193
194

Urban territory _
Places of 1,000,000 or more___
Places of 500,000 to 1,000,000 __
Places of 250,000 to 500,000___
Places of 100,000 to 250,000___
Places of 50,000 to 100,000-----Places of 25,000 to 50,000
Places of 10,000 to 25,000 _
Places of 5,000 to 10,000
Places of 2,500 to 5,000
Places under 2,500
Rural territory _
_ _
Places of 1,000 to 2,500
Places under 1,000

Series
No.

Class and population size

181
182
183
184
185
186
187
188
189
190

Urban territory
Places of 1,000,000 or more
Places of 500,000 to 1,000,000__
Places of 250,000 to 500,000___
Places of 100,000 to 250,000_ _ _
Places of 50,000 to 100,000____
Places of 25,000 to 50,000
Places of 10,000 to 25,000 _
Places of 5,000 to 10,000
Places of 2,500 to 5,000 _

1940
urban
definition

1950
urban
definition

1940

1930

1920

1910

1900

1890

1880

4,023
5
13
23
66
128
271
814
1,133
1,570

3,464
5
9
23
55
107
213
665
965
1,422

3,165
5
8
24
56
98
185
606
851
1,332

2,722
3
9
13
43
76
143
465
715
1,255

2,262
3
5
11
31
59
119
369
605
1,060

1,737
3
3
9
23
40
82
280
465
832

1,348
3
1
7
17
30
66
230
340
654

13,235
3,408
9,827

4,741
5
13
23
65
126
252
778
1,176
1,846
457
13,807
4,158
9,649

13,288
3,205
10,083

13,433
3,087
10,346

12,855
3,030
9,825

11,830
2,717
9,113

8,931
2,128
6,803

6,490
1,603
4,887

1860

1870

1850
236
1
5
4
16
36
85
89

392
2
1
6
7
19
58
136
163

663
2
5
7
11
27
116
186
309

1840

1830

1820

1810

1800

C
1)
0)
0
e)

939
1
3
4
12
15
42
146
249
467

1790

131

90

61

46

33

24

1
2
2
7
25
48
46

1
3
3
16
33
34

1
2
2
8
22
26

2
2
7
17
18

1
2
3
15
12

2
3
7
12

1 N ot available.

Series A 195-209. Population in Urban and Rural Territory, by Size of Place: 1790 to 1950
[For U .S . total population, see series A 20]
191so

Series
No.

Class and population size

1950
urban
definition

1940
urban
definition

1940

1930

1920

1910

1900

1890

1880

195
196
197
198
199
200
201
202
203
204
205
206
207
208
209

Urban territory _
Places of 1,000,000 or more___
Places of 500,000 to 1,000,0 0 0 Places of 250,000 to 500,000___
Places of 100,000 to 250,000___
Places of 50,000 to 100,000____
Places of 25,000 to 50,000
Places of 10,000 to 25,000 _
Places of 5,000 to 10,000
Places of 2,500 to 5,000 _
Places under 2,500
Rural territory
_ _
Places of 1,000 to 2,500_______
Places under 1,000
Other rural territory

196,467,686
17,404,450
9,186,945
8,241,560
9,478,662
8,930,823
8,807,721
11,866,505
8,138,596
6,490,406
577,992
54,229,675
6,473,315
4,031,148
43,725,212

88,927,464
17,404,450
9,186,945
8,241,560
9,614,111
9,073 363
9,495,862
12,467,229
7,878,675
5,565,269

74,423,702
15,910,866
6,456,959
7,827,514
7,792,650
7,343,917
7,417,093
9,966,898
6,681,894
5,025,911

68,954,823
15,064,555
5,763,987
7,956,228
7,540,966
6,491,448
6,425,693
9,097,200
5,897,156
4,717,590

54,157,973
10,145,532
6,223,769
4,540,838
6,519,187
5,265,408
5,075,041
7,034,668
4,967,625
4,385,905

41,998,932
8,501,174
3,010,667
3,949,839
4,840,458
4,178,915
4,023,397
5,548,868
4,217,420
3,728,194

30,159,921
6,429,474
1,645,087
2,861,296
3,272,490
2,709,338
2,800,627
4,338,250
3,204,195
2,899,164

22,106,265
3,662,115
806,343
2,447,608
2,781,894
2,027,569
2,268,786
3,451,258
2,383,685
2,277,007

61,769,897
5,382,637
4,129,049
52,258,211

57,245,573
5,026,834
4,315,843
47,902,896

53,820,223
4,820,707
4,362,746
44,636,770

51,552,647
4,712,007
4,254,968
42,585,672

49,973,334
4,234,406
3,930,222
41,808,706

45,834,654
3,298,054
3,003,479
39,533,121

40,841,449
2,508,642
2,249,332
36,083,475

14,129,735
1,206,299
1,917,018
1,300,809
1,786,783
947,918
1,446,366
2,189,447
1,717,146
1,617,949
(2)
36,026,048
(2)
(2)
(2)

Series
No.

Class and population size

1870

1860

1850

1840

1830

1820

1810

1800

1790

1,127,247

693,255

525,459

322,371

201,655

202,589
222,474
105,243
240,371
230,859
125,711
11,738,773

123,706
126,540
70,474
121,613
155,035
95,887
8,945,198

150,095
80,342
108,980
116,271
69,771
6,714,422

60,515
67,734
54,479
94,394
45,249
4,986,112

6 l “653
48,182
47,569
44,251
3,727,559

195
196
197
198
199
200
201
202
203
204
206

Urban territory
9,902,361
Places of 1,000,000 or more
Places of 500,000 to 1,000,0 0 0 - 1,616,314
Places of 250,000 to 500,000___ 1,523,820
989,855
Places of 100,000 to 250,000___
768,238
Places of 50,000 to 100,000____
930,119
Places of 25,000 to 50,000___
Places of 10,000 to 25,000 _
1,709,541
Places of 5,000 to 10,000____
1,278,145
Places of 2,500 to 5,000___
1,086,329
Rural territory _ _
28,656,010

6,216,518
1,379,198
266,661
992,922
452,060
670,293
884,433
976,436
594,515
25,226,803

3,543,716 1,845,055
515,547
312,710
65<M2l~
204,506
284,355
187,048
611,328
235,424
404,822
560,783
596,086
328,744
316,496
171,801
19,648,160 15,224,398

1 Includes population of unincorporated parts of urbanized areas (7,344,026).

14




2 N ot available.

MARITAL STATUS AND HOUSEHOLDS

A 210-244

Series A 210-227. Marital Status, by Sex: 1890 to 1957

[In thousands. Total population, 1890 to 1940, and civilian population, 1947 to 1956. 1947 to 1957 based on sample figures from Current Population Survey. Civilian
population includes members of the Armed Forces living off post or with their families on post. For total population, see series A 1]
Male, 14 years old and over
Female, 14 years old and over
Percent, standardized for age
Percent, standardized for age
Di­
Di­
Wid­
D i­ Total Single Mar­ owed vorced Single Mar­ Wid­
Total Single Mar­ Wid­ vorced Single Mar­ Wid­
Date
Di­
ried owed
ried
ried owed vorced
ried owed vorced
214
217
215
216
218
219
220
221
222
211
212
213
210
223
224
225
226
227
57,470
March 1957
56,744
March 1956 __
April 1955 1______ 55,994
April 1954 1_____ 55,297
April 1953 1______ 54,784
April 1952_______ 53,564
April 1951_______ 53,420
March 1950 1____ 54,762
April 1949
53,448
April 1948_______ 53,227
April 1947_______ 52,350
April 1940
50,554
April 1930_______ 245,088
January 1920____ 237,954
April 1910_______ 233,362
June 1900
226,414
221,501
June 1890

13,754
13,516
13,522
13,004
13,000
12,868
12,984
14,322
13,952
14,734
14,760
17,593
16,159
13,998
13,485
11,090
9,379

1,040
926
990
1,080
944
764
866
917
842
1,027
818
624
489
235
156
84
49

2,186
2,335
2,357
2,171
2,228
2,102
2,216
2,296
2,181
2,055
2,134
2,144
2,025
1,758
1,471
1,178
815

40,490
39,967
39,125
39,042
38,612
37,830
37,354
37,227
36,474
35,411
34,638
30,192
26,328
21,852
18,093
13,956
11,205

24.5
24.7
25.1
24.7
24.8
24.6
24.6
26.2
25.7
26.9
27.2
31.1
30.9
31.8
32.5
33.1
32.8

3 .5
3.8
3.9
3.7
3.8
3.8
4.1
4.2
4.2
4.0
4.3
4.8
5.6
6.1
6.2
6.4
5.6

70.3
70.0
69.3
69.8
69.7
70.2
69.6
68.0
68.5
67.1
66.9
62.8
62.1
61.3
60.4
59.9
61.2

1.8
1.6
1.7
1.9
1.7
1.4
1.6
1.7
1.6
1.9
1.6
1.3
1.2
0.7
0.5
0.4
0.3

1
1 N ot strictly comparable with figures for 1951 and 1952. See text of Series P-20,
Nos. 50 and 81.

61,863
60,975
60,250
59,542
58,940
58,034
57,354
56,970
56,001
55,364
54,806
50,549
2 44,013
236,190
2 30,959
225,024
2 20,298

11,487
11,126
10,962
11,043
10,774
11,068
10,946
11,139
11,174
11,623
12,078
13,936
12,478
10,624
9,842
8,337
6,928

41,204
40,650
40,327
39,869
39,426
38,670
38,124
37,633
37,012
35,783
35,212
30,090
26,175
21,324
17,688
13,814
11,126

7,778
7,707
7,595
7,256
7,404
6,972
7,084
6,967
6,582
6,725
6,376
5,700
4,734
3,918
3,176
2,718
2,155

1,394
1,492
1,366
1,374
1,336
1,324
1,200
1,231
1,233
1,233
1,140
823
573
273
185
115
72

18.6
18.5
18.6
19.0
18.6
19.3
19.2
19.6
19.7
20.5
21.1
24.3
23.7
24.1
24.5
25.0
24.3

67.7
67.4
67.4
67.2
67.1
66.6
66.4
66.1
66.0
64.6
64.5
61.0
61.2
60.4
60.1
58.7
59.4

11.5
11.6
11.8
11.5
12.0
11.8
12.3
12.2
12.1
12.7
12.3
12.9
13.7
14.6
14.7
15.7
15.9

2 .3
2 .5
2 .3
2 .3
2.3
2 .3
2.1
2.2
2.2
2.2
2 .1
1.7
1.3
0 .8
0.6
0 .5
0.4

2 Includes marital status not reported.

Series A 228-229. Median Age at First Marriage, by Sex: 1890 to 1957
[In years. 1947 to 1957 based on sample figures from Current Population Survey]

Year

Male
228

Female
229

Year

Male
228

Female
229

Year

Male
228

Female
229

Year

Male
228

Female
229

Year

Male
228

Female
229

Year

Male
228

Female
229

1957____
1956____
1955____

22.5
22.3
22.5

20.3
20.1
20.2

1954__
1953__
1952__

23.0
22.8
23.0

20.3
20.2
20.2

1951__
1950__
1949__

22.9
22.8
22.7

20.4
20.3
20.3

1948__
1947__

23.3
23.7

20.4
20.5

1940__
1930__
1920__

24.3
24.3
24.6

21.5
21.3
21.2

1910__
1900__
1890__

25.1
25.9
26.1

21.6
21.9
22.0

Series A 230-241. Households, by Sex and Age of Head: 1890 to 1957
[In thousands. 1956 and 1957 based on sample figures from Current Population Survey]

Year

Total
230

1957________________________
1956________________________
1950 i_______________________
1940________________________
1930 _______________________
1890________________________

40,903
40,420
35,863
29,680
226,112
10,857

Under 25
years
231
1,993
2,003
1,850
1,260
1,266
572

Male head
25 to 34 35 to 44
years
years
232
233
8,814
8,735
8,139
6,539
5,879
2,962

9,830
9,652
8,676
7,286
7,082
2,883

45 to 54
years
234

55 years
and over
235

8,516
8,292
7,274
6,716
5,743
2,184

11,750
11,738
9,925
7,879
6,123
2,256

1 Based on 20-percent sample of 1950 Census returns.
2 Total for males includes 18,345 persons of unknown age and total for females,
6,567 of unknown age.

Under 25
years
237

Total
236
8,640
8,365
6,380
5,269
23,793
1,833

Female head
25 to 34 35 to 44
years
years
238
239

340
274
164
113
3120
59

738
763
541
470
3 371
230

1,133
1,206
935
879
3 685
387

45 to 54
years
240

55 years
and over
241

1,631
1,506
1,264
1,144
3 862
466

4,798
4,616
3,486
2,663
3 1,749
691

3 Number of female heads in each age group estimated from data on white and
Negro heads with marital status and age reported.

Series A 242-244. Households, by Residence: 1900 to 1957

[In thousands. 1900 to 1946 as of July; 1947 to 1949 and 1951 to 1955 as of April; and 1950, 1956, and 1957 as of March]
Year

Total
242

1957____ 49,543
1956____ 48,785
1955____ 47,788
1954____ 46,893
1953___ 46,334
1952____ 45,504
1951___ 44,656
1950____ 43,554
1949____ 42,182
1948____ 40,532
1947____ 39,107
1946____ 38,370
1945____ 37,503
1944____ 37,115
1943___ 36,833

Nonfarm
243
44,325
43,136
42,243
41,399
40,503
39,554
38,587
37,279
35,687
34,116
32,673
31,944
31,158
30,722
30,206




Farm
244
5,218
5,649
5,545
5,493
5,831
5,950
6,069
6,275
6,495
6,416
6,434
6,426
6,345
6,393
6,627

Year

Total
242

Nonfarm
243

1942___
1941____
1940___
1939___
1938____
1937___
1936____
1935____
1934____
1933____
1932___
1931___
1930____
1929____
1928____

36,445
35,929
35,153
34,409
33,683
33,088
32,454
31,892
31,306
30,802
30,439
30,272
29,997
29,582
29,124

29,433
28,786
28,001
27,249
26,518
25,917
25,253
24,665
24,118
23,653
23,541
23,476
23,268
22,851
22,416

Farm
244
7,012
7,143
7,152
7,160
7,165
7,171
7,201
7,227
7,188
7,149
6,898
6,796
6,729
6,731
6,708

Year

Total
242

Nonfarm
243

1927____
1926___
1925____
1924___
1923___
1922____
1921____
1920____
1919____
1918____
1917____
1916____
1915____
1914____

28,632
28,101
27,540
26,941
26,298
25,687
25,119
24,467
23,873
23,519
23,323
22,926
22,501
22,110

21,941
21,325
20,745
20,182
19,492
18,780
18,255
17,668
17,307
16,846
16,643
16,291
15,949
15,630

Farm
244
6,691
6,776
6,795
6,759
6,806
6,907
6,864
6,799
6,566
6,673
6,680
6,635
6,552
6,480

Year

Total
242

Nonfarm
243

1913____
1912____
1911____
1910____
1909____
1908____
1907____
1906____
1905____
1904____
1903____
1902____
1901____
1900____

21,606
21,075
20,620
20,183
19,734
19,294
18,863
18,394
17,939
17,521
17,108
16,716
16,345
15,992

15,187
14,727
14,358
13,989

Farm
244
6,419
6,348
6,262
6,194

15

A 245-263

POPULATION

Series A 245-247. Married Couples With or Without Own Household: 1910 to 1957
[In thousands. All years as of April, except 1945 as of September, 1946 as of June, and 1950, 1956, and 1957 as of March. 1945 to 1957 based on sample figures from Current
Population Survey]
With
own
household
246

245
1957_________
1956_________
1955_________
1954_________
1953_________
1952_________

38,940
38,306
37,570
37,346
37,106
36,696

Without
own
household
247

37,711
37,043
36,266
35,875
35,560
35,138

Total

Year

1,229
1,263
1,304
1,471
1,546
1,558

With
own
household
246

245
1951_______
1950_______
1949_______
1948_______
1947_______

Without
own
household
247

34,378
34,075
33,257
31,900
30,612

Total

Year

1,758
2,016
2,168
2,464
2,931

36,136
36,091
35,425
34,364
33,543

With
own
household
246

245
1946 1______
1945 1___ __
1940_______
1930_______
1910_______

Without
own
household
247

28,850
26,835
26,571
23,649
16,250

Total

Year

2,700
1,365
1,946
1,525
925

31,550
28,200
28,517
25,174
17,175

1 N ot strictly comparable with 1947 to 1957. Latter are estimates taking into ac­
count 1950 Census totals, whereas 1945 and 1946 were estimated as projections from
1940 Census totals.

Series A 248-254. Population, by Household Relationship: 1910 to 1957
[In thousands. 1947, 1950, 1954, and 1957 based on sample figures from Current Population Survey. Total population, 1910 to 1940, and civilian population, 1947 to 1957.
Civilian population includes members of the Armed Forces living off post or with their families on post]
Living in households

Total
population

March 1957_____________________________________________
April 1954______________________________________________
March 1950 _ _ _ _ _
April 1947______________________________________________
April 1940______________________________________________
April 1930______________________________________________
April 1910______________________________________________

Total

248

Date

249

168,122
159,223
149,838
142,061
131,669
122,775
91,972

165,558
156,443
146,835
139,114
128,427
119,812
90,528

Head of
household
250
49,543
46,893
43,554
39,107
34,949
29,905
20,256

Wife of
head
251
37,711
35,875
34,075
30,612
26,571
23,649
16,250

Other
relative
of head
252

Nonrelative
of head
253

75,335
70,412
65,064
64,774
61,411
60,721
49,517

2,969
3,263
4,142
4,621
5,496
5,537
4,505

Living
in quasi­
households
254
2,564
2,780
3,003
2,947
3,242
2,963
1,444

Series A 255-263. Selected Characteristics of Households: 1790 to 1957
Race of head

All households
Year

Number
255

1957 2___________________
1950____________________
1940 __ _ _ __ ________
1930 5
1920____________________
1910____________________
1900
1890__ __ _ _
1880_____________________
1870_____________________
1860 7___________________
1850 7___________________
1790_____________________

49,543,000
42,857,335
34,948,666
29,904,663
24,351,676
20,255,555
15,963,965
12,690,152
9,945,916
7,579,363
5,210,934
3,598,240
557,889-

Median
size 1
256
3.02
3.05
3.28
3.40
4.23
4.48

5.43

Population
per
household
257
3.42
3.52
3.77
4.11
4.34
4.54
4.76
4.93
5.04
5.09
5.28
5.55
5.79

White

Negro

Other

Male

Female

Median
age
of
head

258

259

260

261

262

263

44,886,000
438,429,035
31,679,766
26,982,994
21,825,654
(3)
14,063,791
11,255,169

1 1790 and 1940-1957 relate to households only but include lodgers and other non­
relatives in addition to the head and his relatives; 1890 and 1900 include all persons
whether related to the head or not, in both households and quasi-households; 1930
includes the household head and his relatives only.
2 Based on sample figures from Current Population Survey.
3 N ot available.

16



Sex of head

(3)
(3)
3,141,883
2,803,756
2,430,828
2,173,018
1,833,759
1,410,769

(3)
(3)
127,017
117,913
95,194
(3)
66,415
24,214

40,903,000
4 35,862,900
29,679,718
26,111,761

8,640,000
46 ,388,515
5,268,948
3,792,902

46.9
445.9
46.06
6 44.45

14,022,546
10,857,249

1,941,419
1,832,903

42.99
42.55

4 Based on 20-percent sample of census returns.
6 Figures for race of head revised to include Mexicans as white. Mexicans were
classified as nonwhite in the 1930 reports.
6 Based on white and Negro households for which marital status of head was reported.
7 Free population only.

chapter B

Vital Statistics and Health and Medical Care

VITAL STATISTICS (Series B 1-179)
B 1-179. General note.
Vital statistics, including statistics of births, deaths, mar­
riages, and divorces, are compiled for the country as a whole
by the National Office of Vital Statistics. Originally, the col­
lection of these data was the responsibility of the Bureau of
the Census. In July 1946, this function was transferred to
the Federal Security Agency, which in 1953, was reconstituted
as the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare. The
National Office of Vital Statistics is a part of the Public
Health Service in that Department.
The live-birth, death, and fetal-death statistics prepared by
the National Office of Vital Statistics are based principally
on copies of vital records received from registration offices
of all States, of certain cities, and of the District of Columbia,
Alaska, Hawaii, Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands. The
marriage and divorce statistics are based on reports from
State registration offices that maintain central registers of
marriage or divorce, from local officials, and from the Dis­
trict of Columbia, Alaska, Hawaii, Puerto Rico, and the Virgin
Islands. Figures shown here, however, are limited to events
occurring within continental United States; Alaska, Hawaii,
Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands are excluded, as are
births, deaths, marriages, and divorces of American nationals
in other parts of the world. For States or areas for which
numbers of marriages are not available, numbers of marriage
licenses are used as the nearest approximations.
The annual report, Vital Statistics of the United States,
presents final figures for continental United States, Alaska,
Hawaii, Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands. A series of na­
tional summaries, Vital Statistics—Special Reports, is also
issued each year, containing data on particular subjects. In­
formation regarding unpublished data is contained in each
annual report under “Guide to Tabulations,” which is a com­
plete index to all tabulated statistics on .live births, deaths,
and fetal deaths for the year.
Although every State has adopted a law requiring the regis­
tration of births, deaths, and fetal deaths, these laws are not
uniformly observed. One condition for admission to the na­
tional registration areas was a demonstrated registration com­
pleteness of at least 90 percent. On the basis of this cri­
terion, all of the States were admitted to both the birth- and
death-registration areas by 1933. It is recognized, however,
that the methods then used in testing completeness were
subject to considerable error.
Accurate measures of birth-registration completeness on a
nationwide basis were obtained for the first time in 1940,
when studies were made in connection with the population
census of that year. They showed that, for the United States
as a whole, birth registration was 92.5 percent complete. A
corresponding study 10 years later indicated that registration
had improved considerably, with 97.9 percent of the births in
1950 being recorded. Only in a few States was underregis­
tration shown to be still a problem. The results of this study
have been published in considerable detail and provide a basis
for adjusting registered birth data for underreporting and
for making estimates of registration completeness in post


censal years. Birth registration has continued to improve
since 1930, and in 1956, 98.7 percent of the live births were
registered. (See National Office of Vital Statistics, “BirthRegistration Completeness in the United States and Geo­
graphic Areas, 1950,” parts I, II, and III, Vital Statistics—
Special Reports, vol. 39, Nos. 2 and 4, and vol. 45, No. 9.)
Death registration is believed to be at least as complete
as birth registration. However, quantitative information
on the completeness with which deaths are reported is limited
to that obtained years ago in applying the “90-percent” stand­
ard for entry into the death registration area and to informa­
tion obtained from occasional local area studies. While under­
registration for the country as a whole is negligible, local
studies furnish evidence that in certain isolated places under­
reporting of deaths may still be a problem. Registration of
fetal deaths is probably significantly incomplete in all areas.
In 1956 and 1957, pilot tests of the registration complete­
ness of marriages and of divorces and annulments were under­
taken, and in two States, Tennessee and Michigan, Statewide
tests of marriage-registration completeness were undertaken.
The final results of these tests have not been published but
preliminary results indicate that marriage-registration com­
pleteness in both States is well above 95 percent.
Population statistics published or made available by the
Bureau of the Census have been used in computing the vital
rates shown here. Rates for 1940 and 1950 are in all cases
based on the population enumerated in the censuses of those
years which were taken as of April 1. With the exception
of series B 10-18 and B 24-30, which are based on estimated
population as of April 1 for 1941-1949, rates for all other
years are based on the latest midyear (July 1) estimates of
population made by the Bureau of the Census.
Except for 1941-1946, vital rates are based on the population
residing in continental United States. In those years, the
transfer overseas of several million men precluded the com­
putation of birth and divorce rates strictly comparable with
such rates for prewar years. For 1941-1946, the birth and di­
vorce rates are based on the population including the Armed
Forces overseas. (For a discussion of the interpretation of
rates during wartime, see “Summary of Natality and Mor­
tality Statistics, United States, 1943,” Vital Statistics—Special
Reports, vol. 21, No. 1, and “Marriage and Divorce in the
United States, 1937 to 1945,” Vital Statistics—Special Reports,
vol. 23, No. 9.)
Vital statistics showing color and race are compiled from
entries which appear on certificates filed with vital registra­
tion offices. The classification white includes persons reported
as Mexican and Puerto Rican. The Negro group includes per­
sons of mixed Negro and other ancestry. Other mixed parent­
age is classified according to the race of the nonwhite parent
and mixtures of nonwhite races according to the race of the
father.
B 1-5. Growth of birth- and death-registration area, 19001933.
Source: National Office of Vital Statistics, Vital Statistics
of the United States, 1955, vol. I, p. xviii. For a description
17

VITAL STATISTICS AND HEALTH AND MEDICAL CARE
B 6-36
of the historical development of the vital statistics system in white group, it is possible to exclude the effect of the varying
the United States, see Vital Statistics of the United States, fertility patterns of foreign-born and nonwhite women.
1950, vol. I, chap. 1.
B 19-21. Birth rate, by color, 1800-1956.
The first death statistics published by the Federal Govern­
Source: Series B 19, 1820-1900, Henry D. Sheldon, The
ment were for 1850 and covered the entire United States. Older Population of the United States, John Wiley and Sons,
These figures were based on the decennial census of that year. New York, 1958, p. 145. Series B 20, 1800-1900, Warren S.
As an approximation of births in 1850, data on the population Thompson and P. K. Whelpton, Population Trends in the United
under one year old as reported in the 1850 Census were used. States, McGraw-Hill, New York, 1933, p. 263. Series B 19-21,
Although these reports were incomplete, similar data were 1910, National Office of Vital Statistics, Vital Statistics—
collected in each census up to and including the Census of 1900. Special Reports, vol. 33, No. 8, p. 141; 1920-1956, Vital Sta­
In 1880, the Bureau of the Census established a national tistics of the United States, 1956, vol. I, p. lxxvi.
“registration area” for deaths. The original area consisted of B 22-24. Birth rate, women 15 to 44 years old, by color,
only two States (Massachusetts and New Jersey), the District
1800-1956.
of Columbia, and several large cities having efficient systems
Source: Series B 22-23, 1800-1910, Warren S. Thompson
for the registration of deaths. By 1900, eight other States had and P. K. Whelpton, Population Trends in the United States,
been admitted. For 1880, 1890, and 1900, mortality data were McGraw-Hill, New York, 1933, p. 263; 1910-1939, unpublished
received from the States and cities included in this expanding estimates prepared by National Office of Vital Statistics;
area, but for other parts of the country death figures were still
compiled from the census. Since relatively reliable mortality 1940-1956, National Office of Vital I,Statistics, Vital Statistics
p. lxxvii. Series B 24,
statistics are available for Massachusetts over a longer period of the United States, 1956, vol.
1920-1956,
than for the Nation, several annual series for that State are p. lxxx. Vital Statistics of the United States, 1956, vol. I,
included here (see series B 76-91, B 113, and B 155-175).
Rates are computed by relating total births,
of
The annual collection and publication of mortality statistics the age of mother, to the female population 15 to regardless old.
44 years
for the registration area began in 1900. In 1902, the Bureau
of the Census was authorized to obtain, annually, copies of B 25-30. Birth rate, native white women, by age of mother,
1920-1955.
records filed in the vital statistics offices of those States and
cities having adequate death-registration systems. The deathSource: 1920-1939, National Office of Vital Statistics, Vital
registration area for 1900 consisted of 10 States, the District of Statistics—Special Reports, vol. 33, No. 8, p. 143; 1940-1955,
Columbia, and a number of cities located in nonregistration unpublished estimates prepared by the National Office of Vital
States. This original registration area included 40.5 percent Statistics.
of the population of continental United States (26.2 percent,
The age-specific rates shown here express the number of
excluding the reporting cities in nonregistration States), but live births to native white women in a specified age group per
it was predominantly urban and it had a high proportion of 1.000 native white women in that age group.
white persons. Between 1900 and 1933, the death-registration B 31-36. Gross and net reproduction rates, by color,
area was steadily expanded until, by 1933, all 48 States and the
1905-10 to 1956.
District of Columbia were included.
Source: 1905-10 to 1935-40, Bureau of the Census, Sixteenth
As it was more difficult to obtain accurate and complete
Reports, Differential Fertility, 191+0 and 1910—Stand­
registration of births than of deaths, the national birth-regis- Census Fertility Rates and Reproduction Rates; 1935, National
tration area was not established until 1915, and no birth statis­ ardized Vital Statistics, Vital Statistics of the United States,
Office of
tics were published by the Bureau of the Census for 1900-1914. 1950, vol. I, p. 87; 1940-1956, Vital Statistics of the United
The original birth-registration area of 1915 consisted of 10 States, 1956, vol. I, p. lxxix.
States and the District of Columbia. Beginning with 1933,
The
represents the number of
the birth-registration area has included the 48 States and the ters a gross reproduction rate 1,000 women entering thedaugh­
hypothetical cohort of
child­
District of Columbia.
bearing period would have during their lives, if they were
B 6. Live births, 1909-1956.
subject to the age-specific birth rates observed in a given time
Source: 1909-1934, National Office of Vital Statistics, Vital period, and if none of the cohort were to die before the child­
Statistics—Special Reports, vol. 33, No. 8; 1935-1956, Vital bearing period was completed. This rate is the sum of the
age-specific birth rates of female infants per 1,000 women. It
Statistics of the United States, 1956, vol. I, p. lxxvi.
shows the maximum possible replacement of women that might
B 7. Deaths, 1933-1956.
be expected from the given set of age-specific birth rates. If
Source: 1933-1956, National Office of Vital Statistics, Vital no migration took place and if the gross reproduction rate re­
Statistics of the United States, 1956, vol. I, p. xcvi.
mained below 1,000, no improvement in mortality alone could
prevent the population from declining when a stable age dis­
B 8-9. Marriages and divorces, 1920-1956.
tribution had been reached.
Source: 1920-1956, National Office of Vital Statistics, Vital
The net reproduction rate is based on the specific fertility
Statistics of the United States, 1956, vol. I, pp. xxii, lxxi.
and mortality conditions existing in a given time period. If
B 10-18. Birth rate, by live-birth order, for native white the age-specific birth and death rates of a certain year (or
women, 1920-1956.
years) were to continue until the population became stable, a
Source: 1920-1956, National Office of Vital Statistics, Vital net reproduction rate of 1,000 would mean that a cohort of
Statistics of the United States, 1956, vol. I, p. lxxx.
1.000 newly born girls would bear just enough daughters to
For estimates for 1920-1939, as prepared by P. K. Whelpton, replace themselves.
see Vital Statistics—Special Reports, vol. 33, No. 8.
Reproduction rates are useful in the analyses of fertility
Figures contain estimates for cases not reporting order of and mortality conditions of a given period, but they are not
birth, including those in Massachusetts where birth-order re­ indicators of future population growth. They do not take into
porting is not required. By limiting these rates to the native account such factors as nuptiality, marital duration, and size
18




VITAL STATISTICS
B 37-103
of family, and they assume the continuation of the age-specific B 76-91. Expectation of life at specified ages, by sex, 18501956.
rates in a given year throughout the lifetime of a cohort of
women. Since the United States has experienced major
Source: See detailed listing below.
changes in marriage and fertility rates over short periods of
The expectation of life at a specified age is the average
time, variations in reproduction rates should not be taken as number of years that members of a hypothetical cohort would
indications of long-run movements in family formation and continue to live if they were subject throughout the remainder
rates of fertility and mortality.
of their lives to the mortality rates for specified age groups
observed in a given time period.
B 37-68. Number of children under 5 years old per 1,000
women 20 to 44 years old, by race and residence, by geo­ B 76-83. Expectation of life at specified ages, white popu­
lation (death-registration area), 1900-1956.
graphic divisions, 1800-1950.
Source: 1900-02 to 1929-31, Bureau of the Census, United
Source: Series B 37-38, Bureau of the Census, Forecasts of
the Population of the United States, 19^5-1975, p. 16. Series States Life Tables, 1900-1931, pp. 4-7, 20-23, 28-31, and 40B 39-68, 1800-1840 and 1910-1950, Wilson H. Grabill, Clyde V. 51; 1939-41 to 1956, National Office of Vital Statistics, Vital
Kiser, and Pascal K. Whelpton, The Fertility of American Statistics of the United States, 1956, vol. I, p. xciii.
See also text for series B 92-100.
Women, John Wiley and Sons, New York, 1958; 1850-1900,
Bureau of the Census, unpublished estimates.
B 84-91. Expectation of life in Massachusetts, 1850 to
Figures for series B 37-38 were adjusted for underreporting
1949-51.
on the basis of factors obtained for 1925-1930. They have
Source: 1850, 1878-82, 1893-97, Metropolitan Life Insurance
also been standardized for age (except for white women for Company, Statistical Bulletin, vol. 9, No. 3, March 1928, pp.
1800-1820) using the 1930 age distribution of women to offset 7-8; 1855, Edgar Sydenstricker, Health and Environment,
the effect of changes in the age distribution of the female McGraw-Hill, New York, 1933, p. 164; 1890, 1900-02, 1909-11,
population. Therefore, the figures represent the fertility rates Bureau of the Census, United States Life Tables, 1890, 1901,
of women having the same age distribution as those in 1930. 1910, and 1901-1910; 1919-20, Sydenstricker, op. cit., and Bu­
reau of the Census, United States Abridged Life Tables, 1919Rates for 1800-1860 are partly estimated.
For definition of geographic divisions, see text for series 1920, pp. 24-27; 1929-31, National Resources Committee, Popu­
lation Statistics 2, State Data, p. 38; 1939-41 to 1949-51,
A 95-122.
Bureau of the Census and National Office
Statistics,
The urban-rural classification is the one used by the Bureau annual report, Vital Statistics of the United of Vitalvol. I.
States,
of the Census in 1940. The urban population includes all per­
sons living in incorporated places of 2,500 inhabitants or more B 92-100. Expectation of life at birth, by color and sex
(death-registration area), 1900-1956.
and in other areas classified as urban under special rules re­
Source: 1900-1956, National Office of Vital Statistics, Vital
lating to population size and density. The remaining area of
the country is classified as rural. See also text for series Statistics—Special Reports, vol. 48, No. 6, p. 154.
A 34-50.
Derivation of estimates is described in “Estimated Average
Length of Life in the Death-Registration States,” Vital Statis­
B 69-75. Percent distribution of ever-married women (sur­ tics—Special Reports, vol. 33, No. 9.
vivors of birth cohorts of 1835-39 to 1900-04), by
The expectation of life at birth is the average number of
number of children ever born, 1910, 1940, and 1950.
years that members of a hypothetical cohort would live if they
Source: Conrad and Irene B. Taeuber, The Changing Popu­ were
their
the age-specific
lation of the United States, 1790-1955, John Wiley and Sons, rates subject throughouttime oflives to birth. This is mortality
observed at the
their
the most
New York, 1957, pp. 255-256.
usual measure of the comparative longevity of different popu­
These data are based on an analysis of the 1910, 1940, and lations. There is some objection to the use of the average
1950 Censuses. In each of these censuses, women who had duration of life as a standard of comparison because the
ever married were asked about the number of children they method of calculating it gives great weight to the relatively
had ever borne. When these women are classified according large number of deaths occurring in the first year of life.
to age, it is possible to suggest the trend of fertility among This influence may be entirely eliminated by considering in­
women who had completed their childbearing at each census. stead the average lifetime remaining to those members of the
On p. 255, the source presents the following caution regarding cohort surviving to age 1, or, in other words, the expectation
the use of these data:
of life at age 1. However, this objection is growing less valid
There are many difficulties in the analysis and interpre­
as infant mortality decreases.
tation of data on numbers of children ever born to married
B 101-103. Fetal death ratio, by color, 1922-1956.
women. The cumulative reproductive performance of the
women can be related directly to age, marital status, ur­
Source: 1922-1956, National Office of Vital Statistics, Vital
ban or rural residence, migrant history, ethnic affiliation,
Statistics of the United States, 1956, vol. I, p. lxxxviii.
and social and economic characteristics. However, the
Lack of uniformity in requirements for registration and vari­
characteristics of the women are those of the time of the
census rather than of the time when marriage occurred
ation in completeness of registration influence the comparabil­
or children were born. There may be selective factors in
ity of the data over the years, especially in the series based on
memory as age advances, or there may be pride in
all reported fetal deaths. Considering the probable total effect
achievement that leads to exaggeration. Marital status is
of these factors, as well as that of incompleteness of the
correlated with social and economic status and with ethnic
affiliation, so relations between marital status and fertil­
registration area until 1933, it appears likely that the ratios
ity may be derivative. Illegitimate births are under­
understate any decline in fetal mortality. Changes in the regu­
reported and erroneously reported in unknown propor­
lations have more often been in the direction of broadening
tions. The possibility of selective associations between
the base of fetal death reporting, than in the other direction.
fertility, mortality, and migration become increasingly
With respect to completeness of reporting, the situation has
great as age advances.



19

VITAL STATISTICS AND HEALTH AND MEDICAL CARE
B 104-154
probably improved because of the increases in the number of that cases involving more than one cause of death be changed
women receiving hospital and medical care at childbirth and to a single cause.
also because of the general strengthening of the vital registra­
In the French edition of the International List (1900), cer­
tion system.
tain principles for determining the single cause to be selected
from the joint causes given were incorporated as a part of the
B 104-106. Neonatal mortality rate, by color, 1915-1956.
general classification scheme. As an outgrowth of practices in
Source: 1915-1929, National Office of Vital Statistics, Vital this country after 1902, definite relationships among the vari­
Statistics of the United States, 1950, vol. I, pp. 258-259; ous conditions represented by items in the International List
1930-1950, Vital Statistics—Special Reports, vol. 45, No. 1, pp. were put in concrete form in the Manual of Joint Causes of
8-10; 1951-1956, Vital Statistics of the United States, 1956, Death, first published in 1914, and revised to conform with
vol. I, p. cxiv.
successive revisions of the International List. This manual,
The neonatal mortality rate represents the number of deaths which was developed for use in the United States, was followed
of infants under 28 days (exclusive of fetal deaths) per 1,000 until 1949, when an international procedure for joint-cause se­
lection was adopted. The new international rules place the
live births.
responsibility on the medical practitioner to indicate the under­
B 107-109. Infant mortality rate, by color, 1915-1956.
lying cause of death. This change, in conjunction with the
Source: 1915-1950, National Office of Vital Statistics, Vital Sixth Revision of the International List in 1948 and the
Statistics—Special Reports, vol. 45, No. 1, p. 7; 1951-1956, Seventh Revision in 1955, has introduced rather serious breaks
Vital Statistics of the United States, 1956, vol. I, p. cxiv.
in statistical continuity.
The infant mortality rate represents the number of deaths
Time-trend studies of causes of death would be facilitated
under 1 year (exclusive of fetal deaths) per 1,000 live births. if the International List were maintained without change over
The rates have been computed by the conventional method in a long period of years. However, if the list were rigidly
which the infant deaths occurring in a specified period are fixed it would be inconsistent with current medical knowledge
related to the number of live births occurring during the same and terminology. To obtain the advantages of frequent re­
period. Rates computed in this way are influenced by changes vision, and yet to retain a fixed list for a number of years,
in the number of births and will not be comparable if the birth revisions are made at an international conference every 10
rate is fluctuating widely. Deaths under 1 year of age years. In the process of revision, discontinuities are intro­
occurring during any calendar year are deaths not only of duced into the time trends of death rates for certain specific
infants born during that year but also of infants born during causes of death (see National Office of Vital Statistics, “The
parts of the previous year. An approximate correction of this Effect of the Sixth Revision of the International List of Dis­
error can be made by relating infant deaths during a specified eases and Causes of Death Upon Comparability of Mortality
year to the year in which those infants were born. See Bureau Trends,” Vital Statistics—Special Reports, vol. 36, No. 10).
of the Census, “Effect of Changing Birth Rates Upon Infant
Improvement in diagnostic procedures
Mortality Rates,” Vital Statistics—Special Reports, vol. 19, medical knowledge and facilities are other and development of
important factors in
No. 21.
the study of changes in death rates for certain causes.
B 110-112. Maternal mortality rate, by color, 1915-1956.
B 129-135. Death rate, by color and sex (death-registration
Source: 1915-1955, National Office of Vital Statistics, Vital
area), 1900-1956.
Statistics—Special Reports, vol. 46, No. 17, p. 438; 1956, Vital
Source: 1900-1956, National Office of Vital Statistics, Vital
Statistics—Special Reports, vol. 48, No. 15, p. 412. Rates Statistics of the United States, 1956, vol. I, p. xcvi.
prior to 1940, see also Bureau of the Census, Vital Statistics
Rates in the United States, 1900-191+0, pp. 574-575, 622, and B 136-142. Age-adjusted death rate, by color and sex (death656-662.
registration area), 1900-1956.
The maternal mortality rate represents the number of deaths
Source: 1900-1956, National Office of Vital Statistics, Vital
from deliveries and complications of pregnancy, childbirth, and Statistics of the United States, 1956, vol. I, p. xcvii. See also
the puerperium per 10,000 live births.
Vital Statistics Rates in the United States, 1900-191+0, p. 127,
and Bureau of the Census, Vital Statistics—Special Reports,
B 113. Infant mortality rate, for Massachusetts, 1851-1956. vol. 23, No. 1, p. 17.
Source: 1851-1900, 77th Annual Report of Vital Statistics
The age-adjusted death rate is a
of Massachusetts, p. 132; 1900-1956, Bureau of the Census and dex that “corrects” for differences in convenient summary in­
These
National Office of Vital Statistics, annual report, Vital Statis­ rates were computed by taking the age composition. of the
age-distribution
tics of the United States, vol. I.
population in 1940 as the “standard” without regard to sex,
B 114-128. Death rate, for selected causes (death-registration color, or other characteristics. The age-specific death rates
actually observed in a given year were applied to the age dis­
area), 1900-1956.
tribution of this standard population and a total death rate
Source: All data except series B 116, 1900-1950, National was computed. For detailed description of the direct
Office of Vital Statistics, Vital Statistics of the United States, by which these rates awere computed, see Vital Statisticsmethod
Rates
1950, vol. I, p. 218; 1951-1956, Vital Statistics of the United in the United States, 1900-191+0, pp. 66-69.
States, 1956, vol. I, p. c. Series B 116, 1900-1920,, Vital Sta­
tistics of the United States, 1950, vol. I, p. 218; 1921-1940, B 143-154. Death rate, by age and sex (death-registration
Vital Statistics Rates in the United States, 1900-191+0, p. 266;
area), 1900-1956.
1941-1956, National Office of Vital Statistics, unpublished data.
Source: 1900-1939, National Office of Vital Statistics, Vital
Mortality data are classified according to the numbers and Statistics—Special Reports, vol. 43, No. 1, pp. 10-12; 1940titles of the detailed International List of Causes of Death. 1954, Bureau of the Census and National Office of Vital Sta­
A large proportion of the death certificates filed annually in tistics, Vital Statistics of the United States, 1951+, vol. I, p.
the United States report two or more diseases or conditions as xlix; 1955-1956, Vital Statistics of the United States, 1956,
joint causes of death. General statistical practice requires vol. I, p. xcviii.

20



VITAL STATISTICS
B 155-179
B 155-162. Death rate, by sex and by selected cause, for Marriage and Divorce Statistics: United States, 1887-1937,”
Vital Statistics—Special Reports, vol. 9, No. 60; Bureau of the
Massachusetts, 1860-1956.
Source: 1860-1899, computed from U8th Annual Registration Census, “Estimated Number of Marriages by State: United
Report for Massachusetts and 77th Annual Report on the Vital States, 1937-1940,” Vital Statistics—Special Reports, vol. 15,
Statistics of Massachusetts; 1900-1956, Bureau of the Census No. 13; Bureau of the Census, “Estimated Number of Divorces
and National Office of Vital Statistics, annual reports, Vital by State: United States, 1937-1940,” Vital Statistics—Special
Reports, vol. 15, No. 18. For exact population base figures,
Statistics of the United States.
see Vital Statistics—Special Reports, vol. 46, No. 12, p. 330.
B 163-175. Death rate, by age, for Massachusetts, 1865-1900.
Marriage and divorce records are filed only at the county
Source: U8th Annual Registration Report for Massachusetts, level in some States, but gradually the various States are re­
p. 321, and 77th Annual Report on the Vital Statistics of quiring by law that such events be recorded at the State level.
Massachusetts, p. 126.
The completeness of reporting to the State offices varies, but
there has been no nationwide test. A marriage-registration
B 176-179. Marriage and divorce rates, 1920-1956.
area covering 30 States and 5 independent areas, established
Source: 1920-1956, National Office of Vital Statistics, Vital by the National Office of Vital Statistics, became effective in
Statistics—Special Reports, vol. 48, No. 3, pp. 53, 58.
January 1957. A major criterion for admission of a State to
For series B 176 and B 178, see also Vital Statistics of the the registration areas was agreement with the National Office
United States, 1956, vol. I, p. lxxi.
of Vital Statistics to conduct a test of marriage registration
See also Commissioner of Labor, A Report on Marriage and completeness. A divorce- and annulment-registration area with
Divorce in the United States, 1867 to 1886; Bureau of the 14 States and 3 independent areas was inaugurated in January
Census, Marriage and Divorce, 1867-1906; Marriage and Di­ 1958.
vorce, 1916; and Marriage and Divorce, annual reports, 1922The marriage and divorce rates shown in series B 177 and
1932; S. A. Stauffer and L. M. Spencer, “Recent Increases in B 179 are based on those segments of the female population
Marriage and Divorce,” American Journal of Sociology, vol. 44, that may be considered as subject to possible marriage and
No. 4 (for 1933-1936); Bureau of the Census, “A Review of divorce.


488910 0 - 6 0 - 3


21

B 1-18

VITAL STATISTICS AND HEALTH AND MEDICAL CARE

Series B 1-5. Growth of Birth- and Death-Registration Area: 1900 to 1933
Year

Death-registration
Birth-registration
Conti­
area 1
area 1
nental
United Midyear population
States,
Number Midyear population Number
of
of
midyear
Percent
Percent
population Number of total States Number of total States

1
1,000
125,579

1933
1932
1931
1930
1929
1928
1927
1926
1925
1924
1923
1922
1921
1920
1919
1918
1917

1,000

125,579
118,904
117,455
116,545
115,317
113,636
104,321
90,401
88,295
87,000
81,072
79,561
70,807
63,597
61,212
55,154
55,198

124,840
124,040
123,077
121,770
120,501
119,038
117,399
115,832
114,113
111,950
110,055
108,541
106,466
104,512
103,203
103,266

100.0
95.2

48
47
46
46
46
44
40
35
33
33
30
30
27
23

94.7
94.7
94.7
94.3
87.6
77.0
76.2
76.2
72.4
72.3
65.2
59.7
58.6
53.4
53.5

22
20
20

1,000

100.0
95.2

125,579
118,904
118,149
117,238
115,317
113,636
107,085
103,823
102,032
99,318
96,788
92,703
87,814
86,079
83,158
79,008
70,235

48
47
47
47
46
44
42
41
40
39
38
37
34
34
33
30
27

95.3
95.3
94.7
94.3
90.0
88.4

88.1
87.0

86.5
84.2
80.9
80.9
79.6
76.6

68.0

Birth-registration
Death-registration
Conti­
area 1
area 1
nental
United Midyear population
Number Midyear population Number
States,
of
of
midyear
Fter? e? \
population Number of total States Number of total States

Year

1,000

1,000

1916
1915
1914
1913
1912
1911
1910
1909
1908
1907
1906
1905
1904
1903
1902
1901
1900

32,944
31,097

101,966
100,549
99,118
97,227
95,331
93,868
92,407
90,492
88,709
87,000
85,437
83,820
82,165
80,632
79,160
77,585
76,094

32.3
30.9

1,000
66,971

10

65.7
61.6
61.5
59.8
57.5
57.5
51.4
48.9
43.6
39.7
39.5
26.0
26.0
26.0
26.0
26.1
26.2

61,895
60,963
58,157
54,848
53,930
47,470
44,224
38,635
34,553
33,782
21,768
21,332
20,943
20,583
20,237
19,965

26
24
24
23

22
22
20
18
17
15
15

10
10
10
10
10
10

1 District of Columbia excluded from count of number of States but included in the population figures in series B 1-5.

Series B 6-9. Live Births, Deaths, Marriages, and Divorces: 1909 to 1956
[In thousands. Birth, marriage, and divorce figures represent estimates of all such events; death figures, the number of registered events]
Live
births

Year
1956
1955
1954
1953
1952
1951
1950
1949
1948
1947
1946
1945
1944
1943
1942
1941

34,218
4.104
3 4,078
33,965
33,913
33,823
3,632
3,649
3,637
3,817
3,411
2,858
2,939
3.104
2,989
2,703

1 Excludes fetal deaths.

Deaths 1 Marriages Divorces2
1,564
1,529
1.481
1,518
1,497
1.482
1,452
1.444
1.444
1.445
1,396
1,402
1,411
1,460
1,385
1,398

1,585
1,531
1,490
1,546
1,539
1,595
1,667
1,580
1,811
1,992
2,291
1,613
1,452
1,577
1,772
1,696

382
377
379
390
392
381
385
397
408
483
610
485
400
359
321
293

2 Includes reported annulments.

Live
births

Year
1940
1939
1938
1937
1936
1935
1934
1933
1932
1931
1930
1929
1928
1927
1926
1925

2,559
2,466
2,496
2,413
2,355
2,377
2,396
2,307
2,440
2,506
2,618
2,582
2,674
2,802
2,839
2,909

Deaths 1 Marriages
1,417
1,388
1,381
1,450
1,479
1,393
1,397
1,342

1,596
1,404
1,331
1,451
1,369
1,327
1,302
1,098
982
1,061
1,127
1,233
1,182
1,201
1,203
1,188

Live
births

Year
264
251
244
249
236
218
204
165
164
188
196
206
200
196
185
175

Marriages Divorces 2
1,185
1,230
1,134
1,164
1,274

2,979
2,910
2,882
3,055
2,950
2,740
2,948
2,944
2.964
2.965
2.966
2,869
2,840
2,809
2,777
2,718

1924
1923
1922
1921
1920
1919
1918
1917
1916
1915
1914
1913
1912
1911
1910
1909

171
165
149
160
171

3 Based on 50-percent sample.

Series B 10-18. Birth Rate, by Live-Birth Order, for Native White Women: 1920 to 1956
[Based on estimated total live births per 1,000 native white female population 15 to 44 years old]
Year

Total
10

w s e 1. . .
1955____
1954 i___
1953 1._ .
1952 l___
1951 1-_.
1950____
1949____
1948____
1947____
1946____
1945____
1944____
1943____
1942____
1941___
1940____
1939____
1938____

116
114
114
111
110
108
103
105
106
114
103
85
89
95
92
83
78
76
78

Live-birth order
1st
11

2d
12

33
33
33
33
34
35
34
37
41
49
41
30
32
37
40
34
30
30
31

1 Based on 50-percent sample.

22




32
32
33
33
33
33
32
33
31
31
29
24
25
27
24
21
20
19
19

3d
13
23
23
23
22
21
20
18
17
16
16
15
13
14
14
12
11
11
10
10

4th
14
13
13
12
11
10
9
8
8
8
8
7
7
7
7
6
6
6
6
6

5th
15

6th
16
7
6
6
5
5
5
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4

8th and
over
18

7th
17
3
3
3
3
3
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
3
2
2
2
2
2
3

2
2
2
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2

Year

3 1937.
2 1936.__
2
2 1935__
2 1934 —
2 1933__
1932
2 1931.__
3
3 1930.__
3 1929.__
3 1 92 8 ...
1927.
3 1 92 6 ...
3
3 1 9 2 5 ...
3 1924._.
3 1923.__
1922.__
3 1921
3 1920__
4

Total
10
75
74
75
76
74
79
82
86
86
90
95
96
100
104
103
104
112
109

Live-birth order
1st
11
29
28
28
26
24
26
27
29
28
29
30
30
31
32
31
32
36
35

2d
12
18
18
17
18
17
18
19
20
20
20
21
22
22
23
24
24
23
23

3d
13
10
10
10
11
11
11
12
12
13
13
14
14
15
16
15
15
16
16

4th
14
6
6
7
7
7
7
8
8
8
9
9
10
10
10
10
10
11
11

5th
15

6th
16
4
4
4
5
5
5
5
6
6
6
6
6
7
7
7
7
8
7

8th and
over
18

7th
17
3
3
3
3
3
4
4
4
4
4
5
5
5
5
5
5
6
5

2
2
2
2
2
2
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
4
4
4
4
4

4
4
4
4
4
5
5
5
5
6
6
6
7
7
7
7
8
7

B 19-36

VITAL STATISTICS

Series B 19-30. Birth Rate, by Color, and by Age of Mother: 1800 to 1956
[Based on estimated total live births per 1,000 population for specified group]
Rate by color

1956 2_
1955__________
1954 2_________
1953 2_________
1952 2_________
19512_________
1950__________
1949__________
1948__________
1947__________
1946__________
1945__________
1944__________
1943__________
1942__________
1941__________
1940__________
1939__________
1938__________
1937__________
1936__________
1935__________
1934__________
1933__________
1932__________
1931__________
1930__________
1920__________
1910 _
1900
1890
1880
1870
1860
1850
1840
1830
1820
__ __
1810
1800

N onwhite
21

White
20

Total
19

Year

25.2
25.0
25.3
25.0
25.1
24.9
24.1
24.5
24.9
26.6
24.1
20.4
21.2
22.7
22.2
20.3
19.4
18.8
19.2
18.7
18.4
18.7
19.0
18.4
19.5
20; 2
21.3
27.7
30.1
32.3

24.0
23.8
24.1
24.0
24.1
23.9
23.0
23.6
24.0
26.1
23.6
19.7
20.5
22.1
21.5
19.5
18.6
18.0
18.4
17.9
17.6
17.9
18.1
17.6
18.7
19.5
20.6
26.9
29.2
30.1
31.5
35.2
38.3
41.4
43.3
48.3
51.4
52.8
54.3
55.0

39.8
44.3
51.8
55.2
f_ '£

35.4
34.7
34.9
34.1
33.6
33.8
33.3
33.0
32.4
31.2
28.4
26.5
27.4
28.3
27.7
27.3
26.7
26.1
26.3
26.0
25.1
25.8
26.3
25.5
26.9
26.6
27.5
35.0

Women 15 to 44 years
N ative
White
Total
white
23
24
22
115.6
113.2
113.1
110.6
109.8
107.4
102.3
103.6
104.3
111.8
100.4
83.4
86.3
92.3
89.5
80.7
77.1
74.8
76.5
74.4
73.3
74.5
75.8
73.7
79.0
82.4
87.1
115.4
117
130
137
155
167
184
194
222
240
260
274
278

120.8
118.0
117.6
114.7
113.5
111.3
106.2
107.1
107.3
113.3
101.9
85.9
88.8
94.3
91.5
83.4
79.9
77.6
79.1
77.1
75.8
77.2
78.5
76.3
81.7
84.6
89.2
117.9
126.8

1 Computed by relating births to native white women 40 years old and over to the
native white population 40 to 44 years old.

15 to 19
years
25

116
114
114
111
110
108
103
105
106
114
103
85
89
95
92
83
78
76
78
75
74
75
76
74
79
82
86
109

Rate by age of mother, native white
20 to 24
25 to 29
30 to 34
35 to 39
years
years
years
years
26
27
28
29

79
79
77
74
76
70
72
71
70
51
43
46
53
53
48
45
45
47
45
44
44
43
41
44
46
50
55

235
231
220
213
207
190
195
198
211
184
138
152
164
165
143
131
125
128
124
121
121
122
118
126
131
139
167

112
113
110
111
106
102
102
104
114
111
101
99
100
92
85
83
80
81
80
79
81
85
82
86
89
93
122

188
186
181
178
172
164
165
164
180
165
135
140
153
147
131
123
118
119
115
114
115
117
114
120
125
130
160

57
57
56
54
52
52
52
53
58
58
56
54
52
47
45
46
46
47
47
49
51
52
53
57
59
62
86

40 to 44
years 1
30
15
15
15
15
15
15
15
15
16
16
16
16
15
14
15
15
15
16
16
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
35

2 Based on 50-percent sample of births,

Series B 31-36. Gross and Net Reproduction Rates, by Color: 1905-10 to 1956
[Based on estimated total live births]

Year

1 9 5 6 _ _ _
1955__ _____ . _ ___ ___
1954 !_
1953
1952 1 . .
1951 _ . _ _ _____ ___
1950
1949
_
.... _
1948 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
1947
1946 _ ___ _
___ _

Gross
reproduction rate
Non­
White white
Total
32
33
31
1,793
1,741
1,723
1,665
1,635
1,591
1,505
1,515
1,514
1,593
1,430

1,719
1,671
1,657
1,603
1,577
1,532
1,446
1,461
1,468
1,568
1,406

2,333
2,251
2,212
2,114
2,059
2,025
1,940
1,906
1,846
1,766
1,600

N et
reproduction rate
Non­
Total
White white
34
36
35
1,724
1,673
1,654
1,594
1,561
1,519
1,435
1,439
1,435
1,505
1,344

I

1,660
1,613
1,598
1,543
1,514
1,471
1,387
1,396
1,401
1,492
1,331

2,178
2,097
2,058
1,955
1,894
1,864
1,780
1,741
1,680
1,594
1,435

Year or period

1945_____________________
1944_____________________
1943_________ __
1942__________________ _
1941_____________________
1940_______________ __
1935_________________ _
1935-40________________
1930-35_________________
1905-10______
_

Gross
reproduction rate
Non­
White white
Total
32
31
33

N et
reproduction rate
N on­
White white
Total
34
35
36

1,212
1,249
1,323
1,277
1,168
1,121
1,091
1,101
1,108
1,793

1,132
1,163
1,228
1,185
1,075
1,027
975
978
984
1,336

1,175
1,214
1,294
1,250
1,131
1,082
1,059
1,063
1,080
1,740

1,493
1,520
1,543
1,487
1,458
1,422
1,350
1,413
1,336
2,240

1,106
1,139
1,211
1,171
1,052
1,002
958
957
972
1,339

1,323
1,334
1,348
1,293
1,242
1,209
1,108
1,137
1,074
1,329

1 Based on 50-percent sample of births.




23

VITAL STATISTICS AND HEALTH AND MEDICAL CARE

B 37-91

Series B 37-68. Number of Children Under 5 Years Old Per 1,000 Women 20 to 44 Years Old, by Race and Residence,
by Geographic Divisions: 1800 to 1950

[Adjusted data standardized for age of women, and allowance made for undercount of children in Censuses; see text. Definition of urban and rural based on 1940 Census of
Population]
Series
N o.
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68

1950

Area

1940

1930

1920

587
706

419
513

506
554

604
608

631
736

551
479
673
516
486
612
471
432
596
552
491
679
600
514
702
572
450
677
631
494
720
607
542
703
663
584
754
539
478
652

400
311
551
347
321
443
320
286
457
388
326
533
431
324
538
464
305
596
539
333
648
474
342
591
526
404
643
339
283
466

485
388
658
441
417
541
424
386
590
458
400
605
495
365
614
593
401
744
655
414
781
584
410
723
582
428
712
360
306
507

581
471
744
518
500
602
539
501
680
548
485
668
584
416
711
694
458
851
734
441
846
686
445
823
664
470
807
425
344
603

609
469
782
482
468
566
533
495
650
555
470
672
630
426
760
760
485
894
817
469
922
845
504
977
661
466
810
460
360
640

Adjusted number of children
per 1,000 women:
W hite______________
Negro______________
Unadjusted number of chil­
dren per 1,000 white
women:
United States-------------Urban______________
Rural_______________
New England-------------Urban---------------------Rural_______________
Middle A tlantic_______
Urban______________
Rural_______________
East North Central----Urban______________
Rural_______ _______
West North Central___
Urban______________
Rural_______________
South Atlantic________
Urban______________
Rural_______________
East South Central____
Urban______________
Rural_______________
West South Central___
Urban______________
Rural_______________
M ountain_____________
Urban______________
Rural_______________
Pacific________________
Urban______________
Rural_______________

1850
685
930

814
997

754
498

905
1,072

544

1,085 1,145

1,295

1,358

1,342

1,134
708
1,189
812
614
851
1,036
722
1,100
1,467
910
1,484
1,678
1,181
1,703
1,174
767
1,209
1,519
863
1,529
1,359
877
1,463

1,236
831
1,276
930
764
952
1,183
842
1,235
1,608
1,059
1,616
1,685
1,685
1,280
881
1,310
1,631
1,089
1,635
1,418
866
1,522

1,290
900
1,329
1,052
845
1,079
1,289
924
1,344
1,702
1,256
1,706
1,810
1,810
1,325
936
1.347
1.700
1.348
1.701
1,383
727
1,557

1,281
845
1 ,Si.9
1,098
827
1,126
1,279
852
1,339
1,840
1^840

792

440

478

780
1,090

667

666

845

1840

892
1,087

1900

877
622
767

624
653

763

710
777

779

757

869

905

599

990

1,105

1,114

851

811

918

937

1,022

926

'834

1,099

925

968

1,043

935

1,084

1,046

720

757

872

967

1,051

886

_5i2

587

~775'

888

1^026

1830

1,070
701
1,134
752
592
800
940
711
1,006
1,270
841
1,291
1,445
705
1,481
1,140
770
1,185
1,408
859
1,424
1,297
846
1,495

1,345
861
1,365
1,799

1^799

Ӥ6I'

Series B 69-75. Percent Distribution of Ever-Married Women (Survivors of Birth Cohorts of 1835-39 to 1900-04),
by Number of Children Ever Born: 1910, 1940, and 1950
Year of birth
of women
1900-04_________
1895-99_________
1890-94_________
1885-89_________
1880-84_________
1875-79_________
1870-74_________

Chil­
Percent of women, by
number of births
dren
Age of
per
Census women
10 or 1,000
year (years) None 1 and 2 3 and 4 5 and 6 7 to 9 more women
74
69
70
71
72
73
75
1950 45-49
1950 50-54
1940 45-49
1940 50-54
1940 55-59
1940 60-64
1940 65-69

20.4
18.6
16.8
16.6
16.7
15.0
13.9

41.5
39.0
35.3
33.1
30.7
30.5
28.4

22.4
23.9
25.0
25.1
24.7
25.2
25.1

8.4
10.0
12.2
13.1
14.1
14.4
15.2

5.0
5.8
7.7
8.6
9.6
10.3
11.6

2 .2
2 .6
3 .1
3 .6
4.2
4.7
5.8

2,492
2,706
2,998
3,146
3,301
3,462
3,700

Percent of women, by
Chil­
number of births
dren
Age of
per
Year of birth Census women
10 or 1,000
of women
year (years) None 1 and 2 3 and 4 5 and 6 7 to 9 more women
74
75
69
70
71
72
73
1865-69_______
1860-64_______
1855-59_______
1850-54_______
1845-49_______
1840-44_______
1835-39_______

1940
1910
1910
1910
1910
1910
1910

70-74
45-49
50-54
55-59
60-64
65-69
70-74

12.3
9 .5
8.9
8.3
8.2
7.9
7.7

2 6.6
2 2.4
20.6
18.8
18.5
17.9
17.3

26.1
22.0
21.3
20.8
20.3
20.1
20.0

16.0
17.3
17.9
17.8
18.3
18.1
18.7

12.5
17.6
19.0
20.4
20.8
21.6
21.6

6.4
11.2
12.3
13.9
14.0
14.3
14.7

3,901
4,744
4,972
5,218
5,266
5,364
5,395

Series B 76-91. Expectation of Life at Specified Ages, by Sex: 1850 to 1956
[In years]

Year or period

Death-registration area 1 (white population)
Age 60
Age 20
Age 40
At birth
Male Female
Male Female Male Female Male Femal
82
83
79
80
81
77
78
76

1956. _ - _____ 67.3
1955___ _______ 67.3
1949-51__________ 66.31
1939-41__________ 62.81
1929-31__________ 59.12
1919-21
_ __ 56.34
1919-20
__________ 50.23
49.32
1901-10
1900-02__________ 48.23
1893-97
1890
1878-82
1855
1850_

73.7
73.6
72.03
67.29
62.67
58.53

50.1
50.1
49.52
47.76
46.02
45.60

55.9
55.8
54.56
51.38
48.52
46.46

31.6
31.7
31.17
30.03
29.22
29.86

36.7
36.7
35.64
33.25
31.52
30.94

15.9
16.0
15.76
15.05
14.72
15.25

19.3
19.3
18.64
17.00
16.05
15.93

53.62
52.54
51.08

42.71
42.39
42.19

44.88
44.39
43.77

27.43
27.55
27.74

29.26 13.98
1909-11
29.28 14.17
29.17 14.35

14.92
15.09
15.23

1 Data for 1929-31 to 1956 are for continental United States; those for 1919-21,
for death-registration States of 1920; those for earlier years, for death-registration
States of 1900.

24




At birth
Male Female
85
84

M assachusetts2
Age 20
Age 40
Male Female Male Female
86
88
87
89

Age 60
Male Female
90
91

66.. 71
63.25
59.29

72.09
67.62
62.63

49.33
47.41
46.14

54.19
50.95
48.50

30.67
29.30
28.96

35.15
32.55
31.23

15.35
14.45
14.34

18.28
16.42
15.79

54.07
49.33
46.07
44.09
42.50
41.74
38.7
38.3

56.56
53.06
49.42
46.61
44.46
43.50
40.9
40.5

44.6
42.48
41.82
41.20
40.66
42.17
39.8
40.1

45.5
44.85
43.71
42.79
42.03
42.78
39.9
40.2

28.8
26.97
27.17
27.41
27.37
28.86
27.0
27.9

30.0
29.04
28.79
29.00
28.76
30.29
28.8
29.8

14.4
13.42
13.90
14.38
14.73
15.60
14.4
15.6

15.4
14.79
15.06
15.74
15.70
16.91
15.6
17.0

2 Data for 1919-20 and 1929-31 are for white population only,

VITAL STATISTICS

B 92-112

Series B 92-100. Expectation of Life at Birth, by Color and Sex: 1900 to 1956
Total
Year

Both
sexes
92

Male Female
94
93

Both
sexes
95

1956 —
1955__
1954 —
1953___
1952__
1951__
1950__
1949__
1948__
1947__
1946___
1945__
1944__
1943__
19421941__
1940__
1939__
1938__
1937 —
1936 —
1935__
1934__
1933__
1932.__
1931__
1930 —
1929__
1928___

69.6
69.5
69.6
68.8
68.6
68.4
68.2
68.0
67.2
66.8
66.7
65.9
65.2
63.3
66.2
64.8
62.9
63.7
63.5
60.0
58.5
61.7
61.1
63.3
62.1
61.1
59.7
57.1
56.8

66.7
66.7
66.8
66.1
65.9
65.8
65.7
65.4
64.7
64.4
64.4
63.6
63.6
62.4
64.7
63.1
60.8
62.1
61.9
58.0
56.6
59.9
59.3
61.7
61.0
59.4
58.1
55.8
55.6

73.0
72.9
72.9
72.1
71.8
71.5
71.3
71.0
70.2
69.7
69.4
67.9
66.8
64.4
67.9
66.8
65.2
65.4
65.3
62.4
60.6
63.9
63.3
65.1
63.5
63.1
61.6
58.7
58.3

70.2
70.2
70.3
69.6
69.4
69.2
69.1
68.8
68.0
67.6
67.5
66.8
66.2
64.2
67.3
66.2
64.2
64.9
65.0
61.4
59.8
62.9
62.4
64.3
63.2
62.6
61.4
58.6
58.4

[Prior to 1933 for death-registration area only. See series B 4 and B 5]
Non white
Total
White
Both Male Female Both
Both
Male Female sexes Male Female Year sexes
sexes
97
99
92
93
94
95
96
98
100
67.3
67.3
67.4
66.8
66.6
66.5
66.5
66.2
65.5
65.2
65.1
64.4
64.5
63.2
65.9
64.4
62.1
63.3
63.2
59.3
58.0
61.0
60.5
62.7
62.0
60.8
59.7
57.2
57.0

73.7
73.6
73.6
72.9
72.7
72.4
72.2
71.9
71.0
70.5
70.3
69.5
68.4
65.7
69.4
68.5
66.6
66.6
66.8
63.8
61.9
65.0
64.6
66.3
64.5
64.7
63.5
60.3
60.0

63.2
63.2
63.1
61.7
61.1
61.0
60.8
60.6
60.0
59.7
59.1
57.7
56.6
55.6
56.6
53.8
53.1
54.5
52.9
50.3
49.0
53.1
51.8
54.7
53.7
50.4
48.1
46.7
46.3

61.1
61.2
61.0
59.7
59.1
59.1
59.1
58.9
58.1
57.9
57.5
56.1
55.8
55.4
55.4
52.5
51.5
53.2
51.7
48.3
47.0
51.3
50.2
53.5
52.8
49.5
47.3
45.7
45.6

65.9
65.9
65.8
64.4
63.7
63.3
62.9
62.7
62.5
61.9
61.0
59.6
57.7
56.1
58.2
55.3
54.9
56.0
54.3
52.5
51.4
55.2
53.7
56.0
54.6
51.5
49.2
47.8
47.0

1927__
1926_ _
1925_ _
1924_ _
1923__
1922__
1921_ _
1920__
1919_ _
1918-_
1917_ _
1916..
1915-_
1914-_
1913_ 1912-_
1911-_
1910_ _
1909_ _
1908_ _
1907_ _
1906__
1905-_
1904_ _
1903__
1902_.
1901_ _
1900__

60.4
56.7
59.0
59.7
57.2
59.6
60.8
54.1
54.7
39.1
50.9
51.7
54.5
54.2
52.5
53.5
52.6
50.0
52.1
51.1
47.6
48.7
48.7
47.6
50.5
51.5
49.1
47.3

59.0
55.5
57.6
58.1
56.1
58.4
60.0
53.6
53.5
36.6
48.4
49.6
52.5
52.0
50.3
51.5
50.9
48.4
50.5
49.5
45.6
46.9
47.3
46.2
49.1
49.8
47.6
46.3

62.1
58.0
60.6
61.5
58.5
61.0
61.8
54.6
56.0
42.2
54.0
54.3
56.8
56.8
55.0
55.9
54.4
51.8
53.8
52.8
49.9
50.8
50.2
49.1
52.0
53.4
50.6
48.3

62.0
58.2
60.7
61.4
58.3
60.4
61.8
54.9
55.8
39.8
52.0
52.5
55.1
54.9
53.0
53.9
53.0
50.3
52.5
51.5
48.1
49.3
49.1
48.0
50.9
51.9
49.4
47.6

W hite

Non white

Both
Male Female sexes
96
98
97

Male Female
99
100

60.5
57.0
59.3
59.8
57.1
59.1
60.8
54.4
54.5
37.1
49.3
50.2
53.1
52.7
50.8
51.9
51.3
48.6
50.9
49.9
46.0
47.3
47.6
46.6
49.5
50.2
48.0
46.6

47.6
43.7
44.9
45.5
47.7
51.8
51.6
45.5
44.5
29.9
37.0
39.6
37.5
37.1
36.7
35.9
34.6
33.8
34.2
33.8
31.1
31.8
29.6
29.1
31.7
32.9
32.2
32.5

63.9
59.6
62.4
63.4
59.6
61.9
62.9
55.6
57.4
43.2
55.3
55.2
57.5
57.5
55.7
56.2
54.9
52.0
54.2
53.3
50.4
51.4
50.6
49.5
52.5
53.8
51.0
48.7

48.2
44.6
45.7
46.6
48.3
52.4
51.5
45.3
44.5
31.1
38.8
41.3
38.9
38.9
38.4
37.9
36.4
35.6
35.7
34.9
32.5
32.9
31.3
30.8
33.1
34.6
33.7
33.0

48.9
45.6
46.7
47.8
48.9
53.0
51.3
45.2
44.4
32.5
40.8
43.1
40.5
40.8
40.3
40.0
38.2
37.5
37.3
36.0
34.0
33.9
33.1
32.7
34.6
36.4
35.3
33.5

Series B 101-112. Fetal Death Ratio; Neonatal, Infant, and Maternal Mortality Rates, by Color: 1915 to 1956
[Prior to 1933 for registration area only. See series B 2-5]
Fetal death ratio
Neonatal mortality rate
Infant mortality rate
per 1,000 live births
per 1,000 live births 1
per 1,000 live births
White Non white
Total
White Non white
Total
Total
White Nonwhite

Maternal mortality rate
per 10,000 live births
Total
White Nonwhite

106

27.2
18.9
17.5
16.5
14.6
26.0
27.0
23.2
42.1
1956.
19.1
17.7
28.4
17.1
15.2
27.2
26.4
23.6
42.8
195519.1
17.8
28.9
17.5
15.5
27.0
26.6
42.9
23.9
195419.6
29.6
18.3
17.8
15.9
27.4
27.8
25.0
44.7
1953.
19.8
16.1
32.2
18.5
28.4
18.3
28.0
47.0
25.5
1952_
32.1
20.0
28.4
18.9
18.8
16.7
27.3
44.8
25.8
195132.5
20.5
19.4
17.1
29.2
19.2
27.5
44
26.8
195034.6
21.4
20.3
19.8
17.5
28.6
31.3
47,
28.9
194922.2
21.2
20.6
36.5
29.1
32.0
18.3
46
194829.9
39.6
22.8
21.1
18.7
21.7
32.2
48
1947.
31.0
30.1
24.0
23.1
22.8
40.9
20.4
33.8
31.5
49
194631.8
21
42.0
24.3
23.3
1945.
23.9
32.0
38.3
35.6
57.0
24.7
23.6
24
45.4
39.8
194427.0
32.5
36.9
60.3
24.7
23.7
26.7
46.2
40.4
24
32.9
62.5
37.5
194325.7
24.5
28.2
25
49.3
34.6
40.4
1942
64.6
37.3
27.7
26.
54.0
26.1
29.9
39.0
45.3
194174.8
41.2
27.2
56.7
28.8
1940
31.3
39.7
47.0
27.7
73.8
43.2
59.0
29.3
27.8
32.0
39.6
48.0
28.2
74.2
44.3
193961.1
29.6
32.1
28.1
28.3
39.1
51.0
1938_.
79.1
47.1
31.3
33.4
63.2
29.7
42.1
54.4
29.2
83.2
193750.3
32.6
31.0
43.9
87.6
34.4
66.9
57.1
1936-.
29.8
52.9
35.8
68.7
32.4
31.0
31.1
42.7
55.7
83.2
51.9
1935-.
34.1
36.2
31.4
70.1
232.3
60.1
2 54.5
294.4
1934..
2 45.3
71.1
232.1
34.0
37.0
32.2
58.1
1933
245.8
2 52.8
291.3
74.4
33.5
232.0
193237.8
32.7
57.6
286.2
243.7
2 53.3
38.2
74.1
34.6
33.2
193161.6
93.1
33.4
45.2
57.4
39.2
79.9
34.2
35.7
99.9
193034.0
47.4
64.6
60.1
36
1929.
39.5
79.7
35.6
34.4
67.6
63.2
102.2
47.3
40.2
81.5
37
35.7
1928_.
35.0
68.7
64.0
106.2
48.8
36
35.0
192738.8
34.8
74.8
46.1
60.6
100.1
64.6
38.1
73.0
37.1
37
192635.1
73.3
70.0
111.8
48.0
38.1
73.1
37.8
36.8
192535.1
49.5
110.8
71.7
68.3
76.2
37.4
39.3
38.6
192435.8
51.2
66.8
112.9
70.8
38.9
71.8
38.6
39.5
192335.9
49.9
77.1
73.5
117.4
73.4
38.8
39.7
39.4
36.4
192249.9
76.2
73.2
110.0
38.7
39.7
192150.3
75.6
72.5
108.5
41.5
40.4
82.1
192055.0
85.8
131.7
41.5
40.3
191955.2
83.0
86.6
130.5
44.2
43.3
1918_
161.2
60.5
97.4
100.9
43.4
42.6
1917_
58.0
150.7
93.8
90.5
44.1
43.5
1916.
184.9
68.9
101.0
99.0
44.4
181.2
1915.
98.6
99.9
1 For 1945-1956 includes only deaths for which the period of gestation was given less of gestation. In 1945 ratios based on all fetal
as 20 weeks or more or not stated. For earlier years, includes all fetal deaths, regard­ were: Total, 26.6; white, 24.1; nonwhite, 44.6.
2 Mexicans included with “nonwhite.”



4.1
4.7
5.2

6.1
6.8

7.5

2.9
3.3
3 .7
4.4
4.9
5.5

11.1
13.0
14.4
16.6
18.8

20.1

22.2
9.0
6. 8
23.5
11.7
8.9
30.1
13.5
10.9
33.5
15.7
13.1
35.9
20.7
17.2
45.5
22.8
18.9
50.6
21.1
24.5
51.0
25.9
22.2
54.4
31.7
26.6
67.8
37.6
77.3
32.0
76.2
40.4
35.3
84.9
43.5
37.7
48.9
85.8
43.6
97.2
51.2
56.8
94.6
58.2
53.1
2 89.7
59.3
2 54.4
2 96.7
61.9
2 56.4
297.6
2 58.1
63.3
111.4
66.1
60.1
117.4
60.9
67.3
119.9
63.1
69.5
121.0
69.2
62.7
113.3
64.7
59.4
65.6
61.9
107.1
116.2
64.7
60.3
117.9
65.6
60.7
109.5
66.5
62.6
106.8
66.4
62.8
107.7
68.2
64.4
128.1
79.9
76.0
124.4
73.7
69.6
91.6
88.9
139.3
66.2
63.2
117.7
62.2
60.8
117.9
60.8
60.1
105.6
deaths, regardless of gestation,

25

B 113-128

VITAL STATISTICS AND HEALTH AND MEDICAL CARE

Series B 113. Infant Mortality Rate, for Massachusetts: 1851 to 1956
[Deaths under 1 year per 1,000 live births. Excludes fetal deaths. Data for 1940 to 1956 are by place of residence; for earlier years, by place of occurrence]
Rate
113

Year or period
1956__________________________
1955__________________________
1950-54
1945-49
1940-44_______________________
1935-39_______________________

Rate
113

Period

22.4
21.9
22.8
28.4
34.3
43.2

1930-34______________________
1925-29______________________
1920-24 ____________________
1915-19 _ ___ ___ _________
1910-14______________________
1905-09______________________

53.9
67.6
78.7
100.2
116.7
134.3

Rate
113

Period
1900-04_______________________
1895-99_______________________
1890-94_______________________
1885-89_______________________
1880-84_______________________
1875-79_______________________

141.4
153.2
163.2
158.5
161.3
156.3

Rate
113

Period
1870-74_______________________
1865-69_______________________
1860-64_______________________
1855-59_______________________
1851-54_______________________

170.3
146.3
142.5
122.9
131.1

Series B 114-128. Death Rate, for Selected Causes: 1900 to 1956
[Number of deaths, excluding fetal deaths, per 100,000 population. Prior to 1933 for death-registration area only. See series B 4 and B 5]

Year

Tuber­ Syphilis Typhoid
culosis, and its and para­
all forms sequelea 1 typhoid
fever

Diph­
theria

Whooping Measles
cough
118

1956_______
1955_______
1954_______
1953_______
1952_______
1951_______
1950_______
1949_______
1948_______
1947_______
1946_______
1945_______
1944_______
1943_______
1942_______
1941_______
1940_______
1939_______
1938_______
1937_______
1936_______
1935_______
1934_______
1933_______
1932_______
1931_______
1930_______
1929_______
1928_______
1927_______
1926_______
1925_______
1924_______
1923____
1922____
1921____
1920____
1919____
1918____
1917____
1916____
1915____
1914____
1913____
1912____
1911____
1910____
1909____
1908____
1907____
1906____
1905____
1904____
1903____
1902____
1901____
1900____

8.4
9 .1
10.2
12.3
15.8
20.1
22.5
26.3
30.0
33.5
36.4
39.9
41.2
42.5
43.1
44.5
45.9
47.1
49.1
53.8
55.9
55.1
56.7
59.6
62.5
67.8
71.1
75.3
78.3
79.6
85.5
84.8
87.9
91.7
95.3
97.6
113.1
125.6
149.8
143.5
138.4
140.1
141.7
143.5
145.4
155.1
153.8
156.3
162.1
174.2
175.8
179.9
188.1
177.2
174.2
189.9
194.4

5.0

5.8
8.0
10.6

11.2
12.1
12.2
13.3
14.4
15.0
15.9
16.1
16.2
15.4
15.9
15.1
15.4
15.4
15.7
15.6
16.4
16.4
17.1
17.3
17.8
17.9
18.0
17.5
16.5
16.2
18.7
19.1
18.6
17.7
16.7
16.2
15.1
15.3
13.5
12.9
12.4
12.4
14.1
13.8
13.9
13.2
12.9
12.5

12.0

0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.2
0.2
0.3
0 .4
0 .4
0.5

0.6
0.8
1.1
1.5
1.9
2.1
2 .5
2.8
3 .4

3 .6
3 .7
4 .5
4.8
4 .2
4 .9
5.3
6.4
7.8
6.6
6.7
7 .4

7.6
9.2
12.3
13.3
13.2
11.8
14.7
17.5
16.1

20.1

22.5
23.4
28.2
30.9
22.4
23.9
24.6
26.4
27.6
31.3

20.2

0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0 .4
0.6
0.9

1.2
1.0
1.0
1.1
1.5
2.0
2.0
2 .4
0.9
0.9

0.2
0.3
0.2
0.2
0.3
0 .6
0 .7
0 .5
0.8
1.4
0.9
1.3
1.4
2 .5
1.9
2 .8
2.2
2.3
3 .7
3.9
2 .1
3 .7
5.9
3 .6
4 .5
3 .9
4.8
6.2
5 .4
6.8

0.3
0.6
0 .6
0.3
0.9
0.2
1.4
1.0
1.0
1.7
0 .5
0.9
2 .5
1.2
1.0
3.1
5.5
2.2
1.6
3 .0
3.2
2 .5
5.2
4.1
8.3
2.3
8.2
10.7
4.3
4.2

3 .1
3 .3
3 .9
4.4
4 .8
4.9
6.5
7.2
7.7
7.4
7.8
9.3
12.0
14.6
17.7
15.3
14.9
14.0
15.6
13.9
15.2
17.2
18.1
17.6
18.4

6 .7
8.1
9 .6
5.5
9.1
12.5
5.6
17.0
10.5
10.5
8.2
10.2
10.1
9.2
11.0

21.1

11.6

3 .9
10.8
14.1
11.4
5.2
6.8
12.8
7.2
9.9
12.4

12.2

9.6
12.9
7.4
11.3
8.8
9.3
7 .4
13.3

19.9
21.9
24.2
26.3
23.5
29.3
31.1
29.8
33.5
40.3

10.0
10.7
11.3
16.1
8.9
5.8
14.3
12.4
8.7

10.0
10.6

Gastritis,
Major
Malig­
cardio- Influenza duo­
Motor
nant Diabetes vascular- and pneu­ denitis, Cirrhosis vehicle All other Suicide
neo­
mellitus renal
monia 3 enteritis, of liver accidents1 accidents 6
plasms 2
and
diseases
colitis 4
124
147.9
146.5
145.6
144.7
143.3
140.5
139.8
138.8
134.9
132.3
130.0
134.0
128.8
124.3
122.0
120.1
120.3
117.5
114.9
112.4
111.4
108.2
106.4
102.3
102.3
99.0
97.4
95.8
95.7
95.2
94.6
92.0
90.4
88.4
86.2
85.5
83.4
81.0
80.8
80.8
81.0
80.7
78.7
78.5
77.0
74.2
76.2
74.0
71.5
71.4
69.3
73.4
71.5
70.0
66.3
66.4
64.0

1 Excludes aneurysm of the aorta for 1900-1920.
2 Includes neoplasms of lymphatic and hematopoietic tissues.
3 Excludes pneumonia of newborn for all years, and capillary bronchitis for 1900-1920.
4 Excludes diarrhea of newborn for all years: includes ulcer of duodenum for 19001920.

26




15.7
15.5
15.6
16.3
16.4
16.3
16.2
16.9
26.4
26.2
24.8
26.5
26.3
27.1
25.4
25.4
26.6
25.5
23.9
23.7
23.7
22.3
22.2
21.4
22.0
20.4
19.1
18.8
19.0
17.4
17.9
16.8
16.4
17.7
18.3
16.7
16.1
15.0
16.1
16.9
16.9
17.6
16.2
15.4
15.1
15.1
15.3
14.1
13.8
14.2
13.4

11.0

510.7
506.0
495.1
514.6
511.6
513.0
510.8
502.1
488.0
491.0
476.8
508.2
500.5
510.8
479.5
475.3
485.7
466.3
456.8
454.6
461.1
431.2
430.0
413.6
418.2
407.1
414.4
418.9
419.1
398.3
410.6
391.5
383.4
380.8
366.6
351.2
364.9
348.6
387.0
396.4
389.4
383.5
374.5
370.6
375.7
366.5
371.9
362.0
356.7
389.8
364.3
384.0
388.8
364.4
349.8
347.7
345.2

28.2
27.1
25.4
33.0
29.7
31.4
31.3
30.0
38.7
43.1
44.5
51.6
61.6
67.1
55.7
63.8
70.3
75.7
80.4
114.9
119.6
104.2
96.9
95.7
107.3
107.5
102.5
146.5
142.5
102.2
141.7
121.7
115.2
151.7
132.3
98.7
207.3
223.0
588.5
164.5
163.3
145.9
132.4
140.8
138.4
145.4
155.9
148.1
150.9
180.0
156.3
169.3
192.1
169.3
161.3
197.2

202.2

4 .5
4 .7
4.9
5.4
5.6
5.2
5.1
6.7
6.0
5.6
5.8
8.7
9.9
9.6
8.8
10.5
10.3
11.6
14.3
14.7
16.4
14.1
18.4
17.3
16.1
20.5
26.0
23.3
26.4
27.1
32.9
38.6
33.7
39.1
38.9
50.7
53.7
55.2
72.2
75.2
75.5
67.5
75.1
86.7
79.6

86.8

115.4
101.8
112.5
115.0
123.6
118.4
111.5
100.3
104.9
118.5
142.7

10.7
10.2
10.1
10.4
10.2
9.2
9.2
11.3
10.4
9 .6
9 .5
8.6
9.3
9 .4
8.9
8.6
8.3
8.3
8.5
7.9
7,7
7 .4
7.2
7.4
7.2
7.2
7.5
7.4
7.2
7.2
7.3
7.1
7.4
7.3
7.1
7.9
9.6
10.9
11.8

12.1
12.5
12.9
13.1
13.6
13.3
13.4
13.5
14.8
14.1
14.0
13.9
13.5
13.0
13.1
12.5

23.7
23.4
22.1
24.0
24.3
24.1
23.1
21.3

22.1
22.8
23.9
21.2
18.3
17.7
21.1
30.0

26.2
24.7
25.1
30.8
29.7
28.6
28.6
25.0
23.6
27.1
26.7
25.5
23.2
21.6
19.9
16.8
15.3
14.6
12.4
11.3
10.3
9.3
7.1
5.8
4.2
3 .8
2 .8
2 .1
1.8
1.2
0 .8
0.7
0.4

33.0
33.5
33.8
36.1
37.5
38.4
37.5
39.3
44.8
46.4
45.9
50.9
53.0
55.7
50.1
45.9
47.0
45.6
46.7
50.4
55.7
49.3
50.8
46.9
47.2
50.7
53.1
54.2
54.9
55.5
57.3
59.7
58.5
59.7
55.9
55.5
59.7
61.8
72.2
77.4
74.5
67.7
72.5
79.9
78.0
81.5
82.4
77.5
82.1
94.1
94.0
81.3
85.4
81.4
72.5
83.8
72.3

10.0
10.2
10.1
10.1
10.0
10.4
11.4
11.4
11.2
11.5
11.5

11.2

10.0
10.2
12.0

12.8
14.4
14.1
15.3
15.0
14.3
14.3
14.9
15.9
17.4
16.8
15.6
13.9
13.5
13.2

12.6
12.0

11.9
11.5
11.7
12.4

10.2

11.5
12.3
13.0
13.7
16.2
16.1
15.4
15.6
16.0
15.3
16.0
16.8
14.5

12.8

13.5
11.3
10.3
10.4

12.2

10.2

5 Excludes automobile collisions with trains and streetcars, and motorcycle accidents
for 1906-1925.
6 Includes legal executions for 1900-1921, food poisoning for 1900-1908, and motor
vehicle accidents for 1900-1905.

VITAL STATISTICS

B 129-142

Series B 129-142. Death Rate, by Color and Sex: 1900 to 1956
[Number of deaths, excluding fetal deaths, per 1,000 population. Prior to 1933 for death-registration area only. See series B 4 and B 5]
Death rate
Total
129
1956.
1955.
1954.
1953.
1952.
1951.
1950.
1949.
1948.
1947.
1946.
1945.
1944.
1943.
1942.
1941.
1940.
1939.
1938.
1937.
1936.
1935.
1934.
1933.
1932.
1931.
1930.
1929.
1928.
1927.
1926.
1925.
1924.
1923.
1922.
1921.
1920.
1919.
1918
1917
1916
1915
1914
1913
1912
1911
1910
1909
1908
1907
1906
1905
1904
1903
1902




94
9 3
9 2
9 6
9 6
9 7
9 6
9 7
9 9
10 1
10 0
10 6
10 6
10 9
10 3
10 5
10 8
10 6
10 6
11 .3
11 .6
10 .9
11 .1
10 .7
10 .9
11 .1
11 .3
11 .9
12 .0
11 .3
12 .1
11 .7
11 .6
12 1
11..7
11 .5
13 .0
12 .9
18 .1
14 .0
13 .8
13. 2
13 .3
13 .8
13 .6
13 .9
14 .7
14 .2
14 .7
15 .9
15 .7
15 .9
16 .4
15 .6
15 .5
16 .4
17 .2

Nonwhite

White
Both
sexes
130
9 3
92
9 1
9 4
9 4
9 5
9 5
9 5
9 7
9 9
9 8
10 4
10 4
10 7
10 1
10 2
10 4
10 3
10 3
10 .8
11 .1
10 .6
10 .6
10 .3
10 .5
10 .6
10 .8
11 .3
11 .4
10 .8
11 .6
11 .1
11 .0
11 .7
11 .3
11 .1
12 .6
12 .4
17 .5
13 .5
13 .4
12 .9
13 .0
13 .5
13 .4
13 .7
14 .5
14 .0
14 .5
15 .7
15 .5
15 .7
16 .2
15 .4
15 .3
16 .2
17 .0

Male
131
10 8
10 7
10 6
11 0
11 0
11 0
10 9
11 0
11 2
11 4
11 2
12 5
12 2
12 2
11 4
11 4
11 6
11 3
11 3
12 .0
12 3
11 .6
11 .7
11 .2
11 .3
11 .5
11 .7
12 .2
12 .3
11 .6
12 .3
11 .8
11 .8
12 .3
11 .9
11 .6
13 .0
13 .0
19 .3
14 .6
14 .4
13 .7
13 .9
14 .5
14 .3
14 .5
15 .4
14 .9
15 .3
16 .8
16 .5
16 .5
17 .1
16 .2
16 .2
17 .1
17 .7

Female
132
7 8
7 8
7 6
7 9
8 0
8 0
8 0
8 1
83
8 5
8 5
8 6
8 8
9 2
8 7
89
92
9 2
9 2
9 .6
9 .9
9 .5
9 .6
9 .3
9 .6
9 .6
9 .8
10 .4
10 .5
10 .0
10 .8
10 .4
10 .3
11 .0
10 .7
10 .6
12 .1
11 .8
15 .8
12 .4
12 .4
12 .0
12 .1
12 .5
12 .4
12 .8
13 .6
13 .2
13 .6
14 .5
14 .4
14 .8
15 .3
14 .6
14 .4
15 .4
16 .3

Both
sexes
133
10 1
10 0
10 1
10 8
11 0
11 1
11 2
11 2
11 4
11 4
11 1
11 9
12 4
12 8
12 7
13 5
13 8
13 5
14 0
14 .9
15..4
14 .3
14 .8
14 .1
14 .5
15 .5
16 .3
16 .9
17 .1
16 .4
17 .8
17 .4
17 .1
16 .5
15 .2
15 .5
17 .7
17 .9
25 .6
20..4
19 .1
20. 2
20 .2
20 .3
20..6
21 .3
21..7
21 .8
22 .4
24. 3
24. 2
25..5
26..1
24 .5
23 .6
24. 3
25 .0

Male
134
11 .4
11 .3
11 .4
12 .3
12 .5
12 .5
12 .5
12 .5
12 .7
12 .5
12 .2
13 .5
13 ,8
14 .0
14 .0
14,.8
15 .1
14 .7
15 .2
16 .4
16 .9
15 .6
16 .0
15 .1
15 .4
16, 5
17 .4
18,.0
18 .0
17 .2
18,.7
18..2
17 .9
17 .0
15..7
15..7
17..8
18..1
26 .7
21..4
19. 9
20.,8
20, 9
21..0
21. 3
21..9
22. 3
22. 3
22.,8
25..0
24.,7
26.,8
27..6
25..5
24.,8
25..6
25..7

Female
135
8 .8
8 .8
8 .8
9 .4
9 .6
9 .8
9 .9
10 .0
10 .1
10 .3
10 .0
10 .5
11 .1
11 .6
11 .4
12 .2
12 .6
12 .4
12 .9
13 .4
13 .9
13 .0
13 .5
13 .1
13 .5
14 .5
15 .3
15 .8
16 .2
15 .6
16 .9
16 .6
16 .3
16 .0
14 .8
15 .4
17 .5
17 ,8
24 .4
19..4
18..4
19..5
19..4
19 .6
19..7
20..6
21,,0
21,.2
22..0
23. 5
23.,6
24. 3
24..7
23,,4
22. 3
23. 1
24..4

Total
136
7 .7
7 .7
7 .7
8 .1
8 .2
8 .3
8 .4
8 .5
8 .8
9 .0
9 .1
9 .5
9 .7
10 .2
9 .9
10 .3
10 .8
10 .7
10 .9
11 .7
12 .2
11 .6
11 .9
11 .6
11 .9
12..1
12 .5
13 .2
13 .4
12 .6
13..5
13 .0
12. 9
13 .5
13. 0
12.,7
14. 2
14. 0
19. 0
15. 3
15. 1
14. 4
14. 5
15. 0
14. 8
15. 2
15. 8
15. 3
15. 8
17. 1
16. 7
16. 7
17. 3
16. 5
16. 2
17. 2
17. 8

Both
sexes
137
7 .4
7 .4
7 .4
7 .7
7 .8
7 .9
8 .0
8 .1
8 .3
8 .6
8 .8
9 .1
9 .3
9 .7
9 .4
9 .7
10 .2
10 .2
10 .3
11 .1
11 .5
11 .1
11 .3
11 .0
11 .3
11 .4
11 .7
12 .4
12 .6
11 .9
12 .7
12 .3
12 .2
12 .9
12 .6
12 .2
13,.7
13 .4
18,.4
14..7
14.,7
14. 1
14. 1
14..6
14. 6
14. 9
15. 6
15. 0
15..5
16, 8
16. 4
16. 5
17. 1
16. 2
16. 0
17. 0
17. 6

Age-adjusted death rate
N onwhite
White
Both
Male Female sexes
Male Female
139
140
141
138
142
9 .2
9 .2
9 .1
9 .5
9 .5
9 .6
9 .6
9 .7
10 .0
10 .1
10 .2
10 .7
10 .8
11 .2
10 .9
11 .2
11 .6
11 .4
11 .5
12 .4
12 .8
12 .3
12 .5
12 .2
12 .3
12 .5
12 .8
13 .5
13 .6
12 .8
13 .6
13 .2
13 .1
13 .7
13 .3
12..7
14. 2
14, 1
20,,2
16. 0
15. 8
15. 1
15. 2
15.,8
15..7
15. 9
16. 7
16. 1
16. 6
18. 2
17. 6
17. 6
18. 1
17. 2
17. 0
18. 0
18. 4

5 .8
5 .8
5 .8
6 .1
6 .2
6 .3
6 .5
6 .6
6 .8
7 .1
7 .3
7 .5
7,.8
8 .2
8 .0
8 .3
8 .8
8 .9
9 .1
9 .7
10, 1
9 .8
10 .0
9 .9
10 .2
10. 3
10..6
11 .4
11 .5
10 .9
11.,8
11 .4
11. 3
12 .1
11..8
11. 6
13. 1
12. 8
16. 6
13. 4
13. 4
13. 0
13. 0
13. 4
13. 4
13. 8
14. 4
14. 0
14. 4
15. 4
15. 1
15. 4
16. 0
15. 3
14. 9
16. 0
16. 8

10 .9
10 .8
10 .9
11 .7
11 .9
12 .1
12 .3
12 .3
12 .5
12 .5
12 .4
13 .1
13 .8
14 .5
14 .5
15 .6
16 .3
16 .0
16 .6
17 .8
18 .5
17 .3
17 .9
17 .2
17 .8
19 .0
20 .1
21 .0
20 .9
19 .8
21 .4
20..9
20..5
19 .8
18..3
18..2
20. 6
20. 5
28.,0
23. 4
22. 2
23. 1
22. 6
22. 7
23. 1
23.,7
24. 1
24. 1
24. 7
26. 6
26. 2
28. 3
29. 1
27. 2
25. 9
26. 9
27. 8

12 .4
12 .3
12 .3
13 .3
13 .4
13 .4
13 .6
13 .5
13 .8
13 .6
13 .5
14 .5
14 .9
15 .7
15 .8
16 .9
17 .6
17 .1
17 .7
19 .2
20 .1
18 .5
19 .0
18 .1
18 .6
19 .9
21 .0
21 .9
21..7
20..4
22. 1
21 .4
21 1
20..0
18..4
18.,0
20,.4
20. 3
28. 9
24. 1
22. 6
23. 5
23. 3
23. 3
24. 0
24. 4
24. 8
24. 8
25. 3
27. 5
27. 0
29. 7
30. 7
28. 5
27. 5
28. 4
28. 7

9.5
9.4
9 .5
10.2
10.5
10.7
10.9
11.1
11.2
11.4
11.3
11.9
12.6
13.4
13.3
14.3
15.0
14.9
15.5
16.3
17.0
16.1
16.7
16.4
17.0
18.1
19.2
20.0
20.2
19.3
20.8
20.4
20.0
19.7
18.4
18.6
21.0
20.8
27.1
22.7
21.6
22.6
21.9
22.0
22.2
22.9
23.2
23.3
24.1
25.7
25.5
26.9
27.4
25.9
24.5
25.5
27.1

27

B 143-154

VITAL STATISTICS AND HEALTH AND MEDICAL CARE

Series B 143-154. Death Rate, by Age and Sex: 1900 to 1956
[Number of deaths, excluding fetal deaths, per 1,000 population for specified group. Prior to 1933 for death-registration area only. See series B 4 and B 5]
Year
BOTH SEXES

1956_________________________
1955_________________________
1954_________________________
1953_________________________
1952_________________________
1951_________________________
1950_________________________
1949_________________________
1948_________________________
1947_________________________
1946_________________________
1945_________________________
1944_________________________
1943_________________________
1942_________________________
1941_________________________
1940_________________________
1939_________________________
1938_________________________
1937_________________________
1936_________________________
1935_________________________
1934_________________________
1933_________________________
1932_________________________
1931_________________________
1930_________________________
1929_________________________
1928_________________________
1927_________________________
1926_________________________
1925_________________________
1924_________________________
1923_________________________
1922_________________________
1921_________________________
1920_________________________
1919_________________________
1918_________________________
1917_________________________
1916_________________________
1915_________________________
1914_________________________
1913_________________________
1912_________________________
1911_________________________
1910_________________________
1909_________________________
1908_________________________
1907_________________________
1906_________________________
1905_________________________
1904_________________________
1903_________________________
1902_________________________
1901_________________________
1 90 0 _ _ _____________________
MALE
1956_________________________
1955_________________________
1954_________________________
1953_________________________
1952_________________________
1951_________________________
1950_________________________
1949_________________________
1948_________________________
1947_________________________
1946_________________________
1945_________________________
1944_________________________
1943_________________________
1942_________________________
1941_________________________
1940_________________________
1939_________________________
1938_________________________
1937_________________________
1936_________________________
1935_________________________
1934_________________________
1933_________________________
1932_________________________
1931_________________________
1930_________________________
1929_________________________
1928_________________________
1927_________________________
1926_________________________
See footnotes at end of table.

28



Total 1
143
9.4
9.3
9.2
9.6
9.6
9.7
9.6
9.7
9.9
10.1
10.0
10.6
10.6
10.9
10.3
10.5
10.8
10.6
10.6
11.3
11.6
10.9
11.1
10.7
10.9
11.1
11.3
11.9
12.0
11.3
12.1
11.7
11.6
12.1
11.7
11.5
13.0
12.9
18.1
14.0
13.8
13.2
13.3
13.8
13.6
13.9
14.7
14.2
14.7
15.9
15.7
15.9
16.4
15.6
15.5
16.4
17.2
10.8
10.8
10.7
11.1
11.1
11.1
11.1
11.1
11.3
11.5
11.3
12.6
12.4
12.4
11.7
11.8
12.0
11.7
11.7
12.5
12.7
12.0
12.1
11.6
11.7
12.0
12.3
12.8
12.8
12.1
12.9

Under
1 year
144
29.6
29.6
30.3
31.4
32.7
32.6
33.0
35.2
35.7
34.5
46.3
42.5
44.2
44.0
48.8
52.6
54.9
53.7
58.0
61.3
62.9
60.9
66.8
61.3
61.3
64.4
69.0
71.6
73.1
68.8
77.9
75.4
76.8
81.1
77.6
80.6
92.3
91.0
111.7
104.6
105.7
102.4
107.2
114.8
111.1
114.0
131.8
126.7
133.2
138.6
144.8
141.2
139.2
132.6
138.9
141.4
162.4
33.6
33.4
34.1
35.5
36.8
37.0
37.3
39.6
40.2
38.8
52.1
47.6
49.1
49.3
54.4
58.6
61.9
60.3
65.2
68.7
70.7
68.9
74.8
68.3
68.5
72.2
77.0
80.0
82.3
77.5
87.1

1 to 4
years
145
1.1
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4
1.4
1.4
1.5
1.6
1.6
1.8
2 .0
2.3
2.6
2 .4
2 .8
2.9
3.2
3.8
4.2
4.4
4.4
5.1
4.7
4.6
5.3
5.6
6.3
6.5
5.9
7.2
6.4
6.8
8.1
7.4
8.0
9.9
9.3
15.7
10.7
11.1
9.2
10.2
11.9
10.9
11.8
14.0
13.5
14.0
14.7
15.8
15.0
15.9
15.4
16.6
17.0
19.8
1.2
1.2
1.3
1.4
1.5
1.5
1.5
1.6
1.7
1.8
2.0
2.2
2.5
2 .8
2 .6
3.0
3.1
3 .4
4.1
4 .5
4.7
4.7
5.4
5.0
4.9
5.6
6.0
6.6
6.8
6.2
7.6

5 to 14
years
146
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.6
0.6
0.6
0.7
0.7
0.7
0.8
0.9
0.9
1.0
0.9
1.0
1.0
1.1
1.2
1.4
1.5
1.5
1.5
1.5
1.5
1.7
1.7
1.9
1.9
1.9
1.9
2.0
2.0
2.1
2.1
2.5
2.6
2.7
4.1
2.6
2.5
2.3
2.5
2.7
2.5 i
2.7
2.9
2.8
3.0
3.2
3.3
3.4
3.7
3.4
3.3
3.5
3.9
0.6
0.6
0.6
0.7
0.7
0.7
0.7
0.8
0.8
0.8
1.0
1.1
1.1
1.1
1.1
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4
1.5
1.7
1.7
1.7
1.7
1.7
1.8
1.9
2.1
2.1
2.1
2.1

15 to 24
years
147

25 to 34
years
148

35 to 44
years
149

45 to 54
years
150

55 to 64
years
151

1.1
1.1
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.3
1.3
1.3
1.4
1.5
1.7
1.9
2.0
2.1
1.9
2.0
2.0
2.1
2.3
2.6
2.8
2.7
2.8
2.7
2.9
3.2
3.3
3.6
3.7
3 .5
3.7
3.8
3.8
3.9
3.8
3.9
4.9
5.3
10.7
4.7
4.4
4.1
4.2
4.4
4.3
4.5
4.5
4.4
4.8
5.3
5.3
5.2
5.5
5.2
5.1
5.5
5.9
1.6
1.6
1.6
1.7
1.8
1.7
1.7
1.7
1.8
1.9
2.1
2.7
2.8
2 .6
2.3
2.3
2.3
2.4
2.5
2.S
3.0
2.9
3.0
2.9
3.0
3.4
3 .5
3.7
3.8
3 .5
3.7

1.5
1.5
1.5
1.6
1.7
1.8
1.8
1.8
2.0
2.1
2.3
2.7
2.7
2.7
2.8
2.9
3.1
3.2
3.4
3.9
4.1
4.0
4.1
4.1
4.2
4.5
4.7
5.0
5.0
4.7
4.9
4 .8
4.8
5.0
5.0
4.9
6.8
7.5
16.4
6.5
6.2
5.8
6.0
6.2
6.1
6 .4
6.5
6.3
6.7
7.5
7.5
7.4
7.8
7.5
7.5
8.0
8.2
1.9
1.9
2.0
2.1
2.2
2.2
2.2
2.2
2.3
2.4
2.6
3.5
3.2
3.2
3.2
3.3
3.4
3.4
3.6
4.2
4.4
4.3
4.3
4.3
4.3
4.7
4.9
5.2
5.1
4.8
5.0

3.0
3.1
3.1
3.3
3.4
3.5
3.6
3.7
3.9
4.1
4.2
4.6
4.6
4.8
4.8
5.0
5.2
5.3
5.6
6.2
6.5
6.2
6.2
6.2
6.3
6.7
6.8
7.3
7.5
7.1
7.4
7.2
7.1
7.3
7.1
6.8
8.1
8.6
13.4
9.0
8.8
8.3
8.5
8.7
8.6
8.9
9.0
8.7
9.0
10.2
9.8
9.8
10.2
9.8
9.6
10.3
10.2
3.7
3.8
3.8
4.1
4.2
4.3
4.3
4.4
4.7
4.8
4.9
5.5
5.4
5.5
5.6
5.7
5.9
6.0
6.2
7.0
7.4
7.0
7.0
6.8
6.9
7.4
7.5
8.0
8.0
7.6
7.9

7.4
7.5
7.7
8.1
8.3
8.4
8.5
8.7
9.0
9.2
9.2
9.6
9.7
10.2
10.1
10.3
10.6
10.7
10.9
11.8
12.1
11.6
11.8
11.4
11.6
12.0
12.2
12.7
12.8
12.0
12.7
12.2
12.1
12.2
11.8
11.2
12.2
12.3
15.2
13.9
13.6
13.1
13.1
13.5
13.4
13.5
13.7
13.3
13.8
15.1
14.5
14.7
15.1
14.3
14.0
15.0
15.0
9 .6
9.7
9.9
10.4
10.5
10.6
10.7
10.8
11.2
11.3
11.2
11.6
11.7
12.2
12.1
12.2
12.5
12.5
12.6
13.8
14.1
13.3
13.5
12.9
12.9
13.4
13.6
14.1
14.1
13.2
13.9

17.5
17.3
17.4
18.4
18.6
18.8
219.0
19.3
19.7
20.1
19.8
20.5
20.8
21.5
21.0
21.3
2 22.2
22.1
22.1
23.5
24.1
23.2
23.5
23.2
23.4
23.6
24.0
24.5
24.2
22.9
24.1
23.3
23.0
23.9
23.2
22.1
23.6
23.1
26.5
26.8
26.5
25.5
25.1
25.5
25.8
25.8
26.2
25.6
26.2
28.6
27.1
27.7
28.5
27.2
25.9
27.8
27.2
23.1
22.7
22.7
23.9
24.0
23.9
2 24.0
24.2
24.6
25.0
24.3
25.0
25.0
25.7
25.1
25.3
226.1
25.5
25.3
27.2
27.7
26.3
26.6
26.0
26.1
26.2
26.6
26.9
26.5
25.0
26.0

65 to 74
years
152
39.9
39.6
39.0
40.2
40.0
40.5
2 41.0
40.8
41.4
42.1
41.2
42.6
43.9
46.2
44.9
46.2
2 48.4
47.2
47.1
49.0
50.8
48.7
49.4
49.0
50.0
49.9
51.4
54.0
54.3
51.2
53.8
51.7
51.0
53.3
52.2
49.0
52.5
50.0
55.1
57.3
57.2
55.6
54.1
54.1
54.5
55.0
55.6
53.9
53.8
58.8
55.0
56.2
58.2
55.0
52.9
56.2
56.4
49.8
49.2
48.0
49.1
48.5
49.1
2 49 .3
48.4
48.8
49.2
47.5
49.1
50.2
52.6
51.3
52.6
2 54.6
52.7
52.5
54.5
56.1
53.7
54.3
53.6
54.1
54.4
55.8
58.4
58.5
55.2
57.6

75 to 84
years
153
89.0
89.4
87.6
92.5
92.1
93.3
93.3
93.0
95.1
97.0
95.1
98.4
101.7
107.5
101.6
105.8
112.0
112.5
110.9
117.0
121.7
113.1
114.1
111.3
114.3
110.5
112.7
122.2
121.2
115.9
125.4
119.3
117.2
123.5
117.5
111.2
118.9
107.8
113.0
123.9
123.9
120.1
115.6
117.9
120.2
120.1
122.2
118.4
119.5
128.7
120.4
122.4
126.1
120.8
114.1
124.6
123.3
102.3
101.9
99.3
104.3
103.3
104.3
104.3
103.8
105.1
106.6
104.1
107.7
110.7
117.2
111.0
115.2
121.3
120.7
118.8
126.4
130.6
121.7
122.2
118.3
121.1
117.5
119.1
128.9
132.3
122.6
131.8

85 years
and over
154
189.7
186.2
174.6
186.7
186.3
194.4
202.0
203.2
213.2
216.9
210.6
209.6
215.3
230.3
211.1
218.7
235.7
223.3
212.6
227.2
242.7
224.6
224.8
222.3
233.3
222.8
228.0
254.3
268.3
250.1
279.7
272.3
261.8
279.7
258.1
239.1
248.3
222.2
222.1
245.9
250.4
240.3
231.5
235.9
242.2
246.4
250.3
244.9
248.6
269.1
255.1
261.5
270.0
253.7
235.6
260.8
260.9
193.9
191.1
181.4
195.8
193.9
207.4
216.4
215.0
226.4
229.3
221.1
220.7
225.5
242.6
222.1
231.9
246.4
232.6
222.2
238.0
252.7
234.7
235.1
232.7
242.3
234.1
236.7
259.8
271.5
254.2
281.3




B

VITAL STATISTICS

6-1

Series B 143-154. Death Rate, by Age and Sex: 1900 to 1956—Con.
Under
1 year
144

1 to 4
years
145

5 to 14
years
146

15 to 24
years
147

25 to 34
years
148

35 to 44
years
149

45 to 54
years
150

55 to 64
years
151

65 to 74
years
152

75 to 84
years
153

' yeai
ovi
154

d

84.6
86.2
90.2
87.0
90.1
103.6
101.9
124.5
117.4
118.2
114.5
118.9
127.6
123.3
125.9
145.5
139.9
147.0
152.9
160.2
156.6
153.9
146.6
153.4
156.4
179.1

6.7
7.2
8.5
7.9
8.4
10.3
9 .7
16.0
11.2
11.7
9 .7
10.7
12.5
11.5
12.2
14.6
14.1
14.6
15.3
16.4
15.8
16.6
15.9
17.1
17.7
20.5

2.2
2.2
2.3
2.3
2 .7
2.8
2.8
4.2
2.7
2.6
2 .4
2 .6
2 .8
2 .6
2 .8
3 .0
2 .9
3.1
3.3
3.4
3.4
3 .7
3 .5
3 .4
3 .7
3 .8

3 .8
3.8
3.9
3.8
3.8
4.8
5.3
12.2
5.0
4.5
4.2
4 .4
4 .7
4 .5
4 .7
4 .8
4 .6
5.0
5.8
5.7
5.3
5.5
5.3
5.2
5.7
5.9

4.9
4 .8
5.1
5.0
4.8
6.4
7.4
19.0
7.1
6.6
6.2
6.4
6.7
6.5
6.7
6.9
6.6
7.0
8.1
7.9
7.6
8.0
7.7
7.7
8.3
8.2

7.6
7.6
7 .7
7.4
6.9
8.2
9.1
15.3
10.1
9 .7
9.1
9 .4
9 .7
9 .5
9 .8
10.0
9 .5
9 .8
11.4
10.9
10.6
11.1
10.4
10.3
11.0
10.7

13.3
13.1
13.1
12.5
11.6
12.6
12.9
16.7
15.5
15.1
14.4
14.5
15.0
14.9
14.9
15.2
14.8
15.2
16 8
16.0
16.0
16.4
15.5
15.1
16.1
15.7

25.1
24.9
25.6
24.7
23.3
24.6
24.4
28.7
29.3
29.0
27.7
27.4
27.9
28.2
28.0
28.7
27.7
28.4
31.1
29.4
29.8
31.1
29.0
28.0
29.5
28.7

55.4
54.7
56.2
55.1
51.1
54.5
51.9
58.5
61.1
60.6
58.8
57.8
57.7
57.9
58.1
58.7
57.0
56.4
62.7
58.2
59.0
61.7
58.5
56.5
59.2
59.3

125.3
122.8
127.4
121.8
114.4
122.1
111.0
118.1
129.0
128.7
124.6
120.5
122.8
125.2
125.1
127.4
123.9
125.9
134.0
126.5
128.8
132.6
126.8
120.5
129.7
128.3

273
263
279
257
241
253
229
227
251
255
246
236
241
248
249
255
251
251
275
261
270
280
262
248,
268.
268

25.5
25.7
26.2
27.2
28.4
28.1
28.5
30.6
31.0
30.0
40.1
37.2
39.0
38.5
42.9
46.3
47.7
46.8
50.7
53.6
54.9
52.8
58.5
54.0
53.9
56.5
60.7
62.9
63.6
60.0
68.4
66.0
67.0
71.6
67.9
70.8
80.7
79.7
98.5
91.5
92.8
90.0
95.1
101.7
98.5
101.8
117.6
113.2
119.1
123.9
129.2
125.5
124.2
118.3
124.1
126.1
145.4

1.0
1.0
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.3
1.3
1.4
1.5
1.5
1.7
1.9
2 .2
2 .4
2.3
2 .6
2 .7
2 .9
3 .6
3 .9
4.1
4 .1
4 .7
4 .4
4 .4
4 .9
5.2
5.9
6.1
5.6
6.8
6.1
6.4
7.7
7.0
7.6
9.5
8 .8
15.5
10.1
10.5
8 .8
9 .7
11.4
10.4
11.3
13.4
12.9
13.4
14.1
15.2
14.2
15.2
14.9
16.0
16.2
19.1

0.4
0.4
0.4
0.4
0 .5
0.5
0 .5
0 .5
0.6
0.6
0.7
0 .7
0 .8
0.8
0 .7
0.8
0.9
0.9
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4
1.4
1.3
1.4
1.5
1.5
1.7
1.7
1 .7
1.7
1.8
1.8
2 .0
2 .0
2.3
2 .5
2 .6
4.1
2 .4
2.3
2.2
2 .4
2 .5
2.3
2 .6
2 .9
2 .7
2 .9
3 .0
3.2
3.3
3.6
3 .4
3.2
3 .4
3 .9

0.7
0 .7
0 .7
0 .7
0.8
0.9
0.9
0.9
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4
1.4
1.5
1.6
1.7
1.8
1.9
2.1
2 .3
2 .5
2 .5
2 .5
2 .6
2 .7
3 .0
3 .2
3 .5
3 .6
3 .4
3 .7
3 .8
3 .8
3 .9
3 .8
3 .9
5.0
5.3
9 .4
4 .4
4.2
3 .9
4 .0
4.1
4 .0
4.3
4.2
4.2
4 .5
4 .8
4.9
5.1
5.5
5.0
5.1
5.4
5.8

1.1
1.1
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4
1.4
1.5
1.6
1.8
1.9
2.1
2.2
2.4
2.4
2.6
2 .7
2.9
3.1
3.5
3.8
3.8
3 .8
3.9
4.0
4.3
4 .4
4.8
4 .8
4.6
4 .8
4.8
4.7
5.0
5.1
5.0
7.1
7.6
14.0
5.9
5.7
5.4
5.6
5.7
5.7
6.0
6.1
6.0
6.3
6.9
7.0
7.2
7.6
7.3
7.3
7.8
8.2

2.3
2 .4
2 .4
2.6
2 .7
2.8
2 .9
3 .0
3 .2
3 .3
3 .5
3.8
3 .9
4.1
4.1
4.3
4 .5
4 .6
4 .9
5.4
5.6
5.4
5.5
5.5
5.7
6.0
6.1
6 .6
6.9
6.5
6.8
6 .7
6.6
6.9
6 .8
6.6
8 .0
8.1
11.3
7.9
7.7
7.4
7.5
7.7
7.6
7.9
7.9
7.8
8.0
8 .8
8.5
8.9
9.2
9 .0
8.8
9 .6
9 .8

5.3
5.4
5.7
6.0
6.1
6.3
6 .4
6.6
6.8
7.1
7.1
7.5
7.6
8.1
8.0
8.3
8.6
8.9
9.1
9.7
10.0
9.8
9.9
9.8
10.1
10.4
10.6
11.1
11.3
10.8
11.4
11.0
11.1
11.2
11.0
10.7
11.7
11.5
13.6
12.0
11.9
11.6
11.6
11.8
11.6
11.9
12.1
11.7
12.2
13.1
12.9
13.3
13.7
13.0
12.8
13.9
14.2

12.2
12.2
12.3
13.1
13.4
13.8
214.0
14.3
14.8
15.2
15.3
15.9
16.4
17.2
16.7
17.1
218.0
18.6
18.6
19.6
20.3
19.8
20.2
20.1
20.6
20.7
21.2
21.8
21.8
20.6
22.0
21.2
21.0
22.0
21.5
20.8
22.4
21.6
24.0
24.0
23.9
23.2
22.7
22.9
23.3
23.4
23.7
23.4
23.9
25.9
24.6
25.6
26.0
25.4
23.9
26.0
25.8

31.0
31.0
30.7
32.1
32.1
32.5
2 33 .3
33.6
34.3
35.3
35.1
36.3
37.8
39.9
38.7
39.8
242.2
41.7
41.8
43.4
45.4
43.7
44.4
44.3
45.8
45.4
46.8
49.4
49.9
47.0
49.9
47.9
47.1
50.4
49.2
46.8
50.5
48.0
51.5
53.4
53.6
52.5
50.4
50.5
51.1
51.9
52.4
50.8
51.1
54.9
51.8
53.5
54.9
51.8
49.5
53.4
53.6

78.4
79.2
78.0
82.8
82.6
84.1
84.0
83.8
86.4
88.5
87.3
90.2
93.7
99.0
93.4
97.3
103.7
105.1
103.7
108.4
113.5
105.1
106.5
104.7
108.0
104.0
106.6
116.0
118.6
109.6
119.5
113.8
112.0
119.8
113.7
108.3
115.9
105.0
108.3
119.2
119.5
116.0
111.0
113.4
115.5
115.5
117.4
113.3
113.7
124.0
114.8
116.7
120.3
115.4
108.3
120.0
118.8

186,
182,
170,
180,
180.
185.
191.
194.
203.
207.
203.
2 01 .
207.
2 21 .
2 02 .
208.
227.
216.
205.
219.
235.
217.
217.
214.
226.
214.
221 ,
250.
265.
247.
278.
271.
260.
279.
258.
237.
244.
216.
218.
242.
246.
235.
227.
231.
237.
244.
246.
239.
246.
264.

but not distributed among specified age

2 Based on enumerated population adjusted for age bias in
55 to 69 years old.

B 155-179

VITAL STATISTICS AND HEALTH AND MEDICAL CARE

Series B 155-162. Death Rate, by Sex and by Selected Cause, for Massachusetts: 1860 to 1956

[Includes only deaths, excluding fetal deaths, occurring within Massachusetts except for 1940-1956. For these years data are for deaths occurring to residents of Massachusetts
By sex per 1,000 population
By cause per 100,000 population
By sex per 1,000 population
By cause per 100,000 population
Tuber­
Typhoid
Tuber­
Typhoid
culosis of Diph­
and
culosis of Diph­
and
Small­ Year
Total
Male Female respira­ theria para­
Total
Male Female respira­ theria para­ Measles Small­
Year
pox
pox
tory
typhoid
tory
typhoid
system
fever
system
fever
156
157
158
159
160
161
155
158
160

11.0

0.1
0. 0
0. 2

8.6

11.2
10.5
12.2
11.9
11.5
11.6
12.5
13.8
14.3
16.1
16.7
18.4
17.4
17.5
18.1
19.3
19.0
19.1
20.5
20.9
19.7
19.4
19.2
19.9
19.8
18.6

11.6
12 .6
12 .2
12 .2
13 .0
13 .9
15 .0
17 .0
17 .6
19 .2

9 .5
11 .1
10
11 .1
11 .9
13 .6
13 .7
15 .3
15 .8
17 .6

00

1956_
1955_
1950_
1945_
1940_
1935_
1930 _
192 5 _
1920_
1915_
1910_
1905_
1900_
1899_
1898_
1897_
1896_
1895.
1894,
1893 _
1892 _
1891.
1890.
1889.
1888.
1887.
1886.

9.3
36.9
34.6
42.9
57.2
70.1
96.8
116.8
138.3
163.5
190
190
197
207
216
223.4
223.4
231.0
244.8
239.6
258.6
256.5
270.8
285.6
295.1

20.2

0.3
0.2
0.7
4.3
8.0
15.1
19.8
21.0
22.1

52.8
38.2
26.4
54.5
65.5
71.4
73.6
58.3
62.2
53.2
72,

101
79

0. 0

0. 0

0.0
0.0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.9
1.8
2 .4
6.7
12.5
17.9

0.4
0.0
0.2
0.3

0.8

11.7

22. 1

22.3
24.7
23.2
28.3
27.2
30.6
31.4
35.3
35.9
37.3
40.9
44.6
44.8
40.0

0. 0

0.0

0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.1
0.3
0.0
0.1
0.1
0 .5
0. 0

0.0
0.2
4 .7
4.0
11.5
3 .8
10.3
5.1
7.9
10.4
22.1
6 .5

0.0
0.0
1.3
0.4
0.1
0.1
0.0
0.3
0 .4
0.1
0.0

19.6

1885.
1884.
1883.
1882.
1881.
1880_
1879,
1878_
1877.
1876_
18751874.
1873_
18721871_
1870.
1869.
1868.
1867.
1866.
1865_
1864.
1863.
1862.
1861.
I860-

19.0
20.1
19.9
20.1

20.2

19.8
18.1
18.1
18.4
19.8
21.7
18.6
21.6
22.9
18.7
18.8
18.4
18.6
17.0
18.2

20.3

19.

21.

20.5

20. 6
22.8

22.2
18.5
19.5
18.7

19.5

18.6

21.7

19.6

19.3

306.6
303.6
316.0
317.9
324.5
308.1
297.4
308.4
320.4
317.6
347.4
328.0
353.6
362.6
339.3
343.3
328.8
322.0
325.5
353.0
367.9
375.7
372.6
342.8
365.2

78.4
86.2
86.4
96.0
131.4
134.3
130.6
145.5
186.6
196.4
113
56
47,
49
50
46.4
54.3
56.7
45.3
63.7
92.8
158.7
182.4
92.1
89.2
68.0

39.5
45.8
45.8
58.5
59.1
49.5
36.3
39.3
47.8
52.5
64.1
71.2
89.5
111.1
74.7
91.5
85.0
65.0
72.0
83.7
133.7
106.7
115.1
91.1
79.9
76.1

16.1
3 .9
17.1
3 .7
12.7
13.2
1.1
17.6
7.9

2.8

14.1
10.0
11.5
27.9
18.5
15.7
20.8
14.5
8.4
10.7
25.4
11.3
29.6
16.9
18.2

1.0
0.2
0.3
2 .4
2.6
2.1
0 .4
0.1
1.4
1.8
2.1
1.6
42.5
67.2
19.7
9.0
4.2
1.5
14.6

10.8

17..4
19..2
3.4
3 .2
2.7
27.1

Series B 163-175. Death Rate, by Age, for Massachusetts: 1865 to 1900

[Includes only deaths, excluding fetal deaths, occurring within Massachusetts. Rate per 1,000 population for specified group]
1 to 4
10 to 14 15 to 19 20 to 29 30 to 39 40 to 49 50 to 59 60 to 69
Under
5 to 9
Total
years
years
1 year
years
years
years
years
years
years
years
163
164
165
166
167
168
169
170
171
172
173

Year
1900_____________
1895_____________
1890_____________
1885_____________
1880_____________
1875_____________
1870_____________
1865_____________

Year

18.2
19.0
19.4
19.6
19.8
21.2
18.8
20.6

Per 1,000
population
176

1956_________
1955_________
1954_________
1953_________
1952_________
1951_________
1950_________
1949_________
1948_________

9 .5
9.3
9.2
9.8
9.9
10.4
11.1
10.6
12.4

190.1
215.9
223.6
212.5
191.3
226.6
188.1
205.3

Per 1,000
unmarried
females 1
177
82.3
80.9
79.9
83.7
83.2
86.6
90.2
85.5
98.0

115 years old and over.

Year

Per 1,000
population
178

1956_________
1955_________
1954_________
1953_________
1952_________
1951_________
1950_________
1949_________
1948_________

2.3
2 .3
2 .4
2 .5
2 .5
2 .5
2 .6
2.7
2 .8

1 15 years old and over.

30




57.8
64.5
68.1
67.0
68.1
74.0
62.9
68.6

5.3
6.2
6.6
7.5
8.5
9 .8
5.9
9.6

2.9
3.2
3.6
3.8
3.8
4 .7
3.7
5.1

4.8
5.3
6.3
6.4
6.6
7.7
7.2
9.6

7.0
7.1
8.4
9.1
9 .5
10.5
10.5
12.6

8.8
9.7
10.4
10.6
10.3
11.3
10.6
11.7

12.0
12.7
13.4
13.0
11.7
13.0
12.0
11.9

21.3
20.5
20.4
19.7
17.9
18.3
17.0
17.5

70 to 79
years
174

80 years
and over
175

85.8
82.4
76.0
76.2
73.1
71.1
68.9
70.5

197.8
184.7
174.2
182.3
184.0
176.4
170.0
168.2

41.0
39.4
37.5
36.2
33.9
34.8
30.1
32.9

Series B 176-177. Marriage Rate: 1920 to 1956
Year
1947________
1946________
1945________
1944 _ _ _
1943________
1942________
1941________
1940________
1939________

Per 1,000
population
176
13.9
16.4
12.2
10.9
11.7
13.2
12.7
12.1
10.7

Per 1,000
unmarried
females 1
177
106.8
120.7
84.5
76.8
83.8
93.6
88.8
82.7
73.9

Year
1938________
1937________
1936________
1935________
1934________
1933________
1932________
1931________
1930________

Per 1,000
population
176
10.3
11.3
10.7
10.4
10.3
8.7
7.9
8.6
9.2

Per 1,000
unmarried
females 1
177
70.8
78.0
74.0
72.5
71.8
61.3
56.0
61.9
67.6

Year
1929
1928 _
1927___
1926 _
1925 _
1924___
1923
1922____
1921________
1920________

Per 1,000
population
176
10.1
9 .8
10.1
10.2
10.3
10 4
11.0
10.3
10.7
12.0

Per 1,000
unmarried
females 1
177

92.0

Series B 178-179. reported annulments] 1920 to 1956
Divorce Rate:
[Includes
Per 1,000
married
females 1
179
9.4
9.3
9 .5
9.9
10.1
9.9
10.3
10.8
11.3

Year

Per 1,000
population
178

1947________
1946________
1945________
1944________
1943________
1942________
1941________
1940________
1939________

3.4
4.3
3 .5
2.9
2 .6
2 .4
2.2
2.0
1.9

Per 1,000
married
females 1
179
13.7
17.8
14.5
12.1
11.0
10.1
9 .4
8.8
8.5

Year

Per 1,000
population
178

1938________
1937________
1936________
1935________
1934________
1933________
1932________
1931________
1930_____

1.9
1.9
1.8
1.7
1.6
1.3
1.3
1.5
1.6

Per 1,000
married
females 1
179
8.4
8.7
8.3
7 .8
7.5
6.1
6.1
7.1
7.5

Year

Per 1,000
population
178

1929
1928
1927
1926
1925
1924
1923
1922
1921
1920________

1.7
1.7
1.6
1.6
1.5
1.5
1.5
1.4
1.5
1.6

Per 1,000
married
females 1
179

8.0

chapter B

HEALTH AND MEDICAL CARE (Series B 180-281)
B 180-181. Physicians, 1850-1957.
Source: 1850, Superintendent of the U. S. Census, Statistical
View of the United States . . . a Compendium of the Seventh
Census; 1860, Superintendent of the U. S. Census, Population
of the United States in 1860; 1870-1930 (decennial years),
Bureau of the Census, Sixteenth Census Reports, Comparative
Occupation Statistics for the United States, 1870 to 19 UO, p.
I ll; 1940 and 1950, U. S. Census of Population, 1950, vol. II,
part 1, pp. 1-266 to 1-269; 1870-1934, R. G. Leland, Distribu­
tion of Physicians in the United States, American Medical
Association, Chicago, 1936, pp. 7, 79; 1936-1957, the American
Medical Directory, vols. 14-20 (a summary for 1906-1957 is
shown in table 2 of the 1958 edition) ; 1950-1954, estimates
prepared by Public Health Service.
The census data for 1940 and 1950 are for employed civilian
physicians; figures for prior years are largely for gainful work­
ers and may include physicians not in active medical practice.
See text for series D 36-45 for explanation of difference be­
tween employed persons and gainful workers. The 1910 figure
includes osteopaths; earlier figures include osteopaths, chiro­
practors, and healers (not elsewhere classified).
The American Medical Directory figures pertain to the total
number of physicians, including those retired or not in practice
for other reasons and those in the Federal service. They ex­
clude graduates of the years concerned.
Population figures used to compute physician-population rate
for census years, 1850-1930, include Armed Forces overseas;
only the civilian population is used for 1940 and 1950. Rates
for other years are based on the Census Bureau population
estimates as of July 1, including Armed Forces overseas.
B 182-183. Dentists, 1810-1957.
Source: 1810 and 1840, John T. O’Rourke and Leroy M. S.
Miner, Dental Education in the United States, W. B. Saunders
Co., Philadelphia, 1941, p. 298; 1820 and 1830, Harris’ Princi­
ples and Practice of Dental Surgery, Lindsay and Blakiston,
Philadelphia, 1848, pp. 36-37; 1850-1950 (decennial years),
same sources as series B 180-181; 1893-1928, Polk's Dental
Register and Directory of the United States and Dominion of
Canada, R. L. Polk and Co., Chicago, 1928, pp. 9, 22, and prior
editions; 1947-1957, Distribution of Dentists in the United States
by State, Region, District and County, American Dental Asso­
ciation, Chicago, 1958, and prior editions.
The census data for 1940 and 1950 are for employed civilian
dentists; figures for prior years are largely for gainful workers
and may include dental students and dentists not in active
dental practice. See text for series D 36-45 for explanation
of difference between employed persons and gainful workers.
The 14 editions of Polk's Dental Register and Directory of
the United States and Dominion of Canada list by State all
dentists for 1893-1928. The American Dental Directory, first
published in 1947, lists by State all dentists, including those
retired or not in practice for other reasons and those in the
Federal dental service. The figures for all dates include grad­
uates of the years concerned.
The population figures used to compute the dentist-population rate are the same as those used for the physician-popula­
tion rate. See text for series B 180-181.



B 184-185. Graduate nurses, 1910-1955.
Source: 1910-1950, Public Health Service, Health Manpower
Source Book 2, Nursing Personnel, pp. 14-15; 1953 and 1955,
American Nurses Association, Facts About Nursing, New York,
1956-57 edition, p. 8.
The estimates for 1910-1950 were obtained by subtracting
student nurses from the number of nurses reported in the
decennial censuses.
Census data for 1910-1930 are for gainful workers; for 1940
they include employed nurses and those seeking work; and for
1950 they include employed civilian nurses. See text for series
D 36-45 for explanation of difference between employed per­
sons and gainful workers.
The estimates for 1953 and 1955, were prepared jointly by
the American Nurses Association, the National League for
Nursing, and the Public Health Service. They are based
partly on information supplied by hospitals, schools of nursing,
public health agencies, boards of education, and nursing homes.
Estimates of nurses in private duty, doctors’ offices, industry,
and other nursing fields were based on the American Nurses
Association Inventory of 1951 adjusted according to trends
observed in more recent State surveys of nursing needs and
resources.
Population figures used to compute nurse-population rate for
1910-1940 include Armed Forces overseas. The 1950 rate is
based on the civilian population. Rates for 1953 and 1955 are
based on the Census Bureau population estimates as of Janu­
ary 1, 1954 and 1956, respectively, including Armed Forces
overseas.
B 186-188. Medical schools, students, and graduates, 18101957.
Source: 1810-1840, 1956 American Medical Directory; later
years, annual reports of the Council on Medical Education and
Hospitals of the American Medical Association as follows:
1850-1919, Journal of the American Medical Association, vol.
79, No. 8, pp. 629-633, August 1922; 1920-1930, Journal of the
American Medical Association, vol. 105, No. 9, p. 686, August
1935; 1931-1957, Edward L. Turner, et al., Journal of the
American Medical Association, vol. 165, No. 11, p. 1420, No­
vember 1957.
Data on the number of medical schools, students, and grad­
uates prior to 1900 are fragmentary and of dubious accuracy.
The first medical school in the United States was founded in
1765. In 1800 three schools graduated students, with the num­
ber of schools increasing steadily from 52 in 1850 to a maxi­
mum of 162 in 1906. From 1906 to 1929 the number of
schools declined sharply, largely because of the inspection and
classification system begun in 1904 by the American Medical
Association Council on Medical Education. By 1929 only one
unapproved school remained.
B 189. Dental schools, 1840-1957.
Source: 1840-1945, Harlan Hoyt Horner, Dental Education
Today, copyrighted 1947 by University of Chicago, p. 30; 19461957, American Dental Association Council on Dental Educa­
tion, Dental Students' Register, Chicago, annual publications.
Horner’s data are compiled from Dorothy Fahs Beck, The
Development of the Dental Profession in the United States,
dissertation of the University of Chicago, 1932, and from
31

B 189-234
VITAL STATISTICS AND HEALTH AND MEDICAL CARE
records of the Council on Dental Education of the American
These figures may not be entirely comparable with those
Dental Association. Additional data may be obtained from the shown in series B 209-220 because the standards required for
following sources cited by Beck: W. J. Gies, Dental Education “listing” or “recognition” of hospitals by the American Hos­
in the United States and Canada, Carnegie Foundation for the pital Association differ from those required by the American
Advancement of Teaching, Bulletin No. 19, 1926, p. 42; Polk's Medical Association. The American Hospital Association col­
Dental Register and Directory of the United States and Canada, lects data annually from all hospitals which it accepts for
R. L. Polk and Co., Chicago, 1925, p. 35; W. J. Gies, “Addi­ listing, a basic recognition extended to hospitals and related
tional Remarks on a Reference to the Carnegie Foundation’s institutions in accordance with official requirements adopted
Study of Dental Education,” Journal of Dental Research, vol. by its House of Delegates. The Guide issue of Hospitals also
10, p. 32, February 1930; W. J. Greenleaf, Dentistry, Career presents data on admissions, average daily census, births, as­
Series, Leaflet No. 7, Office of Education, pp. 7-10. The Beck sets, total expense, payroll expense, and total personnel.
tabulation also appears in Frederick B. Noyes, “Dental Educa­
Short-term hospitals have an average patient stay of 30
tion, 1911-36,” Oral Hygiene, vol. 26, p. 24, January 1936.
days or less; long-term, an average stay of longer duration.
The first dental school in the United States was organized in General hospitals accept patients for a variety of acute medical
1840. Before that, all physicians practiced some dentistry, a and surgical conditions, and, for the most part, do not admit
few limiting their practice to this specialty. The dental prac­ cases of contagious disease, tuberculosis, and nervous and
titioners who were not physicians learned their trade as ap­ mental disease. Special hospitals are those devoted to the
prentices or were self-taught. From 1840 to 1880 apprentice treatment of some particular disease or group of diseases or
training was the chief source of supply, but by 1880 most some particular group in the population. Among the former
States had enacted laws requiring graduation from a dental are orthopedic, contagious disease, chronic and convalescent,
school.
and eye, ear, nose, and throat hospitals; the latter include
maternity, children’s, and industrial hospitals. Psychiatric
B 190. Dental students, 1921-1957.
Source: 1921-1934, Frederick B. Noyes, Oral Hygiene, vol. hospitals include those providing temporary or prolonged care
26, p. 28, January 1936; 1935-1957, American Dental Associa­ for the mentally ill and institutions for the mentally deficient
tion Council on Dental Education, Dental Students* Register, and epileptic. Tuberculosis hospitals include sanatoria or hos­
annual publications. Sources cited by Noyes are: W. J. Gies, pitals specifically for the care of tubercular patients.
Number of beds includes beds, cribs, and pediatric bas­
Journal of the American Dental Association, vol. 18, p. 593,
April 1931; and Dental Educational Council of America, sta­ sinets normally available for inpatients. It excludes newborn
infant bassinets.
tistical reports.
An additional source of information on civilian hospital beds
B 191. Dental graduates, 1850-1957.
since 1948 is the inventory contained in the comprehensive
Source: See source for series B 189.
Annual figures for graduates for 1841-1924, are also pre­ State plans for hospital and medical facility construction (see
sented in Polk's Dental Register, 1925, p. 34; but the figures Public Health Reports, vol. 70, No. 5, May 1955, p. 488).
for the early years far exceed those shown elsewhere in his­ B 209-220. Hospitals and beds, by type of service (AMA),
1909-1953.
tories of dentistry as well as those shown here.
Source: 1909, 1914, 1918, and 1921, American Medical Direc­
B 192-194. Nursing schools, students, and graduates, 18801957.
tory, American Medical Association, Chicago, 1921 and prior
Source: 1880-1927 and 1931, Office of Education, Biennial editions; 1920 and 1923-1953, the following issues of the Jour­
Survey of Education in the United States: 193U-S6, vol. II, nal of the American Medical Association, Hospital Number:
chap. IV, p. 294; 1929 and 1932, The Committee on the Grad­ 1920, April 1921 issue, pp. 1083-1103; 1923, 1927-1933, March
ing of Nursing Schools, The Second Grading of Nursing Schools, 1934 issue, pp. 1008-1009; 1924, March 1925 issue, pp. 961-970;
New York, 1932, p. 9; 1935-1939, The Nursing Information 1925, April 1926 issue, pp. 1009-1055; 1926, March 1927 issue,
Bureau of the American Nurses’ Association, Facts About pp. 789-839; 1934-1953, May 1954 issue, pp. 9-10.
Nursing, 1946, New York, 1946, pp. 32, 34; 1940-1956, Facts
Until 1953, when it discontinued registration of hospitals, the
About Nursing, 1957, pp. 67, 71; 1957, Facts About Nursing, American Medical Association collected data annually from all
1958, pp. 70, 74.
hospitals registered by it, and published them in the Hospital
Nursing education began in this country in 1873 with
Number of the Journal of the American Medical Association.
the opening of three schools. These schools offered stu­
Registration was a basic recognition extended to hospitals and
dents an opportunity to learn by doing, under the tutor­
related institutions in accordance with requirements officially
ship for 1 year of a superintendent who had been trained
in one of the European schools . . . By 1893 about 70
adopted by its House of Delegates. Although its annual census
schools were in operation . . . . As State licensing bodies
was begun in 1920, complete data on the number of hospital
came into existence, counts of State approved schools and
beds classified by type of service are available only from 1925.
of their students began to be available. Since only grad­
In addition to information on number of hospitals and beds,
uates of State approved schools could stand for licensure
the Hospital Number of the AM A Journal presented statistics
examinations, nonapproved schools tended to close as the
effect of licensure became felt. Not until 1923 was ma­
on admissions, average daily census, and births. For defini­
chinery for approving schools in operation in every State.
tion of type of service, see text for series B 195-208.
(Public Health Service, Health Manpower Source Book 2,
Nursing Personnel, p. 33.)
B 221-234. Hospitals and beds, by ownership or control
(AHA), 1946-1957.
B 195-208. Hospitals and beds, by type of service and owner­
ship (AHA), 1946-1957.
Source: 1946-1947, American Hospital Association, Ameri­
Source: 1946-1954, Administrators Guide issue of Hospitals, can Hospital Directory, 1947 and 1948 issues; 1948-1955, Ad­
Journal of the American Hospital Association, vol. 29, No. 8, ministrators Guide issues for 1949-1956 of Hospitals, Journal
August 1955, part II, pp. 7, 12; 1955-1956, Guide issue of Hos­ of the American Hospital Association; 1956, Guide issue of
pitals, vol. 31, No. 15, August 1957, part 2, pp. 348, 355; 1957, Hospitals, vol. 31, No. 15, August 1957, part 2, p. 364; 1957,
Guide issue of Hospitals, vol. 32, No. 15, August 1958, part 2, Guide issue of Hospitals, vol. 32, No. 15, August 1958, part 2,
pp. 364, 366.
pp. 366-369.
32



HEALTH AND
Governmental hospitals include those operated by Federal,
State, and local governments, the latter including county, city,
city-county, and hospital district. Nonprofit hospitals are those
operated not for profit by churches and by associations of
citizens or fraternal organizations. Proprietary hospitals are
operated for profit by individuals, partnerships, or corporations.
B 235-248. Hospitals and beds, by ownership or control
(AMA), 1909-1953.
Source: The following issues of the Journal of the American
Medical Association, Hospital Number: 1909, 1914, 1918,
and 1934-1953, May 1954 issue, pp. 4, 7-8; 1923 and 1927-1933,
March 1934 issue, pp. 1006-1007; 1924, March 1925 issue, pp.
961-970; 1925, April 1926 issue, pp. 1009-1055; 1926, March
1927 issue, pp. 789-839.
For definition of ownership or control, see text for series
B 221-234.
B 249-260. Average daily census and admissions to hospitals,
by type of service and ownership (AHA), 1946-1957.
Source: American Hospital Association publications, as fol­
lows: 1947, 1949, and 1951, Administrators Guide issue of
Hospitals, vol. 29, No. 8, August 1955, part II, p. 7; 1946, 1948,
1950, 1952-1956, Guide issue of Hospitals, vol. 31, No. 15,
August 1957, part 2, p. 355; 1957, Guide issue of Hospitals,
vol. 32, No. 15, August 1958, part 2, p. 372.
Admissions refer to patients who enter a hospital during the
course of a year, either as first admissions or readmissions.
For definitions of type of service and ownership, see text for
series B 195-208.
B 261-270. Average daily census and admissions to hospitals,
by type of service (AMA), 1923-1953.
Source: The following issues of the Journal of the American
Medical Association, Hospital Number: 1925, April 1926 issue,
p. 1009; 1923, 1927, and 1929-1933, March 1934 issue, pp.
1008-1009; 1934-1953, May 1954 issue, pp. 9-10.
Admissions refer to patients who enter a hospital during
a year, either as first admissions or readmissions. For defini­
tions of type of service, see text for series B 195-208.
B 271-274. Admissions of patients to hospitals for mental
disease, 1831-1956.
Source: 1831-1880, report of the Tenth Census, vol. xxi, Re­
port on the Defective, Dependent, and Delinquent Classes . . . ,
pp. 166-171; 1890-1904, Census Office Special Report, Insane
and Feeble-Minded in Hospitals and Institutions, 1901+; 1910,
Bureau of the Census, Insane and Feeble-Minded in Institu­
tions, 1910; 1922-1946, same agency annual reports (varying
titles), Patients in Mental Institutions; 1947-1956, Public
Health Service annual reports, Patients in Mental Hospitals.
For 1923-1932, the annual enumerations of patients in mental
institutions, conducted by the Bureau of the Census, were con­
fined to State hospitals for mental disease and State institu­
tions for mental defectives and epileptics. Since 1933, the
annual censuses (conducted by the Bureau of the Census until
1946 and subsequently by the Public Health Service) have
covered all types of hospitals and institutions caring for the
mentally ill, mental defectives, and epileptics. For a discus­
sion of these developments, see the 19U7 issue, pp. 1-4, of the
source cited above for 1947-1956. See the latter also for addi­
tional information on admissions, patients, personnel, and ex­
penditures of institutions for mental defectives and epileptics,
as well as for hospitals for mental disease, see the annual
reports of the Public Health Service, Patients in Mental
Hospitals.
The figures for admissions represent patients who enter
hospitals (admissions or readmissions) which provide care
solely for the mentally ill, as distinguished from the physically



B 235-281
MEDICAL CARE
ill and from the mentally deficient and epileptic. These hos­
pitals may provide care over an unlimited period of time or
temporary care as in psychopathic hospitals. Hospitals in­
cluded are those under control of State and local governments,
nonprofit and proprietary organizations, the Veterans Admin­
istration, and the Federal Government in the District of Co­
lumbia (included here under State hospitals).
The rates are computed in relation to the total population
of continental United States, as of July 1 of each year prior
to 1940; in relation to the civilian population since then.
B 275-281. Specified reportable diseases, 1912-1956.
Source: 1912-1919, Public Health Service, Public Health Re­
ports, various issues; 1920-1950, National Office of Vital
Statistics, Vital Statistics—Special Reports, vol. 37, No. 9;
1951-1956, National Office of Vital Statistics, annual reports,
Vital Statistics of the United States, vol. I.
The rates refer to the number of notifiable diseases occur­
ring within continental United States per 100,000 population.
Each State makes its own laws and regulations prescribing the
diseases to be reported, the agencies and persons required to
report, and penalties for failure to report. All States have
entered voluntarily into a cooperative agreement to report to
the Federal Government.
The notification of disease in the United States began in the
Colonial period on a local basis, particularly in port cities.
It was usually limited to periods when epidemics of pestilential
disease threatened or were in progress. Statewide notification
was not required until 1883, when Michigan passed a law re­
quiring physicians and householders to report certain diseases
to health officers or boards of health. During the next three
decades all States made similar requirements.
In response to the need for nationwide statistical informa­
tion on epidemic diseases, a law was passed in 1878 providing
for the collection of such statistics. By 1912, data were sup­
plied regularly by 19 States and the District of Columbia on
diphtheria, measles, poliomyelitis, scarlet fever, tuberculosis,
typhoid fever, and smallpox. State health authorities now
report weekly on 25 diseases and annually on about 40. Most
States require the reporting of additional diseases.
The Public Health Service has changed its form of report^
ing several times and some of the rates shown here do not
appear in the published reports. Since the data were original­
ly shown only for the individual States, a rate for the country
was obtained for each disease by combining the information
only for those States reporting it.
For trends of sickness and accident among groups of male
and female industrial workers (1917-1950, for cases disabling
for 1 day or longer, and 1921-1952, for cases disabling for 8
days or longer), see W. M. Gafafer, “Industrial Sickness Ab­
senteeism Among Males and Females During 1950,” Public
Health Reports, vol. 66, No. 47, pp. 1550-1552, November 1951.
See also “Rates for Specific Causes in 1952 for the Year and
Last Two Quarters—Industrial Sickness Absenteeism,” Public
Health Report, vol. 68, No. 11, pp. 1052-1055, November 1953;
and S. D. Collins, “Long-Time Trends in Illness and Medical
Care,” Public Health Monograph, No. 48, p. 32.
Civilian illness rates for the United States are not available
for a long period. However, records of illness (admission to
sick report) among the active-duty personnel of the Army are
available back to 1819, and those for the Navy back to 1865.
See U. S. Army, Annual Reports of the Surgeon General on
Medical Statistics, and U. S. Navy, Annual Reports of the Sur­
geon General on Medical Statistics. For annual days sick per
person, computed from Army and Navy data, see S. D. Col­
lins, “Long-Time Trends in Illness and Medical Care,” Public
Health Monograph, No. 48, p. 37.
33

B 180-194

VITAL STATISTICS AND HEALTH AND MEDICAL CARE

Series B 180-194. Physicians, Dentists, and Nurses; and Medical, Dental, and Nursing Schools: 1810 to 1957
Year

[Census figures in italics. Figures for schools and students are for academic session ending in the specified year]
Active professional
Physicians
Dentists
Medical schools
Dental schools
Professional nursing schools
graduate nurses
Rate per
Rate per
Rate per
100,000
Number popula­ Number 100,000 Number 100,000 Number 1 Students Graduates Number 2 Students Graduates Number Students Graduates
popula­
popula­
tion
tion
tion
180
182
183
184
185
186
187
181
188
189
190
191
192
193
194

1957_______ 226,625
132 100,534
59
1956______
59
99,227
1955_______ 218,061
59 5430,000
132 97,529
1954_______ 214,200
59
132 95,883
1953_______ 210.900
59 m 5{;656'
132 93,726
1952_______ 207.900
58
132 91,638
1951_______ 205,500
133
59 5375,000
1950_______ 203,400
134 89,441
1950_______ 191,9U7
50
128 71+, 855
1949______ 201,277
135
1948______
1947_______
82,990
58
1946_______
1945_______
1944_______
1943_______
1942_______ 180,496
134
1941_______
5284,200
1940_______ 175,163
133
53
19U0_______ 165,989
126 69,921
1939_______
1938__ _ _ 169,628
131
1937_______
1936______ 165,163
129
1935_______
1934_______ 161,359
128
1933_______
1932_______
156,406
1931126
5214,300
1930_______
1980. _ ___ 153,803
58
125 71,055
1929 _
152,503
125
56
1928_______
67,334
1927_______ 149,521
126
1926_______
56
1925_______ 147,010
127 64,481
1924 _
1923_______ 145,966
130
1922.
1921_______ 145,404
134
1920.
5103,900
53
1920_______ ^1M,~977
137 56,152
1919_______
1918_______ 147,812
141
44
1917_______
45,988
1916. _
145,241
142
1915. _
43
1914__ __ 142,332
144 42,606
1913. .
41
1912. _
137,199
144 38,866
1911.
41 5 50,500
1910__ __ 135,000
146 37,684
U3
1910. - . . . 151 ,132
16 U 39,997
1909 _
134,402
149
41
1908_____
36,670
1907.
41
1906.
158 35,238
134,688
1905.__ . .
39
1904_____ 128,950
157 32,204
1903.
36
1902.
123,196
156 28,109
1901-.
33
1900.
157 25,189
119,749
39
1900_______ 132,002
173 29,665
33
1898.
115,524
157 23,911
28
1896_______ 104,554
147 20,063
1 8 9 3 ... . _ 103,090
154
1890.
100,180
159
28
1890. _____ 10k ,805
166 17 ,U98
1886.
87,521
151
1880. .
82,000
163
25
1880. _ . _ 85,671
171 12,31k
1870.
60,000
150
20
7,988
1870.. ____ 6UAH
162
18
1860.
55,055
175
5,606
13
2,923
1850
k0,755
176
6
1,000
1840
2
300
1830. .
1
1820.
100
1
50
1810..............
1 Approved medical and basic science schools.
i For 1840 and 1926-1931, schools offering courses in dentistry;
schools conferring degrees; for other years, schools in operation.
* Includes Puerto Rico.

34




258
249
251

216

174

98

55

3 82
3 82
3 81
3 80
79
79
79
79
78
77
77
77
77
77
76
77
77
77
77
77
77
77
77
77
77
76
76
76
76
80
80
79
80
79
80
81
83
85
85
90
96
95
96
102
107
118
122
131
140
151
159
162
158
160
160
160
160
160

328,852 3 6,796
328,639 3 6,845
328,583 3 6,977
3 28,227 36,861
27,688
6,668
27,076
6,080
26,186
6,135
25,103
5,553
23,670
5,094
22,739
5,543
23,900
6,389
23,216
5,826
24,028
5,136
M 8,195 610,303
22,631
5,223
22,031
5,163
21,379
5,275
21,271
5,097
21,302
5,089
21,587
5,194
22,095
5,377
22,564
5,183
22,888
5,101
22,799
5,035
22,466
4,895
22,135
4,936
21,982
4,735
21,597
4,565
20,878
4,446
20,545
4,262
19,662
4,035
3,962
18,840
18,200
3,974
17,728
3 ,562
16,960
3,120
2,520
15,635
14,466
3,186
13,798
3,047
13,052
2,656
13,630
2,670
13,764
3,379
14,012
3,518
14,891
3,536
16,502
3,594
3,981
17,015
18,412
4,483
19,786
4,273
21,526
4,440
22,145
4,515
22,602
4,741
24,276
4,980
25,204
5,364
26,147
5,600
28,142
5,747
27,615
5,698
27,501
5,009
26,417
5,444
25,171
5,214 I

133

15,404

4,454

100
75
65
52
35
20
10
5

11,826

3,241

45
43
43
43
42
42
42
41
41
40
40
39
39
39
39
39
39
39
39
39
39
39
39
39
39
38
38
38
40
40
40
44
43
43
45
45
45
46
46
46
46
49
49
48
51
52
54
54
56
55
55
55
55
56
55
56
57
57
54
48
37
31
23
14
10
3
2
1

13,004
12,730
12,601
12,516
12,370
12,169
11,891
11,460
10,132
8,996
8,287
7,274
88,590
89,014
8 8,847
88,355
7,720
7,407
7,331
7,184
7,397
7,306
7,175
7,160
7,508
8,031
8,129
7,813
8,200
l6;333
11,863
13;099
11,745

3,050
3,038
3,081
3,084
2,945
2,975
2,830
2,565
1,574
1,755
2,225
2,666
3,212
2,470
1,926
1,784
1,568
1,757
1,794
1,704
1,739
1,736
1.840
1,864
1,986
1.840
1,842
1,561
2,442
2,563
2,642
2,610
2,590
3,422
3,271
1,765
1,795
906
3,587
3,345
3,010
2,835
2,388
2,254
2,022
1,940
1,742
1,646
1,761
2,005
1,724
1,519
2,621
2,168
2,198
2,294
2,304
2,091
1,894
1,432

*1,115
41,125
41,139
41,141
41,148
41,167
41,183
41,203
1,215
1,245
1,253
1,271
1,295
1,307
1,297
1,299
1,303
1,311
1,328
1,349
1,389
1,417
1,472

4114,674
4114,423
4107,572
4103.019
4102.019
4102,550
4103,433
498,712
88,817
91,643
106,900
128,828
126,576
112,249
100,486
91,457
87,588
85,156
82,095
74,305
73,286
69,589
67,533

429;591
428,729
428,539
429,308
4 29,016
28,794
25,790
21,379
34,268
40,744
36,195
3 1 ,7£1
28,276
26,816
25,613
24,899
23,600
22,485
20,655
20,400
18,600
19,600

i~ 78i
1,844

84^290
100,419

25^312
25,971

1,885
1,797

78,771
77,768

23,810
18,623

1,755

54,953

14,980

1,509

46,141

11,118

1,129

32,636

8,140

862

19,824

5,795

432

11,164

3,456

960
473
315
147
64
17

35

1,552

471

15

323

157

4 Includes Hawaii and Puerto Rico.
for 1850-1925,
5 Census estimate adjusted to exclude student nurses enumerated as graduates,
6 Reflects enrollment of more than 1 class in some schools under accelerated program
in operation during World War II.

HEALTH AND MEDICAL CARE

B 195-220

Series B 195-208. Hospitals and Beds, by Type of Service and Ownership (AHA): 1946 to 1957
Short-term
general and
special
Hospi­
Beds
tals
198
197

Total
Year

1957_______________
1956_______________
1955_______________
1954_______________
1953_______________
1952_______________
1951_______________
1950_______________
1949_______________
1948_______________
1947_______________
1946_______________

Hospi­
tals
195
6,818
6,966
6,956
6,970
6,978
6,903
6,832
6,788
6,277
6,160
6,173
6,125

Beds
196

5,309
5,299
5,237
5,212
5,212
5,122
5,066
5,031
4,585
4,499
4,475
4,444

1,558,691
1,607,692
1,604,408
1,577,961
1,580,654
1,561,809
1,521,959
1,455,825
1,435,288
1,411,450
1,400,318
1,435,778

594,529
586,498
567,612
553,068
545,903
530,669
516,020
504,504
476,584
471,555
465,209
473,059

Non-Federal
Long-term
Psychiatric
general and
special
Hospi­
Hospi­
Beds
Beds
tals
tals
200
202
199
201
340
395
402
406
406
405
394
412
395
362
385
389

77,608
75,646
76,278
70,926
68,039
69,731
62,768
70,136
79,145
77,040
84,758
83,415

452
525
542
554
541
546
551
533
507
504
499
476

641,455
695,331
707,162
691,176
691,855
675,749
655,932
619,530
614,465
601,103
580,273
568,473

Tuberculosis
Hospi­
tals
203
280
315
347
368
384
391
399
398
414
409
411
412

Beds
204
62,097
66,096
70,194
73,558
72,253
72,642
72,642
72,178
78,330
75,906
70,307
74,867

Federal,
all types
Hospi­
tals
205

Beds
206

437 183,002
432 184,121
428 183,162
430 189,233
435 202,604
439 213,018
422 214,597
414 189,477
376 186,764
386 185,846
403 199,771
404 235,964

Beds per
1,000
population
Total
207

Short­
term 1
208

9.2
9.6
9 .8
9 .8
10.0
10.0
9.9
9.6
9 .7
9 .7
9 .8
10.3

3 .5
3 .5
3.5
3.4
3 .5
3.4
3 .4
3.3
3.2
3 .2
3 .2
3 .4

1 Non-Federal short-term general and special hospitals.

Series B 209-220. Hospitals and Beds, by Type of Service (AMA): 1909 to 1953
General

Total

Mental

All other

Hospi­
tals
1953
1952
1951
1950
1949
1948
1947
1946
1945
1944
1943
1942
1941
1940
1939
1938
1937
1936
1935
1934
1933
1932
1931
1930
1929
1928
1927
1926
1925
1924
1923
1921
1920
1918
1914
1909

Hospi­
tals
213

Tuberculosis

Beds

Hospi­
tals
211

Beds
212

6,840
6.665
6,637
6,430
6,572
6,335
6,276
6,280
6,511
6,611
6,655
6,345
6.358
6,291
6,226
6,166
6,128
6,189
6,246
6,334
6,437
6,562
6,613
6,719
6.665
6,852
6,807
6,946
6,896
7,370
6,830
16,236
6,152
5,323
5,047
4.359

1,573,014
1,541,615
1,529,988
1,456,912
1,439,030
1,423,520
1,425,222
1,468,714
1.738.944
1.729.945
1,649,254
1,383,827
1,324,381
1,226,245
1,195,026
1,161,380
1,124,548
1,096,721
1,075,139
1,048,101
1,027,046
1,014,354
974,115
955,869
907,133
892,934
853,318
859,445
802,065
813,926
755,722

5,087
4,924
4,890
4,713
4,761
4,589
4,539
4,523
4,744
4,833
4,885
4,557
4,518
4,432
4,356
4,286
4,245
4,207
4,257
4,198
4,237
4,305
4,309
4,302
4,268
4,361
4,322

653,752
640,923
640,207
587,917
574,683
576,459
592,453
641,331
922,549
925,818
850,576
594,260
533,498
462,360
444,947
425,324
412,091
402,605
406,174
393,425
386,713
395,543
384,333
371,609
357,034
363,337
345,364

593
585
596
579
606
586
585
575
563
566
575
586
596
602
600
592
579
584
592
614
621
624
587
561
572
553
563

749,393
732,929
728,187
711,921
705,423
691,499
680,913
674,930
657,393
648,745
650,993
646,118
638,144
621,284
606,284
591,822
570,616
548,952
529,311
513,845
498,955
479,548
451,245
437,919
414,386
394,268
373,364

420
428
430
431
444
438
441
450
449
453
455
468
477
479
480
493
508
506
496
495
497
512
509
515
502
508
508

88,406
89,571
88,379
85,746
83,470
81,993
81,328
83,187
78,774
79,848
79,860
82,372
82,365
78,246
75,972
76,022
76,751
73,692
70,373
70,063
70,682
69,676
65,923
65,940
61,310
62,113
63,170

740
728
721
707
761
722
711
732
755
759
740
734
767
778
790
795
796
892
901
1,027
1,082
1,121
1,208
1,341
1,323
1,430
1,414

81,463
78,192
73,215
71,328
75,454
73,569
70,528
69,266
80,228
75,534
67,825
61,077
70,374
64,355
67,823
68,212
65,090
71,472
69,281
70,768
70,696
69,587
72,614
80,401
74,403
73,216
71,420

4,041
3,793

293,301

589
593

341,480

466
476

49,131

1,800
1,968

118,153

817,020
612,251
532,481
421,065

4,013

311,159

521

295,382

52

10,150

1,566

200,329

Beds
214

Hospi­
tals
215

Beds
216

Hospi­
tals
217

Beds
218

Beds per
1,000
population
Total
219

General
220

9.9
9.9
10.0
9.6
9 .7
9 .7
9.9
10.5
13.1
13.0
12.3
10.3
9.9
9.3
9.1
8.9
8.7
8.6
8.4
8.3
8.2
8.1
7.9
7.8
7.4
7.4
7.2
7.3
6.9
7.1
6.8

4 .1
4.1
4.2
3 .9
3 .9
3 .9
4.1
4 .6
7.0
7.0
6.3
4.4
4.0
3.5
3 .4
3.3
3.2
3.1
3.2
3.1
3.1
3 .2
3.1
3.0
2 .9
3 .0
2.9

7.7
5.9
5.4
4 .7

2 .9

2 .5

1 Excludes hospitals with less than 10 beds.




35

B 221-248

VITAL STATISTICS AND HEALTH AND MEDICAL CARE

Series B 221-234. Hospitals and Beds, by Ownership or Control (AHA): 1946 to 1957
Total
Year

Hospi­
tals
221

Beds
222

1957_______________
1956_______________
1955_______________
1954_______________
1953_______________
1952_______________
1951_______________
1950_______________
1949_______________
1948_______________
1947_______________
1946_______________

6,818
6,966
6,956
6,970
6,978
6,903
6,832
6,788
6,277
6,160
6,173
6,125

1,558,691
1,607,692
1,604,408
1,577,961
1,F80,654
1,561,809
1,521,959
1,455,825
1,435,288
1,411,450
1,400,318
1,435,778

Federal
Hospi­
Beds
tals
223
224
437
432
428
430
435
439
422
414
376
386
403
404

183,002
184,121
183,162
189,233
202,604
213,018
214,597
189,477
186,764
185,846
199,771
235,964

Governmental
State
Hospi­
Beds
tals
225
226
543
553
552
552
556
0)
0)
0)
o
0)
C)
(!)

686,255
728,151
739,153
717,558
710,802
0)
(!)
0)
0)
0)
0)
o

1 State hospitals included with “Local.”

Local
Hospi­
Beds
tals
227
228
1,238
1,263
1,253
1,248
1,239
11,747
11,701
11,654
11,511
11,474
11,490
11,504

194,740
202,368
203,179
202,312
203,836
1896,596
1870,517
1843,672
1842,089
1826,377
1807,602
1811,702

Nonprofit
Church
Other
Hospi­
Hospi­
Beds
Beds
tals
tals
229
230
231
232
1,220
1,206
1,101
1,196
1,110
(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)

180,291
176,972
162,283
169,685
157,597
(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)

2,291
2,304
2,339
2,225
2,259
23,348
23,297
2 3,250
23,044
23,022
2 2 ,981
22,921

Proprietary
Hospi­
tals
233

267,555
265,633
264,761
247,658
251,712
2398,530
2383,102
2368,137
2355,331
2 349,310
2342,120
2334,867

1,089
1,208
1,283
1,319
1,379
1,369
1,412
1,470
1,346
1,278
1,299
1,296

Beds
234
46,848
50,447
51,870
51,515
54,103
53,665
53,743
54,539
51,104
49,917
50,825
53,245

! Church-operated and affiliated hospitals included with “Other.”

Series B 235-248. Hospitals and Beds, by Ownership or Control (AMA): 1909 to 1953
Total
Year

Hospi­
tals
235

1953_______________
1952_______________
1951_______________
1950_______________
1949_______________
1948_______________
1947_______________
1946_______________
1945_______________
1944_______________
1943_______________
1942_______________
1941_______________
1940_______________
1939_______________
1938_______________
1937_______________
1936_______________
1935_______________
1934_______________
1933_______________
1932_______________
1931_______________
1930_______________
1929_______________
1928_______________
1927_______________
1926_______________
1925_______________
1924_______________
1923_______________
1918_______________
1914_______________
1909_______________

Beds
236

6,840 1,573,014
6,665 1,541,615
6,637 1,529,988
6,430 1,456,912
6,572 1,439,030
6,335 1,423,520
6,276 1,425,222
6,280 1,468,714
6,511 1,738,944
6,611 1,729,945
6,655 1,649,254
6,345 1,383,827
6,358 1,324,381
6,291 1,226,245
6,226 1,195,026
6,166 1,161,380
6,128 1,124,548
6,189 1,096,721
6,246 1,075,139
6,334 1,048,101
6,437 1,027,046
6,562 1,014,354
6,613
974,115
6,719
955,869
6,665
907,133
6,852
892,934
6,807
853,318
6,946
859,445
6,896
802,065
7,370
813,926
6,830
755,722
5,323
612,251
5,047
532,481
4,359
421,065

Federal
Hospi­
Beds
tals
237
238
392
386
388
355
361
372
401
464
705
798
827
474
428
33*3
329
330
329
323
316
313
295
301
291
288
292
294
301
299
310
220
110
93
71

200,535
211,510
216,939
186,793
182,254
185,098
213,204
264,486
546,384
551,135
476,673
220,938
179,202
108,928
96,338
92,248
97,951
84,234
83,353
77,865
75,635
74,151
69,170
63,581
59,901
61,765
60,444
63,553
57,091
62,352
53,869
18,815
12,602
8,827

1 Proprietary hospitals and beds included with “Other nonprofit.”

36



Governmental
State
Hospi­
Beds
tals
239
240
550
549
554
552
573
567
563
557
549
539
531
530
530
521
523
523
522
524
526
544
557
568
576
581
578
595
592
351
632
601
303
294
232

711,824
691,408
683,376
665,019
656,611
648,386
626,648
628,363
619,642
609,025
610,115
606,437
600,320
572,079
560,575
541,279
508,913
503,306
483,994
473,035
459,646
442,601
419,282
405,309
385,706
369,759
354,786
334,984
317,264
321,399
302,208
262,254
232,834
189,049

Local
Hospi­
Beds
tals
241
242

Nonprofit
Church
Other
Hospi­
Hospi­
Beds
Beds
tals
tals
243
244
246
245

Proprietary
Hospi­
tals
247

Beds
248

1,194 200,645
1,143 196,705
1,090 197,405
1,005 185,229
1,003 186,290
961 186,283
953 190,353
941 189,885
929 190,692
925 192,118
926 189,351
920 188,406
906 185,989
910 192,682
888 188,233
875 181,609
871 181,885
877 176,300
882 174,365
892 166,988
924 159,192
935 162,615
949 153,072
943 150,836
925 136,930
924 135,910
916 129,939

1,169
1,136
1,116
1,097
1,090
1,068
1,051
1,050
1,036
1,020
1,004
977
993
998
1,001
981
975
969
970
970
984
1,001
1,011
1,017
1,024
1,056
1,060

164,053
158,389
154,053
150,078
146,315
144,036
141,920
138,096
135,481
133,090
130,488
126,141
123,331
120,809
120,740
119,521
115,283
113,288
113,268
113,263
115,840
117,555
116,935
116,846
113,555
114,613
108,582

2,206
2,146
2,121
2,072
2,067
2,016
1,965
1,942
1,954
1,961
1,952
1,949
1,917
1,903
1,839
1,776
1,718
1,742
1,670
1,676
13,677
13,757
13,786
13,890
13,846
13,983
13,938

243,653
232,598
225,903
218,788
213,576
208,936
202,661
198,885
195,805
195,624
192,219
190,150
182,140
177,681
172,765
169,980
162,474
162,586
155,300
154,449
1216,733
1217,432
1215,656
1219,297
1211,041
1210,887
1199,567

1,329
1,305
1,368
1,349
1,478
1,351
1,343
1,326
1,338
1,368
1,415
1,495
1,584
1,623
1,646
1,681
1,713
1,754
1,882
1,939
C
1)
C
1)
0)
C
1)
C
1)
C
1)
C
1)

52,304
51,005
52,312
51,005
53,984
50,781
50,436
48,999
50,940
48,953
50,408
51,755
53,399
54,066
56,375
56,743
58,042
57,007
64,859
62,501
0)
0)
0)
C
1)
C
1)
C
1)
C
1)

1,050
915

1,233
893

110,760
77,941

1,748
2,439

131,439
160,114

2,397
1,762

62,674
45,719

125,302
115,871

HEALTH AND MEDICAL CARE

B 249-270

Series B 249-260. Average Daily Census and Admissions to Hospitals, by Type of Service and Ownership (AHA):
1946 to 1957
[In thousands]
Total
Year

1957___________
1956___________
1955___________
1954___________
1953___________
1952___________
1951___________
1950___________
1949___________
1948___________
1947___________
1946___________

Average
daily
census
249

Admissions
during
year
250

1,320
1,356
1,363
1,343
1,342
1,336
1,298
1,253
1,240
1,241
1,190
1,142

22,993
22,090
21,073
20,345
20,184
19,624
18,783
18,483
17,224
16,821
17,689
15,675

Non-Federal
Long-term
Short-term general general
Psychiatric
and special
and special
Average Admissions Average Admissions Average Admissions
during
during
daily
daily
during
daily
year
year
census
year
census
census
254
256
253
255
252
251
438
425
407
393
394
385
378
372
352
361
354
341

21,002
20,107
19,100
18,392
18,098
17,413
16,677
16,663
15,428
15,072
15,908
13,655

67
63
65
61
56
58
51
60
68
70
73
63

198
175
158
155
160
156
163
164
132
128
149
139

609
659
677
668
663
651
636
607
597
595
558
517

303
343
312
289
291
392
275
293
269
267
266
202

Federal,
all types

Tuberculosis
Average
daily
census
257
49
53
56
61
62
62
62
62
66
66
55
55

Admissions
during
year
258
71
76
87
89
77
76
83
79
128
112
94
85

Average
daily
census
259
157
156
157
160
168
180
171
152
157
149
150
166

Admissions
during
year
260
1,419
1,388
1,415
1,421
1,558
1,586
1,586
1,284
1,268
1,241
1,271
1,593

Series B 261-270. Average Daily Census and Admissions to Hospitals, by Type of Service (AMA): 1923 to 1953
[In thousands]

Year

1953 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _____ _
1952.
__ - _
_____ _ ___
1951 _ _ _ _ _ _ ____ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
1950
1949 _
1948
_ __ ________ _ ___
1947- _______ _______
_ __
1946
_ _______ ______ __ -__ _ _ _
1945-_ _ _ _______ _ - ___ _ _ -__ _ _
1944
_
_ __ _
1943
1942
_
_
_
1941 _ _
_____
1940
_ _ - _ _
1939
__
____ 1938
____ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
___
1937
________
1936 _______ _______ __ ______ -__ -__
1935 _______ _ _ _ _ _ _ _______ __ _ _
1934 _____ -__
_ _ ___ _ -__ .
1933 ___
_ _ _ - ___ _____
1932_____________________________________
1931
1930
1929
1927
_
_
1925
_ __
1923

Digitized488910 0 - 60 - 4
for FRASER


Average
daily
census
261

Total
Admissions
during
year
262

1,333
1,309
1,294
1,243
1,225
1,217
1,217
1,239
1,405
1,299
1,257
1,126
1,087
1,026
996
966
944
909
876
830
810
808
775
763
727
672
629
553

19,869
18,915
18,237
17,024
16,660
16,423
15,830
15,153
16,257
16,037
15,375
12,546
11,596
10,088
9,879
9,421
9,222
8,647
7,717
7,147
7,038
7,228
7,156

General
Average Admissions
during
daily
year
census
264
263
477
475
471
433
429
438
457
496
665
570
529
405
364
325
308
293
288
272
261
237
232
250
248
240
234
228
194

18,693
17,760
17,066
15,830
15,450
15,160
14,665
14,052
15,228
15,060
14,455
11,634
10,647
9,219
9,018
8,546
8,350
7,756
6,875
6,292
6,072
6,304
6,322

Mental
Average Admissions
during
daily
year
census
265
266
719
704
698
688
675
664
652
636
624
619
619
610
603
591
577
562
547
525
507
488
475
455
427
415
395
350
322

328
312
307
307
308
305
292
271
249
226
209
214
209
190
190
199
196
185
173
172
171
170

Tuberculosis
Average Admissions
during
daily
census
year
267
268
75
75
74
72
69
66
63
62
60
63
65
70
71
67
65
66
65
63
61
60
60
60
56
56
51
51
40

108
110
107
113
113
106
99
100
86
88
92
102
101
91
91
101
102
99
86
82
84
93
81

All other
Average Admissions
daily
during
census
year
269
270
61
55
52
49
51
49
46
45
56
47
43
41
50
43
46
44
44
49
46
45
43
43
45
52
47
43
74

739
733
757
773
789
852
773
731
694
662
620
596
639
587
580
576
574
607
583
601
711
662

37

B 271-281

VITAL STATISTICS AND HEALTH AND MEDICAL CARE

Series B 271-274. Admissions of Patients to Hospitals for Mental Disease: 1831 to 1956
Rate per
100,000
population
All
State
All
State
hospitals hospitals hospitals hospitals
271
272
273
274

Rate per
100,000
population
State
State
All
All
hospitals hospitals hospitals hospitals
271
272
273
274

Admissions

Year

1956___
1955___
1954___
1953___
1952___
1951___
1950___
1949___
1948___
1947___
1946___
1945___
1944___
1943___
1942___
1941___
1940___
1939___
1938___
1937___
1936___
1935___
1934___
1933___
1932___
1931___

296,359
302,543
276,025
274,968
270,087
255,605
255,748
251,978
252,341
240,503
218,545
189,648
171,967
160,998
157,284
162,724
158,253
156,526
154,491
154,118
147,297
134,077
135,339
125,384
0)
115,679

176,245
169,512
163,071
159,002
152,479
141,583
141,493
139,103
133,514
123,392
116,807
110,914
107,988
106,698
109,059
107,914
105,420
103,844
100,493
98,646
94,897
89,964
87,647
86,407
83,460
82,334

179.2
186.4
173.5
176.2
176.1
169.2
170.3
170.7
173.8
168.7
157.9
148.7
135.7
126.3
120.1
123.7
120.2
119.6
119.0
119.6
115.0
105.4
107.1
99.8
93.3

106.7
104.4
102.5
101.9
99.4
93.7
94.2
94.3
92.0
86.6
84.4
86.9
85.2
83.7
83.3
82.0
80.1
79.3
77.4
76.6
74.1
70.7
69.4
68.8
66.9
66.4

Admissions

Year

1930__
1929__
1928__
1927__
1926__
1922__
1910__
1904__
1903__
1902.
1901__
1900__
1899__
1898__
1897__
1896__
1895__
1894__
1893__
1892__
1891__
1890__

0)
0)
C
1)
(l)
C
1)
89,455
60,769
49,622
0)
C
1)
0)
0)
C
1)
0)
C
1)
0)
C
1)
0)
0)
C
1)
C
1)
0)

78,452
75,601
73,388
69,318
65,348
61,182
45,873
41,391
38,931
37,766
37,689
41,165
33,304
34,045
31,612
30,531
30,977
28,771
28,446
27,164
26,580
24,651

63 .7
62 .1
60 .9
58 .2
55 .7
55 .6
49 .6
50 .4
48, 3
47 .7
48,.6
54 .1
44 .5
46 3
43 .8
43 .1
44 .5
42 .1
42 .5
41 .4
41 .3
39 .1

81.3
65.8
60.4

Year

Rate per
Admissions, 100,000
all
population,
hospitals
all
hospitals
271

1880_ _
1879_ _
1878_ _
1877_ _
1876_ _
1875.1874_ _
1873._
1872
1871_ _
1870_.
1869..
1868..
1867..
1866..
1865.1864._
1863_ _
1862._
1861..
I860.1859..
1858..
1857_ _
1856_-

Rate per
Admissions, 100,000
population,
all
all
hospitals
hospitals

Year

273

12,235
13,051
13,647
13,392
13,145
12,181
12,447
11,223
11,554
11,173
10,010
9,319
8,740
7,702
7,376
7,019
6,311
5,998
5,724
5,874
5,846
5,636
5,047
4,764
4,380

271

24.3
26.5
28.3
28.4
28.5
27.0
28.3
26.1
27.5
27.3
25.1
23.9
22.9
20.6
20.2
19.7
18.1
17.6
17.2
18.2
18.6
18.4
16.9
16.4
15.5

1855._
1854..
1853_ _
1852-_
1851_ _
1850_.
1849-_
1848._
1847_ _
1846._
1845__
1844__
1843-_
1842._
1841._
1840_ _
1839._
1838_ _
1837_ _
1836_ _
1835..
1834..
1833-_
1832._
1831_ _

273

4,501
4,347
4,106
,‘J, 658
I, ,286
2,979
2,982
3,117
2,685
2,266
2,182
1,810
1,618
1,202
1,344
1,082
1,142
932
873
789
820
611
558
358
394

16.4
16.4
16.0
14.7
13.6
12.8
13.2
14.2
12.5
10.9
10.8
9.2
8.5
6.6
7.6
6.3
6.8
5.7
5.5
5.1
5.5
4.2
3.9
2.6
3.0

1 N ot available.

Series B 275-281. Specified Reportable Diseases: 1912 to 1956
[Rate per 100,000 population enumerated as of April 1 for 1940 and 1950, and estimated as of July 1 for all other years]

Year

1956______
1955______
1954______
1953______
1952______
1951______
1950______
1949______
1948______
1947______
1946______
1945______
1944______
1943______
1942______
1941______
1940______
1939______
1938______
1937______
1936______
1935______
1934______

Scarlet
Typhoid fever
and
and
para­
strep­
typhoid tococcal
sore
fever 1
throat2
275
276
5.0
4.4
4.7
3 .9
3.2
2 .5
2 .5
2.7
2 .5
2 .8
2 .8
3 .7
4.2
4.1
5.0
6.5
7.4
10.0
11.5
12.4
12.4
14.4
17.6

105.5
89.8
91.7
84.0
73.0
54.9
42.8
58.7
62.5
65.2
89.6
140.1
150.9
112.0
101.4
104.7
125.9
132.3
152.8
183.5
195.6
211.0
180.0

Diph­
theria
277
0.9
1.2
1.3
1.5
1.9
2.6
3 .8
5.4
6.5
8.5
11.7
14.1
10.6
11.0
12.1
13.5
11.8
18.4
23.5
22.2
23.4
30.8
34.1

Whoop­ Meningo­ Acute
coccal
polio­
ing
infec­ myelitis
cough
tions
278
19.0
38.2
37.8
23.5
28.9
44.8
80.1
46.7
51.1
109.1
78.4
101.0
82.7
142.9
142.9
166.9
139.6
140.0
175.1
166.6
115.0
141.9
209.9

279
1.6
2.1
2.8
3.2
3.1
2.7
2 .5
2.4
2.3
2.4
4.1
6.2
12.3
13.6
2.9
1.5
1.3
1.5
2.2
4.4
5.9
4.7
2.0

280
9.1
17.6
23.9
22.5
37.2
18.5
22.1
28.3
19.0
7.5
18.3
10.3
14.3
9.3
3.1
6.8
7.4
5.6
1.3
7.4
3.5
8.5
5.9

Small­
pox
281
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.3
0.6
0.6
1.0
2.1
7.5
11.5
9.1
6.1
6.3
4.3

1 Excludes paratyphoid fever for 1912 to 1919 and includes other salmonella infections for 1950 to 1955.

38




Year

1933___
1932___
1931____
1930___
1929___
1928___
1927___
1926___
1925___
1924____
1923____
1922____
1921___
1920___
1919
1918___
1917____
1916___
1915____
1914____
1913___
1912____

Scarlet
Typhoid fever
and
and
para­
strep­
typhoid tococcal
fever 1
sore
throat2
275
276
18.6
21.4
21.4
22.1
19.1
22.6
29.2
35.5
40.6
31.8
31.0
33.0
46.0
37.5
42.9
50.0
63.0
82.3
74.0
82.4
84.2
81.8

174.4
172.7
166.3
144.5
152.9
148.9
179.8
166.7
164.4
164.2
158.8
148.1
188.9
168.3
118.3
94.5
139.2
114.5
108.6
133.0
143.1
138.2

Diph­
theria

Whoop­ Meningo­ Acute
coccal
ing
polio­
infec­ myelitis
cough
tions

Small­
pox

279

281

277

278

40.2
48.0
57.1
54.1
70.1
75.9
89.8
80.7
83.3
105.6
131.4
156.9
201.5
154.3
144.7
101.5
133.0
129.2
132.7
152.5
142.1
139.0

142.6
172.5
139.1
135.6
162.1
134.3
152.4
172.2
133.2
145.0
154.2
107.7

2 Excludes streptococcal sore throat for 1912 to 1919.

2 .4
2.6
4.7
7.0
8.7
5.0
2.9
2.2
1.9
1.8
2.1
2.0
2 .5
3.2
3.1
7.2
6.2
2.7
2.9
3.4
3 .4

280
4.0
3.1
13.3
7.7
2.4
4.3
8.8
2.4
5.4
4.8
3.3
2.3
6.5
2 .5
2.3
2.8
4.9
41.1
3.1
2 .4
4.0
5.5

5.2
9.0
24.4
39.7
34.7
32.7
31.6
28.7
34.7
49.6
27.6
30.5
100.3
107.0
63.8
83.1
52.7
23.4
50.2
66.4
55.7
30.8

chapter C

Migration

INTERNAL MIGRATION (Series C 1-87)
C 1-73. General note.
Data concerning internal migration of the native population
are based on information concerning State of birth and State
of residence collected during the decennial censuses of popu­
lation. Caution is required in the interpretation of these data
because the migration measured by each census is the net
movement from the time of birth to the census date. Mi­
grants as defined here include only those persons who have
moved from one State to another and are, on the census date,
living in States other than those in which they were born.
Persons who moved from their State of birth and then returned
to it by the time of the census are classified as nonmigrants.
These statistics for migrants do not represent the total num­
ber of persons who have moved from the State or geographic
division in which they were born to other States or divisions
during any given period of time. Some of those who moved
from one State to another died before the following census
date. Some moved from and returned, between censuses, to
their State of birth. Others moved to places outside conti­
nental United States.
A native is defined as a person born in continental United
States, Puerto Rico, or the Territories or possessions, or born
abroad to American parents. Persons for whom place of birth
was not reported are included with the natives.
The classification of the population by color is not ordinarily
based on replies to census questions asked by the enumerators,
but rather is obtained by observation. This concept does not,
therefore, reflect a clear-cut definition of biological stock. The
nonwhite population consists of Negroes, American Indians,
Japanese, Chinese, Filipinos, and some other groups. Per­
sons of mixed parentage are placed in the color classification
of the nonwhite parent. Persons of Mexican birth or ances­
try who are not definitely Indian or of other nonwhite stock
have been classified as white in all censuses except that of
1930. The lack of comparability introduced by this factor is
substantial in the West South Central, Mountain, and Pacific
Divisions. For revised 1930 figures for regions showing Mexi­
cans classified as white, see series B 215-230 in Historical
Statistics of the United States, 1789-1945.
C 1-14. Native population, by residence within or outside
State, division, and region of birth, by color, 1850-1950.
Source: Special compilations made by the University of
Pennsylvania Studies of Population Redistribution and Economic
Growth from the following: 1850, The Seventh Census of the
United States: 1850, pp. xxxvi-xxxviii; 1860, Eighth Census of
the United States: 1860, table 5 for each State, pp. 10-589,
various pages, and pp. 616-619; 1870, Ninth Census Reports,
vol. I, pp. 327-335; 1880, Tenth Census Reports, Population,
pp. 484-491; 1890, Eleventh Census Reports, Population, part
1, pp. 564-567 and 576-579; 1900, Twelfth Census Reports,
Population, vol. I, part 1, pp. 686-693 and 702-705; 1910,
Thirteenth Census Reports, Population, vol. I, pp. 730-744;
1920, Fourteenth Census Reports, Population, vol. II, pp. 626


640; 1930, Fifteenth Census Reports, Population, vol. II, pp.
153-167; 1940, Sixteenth Census Reports, State of Birth of
the Native Population, pp. 20-39; 1950, U. S. Census of Popu­
lation: 1950, vol. IV, Special Reports, State of Birth, pp. 4A-24
to 4A-43.
In 1860, persons who were born in territories and who were
then residing in territories were assumed to be residing in the
territory of their birth.
See general note for definition of color and nativity; see also
text for series A 95-122 for definitions of division and region.
C 15-24. Native population born in each division, by division of
residence, by color, 1850-1950.
Source: See source for series C 1-14.
See also general note for definition of color and nativity.
C 25-73. Estimated net intercensal migration of total, native
white, foreign-born white, and Negro population surviving
from the preceding census date, by States, 1870-1950.
Source: Everett S. Lee, Ann Ratner Miller, Carol P. Brainerd, and Richard A. Easterlin, Population Redistribution and
Economic Growth: United States, 1870-1950, vol. I, Philadel­
phia, the American Philosophical Society, 1957, pp. 107-231.
See general note for definition of color and nativity.
The estimates of net migration were obtained by a residual
method, using survival ratios derived from census data. The
loss through mortality during an intercensal period was esti­
mated on the basis of the ratios of appropriate age groups as
enumerated in successive decennial censuses. The difference
between the enumerated population at the end of the decennial
period and the estimated survivors from the beginning to the
end of the period was assumed to be net migration. Compu­
tations were by age groups for each sex, the figures presented
in series C 25-73 being summations for ages 10 years and over
at the end of each intercensal period. For the native popula­
tion, the figures show the estimated amount of net internal
migration. For the foreign born, the figures represent the
estimated net change attributable to direct movement into the
State from abroad and the net gain or loss in the exchange of
foreign-born residents with other States.
C 74-79. Estimated annual movement of the farm population,
1920-1957.
Source: 1920-1954, Agricultural Marketing Service, Farm
Population, Migration to and From Farms, 1920-195U, AMS-10,
1954; 1955-1957, Farm Population, Estimated for (specific
years), AMS-80, 1955, 1956, and 1957.
Estimates of the total farm population and of the annual
changes in its components utilize data from the censuses of
population and agriculture and the Current Population Survey
conducted by the Bureau of the Census in addition to data from
a questionnaire mailed by the Department of Agriculture to
lists of crop reporters. Estimates of the components of change
are derived from information supplied by the crop reporters
39

C 80-87
MIGRATION
and adjusted for internal consistency with available birth C 80-87. Mobility status and type of mobility of the civilian
and death figures and data on movements in and out of
population one year old and over, 1947-1957.
the Armed Forces. For a history of the procedures used and
Source: Bureau of the Census, Current Population Reports,
the successive revisions of the series, see Department of Agri­ Series P-20, No. 82.
culture, Major Statistical Series of the U. S. Department of
The civilian population was classified by mobility status on
Agriculture, vol. 7, Agricultural Handbook No. 118, 1957.
the basis of a comparison between the place of residence of
Farm population figures relate to the civilian population liv­
individual the survey date
the place of
ing on farms, regardless of occupation or source of income. eachyear earlier.on Persons classified andmovers include residence
one
as
all those
The determination of whether a household is located on a farm whose place of residence in the United States was different at
has been made largely by the residents themselves. If the
respondent in reply to the inquiry, “Is this house on a farm the end of the period and at the beginning of the period.
For similar information for earlier years, see Donald J.
(or ranch) ?” answers affirmatively, it is, in most cases, classi­
fied as a farm dwelling unit and the occupants as part of the Bogue, Henry S. Shryock, Jr., and Siegried A. Hoermann, “Sub­
farm population. Excluded are the following: Persons living regional Migration in the United States, 1935-40,” vol. 1,
on farmland who rent for cash a home and yard only; persons Streams of Migration Between Subregions, Miami, Ohio,
in summer camps, motels, and tourist camps; and persons in Scripps Foundation Studies in Population Distribution, No. 5,
institutions on farmland.
1957.

40



INTERNAL MIGRATION

C 1-24

Series C 1-14. Native Population, by Residence Within or Outside State, Division, and Region of Birth, by Color:
1850 to 1950
Color i
and
year

Born in other States
Contiguous to State Noncontiguous to
State of residence
of residence
Percent Number Percent Number Percent
3
4
5
6
7

Born in State
of residence

Native
population

Number
2

1

Born
in out­
lying
areas

Born
abroad
or at
sea

State
of birth
not
reported

8

9

10

Born in division
of residence
Number
11

Born in region
of residence

Percent
12

Number
13

Percent
14

TOTAL

1950 2___
1940____
1930____
1920___
1910____
1900____
18903___
1880____
1870____

139,868,715 102,788,385
120,074,379 92,609,754
108,570,897 82,677,619
91,789,928 71,071,013
78,456,380 61,185,305
65,653,299 51,901,722
53,372,703 41,872,656
43,475,840 33,882,734
32,991,142 25,321,340

73.5 14,589,035
77.1 12,583,482
76.2 12,200,290
77.4 9,741,781
78.0 7,959,860
79.0 6,308,975
78.5 4,628,768
77.9 4,083,004
76.8 3,182,563

10.4 20,695,185
10.5 14,322,504
13,187,810
1 0 .6 10,532,669
1 0 .1 8,950,254
9.6 7,192,070
8.7 6,464,295
9.4 5,509,760
9.6 4,474,757

124,382,950
106,795,732
95,497,800
81,108,161
68,386,412
56,595,379
45,862,023
36,843,291
28,095,665
23,353,385
17,772,270

91,984,035
82,533,805
72,821,481
62,524,789
52,806,091
44,278,021
35,524,287
28,310,081
21,355,242
17,527,069
13,624,902

74.0 13,195,215
77.3 11,298,723
76.2 10,824,966
77.1 8,675 416
77.2 7,018,331
78.2 5,534,957
77.5 4,064,121
76.8 3,576,340
76.0 2,779,526
75.1 2,529,494
76.7 2,105,724

17,629,445
12,492,817
11.3 11,452,788
10.7 9,521,420
10.3 8,245,872
9.8 6,562,833
8.9 5,926,722
9.7 4,956,596
9.9 3,951,487
1 0 .8 3,242,190
11.9 2,006,033

15,485,765
13,278,647
13,073,097
10,681,767
10,069,968
9,057,920
7,510,680
6,632,549
4,895,477

10,804,350
10,075,949
9,856,138
8,546,224
8,379,214
7,623,701
6,348,369
5,572,653
3,966,098

69.8
75.9
75.4
80.0
83.2
84.2
84.5
84.0
81.0

9.0
9.7
10.5

14.8
11.9

1 1 .2

1 2 ,1

11.5
11.4
11.0
1 2 .1

12.7
13.6

329,970
156,956
136,032
38,020
7,365
2,923
322
51
51

96,355 1,369,785 113,477,915
122,169 279,514 101,694,396
130,677 238,469 91,382,402
92,863 313,582 77,906,515
67,911 285,685 66,746,379
67,151 180,458 56,248,496
396,652 45,022,600
1 0 ,0 1 0
36,582,390
291
169 " "l2^262~ 27,363,803

81.1 119,490,510
84.7 106,734,907
84.2 96,447,180
84.9 82,308,490
85.1 70,864,304
85.7 60,025,002
84.4 48,398,175
84.1 39,530,266
82.9 29,634,393

85.4
88.9
88.8
89.7
90.3
91.4
90.7
90.9
89.8

289,435
99,170
71,582
26,476
6,413
2,563
279
50
38

88,065 1,196,755 101,491,050
117,933 253,284 90,586,586
125,060 201,923 80,492,581
88,838 271,222 68,601,740
64,356 245,349 57,703,559
63,366 153,639 48,102,508
9,543 337,071 38,315,138
224
30,681,197
9,212 23,130,521
160
52,014 18,969,880
2,618
35,611 14,707,719

81.6 107,061,705
84.8 95,225,370
84.3 85,075,201
84.6 72,563,235
84.4 61,361,087
85.0 51,407,811
83.5 41,227,682
83.3 33,126,949
82.3 24,914,093
81.2 20,481,089
82.8 15,765,010

8 6 .1

89.2
89.1
89.5
89.7
90.8
89.9
89.9
88.7
87.7
88.7

77.4
83.7
83.3
87.1
89.8
89.9
89.3
89.0
86.5

80.3
86.7
87.0
91.2
94.4
95.1
95.5
96.5
96.4

WHITE

1950 2___
1940____
1930 *___
1920____
1910____
1900____
1890 3___
1880
1870____
1860 4_
1850 *___

14.2
11.7

1 0 .6
1 0 .6

1 2 .0

11.7
1 2 .0
1 1 .6

12.9
13.5
14.1
13.9
11.3

NON­
WHITE

1950 2___
1940____
1930 i___
1920____
1910____
1900____
1890 3.__
1880___
1870____

1,393,820
1,284,759
1,375,324
1,066,365
941,529
774,018
564,647
506,664
403,037

1 0 .0

9.3
8.5
7.5
7.6
8 .2

3,065,740
1,829,687
1,735,022
1,011,249
704,382
629,237
537,573
553,164
523,270

19.8
13.8
13.3
9.5
7.0
6.9
7.2
8.3
10.7

1 Mexicans classified as nonwhite in 1930, as white in other censuses.
2 Based on 20-percent sample of persons enumerated.
3 Excludes population of Indian Territory and Indian reservations, specially enumer-

40,535
57,786
64,450
11,544
952
360
43
1
13

8,290
4,236
5,617
4,025
3,555
3,785
467
67
9

173,030 11,986,865
26,230 11,107,810
36,546 10,889,821
42,360 9,304,775
40,336 9,042,820
26,819 8,145,988
59,581 6,707,462
5,901,193
3~050~ 4,233,282

12,428,805
11,509,537
11,371,979
9,745,255
9,503,217
8,617,191
7,170,493
6,403,317
4,720,300

ated in 1890, with a native population of 117,368 white, and 208,083 nonwhite, not
distributed by State of birth.
4 Free colored included with white.

Series C 15-24. Native Population Born in Each Division, by Division of Residence, by Color: 1850 to 1950
[Excludes persons born outside continental U. S. and persons for whom State of birth was not reported]
C olor,1 census year,
and division of
birth

Total
15

New
England
16

Middle
Atlantic
17

7,765,220
7,040,420
456,510
90,555
40,080
66,925
19,555
18,830
11,210
21,135
6,788,754
6,292,313
340,901
62,294
25,609
35,011
9,258
7,189
6,431
9,748

23,667,205
445,570
21,967,895
434,780
142,145
434,560
82,350
69,435
34,890
55,580
21,562,277
410,907
20,113,804
393,318
120,901
360,021
59,151
43,268
26,562
34,345

Division of residence
East North West North
South
Central
Central
Atlantic
18
19
20

East South W est South
Central
Central
21
22

Mountain

Pacific

23

24

11,564,885
35,245
124,225
292,995
532,565
174,420
523,035
9,699,470
98,400
84,530
10,255,758
12,776
64,963
238,290
516,685
135,018
531,150
8,669,708
61,359
25,809

4,543,490
30,575
113,220
314,300
697,650
63,965
75,205
357,420
2,721,855
169,290
3,698,071
16,803
66,229
242,314
633,440
39,439
59,299
270,484
2,271,873
98,190

12,236,975
208,265
606,685
1,268,010
2,033,415
233,550
238,855
1,047,400
842,620
5,758,175
8,127,716
133,605
376,424
935,136
1,431,854
126,623
155,225
539,941
553,662
3,875,246

WHITE

1950 2_____________________ 122,808,695
New England _ __ _
8,123,805
Middle A tlantic. _
__
25,133,815
26,253,590
East North Central-15,804,720
West North C entral-_ _
14,808,615
South Atlantic
_ — _
East South Central- _ _ _ 10,389,290
12,022,265
West South Central---- _
Mountain __
______ 3,945,625
Pacific-- __
_ __ __ _ 6,326,970
1940______________________ 106,325,345
7,091,608
New England ____ __
Middle A tla n tic __
22,321,593
East North C en tra l--__ __ 23,255,752
14,401,132
W est North Central. _ _
12,601,815
South A tlantic___
__ __
East South Central--------- --- _ 9,333,222
West South Central______ - _ 10,085,283
Mountain_____________ _ __ 3,089,040
Pacific-- ______ __ _____ 4,145,900

1 Mexicans classified as nonwhite in 1930, as white in other censuses.




26,038,680
130,600
883,575
22,344,070
925,255
461,355
908,915
223,550
79,265
82,095
22,892,971
101,637
765,363
20,031,073
818,929
314,513
616,381
142,119
59,659
43,297

12,848,660
31,000
119,430
801,785
11,186,855
70,370
132,160
314,375
109,840
82,845
12,296,354
25,600
123,075
896,605
10,705,594
54,368
133,904
237,853
85,530
33,825

15,490,860
185,885
800,850
498,185
180,270
12,976,715
613,630
141,435
36,690
57,200
12,766,703
91,015
440,461
301,011
102,722
11,290,451
432,330
69,671
18,445
20,597

8,652,720
16,245
61,425
208,910
66,485
326,755
7,795,585
150,350
10,845
16,120
7,936,741
6,952
30,373
155,711
45,398
246,371
7,336,524
105,050
5,519
4,843

2 Based on 20-percent sample of persons <numerated.
e

41

C 15-24

MIGRATION

Series C 15-24. Native Population Born in Each Division, by Division of Residence, by Color: 1850 to 1950—Con.
Color,1 census year,
and division of
birth
white — Con.
1930______________________
New England
Middle Atlantic _
East North Central _
West North Central. _.
South Atlantic _
_
East South Central _
West South Central.
_ _
Mountain _
_ _ _
Pacific _
_ _
1920______________________
New England _
Middle Atlantic
East North Central
West North Central
South Atlantic
East South Central .
West South Central____
Mountain .
Pacific _
_____
1910______________________
New England _ _ _ _
Middle Atlantic _ _ _ _ _
East North Central
West North Central
South Atlantic _
_ _
East South Central _
West South Central
Mountain _
__ _ _ _
Pacific
_
1900______________________
New England
_ _ __
Middle Atlantic
East North Central
West North Central
South Atlantic
East South Central _ _
West South Central _ _ _
Mountain
Pacific- _
_
_ _
1890 3____________________
New England _
_ _
Middle Atlantic _ _
_____
East North Central
_ _ _
West North Central
South Atlantic _ _ _ _ _ _ _
East South Central _
West South Central
M ountain.
Pacific _ - _ _ _
1880______________________
New England
Middle Atlantic _
East North Central
West North Central _
_ .
South Atlantic
East South Central
West South CentralMountain _ _
_
_ _
Pacific _ _
_
1870______________________
New England _ _ _
Middle Atlantic _
East North Central _ _
West North Central _ _
South A tlantic. _ _ _ _
East South Central- _ __ __
West South C entral--.
M ountain. _ _ _ _ _
Pacific. _
_ _ __
1860 4____________________
New England _ __ _ __
Middle Atlantic
_ _ __
East North Central _ __ __
West North C en tra l_________
South Atlantic. _ _____ __
East South Central.
__
West South Central _
Mountain __ _ _ _ ________
P a c if ic - .__ ___________ __

Total
15

New
England
16

Middle
Atlantic
17

95,099,235
6,535,693
20,610,693
21,523,034
13,113,754
11,319,720
8,531,783
8,039,544
2,317,079
3,107,935
80,721,625
5,613,387
17,754,221
18,836,603
11,077,968
9,605,593
7,445,580
6,358,200
1,785,103
2,244,970
68,070,294
4,867,376
15,123,715
16,287,667
9,210,184
8,273,219
6,631,841
4,909,800
1,206,525
1,559,967
56,375,811
4,304,088
12,994,778
13,990,407
7,211,362
7,028,299
5,696,181
3,330,565
765,078
1,055,053
45,515,130
3,869,022
11,026,901
11,459,737
5,083,535
5,988,960
4,794,666
2,138,369
452,657
701,283
36,843,017
3,614,346
9,693,744
9,062,808
3,117,714
5,169,015
4,077,215
1,410,432
265,689
432,054
28,086,255
3,270,626
8,065,869
6,550,805
1,684,544
4,206,178
3,165,831
765,053
153,772
223,577
23,298,753
3,144,598
6,944,042
4,562,911
848,692
4,264,749
2,781,432
550,043
100,739
101,547

6,204,011
5,752,888
321,693
53,302
21,386
29,326
7,315
5,401
5,090
7,610
5,420,554
5,003,487
305,384
48,079
17,259
24,111
5,815
4,562
4,997
6,860
4,641,157
4,305,759
247,999
37,814
13,453
19,347
4,461
3,879
3,876
4,569
4,063,335
3,782,347
213,818
31,065
11,316
14,206
3,111
1,888
1,716
3,868
3,498,667
3,308,754
149,620
18,588
5,555
9,927
2,026
1,275
756
2,166
3,177,460
3,031,308
116,499
12,806
3,176
8,618
1,725
1,016
711
1,601
2,807,945
2,704,882
83,537
8,463
1,621
6,497
1,206
730
66
943
2,663,062
2,584,262
64,518
5,057
652
6,777
797
522
(6)
477

19,780,421
392,102
18,427,461
362,359
106,542
353,731
52,209
34,716
22,734
28,567
16,651,261
251,361
15,714,467
273,633
72,434
246,672
36,076
21,272
15,165
20,181
14,003,037
215,838
13,264,960
211,088
48,916
201,618
24,205
13,329
11,416
11,667
11,764,269
175,529
11,203,366
162,945
33,376
152,680
16,105
7,950
4,543
7,775
9,620,523
157,962
9,222,526
95,477
16,549
107,554
9,597
5,167
1,664
4,027
8,287,904
176,366
7,921,093
73,777
11,055
90,530
7,269
4,219
1,096
2,499
6,788,821
180,779
6,479,733
48,589
5,031
65,515
4,920
2,651
138
1,465
5,898,979
212,218
5,582,854
29,662
1,965
66,971
3,061
1,648
(6)
600

Division of residence
South
East North West North
Central
Central
Atlantic
18
20
19
20,990,462 11,778,688 11,025,521
114,311
36,849
65,025
834,310
314,394
179,234
18,167,867 1,102,154
229,645
760,889 9,918,618
68,103
322,548
72,008 9,955,907
596,959
153,991
326,357
101,431
202,164
44,638
53,880
82,608
10,884
38,267
31,062
10,568
17,641,695 10,798,750 9,311,926
103,025
53,349
49,436
746,504
252,354
264,186
15,606,106 1,292,533
179,169
462,835 8,699,489
50,549
232,580
90,706 8,487,281
377,338
179,126
234,259
53,305
141,216
30,900
32,948
62,656
7,714
27,054
27,321
8,432
14,791,593 9,682,750 7,765,765
97,016
73,131
28,394
652,982
337,132
191,251
13,239,961 1,411,304
111,408
323,844 7,410,156
22,494
167,764
109,371 7,244,553
250,933
196,661
14-5,352
27,218
91,459
15,183
17,638
36,206
3,417
14,237
17,330
3,713
13,037,883 8,501,171 6,487,097
117,475
95,473
21,464
725,710
410,130
152,668
11,539,208 1,424,563
83,300
267,723 6,142,945
15,230
154,152
125,802 6,105,309
195,986
209,595
95,892
18,745
58,754
9,877
9,280
21,396
1,446
9,604
12,513
1,911
10,679,859 7,053,073 5,376,140
141,909
126,561
21,469
769,746
507,162
115,883
9,280,356 1,464,505
57,949
137,664 4,511,678
8,284
159,824
151,969 5,101,959
171,757
238,208
62,460
11,125
36,260
6,446
3,155
10,025
523
4,323
6,705
1,167
9,098,915 4,950,250 4,483,127
178,124
123,105
17,545
899,051
479,473
103,764
7,521,118 1,126,361
42,533
101,161 2,801,794
4,361
192,311
149,700 4,256,663
192,398
232,785
52,704
9,494
28,023
4,633
1,941
4,925
339
3,317
4,084
585
7,325,414 3,038,215 3,469,244
212,928
97,087
14,708
967,899
339,388
84,225
5,625,542
704,106
19,407
62,386 1,524,350
2,051
230,689
138,450 3,308,462
214,814
210,645
37,442
7,885
20,005
2,591
432
2,169
52
2,839
2,015
306
5,715,955 1,702,245 3,358,465
224,230
57,324
12,213
184,972
946,080
68,452
4,044,329
358,725
10,445
756,018
27,496
915
125,982 3,236,171
265,569
210,990
202,798
28,932
7,759
4,322
1,230
(5)
(5)
(5)
475
107
1,131

1 Mexicans classified as nonwhite in 1930, as white in other censuses.
3 Excludes population of Indian Territory and Indian reservations, specially enumerated in 1890, with a native population of 117,368 white and 208,083 non white, not
distributed by State of birth.

42




4 Includes free colored.
&N ot available,

East South West South
Central
Central
22
21
7,158,480
6,084
27,532
151,942
39,461
271,607
6,563,867
90,120
4,219
3,648
6,286,445
5,803
27,434
136,431
32,428
222,844
5,791,383
64,080
3,300
2,742
5,657,676
5,221
26,602
129,227
26,257
220,304
5,198,232
48,275
2,055
1,503
4,947,654
4,972
24,477
119,432
22,391
221,912
4,515,686
36,961
823
1,000
4,186,475
5,802
24,664
94,521
14,461
232,107
3,790,050
23,931
341
598
3,563,017
4,886
21,758
67,865
11,515
272,498
3,164,256
19,693
177
369
2,835,457
5,552
23,259
48,469
8,851
313,905
2,420,279
14,865
65
212
2,538,909
7,269
24,020
32,248
5,842
411,919
2,048,662
8,887
(5)
62

8,906,478
12,825
69,246
278,633
558,788
166,797
635,683
7,117,591
47,331
19,584
7,615,242
13,680
74,672
306,576
534,721
180,365
663,654
5,791,839
34,621
15,114
6,344,580
11,024
60,485
309,955
484,944
204,527
686,321
4,563,489
15,963
7,872
4,494,019
7,981
39,005
192,025
305,129
197,884
597,479
3,143,786
6,401
4,329
2,937,889
7,058
29,588
112,084
121,395
177,366
466,533
2,019,570
2,074
2,221
2,067,174
6,645
23,520
69,347
78,285
168,103
390,416
1,328,521
1,083
1,254
1,161,542
4,418
13,223
24,893
33,449
123,369
253,883
707,821
159
327
984,856
5,930
15,661
24,038
23,459
133,672
263,132
518,799
(5)
165

Mountain

Pacific

23

24

2,999,731
19,829
78,751
275,415
562,360
42,096
61,895
179,510
1,699,814
80,061
2,730,830
25,804
99,028
319,171
529,090
45,179
63,268
133,956
1,442,878
72,456
2,063,208
30,999
110,309
291,913
378,359
42,174
52,956
84,119
1,024,876
47,503
1,281,152
27,658
88,623
180,312
190,402
24,638
26,407
28,208
685,356
29,548
856,949
28,966
84,419
138,062
113,722
20,095
20,572
15,988
417,647
17,478
468,678
21,169
51,848
62,709
43,790
12,170
12,557
5,920
248,307
10,208
224,834
9,181
20,533
20,631
11,644
5,032
4,766
1,487
147,771
3,789
150,116
6,006
10,348
17,053
7,188
3,046
4,306
950
100,739
480

6,255,443
135,780
358,072
901,717
1,077,607
105,700
133,507
263,973
390,519
2,888,568
4,264,922
107,442
270,192
674,905
679,163
75,855
94,661
117,070
180,824
2,064,810
3,120,528
99,994
231,995
544,997
501,761
63,561
72,720
62,849
91,078
1,451,573
1,799,231
71,189
136,981
257,557
222,850
31,716
35,920
24,396
34,117
984,505
1,305,555
70,541
123,293
198,195
154,227
28,159
33,463
18,607
16,472
662,598
746,492
55,198
76,738
86,292
62,577
18,422
23,105
8,913
7,110
408,137
434,783
41,091
54,072
50,705
35,161
14,259
17,876
7,018
2,920
211,681
286,166
35,146
47,137
41,354
25,157
14,642
18,754
5,926
(5)
98,050

INTERNAL MIGRATION

C 15-24

Series C 15-24. Native Population Born in Each Division, by Division of Residence, by Color: 1850 to 1950—Con.
Color,1 census year,
and division of
birth
WHITE — Con.
1850 4
New England_______
Middle Atlantic_____
East North Central-.
West North Central _
South Atlantic______
East South Central. _
West South Central-.
M ountain___________
Pacific______________

Total

New
England

Middle
Atlantic

17,736,659
2,821,823
5,483,951
2,757,356
373,500
3,764,808
2,179,505
286,016
59,802

2,423,178
2,367,932
46,635
2,410
181
5,100
507
378
(5)
35

4,884,300
237,367
4,566,495
16,349
568
60,734
1,840
934
(5) 13

Division of residence
South
East North West North
Atlantic
Central
Central

3,965,269
171,172
725,056
2,582,600
12,794
286,195
184,634
2,812

(5)

6

695,231
9,404
39,123
96,708
334,662
80,838
131,053
3,435
(5)

East South West South
Central
Central

2,907,947
11,074
55,210
7,048
495
2,811,305
21,951
858
(5)

6

Mountain

503,295
5,522
12,656
14,616
11,619
65,489
123,282
270,104
(5)
7

68,484
1,131
2,286
2,511
1,341
482
823
88
59,802

2,207,677
5,922
19,778
21,821
2,951
446,391
,705,017
5,796
(5)

1

20

Pacific

81,278
12,299
16,712
13,293
8,889
8,274
10,398
1,611
(5)
9,802

NONWHITE

469,245 5,068,460 2,687,045 2,473,610
15,263,910
136,825 1,771,205 1,799,890
214,980
11,345
2,245
350
95,105
74,260
3,780
515
410
270
798,465
20,225
6,990
1,675
41,660
3,280
884,085
3,180
1,175
19,745
675,230
1,605
11.170
13,040
5,920
754,760
11,310
1,915
6,165
45,560
790
268,130
3,660
7,830
362,865
3,420
5,980
810,945
269,290
8,740 4,882,210
43,895
18,125
6,125,050
60,780
2,960
91,980
604,445
108,770
3,634,040
5,730
89,670
104,760 2,569,950
6,020
25,165
169,690
85.170
2,575
15,965
2,954,750
36,775 2,323,380
32,520
1,425
2,520
2,150
183,680
145
1,015
1,800
355
158,355
5,970
10,685
2,190
269,575
2,370
3,990
865
5,785
401,916 4,706,493 2,779,679 2,489,075
13,190,395
95,035 1,208,567 1,084,123
163,606
1,190
9,094
142
150
72,448
58,883
2,143
228
58
12,397
526,569
945
779
4,352
22,910
571,445
1,084
324
420,714
13,421
9,676
3,391
762
8,114
7,444
469,788
1,111
3,971
31,247
240,766
8,471
304,282
275
1,918
2,635
4,933
585,734
188,711
19,370
5,484,716
27,275
8,733 4,579,081
62,448
1,753
2,016
50,942
340,816
74,444
82,512 2,664,877
125,376
3,359,873
4,036
85,882
64,924
40,421 2,329,478
735
13,731
8,126
2,615,711
17,136
1,357
1,610
69
793
596
1,151
144,576
240
131,955
4,312
1,809
676
167,556
909
668
1,093
302
2,300
957,610
394,534 4,421,188 2,655,398 2,797,906
980,056
12,966,484
85,473
298,651
New England_______
8,543
1,308
191
47,909
1,964
166
60,784
152
365,212
Middle A tlantic_____
12,886
1,046
4,380
17,792
917
405,404
1,109
405
11,840
307,789
10,799
617
6,950
4,144
East North Central__
355,312
7,522
1,366
3,229
33,085
229,087
11,592
West North Central295,827
243
1,531
5,841
2,675
531,014
197,586
11,337 4,316,289
South Atlantic--------31,498
5,215,766
29,024
2,444
85,900
45,220
321,450
74,933
68,994 2,515,818
153,257
East South Central. _
3,197,521
1,779
4,486
11,050
62,438
574
79,125
West South Central _
2,855,954
6,528
20,299
41,697 2,588,627
783
2,162
3,782
M ountain___________
73
368
5,937
303,676
258,301
219
Pacific______________
3,165
2,219
921
772
874
276,240
1,768
5,426
306
562,963
522,270
311,204 4,315,975 2,516,980 2,110,266
192068,704
10,623,838
105,563
New England_______
5,356
36,756
1,023
292
2,051
46,726
453
152
343
Middle Atlantic_____
235,108
8,594
1,178
265,307
4,316
13,020
705
689
733
East North Central__
6,458
190,121
501
10,630
4,709
3,390
225,537
1,686
5,336
2,089
West North Central _
220
20,419
194,448
10,710
2,721
242,757
2,093
5,407
South A tlantic______
280,607
86,850
12,137 4,231,573
24,251
47,528
,771,502
5,097
76,086
25,506
East South Central-_
1,423
190,571
58,241
56,648 2,399,065
178,676
,923,262
6,134
West South Central-.
5,096
22,118
371
31,599
4,588
,981,385
6,868
32,076 1,867,040
M ountain___________
2,020
85
593
840
472
951
85,376
77,728
331
Pacific______________
782
2,150
1,734
81,986
659
821
813
1,802
289
1910_
60,931
407,348
311,737
278,717 4,103,893 2,646,426 2,048,401
10,025,125
95,408
New England_______
3,944
598
39,839
32,693
265
1,414
344
185
133
Middle A tlantic_____
196,486
4,018
5,117
1,178
219,137
9,186
989
966
415
162,724
East North Central
405
4,471
9,180
3,160
3,718
192,088
5,131
1,397
West North Central _
211
13,386
1,294
198,839
12,660
238,996
1,138
3,076
5,225
South A tlantic--------191,612
21,394
12,656 4,048,161
35,299
71,118
4,497,605
108,763
2,700
East South Central-5,787
88,363
967
40,006
37,547 2,494,110
2,849,182
173,531
4,361
West South Central
1,448
5,011
1,848,608
285
14,034
1,783,963
2,203
33,650
3,363
M ountain___________
64
581
281
2,145
462
1,415
82,771
320
76,130
Pacific______
x________
958
894
1,725
56,899
414
622
663
225
1,684
267,124
1900_
56,174
325,698
276,104 3,723,920 2,496,880 1,750,800
9,026,956
80,317
New England_______
34,186
2,803
625
28,948
206
1,002
136
186
120
Middle A t la n tic ______
166,691
4,070
183,339
3,999
947
5,640
520
676
332
3,494
148,199
East North Central-.
346
7,232
170,049
2,002
4,267
2,805
978
West North Central122
752
10,828
237,297
203,858
507
3,032
12,603
4,182
South A tlantic______
21,417
145,557
30,787
4,133,276
14,038 3,684,080
134,831
96,632
2,772
East South Central-_
4,066
68,777
2,628,985
633
38,282
28,514 2,327,272
156,214
3,327
1,052
West South Central-.
241
3,405
1,524,820
8,624
1,790
26,633 1,480,511
1,317
152
M ountain___________
70,780
27
335
2,741
77
70
868
66,036
281
Pacific______________
44,224
441
948
176
308
119
305
1,253
1890 3
219,834
210,343
42,248
225,426 3,249,541 2,105,538 1,342,049
7,450,589
26,286
2,201
468
New England_______
24,677
28,981
216
736
142
242
102
136,516
3,555
3,438
Middle Atlantic_____
150,505
1,051
3,738
605
665
389
142
1,483
121,167
136,704
6,422
1,292
East North Central__
2,752
2,027
915
178,589
569
6,448
West North Central _
56
157,506
372
7,100
2,765
2,741
76,277
27,938
3,627,912
13,252
South A tlantic______
15,723
,223,865
148,595
116,874
2,700
48,570
2,183,937
322
1,639
East South Central-_
37,128
18,188 1,932,764
141,602
2,365
1,103,866
274
663
2,059
7,086
West South Central _
1,100
17,493 1,073,379
790
17,177
284
47
11
225
M ountain___________
29
364
85
15,873
202
76
91
Pacific______________
22,918
69
221
58
75
411
1 Mexicans classified as nonwhite in 1930, as white in other censuses.
enumerated in 1890, with a native population of 117,368 white and 208,083
2 Based on 20-percent sample of persons enumerated.
not distributed by State of birth.
4 Includes free colored.
8 Excludes the population of Indian Territory and Indian reservations, specially
5 Not available.
1950 2_
New England_______
Middle Atlantic_____
East North Central
West North Central _
South Atlantic--------East South Central-_
West South Central _
M ountain___________
Pacific--------------------1940_
New England_______
Middle Atlantic_____
East North Central-.
West North Central _
South A tlantic--------East South Central. _
West South Central-.
M ountain___________
Pacific______________




642,650
1,930
7,435
14,825
21,330
28,105
52,715
263,510
15,915
236,885
261,901
560
2,085
5,155
10,066
11,611
14,854
55,278
6,805
155,487
375,668
468
1,657
4,285
8,544
10,674
11,584
45,616
32,051
260,789
109,913
300
965
2,706
4,650
7,373
6,998
11,629
2,356
72,936
72,264
263
782
1.902
3,167
5.902
4,510
4,651
1,373
49,714
49,939
160
464
726
1,413
3,162
1,900
1,247
474
40,393
29,324
197
548
504
1,032
2,688
1,359
1,022
259
21,715
non white,

43

C 15-58

MIGRATION

Series C 15-24. Native Population Born in Each Division, by Division of Residence, by Color: 1850 to 1950—Con.
Color,1 census year,
and division of
birth
NONWHITE — Con.
1880_____________________
New England _
Middle Atlantic _
East North CentralWest North Central-_ _ _
South Atlantic- _
East South CentralWest South Central
Mountain
_ _____
Pacific _
1870______________________
New England
Middle Atlantic
East North Central- _
West North Central
South Atlantic
_
East South Central _
West South Central
Mountain _
Pacific _ _ _ _ _

Total

New
England
16

15
6,632,481
29,078
149,988
116,353
159,284
3,340,699
1,942,781
847,230
19,932
27,136
4,892,405
22,477
120,810
67,523
117,168
2,622,615
1,426,109
504,139
1,952
9,612

39,430
25,077
3,309
150
29
10,369
288
167
24
17
30,847
19,514
2,904
100
31
7,873
244
167
2
12

Middle
Atlantic
17

Division of residence
East North West North
South
Central
Atlantic
Central
18
19
20

188,000
1,843
136,808
739
147
46,950
963
419
80
51
146,581
1,426
110,845
430
78
32,620
828
328
3
23

191,082
466
3,445
105,676
6,194
30,110
43,205
1,902
52
32
134,896
405
2,941
62,667
4,817
27,869
34,648
1,512
9
28

206,963
210
900
3,728
141,665
16,439
35,325
8,583
78
35
145,086
135
664
2,220
101,335
15,027
21,324
4,306
59
16

2,939,779
648
3,061
1,236
180
2,917,316
16,183
1,073
37
45
2,216,892
345
1,786
375
159
2,201,827
11,437
940
4
19

East South West South
Central
Central
21
22
1,926,935
235
995
2,753
2,981
197,100
1,708,900
13,918
19
34
1,463,794
155
444
857
3,096
210,996
1,238,885
9,345
3
13

Mountain

Pacific

23

24

23,548
41
155
233
1,005
729
657
220
19,345
1,163
3,456
43
113
69
296
384
295
352
1,813
91

28,828
159
420
197
341
1,116
414
263
197
25,721
12,468
218
502
87
345
1,253
422
192
50
9,399

1,087,916
399
895
1,641
6,742
120,570
136,846
820,685
100
38
738,385
236
611
718
7,011
124,766
118,026
486,997
9
11

1 Mexicans classified as nonwhite in 1930, as white in other censuses.

Series C 25-73. Estimated Net Intercensal Migration of Total, Native White, Foreign-Born White, and Negro
Population Surviving From the Preceding Census Date, by States: 1870 to 1950
[In thousands]
Series
No.

State

1940 to I 1930 to
1940
1950

1920 to
1930

1910 to
1920

1900 to
1910

1890 to
1900

1880 to
1890

1870 to
1880

TOTAL POPULATION1

25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
-38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58

New England:
Maine _
_ _
New Hampshire
_
Vermont
_
Massachusetts _
_ _
Rhode Island
_
_ _ _
Connecticut
_
_
_
_ _ _
Middle Atlantic:
New York
_
_ _
New Jersey
__
_
Pennsylvania _ _ _ _ _
East North Central:
Ohio_ _ _ _ _
__
_
_ _ _
Indiana- __ __
Illinois
_
_
_
Michigan
_ _
_ _ _ _
_ _
Wisconsin _
West South Central:
Minnesota
_
___ _ _ _ _
__
Iowa _
_
Missouri _ _
__
_
_ _
_
North Dakota _ _ _ _ _
South Dakota-- _ __
_
__
Nebraska- _
Kansas __________
___ _ _ _
South Atlantic:
Delaware_
__ _
Maryland _
_ _ _ _ _
____
District of Columbia _
_
Virginia- _ _ _
_
_
_ _ _ _
__
West Virginia- __ __
_ _ _ _ ___ _ _ _
North Carolina _
_ _ _ _
___
South Carolina.
_ _
_ _ _ _ _
_ _
Georgia- _ _ _ _ _
_
_ _
____
Florida _ _
_ _ __ _ _ _ _
__
__
East South Central:
Kentucky _ _ _ _ _ ______ __ _ _ _ _
Tennessee _ _
_
_ __ _ _ _
Alabama _
__
_ _ _ _ _ ____
Mississippi _ _ _ _ _ _ _
_ _ _ _ _ _ __ __

- 3 5 .8
- 9 .1
- 2 3 .8
- 2 9 .5
2.7
89.5

- 1 .2
9.1
- 1 8 .7
- 6 9 .5
- 2 .3
39.2

- 3 9 .3
- 1 0 .2
- 2 0 .6
22.1
11.4
64.1

- 8 .3
- 3 .6
- 1 7 .6
192.2
12.8
122.1

10.6
3.2
-3 .7
307.3
66.1
112.7

4.1
20.4
- 2 .4
334.9
45.9
90.8

- 1 5 .9
20.7
- 1 3 .3
295.7
42.5
72.9

-3 3 .3
10.1
-2 6 .2
140.2
27.9
22.4

83.8
200.7
-4 4 7 .2

396.3
- 2 8 .2
-3 0 1 .0

1,062.1
442.3
-2 5 2 .9

467.4
278.2
51.9

1 ,061.0
376.1
444.6

604.8
218.3
262.0

395.4
151.3
285.1

61.7
48.4
19.1

151.6
56.7
-2 2 .1
251.4
-9 5 .1

- 5 6 .6
10.6
-6 0 .8
17.1
- 1 0 .9

214.7
- 0 .9
414.0
549.6
- 1 7 .9

499.4
16.0
255.6
465.2
37.6

207.7
- 5 4 .4
223.0
117.2
9.2

77.7
33.4
340.0
62.0
84.3

41.9
-8 6 .7
170.3
172.3
100.8

- 1 2 .9
- 7 0 .2
- 5 9 .0
161.4
9.0

-1 6 0 .9
-1 7 8 .8
-1 6 8 .6
-1 0 9 .4
-7 1 .2
-1 2 3 .0
-8 6 .8

36.0
- 7 3 .4
- 2 0 .8
-1 0 5 .8
-1 0 1 .4
-1 3 9 .5
-1 6 3 .8

-1 0 6 .2
-1 6 7 .2
- 9 8 .7
- 7 6 .3
- 4 5 .0
- 7 8 .1
-8 3 .1

59.1
- 1 8 .3
-1 3 4 .7
- 4 6 .0
- 3 1 .2
- 3 4 .5
-7 4 .5

72.6
-2 0 7 .5
-1 6 3 .8
137.3
86.9
- 2 8 .8
20.0

148.4
21.7
-1 7 .2
63.8 }
0.3
-1 5 3 .9
-1 4 9 .8

264.1
- 5 .6
56.4
243.4
362.5
159.7

156.2
85.1
- 3 0 .4
86.8
204.4
366.8

14.5
213.3
78.5
152.0
-2 1 0 .8
-2 0 2 .8
-1 7 2 .4
-2 2 4 .3
510.9

16.0
87.0
157.8
0.2
- 7 3 .6
- 8 5 .4
-1 0 2 .5
-1 3 4 .1
280.3

-3 .5
10.2
27.3
-2 3 1 .6
- 5 3 .8
- 7 .9
-2 5 6 .9
-4 1 4 .9
297.6

5.1
43.1
97.0
- 2 7 .7
- 1 .7
- 7 4 .3
- 8 0 .9
- 9 8 .1
101.6

2 .7
- 8 .3
41.0
- 7 3 .7
46.1
-8 0 .4
- 8 0 .6
- 4 1 .7
103.5

- 1 .2
8.2
34.3
- 9 1 .5
17.2
-8 8 .8
- 7 5 .5
-5 6 .1
36.9

4.3
-1 0 .7
36.1
- 8 0 .9
- 4.8
- 5 7 .7
- 3 5 .9
- 1 9 .5
51.1

- 2 .3
- 1 1 .2
18.1
- 5 1 .1
24.0
- 1 4 .4
25.7
- 4 0 .0
12.1

-3 1 9 .2
-1 0 2 .8
-2 7 1 .0
-3 4 9 .9

- 9 3 .5
-1 4 .9
-1 6 5 .3
-9 0 .3

-2 0 6 .1
-1 1 3 .8
-1 4 9 .2
-1 0 1 .6

-1 6 7 .1
-1 3 1 .2
-1 1 3 .9
-1 9 9 .3

-1 7 7 .8
-1 5 6 .9
- 4 7 .8
- 4 6 .4

-6 5 .1
- 9 5 .4
- 4 0 .4
- 4 4 .5

- 9 6 .8
- 7 7 .7
- 1 1 .5
-6 0 .6

-4 7 .2
- 9 1 .8
- 6 0 .7
-5 .6

1 For 1870-1890, only white population for the 11 Western States; no estimates made for Negroes.

44




INTERNAL MIGRATION

C 59-73

Series C 25-73. Estimated Net Intercensal Migration of Total, Native White, Foreign-Born White, and Negro
Population Surviving From the Preceding Census Date, by States: 1870 to 1950—Con.
[In thousands]

Series
No.

State

1940 to
1950

1930 to
1940

1920 to
1930

1910 to
1920

1900 to
1910

1890 to
1900

1880 to
1890

1870 to
1880

-3 2 0 .4
-1 1 2 .1
-3 5 6 .1
132.9

- 1 2 8 .8
5.7
-2 6 9 .4
- 7 2 .8

-1 9 1 .3
- 2 3 .2
-5 1 .8
243 .5

- 7 4 .7
- 6 4 .7
62.4
114.3

- 2 7 .2
10.6
491.5
131.1

- 8 2 .8
1.4
501.3
147.7

75.1
- 3 .0
44.5
151.2

84.0
- 1 2 .0
(2)
308.5

-4 2 .2
- 2 9 .6
- 4 .6
32.4
9.8
117.4
6.4
28.8

- 1 9 .3
20.5
- 0 .1
1.0
18.6
-3 .5
- 3 0 .5
12.5

- 7 2 .9
- 5 0 .6
- 1 .2
- 1 6 .6
-2 2 .9
23 .5
-3 0 .8
6 .9

90.1
37.3
20.7
39.8
- 2 0 .2
75.4
- 0 .2
- 6 .4

86.5
104.1
33.3
159.8
63.1
50.7
24.9
32.9

63.5
39.8
15.6
51.9
1.2
21.4
8.9
- 5 .1

70.6
34.2
28.7
146.8
6.4
10.9
17.9
-1 5 .6

12.1
11.7
7.2
119.1
- 3 .3
19.8
16.7
6.6

351.3
244.0
2,399.1

109.2
94.1
974.6

81 .6
96 .5
1,695 .2

97.5
56.0
804.1

464.7
189.9
694.1

80.4
43.0
172.7

205.4
85.9
214.2

28.7
39.0
129.6

- 4 1 .6
- 1 2 .6
- 2 5 .8
-7 3 .8
- 0 .2
49.0

- 2 .2
8.3
- 1 4 .6
- 4 5 .6
0.8
30.2

- 4 6 .6
- 1 4 .4
- 2 5 .2
-1 0 1 .7
- 8 .7
6 .4

- 2 2 .7
- 1 2 .8
- 1 9 .7
- 6 .0
- 1 0 .5
18.7

- 1 8 .4
- 1 5 .7
- 1 7 .2
- 2 3 .3
5.1
- 1 0 .9

- 2 0 .6
- 2 .5
-1 0 .9
46.9
3 .3
5.4

- 4 0 .8
- 7 .1
- 2 1 .9
31.9
2.4
2 .8

- 4 6 .5
- 7 .1
- 2 4 .7
13.5
4.1
- 6 .5

-2 7 0 .8
88.6
-5 3 1 .3

140.3
- 1 8 .8
-2 6 0 .9

138 .1
179 .3
-3 8 0 .2

- 7 6 .5
72.0
-1 9 9 .4

- 7 4 .9
71.4
-1 7 8 .1

- 1 8 .6
46.3
- 6 0 .2

-1 4 6 .4
9 .4
- 7 0 .0

-1 6 7 .4
- 8 .9
-1 0 5 .2

28.5
15.0
-2 0 2 .9
51.7
-1 1 0 .3

- 5 8 .6
7.1
- 5 8 .7
18.1
- 1 0 .0

58.2
- 4 3 .3
80 .3
239 .9
-5 3 .2

233.4
- 3 3 .1
- 3 6 .2
181.5
- 3 7 .3

-4 0 .4
-1 1 1 .9
-1 9 8 .9
- 3 5 .9
-1 0 3 .3

- 2 9 .6
- 7 .6
44.0
-2 6 .8
- 2 5 .7

- 9 6 .7
-1 2 0 .4
-1 7 0 .7
- 1 9 .7
-7 5 .6

- 9 2 .8
-1 0 1 .2
-1 9 2 .5
25.8
- 7 8 .8

-1 6 3 .1
-1 8 0 .9
-1 9 7 .4
-1 0 3 .6
- 7 1 .3
-1 2 5 .9
-9 0 .1

27.1
- 7 0 .5
- 3 6 .8
- 9 9 .1
- 9 6 .8
-1 3 5 .5
-1 5 6 .2

-1 1 3 .6
-1 6 4 .0
-1 4 1 .4
-7 2 .8
-4 6 .1
-8 1 .1
- 8 4 .6

- 1 .2
- 4 5 .9
-1 7 3 .7
- 4 6 .3
- 3 3 .7
-5 3 .2
-8 6 .9

- 6 1 .4
-2 4 9 .1
-2 2 8 .1
81.8
59.6
- 6 2 .4
- 1 8 .2

25.9
37.2
- 2 9 .9
-1 0 8 .2
- 5 0 .0
2 .4
20.4
- 2 6 .5 j 126.0
-1 5 9 .2
244.3
-1 5 6 .6
106.3

38.2
2 .7
-4 3 .2
43.5
139.2
290.1

11.2
167.6
6.7
169.1
-1 9 3 .0
-8 1 .6
- 1 5 .7
- 3 8 .2
438.7

12.8
72.2
101.2
33.7
- 6 6 .7
-2 7 .1
- 8 .7
-4 4 .2
208.4

- 3 .8
- 4 ..5
5..5
-1 1 1 ..7
-6 2 .7
5.2
-5 2 . 4
-1 5 5 . 1
221. 1

0.3
16.8
69.3
- 9 .5
- 2 9 .3
-4 7 .7
- 8 .0
- 2 7 .4
84.5

- 3 .0
- 2 6 .9
22.2
- 3 5 .6
- 6 .2
- 5 4 .4
- 1 0 .5
- 3 0 .8
46.6

- 3 .7
- 5 .8
20.1
- 2 5 .8
3 .5
-4 1 .7
- 1 0 .8
- 3 1 .4
10.1

- 1 .1
- 2 9 .4
18.1
- 3 3 .6
- 1 2 .3
- 1 9 .8
- 1 7 .5
—35. K
24.8

- 2 .6
- 1 6 .1
8.6
- 1 6 .5
18.1
- 7 .6
9 .1
- 2 0 .8
7.3

-2 9 9 .1
- 6 8 .6
-1 0 8 .6
—9 4 .3

- 8 3 .8
- 2 4 .4
-1 0 1 .0
- 3 2 .0

-1 8 8 . 4
-1 0 0 . 6
-6 9 . 7
-3 3 . 8

-1 5 3 .1
-1 0 3 .2
-4 5 .3
-7 0 .3

-1 5 9 .9
-1 2 7 .3
- 3 2 .8
- 1 9 .0

- 5 8 .9
- 7 6 .7
- 4 1 .1
- 3 5 .8

-8 5 .6
-6 4 .9
- 1 2 .1
- 4 7 .7

- 3 9 .6
-6 7 .0
- 2 5 .9
- 2 2 .7

—2 0 7 . 1
- 4 .7
-3 1 9 .5
134.4

- 9 5 .5
15.3
-2 5 3 .4
-1 .7

-1 4 4 . 4
2. 9
-5 1 . 2
197. 5

- 7 4 .4
-1 7 .8
54.5
- 2 8 .4

- 5 5 .2
15.8
414.2
60.5

- 7 7 .6
9.2
404.3
9 5.5

25.3
- 1 2 .2
39.6
90.9

53.0
-1 1 .8
(2)
233.9

- 4 1 .9
- 3 0 .7
- 5 .6
21.1
3.8
97.6
1.0
24.2

- 1 4 .8
20.8
2.2
7.4
22.5
12.4
- 2 7 .5
13.8

-6 6 . 9
-4 9 . 5
-1 . 8
-1 7 . 6
-1 7 . 2
31. 8
-3 1 . 5
5. 1

75.4
31.5
19.9
29.2
-3 2 .0
39.9
- 7 .6
- 6 .1

51.0
81.9
19.8
108.8
52.7
25.7
2 .8
21.5

37.1
31.0
11.7
33.1
- 2 .3
15.1
- 2 .5
- 3 .9

39.8
24.6
19.1
101.1
2 .7
7.2
2 .7
- 1 0 .0

8.2
8.5
5.5
86.7
-5 .9
11.7
0.6
0.8

303.9
222.9
1,874.7

100.3
90.4
899.5

49. 2
74. 3
1,244. 5

51.9
38.2
537.7

311.4
132.0
425.2

54.0
29.2
96.3

133.2
57.4
109.6

20.8
25.7
56.0

5.9
3 .3
2.0
33.6
1.7
27.5

0 .8
1.0
- 4 .0
- 2 6 .6
- 3 .6
6.8

7. 5
4. 0
4. 7
120. 9
21.0
52. 5

14.3
9.2
3 .0
191.3
22.7
98.1

28.9
18.9
12.7
324.8
60.3
123.2

24.4
22.7
8.6
278.0
41.1
82.9

25.0
27.9
8.6
259.3
38.9
69.0

13.4
17.1
- 1 .4
123.7
22.9
28.1

TOTAL POPULATION 1— Con.

W est South Central:
Arkansas _
____
Louisiana _
__ _ ____
__
Oklahoma
_
_ _
Texas _
_ _ _
__
_ _ _ _
M ountain:
M ontana_____
Idaho
W yoming.
_
Colorado
_
_
New Mexico _
_ _
Arizona _
_ _
U tah____________________________________________
__
N evada.
_
Pacific:
Washington _
_
Oregon
_
_ _ _
California _
_
_ _ _
_
__

59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73

NATIVE WHITE POPULATION

71
72
73

New England:
Maine _ _ _ _
__
_ _
New Hampshire _
_ _
Vermont. _ ____
Massachusetts _ _
_
_
_ _
Rhode Island- _ _
_ _
Connecticut _ _
_
Middle Atlantic:
New York
_
_
_
New Jersey
_
_
Pennsylvania _ _ _ _ _
East North Central:
Ohio __
____
_
__
_ __
Indiana.
_
_____
Illinois
_
_ __
_
_
__
_
__
__ _
Michigan____
W isconsin---__
_
_
W est North Central:
Minnesota __ _
_ _
__
___
I o w a _____
__ _
__
_ __ __
M isso u ri____ _ _ _
North D akota------ --__
South Dakota __
Nebraska __ _
_
_ __
Kansas
_
_
_
South Atlantic:
D elaw are__
___
Maryland
_
____
_
.
District of Columbia----- __
Virginia-__
_ _ _ _
W est Virginia- _ _
_
_
North Carolina. ___
__
__
South Carolina-.
_ __
Georgia-_ _ __
__ _ _ _
Florida
__
East South Central:
K entucky. ____
_ _____
__
Tennessee __ _ _ _ _ ______ _ _ _
—
Alabama---- __
_
_____ _____
Mississippi- _ __
__
_ _
___
W est South Central:
Arkansas
_
_ __
_______
Louisiana-- -------------- ------ --- --------- ------- _.
Oklahoma _
__ _ _ _
_____ _ _ _
Texas _
____
_
___
Mountain:
Montana
_ __ _
_____
Idaho.
__ ____
_ _ _ _ ____
_____
W yoming--------------__ _
___
Colorado
___
_____ ____
_ __
New Mexico__
__
_ __
Arizona ------------ _ __
___
__
_ _
U tah_____________________________________________
N evada-- _
_ _ _ ____
Pacific:
Washington __ _ _ _ _ _
_ _ _ __ __ __
Oregon______ _______ _____________ __
_.
California_____ _ __ __ __________ _________

25
26
27
28
29
30

New England:
M aine. ________ __ _______ __ __ — __ _ —
New Hampshire________ ______ ___________________
Vermont_______________ _______ __ _ ________
M assachusetts----------------------------------- -----------------Rhode Island_____ ___________________________
Connecticut------ ----------------------------------- ---------

25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70

FOREIGN-BORN WHITE POPULATION

o
00
-3

)-1890, only white population in the 11 Western States; no estimates made for 1*Negroes.




2 N ot

availalsle.

45

C 31-73

MIGRATION

Series C 25-73. Estimated Net Intercensal Migration of Total, Native White, Foreign-Born White, and Negro
Population Surviving From the Preceding Census Date, by States: 1870 to 1950—Con.
[In thousands]

Series
No.

31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73

State
FOREIGN-BORN WHITE POPULATION— Con.
Middle Atlantic:
New York_______________________________________
New Jersey---------------------------------------------------------Pennsylvania_____________________________________
East North Central:
Ohio_____________________________________________
Indiana---------------------------------------------------------------Illinois----------------------------------------------------------------Michigan-------------------------------------------------------------Wisconsin------------------------------------------------------------West North Central:
Minnesota-----------------------------------------------------------Iowa-------------------------------------------------------------------Missouri--------------------------------------------------------------North D akota-----------------------------------------------------South Dakota____________________________________
Nebraska-------------------------------------------------------------Kansas----------------------------------------------------------------South Atlantic:
Delaware_________________________________________
Maryland________________________________________
District of Columbia--------------------------------------------Virginia__________________________________________
West Virginia____________________________________
North Carolina___________________________________
South Carolina___________________________________
Georgia__________________________________________
Florida----------------------------------------------------------------East South Central:
K entucky________________________________________
Tennessee________________________________________
Alabama-------------------------------------------------------------Mississippi_______________________________________
West South Central:
Arkansas_________________________________________
Louisiana________________________________________
Oklahoma________________________________________
Texas____________________________________________
Mountain:
Montana-------------------------------------------------------------Idaho____________________________________________
Wyoming------------------------------------------------------------Colorado_________________________________________
New MLexico_____________________________________
Arizona__________________________________________
U tah_____________________________________________
Nevada---------------------------------------------------------------Pacific:
Washington______________________________________
Oregon----------------------------------------------------------------California________________________________________

)40 to
1950

1930 to
1940

1920 to
1930

1910 to
1920

1900 to
1910

1890 to
1900

1880 to
1890

1870 to
1880

111. 0
58. 5
-5 . 5

120, 1
-1 8 , 9
-6 0 , 4

751 3
196,,0
25,.6

480, 9
181. 6
168. 7

1,100 .2
286..2
589,.8

589.,7
154. 2
282. 9

532. 0
133. 5
334. 3

221.5
54.4
115.6

16. 5
9. 5
1. 0
36. 4
3. 4

-1 8 . 8
-5 . 0
-5 1 . 5
-2 9 . 0
-1 . 9

65, 8
19. 3
214. 4
223. 6
30. 9

196. 5
28. 8
222. 0
245. 1
72.,7

232, 5
53..4
398. 3
151. 1
112 .0

102. 1
32. 9
273. 4
88. 3
107. 0

133. 4
29. 9
332. 6
193. 2
176. 3

77.3
24.3
124.8
134.0
86.5

-0 . 5
1. 1
3. 0
-5 . 8
-0 . 2
-0 . 2
1. 1

7. 8
-2 . 6
-3 . 3
-6 . 6
-4 . 4
-4 . 6
-7 . 5

6. 9
-1 . 3
6..7
-3 . 4
1. 2
3. 0
-4 . 4

58. 1
23. 7
11. 8
0. 3
2. 5
13. 4
7. 0

131 .7
39 .4
63 3
55, 2
27..0
32, 0
35, 6

116, 5
50, 1
32, 8
38. 6 }
12,,7
7.,7
7.,4

225. 4
102. 1
58. 1
117. 4
110. 9
50..7

116.5
80.2
17.2
43.0
64.1
62.0

0. 8
15. 7
10,,7
13 ,4
- 1 ,,1
6, 1
2, 3
5, 1
65 .0

0 .8
4. 1
9, 1
3 .4
-2 . 8
1, 6
0. 6
0. 5
22,.0

-0 . 3
9,.7
5 .8
- 2 ,.7
- 3 ,,9
2,.7
-0 . 2
0, 2
22,.4

5. 3
19.,4
9. 3
9. 0
12. 1
2. 2
1. 6
4. 0
13. 9

6,.0
30 .0
9 1
11, 3
37.,0
2 3
2,.0
5,,4
16. 2

3 1
20,.6
5, 5
5 .1
8,,0
1 .5
0,,7
2,.5
3 .4

5. 1
26. 2
4,,7
6,.2
4,.0
0, 6
0, 3
3 3
10. 5

1.7
12.4
3.3
2 .9
3 .8
1.1
0.9
1.1
3 .4

2,,7
4,,0
3,,0
2,.5

- 0 .,7
1,.0
-0 . 5
-0 , 2

- 1 ,.0
0,.7
1,.1
1 .1

2..7
1. 3
2. 2
0.,7

4..4
4,,7
7,.0
3 ,4

6,.0
0..4
2 .4
1 .7

11.,2
5,.9
6, 3
0,.3

5 .5
- 0 .2
1.3
- 0 .6

2 .8
6 .4
2 .3
65 .8

(3)
- 1 .1
- 2 .9
-7 6 .1

- 0 .6
- 0 .6
- 2 .4
36 .4

0,.8
4,.3
7, 1
137,.5

5,.5
10,.9
22 .6
80 .8

2 .6
13 .8
17 .8
45 .0

5 .1
5 .8
2 .7
47,.6

5.6
1.2
(2)
53.6

- 0 .5
0 .7
- 0 .3
5 .1
3 .7
13 .0
4 .2
1 .7

- 4 .4
- 0 .3
- 2 .1
- 7 ,.3
- 5 .4
-1 9 .4
- 3 .2
- 1 .5

- 5 .9
- 0 .9
0 .6
0 .3
- 2 .7
-1 0 .2
1 .0
1 .6

14 ,8
5,.6
1,,4
9,.9
7,.8
29 .8
7..1
- 0 .2

35 .2
21 .9
12 .3
47,.9
10 .4
24 .8
21 .6
11 .1

26 .4
8 .9
4 .0
18 .7
3 .5
6 .4
11 .4
- 1 .1

30 .9
9 .5
9 .6
45 .6
3 .6
3 .8
15 .2
- 5 .7

4 .0
3 .3
1.7
32.4
2 .6
8.2
16.1
5.8

29 .6
14 .3
265 .4

7 .7
3 .3
33 .8

32 .3
22 .1
414 .2

44 .4
17 .2
250 .3

149 .8
57 .5
259 .1

26 .4
13 .8
76 .4

72 .2
28 .5
104 .7

8.0
13.4
73.6

- 0 .1
0 .2
0 .1
10 .6
1 .2
12 .9

0 .2
- 0 .3
- 0 .2
2 .7
0 .6
2 .2

- 0 .2
0 .2
(3)
2 .9
- 0 .7
5 .2

0 .1
(3)
- 0 .9
6
.6
0 .9
5 .3

0 .2
0 .8
5 .9
0 .6
0 .5

0 .3
0 .1
- 0 .1
9 .9
1 .5
2 .5

- 0 .1
(3)
(3)
4 .4
1 .2
1 .1

- 0 .2
0.1
(3)
3 .0
0.8
0 .8

243 .6
53 .6
89 .6

135 .9
9 .5
20 .3

172 .8
67 .0
101 .7

63 .1
24 .5
82 .5

35 .8
18 .5
32 .9

33 .8
17 .7
39 .2

9 .9
8 .4
20 .8

7.6
2 .9
8.7

106 .7
32 .1
179 .8
163 .3
11 .9

20 .7
8 .6
49 .4
28 .0
1 .0

90 .7
23 .2
119 .3
86 .1
4 .4

69 .4
20 .3
69 .8
38 .7
2 .2

15 .6
4 .1
23 .5
1 .9
0 .5

5 .2
8 .1
22 .7
0 .4
3 .0

5 .2
3 .9
8 .4
- 1 .2
0 .1

2 .6
6.6
8 .7
1.6
1.3

2 .7
1 .0
25 .7
0 .1
0 .2
3 .0
2 .3

1 .0
- 0 .4
19 .2
- 0 .1
- 0 .1
0 .6
- 0 .1

0 .6
- 1 .9
35 .9
- 0 .1
- 0 .2
(3)
6 .0

2 .1
3 .9
27 .2
- 0 .1
(3)
5 .2
5 .4

2 .3
2 .1
1 .0
0 .3
0 .3
1 .6
2 .6

5 .9
1 .6
(3)
4 .9
14 .0
- 2 .3
- 0 .6

1 .5
0 .4
- 4 .0
0
7 .3
2 .7

1.5
2 .3
- 4 .3
fi . Q
uo
1.2
14.7

2 .4
0 .5
10 .7
5 .0
47 .5
16 .0
- 3 6 .9
-1 1 7 .2
- 4 .1
12 .8
-6 0 .0
- 1 5 .7
- 9 4 .4
-2 0 4 .3
-9 0 .3
-2 6 0 .0
49 .9
54 .2
3Less than 50.

- 0 .6
7 .0
18 .3
-2 7 .2
15 .5
- 2 8 .9
- 7 4 .5
- 7 4 .7
3 .2

- 0 .4
- 1 1 .4
9 .8
-4 9 .3
15 .3
- 2 8 .4
- 7 2 .0
- 1 6 .2
40 .7

- 0 .7
- 6 .5
8 .7
-7 0 .8
5 .8
- 4 8 .7
- 6 5 .5
- 2 7 .3
23 .4

0 .3
- 7 .5
13 .4
- 5 3 .4
3 .6
- 3 8 .4
- 1 8 .6
12 .3
15 .8

-1 .4
-7 .5
6.2
- 3 7 .6
2 .1
- 7 .9
15.7
-2 0 .3
1.4

NEGRO POPULATION

25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54

New England:

M aine__________
New Hampshire.
Vermont________
Massachusetts - _.
Rhode Island___
Connecticut-------

Middle Atlantic:

New York------New Jersey----Pennsylvania _ _

East North Central:

Ohio______________
Indiana---------------Illinois___________
M ichigan_________
Wisconsin-------------

West North Central:

Minnesota------------Iowa______________
Missouri---------------North D akota------South Dakota_____
Nebraska-------------Kansas------------------

South Atlantic:

Delaware----- -----------Maryland......................
District of Columbia.
Virginia-------------------West Virginia-----------North Carolina...........
South Carolina---------Georgia--------------------Florida............................

* Not available.

46




2 .4
29 .9
61 .2
- 3 0 .6
- 1 6 .7
-127 .3
-159 .0
-191 .2
7 .2

(3)

1

C 55-87

INTERNAL MIGRATION

Series C 25-73. Estimated Net Intercensal Migration of Total, Native White, Foreign-Born White, and Negro
Population Surviving From the Preceding Census Date, by States: 1870 to 1950—Con.
[In thousands]

Series
No.

55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73

1940 to
1950

1930 to
1940

1920 to
1930

1910 to
1920

1900 to
1910

1890 to
1900

1880 to
1890

1870 to
1880

-2 2 .8
- 3 8 .2
-1 6 5 .4
-2 5 8 .2

- 9 .1
8.6
- 6 3 .8
- 5 8 .2

- 1 6 .6
- 1 4 .0
- 8 0 .7
- 6 8 .8

- 1 6 .6
- 2 9 .3
- 7 0 .8
-1 2 9 .6

- 2 2 .3
-3 4 .3
-2 2 .1
- 3 0 .9

-1 2 .2
- 1 9 .0
- 1 .7
-1 0 .4

-2 2 .4
- 1 8 .7
- 5 .8
- 1 3 .2

- 1 3 .1
- 2 4 .6
- 3 6 .1
17.6

-1 1 6 .1
-1 1 3 .8
-3 8 .9
-6 7 .2

- 3 3 .3
- 8 .4
- 1 3 .0
4.9

-4 6 .3
- 2 5 .5
1.9
9.7

- 1 .0
- 5 1 .2
0.8
5.2

22.5
- 1 6 .1
54.8
- 1 0 .2

- 7 .9
- 2 1 .6
79.3
7.1

44.7
3.3
2 .3
12.6

25.4
- 1 .3
(2)
21.0

0.1
0.3
1.3
6.1
2 .3
6.7
1.1
2 .8

(3)
(3)
- 0 .2
0.9
1.5
3 .5
0.2
0.2

- 0 .2
- 0 .1
- 0 .1
0.8
- 2 .9
1.9
- 0 .3
0.2

- 0 .1
0.3
- 0 .6
0.7
4.1
5.8
0.4
- 0 .1

0.3
0.3
1.2
3.1
(3)
0.2
0.5
0.4

17.8
6.9
258.9

State

1.2
0.5
41.2

0.2
0.2
36.4

1.1
0.7
16.1

3 .4
0 .5
9.8

NEGRO POPULATION — Con.
East South Central:
Tennessee __
_
____________
Alabama _
-_
_ _ _ _ _
Mississippi
________
___
W est South Central:
Arkansas
- __ __ ____ _ _ _
Louisiana
_
Oklahoma
- Texas. _ _ _
__
_
_ _
-- Mountain:
Montana
Idaho
__ _ __ _ __
Wyoming
_
__
______________
Colorado
New Mexico
Arizona
Utah
N evada
_ __
_
Pacific:
Washington _ _
_
__
__
__ __
_ _
Oregon _
California

3 N ot available.

* Less than 50.

Series C 74-79. Estimated Annual Movement of the Farm Population: 1920 to 1957
[In thousands]

Year

Farm
N et
population, change:
Births
April 1
and
deaths
75
74

Change since preceding April
Migration 1
N et

To
farms

From
farms

Change
through
change in
classifica­
tion of
residence2

Year

79

Farm
Net
population, change:
April 1
Births
and
deaths
74
75

Change since preceding April
Migration 1
Net
76

From
farms
78

To
farms

Change
through
change in
classifica­
tion of
residence 2
79

1939_
-4 2 0
823
30,840
405
1,243
-1 2 5
1938_
-5 2 9
872
1,401
30,980
375
-1 3 2
1937_
-6 9 0
719
31,266
1,409
363
-1 4 4
1936.
-6 4 2
825
1,467
31,737
375
-1 5 7
-4 1 5
1935_
32,161
783
1,198
383
-112
1934_
-4 8 2
951
375
1,433
32,305
19
325
1,544
1933 _
398
1,219
32,393
282
1932 _
387
-7 9
1,683
31,388
1,762
235
1,740
1931.
377
-3 0 6
2,046
30,845
245
1930_
426
-4 7 7
1,604
30.529
2,081
-4 2 2
1929.
454
1,698
30,580
2,120
1928.
-4 5 7
1,705
30,548
475
2,162
1927.
-9 0 7
1,427
2,334
30.530
458
1926_
-7 0 2
1,336
30,979
2,038
491
-4 8 7
1,581
1925 _
31,190
500
2,068
-8 0 7
31,177
494
1,355
2,162
1924_
1923 _
31,490
518
-1,137
1,115
2,252
1922.
-5 6 4
32,109
550
759
1,323
-3 3 6
-120 1921_
485
560
32,123
1920_
31,974
1 Beginning 1940, includes persons going into or returning from Armed Forces, and may be obtained by adding net migration figures (series C 76) to figures showing change
includes changes through migration and in classification of residence. From 1930 in classification of residence (series C 79).
to 1939, excludes entrance into or withdrawal from the farm population without
2 Changes resulting from cessation of or beginning of farm operations on places from
migration. Comparability of figures for 1930-1939 with those for subsequent years which residents did not move.

1957
1956
1955
1954
1953
1952
1951
1950
1949
1948
1947
1946
1945
1944
1943
1942.
1941
1940.

375
355
359
382
392
394
404
418
422
465
490
324
364
377
422
385
359
410

20,396
22,257
22,158
21,890
22,679
24,283
24,160
25,058
25,954
25,903
27,124
26,483
25,295
25,495
26,681
29,234
30,273
30,547

-2,236
-2 5 6
-9 1
-1,171
-1,9 96
-2 7 1
-1,302
-1,3 14
-3 7 1
- 1,686
151
864
-5 6 4
-1,563
-2,9 75
-1,424
-6 3 3
-5 8 3

459
497
544
675
528
643
597
995
1,171
1,016
1,768
2,585
916
1,095
824
822
696
819

2,695
753
635
1,846
2,524
914
1,899
2,309
1,542
2,702
1,617
1,721
1,480
2,658
3,799
2,246
1,329
1,402

Series C 80-87. Mobility Status and Type of Mobility of the Civilian Population One Year Old and Over: 1947 to 1957
[In thousands]

Period

Same
Total
house
civilian
population 1 (nonmovers)
80

April 1956 to April 1957-------------- -----------— ------------- _
March 1955 to March 1956--------- ------------------------ __ _
April 1954 to April 1955 __ ------- __ -----------------------------April 1953 to April 1954---- ------------ -------------------------- _
April 1952 to April 1953__________________________________
April 1951 to April 1952__________________________________
April 1950 to April 1951---------------------------------- ------------March 1949 to March 1950._ ___ ---------------- -------------April 1948 to April 1949--------------------------- _ _ ---------------April 1947 to April 1948__________________________________
1 Population 1 year old and over at end of survey interval.



164,371
161,497
158,609
155,679
153,038
150,494
148,400
146,864
144,101
141,698

81
131,648
127,457
126,190
125,654
121,512
120,016
116,936
118,849
116,498
113,026

Total
82
31,834
33,098
31,492
29,027
30,786
29,840
31,158
27,526
27,127
28,210

Different hous e in the United States (movers)
Different county (migrants)
Same
Within
Between
county
Total
a State
States
83
84
85
86
21,566
22,186
21,086
19,046
20,638
19,874
20,694
19,276
18,792
19,202

10,268
10,912
10,406
9,981
10,148
9,966
10,464
8,250
8,335
9,008

5,192
5,859
5,511
4,947
4,626
4,854
5,276
4,360
3,992
4,638

5,076
5,053
4,895
5,034
5,522
5,112
5,188
3,889
4,344
4,370

Abroad
at begin­
ning of
period
87
889
942
927
998
740
638
306
491
476
462

47

chapter C

INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION AND NATURALIZATION (Series C 88-283)
C 88-151. General note.
The continuous record of immigration to the United States
began in 1819, under the Act of 1819, which required the cap­
tain or master of a vessel arriving from abroad to deliver to
the local collector of customs a list or manifest of all passengers
taken on board. This list was to designate the age, sex, and
occupation of each passenger, “the country to which they sev­
erally belonged,” and the number that had died on the voyage.
Copies of these manifests were to be transmitted to the Sec­
retary of State, who reported the information periodically to
Congress. Subsequently, the Act of 1855 prescribed quarterly
reports to the Secretary of State and annual reports to Con­
gress. Later acts have continued to require the collection of
such information.
Although the reporting of alien arrivals was required by the
Act of 1798, which expired two years later, the number arriv­
ing before 1819 is not known. William J. Bromwell, in his
History of Immigration to the United States, 1856 (pp. 18-19),
estimated the number of passengers of foreign birth arriving
here from the close of the Revolutionary War to 1819, at
250,000. This estimate was used by the Bureau of Statistics
which later compiled the official statistics of immigration.
Immigration statistics were compiled by the Department of
State for 1820-1870; by the Treasury Department, Bureau of
Statistics, for 1867-1895; and since 1892, by a separate Office
or Bureau of Immigration, now a part of the Immigration and
Naturalization Service. For 1892-1932, the Bureau of Immi­
gration issued annual reports. For 1933-1940, the data were
summarized in the Annual Report of the Secretary of Labor;
for 1941, they were issued in the Annual Report of the Attor­
ney General; for 1942, no report was published; and for subse­
quent years, the statistics appeared in the Annual Report of
the Immigration and Naturalization Service.
Since 1820 the official immigration data have undergone
many changes in the reporting area covered. During the first
decades only arrivals by vessel at Atlantic and Gulf ports were
reported. Arrivals at Pacific ports were first included in 1850.
During the Civil War the only Southern ports that reported
were those controlled by the Federal Government. Later the
reporting area was expanded to include arrivals at outlying
possessions. Arrivals in Alaska were first reported in 1871,
but only irregularly thereafter until 1904, after which Alaska
was regularly included among the places of entry. Arrivals in
Hawaii were first included in 1901, Puerto Rico in 1902, and
the Virgin Islands in 1942.
Counting arrivals at the land borders was not required by
the early immigration acts, and the counting of such arrivals
did not approach completeness until after 1904. For 18201823, a few arrivals by land borders were included. Complete
reporting was attempted in 1855 with only partial success,
was interrupted for several years by the Civil War, and was
discontinued in 1885. Beginning in 1894, European immigrants
who arrived at Canadian ports with the declared intention of
proceeding to the United States were included in the immigra­
tion statistics. Some immigration was reported at land border
stations established in 1904. More stations were opened in
the following years, but reporting of land border arrivals was
not fully established until 1908.
48




The statistical treatment of Canadian and Mexican immi­
grants at times has differed from that of other immigrants.
When reporting of arrivals by land borders was discontinued
in 1885, regular reporting of Canadian and Mexican arrivals
by vessel was also discontinued; however, a few Canadian and
Mexican immigrants were reported in most of the following
years. Arrivals of Canadians and Mexicans by land borders
began to be reported in 1906, and reporting was fully estab­
lished in 1908 under authority of the Act of 1907, which pro­
vided for the inspection of Canadians and Mexicans at the
land borders.
Not all aliens entering via the Canadian and Mexican borders
are counted for inclusion in the immigration statistics. Before
1930, no count was made of residents of a year or longer of
Canada, Newfoundland, or Mexico who planned to remain in
the United States less than 6 months. For 1930-1945 the fol­
lowing classes of aliens entering via the land borders were
counted and included in the statistics of immigration:
(1) Those who have not been in the United States within
6 months, who come to stay more than 6 months; (2) those
for whom straight head tax is a prerequisite to admission,
or for whom head tax is specially deposited and subsequently
converted to straight head tax account; (3) those required
by law or regulation to present an immigration visa or re­
entry permit, and those who surrender either, regardless of
whether they are required by law or regulation to do so;
(4) those announcing an intention to depart via a seaport of
the United States for Hawaii or insular possessions of the
United States, or for foreign countries, except arrivals from
Canada intending to return thereto by water; and (5) those
announcing an intention to depart across the other land
boundary.
These classes were revised in 1945 so that the statistics of
arriving aliens at land border ports of entry for 1945-1952 in­
cluded (1) arriving aliens who came into the United States for
30 days or more; and (2) returning alien residents who had
been out of the United States more than 6 months. Arriving
aliens who came into the United States for 29 days or less
were not counted except those certified by public health offi­
cials, aliens held for a board of special inquiry, aliens excluded
and deported, and aliens in transit who announced an intention
to depart across another land boundary, or by sea.
Since 1953, all arriving aliens at land border ports of entry
are counted and included except: (1) Canadian citizens and
British subjects resident in Canada who were admitted for 6
months or less; (2) Mexican citizens who were admitted for
72 hours or less in the United States; and (3) returning
residents who had been out of the United States for more than
6 months. Beginning with February 1956, residents returning
from stays in Western Hemisphere countries of less than 6
months have not been counted. Because of changes in regula­
tions in 1957, returning residents without reentry permits or
visas who have been abroad for 1 year or less are not counted.
Persons who cross the land borders for brief periods (border
crossers) are not included in the immigration and emigration
statistics, but the Immigration and Naturalization Service
publishes statistics on alien and citizen border crossers in the
Annual Report.

INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION AND NATURALIZATION
C 88-114
Arrivals in and departures from the Philippine Islands were abroad and all aliens residing abroad making a temporary trip
recorded in the port tables for 1910-1924, but were not included to the United States were classed as nonimmigrants on the
in the total immigration data. For 1925-1931, such arrivals inward journey and nonemigrants on the outward. Permanent
and departures were obtained annually from the Bureau of residence was defined as a residence of 1 year or longer.
Insular Affairs, War Department, and published in separate (Annual Report of the Commissioner General of Immigration,
tables. The Immigration Service has no records since 1932 1908 , p. 6.)
of arrivals in, or departures from, the Philippine Islands to
Since 1933, aliens arriving in or departing from the United
foreign countries.
States have been classified as follows: Immigrants are non­
Data on aliens admitted to continental United States from resident aliens admitted to the United States for permanent
insular possessions have been compiled since 1908 but are not residence; they are further classified as quota immigrants, or
included in the immigration totals. Aliens admitted from those admitted under established quotas from European coun­
Hawaii and Puerto Rico have been reported continuously since tries, Asia, Africa, and the Pacific, and colonies, dependencies,
1908. Aliens admitted from the Philippine Islands were re­ and protectorates of European countries; and nonquota immi­
ported from 1908-1934, but since then all arrivals from and grants, i.e., natives from the independent countries of the
departures to the Philippine Islands have been included with Western Hemisphere, their wives and unmarried children un­
data from other foreign countries. Aliens admitted from the der 18 years of age; wives, husbands, and unmarried children
Virgin Islands have been recorded since 1917. The departure of citizens of the United States; ministers and professors who
of aliens from the mainland to Hawaii and Puerto Rico was enter to carry on their professions, and their wives and chil­
first recorded in 1918. Records are available since 1918 of dren; and others. Since 1952 (Immigration and Nationality
aliens passing between insular possessions. Data on aliens Act), professors have been removed from the nonquota classes.
from Guam are available since 1929; Samoa, since 1932. Rec­ Husbands as well as wives of ministers and of natives of
ords of United States citizens* arrival in continental United independent countries in the Western Hemisphere may be ad­
States from insular possessions, and in insular possessions from mitted as nonquota.
continental United States and other insular possessions, are
Nonimmigrants are alien residents of the United States re­
available since 1920.
turning from a temporary visit abroad, or nonresident aliens
Definition of terms. For 1820-1867, immigration totals admitted to the United States for a temporary period. In­
(compiled by the Department of State) were shown as alien cluded in this group are visitors, transients, treaty traders
passenger arrivals, but may have included alien passengers who (treaty investors since December 1952), students, foreign
died before arrival, and did include, for 1856-1867, temporary government officials, officials to international organizations,
visitors among arriving alien passengers. For the 12-year wives and unmarried children of these groups, and agricultural
period, the temporary visitors constituted about IV2 percent laborers from the West Indies (and from Japan since 1957).
Excluded are travelers between the United States and insular
of the alien passenger arrivals.
possessions, commuters and others who frequently cross the
For 1868-1891, the Bureau of Statistics immigrant arrival
land
figures (excluding temporary visitors), were reported. Since internationalCanada.boundaries, and agricultural laborers from
Mexico and
1892, official immigration data have been compiled by the Office
the United
of Immigration (and its successors) and for 1892-1895 its forEmigrantsorare aliens who have resided in the United States
a year longer and who are leaving
States
totals were 7 to 8 percent lower than those for the Bureau of for a permanent residence abroad. Nonemigrants are resident
Statistics for that period. The difference is largely attributable aliens
leaving the
States
to the limitation of the Office of Immigration figures to alien for a of the United States who are nonresident United of the
temporary period abroad, or
aliens
steerage passengers; cabin class passengers were not again United States who have been in the United States for less than
included as immigrants until 1904. A further difference was
to permanent residence
that the Bureau of Statistics figures were for arrivals and a year and who are returningresidents, the definition ofabroad.
Except for returning alien
immi­
those of the Office of Immigration were for admissions.
grants used in the statistical tables resembles the legal defini­
For 1895-1897, the Office of Immigration *readopted arrivals tion given above. Under the law, returning alien residents are
and the figures include the 2,419 aliens debarred in 1895, the classed as nonquota immigrants, whereas in the statistics they
2,799 in 1896, and 1,880 in 1897. In later years, the immigra­ are defined as nonimmigrants.
tion data were further refined to exclude aliens in transit
The definitions of immigrant and
through the United States (1904), and resident aliens return­ and nonemigrant, have to some extent emigrant, nonimmigrant
impaired the reliability
ing from a visit abroad (1906).
of net immigration figures. While an immigrant is admitted
In 1906 arriving aliens were divided into two classes: Immi­ for permanent residence, he may change his mind and depart
grants, or those who intended to settle in the United States, prior to residence of 1 year, in which case he is counted as an
and nonimmigrants, or admitted aliens who declared an inten­ immigrant on arrival and a nonemigrant on departure. An
tion not to settle in the United States, and all aliens returning alien who comes for a temporary visit and fails to depart
to resume domiciles formerly acquired in the United States.
within a year is classed as a nonimmigrant on arrival and an
The official record of emigration began in 1907. It was emigrant on departure.
made possible by the Immigration Act of 1907, which required C 88-114. Immigrants, by country, 1820-1957.
all steamship companies carrying departing aliens to furnish
Source: 1820-1932, Immigration and Naturalization Service,
manifests similar to tho&e required for arriving aliens.
unpublished records, and Bureau of Immigration, Annual Re­
For 1908-1932, aliens arriving in or departing from the ports of the Commissioner General of Immigration as follows:
United States were classified as follows: Arriving aliens with 1820-1926, Report for 1926, pp. 170-178; 1927-1931, Report
permanent domicile outside the United States who intended to for 1931, pp. 222-223; 1932, Report for 1932, pp. 120-125;
reside permanently in the United States were classed as immi­ and 1933-1957, Immigration and Naturalization Service,
grants; departing aliens with permanent residence in the United records.
States who intended to reside permanently abroad were classed
Data prior to 1906 cover countries from which the aliens
as emigrants; all alien residents making a temporary trip came; data for years following, countries of last permanent



49

C 89-109
MIGRATION
residence. Owing to changes in the list of countries separately (Iran) were added to the lists of Asian countries. Since 1934
reported and to changes in boundaries, data for certain coun­ Armenia has been included in Russia. In 1931 Siberia, or
tries are not comparable throughout. Under the provisions Asiatic Russia, was separated from European Russia, and Iraq
of the Immigration and Nationality Act, subquotas of 100 each and Siam (Thailand) were added to the lists.
were established for colonies or dependencies, to be charged
In 1945, the classification of country in the country-of-birth
against the quota of the mother country. Because of these statistics (on which the Quota Law is based) was adopted for
provisions, since January 1953, statistics have been compiled the immigration statistics. This change resulted in the addi­
for each colony or dependency having a subquota.
tion to the immigration lists of Afghanistan, Arabian Peninsula,
The principal changes in reporting immigrants by country Bhutan, Muscat, Nepal, Saudi Arabia, and Asiatic colonies,
dependencies, and protectorates of European countries. Since
since 1820 are shown in the detailed listing below.
1948, the following countries have been added to the immigra­
See also general note for series C 88-151.
tion lists: (1948) Burma, Ceylon, Jordan, Korea, and Pakistan;
C 89-100. Immigration from Europe, 1820-1957.
(1949) Israel (formerly included with Palestine), Lebanon (for­
Source: See source for series C 88-114.
merly included with Syria), and Yemen; (1950) Indonesia;
Since 1820, territorial transfers in Europe have to a certain (1952) Bonin Volcano Islands, Ryukyu Islands, Cambodia, and
extent impaired the comparability of immigration statistics Laos; (1957) Formosa.
from that continent. Data for Austria-Hungary were not re­ C 106-109. Immigration from America, 1820-1957.
ported until 1861. Austria and Hungary have been reported
Source: See source for series C 88-114.
separately since 1905. For 1938-1945, Austria is included with
Prior to 1920 Canada and Newfoundland were recorded under
Germany. Bulgaria, Serbia, and Montenegro were first re­
ported in 1899. In 1920 Bulgaria was reported separately, country of last permanent residence as British North America.
as was the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes (identified Combined figures are available for Canada and Newfoundland
as Yugoslavia since 1922). Prior to 1925 Northern Ireland for 1920-1924; for 1925-1948 each was reported separately.
was included with Ireland (Eire). The figures for Norway Since 1950, Newfoundland has been included in Canada.
Statistics of European immigrants arriving in Canada en
and Sweden were combined from 1820-1868, but since 1869
each country has been reported separately. Poland was re­ route to the United States have been available since 1894.
corded as a separate country for 1820-1898 and since 1920. For 1894-1906, the data refer principally to European aliens
During 1899-1919 Poland was included with Austria-Hungary, arriving at Canadian Atlantic and Pacific ports en route to the
Germany, and Russia. There is no record of immigration from United States. Inspection of Canadians and Mexicans was first
authorized by the Act of 1907, and 1908 is, therefore, the first
Rumania prior to 1880.
complete year
International transfers in territory following World War I was recorded. for which all immigration via the land borders
resulted in the establishment of several countries. In 1920,
Immigration from Mexico has been recorded for 1820-1885
Czechoslovakia, Finland, Poland, and the Kingdom of Serbs,
Croats, and Slovenes (designated as Yugoslavia in 1925) were and for 1894 to the present. Immigration statistics for the
added to the immigration lists; in 1924, Albania, Estonia, West Indies have been available since 1820. For 1820-1860
Latvia, and Lithuania were added; in 1925, the Free City of there was no classification of the West Indies, by country.
For 1860-1898, some immigration was recorded from Antigua
Danzig and Luxembourg were added.
(1873-1895), Bahamas (1871-1895), Barbados (1869-1895),
The Immigration Act of 1924, which established quotas for Bermuda (1861-1895), Cuba (1869-1898), Curacao (1873all independent countries in Europe, Asia, Africa, and the 1895), Haiti (1869-1895), Jamaica (1869-1895), Puerto Rico
Pacific has effected a further change in the immigration lists (1869-1895), Saint
Saint Thomas
of countries. This change, however, was not fully felt until 1895), and Trinidad Croix (1871-1895), 1899-1924, there (1872(1874-1895). For
again
1931. In that year Andorra, Iceland, Liechtenstein, Monaco,
and San Marino were added to the European countries, and was no classification by country of immigration from the West
Indies. Immigration from
separately recorded
the Russian Empire was classified into European Russia (desig­ since 1925; from the BritishCuba has been Dominican Republic,
West Indies,
nated as U.S.S.R. in Europe since 1947) and Siberia, or Asiatic Dutch West Indies, French West Indies, and Haiti since 1931;
Russia. The principal effect of the 1924 Act, however, was in and from
1945.
detailed data,
the extension of the lists of Asian, African, and Western Report of Bermuda since General ForImmigration for see Annual
Commissioner
of
each year,
Hemisphere countries.
1892-1932. Since January 1953, all countries in the West
In 1950, Bessarabia and the northern portion of Bukovina Indies have been reported.
were included in the U.S.S.R. instead of in Rumania. The
Immigration from Central America has been recorded since
Dodecanese Islands were included in Greece instead of Italy. 1820, but not by country during most of that period. Separate
The Free Territory of Trieste, formerly a part of Italy and statistics are available for 1895-1898 for Guatemala, Honduras,
Yugoslavia, was established as an independent country.
Nicaragua, and Salvador; and for 1895-1897 for Costa Rica.
C 101-105. Immigration from Asia, 1820-1957.
British Honduras was also enumerated separately for 18741910. With the above exceptions, only figures for total immi­
Source: See source for series C 88-114.
China and India are the only countries in Asia for which the gration were available for Central America until 1925. Immi­
records of immigration to the United States date back to 1820. gration has been reported separately from British Honduras
A few immigrants from Japan were recorded in 1861, 1866, since 1925, and from the Canal Zone, Costa Rica, Guatemala,
and 1867, but complete records for Japan begin in 1869. Honduras, Nicaragua, Panama, and Salvador since 1931.
Immigration from South America has also been reported in
Figures for Turkey in Asia are available since 1869. Data
on some immigration from Arabia are recorded for 1876-1895; total since 1820 but, with the following exceptions, not by coun­
from Armenia for 1874-1895; and from Persia for 1871-1895. try until 1925. For 1869-1895, separate enumerations were
For 1896-1923, immigration from Asia included only China, made for Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Guiana, Peru, and
India, Japan, Turkey in Asia, and “other Asia.” In 1924, Venezuela; and for 1871-1895 for the Argentine Republic. Sep­
Syria was added, and in 1925 Armenia, Palestine, and Persia arate figures for Brazil have been again available since 1925;
50



INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION AND NATURALIZATION
C 110-138
and since 1931 for Argentina, Bolivia, British Guiana, Dutch A “farmer” is one who operates a farm, either for himself or
Guiana, French Guiana, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Paraguay, for others; a “farm laborer” is one who works on a farm for
the man who operates it. The “no occupation” group includes
Peru, Uruguay, and Venezuela.
dependent women and children, other aliens without occupation,
C 110. Immigration from Africa, 1820-1957.
and aliens whose occupations were not stated.
Source: See source for series C 88-114.
Although the data are shown in broad occupation groups,
Immigration from Africa has been recorded since 1820, but, the instructions for compiling statistics specified that the occu­
with few exceptions, was not classified by country until 1931. pation should be described as precisely as possible. For ex­
There is record of some immigration from Liberia in 1829, ample, civil engineer, stationary engineer, mining engineer,
1839, 1844, and for 1857-1893; Algeria, 1872-1894; Egypt, brass polisher, steel polisher, iron molder, wood turner, etc.,
1869-1895; and South Africa, 1869-1895. For 1890-1924, only should be so described, and not entered simply as engineer,
immigration for continental Africa was reported. Immigration polisher, molder, turner, or other indefinite designation.
from Egypt was again recorded in 1925. Immigration from
In 1945
Service
Ethiopia (Abyssinia), Liberia, Morocco, and Union of South the major the Immigration and NaturalizationSixteenth adopted
occupation groups as shown in the
Census
Africa, has been recorded since 1931. In 1945 “other Africa” of the United States, Alphabetical Index of Occupations and In­
was classified into Cameroons (British Mandate), Cameroons dustries. It also grouped occupations of immigrants for 1899(French Mandate), Ruanda and Urundi (trust territory, Bel­ 1944 (compiled in unpublished records) as closely
gium), South-West Africa (Mandate of the Union of South into the new groups. Since 1951, occupations have as possible
coded
Africa), Tanganyika (trust territory, United Kingdom), Togo- and grouped in accordance with the definitions in U.beenCensus
S.
land (British Mandate), Togoland (trust territory, France), of Population: 1950, Alphabetical Index of Occupations and
and colonies, dependencies, or protectorates of Belgium, Industries.
France, Great Britain, Italy, Portugal, and Spain.
The occupation figures include
Since 1945, the following countries have been added: 1953: and without work experience. Theall immigrants, those with
“no occupation” group in­
Libya and Somaliland (Italian administration), and Southern cludes housewives, unemployed, retired persons, students, chil­
Rhodesia. Eritrea, which was federated with Ethiopia, was dren under 14 years
included with Ethiopia. 1957: Ghana (composed of British occupation unknown or of age, aliens with no occupation, and
not reported.
territories, Gold Coast and British Togoland), Sudan, and
See also general note for series C 88-151.
Tunisia.
C 133, 135-138. Immigrants, by age, 1820-1957.
C 111-113. Immigration from Australasia, 1870-1957.
Source: 1820-1897, Treasury Department, Bureau of Statis­
Source: See source for series C 88-114.
tics, Monthly Summary of Commerce and Finance of the U. S.,
Immigration from Australia was recorded separately in 1822, No.
1902-1903, pp. 4358
1839-1840, and for most of the years 1854-1898. For 1899- nual 12, series of the Commissioner and 4362; of1898-1932, An­
Reports
General
Immigration;
1924, a combined total was recorded for Australia, Tasmania, 1933-1957, data are from Immigration and Naturalization
and New Zealand, and since 1925 Australia has been again
reported separately. Separate figures for New Zealand are Service, records.
Some of the published estimates have been revised because
available for 1870-1890. For 1891-1893, New Zealand was in­
of apparent printing errors in the source.
cluded in “all other countries”; for 1894-1898 in “Pacific
The age groups used to classify immigrants have changed a
Islands, not specified,” and for 1899-1924 with Australia and
Tasmania. Separate figures for New Zealand have again been number of times since 1820, thereby impairing to a certain
extent their comparability. For 1820-1898, the classification
available since 1925.
was:
The following countries were added to the immigration lists the Under 15 years, 15 to 40, and over 40 years. In addition,
250,000 immigrants, or 4 percent of the
of the Pacific in 1945: Nauru (British Mandate) ; Territory of total,age of nearly was not reported.
for 1820-1866
New Guinea including appertaining islands (Australian Man­
For 1899-1917 the age classification was: Under 14 years,
date) ; Western Samoa (New Zealand Mandate) ; Yap and other
Pacific Islands under Japanese Mandate; and colonies, depend­ 14 to 44, and 45 years and over; for 1918-1924 it was under 16
encies, or protectorates of France, Great Britain, Japan, Neth­ years, 16 to 44, and 45 years and over.
Although only three age groups were generally used before
erlands, and Portugal. In 1952, the Pacific Islands (trust ter­
1925, a more detailed classification was used for 1910-1924 for
ritory, U. S. administration) were added.
single females: 15 to 19
29, and to 34
C 115-132; Immigrants, by major occupation group, 1820-1957. in 1910; 14 to 21 years, years, 20 to 24, 25 toand 38 to3044 for
22 to 29, 30 to 37,
Source: 1820-1890, Treasury Department, Bureau of Statis­ 1911-1917; 16 to 21 years, 22 to 29, 30 to 37, and 38 to 44
tics, Arrivals of Alien Passengers and Immigrants in the United for 1918-1924.
States, 1820-1890, pp. 42-49; 1891, Treasury Department,
In 1925 the
classification
to 6
Bureau of Statistics, Immigration into the United States Show­ groups: Under ageyears, 16 to 21,was toenlarged tofrom 383 to 44,
16
22 29, 30 37,
ing Number, Nationality, Sex, Age, Occupation, Destination, and 45 years and over. In 1940, it was enlarged to 12 groups,
. . . from 1820-190S; 1892-1898, Bureau of Immigration, Annual
a
limit
5-year age groups
Reports of Commissioner General of Immigration; 1899-1944, withand lowerupper of under 11 years, years. In 1945, it until
60,
an
limit of over 60
was
Immigration and Naturalization Service, unpublished records; further enlarged into 5-year groups, with a lower age limit
1945-1957, Annual Reports of the Immigration and Natural­ of under 5 years and an upper open-end limit of 100 years and
ization Service.
over.
The major occupation groups for 1820-1898 include the fol­
See also general note for series C 88-151.
lowing categories: Professional—occupations which involve a
liberal education or its equivalent and mental rather than man­ C 134. Percent male immigrants, 1820-1957.
ual skills; commercial—agents, bankers, hotelkeepers, manufac­
Source: 1820-1910, Senate Doc. No. 756, 61st Congress, Re­
turers, and merchants and dealers; skilled—occupations requir­ ports of the Immigration Commission, vol. 3, pp. 6 and 7;
ing special training of a manual rather than mental nature. 1911-1931, Bureau of Immigration, Annual Report of the



51

MIGRATION
C 139-158
Commissioner General of Immigration, 1931, p. 238; 1932, An­ under formal deportation proceedings. Deportation of alien
nual Report of the Commissioner General of Immigration, 1932, contract laborers within one year after entry was authorized
p. 58; 1933-1957, Immigration and Naturalization Service, by the Act of 1888. Deportation statistics, however, have
records.
been compiled only since 1892, shortly after enactment of the
Although the Act of 1819 required that arriving immigrants Act of 1891, which provided for the deportation of all aliens
be recorded by sex, these data were not satisfactorily com­ who entered unlawfully. The classes of deportable aliens were
piled before 1869. (See Senate Doc. No. 756 cited above, p. 5.) extended by subsequent acts and are now defined in the Immi­
The earlier reports of the Secretary of State to Congress con­ gration and Nationality Act of 1952. The principal deportable
tain partial data on this subject, and in 1911 the Immigration classes are criminals (including violators of narcotic laws),
Commission compiled these data to show the approximate sex immoral classes, mental or physical defectives, public charges,
distribution for 1820-1867. Therefore the percentages given subversives, and those who entered illegally or failed to main­
in series C 134 cannot be reduced to numbers. Moreover, the tain or comply with the conditions of admission.
data are not complete, as in most years sex was not reported
C 154, aliens voluntarily departing. An alien may con­
for a considerable number of immigrants; but on the whole cede deportability and be permitted to depart voluntarily
the percentages may be accepted as fairly representative of at his own expense. Statistics on aliens voluntarily depart­
the sex distribution in the years considered.
ing have been recorded only since 1927.
C 139-151. Annual quota and aliens admitted, by classes,
C 155, aliens excluded. Prior to 1882, various State laws
1925-1957.
were enacted excluding from admission to the United States
Source: Annual Reports of Immigration and Naturalization undesirable aliens such as paupers, felons, and diseased
Service and Presidential Proclamations on quotas.
aliens. The first Chinese exclusion law was passed in 1882.
For 1925-1929, the annual quota (series C 139) of 164,667 Lunatics, idiots, and persons likely to become public charges
was based on 2 percent of the foreign-born residents in the were first excluded by the Act of 1882.
United States as determined by the 1890 Census. The present
Statistics on aliens excluded were first compiled in 1892,
“national origin” formula for determining quotas, which has shortly after passage of the Act of 1891, which extended the
not changed since 1929, provides that the annual quota equal classes of excludable aliens. Subsequent acts, principally the
one-sixth of one percent of the number of white inhabitants Immigration Act of 1917, and the Immigration and Nationality
in continental United States in 1920, less Western Hemisphere Act of 1952, extended these classes further. At present, the
immigrants and their descendants. The annual quota for any principal classes excluded are attempted illegal entries, crim­
nationality for each fiscal year is the number which bears the inals (including violators of narcotic laws), immoral persons,
same ratio to 150,000 as the number of inhabitants in conti­ subversive or anarchistic persons, and mental or physical de­
nental United States in 1920 having that national origin bears fectives.
to the number of inhabitants in continental United States C 156-157. Aliens departing, 1908-1957.
in 1920, but the minimum quota for any nationality is 100.
Bureau
Immigration, Annual Report
Changes in quotas since 1929 have been due chiefly to of Source: 1908-1910, General ofofImmigration, 1931, pp. 213 and
the Commissioner
changes in territorial boundaries of quota areas and to the 239; 1911-1956, Annual Report of the Immigration and Nat­
establishment of new quotas for countries that have become uralization Service, 1956, p. 48; 1957, Ibid, 1957 reports, p. 31.
independent.
For definition of terms, see general note for series C 88-151.
The classes presented in these series are legal classes of ad­
mission, as defined in the Act of 1924, and the Immigration C 158-170. General note.
and Nationality Act of 1952. Returning resident aliens, who
Prior to 1906, individual courts kept records of naturaliza­
have been counted before as immigrants, are included with tions, but no national data were compiled. The Act of 1906
nonimmigrants.
required all courts conducting naturalization proceedings to
In general, statistics on aliens admitted have been derived file with a central Federal agency a copy of each declaration
from manifests or entry documents. Changes in regulations of intention and petition of naturalization filed and of each
extending documentary waivers for nonimmigrants entering certificate of naturalization issued.
via the Canadian or Mexican border, or from adjacent islands,
For
statistics were
have impaired comparability of the nonimmigrant statistics. Bureau1907-1912 naturalization Naturalization. compiled by the
of Immigration and
For 1913-1932
For example, the figure on nonimmigrant admissions dropped they were compiled by the Bureau of Naturalization. For
in 1953 because beginning with 1953, the nonimmigrant figures 1933-1940, they were
of the Secre­
have excluded, with certain exceptions, Canadian citizens and tary of Labor and forgiven in the Annual Reports of the Attor­
1941 in
Report
British subjects resident in Canada who were admitted for 6 ney General. No report was the Annual in 1942. For subse­
published
months or less. In prior years the nonimmigrant figures ex­ quent years, the statistics appeared in Annual Reports of the
cluded entries over the Canadian border for 29 days or less. Immigration and Naturalization Service.
The reduction in the number of returning residents in 1956
and 1957 may be attributed to changes in regulations extend­ C 158. Declarations filed, 1907-1957.
ing documentary waivers to resident aliens returning from
Source: 1907-1910, Annual Report of the Secretary of
stays in Western Hemisphere countries of less than 6 months. Labor, 1940, p. 115; 1911-1957, Annual Report of Immigration
The waiver has recently been extended further to returning and Naturalization Service, 1957, p. 67.
residents who have been abroad less than 1 year.
See also general note for series C 158-170.
See also general note for series C 88-151.
Section 331 of the Nationality Act of 1940 provided that an
C 152-155. Aliens deported, voluntarily departing, and ex­ applicant for naturalization after reaching the age of 18 years
cluded, 1892-1957.
must make under oath, not less than 2 nor more than 7 years
Source: Annual Report of Immigration and Naturalization prior to his petition for naturalization, a signed declaration
Service, 1957, pp. 46, 50.
of intention to become a citizen. This section contained sub­
C 153, aliens deported. Undesirable aliens who have vio­ stantially the requirements of the Basic Naturalization Act of
lated certain immigration laws may be expelled or deported 1906 concerning the declaration of intention. The Immigration
52




C 159-169
INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION AND NATURALIZATION
and Nationality Act of 1952, which repealed the Nation­ C 162-169. Aliens naturalized, by place of former allegiance,
1923-1957.
ality Act of 1940, provides that a declaration of intention may
be filed, but it is not a prerequisite to naturalization. In a
Source: 1923-1932, Annual Report of the Commissioner of
number of States, in order to obtain employment, a license, Naturalization; 1933-1935, Immigration and Naturalization
etc., an alien applicant must prove that he intends to become Service, records; 1936-1957, Annual Report of the Immigration
a citizen. The law permits the filing of a declaration to show and Naturalization Service.
such intent.
See also general note for series C 158-170.
Prior to 1930 the number of declarations of intention was
“Country of former allegiance or nationality” is the country
far in excess of the number of aliens naturalized. This was of which the alien at the time was a citizen or subject. Data
due mainly to the failure of many aliens to file a petition for on the number of aliens naturalized, by country or region of
naturalization within the prescribed time limit, as well as the former allegiance, have been compiled only from 1922. Owing
denial of a number of petitions for naturalization. In most of to changes in the list of countries separately reported and to
the years since 1930 the number of aliens naturalized has ex­ changes in boundaries, data for certain countries are not com­
ceeded the declarations filed, because of the increasing number parable throughout. The principal changes in reporting since
of persons who were exempted from the general requirements 1923 are shown for individual series below.
for a declaration of intention.
C 162, Northwestern Europe. Includes the British Empire,
Since 1907, a number of laws have been passed exempting Norway, Sweden, Denmark, Netherlands, Belgium, Luxem­
special classes of persons from the general requirement of a bourg, Switzerland, France, and, beginning with 1948, Ice­
declaration of intention. Most of these laws were codified land. For 1924-1932, the figures for the British Empire were
into the Nationality Act of 1940. Included among such ex­ classified by country. Canada is shown separately for 1923empted classes were noncitizen spouses of United States citi­ 1932, and since 1948; for 1933-1947, Canada is included in the
zens; certain former citizens; noncitizens who, because of British Empire. Beginning with 1948, Ireland has been re­
misinformation, erroneously exercised the rights of citizen­ ported separately. Australia has been reported separately
ship; noncitizens who, at the time of entering the United from 1951, and included in “all other” (series C 169). See
States, were under 16 years of age; certain noncitizens text for series C 166, C 168, and C 169 for former British
who served honorably in the United States Armed Forces or territories.
C 163, Central Europe. Includes Germany, Poland, Czecho­
on certain vessels; and certain noncitizen children.
slovakia, Austria, Hungary, Yugoslavia, and Montenegro. For
C 159. Aliens naturalized, 1907-1957.
1938-1947, Austria was included with Germany. For 1923Source: See source for series C 158.
1932, Yugoslavia was recorded as the Kingdom of Serbs,
“Aliens naturalized” are aliens upon whom naturalization Croats, and Slovenes.
C 164, Eastern Europe. Includes the Union of Soviet Social­
was conferred in the United States by a naturalization court
or outside of the United States by a representative of the ist Republics, Latvia, Estonia, Lithuania, Finland, Rumania,
Immigration and Naturalization Service. The total number of Bulgaria, and Turkey. For 1923-1928, Latvia and Estonia
aliens naturalized includes both civilian and military natural­ were included with Russia. For 1923-1927, Lithuania com­
izations.
prised portions of Russia and Germany. European and Asiatic
The statistics of aliens naturalized do not include the follow­ Turkey are included in Eastern Europe.
C 165, Southern Europe. Includes Greece, Italy, Spain,
ing groups: Repatriations under section 323 of the Nationality
Act of 1940 of former citizens of'the United States who lost Portugal, and, for 1929-1957, “other Europe,” which com­
citizenship by entering the armed forces of allied countries prises Albania, the Free City of Danzig, Liechtenstein, San
during World War I, and former citizens who lost citizenship Marino, Monaco, Andorra, and, since 1950, Trieste. For 1923of the United States by voting in a political election in a 1928, “other Europe” was recorded under the “miscellaneous”
foreign state (other than a state at war with the United group of countries and is included with “all other” (C 169).
C 166, Asia. For 1923-1927, Asia was included under “all
States during World War II) ; repatriations of women who
other” (C 169). The Asian countries reported separately and
were citizens at birth but who lost or were believed to have the beginning dates are shown below:
lost citizenship through marriage to an alien and whose mar­
Afghanistan (1929) ; Arabian Peninsula (1943) ; Bhutan
riages were terminated; repatriations under the Act of 1936,
(1945); Burma (1949); Ceylon (1948); China (1932); India
as amended, of native-born women who lost citizenship by
(1948, British Empire formerly) ; Indonesia (1950) ; Iran
marriage; and repatriations of persons who lost citizenship by
(1929); Iraq (1929); Israel (1950, Palestine formerly);
voting in a political election or plebiscite in Italy (Act of 1951)
Japan (1932) ; Jordan (1948, formerly called Trans-Jordan
and in occupied Japan (Act of 1954).
and included with Palestine prior to 1948) ; Korea (1948,
Separate statistics on these repatriations are compiled by
Japan formerly) ; Lebanon (1950, included in Syria former­
the Immigration and Naturalization Service which also com­
ly) ; Muscat and Oman (1945) ; Nepal (1945) ; Pakistan
piles statistics on certificates of derivative citizenship granted
(1948, included in British Empire formerly) ; Palestine (re­
ported separately 1929-1944 and since 1948; included in
and denied, expatriations and certificates of naturalization
British Empire 1945-1947); Philippines (1929); Saudi Arabia
revoked, and petitions for naturalization denied.
(1945); Syria (reported separately 1928-1944 and since 1948;
C 160-161. Aliens naturalized, by sex, 1923-1957.
included in France, 1944-1947); Thailand (Siam, 1944);
Source: 1923-1932, Bureau of Naturalization, Annual Report
Vietnam (1952); Yemen (1950); and Formosa (1957).
of the Commissioner of Naturalization, 1923-1932; 1933-1940,
Until 1953 racial restrictions upon naturalization limited the
Annual Report of the Secretary of Labor, 1933-1940; 1941- naturalization of aliens who were citizens or subjects of coun­
1957, Annual Report of the Immigration and Naturalization tries located in Asia. (See text for series C 170.)
Service for 1949 and 1957.
C 167, Canada. For 1923-1932, and since 1948, Canada is
See also general note for series C 158-170 and text for shown separately; it is included in the British Empire for
1933-1947.
series C 159.

488910 0 - 6 0 - 5


53

C 170-283
MIGRATION
The classification of citizenship by the Bureau of the Census
C 168, Other America. Includes Mexico, the West Indies,
Central and South America. Figures for “other America” embraces the two major categories, citizen and alien. Citizens
countries were not compiled separately in 1923. Figures for are subdivided into native and naturalized. Aliens are sub­
Mexico date from 1924; for the West Indies (Cuba, Dominican divided into those having first papers (that is, having made
Republic, and Haiti separately) from 1929. For 1924-1928, the formal declaration of intention to become citizens of the United
figures for Central and South America were combined. Sep­ States) and those not having first papers. In addition to the
arate figures have been compiled for independent countries in citizen and alien categories, there is a third group made up
Central and South America beginning with 1929, except in of foreign-born persons for whom no report on citizenship was
1933.
obtained, designated as “citizenship not reported” or “unknown
C 169, All other. Includes “miscellaneous” countries 1923- citizenship.” Since it is likely that most of these persons are
1928; repatriated Americans, 1924-1934; “stateless” nationals aliens, they are often included in summary figures for total
from 1945; Ethiopia from 1929; Liberia from 1929; and coun­ aliens. The population 21 years old and over is also given
tries which were former territories. Former territories and separately by citizenship, in order to show the number of po­
tential voters.
the beginning dates of separate report are shown below:
Formerly French territory: Libya (1953) ; Tunisia (1957) ;
These statistics relate to the citizenship status of the popu­
Sudan (1957). Formerly British territory: Egypt, reported lation at the date of the specified decennial census.
separately 1929-1944 and since 1948, included in British Em­
Native white population of foreign or
pire, 1945-1947; South West Africa (1952); Southern Rhode­ C 185-217. by country of origin of parents, 1900-1950.mixed par­
entage,
sia (1953); Union of South Africa (1948); Australia (1951);
Source: 1900-1940, Sixteenth Census Reports, Population,
Nauru (1952) ; New Guinea (1952) ; New Zealand (1952) ;
and Western Samoa (1952). Formerly Italian administra­ Country of Origin of Foreign Stock, p. 10; 1950, U. S. Census
tion: Somaliland (1953). Formerly international adminis­ of Population: 1950, vol. IV, Special Reports, Nativity and
tration: Tangier (1953). Separate figures are available for Parentage, p. 3A-75.
the following United States possessions: American Samoa,
A native is defined as a person born in continental United
Canal Zone, Puerto Rico, Virgin Islands, and Wake and Mid­ States, Puerto Rico, or the Territories or possessions, or born
way Islands (1945-1951 and since 1955); Hawaii (since abroad to American parents. Persons for whom place of birth
1955); Guam (1944-1951, and since 1955).
was not reported are included as native. The nativity of
parents was defined in the same way as it was for the indi­
C 170. Petitions denied, 1907-1957.
vidual.
Source: 1907-1921, Reports of Commissioner of Naturaliza­
Persons of foreign parentage are allocated to the country
tion as follows: 1907-1917, Report for 1917, p. 5; 1918-1919,
of birth of the foreign parent. The classification by country
Report for 1919, p. 4; 1920, Report for 1920, pp. 5-6; 19211957, see Annual Report of Immigration and Naturalization of birth of parents is, of course, subject to the same limitations
and may be presumed to be less accurate than the classification
Service, 1957, p. 72.
of the foreign born by country of birth.
See also general note for series C 158-170.
The definition of
Statistics on petitions denied have been compiled since 1907. that used in series country of birth of parents is similar to
C 218-283, below, with
important
The Basic Naturalization Act of 1906 and subsequent naturaliza­ exceptions. The classification by country ofseveral of parents
birth
tion laws specified the eligibility requirements for naturaliza­ for 1930 and later years is made on the basis of boundaries
tion. Petitions for naturalization of aliens who fail to meet
the
The
the prerequisites for naturalization may be denied by the existing atonthe date of birth specified decennial census. based
1920 data
country of
of parents, however, are
courts at the final naturalization hearing. Included among on pre-World War I boundaries because of the difficulty of
the reasons for denial are lack of knowledge and understanding obtaining correct replies on the basis of
of history, principles, and form of government of the United for parents of persons enumerated. Thepostwar boundaries
States, failure to establish good moral character, lack of at­ from that used for series C 218-283 whereprocedure differs
the
tachment to the Constitution of the United States, inability to used for 1920 and for all other years were those inboundaries
existence
speak (read, write) the English language, failure to establish at the time of the census.
lawful admission to the United States or to meet residence
For definition of color, see text for series A 22-33.
requirements, etc.
In the early laws the right to become naturalized was limited C 218-283. Foreign-born papulation, by country of birth, 18501950.
to white persons, and petitions of persons of ineligible races
were denied. Gradually such restrictions were removed with
Source: 1850-1930, total foreign born, Fifteenth Census Re­
respect to Negroes, Filipinos, races indigenous to North and ports, Population, vol. II, p. 233; 1910-1940, foreign-born white,
South America and adjacent islands, Chinese, and Guamanians. Sixteenth Census Reports, Population, vol. II, part 1, p. 43;
In 1952, the Immigration and Nationality Act removed all 1950, foreign-born white, U. S. Census of Population: 1950,
racial restrictions to naturalization. Japanese aliens in the vol. IV, Special Reports, Nativity and Parentage, p. 3A-71.
United States were the largest class of aliens that benefited
The foreign-born population comprises all persons born out­
by this law.
side the United States or any of the outlying possessions,
C 171-184. Citizenship status of the population, 1890-1950.
except certain persons whose parents at the time of their
Source: 1890-1940, total, native, and total foreign-born popu­ birth were American citizens. Persons born in any of the
lation, and 1930-1940, citizenship status of foreign born and outlying Territories or possessions, and American citizens born
persons 21 years old and over, Sixteenth Census Reports, abroad or at sea, are regarded as native.
Population, vol. II, part 1, pp. 19, 30-33; 1890-1920, data on
The statistics on country of birth are generally based on
persons 21 years old and over, and 1920, citizenship status of the political boundaries of foreign nations existing at the date
foreign born, Fifteenth Census Reports, Population, vol. II, of the specified decennial census. Because of boundary
p. 405; 1950, U. S. Census of Population: 1950, vol. II, part changes following World War I and World War II, accurate
1, pp. 1-178.
comparisons over the entire period, 1850-1950, can be made
54




INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION AND NATURALIZATION
C 218-283
for relatively few countries. These countries include England, have been adjusted on the basis of mother tongue data, to
Scotland, Wales, Norway, Sweden, Netherlands, Switzerland, conform as nearly as possible to the conditions in 1930.
Spain, Portugal, Canada (total of Canada-French, other, and
Since World War I, the greatest difficulties encountered in
Newfoundland), and Mexico. For several other countries, as the tabulation of country-of-birth statistics has been the classi­
for example, Italy, France, and Belgium, the figures are slight­ fication of persons born in the former Austro-Hungarian Em­
ly affected by boundary changes; but these changes have not pire. Many persons born within the prewar boundaries of
been so great as to destroy entirely the value of comparative this Empire could not or did not give to the enumerator the
figures. The boundaries of other countries, as for example, information needed for the determination of their country of
U.S.S.R., Austria, Hungary, Rumania, and Greece, have been birth on the basis of postwar geography. It is therefore quite
so changed that comparisons over time are subject to a large possible that some persons were assigned to Austria who were
margin of error.
really born within the present areas of either Czechoslovakia
Statistics on country of birth of the foreign born have gen­ or Yugoslavia, and that persons were assigned to Hungary who
erally been restricted to those countries which had at the time were born within the present areas of Rumania or Yugoslavia.
of the census a separate political entity. For 1860-1900, how­ Similarly, it is possible that some persons born in Latvia, Es­
ever, an exception was made in the case of Poland. Although tonia, or Lithuania were assigned to Russia. Persons for
Poland was not restored to its original status as an inde­ whom Austria-Hungary was reported in the 1950 Census
pendent country until the end of World War I, its historical were allocated on the basis of surname to the various countries
position was such that Polish immigrants generally reported created out of the territory of the old empire after World
Poland as their country of birth regardless of the political War I. Even with this procedure, however, there appears to
sovereignty over their birthplace. For 1860-1890, persons re­ be some indication that Austria and Hungary are overreported
ported as born in Poland were so tabulated without qualifica­ at the expense of Yugoslavia and Czechoslovakia. In 1950
tion. In the Census of 1900 an attempt was made to dis­ the situation was further complicated by the fact that, although
tinguish Austrian, German, and Russian Poland, and separate there were extensive de facto boundary changes as a result of
statistics for each were presented. In the Census of 1910, World War II, only a small number of these changes were
persons reported as born in Poland were assigned either to officially recognized by the United States at that time.
Russia, Germany, or Austria. The figures for 1910, however,
For definition of color, see text for series A 22-33.




55

C€

MIGRATION

Series C 88-114. Immigrants, by Country: 1820 to 1957
[For

ries C 101-114. For years ending June 30, except: 1820-1831 and 1844-1849, years ending Sept. 30; and 1833-1842 and 1851-1867,
months ending Dec. 31; 1843, 9 months ending Sept. 30; 1850, 15 months ending Dec. 31; 1868, 6 months ending June 30]
Northwestern Europe
Great
Britain

91

Other
North­ Germany 5 Poland 6
western 4

Scandi­
navia 3

90
1957
1956
1955
1954.
1953
1952.
1951.
1950.
1949.
1948.
1947.
1946.
1945.
1944.
19431942_
1941.
1940.
1939.
1938.
1937.
1936.
1935.
1934.
1933.
19321931.
1930.
1929.
1928.
1927.
1926.
1925.
1924
1923
1922
1921
1920.
1919.
1918
1917.
1916
1915
1914
1913.
1912
1911
L910.
1909
1908.
1907
1906
1905
1904
1903
1902
1901
1900
1899
1898.
1897.
1896
1895
1894
1893
1892
1891
1890
1889
1888
1887
1886

Ireland2

92

24,020
19,008
15,761
16,672
16,639
22,177
14,898
12,755
21,149
26,403
23,788
33,552
3,029
1,321
974
907
7,714
6,158
3,058
2,262
1,726
1,310
1,413
1,305
979
2,057
9,110
31,015
21,327
19,958
23,669
25,528
27,172
59,490
45,759
25,153
51,142
38,471
6,797
2,516
10,735
16,063
27,237
48,729
60,328
57,148
73,384
68,941
46,793
62,824
1 79,037
67,198
84,189
51,448
33,637
16,898
i 14,985
12,509
13,456
12,894
12,752
24,565
28,833
22,520
35,189
42,215
66,605
69,730
87,992
108,692
93,378
62,929

8,227
5,607
5,222
4,655
4,304
3,526
3,144
5,842
8,678
7,534
2,574
1,816
427
112
165
83
272
839
1,189
1,085
531
444
454
443
338
539
7,305
23,445
19,921
25,268
28,545
24,897
26,650
17,111
15,740
10,579
28,435
9,591
474
331
5,406
8,639
14,185
24,688
27,876
25,879
29,112
29,855
25,033
30,556
34,530
34,995
52,945
36,142
35,310
29,138
30,561
35,730
31,673
25,128
28,421
40,262
46,304
30,231
43,578
51,383
55,706
53,024
65,557
73,513
68,370
49,619

6,189
5,681
5,159
5,459
5,537
5,416
5,502
5,661
6,665
6,127
4,918
1,278
224
281
239
371
1,137
1,260
1,178
1,393
971
646
688
557
511
938
3,144
6,919
17,379
16,184
16,860
16,818
16,810
35,577
34,184
14,625
22,854
13,444
5,590
6,506
13,771
14,761
17,883
29,391
32,267
27,554
42,285
48,267
32,496
30,175
49,965
52,781
60,625
60,096
77,647
54,038
39,234
31,151
22,192
19,282
21,089
33,199
26,852
32,400
58,945
66,295
60,107
50,368
57,504
81,924
67,629
46,735

93

j
I
1
!
!
i

25,109
15,254
10,707
11,853
11,145
12,476
10,973
10,857
12,288
13,721
14,562
8,651
365
619
1,531
5,622
9,009
7,743
5,214
3,352
2,512
1,745
1,808
1,270
1,045
1,558
4,420
9,170
9,091
9,079
9,134
8,773
8,548
16,077
12,469
11,149
29,317
24,491
5,126
3,146
6,731
8,715
12,096
25,591
28,086
22,921
25,549
23,852
17,756
22,177
26,512
23,277
24,693
23,321
17,009
10,322
9,279
5,822
5,150
4,698
5,323
7,611
7,313
9,514
17,888
21,731
21,824
20,575
22,010
23,251
17,307
11,737

iF

zens; therefore for those years, does not

4c
51
6£

and Iceland.
nbourg, Switzerland, and France.
Austria-Hungary, Germany, and Russia.

agre<
2C
3C

56




Europe
Central Europe

|

94

95

60,353
571
44,409
263
29,596
129
33,098
67
27,329
136
104,236
235
87,755
98
128,592
696
55,284
1,673
19,368
2,447
13,900
745
2,598
335
172
195
238
292
248
394
2,150
343
4,028
451
21,520
702
33,515
3,072
17,199
2,403
10,895
1,212
6,346
869
5,201
1,504
4,392
1,032
1,919
1,332
2,670
1,296
10,401
3,604
26,569
9,231
46,751
9,002
45,778
8,755
48,513
9,211
50,421
7,126
46,068
5,341
75,091
28,806
48,277
26,538
17,931
28,635
6,803
95,089
1,001
4,813
52
447
1,857
2,877
7,799
35,734
34,329
27,788
32,061
31,283
25,540
32,309
37,807
37,564
40,574
46,380 __________
40,086
28,304
21,651
18,507
17,476
4,726 |
17,111
22,533
4,165 i
31,885
691 !
32,173
790 I
53,989
1,941
78,756
16,374 !
119,168
40,536
113,554
27,497
92,427
11.073
99,538
4,922
109,717
5,826
106,865
6,128
84,403
3,939

Eastern Europe
U. S. S. R.
Other
and ! Other
Central 7 Baltic 1 Eastern 9
States 8 |
96
97
98

Southern Europe

15,498
10,284
4,133
2,873
2,885
23,529
10,365
17,792
7,411
6,006
4,622
511
206
316
206
396
788
3,628
5,334
5,195
3,763
2,723
2,357
1,422
981
1,749
4,500
9,184
8,081
7,091
6,559
6,020
4,701
32,700
34,038
29,363
77,069
5,666
53
61
1,258
5,191
18,511
278,152
254,825
178,882
159,057
258,737
170,191
168,509
338,452
265,138
275,693
177,156
206,011
171,989
113,390
114,847
62.491
39,797
33,031
65,103
33,401
38,638
57,420
76,937
71,042
56,199
34,174
45,811
40,265
28,680

19,624
40,430
30,272
13,145
8,432
11,342
8,958
12,454
11,695
16,075
13,866
2,636
213
120
49
103
450
5,302
6,570
7,712
7,192
6,774
6,566
4,374
3,477
6,662
13,399
22,327
18,008
17,728
17,297
8,253
6,203
56,246
46,674
40,319
222,260
95,145
1,884
5,250
34,596
33,665
49,688
283,738
265,542
157,134
182,882
215,537
183,218
128,503
285,731
273,120
221,479
193,296
230,622
178,375
135,996
100,135
77,419
58,613
59,431
68,060
35,427
42,977
72,145
61,631
76,055
52,003
25,307
51,558
47,622
21,315

663
643
523
475
609
548
555
526
694
897
761
153
98
157
159
197
665
898
1,021
960
629
378
418
607
458
636
1,396
2,772
2,450
2,652
2,933
3,323
3,121
20,918
21,151
19,910
10,193
1,751
1,403
4,242
12,716
7,842
26,187
255,660
291,040
162,395
158,721
186,792
120,460
156,711
258,943
215,665
184,897
145,141
136,093
107,347
85,257
90,787
60,982
29,828
25,816
51,445
35,907
39,278
42,310
81,511
47,426
35,598
33,916
33,487
30,766
17,800

558
394
134
104
86
137
223
277
246
485
249
98
97
109
54
117
299
491
620
542
533
424
453
347
352
592
1,192
2,159
2,153
1,776
1,708
1,596
1,566
13,173
16,082
12,244
32,793
3,913
51
93
369
1,167
2,892
21,420
18,036
20,925
21,655
25,287
11,659
27,345
36,510
18,652
11,022
12,756
12,600
8,234
8,199
6,852
1,738
1,076
943
954
768
1,027
625
1,331
1,222
723
1,145
1,393
2,251
670

Italy

Other
Southern 10

99

100
8,813
14,893
8,955
3,720
5,250
10,004
7,074
3,663
3 ,809
4,481
3,550
1,224
917
944
901
864
1,730
1,913
2,367
2,392
1,899
1,821
1,916
1,461
991
1,882
3,438
4,647
4,435
4,244
3,939
2,807
2,186
9,150
7,008
6,477
76,409
48,009
3,197
8,471
45,644
46,779
21,441
55,288
43,526
38,249
40,051
37,740
21,729
32,792
52,079
29,975
18,156
22,197
25,492
14,423
10,685
8,360
4,772
4,633
2,893
5,292
2,574
4,537
6,094
8,138
5,047
3,960
2,725
2,959
2,248
1,702

7 Comprises Czechoslovakia (since 1920), Yugoslavia (since 1920), Hungary (since
1861), and Austria (since 1861, except for the years 1938-1945, when Austria was
included with Germany).
8 Comprises U. S. S. R. in Europe, Latvia, Estonia, Lithuania, and Finland.
9 Comprises Rumania, Bulgaria, and Turkey in Europe.
10 Comprises Spain, Portugal, Greece, and other Europe, not elsewhere classified.

C 88-100

INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION AND NATURALIZATION

ies C 88-114. Immigrants, by Country: 1820 to 1957—Con.
Europe
Central Europe

Northwestern Europe
Great
Britain

200
200
427,

368
371
379;
369
297,
226
234,
154,
114,
78.
52,
104,
80,
84,
68,
38,
79,

76;

45,
65,
58,
60:
22;
23,
22,
27,
18,
10,

10,
7,
6,
6,
9,
8,

;xclu
.15 a
nd
i y ,s




Scandi­
navia 3

90
603
788
669
457
177
138
141
169
227
313
459
404
321
387
352
138
315
318
248
193
176
91
91
153
121
123
251

Ireland2
91

92

57,713
65,950
76,606
102,991
81,376
73,273
29,955
22,150
23,581
29,291
47,905
62,021
89,500
84,912
85,455
103,677
84,438
24,127
52,641
94,924
82,465
53,428
66,882
24,639
19.675
29,737
26,163
28,956
58,479
44,658
47,572
58,647
37,576
40,699
51,487
51,085
55,132
35,159
23,302
22,180
19,210
14,353
8,430
22,005
16,188
2,613
10,271
5,420
12,218
13,106
8,970
10,490
4,916
5,331
2,475
1,153
3,179
5,352
4,186
2,319
2,095
1,264
1,100
1,221
3,210
2,410

51,795
63,344
81,486
76,432
72,342
71,603
20,013
15,932
14,569
19,575
37,957
53,707
77,344
68,732
57,439
56,996
40,786
32,068
72,879
36,690
29,772
63,523
55,916
23,351
23,797
48,637
35,216
26,873
54,361
54,349
49,627
101,606
162,649
159,548
221,253
164,004
159,398
112,934
105,536
51,752
44,821
33,490
19,670
51,342
37,772
39,430
23,963
12,645
28,508
30,578
20,927
24,474
8,648
12,436
5,772
2,721
7,415
12,488
9,766
5,408
4,888
2,345
1,908
2,267
1,518
3,614

Other
North­ Germany 5 Poland 6
western 4

40,704
52,728
71,994
105,326
81,582
65,657
21,820
12,254
11,274
12,323
14,322
19,178
35,481
28,575
22,132
30,742
43,941
11,985
8,491
14,495
7,258
2,961
3,119
2,550
850
840
1,590
2,662
2,747
1,330
1,349
4,222
3,396
4,106
2,438
1,589
3,481
1,113
1,320
2,030
982
1,336
1,777
588
226
207
380
112
399
473
68
66
189
334
36
19
30
60
28
26
18
20
7
28
24
23

13,732
18,768
24,271
27,796
26,883
15,042
9,081
6,929
8,621
10,923
11,987
15,998
22,892
15,614
7,174
9,152
10,585
4,293
12,417
13,648
7,992
5,621
3,245
4,386
3,769
5,278
3,727
4,580
6,879
12,403
14,571
23,070
14,205
11,278
20,905
11,470
7,634
9,877
24,336
12,303
9,466
4,343
4,364
5,361
6,077
7,978
7,891
3,839
5,769
5,189
3,369
4,468
5,355
5,695
2,277
1,305
1,065
4,700
1,829
968
719
671
528
522
521
452

ens; therefore for those years, does not
md Iceland.
Lbourg, Switzerland, and France.
ustria-Hungary, Germany, and Russia.

94

93

124,443
179,676
194,786
250,630
210,485
84,638
34,602
29,313
29,298
31,937
47,769
87,291
149,671
141,109
82,554
118,225
131,042
55,831
133,426
115,892
83,424
57,276
33,162
27,529
31,661
54,491
41,784
45,310
91,781
71,028
71,918
215,009
141,946
145,918
72,482
78,896
60,235
58,465
74,281
57,561
34,355
20,731
14,441
20,370
15,291
29,704
21,028
11,683
23,740
20,707
8,311
17,686
6,988
10,194
2,413
1,976
597
1,851
432
511
450
230
183
148
383
968

95
3,085
4,536
2,011
4,672
5,614
2,177
489
547
533
925
984
1,795
3,338
1,647
535
223
184
310
412
528
165
94
63
48
82
106
9
124
20
462
208
33
110
10
5
4
8
4
6
36
17
10
15
5
46
41
81
53
54
54
1
34
2
1
1
1
4
3
3
1
5

Eastern Europe
U. S. S. R.
Other
and
Other
Central 7 Baltic
Eastern 9
States 8
96
97
98
27,309
36,571
27,625
29,150
27,935
17,267
5,963
5,150
5,396
6,276
7,658
8,850
7,112
4,410
4,887
4,425
1,499
192
692
93
422
230
85
111
51

17,158
12,689
9,909
16,918
5,041
5,014
4,453
3,048
6,599
4,775
7,997
4,073
1,634
1,018
673
907
343
141
205
287
183
256
77
79
34
65
91
246
25
9
13
2
3
2
1
31
44
1
5
248
1
13
6
28
174
7
13
19
2
9
15
159
52
1
3
1
7
19
4
10
7
7
10
7
14

941
388
163
134
102
35
29
29
32
38
27
62
53
20
23
6
18
4
26
18
14
11
16
11
5
4
10
17
11
5
9
7
15
3
2
15
9
3
2
4
3
10
5
2
6
1
1
3
1
1
2
1
6
1
2
2
2
4
1

Southern Europe
Italy

Other
Southern 10

99

100

13,642
16,510
31,792
32,159
15,401
12,354
5,791
4,344
3,195
3,015
3,631
7,666
8,757
4,190
2,816
2,891
1,489
891
1,624
1,382
924
600
547
566
811
1,019
932
1,240
1,007
1,365
1,052
1,263
555
351
447
431
209
241
164
151
137
141
117
100
179
37
84
86
36
115
60
105
1,699
3
28
9
23
34
35
57
75
45
33
35
63
30

2,561
2,526
1,944
1,978
1,784
1,631
2,063
1,916
3,097
1,842
2,724
2,142
1,759
1,928
1,457
1,382
1,638
558
1,040
1,075
1,066
1,162
590
425
499
1,056
1,330
1,461
810
916
1,156
1,508
1,198
469
485
797
355
232
163
82
320
292
186
139
288
151
477
231
269
239
219
151
1,155
114
37
27
212
230
422
456
287
377
245
180
209
174

7 Comprises Czechoslovakia (since 1920), Yugoslavia (since 1920), Hungary (since
1861), and Austria (since 1861, except for the years 1938-1945, when Austria was
included with Germany).
8 Comprises U. S. S. R. in Europe, Latvia, Estonia, Lithuania, and Finland.
9 Comprises Rumania, Bulgaria, and Turkey in Europe.
10 Comprises Spain, Portugal, Greece, and other Europe, not elsewhere classified.

57

C 101-114

MIGRATION

Series C 88-114. Immigrants, by Country: 1820 to 1957—Con.
Asia

1957_______________
1956_______________
1955_______________
1954_______________
1953_______________
1952_______________
1951_______________
1950_______________
1949_______________
1948_______________
1947_______________
1946_______________
1945_______________
1944_______________
1943_______________
1942_______________
1941_______________
1940_______________
1939_______________
1938_______________
1937_______________
1936_______________
1935_______________
1934_______________
1933_______________
1932_______________
1931_______________
1930_______________
1929_______________
1928_______________
1927_______________
1926_______________
1925_______________
1924_______________
1923_______________
1922_______________
1921_______________
1920_______________
1919_______________
1918_______________
1917_______________
1916_______________
1915_______________
1914_______________
1913_______________
1912_______________
1911_______________
1910_______________
1909_______________
1908_______________
1907_______________
1906_______________
1905_______________
1904_______________
1903_______________
1902_______________
1901_______________
1900_______________
1899_______________
1898_______________
1897_______________
1896_______________
1895_______________
1894 ______________
1893_______________
1892_______________
1891_______________
1890_______________
1889_______________
1888_______________
1887_______________
1886_______________

Total

Turkey
in
Asia 1

China

101

Year

102

103

20,008
17,327
10,935
9,970
8,231
9,328
3,921
3,779
6,438
10,739
5,823
1,633
442
227
334
564
1,801
1,913
2,162
2,376
1,065
721
682
597
552
1,931
3,345
4,535
3,758
3,380
3,669
3,413
3,578
22,065
13,705
14,263
25,034
17,505
12,674
12,701
12,756
13,204
15,211
34,273
35,358
21,449
17,428
23,533
12,904
28,365
40,524
22,300
23,925
26,186
29,966
22,271
13,593
17,946
8,972
8,637
9,662
6,764
4,495
4,690
2,392
7,678
4,448
1,725
843
615
317

77
48
54
33
13
12
3
13
40
16
22
16
13
15
36
31
16
7
15
11
13
20
31
22
27
43
139
118
70
80
73
37
51
2,820
2,183
1,998
11,735
5,033
19
43
393
1,670
3,543
21,716
23,955
12,788
10,229
15,212
7,506
9,753
8,053
6,354
6,157
5,235
7,118
6,223
5,782
3,962
4,436
4,275
4,732
4,139
2,767
2,488
1,126
593
273
208
15

2,098
1,386
568
254
528
263
335
1,280
3,415
7,203
3,191
252
71
50
65
179
1,003
643
642
613
293
273
229
187
148
750
1,150
1,589
1,446
1,320
1,471
1,751
1,937
6,992
4,986
4,406
4,009
2,330
1,964
1,795
2,237
2,460
2,660
2,502
2,105
1,765
1,460
1,968
1,943
1,397
961
1,544
2,166
4,309
2,209
1,649
2,459
1,247
1,660
2,071
3,363
1,441
539
1,170
472
2,836
1,716
118
26
10
40

Japan2

Other
Asia 3

Total

104

105

106

6,829
5,967
4,150
3,846
2,579
3,814
271
100
529
423
131
14
1
4
20
44
289
102
102
93
132
91
88
86
75
526
653
837
771
550
723
654
723
8,801
5,809
6,716
7,878
9,432
10,064
10,213
8,991
8,680
8,613
8,929
8,281
6,114
4,520
2,720
3,111
15,803
30,226
13,835
10,331
14,264
19,968
14,270
5,269
12,635
2,844
2,230
1,526
1,110
1,150
1,931
1,380
1,136
691
640
404
229
194

11,004
9,926
6,163
5,837
5,111
5,239
3,312
2,386
2,454
3,097
2,479
1,351
357
158
213
310
493
1,161
1,403
1,659
627
337
334
302
302
612
1,403
1,991
1,471
1,430
1,402
971
867
3,452
727
1,143
1,412
710
627
650
1,135
394
395
1,126
1,017
782
1,219
3,633
344
1,412
1,284
567
5,271
2,378
671
129
83
102
32
61
41
74
39
1,589
540
1,218
915
374
140
168
68

134,160
144,713
110,436
95,587
77,650
61,049
47,631
44,191
49,334
52,746
52,753
46,066
29,646
23,084
18,162
16,377
22,445
17,822
17,139
20,486
16,903
11,786
11,174
11,409
9,925
12,577
30,816
88,104
116,177
144,281
161,872
144,393
141,496
318,855
199,972
77,448
124,118
162,666
102,286
65,418
147,779
137,424
111,206
122,695
103,907
95,926
94,364
89,534
82,208
59,997
41,762
24,613
25,217
16,420
11,023
6,698
4,416
5,455
4,316
2,627
4,537
7,303
3,508
3,551
2,593
(8)
5,082
3,833
5,459
5,402
5,270
3,026

1 No record of immigration from Turkey in Asia until 1869.
2 No record of immigration from Japan until 1861.
3 Philippine Islands are included in “ Other Asia” in 1952 (1,179), 1953 (1,074),
il954 (1,234), 1955 (1,598), 1956 (1,792), and 1957 (1,874). From 1934 to 1951,
nclusive, they are included in “All other countries.”

58




America
Canada
and New­ Mexico
found­
land 4
107
108
46,354
42,363
32,435
34,873
36,283
33,354
25,880
21,885
25,156
25,485
24,342
21,344
11,530
10,143
9,761
10,599
11,473
11,078
10,813
14,404
12,011
8,121
7,782
7,945
6,187
8,003
22,183
65,254
66,451
75,281
84,580
93,368
102,753
200,690
117,011
46,810
72,317
90,025
57,782
32,452
105,399
101,551
82,215
86,139
73,802
55,990
56,830
56,555
51,941
38,510
19,918
5,063
2,168
2,837
1,058
636
540
396
1,322
352
291
278
244
194
(6)
(6)
234
183
28
15
9
17

Australasia
Other
America
109

49,321 38 ,485
61,320 41 ,030
43,702 34 299
30,645 30 069
17,183 24 184
9,079 18 616
6,153 15 598
6,744 15 562
8,083 16 095
8,384 18 877
7,558 20 853
7,146 17 576
6,702 11 414
6,598
6 343
4,172
4 229
2,378
3 400
2,824
8 148
2,313
4 431
2,640
3 686
2,502
3 580
2,347
2 545
1,716
1 949
1,560
1 832
1,801
1 663
1,936
1 802
2 403
2,171
5 300
3,333
12,703 10 147
40,154
9 572
59,016
9 984
67,721
9 571
43,316
7 709
5 779
32,964
89,336 28 829
63,768 19 193
19,551 11 087
30,758 21 043
52,361 20 280
29,818 14 686
18,524 ! 14 442
17,869 24 511
18,425 17 448
12,340 16 651
14,614 21 942
11,926 18 179
23,238 16 698
19,889 17 645
18,691 14 288
16,251 14 016
6,067 15 420
1,406 20 438
1,997 17 553
2,637 20 412
1,009 12 574
528
9 437
709
5 353
347
3 529
237
4 822
161
2 833
107
2 168
91
4 155
150
6 875
116
3 148
109
3 248
2 593
(7)
(7)
(6)
4 848
(7)
3 650
(7)
5 431
(7)
5 387
(7)
5 261
(7)
3 009
(7)

Africa,
total

Total

110

111

112

1,600
1,351
1,203
1,248
989
931
845
849
995
1,027
1,284
1,516
406
112
141
473
564
202
218
174
155
105
118
104
71
186
417
572
509
475
520
529
412
900
548
520
1,301
648
189
299
566
894
934
1,539
1,409
1,009
956
1,072
858
1,411
1,486
712
757
686
176
37
173
30
51
48
37
21
36
24
(6)
(6)
103
112
187
65
40
122

1,458
1,346
1,028
910
782
578
527
517
776
1,336
2,960
6,106
1,663
615
160
163
255
228
222
248
174
165
141
147
137
303
652
1,051
636
606
746
591
462
679
759
915
2,281
2,185
1,310
1,090
1,142
1,574
1,399
1,446
1,340
898
1,043
1,097
892
1,179
1,989
1,733
2,166
1,555
1,349
566
498
428
810
201
199
112
155
244
248
267
1,301
1,167
2,196
2,387
1,282
1,136

1,228
1,171
932
845
742
545
490
460
661
1,218
2,821
6 ,009
1 ,625
577
120
120
194
207
213
228
145
147
132
130
122
291
616
1 ,026
619
578
712
556
416
635
711
855
2,191
2 ,066
1 ,234
925
1 ,014
1 ,484
1 ,282
1 ,336
1,229
794
984
998
839
1 ,098
1 ,947
1 ,682
2 ,091
1 ,461
1 ,150
384
325
214
456
153
139
87
155
244
248
267
777
699
1,,000
697
528
522

Australia Other
and New Pacific
Zealand Islands 3
113
230
175
96
65
40
33
37
57
115
118
139
97
38
38
40
43
61
21
9
20
29
18
9
17
15
12
36
25
17
28
34
35
46
44
48
60
90
119
76
165
128
90
117
110
111
104
59
99
53
81
42
51
75
94
199
182
173
214
354
48
60
25
(6)
(6)
524
468
1,196
1,690
754
614

All
other
coun­
tries 3
114
16
22
3,597
8,341
430
8
3,248
736
1,182
1,178
937
548
19
4
8
51
170
137
119
116
84
72
63
3

58
15
25
130
702
46
47
77
31
31
136
23
15
39
43
49
17
22
533,012
161
90
25
103
1
13
217

70
5,173
8,520
70
62
70
61
73
73

4 Prior to 1920 Canada and Newfoundland were recorded as British North America.
From 1820 to 1898 the figures include all British North American possessions.
5 Includes 32,897 persons returning to their homes in the United States.
6 Included in “All other countries.”
7 No record of immigration from Mexico for 1886 to 1893.

C 101-114

INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION AND NATURALIZATION

Series C 88-114. Immigrants, by Country: 1820 to 1957—Con.
Australasia
Total

1885_
1884_
1883 _
1882_
1881_
1880_
1879_
1878,
1877_
1876_
1875_
1874.
1873_
1872_
1871_
1870_
1869_
1868_
18671866_
18651864186318621861_
I860.
1859_
1858_
18571856_
1855_
1854_
1853_
1852_
185118501849 _
1848_
18471846_
1845_
1844_
1843_
184218411840183918381837_
18361835183418331832_
1831_
1830_
1829_
18281827_
1826_
18251824_
1823_
1822_
18211820_

198
510
8,113
39,629
11,982
5,839
9,660
9,014
10,640
22,943
16,499
13,838
20,325
7,825
7,240
15,825
12,949
5,171
3,961
2,411
2,947
2,982
7,216
3,640
7,528
5,476
3,461
5,133
5,945
4,747
3,540
13,100
47
4
2
7
11
8
12
11

6
6
11
7

Turkey
in
Asia 1

Japan2

22

4
31
7
3
8

1

6
3

279
8,031
39,579
11,890
5,802
9,604
8,992
10,594
22,781
16,437
13,776
20,292
7,788
7,135
15,740
12,874
5,157
3,863
2,385
2,942
2,975
7,214
3,633
7,518
5,467
3,457
5,128
5,944
4,733
3,526
13,100
42

49
20
27
5
11

4
4
2
7
4
3
21
9
17
78
48
63
67
7

Other
Asia 3

127
55
45
76
29
21
13
36
150
58
35

Total

203
339
729
129
577
101 692
33 043
27 204
24 065
24 686
26 640
35 339
40 335
21
42 205
20
23 48 835
37 42 658
23 767
10
3 415
14
31 24 715
19 33 582
5 22 778
4 607
7
4 147
2
4 175
7
2 763
9
6 343
9
5 466
4
5 821
5
6 811
1 9 058
14
260
14
533
_____
030
695
4
703
2
768
4
904
989
231
525
035
740
854
994
429
815
617
990
1
628
11
936
4
312
9
6
779
282
3
4
871
194
1
296
299
090
580
831
846
559
382
378
303
387
211

63
71
100
127

1 No record of immigration from Turkey in Asia until 1869.
2 No record of immigration from Japan until 1861.
3 Philippine Islands are included in “ Other Asia” in 1952 (1,179), 1953 (1,074),




Canada
and New­
found­
land 4
107
38,336
60,626
70,274
98,366
125,450
99,744
31,286
25,592
22,137
22,505
24,097
33,020
37,891
40,204
47,164
40,414
21,120
2,785
23,379
32,150
21,586
3,636
3,464
3,275
2,069
4,514
4,163
4,603
5,670
6,493
7,761
6,891
5,424
6,352
7,438
9,376
6,890
6,473
3,827
3,855
3,195
2,711
1,502
2,078
1,816
1,938
1,926
1,476
1,279
2,814
1.193
1,020
1.194
608
176
189
409
267
165
223
314
155
167
204
184
209

Other
America

323
430
469
366
325
492
556
465
445
631
610
386
606
569
402
463
320
129
292
239
193
99
96
142
218
229
265
429
133
741
420
446
162
72
181
597
518
24
62

222

498
197
398
403
352
395
353
211
627
798
1,032
885
779
827
692
983
2,290
1,089
127
106
68
110
35
5
4

2,544
2,283
986
1,397
1,802
1,456
1,201
1,147
1,483
1,550
1.933
1.933
1,838
1,432
1,269
1,781
2,327
501
1,044
1,193
999
872
587
758
476
1,600
1,038
789
1,008
1,824
1,079
1,196
444
1,271
2,084
5,795
1,496
1,492
1.342
1,448
1.342
832
954
1,513
1,261
1,482
1,338
1,303
1,722
1,324
1,087
874
1,309
1,436
1,326
1 600
124
734
288
502
464
294
180
169
115
177

Africa,
total

112

59
67
60
33
18
12
18
16
89
54
58
28
41
24
31
72
3
25
33
49
37
3
12
47
126
11
17
25
6
14

3
10
4
14
6
3
14
6
10
10
2
6
14

1
1

2
2
2
1
6
4

Total

679
900
747
889
1,191
954
816
606
914
1,312
1,268
1,193
1,414
2,416
21
36

Australia Other
and New Pacific
Zealand Islands 3
449
502
554
878
1,188
953
813
606
912
1,205
1,104
960
1,135
2,180
18
36

230
398
193
11
3

1

3
2
107
164
233
279
236

All
other
coun­
tries 3

71
98
79
99
103
63
36
15
27
36
76
128
160
164
85
27
17
161
3,270
3,626
8,298
559
1,183
448
380
486
1,395
801
22,301
542
334
658
984
1,420
248
45,882
1,605
495
608
2,564
25
110
612
616
627
118
294
1,843
4,660
831
44
5,069
26,243
23,412
7,397
13,807
6,695
554
1,571
254
2,387
1,956
2,114

2,886

301

1954 (1,234), 1955 (1,598), 1956 (1,792), and 1957 (1,874). From 1934 to 1951,
inclusive, they are included in “All other countries.”
4 Prior to 1920 Canada and Newfoundland were recorded as British North America.
From 1820 to 1898 the figures include all British North American possessions.

59

C 115-125

MIGRATION

Series C 115-132. Immigrants, by Major Occupation Group: 1820 to 1957
[For years ending June 30, except: 1820-1831 and 1844-1850, years ending Sept. 30; and 1833-1842 and 1850-1866, years ending Dec. 31; 1832 covers 15 months ending Dec. 31;
1843, 9 months ending Sept. 30; 1851, 15 months ending Dec. 31]

1957___________
1956___________
1955___________
1954___________
1953___________
1952___________
1951___________
1950___________
1949_________
1948___________
1947___________
1946___________
1945___________
1944___________
1943,__________
1942___________
1941___________
1940___________
1939___________
1938___________
1937___________
1936___________
1935___________
1934___________
1933-__________
1932___________
1931.__________
1930___________
1929___________
1928___________
1927-__________
1926-__________
1925___________
1924-_-________
1923___________
1922___________
1921___________
1920___________
1919___________
1918___________
1917___________
1916__-________
1915___________
1914___________
1913___________
1912___________
1911___________
1910___________
1909___________
1908___________
1907___________
1906___________
1905___________
1904___________
1903___________
1902___________
1901___________
1900___________
1899___________

Professional,
technical,
and kindred
workers

Farmers
and
farm
managers

115

Year

Total

116

117

24,489
18,995
14,109
13,817
12,783
16,496
15,269
20,502
13,884
12,619
10,891
6,198
2,852
2,616
2,695
3,518
6,232
6,802
7,199
5,418
4,130
2,564
2,244
2,101
1,615
2,100
4,120
8,585
8,792
9,332
9,883
9,203
8,942
20,926
13,926
9,696
12,852
10,540
5,261
3,529
7,499
9,024
11,453
13,454
12,552
10,913
11,275
9,689
7,603
10,504
12,016
13,015
12,582
12,195
6,999
2,937
2,665
2,392
1,972

3,506
5,727
4,446
3,846
3,393
10,566
10,214
17,642
8,937
4,884
3,462
947
497
349
235
254
356
847
1,186
1,508
852
535
593
425
292
403
2,743
8,375
8,309
8,773
10,324
9,720
13,875
20,320
12,503
7,676
22,282
12,192
3,933
2,583
7,764
6,840
6,518
14,442
13,180
7,664
9,709
11,793
8,914
7,720
13,476
15,288
18,474
4,507
13,363
8,168
3,035
5,433
3,973

326,867 !
321,625 1
237,790
208,177
170,434
265,520
205,717
249,187
188,317
170,570
147,292
108,721
38,119
28,551
23,725
28,781
51,776
70,756
82,998
67,895
50,244
36,329
34,956
29,470
23,068
35,576
97,139
241,700
279,678
307,255
335,175
304,488
294,314
706,896
522,919
309,556
805,228
430,001
141,132
110,618
295,403
298,826
326,700
1,218,480
1,197,892
838,172
878,587
1,041,570
751,786
782,870
1,285,349
1,100,735
1,026,499
812,870
857,046
648,743
487,918
448,572
311,715

60



Managers,
officials,
and
proprietors,
exc. farm
118
6,127
5,814
5,114
5,296
5,025
5,968
5,493
6,396
6,014
6,207
5,886
3,616
1,457
894
988
2,305
5,640
7,415
8,929
5,408
3,422
1,782
1,347
1,207
690
1,331
2,384
4,620
4,709
5,287
5,772
5,374
5,508
15,668
12,086
9,573
18,286
9,654
4,247
3,940
8,329
8,725
10,728
21,903
19,094
14,715
15,416
14,731
11,562
16,410
20,132
23,515
27,706
26,914
15,603
9,340
8,294
7,216
6,815

Clerical,
sales, and
kindred
workers
119
25,897
23,413
18,060
16,018
15,171
16,724
14,098
16,796
14,797
15,298
13,961
8,378
3,715
2,368
1,840
1,638
2,837
4,361
4,794
3,119
2,126
1,449
1,024
933
600
919
4,229
14,414
15,354
16,344
20,140
19,086
15,363
27,373
17,931
10,055
18,922
14,054
6,524
4,239
10,554
9,907
9,377
17,933
15,173
13,782
14,723
12,219
8,467
11,523
12,735
12,226
12,759
11,055
7,226
3,836
3,197
2,870
2,473

Craftsmen,
foremen,
operatives,
and kindred
workers
120
46,338
44,950
34,218
32,151
26,975
42,315
34,041
41,450
27,964
23,816
19,306
8,826
4,511
3,533
2,587
2,061
3,513
5,710
6,532
5,697
3,996
2,490
2,689
2,267
1,821
2,053
9,555
32,474
36,437
42,765
42,394
38,682
36,927
123,923
87,899
40,309
109,710
55,991
21,671
17,501
38,660
36,086
45,591
149,515
139,091
107,893
128,717
121,847
75,730
106,943
169,394
156,902
159,442
133,748
110,644
71,131
57,346
54,793
38,608

Private
household
workers
121
11,457
15,347
11,824
8,096
6,852
9,653
7,243
8,900
6,990
6.389
4,922
2,464
1,495
1,125
770
872
1,503
2,891
5,420
5,919
3,213
1,944
1,418
805
550
1,232
9,740
29,073
31,841
28,751
31,344
30,587
26,924
51,680
52,223
44,531
102,478
37,197
6,277
7,816
31,885
29,258
39,774
144,409
140,218
116,529
107,153
96,658
64,568
89,942
121,587
115,984
125,473
104,937
92,686
69,913
42,027
40,311
34,120

Service
workers,
exc.
private
household
122
8,761
7,922
6,512
5,203
4,390
6,418
5,292
4,970
3,937
4,350
3,882
2,153
1,047
811
707
740
829
949
1,979
1,794
1,426
1,056
1,390
1,216
933
1,063
3,128
6,749
6,820
8,846
10,070
14;340
15,399
29,261
22,244
12,340
24,298
18,487
11,571
6,367
11,784
10,989
11,976
19,621
17,609
13,580
11,051
8,977
5,849
10,367
13,578
10,439
5,849
6,400
11,482
6,298
5,352
4,406
4,580

Farm
laborers
and
foremen

Laborers,
exc.
farm and
mine

No
occu­
pation

123

124

125

4,585
9,050
5,486
1,622
1,538
6,289
4,972
3,976
933
946
442
189
225
203
164
92
129
252
415
609
378
324
408
233
134
254
3,422
13,736
19,849
24,161
23,698
17,390
16,022
27,492
25,905
10,529
32,400
15,257
4,412
4,538
22,328
26,250
24,723
288,053
320,105
184,154
176,003
288,745
171,310
138,844
323,854
239,125
142,187
85,850
77,518
80,562
54,753
31,949
17,343

21,826
27,807
17,518
10,061
5,369
8,969
5,481
5,693
6,192
4,826
2,831
1,473
886
1,030
681
493
732
2,120
2,070
2,411
1,904
1,195
1,355
1,154
887
1,157
4,806
18,080
27,873
37,904
55,989
45,199
36,610
112,344
86,617
33,797
162,859
83,496
18,922
15,142
52,182
56,981
49,620
228,935
223,682
137,872
158,518
216,909
176,490
147,940
293,868
228,781
290,009
212,572
321.824
243,399
162,563
164,261
92,452

173,881
162,600
120,503
112,067
88,938
142,122
103,614
122,862
98,669
91,235
81,709
74,477
21,434
15,622
13,058
16,808
30,005
39,409
44,474
36,012
28,797
22,990
22,488
19,129
15,546
25,064
53,012
105,594
119,694
125,092
125,561
114,907
118,744
277,909
191,585
131,050
301,141
173,133
58,314
44,963
104,418
104,766
116,940
320,215
297,188
231,070
246,022
260,002
221,293
242,677
304,709
285,460
232,018
214,692
199,701
153,159
148,686
134,941
109,379

INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION AND NATURALIZATION

C 115-132

Series C 115-132. Immigrants, by Major Occupation Group: 1820 to 1957—Con.
Year
18981897_
1896_
1895_
1894_
1893 _
1892 _
1891_
1890_
1889 _
1888_
1887_
1886_
18851884_
1883_.
1882
1881_
1880_.
1879_.
1878_.
1877_.
1876_.
1875_.
1874_.
1873
1872_.
1871
1870_.
1869_.
1868_.
1867_.
1866_.
1865..
1864_.
1863_.
1862_.
1861-.
1860_.
1859_.
1858_.
1857_.
1856_.
1855_.
1854__
1853
1852
1851-.
1850_.
1849_.
1848_.
1847..
1846_.
1845_.
1844_ .
1843..
1842
1841_.
1840_.
1839_.
1838_.
1837_.
1836..
1835_.
1834_.
1833
1832
1831_.
1830
1829_.
1828_.
1827_.
1826_.
1825_.
1824_.
1823
1822_.
1821_.
1820
1 For 1820-1867 includes returning citizens.




T otal1

No
occupation

Professional Commercial

Skilled

Laborers

Farmers

131
229,299
230,832
343,267
258,536
285,631
439,730
579,663
560,319
455,302
444,427
546,889
490,109
334.203
395,346
518,592
603,322
788,992
669,431
457,257
177,826
138,469
141,857
169,986
227,498
313,339
459,803
404,806
321,350
387.203
352,768
282,189
342,162
359,957
287,399
221,535
199,811
114,463
112,702
179,691
155,509
144,906
271.982
224,496
230,476
460,474
400.982
397,343
474,398
315,334
299,683
229,483
239,482
158,649
119,896
84,764
56,529
110,980
87,805
92,207
74,666
45,159
84,959
80,972
48,716
67,948
59,925
61,654
23,880
24,837
24,513
30,184
21,777
13,908
12,858
9,627
8,265
8,549
11,644
10,311

90,569
91,624
123,196
92,193
113,247
209,767
255,832
248,635
195,770
208,761
243,900
224,073
157,952
211,730
277,052
322,318
402,835
355,670
217,446
81,772
62,622
63,316
71,111
106,723
155,122
239,307
213,959
172.215
207,174
181,453
150,983
182,794
202,456
161,580
106.656
99,039
62,860
60,760
93,925
78,228
71,320
153,963
130,647
117,603
235.216
223,390
223,861
257,376
188,931
157.657
118,528
126,005
91,132
65,055
49,843
32,842
60,526
46,197
47,305
37,985
24,627
52,011
50,684
28,736
45,906
30,944
33,840
15,218
19,363
15,535
18,066
12,415
7,478
7,031
4,965
4,247
4,302
6,670
6,836

1,347
1,732
2,324
2,029
1,791
2,362
2,932
3,431
3,236
2,815
3,360
2,882
2,078
2,097
2,284
2,450
2,992
2,812
1,773
1,639
1,510
1,885
2,400
2,426
2,476
2,980
1,905
2,247
1,831
1,700
1,398
2,288
2,242
1,743
1,120
1,173
788
668

792
858
662
570
462
780
699
722
572
938
918
972
517
703
592
542
755
578
744
541
481
584
459
522
472
487
561
459
176
183
136
252
331
262
190
204
187
179
151
204
105

5.959
7,159
6,174
5,314
6,033
837
2.683
11,340
7,802
7,359
7,597
8,032
6,237
6,707
7.691
8,280
10,102
9,371
7,916
5,202
4,475
4,667
4,963
5,029
5,641
7,593
7,156
5,553
7,139
8,837
8,556
14,706
15,827
12,700
9,473
7,590
7,774
7.683
11,207
12,495
10,217
12,114

11,101

14,759
15,173
12,782
11,502
14,983
6,400
3,508
3,407
4,218
4,189
5,049
3.960
3,226
4,976
5,267
5,311
5.692
4,005
3,893
3,379
3,875
3,021
4,913
5,424
2,368
1.427
2,661
2,328
2,076
1,943
1,841
1,926
1.427
1,431
1,441
933

33.145
33,161
46,807
43,844
49,736
51.145
63,128
54,951
44,540
50.457
59.985
52,403
36.522
39,817
55.061
62,505
72,664
66.457
49,929
21,362
16,531
21,006
24,200
33,803
38,700
48,792
44,967
33,577
35,698
33,345
32,197
44,097
41,091
36.522
26,542
24,155
11.986
11,601
19,342
24,628
18,742
26.062
18,797
17,463
36,468
20,806
27,176
36,297
26,369
32,021
24,705
25,895
13,250
10,857
9,476
6,093
14,553
11,111

10,811
10,026
5,675
8,483
8,879
6,005
7,190
12,800
10,333
2,383
1,745
2,579
3,868
3,056
2,129
1,416
1,237
1,268
1,397
1,533
1,090

16,243
22,560
29,251
13,055
21,762
34,070
51,630
36,398
29,296
28,962
29,335
30,932
20,600
27,585
42,050
39,048
61,888
58,028
47,204
19,907
14,843
13.188
14,536
16,447
28,775
36,983
38,159
27,042
35,656
28,102
23,046
32,626
30,302
20,012

13,837
12.348
9,265

11,668

21,742
16,323
20,506
34,702
24,722
34,693
87.188
56,322
58,023
59,095
42,873
39,675
31,670
43,594
27,944
19.349
9,831
8,031
12,966
12,343
18,476
12,410
6,667
10,835
8,770
6,117
7,160
6,618
8,502
2,685
1,424
1,264
2,542
2,071
1,382
1,647
918
800
834
1,249
874

23,656
23,739
38,926
35,960
29,653
(2)
(2)
32,596
28,625
30,220
27,310
27,510
20,198
20,213
24,249
27,988
23,010
19,342
18,580
6,804
6.157
5.158
6,493
10,579
12,427
16,259
11,108
13,814
14,261
10,265
6,561
7,715
8,883
9,231
15,623
9,103
3,683
739
1,415
1,281
1,142
1,322
1,748
2,598
3,357
3,938
942
3,733
3,203
3,671
4,433
3,198
3,349
2,492
1,174
413
1,264
923
183
99
42
120

599
1,236
82
56
115
22
337
421
136
70
69
13
6
20
94
139

52,531
46.198
91,262
61,430
56,732
114,295
171,483
167,290
139,365
111,809
170,273
140,938
86,853
83,068
106,478
136,071
209,605
147,816
105,012
36,897
26,656
25,482
38,847
46,877
65,895
104,423
85,934
65,936
84,577
88,649
59,151
57,419
58,629
45,247
48,041
46.198
17,752
19,413
31,268
21,696
22,317
43,249
37,019
42,580
82,373
83,022
75,267
101,976
46,640
62,179
46,223
35,869
18,193
16,552
9,725
5,346
15,951
11,423
9,640
7,870
3,684
9,095
8,749
2,897
2,874
4,109
3,323
928
720
1,885
2,628
1,761
716
650
381
338
414
453
334

Miscel­
laneous
132
5,849
4,659
5,327
4,711
6.677
2 27,254
231,975
5.678
6,668

4,044
5.129
3,339
3,763
4.129
3,727
4,662
5,896
9,935
9,397
4,243
5,675
7,155
7,436
5,614
4,303
3,466
1,618
966
867
417
297
517
527
364
243
205
355
170

Servants included with “miscellaneous” (series C 132).

61

C 133-138

MIGRATION

Series C 133-138. Immigrants, by Age: 1820 to 1957

[For years ending as follows: 1820-1832, ending Sept. 30; 1833-1842, ending Dec. 31; 1844-1850, ending Sept. 30; 1851-1865, ending Dec. 31; 1867-1957, ending June 30.
For intermediate periods, see footnotes]
Year

Total
Number 1 Percent
male
133
134

1957
1956
1955
1954.
1953
1952.
1951
1950
1949
1948.
1947.
1946.
1945
1944.
1943
1942.
1941.
1940.
1939.
1938.
1937.
1936.
1935.
1934.
1933.
1932.
1931.
1930.
1929.
1928.
1927.
1926.
1925.
1924.
1923
1922
1921.
1920
1919
1918

326,867
321,625
237,790
208,177
170,434
265,520
205,717
249,187
188,317
170,570
147,292
108,721
38,119
28,551
23,725
28,781
51,776
70,756
82,998
67,895
50,244
36,329
34,956
29,470
23,068
35,576
97,139
241,700
279,678
307,255
335,175
304,488
294,314
706,896
522,919
309,556
805,228
430,001
141,132
110,618

47.5
48.6
47.1
45.9
42.9
46.6
48.3
47.8
42.7
39.5
36.5
25.1
35.1
40.0
41.4
41.7
45.4
47.3
47.5
44.1
43.1
40.7
40.1
41.1
40.0
39.1
41.8
48.4
50.8
54.0
57.9
56.0
55.5
59.9
58.8
48.4
55.8
57.6
59.0
55.9

1917.
1916.
1915.
1914.
1913.
1912.
1911
1910
1909
1908
1907
1906
1905
1904
1903
1902
1901
1900
1899

295,403
298,826
326,700
1,218,480
1,197,892
838,172
878,587
1,041,570
751,786
782,870
1,285,349
1,100,735
1,026,499
812,870
857,046
648,743
487,918
448,572
311,715

59.1
61.0
57.2
65.6
67.5
63.2
64.9
70.7
69.2
64.8
72.4
69.5
70.6
67.6
71.5
71.9
67.9
67.8
62.6

1898.
1897
1896
1895
1894
1893
1892
1891

229,299
230,832
343,267
279,948
314,467
502,917
623,084
560,319

59.2
58.5
61.9
57.6
59.3
63.8
62.4
63.2

Under 16
years

16 to 44
years

45 and
over

135

136

137

80,140 207,664
74,429 206,770
51,829 156,001
45.105 135,731
37,016 110,860
64,513 159,788
44,023 121,823
50,468 152,358
32,728 123,340
24,095 112,453
18,831 101,459
85,797
11,092
5,645
25,482
4,092 218,511
3,179 215,282
3,710 2 17,529
7,982 230,747
9,602 245,026
12,204
54,235
10,181
47,068
8,326
33,907
6,925
23,391
6,893
22,557
5,389
18,987
4,131
15,033
6,781
22,905
17,320
67,100
40,777 177,059
47,935 207,990
49,680 230,832
51,689 254,574
47,347 228,527
50,722 213,980
132,264 513,788
91,816 383,960
63,710 210,164
146,613 587,965
81,890 307,589
26,373
97,341
21,349
76,098
Under
14 to 44
14 years
years
47,467 214,616
47,070 220,821
52,982 244,472
158,621 981,692
147,158 986,355
113,700 678,480
117,837 714,709
120,509 868,310
88,393 624,876
112,148 630,671
138,344 1,100,771
136,273 913,955
114,668 855,419
109,150 657,155
102,431 714,053
74,063 539,254
62,562 396,516
54,624 370,382
43,983 248,187
Under
15 to 40
15 years
years
38,267 164,905
38,627 165,181
52,741 254,519
33,289 233,543
41,755 258,162
57,392 419,701
89,167 491,839
95,879 405,843

39,063
40,426
29,960
27,341
22,558
41,219
39,871
46,361
32,249
34,022
27,002
11,832
6,992
2 5,948
25,264
2 7,542
213,047
2 16,128
16,559
10,646
8,011
6,013
5,506
5,094
3,904
5,890
12,719
23,864
23,753
26,743
28,912
28,614
29,612
60,844
47,143
35,682
70,650
40,522
17,418
13,171
45 and
over
33,320
30,935
29,246
78,167
64,379
45,992
46,041
52,751
38,517
40,051
46,234
50,507
56,412
46,565
40,562
35,426
28,840
23,566
19,545
Over
40
26,127
27,024
36,007
13,116
14,550
25,824
42,078
58,597

Year
1890
1889
1888
1887
1886
1885
1884
1883
1882
1881
1880
1879
1878
1877
1876
1875
1874
1873
1872
1871
1870
1869
1868
1867
1866 4
1865
1864
1863
1862
1861
1860
1859
1858
1857
1856
1855
1854
1853
1852
1851
1850
1850
1849
1848
1847
1846
1845
1844
1843 6
1842
1841
1840
1839
1838
1837
1836
1835
1834
1833
1832 5
1832
1831
1830
1829
1828
1827
1826
1825
1824
1823
1822
1821
1820

1 For 1820-1867 includes returning citizens.
2 For years 1940-1944, figures in series C 136 include, and those in series C 137
exclude, immigrants 45 years old.
* N ot reported.

62



Total
Number 1 Percent
male
133
134
455,302
444,427
546,889
490,109
334.203
395,346
518,592
603,322
788,992
669,431
457,257
177,826
138,469
141,857
169,986
227,498
313,339
459,803
404,806
321,350
387.203
352,768
282,189
342,162
185,892
287,399
221,535
199,811
114,463
112,702
179,691
155,509
144,906
271.982
224,496
230,476
460,474
400.982
397,343
408,828
65,570
315,334
299,683
229,483
239,482
158,649
119,896
84,764
56,529
110,980
87,805
92,207
74,666
45,159
84,959
80,972
48,716
67,948
59,925
7,303
54,351
23,880
24,837
24,513
30,184
21,777
13,908
12,858
9,627
8,265
8,549
11,644
10,311

61.9
59.2
63.2
62.6
60.1
57.3
59.5
60.3
63.2
61.4
62.9
62.9
62.3
64.9
65.8
61.5
60.4
60.0
59.3
59.3
60.8
60.9
(3)
62.0
62.7
59.9
59.4
60.1
58.4
57.1
58.6
58.2
57.8
53.9
57.8
58.8
57.6
56.7
58.8
57.7
62.2
60. 0
58..9
57. 9
57. 5
57..7
56..0
57 .4
61 .0
61 .5
64 .2
64 .0
63 .3
63 .4
63 .8
62 .0
67 .8
67 .5
65 .6
64.4
72.5
65.2
65.4
71.7
70.9
74.2
80.1
79.0
77.5
74.2
69.8

4 6 months ending June 30.
5 3 months ending December 31.
8 9 months ending September 30.

Under 15
years

15 to 40
years

Over 40

Age not
reported

135

136

137

138

86,404
92,534
97,287
94,278
66,188
92,880
123,562
143,865
171,021
153,480
87,154
34,554
24,285
23,754
27,875
44,254
63,578
104,672
90,510
71,148
89,129
79,803
57,637
65,335
27,011
46,524
41,912
37,433
20,641
18,878
28,620
24,670
25,914
50,548
42,732
53,045
100,013
87,331
90,274
89,241
13,825
62,543
67,331
53,213
57,161
36,878
26,182
19,913
14,930
25,516
19,732
21,727
15,167
8,822
16,014
16,665
10,635
15,383
17,425
1,946
16,485
7,040
2,878
3,686
8,117
3,905
2,261
1,825
94
17
51
170
1,313

315,054
303,835
396,990
345,575
232,118
257,551
335,572
390,406
540,677
454,495
327,662
122,731
95,938
100,366
121,734
154,621
199,840
288,272
263,213
210,366
250,965
232,397
188,359
236,017
112,692
175,501
151,711
142,009
80,725
81,515
133,919
114,110
102,921
177,093
141,986
151,440
312,301
267,876
246,076
274,359
43,699
181,468
200,899
151,148
156,627
103,263
79,448
54,745
34,606
74,499
58,864
62,461
51,063
28,713
54,312
54,738
32,412
42,811
35,002
3,774
31,069
13,598
6,347
11,603
18,397
14,089
10,025
9,392
6,550
5,314
5,430
7,047
6,064

53,844
48,058
52,612
50,256
35,897
44,915
59,458
69,051
77,294
61,456
42,441
20,541
18,246
17,737
20,377
28,623
49,921
66,859
51,083
39,836
47,109
40,568
36,193
40,810
18,034
32,190
27,778
20,108
12,888
11,221
16,795
16,115
15,545
22,808
19,905
25,155
47,377
44,558
43,394
44,072
7,621
26,085
30,679
23,066
20,800
17,160
12,059
8,655
5,197
9,709
8,590
7,556
7,201
5,748
8,421
8,141
5,431
6,818
4,855
425
4,273
1,863
1,173
1,764
3,036
2,148
1,281
1,151
1,106
984
956
1,396
1,518

_____
28,155
33,184
134
261
209
1,088
357
614
526
21,533
19,873
836
783
1,217
17,599
1,156
425
45,238
774
2,056
4,894
1,348
2,207
1,451
1,796
1,256
619
463
1,235
1,876
6,212
1,428
238
2,936
2,643
1,158
2,524
1,379
14,439
7,460
634
1,635
341
490
1,877
1,950
2,112
3,031
1,416

INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION AND NATURALIZATION

C 139-155

Series C 139-151. Annual Quota and Aliens Admitted, by Classes: 1925 to 1957
[For years ending June 30]
N onimmigrants

Immigrants
Nonquota

1957__ ____
1956__ ____
1955______ _
1954________
1953________
1952_ _
1951______
1950________
1949________
1948________
1947__ __
1946-1945________
1944________
1943________
1942_-_ _
1941______
1940________
1939________
1938________
1937_
1936 1935________
1934________
1933________
1932________
1931________
1930________
1929________
1928________
1927________
1926________
1925________

Annual
quota

Total

Quota 1

139

Year

140

141

154,857
154,657
154,657
154,657
15.4,657
154,277
154,277
154,206
153.929
153.929
153,929
153,879
153,879
153,774
153.774
153.774
153.774
153,774
153.774
153.774
153.774
153.774
153.774
153.774
153.831
153.831
153,714
153,714
164.667
164.667
164.667
164.667
164.667

326,867
321,625
237,790
208,177
170,434
265,520
205,717
249,187
188,317
170,570
147,292
108,721
38,119
28,551
23,725
28,781
51,776
70,756
82,998
67,895
50,244
36,329
34,956
29,470
23,068
35,576
97,139
241,700
279,678
307,255
335,175
304,488
294,314

Spouses
Natives
and
of Western
children of Hemisphere
U. S.
citizens countries 2
142
143

97,178
89,310
82,232
94,098
84,175
194,247
156,547
197,460
113,046
92,526
70,701
29,095
11,623
9,394
9,045
14,597
36,220
51,997
62,402
42,494
27,762
18,675
17,207
12,483
8,220
12,983
54,118
141,497
146,918
153,231
158,070
157,432
145,971

32,359
31,742
30,882
30,689
22,543
19,315
11,462
16,275
35,854
36,830
38,739
49,267
3,078
1,302
875
1,262
2,122
5,474
7,043
10,262
9,536
8,824
9,228
7,891
6,658
9,490
17,264
32,105
30,245
25,678
18,361
11,061
7,159

113,488
124,032
94,274
80,526
61,099
48,408
35,274
33,238
36,394
37,968
35,640
29,502
22,828
17,614
13,522
12,596
12,586
11,985
12,223
14,379
12,152
8,066
7,747
8,237
7,549
9,461
21,287
63,147
97,548
123,534
147,399
134,305
139,389

Temporary Transit
aliens
visitors

Total

Other 3

Students

144

145

146

147

83,842
76,541
30,402
2,864
2,617
3,550
2,434
2,214
3,023
3,246
2,212
857
590
241
283
326
848
1,300
1,330
760
794
764
774
859
641
3,642
4,470
4,951
64,967
6 4,812
6 11,345
1,690
1,795

758,858
686,259
620,946
566,613
485,714
516,082
465,106
426,837
447,272
476,006
366,305
203,469
164,247
113,641
81,117
82,457
100,008
138,032
185,333
184,802
181,640
154,570
144,765
134,434
127,660
139,295
183,540
204,514
199,649
193,376
202,826
191,618
164,121

537,760
471,969
401,090
353,754
306,715
356,351
314,205
287,794
299,083
284,983
214,558
134,826
107,729
48,689
27,700
25,135
34,660
65,325
88,309
79,840
89,455
73,313
61,633
49,833
36,899
40,465
55,636
70,823
64,310
64,581
60,508
56,614
35,326

107,399
65,214
71,301
78,526
67,684
77,899
72,027
68,640
81,615
124,780
96,825
31,124
28,174
34,856
31,906
28,305
18,749
36,304
44,115
45,146
31,822
26,571
24,931
23,687
22,693
28,678
32,169
27,991
27,776
27,257
28,312
25,574
22,697

1 Includes persons admitted under the Displaced Persons Act of 1948, as amended,
of whom there were 39,899 in 1949, 132,577 in 1950, 97,960 in 1951, 119,982 in 1952,
5,123 in 1953, 5,235 in 1954, and 1,093 in 1955. In addition, between 1949 and 1953,
inclusive, 4,157 displaced persons were admitted as nonquota immigrants.
2 Includes spouses and children.
3 Includes persons admitted under the Refugee Relief Act of 1953, of whom there
were 821 in 1954, 29,002 in 1955, 75,473 in 1956, and 82,444 in 1957.

Foreign
government Returning
and
resident
international aliens
officials

148

149

30,760
28,013
27,192
25,425
13,533
8,613
7,355
9,744
10,481
11,914
11,003
5,855
2,866
1,643
1,021
1,368
1,766
2,044
2,182
2,451
1,828
1,515
1,377
1,048
877
147
272
552
561
517
524
1,878
1,397

34,904
32,299
32,291
28,696
30,614
27,404
26,407
18,985
18,445
20,881
20,320
17,689
18,054
23,630
16,328
12,038
9,269
7,448
7,777
6,221
6,493
5,312
5,194
4,363
4,053
2,966
3,951
5,326
5,273
5,340
4,769
5,638
1,930

150
510,617
52,136
61,442
55,887
50,397
44,980
44,212
40,903
36,984
32,464
22,818
13,306
6,896
4,745
4,102
15,462
35,246
26,105
42,196
50,266
51,223
47,166
50,885
54,928
62,460
66,879
91,201
99,056
100,879
94,368
95,502
83,744
64,617

Other 4
151
37,418
36,628
27,630
24,325
16,771
835
900
771
664
984
781
669
528
78
60
149
318
806
754
878
819
693
745
575
678
160
311
766
850
1,313
13,211
18,170
38,154

4 From 1953 on includes, among others, exchange aliens, of whom there were 12,584
in 1953, 15,260 in 1954, 16,077 in 1955, 17,204 in 1956, and 17,849 in 1957; and tempo­
rary workers and industrial trainees of whom there were 3,021 in 1953, 7,479 in 1954,
9,750 in 1955, 17,077 in 1956, and 16,856 in 1957.
5 Figures are incomplete because of documentary waivers.
6 Does not agree with source; adjusted to conform to definitions used in later years.

Series C 152-155. Aliens Deported, Voluntarily Departing, and Excluded: 1892 to 1957
[For years ending June 30]
Aliens expelled

153

Year

1957.
1956.
1955.
1954
1953
1952
1951
1950.
1949
1948.
1947.
1946.
1945.
1944.
1943
1942.
1941
1940
1939
1938
1937
1936

Total

Volun­
tarily
departing 1
154

5,082
7,297
15,028
26,951
19,845
20,181
13,544
6,628
20,040
20,371
18,663
14,375
11,270
7,179
4,207
3,709
4,407
6,954
8,202
9,275
8,829
9,195

63,379
80,891
232,769
1,074,277
885,391
703,778
673,169
572,477
276,297
197,184
195,880
101,945
69,490
32,270
11,947
6,904
6,531
8,594
9,590
9,278
8,788
8,251

Deported

68,461
88,188
247,797
1,101,228
905,236
723,959
686,713
579,105
296,337
217,555
214,543
116,320
80,760
39,449
16,154
10,613
10,938
15,548
17,792
18,553
17,617
17,446

Aliens
excluded

Aliens expelled
Year

907
1,709
2,667
3,313
5.647
5,050
5.647
5,256
5,541
7,113
7,435
2,942
2,341
1,642
1,495
1,833
2,929
5,300
6,498
8,066
8,076
7,000

1935
1934
1933
1932
1931
1930
1929
1928
1927
1926
1925.
1924.
1923.
1922.
1921.
1920.
1919.
1918.
1917.
1916.
1915.
1914.

Deported

152

155

Total

153

16,297
16,889
30,212
30,201
29,861
28,018
38,796
31,571
26,674
10,904
9,495
6,409
3,661
4,345
4,517
2,762
3,068
1,569
1,853
2,781
2,564
4,610

8,319
8,879
19,865
19,426
18,142
16,631
12,908
11,625
11,662
10,904
9,495
6,409
3,661
4,345
4,517
2,762
3,068
1,569
1,853
2,781
2,564
4,610

Volun­
tarily
departing 1
154

Aliens
excluded

7,978
8,010
10,347
10,775
11,719
11,387
25,888
19,946
15,012

5,558
5,384
5,527
7,064
9,744
8,233
18,127
18,839
19,755
20,550
25,390
30,284
20,619
13,731
13,779
11,795
8,626
7,297
16,028
18,867
24,111
33,041

Year

1913
1912
1911
1910
1909
1908
1907
1906
1905
1904.
1903.
1902.
1901.
1900.
1899.
1898.
1897.
1896.
1895.
1894.
1893.
1892.

Aliens
deported

Aliens
excluded

3,461
2,456
2,788
2,695
2,124
2,069
995
676
845
779
547
465
363
356
263
199
263
238
177
417
577
637

19,938
16,057
22,349
24,270
10,411
10,902
13,064
12,432
11,879
7,994
8,769
4,974
3,516
4,246
3,798
3,030
1,617
2,799
2,419
1,389
1,053
2,164

1 First recorded in 1927.




63

C 156-170

MIGRATION

Series C 156-157. Aliens Departing: 1908 to 1957
[For years ending June 30]

Non­
Emigrant emigrant
156
157
1957_________ __
23,933
0
1956__ ___________ 22,824 692,376
1955______________ 31,245 634,555
1954_____________
30,665 568,496
1953______________ 24,256 520,246
1952______________ 21,880 487,617
1951______________ 26,174 446,727
1950______________ 27,598 429,091
1949______________ 24,586 405,503
1948______________ 20,875 427,343
1947______________ 22,501 300,921
1946______________ 18,143 186,210
Year

1 Series discontinued.

Year
1945 _ _ _ _ _
1944 _
_ _ _
1943_____________
1942_____________
1941__ _________
1940_____________
1939_____________
1938 ___________
1937_____________
1936_____________
1935_____________
1934 _ _ _ _ _ _
1933_____________

Non­
Emigrant emigrant
156
157
7,442
85,920
5,669
78,740
5,107
53,615
7,363
67,189
17,115
71,362
21,461 144,703
26,651 174,758
25,210 197,404
26,736 197,846
35,817 157,467
38,834 150,216
39,771 137,401
80,081 163,721

Year
1932
1931
1930_____________
1929_____________
1928_____________
1927_____________
1926_____________
1925_____________
1924_____________
1923_____________
1922_____________
1921 __ __

Non­
Emigrant emigrant
156
157
103,295 184,362
61,882 229,034
50,661 221,764
69,203 183,295
77,457 196,899
73,366 180,142
76,992 150,763
92,728 132,762
76,789 139,956
81,450 119,136
198,712 146,672
247,718 178.313

Year
1920
1919
1918_____________
1917_____________
1916_____________
1915_____________
1914
1913
1912_____________
1911_____________
1910_____________
1909
1908_____________

N on­
Emigrant emigrant
156
157
288,315 139,747
123,522
92,709
94,585
98,683
80,102
66,277
129,765 111,042
204,074 180,100
303,338 330,467
308,190 303,734
333,262 282,030
295,666 222,549
202,436 177,982
225,802 174,590
395,073 319,755

Series C 158-170. Aliens Naturalized, by Sex and Place of Former Allegiance: 1907 to 1957
Year

Declara­
tions
filed

Total
natural­
ized

158
1957_____________
1956_____________
1955_____________
1954_____________
1953_____________
1952_____________
1951_____________
1950_____________
1949_____________
1948_____________
1947_____________
1946_____________
1945_____________
1944_____________
1943_____________
1942_____________
1941_____________
1940_____________
1939_____________
1938_____________
1937_____________
1936_____________
1935_____________
1934_____________
1933_____________
1932_____________
1931_____________
1930_____________
1929_____________
1928_____________
1927_____________
1926_____________
1925_____________
1924_____________
1923_____________
1922_____________
1921_____________
1920_____________
1919_____________
1918_____________
1917_____________
1916_____________
1915_____________
1914_____________
1913______„_____
1912_____________
1911_____________
1910_____________
1909_____________
1908_____________
1907 7___________

159

15,911
12,870
10,855
9,100
23,558
111,461
91,497
93,527
64,866
60,187
37,771
28,787
31,195
42,368
115,664
221,796
224,123
203,536
155,691
150,673
176,195
148,118
136,524
108,079
83,046
101,345
106,272
62,138
280,645
254,588
258,295
277,539
277,218
424,540
296,636
273,511
303,904
299,076
391,156
342,283
440,651
209,204
247,958
214,104
182,095
171,133
189,249
169,348
145,745
137,571
73,658

138,043
2145,885
2209,526
2117,831
92,051
88,655
54,716
66,346
66,594
70,150
293,904
2 150,062
2231,402
2 441,979
2 318,933
270,364
277,294
235,260
188,813
162,078
164,976
141,265
118,945
113,669
113,363
136,600
143,495
169,377
224,728
233,155
199,804
146,331
152,457
150,510
145,084
170,447
181,292
177,683
217,358
151,449
88,104
87,831
91,848
104,145
83,561
70,310
56,683
39,448
38,374
25,975
7,941

[For years ending June 30, except as noted]
Aliens naturalized
Sex
Place of former allegiance 1
North­
Central Eastern Southern
Male
Female
western
Asia
Europe
Europe
Europe
Europe
160

161

60,289
77,754
64,962
80,923
95,850 113,676
63,354
54,477
57,394
34,657
60,058
28,597
18,711
36,005
25,745
40,601
27,865
38,729
33,147
37,003
52,998
40,906
76,296
73,766
4 116,691 4 114,711
4 202,698 4239,281
4 157,663 4 161,2/0
112,040 158,324
136,348 140,946
132,406 102,854
113,934
74,879
92,041
70,037
97,696
67,280
86,777
54,488
82,182
36,763
82,465
31,204
78,293
35,070
95,901
40,699
106,715
36,780
120,572
48,805
167,665
57,063
181,875
51,280
165,833
33,971
121,561
24,770
133,881
18,576
135,739
14,771
139,073
6,011

162

163

25,878
28,183
46,253
31,085
23,238
23,688
17,069
20,260
20,782
18,834
27,017
41,772
57,997
114,801
122,708
117,607
96,375
78,357
62,430
55,359
58,002
54,852
44,605
39,481
40,795
39,123
38,465
38,915
50,554
46,059
37,293
28,317
29,006»
28,780
29,107

47,656
47,186
62,557
28,341
26,676
25,933
11,864
13,946
14,471
17,495
24,220
46,802
82,195
139,304
86,365
71,762
86,122
75,024
59,636
51,359
55,789
47,289
39,554
38,859
37,068
43,334
48,041
56,540
72,267
72,111
65,592
49,696
55,262
55,915
56,112

1 See text for list of countries.
2 Includes 1,425 in 1943, 6,496 in 1944, 5,666 in 1945, 2,054 in 1946, 5,370 in 1947,
2,981 in 1954, 2,539 in 1955, and 2,236 in 1956, in various theaters of war or areas oc­
cupied by American Forces. No provision for naturalization in these areas for 19481953.
3 Included in Northwestern Europe as part of British Empire.

64



164
18,062
21,017
22,795
7,848
5,440
5,392
3,485
4,300
5,244
6,150
7,281
14,481
23,948
48,382
42,012
41,586
35,844
29,146
22,209
19,809
18,970
14,781
11,825
11,476
12,544
14,884
17,428
24,046
33,652
34,962
27,399
23,158
23,154
23,348
22,897

165
15,762
14,200
23,955
16,024
13,507
13,360
8,503
12,200
11,716
13,059
15,661
30,336
51,629
122,638
51,758
31,047
51,819
47,236
40,452
32,235
29,169
22,194
21,171
20,349
19,498 !
24,851 !
27,793 ;
37,481
53,234
63,989
55,924
33,750
31,671
32,232
28,392

Petitions
denied

Canada

Other
America

All
other

166

167

168

169

170

7,548
10,412
16,000
12,170
4,966
3,749
2,886
4,802
4,993
7,201
11,741
3,450
2,545
5,592
6,133
2,075
1,844
1,523
1,331
1,311
1,290
901
760
703
706
676
822
993
1,445
1,334
(6)
(6)

10,891
11,539
18,151
13,062
10,303
10,004
5,872
5,882
5,347
3,860
(3)
(3)
(3)
(3)
(3)
(3)
(3)
(3)
(3)
(3)
(3)
(3)
(3)
(3)
(3)
10,144
7,173
7,566
8,223
7,712
5,237
5,078
7,013
5,765
6,546

8,977
10,795
15,321
7,210
5,181
4,548
3,827
4,133
3,607
3,183
4,676
7,144
8,590
11,099
9,866
6,247
5,249
3,930
2,709
1,976
1,710
1,220
987
896
780
721
989
651
664
506
455
283
290
270
(6)

3,269
2,553
4,494
2,091
2,740
1,981
1,210
823
434
368
3,308
6,077
4,498
163
91
40
41
44
46
29
46
28
43
1,905
1,972
5 2,867
5 2,784
53,185
6 4,689
&6,482
7,904
6,049
6,061
4,200
2,030

2,948
3,935
4,571
2,084
2,300
2,163
2,395
2,276
2,271
2,887
3,953
6,575
9,782
7,297
13,656
8,348
7,769
6,549
5,630
4,854
4,042
3,124
2,765
1,133
4,703
5,478
7,514
9,068
11,848
12,479
11,946
13,274
15,613
18,324
24,884
29,076
18,981
15,586
13,119
12,182
9,544
11,927
13,691
13,133
10,891
9,635
9,017
7,781
6,341
3,330
250

(6)
(6)
(6)

4 Data are from records of the Immigration and Naturalization Service and do not
agree with source quoted. Source excludes Armed Forces overseas whereas the data
shown here include Armed Forces overseas.
6 Includes 469 in 1928, 501 in 1929, 342 in 1930, 318 in 1931, and 489 in 1932 natural­
ized in outlying possessions, country of former allegiance not specified.
6 Included in “All other.”
7 September 27, 1906, to June 30, 1907.

INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION AND NATURALIZATION

C 171-217

Series C 171-184. Citizenship Status of the Population: 1890 to 1950
[Prior to 1920, the citizenship inquiry of the Population Census was restricted to males 21 years old and over. 1950 figures based on 20-percent sample; therefore differ from
similar series based on complete count]

Total
population

N ative
population

171

Year

21 years old and over
Foreign-born population
No
Natural­ Having
first
Total
ized
papers papers
182
183
180
181

All ages
Foreign-born population
Native
Total
Unknown population population
No
Natural­ Having
first
citi­
Total
papers zenship
ized
papers
179
175
176
177
174
178
173

172

Unknown
citi­
zenship
184

BOTH
SEXES

139,868,715
120,074,379
108,570,897
91,789,928

10,347,395
11,594,896
14,204,149
13,920,692

2,784,425 96,732,900 86,712,450 10,020,450
7,562,970
C
1)
(1)
7,280,265 924,524 2,555,128 834,979 83,996,629 72,703,808 11,292,821
7,919,536 1,266,419 4,518,341 499,853 72,943,624 59,607,271 13,336,353
6,489,883 1,222,553 5,406,780 801,476 60,886,520 48,200,127 12,686,393

7,466,445
2,554,005
C
1)
0)
7,159,643 910,416 2,424,976 797,786
7,681,681 1,237,255 3,946,176 471,241
6,218,801 1,197,698 4,529,756 740,138

74,200,085
66,061,592
62,137,080
53,900,431
47,332,277
38,816,448
32,237,101

68,941,830
59,939,945
54,489,990
46,224,996
39,664,529
33,186,258

5,258,255
6,121,647
7,647,090
7,675,435
7,667,748
5,630,190

1,225,185 47,137,460 42,045,230 5,092,230
4,033,070
0)
0)
4,137,027 581,713 1,008,071 394,836 42,004,816 36,035,228 5,969,588
4,365,403 955,942 2,081,710 244,035 37,056,757 29,837,780 7,218,977
3,449,547 1,137,021 2,695,042 393,825 31,403,370 24,339,776 7,063,594
26,999,151 20,218,937 6,780,214
21,134,299 16,124,013 5,010,286
1890
16,940,311 12,591,852 4,348,459

3,981,895
1,110,335
C
1)
0)
4,076,207 574,296 942,855 376,230
4,247,704 939,875 1,800,295 231,103
3,320,226 1,119,982 2,259,310 364,076
3,038,303 571,521 2,390,426 779,964
2,848,807 412,271 1,014,219 734,989
2,545,753 236,061 1,189,452 377,193

76,016,025
65,607,683
60,637,966
51,810,189

70,926,885
60,134,434
54,080,907
45,564,932

5,089,140
5,473,249
6,557,059
6,245,257

3,529,900
3,143,238
3,554,133
3,040,336

1950______ 150,216,110
1940 _ _ _ 131,669,275
1930 _
122,775,046
1920______ 105,710,620
MALE

1950______
1940______
1930______
1920______
1910______
1900
______
FEMALE

1950______
1940______
1930______
1920______

1,559,240 49,595,440 44,667,220 4,928,220
0)
0)
342,811 1,547,057 440,143 41,991,813 36,668,580 5,323,233
310,477 2,436,631 255,818 35,886,867 29,769,491 6,117,376
85,532 2,711,738 407,651 29,483,150 23,860,351 5,622,799

3,484,550
'3,083,436
13,433,977
12,898,575

1,443,670
0)
(x)
336,120 1,482,121 421,556
297,380 2,145,881 240,138
77,716 2,270,446 376,062

1 N ot available.

Series C 185-217. Native White Population of Foreign or Mixed Parentage, by Country of Origin of Parents:
1900 to 1950
[1940 figures based on 5-percent sample; 1950 on 20-percent sample]
Series
No.

1950

1940

Total-----------------------------England and W ales-----------Scotland___________________
Northern Ireland---------------Ireland (Eire)--------------------Norway___________________
Sweden_ _ ----------------------- _ _
Denmark 1-------------------------Netherlands________________
Belgium____________________
Switzerland------------------------France_____________________
on.,a ay --------------------------I'oiaud- ___________________
Jze> 1 Slovakia-------------------AUPf ■ __________________
1;
__________________
Yjk 'Via-------------------------U. t
c'.-------------------------Lith
t\r,
__________________
Ru’.>
__________________
Greece__ __________________
Italy_______________________
Spain---------------------------------Portugal-----------------------------Other Europe______________
Asia________________________
Canada-French_____________
Canada-Other______________
M exico_____________________
Other America_____________
All other and not reported,.

23,589,485
1,443,230
463,325
29,890
1,891,495
652,380
864,695
318,710
272,535
85,500
215,660
253,665
3,742,615
1,925,015
705,890
816,465
437,080
239,920
1,647,420
249,825
172,370
130,100
195,235
3,143,405
69,490
117,675
128,030
239,525
519,495
1,468,325
891,980
101,240
157.300

23,157,580
1,466,900
446,540
270,820
1,838,920
662,600
856.320
305,640
261.320
76,400
205,680
246,120
3,998,840
1,912,380
664,620
781,340
371,840
222,300
1,569,360
229,040
167,080
131,760
163,420
2,971,200
61,700
114,060
75,660
183,260
635,020
1,231,020
699.220
91,980
245.220

1 Includes Iceland prior to 1930.
2 Included with “All other and not reported.'

3 Included

185
186
187
188
189
190
191
192
193
194
195
196
197
198
19?)
201*
201
202
203
204
205
206
207
208
209
210
211
212

213
214
215
216
217

Country of origin of parents




1930

1920

25,902,383 22,686,204
1,890,051
1,864,345
514,436
545,268
517,167 3,122,013
2,341,712
752,246
701,096
888,497
967,453
320,410
349,668
249,339
280,833
68,961
82,897
257,341
260,993
288,350
336,373
5,264,289
5,346,004
2,073,615
1,303,351
890,441
(3)
583,734 41 ,235,097
316,318
4538,518
257,979
(3)
1,516,214 !> 1,508,604
245,589
178,058
152,161
64,776
147,060
52,083
129,225
1,751,091
2,756,453
52,305
97,917 r 137,284
101,652
152,347
(2)
562,360
735,307
1,279,245
1,323,617
253,176
583,422
51,259
75,220
176,407
96,960

1910

1900

18,897,837
1,822,264
484,699
3,304,015
609,068
752,695
256,175
188,015
46,222
217,459
226,059
5,670,611
725,924
(3)
716,753
215,295
(3)
775,654
85,672
26,934
9,985
771,645
74,548
(2)
562,709
1,088,112
162,959
30,169
74,196

15,646,017
1,695,558
447,524
3,375,546
478,531
542,032
187,844
(*)
(2)
178,691
214,592
5,340,147
326,764
(3)
391,636
81,897
(3)
288,098
(2)
(2)
254,550
(2)
(2)
(2;
(2)
456,030
933,440
(2)
(2)
453,137

with Austria and Hungary.
4 Areas as defined in 1910.

65

C 218-283

Series C 218-283. Foreign-Born Population, by Country of Birth: 1850 to 1950

as
o*

[1950 figures based on 20-percent sample. Data are given for each country for all census years since 1850 for which figures are available]
Series
No.
218
219

220
221
222

1950
10,158,854
All countries.
2,326,887
Northwestern Europe.
554,625
England___r _______
244,200
Scotland _ _ 1----------30,060
W ales___ __________
15,398
Northern Ireland__
504,961
Ireland (Eire)--------202,294
Norway____________
324,944
Sweden-----------------107,897
Denmark---------------2,455
Iceland____________
102,133
Netherlands 1---------52,891
Belgium___________
5,590
Luxembourg_______
71,515
Switzerland-----------107,924
France-------------------Central and Eastern Europe 4,218,903
984,331
Germany--------------------861,184
Poland________________
278,268
Czechoslovakia-----------408,785
Austria-----------------------268,022
H ungary--------------------143,956
Yugoslavia-----------------894,844
U. S. S. R ------------------31,590
L atvia________________
10,085
E stonia----------------------147,765
Lithuania-------------------95,506
Finland_______________
84,952
Rum ania______________
9,615
Bulgaria______________
Turkey in Europe______
(3)
1,706,640
Southern Europe,
169,083
Greece------------10,510
Albania----------1,427,145
Italy---------------45,565
Spain-------------54,337
Portugal______
15,670
Other Europe__________
Danzig---------------------Europe, not specified.
3179,900
A sia--------------------Armenia_______
(6)
540
Palestine---------35,325
Syria---------------3 71,730
Turkey in A sia.
China--------------11,985
Japan--------------4,650
5,370
India---------------6 50,300
Other A sia_____
1,564,139
America------------------7238,409
Canada-French___
Canada-Other____
7756,153
N ewf oundland____
o
Cuba-------------------29,295
Other W est Indies.
8 22,735
M exico___________
450,562
Central America__
23,475
South America____
43,510
All other----------------------------- 146,715
Africa----------------------------13,260
Australia________________
19,900
Azores___________________
26,025
Other Atlantic Islands___
4,595
8 5,760
Pacific Islands___________
Country not specified____
77,175
Born at sea______________

Foreign-born white
1910
1930
1920
1940
11,419,138 13,983,405 13,712,754 13,345,545 14,204,149
2,825,671 3,726,844 3,828,876 4,237,373 3,728,050
809,563
812,828
876,455
808,684
621,975
354,323
261,034
254,567
354,323
279,321
60,205
67,066
82,479
60,205
35,360
178,832
178,832
106,416
744,810
744,810 1,037,233 1,352,155
572,031
347.852
363,862
403,858
347,852
262,088
595,250
625,580
665,183
595,250
445,070
179,474
179,474 - 189,154
138,175
181,621
2,764
2,764
2,104
131,766
133,133
120,053
133,133
111,064
64,194
62,686
49,397
64,194
53,958
9,048
3,068
12,585
9,048
6,886
113,010
118,659
124,834
113,010
88,293
135,592
152,890
117,236
135,265
102,930
4,958,368 5,897,795 6,134,825 6,013,720 5,897,799
1,237,772 1,608,814 1,686,102 2,311,085 1,608,814
993,479 1,268,583 1,139,978 2937,884 1,268,583
491,638
362.436
319,971
491,638
370,914
575,625 2845^506
370,914
479,906
274,450
397,282
274,450
495,600
290,228
211,416
169.437
211,416
161,093
1,153,628
1,040,884 1,153,624
20,673
18,636
20,673 1,400,489
3,550
*2 1,184,382
4,178
3,550
135,068
k 193,606
165,771
193,606
142,478
149,824
129,669
142,478
117,210
146,393
102,823
65,920
146,393
115,940
9,399
10,477
9,399
11,453
8,888
5,284
2,257
4 32,221
2,257
4,412
1,896,886 2,093,976 1,902,781 1,523,934 2,106,295
174,526
175,972
101,264
174,526
163,252
8,814
(4)
(4)
(4)
1,623,580 1,790,424 i~ 6 l6 a o 9 1,343,070 1,790,429
49,247
59,362
21,977
59,033
47,707
73,164
67,453
69,993
57,623
62,347
11,509
16,255
512,851
419,819
425,065
1,483
14,772
110,450
275,665
64,314
149,909
157,580
; 32,166
(6)
(6)
(6)
3,202
6,137
7,047
6,135
51,900
57,227
50,859
57,227
59,702
11,014
46,654
52,479
46,651
46,129
70,993
5,850
6 44,334
10,509
4,612
6 47,567
639,524
,656,801 1,453,186 2,102,209
1,509,855 2,011,224
307,786
370.852
385,083
370,852
273,366
915,537
810,092
810,987
907,660
770,753
13,242
5,076
23,980
23,971
21,361
12,869
18,493
12,843
16,089
15,277
87,748
13,526
10,300
15,257
15,511
641,462
478,383
219,802
377,433
639,017
4,074
10,514
1,507
7,638
7,791
16,855
7,562
33,623
30,333
28,770
77,876
58,630
67,512
70,921
40,167
8,859
10,801
12,816
10,998
12,720
33,788
35,611
25,751
35,432
15,795
3,232
9,467
5,196
4,053
4,527
17,638
8,549
1,588
12,425
13,753
5,302
6,885
5,008
1,011
4,963

1 Listed as Holland prior to 1910.
2 Persons reported in 1910 as of Polish mother tongue born in Austria, Germany, and U. S. S. R. have
been deducted from their respective countries and combined as Poland.
3 For 1950, Turkey in Europe included with Turkey in Asia; for 1850-1900, Turkey in Asia included with
Turkey in Europe.



1920
13,920,692
3,830,094
813,853
254,570
67,066
>1,037,234
363,863
625,585
> 189,154
131,766
62,687
12,585
118,659
153,072
6,134,845
1,686,108
1,139,979
362.438
575,627
397,283
169.439
1,400,495
135,068
149,824
102,823
10,477
5,284
1,911,213
175,976
5,608
1,610,113
49,535
69,981
5.901
2,049
3,852
237,950
36,628
3,203
51,901
11,019
43,560
81,502
4.901
5,236
1,727,017
307,786
817,139
13,249
14,872
64,090
486,418
4,912
18,551
73,672
5,781
10,914
33,995
10,345
3,712
3,589
5,336

13,515,886
4,239,067
877,719
261,076
82,488
1,352,251
403,877
665,207
181,649
120,063
49,400
3,071
124,848
117,418
6,014,028
22,311,237
2937,884
2 845,555
495,609
>21,184,412
129,680
65,923
11,498
432,230
1,525,875
101,282
(4)
1,343,125
22,108
59,360
12,871
512,871
191,484
59,729
56,756
67.744
4,664
2,591
,489, 231
385i 083
819! 554
5; 080
15, 133
32, 502
2 2 1 , 915
1 736
8 , 228
43,330
3,992
9,035
18,274
2,415
2,687
6,927

1900
10,341,276
4,202,683
840,513
233,524
93,586
1,615,459
336,388
582,014
153,690
94,931
29,757
3,031
115,593
104,197
4,136,646
2,663,418
383,407
432,798
145,714

Total foreign
1890
9,249,560
4,380,752
909,092
242,231
100,079
1,871,509
322,665
478,041
132,543
81,828
22,639
2,882
104,069
113,174
3,420,629
2,784,894
147,440
241,377
62,435

born
6,679,943
3,494,484
664,160
170,136
83,302
1,854,571
181,729
194,337
64,196
58,090
15,535
12,836
88,621
106,971
2,187,776
1,966,742
48,557
124,024
11,526

1870
5,567,229
3,124,638
555,046
140,835
74,533
1,855,827
114,246
97,332
30,107
46,802
12,553
5,802
75,153
116,402
1,784,449
1,690,533
14,436
70,797
3,737

4,138,697
2,472,211
433,494
108,518
45,763
1,611,304
43,995
18,625
9,962
28,281
9,072
53,327
109,870
1,311,722
1,276,075
7,298
25,061

2,244,602
1,437,475
278,675
70,550
29,868
961,719
12,678
3,559
1,838
9,848
1,313
13,358
54,069
586,240
583,774

182,644

35,722

4,644

3,160

1,414

31,839
206,648
1,887
182,580
6,185
15,996
12,579
12,579
113,396

31,205
58,265
776
44,230
5,121
8,138
3,786
3,786
107,630

25,853
390
17,157
3,764
4,542
1,678
1,678
64,565

20,365
328
11,677
4,244
4,116
1,403
1,403
36,796

8,152

(3)
(3)
106,701
81,534
24,788
2,292
2,143
2,031
2,260
11,895
1,317,380 1,088,245
7395,126 7302,496
7784,796 7678,442
(7)
(7)
11,081 > 23,256
14,354
103,393
77,853
3,897
1,192
5,006
4,733
31,868
27,311
2,538
2,207
6,807
5,984
9,768
9,739
2,013
3,369
2,546
479
8,196
5,533

(3)
104,468
401
1,707
1,054
807,230
717,157
6,917
9,484
68,399
707
4,566
20,772
2,204
4,906
7,641
1,953
4^068

63,042
73
586
864
551,335
493,464
5,319
6,251
42,435
301
3,565
14,711
2,657
3,118
4,434
910
954
2,638

(3)
35,565

423,726
62,641
15,032
3 9,910
530,200
8,515
484,027
7,050
30,608
2,251
2,251
120,248

86

3,679
3,113
1,274

1,135
(3)

758

1,231
288,285
249,970

377
168,484
147,711

7,353
27,466
233
3,263
7,915
526
1,419
1,361
721
1,366
2,522

5,772
13,317
141
1,543
43,116
551
588
41,977

4 Albania included with Turkey in Europe for 1910; for 1930 and 1940, included with “Other Europe.”
5 Includes persons born in Serbia and in Montenegro, which became part of Yugoslavia in 1918.
6 Armenia included with “Other Asia.”
7 Newfoundland included with Canada prior to 1910 and for 1950.
8 Excluding possessions of the United States.

MIGRATION

223
224
225
226
227
228
229
230
231
232
233
234
235
236
237
238
239
240
241
242
243
244
245
246
247
248
249
250
251
252
253
254
255
256
257
258
259
260
261
262
263
264
265
266
267
268
269
270
271
272
273
274
275
276
277
278
279
280
281
282
283

Country of birth

c h a p te r D

Labor

LABOR FORCE (Series D 1-572)
D 1-35. General note.
The conceptual structure and techniques for measurement
of current labor force data were developed during the late
1930,s by the Work Projects Administration (see John N.
Webb, “Concepts Used in Unemployment Surveys,” Journal of
the American Statistical Association, March 1939). However,
prior to 1940, especially during the 1930,s, the economically
active sector was differentiated on the basis of its ability and
willingness to work. Thus, most surveys during the 1930’s
counted as unemployed those persons not working but “willing
and able to work.” Willingness and ability, however, turned
out to be extremely subjective in practice, and since these
concepts were dependent on the attitudes of the persons in­
volved, it was difficult to compile data on a comparable basis
from place to place and from time to time.
The 1929-1939 estimates shown here have been prepared
on as comparable a basis as possible with the concepts used
since 1940. For the techniques used in preparing these data,
see their source (as stated in the text for series D 1-12).
On the other hand, the decennial census data shown here are
not directly comparable with annual data because of differ­
ences in collection techniques, time reference, and other factors.
For another set of labor force estimates, 1890-1950, see
Clarence D. Long, The Labor Force Under Changing Income
and Employment, National Bureau of Economic Research,
New York, 1958, appendix tables A-4, A-6, and A-20.
The concepts and procedures used since 1940 are based prin­
cipally upon an individual’s actual activity, that is, whether
he was working, looking for work, or doing something else
during the time reference of the survey. (At present, the
Census Bureau’s Monthly Report on the Labor Force collects
its information for the week containing the 12th of each
month.) Instead of questions about a person’s attitudes with
respect to his labor market status (e.g., “Are you able to
work?” or “Are you willing to work?” or “Do you want
work?”), the present concept makes labor market participa­
tion depend on the more overt test of working or actively
seeking work. Thus, in the surveys and censuses conducted
by the Bureau of the Census since 1940, persons are classified
with regard to employment status into the following categories.
Employed. Includes all persons who, during the week of
reference (1) did any work for pay or for profit, on or off a
farm, or worked at least 15 hours as an unpaid family worker
in a business or on a farm operated by a member of the
family; and (2) those who neither were at work or actively
sought work, but who did have jobs from which they were
temporarily absent because of such reasons as illness, bad
weather, vacation, labor management dispute, etc. Volun­
teer work for religious or charitable institutions, as well as
work around the house, is excluded.
Unemployed. Includes all persons (1) not at work during
the survey week but actively seeking work within the pre­
ceding 60 days (efforts to find employment include registra­
tion at an employment office, writing letters of application,
applying at the factory gate, running a situations-wanted ad



in the newspaper, etc.) ; and (2) not at work but waiting to
be called back to a job from which they had been laid off,
or waiting to report to a new wage or salary job to start in
the next 30 days (and not in school during the survey week),
or who would have been actively looking for work except that
they were temporarily ill or believed there was no work in
their line available in their community.
Labor force. The civilian labor force is the sum of the em­
ployed and the unemployed. It is confined to persons 14 years
of age and over, since labor market participation by persons
under that age is relatively small. Information on the size of
the Armed Forces is obtained from official sources and added
to the civilian labor force to provide the total labor force
figures.
Not in the labor force. Includes all persons 14 years of age
and over not classified as employed, unemployed, or in the
Armed Forces.
Current labor force data are produced by the Current Popu­
lation Survey of the Bureau of the Census on the basis of a
scientifically designed sample of households in 330 areas, with
coverage in every State and the District of Columbia. The
present size and composition of the sample dates from May
1956. From January 1954 through April 1956 the sample
covered 230 areas, all of which were continued in the new
and expanded sample. Prior to 1954, the interviewed house­
holds were concentrated in 68 sample areas. Household inter­
views totaled about 21,000 until the currently expanded sample
beginning in May 1956 raised the total to about 35,000.
The household interview method (population approach) in­
volves direct enumeration and interrogation of individuals to
obtain information on employment activity from workers or
members of workers’ households. Each employed worker is
counted only once, even though he may have held two or more
jobs during a given period. This approach encompasses direct
enumeration of all employed and unemployed persons including
the self-employed, unpaid family workers, domestic servants,
and others who do not ordinarily appear on the payrolls of
any establishment. For a more detailed description of the
concepts, techniques, estimation procedures, and adequacy and
reliability of these data, see Bureau of the Census, Current
Population Reports, Series P-23, No. 5.
D 1-12. Labor force status of the population, 1890-1957.
Source: Annual data, 1929-1939, population, Bureau of the
Census, Current Population Reports, Series P-25, No. 114 (fig­
ures adjusted to include Armed Forces overseas) ; labor force,
“Labor Force, Employment and Unemployment, 1929-39: Esti­
mating Methods,” Monthly Labor Review, July 1948, p. 50.
Annual data, 1940r1957, population and labor force, Bureau
of the Census, Current Population Reports, Series P-50, Nos.
2, 13, 19, 31, 40, 45, 59, 67, 72, and 85. The population esti­
mates are adjusted to include the institutional population;
both population and labor force data for 1940-1952 are also
adjusted to include about 150,000 members of the Armed
Forces stationed outside continental United States in 1940 and
67

D 13-71
LABOR
not enumerated in the 1940 Census and therefore excluded
For a more detailed discussion of the gainful worker concept
from the original 1940-1952 estimates.
and the data themselves, see John D. Durand (see source for
Decennial data, population, 1890-1950, and labor force, 1950, series D 1-12), p. 191 et seq.; John D. Durand, “Development
U. S. Census of Population: 1950, vol. II, part 1, pp. 1-100, of the Labor Force Concept, 1930-40,” Labor Force Definition
1-102, and 1-179; labor force, 1890-1940, John D. Durand, and Measurement, appendix A, Social Science Research Coun­
The Labor Force in the United States, 1890-1960, Social Science cil, Bulletin 56, 1947; and Sixteenth Census Reports, Popula­
tion, “Estimates of Labor Force, Employment, and Unemploy­
Research Council, New York, 1948, p. 208.
ment in the U. S .: 1940 and 1930.”
D 13-25. Labor force, by age and sex, 1890-1957.
D 46-47. Unemployment, annual averages, 1900-1957.
Source: Annual data, see source for series D 1-12, annual
Stanley
Estimates
data, 1940-1957. Decennial data, 1890-1940, John D. Durand of Source: 1900-1928, the UnitedLebergott, “Annual The Meas­
Unemployment in
States, 1900-1954,”
(see source for series D 1-12) ; 1950, U. S. Census of Popula­
Unemployment,
tion: 1950, vol. IV, Special Reports, Employment and Personal urement and Behavior of York, 1956, pp. National Bureau of
Economic Research, New
213-241; 1929-1957,
Characteristics, p. 1A-62.
see source for annual data on labor force for series D 1-12.
D 26-35. Civilian labor force, by color and sex, and marital
Prior to 1940, these figures represent estimates of unem­
status of women, 1890-1957.
ployment on as comparable a basis to current labor force con­
Source: Annual data, labor force totals and percents, 1940- cepts as is presently possible. There have been many esti­
1946, Current Population Repoi'ts, Series P-50, No. 2; totals, mates of unemployment for these years prepared by such
and percents by color and sex, 1947-1953, Series P-50, Nos. agencies as the National Industrial Conference Board and by
13, 19, 31, 40, 45, and 67; labor force by color and sex, and authors such as Paul Douglas in Real Wages in the United
percents, 1954-1957, Current Population Reports, Series P-57, States, 1890-1926 (these are discussed and compared in the
Nos. 142, 154, 166, and 178; marital status, 1940, 1944, and sources of pre-1940 figures cited above). In all of these, in­
1947-1957, Current Population Repoy'ts, Series P-50, Nos. 22, cluding the series presented here, unemployment is calculated
as a residual. That is, estimates are first made of the
29, 39, 44, 62, 73, and 76.
civilian
Decennial data, numbers, 1890-1940, and percents, 1890 and the two labor force, then of employment; the difference between
provides the estimates of
1940, John D. Durand (see source for series D 1-12), pp. for decennial census years are usedunemployment. The figures
benchmarks, with
208, 216; numbers and percents, 1950, U. S. Census of Popu­ polations made for intercensal yearsasfrom a variety of inter­
avail­
lation: 1950, vol. IV, Special Reports, Employment and Per­ able sources.
sonal Characteristics, p. 1A-100; percents, 1920-1940 based
on labor force data from Durand and population data from D 48-56. Employees in nonagricultural establishments, by
major industry division, 1919-1957.
Bureau of the Census, Sixteenth Census Reports, Population,
Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics, Employment and Earn­
vol. Ill, part 1, p. 25, and U. S. Census of Population: 1950,
ings, vol. 5, No. 8, p. 1.
vol. II, part 1, p. 1-179.
These data
by
D 36-45. Gainful workers, by age, sex, and farm-nonfarm oc­ employers, i.e., are compiled from monthly reports made the
businesses or industrial establishments, to
cupations, 1820-1930.
Bureau of Labor Statistics. The “establishment approach”
Source: Sixteenth Census Reports, Comparative Occupation permits data on wages, hours worked, labor turnover, and
Statistics for the United States, 1870-19UO, pp. 93, 100, and industrial affiliation to be more accurately obtained from em­
142.
ployers’ records than from inquiries directed to a worker or
The gainful worker concept differs radically from current a member of his household (the “population approach”).
labor force concepts as described in the general note for series Workers appearing on more than one payroll for the same
D 1-35. The primary purpose of the gainful worker statistics time period are counted more than once in establishment sta­
was a count of occupations. The data were based on a question tistics. For a discussion of labor force data obtained by the
relating to occupational status and not to employment status as “population approach,” see general note for series D 1-35.
currently defined. Thus, census enumerators were instructed
The data summarized in these series are available in con­
to find and enter the occupation of each person 10 years of age siderable industrial detail (estimates are provided for about
and over who followed an occupation in which he earned money 400 different industries each month). For a discussion of
or its equivalent, or in which he assisted in the production of available historical data, see Bureau of Labor Statistics, Guide
marketable goods. In sum, gainful workers were people for to Employment Statistics of BLS, 1954; for an analysis of
whom a gainful occupation was entered in response to this historical trends, see Seymour L. Wolfbein, “Changing Patterns
question.
of Industrial Employment,” Monthly Labor Review, March
The question as posed by the enumerator made no reference 1956.
to time. The response thus varied substantially with the indi­ D 57-71. Industrial distribution of gainful workers, 1820vidual. Many persons who were retired or permanently dis­
1940.
abled and who had not worked for some time reported their
Source: Solomon Fabricant, “The Changing Industrial Dis­
former line of work and were counted as gainful workers. tribution of Gainful Workers: Some Comments on the Ameri­
On the other hand, many employed persons did not enter
Statistics
in Income and
themselves as gainful workers, because they considered them­ can Decennial11, Nationalfor 1820-1940,” Studies Research, New
Wealth, vol.
Bureau of Economic
selves as students or housewives and their current employ­ York, 1949, p. 42.
ment as only temporary.
The data are based almost entirely on estimates in the fol­
These and other factors made for incomparabilities among lowing monographs which were prepared mainly from data col­
different age and occupational groups from one decennial cen­ lected in the decennial censuses of population: P. K. Whelpton,
sus to the next. The gainful worker statistics, however, are “Occupational Groups in the United States, 1820-1920,” Journal
considered as a generally reliable measure of long-term trends of the American Statistical Association, September 1926; Six­
during the time period covered.
teenth Census Reports, Comparative Occupation Statistics for



LABOR
the United States, 1870 to 191*0; and Daniel Carson, “Indus­
trial Composition of Manpower in the United States, 18701940,” Studies in Income and Wealth, vol. 11.
D 72-122. Major occupation group of the economically active
population, by sex, 1900-1950.
Source: David L. Kaplan and M. Claire Casey, Occupational
Trends in the United States, 1900-1950, Bureau of the Census,
Working Paper No. 5, 1958.
These data constitute primarily an updating by Kaplan and
Casey of the material in Sixteenth Census Reports, Compara­
tive Occupation Statistics in the United States, 1870-191*0.
Separate series developed by Alba M. Edwards in the above
report were brought together and a number of new estimates
were prepared to fill gaps. The appropriate figures were
then adjusted to conform to the definitions used in the 1950
occupational classification system. Except where there was
firm evidence to support a change, Edwards’ basic assumptions
and estimates were utilized throughout.
The source cautions that the data, particularly those for
1900, are approximations only. The estimates for 1900 “were
included mainly for the purpose of rounding out a half-century
of information, despite some obvious deficiencies. Particularly
prior to 1910, there is little information available on the exact

488910 0 - 60 - 6




D 72-572
FORCE
definitions used for the several occupational categories. And,
even for fairly recent years, there is often only meager sta­
tistical intelligence on which to base adjustments for compara­
bility with the 1950 definitions.”
The universe covered in the series is described as the “eco­
nomically active population.” Prior to 1940, this refers to
civilian gainful workers 10 years old and over; for 1940 and
1950, it refers to persons 14 years old and over in the expe­
rienced civilian labor force (all employed and unemployed
workers with previous work experience). Two incomparabili­
ties should be noted. First, there are important differences
between the gainful worker and labor force concepts (see gen­
eral note for series D 1-35, and text for series D 36-45).
Second, there is the difference in age limitation. The inclusion
of the 10-to-13 group prior to 1940, and their exclusion in
1940 and 1950, follows the census practice in those years.
D 123-572. Detailed occupation of the economically active
population, 1900-1950.
Source: David L. Kaplan and M. Claire Casey, Occupational
Trends in the United States, 1900-1950, Bureau of the Census,
Working Paper No. 5,1958.
See text for series D 72-122.

69

D 1-12

LABOR

Series D 1-12. Labor Force Status of the Population: 1890 to 1957
[In thousands of persons 14 years old and over. Annual estimates are averages of monthly figures except as noted. Beginning January 1953, labor force and employment
figures not exactly comparable with previous years as a result of introduction of material from 1950 Census into estimating procedure; for effects of this change, see Current
Population Reports, Series P-50, No. 59]
Total labor force
Year

Popula­
tion 1
1

Percent of
Number 2 population
2

3

Total
4

Civilian labor force
Employed
Total Agriculture Nonagricultural
6
5
7

N ot in the labor force
Unem­
ployed

Total

Keeping
house

In
school

Other

8

9

10

11

12

CURRENT POPULATION
REPORTS 3

1957 4____________ _______
1956__________________ ___
1955_______________________
1954_______________________
1953_______________________
1952_______________________
1951_______________________
1950_______________________
1949__ __ _______ _ _ __
1948_______________________
1947_______________________
1946_______________________
1945_______________________
1944_______________________
1943_______________________
1942_______________________
1941_______________________
1940_______________________

121,889
120,178
118,832
117,663
116,538
114,551
113,355
112,210
111,054
109,809
108,785
107,700
106.700
105,810
104,840
103,790
102.700
101,560

70,746
70,387
68,896
67,818
67,362
66,560
65,982
64,749
63,721
62,898
61,758
60,970
65,290
66,040
64,560
60,380
57,530
56,180

58.0
58.6
58.0
57.6
57.8
58.1
58.2
57.7
57.4
57.3
56.8
56.6
61.2
62.4
61.6
58.2
56.0
55.3

67,946
67,530
65,847
64,468
63,815
62,966
62,884
63,099
62,105
61,442
60,168
57,520
53,860
54,630
55,540
56,410
55,910
55,640

65,011
64,979
63,193
61,238
62,213
61,293
61,005
59,957
58,710
59,378
58,027
55,250
52,820
53,960
54,470
53,750
50,350
47,520

6,222
6,585
6,730
6,504
6,562
6,805
7,054
7,507
8,026
7,973
8,266
8,320
8,580
8,950
9,080
9,250
9,100
9,540

58,789
58,394
56,463
54,734
55,651
54,488
53,951
52,450
50,684
51,405
49,761
46,930
44,240
45,010
45,390
44,500
41,250
37,980

2,936
2,551
2,654
3,230
1,602
1,673
1,879
3.142
3,395
2,064
2.142
2,270
1,040
670
1,070
2,660
5,560
8,120

51,143
49,792
49,936
49,845
49,176
47,991
47,373
47,462
47,332
46,910
47,027
46,730
41.410
39,770
40,280
43.410
45,170
45,380

55,600
54,950
54,320
53,740
53,140
52,490
51,840
51,250
50,680
50,080
49,440

55.4
55.4
55.. 5
55.6
55.7
55.7
55.8
55.8
55.9
55.9
56.2

55,230
54,610
54,000
53,440
52,870
52,230
51,590
51,000
50,420
49,820
49,180 |

45,750
44,220
46,300
44,410
42,260
40,890
38,760
38,940
42,400
45,480
47,630

9,610
9,690
9,820
10,000
10,110
9,900
10,090
10,170
10,290
10,340
10,450

36,140
34,530
36,480
34,410
32,150
30,990
28,670
28,770
32,110
35,140
37,180

9,480
10,390
7,700
9,030
10,610
11,340
12,830
12,060
8,020
4,340
1,550

44,760
44,170
43,550
42,960
42,320
41,700
41,110
40,560
40,030
39,470
38,570

660,054
53,299
47,404
40,282
27,640
21,833

53.5
52.7
53.2
54.3
53.7
52.2

59,072

56,239

6,885

49,354

2,832

52,300
47,804
41,697
33,862
23,798
19,966

33,891
33,399
33,722
33,893
~~33~334~
33,105
33,058
33,068
32,850
32,441
31,020
27,760
27,350
27,320
28,690

7,048
6,593
6,569
6,310
6^040
5,829
6,197
6,093
6,178
6,446
6,360
4,830
4,540
5,100
6,370

10,204
9,800
9,645
9,642
8~616
8,440
8,207
8,173
7,883
8,139
9,350
8,820
7,880
7,860
8,350

COMPARABLE WITH CURRENT
POPULATION REPORTS 3

1939 _
_
__ _ __ 100,360
1938
. _ _ ___ . ___ 99,120
1937__ _ _ _ ______ ___ _ 97,870
1936. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ ___ 96,700
1935 _
_ _ __
95,460
1934
_
_____
94,190
92,950
1933_______________________
1932_______________________
91,810
1931_______________________
90,710
1930_______________________
89,550
1929
_
__ _
88,010 i
DECENNIAL CENSUS

1950
1940
1930
1920
1900
1890

(April) ___ ______ _ _ 112,354
(April) _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
101,103
89,101
(A p ril)-.- _ _ _
(Jan.) _ _
74,144
(June)
51,438
(June)
41,799

1 1929-1939 figures as of July 1.
2 1940-1952 figures revised to include Armed Forces overseas; see t6xt.
* For 1940-1957, figures from Bureau of the Census, Current Population Reports;
for 1929-1939, Bureau of Labor Statistics estimates; see text.
4 Beginning 1957, certain limited changes have been made in definitions of employ­
ment and unemployment with the result that each month about 200,000 to 300,000

70




32,180

1
workers, formerly classified as employed, were counted as unemployed. On the
basis of old definitions, unemployment in 1957 averaged 2,693,000. See Current
Population Reports, Series P-57, No. 176.
5 Based on full count and therefore differs from that shown in series D 13 and D 26
which are based on 3^-percent sample.

LABOR FORCE

D 13-25

Series D 13-25. Labor Force, by Age and Sex: 1890 to 1957
fin thousands of persons 14 years old and over. Annual estimates are averages of monthly figures. 1940-1952 figures revised to include Armed Forces overseas; see text.
Beginning 1953, data not exactly comparable with previous years; see headnote, series D 1-12]
Male
14 to 19 20 to 24 25 to 44 45 to 64
years
years
years
years
15
16
17
18

Female
14 to 19 20 to 24 25 to 44 45 to 64
years
years
years
years
21
22
23
24

Total

13

Year

Total
labor
force

14

70,746
70,387
68,896
67,818
67,362
66,560
65,982
64,749
63,721
62,898
61,758
60,970
65,290
66,040
64,560
60,380
57,530
56,180

48,649
48,579
48,054
47,847
47,692
47,001
46,674
46,069
45,674
45,300
44,843
44,130
46,020
46,670
45,750
44,260
42,890
42,020

3,669
3,610
3,378
3,298
3,338
3,396
3,476
3,444
3,480
3,580
3,641
3,700
4,530
4,950
4,700

4,781
4,814
4,851
4,959
5,085
5,223
5,268
5,224
5,198
5,114
5,093
4,930
5,760
5,940
5,710

22,293
22,286
22,297
22,215
22,138
21,636
21,325
20,996
20,747
20,478
20,199
19,740
19,900
20,050
19,810

15,428
15,266
15,002
14,850
14,591
14,331
14,137
13,952
13,797
13,742
13,534
13,410
13,370
13,300
13,200

2,477
2,603
2,525
2,525
2,544
2,416
2,469
2,453
2,454
2,384
2,376
2,350
2,460
2,430
2,320

3,270

5,490

19,150

12,170

1,950

2,198
22,097
2,453
9,384
21,808
2,183
2,467
9,322
1,987
20,842
2,458
9,069
1,941
2,441
19,972
8,939
1,952
19,668
2,447
8,842
2,002
19,559
2,519
8,779
2,018
19,308
2,670
8,612
1,982
18,680
2,681
8,267
2,054
2,662
18,048
7,999
17,599
2,083
2,722
7,744
2,067
16,915
2,725
7,426
16,840
2,160
2,810
7,410
19,270
2,720
3,300
8,350
19,370
2,900
3,340
8,320
2,930
18,810
3,170
8,240
16,120
14,640
14,160 " T 7 6 6 " " " 2 ^966" ~~”6^446"

59,671
53,299
47,404
40,282
27,640
21,833

43,118
40,284
37,008
32,053
22,641
18,129

2,543
2,619
2,795
2,947
2,834
1,997

4,537
5,035
4,747
4,080
3,302
2,836

20,389
18,817
17,498
15,353
10,560
8,513

13,275
11,954
10,173
8,290
4,958
3,937

2,373
1,859
1,795
1,383
987
846

16,553
13,015
10,396
8,229
4,999
3,704

1,441
1,395
1,591
1,640
1,230
984

58.0
58.6
58.0
57.6
57.8
58.1
58.2
57.7
57.4
57.3
56.8
56.6
61.2
62.4
61.6
58.2
56.0
55.3

81.6
82.4
82.4
82.7
83.0
83.4
83.6
83.2
83.2
83.3
83.3
82.5
86.7
88.4
87.3
85.3
83.5
82.6

49.0
50.9
49.0
48.6
50.2
51.4
53.3
52.7
53.1
54.1
53.7
53.5
.64.2
69.2
64.8

8 8 .6

84.6
83.8
81.0
94.3
97.1
94.3

96.2
96.4
96.7
96.5
96.6
96.4
96.0
95.5
95.4
95.5
95.5
94.3
96.2
97.6
97.4

91.1
91.5
91.3
91.6
91.3
91.0
90.7
90.4
90.6
91.5
91.6
92.0
93.0
93.5
94.0

36.6
39.1
38.5
39.5
40.4
41,6
43.8
44.7
45.9
45.7
46.8
47.4
50.8
50.9
49.5

44.0

95.2

96.7

90.4

44.2

35.5
35.6
34.5
33.4
33.3
33.6
33.6
32.8
32.1
31.7
30.8
31.1
35.9
36.5
35.8
31.0
28.5
27.9

53.4
52.7
53.2
54.3
53.7
52.2

79.0
79.7
82.1
84.6
85.7
84.3

39.5
35.4
40.1
51.5
62.0
50.0

81.9
88.4
8 8 .8
89.9
90.6
90.9

93.3
95.6
95.8
95.6
94.7
96.0

89.4
91.0
90.7
90.3
92.0

8 8 .2

41.4
42.2
54.0
55.6
63.1
68.3

29.0
25.7
23.6
22.7
2 0 .0
18.2

65 and
over
19

Total
20

65 and
over
25

NUMBER

Current population reports:
1957 i ____________________
1956______________________
1955______________________
1954______________________
1953______________________
1952______________________
1951______________________
1950______________________
1949______________________
1948______________________
1947______________________
1946______________________
1945______________________
1944______________________
1943______________________
1942
1941
1940______________________
Decennial census:
1950 (April) 2_____________
1940 (April)______________
1930 (April)______________
1920 (Jan.)_______________
1900 (June)______________
1890 (June)_______________

7,249
7,019
6,546
5,988
5,729
5,669
5,459
5,167
4,778
4,538
4,252
4,030
4,420
4,320
3,970

813
822
780
666
693
590
551
584
556
514
445
440
490
490
490

2^780

330

2,521
2,316
1,785
1,179
938

7,666
6,107
4,404
3,314
1,791
1,216

4,416
2,550
1,842
1,310
672
476

509
275
243
180
127
90

30.3
31.7
29.7
29.5
30.2
31.3
31.8
31.3
32.2
32.4
31.4
32.1
39.7
41.7
41.4

45.8
46.2
45.8
45.1
44.4
44.6
46.4
45.9
44.9
45.2
44.7
46.2
53.9
54.7
52.3

39.2
38.9
38.0
37.5
37.3
37.6
37.3
36.2
35.4
34.7
33.8
34.3
39.1
39.5
39.6

40.9
40.4
38.5
35.9
35.1
34.8
34.1
32.9
31.0
30.1
28.8
27.9
31.3
31.2
29.2

1 0 .2
1 0 .6

23.1

49.1

32.1

21.7

7.2

2 2 .6

42.9
45.6
41.8
37.5
31.7
30.2

33.3
30.6
24.6
21.7
17.5
15.1

28.8
2 0 .0
18.0
16.5
13.6

7.8
7.3
7.3
8.3
7.6

2,688

LABOR FORCE PARTICIPATION
RATE

Current population reports:
1957 1_____________________
1956______________________
1955______________________
1954______________________
1953______________________
1952__ ___________________
1951._____________________
1950______________________
1949______________________
1948______________________
1947______________________
1946______________________
1945______________________
1944______________________
1943______________________
1942____________________
1941____________ . __
1940______________________
Decennial census:
1950 (April) 2_____________
1940 (April)____ __ __
1930 (April)______________
1920 (Jan.)_______________
1900 (June)------------- -----1890 (June)_____ ____ __ _
1 See

footnote 4, series D 1—
12.




89.5
89.8
90.4
91.0
90.9
89.9
8 8 .0
8 6 .6

1 See

19.0
28.4
26.8
24.5
2 2 .8

1 2 .1

10.3
9.1
9.7
9 .0
8.7
9 .5
9.4
9.0
8 .0
8.3
9.3
9.6
9.8

6 .0

footnote 5, series ID 2.

71

D 26-45

LABOR

Series D 26-35. Civilian Labor Force, by Color and Sex, and Marital Status of Women: 1890 to 1957
[In thousands of persons 14 years old and over. Beginning 1953, data not exactly comparable with previous years; see headnote, series D 1-12]
Labor foi•ce, by color and sex
Male

Both sexes
Year

Marital status of women
in the labor force

Female

Married,
husband
present
34

Total

Non white

White

Non white

White

Nonwhite

Single

26
NUMBER
Current population reports : 1
1957___________________________________________
1956___________________________________________
1955___________________________________________
1954__________________________________________
1953___________________________________________
1952_________________________________ ________
1951____________________________________________
1950___________________________________________
1949___________________________________________
1948___________________________________________
1947___________________________________________
1946___________________________________________
1945___________________________________________
1944___________________________________________
1943___________________________________________
1942___________________________________________
1941___________________________________________
1940___________________________________________
Decennial census : 2
1950 (April) 3__________________________________
1940 (April)____________________________________
1930 (April)____________________________________
1920 (Jan.)____________________________________
1900 (J u n e )_ _____ _ _
__ _
1890 (June)____________________________________

White
27

28

29

30

31

32

33

2,732
2,620
2,495
2,527

5,378
5,167
5,087
5,412
5,223
5,532
5,430
5,621
5,682
5,943
6,181

11,529
11,126
10,423
9,923
9,763
9^222
9^086
8,550
7 ’ 959
6^676

4,617
4,549
4,643
4,391
4,319
4^058
4,086
3,624
3 ’526
3*659
3! 466

7,542

6,226

4,681

6,710

4,200

2,930

5,274
6,429

7,697
4,623

3,581
1,963

Other
35

66.951
66,555
64,647
64,063
63,155
61,744
61,789
62,183
60,835
60,524
59,120
56,450
54,180
54,220
54,860
55,880
54,980
54,870

59,771
59,540
57,925
57,326

59,671
53,299
47,404
40,282
27,640
21,833

53,502
47,670
41,911
35,554
23,871
18,932

6,168
5,626
5,493
4,728
3,769
2,901

39,059
36,499
33,286
28,807
20,057
16,094

4,058
3,783
3,722
3,246
2,584
2,035

14,443
11,171
8,625
6,747
3,814
2,838

2,110
1,843
1,771
1,482
1,185

866

2,565

500

638

57.1
57.6
56.7
56.9
56.7
56.5
56.8
56.9
56.4
56.6
55.9
55.2
58.2
58.1
57.8
56.2
55.1
55.0

56.7
57.3
56.4
56.5
56.4
56.1
56.4
56.5
56.0
56.2
55.2

61.2
60.8
59.2
60.5
59.8
59.8
60.4
61.2
60.2
60.1
61.9

81.4
82.5
82.2
82.9
83.0
82.9
83.1
83.3
83.5
83.4
83.2

81.0
81.3
79.7
81.0
82.9
83.6
82.4
83.5
83.3
83.4
85.3

34.1
34.2
32.9
32.4
32.3
31.9
31.8
31.1
29.9
30.3
28.7

43.7
42.7
41.2
42.5
39.6
39.7
41.5
42.1
40.1
39.9
41.0

46.8
46.4
46.4
49.0
48.5
50.0
49.6
50.5
50.9
51.1
51.2

29.6
29.0
27.7
26.6
26.3
25.3
25.2
23.8
22.5

22.0
20.0

40.4
39.4
39.6
39.4
39.1
38.8
39.3
37.8
37.1
38.7
37.4

58.6

21.7

41.7

48.1

14.7

36.2

53.4
52.7
53.2
54.3
53.7
52.2

53.1
52.1
52.1
53.2
52.4
51.0

46.3
46.1

21.6

35.5
30.1

36.9

4.5

7,180
7,015
6,723
6,737

40,981
40,966
40,266
40,127

PERCENT OF CIVILIAN NONINSTITUTIONAL
POPULATION

Current population reports:
1957___________________________________________
1956___________________________________________
1955___________________________________________
1954___ _______________*_____________ _ _ _
1953__________________________________________
1952__________________________________ _____
1951__________________________________________
1950___________________________________________
1949__________________________________________
1948___________________________________________
1947___________________________________________
1946___________________________________________
1945___________________________________________
1944______________ ________________
1943___________________________________________
1942___________________________________________
1941__________________ ________________________
1940 __________ ___________________________ __
Decennial census : 2
1950 3 (April)__________________________________
1940 (A pril)___________________________________
1930 (April)___________________________________
1920 (Jan.) _ _
_
1900 (June) _ _
_ _
_
1890 (June) _ ______
_ _
1 As of April, except marital status for 1950, 1956, and
2 Relates to total labor force and total population.

79.2
79.7
81.7
84.1
85.4
84.0

56.1
58.1
63.2
64.2
65.0
62.4

1957 as of March.

3 See

4,448
4,395
4,228
4,210

18,791
18,573
17,659
17,199

76.6
80.0
86.1
87.5
88.5

28.1
24.5
21.8
20.7
17.3
15.8

86.6

37.1
37.3
40.5
40.6
41.2
37.7

7 ’ 553

15.4

-J

footnote 5, series D 2.

Series D 36-45. Gainful Workers, by Age, Sex, and Farm-Nonfarm Occupations: 1820 to 1930
[In thousands of persons 10 years old and over]
Year

Total
workers
36

1930
1920
1910
1900
1890
1880
1870

72




48,830
42,434
37,371
29,073
23,318
17,392
12,925

Occupation
Non­
Farm
farm
37
38
10,472
11,449
11,592
10,912
9,938
8,585
6,850

38,358
30,985
25,779
18,161
13,380
8,807
6,075

Sex

A

Male

Female

39

40

to
15
41

38,078
33,797
29,926
23,754
19,313
14,745
11,008

10,752
8,637
7,445
5,319
4,006
2,647
1,917

667
1,417
1,622
1,750
1,504
1,118
765

10

16 to
44
42
33,492
29,339
26,620
20,223
16,162

(in years)
45 to 65 and
64
over
43
44
12,422 2,205
9,914 1,691
7,606 1,440
5,804 1,202
4,547 1,009
16,:274
12 , 160

Un­
known
45
44
73
83
94
97

Year

Total
workers
36

1860_ __ _
10,533
1850 _
7,697
1840_ ___ __ _
5,420
1830____
3,932
1820_________________ 2,881

Occupation
Non­
Farm
farm
37
38
6,208
4,902
3,720
2,772
2,069

4,325
2,795
1,700
1,160
812

D 46-56

LABOR FORCE

Series D 46-47. Unemployment: 1900 to 1957
[In thousands of persons 14 years old and over. Annual averages]
Percent of
civilian
Un­
employed labor
force
46
47

Year
1957 i.
19561955_______
1954________
1953._
1952 _ _ __
1951__ ___
1950________
1949________
1948________
1947________
1946________
1 See

2,936
2,551
2,654
3,230
1,602
1,673
1,879
3,142
3,395
2,064
2,142
2,270

4.3
3 .8
4.0
5.0
2 .5
2 .7
3 .0
5.0
5.5
3 .4
3.6
3.9

Percent of
civilian
Un­
employed labor
force
46
47

Year
1945
1944
1943
1942______
1941
1940
1939
1938______
1937______
1936______
1935______
1934______

1,040
670
1,070
2,660
5,560
8,120
9,480
10,390
7,700
9,030
10,610
11,340

1.9

1.2

1.9
4 .7
9.9
1476
17.2
19.0
14.3
16.9
20.1
21.7

Year

Percent of
civilian
Un­
employed labor
force
46
47
12,830
12,060

1933
1932
1931 _
1930______
1925"
1928
1927
1926______
1925______
1924______
1923______

8,020

4,340
1,550
2,080
1,890
880
1,800
2,440
1,380

24.9
23.6
15.9
^7
3.2
4.4
4.1
1.9
4.0
5.5
3.2

Percent of
civilian
Un­
employed labor
force
46
47

Year
1922______
1921_____
1920______
1919______
1918
1917
1916______
1915______
1914______
1913______
1912______

3,220
5,010
1,670
950
560
1,920
1,920
3,840
3,110
1,680
1,960

7.6
11.9
4.0
2.3
1.4
4 .8
4.8
9.7
8.0
4.4
5.2

Percent of
civilian
Un­
employed labor
force
46
47

Year
1911______
1910______
1909______
1908______
1907
1906 _ _
1905_ _ _ _
1904______
1903______
1902______
1901______
1900______

2,290
2,150
1,870
2,960
600
280

6.2

5.9
5.2
8.5

1.8
0.8

3.1
4.8
2.6
2 .7
2 .4
5.0

1,000

1,490
800
800
710
1,420

footnote 4, series D 1-12.

Series D 48-56. Employees in Monagricultural Establishments, by Major Industry Division: 1919 to 1957
[In thousands. Annual averages. Includes all full- and part-time employees who worked during, or received pay for, any part of the pay period reported. Excludes proprietors
self-employed persons, farm workers, unpaid family workers, domestic servants, and personnel of Armed Forces. Data for the latest year are adjusted to 1st quarter 1957
benchmark levels indicated by data from Government social insurance programs, and are comparable with the series for earlier years]

1957___________________
1956___________________
1955___________________
1954___________________
1953___________________
1952___________________
19.51________________ _
1950___________________
1949___________________
1948___________________
1947___________________
1946___________________
1945___________________
1944___________________
1943___________________
1942___________________
1941___________________
1940___________________
1939___________________
1938___________________
1937___________________
1936___________________
1935___________________
1934___________________
1933_________________ _
1932___________________
1931___________________
1930___________________
1929___________________
1928___________________
1927___________________
1926___________________
1925__________________ _
1924___________________
1923___________________
1922___________________
1921___________________
1920___________________
1919___________________




Total

Mining

Contract
construction

Manufacturing

48

Year

49

50

51

52 ,162
51,,766
50.,056
48;,431
49,,681
48,,303
47,,347
44,,738
43,,315
44,,448
43,,462
41,,287
40,,037
41, 534
42, 106
39,,779
36, 220
32, 058
30, 311
28, 902
30,,718
28, 802
26,,792
25,,699
23,,466
23,,377
26,,383
29,,143
31,,041
29,,710
29,,691
29, 539
28,,505
27, 770
28, 128
25,,569
24, 125
27, 088
26, 829

809
807
777
777
852
885
916
889
918
982
943
852
823
883
917
983
947
916
845
882
1 ,006
937
888

874
735
722
864
1 ,000
1 ,078
1 ,041
1 ,105
1 ,176
1 ,080
1 ,092
1 ,203

920
953
1 ,230
1 ,124

2,808
2,929
2,759
2,593
2,622
2,634
2,603
2,333
2,165
2,169
1,982
1,661
1,132
1,094
1,567
2,170
1,790
1,294
1,150
1,055
1,112
1,145
912
862
809
970
1,214
1,372
1,497
1,606
1,608
1,555
1,446
1,321
1,229
1,185

1,012

848

1,021

16,782
16,903
16,563
15,995
17,238
16,334
16,104
14,967
14,178
15,321
15,290
14,461
15,302
17,111
17,381
15,051
12,974
10,780
10,078
9,253
10,606
9,653
8,907
8,346
7,258
6,797
8,021

9,401
10,534
9,786
9,839
9,997
9,786
9,523
10,155
8,986
8,132
10,534
10,534

Transportation Wholesale and
Finance,
Service and
and public
retail trade insurance, and miscellaneous
real estate
utilities
52
53
54
55
4,151
4,161
4,062
4,009
4,221
4,185
4,166
3,977
3,949
4,141
4,122
4,023
3,872
3,798
3,619
3,433
3,248
3,013
2,912
2,840
3,114
2,956
2,771
2,736
2,659
2,804
3,243
3,675
3,907
3,822
3,891
3,940
3,824
3,806
3,882
3,505
3,459
3,998
3,711

11,302

2 ,348
2 ,308

10,846
10,520
10,527
10,281

2 ,219
2 ,122
2 ,038
1 ,967
1 ,892

9,645
9,513
9,519
9,196
8,602
7,522
7,260
7,189
7,333
7,416
6,940
6,612
6,453
6,543
6,076
5,692
5,552
4,999
4,907
5,531
6,064
6,401
6,137
6,165
6,033
5,810
5,626
5,494
5,084
4,754
4,623
4,664

1 ,824
1 ,765
1 ,741
1 ,672
1 ,619

11,221

10,012

1 ,428
1 ,409
1 ,435
1 ,469
1 ,480
1 ,436
1 ,399
1 ,347
1 ,355
i;,313
i ,262
i;,247
l!,225
i.,270
i ;,333
i,,398
i,,431
i ,360
i,,295
i;,235
i.,166
i,,163
i.,123
i ,079
i;,097
i, ,110
i,,050

6,336
6,160
5,916
5,664
5,538
5,411
5,264
5,077
4,972
4,925
4,783
4,474
4,011
3,934
3,919
3,857
3,705
3,477
3,321
3,196
3,233
3,060
2,883
2,784
2,614
2,682
2,913
3,084
3,127
2,962
2,871
2,755
2,591
2,516
2,431
2,268
2,187
2,142
2,054

Government
56
7,626
7,277
6,914
6,751
6,645
6,609
6,389
6,026
5,856
5,650
5,474
5,595
5,944
6,043
6,080
5,483
4,660
4,202
3,995
3,876
3,749
3,662
3,477
3,298
3,167
3,225
3,264
3,149
3,066
2,996
2,917
2,848
2,802
2,723
2,611
2,542
2,531
2,603
2,671

73

D 57-122

LABOR

Series D 57-71. Industrial Distribution of Gainful Workers: 1820 to 1940
[In thousands]
Total

1940______
1930 1
1930 3
1920______
1910______
1900______
1890______
1880______
1870 4
1870 3____
1860______
1850______
1840______
1830______
1820______

Forestry
and
fisheries

Mining

57

Year

Agri­
culture
58

59

60

53,300
47,400
48,830
41,610
36,730
29,070
23,740
17,390
12,920
12,920
10,530
7,700
5,420
3,930
2,880

9,000
10,180
10,480
11,120
11,340
10,710
9,990
8,610
6,430
6,850
6,210
4,900
3,720
2,770
2,070

140

120

270
280
250

210

180
95
60
60
50
25
(6)
(6)
(6)

1,110

1,160
1,150
1,230
1,050
760
480
310

200

180
170
90
15
00
(6)

Transpor­
Manufac­
turing Construc­ tation and
other
and hand tion
public
trades
utilities
62
63
61
11,940
3,510
10,770
3,030
10,990
3,030
10,880
2,170
8,230
2,300
6,340
1,660
4,750
1,440
3,170
830
2,250
750
2,750
1,930
1,260
790
(6)
350

4,150
4,810
4,850
4,190
3,190

2,100

Trade

Finance
and real
estate

Educa­
tional
service

Other
profes­
sional
service

64

65

66

67

7,180
6,190
6,030
4,060
3,370

1,550
1,470
1,420
800
520

2 , 760

1,530
860
640

1,990
830

1,220

1,680
1,630
1,650
1,170
900
650
510
330
190

2,320
1,720
1,760
1,080
770
500
350
190
140

1,350
780
420
(6)
(6)
(6)

!

1 Comparable with 1940.
2 Difference between number

of persons not reporting industrial affiliation (1,335,000),
and excess of the “gainful worker” total over the “labor force” total (1,190,000).
3 Comparable with data for earlier years.

5 Figure

Govern­
Domestic Personal ment not N ot
service service elsewhere allocated
classified
69

68

2,610
2,550
2,330
1,700
2,150
1,740
1,520
1,080
940
51,700
1,310
940
(e)
(6)
(6)

70

71

3,100
2,500
2,490
1,630
1,520
970
640
360
250

1,690
1,130
1,050
920
540
300
190
140

3,330
2145
1,340
380
600
370
170
195
140
30
80
65
895
1,160
460

100

4 Comparable with data for later years.
corrected for apparent error in source; components now add to total, series
D 57.
6N ot available.

Series D 72-122. Major Occupation Group of the Economically Active Population, by Sex: 1900 to 1950
[In thousands]
Series
No.

Major occupation group
and sex

1950

1940

1930

1920

1910

1900

Series
No.

BOTH SEXES

72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
84
85
86

87

88

Total _ _ _
58,999 51,742 48,686 42,206 37,291
White-collar workers
21,601 16,082 14,320 10,529 7,962
Professional, technical, and
kindred workers
5,081 3,879 3,311 2,283 1,758
Managers, officials, and
proprietors, except farm----- 5,155 3,770 3,614 2,803 2,462
Clerical and kindred workers-_ 7,232 4,982 4,336 3,385 1,987
Sales workers. _ _ 4,133 3,450 3,059 2,058 1,755
Manual and service workers____ 30,445 26,666 24,044 20,287 17,797
Manual workers _
24,266 20,597 19,272 16,974 14,234
Craftsmen, foremen, and
kindred workers
8,350 6,203 6,246 5,482 4,315
Operative and kindred
workers
__
_ _ . 12,030 9,518 7,691 6 ,58.7 5,441
Laborers, except farm and
mine___ _____
3,885 4,875 5,335 4,905 4,478
Service workers______________ 6,180 6,069 4,772 3,313 3,562
Private household workers __ 1,539 2,412 1,998 1,411 1,851
Service workers, except
private household 4,641 3,657 2,774 1,901 1,711
6,953 8,995 10,321 11,390 11,533
Farmworkers____ _ _
Farmers and farm managers. _ 4,375 5,362 6,032 6,442 6,163
Farm laborers and foremen__ 2,578 3,632 4,290 4,948 5,370

29,030
5,115
1,234
1,697
877
1,307
13,027
10,401
3,062
3,720
3,620
2,626
1,579
1,047
10,888

5,763
5,125

MALE

89
90
91
92
93
94
95
96
97

Total _ _ _ _ _ _
42,554 39,168 37,933 33,569
White-collar workers___________ 12,974 10,434 9,564 7,176
Professional, technical, and
kindred workers _ __ __ 3,074 2,271 1,829 1,275
Managers, officials, and
proprietors, except farm___ 4,456 3,356 3,321 2,612
Clerical and kindred workers-_ 2,730 2,282 2,090 1,771
Sales workers_____
2,715 2,525 2,323 1,518
Manual and service workers____ 23,228 20,247 18,956 16,172
Manual workers
20,581 17,877 17,138 14,923
Craftsmen, foremen, and
kindred workers _ __ _ _ 8,098 6,069 6,140 5,377

74



29,847
6,019
1,032
2,312
1,300
1,376
13,469
12,320
4,209

23,711
4,166
800
1,623
665
1,079
9,664
8,924
2,985

98
99
100
101
102

103
104
105

Major occupation group
and sex

1950

1940

1930

1920

MALE —Con.
Manual and service
workers—Con.
Manual workers—Con.
Operative and kindred
workers
Laborers, except farm and
mine _
_ _
Service workers______________
Private household workers __
Service workers, except
private household _
Farmworkers _ _ _
Farmers and farm managers _ _
Farm laborers and foremen___

8,743
3,740
2,647
80
2,568
6,352
4,255
2,097

7,067
4,742
2,370
135
2,235
8,487
5,205
3,282

5,822
5,177
1,818
89
1,729
9,414
5,769
3,645

4,839
4,707
1,250
51
1,199

16,445
8,627
2,007
700
4,502
1,418
7,217
3,685
253
3,287
145
3,532
1,459
2,073
601
120
481

12,574
5,648
1,608
414
2,700
925
6,419
2,720
135
2,452
133
3,699
2,277
1,422
508
157
351

10,752
4,756
1,482
292
2,246
736
5,088
2,134
106
1,870
158
2,954
1,909
1,045
908
263
645

1910

1900

3,739
4,372
1,149
67
1,082
10,221 10,359
6,165 5,884
4,056 4,475

2,456
3,482
740
53
687
9,880
5,451
4,429

7,445
1,943
726
150
688
379
4,327
1,914
106
1,702
106
2,413
1,784
629
1,175
279
895

5,319
949
434
74
212
228
3,363
1,477
76
1,264
137

FEMALE

106
107
108
109
110
111
112

113
114
115
116
117
118
119
120
121
122

Total _ _
White-collar workers
_ _
Professional, technical, and
kindred workers _
Managers, officials, and
proprietors, except farm___
Clerical and kindred workers-Sales workers. _
Manual and service workers____
Manual workers. _
Craftsmen, foremen, and
kindred workers_
Operative and kindred
workers
Laborers, except farm and
mine
_
Service workers______________
Private household workers..
Service workers, except
private household
Farmworkers__________________
Farmers and farm managers _ _
Farm laborers and foremen__

8,637
3,353
1,008
191
1,614
541
4,115
2,052
105
1,748
199
2,063
1,360
703
1,169
277
892

1,886

1,526
359
1,008
311
697

Series D 123-572.
Series
No.

1Not

1950

1940

1920

1910

1900 b^ es

Total _
58,999
48,686 42,206 37,291 29,030
Professional, technical, and kindred workers_
5,081 3,879 3,311 2,283 1,758 1,234
Accountants and auditors-------23
390 238 192 118
Actors and actresses---------------21
20
Athletes_______________________
9
13
Dancers and dancing teachers
14
18
48
Entertainers (n. e. c.)-------------12
17
Sports instructors and officials 25
47
Airplane pilots and navigators _
6
5
14
1
23
22
Architects_____________________
25
16
17
Artists and art teachers----------66
57
83
34
35
12
14
Authors_______________________
17
4
7
Chemists------------------------------------------------------------57
45
77
16
28
Clergymen_______________________________________
171 141 149 127 118
Religious workers-----------------------------------------------42
42
19
46
Recreation and group workers----------------------------77
95
Social and welfare workers, except group_________
College presidents, prof’rs, & instructors (n. e. c.) _
77
62
127
16
33
D entists-------------------------------------------------------------71
71
76
40
56
Designers-----------------------------------------------------------32
41
98
45
67
Draftsmen----------------------------------------------------------82
127
Editors and reporters-----------------------------------------61
66
93
36
39
Engineers, technical-------------------------------------543 297 217 134
77
Engineers, civil____________________________
97
128
40
56
Engineers, chemical----------------------------------13
34
Engineers, metallurgical, and metallurgists _
7
11
12
23
Engineers, mining-------------------------------------Engineers, electrical_______________________
65
110
15
27
Engineers, industrial---------------------------------13
42
Engineers, aeronautical____________________
14
Engineers, mechanical_____________________
58
207
15
39
Engineers (n. e. c .)-----------------------------------Farm and home management advisors_______
4
12
13
3
1
16
Funeral directors and embalmers____________
34
40
41
21
24
Lawyers and judges____________
184 182 161 123 115 108
Librarians______________________
3
30
39
57
7
15
92
Musicians and music teachers__
166 167 165 130 139
Nurses, professional____________
12
491 377 294 149
82
Nurses, student professional____
Optometrists----------------------------10
15
1
7
Pharmacists____________________
84
90
54
64
Photographers_________________
33
56
30
29
Physicians and surgeons________
195 168 157 146 152
Osteopaths_____________________
6
6
5
5
131
Chiropractors__________________
12
11
13
12
5
Therapists and healers (n. e. c.) _
14
18
25
Radio operators________________________________________
5
7
17
4
5
Surveyors_______________________________________________
15
17
27
8
9
Teachers (n. e. c .)---------------------------------------------------------- ,149 1,086 1,044 752 595 436
Technicians, medical and dental________________________
73
158
Technicians, testing____________________________________
Technicians (n. e. c .)___________________________________
11
28
Veterinarians___________________________________________
11
14
13
Dietitians and nutritionists_____________________________
Foresters and conservationists__________________________
Natural scientists (n. e. c.)_____________________________
73
302
Personnel and labor relations workers___________________
Social scientists_________________________________________
Professional, technical, and kindred workers (n. e. c.)-----Farmers and farm managers_____________________ 4,375 5,362
6,442
Farmers (owners and tenants)_________________________ 4,339 5,324 5,992 6,384 5,132 5,752
Farm managers_________________________________________
40
10
38
36
31
Managers, officials, and proprietors, exc. farm_
5,155 3,770 3,614 2,803 2,462 1,697
Buyers and department heads, store________________
147
0)
Buyers and shippers, farm products________________
29
Conductors, railroad______________________________
57
Credit men_______________________________________
34

Floormen and floor managers, store_________________
available.




11

191
192
193
194
195
196
197
198
199

200
201
202

203
204
205
206
207
208
209

210
211
212

213
214
215
216
217
218
219

220

221

222

223
224
225
226
227
228
229
230
231
232
233
234
235
236
237
238
239
240
241
242
243
244
245
246
247
248
249
250
251
252
253
254
255

Occupation
Managers, officials, & propr’s., exc. farm—Con.
Inspectors (n. e. c.), public administration______________
Officials (n. e. c.), public administration_________________
Inspectors (n. e. c.), Federal public administration
and postal service__________________________________
Officials and administrators (n. e. c.), Federal public
administration and postal service__________________
Inspectors (n. e. c.), State public administration______
Officials & admins, (n. e. c.), State public admin______
Inspectors (n. e. c.), local public administration______
Officials & admins, (n. e. c.), local public admin______Managers and superintendents, building________________
Officers, pilots, pursers, and engineers, ship_____________
Officials, lodge, society, union, etc______________________
Postmasters____________________________________________
Purchasing agents and buyers (n. e. c.)_________________
Managers, officials, and proprietors (n. e. c .)___________
Construction________________________________________
Manufacturing_______________________________________
Transportation_______________________________________
Telecommunications, & utilities & sanitary services__
Wholesale trade_____________________________________
Retail trade_________________________________________
Eating and drinking places_______________________
Food & dairy products stores, & milk retailing_____
General merchandise and five and ten cent stores-__
Apparel and accessories stores_____________________
Motor vehicles and accessories retailing____________
Gasoline service stations___________________________
Furniture, home furnishings, and equipment stores _
Hardware, farm implement, & bldg. material retail _
Other retail trade_________________________________
Banking and other finance___________________________
Insurance and real estate____________________________
Automobile repair services and garages_______________
Miscellaneous repair services_________________________
Personal services____________________________________
Business services____________________________________
All other industries (incl. not reported)______________
Clerical and kindred workers____________________
Agents (n. e. c.)________________________________________
Collectors, bill and account____________________________
Attendants and assistants, library______________________
Attendants, physician's and dentist’s office_____________
Baggagemen, transportation___________________________
Bookkeepers___________________________________________
Cashiers_______________________________________________
Express messengers and railway mail clerks____________
Mail carriers___________________________________________
Stenographers, typists, and secretaries__________________
Messengers and office boys_____________________________
Telegraph messengers__________________________________
Telegraph operators____________________________________
Telephone operators-----------------------------------------------------Ticket, station, and express agents_____________________
Office machine operators_______________________________
Shipping and receiving clerks__________________________
Bank tellers___________________________________________
Dispatchers and starters, vehicle----------------------------------Clerical and kindred workers (n. e. c .)__________________
Sales workers----------------------------------------------------Advertising agents and salesmen----------------------------------Auctioneers____________________________________________
Demonstrators-------------------------------------------------------------Hucksters and peddlers------------------------------------------------Insurance agents and brokers---------------------------------------Newsboys--------------------------------------------------------------------Real estate agents and brokers_________________________

1950
58
158
28
51
10
24
20
83
68

43
28
39
65
4,419
296
665
151
68
343
1,977
370
512
128
130
119
186
98
131
305
143
117
86
35
216
63
259
7,232
128
24
13
43
8
994
19
171
1,661
60
8
36
375
61
150
304
3,178

1940

1930

43

1920

1910

124

100

72

58

40
40
11
15
21
12
70
61
72
71
35
49
26
15
40
34
34
29
3,197 3,113
175 199
432 447
90
98
54
39
225 152
1,620 1,592
270 165
469 540
111 184
99
96
65
62
183
89
57
95 456
271
126 174
65
66
66
93
14
9
129 105
33 > 140
169
4,982 4,336
73 102
45
43
24
2
35
28
6
9
721 738
23
26
124 121
1,223 1,097
64
80
17
16
42
68
214 249
47
38
66
38
233 }
2,026 (1,681

42

20

18

9
49

7
44

4
35

122
20

43
32 0 )
49
43
45
12
8 C
1)
29
19
25
7
18
8
2,390 2,135 1,511
107 183
58
406 350 174
83
66
82
25
6
19
78
143 104
1,220 1,119 930
106 129 110
444 395
162 167
97
85
29
5 820
15
2
368 336
122
38
56
8
76
107

75
29
5
7
88
74

76
14
0)

72
36

3,385 1,987
59
1

25
91
786
110

9
75
190
37

22
81
387
103
9
66
98
35

19
232
28
134
66

56
19
27

1,323

235

25
5
5
50
120
28
89

1,755 1,307
12
3
3
77
78
7
34

J

4,133 3,450 3,059
41
35
40
4
6
4
10
8
14
55
24
57
312 253 257
58
101
39
145 119 150

D 123-255

-3
Cn

[In thousands. “N. e. c.” means not elsewhere classified]

LABOR FORCE

123
124
125
126
127
128
129
130
131
132
133
134
135
136
137
138
139
140
141
142
143
144
145
146
147
148
149
150
151
152
153
154
155
156
157
158
159
160
161
162
163
164
165
166
167
168
169
170
171
172
173
174
175
176
177
178
179
180
181
182
183
184
185
186
187
188
189
190

Occupation

Detailed Occupation of the Economically Active Population: 1900 to 1950

Series D 123-572. Detailed Occupation of the Economically Active Population: 1900 to 1950—Con.
Series
No.

Occupation

1930

1920

1910

[In thousands]
1900 Series
No.

Occupation

1950

1940

1930

1900




LABOR

Craftsmen, foremen, and kindred workers— Con.
Sales workers—Con.
23
31
28
19
26
323 Paper hangers----------------------------------------------------------------22
22
18
6
11
11
256 Stock and bond salesmen--------------------38
30
30
28
24
324 Pattern and model makers, except paper________________
15
Salesmen and sales clerks (n. e. c .):
8
5
7
7
7
325 Piano and organ tuners and repairmen--------------------------4
Manufacturing--------------------------------257
66
53
38
70
48
326 Plasterers---------------------------------------------------------------------35
Wholesale trade____________________
258
>3,485 2,893 2,482 1,724 1,454 1,089 327 Plumbers and pipe fitters_______________________________
304 211 238 207 148
92
Retail trade------------------------------------259
32
33
31
25
18
328 Rollers and roll hands, metal___________________________
6
Other industries (incl. not reported) _
260
12
50
33
24
14
329 Roofers and slaters_____________________________________
9
68
76
79
60
70 102
330 Shoemakers and repairers, except factory_______________
Craftsmen, foremen, and kindred workers.
8,350 6,203 6,246 5,482 4,315
261
15
23
331 Stone cutters and stone carvers_________________________
9
23
36
37
70
90
98
128 139 141
262 Bakers____________________________________
31
47
33
18
57
4
45
31 332 Structural metal workers_______________________________
50
40
74
33
263 Boilermakers---------------------------------------------88
120 169 192 205 134
26 333 Tailors and tailoresses__________________________________
17
19
19
33
19
264 Bookbinders_______________________________
75
91
83
60
133
49
181 141 171 135 160 149 334 Tinsmiths, coppersmiths, and sheet metal workers_______
265 Brickmasons, stonemasons, and tile setters _
24
42
65
43
20
26
36 335 Upholsterers____________________________________________
63
43
.60
50
78
266 Cabinetmakers------------------------------------------76
73
47
43
60
1,016 776 917 885 815 596 336 Craftsmen and kindred workers (n. e. c.)________________
267 Carpenters------------------------------------------------337 Members of the Armed Forces 2_________________________
9
15
32
8
34
268 Cement and concrete finishers-------------------4
8
8
5
12
269 Electrotypers and stereotypers------------------Operatives and kindred workers_________________ 12,030 9,518 7,691 6,587
338
3,720
9
10
270 Engravers, except photoengravers-------------22
23
23 | 28
29
271 Photoengravers and lithographers-------------339 Apprentice carpenters__________________________________
182 181 184 140 128
272 Compositors and typesetters---------------------340 Apprentice electricians__________________________________
31
20
36
19
51
273 Pressmen and plate printers, printing--------341 Apprentice plumbers and pipefitters____________________
342 Apprentices, printing trades------------------------------------------5
20
46
30
274 Decorators and window dressers----------------------------343 Apprentice machinists and toolmakers__________________
332 221 253 192 108
275 Electricians-----------------------------------------------------------344 Apprentice auto mechanics_____________________________
276 Cranemen, derrickmen, and hoistmen______________
)
223 123 \ 294 258 219 134 345 Apprentice bricklayers and masons--------------------------------277 Excavating, grading, and road machinery operators .
42
346 Apprentice mechanics, except auto______________________
33
201
222
278 Stationary engineers----------------------------------------------347 Apprentices, building trade (n. e. c.)____________________
49
279 Blacksmiths----------------------------------------------------------99
209
220 348
60
Apprentices, metalworking trades (n. e. c.)______________
280 Forgemen and hammermen________________________
349 Apprentices, other specified trades---------------------------------12
281 Foremen (n. e. c .)----------------------------------------------------------- 867 585 551 485 318 162 350 Apprentices, trade not specified------------------------------------43
15
14
79
62
Construction--------------------------------------------------------------282
6
17
3
90 351 Asbestos and insulation workers________________________
Manufacturing-----------------------------------------------------------525 310 293 296 164
283
352 Attendants, auto service and parking___________________
253 245 144
Metal industries-----------------------------------------------------284
353 Blasters and powdermen________________________________
1
12
7
7
112
Machinery, including electrical_____________________
285
354 Boatmen, canalmen, and lock keepers___________________
6
9
6
13
Transportation equipment--------------------------------------286
355 Brakemen, railroad_____________________________________
82
77 173
53
Textiles, textile products, and apparel---------------------72
287
356 Switchmen, railroad------------------------------------------------------63
50
Other durable goods________________________________ 235 144
288
Other nondurable goods (incl. not specified mfg.)___
289
357 Chainmen, rodmen, and axmen, surveying______________
3
4
4
11
64
24
69
18
37
57
81
12
38 358 Conductors, bus and street railway_____________________
51
55
Railroads and railway express service-------------------------290
359 Deliverymen and routemen_____________________________
253 294 187 170 230 167
15
Transportation, except railroad_______________________
20
291
24
10 360 Dressmakers and seamstresses, except factory___________
31
147 172 198 259 467 413
27
Telecommunications, & utilities & sanitary services----41
292
45
15
24 361 Dyers---------------------------------------------------------------------------5
26
14
63
28
18
164 104
Other industries (incl. not reported)---------------------------293
60
17
8
79
50
7 362 Filers, grinders, and polishers, m etal____________________
12
160 117
9
16
14
294 Furriers____________________________________________
8
37
25
10
5
447 451 446 265 288 221 363 Fruit, nut, & veget. graders & packers, exc. factory_____
295 Painters, construction and maintenance------------------364 Furnacemen, smeltermen, and pourers__________________
24
26
33
20
13
59
8
11
296 Glaziers____________________________________________
365 Heaters, m etal__________________________________________
16
5
2
10
10
15
10
6
3
11
19
297 H eat treaters, annealers, and temperers------------------366 Laundry and dry cleaning operatives___________________
91
7
462 314 265 142 132
7
7
18
17
Inspectors, scalers, and graders, log and lumber------298
61
367 Meat cutters, except slaughter and packing house_______
41
33
78
77
53
180 160 120
82
99
299 Inspectors (n. e. c.)-------------------------------------------------368 Milliners_______________________________________________
50 100
75
4
25
7
15
3
13
9
8
Construction-------------------------------------------------------300
28
39
43
30
37
Railroads and railway express service-----------------301
14
Mine operatives and laborers (n. e. c.):
10
14
13
Transp. exc. railroad, commun., & other pub. util.
302
369
Coal mining__________________________________________
14
17
21
30
40
Other industries (incl. not reported)--------------------303
370
660
995
Crude petroleum and natural gas extraction__________ \ 620 845
39
23 371
Mining and quarrying, except fuel____________________
40
36
304 Jewelers, watchmakers, goldsmiths, and silversmiths.
12
3
20
17
51
18 372 Motormen, mine, factory, logging camp, etc____________ ' 25
116 106
219
305 Linemen & servicemen, telegraph, telephone, & power.
63
56
street,
and elevated railway________
27
39
58
67 104 113
74
306 Locomotive engineers_________________________________
107 373 Motormen,greasers,subway, auto_________________________
374 Oilers and
25
14
except
67
31
91
40
63
50
57
307 Locomotive firemen__________________________________
55
61
49
19
9 375 Painters, except construction and maintenance__________
126 104
83
16
32
25
308 Loom fixers----------------------------------------------------------------2
2
376 Photographic process workers___________________________
3
8
15
30
377 Power station operators_________________________________
21
12
22
22
29
309 Job setters, m etal_______________________________
571
310 Machinists______________________________________
40
55
47
378 Sailors and deckhands__________________________________
65
47
55
28
75
311 Mechanics and repairmen, airplane_____________
18
379 Sawyers------------------------------------------------------------------------34
43
36
50
100
693 448
312 Mechanics and repairmen, automobile__________
56
74
83
81
88
113
46 1,387 1,168 520 304 380 Spinners, textile________________________________________
49
313 Mechanics and repairmen, railroad and car shop.
73
381 Stationary firemen______________________________________
130 128 127 144 111
314 Mechanics and repairmen, office machine-----------382 Bus drivers_____________________________________________
987 436
315 Mechanics and repairmen, radio and television.
46
285
383 Taxicab drivers and chauffeurs__________________________
1,515
316 Mechanics and repairmen (n. e. c .)______________
384 Truck and tractor drivers______________________________
160 100
317 Toolmakers, and die makers and setters------------109 225 219 202 155
385 Weavers, textile________________________________________
105
54
37
386 Welders and flame-cutters______________________________
283 137
23
16
16
10
23
318 Millers, grain, flour, feed, etc-------------------17
42
61
44
38
319 Millwrights----------------------------------------------387 Operatives and kindred workers (n. e. c.)________________ 6,627 4,654 3,634 3,284 2,451 1,592
86
105 124 121
65
320 Molders, metal----------------------------------------Manufacturing------------------------------------------------------------ 5,847 4,225, 3,189, 3,076i 2,318 1,443
4
24
388
27
20
10
321 Motion picture projectionists-------------------9
20
12
13
11
322 Opticians, and lens grinders and polishers.
2 Consists solely of civilians seeking work whose last job was as a member of the Armed Forces.

D 256-388

-3
o>

Series D

123-572.

Detailed Occupation of the Economically Active Population: 1900 to 1950—Con.

389
390
391
392
393
394
395
396
397
398
399
400
401
402
403
404
405
406
407
408
409
410
411
412
413
414
415
416
417
418
419
420
421
422
423
424
425
426
427
428
429
430
431
432
433
434
435
436
437
438
439
440
441
442
443
444
445
446
447
448
449
450
451
452
453
454
455
456

Operatives and kindred workers— Con.
Operatives and kindred workers (n. e. c.)— Con.
Manufacturing— Con.
Sawmills, planing mills, and millwork_______________
Miscellaneous wood products_______________________
Furniture and fixtures______________________________
Glass and glass products___________________________
Cement & concrete, gypsum, & piaster products____
Structural clay products____________________________
Pottery and related products_______________________
Miscellaneous nonmetallic mineral & stone prod____
Motor vehicles and motor vehicle equipment________
Ship and boat building and repairing_______________
Blast furnaces, steelworks, and rolling mills________
Other primary iron and steel industries_____________
Fabricated steel products----------------------------------------Office and store machines and devices_______________
Miscellaneous machinery----------------------------------------N ot specified metal industries______________________
Agricultural machinery and tractors________________
Aircraft and parts--------------------------------------------------Railroad & miscellaneous transportation equipment. _
Primary nonferrous industries______________________
Fabricated nonferrous metal products______________
Electrical machinery, equipment, and supplies______
Professional equipment and supplies________________
Photographic equipment and supplies_______________
W atches, clocks, and clockwork-operated devices___
Miscellaneous manufacturing industries_____________
Meat products_____________________________________
Canning & preserving fruits, veget., & seafood______
Dairy products_____________________________ _______
Grain-mill products________________________________
Bakery products___________________________________
Confectionery and related products_________________
Beverage industries________________________________
Miscellaneous food preparations & kindred products. _
N ot specified food industries________________________
Tobacco manufactures_____________________________
Knitting mills______________________________________
Dyeing and finishing textiles, except knit goods_____
Carpets, rugs, and other floor covering______________
Yarn, thread, and fabric mills______________________
Miscellaneous textile mill products_________________
Apparel and accessories____________________________
Miscellaneous fabricated textile products___________
Pulp, paper, and paperboard mills_________________
Miscellaneous paper and pulp products_____________
Paperboard containers and boxes___________________
Printing, publishing, and allied industries___________
Synthetic fibers____________________________________
Paints, varnishes, and related products_____________
Drugs and medicines_______________________________
Miscellaneous chemicals and allied products________
Petroleum refining_________________________________
Miscellaneous petroleum and coal products_________
Rubber products___________________________________
Leather: tanned, curried, and finished______________
Footwear, except rubber___________________________
Leather products, except footwear__________________
N ot specified manufacturing industries______________
Nonmanufacturing industries (incl. not reported)_____
Construction_______________________________________
Railroads and railway express service_______________
Transportation, except railroad_____________________
Telecommunications, & utilities & sanitary serv__
Wholesale and retail trade__________________________
Business and repair services________________________
Public administration___________________ ___________
Personal services_________________________ ______ __
All other iudustries (incl. not reported)- - - - - - - - - -




1950

151
46
132
76
30
23
35
28
371
15
133
324
40
273
4
52
67
19

1940

63
36
82
54
13
16
25
18
208
19
105
209
24
123

12
21

1930

1920

92
52
45

6

105
44
42
9
13
16
9

125
53

21
6

8
10

17

170

11

397

121

370

27

11

356
60
258

48
150
29
172

132
95
62
33
68
51
57
51

91
52
36
17
45
49
36
29

70
154
26
26
477
32
824
58
106
61
64
80
27
18
149
48
7
127
32
226
50
43
780
71
96
37
52
311
54
54
105

1900 Series
No.

1910

86

192
24
21
426
35
734
53
87
28
41
59
31

34
117

32
65

172

192

18

133

102

12

4
9
31

20

16

104
129
20
17
324
35
422
15
64
17
14
51
21

145
104
18
14
323
46
365
21
55
14
20
48

152
85
16
15
269
48
336
18
36
10
18
42
4
33
4

12

72
30

2

85
35
228
44
74
429
40
73
24
24
145
38

81
29
210
26
139
445
15
98
57
74
30

75

165

11

11

6

32
206
33
207
208
4
111
30
40
8
4
12

32
34
181
29
93

116
41
13
10
202
31
225
21
21

19
16

1
2

15
26
98
31
67
149
7
137

457
458
459
460
461
462
463
464
465
466
467
468
469
470
471
472
473
474
475
476
477
478
479
480
481
482
483
484
485
486
487
488
489
490
491
492
493
494
495
496
497
498
499
500
501
502
503
504
505
506
507
508
509
510
511
512
513
514
515
516
517
518
519
520
521
522
523

Occupation
Private household workers_______________________
Laundresses, private household—living in _______________
Laundresses, private household—living out______________
Housekeepers, private household—living in ______________
Housekeepers, private household—living out____________
Private household workers (n. e. c.)—living in ___________
Private household workers (n. e. c.)—living out_________
Service workers, except private household________
Attendants, hospital and other institution_______________
Midwives_______________________________________________
Practical nurses_________________________________________
Attendants, professional & personal service (n. e. c .)_____
Attendants, recreation and amusement__________________
Ushers, recreation and amusement______________________
Barbers, beauticians, and manicurists___________________
Bartenders______________________________________________
Boarding and lodging housekeepers______________________
Bootblacks--------------------------------------------------------------------Charwomen and cleaners________________________________
Cooks, except private household_________________________
Elevator operators______________________________________
Firemen, fire protection_________________________________
Guards, watchmen, and doorkeepers____________________
Policemen and detectives, government__________________
Policemen and dectectives, private______________________
Marshals and constables________________________________
Housekeepers and stewards, except private household____
Janitors and sextons____________________________________
Porters_________________________________________________
Sheriffs and bailiffs_____________________________________
Counter and fountain workers___________________________
Waiters and waitresses__________________________________
Watchmen (crossing) and bridge tenders________________
Service workers, except private household (n. e. c .)______
Farm laborers and foremen______________________
Farm foremen__________________________________________
Farm laborers, wageworkers____________________________
Farm laborers, unpaid family workers___________________
Farm service laborers, self-employed____________________
Laborers, except farm and mine__________________
Fishermen and oystermen_______________________________
Garage laborers, and car washers and greasers___________
Gardeners, except farm, and groundskeepers_____________
Longshoremen and stevedores___________________________
Lumbermen, raftsmen, and woodchoppers______________
Teamsters______________________________________________
Laborers (n. e. c.)_______________________________________
Manufacturing_______________________________________
Sawmills, planing mills, and millwork______________
Miscellaneous wood products_______________________
Furniture and fixtures______________________________
Glass and glass products____________________________
Cement & concrete, gypsum, & plaster products____
Structural clay products____________________________
Pottery and related products_______________________
Miscellaneous nonmetallic mineral & stone prod____
Motor vehicles and motor vehicle equipment________
Ship and boat building and repairing_______________
Blast furnaces, steelworks, and rolling mills________
Other primary iron and steel industries_____________
Fabricated steel products___________________________
Office and store machines and devices_______________
Miscellaneous machinery___________________________
Not specified metal industries_______________________
Agricultural machinery and tractors________________
Aircraft and parts__________________________________
Railroad & miscellaneous transportation equipment-_

1950

76
150

1940

1930

1920 1910

1900

2,412 1,998 1,411 1,851 1,579
203 344 375 513 280
410
1,654 1,036 1,338 1,299
1,799

4,641 3,657 2,774|
216 102
151 115 198
42
52
4
64
66
29
22
26
396 449 371
214 131
74 144
30
16
15
19
72
128
52
478 349 292
87
97
68
82
112
73
255 216 148
176 135 ■ 145
21
21
7
9
9
90
61
112
482 377 310
179 182 151
19
16
15
836 636 415
12
10
13
561 360 259
2,578 3,632 4,290
17
17
28
1,617 2,405 2,597
934 1,208 1,660
3
10
5
3,885 4,875 5,335
64
75
73
72
63
77
159 163 168
74
73
74
196 169 147
31 120
23
3,288 4,312 4,675
1,209 1,598 1,960
152 230
27
18
35
21
21
16
24
26
29
39
7
7
14
51
71 124
23
16
17
145 201

1,901 1,711 1,047
157
3
13
214
26
133
15
31
200
41
51
116
94
7
52
179
102
11

13
203
4,948
35
2,271
2,633

10

133

109

2

9
193
101
165
14
29
174
25
36
78

68

6

133
89
71

8

1

9j
45
113
96
7

29
117
13
15
116

34
57
42
5
200
107
10
4
203
93
370 5,125
19
2,832
2,514
6

4,905 4,478 3,620
53
68
69
4
33
65
71
24
86
63
29
180 139 117
412 441 374
4,070 3,696 3,007
2,169 1,487 723
280 289
24
35
7
29
25
15
36
30
13
49
78
42
12
9
6
7
7
5
16
83
12
69
544

419

145

D 389-523

Occupation

[In thousands]

LABOR FORCE

Series
No.

D 524-572

Series D 123-572. Detailed Occupation of the Economically Active Population: 1900 to 1950—Con.

-3
00

[In thousands]
Series
No.

524
525
526
527
528
529
530
531
532
533
534
535
536
537
538
539
540
541
542
543
544
545
546
547
548
549

Occupation
Laborers, except farm and mine— Con.
Laborers (n.e.c.)— Con.
Manufacturing— Con.

1950

)

Photographic equipment and supplies.
)
Watches, clocks, and clockwork-operated devices___
Miscellaneous manufacturing industries
)
Meat products
_
_
__
Canning & preserving fruits, veget., & seafood __
Dairy products __
_ Grain-mill products
- Bakery products
_ __ _
Confectionery and related products- - __
Beverage industries
Miscellaneous food preparations & kindred prod-----N ot specified food industries-_ _ _
}
Tobacco manufactures _
_
Knitting mills
Dyeing and finishing textiles, except knit goods - Carpets rugs and other floor coverings
Yarn, thread, and fabric mills
Miscellaneous textile mill products
Apparel and accessories
Miscellaneous fabricated textile products__
Pulp, paper, and paperboard mills - _
Miscellaneous paper and pulp products._________

39
37

18

43
30
41
27 j1

37
27
15

47
34
17

43
26
17
16

33
33
4

20
10

4
25

24
10

3
3
6
50
4
9
3
29
9

21
8
8
22

29

17
5
5
7
71
7
10
3
44

6

74

1920

1900 Series
No.

1910

43
27
101

11

43

9
26

32

34
10 }
5
9
5
3
19
17

21

35

16

4

4
59

12
6

9
8
5
94
5
14
1
52
4

60
19
15
18
8
7

33

11

12
11

120
8
12

1
52
3

8
10
8
8

1
31
2

}

550
15 551
8 552
553
30 554
555
556
557
12 558
5
10 559
3 560
3 561
12 562
3 563
564
14 565
4 566
9 567
2 568
44
5 569
5 570
1 571
572

1950

Occupation
Laborers, except farm and mine— Con.
Laborers (n.e.c.)— Con.
Manufacturing— Con.
Paperboard containers and boxes. _
Printing, publishing, and allied industries
Synthetic fibers
Paints, varnishes, and related products
Drugs and medicines
_ _ .
Miscellaneous chemical and allied products Petroleum, refining
_
Miscellaneous petroleum and coal products
Rubber products
Leather: tanned, curried, and finished
Footwear, except rubber.
_
_ _
Leather products, except footwear N ot specified manufacturing industries
Nonmanufacturing industries (incl. not reported)
Construction _
_
_
Railroads and railway express service
- _
Transportation, except railroad
Telecommunications, & utilities & sanitary serv
Wholesale and retail trade
Business and repair services _ _
Public administration
Personal services
All other industries (incl. not reported)
_ _

1940

10
12

3
5

}

61

25
6
17
8
6
2
11

2,079
788
293
119
135
345
15
107
83
194

1930

1920

3
5

10
10

11

6

6

5

77
28

1910

3

8

5

79
80
32
41
8
9
5
20
29
51
11
17
27
12
18
19
3
8
3
44 114 191
2,714 2,715 1,901
1,340 710 391
278 490 543
98
103 | 249 199
250 253 182
2
7
15
52 134
93
64 | 864 490
520

1900

1
5
3
45
11
11

14

1

4

2

15
5

11
6

16
5
3
79
2,210 2,284
20
531
599 284
86
195
68
152
2
1
56
675 1,825
21
10

4
109

14

LABOR




1930

1940

chapter D

HOURS, WAGES, AND WORKING CONDITIONS (Series D 573-792)
D 573-577. Daily hours and indexes of daily wages in all
industries and in building trades, January 1860-1891.
Source: U. S. Congress, “Aldrich Report,” Senate Report
No. 1394, 52d Congress, 2d Session, part I, pp. 173-180.
The Aldrich Report is the leading source of data on average
wages and hours for 1840-1891. The only other large body of
data relating to this period covers 1860-1880 (Joseph D.
Weeks, Report on the Statistics of Wages in Manufacturing
Industries, Tenth Census, vol. 20).
The basic wage data of the Aldrich Report were collected in
1891 and 1892 from the records of wages by occupation in
88 establishments in the Northeast, including Maryland. Those
occupational wage series going back to 1860 were combined
into industry indexes. Series starting after 1860 were not
used in the indexes.
D 573-575 cover 21 industries including railroads, building
trades, groceries, dry goods, city public works, illuminat­
ing gas, sidewalks, and 14 manufacturing industries. The
source also contains data for the same period on wages in the
coal, iron, glass, and pottery industries, and on teachers’
salaries in certain areas.
In computing the weighted averages for series D 573 and
D 574, shifting employment weights based on occupational
data from the censuses of population were used.
Data for 1840-1859 for series D 573-577 are shown in the
source, but the coverage is so inadequate that they are of little
value.
The Aldrich Report indexes have been severely criticized by
A. L. Bowley, Wesley C. Mitchell, and others, on several
grounds including the failure to use the wage data for July
of each year, the use of simple averages to combine occupa­
tions, and the overweighting of industries for which data were
scanty. Mitchell’s alternative processing of the wage data
is shown in series D 578-588; however, it extends only to
1880. For 1880-1891, the Aldrich Report indexes are the
only published summary of these wage data that covers all
years. For certain industries and years, alternative indexes
are presented in A. L. Bowley, “Comparison of the Rates of
Increase of Wages in the United States and in Great Britain,”
Econo?nic Journal, vol. V, 1895, pp. 368-383.
D 578-588. Indexes of average daily wages in all industries, in
selected industries, and by degree of skill, January and
July, 1860-1880.
Source: Wesley C. Mitchell, Gold, Prices, and Wages Under
the Greenback Standard, University of California Press,
Berkeley, 1908, pp. 120, 145-152.
The data underlying these indexes are from the Aldrich
Report (see text for series D 573-577). The source also pre­
sents indexes of the medians and deciles of wages for most of
the industries in series D 578-586, some indexes of means by
Note. The series on wages and earnings in this section are in “current”
(or money) dollars rather than dollars of fixed purchasing power. Although
the current dollar is the proper unit for measuring wages and earnings
for many purposes, it often tends to be a m isleading indicator of purchas­
ing power. If information is desired on the changes in purchasing power
of earnings, money wages or earnings should be converted to real terms
by dividing them by an appropriate index of consumer prices. Several
such indexes are given in chapter E.



sex, indexes of medians and deciles by occupation, and in­
dexes of means, medians, and deciles by initial wage level.
In addition, the source contains a similar processing of the
wage data of the Weeks Report (see text for series D 573577).
D 578-586 are weighted arithmetic means of wage indexes
by occupation for all industries covered in the Aldrich
Report and for establishments in each industry. The weights
are the number of workers included in each series at
each date.
D 587 is an index of the median of wage indexes by oc­
cupation for unskilled men in all industries, excluding one
establishment (Establishment 35, City Public Works, New
York) that included about half the total number of unskilled
men covered in the Aldrich Report.
D 588 is an index of the median of wage indexes by occu­
pation for skilled men, excluding foremen and overseers and
helpers of craftsmen.
D 589-602. Hours and earnings in manufacturing, in selected
nonmanufacturing industries, and for “lower-skilled” labor,
1890-1926.
Source: Paul H. Douglas, Real Wages in the United States,
1890-1926, Houghton Mifflin Company, New York, 1930.
D 589-590 are weighted averages of series D 591 and
D 593 and series D 592 and D 594, respectively. The union
scales of wages are substantially higher and less flexible
than the wages of all workers in the “union” industries. Since
the weight of the “union” industries in the all-manufacturing
average is based on the total number of skilled and semiskilled
workers in the industries, the total manufacturing average is
too high (see Leo Wolman, “American Wages,” Quarterly
Journal of Economics, XLVI, 1932, pp. 398-406).
D 591-592, beginning in 1907, are weighted averages of
trade union scales for occupations. The weights are union
membership by crafts. The series are extrapolated back to
1890 by use of payroll data from the sources of series D 593
and D 594.
D 593-594, average hours and earnings for “payroll” man­
ufacturing industries, are averages weighted by employment
data from employer payrolls (see text for series D 618-625),
given in various Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) bulle­
tins and in the Nineteenth Annual Report of the Commissioner
of Labor. Until 1913, the original data are for selected occu­
pations only, and exclude most laborers and some other un­
skilled workers. Therefore, for 1890-1913 the series are ex­
trapolations backward from the 1914 level.
Differences between series D 591-592 and D 593-594 are
not necessarily reliable indicators of differences in wages and
hours between workers in union and nonunion industries. Be­
cause the biases in series D 591-592 are probably much greater
than those in series D 593-594, it may sometimes be desir­
able to use only the ‘latter to represent all manufacturing.
D 595, average hours in bituminous coal mining, is estimated
from union contracts and their coverage for 1890-1903; after
1903, it is based on data from the U. S. Geological Survey.
D 596, average hourly earnings, was obtained by dividing
series D 612, average annual earnings, by average days
79

LABOR
D 597-625
worked, as reported by the U. S. Geological Survey; the re­ for census years, with data from 3 States used to interpolate
for other years; and beginning in 1895, earnings of salaried
sulting series was divided by daily hours worked.
workers in railroads from the Interstate Commerce Commis­
D 597, average full-time earnings on railroads, is based on
average daily wages by occupations, 1895-1914; for 1914-1926, sion, with data from 2 State railway commissions and 1 rail­
it is based on average hourly wages as reported by the Inter­ road used to extrapolate back to 1890.
D 612, bituminous coal mining, is based on aggregate
state Commerce Commission and estimated daily hours.
D 598-599, average hours and earnings in the building wage payments from the censuses of mines and quarries of
1889, 1902, 1909, and 1919 as revised in the Fourteenth Census
trades, were obtained in the same way as series D 591-592.
(1920), divided by
D 600, average hours for postal employees, is based on Geological Survey. employment figures reported by the U. S.
for intercensal years
nominal hours as set by law, adjusted (after 1920) for sick lations based on dataFigures the State labor bureausare interpo­
from
or depart­
leave.
ments of mines of 5 major coal-producing States.
D 601, average hourly earnings, is estimated by dividing
D 613, farm
based on the
Agri­
series D 615 by 52 to obtain weekly earnings and then by culture series oflabor, is wages of farm Department of board
daily
labor without
dividing again by series D 600 to obtain hourly earnings.
and of monthly wages of farm labor without board. Data
D 602, average full-time weekly earnings for “lower- for 1900-1909 are linear interpolations covering from 1 to 3
skilled” labor, is reproduced in the source from Whitney years each.
Coombs, The Wages of Unskilled Labor in Manufacturing In­
D 614,
covers employees
dustries in the United States, 1890-1921+, Columbia University executive Federal employees,Washington, D. C., of Federal
departments
only. The
Press, New York, 1926, p. 99. It is based on the wages of data are from the OfficialinRegister, adjusted to include bonuses
the least skilled or lowest paid occupations reported for each paid during 1917-1924.
industry in BLS bulletins and in the Nineteenth Annual Report
D 615, postal employees, covers letter carriers and, be­
of the Commissioner of Labor, except that the figure for 1920
is based on the data of the National Industrial Conference ginning in 1906, postal clerks in first and second class post
Board. Since these sources exclude most laborers before 1914, offices. The data are from the Annual Reports of the Post­
the series is labelled here as “lower skilled,” though it is master General, adjusted to calendar years.
called “unskilled” by Coombs and by Douglas.
D 616, public school teachers, covers teachers, principals,
D 603-617. Average annual earnings in all industries and in and supervisors in public elementary and secondary schools.
The data are from the Annual Reports of the U. S. Commis­
selected industries and occupations, 1890-1926.
sioner of Education, adjusted to a calendar-year basis. Data
Source: See source for series D 589-602.
for some years after 191& are interpolations based on studies
D 603-604, all industries averages, are weighted averages of the National Education Association.
of series D 605-617 and an additional series beginning in
D 617, ministers,
Congre­
1902 for anthracite coal. The weights change annually and gational ministers ascovers salaries of Methodist andBook and
reported in the Methodist Year
are based on decennial census employment estimates. Inter­ the Annual Congregational Gray Book.
polations of weights for intercensal years are based on State
employment data when available; elsewhere they are linear. D 618-625. Indexes of wages, hours, and earnings in manu­
The weights for decennial census years and 1926 are shown
facturing and in the building trades, 1890-1907.
in the source, p. 390.
Source: Department of Commerce and Labor, Bulletin of
D 605, wage earners in manufacturing, is based on data the Bureau of Labor, No. 77, 1908, p. 7; Leo Wolman, “Hours
from the census of manufacturers for census years (total of Work in American Industry,” Bulletin 71, National Bureau
wages paid and wage earners). Figures for intercensal years of Economic Research, 1938, p. 2.
are interpolated using similar data from the labor bureaus of
Bureau
a number of States. Census data for 1890 are adjusted to of Beginning in 1900, theundertook,of Labor of the Department
Commerce and Labor
in somewhat modified form,
eliminate the hand trades.
a continuation of the Aldrich Report (see text for series
D 606, wage earners of steam railroads, is based on Inter­ D 573-577). The Nineteenth Annual Report of the Commis­
state Commerce Commission data since 1905, and extrapolated sioner of Labor, 1904, contains the results of the studies for
back to 1890 using data from several State railroad com­ 1890-1903. Somewhat similar surveys were made for 1904missions.
1907 and the information for the entire period was summarized
D 607, street railways, is based on the Eleventh Census in Bulletin No. 77, cited above. The Nineteenth Annual Re­
(1890) and the censuses of electrical industries. Figures for port and the subsequent Bulletins (Nos. 59, 65, 71, and 77)
intercensal years are interpolations based on data from several show the basic wage, hour, and employment averages for each
State railroad and public utility commissions and State labor of the individual occupations and industries and for selected
occupations by States and for large cities.
bureaus.
D 608-609, telephone and telegraph industries, are based on
The Bureau of Labor figures (series D 618-620) include the
censuses of electrical industries. Figures for intercensal years building and other hand and neighborhood trades. Wolman’s
are interpolations based on data published by the Pennsylvania figures (series D 621) exclude the building and hand trades.
Department of Internal Affairs.
The data in the Nineteenth Annual Report are based on
D 610, gas and electricity, is based on the censuses of information obtained from 3,475 establishments in 67 indus­
electrical industries (electricity) and on the censuses of manu­ tries, covering 519 occupations. Agents of the Bureau of
factures (gas). Figures for intercensal years are interpola­ Labor collected wages, hours, and employment data separately
tions based on data for New York City, Wisconsin, Illinois, by occupation and sex from the records of each establishment.
and Pennsylvania, from State sources.
Such data were taken only for what were judged principal
D 611, clerical workers in manufacturing and steam rail­ occupations in each industry and only for the period within
roads, is based on: Average earnings of salaried workers each year that was judged “normal” for the establishment.
in manufacturing computed from the censuses of manufactures By and large, the basic data for each occupation (separately
80




HOURS, WAGES, AND
by sex) were for establishments whose records were complete
enough to supply the data for each year 1890-1903.
For 1890-1903, average hourly wages and average full­
time weekly hours, weighted by employment, were computed
for each occupation, separately by sex. Each of the occu­
pational series was converted to an index number with the
average for 1890-1899 as the base. Within each industry,
simple arithmetic means of the individual occupational indexes
were then computed. Series D 622 and D 624 are unweighted
means of the occupational indexes in the building trades. The
“all manufacturing” index numbers (series D 618 and D 620),
however, are weighted means of the indexes of the 67 separate
industries included, each industry weighted by the payroll of
that industry as estimated from the 1900 Census. Series
D 619 is the product of series D 618 and D 620. Similarly,
series D 623 is the product of series D 622 and D 624.
For 1904-1907, the procedures used by the Bureau of Labor
were similar to those used for 1890-1903, with the following
exceptions: (1) Some small industries covered in 1890-1903
were dropped although the number of establishments covered
was increased; and (2) the indexes were chain-linked to those
for 1890-1903.
Series D 621 and D 625, for average full-time weekly hours,
are based on Wolman’s reworking of the basic data for series
D 620 and D 624. Series D 621 shows the index numbers
computed from the weighted average of the hours figures in
the Nineteenth Annual Report for 456 occupations in 48 manu­
facturing industries and excludes the building trades and other
hand and neighborhood trades covered in the report. The
weight for each occupation in each year is the number of em­
ployees covered in the survey of that occupation in the year.
Series D 625 is the index number calculated from the similarly
weighted average computed by Wolman for the 19 building
trades occupations. For the building trades, Wolman ex­
pressed the opinion that the hours data in the Nineteenth
Annual Report were those established by unions.
Wolman’s report is a basic source of information of hours
of work in American industry. It contains 15 summary
tables of historical data on hours* of work in manufacturing,
building construction, steam railroads, and coal mining for
various dates, 1890-1937.
D 626-634. Hours and earnings for production workers in
manufacturing, 1909-1957.
Source: 1909-1946, Bureau of Labor Statistics, Handbook
of Labor Statistics, 1950 edition; 1947-1957, Monthly Labor
Review, various issues.
The figures for 1909-1931 represent estimates based largely
on periodic wage and hour surveys conducted by the Bureau
of Labor Statistics during that period for a narrow list of
manufacturing industries. These figures are an extension of,
and are adjusted for comparability with, the figures for 19321957. For a discussion of the methods and data used to derive
the figures for 1909-1931, see the Monthly Labor Review,
July 1955, pp. 801-806.
The estimates of average weekly earnings for 1909-1931,
based primarily on census data, tend to be more accurate than
those for average hourly earnings, and average weekly hours.
It is likely that the hourly earnings figures are overstated
and the weekly hours understated because the BLS surveys of
wages tended to sample large firms more heavily than small
firms.
For 1932-1957, the underlying employment, payroll, and manhour figures are obtained by means of a mail questionnaire
sent monthly to cooperating establishments. Each establish­



WORKING CONDITIONS
D 626-637
ment reports the following information: (1) The number of
production workers or nonsupervisory employees who worked
or received pay for any part of the payroll period ending near­
est the 15th of the month; (2) the total gross payrolls for these
employees before such deductions as Social Security taxes,
withholding taxes, union dues, etc. (the payroll figures include
pay for overtime, shift premiums, sick leave, holidays, vaca­
tions, and production bonuses, but exclude payments in kind,
retroactive pay, nonproduction bonuses, employer contribu­
tions to private welfare funds, insurance and pension plans, and
similar fringe payments) ; and (3) total man-hours paid for
these employees including hours paid for vacations, holidays,
sick leave, travel time, lunch time, etc.
Within each detailed industry the payroll, employment, and
man-hours figures for reporting establishments are aggre­
gated, and average hourly earnings, average weekly hours,
and average weekly earnings are computed. The average
hourly earnings and average weekly hours for a group of
industries are weighted arithmetic means of the corresponding
averages for the industries within the group. The weights
used for earnings are estimates of aggregate productionworker man-hours and those used for hours are estimates of
aggregate production-worker employment. Average weekly
earnings for the group is the product of the average hourly
earnings and the average weekly hours for the group.
Average weekly hours worked or paid for differ from aver­
age full-time or standard hours (before payment at overtime
premium rates) and from average hours worked per week.
During periods of substantial unemployment, average weekly
hours paid for often may be considerably below the full-time
level of hours or the level at which premium payments for
overtime begin. On the other hand, during periods of rela­
tively full employment, overtime hours tend to raise the aver­
age weekly hours above the full-time level.
Until the 1940’s, the distinction in most industries between
hours paid for and hours worked was relatively unimportant.
The widespread adoption of paid vacations of increasing
length and of an increasing number of paid holidays (and in
some industries paid travel time, lunch time, etc.), however,
has raised average weekly hours (which are hours paid for)
above average hours worked by increasing amounts. By 1957,
the difference may have grown to as much as 5 percent in
manufacturing industries on the average; in some industries,
such as bituminous coal mining, the difference was substan­
tially larger. Since the middle 1940’s, figures for weekly
hours tend to understate the downward movement of hours
worked per week.
Average hourly earnings figures exclude such fringe pay­
ments as employer contributions to private health, welfare,
and insurance funds and include premium payments for over­
time and for night work.
D 635-637. Hours and earnings for bituminous coal mines,
1909-1957.
Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics,, Employment and Earn­
ings, and Hours and Earnings (multilithed releases).
For 1909-1931, estimates are based on a variety of sources
including special studies by the BLS and data collected by
the Bureau of the Census, the Bureau of Mines, and reports
of various State coal commissions. For 1932-1957, figures are
strictly comparable in concept and method of estimation with
those for manufacturing in series D 626-634. See text also
for same series regarding hours paid for in contrast to hours
worked and the exclusion from average hourly earnings of
81

D 638-668
LABOR
fringe payments which are particularly applicable to coal I) 642-653. Indexes of union hourly wage rates and weekly
hours, for building and printing trades, 1907-1956.
mining.
Before 1945, lunch time was not paid for in the mines.
Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics, Union Wages and
Beginning April 1945, mine operators paid for 15 minutes of Hours: Building Trades, July 1957, pp. 5 and 14; and Union
lunch time per day; in July 1947, the lunch time paid for was Wages and Hours: Printing Industry, July 1956, pp. 6 and 15.
increased to one-half hour. Similarly, before November 1943,
Studies by the Bureau of Labor Statistics of union scales of
working time was computed on a “face-to-face” basis. From wages and hours prior to 1936 included at various times build­
November 1943 to April 1945, inside mine workers were paid ing and printing trades, barbers, linemen, longshoremen, and
for 45 minutes of travel time per day at two-thirds of the workers employed in breweries, laundries, metal trades, millregular rate. Since April 1945, inside workers have been paid work, restaurants, soft drink production, theaters, baking,
for all travel time at the applicable hourly rate.
trucking, and local transit. Since 1936, the studies have been
Data published by the Bureau of Mines (Minerals Yearbook, confined to the printing and building trades, trucking, local
1946, p. 81) show that in 1944 travel time amounted, on the transit, and baking. The baking study was discontinued in
average, to 10-15 percent of total time paid for. There­ 1953.
fore, average weekly hours figures since 1945 may have a
For each trade, the local union is asked to submit data on
serious upward bias if used to measure hours actually worked, the minimum union wage rate, the weekly hours (before over­
and the average hourly earnings figures may have a corre­ time becomes effective), and the number of active union mem­
spondingly serious downward bias if used to measure average bers working or available for work on a single specified date
earnings per hour actually worked.
(recently July 1) each year.
Average hourly earnings figures exclude contributions of
The earliest studies covered 13 journeymen and 7 helper and
coal mine employers to the miners’ health and welfare fund. labor classifications in building construction, and 7 book and
These contributions have increased from 5 cents per ton in job and 4 newspaper classifications in the printing trades
1946 to 40 cents per ton in 1952 and later years. In 1953 in 39 cities. The most recent study covered 24 journeymen
wage supplements in bituminous coal mining, chiefly employer and 9 helper and labor classifications in the building trades in
contributions to the health and welfare fund in the industry, 52 cities of over 100,000 population, and 12 book and job and
amounted to 16 percent of total wages and salaries in the 8 newspaper classifications in the printing trades in 53 such
industry.
cities.
D 638-641. Hours and earnings for Class I steam railroads,
Indexes for all years were computed by the chain-link rela­
1921-1957.
tive method, except 1921-1929, which were based on weighted
Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics, Employment and Earn­ arithmetic means for each year. The figures reflect minimum
ings, and Hours and Earnings (multilithed releases) ; BLS, union contract scales and exclude premium pay for overtime.
Handbook of Labor Statistics, 1947 and 1950 editions; and During periods of unemployment, the contract rates may be
Interstate Commerce Commission, Wage Statistics of Class I higher than the actual wage rates paid. Wage rates above
contract scales may be paid during periods of high employ­
Railroads in the United States, various issues.
rapid
tend
Figures for Class I railroads are based on their monthly ment or cyclicalinflation. Thus, the union figures rates to have
smaller
reports to the Interstate Commerce Commission. Until 1951, union employees. fluctuations than actual wage pay is paid to
Furthermore,
exclud­
the figures covered all hourly rated employees of Class I rail­ ed, union wage rates fluctuate since overtime than average
less cyclically
roads excluding (except in 1921-1927) Class I switching and
terminal companies. Since 1951, the figures cover all em­ hourly earnings.
The hours figures also reflect union contract straight-time
ployees (excluding switching and terminal companies) except
executives, officials, and staff assistants. Although the figures hours. They do not measure hours actually worked, which
since 1951 are not strictly comparable with those for earlier vary for the building trades with climatic conditions and the
amount of construction work available.
years, the difference is not large.
Average hourly earnings are computed by dividing the total D 654-668. Hours and earnings, for production workers in 25
compensation of covered employees by total man-hours paid
manufacturing industries, by sex and degree of skill,
for. Average weekly earnings are derived by multiplying
1914-1948.
average weekly hours by average hourly earnings. Average
Source: National Industrial Conference Board, The Econom­
weekly hours equal total man-hours paid for (during a month) ic Almanac for 1950, New York, 1950, pp. 336-344.
reduced to a weekly basis, divided by the full-month count of
The underlying data
the National Indus­
employees on the payroll. The full-month count generally trial Conference Board were collected by sample of companies
(NICB) from a
tends to be somewhat larger than a count for the payroll representing 25 industries (durable and nondurable goods) by
period ending nearest the 15th of the month, which is used means of a monthly mail questionnaire. The number of firms
for other industries. For this reason both the weekly earnings inr ided in the sample, as well as the distribution of these
and the weekly hours figures tend to be slightly lower than firrru by size and geographical location, varied somewhat from
they would be if computed on the latter basis.
time to time. In 1936, the sample included 1,886 firms em­
For 1921-1927, straight-time average hourly earnings (se­ ploying about one-third of all wage earners in the 25 indus­
ries D 641) are computed by dividing compensation for straight tries covered and about one-fifth of all wage earners in all
time actually worked by hours of straight time actually worked. manufacturing industries. The average firm in the sample
For 1928-1950, figures are ratios of compensation for straight (in most of the 25 industries) was substantially larger (in
time paid for to hours of straight time paid for. Since 1951, terms of employment) than the average firm in the population
the figures have been computed from the ICC’s Wage Sta­ from which the sample was taken. Although some tendency
tistics, which provides monthly and annual data on employ­ toward an upward bias in the level of earnings of the sample
ment, man-hours, and compensation by detailed occupation as firms may exist, it is not clear that this bias also had a trend
or varied with the business cycle.
well as by major occupational groups.
82




HOURS, WAGES, AND
Within each industry, average hourly earnings was obtained
by dividing the aggregate payroll for reporting companies by
the aggregate man-hours. Average weekly hours and average
weekly earnings were obtained in a similar manner. The
averages for all industries taken together were weighted means
of the separate industry averages with fixed employment
weights estimated for each industry with the help of the 1923
Census of Manufactures.
The distinction in classification between unskilled males and
other male workers was not precisely stated by NICB and the
classification was made by the reporting firms.
D 669-684. Hours and earnings, for production workers in
selected nonmanufacturing industries, 1932-1957.
Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics, Employment and Earn­
ings, and Hours and Earnings (multilithed releases) ; and
Handbook of Labor Statistics, 1947 edition, pp. 80-86.
See text for series D 626-634.
D 685-695. Average annual compensation per full-time em­
ployee, by major industry, 1919-1929.
Source: Computed from Simon Kuznets, National Income
and its Composition, 1919-1938, National Bureau of Economic
Research, New York, 1941, pp. 314-315.
These data were obtained by dividing Kuznets’ estimates
of aggregate employee compensation for each major industry
division by the corresponding estimates of number of full­
time equivalent employees. The source also presents similar
compensation and employment data for 1930-1938, and for
industry groups within the major industry divisions.
Employee compensation figures include wages and salaries,
and government relief payments. In addition, bonuses, com­
missions, gratuities, payments in kind, pensions, and compen­
sation for injuries were included for industries in which they
were a significant proportion of total compensation and could
be estimated from available data.
Kuznets’ employment estimates include both wage earners
and salaried employees and are stated in full-time equivalent
units (the number of persons that would have been employed
if each had worked full-time for a full year), or, in effect,
the number of full-time positions filled. In practice, Kuznets
used estimates of employment similar to those used by BLS;
namely, annual averages of monthly figures, based on a payroll
count for a single payroll period in each month, except in a
few industries in which part-time work was important and for
which he derived full-time equivalent employment by dividing
aggregate wage payments by estimates of annual earnings for
full-time workers.
D 696-707. Average annual earnings per full-time employee,
by major industry, 1929-1957.
Source: 1929-1945, Office of Business Economics, National
Income: 195U Edition, pp. 200-201; 1946-1957, U. S. Income and
Output, 1958, table VI-15.
These estimates are ratios of aggregate wage and salary
payments, by industry, to the aggregate number of full-time
equivalent employees, by industry (the sources also present
estimates for industry groups within major industries).
Wages and salaries include executives’ compensation, bonuses,
tips, and payments in kind, and exclude those sources of labor
income appearing in series D 708-727 as “supplements to
wages and salaries.”
Full-time equivalent employment measures man-years of
full-time employment of wage and salary earners and its
equivalent in work performed by part-time workers. For a
discussion of the concept of full-time equivalent employment
and the methods of estimation involved in converting part-time



D 669-719
WORKING CONDITIONS
work to its full-time equivalent, see the Survey of Current
Business, June 1945, pp. 17-18.
The difference between the Kuznets’ figures for average an­
nual earnings (series D 685-695) and these Office of Business
Economics figures is slight prior to World War II. Kuznets'
compensation figures include both wages and salaries and some
“supplements to wages and salaries.” For 1919-1938, how­
ever, supplements were a small fraction of wages and salaries
in most industries. The concept of full-time equivalent em­
ployment used by Kuznets also was essentially the same as
that used by the Office of Business Economics.
The employment and payrolls estimates were derived by
combining separate estimates for those industries covered by
Social Security programs and those not covered by such
programs. For 1929-1938, for those industries covered (as of
1957) by Social Security programs, the employment and pay­
rolls figures are extrapolations backward from 1939, based on
sources and methods similar to those for series D 685-695.
Since 1939, for those industries (virtually all industrial and
commercial employment) covered by Social Security programs,
estimates of aggregate wages and salaries were obtained as
follows (employment estimates came from essentially the
same sources). Figures for payrolls covered by Old-Age and
Survivors Insurance (OASI) or the Railroad Retirement Act
came from the records of the State Unemployment Insurance
programs and from the Interstate Commerce Commission’s
Statistics of Railways, and provide employer-reported data by
industry for about 95 percent of total payrolls covered by
Social Security. Payrolls of firms covered by OASI but not
by State Unemployment Insurance were estimated from peri­
odic special tabulations of OASI data for these firms. Simi­
larly payrolls covered by the Railroad Retirement Act but not
reported to the Interstate Commerce Commission were esti­
mated from Railroad Retirement Board data.
This general method was followed except for categories for
which more reliable data were available from other sources or
where the proportion of firms not covered by Social Security
programs was large: Agricultural services, forestry, and fish­
eries; banking (before 1943) ; water transportation (before
1947) ; medical and other health services; and legal services.
Data for these were obtained from various population and
industry censuses, the Maritime Commission, governmental
banking regulatory bodies, and special surveys made by the
Department of Commerce.
Estimates of employment and payrolls not covered by
Social Security programs, accounting for roughly one-fifth of
total wages and salaries, are based on a variety of sources,
chief among which are: (1) For the Federal Government, re­
ports of the Civil Service Commission, records of the armed
services, and (for 1933-1943) records of the Federal work
relief projects; (2) for State and local governments, reports
of the Bureau of the Census, the Office of Education, etc.;
(3) for farms, the Census of Agriculture and estimates of the
Department of Agriculture; (4) for private households, the
Census of Population. For further details, see National In­
come: 1 9 5 Edition, pp. 70-72.
D 708-719. Average annual supplements to wages and salaries
per full-time employee, by major industry, 1929-1957.
Source: Computed from the following: 1929-1945, Office of
Business Economics, ‘ National Income: 1951* Edition, pp. 183
and 196-197; 1946-1957, U. S. Income and Output, 1958, tables
VI-3 and VI-13.
These figures have been computed by dividing estimates by
industry of aggregate supplements to wages and salaries by
the corresponding estimates of the aggregate number of full­
83

D 720-730
LABOR
Data on the pay of military reservists have been obtained
time equivalent employees. For discussion of estimates of
full-time equivalent employees, see text for series D 696-707; from the armed services or from the annual Budget of the
for discussion of supplements to wages and salaries, see text United States Government and data on Federal payments to
enemy prisoners of war were obtained from the Department
for series D 720-727.
of Defense. Other items in “other labor income” have always
D 720-727. Average annual supplements to wages and salaries been small in amount.
per full-time equivalent employee, by type of supplement,
D 728. Annual salary of public school teachers, 1930-1954.
1929-1957.
Education, Biennial Survey of Education
Source: Computed from the following: 1929-1945, Office of in Source: Office of various years.
the United States,
Business Economics, National Income: 195U Edition, pp. 196Estimates are based on biennial reports madf, to the Office
197 and 210-211; 1946-1957, U. S. Income and Output, 1958,
of Education by the departments of education in the 48 States
tables 1-8, III-6, and VI-13.
and
of Columbia. Average annual salary is the
These figures have been computed by dividing estimates by ratio the District expenditures for principals, supervisors, and
of salary
type of aggregate supplements to wages and salaries by esti­
to the number of such staff members.
is not
mates of full-time equivalent employees in all industries. For teachers to determine precisely from the Biennial ItSurveys,
possible
discussion of estimates of full-time equivalent employees, see
text for series D 696-707. The source presents figures for a particularly in the earlier years, the extent to which number
of teachers is number of teaching positions rather than number
more detailed classification of supplements.
of teachers on the payroll. In recent years the concept used
The averages shown for the different types of supplements
of teaching
extent
may tend to be somewhat lower than they should be because presumably is number shifted from positions. To theposition
a
the employment figures used to obtain the averages include that the surveys have in recent years payroll to a
tend to be overstated
employees for whom no contributions or payments were made count, average salaries
relative to those of earlier years. For additional information
and who would not therefore be recipients of supplemental
and longer series, see Chapter H, general note for series H
compensation.
1-89, and series H 12, H 13, and H 14-16.
Data for items under “employer contributions for social
insurance,, (series D 721-724) have a high degree of reliability D 729. Annual salary of college teachers, 1929-1952.
since they are obtained almost exclusively from the accounting
Source: George J. Stigler, Trends in Employment in the
records of the agencies administering the programs. Esti- Service Industries, Princeton University Press, Princeton,
■mates for items under “other labor income” are less reliable.
1956, p. 134.
Data on supplements to wages and salaries are obtained
These figures refer to college teachers in large public insti­
from a variety of sources. Reports filed by employers with tutions. The average annual salary is the weighted arith­
the administrative agencies or with the United States Treasury metic mean of median salaries estimated separately for the
are the sources of figures for employer contributions under four categories: Instructors, assistant professors, associate pro­
old-age and survivors insurance, State unemployment insur­ fessors, and professors.
ance and cash sickness compensation, railroad retirement and
For 1929-1932, the
by rank
unemployment insurance, and the Federal unemployment tax. Viva Boothe’s Salaries median salaries Living in are based on
and the Cost of
Payments made by the Federal Government to its civilian em­ State Universities and Colleges, 1913-1932, OhioTwenty-seven
State Uni­
ployee retirement systems are obtained from Treasury Depart­ versity Press, 1932.
ment records and the records of the administrative agencies.
For 1935-1942, 1950, and 1952, Stigler estimated median
Estimates of Federal Government contributions made to Gov­
ernment life insurance programs are based on monthly reports salaries by rank from data in various reports of the Office
of Education. The weights used in calculating the weighted
of the Veterans Administration.
Contributions to State and local retirement systems are mean of the median salaries by rank were the relative numbers
based on data supplied, since 1936, by the Department of in each of the ranks in public universities, colleges, and pro­
Health, Education, and Welfare. Estimates for 1929-1935 are fessional schools in New York State as shown in annual re­
extrapolations from the 1936 figure based on a sample survey ports of the University of the State of New York.
of State and local government units.
For 1943-1949, the figures were interpolated by Stigler on
Estimates of compensation for injuries are based on data in the basis of expenditures on resident instruction per teacher.
the annual Insurance Yearbook (Spectator Company) and on
Figures for 1908-1928 approximately comparable to those
reports of State insurance funds, and on information furnished shown here and for median salaries for each of the four col­
by State accident compensation commissions.
lege teaching ranks for 1908-1942 appear in George J. Stigler,
Employer contributions to private pension plans are esti­ Employment and Compensation in Education, National Bureau
mated for 1945-1956 chiefly from tabulations prepared by the of Economic Research, New York, 1950.
Internal Revenue Service. Contributions to health and welfare
funds are estimated from data obtained from the Amalgamated D 730. Annual net income of nonsalaried lawyers, 1929-1954.
Source: 1929-1946, William Weinfeld, “Income of Lawyers,
Clothing Workers of America, the International Ladies’ Gar­
1929-1948,” Survey of Current Business, August 1949, p. 18;
ment Workers’ Union, the United Mine Workers of America,
and the American Telephone and Telegraph Company, and 1947-1954, Maurice Liebenberg, “Income of Lawyers in the
from data appearing chiefly in Bureau of Labor Statistics Postwar Period,” Survey of Current Business, December 1956,
p. 27.
publications.
Nonsalaried lawyers are those who engage in private prac­
Employer contributions for group insurance (series D 726)
are based upon studies made by the Department of Health, tice as entrepreneurs. The average shown is the arithmetic
Education, and Welfare and the National Industrial Conference mean. For some of the years, the sources also give median
Board and upon reports from life insurance companies, Blue net income. Net income is excess of gross receipts from legal
Cross and Blue Shield, and other sources.
practice over the total of the payroll, rent, and other costs of
84



HOURS, WAGES, AND WORKING CONDITIONS
D 731-740
legal practices. Part-year incomes have been converted to D 733. Median base monthly salary rate, engineers, 1929-1953.
full-year equivalents.
Source: David M. Blank and George J. Stigler, The Demand
The estimates are based on a series of sample mail surveys and Supply of Scientific Personnel, National Bureau of Eco­
of the legal profession made by the Department of Commerce. nomic Research, New York, 1957, pp. 114 and 116.
The estimates for 1929, 1932, and 1934 were based on data
The results of the various surveys are reported in the Surveys
of Current Business for April 1938, August 1943, May 1944, obtained by the Bureau of Labor Statistics from a 1935
August 1949, July 1952, and December 1956. These reports, survey of all professional engineers in the United States who
particularly those of August 1949 and December 1956, contain could be located. The survey placed heavy reliance on mem­
for selected years mean and median net income figures and bership lists of engineering societies for its mailing list.
173,000 questionnaires were mailed and about
detailed frequency distributions by size of income not only for Approximately returned with usable data.
one-third were
nonsalaried lawyers but also for salaried and part-salaried
The estimates for 1939, 1943, and 1946 are for all engineers,
lawyers. Tabulations by various other characteristics are
both graduate and nongraduate, who were members of the 6
also shown in the sources.
engineering societies of the Engineers Joint Council in May
D 731. Annual net income of nonsalaried physicians, 1929- 1946. The Council obtained income data from a mail question­
1951.
naire sent to 87,000 member engineers. Approximately
Source: 1929-1949, William Weinfeld, “Income of Physicians, 47,000 questionnaires were returned. The basic tabulations
1929-49,” Survey of Current Business, July 1951, p. 11; 1950- made by the Council were based on returns from engineers
1951, “Incomes of Physicians, Dentists, and Lawyers, 1949-51,” who had maintained residence as civilians in the United States
continuously during 1939-1946.
Survey of Current Business, July 1952, p. 6.
The estimate for 1953 is for graduate engineers only and is
A nonsalaried physician is one whose sole source of medical
income is from independent practice. The average shown is the monthly equivalent of the annual rate given in the source
the arithmetic mean. For some of the years, the sources also used by Blank and Stigler. It is based on data obtained by
give estimates of median net income. Net income is the gross the Engineers Joint Council from a sample survey of graduate
receipts from medical practice less the total of payroll, rent, engineers employed in industry and government.
Blank and Stigler give not only median monthly salary rates,
supplies, equipment depreciation, and other expenses of med­
ical practice. Part-year incomes have not been converted to but also first and third quartile monthly salary rates. In addi­
tion, other tables, particularly in appendix A, provide average
full-time equivalents.
data for selected years
back as
The estimates of mean net income are based chiefly on a incomefor engineers classified by(in some cases as farand engi­
1890)
years of experience
series of sample mail surveys of the medical profession made neering specialization.
by the Department of Commerce. The results of the various
surveys are reported in the Surveys of Current Business D 734. Annual pay and allowances, U. S. Regular Army com­
missioned officers, 1929-1952.
for April 1938, October 1943, July 1951, and July 1952. These
reports, particularly July 1951, show for selected years mean
Source: George J. Stigler, Trends in Employment in the
and median net and gross incomes and income distributions by Service Industries, Princeton University Press, Princeton, 1956,
size of income not only for nonsalaried physicians but also for pp. 134-135.
salaried and part-salaried physicians. Tabulations by various
The figures are weighted averages of average annual earn­
other characteristics are also shown in the sources.
ings, computed according to specified years of cumulative serv­
ice for
weights used
were
D 732. Annual net income of nonsalaried dentists, 1929-1951. weights each rank. Thethe distribution throughout officersfixed
derived from
of Army
by
Source: 1929-1948, William Weinfeld, “Income of Dentists, rank in 1941. Stigler’s basic sources were: Official Army
1929-48,” Survey of Current Business, January 1950, p. 9; Register, Adjutant General’s Office, 1930, 1933, 1947, and 1950
1949-1951, “Incomes of Physicians, Dentis’ts, and Lawyers, and the Annual Report of the Secretary of the Army, De­
1949-51,” Survey of Current Business, July 1952, p. 6.
partment of the Army, 1941.
Nonsalaried dentists are those who engage in private prac­ D 735-740. Labor union membership, by affiliation, 1897-1934.
tice as entrepreneurs. The average shown is the arithmetic
Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics, records, and Leo Wolman,
mean. Medians are given in the source for some but not all
Ebb and Flow in Trade Unionism, National Bureau of Economic
of the years. Net income is gross receipts from dental prac­ Research, New York, 1936.
tice less the total of the payroll, rent, and other costs of dental
The data are based on reports and statements made by
practice. Part-year incomes have not been converted to fullunions in their official journals, reports, and convention pro­
year equivalent incomes.
of the compilers of the series
The estimates of average annual net income are based on a ceedings ; on correspondence per capita dues payments of na­
with union officials; and on
series of sample mail surveys made by the Department of
Commerce. The 1938 survey of dental incomes is reported in tional and international unions to over-all federations. Differ­
ent unions define membership differently. Some include and
Herman Lasken, Economic Conditions in the Dental Profession, others exclude unemployed members, retired members, ap­
1929-37, Department of Commerce, September 1939; the 1942 prentices, members involved in work stoppages, and members
survey in the Survey of Current Business, April 1944, and the in the Armed Forces. Because of such variations, different
1949 survey in the Survey of Current Business, January 1950. series estimating the membership of the same groups of unions
These reports contain, for selected years, mean and median can differ substantially.
net and gross incomes and detailed income distributions by
The figures include Canadian members of unions with head­
size of income not only for nonsalaried dentists but also for quarters in the United States, and some other members outside
salaried and part-salaried dentists. Tabulations by various continental United States. Wolman estimates the number of
Canadian members at 255,000 in 1920, and 203,000 in 1930.
other characteristics are also shown in the sources.
488910 0 - 60 - 7



85

D 735-745
LABOR
D 735-736. Total union membership, 1897-1934.
for 1939 below). The year-to-year movement of this series
from 1947-1953, and in particular the drop in membership
Source: See source for series D 737-740.
from 1947-1948, should not be considered as reliable.
Series D 735 is the sum of series D 738 and D 740; series
Starting in 1953, the estimates are based on biennial surveys
D 736 is the sum of series D 739 and D 740.
of national and international- unions. See Directory of Na­
D 737-740. Unions and membership of American Federation tional and International Labor Unions in the United States,
of Labor, and membership in independent or unaffiliated, 1957, BLS Bulletin No. 1222, and the 1955 Directory, Bulletin
1897-1934.
No. 1185. The figures also include the members of directly
Source: Proceedings, 65th Convention of the American Fed­ chartered local labor unions affiliated with the major national
eration of Labor, 1946, p. 43; Lewis L. Lorwin, The American federations and members of local unaffiliated unions.
Federation of Labor, Brookings Institution, Washington, 1933,
Estimates of union membership by affiliation (A. F. of L.,
p. 488; Proceedings of the A. F. of L. Conventions of 1897, CIO, and independent) for 1934-1950 appear in BLS, Handbook
1898, and 1933-34; and Leo Wolman, Ebb and Flow in Trade of Labor Statistics, 1950 edition, p. 139. For 1954 and 1956
Unionism, National Bureau of Economic Research, New York, such estimates are given in the directories cited above (the
1936.
1956 estimates are for the merged AFL-CIO and for inde­
D 738 represents “total paid membership of the affiliated pendent unions). The directories also give the membership
national and international organizations and directly char­ of individual national and international unions, membership by
tered trade and federal labor unions” based on “the actual sex, and detailed data on membership reporting practices.
per capita tax” remitted by affiliated unions. Such per capita The 1957 directory gives data on membership by industry and
tax payments can and frequently do cover either fewer or distributions of unions by percentage of white-collar workers.
more members than the affiliated union reports in its own
D 742, Canadian membership of U. S. unions, is from the
statements.
Department of Labour of Canada, except for 1954 and 1956
Total membership in series D 739 differs from that in series which are from the BLS directories cited above.
D 738 because series D 739 uses the direct reports of affiliated
D 743, union membership excluding Canada, is obtained by
unions where available in preference to the membership indi­ subtracting series D 742 from D 741. The year-to-year
cated by per capita tax payments.
movement for 1947-1953 is unreliable for the reasons given
D 740, membership of independent and unaffiliated unions, above. A better estimate might be obtained for these years
covers national and international unions not affiliated with by holding the percentage in series D 745 constant at 34.0
the A. F. of L. It excludes independent unions that are and by applying this figure to series D 744.
purely local in character or whose jurisdiction is confined to
745, union membership (excluding Canada) as
the employees of a single employer. In most years about of D employees in nonagricultural establishments, aispercent
half the workers covered by this series were members of the puted from series D 743 and D 744. Wolman has also com­
esti­
four brotherhoods of workers in the railroad train and engine
service. This series is from Wolman, cited above, pp. 138- mated for three decennial census years the number of trade
139, adjusted in 1929-1934 to include the membership of the union members exclusive of Canada as a percentage of the
Trade Union Unity League. For 1932 and 1934, the member­ total number of nonagricultural employees. These percentages
ship of the Trade Union Unity League has been interpolated are 9.9 in 1910, 19.4 in 1920, and 10.2 in 1930. The percentage
shown for 1930 in series D 745 is larger than the correspond­
from figures for adjacent years.
ing percentage given by Wolman because Wolman’s estimated
For Wolman’s estimates of union membership by industry,
see series D 746-763. Annual estimates of the rtiembership union membership figure exclusive of Canada (3,190,000) is
of individual national and international unions for 1897-1934 smaller than that shown in series D 743, and also because
may be found in Wolman’s book cited above and in his The Wolman’s nonagricultural employment estimate (30,247,000),
Growth of American Trade Unions, 1880-1923, National Bu­ based on census data, is larger than the number of employees
in nonagricultural establishments shown in series D 744.
reau of Economic Research, 1924.
Wolman’s figure excludes many salaried professional and mana­
D 741-745. Labor union membership and membership as per­ gerial workers included in series D 744, and includes domestic
cent of nonagricultural employment, 1930-1956.
servants, excluded from series D 744.
Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics, “Union Membership as
Independent estimates of union membership for 1939 and
a Proportion of Labor Force, 1930-1956,” January 1958 1953, both including and excluding Canadian membership, are
(mimeographed release).
available in Leo Troy, Distribution of Union Membership
See also text for series D 735-740.
Among the States, 1939 and 1953, National Bureau of Eco­
nomic Research, New York, 1957, pp. 3-5. Troy’s estimates
D 741, total union membership, is a continuation of se­
ries D 735. For 1935-1947, the membership of A. F. of L. of total union membership, including Canadian members, are
unions included is based on per capita taxes; the membership 6,730,000 for 1939 and 17,147,000 for 1953. The correspond­
of independent unions included was estimated by BLS from ing estimates, excluding Canadian members, are 6,518,000 for
fragmentary data. For 1948, 1949, and 1950, the figure shown 1939 and 16,217,000 for 1953.
is the midpoint of an estimated range of 14,000,000 to
Troy’s estimates are based mainly on financial reports and
16,000,000. For 1951 and 1952 the figure shown is the mid­ other records supplied by approximately 200 national unions.
point of an estimated range of 16,500,000 to 17,000,000. These Although his coverage of unaffiliated unions was admittedly
ranges are based on membership data from surveys of national incomplete, the discrepancies between his estimates and those
and international unions made by BLS. The level of the series of BLS for 1939 are too large to be accounted for by such
may be more accurate during 1948-1952 than during 1939-1947. incompleteness of coverage. The work by Troy includes esti­
Prior to 1947, the series seems to include substantially inflated mates of union membership by major industry, by State and
membership claims of some unions (see the alternative figures region, and by affiliation (A. F. of L., CIO, unaffiliated).
86




HOURS, WAGES, AND
D 746-763. Labor union membership, by industry, 1897-1934.
Source: Leo Wolman, Ebb and Flow in Trade Unionism,
National Bureau of Economic Research, New York, 1936, pp.
172-193.
These figures were obtained by classifying national and in­
ternational unions into industrial categories and totalling the
membership of the unions in each category in each year.
In the latter part of the period, series D 763, “Miscellane­
ous,^” consists largely of two unions, the Firemen and Oilers
and the Operating Engineers. The Industrial Workers of the
World is included from 1905-1914, and is the largest union in
the series for some years. The Horseshoers are important in
the early years, declining rapidly in the 1920’s. Unions affil­
iated with the Trade Union Unity League in 1929-1934 are
excluded.
Some errors of classification arise when a union has mem­
bership in more than one category. For example, the Meat
Cutters and Butcher Workmen, classified in food, liquor, and
tobacco had many members in retail meat stores; the Operat­
ing Engineers, classified as miscellaneous, had many members
in building construction. These problems are less important
in 1897-1934 than they would be in recent years.
The source gives annual estimates of the percentage distri­
bution of union membership by industrial categories. For
1910, 1920, and 1930, it gives estimates of the percentage of
employees organized in each of the industrial categories shown
here, and in more detailed categories.
D 764-778. Work stoppages, workers involved, man-days idle,
major issues, and average duration, 1881-1957.
Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics, various bulletins, espe­
cially Analysis of Work Stoppages, 1957, Bulletin No. 1234,
and Strikes in the United States, 1880-1936, Bulletin No. 651.
Work stoppages include strikes and lockouts. A strike is
defined as a temporary stoppage of work by a group of em­
ployees in order to express a grievance or to enforce a demand.
A lockout is defined as a temporary withholding of work from
a group of employees by an employer (or a group of em­
ployers) in order to enforce acceptance of the employer’s
terms. Most work stoppages are strikes rather than lockouts.
The individual strike or lockout is the unit counted regard­
less of the number of unions or employers jointly involved in
the controversy. Excluded, however, are strikes involving
fewer than 6 workers or lasting less than a full shift, strikes
of American seamen in foreign ports, and strikes of foreign
crews on foreign ships in American ports.
Figures for workers involved include all workers made idle
in the establishment where the stoppage occurs, even though
they may not all be participants in the controversy. The
figures exclude indirect or secondary idleness in other estab­
lishments which suspend or curtail operations because of short­
ages of materials or services resulting from a stoppage. The
number of workers involved is the number on the day of maxi­
mum idleness; however, the figures for man-days idle (series
D 767) take into account variations in the number idle during
the strike and include all days on which work was scheduled.
The duration of stoppages (series D 774) is counted in
calendar days rather than working days. Strikes that are
never formally settled are considered ended when a majority
of vacant jobs are filled, whether by former strikers or by
others, or when the establishment affected is permanently
closed.
The classification of causes of strikes (series D 771-773
and D 776-778) necessarily lacks precision, since many strikes
involve more than one issue. In particular, strikes for union
organization often involve demands concerning wages or hours.



D 746-784
WORKING CONDITIONS
Beginning in 1951, the number of employed workers used
as a base for the percentages in series D 766 is the BLS series
on employment in nonagricultural establishments. Before
1951, the base is “all workers except those in occupations
and professions in which strikes rarely occur.” The excluded
groups were the self-employed, domestic workers, employees
on farms with fewer than 6 employees, most managerial and
professional workers, employees of Federal and State govern­
ments, and elected and appointed officials of local governments.
The change in base affects the series by less than one-tenth
of a percentage point in most years. The estimated work­
ing time used as a base for the percentages in series D 768
is the base for series D 766 times the number of days worked
by most employees, excluding Saturdays when customarily not
worked, Sundays, and established holidays.
Unions are involved in the great majority of work stoppages.
Thus in 1956 only 42 of 3,825 work stoppages, accounting for
3,280 of the 1,900,000 workers involved, did not involve any
union. For some purposes, therefore, workers involved in
strikes as a percent of union membership is a more useful
statistic than workers involved as a percent of all workers.
Data for 1881-1886 were first published in the Third Annual
Report of the Commissioner of Labor, 1887. This report also
gives fragmentary data for earlier years. Data for 1887-1894
are given in the Tenth Annual Report, 189 U; for 1895-1900
in the Sixteenth Annual Report, 1901; and for 1900-1905 in
the Twenty-first Annual Report, 1906. References to strikes
and lockouts during 1881-1905 were located by the Bureau of
Labor by examination of the daily and trade press. Agents
of the Bureau then collected data from the parties involved.
No government agency collected data on work stoppages for
1906-1913. For 1914-1915 BLS collected data on the number
of stoppages and major issues. For 1916-1926 the count of
stoppages was made from press notices, and questionnaires
were sent to determine the number of workers involved. This
number was reported for only about two-thirds of the known
stoppages.
Methods of compiling the series have been fairly uniform
since 1927. Information on the existence of a stoppage is ob­
tained from press clippings from a large number of news­
papers throughout the country and from reports from unions,
employers, and a number of Federal and State agencies. Im­
provement in the sources of these “leads,” especially through
State employment security agencies, increased the number of
strikes reported over previous years by about 5 percent in
1950 and by about 10 percent in 1951 and 1952. The increase
from this source in the reported number of workers involved
and man-days idle was about 2 percent in 1950 and 3 percent
in 1951 and 1952. When the existence of a strike is known,
a questionnaire is mailed to the parties reported as involved
to obtain data on the number of workers involved, duration,
issues, etc. In some instances, field representatives of the
BLS call on the parties.
D 779-784. Average monthly labor turnover rates in manu­
facturing, by class of turnover, 1919-1957.
Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics, Monthly Labor Review,
July 1929, pp. 64-65; BLS, Employment and Earnings, June
1957, p. 95; and Office of Business Economics, Business Sta­
tistics, 1957 biennial edition, p. 69.
The figures for 1919-1929 are those of the Metropolitan
Life Insurance Company which pioneered in collecting labor
turnover data on a regular basis, beginning in January 1926.
Subsequently, the Company secured data that enabled it to
estimate turnover rates monthly back to January 1919.
The Company obtained its turnover data by means of a mail
questionnaire sent monthly to reporting firms. (The sample
87

D 785-790
LABOR
of reporting firms, 160 in November 1926, had grown to 350 of over 30 days and other separations than those itemized
by mid-1929.) Each firm was asked to report each month: (deaths, retirements, etc.). For January 1942-June 1944, the
(1) The daily average number of employees on the payroll, military separation rate was published separately.
and the total number of (2) accessions, (3) voluntary quits, D 785. Work-injury frequency rates in manufacturing, 1926(4) discharges, and (5) layoffs during the month. The ac­
1956.
cession rate for each company was computed by dividing the
Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics, Handbook of Labor Sta­
total number of accessions during the month by the daily
average number on the payroll during the month. The com­ tistics, 1950 edition, p. 179; and Monthly Labor Review, vari­
posite or average accession rate for all reporting firms was ous issues.
the unweighted median of the accession rates computed for
The Bureau of Labor Statistics’ first continuing compilation
individual firms. The annual average was the arithmetic mean of injury-rate statistics began in 1910 for the iron and steel
of the 12 monthly median accession rates. Discharges, quits, industry. In 1925, the injury-rate compilations were expanded
and layoffs were handled in a similar fashion. (The total to cover 24 industries. By 1952, the compilations covered
separation rate, however, was computed as the sum of the over 200 manufacturing and nonmanufacturing industry clas­
median discharge rate, the median quit rate, and the median sifications.
layoff rate.)
Efforts to standardize the compilation of work-injury statis­
The figures for 1919-1929 are stated as equivalent annual tics were initiated by BLS in 1911 and resulted in 1920 in the
rates rather than monthly rates. They have been converted first standardized procedures. In 1926 the American Engi­
in series D 779-783 to monthly rates by dividing by 12.
neering Standards Committee, later the American Standards
In July 1929, BLS took over the work of the Metropolitan Association, undertook a revision of these procedures. Their
Life Insurance Company. At that time there were approxi­ work led to the publication in 1937 of the first American
mately 350 large manufacturers employing 700,000 workers in Standard Method of Compiling Industrial Injury Rates. This
the sample of reporting firms. Over the years the list of.
cooperating firms has grown greatly, the amount of industry standard was again revised in 1954. rate is the average number
detail has expanded, and methods of computation have been of The standard injury-frequency man-hours worked. A dis­
disabling injuries per million
somewhat changed.
abling injury is an injury incurred in the course of and arising
BLS turnover rate estimates are based on reports made out of employment,
in death or permanent physi­
monthly on a mail questionnaire by a sample of cooperating cal impairment, or which resultsinjured person unable to per­
renders the
firms. In 1957, the sample covered approximately 10,000 es­ form any
available to
tablishments in manufacturing employing nearly 6,000,000 em­ him, during regularly established job, open and to the hours
the entire time interval corresponding
ployees, 120 metal minining establishments with 57,000 work­
ers, 220 coal mining establishments with 77,000 workers, of his regular shift on one or more days after the injury.
The BLS annual injury-rate estimates are based on a sample
and telephone and telegraph establishments employing about
690,000 workers. The reporting firms are considerably larger mail survey conducted once a year. Cooperating firms are
on the average than all firms within the population sampled. asked to report for all employees (1) average employment,
This large-firm bias may cause underestimation of turnover (2) aggregate man-hours worked by all employees, (3) aggre­
rates. Furthermore, the BLS sample of manufacturing firms gate number of disabling work injuries by extent of disability,
and its estimates of turnover for manufacturing exclude print­ and (4) time lost because of disabilities. The manufacturing
ing, publishing, and allied industries (since April 1943) ; can­ sample covers approximately 50,000 establishments. The in­
ning and preserving fruits, vegetables, and seafoods; women’s jury-rate series for manufacturing excludes petroleum refining,
and misses’ outerwear; and fertilizers. The last three indus­ smelting and refining of nonferrous metals, cement and lime
tries tend to have exceptionally high turnover rates seasonally. manufacturing, and coke production, which are covered in simi­
Plants experiencing work stoppages are excluded.
lar surveys conducted by the Bureau of Mines (see text for
Each cooperating firm is asked to report each month: (1) series D 786-790).
Total accessions, (2) total separations, (3) total quits, (4)
Prior to 1936 the data in series D 785 are based on surveys
total discharges, (5) total layoffs, (6) total military separa­ covering only wage earners in 30 manufacturing industries.
tions, (7) total miscellaneous separations, and (8) the total Since
manufac­
number of employees who worked or received pay for any turing 1936 the data refer to all employees in all have been
industries. Separate injury-frequency rates
part of the payroll period ending nearest the 15th of the
since
for component industries by dividing ag­
month. Prior to 1940 “miscellaneous” separations were in­ computedinjuries 1936 aggregate man-hours in reporting estab­
gregate
by
cluded with “quits.” Since January 1943 the labor turnover lishments. In computing the average rate for all manufac­
rates pertain to all employees; before that date the rates were
for production workers only. Furthermore, before October turing the separate averages for the component industries are
1945 the employment base was the average of the number of weighted by estimated total employment in these industries.
employees on the payroll the last day of the preceding month Before 1936 the weights implicitly were aggregate man-hours
and the last day of the current month. The effect of changing in the reporting firms in each industry.
the employment base to the number on the midmonth payroll D 786-790. Work-injury frequency rates in mining, 1924-1956.
was negligible.
Source: Bureau of Mines, Minerals Yearbook, 1956 and
Discharges are terminations of employment by management earlier annual issues.
Except for coal mining since 1941, the Bureau of Mines
for cause (incompetence, laziness, etc.). Layoffs are termina­
tions of employment for more than a week, initiated by man­ estimates of work-injury frequency rates in “mining” indus­
agement, without prejudice to the worker. Quits are termi­ tries are based on reports made voluntarily by mining estab­
nations of employment initiated by employees; they include lishments. Coal mining firms since 1941 have been obliged by
unauthorized absences of more than a week. Miscellaneous Federal law to report work-injury and related data to the
V
separations are terminations of employment for military duty Bureau of Mines.



D 791-792
HOURS, WAGES, AND WORKING CONDITIONS
D 791-792. Work-injury frequency rates on Class I railroads, ately following an accident as well as more serious injuries.
Series D 791 is series D 792 plus the average work-injury
1922-1956.
frequency rate for “1-3 day”*injuries.
Source: Interstate Commerce Commission, Accident Bulle­
The concept of “disabling injury” underlying series D 785tin, various issues.
790 is essentially the same as that underlying series D 791.
Both series exclude work injuries suffered by employees of
“1-3 day” injuries,
Class I switching and terminal companies after 1932. They Series D to792, which excludes in level, and series is not com­
parable
series D 785-790
791 also
are based on monthly accident reports that the Class I rail­ tends to have a downward bias in trend relativeD to series
roads are required by Federal law to make to the Interstate D 785-790. It has been included to indicate at least crudely
Commerce Commission. The two series thus result from es­ the trend in the average injury-frequency rates on Class I
sentially complete censuses of man-hours worked and of re­ railroads before 1936.
portable work injuries.
Both series cover all employees of Class I railroads. The
Before 1936 a reportable work-injury was either a fatality man-hour base of both series is the aggregate number of
or a nonfatal injury to an employee “sufficient to incapacitate straight-time hours actually worked and overtime hours paid
him from performing his ordinary duties for more than 3 days for in millions of man-hours. Days worked by daily-rated
in the aggregate in the 10 days immediately following the employees have been converted to man-hours worked by mul­
accident.” Series D 792 includes only such work-in juries. tiplying days worked by 8. The average injury-frequency rate
Beginning in 1936 the railroads have been required to report is the ratio of the aggregate number of work-in juries to the
work-in juries incapacitating employees for 1-3 days immedi­ man-hour base.




89

D 573-588

LABOR

Series D 573-577. Daily Hours and Indexes of Average Daily Wages in all Industries and in Building Trades:
January 1860 to 1891
All industries
Weighted
average
daily
hours 1

Year

573
1891__________
1890__________
1889__________
1888__________
1887__________
1886__________
1885__________
1884__________
1883__________
1882__________
1881__________
1880__________
1879__________
1878__________
1877__________
1876__________
1 Restricted

10.0
10.0
10.0
10.0
10.0
10.2

10.3
10.3
10.3
10.3
10.3
10.3
10.3
10.3
10.3
10.3

Building trades

Indexes of average
dailv wages
(Jan. 1860=100)
Weighted
574

Unweighted 1
575

168.6
168.2
162.9
157.9
156.6
155.8
155.9
155.1
159.2
152.9
150.7
143.0
139.4
140.9
143.8
151.4

All industries

Average
daily
hours

Index of
average
daily wages
(Jan. 1860
= 100)

576

577

160.7
158.9
156.7
155.4
153.7
150.9
150.7
152.7
152.7
149.9
146.5
141.5
139.9
142.5
144.9
152.5

9 .4
9.6
9.6
9.7
9.7
9.8
9.9
9.9
9.9
9.9
9.9
9.9
9.9
9.9
9.9
9.9

Weighted
average
daily
hours 1

Year

Weighted
574

573

172.5
172.7
170.1
170.9
170 1
170.3
169.9
168.5
166.0
165.1
160.1
142.7
137.9
140.7
146.3
158.6

1875
1874
1873
1872
1871
1870_________
1869
1868
1867
1866
1865_________
1864_________
1863_________
1862_________
1861_________
1860_________

Building trades

Indexes of average
daily wages
(Jan. 1860 =100)

10.3
10.5
10.5
10 5
10.5
10.5

Unweighted 1
575

158.0
162.5
166.1
167.1
166.4
167.1
167.4
164.9
164 0
155.6
148.6
134.0
118.8
103.7
100.7

10.6
10.6
10 8
10.8

10.7

10.8
10.8
10.8

10.9

11.0

158.4
161.5
167.1
166^0
163.6
162.2
162 .0
159.2
157.6
152.4
143.1
125.6
110.5
102.9

Index of
average
daily wages
(Jan. 1860
= 100)

576

577
9.9
9.9
9.9
9^9

10.0

10.0
10.0

io !o
10 0
io !o
10.0
10.1
10.1
10.1
10.1
10.1

100.8
100.0

100.0

Average
daily
hours

169.2
178.1
179.4
183 3
182! 7
185.5
189.2
185^ 5
185 1
170! 0
161.1
143.7
119.7
106.3
100.4
100.0

coverage, especially for earlier years; see text.

Series D 578-588. Indexes of Average Daily Wages in all Industries, in Selected Industries, and by Degree of Skill:
January and July, 1860 to 1880
[January 1860=100]

1880: July _ _ _
January _ _ _ _
_
1879: July_______________________________
January.
_
1878: July_______________________________
January __
1877: July_______________________________
January------1876: July__
J a n u a ry .__
_ _
_ _
1875: July_______________________________
January. _ _
_
_ _
1874: July_______________________________
January. —
1873: July_______________________________
January------__ _
___
1872: July_______________________________
January____ . . .
1871: July_______________________________
January---------1870: July_______________________________
Jan u ary ___
. . .
1869: July_______________________________
January _________ _ _ _ _
1868: July_______________________________
J an u ary__ ____ ____ ____ __ _
1867: July_______________________________
January____ _ _ ______ _ __
1866: July_______________________________
January____ _ _ _ _ _ _
1865: July__ __ __ _ _______ _____
January____ _ _ _ _ _
__ __
1864: July_______________________________
J an u ary----- -------- _ _ _ _ _
1863: July_______________________________
January____ __ _ _ _ _____
1862: July_______________________________
January----------------------------------------1861: July_______________________________
January----------------------------------------1860: July_______________________________
January------------------------ --------------

90




Cotton
textiles
and
ginghams

Woolen
textiles

Metals
and
metallic
goods

Building
trades

Stone

578

Year and month

All
industries

579

580

581

582

583

144
142
139
142
143
145
143
147
153
162
163
167
175
176
183
180
185
179
184
183
179
181
179
176
170
167
168
168
164
161
155
152
142
131
119
116
104
102
99

102
100
100

154
152
149
149
153
153
150
149
154
160
163
162
177
175
189
185
189
190
184
182
172
169
173
168
167
166
169
168
166
159
146
135
124
116
108
108
103

101
102
100
100
100

144
143
143
142
147
144
144
139
144
148
152
150
149
145
150
149
148
148
149
148
147
147
146
149
145
141
148
149
153
149
142
142
128
122
114

120
111

108
107
106
103

100

135
130
128
127
131
132
133
135
141
146
148
151
159
158
163
161
161
158
159
158
159
161
160
160
159
159
159
158
157
155
150
149
139
126
120
114
108
105
103

102
101
100

146
138
139
139
137
141
140
143
160
160
170
168
182
178
186
180
190
185
187
178
188
192
199
195
195
180
186
174
171
162
158
145
143
128
118
118
107
103

102
101
102
100

133
124
125
125
130
133
130
140
141
169
161
167
180
182
198
182
203
186
198
188
201
200

205
196
175
178
162
168
158
172
151
155
135
143
113
100
90
96
91
128

100
100

Railroads Illuminat­
ing gas
584
153
153
147
146
138
139
142
147
151
150
158
161
160
160
162
158
171
167
170
171
158
165
162
156
161
156
160
155
148
138
146
144
112
114
109
106
103
105
105
105
103

100

585
159
158
157
162
156
169
165
184
173
193
182

200
200
212

204
205
196
195
199
189
192
189
195
186
185
185
183
181
183
175
176
162
157
142
125
103
100
99
100
99

221

100

Degree of skill

City
public
works

Unskilled
men

Skilled
men

586

587

588

135
133
123
135
134
143
140
150
166
190
181
193
193
199
195
196
201
198
204
213
202
210

191
192
190
186
188
186
182
181
178
175
169
144
123
122
99
99
91

100
100
100

127

122
122
122

123
127
125
134
139
148
150
160
173
181
187
182
201
175
195
198
203
208
205
191
165
175
159
182
158
174
155
152
135
140
114
111
97
99
98

100
100
100

140
136
135
138
137
141
140
144
150
150
160
160
169
169
175
171
175
172
179
175
172
170
171
170
173
165
166
166
164
153
150
150
137
120
112

105

102
100
100
100
100
100

D 589-617

HOURS, WAGES, AND WORKING CONDITIONS

Series D 589 602. Hours and Earnings in Manufacturing, in Selected Nonmanufacturing Industries, and for
“Lower-Skilled” Labor: 1890 to 1926
Year

Average Average
weekly hourly
hours earnings
589

1926
1925
1924
1923
1922
1921
1920
1919
1918
1917.
1916.
1915.
1914.
1913.
1912.
1911.
1910.
1909.
1908.
1907.
1906.
1905.
1904.
1903.
1902.
1901.
1900.
1899.
1898.
1897.
1896.
1895.
1894.
1893.
1892.
1891.
1890.

“LowerPostal
Building
Rail­
skilled”
trades
employees
roads,
labor,
average
average
Average Average full-time Average Average Average Average full-time
Average Average Average Average weekly
weekly hourly weekly hourly
hourly weekly weekly hourly weekly hourly weekly
hours
hours
hours earnings hours earnings (standard) earnings earnings (union) earnings hours earnings earnings
(union)
600
601
602
599
597
598
594
591
592
595
Union

Total

590

50.3
50.3
50.4
51.0
51.2
50.7
51.0
52.3
53.6
54.6
54.9
55.0
55.2
55.5
56.0
56.4
56.6
56.8
56.8
57.3
57.3
57.7
57.7
57.9
58.3
58.7
59.0
59.1
59.3
59.1
59.2
59.5
59.1
59.7
59.8
59.7
60.0

). 647
.645
.636
.620
.574
.607
.663
.529
.448
.364
.320
.287
.287
.285
.274
.263
.260
.252
.250
.257
.248
.239
.236
.236
.227
.219
.216
.209
.204
.203
.205
.200
.200
.205
.203
.202
.199

45.9
45.9
46.1
46.3
46.2
46.1
45.7
46.2
47.2
47.6
48.0
48.6
48.8
49.2
49.5
49.8
50.1
50.3
50.4
50.8
51.0
51.1
51.1
51.4
51.8
52.4
53.0
53.0
53.4
53.4
53.5
53.5
53.6
53.9
54.0
54.0
54.4

$1,007
.989
.970
.913
.873
.921
.884
.706
.602
.499
.464
.439
.438
.430
.416
.411
.403
.392
.388
.396
.385
.378
.374
.372
.362
.350
.341
.338
.331
.330
.330
.327
.326
.331
.333
.328
.324

Payroll

52.2
52.2
52.1
53.0
53.4
52.7
53.5
55.1
56.6
57.9
58.2
58.2
58.3
58.8
59.3
59.6
59.8
60.2
60.3
60.6
60.7
61.1
61.1
61.2
61.5
61.9
62.1
62.1
62.2
61.9
62.1

$0,488
.493
.502
.491
.443
.467
.561
.448
.374
.299
.250
.212
.213
.211
.200
.191
.188
.179
.175
.186
.176
.168
.164
.167
.162
.153
.152
.146
.143
.141
.143
.141
.140
.151
.147
.148
.149

Bituminous
coal mining]

48.4
48.5
48.5
48.4
48.4
48.2
48.2
48.4
48.7
49.8
51.6

51.6
51.6
51.6
51.6
51.6
51.6
51.6
51.6
52.2
52.3
52.4
52.6
52.7
52.8
60.0
60.0
60.0
60.0
60.0
60.0
60.0
60.0

$0,719
.724
.811
.864
.834
.846
.784
.699
.599
.484
.379
.337
.323
.316
.320
.305
.299
.292
.293
.288
.293
.276
.271
.267
.244
.231
.204
.185
.170
.138
.147
.158
.171
.188
.179
.169
.180

$32.16
31.80
30.66
30.24
30.30
31.14
34.14
27.66
26.40
18.84
16.62
15.78
15.36
15.12
14.79
14.49
14.07
13.59
13.47
13.35
12.84
12.45
12.36
12.12
11.73
11.49
11.43
11.37
11.31
11.25
11.22

11.22

11.25
11.37
11.46
11.27
11.38

43.8
43.9
43.8
43.9
43.8
43.8
43.8
44.0
44.1
44.4
44.5
44.8
44.7
44.9
45.0
45.0
45.2
45.6
45.6
45.7
45.9
46.1
46.1
46.3
46.7
47.5
48.3
48.9
49.5
49.8
50.1
50.3
50.5
50.4
50.6
51.0
51.3

$1,313
1.229
1.188
1.107
1.006
1.076
1.052
.780
.684
.624
.587
.569
.567
.557
.544
.531
.520
.510
.505
.498
.481
.454
.443
.436
.413
.391
.374
.361
.348
.346
.343
.341
.339
.347
.348
.341
.341

47.2
47.2
47.2
47.2
47.4
47.4
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0

$0,867
.836
.788
.762
.748
.759
.739
.648
.536
.484
.471
.466
.464
.450
.437
.429
.420
.409
.395
.378
.369
.375
.373
.372
.374
.375
.371
.370
.376
.381
.378
.375
.368
.361
.360
.358
.352

$25.98
23.83
21.69
17.18
13.78
10.65
10.78
10.84
10.32
10.13
10.65
10.37
10.22
10.76
10.34
9.91
9.84
9.64
9.25
9.05
8.83
8.70
8.53
8.40
8.46
7.45
8.34
8.73
8.75
9.74
8.71

Series D 603-617. Average Annual Earnings in all Industries and m Selected Industries and Occupations:
1890 to 1926
All industries

Year

Wage
Wage
Street
Including Excluding earners, earners, railways
steam
manu­
farm
farm facturing railroads
labor
labor

603
604
1926_______ $1,376 $1,473
1,336
1,434
1925_______
1,402
1924_______
1,303
1,299
1,393
1923_______
1,305
1922_______
1,201
1921_______
1,233
1,349
1,407
1,489
1920_______
1,272
1919_______
1,201
1,047
1,115
1918_______
830
887
1917_______
708
1916_______
765
633
687
1915_______
627
682
1914_______
621
675
1913_______
592
646
1912_______
575
629
1911_______
574
630
1910_______
543
594
1909_______
516
563
1908_______
542
595
1907_______
1906_______
520
569
503
554
1905_______
490
540
1904_______
489
543
1903_______
467
519
1902_______
454
508
1901
490
1900_ ___ _
438
428
480
1899
417
468
1898_ _
411
462
1897
1896_______
411
462
1Executive departments.



605
606
$1,309 $1,613
1,280
1,597
1,570
1,240
1,254
1,585
1,591
1,149
1,632
1,180
1,817
1,358
1,158
1,509
980
1,424
774
989
651
867
568
815
580
795
760
578
550
721
537
705
558
677
518
644
667
475
522
661
506
607
589
494
477
600
486
593
473 v
562
456
549
435
548
426
543
412
542
408
543
406
544

607
$1,566
1,565
1,544
1,493
1,436
1,539
1,608
1,387
1,111
872
798
748
737
704
674
685
681
671
650
658
662
646
610
582
576
601
604
591
558
552
531

Tele­
phones

Tele­
graphs

608
$1,117
1,108
1,104
1,069
1,064
1,038
980
844
690
616
567
529
476
438
438
419
417
430
420
412
412
401
392
397
408

609
$1,215
1,161
1,150
1,133
1,110
1,159
1,145
967
831
769
806
792
742
717
669
670
649
622
639
635
592
581
601
573
544

Clerical
Gas and workers, Bitumi­
electricity mfg. and nous coal
steam
mining
railroads
610
$1,477
1,448
1,436
1,355
1,343
1,364
1,432
1,291
1,092
853
679
644
651
661
641
648
622
618
595
623
581
543
556
615
620
612
698
703
665

611
$2,310
2,239
2,196
2,126
2,067
2,134
2,160
1,914
1,697
1,477
1,359
1,267
1,257
1,236
1,209
1,213
1,156
1,136
1,111
1,091
1,074
1,076
1,056
1,037
1,025
1,009
1,011

1,004
1,010
970
954

612
$1,247
1,141
1,120
1,246
954
1,013
1,386
1,097
1,211
976
750
589
543
631
614
553
558
524
487
580
537
500
470
5^2
490
465
438
379
316
270
282

Farm
labor
613
$593
587
574
572
508
522
810
706
604
481
388
355
351
360
348
338
336
328
324
319
315
302
290
277
264
255
247
239
228
224
220

Federal Postal
em­
em­
ployees 1 ployees
614
$1,809
1,776
1,708
1,658
1,625
1,593
1,648
1,520
1,380
1,295
1,211

1,152
1,140
1,136
1,128
1,116
1,108
1,106
1,102
1,094
1,084
1,072
1,066
1,067
1,061
1,047
1,033
1,017
1,025
1,057
1,084

615
$2,128
2,051
1,934
1,870
1,844
1,870
1,844
1,618
1,339
1,207
1,175
1,162
1,157
1,124
1,091
1,071
1,049
1,021
987
944
921
935
931
928
934
936
925
924
939
950
944

Public
school Ministers
teachers
616
$1,277
1,263
1,247
1,224
1,188
1,082
936
810
689
648
605
578
564
547
529
509
492
476
455
431
409
392
377
358
346
337
328
318
306
298
294

617
$1,826
1,769
1,678
1,620
1,622
1,556
1,428
1,238
1,186
1,069
1,017
984
938
899
879
856
802
831
833
831
773
759
759
761
737
730
731
722
739
750
764

91

D 603-634

LABOR

Series D 603-617. Average Annual Earnings in all Industries and in Selected Industries and Occupations:
1890 to 1926—Con.
All in<lustries
Wage
Wage
earners, earners, Street
Including Excluding manu­
steam railways
Year
farm
farm facturing railroads
labor
labor
603
604
605
606
607
1895_______
$415
$468
$416
$546
$509
1894_______
400
448
386
546
508
1893_______
430
480
420
563
526
1892_______
445
495
446
563
535
1891_______
438
487
442
554
529
1890_______
438
486
439
560
557
1 Executive departments.

Tele­
phones
608

Clerical Bitumi­
Tele­ Gas and workers, nous
graphs electricity mfg. and
coal
steam
railroads mining
609

610
$640
670
627
625
587
687

611
$941
928
923
885
882
848

612
$307
292
383
393
377
406

Farm
labor
613
$216
214
232
238
236
233

Federal Postal
em­
em­
ployees 1 ployees
614
$1,104

1,110
1,101

1,096

615
$935
919
902
899
894
878

Public
school Ministers
teachers
616
$289
283
276
270
264
256

617
$787
824
809
793
786
794

Series D 618-625. Indexes of Wages, Hours, and Earnings in Manufacturing and in the Building Trades: 1890 to 1907

[1890-1899=100]
Building trades
All manufacturing
Building trades
All manufacturing
Average full-time
Average full-time
Average full-time
Average full-time
Average Average weekly hours Average Average weekly hours
Average Average weekly hours Average Average weekly hours
full-time
full-time
full-time
full-time
hourly weekly
Year hourly weekly
hourly weekly
Year hourly weekly
wages 1 earnings 1 Bureau Wolman wages earnings Bureau Wolman
wages 1 earnings 1 Bureau Wolman wages earnings Bureau Wolman
of Labor
of Labor 1
of Labor 1
of Labor
622
624
621
624
618
619
620
621
623
625
618
619
620
622
623
625
98.7
144.6 131.0
90.6
87.8 1898__ 100.2
99.7 100.0 102.8 100.8
98.1
1907___ 128.8 122.4
95.0
99.9
98.6
99.2
1897__
99.6
99.6 101.3
99.9
1906____ 124.2 118.5
95.4
140.2 127.4
90.9
99.6
99.2
99.6
99.2
99.9
1896__
99.8
99.8
99.1
99.7
99.5
132.2 120.6
91.2
1905 _ _ 118.9 114.0
95.9
100.0
129.7 118.4
91.3
1895__
98.4
98.7 100.3
1904 _ . 117.0 112.2
95.9
98.4 100.1 100.0
98.3
93.1 1894__
97.6
98.3 100.7 100.5
91.8
97.9
97.7
99.8
99.5
1903____ 116.3 112.3
96.6
97.3 126.8 116.4
92.6
92.9 1893__ 100.9 101.2 100.3 100.1 100.0 100.5 100.5 100.4
1902____ 112.2 109.2
97.3
98.1 121.1 112.1
99.9 100.6 100.7 100.5
94.4
94.4 1892__ 100.8 101.3 100.5 100.6
1901____ 108.0 105.9
98.1
98.6 114.5 108.1
97.9
99.7 101.8 101.5
1891__ 100.3 100.8 100.5 100.3
99.4 102.5 102.2
98.7
95.5
96.3 1890__ 100.3 101.0 100.7 100.5
97.0
1900____ 105.5 104.1
99.1 109.9 105.0
97.4
99.2
99.6 105.3 102.7
97.5
1899____ 102.0 101.2
1 Includes the building trades and other hand and neighborhood trades.

Series D 626-634. Hours/and Earnings for Production Workers in Manufacturing: 1909 to 1957
Year
1957
1956
1955
1954
1953
1952
1951
1950
1949
1948
1947
1946
1945
1944
1943
1942
1941
1940
1939
1938
1937
1936
1935
1934
1933
1932
1931
1930
1929
1928
1927
1926
^1925
1924
1923
1922
1921
1920
1919
1914
1909

92




I All manufacturing
Average
Average
Average
weekly
weekly
hourly
hours
earnings
earnings
626
627
628
39.8
$82.39
$2.07
40.4
79.99
1.98
76.52
40.7
1.88
71.86
1.81
39.7
71.69
1.77
40.5
67.97
1.67
40.7
1.59
40.7
64.71
40.5
59.33
1.465
39.2
54.92
1.401
54.14
1.350
40.1
40.4
49.97
1.237
43.82
1.086
40.4
43.4
44.39
1.023
46.08
1.019
45.2
43.14
44.9
.961
42.9
36.65
.853
29.58
40.6
.729
25.20
38.1
.661
23.86
37.7
.633
22.30
35.6
.627
38.6
24.05
.624
39.2
21.78
.556
36.6
20.13
.550
34.6
18.40
.532
.442
38.1
16.73
38.3
17.05
.446
20.87
40.5
.515
42.1
23.25
.552
44.2
.566
25.03
44.4
24.97
.562
45.0
24.74
.550
45.0
24.65
.548
24.37
44.5
.547
43.7
23.93
.547
23.82
45.6
.522
.487
44.2
21.51
22.18
.515
43.1
47.4
26.30
.555
.477
46.3
22.08
49.4
11.01
.223
51.0
9.84
.193

Average
hourly
earnings
629
$2.20
2.10

2.01

1.92
1.87
1.77
1.67
1.537
1.469
1.410
1.292
1.156
1.111

1.117
1.059
.947
.808
.724
.698
.686
.674
.586
.577
.556
.472
.497

Durable goods
Average
weekly
hours
630
40.3
41.1
41.4
40.2
41.3
41.5
41.6
41.2
39.5
40.5
40.6
40.2
44.1
46.6
46.6
45.1
42.1
39.3
38.0
35.0
40.0
41.0
37.3
33.9
34.8
32.6

Average
weekly
earnings
631
$ 88.66
86.31
83.21
77.18
77.23
73.46
69.47
63.32
58.03
57.11
52.46
46.49
49.05
52.07
49.30
42.73
34.04
28.44
26.50
24.01
26.91
24.04
21.52
18.87
16.43
16.21
21.28
24.77
27.22
27.24
26.66
26.61
26.39
25.84
25.78

Nondurable goods
Average
Average
Average
hourly
weekly
weekly
earnings
hours
earnings
632
633
634
$ 1.88
39.1
$73.51
71.10
1.80
39.5
1.71
39.8
68.06
1.66
39.0
64.74
1.61
39.5
63.60
1.54
39.6
60.98
1.48
39.5
58.46
1.378
39.7
54.71
1.325
38.8
51.41
1.278
39.6
50.61
1.171
40.1
46.96
1.015
41.14
40.5
.904
42.3
38.29
.861
37.12
43.1
.803
42.5
34.12
.723
40.3
29.13
.640
38.9
24.92
.602
37.0
22.27
.582
21.78
37.4
.584
36.1
21.05
.577
37.4
21.53
.529
37.7
19.94
.530
36.1
19.11
.515
35.1
18.05
.427
16.89
40.0
.420
41.9
17.57
20.50
21.84
22.93
22.88
23.01
22.75
22.44
22.07
21.94

HOURS, WAGES, AND WORKING CONDITIONS

D 635-653

Series D 635-641. Hours and Earnings for Bituminous Coal Mines and Class I Steam Railroads: 1909 to 1957

Class I steam railroads 1
Bituminous coal mines
Average hourly
earnings
Average Average Average
Average Average Average Average Average
weekly weekly hourly
Year
weekly weekly hourly weekly weekly
Year
earnings hours earnings
earnings hours earnings earnings hours
Straight
Total
time
640
636
637
638
$94.47
27.9 $0.856
$2.25 1937.
$23.84
36.6 $3.02
1957_
$110.53
41.8 $2.26
22.71
28.8
.794
88.40
37.8
2.12
2.09 1936_
2.81
1956_
106.22
41.7
19.58
26.4
.745
37.6
2.56
1.96
96.26
82.12
41.9
1.93 1935_
1955_
18.10
27.0
.673
32.6
2.48
78.74
1.93
1.91 1934_
40.8
1954_
80.85
14.47
29.5
34.4
1.88
1933.
.501
76.33
2.48
1.86
40.6
1953_
85.31
27.2
.520
34.1
1.81 1932.
13.91
74.30
40.6
2.29
1.83
1952_
78.09
17.69
.647
35.2
28.3
1951_
77.79
70.93
2.21
1.73
1.71 1931_
41.0
.684
35.0
22.21
33.5
63.20
2.010
70.35
1.549
1.516 1930_
1950_
40.8
25.72
38.4
32.6
.681
61.73
1.941
1949 _
63.28
1.419
1.390 1929_
43.5
24.66
35.6
.716
60.34
38.0
72.12
1.309
1.272 1928.
1948_
46.1
1.898
24.33
33.5
54.17
66.59
1.170
.751
40.7
1947_
46.3
1.636
1.135 1927.
28.63
37.7
.786
41.6
1.116
1946 _
58.03
51.22
45.9
1.401
1.080 1926_
26.47
34.2
45.69
42.3
52.25
.942
.800
1945_
1.240
.899 192548.5
43.4
30.0
51.27
.938
23.59
.813
1944_
46.06
1.186
.898 192449.1
36.6
41.58
.897
31.3
.845
1943
25.60
43.68
1.139
.862 192348.7
32.9
35.02
1942_
.824
38.65
1.059
.804 1922_
46.9
30.86
1941_
31.1
.736 1921_
34.25
.993
.751
45.6
28.1
25.69
.759
24.71
35.5
1940_.
.717
.706 1919_
31.55
44.0
27.1
35.2
.359
23.88
12.24
.886
1939_.
.714 1914.
30.99
.714
43.4
.323
20.80
23.5
37.8
.878
11.82
1938_.
.703 1909_
30.26
42.5
.712
1 Beginning 1951, covers all employees except “executives, officials, and staff assistants” ; for prior years, covers all hourly-rated
ing and terminal companies.
Bituminous coal mines

Class I steam railroads 1
Average hourly
earnings
Average Average
weekly weekly
earnings hours
Total
638
$29.20
28.01
26.76
24.32
23.09
23.34
26.76
27.76
28.49
27.71
27.43
27.12
26.91
26.37
26.65
26.70
25.87

43.2
42.5
41.1
40.4
38.8
38.9
41.1
43.1
44.8
44.4
44.6
44.9
44.4
44.1
45.4
45.4
43.4

640
$0,676
.659
.651
.602
.595
.600
.651
.644
.636
.624
.615
.604
.606
.598
.587
.588
.596

641
$0,666

.648
.643
.594
.587
.593
.643
.635
.625
.613
.598
.587
.584
.577
.565
.560
.580

employees. For 1921-1927, includes switch­

Series D 642-653. Indexes of Union Hourly Wage Rates and Weekly Hours, for Building and Printing Trades:
1907 to 1956
Year

1956_________________________
1955_________________________
1954_________________________
1953_________________________
1952_________________________
1951_________________________
1950________________ ___ ___
1949_________________________
1948_________________________
1947_________________________
1946_________________________
1945_________________________
1944_________________________
1943_________________________
1942_________________________
1941_________________________
1940_________________________
1939_________________________
1938_________________________
1937_________________________
1936_________________________
1935_________________________
1934_________________________
1933______________________ _
1932_________________________
1931_________________________
1930_________________________
1929_________________________
1928_________________________
1927 _______________________
1926_________________________
1925_________________________
1924_________________________
1923_________________________
1922_________________________
1921_________________________
1920_________________________
1919_________________________
1918_________________________
1917_________________________
1916_________________________
1915_________________________
1914_________________________
1913_________________________
1912_________________________
1911_________________________
1910_________________________
1909_________________________
1908_________________________
1907_________________________



Building trades (1947-49 = 100)
Helpers and laborers
All trades
Journeymen
Hourly
Hourly
Hourly
Weekly
Weekly
Weekly
wage
wage
wage
hours
hours
hours
rate
rate
rate
647
642
644
646
643
645
157.4
100.1
147.7
100.1
146.2
100.1
141.2
148.5
100.1
100.1
140.0
100.1
136.4
142.4
100.1
100.1
135.4
100.1
131.6
100.1
136.5
100.1
130.7
100.1
100.1
124.6
127.7
125.1
100.1
100.1
119.9
99.9
117.8
100.1
117.4
100.1
100.2
112.2
110.7
100.0
100.2
110.5
106.4
100.0
106.1
100.1
106.0
100.1
101.8
100.0
102.6
100.0
100.0
101.7
99.9
92.1
91.1
100.1
100.0
92.3
77.9
100.1
80.5
. 100.1
80.9
100.1
101.2
67.0
100.8
72.2
73.0
101.1
70.8
64.0
100.8
71.7
101.2
101.1
70.2
71.2
101.0
63.3
100.8
100.9
100.8
69.7
70.8
62.5
101.5
101.0
65.6
99.5
100.2
67.0
56.9
102.4
99.0
102.1
63.3
99.8
64.7
54.3
99.0
53.2
102.7
62.3
99.9
63.8
61.8
63.4
100.1
99.1
52.8
102.9
104.6
56.8
101.8
58.3
100.9
48.0
104.2
53.1
101.4
54.6
100.5
44.1
101.4
52.8
100.5
41.7
104.0
51.3
104.7
50.7
102.2
52.2
101.3
41.5
50.3
106.1
51.9
105.1
40.3
108.1
51.8
106.4
53.4
105.5
42.2
108.6
60.6
108.4
62.4
107.4
49.4
111.1
60.4
109.7
62.2
108.9
49.7
112.0
58.0
112.9
59.7
112.2
47.3
114.6
57.2
113.9
59.0
112.9
46.5
116.9
56.9
117.0
114.6
58.5
113.7
46.0
55.0
114.8
56.6
45.2
117.0
114.0
51.6
115.0
53.0
114.2
41.5
117.3
49.7
115.0
114.2
117.5
51.1
40.1
46.0
115.0
47.4
114.2
37.1
117.5
41.7
114.9
42.9
114.1
35.0
117.3
44.4
114.9
45.6
114.0
38.4
117.6
43.6
115.0
44.7
114.1
38.1
117.6
32.3
115.5
33.4
114.6
118.4
26.2
28.2
116.1
29.3
115.0
22.7
119.5
25.4
116.7
26.5
115.7
19.6
119.9
23.9
117.0
115.9
17.8
120.4
25.1
23.2
117.4
24.3
116.4
17.2
120.7
23.0
117.5
120.8
24.1
116.5
17.1
22.5
118.0
23.5
116.8
16.9
121.5
22.0
118.2
23.0
16.4
117.1
121.5
118.6
22.5
117.5
16.3
121.9
21.5
119.0
16.2
21.2
22.1
117.9
122.1
21.2
119.3
15.7
124.3
20.4
120.5
19.4
122.2
20.2
120.8
15.2
126.9
18.2
124.1
19.0
122.6
14.5
129.6

Printing trades (Jan. 2, 1948-July 1, 1949=100)
All printing
Book and job
Newspaper
Hourly
Hourly
Hourly
Weekly
Weekly
Weekly
wage
wage
wage
hours
hours
hours
rate
rate
rate
648
649
650
651
652
653
98.7
134.1
99.1
134.9
132.1
99.0
130.7
99.2
98.9
128.9
131.4
99.1
127.1
99.4
127.6
99.1
125.9
99.2
123.5
99.2
99.5
124.0
122.3
99.3
118.8
99.2
99.5
119.3
117.6
99.3
112.4
99.7
99.5
112.1
112.7
99.4
107.9
99.8
99.8
107.4
99.5
108.2
105.7
99.9
99.9
105.7
105.7
99.7
94.3
100.1
100.1
94.3
94.3
100.3
0)
(x)
C)
C
1)
i1)
(l)
74.3
102.4
102.0
74.2
74.5
101.3
63.5
104.6
106.1
64.1
63.1
101.7
62.6
104.6
106.1
63.3
62.3
101.7
61.1
104.6
106.1
61.9
60.7
101.7
105.8
59.3
104.3
59.4
59.1
101.7
56.8
104.6
105.8
56.6
56.9
101.8
56.2
105.8
104.6
56.2
56.0
102.2
55.4
106.0
104.8
55.0
55.5
102.5
54.9
106.3
105.1
54.3
55.1
103.0
53.2
106.8
105.7
52.9
53.3
103.5
51.5
107.0
106.2
51.6
51.0
104.5
50.3
106.6
106.9
50.2
50.3
105.8
108.5
48.5
108.4
47.4
49.1
107.6
47.5
114.3
112.5
47.8
46.8
116.9
115.2
113.6
50.5
50.6
50.0
117.5
119.2
50.8
118.2
50.1
51.1
120.6
50.6
119.3
118.2
50.8
50.0
120.6
49.8
119.4
118.3
49.9
49.5
120.8
49.1
119.5
118.4
49.2
48.6
121.0
48.2
119.5
118.4
48.6
47.4
121.3
46.8
119.6
47.4
118.4
46.1
121.6
45.8
118.6
119.7
46.4
45.1
121.4
119.7
118.5
45.1
45.9
44.3
121.7
43.0
120.2
118.5
41.8
44.1
123.4
41.8
120.8
119.2
42.4
41.3
123.6
41.3
121.2
120.7
42.2
40.9
121.3
37.7
129.0
38.4
131.2
37.6
121.6
29.4
132.9
136.3
29.4
30.8
121.7
24.0
132.9
23.9
136.4
25.5
121.5
22.1
132.9
136.4
21.5
24.3
121.5
21.4
132.9
136.4
20.8
23.7
121.5
21.2
132.9
136.4
20.5
23.6
121.6
21.0
132.9
136.4
20.4
23.5
121.7
20.7
133.0
20.0
136.4
23.2
122.0
20.3
133.1
19.6
136.4
22.8
122.1
19.9
133.2
136.5
19.3
22.4
122.3
18.8
136.5
22.0
122.3
0)
(1)
17.8
136.9
21.3
122.6
C
1)
C
1)
16.6
138.1
20.4
122.9
C
1)
0)
15.0
144.8
19.4
123.5
(x)
(l)

93

D 654-684

LABOR

Series D 654-668. Hours and Earnings, for Production Workers in 25 Manufacturing Industries, by Sex and Degree
of Skill: 1914 to 1948
Year

1948 i_____
1947______
1946______
1945______
1944______
1943______
1942______
1941______
1940______
1939______
1938______
1937______
1936______
1935______
1934______
1933______
1932______
1931______
1930______
1929______
19 28______
1927______
19 26______
1925______
1924______
1923______
1922 2
1921______
19 20 3_____
19 14 4_____
1 Average
2 Average

All production workers
Average Average Average
hourly weekly weekly
earnings hours earnings
654
655
656
$1,431
1.342
1.190
1.097
1.067
1.014
.924
.814
.739
.720
.716
.695
.619
.599
.580
.491
.498
.564
.589
.590
.579
.576
.568
.561
.562
.541
.494
.524
.606
.247

40.3
40.4
40.1
44.2
45.6
45.0
43.0
41.2
38.6
37.6
34.3
38.7
39.5
37.2
34.7
36.4
34.8
40.4
43.9
48.3
47.9
47.7
48.1
48.2
46.9
49.2
49.2
45.6
48.2
51.5

$57.22
54.27
47.55
48.46
48.83
45.88
40.03
33.62
28.54
27.05
24.43
26.80
24.39
22.23
20.06
17.71
17.05
22.62
25.84
28.55
27.80
27.53
27.42
27.08
26.43
26.61
24.29
23.77
29.39

12.68

Male
Female
Unskilled, male
Skilled and semiskilled, male
Average Average Average Average Average Average Average Average Average Average Average Average
hourly weekly weekly hourly weekly weekly hourly weekly weekly hourly weekly weekly
earnings hours earnings earnings hours earnings earnings hours earnings earnings hours I earnings
657
658
659
660
661
662
663
664
666
665
667
668

!
i

|
i
!
'
!
!
|
|
!
i

1

$1.503
1.414
1.260
1.185
1.164
1.103
.987
.867
.784
.765
.758
.735
.651
.628
. 607
.518
.526
.597
.622
.625
.614
.610
.601
.592
.592
.570
.520
.554
.642
.262

40.7
40.9
40.4
45.2
46.9
46.2
43.9
41.8
39.2
38.0
34.6
39.3
40.1
37.5
34.8
36.3
34.4
40.4
44.5
49.1
48.8
48.5
49.1
49.0
47.8
50.0
50.0
46.0
49.2
52.2

$60.98
57.77
50.72
53.47
54.65
51.05
43.46
36.18
30.64
28.96
26.07
28.72
26.02
23.49
21.07
18.69
17.96
24.00
27.66
30.64
29.95
29.59
29.51
29.00
28.27
28.39
25.90
25.35
31.69
13.65

$1,090
1.007
.876
.787
.752
.699
.609
.533
.491
.475
.482
.473
.434
.437
.427
.340
.325
.371
.395
.398
.396
.398
.398
.389
.393
.383
.352
.362
.414
.155

of 7 months, January-July.
of 6 months, July-December.

38.4
38.7
39.0
40.8
41.3
41.1
39.2
38.0
35.5
35.8
32.6
36.1
36.2
35.2
34.0
36.6
36.3
39.8
40.5
44.2
43.4
43.7
43.5
44.1
42.6
45.0
45.0
43.2
43.0
50.1

$41.86
38.99
34.14
32.18
31.21
28.83
23.95
20.29
17.43
17.02
15.69
17.02
15.74
15.37
14.50
12.35
11.73
14.69
15.98
17.61
17.15
17.37
17.27
17.17
16.75
17.24
15.84
15.63
17.71
7.75

3 Average
4 July.

$1,227
1.147
1.015
.917
.892
.854
.773
.682
.611
.594
.586
.570
.501
.495
.479
.401
.400
.460
.478
.486
.474
.471
.461
.455
.458
.443
.402
.437
.529
.203

40.7
40.9
40.4
44.8
46.0
45.4
43.1
41.4
39.3
38.6
35.5
39.6
40.0
37.0
34.4
37.4
36.4
41.8
45.9
50.2
50.4
49.9
50.2
50.3
48.9
50.3
50.5
46.5
49.2
52.9

$49 .88
46.80
40.86
41.03
41.07
38.86
33.49
28.19
23.91
22.82
20.67
22.41

$1,567
1.478
1.320
1.248
1.227
1.164
1.043
.914
.827
.808
.802
.777
20.00
.689
18.32
.665
16.46
.643
14.91
.550
14.48
.559
19.18
.634
21.90
.663
24.40
.668
23.89
.659
23.54
.656
23.21
.652
22.93
.644
22.41
.644
22.28
.619
20.30
.566
20.28
.599
26.06 i
.687
10.71 |
.291

40.6
40.9
40.3
45.2
47.1
46.4
44.3
42.0
39.2
37.9
34.4
39.3
40.1
37.7
35.0
37.1
35.1
39.7
44.0
48.8
48.5
48.1
48.5
48.6
47.5
49.9
49.8
45.9
49.4
51.7

$63.52
60.35
53.10
56.39
57.85
54.10
46.31
38.32
32.41
30.53
27.49
30.39
27.58
24.98
22.45
20.27
19.48
25.05
29.17
32.60
31.94
31.51
31.61
31.29
30.55
30.81
28.11
27.36
34.10
14.99

of 7 months, June-December.

Series D 669-684. Hours and Earnings, for Production Workers in Selected Nonmanufacturing Industries: 1932 to 1957
Insur­
ance
carriers,5
Average i Average Average Average Average Average Average Average Average Average Average Average Average ; Average Average average
hourly 1 weekly weekly hourly weekly weekly hourly weekly weekly hourly weekly weekly hourly | weekly weekly weeKly
earningst hours earnings earnings hours earnings earnings] hours earnings earnings' hours earnings earnings 1 hours earnings earnings
672
673
674
675
676
677
678
679
669
670
671
680
681
682
683
684
Building construction 1

Year

1957.
1956.
1955.
1954.
1953.
1952.
1951.
1950.
1949.
1948.
1947.
1946.
1945.
1944.
1943.
1942.
1941.
1940.
1939.
1938.
1937.
1936.
1935
1934
1933
1932

$2.97
2.80
2.66

2.60
2.48
2.31
2.19
2.031
1.935
1.848
1.681
1.478
1.379
1.319
1.252
1.148

1.010

.958
.932
.908
.903
.824
.815
.795
(7)
(7)

36.1 $107.22
36.4 101.92
36.2 96.29
36.2 94.12
37.0 91.76
38.1 88.01
37.2 81.47
36.3 73.73
36.7 70.95
37.3 68.85
37.6 63.30
38.1
56.24
39.0 53.73
39.6 52.18
38.4 48.13
36.4 41.80
34.8 35.14
33.1 31.70
32.6 30.39
32.1 29.19
33.4 30.14
32.8 27.01
30.1 24.51
28.9 22.97
(7)
(7)
(7)
(7)

Wholesale trade 2

$2.10
2.01

1.90
1.83
1.77
1.67
1.58
1.483
1.414
1.359
1.268
1.150
1.029
.985
.933
.860
.793
.739
.715
.700
.698
.667
.648
(7)
(7)
(7)

40.2
40.4
40.6
40.4
40.5
40.6
40.7
40.7
40.7
40.9
41.0
41.5
42.7
42.9
42.2
41.3
41.0
41.2
41.7
42.2
42.8
42.6
41.3
(7)
(7)
(7)

$84.42
81.20
77.14
73.93
71.69
67.80
64.31
60.36
57.55
55.58
51.99
47.73
43.94
42.26
39.37
35.52
32.51
30.45
29.82
29.54
29.87
28.41
26.76
26.37
26.11
27.72

Retail trade 3

$1.65
1.57
1.50
1.45
1.40
1.32
1.26
1.176
1.137
1.088
1.009
.893
.783
.731
.679
.626
.580
.553
.542
.543
.551
.522
.521
.528
(7)
(7)

1 Figures for 1947 and earlier refer only to on-site workers on privately financed
construction; figures for 1948 and later cover both on-site and off-site workers on
both private and public projects.
* Data for 1937 and earlier years not strictly comparable with those for later years.
Data for later years, but not those for 1937 and earlier, exclude supervisory employees.
3 Data for 1938 and earlier years not strictly comparable with those for later years.
4 Figures for 1947 and later years include only companies engaged exclusively in
producing and distributing electricity; figures for 1946 and earlier years also include

94




38.1
38.6
39.0
39.1
39.2
39.9
40.2
40.5
40.4
40.3
40.3
40.7
40.3
40.4
40.3
41.1
42.1
42.5
42.7
42.6
43.3
43.5
41.8
41.5
(7)
(7)

$62.87
60.60
58.50
56.70
54.88
52.67
50.65
47.63
45.93
43.85
40.66
36.35
31.55
29.53
27.36
25.73
24.42
23.50
23.14
623.13
623.86
622.71
621.78
621.91
821.16
822.85

Electric light and power 4

$2.30
2.25
2.13
2.05
1.97
1.84
1.74
1.630
1.564
1.469
1.371
1.256
1.141
1.107
1.053
.983
.920
.884
.869
.858
.853
.803
.790
.775
.693
.696

41.3
41.5
41.2
41.3
41.4
41.4
41.9
41.6
41.5
42.0
41.9
41.6
43.5
43.1
41.6
40.1
39.8
39.7
39.6
39.9
40.3
40.1
39.3
38.8
42.0
44.0

$97.06
93.38
87.76
84.67
81.56
76.18
72.91
67.81
64.91
61.70
57.44
52.04
50.05
48.04
44.16
39.60
36.54
35.10
34.38
34.15
34.22
32.22
31.07
29.98
29.23
30.78

Laundries

$1.09
1.05
1.01
1.00

.98
.94
.92
.861
.843
.817
.767
.704
.648
.605
.538
.482
.444
.429
.422
.414
.395
.378
.376
.378
(7)
(7)

39.8
40.3
40.3
40.1
40.5
41.1
41.1
41.2
41.5
41.9
42.6
42.9
42.8
42.9
42.9
42.2
42.1
41.8
41.8
41.6
42.6
42.7
41.0
39.4
(7)
(7)

$43.38
42.32
40.70
40.10
39.69
38.63
37.81
35.47
34.98
34.23
32.71
30.20
27.73
25.95
23.08
20.34
18.69
17.93
17.64
17.22
16.83
16.14
15.42
14.89
(7)
(7)

$80.69
77.50
73.29
70.08
67.29
63.38
61.31
58.49
56.47
54.93
52.58
50.94
47.13
44.87
41.87
38.37
37.54
36.55
36.32
36.30
39.29
37.99
36.22
35.02
34.29
36.99

combined gas and electric utilities whose income results primarily from sale of elec­
tricity.
& Data for 1947 and later years are for “insurance carriers” ; figures for 1946 and earlier
years for “insurance.”
6Average hourly earnings times average weekly hours.
7 N ot available.
8 These figures bear the same ratios to the 1934 figures as the corresponding figures
for 1932 and 1933 as shown in the Handbook of Labor Statistics (1947 edition) bear to
the 1934 Handbook figures.

HOURS, WAGES, AND WORKING CONDITIONS

D 685-707

Series D 685-695. Average Annual Compensation Per Full-Time Employee, by Major Industry: 1919 to 1929
Total

1929_____________________________________
1928_____________________________________
1927_____________________________________
1926_____________________________________
1925_____________________________________
1924_____________________________________
1923_____________________________________
1922_____________________________________
1921_____________________________________
1920___________ _______________ _______
1919____________________________________

Mining

685

Year

Agricul­
ture
686

687

$1,489
1,478
1,459
1,450
1,421
1,394
1,382
1,294
1,311
1,424
1,220

!
1
I
!
|

$651
646
648
651
642
629
614
551
567
830
725

Transpor­
tation
Manu­ Construc­ and other
tion
facturing
public
utilities
688
689
690

$1,481
1,514
1,573
1,598
1,563
1,681
1,774
1,601
1,751
1,700
1,372

$1,508
1,500
1,467
1,442
1,417
1,394
1,372
1,255
1,306
1,497
1,264

!

$1,883
1,934
1,921
1,872
1,862
1,822
1,815
1,459
1,552
1,924
1,560

$1,679
1,656
1,629
1,619
1,595
1,572
1,546
1,531
1,599
1,721
1,412

Trade

Finance

Service

Govern­
ment

Miscella­
neous

691

6 2

693

694

695

$1,546
1,526
1,494
1,570
1,522
1,447
1,462
1,410
1,354
1,418
1,399

$1,904
1,886
1,864
1,854
1,844
1,795
1,751
1,782
1,717
1,623
1,467

$1,245
1,229
1,234
1,191
1,176
1,161
1,132
1,109
1,103
1,081
897

$1,703
1,673
1,642
1,593
1,545
1,515
1,510
1,473
1,429
1,375
1,151

$1,431
1,428
1,416
1,428
1,398
1,359
1,352
1,266
1,248
1,315
1,177

Series D 696-707. Average Annual Earnings Per Full-Time Employee, by Major Industry: 1929 to 1957
Private industries

1957________________________
1956________________________
1955________________________
1954________________________
1953________________________
1952________________________
1951________________________
1950________________________
1949________ _______ _____
1948________________________
1947________________________
1946________________________
1945________________________
1944________________________
1943________________________
1942________________________
1941________________________
1940________________________
1939 _______________________
1938__________ _____________
1937________________________
1936________________________
1935________________________
1934________________________
1933___________________ __
1932________________________
1931________________________
1930________________________
1929________________________
1 Includes

Total

696

Year

All in­
dustries 1

697

$4,211
4,042
3,847
3,670
3,587
3,414
3,231
3,008
2,851
2,795
2,589
2,356
2,189
2,108
1,951
1,709
1,443
1,300
1,264
1,230
1,258
1,184
1,137
1,091
1,048
1,120
1,275
1,368
1,405

$4,248
4,074
3,876
3,707
3,632
3,444
3,255
3,006
2,849
2,801
2,591
2,359
2,253
2,190
2,018
1,731
1,454
1,291
1,250
1,207
1,240
1,164
1,109
1,056
1,002
1,070
1,241
1,348
1,390

Agricul­
ture,
forestry,
and
fisheries
698
$1,690
1,639
1,554
1,515
1,540
1,544
1,481
1,349
1,330
1,353
1,288
1,207
1,127
1,027
867
673
498
408
385
369
360
307
286
251
230
247
312
388
397

Mining

Communi­
Contract Manu­ Wholesale Finance,
Trans­
construc­ facturing and retail insurance, portation cations and Services
public
and real
tion
trade
estate
utilities

ment
and
govern­
ment
enterprise*

699

700

701

702

703

704

705

706

707

$5,218
5,015
4,701
4,377
4,353
4,057
3,879
3,448
3,207
3,387
3,113
2,719
2,621
2,499
2,162
1,796
1,579
1,388
1,367
1,282
1,366
1,263
1,154
1,108
990
1,016

$4,922
4,674
4,414
4,324
4,225
3,991
3,711
3,339
3,211
3,126
2,829
2,537
2,600
2,602
2,503
2,191
1,635
1,330
1,268
1,193
1,278
1,178
1,027
942
869
907
1,233
1,526
1,674

$4,781
4,584
4,351
4,116
4,049
3,828
3,606
3,300
3,092
3,040
2,793
2,517
2,517
2,517
2,349
2,023
1,653
1,432
1,363
1,296
1,376
1,287
1,216
1,153
1,086
1,150
1,369
1,488
1,543

$4,019
3,860
3,702
3,558
3,446
3,284
3,171
3,034
2,899
2,832
2,632
2,378
2,114
1,946
1,781
1,608
1,478
1,382
1,360
1,352
1,352
1,295
1,279
1,228
1,183
1,315
1,495
1,569
1,594

$4,304
4,141
3,968
3,828
3,663
3,503
3,356
3,217
3,034
2,954
2,740
2,570
2,347
2,191
2,041
1,885
1,777
1,725
1,729
1,731
1,788
1,713
1,632
1,601
1,555
1,652
1,858
1,973
2,062

$5,246
4,972
4,697
4,503
4,398
4,205
3,994
3,696
3,556
3,456
3,145
2,948
2,734
2,679
2,493
2,183
1,885
1,756
1,723
1,676
1,644
1,582
1,492
1,393
1,334
1,373
1,549
1,610
1,643

$4,813
4,612
4,426
4,229
4,039
3,799
3,547
3,318
3,153
3,002
2,792
2,567
2,425
2,248
2,075
1,883
1,766
1,718
1,692
1,674
1,601
1,522
1,486
1,426
1,351
1,438
1,514
1,497
1,474

$3,146
3,008
2,867
2,786
2,677
2,545
2,367

$4,040
3,888
3,710
3,501
3,388
3,282
3,114
3,015
2,863
2,758
2,574
2,341
2,052
1,924
1,777
1,623
1,388
1,344
1,337
1,336
1,355
1,279
1,292
1,284
1,328
1,477
1,547
1,553
1,551

1,221

1,424
1,526

2,220

2,172
2,114
2,005
1,872

1,688

1,538
1,347
1,132

1,020

953
952
942
938
898
873
857
854
918
1,008
1,066
1,079

residual classification, “rest of the world,” not shown separately here.




95

D 708-727

LABOR

Series D 708-719. Average Annual Supplements to Wages and Salaries Per Full-Time Employee, by Major Industry:
1929 to 1957
Private industries

!
All in­
dustries

1957________________________
1956________________________
1955________________________
1954________________________
1953________________________
1952________________________
1951________________________
1950________________________
1949___________ ____________
1948________________________
1947________________________
1946________________________
1945________________________
1944________________________
1943________________________
1942________________________
1941________________________
1940________________________
1939________________________
1938________________________
1937________________________
1936________________________
1935________________________
1934________________________
1933________________________
1932________________________
1931________________________
1930________________________
1929________________________

Total

708

Year

709

$292
258
236
212
195
188
180
160
138
119
124
123
104
81
69
66
63
60
60
58
50
28
20

19

20
21
20

19
18

Agricul­
ture,
forestry,
and
fisheries
710

$295
264
247
226
207
196
187
159
127
116
113
99
102

97
85
73
67
61
61
60
50
26
16
15
15
16
17
16
15

Mining

Contract
construc­
tion

711

712

$549
515
488
429
403
358
352
308
214
206
160
117
106
100
97
87
83
79
81
80
66
32
19
19

$33
29
28
19
17
15
14
9
7

6
6
6

5
4
3
3
2

3

2
2
2
1
1
1
1
2
2

$277
250
232
222
203
191
189
167
147
139
133

714

715

$418
368
345
312
286
269
256

$179
160
149
137

210

112

160
140
134
117
129

120

24
24

2
1

713

137
134
128
120
98
87
85
84
74
45
36
36
40
44
43
42
38

20
22
22

Govern­
ment
and
govern­
ment
enterprises

Finance,
Communi­
Manu­ Wholesale insurance, Trans­ cations and Services
facturing and retail and real portation
public
trade
estate
utilities

120
102

87
81
75
74
72
58
27
15
12
13
16
16
15
14

121
121
120

91
85
86
77
72
68
59
55
55
54
56
56
44
19
10
8

9

10
10
10

9

717

716
$394
360
324
297
279
269
255
233
218
200
224
176
164
157
151
139
117

$390
347
331
293
254
246
213
196
175
155
134
132
120

130
128
105
105
103
104

$489
443
427
411
379
366
353
319
266
244
235
221

221

194
152
132
131
127
123
123
97
61
47
39
40
31
31
J

110

108
106
99
59
40
55
45
41
40
36
33

102
88

59
42
35
35
42
45
47
50

718

719

$117
104
96
92
78
73
70
55
47
44
42
41
37
34
30
26
25
23
24
25

$279
229
187
151
142
152
149
168
200
136
192
229
109
44
28
36
43
55
49
;i

20
10

5
5
5
6
5
5
4

!
!
!
;

40
41
48
55
50
49
49

Series D 720-727. Average Annual Supplements to Wages and Salaries Per Full-Time Equivalent Employee,
by Type of Supplement: 1929 to 1957
Employer contributions for social insurance

1957_____________________________________________________
1956_____________________________________________________
1955 1___________________________________________________
1954_____________________________________________________
1953_____________________________________________________
1952_____________________________________________________
1951_____________________________________________________
1950_____________________________________________________
1949_____________________________________________________
1948_____________________________________________________
1947_____________________________________________________
1946_____________________________________________________
1945_____________________________________________________
1944_____________________________________________________
1943_____________________________________________________
1942_____________________________________________________
1941_____________________________________________________
1940_____________________________________________________
1939_____________________________________________________
1938_____________________________________________________
1937_____________________________________________________
1936_____________________________________________________
1935_____________________________________________________
1934_____________________________________________________
1933 _ _ _ _ _
1932______________________ _ _ _____ _ _____ ___
1 9 3 1 _____ __
1930 _
1929__________ ________

Total
supplements

Total

720

Year

721

$292
258
236
212
195
188
180
160
138
119
124
123
104
81
69
66
63
60
60
58
50
28 [
20
19
20
21
20

19
18

$134
117
106
96
87
90
90
82
74
63
75
84
71
53
49
48
46
42
42
41
34
12
5
5
5
5
4
3
3

1 Old-age, survivors insurance; railroad retirement insurance; Federal civilian employee retirement systems; State and local employee retirement systems.
2 State unemployment insurance; Federal unemployment tax; railroad unemployment insurance.

96



Public
Un­
retirement employment
insurance 2
systems 1
722
$99
83
76
69
56
57
54
50
38
36
33
28
23
22
20
19
18
17
16
15
15
5
5
5
5
4
3
3
3

$34
33
28
26
29
30
33
30
27
25
29
26
24
27
29
28
28
26
26
25
18
7
(5)
(5)

T o ta l

724

723

Other 3

725

(5)
(5)
$2
1
1
3
3
2
10
2
13
30
24
5
(5)
1
(6)
(5)
(6)
(5)
(5)
(5)
(5)
(5)
(5)
(5)
(5)
(5)

(5)

3 Cash sickness compensation funds;
4 Includes pay of military reservists.
6 Less than $0.50.

* v d.l>>r income
Employer Compensa­
contributions tion for
| to private
injuries
pension and
and
welfare funds
other 4
|
726
727

$158 1
140 ;
130 1
116 i
109
98
90
78
64
56
49
40
33
28
20
18
17
18
17
17
16
16
15
14
15
17
17
16
16

government life insurance,

$123
108
101
89
83
74
68
56
43
37
33
26
21
17
11
8
7
7
7
7
6
7
6
5
5
5
5
5
5

$35
33
29
28
25
24
23
22
21
19
16
14
13
10
9
10
9
10
10
10
10
9
9
9
10
12
11

11
11

HOURS, WAGES, AND WORKING CONDITIONS

D 728-740

Series D 728-734. Earnings in Selected Professional Occupations: 1929 to 1954
Average annual salary
Public
school
teachers 1

1954
_
1953
1952
1951
1950
1949
1948
_
__
1947
1946_____________________________________________________________________
1945
1944
1943
_
_
_
1942__ _ _ _ _ _
_ _ _ _ _
_ __ ___ _ _ _ _ _ _______
1941
1940 _ _ _ _
_________
__
___ _ _ _ _ _ _____
1939
1938 _ _ __ _ _ _ _ _ _
_ _
_ _ __________
1937
1936-_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _____
1935
1934
1933
1932
_ _
_
_
_
_______
1931 _ _
_
_
_
_
_
______
1930
__ _ _ _
1929 _
__ _
_ _
__
______

College
teachers

728

Year

729

$3,825
3,450

$5,106

1,728
1,507

4,354
4,234
4,123
3,736
3,465
3,277
3,331
3,039
2,914

1,441
1,374
1,283

2,906
2,861
2,843
2,732

1,227
1,417

2,666

3,010
2,639
1,995

1,420

3,111
3,134
3,065
3,056

Average annual net income
Nonsalaried N onsalaried Nonsalaried
lawyers
physicians
dentists
730

731

Average
annual
Median
pay and
base
allowances,
monthly
U. S.
salary
Regular
rate,
Army
engineers * commissioned
officers

732

$10,258
9,392
9,021
8,855
$13,432
8,349
12,324
7,971
11,744
8,003
11,327
7,437
10,726
6,951
10,202
6,861
10,975
6,504
9,802
5,945
8,370
5,527
6,735
4,794
5,047
4,507
4,441
4,391
4,229
4,273
4,093
4,483
4,285
4,394
4,204
4,272
3,695
4,218
3,382
3,868
2,948
4,156
3,178
5,090
4,178
5,194
4,870
5,534
5,224

733

734

$518
$7,820
7,436
7,146
7,039
6,610
6,381
6,922
6,649
5,715
4,625
3,782
3,314
3,096
2,870
2,883
2,726
2,485
2,391
2,188
2,479
3,422
4,020
4,267

409
334
277

210

235
289

$6’ 552
6.552
6.552
6,552
5,528
5,528
5,528
5,096
5,096
5,096
5,096
4.800
4.800
4,800
4.800
4.800
4,800
4,800
4.800
4.800
4.800
4,800
4,800
4,800

1 Public elementary and secondary school teachers, supervisors, and principals.
2 For 1953, graduate engineers only. All other figures are for graduates and non­
Figures are for “school” years ending in the year indicated; for example, the figure graduates. The corresponding figure for graduate engineers for 1946 is $405.
shown for 1954 is for the school years 1953-1954.

Series D 735-740. Labor Union Membership, by Affiliation: 1897 to 1934
[Includes Canadian members of labor unions with headquarters in U. S.]

Year

Total
union
membership
( 1,000)
BLS
735

1934_________
1933_________
1932_______ _
1931_________
1930 _ _ _ _
1929_________
1928_________
1927_________
1926
1925_________
1924
1923
1922
1921_________
1920 ________
1919_________
1918_________
1917_________
1916_________

Wolman
736

3,249
2,857
3,226
3,526
3,632
3,625
3,567
3,600
3,592
3,566
3,549
3,629
3,950
4,722
5,034
4,046
3,368
2,976
2,722




3,671
3,048
3,191
3,379
3,416
3,461
3,480
3,546
3,502
3,519
3,536
3,622
4,027
4,781
5,048
4,125
3,467
3,061
2,773

Wolman
739

Inde­
pendent
or unaffiliated
unions,
total
member­
ship
( 1,000),
Wolman
740

3,030
2,318
2,497
2,743
2,745
2,770
2,809
2,759
2,715
2,831
2,853
2,919
3,273
3,967
4,093
3,339
2,825
2,457
2,124

641
730
694
636
671
691
671
787
788
689
683
703
754
815
955
786
642
605
649

American Federation
of Labor
Number
of
affiliated
unions,
BLS
737
109
108
106
105
104
105
107
106
107
107
107
108

112
110
110
111
111
111
111

Total membership
( 1, 000)
BLS
738
2,608
2,127
2,532
2,890
2,961
2,934
2,896
2,813
2,804
2,877
2,866
2,926
3,196
3,907
4,079
3,260
2,726
2,371
2,073

Year

BLS
735
1915________
1914________
1913________
1912________
1911_______
1910________
1909________
1908________
1907________
1906________
1905_______
1904________
1903________
1902________
1901________
1900________
1899________
1898________
1897________

2,560
2,647
2,661
2,405
2,318
2,116
1,965
2,092
2,077
1,892
1,918
2,067
1,824
1,335
1,058
791
550
467
440

] Wolman
739

Inde­
pendent
or un- .
affiliated
unions,
total
member­
ship
( 1,000),
Wolman
740

1,968
2,061
2,051
1,818
1,787
1,587
1,524
1,625
1,542
1,469
1,598
1,682
1,556
1,065
854
625
410
312
272

614
626
665
635
556
554
482
505
538
438
424
391
358
311
270
243
201
189
175

American Federation
of Labor

Total
union
membership
( 1, 000)
Wolman
736
2,583
2,687
2,716
2,452
2,343
2,140
2,006
2,131
2,080
1,907
2,022

2,073
1,914
1,376
1,125

868

611
501
447

Number
of
affiliated
unions,
BLS
737
110
110
111
112

115
120

119
116
117
119
118
120
113
97
87
82
73
67
58

Total membership
( 1, 000)
BLS
738
1,946
1,996
1,770
1,762
1,562
1,483
1,587
1,539
1,454
1,494
1,676
1,466
1,024
788
548
349
278
265

2,021

97

D 741-763

LABOR

Series D 741-745. Labor Union Membership and Membership as Percent of Nonagricultural Employment:
1930 to 1956
[In thousands]
N onagri cultural
employment
Member­
ship 1 as
Total
percent
of total
744
745

Union membership
Year

Total
741

1956________________
1955______________________
1954_______________
1953___________________ _
1952______________________
1 9 5 1 ______________ __ _
1950_______________ _ _
1949_______________
1948_________ _____ _ _
1947______________________
1946_________________ ___
1945______________________
1944______________________
1943______________________
1 Excludes

Canadian Excluding
members Canadian
of U. S. members
unions
742
743

18,477
17,749
17,955
17,860
16,750
16,750
15,000
15,000
15,000
15,414
14,974
14,796
14,621
13,642

987
947
933
912
858
804
733
718
681
627
579
474
475
429

17,490
16,802
17,022
16,948
215.900
215.900
2 14,300
2 14,300
214,300
14,787
14,395
14,322
14,146
13,213

1

51,878
50,056
48,431
49,681
48,303
47,347
44,738
43,315
44,448
43,462
41,287
40,037
41,534
42,106 |

33.7
33.6
35.1
34.1
32.9
33.7
31.9
33.0
32.2
34.0
34.9
35.8
34.1
31.4

Canadian members.

Union membership
Year

Canadian Excluding
members Canadian
of U. S. members
unions
742
743

Total
741

1942
1941
1940_ _
1939
1938
1937___________________
1936
19351934___________________
1933__
1932___________________
1931___________________
1930___________________
2 Rounded

10,762
10,489
8,944
8,980
8,265
7,218
4,164
3,728
3,249
2,857
3,226
3,526
3,632

382
288
227
217
231
217
175
144
161
168
176
216
231

j

10,380

10,201

8,717
8,763
8,034
7,001
3,989
3,584
3,088
2,689
3,050
3,310
3,401

N onagri cultural
employment
Member­
ship 1 as
Total
percent
of total
744
745
39,779
36,220
32,058
30,311
28,902
30,718
28,802
26,792
25,699
23,466
23,377
26,383
29,143

26 1
28.2
27.2
28.9
27.8
22.8
13.8
13.4
12.0
11.5
13.0
12.5
11.7

to nearest hundred.

Series D 746-763. Labor Union Membership, by Industry: 1897 to 1934
[In thousands]

Year

Mining,
quarry­
Total
ing,
and
oil
746

1934______________ 13,609
1933______________ 2,973
1932______________ 3,144
1931______________ 3,358
1930______________ 3,393
1929______________ 3,443
1928______________ 3,480
1927______________ 3,546
1926______________ 3,502
1925______________ 3,519
1924______________ 3,536
1923______________ 3,622
1922______________ 4,027
1921______________ 4,781
1920______________ 5,048
1919______________ 4,125
1918______________ 3,467
1917______________ 3,061
1916______________ 2,773
1915______________ 2,583
1914______________ 2,687
1913______________ 2,716
1912______________ 2,452
1911______________ 2,343
1910______________ 2,140
1909______________ 2,006
1908______________ 2,131
1907______________ 2,080
1906______________ 1,907
1905______________ 2,022
1904______________ 2,073
1903______________ 1,914
1902______________ 1,376
1901_____________ 1,125
1900______________ 868
1899______________ 611
1898______________ 501
1897______________ 447
1 Includes

98

747
579
355
357
309
230
271
333
397
386
439
493
530
387
470
439
419
433
373
338
332
380
432
343
311
275
307
290
312
265
297
279
280
197
218
131
75
44

21

Lum­ Paper,
ber
Leath­ Cloth­ and print­
er and ing wood­ ing,
and
shoes
work­ book­
binding
ing

Build­ Metals,
ma­
ing
con­ chinery, Tex­
ship­
struc­ build­ tiles
tion
ing
748
605
583
806
890
904
919
905
903
867
837
814
790
826
869
888

802
701
606
553
533
542
553
509
479
459
426
445
433
389
373
392
369
263
192
153
97
74
67

749
222

180
173
191
203
211
205
204

202

750

751

40
16
29
34
35
35
35
35
36
36
38
37
37

205
218
257
506
728
859
618
396
310
267
224
226
219
204

149
60
49
41
29

196
178

21

210

200
212

187
166
213
205
137
104
81
59
46
50

88

22

30
29
23

21

14
17
16
14
14
15
19
15
7
8

7

8
8

117
76
29
38
44
47
45
49
55
54
47
56
90
96
113
104
75
73
61
53
58
55
56
50
47
40
40
40
40
41
43
42
24
15
10
8
12

15

752
405
336
211
224
230
218
239
267
292
292
282
295
310
323
374
324
258

222
210

174
158
164
131
145
98
80
73
65
54
63
78
77
59
38
25
15
15
15

753

754

10
8
8
12

13
13
13
13

11

10
11
11
12
20

24
16
14
18
18
21

25
25
26
29
28
19
20
27
36
42
52
48
34
32
26
16

12
6

11,000 union members in the professional service industry, not shown separately.




162
153
160
166
165
162
162
162
158
156
154
151
160
182
164
148
144
137
126
116
111
107
102
97
90
83
87

86
88

91
92
88
70
55
48
43
39
38

Trans­
Chemi­
porta­
Hotel Do­
cals, Food, tion Public Thea­
and mestic Mis­
clay, liquor, and service ters Trade restau­ and cella­
and
glass, tobacco com­
rant personal neous
music
stone
munica­
services service
tion
i
756
757
758
755
760
759
761
762
763
47
27
29
33
35
38
39
41
42
42
45
50
50
53
52
48
51
52
52
53
58
56
60
59
60
57
55
55
55
51
49
46
39
33
30
27
25
23

82
58
56
60
62
65
66
70
75
75
76
76
99
146
181
168
137
120
117
119
145
141
137
128
123
119

112
110

103
104
136
122
93
77
69
51
46
46

645
609
699
816
882
892
890
889
884
893
893
907
1,039
1,240
1,256
959
777
695
623
576
562
557
530
513
480
438
470
460
422
446
444
339
258
216
189
158
130
116

299
296
300
276
264
247
224
212
204
193
185
180
171
172
161
137
105
102
96
90
91
86
67

66

58
44
39
31
26
24
23
22
19
18
15

11
11

11

127
127
128
132
134
135
132
113

112
110

108
104
107
106
99
88
87
82
87
87
92
82
77
69
60
52
47
45
43
38
28
20
15
13
9
9
8
7

6

5
9

10

10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10

17

21

21

15
15
15
15
15
15
15
15
15
15
15
50
50
50
50
50
50
30
25
20
8
6

4

53
32
31
38
44
45
46
47
46
46
46
45
60
69
60
61
65
65
59
61
72
69
48
43
37
37
39
36
34
39
49
39
19
10

5

2
2
2

64
55
63
70
73
67

66
66

63
60
57
56
61
55
51
42
44
44
40
38
37
34
32
31
29
29
30
27
29
27
30
29
20
14
7
4
3
2

137
57
57
60
64
67
69
68
61
60
61
67
95
143
157
119
114
105
82
69
86
92
94
76
64
66
118
73
72
158
100
119
84
59
42
22
18
17

D 764-778

HOURS, WAGES, AND WORKING CONDITIONS

Series D 764-778. Work Stoppages, Workers Involved, Man-Days Idle, Major Issues, and Average Duration:
1881 to 1957
Major issues and average duration
Workers involved (1,000)
Stoppages 3
Major issues
Major issues
Average
duration
of stop­
Wages Union Other pages Total
Wages Union Other
organi­ and not
and
organi­ and not (days)
and
hours zation reported
hours zation 4 reported

Work stoppages and man-days idle
Stoppage beginning in year
Man-days idle
Workers involved
Percent
of esti­
Percent
Per
Total Number of em­ Number mated worker Total
ployed ( 1,000) working involved
( 1,000) wage
tim e 2
earners 1
770
768
769
766
767
764
765

Year

1957______________________
1956______________________
1955______________________
1954_________ ____________
1953______________________
1952______________________
1951______________________
1950______________________
1949______________________
1948______________________
1947______________________
1946______________________
1945______________________
1944______________________
1943______________________
1942______________________
1941______________________
1940______________________
1939______________________
1938______________________
1937______________________
1936______________________
1935______________________
1934______________________
1933______________________
1932______________________
1931______________________
1930______________________
1929______________________
1928______________________
1927______________________

3,673
3,825
4,320
3,468
5,091
5,117
4,737
4,843
3,606
3,419
3,693
4,985
4,750
4,956
3,752
2,968
4,288
2,508
2,613
2,772
4,740
2,172
2,014
1,856
1,695
841
810
637
921
604
707

1,390
1,900
2,650
1,530
2,400
3,540

2,220

2,410
3,030
1,960
2,170
4,600
3,470
2,120
1,980
840
2,360
577
1,170
688
1,860
789
1,120

1,470
1,170
324
342
183
289
314
330

3 1 16,500
4 3 33,100
6 2 28,200
3 7 22,600
5 .6 28,300
8 .8 59,100
5 .5 22,900
6 .9
38,800
9 .0 50,500
5 .5 34,100
6 .5
34,600
14 .5 116,000
12 .2 38,000
7..0 8,720
6 .9 13,500
2 ,8
.
4,180
8 . 4 23,000
2 .3
6,700
4..7 17,800
2 ..8
9,150
7. 2 28,400
3. 1 13,900
5. 2 15,500
7. 2 19,600
6 .3
16,900
1 . 8 10,500
6,890
1 .6
0 .8
3,320
5,350
1 .2
1 .3
12,600
1 .4 26,200

14
29
0 26
0 21
0 .26
0 .57
0 .23
0 .44
0 .59
0 .37
0 .41
1 .43
0 .47
0 .09
0 .15
0 .05
0 .32
0
0

0 .10
0 .28
0 .15
0 .43
0 .21
0 .29
0 . 38
0 . 36
0 .23
0 ..11
0 . 05
0 . 07
0 . 17
0 .37

11 4
17 4
10 7
14 7
11 .8
16 .7
1 0 .3
16. 1
16.,7
17..4
15. 9
25. 2
11.0
4. 1
6 .8
5. 0
9. 8
11.6
15. 2
13. 3
15. 3
17. 6
13. 8
13. 4
14. 4
32. 4
2 0 .2
18. 1
18. 5
40. 2
79. 5

3,673
3,825
4,320
3,468
5,091
5,117
4,737
4,843
3,606
3,419
3,693
4,990
4,616
4,958
3,734
3,036
4,314
2,493
2,639
2,772
4,720
2,156
2,003
1,817
1,672
852
796
651
924
620

666

771
1,730
1,821
2,154
1,726
2,825
2,447

772
751
774
844
588
745
839

2,102

!
I
!
|

888

2,559
1,682
1,737
1,707
2,238
1,956
2,146
1,906
1,423
1,535
753
699
776
1,410
756
760
717
926
560
447
284
373
222
273

919
781
780
1,102
1,617
946
808
585
943
2,138
1,243
1,411
1,385
2,728
1,083
945
835
533
162
221

207
382
226
240

773

774

775

776

777

778

1,192
1,230
1,322
1,154
1,521
1,831
1,747
1,365
1,143
902
884
1,135
1,714
2,004
1,243
670
641
497
529
611
582
317
298
265
213
130
128
160
169
172
153

19 .2
18 .9
18 .5
22 .5
20 .3
19 .6
17 .4
19 .2
22 .5
21 .8
25 .6
24. 2
9 .9
5. 6
5 .0
11 .7
18. 3
20 .9
23. 4
23..6
2 0 .3
23 3
23 .8
19. 5
16 .9
19..6
18.,8
2 2 .3
22.6
27..6
26, 5

1,390
1,900
2,650
1,530
2,400
3,540

752
1,270
1,780
886
1,460
1,450
1,180
1,460
1,540
1,210
805
3,710
1,340
810
1,220
429

72
183
244
54
162
841
136
130
82
228
931
568
671
395
226
191
744
190
641
224
1,160
365
288
762
465
73
116
76
102
95
45

563
447
625
591
781
1,244
904
819
1,410
518
431
663
1,060
922
523
232
512
148
185
211
347
94
151
372
135
18
74
33
80
88
43

2,220

2,410
3,030
1,960
2,170
4,940
3,070
2,130
1,970
852
2,360
573
1,180
688
1,950
710
1,102

1,480
1,144
325
346
182
286
323
319

1,110

235
352
252
436
251
663
346
544
234
155
73
104
140
232

Total

1926___
1925 —
1924__
1923 —
1922__
1921 —
1920__
1919__
1918__
1917__
1916__
1915__
1914__
1906-13
1905 —
1904 —
1903 —
1902__
1901__
1900 —

Workers involved ( 1, 000)
Stoppages 3
Major issues
Major issues
Wages Union Other Total
Wages Union Other Year
organi­ and not
organi­ and not
and
and
hours zation 4 reported
hours zation reported
778
773

Total

Workers involved (1,000)
Stoppages 3
Major issues
Major issues
Wages Union Other Total
Wages Union Other
and
organi­ and not
organi­ and not
and
hours zation reported
hours zation 4 reported
773
777
776
778
775

1,035
1,301
1,249
1,553
1,112
2,385
3,411
3,630
3,353
4,450
3,789
1,593
1,204

478
537
537
721
583
1,501
2,038
2.036
1,869
2,268
2.036
770
403

206
219
244
308
208
373
622
869
584
799
721
312
253

351
545
468
524
321
511
751
725
900
1,383
1,032
511
548

2,186
2,419
3.648
3,240
3,012
1,839

942
944
1,778
1,604
1,413
931

800
964
1,051
1,016
414

444
511
670
585
583
494

1899_
1898_
1897_
1896_
1895_
1894_
1893 _
1892_
1891_
1890_
1889_
1888_
1887_
1886_
1885.
1884 _
1883_
1882 _
1881_

1,838
1,098
1,110
1,066
1,255
1,404
1,375
1,359
1,786
1,897
1,111
946
1,503
1,572
695
485
506
476
477

1,014
645
680
547
810
865
783
693
867
1,039
662
540
836
1,073
486
341
372
353
382

1,200

302
574
788
692
564
568

191
272
396
279
288
210

57
210
235
279
161
282

54
92
156
134
115
76

1 “Employed wage earners” include all workers except those in occupations and
professions in which strikes rarely if ever occur.
2 Estimated working time computed by multiplying the average number of “em­
ployed wage earners” each year by the days worked by most employees during the
year.




471
236
193
297
217
206
257
261
334
318
173
163
299
210
67
50
55
38
32

353
217
237
222
228
333
335
405
585
540
276
243
368
289
142
94
79
85
63

432
263
416
249
407
690
288
239
330
373
260
163
439
610
258
165
170
159
130

288
184
335
160
305
469
162
122
221
276
207
100
249
445
214
145
131
133
118

66

30
36
53
51
25
59
59
55
32
29
23
91
79
14
4
28
12
5

79
49
45
36
51
196
66
57
54
24
41
99
87
30
16
12
14
7

3 Figures are for stoppages beginning in calendar years 1881-1927 and 1947-1957
For 1928-1946, figures are for those ending in calendar years.
4 Wages and hours were important issues in many of these stoppages also.

99

D 779-792

LABOR

Series D 779-784. Average Monthly Labor Turnover Rates in Manufacturing, by Class of Turnover: 1919 to 1957
[Monthly rate per 100 employees. Beginning July 1929, averages are arithmetic means; prior to that, unweighted medians. See text for further discussion]
Accessions

Year

Separations
Total

Discharge

Layoff

Accessions

Miscella­
neous

Quit

Separations

1957
1956
1955
1954.
1953.
1952.
1951
1950.
1949.
1948.
1947.
1946.
1945.
1944.
1943.
1942.
1941.
1940.
1939.
1938.
1 July

2.9
3.4
3 .7
3.0
3.9
4 .4
4.4
4.4
3 .5
4.4
5.1
6.7
6.3
6.1
7.5
7.6
5.4
4.4
4.1
3 .8

3.6
3 .5
3.3
3 .5
4.3
4.1
4.4
3 .5
4.3
4.6
4.8
6.1
8.3
6.8
7.3
6,5
3.9
3 .4
3.1
4.1

1.4

1.7
1.5
1.2
1.9
1.3
1.1
1.2

0.2

0.3
0.3
0.2
0.4
0.3
0.3
0.3
0.2
0.4
0.4
0.4

1.1

0. 6
0.6

1.1
1.3
2.2
2.2
3.4

0.4

0.2
0.2

0. 1

0.1

0.2

1.6

1.1
2.3
2.3
2.4
1.9
1.5
2.8
3.4
4.3
5.1
5.1
5.2
3.8
2.0
0.9

2.4
1.3
1.0
1.2
2.3

0.6
0.6
0.6

0.2

1.6

0.2
0.2

0.3
0.3
0.5

0.2

0.1
0.1
0.1

0.2

0.8

0.3
0.5
0.9
1.3
0.4
0.1

0.6

1937_
1936 _
19351934.
1933 _
1932.
1931_.
1930_.
1929 V
1929 2.
1928..
1927_.
1926_.
1925_.
1924.
1923
1922
1921_.
1920..
1919..

3.5
4.4
4.2
4.7
5.4
3.3
3.1
3.1
5.7
5.1
3.7
3.3
4.5
5.2
3.3
9.0

8.0
2.8
10.1
10.1

2 January

to December average.

4.4
3.4
3.4
4.1
3 .8
4.4
4.0
5.0
6.3
3.9
3.1
3.3
3.9
4.0
3.8
7.5
5.3
4.4
10.3
7.5

Discharge

Layoff
782

Miscella­
neous
784

Quit

781

Total

783

3.0

1 .3
1 .1

2.5
3.0
2.7
3.5
2.9
3.0
2 .1
0.4
0.5
0.7
0.5
0.4
0.6
0.3
0.4

0.2
0.2

0 .9
0 .9
0 .9
0 .7
0 .9

2.0

0.2
0.2
0.2
0.2
0.2

0.4
0.8
0.5
0.4
0.5
0.6

0.5
0.5
1.0
0.7
0.4

1 .6

3 .4
3 .0
-

2 .2
2 .1
2 .9

1.8

0.8
0.6

1.1
1.1

3 .1
2 .7
6 .2
4 .2
2 .2
8 .4
5 .8

to May average.

Series D 785-792. Work-Injury Frequency Rates in Manufacturing, Mining, and Class I Railroads: 1922 to 1956
[Rate is average number of disabling injuries per million man-hours worked]

Year

Manu­
factur­
ing 1

Mining
T otal 2

787

785
1956.
1955.
1954.
1953_
1952_
1951.
1950.
1949 _
1948_
1947_
1946_
1945_
1944.
1943.
1942.
1941.
1940.
1939.
1938.

12.0
12.1
11.9
13.4
14.3
15.5
14.7
14.5
17.2
18.8
19.9
18.6
18.4
20.0
19.9
18.1
15.3
14.9
15.1

Bitumi­
nous
coa l 3

32.8
34.4
33.9
36.7
40.3
41.8
42.9
44.7
48.5
52.4
54.6
52.0
52.5
54.1
56.6
58.1
59.6
59.6
62.3

44.0
43.7
44.7
46.2
48.5
48.7
48.6
52.6
57.4
58.6
59.9

63.0
61.9
65.0

37.5
43.2
38.9
40.0
42.9
43.4
45.3
48.6
47.9
53.6
57.0
49.7
55.4
56.9
56.6
64.2
66.8

69.4
71.3

Class I railroads 7
Exclud­
NonAll
Stone
ing
metals 5 quarries injuries : 1-3 day Year
injuries 9
792
31.0
37.8
32.6
47.3
40.9
45.4
44.2
42.1
42.9
45.8
51.9
47.
50
53
55
51
44.2
42.2
41.1

21.3
22.0
22.0
23.7
24.5
26.2
25.4
26.8
28.3
32.4
32.8
32.8
34.9
34.0
35.7
40.1
35.7
36.5
38.2

14.2
13.7
16.2
18.2
19.0
20.5
20.6
20.3
17.6
14.6
11.5
11.1
11.1

7.7
7.2
6.5
6.7
7.0
7.5
7.3
7.0
8.5
9.7
10.5
11.9
11.8
11.9
10.2
8.3
6.7
6.7

100

17.8
16.6
17.9
20.2
19.3
19.6
18.9
23.1
24.0
22.5
22.6
24.2

Bitumi­
nous
coal 3
64.9
64.7
67.1
69.0
67.5
70.0
74.3

69.6
67.0
72.9
70.8
70.2
74.4
81.6
85.6

78.9
76.3
65.8
71.4
65.8
57.2
58.0

Class I railroads 1
Exclud­
NonAll
Stone
ing
metals 3 quarries 6 injuries 1-3 day
injuries 9
792
48.7
48.6
50.7
52.4
53.3
45.2
47.5

40.6
39.5
38.2
41.8
42.0
38.5
41.0
40.3
46.9
47.5
59.2
58.0
61.4
62.9

13.6
13.7

9.4
13.8
16.2
19.4
23.9
26.1
27.3
30.9
27.1

6.8

1 Excludes petroleum refining, smelting and refining of nonferrous metals, cement
and lime manufacturing, and coke production.
2 Includes anthracite coal mining, colce production, and metallurgical plants, not
shown separately.
3 Includes lignite.
4 Copper, gold-placer, gold-silver, iron, lead-zinc, and miscellaneous.
5 Barite, feldspar, fluorspar, gypsum, magnesite, mica, phosphate rock, rock salt,
sulphur, and miscellaneous. Excludes stone quarries.




1937.
1936.
1935_
1934_
1933.
1932 _
1931.
1930_
1929_
1928.
1927_
1926.
1925.
1924_
1923.
1922_

Mining

Manu­
factur­
ing 1

6 Granite, limestone, marble, sandstone, slate and traprock quarrying, and cement
and lime manufacturing.
7 For 1922-1932, includes switching and terminal companies; excluded thereafter.
8 Includes fatalities and nonfatal injuries incapacitating employees for at least 1
day in 10 days immediately following date of injury.
9 Includes fatalities and nonfatal injuries incapacitating employees for more than 3
days in 10 days immeditely following date of injury.

chapter E

Prices and Price Indexes
E 1-186. General note.
An early interest in the statistics of prices is evident at the
beginning of the 19th century, with the appearance in 1806
of Samuel Blodgett, Jr.’s Economica: A Statistical Manual for
the United States of America, which included a collection of
prices for 16 important commodities in 5 markets for 17851805. Many other contemporary accounts contained references
to prices, but the first serious attempt to summarize compre­
hensive price data for the United States in the form of index
numbers was made by Horatio C. Burchard, Director of the
Mint. His report to the Secretary of the Treasury in 1881
contained wholesale prices for many individual articles and an
index number (which contains some serious inadequacies). In
1886, a special report containing retail prices of about 60
“necessaries of life” was included in volume 20 of the Tenth
Census, Report on the Statistics of Wages in Manufacturing
Industries, by Joseph D. Weeks (usually called the Weeks
Report). No summary figures were included in this volume.
In 1891, a Senate Resolution led to the collection of a
voluminous body of data which covered wholesale prices for
1840-1891 and retail prices for a 28-month period ending Sep­
tember 1891, for more than 200 commodities. The information
assembled was summarized by Roland P. Palkner, whose in­
dexes have been widely used as evidence of price changes for
1840-1891. These indexes were prepared as estimates of
changes in wage earners’ cost of living, but, in actuality, they
were indexes of wholesale prices for one month of each year.
Their technical adequacy was the subject of considerable con­
troversy at the time, but the deficiencies in the indexes do not
detract from the historical value of the basic price data col­
lected for the Senate Committee and published in the “Aldrich
Reports,” including Wholesale Prices, Wages, and Transporta­
tion (4 parts), Senate Report No. 1394, 1893, and Retail Prices
and Wages (3 parts), Senate Report No. 986, 1892.
In 1900, Roland Falkner extended his indexes to 1899 with
quotations for 142 articles collected by the Department of
Labor, with some adjustments in his methods. The results
are published in Department of Labor Bulletin No. 27, Whole­
sale Prices: 1890 to 1899, pp. 237-313. In 1902, the Depart­
ment of Labor began publication of its index of wholesale
prices, which has continued since without interruption.
Interest in price measurements following the upturn in prices
after 1897 led to the preparation of a number of wholesale
price indexes for the United States, in addition to the official
Department of Labor index series. John R. Commons pub­
lished an index of wholesale prices of 66 commodities for
1878-1900 in the Quarterly Bulletin of the Bureau of Eco­
nomic Research for July and October 1900. Bradstreet’s in­
dexes of wholesale prices, of about 96 commodities were estab­
lished in 1897 and carried back to 1890. Dun’s index numbers
of wholesale prices for about 350 commodities were published
in Dun's Review on a continuous basis beginning in 1901 and
gradually extended back to 1860. These last 2 series were
expressed as sums of actual prices rather than in the conven­
tional index number form. Several other relatively short-lived
series were also compiled during the next 10 to 20 years.
 8
488910 0 - 6 0 

After 1902, when the Department of Labor’s wholesale price
index was continuously available, additions to wholesale price
index numbers were mainly to obtain a better historical per­
spective. In 1932, the series of wholesale price indexes for
1720-1932 were completed by G. F. Warren and F. A. Pearson
(see series E 1-12). Part of this work was done under the
auspices of the International Scientific Committee on Price
History referred to below.
Walter B. Smith and Arthur H. Cole computed wholesale
commodity price indexes covering 1792-1862 for Fluctuations
in American Business, 1790-1860, Harvard Economic Studies,
Harvard University Press, Cambridge, 1935. The series include
wholesale commodity price indexes for Boston, 1792-1820; for
Boston, New York, and Philadelphia, 1815-1845; and New York
(primarily), 1843-1862.
Wholesale prices in Cincinnati were assembled from news­
papers for 1844-1914 and an index for this market was pub­
lished by Henry E. White in Wholesale Prices at Cincinnati
and New York, Cornell University Agricultural Experiment
Station, Memoir 182, Ithaca, 1935.
The most extensive historical price investigations, however,
were undertaken under the auspices of the International Scien­
tific Committee on Price History. The results of these re­
search projects for 6 important marketing centers were sum­
marized by Arthur H. Cole in Wholesale Commodity Prices
in the United States, 1700-1861, Harvard University Press,
Cambridge, 1938. The historical indexes are given in series
E 68-100.
Wholesale price indexes were compiled by Frederick C. Mills
for commodities grouped according to economically significant
factors. Mill’s studies of price relationships and price move­
ments contain a number of special indexes which he derived
by recombining price relatives for commodities in the BLS in­
dexes. These indexes include some special commodity group­
ings not used by BLS, e.g., crops, as well as classifications by
stage of processing and by durability. Some series were first
published for 1890-1931 in Economic Tendencies in the United
States, National Bureau of Economic Research, No. 21, New
York, 1932, pp. 584-588. Additional indexes for 1913-1935
appeared in Prices in Recession and Recovery, NBER, No. 31,
New York, 1936, pp. 491-547. Indexes through June 1943 were
included in an appendix to Prices in a War Economy, NBER,
Occasional Paper No. 12, October 1943, and through March
1948 in The Structure of Postwar Prices, NBER, Occasional
Paper No. 27, July 1948.
The volume of information available for wholesale prices is
not matched at the retail level, especially for the early years.
The official Consumer Price Index of the BLS was initiated
in 1904 with a food index. The Eighteenth Annual Report
of the Commissioner of Labor, 1903: Cost of Living and Retail
Prices of Food contained an index of retail prices of food for
1890-1903 weighted by family consumption in 1901. This food
index was continued until the end of World War I, when it
became one component group of a comprehensive “cost-ofliving” index, originated as part of a study of cost of living
in shipbuilding cities in 1918 and 1919. Supplementary price
information had been collected by the BLS over the years,
and a comprehensive index was compiled back to 1913. Since
101

E 1-12
PRICES AND PRICE INDEXES
World War I, the index has undergone a number of changes viving records was very limited. At the wholesale level, the
in coverage and methodology, most of them in the direction commodity coverage was limited primarily to raw materials
of improvement in the quantity and quality of data. At and goods in the early stages of processing. The limited cov­
present, the index is issued monthly under the official title erage of finished goods, especially after the Civil War, is an
Consumer Price Index, in mimeographed releases and in the important factor in the interpretation of price changes. At
Monthly Labor Review (see text for series E 113-147).
retail, the available price data were relatively scant and the
emphasis was on food and dry goods prices, with little infor­
The National Industrial Conference Board also compiled a
Consumer Price Index from 1918 to 1958. This index was mation for other less important commodities and for rents and
similar to the BLS Consumer Price Index but the collection of services. The perennial problem of changes in qualities, which
data was primarily by mail instead of by personal visit. A is still present to some extent in the current indexes,, becomes
description of the NICB index as it was compiled before dis­ accentuated as price comparisons are made over longer periods
continuance is included in the August 1954 issue of Manage­ of time.
The newspapers and other sources from which prices were
ment Record.
assembled for the early years give only brief or vague descrip­
The index numbers of prices received and paid by farmers
quoted and the compiler
compiled by the Department of Agriculture were also initiated tions forbethe commodities quotations over time werecould not
always
assured that
for the
after World War I; see chapter K, series K 122-138.
same quality. Incomplete files, nominal prices, and nonpubli­
Prior to 1913, except for the data in the Weeks Report and cation in some issues were among the many other problems
the Aldrich Reports, readily available retail price data are encountered. Data obtained from records of surviving firms
extremely spotty and inadequate. As a result, many of the raise the further question of how well these surviving firms
indexes widely used to approximate changes in retail prices, represented the movement of prices for all firms for the period
rest entirely or partially on changes in wholesale prices. A under consideration.
serious limitation in these indexes is that allowance was not
made for the slow-moving rents and services nor was account E 1-100. General note.
Wholesale price indexes are compiled from prices in primary
always taken of the difference in movement between wholesale
and retail prices of commodities. Falkner’s indexes referred markets; that is, prices pertaining to the first major commer­
to above, for example, were calculated entirely from wholesale cial transaction for each commodity. The quotations are usu­
price information. Adjustments to wholesale price movements ally selling prices of manufacturers or producers, or prices
combined with available BLS retail prices formed the basis for quoted on organized exchanges or markets. They are not
Douglas’ index of the cost of living (series E 159). The prices received by wholesalers, distributors, or jobbers.
only “cost-of-living” indexes now available for any years before
In addition to the indexes presented here, brief descriptions
1913, computed from retail price data, are Wesley C. Mit­ of the coverage and calculation techniques for other indexes
chell’s Relative Cost of Living for 1860 to 1880, the Consumer may be found in G. F. Warren and F. A. Pearson, Wholesale
Price Index for 1851 to 1880 compiled by Ethel Hoover (series Prices for 213 Years, 1720-1932, Cornell University Agricul­
E 148-156), and Rees’ cost-of-living index, 1890-1914 (series tural Experiment Station, Memoir 1U2, Ithaca, 1932, pp. 167E 160). The cost-of-living index computed by Wesley C. 196; and in BLS Bulletin No. 284, Index Numbers of Wholesale
Mitchell for Gold, Prices, and Wages Under the Greenback Prices in the United States and Foreign Countries, 1921, pp.
Standard, University of California Publications in Economics, 115-175. This bulletin also contains Wesley C. Mitchell’s “The
vol. 1, Berkeley, March 1908, p. 91, utilized a portion of the Making and Using of Index Numbers.”
retail data in the Weeks Report for 1860-1880. The Mitchell
See also general note for series E 1-186.
series was included as one of the links in the cost-of-living
index estimate of the Federal Reserve Bank of New York E 1-12. Wholesale price indexes (Warren and Pearson), by
major product groups, 1749-1890.
(series E 157). The Hoover Consumer Price Index for 18511880 was based largely on a summarization of all of the usable
Source: George F. Warren and Frank A. Pearson, Prices,
retail price information from 'che Weeks Report, with some John Wiley and Sons, New York, 1933, pp. 11-13, 25-27.
additions from other sources. The Rees’ cost-of-living index
The indexes are also presented in Wholesale Prices for 213
utilized some components of the Douglas’ index, but most of Years, 1720-1932 (see general note, series E 1-100), part 1,
the data were compiled from mail-order catalogs, newspapers, pp. 7-10 and 84-111. The “all-commodities” index for 1749and other sources.
1889, converted to the base of 1926, is included in BLS Bulle­
Over the years there has been considerable improvement in tin No. 572, Wholesale Prices, 1931, 1933, appendix, pp. 111-114.
the quality of the price reporting, in the scope of the data,
The primary aim of Warren and Pearson was to present
and in the construction of index numbers. The lists of com­ monthly comprehensive index numbers for the 19th century
modities that are now included in the price collection program corresponding to those of BLS for 1890 and later years. The
cover a wider range of goods in the market, and services are full series constitutes the longest index now available for
represented in the “cost-of-living” indexes. Commodities and 1720-1932. For 1890-1932, Warren and Pearson used the BLS
services are now defined fairly precisely and the current col­ indexes (series E 13-24) converted to the base 1910-14. Their
lection methods give the opportunity of securing supplemen­ work covered the period 1797-1890, and the index was ex­
tary data on discounts, terms of delivery, and other necessary tended back to 1720 by Herman M. Stoker.
information to measure price change. Data for weighting
The bulk of the prices on which
systems for index numbers can now be taken from the New York City and were obtainedthe index is based relate to
from
greatly improved expenditure studies, censuses, and other offi­ mented with prices published in the Report newspapers, supple­
of the Secretary of
cial statistics.
the Treasury on the State of the Finances (usually referred to
As the indexes and price reports were extended to earlier as the U. S. Finance Report) for 1863. The number of prod­
years, many of these advantages making for better price ucts included in the all-items index numbers for 1797-1890
measures were not present. The range of commodities and varied from a low of 113 in 1830 to 146 in 1880. For the
services for which information could be obtained from sur­ extension back to 1720, Stoker encountered some serious
102



E 13-24
WHOLESALE PRICE INDEXES
In 1921, a revision of the indexes extended the commodity
gaps in the available source materials, especially for years prior
to 1749. For 1720-1748, the price data were scarce and irreg­ coverage to include about 400 items as compared with 250 to
ular, and an index could be computed only for certain months 325 in previous years. The weighting factors were changed
in each year. For 1749-1782, the number of commodities in­ to represent the quantity of each priced item marketed in
cluded generally varied from 11 to 19; and for 1783-1796, 71 1919. At this time an important change was made in the
series were available for most years.
method of grouping commodities. Articles properly classified
The index numbers for 1797-1890 are weighted arithmetic in more than one major group were included in the appropri­
averages of relatives, computed first on the 1876-91 base ate groups with their total weights but, in the all-commodities
then converted to the 1910-14 base using the relationship with index, the weights for such articles were counted only once.
BLS index numbers for 1890-1893. When one commodity was In addition, a rearrangement of commodities within groups
substituted for another, a linking procedure was employed. was made to provide separate indexes for 37 subgroups.
Two all-commodity indexes were prepared, one with fixed group
When the 1926
in
the indexes
weights throughout the whole period, and one with varying were recalculated base period was adopted sets1927,weights (see
back to 1913 with new
of
group weights. The latter is presented here as series E 1.
BLS Bulletin No. 473, Wholesale Prices, 1913 to 1927, pp.
Separate subindexes (series E 2-12) were computed by War­ 2-5). The figures for 1890-1912 were converted, not recal­
ren and Pearson for the 10 groups of commodities formerly culated in detail.
used by BLS with a supplemental index for spirits. Within
In subsequent years, the weighting factors were brought
each group, weights representing the importance of the priced
commodities in the total trade of the United States were up to date from time to time. Major additions to the lists of
varied over the years to represent, insofar as possible, priced items in 1931 and again in 1940 provided better cover­
changes in importance. (Specific mention should be made of age of manufactured articles than in earlier indexes. By 1951,
the reduction in the importance of cotton during the Civil War when these indexes were discontinued, the number of sub­
period. Cotton was scarce and prices very high so weights groups for which separate series were available had been en­
were based on the amount available for consumption for 1861- larged to 49.
Because of changes in the list of commodities and in the
1866 and on production for 1867-1871.) Censuses, imports,
exports, and similar official figures were used as weighting weighting factors, the indexes were calculated by the chain
factors. However, data were meager for the early years and relative method. In this way, comparisons between any two
some arbitrary weight assignments were necessary.
periods were based on the same commodities with the same
For 1787-1800, Stoker constructed a “71-commodity index” weights. Throughout the whole period, the weight used for
with the same commodity group classification and methods of each priced commodity was the quantity marketed for that
calculation as those employed by Warren and Pearson. These class of commodity. Classes of commodities not represented
all-commodity and group indexes were linked to the Warren- by an item in the list priced were not represented in the
Pearson indexes. His “15-commodity index” for 1720-1787 weighting factors.
based on the 11-19 items (practically all farm products and
Table I contains a summary of the number of commodities
foods) was in turn linked to the 71-commodity index.
and the weights used for the indexes in series E 13.
There are discrepancies between Prices and Memoir 11+2 for Table I. Number of Price Series and Weighting Factors Used
in BLS Wholesale Price Index (All Commodities, Series
farm products (series E 2) for 1807, 1808, and 1827. The
E 13): 1890 to 1951
figures shown in series E 2 are averages of monthly data in
Memoir 14.2 .
Number
Year
of
W eights used
E 13-24. Wholesale price indexes (BLS), by major product
series
groups, 1890-1951.
1949-1951__________
900-947
Quantities marketed 1929 and 1931
Source: 1890-1950, BLS, Handbook of Labor Statistics, 1950 1940-1948_______
881-890
1938-1939__________
813
edition, p. 118; 1951, 1951 supplement to the Handbook, p. 42. 1934-1937 „
784
784
Quantities marketed 1927 and 1929
Since 1902, when BLS began regular publication of whole­ 1932-1933...................
1931__________
784
Quantities marketed 1925 and 1927
sale price indexes, there have been a number of changes in 1930__________
550
Quantities marketed 1923 and 1925
lists of items, weighting factors, base periods, and methods of 1926-1929___________ 404-550
1924-1925 __________
526-528
1922-1923________
450-478
Quantities marketed 1921 and 1923
computing the indexes. Detailed descriptions of the early un­ 1920-1921 __________ 390-450
Quantities marketed 1919 and 1921
296-371
Quantities marketed 1914 and 1919
weighted index numbers, and later the weighted indexes, are 1914-1919....... „
1913____
252
Quantities marketed 1909 and 1914
included in various annual bulletins on wholesale prices begin­ 1890-1912____
251-261
Quantities marketed 1909
ning with Bulletin No. 39, issued in March 1902. The figures
shown in series E 13-24 are weighted index numbers of
The price quotations on which the indexes were based
the fixed base weighted aggregative type.
were obtained by mail from leading manufacturers or selling
In 1914, BLS recalculated its series back to 1890 using as agents or from such other sources as standard trade publica­
weights the quantity of each priced item marketed in 1909 but tions, reports of boards of trade, and produce exchanges. Be­
retained the base 1890-99. The system of classification for fore 1913, most of the data referred to the New York market
group indexes was generally according to origin rather than but after 1913, quotations were obtained in several major mar­
end use and each commodity was included in only one group kets for a number of important commodities.
index. For 1914-1921, the index series were continued with
For articles subject to frequent fluctuations in price, month­
little change except for expanding the list of priced items and ly averages were made up of quotations for one day in each
rebasing the indexes several times. In 1920, the year 1913 week and for a portion of the period from daily quotations.
was adopted as the base period in order to provide a prewar For other articles, monthly, quarterly, or semiannual quota­
standard for measuring price changes.
tions were secured.



103

PRICES AND PRICE INDEXES
E 25-55
Since the revised index was initiated, there have been two
Considerable attention was devoted to obtaining descriptive
details so that price comparisons were based on the same or changes in the weighting factors. Value of shipments in 1952
comparable commodities. By 1931, BLS had developed a speci­ and 1953 were introduced in 1955 and only relatively minor
fication for each commodity in the index. These specifications changes were made in the list of items priced. Another re­
defined quality as precisely as possible, including the principal vision in the weighting factors to represent value of shipments
price-determining characteristics, terms of sale, and other in 1954 was introduced beginning January 1958.
details. These specifications were refined and improved over
Most of the prices in the index are collected by mail di­
the years.
rectly from the manufacturer or other producer. A few are
The prices used in the index were usually net cash prices, reported by trade associations or organized exchanges and
f.o.b., for the article described by the specification. Delivered some are obtained from authoritative trade publications or
prices were included only when it was customary for an in­ from other government agencies that collect price data for
their regular work.
dustry to quote on the delivered basis.
Before 1952, prices used were monthly averages of 1-day-aSee also general note for series E 1-100.
week prices. Thereafter, prices have been for the most part
E 25-41. Wholesale price indexes (BLS), by major product those of the Tuesday of the week which includes the 15th of
groups, 1913-1957.
the month. However, for some commodities another day may
Source: BLS Bulletin No. 1235, Wholesale Prices and Price be used as a more representative day.
Indexes, 1957, p. 26.
Whenever possible, prices are obtained at the production
The current (1958) BLS wholesale price indexes on the point or at the central marketing point. Delivered prices are
1947-49 base period were begun in 1952 but calculated to used only when it is the practice of the industry to quote
1947, using new samples of items and new weights. However, prices on this basis. Prices obtained from manufacturers or
the 1947-49 base period index is the official index beginning other producers are subject to the applicable trade and quan­
with January 1952, and does not replace the 1926 base series tity discounts. Cash discounts are deducted from the price
as the official index for 1947-1951. The new series of in­ when it is determined that most buyers avail themselves of
dexes was spliced to the former series (converted) by linking the reduced prices. Excise taxes are excluded from the price.
as of January 1947. Indexes shown for 1913-1946 are con­ Closeout sales prices are usually not used. Free deals or al­
versions of series E 13-24. The former group indexes were lowances are used when possible in arriving at the net price
spliced with the new ones when the value aggregate of com­ to be used for index calculation. Nominal prices are used
modities in the former group represented 50 percent or more when they are indicative of the market situation and no other
of the value of shipments in 1947 for all commodities (priced price is available.
and unpriced) in the group.
For a complete description of techniques used in the Whole­
With the revision in 1952, the conceptual definition of the sale Price Index, see BLS Bulletin No. 1168, Techniques of
index was not altered, but major changes in coverage and Preparing Major BLS Statistical Series, 1954, chap. 10.
methods were adopted. The list of priced commodities was
See also general note for series E 1-100.
expanded from 947 to approximately 1,800, embracing nearly
5,000 separate series. The weighting factors for each com­ E 42-55. Wholesale price indexes (BLS), for economic sectors,
by stage of processing, 1913-1957.
modity represented the value of shipments for the specific
commodity priced and for all others in the same group which
Source: 1913-1946, series E 42, 43, 47, and 53, BLS Bulletin
were known (or assumed) to have price movements similar to No. 1235, Wholesale Prices and Price Indexes, 1957, p. 26; (these
those for the commodity priced. By this method of weighting, series on a 1926 base appear in the following publications:
values for all commodities in a group are accounted for and 1913-1941, BLS, Handbook of Labor Statistics, 1941 edition,
the group automatically has its proper representation in the p. 733; 1942-1946, BLS Bulletin No. 947, Wholesale Prices,
all-commodities index. The weight universe includes the net 191,7, p. 6) ; 1947-1957, BLS Bulletin No. 1235, op. cit., p. 27.
selling value of all commodities included in the producing and
Although
processing sector of the economy including sales for exports tion methodsthe basic weights, the price data, and the calcula­
for these
used
and imports for consumption but excluding interplant trans­ for the regular indexes, indexes were the same as those parts,
the series shown comprise two
fers, military goods, construction, real estate, transportation, one for 1913-1946 and the second for 1947-1957. Prior to the
securities, printing and publishing, and transactions for revision of the regular Wholesale Price Index (WPI) in 1952
services.
(which was carried back to 1947), each commodity in the
The indexes are calculated as averages of relatives weighted WPI was classified in one of three groups: Raw, semimanu­
by values of shipments. This is algebraically equivalent to factured, or manufactured. The prices were weighted using
quantity weighted aggregative indexes but allows for more quantities as specified for series E 13-24. The list of com­
flexibility in processing. As in all the official indexes, the modities included in each classification is shown in BLS Bulle­
linking process is used when there are changes in lists of tin No. 473, p. 62.
commodities, changes in weighting factors, or other changes
The more refined economic
classification used for
making for noncomparability. In the case of quality changes, 1947-1957 required adjustmentssectorthese procedures. Many
to
adjustments are made to obtain month-to-month relatives for commodities were considered to fall appropriately in more
the same quality insofar as possible. If the change in descrip­ than one category. The
for each such article
tion is minor, direct comparisons are made between the price was, therefore, distributed base weight economic sectors on the
among the
of the old and the new items. For major quality changes, basis of percentage distributions by end use, derived from
efforts are made to secure from the producer an estimate of the BLS interindustry studies for 1947. The same price series
the proportion of the gross price change due to quality dif­ was used in several sectors when a commodity was classified
ferences and to a price change. When such information can­ in more than one sector. It was recognized that this pro­
not be obtained, the new quality is linked into the index, thus cedure had some disadvantages, but it was believed to have
assuming that the full price change is due to quality change. little effect on the measurement of price trend.
104



E 56-89
WHOLESALE PRICE INDEXES
In splicing the two parts, the index for “raw materials” E 68-81. Wholesale price indexes (Bezanson), for Philadel­
phia, unweighted geometric average, 1784-1861.
was considered as most nearly comparable with the new “crude
Source: Anne Bezanson, Robert D. Gray, and Miriam Hus­
materials for further processing” ; “semimanufactured” with
1861, part I, Uni­
“intermediate materials, supplies, and components” ; and “man­ sey, Wholesale Prices in Philadelphia, 1784—
versity of Pennsylvania Industrial Research Study No. 29,
ufactured” with “finished goods.”
p. 392.
E 56-64. Wholesale price indexes (BLS), by durability of Philadelphia, 1936, note for series E 68-100.
See also general
product, 1947-1957.
Records prices for Philadelphia provided
Source: BLS Bulletin No. 1235, Wholesale Prices and Price reports forof186 series covering 140 different continuous price
commodities for
Indexes, 1957, pp. 32 and 33.
1784-1861 and 205 series for 157 commodities for 1819-1861.
These indexes were constructed by recombining commodity Monthly relative prices for the individual commodities and
segments of the regular BLS Wholesale Price Index accord­ changes in the description of the commodities quoted are
ing to durability. The basic weights, the price data, and the included in part II of the source, published as Industrial Re­
calculation methods were the same as for the regular indexes search Study No. 30. Bezanson and her associates have also
(see text for series E 25-41). The commodity groups in­ computed indexes for 1852-1896, corresponding to those for
cluded in each of these special indexes are listed in the source, the earlier part of the century, which are available in a BLS
pamphlet, Wholesale Price Indexes for Philadelphia, 1852-96:
pp. 12-14.
Manufactured commodities were generally classified on the Annual Group Totals.
Indexes for all commodities and for subindexes using differ­
same basis as that used by the Federal Reserve Board for its
Index of Industrial Production. The classification of the “raw ent modes of classification were computed as unweighted geo­
or slightly processed goods” was based for the most part on metric averages of price relatives. Two all-commodities in­
that used by Frederick C. Mills in Prices in Recession and dexes were prepared, one based on 140 commodities (series
Recovery, National Bureau of Economic Research, New York, E 68) and one for a more limited period for 157 commodities.
In addition to the subindexes selected for inclusion here,
1936, pp. 472-474.
other subindexes for commodity groupings generally compara­
E 65-67. Wholesale price indexes (BLS), by 2 levels of ble to those of the BLS were also calculated. All indexes are
processing, for identical commodities, 1890-1926.
available on a monthly basis.
Source: BLS Bulletin No. 440, Wholesale Prices, 1890 to
E 82. Wholesale price indexes (Bezanson), for Philadelphia,
1926, pp. 28-29.
unweighted arithmetic average, 1720-1861.
These series were calculated for the first time in 1915, were
Source: See source for series E 68-81.
extended back to 1890, and continued through 1926. The
For the colonial period, Bezanson and her associates ob­
items in each of the indexes were selected from those in­
cluded in the BLS regular wholesale price index (see series tained some price data for 82 series. Because of the gaps in
E 13). The indexes are fixed weight aggregative indexes, the data, however, indexes for the early years were based on
derived by weighting the price series with the estimated quan­ prices for many fewer commodities.
tity of each article marketed in 1919. Similar figures for
Indexes for 1720-1861 were computed as unweighted arith­
1890-1914 on the 1914 base, using 1909 quantity weights may metic averages of relatives of prices for the same 12 commod­
be found in BLS Bulletin No. 181, Wholesale Prices, 1890- ities for the full period. The source also includes an un­
191 A, pp. 28-29.
weighted geometric index of 20 commodities for 1731-1861.
E 68-100. General note.
E 83-89. Wholesale price indexes (Taylor), for Charleston,
The inadequacy of the available statistics on commodityS. C., 1732-1861.
price and wage movements over long periods of time led to
Source: Arthur H. Cole, Wholesale Commodity Prices in the
the formation of the International Scientific Committee on United States, 1700-1861, Harvard University Press, Cam­
Price History in 1929. In the United States, the attention bridge, 1938, pp. 153, 155-157, and 159-167.
of this Committee was directed to providing long series of
See
prices for important commodities for pre-Civil War years. modityalso articles by George Rogers Taylor, “Wholesale Com­
Prices at Charleston, S. C., 1732-1791,”
Price history research was initiated or expanded for 6 im­ Economic History, February 1932, pp. 356-377, and Journal of
“Wholesale
portant markets—Philadelphia, Charleston, S.C., Cincinnati, Commodity Prices at Charleston, S. C., 1796-1861,” August
New Orleans, New York City, and Boston. Information is pre­ 1932 supplement to the Journal, pp. 848-868.
sented here only for the first 4 of these markets.
See also general note for series E 68-100.
The results of the investigations in all 6 areas were sum­
Taylor’s research in commodity prices was summarized in
marized in the form of wholesale price index numbers by the
individual research directors and presented by Arthur H. Cole separate index numbers for 8 different periods. The choice
in Wholesale Commodity Prices in the United States, 1700 to of time periods was made partly to reflect business conditions
1861, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, 1938. A statis­ in Charleston and partly to take account of availability of data.
tical supplement to Cole’s report contains the actual monthly Newspapers and original manuscript materials produced price
quotations for approximately 45 commodities for the years series for a maximum of 32 items for 1818-1842 and a mini­
mum of 6 for 1732-1747. Gaps were relatively frequent and
covered in each market.
no quotations at all appeared for 1792-1795.
The source materials for the price data included newspapers,
Indexes for each period were weighted arithmetic averages
merchants price lists, account books, and similar records that
could be located. Differences in the availability of price and of price relatives, with weights representing the approximate
weighting data from area to area contributed to differences importance of each commodity in South Carolina commerce.
in the indexes derived, particularly with respect to the appro­ The weights were unchanged for all years within each time
priate base periods, the length of the series, and the classi­ period but were changed from period to period. An all­
commodities series was made up of prices for 6 articles for
fications of commodities for subindexes.



105

E 90-112
PRICES AND PRICE INDEXES
1732-1747, 10 articles for 1748-1761, and 16 articles for 1762- 1800-1812 (July). For a part of this period, 1804-1812
1775. In each period, rice represented 50 to 64 percent of the (A pril), 2 series were constructed, 1 for 29 domestic
total weight. For the 5 later time intervals, weighted sub­ products and the other for 15 imported goods. For 2 later
indexes were combined with group weights based on the follow­ periods, the volume of data was sufficient to set up 3 sub­
ing total number of price series: 1780-1791, 20; 1796-1812, indexes, classifying the commodities by origin. The number
18; 1813-1822, 13; 1818-1842, 32; 1843-1861, 20. During these of articles included w as: For 1815-1842, 5 Louisiana products,
years, the importance of rice declined from about 37 percent 34 other domestic products, and 11 foreign imports; for 1840of the total weight to 5 to 7 percent, while the importance of 1861, the corresponding numbers of articles were 4, 37, and 8.
cotton increased from zero in 1791 to almost 35 percent in
All of the index numbers were calculated using the method
1843-1861.
of weighted averages of relatives. The weights in the several
The all-commodity series (E 83) was obtained by splicing time periods represented the importance of the various com­
modities in the trade of New Orleans.
the indexes for the separate periods.
The all-commodities index (series E 96) was obtained by
E 90-92. Wholesale price indexes (Berry), for Cincinnati,
splicing the “all-commodities” indexes for the different periods.
1816-1861.
Source: Series E 90, 1816-1860, Arthur H. Cole, Wholesale E 101-112. General note.
Commodity Prices in the United States, 1700-1861, Harvard
From
hundred
for which
University Press, Cambridge, 1938, p. 185 (averages of the wholesaleamong the several published commodities reports, 12
prices have been
in various
monthly data were computed from the source) ; 1861, estimated
in
by Ethel Hoover from series E 91 and E 92 with weights were selected for publication giventhe form of actual ofprices.
Generally, consideration was
com­
shown in Cole (cited above), p. 81. Series E 91-92, Thomas modities in different product groups, to representation S. trade,
importance in U.
S. Berry, Western Prices Before 1861, Harvard University and the length of the series available.
Press, Cambridge, 1943, p. 564.
The descriptions for each commodity insofar as they could
See also general note for series E 68-100.
be determined and the sources from which the prices were
These indexes were weighted arithmetic averages of price compiled are shown below in the detailed notes for each
relatives, computed for 3 separate time periods which were series. When annual averages were not available in the orig­
spliced to obtain the continuous series. For 1816-1825, prices inal source, they were computed for this publication. If 12
for 21 commodities were assembled, 13 “identified with monthly figures were presented, a simple average was calcu­
northern agriculture” and 8 “not identified with northern agri­ lated, but if only quarterly figures were given, straight line
culture.” For 1824-1846, the total was 37 with 20 in the first interpolation was used to estimate missing months.
category and 17 in the second. For 1846-1861, the total was
It
50, with 29 for northern agriculture, and 21 for other. The serieswas not possible to obtain one continuously comparable
period. The data
weighting factors for the first period were estimated from several for the full each commodity and were assembled from
sources for
were, frequent­
New Orleans receipts in 1825, while those for the 2 later ly, changes in the basis of quotation eventherethe same source.
in
periods were based on receipts at Cincinnati for 1845-1848
for
which a
and 1852-1856. Berry’s analysis is accompanied by many tab­ Two prices are shown was each yeartoin obtain thechange in the
series occurred, if it
possible
information.
ulations of supplementary data, including actual prices for In some instances, mostly prior to 1890, changes in the basis
individual articles.
of quotation occurred and no overlapping prices were available.
E 93-95. Wholesale price indexes (Berry), for Ohio River Val­ Such changes are noted in the text.
ley, 1788-1817.
Prices for earliei ?.rs for some corr.^jdities are available
Source: Thomas S. Berry, Western Prices Before 1861, Har­ in the same sources as those indicated for 1800, and in other
vard University Press, Cambridge, 1943, pp. 563-564.
publications. Because of limitations of time and space, how­
ever, figures prior to 1800 were not included in this chapter.
See also general note for E 68-100.
In his study of Cincinnati prices, Berry encountered con­ For example, prices of wheat back to 1700 may be found in
siderable difficulty in obtaining price information for years the publication by Cole cited as the source for wheat prices
before 1816. He enlarged his geographical coverage for the for 1800-1825. Wheat prices in the New England colonies
market to include Lexington and Louisville, Ky., and Pitts­ at 10-year intervals for 1630-1750 are included with prices for
burgh, Pa., and was successful in constructing 14 commodity several other commodities in BLS Bulletin No. 604, History of
price series for 1788-1816 from data in “account books of Wages in the United States From Colonial Times to 1928, p. 19.
backwoods merchants” and from local journals.
The Annual Report of the Director of the Mint, cited as the
The indexes were computed as unweighted averages of price source for practically all series for some part of the period
relatives. The annual prices used to obtain the relatives were for 1825-1880, was used despite the lack of commodity descrip­
medians of all Ohio Valley quotations for each item each year. tions. The prices included in this report were summaries of
the New York prices included in the U. S. Finance Reports of
E 96-100. Wholesale price indexes (Taylor), for New Orleans, 1863, 1873, and 1874 which had been compiled from the
1800-1861.
newspaper, The New York Shipping and Commercial List.
Source: Arthur H. Cole, Wholesale Commodity Prices in the Prices for 1875-1880 were also compiled from this source.
United States, 1700-1861, Harvard University Press, Cam­ Such descriptions as appear in the notes for each series when
bridge, 1938, pp. 170-179.
prices were taken from U. S. Finance Reports were obtained
from the report for 1863.
See also general note for series E 68-100.
A considerable difference was found in the volume of infor­
An alternate source for many of the price series included in
mation available for New Orleans from decade to decade. the Aldrich Reports (cited for data prior to 1890) is Monthly
Therefore, New Orleans indexes were prepared for 4 separate Summary of Commerce and Finance in the United States, 57th
time periods. Data for 8 commodities, primarily agricultural, Congress, 2d Session, House Doc. No. 15, part 1, 1902, pp.
were combined into an index for “Louisiana” products for 59-100. This summary covers not only the years included in
106




E 101-106
WHOLESALE PRICE INDEXES
the Aldrich Reports, but also extends the data through July per pound. Prices for 1934-1957 include the excise tax of
1902.
53^ cents per 100 pounds, effective in May 1934.
See also general note for series E 101-112.
E 101. Wheat, 1800-1957.
Source: A.—1800-1825, Arthur H. Cole, Wholesale Commod­ E 104. Cotton, raw, 1800-1957.
ity Prices in the United States, 1700-1861, Statistical Supple­
Source:
Hammond, The
ment, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, 1938; B.—1825- dustry, an 1800-1890, Mathew B. Economic History, Cotton In­
Essay in American
American
1880, Annual Report of the Director of the Mint to the Secre­ Economic Association, New Series No. I, Macmillan, New York,
tary of the Treasury for the Fiscal Year Ended June 30, 1881,
358; 1890-1957,
D for series E 101.
p. 50; C.—1880-1890, Wholesale Prices, Wages, and Transpor­ 1897, p.1800-1890, prices see source“Middling uplands” cotton for
For
refer to
tation, Senate Report No. 1394, 52d Congress, 2d Session, part
available back to
2, 1893, p. 61 (one of the reports usually referred to as the the New York market and are made by merchants 1790. For
1800-1820, prices are estimates
or
Aldrich Reports) ; D.—1890-1957, compiled from Bureau of ment officials. For 1821-1890, prices were taken from govern­
James
Labor Statistics records.
L. Watkin, Production and Price of Cotton for One Hundred
For 1800-1825, prices are for Philadelphia (commodity de­
Department of Agriculture, 1895.
scription not available). For 1825-1880, prices are for New Years, published by the for New York, “Upland, Middling”
For 1890-1941, prices are
York, “Northern” wheat; the 1863 U. S. Finance Report cotton, spot. In 1936, “7/8 inch” was added to the description.
(from which these prices were partially compiled) shows For 1941-1954 (July),
are
15/16 inch,”
prices for “genesee” for most years, 1825-1863, but for a few 10 spot market average. prices 1954 for “Middling,(August), the
For
(July)-1956
years prices refer to “North River,” “prime white,” “western,” number of markets included in the average was increased from
“western red,” or “mixed and red.” For 1880-1890, prices 10 to 14. The July 1954 average for 10 markets was $0,342
are for “wheat No. 2, Winter, Chicago.” For 1890-1913, prices per pound and for 14 markets, $0,341 per pound. For 1956
are for Chicago “Range No. 1 Northern Spring and No. 2 Red (August)-1957, prices are for “Middling, 1-inch,” 14 spot
Winter” in carlots. For 1913-1948, prices are for Kansas City,
average.
1956, the average for 15/16-inch
“No. 2, hard (ordinary)” in carlots. For 1949-1957, prices marketwas $0,348 In August and for 1-inch staple $0,357 per
staple
per pound
are for Kansas City, “No. 2, hard winter, closing spot market pound.
price, carlots, f.o.b. track.”
See also general note for series E 101-112.
See also general note for series E 101-112.
E 105. Wool, 1813-1957.
E 102. Wheat flour, 1800-1957.
Source:
cited
Source: See sources cited for series E 101; 1800-1825, source A; See sources source for series E 101; 1813-1825,
1825-1850,
source A; 1825-1870, source B; 1870-1890, source C, p. 79; p. 387; 1890-1957, source D. B, p. 60; 1850-1890, source C,
1890-1957, source D.
For 1813-1825, prices are for Philadelphia, “Merino clean”
For 1800-1825, prices are for Philadelphia, “Superfine” flour,
per barrel of 196 pounds. For 1825-1870, prices are for New wool except for 1819 and 1820 when description was “Merino”
York, “Superfine” flour, per barrel. For 1870-1890, prices wool. For 1825-1850, prices are for New York, “Merino” wool.
were provided by a New York firm (commodity description not For 1850-1890, prices are for Boston, “Ohio, fine fleece,
available). For 1890-1913, prices are for “winter straights, scoured.” For 1890-1913, prices are for, “Domestic, Ohio, fine
f.o.b., New York,” per barrel. For 1913-1943, prices are for fleece (x and xx grades), scoured” ; for 1913-1945, for Boston,
“Straights, hard winter, white, in carlots, f.o.b., Kansas City,” “Domestic, Territory, staple, fine and fine medium, scoured”;
per barrel. During 1943, the basis of quotation was changed for 1946-1949 for Boston, “Domestic, Territory, staple, fine
from per barrel to flour in sacks, per 100 pounds. For 1950- combing, graded, scoured.” For 1950-1957, the description
1957, prices are for “hard winter, bakery, short patents, was changed with no difference in price level to “Domestic,
plain or enriched, in 100-pound sacks, carlots, f.o.b. mill, Kan­ fine, good French combing and staple, clean basis.”
See also general note for series E 101-112.
sas City,” per 100 pounds. During 1918 and a part of 1946,
prices were quoted on the standard provided under govern­ E 106. Cotton sheeting, 1800-1957.
ment regulation.
Source: See sources cited for series E 101; 1800-1847,
See also general note for series E 101-112.
source A; 1847-1890, source C, p. 155; 1890-1957, source D.
E 103. Sugar, 1800-1957.
Prices are for Philadelphia, “Russian, unspecified” for 1800Source: See sources for series E 101; 1800-1825, source A; 1804, “Russian, brown” for 1805-1814 and 1824-1847, and
1825-1860, source B; 1860-1890, source C, p. 114; 1890-1957, “Russian, half bleached” for 1815-1823. Prices were shown
“per piece” (approximately 100 yards). For 1847-1890, prices
source D.
For 1800-1825, prices are for the Philadelphia market. are for “sheeting, brown, 4-4, Atlantic A,” per yard (no market
Prices for 1800 refer to “Muscovado, brown” ; 1801-1802 (Oc­ specified). For 1890-1912, prices are for “brown, Indian head,
tober), “Muscovado”; 1802 (November)-1813 (October), 4-4, 2.85 yards to pound, factory.” For 1913-1941, description
“Muscovado, first quality” ; 1813 (November)-1815 (April), same except that the width designation was changed in 1913
“Muscovado, unspecified”; 1815 (M ay)-1825, “Muscovado, to “36-inch” instead of “4/4,” and “48x48, carded yarn” was
prime.” For 1825-1860, prices are for New York, “Cuba” added in 1923. For 1941-1943 (May), prices are for “Un­
sugar; the 1863 U. S. Finance Report (from which the data bleached, 36-inch, 48x48, 2.85 yards per pound, Class A, non­
were compiled) quoted “Muscovado” for 1825-1829 and 1845- feeler, f.o.b. mill.” For 1943 (M ay)-1947, description same
1860, “Cuba Muscovado” for 1830-1836 and “Cuba” for 1837- except for change from “48x48” to “48x44.” For 1948-1957,
1844. For 1860-1890, prices are for “Refined, granulated” prices are for “Unbleached (series 1), 40-inch, 48x48, 2.85
sugar (no market specified). For 1890-1946, prices are for yards per pound, Class A, nonfeeler, f.o.b. mill.” The Jan­
New York, “Granulated” sugar. Prices were quoted for sugar uary 1948 price for the former description (36-inch, 48x44)
in barrels until 1955 when the basis of quotation was changed was $0,279 and of the new description (40-inch, 48x48) was
to 100-pound paper bags. For 1947-1957, the description was $0,289 per pound.
amplified to “granulated, domestic, cane, refined, New York,”
See also general note for series E 101-112.



107

E 107-160
PRICES AND PRICE INDEXES
For 1800-1825, prices are for the Philadelphia market.
E 107. Coal, anthracite, 1800-1957.
Source: See sources cited for series E 101; 1800-1825, Prices are for “Copper in sheets,” 1800-1801 (April) and 1805
source A; 1825-1833, source B; 1890-1957, source D. For (June)-1809 (June) ; “Sheathing unspecified,” 1801 (M ay)1833-1890, American Iron and Steel Association, Statistics of 1802 (December), 1809 (July)-1818 (April), and 1824 (Sep­
the American and Foreign Iron Trades for 1896, Philadelphia, tember)-1825; “Sheathing, cold rolled,” 1803-1805 (May) ; and
“Sheeting unspecified,” 1818 (May)-1824 (August). For
1897, p. 91.
are for
For 1860Prices are for Philadelphia, “Virginia” coal for 1800-1811 1825-1860, prices for New New York, “Sheathing.”Price shown
1889, prices are
York, “Lake Copper.”
and 1814-1825, and “Domestic” for 1812 and 1813. There was
the
as that in Metal Statistics, 1921. For
no description for 1826-1833. For 1825-1833, prices are for for 1890 isprices same for New York, “Lake Copper” ; for 19071890-1907,
are
New York, “anthracite coal (Schuylkill).” For 1833-1890, 1927, for “Copper ingot, electrolytic, early delivery, refinery
prices are for “Schuylkill white ash lump” coal, by the cargo, in New York”; for 1927-1953,
at Philadelphia, per gross ton. For 1890-1957, prices are for livered, Connecticut Valley” ; andfor “Copper, electrolytic, de­
for 1954-1957, for “Copper
“Pennsylvania anthracite, chestnut,” but the basis of quota­ ingot, electrolytic,
tion was changed several times. For 1890-1928, the basis was U. S. destination.” producers’ prices, delivered, f.o.b. cars,
“New York Tidewater,” per gross ton; for 1928-1931, “des­
See also general note for series E 101-112.
tination on tracks,” per gross ton; for 1931-1947, per net ton
(2000 pounds) ; and 1947-1957, “f.o.b. cars at mine” per net E 111. Turpentine, 1800-1957.
ton.
Source: See sources cited for series E 101; 1800-1825,
See also general note for series E 101-112.
source A; 1825-1840, source B, p. 56; 1840-1890, source C,
p. 240; 1890-1957, source D.
E 108. Steel rails, 1847-1957.
For 1800-1825, prices are for the Philadelphia market per
Source: 1847-1890, American Metal Market and Daily Iron
and Steel Report, Metal Statistics, 1921, p. 91. For 1891- barrel (31^ gallons per barrel). No description was avail­
able, but a comparison of prices indicates that they may be
1957, see source D for series E 101.
For 1847-1867, prices are for “Iron rails, Eastern Pennsyl­ for “soft” turpentine. For 1825-1840, prices are for the New
vania mill” (production of steel rails did not exceed produc­ York market (no description is available). For 1840-1890,
tion of iron rails until 1877). The source also shows prices of prices are for New York, “Spirits of turpentine.” For 1890iron rails of this description for 1868-1882. For 1867-1870, 1942, prices are for “Southern, barrels, at New York.” The
prices are for New York “Steel rails, Bessemer,” per gross ton. description was amplified in 1936 by the addition of “carlots,
For 1871-1890, prices are for “Steel rails, Pennsylvania mill.” ex dock, gum spirits.” For 1942-1951, prices refer to “Gum
For 1891-1913, prices are for “Bessemer, Standard, f.o.b. mill, spirits, bulk, f.o.b. Savannah, Ga.” For 1952-1956 (Oc­
Pittsburgh,” per long ton; for 1913-1946, for “Open hearth, tober), quotations are for “Spirits of turpentine, tank cars, at
standard, f.o.b. mill” ; for 1947-1953 (April), for “Standard, New York.” The January 1952 price for the former specifi­
heavier than 60 pounds, No. 1 open hearth, f.o.b. mill” (refine­ cation (Savannah) was $0.80 per gallon and for the new
ment of previous specification and quoted per 100 pounds— (New York), $0.76 per gallon. For 1956 (November)-1957,
no break in series) ; and for 1953 (M ay)-1957, for “Standard, prices are for “gum, tank cars” at New York. The October
carbon steel, No. 1 open hearth, 115 pounds per linear yard, 1956 price for the former specification (spirits) was $0,640
per gallon and for the new (gum ), $0,635 per gallon.
control cooled, base quantity, f.o.b. mill.”
See also general note for series E 101-112.
See also general note for series E 101-112.
E 112. Brick, 1849-1957.
E 109. Nails, 1800-1957.
Source: See sources cited for series E 101; 1849-1890,
Source: See sources cited for series E 101; 1800-1828,
source A; 1828-1834, source B, p. 54; 1890-1957, source D. source C, p. 222; 1890-1957, source D.
For 1835-1890, see source for series E 107, 1833-1890, p. 87.
For 1849-1890, prices are for “common domestic building”
(For 1835-1849, prices were compiled from the Report of the (market not indicated). For 1890-1933, prices are for “Com­
Secretary of the Treasury, 1849; for 1850-1859, by the Ameri­ mon, Red, Domestic, at New York” ; 1933-1947, for “Common
can Iron and Steel Association from the books of the Dun- building, f.o.b. plant” (composite of approximately 50 firms) ;
cannon Iron Company; and for 1860-1890, by an official of for 1947-1957, for “Building brick, f.o.b. plant or New York
the Duncannon Iron Company.)
dock” (composite of approximately 25 firms). Changes in list
For 1800-1828, prices are for the Philadelphia market. For of firms from time to time did not result in any significant
1814-1827, prices are for “Cut nails, all sizes” ; for other years, differences in the annual average prices.
“assorted sizes.” For 1828-1834, prices are for New York,
See also general note for series E 101-112.
“Nails, cut.” For 1835-1890, prices are for “Cut nails.” For E 113-160. General note.
1890-1953, prices refer to “wire, 8 penny, fence and common,
An appropriate name for indexes of retail
100-pound keg, f.o.b. Pittsburgh.” “Base price” was added to has been the subject of considerable discussion. price changes
Most
the description in 1926 and fence nails were not included after that have at some time been called “cost-of-living” indexes
indexes
1947. For 1953-1957, prices refer to “wire, carbon steel, 8 d, measure changes in retail prices for the goods and services
common, carload lots, f.o.b. mill.” The April 1953 price for families buy. Insofar as possible, the retail prices are for
former specification was $7.41, and for the new specification the
list items in
the same qualities,
was $7.33 per 100 pounds. “Packed in fiberboard boxes” was and same sameof quantities the same localities, to the next. The
the
from one period
added to description in 1955.
indexes, therefore, measure changes in costs for living in
See also general note for series E 101-112.
the same way and in the same place.
E 110. Copper, 1800-1957.
Generally, people tend to think of the amount of money
Source: See sources cited for series E 101; 1800-1825, they spend for commodities and services as their cost of living.
source A; 1825-1860, source B, p. 52; 1890-1957, source D. Changes in total expenditures reflect changes in costs result­
For 1860-1889, see source for series E 108, 1847-1867, p.. 299. ing from differences in the place or manner of living, such as
108




E 113-139
CONSUMER PRICE INDEXES
Food prices are obtained from about 2,000 food stores, in­
shifts in the kinds of goods and services bought, and may
represent a better or a worse standard than at some earlier cluding all important types of food retailers in each city.
date.
Rent figures are collected from tenants for approximately
The term “Consumer Price Index” was adopted by the Bu­ 30,000 rental units selected from block listings of the total
reau of Labor Statistics and the National Industrial Conference rental housing market in each city. Prices for other goods
Board after much controversy during World War II regarding and services are obtained from about 4,000 retail and service
the BLS Cost of Living Index. For a discussion of differences establishments patronized by wage earner and clerical families
in concept and measurement of the cost of living, see the and including department stores, specialty shops, etc., with a
Report of the President's Committee on Cost of Living, Office minimum of 4 quotations per item per city in most cases. For
most cities, the samples of reporters are located in the city
of Economic Stabilization, 1945.
limits, but for rents, data are obtained from the “urbanized
E ,113-139. Consumer price indexes (BLS), by major groups areas” as defined by the Census Bureau.
and subgroups, 1890-1957.
Price
for
majority of
Source: BLS, U. S. Consumer Price Indexes (19U7-U9 —100) ; made by collection visit the BLS full-timegoods and services is
personal
of
field representatives.
Historical Series A -l to 1-1.
Food prices are collected by local part-time agents while for
See also general note for series E 113-160.
some items mail collection is supplemented by occasional per­
The BLS Consumer Price Index measures changes in re­ sonal visits.
tail prices of the goods and services bought by city wage
The indexes are calculated using variation
the base
earners and clerical workers. It was originated on a compre­ quantity weighted index formula. In apractice, theofaggregates
hensive basis at the end of World War I when data were in are obtained by applying price relatives to “value weights”
demand for wage negotiations in shipbuilding cities. A Depart­ representing the cost of 1951-1952 quantities as determined
ment of Labor study of the cost of living in 92 shipbuilding
the
family expenditure
The importance of
and other industrial centers was made in 1918-1919, as re­ from item 1950 the index representsstudy. expenditure for the
each
in
the
ported in BLS Bulletin No. 357, Cost of Living in the United
represents.
States. The first publication of changes in the “cost of living” item and in addition the expenditure for all items itweights for
City indexes are computed using the expenditure
was in the Monthly Labor Review for October 1919 and regu­ each citv. National indexes are calculated by combining city
lar publication has continued since February 1921. The fre­ data with weights representing their 1950 population.
quency of publication was increased from semiannually to quar­
For a more complete description of the current index see
terly in 1935. Since September 1940, the index has been
Techniques of Preparing Major BLS Statistical Series, BLS
computed and published monthly in mimeograph releases and Bulletin No. 1168, chap. 9.
in the Monthly Labor Review.
A number of changes in coverage, methodology, classifica­
The present index (1958) is based on prices of about 300
individual items- The list of goods and services priced for the tion, and base periods have been made since these indexes
index are those important in family expenditures and were were first issued in 1919 with index numbers back to 1913.
chosen to represent price trends for all goods and services Until 1935, the “cost-of-living” indexes were calculated using
bought by families of wage earners and clerical workers. The quantity weights derived from the BLS family expenditure
selection was made on the basis of a detailed study of expendi­ study in 1917-1919. The weights related to the individual
tures of 8,000 families in 1950 and studies of price trends for items priced and to geographic areas rather than to individual
many individual items to determine items with similar price cities. Group indexes were combined with percentages repre­
fluctuations. The average size of the families covered by the senting the importance of the group in total expenditures.
index was estimated to be about 3.3 persons and their average The goods and services included were described in general
family income after taxes was estimated at about $4,160 in terms only. The measurement of price change for comparable
articles was accomplished by careful attention ofi the part
1952.
field representative in obtaining
the
The sample of 46 cities on which the. index is based was of the quality from one period to theprice quotations forsame
same
next from the
chosen to represent all urban places with population of 2,500 respondents.
or more in 1950. Characteristics of different city types which
A major improvement in the index calculation method
affect the way families spent their money were taken into
account, including size, climate, density of population, level of was introduced in 1935 and is described in Faith M. Williams,
income, and distance to market center (for small cities). Margaret H. Hogg, and Ewan Clague, “Revision of Index of
Prices for foods and fuels and some services are obtained Cost of Goods Purchased by Wage Earners and Lower-Salaried
monthly in all cities. Prices for most other goods and services Workers,” Monthly Labor Review, September 1935, pp. 819are obtained monthly in the 5 largest cities and quarterly on a 837. In the 1935 revision, consumption weights for individual
rotating cycle in 41 cities. Separate indexes are computed cities were derived from the 1917-1919 expenditure study, and
population weights (average population in 1920 and 1930)
for 20 large cities.
were used to combine city data. At this time, indexes back
All retail price data are collected with the use of specifica­
tions to ensure comparisons from period to period of prices to 1913 were recalculated based on the prices collected for the
for the same or similar qualities insofar as possible. These former indexes. “Specification pricing” was also introduced
specifications include the quality factors associated with price in 1935; see John H. Cover, Retail Price Behavior, University
differences and other physical characteristics needed for iden­ of Chicago Press, 1935.
tification from store to store and from one pricing period to
Another revision was completed in 1940 to take into account
the next. A discussion of the use of specifications is con­ the results of a study of family expenditures in 1934-1936.
tained in BLS Bulletin No. 1182, Average Retail Prices: Col­ At this time, indexes back to 1935 were recalculated with
lection and Calculation Techniques and Problems. Every effort weights derived from this study. Indexes for earlier years
is made to obtain the prices paid by the customer, not list were not recalculated completely, but the former group in­
prices from which discounts are normally given. Sales taxes dexes were recombined with revised weights. Other improve­
ments introduced are described in The Bureau of Labor
are reflected wherever applicable.



109

E 140-156
PRICES AND PRICE INDEXES
Statistics' New Index of Cost of Living, Serial No. R. 1156, wartime conditions was taken into account in December 1945
reprinted from the August 1940 issue of the Monthly Labor when the Office of W"ar Mobilization and Reconversion esti­
Reveiw.
mated that for the full period January 1941 to September 1945,
Table II. Number of Cities Included in BLS Consumer Price the understatement amounted to a total of 5 index points for
Index for All Items (E 113) and for Foods (E 114-115), large and small cities combined.
and Weights Used: 1913 to 1957
In 1949, the Joint Committee on the Economic Report re­
viewed BLS methods in the compilation, composition, and
Number of cities
W eights used
presentation of the Consumer Price Index; see The Consumers
Period
Price Index: Report of the Joint Committee on the Economic
Family
All
Population
Food
expenditures
items
in—
Report, Joint Committee Print, 80th Congress, 2d Session,
in—
1949.
1913-1917______
19
40-45
1917-19
none
In 1951, a Special Subcommittee of the House of Representa­
1918-1924__________
32
45-51
1917-19
1920 and 1930
1925-1930_________
tives held extensive hearings and concluded that the Consumer
32
51
1917-19,
1920 and 1930
1 1934-36
Price Index was generally adequate for the purpose for which
1930-1934
33
51
1 1934-36
1930
1935-1942 ____
33-34
56-64
1934-36
1930
it was intended. See Consumers Price Index—Report of a
1943-1949 ______
34
56
1934-36
May 1942
1950-1952_________
34
56
2 1947-49
1950
Special Subcommittee of the Committee on Education and
1953-1957_______
46
46
3 1950
1950
Labor, House of Representatives, 82d Congress, 1st Session,
Subcommittee Report No. 2, 1951.
1 Individual item w eights for 1913-1935 were derived from the 1917-19
study. Group weights as shown.
E 140-147. Consumer price indexes (BLS), for special groups,
2 Family expenditures in 7 cities.
3 Adjusted to 1952 for price change.
1935-1957.
' During World War II, shortages and rationing imposed many
Source: 1935-1946, BLS, Consumer Price Index: Price In­
measurement problems. The adjustments made by BLS in dexes
Selected Items and Groups, July 1956, 2, March
weights and in pricing are described in Faith M. Williams, 1957, for 9, and mimeographed historical tables;p. 1947-1957,
p.
“Bureau of Labor Statistics Cost of Living Index in War­ Monthly Labor Review, April 1958, p. 468.
time,” Monthly Labor Review, July 1943.
These indexes are based on reclassification
Prior to the comprehensive revision in 1953, when present priced for the Consumer Pricea Indexes (series of the items
E
index procedures and coverage were introduced, an “interim The goods and services included in each series are 113-139).
adjustment” was made in 1951. This adjustment included footnotes in the April 1958 issue of the Monthly Laborlisted in
Review.
a correction for “new unit bias” in the rent index (resulting The basic weights, price data, and calculation methods were
from wartime rent controls) for 1940-1950 and the introduc­
tion of revised commodity weights based on expenditure sur­ the same as those used for the regular CPI.
veys in 7 cities during 1947-1949. The revised commodity E 148-156. Consumer price index (Hoover), 1851-1880.
Source: Ethel D. Hoover, “Prices in the 19th Century,”
weights were used to recalculate indexes back to January 1950
but not earlier years. A description of the adjustment is in Studies in Income and Wealth, vol. 24, Princeton University
BLS Bulletin No. 1039, Interim Adjustment of Consumer Press (forthcoming).
See also general note for series E 113-160.
Price Index. The “interim adjustment” resulted in the pub­
lication of two index series for 1940-1952—the “old series”
The basic price data for these series are from Joseph D.
and the “adjusted series.” When the comprehensive revision Weeks, “The Average Retail Prices of Necessaries of Life,”
was completed in 1953, the revised indexes were linked to the Report on Statistics of Wages in Manufacturing Industries,
“adjusted series.”
Tenth Census, vol. 20, 1886. Averages of retail prices for 58
In the 1953 revision, the city sample was changed to in­ commodities were calculated by making simple averages of the
clude small and medium-sized cities and the expenditure con­ prices reported for each item by one or two storekeepers in
cept was broadened to include the purchase price of a house. approximately 40 cities. The consistency of price movement
(See February and April 1956 issues of Monthly Labor Re­ and price level between prices identified as of “June 1” and
view for a discussion of housing costs in the CPI.) Pricing those as “year” averages led to the inclusion of all prices to
of restaurant meals and home repair and maintenance items calculate an all-city average for each year. In calculating the
was begun and several other items were added. Items were relative prices for each commodity, a comparability procedure
regrouped into 8 major groups.
was used; that is, for each year two average prices were cal­
The BLS Consumer Price Index has been the subject of ex­ culated—one comparable with the preceding year and the other
tensive analysis and investigation. A comprehensive review comparable with the following year. Data for these 58 com­
made by a committee of the American Statistical Association modities were supplemented with estimates of price change
in 1933 led to the 1935 revision. During World War II, the for services (shoe repairs and medical care) as well as some
effect of such factors as quality deterioration, “black market” additional items important in family spending estimated from
prices, disappearance of special sales prices and low-end other sources. The number of price series included in
merchandise, and similar wartime developments was esti­ each of the index groups was food, 40; clothing, 12; rents, 2;
mated by the President’s Committee on the Cost of Living to fuel and light, 5; and other, 7.
have produced an understatement of the rise in retail prices
Relative prices for the individual commodities were com­
from January 1941 to September 1944 by a maximum of 3 to bined with value weights derived from the study of family
4 index points. The Committee also estimated that if small expenditures in Massachusetts in 1875, supplemented by de­
cities were included in the national average, an additional half tailed expenditures of 232 families as given in the Aldrich
point would be added. The various reports submitted to and Reports (Wholesale Prices, part 1, pp. 62-63). The formula
by the President’s Committee are included in its report cited for calculation of the index was the algebraic equivalent of
in the general note for series E 113-160. The continuation of the Laspeyre index.
110



E 157-176
COST-OF-LIVING INDEXES
E 157. Cost-of-living indexes (Federal Reserve Bank of N.Y.), purchases by the Army and Navy, and miscellaneous publica­
tions.
1820-1913.
Source: Federal Reserve Bank of New York, Index of E sti­ E 159. Cost-of-living index (Douglas), 1890-1926.
mated Cost of Living in the United States (1938 revision
Source: Paul H. Douglas, Real W ages in the United States,
mimeographed).
1890-1926, Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston and New York,
Indexes for 1820-1952 converted to .he 1947-49 base and 1930, p. 60.
figures showing purchasing power of the dollar “in terms of
See also general note for series E 113-160.
retail prices” for the same period are available in a mimeo­
This index was called the “Most Probable Index of the
graphed release with same title dated March 17, 1953.
Movement of the Total Cost of Living for Workingmen” by
See also general note fo^ ,<<ries E 113-160.
•
Douglas, who constructed the series for his study of real
This index was oht< v m by splicing together parts of in­ wages during this period. The all-item indexes are available
dexes already available to approximate a continuous series. for two base periods, 1890-1899 and 1914.
No adjustments were made to the original series other than
For 1890-1914, the sources of the price data were BLS
those necessary to convert to a common base period. Indexes wholesale and retail reports. The available retail prices for
for 1820-1839 were taken from Alvin H. Hansen’s cost-of- foods were supplemented with wholesale prices for additional
living indexes which were based on wholesale prices for these foods. These wholesale data were adjusted for the variation
years. For 1840-1859, the indexes used were also obtained in movement between retail and wholesale prices for identical
from Hansen’s index which had in turn utilized the weighted foods. Wholesale prices were also adjusted to approximate re­
index of wholesale prices (assuming all unpriced items moved tail prices for clothing, fuel and light, furniture, tobacco, and
with all priced items) computed by Roland P. Falkner for the spirits. The combined index for all items is a weighted arith­
Senate Committee on Finance. The Falkner indexes for 1840- metic average of price relatives, using weights derived from
1891 may be found in Senate Report No. 1394 ( Aldrich R eport), the BLS consumer expenditure study of 1901-1902. No esti­
Wholesale Prices, Wages, and Transportation, U. S. Senate
mates were made for rent movements because of lack of data.
Committee on Finance, 1893, p. 93. For 1860-1879, the Fed­ For 1913-1926, the individual city indexes in the BLS “Costeral Reserve Bank used the relative cost-of-living series pre­ of-Living Index” were combined with city population weights.
pared by Wesley C. Mitchell, who calculated his index from
retail price data for 60 of the “necessaries of life” included E 160. Cost-of-living index (Rees), 1890-1914.
Source: National Bureau of Economic Research, Thirtyin the W eeks Report. The original series may be found in
Mitchell’s Gold, Prices, and W ages Under the Greenback Stand­ eighth Annual Report, New York, May 1958, pp. 59-60.
ard, University of California Publications in Economics, vol. 1,
Rees’ cost-of-living index was based largely on retail prices.
Berkeley, March 1908, p. 91. For 1880-1889, the indexes were Douglas’ estimates were adopted for food at retail, and tobacco
those of W. Randolph §„urgess in Trends o f School Costs (see and spirits at wholesale prices (see text for series E 159), but
series E 158). For 1890-1909, Paul Douglas’ “Most Probable retail data were assembled to compute new components for
Index of the Total Cost of Living for Workingmen” (see series fuel, rent, clothing, and housefurnishings. Prices for gas ob­
E 159) as published in American Economic Review, March tained from utility companies, and retail prices of kerosene
1926 supplement, p. 22, was used. Indexes for 1910-1912 were as used for the New Jersey State cost-of-living index, were
derived from the cost-of-living index for Massachusetts ap­ included in fuels. Wholesale prices of coal were included be­
pearing in the Department of Labor and Industries of the fore 1907 and for kerosene before 1898. Rents for six cities
Commonwealth of Massachusetts, Report o f the Commission were compiled from newspaper advertisements. Prices for
on the Necessaries of L ife, February 1920, p. 118.
clothing and housefurnishings were compiled from mail-order
catalogs.
E 158. Cost-of-living index (Burgess), 1841-1920.
The index is a weighted average of price relatives, using
Source: The Review of Economic Statistics, February 1934, weights derived largely from the BLS consumer expenditure
vol. XVI, No. 2, p. 26.
study of 1901-1902.
Original data in dollars are shown in W. Randolph Burgess, E 161-176. Retail prices of selected food in U. S. cities (BLS),
Trends of School Costs, Russell Sage Foundation, New York
1890-1957.
City, 1920, p. 54.
Source: 1890-1922, BLS Bulletin No. 396, Retail Prices, 1890
See also general note for series E 113-160.
to 1924, pp. 8-10; 1923-1934, BLS Bulletin No. 635, Retail
To determine changes in the purchasing power of teach­ Prices of Food, 1923-36, pp. 77-89; 1935-1939, Serial No. R.
er’s salaries for his study of Trends in School Costs, 1172 (August 1940), Retail Prices, pp. 28-35; 1940-1957, an­
Burgess compiled the series, “Cost of Living Per Week for a nual or biennial bulletins, Retail Prices of Food (including
Small Family Using the Same Amount of the Same Commod­ Serial No. R. 1264, and Bulletin Nos. 707, 799, 899, 938, 965,
ities Over the Entire Period.” This series is based on prices 1032, 1055, 1141, 1183, and 1217).
for 10 foods important in wage earners’ spending. Quantity
While there were scattered statistics of prices of many
weights, derived from BLS 1901-1902 consumer expenditure individual commodities in various publications, it was not until
studies, were used to combine prices of the 10 foods. On the 1901, when BLS began the collection of food prices on a regu­
assumption that other less important items fluctuated with lar basis, that a regular price collection program was ini­
food prices, the total food cost was adjusted upward to ap­ tiated by the Federal Government. At that time, information
proximate the total weekly cost for all items for a typical was secured from dealers’ books for 1890-1901. Since then,
wage earners’ family of man, wife, and two children. The retail prices of food have been obtained by BLS, first at annual
factor used for adjustment was based on the ratio of food intervals, then monthly or semimonthly.
costs to total costs in 1901. The source of the price data is
As the pricing program was expanded to other commodities
indicated by general reference to BLS, the Massachusetts and services purchased by families for daily living, the avail­
Bureau of Statistics of Labor, the Aldrich Reports, records of able resources and review of data requirements for the over-all



111

PRICES AND PRICE INDEXES
E 161-171
Consumer Price Index resulted in sampling and methodology as given on the wrapper or reported by the store was con­
changes for foods. The growth in importance of some foods verted to 16 ounces.
and declines for others, changes in kinds and sizes of pack­
National averages have not been computed for 1890-1913.
ages, different methods of preparation of foods for retail stores, Prices for individual firms are available in the early retail
and similar developments were taken into consideration in the price bulletins.
adjustments made to the list of foods priced. Of the many
E 163,
steak. For
the
include
foods included for most of the period since 1890, only 16 quotations roundthe best cut of1890-1939, grade averages in each
for
the best
handled
were selected for publication here.
store for whole round or top round, mostly bone-in. For 1940The list of cities in which food prices were collected changed 1957, prices were for top round, bone-in, U. S. choice grade
over the years. In the main, the cities covered were indus­ (comparable to U. S. good grade prior to the changes in grades
trial localities in 30 to 40 States up to 1952. Beginning in by the Department of Agriculture in 1950).
1953, the collection of food prices was restricted to the 46
E 164, chuck roast. For 1913-1939, quotations were re­
cities included in the CPI.
ported for the best cut of the best grade handled in each
The number of stores in each city reporting food prices, store and include both bone-in and boneless. Since then, all
after the initial collections through 1904, generally ranged from quotations have been for “bone-in” roasts. The grade priced
25 in the larger cities to 15 in the smaller cities until 1932. for 1940-1957 was the same as for round steak. Beginning
Average prices for the United States were obtained by making in 1951, the more precise description of the cut was “blade
simple averages of quotations from the total number of firms pot-roast cut from upper part of shoulder before rib roast and
reporting for each food for 1915-1932. Average relative prices behind neck, U. S. choice, bone-in.”
for each commodity were applied to prices in 1915 to estimate
National averages
for 1890-1913.
national averages for 1890-1914. Some chain stores were Prices for individual have not been computedthe early retail
firms are available in
added to the samples as their sales volumes became significant price bulletins.
in each city.
E
chops. For 1890-1935,
loin
During 1932-1934 the store samples were expanded, particu­ chops165, porkbest grade handled. Ribquotations were forfrom
of the
chops and chops
larly in the larger cities, and the method of averaging prices the thick end of the loin were excluded. Beginning in 1935,
was adjusted to reflect food sales by chain and independent prices were obtained for center cut loin chops of U. S. No. 1
stores in each city. National averages were obtained by com­ grade.
bining weighted city averages with the use of consumption
E 166,
aver­
and population weights. Refinements to the sampling and the age were bacon. Most of the quotations included in the years
bacon for
years. In the
weighting system have been introduced from time to time (probably for sliced1930) baconallwas sliced whenearly and
before
(see “Store Samples for Retail Food Prices,” Monthly Labor prices for slab bacon may be included. Sliced and sold
packaged
Review, January 1947).
bacon has been priced since about 1930 in 1 pound or two V2
During the revision of the CPI in the late 1930’s, comparable pound packages of cellophane or similar material. Grade
revised national averages were calculated back to 1923. descriptions were: 1890-1942, best but not fancy grade; 1943The national averages shown here are those estimated by 1945, first quality or fancy grade; 1946-1957, standard Grade A.
price relatives for 1890-1915, simple averages of quotations
E
All prices refer to
from all cities for 1916-1922, and weighted city averages be­ score 167, butter. for 1890-1942 and creamery butter, 92 to 93
or better
92 score for 1943-1957.
ginning with 1923.
Tub or print butter was priced up to 1940, roll or print in 1941
Food price data were collected by use of mail schedules and and 1942, package of 4 sticks or quarters for 1943-1946, and
occasional personal visits until 1934. Since that year, all package print or roll, including quarters for 1947-1957.
prices have been collected by personal visit of BLS representa­
E 168, eggs. Averages are for fresh eggs for all years.
tives. Changes in descriptions for the foods priced, the cities For 1890-1942, prices are for the highest grade sold in volume
covered, sizes and designs of samples of stores, and methods in each store; for 1943-1944, U. S. extras or Grade A; for
of processing introduce some noncomparabilities into the 1945-1952, the highest grade and size sold in volume in each
series. However, the only change, which is significant on a
since 1953, large Grade A eggs in most
national basis, is the change in the description of the com­ store;ungraded eggs included in some small cities. cities, although
some
modity.
E 169, milk, delivered. Until 1935, prices are for fresh
The BLS publications have regularly included actual prices fluid milk, raw or pasteurized, no grade designation, in quart
for individual nonfoods only for fuels, gas, and electricity. bottle or in bulk, delivered to homes; for 1935-1946, raw or
For review of retail prices available for articles other than pasteurized milk of the dominant grade in each city in quart
foods and fuels, see BLS Bulletin No. 1182, Average Retail bottles or cartons; for 1947-1949, same grades, but sizes
Prices: Collection and Calculation Techniques and Problems, included 1-quart, 2-quart, and 4-quart containers in many cities;
pp. 90-105.
for 1950-1956, pasteurized milk, homogenized or nonhomoge­
E 161, flour. Prices are for general all-purpose white wheat nized, without Vitamin D, of the volume-selling grade in each
flour. The size of package on which quotations were secured city in quart or half-gallon cartons or bottles; for 1957, pas­
were: 1890-1928, 1/8 or 1/4 of a barrel although some smaller teurized, homogenized milk with Vitamin D added, 3.25 per­
units were also included; 1929-1938, 12 or 24 lb. sack; 1939- cent or over butterfat content in quart or half-gallon cartons
or bottles.
1942, 5-12 lb. sack; 1943-1957, 5 lb. sack.
E 170, oranges. California and Florida oranges of the
E 162, bread. Prices are for white bread, pan style exclud­
ing all specialty type bread. For 1913-1936, prices were ob­ variety and size constituting the bulk of sales each month
tained from bakeries for 16 or 18 ounces in the dough and were quoted from 1919 to about 1935. After that time, the
converted to 16 ounces baked weight. Both wrapped and size range was narrowed to include only size 176-222 in stand­
unwrapped breads were included. Beginning in 1937, prices ard box of U. S. No. 1 grade (good quality).
have been obtained primarily from grocery stores for the vol­
E 171, potatoes. White or Irish potatoes, excluding large
ume-selling size loaf of wrapped bread. The baked weight baking types, have been priced consistently for all years in
112




E 172-179
RETAIL PRICE INDEXES
the quantities in which sales have customarily been made. Fuels: Retail Prices, 191*1-48, pp. 1-4. These reports contain
references to earlier bulletins and include other index and
The designation of U. S. No. 1 grade was added in 1935.
E 172, tomatoes, canned. The volume selling brands of price series.
canned tomatoes, standard grade, in No. 2 can were priced for E 177. Indexes of retail prices of electricity for household use,
1919-1954. For 1955-1957, the description was expanded to
composite, 1913-1957.
specify “small and large pieces, with a maximum of 50 percent
Source: BLS, Retail Price Indexes of Fuels and Electricity,
liquid, standard grade (C )” and the can size was changed to January 1935-Dec ember 1957 (issued September 1958).
No. 303. Prices for 1919-1954 have been converted to No. 303
See also general note for series E 177-185.
can.
This composite is an extension backward of a current BLS
E 173, navy beans. Dried beans, white, navy, or pea beans, series. For 1913-1934, the index is based
No. 1 choice, hand picked, packaged or bulk were priced for per kilowatt-hour for the average amountonofthe average price
electricity used
1915-1957. For 1949-1952, California small white beans were by families in each of the 32 cities included in the CPI. Aver­
also included and for 1953-1957, Great Northern beans.
age prices for the 32 cities were combined as simple averages.
E 174, coffee. For 1913-1956, whole bean or ground roasted
In 1938, a new method computation
coffee was priced. Bulk or packaged coffee was quoted up to was inaugurated, and dataofwere extended for thetorevised CPI
back 1935. Net
1938. For 1939-1955, coffee in cans, glass, cardboard, or paper
residential services were
containers were averaged. For 1956 and 1957, prices are for monthly bills for typical each city. The number of calculated
from rate schedules for
cities in
ground roasted coffee in airtight cans only.
the composite included 34 cities for 1935-1952, and 46 cities
E 175, margarine. Prices are for uncolored oleomargarine, for 1953-1957. Some changes were also
the typical
animal and vegetable, in 1-pound cartons for 1919-1948. For services. For 1935-1952, bills were based made in40, 100, and
on 25,
1949 and 1950, uncolored vegetable margarine in 1-pound car­ 250 kilowatt-hours. Since December 1952, 3 services have
ton was quoted. For 1951-1957, averages are for colored been priced, 40, 100, and 200 kilowatt-hours.
vegetable margarine in 1-pound cartons.
The net monthly bills for
E 176, sugar. Prices are for white granulated cane or beet first combined into an index the typical services above were
each city by using
sugar but the size package has varied over the years. For approximating the importance for each of the services weights
of
in that
1890-1916, prices for the volume-selling quantity were quoted; city. The city indexes were then combined with the consump­
for 1917-1928, 1 pound; for 1929-1942, 10 pounds; and for tion and population weights of the CPI.
1943-1957, 5 pounds. For a short period during World War II,
E 178. Indexes of retail prices of electricity for household use,
the ~ ound unit was the only one available.
100 kilowatt-hours, 1923-1957.
E 1/
5 General note.
Source: See source for series E 177.
The
„ction of retail prices for fuel and light was initiated
See also general note for series E 177-185.
in 191.1 with coal and gas data for 1907-1911. After that
This index is based on net monthly bills for one of the
time, the program was expanded to include gas, electricity,
and the heating fuels used in important quantities in the cities typical services included in the composite, series E 177. When
covered. Prices were collected semiannually up to 1920, and the new method of calculation was inaugurated in 1938, net
monthly bills were obtained from rate schedules supplied by
at quarterly or monthly intervals from 1920 on.
or in BLS files. The indexes
The number of cities for which prices for this group have the companiesthe 1923-25 base and converted towere originally
calculated on
later base pe­
been compiled has varied widely. Before 1947, the city cover­ riods when the CPI was revised.
age had gradually been extended until prices for fuels and
For 1923-June 1947, the cities in the series totaled 51 (in­
utility rates were obtained in 51 cities. In 1947, this program
was cut back to the 34 cities in the CPI. The revision of the cluding the 34 CPI cities). Thereafter, only CPI cities were
CPI in 1952 resulted in changing the city sample and enlarging included. The weights used for 1923-June 1947 represented
the number of residential customers as of December 31, 1935.
the number to 46 cities.
Since July 1947,
The changing importance of particular kinds of fuel in par­ population factors. the weights were the CPI consumption and
ticular localities, coupled with the over-all change in the city
sample over the years, produced many changes in the volume E 179. Indexes of retail prices of gas for household space
heating, 1935-1957.
of data for the indexes. The amount of supplementary in­
formation for deriving weights has also varied. In order to
Source: See source for series E 177.
produce continuous index numbers, all changes in samples and
See also general note for series E 177-185.
methods of averaging were handled by the linking process.
The use of gas for home heating grew in importance as
All prices have been collected by mail from retailers and additional pipelines made natural gas available to more and
utility companies in each city, except that reports for elec­ more cities. Although gas for space heating was not included
tricity have been secured through the Federal Power Com­ in the CPI before 1953, a special study in 1943 provided infor­
mission since 1937.
mation on the volume of sales for space heating as of 1940
The terms of sale for the quotations were net cash payment and rate schedule data back to 1935 for cities in which gas
basis, delivered to the residential consumer in specified quan­ was an important heating fuel. The number of cities included
tities. Charges for special services were excluded but all ap­ varied from 27 of the 51 cities for 1935-1946 to 16 of the 34
plicable sales taxes were included. Annual averages were CPI cities for 1947-1952, and 28 of the 46 CPI cities for
computed using standard BLS procedures.
1953-1957.
The price for each city was calculated as an average of the
The following bulletins contain the history of the collection
and publication of prices for this group: BLS Bulletin No. 664, rates per therm in all of the heating rate blocks of the rate
Changes in Retail Prices of Electricity, 1923-38, pp. 17-19; schedule, weighted by the total number of therms sold by the
BLS Bulletin No. 628, Changes in Retail Prices of Gas, 1923- gas company in that rate block for residential heating. For
36, pp. 48-52; BLS Bulletin No. 950, Residential Heating 1935-1952, the average rates per therm for the various cities



113

PRICES AND PRICE INDEXES
E 180-186
Data for the early years by type of coal for each firm
were then combined, using total thermal sales for residential
heating in each city as weights. A fter 1952, they were com­ reporting were published in BLS Bulletin No. 105, Retail Prices,
1890-1911. Similar data for 1912-1917 are included in later
bined with consumption and population weights in the CPI.
E 180. Indexes of retail prices of gas for household uses other issues of Retail Prices. Since the first collection, BLS has
continuously obtained retail prices for all locally important
than space heating, all types, 1935-1957.
fuels.
Source: See source for series E 177.
This index is based on average prices per net ton delivered
See also general note for series E 177-185.
at the curb or in the bin if there was no extra charge. Prices
In 1935, BLS adopted the method of computing net monthly from
each city have always been
bills based upon a definite number of heat units (therms of simple dealers in for each city. For 1913-1928, combined as a
average
city averages
100,000 BTU each) for each of 4 selected services—10.6, 19.6, were also combined on an unweighted basis. Through a re­
30.6, and 40.6 therms. These 4 typical services were continued
of method
1936, city average
through 1952. For 1953-1957, net monthly bills for 10 and vision weighted byin fixed weights based prices for 1929-1952
were
on anthracite ship­
25 therms were used. This method of calculating prices has ments to each city by rail during the year ending July 1936.
provided a better measure of price changes since differences Beginning 1953, the city averages were combined with con­
in heating values over time could be taken into account.
sumption and population weights of the CPI.
Indexes based on 10.6 and 30.6 therms back to 1923 and a
which anthracite prices were obtained varied part­
description of the methods adopted in 1935 are included in ly Cities forof change in consumer demand and partly due to
because
BLS Bulletin No. 628, Changes in Retail Prices of Gas.
CPI revisions. Generally the number of cities has declined
For the number of cities included and methods of combining until, at the end of 1957, only 8 of the 46 cities in the CPI
monthly bills used, see text for series E 177.
were reporting prices for anthracite. (For complete listing
E 181. Indexes of retail prices of manufactured gas for house­ through 1948, see BLS Bulletin No. 950, Residential Heating
Fuels, p. 2.)
hold uses, 10 therms, 1907-1956.
Source: 1907-1913, unpublished data compiled by BLS; 1935- E 184. Indexes of retail prices of bituminous coal, all domestic
1957, see source for series E 177.
sizes, 1913-1957.
See also general note for series E 177-185.
Source: See source for series E 177 and E 183.
When price collection for gas was begun by the BLS in
See also general note for series E 177-185.
1911, the majority of cities were served with manufactured
For methods of collection and averaging of prices, see text
gas. As a result of the increasing trend to the use of straight for series E 183. Generally, the index was based on un­
natural gas, the number of cities for which BLS obtained weighted averages of all prices for all sizes and types of
prices for manufactured gas declined from 35 out of 39 cities bituminous coal for 1913-June 1947, and on city averages
in 1911 and 42 of 51 cities in 1923, to none of the 46 cities weighted with CPI weighting factors for July 1947-1957.
in the CPI in 1957.
E 185. Indexes of retail prices of No. 2 fuel oil for household
For 1907-1922, the index was based on simple averages of
use, 1935-1957.
net prices per 1,000 cubic feet (approximately 5.3 therms)
Source: See source for series E 177.
based on consumption of 3,000 cubic feet. For 1923-June 1947,
See also general note for series E 177-185.
the net monthly bill for 10.6 therms was computed for each
Retail prices
petroleum fuels were first
city, and cities were combined using the number of residential cities beginning of 1937 and data were obtainedcollected in 24
in
back to 1935.
customers as of December 1934. For July 1947-1956, prices Thereafter the
of cities
oil for
were obtained for 10 therms and city averages were combined heating became numberimportant. was increased as fuelthe city
more
Beginning in 1947,
with the consumption and population weights of the CPI.
coverage was restricted to those included in
Annual averages were estimated from April figures for 1907- since that time has usually covered about 20 cities. the CPI and
1920 and from quarterly figures for 1921-1951. Prices were
The prices from which the index was computed refer to
collected monthly beginning in 1952.
prices per 100 gallons delivered in “the amount usually deliv­
E 182. Indexes of retail prices of natural gas for household ered at one time.” No. 2 fuel oil has been priced continuously
uses, 10 therms, 1913-1957.
and for 1939-1947, No. 3 oil was also priced and included.
Source: See source for series E 177.
Average prices for each city were simple averages of quota­
See also general note for series E 177-185.
tions from a sample of dealers. For 1935-1938, city aver­
The increase in distribution of natural gas is reflected in ages were combined with CPI consumption and population
the number of cities for which BLS obtained prices over the weights. For 1939-1946, weighting factors to combine city
years. In 1913, 8 or 9 of 50 cities were using natural gas, averages were obtained from 1941 shipments to each city as
18 of the 50 were reporting natural gas prices by 1935, and measured by OP A rationing authorities. CPI weights were
by 1957, 33 of 46 cities then covered were being served with again employed after 1946 to obtain the U. S. averages.
natural gas.
E 186. Rent indexes (Warren and Pearson) for dwelling units
For 1913-1923, the index was computed from simple aver­
in 5 large cities, 1860-1880.
ages of net prices per 1,000 cubic feet (approximately 10
Source: George F. Warren and Frank A. Pearson, Prices,
therms) based on consumption of 5,000 cubic feet. Net month­ John Wiley and Sons, New York, 1933, p. 267.
ly bills for 10.6 therms were used for 1923-1952 and for 10
See also G. F. Warren and F. A. Pearson, Wholesale Prices
therms for 1953-1957. For the frequency of collection and the fo r 213 Years, 1720-1932, Cornell University Agricultural Ex­
methods employed to combine city data, see text for series periment Station, Memoir 1J+2, Ithaca, New York, 1932, p. 27.
E 181.
The method of calculating this index was not indicated.
E 183. Indexes of retail prices of Pennsylvania anthracite, The rental data were obtained from the special report by
stove size, 1913-1957.
J. D. Weeks, “Report on the Average Retail Prices of Neces­
Source: See source for series E 177.
saries of Life in the United States” in volume 20 of the Tenth
Census of the United States, pp. 104-107.
See also general note for series E 177-185.
114




WHOLESALE PRICE INDEXES

E 1-12

Series E 1-12. Wholesale Price Indexes (Warren and Pearson), by Major Product Groups: 1749 to 1890
[1910-14=100]

1890
1889_________________________
1888_________________________
1887_________________________
1886_________________________
1885_________________________
1884_________________________
1883_________________________
1882_________________________
1881__________ .______________
1880_________________________
1879_________________________
1878______ _ _
_ ____
1877__________
_ ____
1876______ _
_ ____
1875______ _ _
_ ____
1874________ _
_ ____
1873_______ __
_ ____
1872___________ ___ ______
1871_________________________
1870____________ ________ _ ^
1869___________ __________
1868___________ _ ______
1867_________________________
1866_________________________
1865_________________________
1864_________________________
1863_________________________
1862_________________________
1861_________________________
1860__________
_________
1859___________
________
1858______
_ ____
1857______
_ ____
1856________
_ ____
1855___________
________
1854___________
_________
1853_____
1852_________________________
________
1851___________
1850 _
_
________
1849___________
1848___________
________
1847___________
________
1846___________ _____________
1845_________________________
1844_________________________
1843_________________________
1842___________ ____________
1841_________________________
1840_________________________
1839_____
_ ____
1838______
_ _ _____
1837_______ ___
________
1836______
_
________
1835_________________________
1834_________________________
1833_________________________
1832
1831_________________________
1830___________ ___________
1829 __ _
_ _ ___
1828______
_
________
1827___________
_________
1826_________________________
1825_ _ _
_ ___
1824_____ ___ ___ _____
1823___________ ___________
1822_
___
1821. _ _
_ _ _ _
1820_______ __ _____________
1819.
__ _
1818. _ _
__ ______
1817
1816. _ __
_________
1815 ___ ___ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
1814
_
_ __
1813
_ -__
1812 __ _________ ___ _ ___
1811_________________________




All com­
modities

Farm
products

Foods

1

Year

2

3

82
81
86
85
82
85
93
101
108
103
100

90
91
106

110

118
126
133 i
136
130 !
135 /
151?
151?'
162
174
185
193
133
104
89
93
%
93
111
105
110

108
97
88
83
84
82
82
90
83
83
77
75
82
92
95

112
110

115
114

100

90
95
95
94
91
96
97
98
99
103
98
103
106
102

106
125
147
151
151
170
182
162
131
126

71
67
75
71

68

72
82
87
99
89
80
72
72
89
89
99
102
103
108

102
112

128
138
133
140
148
162
113
86
75
77
82
76
95
84
98
93
83
77
71
71
62
59
72
58
58
52
48
53
64
65
86
82
84
89
75
64
69
63
61
58
59
58
59
62
67
61
64
70
64
68

87
117
126
119
117
112
104
81
82

86

79

86
86

78
84
93
103
114
106
96
90
93
115
113
120

126

122
121

130
139
154
171
167
173
180
189
123
107
89
96
99
97
123
116
126
117
98
95
84
84
88
87
96
84
84
72
77
80
90
102

126
128
132
128
107
93
100
99
98
94
100
99
100
98
100

99
108
109

102

109
140
172
184
172
187
181
172
141
140

Hides
and
leather
products
4
74
80
92

86

Textile
products
5

6

103
99
98
98

101

100

105
111
107
108
109
113
100
95
109
104
123
128
132
130
126
128
134
126
132
146
152
164
133
108
90

105
109
116
119
119
128
114
115
125
138
141
151
175
177
170
179
194
197
220
245
266
264
206
147

102

115
110
139
121

104
100
84
70
65
67
64
56
66
57
63
66
69
72
86

80
90
80
80
78
74
70
76
85
91
85
85
90
87
91
99
97
97
93
89
83
101
113
95

86

85
96
77
72
73

Metals
and
metal
products
7

Fuel and
lighting

120

119
120
123
138
129
125
124
119
113
115
116
111
113
117
122

125
125
114
132
140
146
159
157
167
177
170
161
162
161
179
181
182
190
186
188
198
191
209
218
215
211

233
275
268
274
300
300
291
257
243

123
116
121
119

72
71
72
70
70
72
77
89
92
91
92
80
93
108
127
128
135
148
153
152
134
166
149
144
160
214
197
125
87
80
98
93
90
97
97

110

109
124
144
157
150
166
134
126
141 i
157
175
194
243
257
203
200

102
121
102

93
87
95
93
93
90

88

96
90
87
94

111

105

122
121

130
130
111
101
111

137

112

116
133
138
137
138
131
133
131
138
142
157
162
149
141
190
318
525
334
185
166

!
j

227
225
248
278
306
354
236
180
152
149
150
154
173
174
176
191
186
144
141
147
155
170
186
191
189
179
172
183
204
204
220
219
243
241
206
201
205
212
209
209
227
234
243
269
279
242
247
257
261
270
285
279
277
310
399
464
419
356
325

Building
materials
8

84
81
80
81
82
81
84
85
88
83
81
74
72
80
84
90
101
106
107

102

101
110

116
120
128
118
114
88
69
63
65
64
67
73
73
71
70
67
64
61
61
58
61
61
64
64
59
58
62
67
65
70
70
70
53
52
52
51
49
49
47
49
51
51
52
50
48
49
50
50
53
55
56
60
68

76
69
63
58
57

Chem­
icals
and
drugs
9
90
101
103
97
99
100

105
114

110
120
120
120

127
136
140
149
176
181
175
177
199
227
204
229
283
300
297
234
206
174
175
168
168
171
176
178
174
169
156
153
154
152
153
156
164
178
187
188
203
220

238
250
257
264
251
225

212
220

226

211

207
251
287
298
313
304
320
342
306
300
306
318
327
376
538
814
848
735
570
222

Housefur nishing goods

Spirits

Miscel­
laneous

10

11

12

91
94
94
92
94
99
105
110
109
109 l
117
105
109
118
123
134
149
160
159
154
164
178
178
196

220

214
222
165
124

110

117
118
121
130
128
129
129
128
118
117
114
110
111

117

110

74
80
77
79
79
81
83
80
81

83
82
82

86
86
88

78
75
73
74
78
86
117
146
154
150
106
45
28
21

23
24
23
27
30
31
27
22
19

20

89
80
73
75
74
78
78
93
93
90
91
90
88
95
98
98
111
115
125

120

128
136
153
162
170
175
189
146
122
98
98
98
102
107
114
103
103
96
89
86

21
21
22

88

20

86

24

107
108
99
113

21
20

121

19
17
19

128

21

25
25
25
25
23
19

22
22

23
19
19
19

21
21
22

19

20
21
21
22

24
29
31
34
41
48
37
34
31

92
99
99

85
96
109
111
113
108

122
120

119
130
126
109
105
110
111

111

117
113

112
110

114
119
119
118
129
124
144
149
156
177
202

246
251
234
204

115

E 1-24

PRICES AND PRICE INDEXES

Series E 1-12. Wholesale Price Indexes (Warren and Pearson), by Major Product Groups: 1749 to 1890—Con.
[1910-14 =100]

All com­
modities

Foods

1

Year

Farm
products
2

3

1810______ _
1809__
1808_____________
1807_____________
1806_____________
1805_____________
1804____________
1803_____________
1802_____________
1801_____________
1800_____________
1799_____________
1798_____________
1797
1796
1795
1794
1793
1791
1790
1789
1787
1786
1785
1784
1783- ___
1782
1781
1780 _ _ _______
1779_____________

131
130
115
130
134
141
126
118
117
142
129
126
122
131
146
131
108
102
85
90
86
90
90
92

90
83
71
92
95
106
89
83
84
113
99
98
93
98
116
102

76
75
57

68
68

78
75

139
129
113
142
150
162
142
135
132
177
157
147
145
163
186
163
135
125
99
104
94
103

Hides
and
leather
products
4
75
73
79
82
85
85
84
83
80
71
62
62
65

Textile
products

Fuel and
lighting

5

6

278
323
279
274
280
270
252
232
230
236
225
227
226

167
147
148
161
153
196
182
152
153
167
159
150
131
144
150
155
125
122
100

95
99
127

Metals
and
Building
metal
materials
products
7
8
332
59
350
60
336
57
327
59
328
58
309
58
300
56
290
53
301
55
348
55
322
51
310
51
304
51
299
54
284
58
259
56
258
40
240
39
240
34
247
35
250
35
236
36

Chem­
icals
and
drugs
9
483
538
455
440
519
511
493
431
377
445
427
523
442

Spirits

Miscel­
laneous

11

12

29
27
23
22
23
24
23
25
24
27
25
24
26
26
31
25
23
22
19
17
16
15

Year

All com­
modities
1

208
197
164
173
179
165
149
138
145
173
194
206
177
177
204
220

158
163
148
141
152
148

216
225
226

1778
1777
1776
1775
1774
1773
1772
1771
1770
1769
1768
1767
1766
1765
1764_____
1763
1762
1761
1760
1759
1758
1757
1756
1755
1754
1753
1752
1751
1750
1749_____

140
123

86

75
76
84
89
79
77
77
74
77
73
72
74
79
87
77
79
79
70
65

66
66

65
65
66
65
60

68

Series E 13-24. Wholesale Price Indexes (BLS), by Major Product Groups: 1890 to 1951
[1926=100]

Year

1951_________________________
1950_________________________
1949_________________________
1948_________________________
1947_________________________
1946_________________________
1945_________ , ______________
1944_________________________
1943_________________________
1942_________________________
1941_________________________
1940_________________________
1939_________________________
1938_________________________
1937_________________________
1936_________________________
1935_________________________
1934_________________________
1933_________________________
1932_________________________
1931_________________________
1930_________________________
1929_________________________
1928_________________________
1927_________________________
1926_________________________
1925_________________________
1924_________________________
1923___ _____________________
1922_________________________
1921_________________________
1920_________________________
1919_________________________
1918_________________________
1917_________________________
1916_______________________ _
1915_________________________
1914_________________________
1913_________________________
1912_________________________
1911_________________________

116




All com­
modities
13
180.4
161.5
155.0
165.1
152.1

121.1

105.8
104.0
103.1
98.8
87.3
78.6
77.1
78.6
86.3
80.8
80.0
74.9
65.9
64.8
73.0
86.4
95.3
96.7
95.4

100.0

103.5
98.1
100.6
96.7
97.6
154.4
138.6
131.3
117.5
85.5
69.5
68.1
69.8
69.1
64.9

All
commod­
ities
Farm
other than products
farm
products
and foods
14
15
196.1
169.4
170.4
153.2
165.5
147.3
188.3
151.0
181.2
135.2
148.9
109.5
128.2
99.7
123.3
98.5
122.6
96.9
105.9
95.5
82.4
89.0
67.7
83.0
81.3
65.3
81.7
68.5
86.4
85.3
80.9
79.6
77.9
78.8
78.4
65.3
71.2
51.4
48.2
70.2
64.8
75.0
85.2
88.3
91.6
104.9
105.9
92.9
94.0
99.4
100.0

102.6

99.7
104.3
102.4
104.9
161.3
128.8
124.6
114.2
88.3
68.0

66.4
70.0

100.0

109.8
100.0
98.6
93.8
88.4
150.7
157.6
148.0
129.0
84.4
71.5
71.2
71.5
72.6

66.8

Foods
16
186.9
166.2
161.4
179.1
168.7
130.7
106.2
104.9
106.6
99.6
82.7
71.3
70.4
73.6
85.5
82.1
83.7
70.5
60.5
61.0
74.6
90.5
99.9
101.0
96.7

100.0
100.2

91.0
92.7
87.6
90.6
137.4
129.5
119.1
104.5
75.7
65.4
64.7
64.2
66.8
62.0

Hides and Textile
leather
products products
17
221.4
191.9
180.4
188.8
182.4
137.2
118.1
116.7
117.5
117.7
108.3

18
172.2
148.0
140.4
149.8
141.7
116.3

HouseFuel and Metals and Building Chemicals furnishing
metal
lighting products materials and allied
products
goods
20

21

22

100.0

98.4
97.4
96.9
84.8
73.8
69.7
66.7
76.3
71.5
70.9
72.9
64.8
54.9
66.3
80.3
90.4
95.5
95.6

100.0

19
138.2
133.2
131.7
134.2
108.7
90.1
84.0
83.0
80.8
78.5
76.2
71.7
73.1
76.5
77.6
76.2
73.5
73.3
66.3
70.3
67.5
78.5
83.0
84.3
88.3

189.2
173.6
170.2
163.6
145.0
115.5
104.7
103.8
103.8
103.8
99.4
95.8
94.4
95.7
95.7
87.0
86.4
86.4
79.8
80.2
84.5
92.1
100.5
97.0
96.3

225.5
206.0
193.4
199.1
179.7
132.6
117.8
115.5
111.4
110.2
103.2
94.8
90.5
90.3
95.2
86.7
85.3
86 2
77.0
71.4
79.2
89.9
95.4
94.1
94.7

143.3
122.7
118.6
135.7
127.3
101.4
95.2
95.2
94.9
95.5
84.4
77.0
76.0
77.0
82.6
78.7
79.0
75.3
72.1
73.9
79.3
88.7
94.0
95.0
96.1

105.3
101.5
104.2
104.6
109.2
171.3
174.1
125.7
123.8
93.4
75.5
70.9
68.1
64.5
58.8

108.3
106.7
111.3
100.2
94.5
164.8
135.3
137.2
98.7
70.4
54.1
54.6
57.3
55.7
55.5

96.5
92.0
97.3
107.3
96.8
163.7
104.3
109.2
105.4
74.3
51.8
56.6
61.3
51 4
46.7

103.2
106.3
109.3
102.9
117.5
149.4
130.9
136.5
150.6
116.5
86.3
80.2
90.8
89.5
80.8

101.7
102.3
108.7
97.3
97.4
150.1
115.6
98.6
88.2
67.6
53.5
52.7
56.7
55.9
55.3

100.8

95.6
92.8
104.6
95.4
89.6
86.6
80.9
72.9
86.1

100.0

109.1
121.4
107.7

100.1

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

101.8

98.9
100.3
115.0
164.7
157.0
182.3
165.0
160.7

101.1

112.0

81.4
80.2
80. 7
81.6

23
176.0
153.2
145.3
144.5
131.1

111.6

104.5
104.3
102.7
102.4
94.3
88.5
86.3
86.8
89.7
81.7
80.6
81.5
75.8
75.1
84.9
92.7
94.3
95.1
97.5

100.0

103.1
104.9
108.9
103.5
113.0
141.8
105.9
93.3
74.2
61.4
56.0
56.5
56.1
53 .0
52.7

Miscel­
laneous
24
141.0
120.9
112.3
120.5
115.5
100.3
94.7
93.6
92.2
89.7
82.0
77.3
74.8
73.3
77.8
70.5
68.3
69.7
62.5
64.4
69.8
77.7
82.6
85.4
91.0

100.0

109.0
93.6
99.7
92.8
109.2
167.5
139.1
134.4

122.1
100.6

86.9
89.9
93.1
106.4
108! 6

WHOLESALE PRICE INDEXES

Series E 13-24. Wholesale Price Indexes (BLS), by Major Product Groups: 1890 to 1951—Con.

E 13-41

[1926=100]

All
commod­
ities
All com­ other than Farm
modities
products
farm
products
and foods
14
13
70.4
74.3
67.6
62.9
65.2
61.8
56.4
60.1
58.5
59.7
55.6
59.6
58.4
58.9
52.8
55.3
50.5
56.1
52.2
45.8
44.9
48.5
46.6
42.5
39.6
46.5
43.9
48.8
44 .6
47.9
53.4
51.3
52.2
49.5
54.2
55.8
50.4
56.2

Year

1910
1909
1908
1907
1906
1905
1904.
1903
1902
1901.
1900.
1899.
1898.
1897.
1896.
1895.
1894.
1893.
1892.
1891.
1890.

Hides and Textile
leather
products products
16
64.9
62.6
58.7
57.0
53.4
55.1
54.0
52.0
53.3
50.5
50.8
47.7
47.8
45.5
44.1
47.3
48.2
54.7
51.0
54.8
55.5

HouseFuel and Metals and Building Chemicals furnishing
metal
lighting products materials and allied
products
goods

18
58.4
56.5
54.8
63.5
58.7
54.1
52.9
52.8
49.4
48.1
53.3
47.7
44.9
42.9
43.1
44.3
46.1
54.1
55.2
54.6
57.8

17
60.2
61.5
55.6
58.0
57.7
53.9
49.7
49.9
50.8
48.9
49.4
49.4
48.3
45.9
45.2
49.4
43.0
45.1
47.2
47.9
47.5

19
47.6
51.6
53.7
54.4
52.0
49.6
53.3
60.3
51.8
44.6
46.3
41.2
34.5
33.9
39.5
40.3
34.3
35.3
34.8
37.0
38.1

20

85.2
84.5
86.3
109.8
102.4
89.1
79.9
90.2
91.0
93.1
98.0
100.0
65.3
65.0
71.2
70.4
65.7
76.8
84.0
92.2
105.3

21

22

82.0
79.9
79.6
78.5
76.8
82.3
84.1
84.1
86.5
84.2
82.1
81.1
77.4
70.9
65.0
64.7
65.5
72.7
74.6
74.0
73.2

55.3
53.7
52.0
56.8
54.0
48.1
45.0
46.7
45.3
44.3
46.2
43.6
39.6
37.4
38.9
38.8
39.8
41.6
41.7
44.2
46.5

23
54.0
51.7
51.6
55.0
51.3
49.7
50.3
50.9
49.2
48.9
48.9
45.0
44.0
42.5
43.4
43.5
45.3
48.1
48.1
50.4
49.9

Miscel­
laneous
24
152.7
129.6
97.8
108.2
115.3
117.4
109.5
98.9
88.1
93.4
102.0
97.4
93.4
92.5
90.2
88.9
86.4
89.0
86.6
94.3
97.9

Series E 25-41. Wholesale Price Indexes (BLS), by Major Product Groups: 1913 to 1957
[1947-49=100]

All
commod­
ities
All
other Farm
commod­ than products
farm
Year
ities
products
and
foods
26
27
25
90.9
1957____ 117.6 125.6
88.4
1956____ 114.3 122.2
89.6
1955___ 110.7 117.0
95.6
1954___ 110.3 114.5
97.0
1953____ 110.1 114.0
1952____ 111.6 113.2 107.0
1951___ 114.8 115.9 113.4
97.5
1950____ 103.1 105.0
92.8
1949____ 99.2 101.3
1948___ 104.4 103.4 107.3
1947___
96.4
95.3 100.0
83.2
1946____ 78.7" 78.3
71.6
71.3
1945____ 68.8
70.4
68.9
1944____ 67.6
1943___
67.0
69.3
68.5
1942____ 64.2
68.3
59.2
1941____ 56.8
63.7
46.0
1940____ 51.1
59.4
37.8
58.1
36.5
1939____ 50.1
1938____ 51.1
58.4
38.3
1937___
56.1
61.0
48.3
1936____ 52.5
56.9
45.2
1935___
52.0
55.7
44.0
1934____ 48.7
56.0
36.5
1933____ 42.8
50.9
28.7
50.2
26.9
1932____ 42.1
1931____ 47.4
53.6
36.2
1930____ 56.1
60.9
49.3
1929____ 61.9
65.5
58.6
1928____ 62.9
66.4
59.2
67.2
1927____ 62.0
55.5
1926____ 65.0
71.5
55.9
1925____ 67.3
73.4
61.3
1924____ 63.8
71.3
5£>.9
74.6
1923____ 65.4
55.1
73.2
1922____ 62.8
52.4
1921____ 63.4
49.4
75.0
1920____ 100.3 115.3
84.2
1919____ 90.1
92.1
88.0
89.1
82.7
1918____ 85.3
1917____ 76.4
81.7
72.1
1916____ 55.6
63.1
47.1
48.6
39.9
1915____ 45.2
1914____ 44.3
47.5
39.8
191a____
45.4
50.0
39.9
488910 0 - 6 0 - 9




Proc­
essed
foods

Furni­
Hides, Fuel,
Pulp,
Textile skins, power, Chem­ Rubber Lumber paper, Metals Machin­ ture
icals
ery
and
and
and
and
products leather, and
and
and
and
other
metal
and lighting allied rubber wood
and
allied products motive house­
apparel leather materials products products products products
products hold
products
durables

29
28
105.6
95.4
101.7
95.3
101.7
95.3
105.3
95.2
104.6
97.3
108.8 ’ 99.8
111.4 110.6
99.8
99.2
95.7
95.5
106.1 104.4
98.2 100.1
77.6
82.6
71.1
60.8
69.9
60.4
61.6
69.2
59.1
68.9
50.5
60.3
43.6
52.4
43.3
49.5
45.6
47.4
52.4
54.2
50.8
50.1
52.1
50.4
42.6
51.8
46.0
36.3
39.0
36.5
47.1
44.8
53.3
57.1
64.2
58.5
67.9
59.4
56.7
67.9
58.2
71.1
77.0
57.8
75.8
53.3
79.1
55.1
51.0
71.2
54.0
67.1
81.9 117.1
78.2
96.1
97.5
73.1
70.1
63.6
45.8
50.0
39.9
38.4
39.2
38.8
38.2
40.7

30
99.4
99.3
93.8
94.2
98.5
97.2
120.3
104.6
96.9

102.1
101.0

74.6
64.2
63.4
63.9
64.0
58.9
54.8
52.0
50.5
56.9
51.9
48.7
47.1
44.0
39.7
46.8
54.4
59.3
66.0
58.5
54.4
57.3
55.2
56.7
56.9
59.4
93.1
94.7
68.3
67.3
50.8
41.1
38.5
37.0

31
117.2

111.2

107.9
108.1
109.5
106.6
106.7
103.0
101.9
107.1
90.9
76.2
71.1
70.3
68.4
66.4
64.5
60.7
61.8
64.7
65.7
64.5
62.2
62.0
56.1
59.5
57.2
66.5
70.2
71.4
74.7
84.6
81.7
77.9
82.4
90.8
81.9
138.5
88.3
92.4
89.2
62.9
43.8
47.9
51.9

109.5
107.2
106.6
107.0
105.7
104.5
110.0

96.3
94.8
103.8
101.4
76.3
70.6
70.2
69.5
69.3
61.6
56.6
55.8
55.9
59.0
56.4
56.0
53.7
51.2

33
145.2
145.8
143.8
126.9
125.0
134.0
148.0
120.5
98.9
102.1
99.0
99.4
98.9
102.0
103.3
100.6
86.5
80.2
86.3
82.7
84.4
71.7
66.4
65.8
56.8
53.8
62.0
73.0
83.5
96.0
121.0
159.3

34
119.0
125.4
123.6
118.0
120.2
120.3
123.9
113.9
99.2
107.2
93.7
60.3
52.5
51.9
48.0
45.4
41.8
35.2
31.6
30.8
33.7
28.7
27.4
28.5
24.2
20.3
23.8
29.4
31.9
30.8
31.6
33.7

129.6
127.2
119.3
116.3
116.1
116.5
119.6
100.9
98.5
102.9
98.6

36
151.2
148.4
136.6
128.0
126.9
123.0
122.8
110.3
104.8
103.9
91.3
73.9
65.9
64.8
64.8
64.9
64.0
62.8
62.6
63.1
65.6
57.3
56.2
56.2
50.9
49.9
54.1
60.3
67.0
64.5
64.6
68.9
70.7
70.1
74.2
62.7
67.1
97.7
85.3
98.4
116.7
84.5
52.7
44.3
51.4

146.1
137.8
128.4
124.6.
123.0
121.5
119.0
108.6
106.6
100.9
92.5
80.3
71.6
71.0
71.0
71.2
68.6

122.2
119.1
115.9
115.4
114.2
112.0
114.1
105.3
103.1
101.4
95.6
83.0
78.6
78.4
76.4
76.8
71.2

66.2

66.8

65.3

65.4
65.6
67.2
60.6
59.8
60.2
55.5
55.4
62.8
68.2
69.3
69.9
71.7
73.5
75.4
76.3
80.3
76.0
85.2
101.5
75.2
63.6
53.4
46.6
43.9
43.4
43.4

N onmetallic
minerals,
struc­
tural

134.6
129.6
124.2
120.9
118.2
113.6
113.6
106.9
104.4
101.7
93.9
84.2
79.1
75.9
74.5
74.1
71.3
69.7
69.5
71.1
73.4
71.7
71.6
71.6
66.9
63.4
67.6
72.4
72.6
73.8
71.4
74.5

Tobacco
manu­
factures Miscel­
and
laneous
bottled products
bever­
ages
126.1
122.3
121.6

120.6
115.7
111.8
109.4
103.5
102.3
100 .5
97. z
89.7
85.8
83.4
83.0
79.1
78.1
77.3
76.4
76.4
76.5
75.8
75.9
76.0
72.8
81.4
84.6
87.1
86.6
86.9

89.6
91.0
92.0
102 .597.8
108.3
104.9
96.6
96.1
103.1

100.8

88.0
88.0

117

E 42-67

PRICES AND PRICE INDEXES

Series E 42-55. Wholesale Price Indexes (BLS), for Economic Sectors, by Stage of Processing: 1913 to 1957
[1947-49=100]

Crude materials for
further processing
All
commod­
ities

Year

42
117.6
114.3
110.7
110.3

1957_______________
1956_______________
1955_______________
1954_______________
1953_______________
1952_______________
1951_______________
1950_______________
1949_______________
1948_______________
1947_______________
1946_______________

110.1
111.6

114.8
103.1
99.2
104.4
96.4
78.7

42
1945____
1944____
1943____
1942____
1941___
1940____
1939____
1938____
1937____
1936____
1935____
1 Goods

Food­ Nonfood
stuffs materials,
and feed­ except
fuel
stuff’s

43
97.2
95.0
94.5
98.3
99.2
107.4
116.9
101.8

93.4
108.0
98.6
80.0

Inter­
Crude
mediate
materials materials,
for
further supplies,
processing and com­
ponents
43
47
69.4
62.8
67.3
61.6
66.6
60.8
59.8
60.6
49.6
56.9
42.7
51.8
41.7
50.4
42.8
49.4
50.4
55.9
47.5
49.7
45.8
48.2

All
commod­
ities

Year

Total

68.8

67.6
67.0
64.2
56.8
51.1
50.1
51.1
56.1
52.5
52.0

44
87.7
84.0
85.7
94.7
94.6
105.7
112.3
97.0
90.5
108.8
100.7

Finished
goods 1
53
69.0
68.4
67.9
66.9
60.4
55.3
54.5
55.7
59.1
55.6
55.7

45
112.5
114.2
110.1

104.2
106.2
110.9
128.1

111.0

97.2
106.8
96.0

Year

Fuel
46
119.7
113.3
105.8
106.0
111.0
107.2
106.5
104.6
105.0
105.6
89.4
All
commod­
ities
42
48.7
42.8
42.1
47.4
56.1
61.9
62.9
62.0
65.0
67.3
63.8

1934__
1933__
1932__
1931__
1930__
1929 —
1928__
1927__
1926__
1925__
1924__

Total
47
125.1

122.1

117.0
114.8
114.1
113.5
116.9
104.3
99.9
104.0
96.2

Intermediate materials,
supplies, and components
Materials and
components
Processed Con­
for—
fuels and tainers, Supplies
nonlubricants returnable
Manufac­ Construc­
turing
tion
49
50
51
48
52
126.9
132.9
113.0
134.3
112.5
123.7
132.0
106.7
128.5
111.3
118.2
103.5
125.6
119.8
108.5
115.4
120.9
103.5
118.2
110.2
115.2
120.2
103.6
116.2
107.8
113.4
102.8
116.0
118.3
113.5
118.4
104.2
119.1
122.7
113.5
104.5
99.7
108.9
104.4
100.8
99.6
97.8
103.5
101.7
97.5
104.0
107.4
103.2
101.3
103.5
96.4
93.3
94.8
97.0
99.0
72.6
78.7

Inter­
Crude
mediate
materials materials,
for
further supplies,
processing and com­
ponents
43
47
40.8
47.7
33.6
42.8
32.7
38.8
39.0
45.2
50.1
53.6
57.9
61.5
58.9
61.9
57.3
61.8
59.4
65.5
63.4
69.0
58.0
71.2

Finished
goods 1
53
53.0
47.8
47.7
52.2
59.7
64.1
65.0
64.4
67.8
68.2

65.3

Year

All
commod­
ities

1923__
1922 —
1921 —
1920-__
1919__
1918 —
1917__
1916__
1915__
1914__
1913__

42
65.4
62.8
63.4
100.3
90.1
85.3
76.4
55.6
45.2
44.3
45.4

Finished goods 1
Con­
sumer

Total

54

53
118.1
114.0
110.9
110.7
110.4
111.5

111.1

108.0
106.4
107.1
107.1
109.0
110.3
100.9
99.2
104.1
96.8

112.1

102.4
103.5
95.9

100.6

Inter­
Crude
mediate
materials materials,
for
supplies,
further
processing and com­
ponents
43
47
77.7
58.5
64.8
57.0
52.5
62.9
90.2
129.8
86.7
103.3
80.7
100.7
72.9
98.5
49.1
77.5
39.9
53.2
45.8
40.2
40.9
49.0

Pro­
ducer
55
146.7
138.1
128.5
124.7
123.1
121.3
119.3
108.7
106.1
101.1
92.8

Finished
goods 1
53
67.3
65.4
70.0
101.6
88.6

84.6
74.0
55.8
46.7
46.0
47.1

to users, including raw foods and fuel.

Series E 56-64. Wholesale Price Indexes (BLS), by Durability of Product: 1947 to 1957
Year
1957_____________________________________
1956_____________________________________
1955_____________________________________
1954_____________________________________
1953_____________________________________
1952_____________________________________
1951_____________________________________
1950_____________________________________
1949_____________________________________
1948_____________________________________
1947_____________________________________

Total
56
117.6
114.3
110.7
110.3

110.1
111.6

114.8
103.1
99.2
104.4
96.4

[1947-49=100]
All commodities
Manufactures
Durable
Nondurable
Total
Durable
Nondurable
57
58
59
60
61
141.4
104.7
123.2
142.0
108.4
136.7
102.1
119.5
136.8
105.8
128.2
101.2
128.5
115.0
104.3
123.3
103.4
113.7
124.1
105.5
122.2
103.6
112.8
122.6
105.2
119.8
107.2
120.0
112.9
107.4
119.3
112.4
115.5
119.3
112.5
108.8
100.1
104.1
108.9
100.3
104.7
96.2
100.3
105.1
96.5
102.5
105.4
103.8
102.1
105.1
92.8
98.4
95.9
92.7
98.5

Raw or is lightly processed goods
Total
Durable
Nondurable
62
63
64
98.9
122.3
97.7
97.0
136.3
94.9
96.6
121.6
95.3
99.3
100.9
99.2
101.1
110.6
100.6
107.3
116.0
106.8
112.5
119.6
112.1
99.9
105.9
99.6
95.5
91.1
95.8
106.4
113.3
106.0
98.1
95.6
98.2

Series E 65-67. Wholesale Price Indexes (BLS), by 2 Levels of Processing, for Identical Commodities: 1890 to 1926
[1913 =100]

Year

All
commod­
ities
(97 series)

1926_______________
1925_______________
1924_______________
1923_______________
1922_______________
1921_______________
1920_______________
1919_______________
1918_______________
1917_______________
1916_______________
1915_______________

118




65
145.3
154.1
142.6
142.0
133.5
131.6
225.3
215.4
205.9
183.3
127.6
102.9

Raw
commod­
ities
(27 series)
66

139.4
150.7
139.1
138.2
130.0

121.2

220.3
216.0
208.0
184.0
125.4
101.0

Manu­
factured
commod­
ities
(70 series)
67
154.6
159.6
148.2
148.1
139.1
147.7
233.2
214.6
202.6
182.1
131.0
105.9

Year
1914_______________
1913_______________
1912_______________
1911_______________
1910_______________
1909_______________
1908_______________
1907_______________
1906_______________
1905_______________
1904_______________
1903_______________
1902. _ _________

All
commod­
ities
(97 series)
65
99.6
100.0
96.9
88.9
97.8
93.7
87.3
89.6
83.7
82.3
81.9
80.2
81.0

Manu­
Raw
All
factured
commod­ commod­
commod­
ities
ities
Year
(27 series) (70ities
(97 series)
series)
66
67
65
98.7
101.0
1901_______________
75.8
100.0
100.0
95.1
99.7 1900_______________
76.8
86.3
92.9 1899_______________
71.7
1898_______________
66.1
95.4
101.4 1897
62 7
91.1
97.8 1896
61.7
83.7
92.8
86.6
94.2 1895
65.2
81.3
87.5 1894
63.0
1893
71.7
78.2
88.5 1892
69 7
79.1
86.2
1891
75.1
76.5
85.9
77.1
86.9 1890
76.1

Manu­
Raw
factured
commod­ commod­
ities
(27 series) (70ities
series)
66
67
72.2
81.5
72.8
83.0
67.4
78.5
61.2
73.6
57 2
71 2
56.2
70 .1
60.5
72.5
56.8
72 .4
64.2
83.2
62 0
81 5
68.3
85.6
86.6
69.3




WHOLESALE PRICE INDEXES

68

-

82. Wholesale Price Indexes (Bezanson), for Philadelphia: 1720 to
Source
Do­
mestic

94.7
95.7
98.7
94.8
106.1
103.7
107.6
105.6
96.8
89.5
86.4
85.2
81.6
84.2
90.7
83.4
82.3
77.4
77.2
85.1
93.6
96.8
110.8
103.2
109.7
113.0
99.9
91.6
93.8
91.8
89.7
84.7
90.2
90.7
93.2
96.3
97.4
94.4
99.7
105.4
100.5
108.6
123.8
138.8
145.1
159.5
160.8
159.0
135.5
125.6
134.2
131.6
121.9
112.4
121.9
125.8
131.6
123.9
115.9
118
129
121

115
123
134
140
125.3
101.6
91.2
85.5
84.7
83,
76
78,
85,
90.0
97.0
104.8

Unweighted geometric average (1821-25 =100)
Major groups
Industrial
Lumber
Im­ products
Indus­
Con­
ported
and
trial
Raw
sump­
Crops Deriva­ foods naval
tives
tion
stores
77
74
76

Type

Im­
ported

84.9
83.0
88.0
99.9
99.2
96.5
91.5
82.3
74.8
76.7

78.2
82.0
80.2
80.5
82.4
81.4
79.1
81.6
86.6
87.1
85.4
88.6
91.6
92.3
94.7
99.9
93.8
97.3
102.9
103.8
104.7
116.4
125.0
122.9
146.6
186.4
223.4
187.8
158.6
139.4
147.3
151.1
133.6
123.7
128.8
130.8
132.6
124.9
129.5
137.4
138.0
142.2
131.9
135.8
142.6
141.3
120.7
103.0
99.3
96.5
89.9
88.8
89.7
92.7
93.8
93.5
97.7

Agri­
cul­
tural

111.6

118.0
123.3
115.4
134.8
128.8
142.5
131.8
117.4
107.7

102.2

98.6
94.0
97.4
112.8
93.2
90.1
81.1
81.1
89.0
102.2
107.6
136.6
123.3
131.0
135.7
115.4
97.6
101.9
99.7
97.0
87.3
90.9
89.5
95.0
100.3
97.0
92.6
101.5
107.9
97.5
109.2
132.9
160.3
178.0
177.8
161.1
151.5
133.4
126.3
129.4
133.4
119.3
109.4
126.0
135.5
142.0
126.9
114.7
120.5
143.8
129.6
123.3
128.8
135.9
144.6
129.6
108.7
97.8
88.0
88.4
93.5
80.7
84.5
97.5
101.6
101.8

107.0

79.9
83.2
84.0
85.3
92.5
93.9
93.1
90.7
82.8
75.1
75.9
77.1
76.1
78.7
80.6
78.9
78.6
79.0
78.7
83.2
87.1
89.8
95.6
92.6
95.3
93.8
87.3
86.4
88.3
88.2
87.1
84.2
88.7
90.2
92.2
94.0
97.0
94.9
98.2
103.3
104.7
105.7
113.5
1£1.8
121.8
143.2
175
205
175
153
141
146.2
145.9
132.6
128.4
131.7
131.9
129.5
123.1
124.0
131.6
130.5
133.4
129.0
130.0
136.0
130.4
110.7
92.8
89.4
87.0
85.4
85.2
85.4
88.3

88.6
90.9
96.9

117.9
113.8
124.3
115.6
136.8
129.9
147.7
135.5
116.4
107.6
110.0
109.2
100.1
103.7
123.1
101.7
94.2
87.7
88.0
97.1
111.8
109.5
146.7
123.9
132.0
142.8
126.6
101.3
102.2
99.6
94.3
84.3
91.1
86.5
96.8
106.7
100.5
91.4
101.8
107.7
95.3
112.9
136.7
162.5
183.5
185.0
154.1
147.5
133.2
120.5
122.2

130.3
115.7
108.7
125.9
132.3
145.5
130.9
120.6
121.7
142.7
129.0
127.4
136.6
142.8
147.8
124
104
88.4
88.3
96.6
84.6
89.3
104.2
106.1
105.9
101.7

106.4
121.7
122.4
115.2
133.1
127.9
138.2
128.7
118.3
107.7
95.9
90.3
89.1
92.4
104.6
86.4
86 .
75.
75.
82.
94.
106.0
128.5
122.9
130.3
129.8
106.5
94.6
101.7
99.8
99.4
89.9
90.7
92.2
93.4
95.1
94.1
93.7
101.3
108.1
99.4
106.2
129.6
158.4
173.5
171.8
167.3
154.9
133.7
131.6
135.9
136.1
122.5
110.0
126.0
138.2
139.0
123.4
109.9
119.4
144.8
130.1
120.0
122.4
130.2
141.8
134.6
112.3
96.9
87.7
88.4
90.8
77.4
80.6
92.1
97.9
98.4

111.8

67.3
64.7
63.1
66.0
86.5
83.0
75.1
75.1
71.8
65.4
71.3
71.5
64.3
64.8
72.2
71.7
73.1
68.6
64.3
60.8
65.0
63.7
67.2
67.4
68.5
75.0
74.8
68.0
71.7
84.4
81.2
80.7
84.9
90.1
91.9
96.1
102.4
92.3
95.3
103.6
103.5
107.7
126.1
136.6
133.0
157.8
194.8
217.7
182.4
143.8
127.0
134.2
146.8
135.7
128.8
138.3
142.8
142.2
130.8
137.3
144.2
155.3
158.7
152.3
169.3
178.3
173.3
143.7
133.3
132.5
128.7
109.3
102.7
107.5
110.9
113.0
110.7
122.0

125.0
100.0
103.3
97.2
99.9
92.5
100.2
111.0

101.2
92.9
87.9
79.1
73.2
72.6
75.3
78.4
75.5
70.2
75.7
83.0

88.6

90.1
95.0
94.0
97.6
105.2
99.0
94.1
91.6
87.4
84.7
80.9
89.8
96.2
95.5
98.0
102.8

97.8
100.1
102.5
95.6
109.1
121.5
126.9
123.4
146.3
165.8
176.6
132.9
120.7
132.5
138.6
131.3
113.9
114.3
114.8
124.7
126.6
125.0
115.2
120.5
116.2
104.8
122.7
133.9
130.7
114.2
86.6
79.1
72.4
74.2
67.0
60.5
56.5
59.9
69.6
92.4
104.3

82.5
87.0
87.1
86.9
93.8
94.3
92.7
92.1
86.8
78.2
78.9
80.1
78.1
80.6
82.6
80.9
81.4
82.4
81.7
87.2
90.9
93.1
99.3
94.7
97.2
97.4
89.9
90.1
90.1
88.7
88.6
85.3
89.9
91.8
94.4
97.2
101.0
95.5
97.6
102.2
101.8
101.8
109.6
118.3
117.2
141.8
175.1
209.5
177.0
158.3
146.1
151.3
148.1
136.3
133.9
135.3
130.9
131.6
126.1
125.7
132.1
131.5
132.9
125.4
125.4
126.1
124.9
104.2
91.7
88.7
87.3
89.9
91.1
91.7
93.7
95.9
100.6

103.9

76.2
77.8
79.6
82.9
90.5
93.4
93.6
88.8
77.2
70.7
71.6
72.8
73.1
75.9
77.7
76.1
74.7
74.2
74.3
77.5
81.8
85.2
90.5
89.6
92.6
88.6

83.6
81.3
85.7
87.5
84.9
82.7
87.0
87.9
89.0
89.4
91.4
93.9
99.1
104.9
109.3
111.8
119.4
127.0
128.8
145.1
175.0
199.9
174.2
147.0
135.7
138.9
142.6
127.4
120.7
126.4
133.3
126.5
118.9
121.4
130.9
129.1
134.2
134.6
137.1
152.0
138.9
121.0
94.4
90.6
86.5
79.2
77.1
76.8
80.8
78.7
78.3
87.4

Fish

Unreigh
aritl
meti
ivera
1741
=

10 '

79

82

118.5
150.8
152.4
136.5
161.9
156.8
153.4
156.7
146.5
135.7
118.7
126.1
104.0
118.4
123.1
119.6
128.3
126.5
107.7
109.3
131.8
139.7
177.5
130.7
120.3
124.9

167
164
176
165
198
194
234
211
171
152
144
147
146
149
177
144
142
129
131
135
152
165
203
211
233
217
181
163
171
166
165
150
172
165
161
160
163
163
179
183
160
180
223
276
307
298
337
371
286
257
260
249
224
192
217
233
262
241
212 ,
211
274.

111

91
92
86 ,
97
88.0

91.4
96.4
95.4
84.1

99.4
105.0
106.8
99.2
108.5
137.9
164.4
155.1
196.8
220.5
227.8
174.7
165.0
157.7
140.2
136.9
128.1
167.6
171.7
163.0
147.9
138.2
167.1
169.4
124.6
146.2
189.5
226.3
211.0

200.3
141.9
113.8
116.5
117.1
105.5
103.5
103.5
116.2
117.8
121.9
127.9

266’
295.
257.
174'
156.
149.
160.
128.
120 .
135.
145.
158.
172.

E 68-89

PRICES AND PRICE INDEXES

Series E 68-82. Wholesale Price Indexes (Bezanson), for Philadelphia: 1720 to 1861—Con.
Year

Un­
weighted
arithmetic
average
(1741-45
= 100)
82

1774________________
1773________________
1772_ __ _ _
1771________________
1770________________
1769________________
1768________________
1767________________
1766________________
1765________________
1764________________

127.5
133.7
141.0
126.7
121.6

115.9
119.7
123.7
124.7
118.4
119.4

Un­
weighted
arithmetic
average
(1741-45
= 100)
82

Year

1763________________
1762________________
1761__ __
1760________________
1759________________
1758________________
1757________________
1756________________
1755________________
1754________________
1753________________

136.4
133.4

121.2

125.7
125.0
109.6
107.1
109.6
107.3
109.1
109.9

Un­
weighted
arithmetic
average
(1741-45
= 100)
82

Year

1752________________
1751________________
1750________________
1749________________
1748________________
1747________________
1746________________
1745________________
1744________________
1743________________
1742________________

111.9

112.8

113.0
121.5
124.7
110.6
99.7
92.7
90.9
95.6
108.3

Un­
weighted
arithmetic
average
(1741-45
= 100)
82

Year

1741________________
1740. _ _ _
1739________________
1738________________
1737________________
1736________________
1735________________
1734________________
1733________________
1732________________
1731________________

112.6

87.3
82.2
91.1
91.1
83.6
87.8
87.2
90.0
83.6
87.1

Un­
weighted
arithmetic
average
(1741-45
= 100)
82

Year

1730________________
1729________________
1728
1727________________
1726________________
1725________________
1724___________ ___
1723___________ ___
1722________________
1721________________
1720________________

98.0
92.5
92 8
97.6

101.0

96.6
88.9
84.3
81.6
78.6
86.2

Series E 83-89. Wholesale Price Indexes (Taylor), for Charleston, S. C.: 1732 to 1861
Year

All
All
commodities
(1818-42 commodities
= 100)

S. C.
export
staples

U. S.
products,
other than
S. C.
export

Foreign
imports 1

Year

All
All
commodities
(1818-42 commodities
= 100)
84

85
1843-61=100
1861
1860
1859
1858
1857
1856
1855
1854
1853
1852
1851
1850.
1849
1848
1847.
1846
1845
1844
1843

113
94
94
90
106
97
84
77
78

133

111
111

106
125
114
115
103
99
91
92

102
86

79
105

105
116

120
120

135
116
108
100
108
96
97
123
85

66
110

82
80
77

74
85
107
103
108

107
103
108

108
93
93
86
81
82
82
85
87
92
109

108
93
93
86
81
82
82
85
87
92
109
93
98
108

121

121

67
81
75
108
88
92
129
123
97
94
78
70
78
72
80
77
83
133
99
94
100
103

144
113
112
99
123
116
132
111
96
91
90
85

86
100

85
82
74
74

80

88

90
114
123
133
124
100

91
93
91

80
85
81
87
96
84
82
94
108
92
97
138
160

166
96
92
94
109
109
95
79
84
91
90
92
107
105

1822
1821
1820
1819
1818.
1817.
1816
1815
1814
1813

1812
1811
106 1810
106 1809
1808
1807
1806
1805
75 1804
86 1803
1802
83 1801
90
92 1800
90 1799
100 1798
1797
91 1796
91
89
89
102

93
97
103
104
104

1791 - _
1790-.
1789._
1788-1787__
1786__
108
113
101
101
1785______________
121
114 1784______________
110
110
131
128 1783______________
133
133
220
179
135 1782______________
179
1781___________ _
1780______________
1 Combination for 1796 to 1822 designated as “Other than South Carolina export staples.’
3 Based on part of year only.
* Includes goods imported from abroad and from other parts of the United States,

120




86,

87

1813-22 =100

1818-42 =100
1842.
1841.
1840.
1839.
1838.
1837.
1836.
1835.
1834
1833.
1832
1831.
1830
1829.
1828.
1827.
1826
1825
1824
1823
1822
1821
1820
1819
1818

Other than
S. C.
export
staples 1

S. C.
export

110
102
111
122

198

79
67
71
99
110
131
116
115

101
110

133
179
-189
172
149
123
109

110
101

1796-1812 =100
95
96
96
90
87
107
109
126
114
112
106
136
123
133
129
122
145

84
85
85
79
76
94
97

63
70
80
74
70

106

100

91
85
83
88
92
105
102
90
91
118
103
110
106
108

100
101

98
93

116
100
106
96

108
117
114
108
128

114
125
123
108
134

111
101

122

120

12 2

S. C. products
(1762-74=100)
88

92
97
88
97
108
108
100
110

3192
138
3118

Imported 2
(1781,1784-91=100)
89

110

119
113
128
142
142
135
150
3 250
170
*137

106
106
86
87
97
98
84

86

*178
150
*146

E 83-95

WHOLESALE PRICE INDEXES
Series E 83-89.

Year

All
commod­
ities
(1818-42
= 100)

S. C.
products
(1762-74
= 100)

Wholesale Price Indexes (Taylor), for Charleston, S. C.: 1732 to 1861— Con.
All
commod­
ities
(1818-42
= 100)
83

Year

88

1775.
1774.
1773.
1772
1771
1770.
1769
1768.
1767
1766
1765
3 Based

380
81
91
107
84
72
81
80
74
78

3102

104
116
137
108
93
104
102
94

100

87

67
72
60
62
72
87
67
61
60
67
67

1764
1763
1762
1761
1760
1759
1758
1757
1756
1755
1754

All
commod­
ities
(1818-42
= 100)
83

S. C.
products
(1762-74
= 100)
88

92
77
80
92

112
86

78
77

86
86

1753
1752
1751
1750
1749
1748
1747
1746
1745
1744
1743

76
65
78
75
68
54
35
36
50
54

S. C.
products
(1762-74
= 100)

All
commod­
ities
(1818-42
= 100)
83

Year

88
112

97

100

96
88
69
45
46
64
70

1742
1741
1740
1739
1738
1737
1736
1735
1734
1733
1732

66

76
60
65
•98
92
75
82
84
62
62

S. C.
products
(1762-74
= 100)
88

85
97
77
84
*125
117
96
105
108
80
79

on part of year only.

Series E 90-95. Wholesale Price Indexes (Berry), for Cincinnati, 1816 to 1861, and
Ohio River Valley, 1788 to 1817
Cincinnati, weighted (1824-46=100)

1861.
1860.
1859.
1858.
1857.
1856.
1855.
1854.
1853
1852.
1851
1850.
1849.
1848.
1847.
1846
1845
1844
1843
1842
1841
1840
1839
1838
1837
1836.
1835.
1834.
1833.
1832.
1831.
1830.
1829.
1828.
1827.
1826.
1825.
1824.
1823.
1822.
1821.
1820.
1819
1818.
1817
1816




All
commodities

Identified
with
northern
agriculture

90

Year

91
103
110
114
102
128
121

123
110
104
93
90
86

77
75
90
76
87
77
72
72
89
104
138
129
131
145
117
95
102
101

99
93
98
92
91
93

100

98
98

101
86

140
193
190
205
196

123
133
140
120
154
141
153
128
118
112
107
98
87
83
102
81
97
81
73
70
91
111

150
137
142
159
125
93
101
103
100

86

91
81
79
81
85
85
87
78

68

112

164
160
175
164

Not
identified
with
northern
agriculture
92
76
80
79
77
94
93
81
85
84

68
68

72
65
65
76
69
68

71
70
76
87
91
116
115

112
121
102

97
98
98
106
112
113
114
115
127
122
129
166
160
237
265
264
272
289
102

Year

1817______________________________________
1816______________________________________
1815_____________________________________
1814______________________________________
1813______________________________________
1812______________________________________
1811______________________________________
1810______________________________________
1809______________________________________
1808______________________________________
1807_____________________________________
1806______________________________________
1805______________________________________
1804______________________________________
1803______________________________________
1802_____________________________________
1801______________________________________
1800______________________________________
1799______________________________________
1798_____________________________________
1797______________________________________
1796_____________________________________
1795______________________________________
1794______________________________________
1793_____________________________________
1792______________________________________
1791______________________________________
1790
_ _____
1789_____________________________________
1788_____________________________________

Ohio River Valley, unweighted
(1788-1817=100)
Not
Identified
identified
All
with
with
northern
commodities
northern
agriculture agriculture
93
94
95
125
116
108
122
106
77
79
87
90
95
95
95

145
131
117
134
114
84
78

86

85
82
84
89

87
84
88
90
93
97
109
133
127
111

96
106
98
92
98
102
104

88

87
89
92
95

86

88

89
108
134
125

110

95

110
101
88

90
87
93

75
75
86

90
86
60
82
85
97
110
104
96
89
90
88
99
94
106
117
113
129
132
114
100
96
92
104
118
139
130

121

E 96-112

PRICES AND PRICE INDEXES

Series E 96-100. Wholesale Price Indexes (Taylor), for New Orleans: 1800 to 1861
All
commod­
ities
(1824-42
= 100)
96

Year

All
commod­
ities
97

U. S.
products,
other
than
La.
99

La.
products
98

Foreign
imports

All
commod­
ities
(1824-42
= 100)
96

Year

100

All
commod­
ities

La.
products

97

98

1843-61 =100
117
105
107
104
136
114
103
90
91
85
89
103
80
68
93
78
74
75
70
75
93
91

1861____________________
1860____________________
1859____________________
1858____________________
1857____________________
1856____________________
1855____________________
1854____________________
1853____________________
1852____________________
1851____________________
1850____________________
1849____________________
1848____________________
1847
1846____________________
1845____________________
1844_ _ _ _ _______ _ _
1843____________________
1842____________________
1841________________ ___
1840____________________

125
114
111
144
112

121
110

96
97
90
95

110

85
73
99
83
79
80
74
78
100
97

1 Combination

75
93
91
116
107
108
132
123
96
99
88
80

75
93
91
116
107
108
132
123
96
99
88
80

138

102

113
118
118
156

110
110

104
136
124
129
114
101
91
93
95
85
81
90
77
80
74
70
79
97
106

121

96
82
94
91
98
123
85
66
108

88

77
84
75
76

102
88

86

86

90
91

90
91

73
89
78
105
98
103
140
133
99
103
84
74
85
84
92

Foreign
imports
100

1824-42 =100— Con.
206
110
106
106
115
107
107
101
96
84

86

95
81
80
82
83
85
84
89
93
104
105

1824-42 =100
1842
1841____________________
1840____________________
1839____________________
1838____________________
1837____________________
1836____________________
1835____________________
1834____________________
1833____________________
1832____________________
1831____________________
1830____________________
1829____________________
1828____________________

U. S.
products,
other
than
La.
99

78

100
110

136
123
118
129
114
95
95
92

86

82
94

86

75
85
82
93
96
98
103
95
87
95
102
97
103
108

110

1827___________________
1826___________________
1825___________________
1824___________________
1823___________________
1822___________________
1821___________________
1820___________________
1819___________________
1818___________________
1817___________________
1816___________________
1815_ _ _ _

90
95
130
110
105
124
115

119
151
197
214
170

200

90
95
130
110
105
124
115
119
151
200
197
214
170

87

88

97
155

88

96
90
90
94
83
98
127
146
150
184
142

122
112

140
130
126
160
224
218
227
178

112

116
123
123
132
152
160
190

200
220

151
182

1805-11 =100 1
1811____________
1810____________
1809___________________
1808___________________
1807___________________
1806___________________
1805___________________
1804___________________

110

119

120
112

133
142
147
126

87
95
95
89
106
113
117

87
91
91
90
109
114
118

100

89
108
112
83
92
106
111
101

100

1805-11=100
1811___________________
1810___________________
1809___________________
1808___________________
1807___________________
1806___________________
1805___________________
1804___________________
1803___________________
1802___________________
1801___________________
1800___________________

of series E 98 and E 99 designated as “ Domestic products.’

2 Based

83
87
88
89
112
118
124
99
95
106
120
J114

110

119

120
112

133
142
147
126
115
130
146
* 138

on part of year only.

Series E 101-112. Wholesale Prices of Selected Commodities: 1800 to 1957
In dollars per unit. Where 2 prices are shown for a single year, those in italic are comparable to preceding years, and those in regular type comparable with following years;
see text for detailed explanation]
Year

Wheat

Wheat
flour

Sugar

Cotton,
raw

Wool

Cotton
sheeting

Coal,
anthracite

Yd. 2
0.205
.229

Ton 3
14.67
13.53

Steel
rails

Nails

100 lb. 4
5.442
4.946

100 lb.
9.596
8.917

12.93
4.663
14.01
4.463
( 84.086
15.45 I 93. 775
14.30
3.672
14.19
3.600

8.180
7.651

12.58
12.04
11.57
10.33
l k . 11 |

Copper

Turpentine

Brick

Gallon 5

102

Bu.
1957
1956

2.201

1955
1954
1953
1952
1951

2.256
2.307
2.238
2.387
2.403

1950.
1949.
1948
1947

2.225
2.149
2.409
2.602

1946
1945
1944
1943
1942.
1941

1.895
1.664
1.604
1.440
1.189
.992

See footnotes at end of table.
122




2.219

5.680
5.676
5.935
6.133
5.649
5.477
5.750
5.429
5.215
5.036
5.445

Lb.
0.090
.086
.084
.086
.084
.082

1.608
1.373
1.423
1.705
1.729
1.665
2.702

.210
.222

.212

.078
.078
.076

.362
.316
.338
.345

1.991
1.662
1.646

.064
.054
.055
.055
.055
.049

.305
.226
.212
.206
.193
.139
.1U6

1.025
1.192
1.188
1.183
1.195
1.091

6.200

3.181
3.184
3.170
5.448
4.752

Lb.
0.338
6 .335
7 .351
.336
.341
.329
.387
.416

.213

.226
.275
.243
.264

.153
.145
.142
.141
.115
.121

11.89
11.47
10.89
10.31

3.415
3.208
2.938
2.606
per gross
ton
47.90
42.94
40.00
40.00
40.00

112

0.303
.418

0.662
.645

1,000
30.86
30.61

7.123
6.930

.373
.300
.290
.245
.245

.640
.653
.594
.632
.812

29.15
28.22
27.85
27.35
27.33

6.339
6.136
5.823
4.467
3.971

.216
.195
.223
.213

.528
.387
.481
.751

25.67
24.73
23.65
20.98
20.50

3.477
2.850
2.550
2.550
2.550
2.550

.141
.120
.120
.120
.120

.953
.794
.776
.668
.619
7.06
.617

18.13
15.89
14.29
13.43
13.21
12.59

.120

E 101-112

WHOLESALE PRICE INDEXES

Series E 101-112. Wholesale Prices of Selected Commodities: 1800 to 1957—Con.
[In dollars per unit. Where 2 prices are shown for a single year, those in italic are comparable to preceding years, and those in regular type comparable with following years;
see text for detailed explanation]
Year

Wheat
101

1940.
1939.
19381937.
1936.
1935.
19341933.
1932.
1931.
1930.
1929.
1928.
19271926.
1925.
1924_
19231922.
1921.
1920.
1919.
1918.
1917_
1916.
1915.
1914.
1913.
1912.
1911.
1910.
1909_
1908.
1907.
1906.
19051904.
1903.
1902_
19011900.
1899.
1898_
1897_
1896_
1895_
1894_
1893.
1892.
1891.

100 lb. i
4 307
3 872
4 364
5 606
5 441
6 197
5 755
4 633
3 104
3 570

.900
1.180
1.324
1.372
1.496
1.670
1.232
1.112
1.213
1.326
2.455
2.418
2.159
2.296
1.329
1.290
.939
.877
.953
1.049
.984
1.097
1.200
.990
.907
.793

4 865
5 794
6 406

1.010

1880.
1879.
1878.
1877.
1876.
1875.
1874.
1873.
1872.
1871.
1870.
1869
1868
1867
1866

1.373 {
1.651
2.541
2.844
2.945

See footnotes at end of table.



102

Bn.
0.871
.755
.777
1.201
1.123
1.040
.932
.724
.494
.606

1.039
.790
.741
.719
.704
.711
.885
.795
.641
.600
.559
.677
.788
.962
.893
.865
.895
.886
.769
.797
.864
.913
1.038
1.198
1.154
1.057
1.253 }
1.223
1.252
1.685
1.320
1.403
1.517
1.787
1.780
1.581

1890.
1889.
1888_
1887.
18861885.
1884.
18831882.
1881.

Wheat
flour

6 686

7
7
5
5
6
7

252
678
980
353
130
034
11 580
10 695
10 302
10 551
6 091
5 612
4 125
3 847 ]
U 308
4 686
3.,984
4. 691
5. 451
4. 291
3.,988
3. 615
4. 543
4. 826
3. 592
3. 489
3. 309
3. 349
3.,382
4. 145
4. 361
3. 620
3. 231
2 , 750
3 .283
4.,122
4.,905
4,.652
6. 039
6 .540
6 .,120
5.,817
6 .119
6 .275
7,.043
7,.735
9 .020
8 .895
.895

8
8 .632
9 .101
10 .806

9 .898

10 .218
10 .728
11 .498
12 .141
10 .245

.281
I .029 }•
5 .725
7 .912
9 .164
7 .920

Sugar
103
Lb.
0.044
.046
.045
.047
.048
.049
.044
.043
.040
.044
.047
.051
.056
.058
.055
.055
.074
.084
.059
.062
.127
.089
.078
.077
.069
.056
.047
.043
.051
.053
.050
.048
.049
.047
.045
.053
.048
.046
.045
.051
.053
.049
.050
.045
.045
.042
.041
.048
.044
.047
.062
.063
.080
.071
.059
.062
.064
.068
.087
.095
.097

Cotton,
raw
104
Lb.
0.104
.095
.087
.114
.121

.119
.123
.087
.064
.085
.135
.191
.200

.176
.175
.235
.287
.293
.212
.151
.339
.325
.318
.235
.145
.102
.121

.128 {
.115
.130
.151
.121
.105
.119
.110

.096

.121
.112

.089
.086
.096
.066
.060
.072
.079
.073
.070
.083
.077
.086
.111

.115
.107
.103
.103
.094
.105
.106
.106
.122
.113

.099
.086
.092
.111
.106
.107
.106
.112
.124
.131

.104
.113
.117
.130
.150
.170
.182
.205
.170

.135
.162
.163
.159
.166

.240
.290
.249
.316
.432

.120

Wool
105
Lb.
0 .966
.823
.691
.971
.881
.723
.817
.663
.459
.621
.763
.987
1 .159
1 .107
1 .152
1 ,392
1 .407
1 .379
1 ,.238
.828
1 . 604
1 ,.775
1 .815
1 .568
.845
.707
.593
.562
: 589
.647
.647
.686

.738
.716
.718
.718
.759
.686
.655
.577
.545
.659
.623
.615
.496
.394
.377
.445
.564
.612
.686

.716
. 733
.735
.680
.733
.740
.713
.805
.860
.905
.955

Cotton
Coal,
sheeting anthracite
106
107
Yd. 2
Ton 3
0.085
9 .55
.079
9 .14
.076
9 .44
.107
9 .37
.097
9 .74
.110
9 .59
.109
9 .64
.088
10 .06
10 ..88
.062
11
.072 \/ 12..40
77
.105
12 .72
.125
12 .,89
13.
.135 \( 10. 00
93
. 1.20
10 .95
.123
1 1 .,48
.147
1 1 .19
.161
1 1 .37
.163
1 0 . 88
.129
1 0 .60
.131
10 . 53
.288
9. 50
.232
8 .27
.235
6 . 86
.145
5. 94
.088
5. 57
.068
5. 33
.080
5. 32
}
.084
5. 31
.081
5. 28
.088
5. 00
.084
4. 81
.075
4..82
.078
4.,82
.084
4.,82
.080
4..86
.076
4..82
.080
4..83
.068
4..83
.063
4..46
.063
4. 33
.062
3. 92
.054
3..65
.054
3..55
.059
3.,74
.062
3. 56
.059
2 . 98
.060
3.,54
.068
4..17
.065
3. 94
.073
3..46
.073
3..35
.067
3. 92
.067
4..04
.069
4. 21
.068
4..05
.064
4..00
.067
4..10
.069
4 .42
.075
4..54
.079
4. 61
.080
4..53

Steel
rails
108
100 lb. 4
40.00
40.00
41.79
41.89
36.63
36.38
36.38
39 33
42.38
} 43.00
43.00
43.00
} 43.00
43.00
43.00
43.00
43.00
43.00
40.69
45.65
53.83
49.26
56.00
40.00
33.33
30.00
30.00
( 30.00 }
\ 28.00
28.00
28.00
28.00
28.00
28.00
28.00
28.00
28.00
28.00
28.00
28.00
27.33
32.29
28.13
17.63
18.75
28.00
24.33
24.00
28.13
30.00
29.92
Q1 1o
|V 01 . 7Q /\
29.25
29.83
37.08
34.52
28.52
30.75
37.75
48.50
61.08

109
100 lb.
2.550
2.461
2.575
2.773
2.229
2.628
2.623
2.089
2.050
1.978

.081
.076
.074
.080
.084
.099
.109
.128
.135
.125

4 .53
.70
3 .22
2 .59
3 .87
4 .39
4..55
4..27
3 .74
4 .46

67.52
48.21
42.21
45.58
59.25
68.75
94.28
120.58
111.94
102.52

3.68
2.69
2.31
2.57
2.98
3.42
3.99
4.90
5.46
4.52

.898
.905

.140
.153
.160
.174
.236

4 .39
5 .31
3 .86
4 .37 /\
5 .80

106.79
132.25
158.50
166.00 }
83.12
86.75

4.40
4.87
5.17
5.92
6.97

.888

i .133
i .313

111

112

.112
.102

.131
.097
.089
.087
.073
.058
.084

1.888

2.117
1.958
1.896
1.906
2.075
2.104
2.365
2.633
2.388
1.438
1.485
2.925
2.118
1.652
1.992
2.190
2.467
2.965
2.00
2.00
2.03
2.30
2.27
2.33
2.39
3.06
3.47
3.09

Brick

110

1.917

2.100

Turpentine

Lb.
0.115

2.191
2.667
2.676
2.638 /\
2.750
2.820
2.989
3.035
2.610
3.056
4.187
3.518
3.600
3.633
2.596
1.746
1.679
1.819
1.740
1.804

i .028
.718
.748
.910
.870
i .045
i .153
i .198
i .568
i .068

2

Copper

Nails

/
1

.132
.184
.148
.132
. 130 }
.138
.141
.131
.145
.134
.126
.180
.191
.247
.294
.275
.173
.134
.157
.164
.125
.129
.131
.133
. 208
. 213 }
.196
.158
.131
.137
.120
.169
.166
.177
.119
.113
.110

.108
.095
.109
.115
.131
I
r

1
. ±Oo jI
.138
.168
.113
.110

.111

.138
.159
.185
.183
.215
.186
.166
.190
.210

.227
.220
.280
.356
.241
.212

.243
.230
.254
.343

1,000
Gallon 5
0.371
12.13
12.05
.314
.294
12.00
.387
12.05
.438
11.74
.500
11.77
12.00
.529
j 10.53
.463 1 9.19
9.54
.431
.447
10.02
.473
10.10
.550
10.73
.565
13.00
.621
13.88
.930
16.46
1.013
14.70
.912
17.04
1.171
19.81
1.150
17.34
.681
15.21
1.734
21.85
1.210
15.96
.594
11.93
.488
8.89
.491
8.04
.459
6.05
.473
5.53
.428
6.56
.470
6.76
.679
5.89
.683
5.72
.491
6.39
.453
5.10
.634
6.16
.665
8.55
.628
8.10
.576
7.49
.572
5.91
.474
5.39
.373
5.77
.477
5.25
.458
5.69
.322
5.75
.292
4.94
.274
5.06
.292
5.31
.293
5.00
.300
5.83
.323
5.77
.380
5.71
.408 ir O. DO
--4U
.461
7.00
.398
6.52
.358
7.40
.395
7.58
6.36
.351
6.52
.328
8.14
.432
10 7.58
.518
1 7.50
1
.476
.383
.315
.298
.362
.371
.345
.396
.497
.618
.549

6.94
5.26
4.89
4.94
5.71
7.00
7.44
8.02
9.96
9.31

.427
.458
.510
.639
.810

8.40
11.33
12.08
10.85
11.44

123

E 101-112

PRICES AND PRICE INDEXES

Series E 101-112. Wholesale Prices of Selected Commodities: 1800 to 1957—Con.
[In dollars per unit. Where 2 prices are shown for a single year, those in italic are comparable to preceding years, and those in regular type comparable with following years;
see text for detailed explanation]
Year

Wheat

Wheat
flour

Cotton,
raw
Lb.
0.834
1.015
.672
.313
.130

5.190
5.110
4.295
5.785
6.420
8.760
8.945
5.780
5.005
4.520

Lb.
0.207
.235
.146
.113
.090
.096
.085
.088
.087
.118
.098
.072
.067
.072
.070
.075

1.275
1.240
1.175
1.365
1.085
1.040
.975
.981
1.140
1.185

5.550
4.510
5.960
6.685
5.060
4.935
4.670
4.855
5.570
5.585

.074
.069
.067
.077
.085
.059
.062
.057
.046
.060

.123
.076
.080

1.055
1.245
1.920
1.775
1.780

5.295
300
956
140
495
5.855
4.980
5.565
5.770
5.710
4.985
6.452
5.580
5.140
4.810
5.130
5.11
5.61
6.84
6.58
4.78
4.71
6.89
9.97
11.72
9.80
8.57
8.11
8.94
9.34
10.06
9.65
6.86
5.53
7.12
7.27
10.07
8.21
6.85
6.90
10.40
10.03

.058
.068
.069
.070
.090
.078
.071
.072
.065
.058
.070
.076
.086
.085
.082
.093
.115
.118

.089
.134
.101
.133
.165
.175
.129
.123
.094
.097

1865.
1864.
1863.
1862.
1861.

Bu.
2.160
1.942
1.640
1.390
1.425

100 lb. i
7.706
8.062
5.690
5.165
4.965

1860.
1859.
1858.
1857.
1856.
1855.
1854_
1853.
1852.
1851.

1.495
1.435
1.325
1.675
1.755
2.435
2.210
1.390
1.105
1.075

1850.
1849.
1848.
1847.
1846.
1845.
1844.
1843.
1842.
1841.
1840.
1839.
1838.
1837.
1836.
1835.
1834.
1833.
1832.
1831.
1830.
1829.
1828.
1827.
1826.
1825.
1824.
1823.
1822.
1821.
1820.
1819.
1818.
1817!
1816.
1815.
1814.
1813.
1812.
1811.
1810.
1809.
1808.
1807.
1806.
1805.
1804.
1803.
1802
1801
1800

Sugar

1.220

1.058
1.193
1.260
1.185
1.070
1.245
1.218
.992
.940
.920
.998
1.103
1.354
1.248
.880
.928
1.344
1.981
2.406
1.942
1.565
1.482
1.622
1.774
1.846
1.796
1.248
1.000
1.308
1.379
1.953
1.357
1.133
1.193
1.835
1 1.819
3

.120
.122

.114
.123
.153
.148
.158
.184
.215
.220
.205
.142
.129
.125
.127

.120
.120

.125
.140
.138
.122
.114
.118
.134

.110
.121
.122

.135
.103
.104

.110
.110

.095
.121

.112

.079
.056
.077
.073
.079
.095

.100

.099
.103
.093

.122

.186
.148
.114
.143
.143
.170
.240
.240
.265
.295
.210

.150
.125
.105
.155
.160
.160
.190
.215

.220

.230
.200
.190
.190
.440
.240

Lb.
1.660
1.770
1.515
.938
.828
1.025
1.093
.825
1.020
1.048
.858
.913
1.070
.818
.855
.833
.uoo }
.361
.343
.352 /\
.323
.351
.400
.305
.320
.442

124

Steel | Nails
rails
109
108
100 lb. 4 100 lb.
7.08
98.62
126.00
7.85
5.13
76.87
3.47
41.75
2.75
42.37

.082
.080
.078
.085
.072
.072
.075
.074
.066
.066

3.40
3.25
3.43
3.87
4.11
4.49
5.19
3.70
3.46
3.34

48.00
49.37
50.00
64.25
64.37
62.87
80.12
77.25
48.37
45.62

3.13
3.86
3.53
3.72
3.92
4.10
4.76
4.85
3.13
3.28

.073
.064
.066
.078 }
8.50
8.45

3.64
3.62
3.50
3.80
3.90
3.46
3.20
3.27
4.18
5.79

47.87
53.87
62.25
69.34

Copper

8.10

7.67
7.92
8.57
8.92

/
\

/
\

4.91
5.00
5.27
6.72
6.64
4.84
4.84
5.23 }______
6.82
10.21
7.08
9.05
10.72
10.92
11.34
10.92
9.16 }______
.250 j
.300
.325
.325
.325
.317
.338
.327
.322
.360
.597
1.134
.919
.412
.370
.369
.295
.276
.297
.323
.399
.293
.290
.290
.303
.309

j
\

8 May through December.
9 January through April.
10 July price.
1 January price.
1
1 December price.
1
1 June through December.
3

6.00

7.33
8.87
9.80
9.80
9.80
9.80
9.67
9.60
10.90
12.83
12.50
11.25
8.50
8.50
9.33
9.50
9.50
9.50
9.50
9.50
10.50
10.50
10.52
11.65
10.67
10.67

1,000
9.67
8.27
6.41
4.16
3.88

.334
.333
.370
.402
.450
.405
.335
.338
.338
.319
J
.266
.245 1
.276
.335
.245
.320
.255
.390
.270
.550
.270
.548
.235
.471
.235
.415
.230
.225
.365
.222
.292
.220
.292
.235
.360
.247
.376
.262
.365
.297
.302
.304
.405
.303
io 2.619
.252
2.556
.260
2.692
.282
2.543
.300
2.219
.290
2.368
.302
2.877
.293
3.542
.273
2.902
.364
3.688
.449
4.478
.600
6.665
.504
3.083
.463
2.425
.356
3.228
.428
3.937
.449
3.835
.456
3.052
.508
2.548
.520
2.979
.505
3.610
3.500
.480
.430
3.625
.409
2.981
.500
2.667
.526
13 2.500

4.85
3 .85

.215
.215
.215
.232
.235
.227
.215
.212
.227
.250

5.50

/
\

111

Brick

Lb.
Gallon 5
0.393
1.525
.470
2.978
.339
2.924
.219
1.574
.833
.223
.229 }
.423
.262
.481
.261
.460
.260
.453
.301
.401
.312
.427
.297
.556
.302
.593
.291
.452
.235
.353
.205

6.12
6.00
6.00
6.00

5.50
5.00
5.80
5.60
5.50
7.10
7.50
7.08
6.76
7.21

Turpentine

110

3.71
4.00
4.25
4.50
4.50
4.75
4.50
4.25
4.75
5.25

.391
9.26
.512
9.22
.381
9.60
.424
10.56
.586
10.50
.539
8.62
.488
8.53
8.74
.490
.475
9.28
.535
10.00
.390
10.24
.345
9.44
.370
8.99
.390
9.17
.495
9.94
.585 | 10.52
.530
9.80
.550
14.50
.717
.750
15.00
.750
16.00
.750
16.00
.825
16.50
.892
16.99
.750
17.96
.975
19.47
20.00
1.333
3.312
22.68
1 2.750
2
21.60
19.04
19.04
21.58
25.17
22.50
20.69
21.83
21.27
19.21
16.00
16.00
17.35
17.38

1 Beginning 1943, per 100 pounds; for prior years, per 196-lb. barrel.
2 Beginning 1847 (in regular type), per yard; for prior years, “per piece” ; see text.
3 Beginning 1825 (in regular type), per ton; for prior years, per 80-lb. bushel.
4 Beginning 1947, per 100 pounds; for prior years, per gross ton.
5 Beginning 1825 (in regular type), per gallon; for prior years, per 31 H-gal. barrel.
6July through December.
7 January through July.




Cotton
Coal,
sheeting anthracite
106
107
Yd . 2
Ton 3
0.370
7.86
8.39
.513
.342
6.06
.176
4.14
3.39
.093

Wool

1
J
/
\

4.49
5.00
3.96
4.21
4.29
4.31
4.89
5.42
4.63
4.69

CONSUMER PRICE INDEXES

E 113-139

Series E 113-139. Consumer Price Indexes (BLS), by Major Groups and Subgroups: 1890 to 1957
[1947-49=100]

Year

All
items
113

1957____
1956____
1955____
1954____
1953____
1952____
1951____
1950____
1949____
1948____
1947___
1946_
1945____
1944____
1943____
1942____
1941____
1940____
1939____
1938____
1937____
1936____
1935____
1934____
1933____
1932____
1931___

120.2

116.2
114.5
114.8
114.4
113.5

111.0
102.8
101.8
102.8

95.5
83.4
76.9
75.2
74.0
69.7
62.9
59.9
59.4
60.3
61.4
59.3
58.7
57.2
55.3
58.4
65.0

All
foods 1

Total

114

115

115.4
111.7
110.9

113.8

112.6
112.8

114.6 -

110.2

109.7
111.9
112.5
114.6

112.6

112.6

101.2
100.0

101.2
100.0

104.1
95.9
79.0
68.9
67.4
68.3
61.3
52.2
47.8
47.1
48.4
52.1
50.1
49.7
46.4
41.6
42.8
51.4

Year

104.1
95.9
79.0
68.9
67.4
68.3
61.3
52.2
47.8
47.1
48.4
52.1
50.1
49.7
46.4
41.6
42.8
51.4

Total
128

1957________________________
1956________________________
1955________________________
1954_________________ ______
1953________________________
1952________________________
1951________________________
1950________________________
1949________________________
1948________________________
1947________________________
1946________________________
1945________________________
1944________________________
1943________________________
1942________________________
1941_________________ ______
1940 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
1939________________________
1938_______________ _______
1937________________________
1936________________________
1935________________________
1934________________________
1933________________________
1932________________________
1931________________________

106.9
105.5
103.7
104.3
104.8
105.8
106.9
98
99.4
103.5
97.1
83.7
76.3
72.6
67.8
64.9
55.6
53.2
52.5
53.4
53.7
51.0
50.6
50.2
45.9
47.5
53.6

Food
Food at home
Cereals Meats,
Fruits
Other
and
poultry, Dairy
and
bakery
and
products vegetables food at
home
products
fish
116
117
118
119
120
130.5
125.6
123.9
121.9
119.1
116.8
114.0
104.5
102.7
103.4
94.0
75.6
65.9
65.6
65.1
63.6
59.2
58.6
57.2
60.4
62.5
60.9
61.6

Men’s
and
boys’
129
109.0
107.4
105.7
106.8
107.4
108.2
107.7
99.5
100.0
102.7
97.3
82.2
72.4
69.5
66.3
63.3
54.3
51.6
50.8
51.7
52.0
49.3
48.7

105.2
97.1
101.6

108.0
109.9
116.2
117.2
104.9
100.5
106.1
93.5
69.4
56.5
55.9
57.6
54.2
46.3
41.2
41.6
42.6
45.5
42.6
43.0

Apparel
Women’s
and
girls’
130
99.2
98.7
98.0
98.9
99.7
100.9

102.2

94.8
98.1
103.8
98.0
84.6
78.8
74.8
69.4
66.4
57.5
55.0
54.5
55.3
55.7
53.0
52.6

111.8

108.7
105.9
106.1
109.6
111.5
107.0
95.9
96.9
106.3
96.7
85.7
69.5
69.4
69.9
65.1
58.2
52.6
49.8
51.7
54.7
52.8
50.6

118.6
119.0
113.5
111.9
113.5
117.2
106.7
97.6
101.9
100.5
97.6
89.3
86.7
82.4
82.7
64.1
50.5
47.3
46.3
45.6
52.8
51.3
48.8

T otal 2

Rent

121

122

125.6
121.7

135.2
132.7
130.3
128.5
124.1
117.9
113.1
108.8
105.0
100.7
94.4
91.4
90.9
90.6
90.3
90.4
88.4
86.9
86.6
86.5
83.8
80.1
78.2
78.4
83.6
97.1
108.2

112.9

112.8

111.5
114.8
112.2
109.3
114.6
101.2

97.5
102.5

100.1

120.0

119.1
117.7
114.6
112.4
106.1
103.3
101.7
95.0
88.3
86.1

84.7
82.8
81.8
78.3
76.4
76.1
76.6
75.4
72.8
71.8

123

111.6

107.9
105.1
102.4
92.6
85.9
84.3
83.9
82.3
80.6
78.1
76.2
75.7
76.4
76.6
76.6
77.0
77.5
76.5
79.1
83.3

104.6
103.0
104.1
106.1
107.9
108.5

111.2

100.3
99.6
103.2
97.2
83.9
76.9
71.9
66.2
64.4
56.6
53.0
53.4
54.5
55.0
50.8
50.0
48.9
44.4
45.0
51.7

127.5
122.9
119.1
117.4
115.3
111.8
109.0
101.2
100.1
102.6

97.2
85.8
82.5
80.9
77.9
74.4
69.9
68.5
68.4
69.0
69.0
68.7
69.1

Public

Other
goods
and
services

134

135

136

137

138

139

125.8
118.8
117.1
119.2
122.2
119.9
112.4
107.6
107.4
101.2
91.4
80.5
76.1
76.2
76.3
77.6

178.8
172.2
165.7
161.1
150.9
141.5
132.8
120.3

138.0
132.6
128.0
125.2
121.3
117.2

124.4

112.2

125.5

Private

131

132

133
136.0
128.7
126.4
128.0
129.7
126.2
118.4
111.3
108.5
100.9
90.6
82.1
78.1
78.2
78.2
78.5
72.2
69.8
70.2
71.9
71.3
70.2
69.6

92.0
93.2
108.6
98.1
72.0
65.4
62.1
60.2
59.0
46.9
42.5
40.6
41.6
44.5
42.7
42.7

110.7
107.9
106.6
104.5
103.1
102.7
102.5
100.0
97.6
97.9
100.7
101.6
101.9
102.5
103.0
103.9
104.9
105.0
105.1
106.9
109.0

137.4
130.7
125.2
123.5
123.9
118.7
116.4
110.5
106.8
104.4
88.8
77.9
73.0
71.7
68.7
65.5
61.6
58.0
56.4
57.5
57.9
56.8
56.0

Reading
and
recrea­
tion

Total

101.6

111.8

Personal
care

Other
apparel 4
92.1
91.4
90.6
90.7
92.1
92.1

113.0

(*)
(3)
(3)
(3)
(3)
113.5

Medical
care

Foot­
wear
127.9
123.9
117.7
116.4
115.2
115.3
117.7
104.0
102.4
103.2
94.5
75.6
67.3
65.7
63.1
59.9
53.0
51.1
50.3
51.0
50.9
48.4
47.7

House
House­
furnish­
hold
Solid
Gas and fuels and
ings
operation
electricity fuel oil
124
125
126
127

Total

Transportation

1 Beginning 1953, includes “food away from home” (restaurant meals and other food
bought and eaten away from home), not shown separately.
Beginning 1953, includes “other shelter” (home purchase and other homeowner
costs), not shown separately.




Housing
Fuel, electricity,
and refrigeration

68.2

64.8
65.5
67.5
65.5
64.3

68.0

3 N ot available,
4 Includes diapers,

111.2
100.2
88.6

84.8
82.3
82.3
82.2
82.0
81.4
81.3
81.3
81.0
80.1
80.9
81.7

111.1

106.0
104.1
100.9
94.9
87.7
83.1
81.2
78.7
75.1
73.1
72.7
72.6
72.5
72.3
71.6
71.4
70.9
71.0
72.7
74.1

120.0

115.3
113.4

112.8
111.8

110.5

101.1
101.1

101.3
97.6
87.4
81.5
79.0
73.8
66.9
61.0
59.5
59.6
59.8
58.5
55.3
54.6

108.1
106.6
107.0
108.0
107.0
106.5
103.4
104.1
100.4
95.5
89.7

86.8

83.4
75.3
69.5
66.4
64.1
63.0
62.9
60.8
59.1
58.1

122.0

120.2
120.1

118.2
115.4
109.7
105.2
103.4
100.5
96.1

88.6

85.7
82.4
80.2
76.3
74.2
72.8
70.6
69.4
68.8
67.0
67.2

yard goods, and miscellaneous apparel.

125

E 113-147

PRICES AND PRICE INDEXES

Series E 113-139. Consumer Price Indexes (BLS), by Major Groups and Subgroups: 1890 to 1957—Con.
[1947-49=100]
All
items

1930________________________________________
1929________________________________________
1928________________________________________
1927________________________________________
1926________________________________________
1925__________________________________ _
1924___ __ _________ _ ___ _ _ _
1923______________________ _ ___
1922 ______________ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
1921____________________________________
1920 _______ . .
1919
_ . _ _
1918__ _
___ _
1917 _ _ _ _ ___
1916 _ _ _ _ _ _ _
1915 _ _ _ _ _
1914________________________________________
1913 _
_ _ _
1912___ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
1911_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
5 December

Rent

113

Year

Food at
home,
total
115

122

71.4
73.3
73.3
74.2
75.6
75.0
73.1
72.9
71.6
76.4
85.7
74.0
64.3
54.8
46.6
43.4
42.9
42.3

62.4
65.6
64.8
65.5

68.0

65.8
60.8
61.4
59.4
63.5
83.6
74.2
66.5
57.9
45.0
40.0
40.5 39.6
38.6
36.4

Housing
Fuel,
Houseelectricity,
and
furnishings
refrigeration
123
126

114.2
117.4
120.3
123.2
125.2
126.4
125.9
121.6
118.5
115.1

85.2
86.7
88.2
89.6

86.0

88.2

86.9
86.5
87.2
81.7
69.6
64.4
55.4
49.7
47.8
47.6
47.3

88.1

100.2

85.3
78.8
77.4
78.1
77.2
76.6
76.6

57.4
58.9
59.6
61.1
62.6
64.0
65.4
66.5
61.9
73.0
86.8

70.7
56.1
43.6
37.4
33.5
32.0
31.2

Apparel,
total

Medical
care

128

Food at
home,
total

136

58.9
60.3
60.9
61.8
63.0
64.0
65.3
65.8
65.7
80.9
105.1

74.2
73.5
72.7
72.2
5 72.1

88.2
66.6

49.2
40.9
37.3
36.5
36.2

Year

115
1910_______
1909_______
1908_______
1907_______
1906_______
1905_______
1904__ ____
1903_ _ _ _
1902_ __ _
1901 _ _ _
1900
1899 _
1898
1897.
1896
1895
1894_______
1893.
1892. _ _ _
1891. _____
1890_______

36.8
35.1
33.4
32.5
31.2
30.3
30.1
29.7
29.9
28.3
27.2
26.8
26.6
25.9
25.7
26.3
26.8
28.1
27.4
28.0
27.6

data.

Series E 140-147. Consumer Price Indexes (BLS), for Special Groups: 1935 to 1957
[1947-49=100]
Commodities
Excluding food

1957______________________________________________________
1956________________________________ ____________ _______
1955______________________________________________________
1954___________ ___________________________________________
1953 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _____ _ _ _ _
1952 ___ ______ _ _
_ _ _ _ _ ___ _ _ _ _ _
1951______________________________________________________
_____
_ ________
___
1950 ______
1949_______________________________________________________
1948______________________________________________________
1947 _ _ __
__ ___ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
1946
-__ _
1945_______________________________________________________
1944______________________________________________________
1943 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _______
1942 _ _ _______ _ _ _ __ _
______ _ _ _ _ _
1941______________________________________________________
1940 _ _ ___ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ _______
_ __ _
1939 _ _ _ ____________
_ _ _ _ _ ___ _ _ _
1938______________________________________________________
1937_____________________ _ _ _______ __
_ ___
1936____________ _ __ _______ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
1935______________________ __ ___ ______ __ _ _______

126




All items,
exclud­
ing
rent

Total

140

Year

All items,
exclud­
ing
food

141

142

118.8
116.7
116.4
115.7
113.5

110.8

117.8
114.0
112.4
113.0
113.1
112.7
110.5

104.2
103.0
101.9
95.1
87.0
83.4
81.5
78.5
76.4
71.4
69.4
69.1
69.6
68.9
66.5
65.8

101.3
103.1
95.6
82.3
74.8
72.9
71.6
66.6
59.1
55.8
55.4
56.4
58.0
56.2
55.5

122.8

102.0

113.6

110.1

109.0
110.2
111.3
111.7
110.3
101.2
100.6

103.2
96.3
80.1
72.3
70.2
69.4
63.8
55.7
51.1
51.6
52.7
54.7
52.7
52.0

Services

Total

Durable

Non­
durable

143

144

145

112.3
108.9
107.5
108.6
110.0
109.8
108.9
101.3
101.5
102.9
95.7
84.7
79.7
76.7
72.7
69.8
62.7
59.8
59.4
60.4
60.4
57.9
57.3

108.8
105.1
105.1
108.3
112.6
113.8
112.4
104.4
103.3
101.8
94.9
87.5
83.7
77.8
71.2
68.9
60.7
56.8
57.3
58.5
57.5
54.1
53.3

116.1
113.0
110.6

116.6
110.1
109.1
108.5
100.9
101.1
103.1
95.7
83.3
77.6
74.9
71.3
68.4
61.8
59.3
58.7
59.6
59.9
57.6
57.1

Includ­
ing rent

Exclud­
ing rent

146

147

137.7
132.6
129.8
127.5
124.2
119.3
114.1
108.5
105.1
100.4
94.5
90.8
89.0
87.9
85.8
84.2
81.6
80.6
80.4
80.3
78.7
76.4
75.6

138.6
133.0
130.1
127.7
124.6
120.1
114.6
108.1
105.2
100.1
94.7
90.2
87.0
85.2
81.3
77.8
74.5
73.6
73.5
73.5
72.9
72.2
72.6

CONSUMER PRICE INDEXES

E 148-160

Series E 148-156. Consumer Price Index (Hoover): 1851 to 1880
[1860=100]
All items
Total

149

150

1880_ _ _ _____ _ _ - _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
1879_________________________________________
1878 _ _ _______ _______ _ _ _ __ _ _
1877___________________________________ _____
1876_________________________________________
1875 _______ __
_ _ _ _ ___
1874_ _________ ____________________________
1873_ _______ __ _ _ __ ____ _ _
1872___ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ _______ _ _ _
1871__ _____________ __________ ___
1870_ _ ____ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
1869 _ _ _ __ _ _ _______ __ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
1868 __
____ _ _ _ _ _ __ _
1867________________ _______________________
1866_______ _________________________________
1865_________________________________________
1864_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
___ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
1863 ____ _ _ _ ______ __
1862_ ___ _ __ __ __ __ ___ _ __ _____ _
1861 _ _ _______ _. __ ________
_ ___
1860_________________________________________
1859_________________________________________
1858_________________________________________
1857_________________________________________
1856_________________________________________
1855_________________________________________
1854_________________________________________
1853_________________________________________
1852_ _ _ ___ ________________ __ _ _ _
1851_________________________________________

108
105
107
109
113
116
122
128
132
133
137
141
141
149
163
181
187
151
120
103

110

108
111
118
119
123
129
133
135
135
141
147
154
157
167
175
176
139
113
101

106
105
108
117
118
122

102

100
100

100
101

99

99
105

104
101
93
93
92

98

99
106

100
102
102

102

100
100
102
101

103

100
100

99

Rent

Fuel
and
light

Other

153

154

155

156

94
94
95
99
104
105
115
122
126
128
141
148
148
166
194
238
261
197
143

127
122
124
123
123
129
133
139
144
144
142
141
138
135
138
134
130
113
101
95

100
102

100

100
100
100
100

111
110

113
125
124
129
134
136
136
137
143
151
164
163
169
170
167
129
107
99

110

98
99

99
108

102

100
100

102

105

99

100
100

102

104
101
92
91
90

102

Cloth­
ing

152
96
95
96
101
106
108
116
122
125
127
135
141
143
157
178
209
222
173
131
107

128
131
133
134
141
148
157
161
172
183
185
144
115

100

Food

Less
food
and
rent
151

Less
rent

148

Year

Less
food

87

103

100
88

99

100
100
101
100

86

103
103

102
100
100
100

95
92
93
98
106

133
134
135
138
138
140
141
142
141
142
143
145
144
144
146
147
141
115
105

110

114

120
122

125
126
132
133
140
152
159
155
136
112
103

102

100

100

99
98
98
96
97
96
95
95
95

98
103
109
106
109
113
102
99
99

Series E 157-160. Cost-of-Living Indexes, (Federal Reserve Bank of N. Y., Burgess, Douglas, Rees): 1820 to 1926
Year

1926 ______________
1925_ _ _ ______
1924_______________
1923_______________
1922_______________
1921_______________
1920 ______________
1919_______________
1918_______________
1917_______________
1916_______________
1915_______________
1914_______________
1913_______________
1912_______________
1911________ ______
1910_______________
1909_______________
1908_______________
1907 ______________
1906_______ ______
1905_______________
1904_______________
1903_______________
1902_______________
1901__ ____________
1900._____________
1899_______________
1898_______________
1897_______________
1896..............................
1895_______ ______ _
1894.............. ...............
1 893.............................
1892_______ _______
1891_______________

1913 = 100
Federal
Reserve Burgess
Bank
of N. Y.
158
157

203.7
188.7
171.1
147.8
113.4
101.1
100
102

96
96
91
91
95
90
87
87
88
84
82
80
77
75
75
74
73
73
75
77
76

1 Douglas’ index for 1890 is 104.




102.5
100.0
92.8
91.5
93.1
88.6
84.4
82.0
78.2
76.0
76.1
74.8
74.8
70.6
67.7
66.1
65.9
63.9
62.9
64.2
65.3
69.1
67.5

68.8

Douglas , 1 Rees , 2
(1890-99 (1914 =
100 )
= 100)

1913 = 100
Federal
Reserve Burgess
Bank
of N. Y.
157
158

Year

160

159
241
240
234
234
229
246
286
247
218
179
149
136
139
137
133
132
128
121
121

126
119
115
115
116
111
108
106

102
100
100

99
97
97

100
102
101

1890 _ _ _ _ _ _ _
1889
1888________________
1887 __
1886__
1885________________
1884 __ _ _ _ _
1883________________
1882____________ ___
1881-1880__ __ ______
1879_ _ _
______
100
1878__ _ _ _ _ _ _
99 1877________________
97 1876__
95
1875______ _______
95 1874__ _
91 1873 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
92 1872________________
94 1871_______ ______
90
1870________________
89 1869__________ __
89 1868______________
88 1867-_ _ _ _ _ _
86 1866________________
85
1865________________
84 1864________________
83 1863________________
83 1862________________
83 1861________________
84
1860________________
84 1859________________
86 1858________________
90 1857________________
91 1856________________
92

78
78
78
76
76
75
77
81
86
83
80
79
80
80
81
86
88
88

90
89
91
95
98
102
103
102

95
78
69
63
61
63
69
70

68

67 8
67.8
67.5
65.4
65.3
64.6
66.4
71.7
76 1
73.8
71.3
68.8
69.6
77.2
78.0
81.2
83.1
84.7
86.3
86.9
92.5
97.8
104.2
103.5
107.4
108.1
104.6
80.0
66.0
61.2
63.0
63.7
61.2
67.3
63.9

Rees , 2
(1914 =
100 )

Year

160
91

1855________________
1854 __ __ _______
1853________________
1852_ ___ _ _ _ ___
1851. _______ -__ _
1850________________
1849 _ _ _ _______ _
1848 __ __ _______ _
1847-_ _ ________ __
1846_ _ __ ___
1 8 4 5 .____ _______
1844 _ _ _
1843. _ _ _ ___
1842 _ _ _ __
18411840- __ _ _______
1839
1838 _ _ _ _
1837______ ______
1836.
1835_________ ______
18341833.
1832 _
1831.
1830__ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
18291828
1827_ _ _______ __ _
1826.
1825.
1824.
1823__ __ _ ____
1822 _
1821_
1820. ___ _ _ ___

1913 = 100
Federal
Reserve Burgess
Bank
of N. Y.
157
158
67
64
64
60
60
54
51
54
58
58
54
52
51
55
60
60
71
71
72

64.1
60.9
53.9
53.7
53.0
58.4
61.1
63.1
63.4
59.0
56.3
54.9
53.6
53.5
55.9

68

60
51
58
57
56
54
58
57
57
55
58
57
61
64
62
65

2 Preliminary figures. Final figures and full description to be published at a later
date.

127

E 161-176

PRICES AND PRICE INDEXES

Series E 161-176. Retail Prices of Selected Foods in U. S. Cities (BLS): 1890 to 1957
[In cents per unit indicated]
Meats
Year

1957______________
1956______________
1955______________
1954______________
1953______________
1952______________
1951______________
1950______________
1949______________
1948______________
1947______________
1946______________
1945______________
1944______________
1943______________
1942______________
1941______________
1940______________
1939______________
1938______________
1937______________
1936______________
1935______________
1934______________
1933______________
1932______________
1931______________
1930______________
1929______________
1928______________
1927______________
1926______________
1925______________
1924______________
1923______________
1922______________
1921______________
1920______________
1919______________
1918. _ _ _ __
1917- _ _
1916_ _ _ _ __
1915______________
1914______________
1913-_- _________
1912- _ _ _
1911_ _ _ _
1910_ _ _ ____
1909- _ -_- _
1 9 0 8 _ ___ _ __
1907_
-_ _
1906.
_ _
1905__ _______
1904- _
1903- __
1902 _
1901- _ _ _ ____
1900_ _
____
1899_
18981897- ___ _
1896_ _ _
1895- ______ __
1894_ _____ _
1893- _
. __
1892_ _ _
_ __
1891_____________
1890___ _ _ _ __
1 N ot

128

Dairy products and eggs

Flour

Bread

Round
steak

Chuck
roast

Pork
chops

Bacon

Butter

Eggs

Milk,
delivered

161
5 lb.
54.6
53.3
53.8
53.6
52.3
52.3
51.9
49.1
47 9
49.0
48.2
35.4
32.1
32.4
30.6
26.4

162
Lb.
18.8
17.9
17.7
17.2
16.4
16.0
15.7
14.3
14.0
13.9
12.5
10.4

163
Lb.
93.6

164
Lb.
52.5
48.4
50.1
51.4
52.9
73.5
74.1
61.6
55.5
64.4
51.5
36.6
28.1
28.8
30.2
29.3
25.5
23.5
23.4
22.8
25.7
22.3
24.0
17.5
16.0
18.5
22.7
28.6
31.4
29.6
25.2
23.7

165
Lb.
86.6
78.2
79.3
86.3
82.7
80.3
79.4
75.4
74.3
77.2
72.1
48.5
37.1
37.3
40.3
41.4
34.3
27.9
30.4
32.9
36.7
34.1
36.1
25.5
19.8
21.5
29.6
36.2
37.5
35.2
37.2
39.9
37.0
31.0
30.3
33.0
34.9
42.3
42.3
39.0
31.9
22.7
20.3

166
Lb.
73.8
57.3
65.9
81.7
78.5
64.9
67.2
63.7
66.5
76.9
77.7
53.3
41.1
41.1
43.1
39.4
34.3
27.3
31.9
36.7
41.3
40.7
41.3
29.1
22.6
24.2
36.6
42.5
43.9
44.4
47.8
50.8
47.1
38.4
39.7
39.8
42.7
52.3
55.4
52.9
41.0
28.7
26.9
27.5
27.0
24.4
24.7
25.5
22.4
20.7
20.1
19.6
18.1
18.0
18.2
17.7
15.8
14.3
13.4
13.1
12.7

167
Lb.
74.3
72.1
70.9
72.4
79.0
85.5
81.9
72.9
72.5
86.7
80.5
71 0
50.7
50.0
52.7
47.3
41 1
36.0
32.5
34.7
40.7
39.5
36.0
31.5
27.8
27.8
35.8
46.4
55.5
56.9
56.3
53.6
55.2
52.2
55.8
47.9
51.7
70.1
67.8
57.7
48.7
39.4
35.8
36.2
38.3
37.4
33.7
35.9
34.5
32.8
32.7
30.4
29.0
28.0
28.5
28.7
26.5
26.1
25.1
24.4
23.9
23.8
24.9
26.1
28.3
27.5
27.4
25.5

168
Doz.
57.3
60.2
60.6
58.5
69.8
67.3
73.7
60.4
69.6
72.3
69.6
58.6
58.1
54.5
57.2
48.4
39.7
33.1
32.1
35.5
36.2
37.1
37.6
32.5
28.8
30.2
35.0
44.5
52.7
50.3
48.7
51.9
55.4
51.0
49.9
44.4
50.9

169
Qt.
25.0
24.2
23.1
23.0
23.4
24.2
23.1

22.6

21.5
19.0
19.8
24.0
23.8
25.3
24.5
19.5
16.0
18.0
23.0
25.5
26.5
27.5
30.0
30.5
24.5
23.5
25.5
29.0
40.5
36.0
33.5
35.0

22.0
21.0

17.0
16.5
17.5
17.0
18.0
18.0
16.5
15.5
14.5
16.0
16.0
13.5
12.5
12.5
12.5
12.5
14.0
14.0
12.5
12.0

11.5
12.5
14.0
15.0
14.5

available.




8.8
8.8

8.9
8.7

8.1
8.0

7.9

8.6
8.6
8.2

8.3
8.3
7.1
7.0
7.7
8.6
8.8

8.9
9.2
9.3
9.3
8.9
8.8
8.7
9.9
11.5
10.0
9.8
9.2
7.3
7.0
6.3
5.6

88.2

90.3
90.7
91.5
111.2
109.3
93.6
85.3
90.5
75.6
52.1
40.6
41.4
43.9
43.5
39.1
36.4
36.0
34.9
39.1
34.1
36.0
28.1
25.7
29.7
35.4
42.6
46.0
43.7
38.7
37.1
36.2
34.8
34.3
32.3
34.4
39.5
38.9
36.9
29.0
24.5
23.0
23.6
22.3
19.9
17.5
17.4
16.4
15.9
15.2
14.5
14.0
14.1
14.0
14.7
13.8
13.2
12.9
12.7
12.5
12.4
12.3
12.2
12.4
12.4
12.4
12.3

22.8
21.6
20.8

19.7

21.2

26.2
27.0
26.6
20.9
17.1
16.1
16.7
16.0

22.0
21.0

19.2
17.9
19.2
17.4
16.0
15.6
15.2
13.9
13.7
14.0
14.1
13.0
11.9
11.2
10.9
10.8
10.7
11.0
11.2
11.8
11.1

10.9
10.7

12.6

13.0
13.5
14.2
12.9
12.6
12.5

68.1

62.8
59.0
48.1
37.5
34.1
35.3
34.5
34.1
32.3
33.7
31.9
29.7
29.0
27.8
27.2
27.1
25.9
24.7
21.9
20.7
20.9
19.9
18.9
19.2

20.6

19.9
22.4

22.1
22.1
20.8

20.6
21.1
21.8

19.6
17.6
15.6
15.6
15.5
15.0
13.6

12.8
12.2

12.5
12.5

12.0

11.7
10.4
10.7

11.2
12.6

14.1
14.4
14.2
14.1
14.0
13.9
13.4
13.9
13.1
14.6
16.7
15.5
13.9
11.2
9.1
8.8

8.9
8.9
8.7
8.5
8.4

Fruits and vegetables
Toma­ N avy
Oranges Potatoes toes,
canned beans
170
171
172
173
Doz.
10 lb. 303 can Lb.
57.1
16.1
57.9
15.0
58.3
67.7
15.2
16.3
52.8
56.4
15.1
0)
55.4
52.6 2 14.6
17.6
49.0
53.8
14.8
17.0
50.6
76.0
16.1
14.8
48.7
50.8
15.8
16.7
46.1
12.4
15.3
49.3
16.4
51.8
54.6
12.8
44.7
55.9
13.9
22.0
43.4
50.3
16.3
21.3
49.9
46.8
12.6
14.0
48.5
49.3
10.3
11.4
46.0
46.5
10.1
10.7
44 3
45.6
10.1
10.6
35.7
34.2
9.9
9.0
31.0
23.5
7.7
7.4
29.1
23.9
7.2
6.6
28.9
24.7
7.2
6.2
26.7
21.3
7 .5
6.3
38.9
27.9
7.9
9.6
8.0
33.6
31.9
6.7
32.0
19.1
8.6
6.2
34.1
6.1
23.0
8.8
27.3
23.0
7.7
5.3
30.2
17.0
7.8
5.2
35.0
24.0
8.5
8.1
57.1
36.0
10.2
11.7
44.7
32.0
14.1
10.8
58.6
27.0
9.9
11.8
52.0
38.0
10.0
9.4
51.6
49.0
9.9
9.4
57.1
36.0
11.1
10:3
44.8
10.8
28.0
9.9
49.7
30.0
10.5
10.9
57.4
28.0
11.3
9.9
49.6
31.0
10.2
8.2
63.2
63.0
12.5
11.4
53.2
38.0
13.6
12.6
32.0
17.3
43.0
17.9
27.0
11.0
15.0
7.8
18.0
17.0
22.0
22.0

6.7
6.7
6 .7

17.0
19.0
19.0
18.0
17.0
17.0
18.0
17.0
18.0
18.0
14.0
15.0
16.0
14.0

6.8
6.8
6.8
6.8
6.8
6.8

14.0
15.0
17.0
14.0
18.0
16.0

8.1
8.0

7.8
7.4
7.2
7.2
7,2
7.0

6.8
6.8

6.8

12.0

Average of January-September inclusive.

Other
Coffee

Marga­
rine

Sugar

174
Lb.
101.7
103.4
93.0
110.8
89.2

175
Lb.
29.9
28.9
28.9
29.9
29.4
29.4
34.7
30.8
30.8
41.4
40.8
28.3
24.1
24.1
23.6
22.1
17.1
15.9
16.7
17.5
19.2
18.5
18.8
13.5
13.2
15.4
19.9
25.0
27.0
27.3
28.3
30.1
30.2
29.3
28.1
28.0
31.6
42.3
41.3

176
5 lb.
55.2
52.8
52.1
52.6
52.8
51.5
50.6
48.7
47.6
47.0
48.6
38.4
33.4
33.6
34.2
34.1
28.6
26.0
27.2
26.6
28.2
27.9
28.2
27.5
26.5
25.0
28.0
30.5
32.0
34.5
36.0
34.0
35.0
45.0
49.5
36.5
40.0
97.0
56.5
48.5
46.5
40.0
33.0
29.5
27.5
31.5
30.5
30.0
29.5
29.5
29.0
28.5
30.0
29.5
28.0
28.0
30.0
30.5
2 9.5
2 9.5
2 8.0
2 8.0
26.5
27.5
29.5
28.0
30.0
34.5

86.8
86.8

79.4
55.4
51.4
46.9
34.4
30.5
30.1
30.0
28.3
23.6
21.2

22.4
23.2
25.5
24.3
25.7
26.9
26.4
29.4
32.8
39.5
47.9
48.2
47.4
50.2
50.4
42.6
36.9
36.1
36.3
47.0
43.3
30.5
30.2
29.9
30.0
29.7
29.8

RETAIL PRICE INDEXES—RENT INDEXES

E 177-186

Series E 177-185. Retail Price Indexes (BLS), of Electricity, Gas, and Fuel for Household Use: 1907 to 1957
[1947-49=100]

Composite 1

Year

177
1957
1956_________________________________________
1955_________________________________________
1954_________________________________________
1953_________________________________________
1952_________________________________________
1951_________________________________________
1950_________________________________________
1949_________________________________________
1948_________________________________________
1947_________________________________________
1946_________________________________________
1945_________________________________________
1944_________________________________________
1943_________________________________________
1942_________________________________________
1941_________________________________________
1940_________________________________________
1939_________________________________________
1938_________________________________________
1937_________________________________________
1936_________________________________________
1935_________________________________________
1934
1933
1932
1931
1930
1929
1928
1927
1926
1925
1924
1923
1922
1921
1920
1919
1918_
1917_
_
_
1916_
1915
1914_
19131912.
1911. _
_
1910
1909
19081907

100

kw. hrs.
178

106.9
106.5
106.1
104.7
104.3
103.0

102.0
101.2

100.9
99.1
100.3
104.4
104.9
105.2
105.3
105.9
106.7
107.8
109.5
111.2
113.7
117.4
123.6
133.6
135.0
136.5
138.6
141.2
146.4
149.1
151.2
153.3
155.0
156.2
159.5
161.3
158.3
158.5
153.2
152.7
156.9
161.0
166.2
5169.6

100.0

Coal

Gas

Electricity

104.3
103.8
103.4

102.2
101.2

100.3

100.1

99.4
99.4
100.9
99.6
100.4
102.4
102.5
103.2
103.2
103.7
105.1
106.4
107.8
109.3
111.7
116.6
120.0
123.5
124.5
129.2
133.8
138.0
143.8
149.2
154.0
157.2
161.2
165.1

For other
household uses
Manu­
All types 2 factured
10 therms 3
180
181

For
space
heating,
all types
179
122.8

121.5

120.6

114.6
111.5
105.8

102.6
101.6
101.2

99.9
99.0
98.0
99.0
99.8
100.3
100.6
102.5
104.3
105.3
105.6
109.2
118.5
121.4

1 Combination of 40, 100, and 200 kw.-hrs. from 1953 to 1957, and 25, 40, 100, and
250 kw.-hrs. from 1935 to 1952, and the “average consumption" in each component
city prior to 1935.
2 Combination of 10 and 25 therms from 1953 to 1957, and 10.6, 19.6, 30.6, and 40.6
therms prior to 1953.

117.4
115.1
112.6

109.1
107.5
105.4
103.8
104.0
103.9
99.7
96.3
95.5
97.1
98.3
98.8
99.8

100.1
101.2

101.9
100.8
99.5
100 .5
101.2

112.8

109.1
108.0
107.6
107.2
106.6
106.5
109.8
99.1
91.2
87.0
86.7
86.6
86.5
86.1
86.2

86.5
85.8
85.5
85.1
85.1
85.2
84.6
84.4
84.9
85.2
85.4
84.8
84.6
84.9
84.9
85.2
85.1
85.4
87.5
89.5
78.4
72.2
66.7
63.3
63.2
63.9
64.5
65.1
64.3
64.5
65.7
66.6
67.3
s 68.0 !

Natural
therms 3

10

182
107.1
105.5
102.6
100.0

99.0
96.2
94.4
97.5
99.5
99.5
100.9

102.1

107.1
109.6
111.4
113.6
114.9
117.2
117.4
113.8
114.2
114.6
115.9
119.5
120.5
120.7
120.7
120.7
120.8
112.3
110.4
108.4
104.7
100.1
98.2
93.4
86.0

77.2
75.0
68.9
62.6
60,1
59.7
59.7
859.7

Pennsylvania Bituminous,
anthracite, all domestic
stove
sizes
size
184

183
146.2
136.6
128.1
129.0
134.6
127.0
125.2
113.0
107.5
101.7
90.8
83.7
75.4
72.8
68.9
65.0
62.5
59.4
56.6
57.5
57.9
61.6
59.9
63.9
63.6
65.8
71.7
73.5
74.2
74.6
75.4
76.9
75.9
75.7
75.7
74.2
74.6
70.9
59.3
50.5
45.8
40.9
37.9
37.9
37.8

129.8
124.8
120.4
119.1
119.2
116.8
114.6
112.1

108.1
104.3
87.6
74.1
70.4
68.9
66.5
63.7
60.6
57.1
56.6
57.0
56.6
55.4
54.3
54.0
50.1
50.4
54.4
57.8
57.9
58.7
60.7
61.1
59.3
60.1
67.6
66.4
69.9
69.8
53.6
51.3 ;
47.3
38.4
36.5
37.1
36.2

Fuel oil,
No. 2 4
185
137.2
130.5
124.4
120.4
119.6
113.7

111.1

105.1
104.0
109.7
86.2
72.3
71.7
75.1
75.0
69.0
60.2
58.6
55.9
61.4
64.5
55.6
53.4

3 10 therms, 1953 1957; 10.6 therms, 1923-1952; prior to 1923, price per 1,000
cu. ft. based on consumption of 3,000 cu. ft. for mnaufactured gas and 5,000 cu. ft.
for natural gas.
4 Includes fuel oils No. 2 and 3 from 1939 through 1947.
5 December only.
6 April only.

Series E 186. Rent Indexes (Warren and Pearson) for Dwelling Units in 5 Large Cities: 1860 to 1880
[I860 = 100. Covers Boston, Philadelphia, Cincinnati, Louisville, and St. Louis]
Year
1880
1879 .................. ...........................
1878
1877
1876. _ __________ - _____




Index
186
151
148
152
148
147

Year
1875_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
1874_________ _______________
1873. _ _ __ _
1872_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
1871_________________________

Index
186
162
166
173
173
173

Year
1870__
_ _ _
1869_________________________
1868______________
1867___ _______
1866_________________________

Index
186
180
187
179
167
187

Year
1865- _ _
1864__________________
1863______
1862______
1861__________________
1860_________________________

Index
186
175
168
123

101
101
100

129




chapter F

National Income and Wealth

NATIONAL PRODUCT AND INCOME (Series F 1-157)
F 1-157. General note.
In broad terms, national product or its equivalent, national
income, is a comprehensive measure of the Nation’s total annual
production of commodities and services. Only the end prod­
ucts of a year’s economic activity are included. For example,
since the output of bread is included, the output of wheat
used in producing the bread is excluded. At any given time,
national product may be measured as the sum of the value
added in various forms of economic activity (agriculture, min­
ing, manufacturing, etc.) ; as the total of the incomes accruing
to persons supplying different productive factors (wages and
salaries, profits, including undistributed corporate profits, etc.) ;
or as the aggregate value of the final products of the economy
(food, clothing, shelter, etc.). While each of these approaches
yields the same total (given a consistent scheme of valuation),
the component detail illuminates different facets of the process
of production, distribution, and consumption of the Nation’s
output, and, hence, serves different uses. These three ap­
proaches, of course, do not exhaust the possibilities.
Changes in national product may be measured either in
current prices or in prices of a given year. In the latter case,
the change ideally reflects only the change in the real volume
of commodities and services. Each of these two forms of
valuation has its particular uses. For example, in a study of
financial developments or market trends, the current price
series is often preferable, while for analysis of consumer
levels of living or national productivity, the constant price
series is more appropriate.
It may be useful to indicate briefly some of the more general
conceptual limitations of national* product estimates. First,
national product is primarily a measure of the output of the
market economy. Only a few items of “income in kind” are
included. The most important are the value of food and fuel
produced and consumed by farm families and the rental value
of owner-occupied dwellings. No account is taken of items
such as the value of the housewife’s services or of home
repairs, home dressmaking, or noncommercial recreation.
Since economic growth generally involves a progressive com­
mercialization of such activities, the increase of national
product reflects to some extent a transfer of production from
the nonmarket to the market sector rather than a real growth
in the total volume of production.
Second, there is no complete agreement on all of the goods
that may properly be considered end products of the economy.
National product, as ordinarily constituted, includes, among
other things, all items of consumer expenditure. This leads
to the inclusion of such things as expenditures on transporta­
tion to work and payments to labor unions, which the consumer
may not consider end products in themselves, but rather a
necessary means under .modern industrial organization to se­
cure the money income needed to obtain goods that do consti­
tute the goal of economic activity, such as food, clothing, and
recreation. Also, since national product typically includes all
government expenditure for commodities and services, criti­
cism has been voiced regarding the inclusion of war and
defense goods and government services to business, such as
police and fire protection for factories and warehouses. If



this argument is accepted, national product measures would
be viewed as overstating the growth of the final product of
the economy over time, since these items tend on balance to
increase in relative importance as the economy develops.
Third, because of the techniques used in adjusting for price
changes, national product in constant prices fails to reflect
fully changes in the quality of goods during economic growth.
In contrast to the foregoing limitation, this one would tend to
understate the growth of national product, since on the aver­
age, quality of products probably tends to improve over time.
Finally, national product may fail to measure accurately
changes in the material level of living provided by economic
activity, even when placed on a per capita basis, since the
aggregate figures do not reflect changes in the distribution of
income between rich and poor, in consumption needs arising
from changes in the age composition of the population, or in
man-hours spent in economic activity.
Despite these shortcomings of national product measures for
historical analysis, there are wide areas of agreement on the
proper means of constructing and interpreting such measures.
Their usefulness in providing insights into the nature and
growth of the economy is attested to by the wide acceptance
of the figures.
Most of the series presented here are based on recent work.
The principal works of comprehensive nature used are: Office
of Business Economics, U. S. Income and Output, 1958, Nation­
al Income: 19 5U Edition, A Supplement to the Survey of Cur­
rent Business, and Survey of Current Business, July 1957;
Simon Kuznets, Capital in the American Economy: Its For­
mation and Financing, National Bureau of Economic Research,
New York (forthcoming), and “Long-Term Changes in the
National Income of the United States of America Since
1870,” in International Association for Research in Income
and Wealth, Income and Wealth of the United States:
Trends and Structure, Income and Wealth Series II, Bowes
and Bowes, Cambridge, 1952; John W. Kendrick, Pro­
ductivity Trends in America, National Bureau of Economic
Research, New York (forthcoming) ; and Raymond W. Gold­
smith, Dorothy S. Brady, and Horst Mendershausen, A Study
of Saving in the United States, vol. Ill, Princeton University
Press, Princeton, 1956. Earlier works of historical nature are:
Robert F. Martin, National Income in the United States, 17991938, National Industrial Conference Board, New York, 1939;
Simon Kuznets, National Income and Its Composition, 19191938, National Bureau of Economic Research, New York, 1941,
and National Product Since 1869, National Bureau of Economic
Research, New York, 1946; Enterprise and Social Progress,
National Industrial Conference Board, New York, 1939; Willford I. King, The Wealth and Income of the People of the
United States, Macmillan, New York, 1915. A basic source
for discussion of conceptual issues in the field is Conference
on Research in Income and Wealth, Studies in Income and
Wealth, vols. 1-24, National Bureau of Economic Research,
New York.
The extent of detail presented was limited by space
requirements; greater detail is frequently available in the
original source. No attempt was made to utilize estimates of
131

F 1-9
NATIONAL INCOME AND WEALTH
contemporaries available for the 19th century, since these items accounting for the difference between gross national
figures have not yet been subjected to critical review in the product and the given aggregate. (See the reconciliation
light of modern concepts and techniques. (See George Tucker, among the aggregates in table I below.) The values of the
Progress of the United States in Population and Wealth in reconciliation items are given in Raymond W. Goldsmith, Doro­
Fifty Years, Press of Hunt’s Merchants’ Magazine, New York, thy S. Brady, and Horst Mendershausen, A Study of Saving in
1843; Ezra C. Seaman, Essays on the Progress of Nations, the United States, vol. Ill, Princeton University Press, Prince­
Charles Scribner, New York, 1868; Annual Report of the Com­ ton, 1956, pp. 435 and 441; 1929-1945, Office of Business
missioner of Patents for the Year 1848; David A. Wells, Our Economics, Survey of Current Business, July 1957, pp. 10 and
Burden and Our Strength, Loyal Publication Society, New 11; 1946-1957, Office of Business Economics, U. S. Income
York, 1864; Edward Atkinson, The Distribution of Products, and Output, 1958.
New York, 1885; and Michael G. Mulhall, Industries and
The following are definitions used by the Department of
Wealth of Nations, Longmans, Green, London, 1896.)
Commerce:
F 1-5. Gross national product, total and per capita, in current
Net national product is the market value of the net output
and 1929 prices, 1869-1957.
of goods and services produced by the Nation’s economy. All
Source: Series F 1 and F 2, 1869-1873 to 1928, John W. business products used up by business in the accounting period
Kendrick, Productivity Trends in the United States, National are excluded. Net national product comprises the purchases
Bureau of Economic Research, New York (forthcoming) ; 1929- of goods and services by consumers and government, net pri­
1945, Office of Business Economics, Survey of Current Busi­ vate domestic investment (including the change in business
ness, July 1957, pp. 8-9; 1946-1957, Office of Business Eco­ inventories), and net foreign investment.
nomics, U. S. Income and Output, 1958. Series F 3, 1869-1945,
National income
John W. Kendrick (cited above) ; 1946-1955, computed by cost) represents the(sometimes called national income at factor
aggregate earnings of labor and property
applying Kendrick’s implicit price index for 1946-1955 to the
the current production of goods
revised gross national product figures in U. S. Income and which arise fromeconomy. Thus, it measures the and services
total factor
Output, 1958. Series F 4, computed by dividing gross na­ by the Nation’s
the economy.
tional product by population estimates in series A 1-2. Series costs of the goods and services produced by they accrue to
Earnings are recorded the forms
F 5, computed by dividing Kendrick’s current price series of residents of the Nation,ininclusive of in which those earnings.
taxes on
gross national product by the constant price series.
As such, they consist of the compensation of employees, the
Gross national product, as defined by the Department of profits
Commerce, is the market value of the output of goods and est, andof corporate and unincorporated enterprises, net inter­
the rental income flowing to persons.
services produced by the Nation’s economy, before deduction
Personal income represents the current income received by
of depreciation charges and other allowances for business and
institutional consumption of durable capital goods. Other busi­ persons from all sources, inclusive of transfers from govern­
ness products used up by business in the accounting period are ment and business but exclusive of transfers among persons.
excluded. The Nation’s economy in this context refers to the Not only individuals (including owners of unincorporated en­
labor and property supplied by residents of the Nation. Gross terprises), but also nonprofit institutions, private trust funds,
national product comprises the purchase of goods and services and private pension, health, and welfare funds are classified as
by consumers and government, gross private domestic invest­ “persons.” Personal income is measured on a before-tax basis,
ment (including the change in business inventories), and net as the sum of wage and salary disbursements, other labor
income, proprietors’ and rental income, interest and dividends,
foreign investment.
and transfer
The current dollar estimates for 1929-1957 are the official insurance. payments, minus personal contributions for social
estimates prepared by the Department of Commerce. For the
Disposable income is the income remaining to persons after
years prior to 1929, the underlying estimates are those of
Simon Kuznets, but they have been adjusted for 1889-1928 the deduction from personal income of personal tax and nontax
by John W. Kendrick to the same conceptual basis as the Com­ payments to general government.
merce figures. The estimates for years before 1889 are in
The precise relations among the various national accounts
terms of the somewhat different Kuznets concept of gross na­ aggregates for 1957 are presented below in table I.
tional product. As is clear from the overlap values for 1889- Table I. Relation of Gross National Product, Net National
1893, however, the quantitative difference between the two
Product, National Income, Personal Income, and Disposable
Income: 1957
series is less than 5 percent for these early years. The specific
[In billions of dollars]
nature of the conceptual differences is indicated below in con­
nection with the discussion of series F 104-130. The constant
Item
1957
dollar estimates at all dates are basically those of Simon Kuz­ Gross national product ________________ _____ ...
440.3
nets (see text for series F 131-157), but have been adjusted Less: Capital consumption allowances . ...
37.7
E quals: N et national p ro d u ct____________ __ _______ .....
402.6
to the Department of Commerce concept for 1889-1955 by Plus: Subsidies minus current surplus of governm ent
enterprises ________ _________________ ______ .... ...
Kendrick, who prepared constant dollar estimates for the rec­ Less:
1.3
onciliation items between the two series.
Indirect business tax and nontax liability __
37.6
Business transfer paym ents __ __ ... _ ...
1.6
With regard to statistical reliability, the Commerce estimates
Statistical discrepancy
.7
Equals'. N ational income .. . ____ ..... _
364.0
are considered to be “subject to only a small percentage of Less:
Undistributed corporate profits . ... ..... ..... _
error.” The same is very likely true of the estimates for
9.4
Corporate profits tax liability____ _____ ... _ _
21.6
1919-1928, but for the years prior to 1919 the margin of error
Corporate inventory valuation adjustm ent
— 1.5
Contributions for social insurance _ ... ___ __ ___
14.2
widens noticeably. For further discussion of the margin of
Excess of w age accruals over disbursem ents___ ...
______
error in the early estimates, see text for series F 104-130.
Plus:
N et interest paid by governm ent
6.2
F 6-9. Net national product, national income, personal income,
ftnvprnmpnt transfer paym ents
19.9
'Business transfer paympnts
1.6
and disposable income, in current prices, 1897-1957.
Equals', Personal inr.omp. .
347.9
TiPRsr
and
paymenta
______
42.7
Source: 1897-1928, computed by adjusting the gross national Equals:Personal taxpersonalnontax e------------------------------------------------------. 305.1
Disposable
incom
product totals in series F 1 by the estimated values of the
132




F 10-21
NATIONAL PRODUCT AND INCOME
Theoretically, net national product and national income are F 10-21. Value added by selected industries, and value of
output of fixed capital, in current and 1879 prices, 1839superior to gross national product as measures of the final
1899.
output of the economy, since some duplication is involved by
the inclusion in the latter of the production of fixed capital
Source: Robert E. Gallman, “Commodity Output in the
which serves merely for replacement purposes. However, the United States, 1839-1899,” Conference on Research in Income
depreciation charges, taken as an approximation of the value and Wealth, Studies in Income and Wealth, vol. 24, National
of capital currently consumed in deriving net national product Bureau of Economic Research, New York (forthcoming).
and national income, are largely in terms of original cost, and
Value added in agriculture, mining, manufacturing, and con­
hence are on a basis of valuation not comparable to that of struction, though narrower in scope than national product, is
the gross production of fixed capital (see National Income: the most reliable output series of fairly comprehensive cover­
195U Edition, p. 43). In practice, therefore, the measures of age for the period prior to 1870. “Value added” is the value
the net product of the economy which are obtained are not of output, at producers’ prices, less the value of commodities
consumed in production, at delivered prices. Viewed from the
fully satisfactory.1
While net national product and national income are both income side, it comprises for any given sector the sum of pay­
measures of current national production (ideally, free from the ments to factors of production (net income originating), pay­
duplication involved in gross national product), they differ in ments made to noncommodity producing firms (including gov­
but excluding transportation),
depreciation.
the manner in which this production is valued. Conceptually, ernment, speaking, the coverage of the totaland the four sec­
Generally
for
in net national product, current production is valued at market tors combined is fairly
finished
prices, while in national income, it is valued at factor costs, output plus construction close to that for also text commodity
materials (see
that is, at the cost of the capital and labor used in producing P 250-306). It differs from gross national product for series
primarily
it. In practice, as table I shows, the principal difference be­ in that it excludes the value of transportation and distributive
tween these two forms of valuation is indirect business taxes. services and of services to ultimate consumers, such as medi­
Personal income, which measures the actual current income cal and educational services, and refers to the product pro­
receipts of persons from all sources, differs from the national duced within a given area rather than that accruing to the
income in that it excludes certain types of income which accrue residents of the area.
in production but are not received by persons (for instance, the
The series for agriculture includes the value of food, fuel,
undistributed part of corporate profits) and, on the other hand, and manufactures produced and consumed on the farm; that
includes certain types of income which do not arise in current for mining excludes the output of precious metals mining; and
productive activity but constitute personal receipts (such as that for manufacturing excludes home manufactures and the
relief and unemployment benefits). Hence personal income, products of the independent hand trades. Forestry and fish­
unlike the national product and national income aggregates, is eries are not covered in any of the series.
not a measure of national production. Personal income net of
Estimates in constant prices were obtained for each sector
taxes (i.e., disposable income) is the closest over-all statistical as the difference between the constant price value of the output
approximation to consumer purchasing power derived from of the sector and the constant price value of the sector’s pur­
current incomes.
chases of materials.
The Department of Commerce figures (1929-1957) are be­
The series on value of output of fixed capital covers the
lieved to be subject to only a small percentage error. Person­ value of construction, manufactured producers’ durables, and
al income figures are more reliable than those for national farm improvements. The value of repairs and maintenance is
income because the major items included in personal income included only in the estimates for construction. Fixed capital
(but not in national income) are reliable, and the exclusions produced by the independent hand trades—chiefly artisans’
tools and agricultural implements—is not included. As noted
either do not affect reliability or actually increase it.
in
with
series, the figures relate to output,
Since the estimates for the period prior to 1929 were derived notconnection use. the earlier price estimates were obtained for
domestic
Constant
by adjusting the gross national product estimates in series construction by deflating the current price series by an index
F 1, the remarks concerning the reliability of the gross national of the cost of labor and construction materials. For producers’
product figures for this period apply to the present series also. durables, an index of selling prices was chiefly used, and for
The estimates for the items needed to move from gross national farm improvements, use was made of a series on acres of land
product to the other aggregates were made in a manner and improved.
from sources as closely comparable as possible with the De­
In general, the principal sources were the Federal and State
partment of Commerce current figures. However, the esti­ censuses of the period, but a wide range of additional materials
mates for these adjusting items “are probably affected by a was used either directly for the estimates or to test the
larger margin of error for the period before 1929 than the results. Compared with the national product estimates for the
Department of Commerce figures for the same items. . . . In late 19th century, the present series might be considered less
addition, two adjustments were ignored altogether for the reliable, because of the greater scarcity of materials at the
period before 1929 because no reasonable estimates could be earlier dates and the lower reliability of the census returns.
made for them, viz, subsidies less current surplus of govern­ On the other hand, restriction of scope to the commodity sec­
ment enterprises and business transfer payments” (A Study tors would tend to improve reliability relative to the national
of Saving . . . , vol. Ill, p. 424). However, these items are product estimates, since the basic sources for the service esti­
quite small at the present time, and were probably relatively mates included in the latter are much less satisfactory than
those for commodity output. The estimates for the different
less important prior to 1929.
commodity producing sectors are believed about equally relia­
1 Unofficial estim ates of depreciation valued on a basis comparable to
ble, except that for construction which is substantially inferior
that of the gross production of fixed capital are available for most years to the others. Also, because of the greater relative importance
shown in these series. Cf. Raymond W. Goldsmith, Dorothy S. Brady, and
Horst Mendershausen, A Study of Saving in the U nited States, vol. Ill, of construction in the fixed capital series, it is less reliable
than the value-added series for all sectors combined.
p. 437.
488910 O - 6 0
- 10


133

NATIONAL INCOME AND WEALTH
F 22-43
depend on a single industry. Finally, the income shares of
F 22-48. General note.
These series present distributions of total income or product the various industries are shown before deduction for personal
by industrial origin. In obtaining such a distribution, the in­ and, for 1929-1957, corporate income taxes. These taxes have
come originating in an industry is generally measured by sum­ a differential effect on the various sector totals.
ming employee compensation, income of unincorporated enter­ F 22-33. National income, by industrial origin, in current
prises and corporate profits (both including adjustment for
prices, 1929-1957.
inventory valuation), and net interest. Because of statistical
Source: 1929-1945, Office of Business Economics, National
difficulties, rental income of persons is assigned wholly to the Income: 1951+ Edition, A Supplement to the Survey of Current
real estate industry, rather than to the industry of origin.
Business, pp. 176-177; 1946-1957, U. S. Income and Output,
One of the most important uses of a distribution by indus­ 1958.
trial origin is to indicate the changing importance of various
The income total used in this distribution is that of national
productive activities in the economy. For example, such a dis­ income (see text for series F 7). The industrial classification
tribution shows whether agriculture is growing or declining, follows closely that of the Standard Industrial Classification
and how it is changing relative to other sectors. However, Manual published by the Office of Statistical Standards of the
certain qualifications must be attached to such an interpreta­ Bureau of the Budget. For a comparison of the classification
tion of the sector totals. In the distribution of employee com­ used in the national income accounts and the Standard Indus­
pensation by industry, establishments are classified wholly in
the industry that accounts for the principal part of their activ­ trial8 . Classification, see National Income: 1954 Edition, pp.
6
ity, even though they may perform other functions that 6 6 -In the discussion of series F 49-54 below, it is noted that
should properly be classified in another industry. Thus, the there are differences in the reliability of the estimates for
distributive functions carried on by a manufacturing establish­
income, and, in particular, that the
ment are generally classified under manufacturing rather than various types of income and for rental income are ofestimates
for proprietor
a much
under trade. Hence, shifts in the relative weights of different lower order of accuracy. This information may be used to
industrial sectors may reflect in part a transfer of activities draw some inferences concerning the relative accuracy of the
from one sector to another rather than a change in the relative
for
magnitude of the functions performed. An even greater de­ industry estimates, since, generally speaking, the estimatesbulk
of income
parture from an activity classification occurs when corporate those sectors in which the least reliable typesAccordingly, the
be lowest in statistical accuracy.
profits and net interest are distributed by industry. In this large will for the construction, trade, and service sectors should
estimates
case, the distribution is based, because of statistical neces­ be considered least reliable, since in each of these, proprietors’
sity, on the principal industrial attachment of the company, income accounts for a disproportionately large share. The
though the company may include establishments engaged in estimate for the sector labeled “finance, insurance, and real
several industrial lines. Thus, the industrial distributions only estate” should also be included in this category, because rental
approximate a true distribution by type of activity.
income is preponderant importance. The most reliable esti­
Aside from this, changes in the relative importance of the mates areofthose for mining, manufacturing, transportation,
income totals for different industrial sectors may reflect not communications and
while
only changes in the relative magnitude of different productive those for agriculture public utilities, and government, below
would probably rank somewhat
activities, but also differential movements in the prices re­
ceived for products or the prices paid for material and service these, but noticeably above the least reliable group.
inputs. However, in series F 44-48, which present a constant F 34-43. Percent distribution of national income or aggregate
payments, by industry, in current prices, 1869-1948.
dollar distribution by industrial origin, the influence of differ­
ential price movements has been removed, though unfortun­
Source: Simon Kuznets, “Long-Term Changes in the National
ately this adjustment is presently possible for only a few sec­ Income of the United States of America Since 1870,” in Inter­
tors. For an analysis of the difference between the current national Association for Research in Income and Wealth, In­
and constant dollar distributions, by industrial origin, see come and Wealth of the United States: Trends and Structure,
Simon Kuznets, “Long-Term Changes in the National Income Income and Wealth Series II, Bowes and Bowes, Cambridge,
. . . Since 1870” . . . , pp. 92-106 (for complete citation, see 1952, p. 89.
source for series F 34-43).
The
this series are those of
A distribution by industrial origin may also be viewed as an Robert basic estimates used in deriving the United States, 1799F. Martin, National Income in
approximation to the incomes of groups in the population at­
National Industrial Conference Board, New York, 1939;
tached to particular industries. For this purpose the current 1938,Simon Kuznets, National Income and Its Composition, 1919and
dollar figures are more appropriate than the constant dollar
National Bureau of Economic Research, New York, 1941.
figures, though adjustment of the current dollar figures for 1938, Kuznets series was extended through 1948 on the basis
The
cost-of-living differences among the various groups would be of appropriately adjusted Department of Commerce figures.
still more satisfactory. On the other hand, there are impor­
This measure of income originating in an industry differs
tant limitations that should be kept in mind in attempting to
somewhat from that employed in the Department of Commerce
identify the income of a group in the population with the
income originating in an industry. For example, while farmers estimates, series F 22-33, corporate taxes having been ex­
draw most of their income from agriculture, they may also cluded and interest on government debt included. Also, in the
receive income from part-time employment or investments out­ Martin series on “aggregate payments,” undistributed corporate
side agriculture. Conversely, some income originating in agri­ profits are not included. Hence, aside from variations in sta­
culture, such as interest paid on mortgages held by nonfarm tistical technique and sources, the income totals differ some­
landlords, may be paid to persons not engaged in farming. what for the years where the three sets of estimates overlap.
Indeed, for property income in general (profits, interest, and
Also, there is some variation in industrial classification. The
rent), identification of the income originating in an industry finance and miscellaneous category in the National Bureau of
with a particular social group is difficult, because those persons Economic Research estimates includes items such as income
to whom property income is important are likely to receive originating in fisheries and in bus, truck, and air transporta­
income from diverse industrial sources and are not likely to tion, and dividend and interest flows from the rest of the
134




F 44-54
NATIONAL PRODUCT AND INCOME
world. In the Martin estimates this category also includes ponents, are probably less accurate, they are nevertheless
income from fisheries and the net international flow of interest based on fairly satisfactory sources, even for the earlier dates.
and dividends, as well as income from miscellaneous profes­ F 49-66. General note.
sional occupations, such as the clergy, and from the hand
These series present distributions of total income by
trades. (In the other two sets of estimates these last two income (employee compensation, entrepreneurial income,type of
inter­
categories are classified in the service sector.) Also, in the est, etc.). Perhaps the chief interest attaching to a distribu­
Martin estimates shown in the last three lines of series F tion of this kind lies in the indication it may provide of the
34-43, rents are distributed among the various industries,
in the economy is di­
whereas, in the estimates for all other years they are classified changing manner in which total incomereturns from property.
vided between returns from labor and
under the “finance” sector.
However, the figures as given suffer from certain limitations
The comments made above in connection with series F 22-33 for this purpose, one of the most important being that entre­
regarding variations in the statistical reliability of the esti­ preneurial income (including rental income) includes a return
mates for the different sectors are relevant here. (See also both on invested capital and on personal services. Also the
National Income and Its Composition, 1919-1938, pp. 509-523.) income shares are before deduction for personal (and, in the
Also, the Martin estimates, particularly for the dates prior case of series F 53 and F 59, corporate) taxes. Since these
to 1899, should be considered of a definitely lower order of taxes have a differential impact on the several shares, it would
reliability.
sometimes be desirable to eliminate them.
Three other recent studies, drawing largely on the same
F 44-48. Gross domestic product originating in private farm
and nonfarm sectors and government, in 1929 prices, 1869- sources as those used here, which present historical data on
the distribution of income by type should be noted: Daniel
1955.
Creamer, Personal Income During Business Cycles, Princeton
Source: John W. Kendrick, Productivity Trends in the
United States, National Bureau of Economic Research, New University Press, Princeton, 1956, appendix A; George J.
Schuller, “The Secular Trend in Income Distribution by Type,
York (forthcoming).
1869-1948: A
Estimate,” The Review
Gross domestic product in series F 44 differs from gross and Statistics,Preliminary No. 4, November 1953, of Economics
vol. xxxv,
pp. 302-324;
national product in series F 3 in that the former excludes and Edward C. Budd, “United States Factor Shares, 1850net factor income from abroad. Thus the return on capital 1910,” Conference on Research in Income and Wealth, Studies
located abroad but owned by United States residents is ex­ in Income and Wealth, vol. 24, National Bureau of Economic
cluded, while the income from capital owned abroad but located
in this country is included. However, the quantitative differ­ Research, New York (forthcoming).
F 49-54. National income, by type of income, in current prices,
ence between the two series is not great.
1929-1957.
Kendrick derived these estimates as follows: Gross national
Source: 1929-1945, Office of Business Economics, Survey of
product in constant prices, as given in series F 3, was adjusted
by a constant price estimate of net factor income from abroad Current Business, July 1957, pp. 8-9; 1946-1957, U. S. Income
to obtain gross domestic product. A constant dollar estimate and Output, 1958.
of gross farm product was derived as the difference between
The following are definitions used by the Department of
constant dollar estimates of the total value of farm output and Commerce:
of the value of intermediate products consumed. This pro­
the definition of national
text for series
cedure is preferable to the more common one of taking the F For Compensation of employees income, see the income ac­
7.
represents
physical outputs of an industry and weighting them by unit cruing to
employee
values in the base year. The latter procedure yields a meas­ their work.persons in anemployer’s status as remuneration for
From the
standpoint, it
ure that includes purchases from other industries, and the cost of employing labor. It includes wages and is the direct
salaries, i.e.,
figures for a number of industries cannot be summed without the monetary remuneration of employees commonly regarded
duplication. For example, assume that the output of artificial as wages and salaries, inclusive of
compensation,
fertilizers was to increase and to cause higher yields in agri­ commissions, tips, and bonuses, and executives’ in kind which
payments
culture; the effect on the combined output of agriculture and
income to
also includes supple­
manufacturing (which would include the manufacture of arti­ represent wages and the recipients. asIt employer contributions
ments to
salaries such
ficial fertilizers) would be exaggerated if the individual sector
to
estimates were derived without allowance for changes in the for social insurance; employer contributionsfor private pension,
health, and welfare funds; compensation
injuries; direc­
constant dollar value of purchases from other sectors.
tors’ fees; pay of the military reserve; and a few other minor
“Farm” as used in series F 46 differs slightly from “agri­ items of labor income.
culture” in series F 23 in that F 46 excludes agricultural
Income of unincorporated enterprises represents the mone­
services, forestry, and fisheries.
tary earnings and income in kind of sole proprietorships, part­
Gross government product, in accordance with present nerships, and producers’ cooperatives from their
Department of Commerce concepts, consists of a deflated series ness operations other than the supplementarycurrent busi­
of
on compensation of general government employees. The de­ individuals derived from renting property. Capital income and
gains
flation procedure used does not allow for changes in the pro­ losses are excluded and no deduction is made for depletion.
ductivity of these employees.
An inventory valuation adjustment is included, which meas­
Gross private product was obtained as the difference between ures the excess of the value of the change in the volume of
gross domestic product and gross government product. Gross inventories, valued at average prices during the period, over
nonfarm product is the difference between gross private and the change in the book value of inventories. The adjustment
gross farm product.
is required because income of unincorporated enterprises is
The reliability of gross domestic product is essentially the taken inclusive of inventory profit or loss, as is customary in
same as that of gross national product, from which it was business accounting, whereas only the value of the real change
derived (see text for series F 1-5). While the estimates for in inventories is counted as current output in the national
farm and government product, the two directly estimated com­ product.



135

F 55-86
NATIONAL INCOME AND WEALTH
Rental income of persons represents the monetary earnings to 1929, and particularly before 1919, the general level of
of persons from the rental of real property, except those of reliability of all series is less than for the later period. For
persons primarily engaged in the real estate business; the 1929-1952, there may be minor discrepancies between the per­
imputed net rental returns to owner-occupants of nonfarm centage distribution shown in series F 55-60 and those derived
dwellings; and the royalties received by persons from patents, from series F 49-54, since the latter series incorporate some
recent revisions.
copyrights, and rights to natural resources.
Corporate profits before taxes represent the earnings of F 61-66. Percent distribution of aggregate payments, by type
corporations organized for profit which accrue to residents of
of income, in current prices, 1870-1948.
the Nation, measured before Federal and State profit taxes,
Source: See source for series F 34-43, p. 136.
without deduction of depletion charges and exclusive of capital
These series provide a somewhat longer historical perspec­
gains and losses. In most major respects, the definition of tive on the trend in the distribution of income by type, chiefly
profits is in accordance with Federal income tax regulations. by drawing on an earlier study by Willford I. King, The Wealth
As in the case of income of unincorporated enterprises, an and Income of the People of the United States, Macmillan, New
inventory valuation adjustment has been made in order to York, 1919. However, the reliability of these earlier figures
eliminate inventory profits.
is uncertain, as is clear from the following statement accom­
Net interest represents total interest (monetary and im­ panying presentation of the table in the source:
[The following table] assembles the information available on [the]
puted, private and government) accruing to United States
distribution of aggregate paym ents by type for the period under consid­
persons and governments, minus total interest paid by United
eration. W. I. K ing’s figures are of somewhat doubtful usefulness in
corporate and governm
States governments. The imputed interest component of net this connection, since thehistreatm ent ofand the statistical basis ent sav­
ings is
from
analysis,
estim
is quite
Although M
figures
a somewhat
interest is measured in general as the excess of property in­ more ates not clear thin. differences in artin’s between are onoverlap for the
secure basis, the
level
[the
values
come received by financial intermediaries from funds entrusted
for 1909-1918] indicate lack of comparability with the more acceptable
estim ates for recent decades. One must, therefore, pick one’s way with
to them by persons over property income actually returned in
caution in any attem pt to infer long-term changes in the distribution
monetary form by these intermediaries to persons.
of income paym ents by type.
These series are based on a somewhat different aggregate
The figures are official Department of Commerce estimates.
The relative accuracy of the various series as evaluated by the than those in series F 49-54 and F 55-60, the most impor­
Department is, in terms of decreasing reliability: Employee tant difference being that the “aggregate payments” concept
compensation, corporate profits before taxes, net interest, in­ includes only corporate dividends rather than corporate profits
come of unincorporated enterprises, and rental income. In before taxes. Hence, corporate profits tax liability, undistrib­
particular, “the entrepreneurial income estimates [including uted corporate profits, and the corporate inventory valuation
rental income] are subject to significant shortcomings when adjustment are all excluded from the total underlying series
F 61. In addition, the interest series includes government
compared with the other income shares.”
F 55-60. Percent distribution of national income, by type of interest and excludes imputed interest (though in bringing the
National Bureau of Economic Research series up to date by
income, in current prices, 1900-1952.
means of the Department of Commerce data, the first three
Source: D. Gale Johnson, “The Functional Distribution of entries
series including imputed interest was
Income in the United States, 1850-1952,” Review of Economics used). in series F 65,toa the remaining three series (employee
With regard
and Statistics, vol. xxxvi, No. 2, May 1954, p. 178.
compensation, entrepreneurial income, and rent), the under­
The definitions for series F 55-60 are the same as those for lying concepts correspond closely to their counterparts in series
series F 50-54, except that prior to 1929 corporate profits F 50, F 51, and F 52, though the statistical procedures fol­
before taxes (series F 59) does not include an inventory val­ lowed differ somewhat.
uation adjustment, and income of unincorporated enterprises F 67-157. General note.
(series F 57) includes one only for farm income. Also, im­
These series provide a summary view of the end products of
puted interest is not included in the series used to extrapolate
the Department of Commerce estimates of net interest prior the economy. From these data one can determine, among
other things, to what extent the annual flow of production took
to 1929.
the form of consumers’ goods, on the one hand, and capital
The underlying figures were prepared by D. Gale Johnson,
examine
com­
who carried the Department of Commerce estimates (series goods, on the other. of In addition, one can (in terms the broad
position of the flow goods to consumers
of
F 49-54) back to 1900 on the basis of Kuznets’ estimates for categories such as services, nondurable goods, and durable
1919-28; King’s for 1909-1918; Martin’s for 1899-1908; and goods), and of capital formation, classified according
certain other sources. (Simon Kuznets, National Income and such as construction, producers’ durable equipment, etc. to types
Its Composition, 1919-1938, National Bureau of Economic Re­
search, New York, 1941; Willford I. King, The National Income F 67-86. Gross national product, by major type of product, in
current prices, 1929-1957.
and Its Purchasing Power, National Bureau of Economic Re­
Source: 1929-1945, Office of Business Economics, Survey of
search, New York, 1930; and Robert F. Martin, National In­
come in the United States, 1799-1938, National Industrial Current Business, July 1957, pp. 8-9; 1946-1957, U. S. Income
and Output, 1958.
Conference Board, New York, 1939.)
The following are definitions used by the Department of
The procedures followed are summarized by Johnson as
Commerce:
follows:
For the period 1910-28 the Bureau of Agricultural Econom ics’ esti­
For the definition of gross national product, see text for
mates of farm operators’ income is used. The estim ate of corporate
series F 1-5. Personal consumption expenditures (series
profits is taken from a series of net profits after taxes published by
the N ational Industrial Conference Board, to which is added the amount
F 68) represent the market value of purchases of goods and
of corporate taxes paid. K uznets’ series for wages and salaries, nonfarm
entrepreneurial income, and rent were accepted as published for 1919services by individuals and nonprofit institutions and the value
28. His interest series is substantially below that of the Departm ent
of food, clothing, housing, and financial services received by
of Commerce after interest paid by governm ents is eliminated. It was
linked with the Departm ent of Commerce series in terms of average
them as income in kind. It includes the rental value of ownerrelationship for the period 1929-33. The estim ates of King for 1909-18
and Martin for 1899-1908 were adjusted in a sim ilar fashion.
occupied houses but does not include purchases of dwellings,
The evaluation of the relative accuracy of series F 50-54 which are classified as capital goods. Consumer durable com­
applies also to the present series, though for the years prior modities are generally defined as those having an average
136




F 87-130
NATIONAL PRODUCT AND INCOME
The difference between the gross national product series
life of 3 years or longer. Gross private domestic investment
(series F 72) consists of acquisitions of newly produced capital presented in series F 104 and the Department of Commerce
goods by private business and nonprofit institutions and of the series in series F 1 and F 67 is primarily conceptual, and
value of the change in the volume of inventories held by busi­ relates almost wholly to the treatment of government in the
ness. It covers all private new dwellings, including those ac­ estimation of national product. In series F 104, government
quired by owner occupants. Producers’ durable equipment is purchases of goods and services is omitted as a component of
defined in terms of items having an average life of one or gross national product. However, an estimate of government
more years. Net foreign investment (series F 80) is the net services to consumers is added to personal consumption ex­
change in international assets and liabilities, including the penditures to obtain an estimate of “flow of goods to consum­
monetary gold stock, arising out of the current international ers” and government capital formation (consisting of both war
flow of goods and services, factor incomes, and cash gifts and nonwar public construction, purchases of durable equip­
and contributions. Government purchases of goods and serv­ ment including durable munitions, and the change in the stock
ices (series F 81) measures purchases of goods and services of monetary metals) is added to private capital formation. In
by government bodies, exclusive of acquisitions of land and addition, series F 104 excludes from flow of goods to consumers
used depreciable assets and of current outlays of government and from gross national product the imputed value of unpaid
enterprises. It consists of general government expenditures services of financial intermediaries.
for compensation of employees, purchases from business (net
of these adjustments is yield lower aggregate
of sales by government of consumption goods and materials), forThe effectnational product, chiefly tobecausea government ex­
gross
net government purchases from abroad and international con­
of
tributions, and the gross investment of government enter­ penditures which are considered not to take the form fromserv­
ices to consumers or capital formation are omitted
prises. Transfer payments, government interest, subsidies, total. In effect, these omitted expenditures are treated the
as
and loans are excluded. Federal national security expenditures yielding intermediate services that facilitate the flow of goods
include, in addition to national defense outlays, expenditures to consumers or capital formation, but do not in themselves
for international security and foreign relations (other than constitute final products; just as the production of wheat con­
military assistance) and promotion of the merchant marine.
tributes to the production of bread but is not counted as a
The figures are official Department of Commerce estimates. final product in addition to bread. For the earlier years, the
With regard to the relative accuracy of the different product quantitative difference between the two series (F 1 and F 104)
series, the Department states that government purchases of arising from this conceptual difference is fairly small, but for
goods and services, particularly Federal Government purchases, the most recent decades it would be quite large, because of
is highest on the scale of reliability, while the change in busi­ the great relative expansion in Government expenditures for
ness inventories (which includes an inventory valuation ad­ military and defense purposes, which in the Kuznets concept
justment) is lowest. Lying between these extremes are, in are largely excluded from the total.
order of decreasing accuracy: Producers’ purchases of dura­
Net national product differs from gross national product in
ble equipment and personal consumption expenditures for that an allowance for capital consumed during the year in the
durables and nondurables; personal consumption expenditures process of production has been deducted from the gross na­
for services; and new construction. While the estimate of net tional product total. In the present case, capital consumption,
foreign investment is based on a good deal of statistical infor­ both private and public, is valued at reproduction cost. Thus,
mation, it is nevertheless liable to substantial percentage error a piece of equipment used up during the current year is valued
because it is derived as the difference between much larger at the current cost of replacement, irrespective of the original
numerical values.
cost of the equipment. In addition, the capital consumption
F 87-103. Gross national product, by major type of product, estimate includes an allowance for depletion of natural re­
sources.
in 1954 prices, 1929-1957.
The differences between the present series and the De­
Source: Office of Business Economics, U. S. Income and
partment of Commerce series with regard to the major compo­
Output, 1958.
nents (that is, between personal consumption expenditures and
These series present estimates in 1954 prices for most of the flow of goods to consumers, and between gross private domes­
current price series presented in series F 67-86. The general tic investment and private and public capital formation) have
procedure followed by the Department of Commerce was to been indicated above in the discussion of the differences in the
divide the current price figures (organized in a product break­ gross national product concepts. Consumer perishables, semi­
down much finer than that shown in series F 67-86) by appro­ durables, and durables are commodities that, without marked
priate price indexes based on 1954 = 100. The price indexes change and retaining their essential physical identity are ordi­
used in deriving the 1954 price estimates do not generally narily employed, respectively, less than 6 months, from 6
allow for quality change. Therefore, the constant price figures months to 3 years, and more than 3 years. Because of differ­
do not reflect part of the secular quality improvement in the ences, usually minor, in the scope or method of derivation of
economy. Also, the present series overstate somewhat short- the figures, the estimates presented here differ somewhat from
run fluctuations in output, because available price information those for apparently comparable categories (such as consum­
understates effective short-run fluctuations in prices. The ers’ durables) in series F 67-86.
choice of a recent year price base rather than an earlier year
With regard to the statistical reliability of the estimates, the
base (for example, 1929) to derive the constant price estimates
tends to reduce somewhat the magnitude of the long-term following quotation, relating to decade rather than the quin­
quennial averages presented here, is relevant:
growth in gross national product.
F 104-130. Gross and net national product, by major type of
product, in current prices, 1869-1931.
Source: Simon Kuznets, Capital in the American Economy:
Its Formation and Financing, National Bureau of Economic
Research, New York (forthcoming).



For the comprehensixe totals of national product and their major
components, such as flow of goods to consumers, gross value of pro­
ducer durables, gross construction, the maximum error in the estim ates
for the decades before 1919 can be said to be 15 percent; for the later
three decades [1919-28, 1924-33, 1929-38] less than 10 percent. The
maximum errors may be somewhat larger for the various categories of
the flow of goods to consumers; and, on a percentage basis, much larger
for the net totals— net producer durables, net construction, changes in
inventories, changes in claims against foreign countries, particularly the
last two.

137

F 131-157

NATIONAL INCOME AND WEALTH
Owing to possible shortages in the underlying data or errors inherent
F 104-130, but in the narrowest categories that production
in some of the assumptions, the comprehensive totals for the 1869-78
decade may be understated by as much as 10 percent; for the 1874-83
statistics permitted, and at producers’ prices, were deflated by
decade by as much as 5 percent; for the subsequent decades through
price indexes for corresponding product groups. The result­
1899-1908 by as much as 2 to 3 percent. (Sim on Kuznets, N ational
Product Since 1869, N ational Bureau of Economic Research, N ew York,
ing estimates of commodity output in 1929 prices were then
1946, pp. 85-86.)
This statement, though made with respect to an earlier set of adjusted upward by a constant ratio to allow for transportation
estimates, is also applicable to the revised figures presented and distributive margins, thus yielding commodity output at
here, but since the present estimates refer to quinquennial final cost to consumers. The current dollar estimates of serv­
periods, the allowance for maximum error should be increased. ices included in series F 104-130 were deflated by the implicit
F 131-157. Gross and net national product, by major type of average price index for all consumer commodities, except in
the case of rent, which was deflated by a specific rent index.
product, in 1929 prices, 1869-1931.
Source: See source for series F 104-130.
The discussion of margins of error with regard to series
See also text for same series.
F 104-130 applies here also, except that the deflation pro­
These series are exact counterparts of series F 104-130, cedure increases the possible error somewhat. In particular,
except that the estimates are expressed in 1929 prices instead since the price indexes used for deflation do not adequately
of current prices.
allow for quality change or new goods, an element of downward
The estimates were derived as follows: For commodity pro­ bias is introduced that is not present in the current dollar
duction, the current dollar estimates used in deriving series estimates.

138




NATIONAL PRODUCT AND INCOME

F 1-21

Series F 1-5. Gross National Product, Total and Per Capita, in Current and 1929 Prices: 1869 to 1957
Current prices
Total

Per
capita

Total

1

Year

2

3

Dept, of Commerce
Bil. dol.
concept:
1957__________________
440.3
1956__________________
419.2
1955__________________
397.5
1954__________________
363.1
365.4
1953__________________
347.0
1952__________________
329.0
1951__________________
284.6
1950__________________
258.1
1949__________________
1948__________________
259.4
1947__________________
234.3
1946 . _____________
210.7
213.6
1945__________________
1944______________
211.4
192.5
1943__________________
1942__________________
159.1
1941__________________
125.8
100.6
1940__________________
91.1
1939__________________
85.2
1938__________________
90.8
__________ _
1937
82.7
1936
_ _ _ _
72.5
1935__________________
65.0
1934__________________
56.0
1933__________________
1932__________________
58.5
76.3
1 9 3 1 _________________
1 N ot available.

[5-year periods are annual averages]
Implicit
price
index
Per
(1929 =
Year or period
capita
100)
4
5

1929 prices

Dollars
2,572
2,493
2,405
2,236
2,289
2,210
2,131
1,876
1,730
1,769
1,626
1,490
1,526
1,527
1,408
1,180
943
761
695
656
704
645
569
514
446
468
615

Bil. dol.
( 1)
0)
230.8
212.6
215.3
206.7
199.9
187.1
171.1
174.4
165.6
166.8
180.9
183.6
170.2
154.7
138.7
121.0
111.0

103.2
109.1
100.9
91.4
80.8
74.2
76.4
89.5

Dollars
( 1)
(l)
1,396
1,309
1,349
1,317
1,295
1,233
1,147
1,189
1,149
1,179
1,293
1,327
1,245
1,147
1,040
916
847
794
846
787
718
639
590
611
721

<M
(»>
172
171
170
168
165
152
151
149
141
126
118
115
113
103
91
83
82
83
83
82
79
80
75
77
85

Current prices

1929 prices

Total

Per
capita

Total

Per
capita

1

2

3

4

Dept, of Commerce
Bil. dol.
concept— Con.
1930__________________
91.1
104.4
1929__________________
98.2
1928__________________
1927__________________
96.3
97.7
1926__________________
91.3
1925__________________
87.6
1924__________________
86.1
1923__________________
74.0
1922_ . ______________
1921. . _ ___
74.0
1920__________________
88.9
78.9
1919
1 9 1 7 -19 2 1 _____
_
75.6
1912-1916 ___ _
40.3
31.6
1907-1911
_______
1902-1906________
24.2
1897-1901______ _
17.3
13.6
1892-1896_____________
13.5
1889-1893_____________
Kuznets concept:
13.1
1889-1893__ _______ _
12.3
1887-1891 ___ __
1882-1886_____________
11.3
9.18
1877-1881_____________
1872-1876_____________
7.53
6.71
1869-1873_____________

Dollars
740
857
815
809
832
788
768
769
672
682
835
755
719
408
349
294
231
199

Bil. dol.
Dollars
95.1
772
104.4
857
98.5 '
817
97.3
817
96.4
821
90.5
781
88.4
775
85.8
766
75.8
689
71.6
660
73.3
688
74.2
710
71.9
683
62.5
632
55.0
608
46.8
569
37.1
496
29.6
434
27.3
424

210

204
199
204
186
171
165

26.1
24.0
20.7
16.1
11.2
9.11

405
388
374
327
254
223

Implicit
price
index
(1929 =
100 )
5
96

100
100

99

101
101

99
98
103

100

121

106
105
64
57
52
47
46
49
50
51
55
57
67
74

Series F 6-9. Net National Product, National Income, Personal Income, and Disposable Income, in Current Prices:
1897 to 1957
[In billions of dollars. 5-year periods are annual averages]

N et
national National Personal
product income income
7
6
8

Year

Dispos­
able
income
9

347.9
330.5
310.2
289.8
288.3
273.1
256.7
228.5
208.3
210.4
191.6
179.3
171.2
165.7
151.4

305.1
290.5
274.4
256.9
252.5
238.7
227.5
207.7
189.7
189.3
170.1
160.6
150.4
146.8
133.5

1957 ____1956___ __
19551954 -- _
1953
1952________
1951________
1950
__
1949
_
1948 _1947_______
1946________
1945 __ _
1944 _ .. _
1943________

402.6
384.5
365.5
334.3
338.9
323.0
307.0
265.5
240.8
244.0
221.3

200.0
201.0

199.4
181.6

364.0
349.4
330.2
301.8
305.6
292.2
279.3
241.9
217.7
223.5
198.2
180.9
181.2
182.6
170.3

Year
1942________
1941________
1940 _______
1939__
_
1938
1937________
1936________
1935 _______
1934 _ - -- _
1933__
_
1932______ _
1931________
1930______ 1929 _ _____
1928________

N et
national National Personal
product income income
6
7
8
149.0
116.8
92.5
83.3
77.4
83.0
75.2
65.3
57.9
48.8
50.9

68.1

82.6
95.8
89.7

137.7
104.7
81.6
72.8
67.6
73.6
64.9
57.1
49.0
40.2
42.5
59.7
75.7
87.8
82.8

123.5
96.3
78.7
72.9
68.6
73.9
68.5
60.2
53.6
47.2
50.1
65.7
76.9
85.8
79.8

Dispos­
able
income
9
117.5
93.0
76.1
70.4
65.7
71.0

66.2

58.3
52.0
45.7
48.7
63.8
74.4
83.1
77.5

Net
national National Personal
product income income
6
7
8

Year
or period
1927________
1926_ ___
1925
1924
1923 _____
1922________
1921________
1920
1919
_ _
1917-1921.__
1912-1916.-1907-19111902-1906- 1897-1901--.

88.2

89.9
84.0
80.7
79.5
67.9

68.1

83.0
73.8
70.3
36.9
28.9
22.1
15.8

81.7
8 3 .7
78.2
75.2
74.3
63.1
64.0
79.1
70.2
66.9
34.8
27.2
20.7
14.6

79.6
79.5
75.0
73.2
71.5
62.0
62.1
73.4
65.0
62.5
33.7
26.7
20.2
14.3

Dispos­
able
income
9
7 7.4
77.4
73.0
71.4
69.7
60.3
60.2
71.5
63.3
61.0
33.3
26.4
20.0
14.1

Series F 10-21. Value Added by Selected Industries, and Value of Output of Fixed Capital, in Current and 1879
Prices: 1839 to 1899
[In billions of dollars]

Current prices

1899_______ ________________
1894__________ _____________
1889__________ _____________
1884................................................
1879________________________
1874-....................... ......................
1869_______ ________________
1859................................................
1854................................................
1849..............................................1844................................................
1 83 9 .._ ........................................



Total

Agricul­
ture

10

Year

11

• 10.20
7.83
7.87
7.09
5.30
5.40
4.83
2.57
2.39
1.40
1.09
1.04

3.40
2.64
2.77
2.84
2.60
2.53
2.54
1.50
1.46
.83
.69
.71

Value of
Mining Manufac­ Construc­ output of
turing
tion
fixed
capital
12
13
14
15
0.47
5.04
1.29
3.47
.29
3.60
1.30
.28
3.73
1.10
2.82
.20
3.05
1.01
.15
1.96
.59
1.64
.15
2.07
.65
.13
1.63
.54
1.51
.82
.23
.62
.03
.66
.23
.03
.02
.45
.11
.31
.01
.31
.08
.01
.24
.08
.20

1879 prices
Total
16
11.75
10.26
8.66
7.30
5.30
4.30
3.27
2.69
2.32
1.66
1.37
1.09

Agricul­
ture

Mining

17
3.92
3.27
3.24
3.00
2.60
1.98
1.72
1.49
1.32
.99
.94
.79

18
0.55
.39
.35
.23
.15
.11

.07
.03
.03

.02
.01
.01

Value of
Manufac­ Construc­ output of
turing
tion
fixed
capital
21
19
20
6.26
1.02
3.35
5.48
1.12
4.16
.92
2~72
3.22
.86
1.96
.59
1?64
1.69
.52
1.08
.40
1.09
.86
.30
.73
.68
.30
.49
.16
.39
.29
.13
.19
.11 ............ 125

139

F 22-48

NATIONAL INCOME AND WEALTH

Series F 22-33. National Income, by Industrial Origin, in Current Prices: 1929 to 1957
[In billions of dollars]

Total

Year

22

1957________________________
1956________________________
1955________________________
1954________________________
1953________________________
1952________________________
1951________________________
1950________________________
1949________________________
1948________________________
1947________________________
1946________________________
1945________________________
1944________________________
1943________________________
1942________________________
1941________________________
1940________________________
1939________________________
1938________________________
1937_______________________
1936________________________
1935________________________
1934________________________
1933________________________
1932________________________
1931________________________
1930. ______ _________________
1929________________________

364.0
349.4
330.2
301.8
305.6
292.2
279.3
241.9
217.7
223.5
198.2
180.9
181.2
182.6
170.3
137.7
104.7
81.6
72.8
67.6
73.6
64.9
57.1
49.0
40.2
42.5
59.7
75.7
87.8

Agricul­
ture,
forestry,
and
fisheries
23
16.2
16.1
16.1
16.9
17.5
19.5
20.5
17.9
16.9
21.9
19.3
18.7
14.9
14.5
14.1
12.4
8.5

Mining

Contract
construc­
tion

Manufac­
turing

25
19.6
19.1
17.4
16.0
15.9
15.4
14.2

26
112.5
109.9
104.5
91.1
98.0
90.2
88.5
74.4
62.7
66.8
58.7
48.5
52.0
60.1
58.1
45.3
33.0
22.3
17.9
15.0
19.3
16.2
13.3
10.9
7.6
7.2
12.4
18.2
21.9

24
6.2

6.3
5.6
4 .9
5.2
5.2
5.5
5.0
4.3
5.2
4.2
3.0
2 .7
2.9
2.7
2.6
2.3
1.9
1.6
1.5
1.9
1.5

6.2

5.9
5.9
7.2
5.4
6.4
3.7
3.7
3.3
4 .9

11.8

10.5
8.4
6.5
4.3
4.1
5.5
6.5
4.2

10.6

2.6

2.3

2.0
2 .1
2.0

1.3

1.2
1.2
.6
1.0

.7

1.6
2.0

6.2

8.3

1.1
.8
1.1
2.2

3.2
3 .8

Wholesale Finance,
and
insurance, Trans­
retail
and real portation
estate
trade
27
59.6
57.3
55.0
50.6
49.8
49.0
47.2
42.7
40.6
41.5
37.3
34.4
28.0
25.7
23.8
20.3
17.3
14.3
12.5
11.9

28
34.6
32.1
30.9
29.3
27.6
25.6
23.6
21.8
20.0

17.6
15.3
14.5

12.8
12.2
11.6
10.6

9.2

11.2
10.8
8.6

6.3
5.0
4.6
4.1
4 .6
4.3
3 .7
3 .4
3 .0
3.2
4.4
5.6

7.9
7.7
7.2

6.6

9.2
8.1
5.5
6.4
9 .7
12.2

10.2

10.5

8.2

12.2
10.6

13.4

29
17.3
16.8
15.8
14.4
15.8
15.4
14.9
13.3
11.9
12.7
11.5

5.9
5.6
5.7

6.8
8.6
10.6

12.7

6.6

Communi­
Govern­
cations
ment and Rest of
and
govern­
the
Services
public
ment enter­ world
utilities
prises
30
31
32
33
39.4
13.3
42.9
2.2
12.5
37.0
40.3
2.0
11.7
33.7
37.8
1.8
10.8
30.2
35.9
1.6
10.1
29.2
35.3
1.3
9.2
26.9
34.5
1.3
8.3
25.1
30.2
1.4
7.2
23.1
23.5
1.2
6.6
21.3
21.9
1.0
5.9
20.7
19.7
1.0
5.1
18.9
18.6
.8
22.6
4.8
17.2
.6
4.2
14.6
36.8
.4
4.1
13.6
.4
33.7
3 .9
.4
12.3
27.0
3.7
16.3
.4
11.0
3.3
9.8
10.5
.4
.4
3.1
8.9
8.8
2.9
8.3
8.5
.3
8,5
.4
2.7
7.9
2 .7
8.2
7.8
.3
2 .5
7.5
8.1
.3
6.7
2 .3
6.7
.4
2 .2
6.2
6.3
.3
2 .0
5.6
5.3
.3
6.1
5.2
.4
2.3
2.6
7.9
5.4
.5
.7
2.8
9.2
5.3
.8
2 .9
10.3
5.1

Series F 34-43. Percent Distribution of National Income or Aggregate Payments, by Industry, in Current Prices:
1869 to 1948
[Percents based on annual averages of periods shown]

Total

3ased on N BE R estimates of national income:
1939 to 1948___________________________________
1934 to 1943___________________________________
1929 to 1938___________________________________
1924 to 1933___________________________________
1919 to 1928___________________________________
Based on Martin’s estimates of aggregate payments:
1919 to 1928___________________________________
1914 to 1923___________________________________
1909 to 1918___________________________________
1904 to 1913___________________________________
1899 to 1908___________________________________
1889 and 1899__________________________________
1879 and 1889__________________________________
1869 and 1879__________________________________

Mining

34

Period

Agricul­
ture
35

36

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

9.4
9.2
8.5
8.7
10.5

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100 . 0 .
100.0

15.2
17.7
17.0
16.7
17.1
16.1
20.5

12.2

Manufac­ Contract
con­
turing
struction
37

1.6

1.7
1.7
1.9
2 .5
3.1
3.3
3.3
3.3
3.1
2 .5

2.1
1.8

38

27.1
24.2
19.4
19.6
21.9
22.2
22.2
20.8

18.9
18.4
18.2
16.6
13.9

Trans­
portation
and other
public
utilities
39

Trade

Service

Govern­
ment

Finance
and
miscel­
laneous

40

41

42

43

3 .4
2 .9
2.9
4.2
4.4

7.3
8.5
10.4
9 .8

13.3
13.2
13.6
13.3
13.6

11.6

3.9
3 .0
3.2
4.3
4 .5
4.9
5.5
5.3

11.3
11.0
10.7
11.0
10.7
10.7
11.9
11.9

13.7
14.0
14.5
15.0
15.3
16.8
16.6
15.7

9 .4
8.3
8.2
8.9
9.6
11.8
13.6
14.7

10.0

10.5
12.1
13.9
13.4

17.2
15.4
14.4
11.8
9.6
8.6

7.9
6.3
5.4
5.6
6.0
4.9
4 .4

10.2

12.7
15.6
16.7
16.1
15.7
15.0
15.4
16.2
16.0

12.0
12.6

11.7

Series F 44-48. Gross Domestic Product Originating in Private Farm and Nonfarm Sectors and Government, in
1929 Prices: 1869 to 1955
[In billions of dollars]

Year
1955.....................................
1954.............. ..........................
1953.......................................
1952.............. ..........................
1951.........................................
1950.........................................
1949..........................................
1948.............. ........................
1947.......................................

1946...............................

1945..........................................

1944....................................
1948....................................
1942....................................
1941....................................

140




Gross
domestic
product
44
226.2
210.5
213.1
204.9
198.5
186.6
169.9
172.3
163.5
165.2
180.6
183.2
169.9
154.3

138.3

Gross private product
Total
45
212.9
197.0
199.3
191.1
185.5
176.2
159.8
162.7
153.9
152.7
157.2
159.2
148.9
140.6
128.7

Farm
46
14.1
13.5
13.1

12.2
12.1

12.9
12.7
12.8
11.9
12.4
12.2

12.7
13.2
12.3

12.6

Nonfarm

Govern­
ment
product

47
198.8
183.5
186.2
178.9
173.4
163.3
147.1
149.9
142.0
140.3
145.0
146.5
136.3
127.4
116.4

48
13.3
13.5
13\8
13.9
13.0
10.4
10.1
9.6
9.6
12.5
23.4
24.0
21.0
13.7
9.6

Year

Gross
domestic
product
44

1940___________________
1939___________________
1938___________________
1937___________________
1936___________________
1935___________________
1934___________________
1933___________________
1932___________________
1931___________________
1930___________________
1929_______ ____________
1928___________________
1927.......................................
1926.......................................

120.6
110.6
102.8

108.8
100.5
91.0
80.4
73.8
75.9

88.8

94.4
103.6
97.7
96.6
95.7

Gross private product
Total
45
112.7
103.0
95.2
101.8
93.0
84.7
74.5
68.8
71.4
84.2
89.8
99.3
93.5
92.5
91.7

Farm
46
11.4
11.5
11.4
10.9
9.8
10.4
9 .5
11.0
10.7

11.2

10.0

10.7
10.4
10.6
10.3

Nonfarm
47
101.3
91.5
83.8
90.9
83.2
74.3
65.0
57.8
60.7
73.0
79.8
88.6
83.1
81.9
81.4

Govern­
ment
product
48
7.9
7.6
7 .6
7.0
7 .5
6.3
5.9
5.0
4 .5
4.6
4 .6
4 .3
4.2
4.1
4 .0

F 44-66

NATIONAL PRODUCT AND INCOME

Series F 44-48. Gross Domestic Product Originating in Private Farm and Nonfarm Sectors and Government, in
1929 Prices: 1869 to 1955—Con.
[In billions of dollars. Annual averages for periods shown]
Gross private product
Gross
Govern­
domestic
ment
Farm
Nonfarm product
Total
product
Period

Gross
domestic
product

Year or period

44
1925____________________
1924____________________
1923____________________
1922____________________
1921____________________
1920____________________
1919_____ _______ ___ _
1917-1921_______________

46

45

89.8
87.7
85.1
75.2
71.3
72.9
73.6
71.6

85.9
84.0
81.5
71.7
67.7
69.3
68.7
67.0

47

10.4
9.7
9.6
9.0
9 .5
9.7
9.7

10.2

Total

Farm

Nonfarm

Govern­
ment
product

45

46

47

48

44

48

75.5
74.3
71.3
62.1
58.7
59.8
59.0
57.3

Gross private product

3.9
3 .7
3 .6
3 .5
3 .6
3 .7
5.0
4.6

59.9
52.9
45.2
35.8
28.5
26.3
20.2
10.9

62.5
55.1
46.9
37.3
29.8
27.5

1912-1916______________
1907-1911______________
1902-1906______________
1897-1901 _ _ _ _ _ _
1892-1896______________
1889-1893______________
1879-1888- _______ ___
1869-1878______________

21.2
11.6

49.8
43.7
36.3
27.4
21.7
19.7
14.4

10.1

9.2
8.9
8.4

6.8
6.6

5.8
4.1

2.6
2.2
1.8

1.5
1.3

1.2
1.0

.7

6.8

Series F 49-54. National Income, by Type of Income, in Current Prices: 1929 to 1957
[In billions of dollars]

Year

Rental
Compensa­ Income of income
tion of unincorpo­
of
rated
employees enterprises persons
50
51
52

Total
49

1957_________
1956_________
1955_________
1954_________
1953_________
1952_ _______
1951______ 1950___ _
1949.
1948_________
1947._ _
1946_________
1945_________
1944_________
1943_________

364.0
349.4
330.2
301.8
305.6
292.2
279.3
241.9
217.7
223.5
198.2
180.9
181.2
182.6
170.3

254.6
241.8
223.9
207.6
208.8
195.0
180.3
154.2
140.8
141.0
128.8
117.7
123.2
121.3
109.6

43.0
42.4
42.1
40.4
40.7
42.2
42.3
37.5
35.6
40.2
35.5
36.6
30.8
29.6
28.2

Corporate
profits
before tax
53

11.8

10.9
10.7
10.9
10.5
10.2
9.4
9.0
8.3
7.3
6.5

6.2

5.6
5.4
5.1

N et
interest
54

41.9
42.9
43.1
33.7
37.3
37.7
41.0
35.7
28.2
30.8
23.6
17.3
18.4
23.0
23.8

Year

Income of Rental
Compensa­ unincorpo­ income
tion of
rated
of
employees enterprises persons
50
51
52

Total
49

12.6

11.3
10.4
9.1
8.2
7.1
6.3
5.5
4 .8
4.2
3 .8
3.1
3.2
3.3
3 .7

1942________
1941________
1940________
1939________
1938________
1937
1936
1935
1934
1933________
1932
1931
1930
1929________

137.7
104.7
81.6
72.8
67.6
73.6
64.9
57.1
49.0
40.2
42.5
59.7
75.7
87.8

85.3
64.8
52.1
48.1
45.0
47.9
42.9
37.3
34.3
29.5
31.1
39.7
46.8
51.1

23.9
17.4
13.0

11.6
11.1

12.7
10.5
10.4
7.0
5.6
5.3
8.7
11.5
14.8

Corporate
profits
before tax

N et
interest

53

54

4 .5
3 .5
2.9
2 .7

19.7
14.5
9.1
5.7
4.3
6.2
5.0
2 .9
1 1
- 2.0
- 2.0
6.6
10.1

2.6
2.1
1.8

1.7
1.7
2.7
3.8
4.8
5.4

2.0

4 .3
4.5
4 .5
4 .6
4 .6
4 .7
4 .7
4 .8
4 9
5.0
54
5.8
6.0

1.6

6.4

Series F 55-60. Percent Distribution of National Income, by Type of Income, in Current Prices: 1900 to 1952
[Percents based on annual averages for periods shown]

Period

Compen­ Income of Rental
sation of unincor­ income
of
porated
employees enterprises persons
57
58
56

Total
55

1947-1952____
1940-1949____
1935-1944____
1930-1939____
1925-1934___

64.5
64.3
64.4
66.8
63.0

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

15.7
16.9
16.1
15.0
15.8

3 .4
3 .6
4.0
5.0

6.6

Corporate
profits
before
tax
59
14.1
12.9
11.5
4.9
6.4

N et
interest

Period

60

Compen­ Income of Rental
sation of unincor­ income
of
porated
employees enterprises persons
56
57
58

Total
55

2.2
2 .2

4.0

8.2
8.1

1920-1929.__
1915-1924__
1910-1919__
1905-1914__
1900-1909__

17.6
21.0
24.2
22.9
23.6

60.5
57.2
53.2
55.2
55.0

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

Corporate
profits
before
tax
59

7.6
7.6
7.7
9.1
9.1

8.2

8.9
9 .7
6.9

6.8

N et
interest
60
6.2

5.3
5.2
5.8
5.5

Series F 61-66. Percent Distribution of Aggregate Payments, by Type of Income, in Current Prices: 1870 to 1948
[Percents based on annual averages for periods shown]

Period

Total
61

Based on Dept, of
Commerce
estimates:
1939-1948________
1934-1943
_ _
1929-1938 _______
Based on N BER
estimates of
aggregate
payments:
1929-1938_______
1924-1933...............
1919-1928...............
1914-1923..............
1909-1918..............

Employee Entrepre­ D ivi­
compen­ neurial
dends
sation
income
62
63
64

100.0
100.0
100.0

69.6
67.6
64.1

18.4
16.7
14.7

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

64.9
63.1
61.7
59.2
56.2

15.9
16.6
19.5
22.5
24.6

1 Excluding entrepreneurial savings.



3 .5
4 .7

6.1

6.6

6 .5
5.6
5.6

6.1

Interest

Rent

65

66

6.6
10.0

4 .5

4.0
4.4
5.1

8.4
7.8
6.1
5.6
5.4

4 .3
5.9
7.1
7.2
7.6

Period

Total
61

Based on Martin’s
estimates of
aggregate
payments : 1
1909-1918 _ _ _
1904-1913_______
1899-1908_______
Based on King’s
estimates of
value of
product:
1900 and 1910___
1890 and 1900___
1880 and 1890___
1870 and 1880___

Employee Entrepre­ Divi­
compen­ neurial
dends
sation
income
62
64
63

100.0
100.0
100.0

59.7
59.6
59.5

23.3
23.3
23.8

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

47.1
50.4
52.5
50.0

28.8
27.3
23.0
26.4

Interest

Rent

65

66

6.5
5.7
5.3

15.9
14 .7
16 .5
15.8

4.9
5.1
5.1

5.7
6 .3
6 .4

8.3
7 .7
8.2
7.8

141

F 67-86

NATIONAL INCOME AND WEALTH

Series F 67-86. Gross National Product, by Major Type of Product, in Current Prices: 1929 to 1957
[In billions of dollars]
Personal consumption expenditures

1957______ ________________
1956________________________
1955________________________
1954________________________
1953________________________
1952________________________
1951________________________
1950________________________
1949________________________
1948________________________
1947________________________
1946________________________
1945________________________
1944 _ _________ __ . _ _ _
1943________________________
1942________________________
_______ ______
1941____
1940________________________
1939-_ _ ________ .__ _ _
1938-. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
1937__ __ ________ __ ___ _
1936 ___ _______ _ _ _
1935 _______ ______ __ _ _
1934__ _ ___ __ __ _
1933__ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ _
1932________________________
1931._ _ _ _ _ _ _ ______ _
1930 ______ ____ _ _ _
1-929 _______ __

Year

Total

Durable
goods

Nondurable
goods

Services

68

69

70

71

72

440.3
419.2
397.5
363.1
365.4
347.0
329.0
284.6
258.1
259.4
234.3
210.7
213.6
211.4
192.5
159.1
125.8
100.6

91.1
85.2
90.8
82.7
72.5
65.0
56.0
58.5
76.3
91.1
104.4

39.9
38.4
39.6
32.4
32.9
29.1
29.5
30.4
24.6
22.7
20.6
15.9

284.4
269.4
256.9
238.0
232.6
219.8
209.8
195.0
181.2
178.3
165.4
147.1
121.7
109.8
100.5
89.7
81.9
71.9
67.6
64.6
67.3
62.6
56.3
51.9
46.4
49.3
61.3
71.0
79.0

1 Less than $50,000,000.

142




Farm

78

N et
foreign
investment

79

6.8

- 3 .1
4.7
- .5
6 .4
- 1.1
- 1.0

-.8
1.8

4 .5

2 .2

-.4
- .9
2.2
1.0

.9
- 1.1
- 1.6
- 2.6
- 1 .3
- .4

i.

6.0
2.2

.8

-

2.1

.4
.2
- 1 .4
- 2.6
- 1.6
-.1
1.8

- .9
1.7

1.8

- .5
- .4

-.6
-.6
-.6

.7
4.0
1.9
.3
- 1.0
1.7

- .4
1.3
2 .4

- .5
.3
.5
-.6
.9

2.1
1.1
2.1

3.0
1.3
6 .4

4.9

1.2

5.9
5.5

9.1

-

81

0.8

0.2

10.2

Total

80

Nonfarm

-

99.8
96.6
98.7
93.4
84.8
73.2
65.4
59.3
51.3
43.2
37.2
35.1
34.0
35.2
32.8
29.3
26.7
22.3
22.8
28.9
34.0
37.7

106.5
99.6
92.5
86.3
81.8
75.6
70.2
64.9
60.0
56.9
51.4
46.4
40.4
37.7
34.7
31.5
29.0
26.9
25.8
25.0
25.1
23.5
21.9
21.0
20.7
22.9
26.9
29.8
32.1

65.3

68.2

63.8
48.9
50.3
49.9
56.3
50.0
33.0
43.1
31.5
28.1
10.4
7.1
5.6
9.9
18.1
13.2
9.3
6.7
11.7
8.4
6.3
2.9
1.4
.9
5.5
10.3
16.2

36.5
35.7
34.9
29.7
27.6
25.5
24.8
24.2
18.8
19.5
15.3

17.0
17.7
18.7
15.4
13.8
12.8
12.5
14.1
9.6
10.1
7.5
4 .8

11.0

3 .8
2 .7
2.3
3 .7

10.1

9.2
9.3
7.7
6.3
2 .7
1.9
1.4
2 .0
3.1
2 .5

.9
1.7
3 .5
3.0
2.7
2.0
1.9

5.5
4.8
4 .0
4 .4
3.3
2.3
1.7
1.4
1.9
4.0

2.1
2.0

2 .5
1.7
1.3

1.6
1.0
.6

1.1
1.0
1.2

.5

.6
1.6

6.2

27.9
27.0
23 1
20.8
22.3
21.3
21.3
18.9
17.2
18.9
16.7
10.7
7.7
5.4
4.0
4.3
6.9
5.5
4.2
3.6
5.1
4.2
3.1
2.3
1.6
1.6
2.8

2 .4
4.1
5.1

2.1

8.7

76

19.5
18.1
16.2
14.3
13.8
12.7
12.3

1.1
.8

6.6

Producers’
durable
equipment

3.6

4 .5
5.9

Government purchases of goods and services

Total

5.4
5.8
- 1.6
.4
3.1

110.1

7.0
9.7
7.8
6.7
5.7
6.9
6.3
5.1
4.2
3 .5
3 .6
5.5
7.2
9.2

Gross private domestic
vrsuiiciit---UUI
Change in business inventories

1.0

138.0
131.4
124.8
119.3
118.0
115.1

8.1
6.8
6.6

77
1957________________________
1956________________________
1955-_ _____________________
1954________________________
1953________________________
1952________________________
1951________________________
1950________________________
1949________________________
1948________________________
1947________________________
1946__________
___ _ _
1945________________________
1944________________________
1943________________________
1942. _______ _____ ________
1941______________ ________
1940________________________
1939 ___ _________ _ _ _ _
1938 __
___ _ ___ ___ .
1937_________________ __ ___
1936________________________
1935________________________
1934________________________
1933________________________
1932________________________
1931________________________
1930________________________
1929________________________

Gross private domestic investment
New construction
Residential
Total
Other
nonfarm
74
73
75

Total

67

Year

Gross
national
product

-.2
1.2

2.8
1.1
1.0

.6

3.8
3.5
9.0
4.9
- 1 .4
- 2.1
- 2.2

.5
.3

-.2
1.1

.5

1.1
.1
-.1

.1
.1

-

1.1

.5
- 1 .3
- .3
.3
- .3

0)

-.2

1.5
.9

Federal
Total
82

85.7
■78.8
75.6
75.3
82.8
76.0
60.5
39.0
40.2
34.5
28.4
30.5
82.9
96.5
88.6
59.7
24.8
14.1
13.3
12.8
11.7
11.8

-.1

10.0

.2
.2
.2

8.0
8.1

.4

.7

.8

National
security
83

9.8

9.2
9.2
8.5

49.4
45.7
45.3
47.5
58.0
52.9
38.8
19.3
22.2
19.3
15.7
74.8
89.0
81.2
52.0
16.9

84

44.3
40.3
39.1
41.2
49.3
46.4
33.9
14.3
13.6
11.6
11.4
18.8
75.9
88.6
80.4
49.6
13.8

6.2

Other

2.2

20.6

5.2
5.3
4.6
4 .8
2.9
3.0
2.0
1.5
1.5
1.4
1.3

1.3

Less: Govern­
ment sales
85

5.5
5.7

0.4
.3
.4
.3
.3
.3
.3

6.6

6.7
9.0
6.7
5.2
5.2
8.9
8.2
5.4
4 .5

.1
.2

.5
1.1
2.7

1.0
1.6

5 .3
4 .6
4,.8
2:.9
3 .0
2
1 .5
1 .5
1 .4
1 .3

:.o

1.5
2 .7
3.2
4 .0
3 .9

(l)
(*)
(l)
C
1)
C
1)
(l)
C
1)
C
1)
0
(1)
)
(*)
0)

ll)

2.2
1.2
.6
.2

State
and
local
86

36.3
33.1
30.3
27.7
24.9
23.2
21.7
19.7
17.9
15.2
12.7
9 .9
8.1

7.5
7.4
7.7
7.8
7.9
8.2
7 .5
7.2
7 .0
7.1

6.8
6.0
6.6

7 .7
7.8
7.2

F 87-117

NATIONAL PRODUCT AND INCOME

Series F 87-103. Gross National Product, by Major Type of Product, in 1954 Prices: 1929 to 1957
[In billions of dollars]
Personal consumption expenditures
Gross
national
Year product

Total

89

87
1957.
1956 _
1955.
1954_
19531952_
195119501949_
1948.
19471946.
19451944.
1943.
1942_
19411940_
1939.
19381937_
1936.
1935.
1934.
1933_
1932_
1931.
1930.
1929 _

Non­
Durable durable Services
goods goods

88

407.0
402.2
392.7
363.1
369.0
353.5
341.8
318.1
292.7
293.1
282.3
282.5
314.0
317.9
296.7
266.9
238.1
205.8
189.3
175.1
183.5
173.3
152.9
138.5
126.6
130.1
153.0
164.5
181.8

270.3
263.7
256.0
238.0
235.1
224.2
218.5
216.8
204.3
199.3
195.6
192.3
171.4
160.2
154.6
150.8
154.3
144.6
137.3
129.9
132.1
127.7
115.8
108.9
103.5
106.0
116.6
120.3
128.1

Total

90

38.1
37.9
39.6
32.4
33.1
28.5
29.2
32.1
26.3
24.6
23.3
19.4
9.8
8.6
9 .4
10.9
17.6
15.3
13.3
11.2
13.8
13.1
10.7
8.6
7.5
7 .8
10.3
11.8

14.9

91

92

132.7
130.2
125.4
119.3
118.3
115.0

99.4
95.6
91.0
86.3
83.7
80.8
78.2
75.5
71.7
69.6
67.0
65.3
60.2
57.6
55.2
52.6
51.1
49.1
47.3
45.9
46.8
45.3
42.9
41.5
40.8
41.4
44.6
46.4
48.0

57.8
63.1
62.5
48.9
50.6
50.4
57.7
55.9
38.5
49.8
41.5
42.4
17.0
12.3
10.7
18.8
36.7
29.0
21.6
15.5
27.0

111.2

109.2
106.3
105.1
105.3
107.6
101.4
94.0
90.0
87.3
85.6
80.2
76.7
72.8
71.6
69.2
62.1
58.8
55.2
56.9
61.8
62.1
65.3

21.0

16.1
7.4
4 .0
3.9
15.0
23.6
35.0

Gross private domestic investment
Change in business
New construction
inventories
Pro­
ducers’
durable
Resi­
Non­
Farm
Total dential Other equip­ Total
non­
farm
ment
farm
93
94
95
96
97
98
99
32.3
32.8
33.9
29.7
27.6
26.0
26.0
27.4
22.3
22.7
19.9
17.3

15.5
16.4
18.2
15.4
13.6
12.8
12.9
15.5
11.2
11.4
9.6
7.3

6.6

1.8

1.4
1.7
3 .6
7.9
7.3
6.8
5.1
5.0
4.6
3.1
1.9

4.8
4.4
7.8
15.3
13.6

12.2
10.1

11.3
9.4
6.7
5.1
4.6
6.0
10.9
15.4
20.9

1.6
2 .1

1

4.2
5.1
8.7

16.9
16.4
15.7
14.3
14.0
13.2
13.2
11.9
10.3

1.4
5.6

24.1
24.8
22.5
20.8
22.5

22.8

11.1
11.2
10.0

4.8
3.4
2 .7
4.2
7.4
6.3
5.4
5.0
6.3
4.9
3 .6
3.2
3 .0
3.9

6.6

10.4

12.2

-

6.1
1.6

-

.5
2.6
9 .7
7.2
- 3 .6
4 .4
-.1
9.0
- 2 .4
-1 .7
-.6
3 .6

21.8
22.0

21.3
19.8
21.7
16.1
12.7
9.2
6.9
7.4
12.9
10.9
8 .5
7.3
10.5
9.2
6 .7
5.0
3 .7
3 .5
5.9

8.6

1.0
1.8

5.2
2 .4

2.6
2.8

- 4 .2
-5 .6
- 1.8
- .7
3.0

8.8
11.1

5.5
5.4

2 .1
1.1
2.2

.0

9 .0
6 .5
- 2.6
3 .0
1.4
9.1
- 1.6
- 1.1
- .5
1.6
7.6
3 .8
.6
- 2 .3
3 .4
4.3
.9
.3
- 3 .5
- 6 .3
-3 .5
- .3
3 .2

4 .5
-

1.4

0.1

.7
.5
- .7
.4
.7
.7
- 1.0
1.4
- 1.6
-.1

-.8
-.6
.0
2.0
1.0
.6

.4
.4

-

1.8
2.0

1.7
- 3 .1
- .7
.7
1.7
- .4
- .3

N et
foreign
invest­
ment
100

3 .9
2 .4
.9
1.0
- .9
1.2
2.2

.2
2.6
2.0
8.0

3.8
- 5 .6
- 6 .7
- 6.6
- 2 .9
-.6

1.1

.3
.8
- 1.6
- 2.2
- 1 .9
-.6
-.8

- .3
- .3

.2
.2

Government purchases
of goods and services
Total

Federal

State
and
local

101

102

103

75.0
72.9
73.2
75.3
84.3
77.7
63.3
45.1
47.2
42.1
37.2
43.9
131.2
152.2
137.9
100.1
47.7
31.1
30.1
28.8
26.0
26.9
23.0
22.8
19.9
20.5

21.6

20.5
18.5

42.7
42.0
43.5
47.5
58.8
53.3
39.3
21.6

25.3
22.9
19.4
28.2
117.1
138.4
123.9
84.7
30.7
13.1
11.0
11.4
9 .6
10.3
6.7
6.9
5.3
3 .9
3 .7
3 .4
2 .9

32.3
30.9
29.7
27.7
25.5
24.5
24.1
23.5
21.9
19.2
17.8
15.8
14.0
13.8
14.0
15.4
16.9
18.0
19.1
17.4
16.4
16.6
16.3
15.8
14.6
16.6
17.9
17.1
15.6

Series F 104-130. Gross and Net National Product, by Major Type of Product, in Current Prices: 1869 to 1931
[In billions of dollars. 5-year periods are annual averages]

Period

Gross
national
product

N et
national
product

Flow of goods to consumers
Commodities
Total

Perish­
able

Semidurable

89.9
84.8
71.6
38.9
30.4
23.5
16.8
13.1
12.3
11.3
9.18
7.53
6.71




Services

Gross

Private and public capital formation
Gross construction
Private
Public
N et
Total Nonfarm
resi­
War
Other Non war
dential

109

104
1927-1931
1922-1926
1917-1921
1912-1916
1907-1911
1902-1906
1897-1901
1892-1896
1887-1891
1882-1886
1877-1881
1872-1876
1869-1873

Durable

Total

79.4
75.1
62.6
34.6
27.2
21.2

15.0

11.8
11.0

10.3
8.48
6.92

6.20

73.0
54.9
30.8
24.1
18.2
12.9
10.1
9.58
9.10
7.33
5.94
5.38
66.8

25.1
23.3
22.9
12.5

10.0

7.68
5.60
4.44
4.09
4.09
3.24
2.58
2.29

9.46
9.31
8.33
3.93
3.20
2.49
1.79
1.48
1.54
1.41
1.20
1.05
1.01

7.76
7.56
5.15
2.72
1.97
1.52
1.03
.84
.87
.74
.56
.53
.50

30.7
26.7
18.5
11.7
8.90
6.53
4.44
3.38
3.08
2.85
2.33
1.78
1.59

16.8
18.0
16.7
8.05
6.35
5.29
3.89
3.01
2.69

/

2.21
1.86

1.59
1.34

6.35
8.30
7.68
3.80
3.15
2.96
2.13
1.63
1.44
1.23
1.16
.97
.82

10.3
10.6
5.85
4.17
4.25
3.29
2.26
2.21
1.91
1.40
.91
.90
.77

3.22
4.50
1.19
1.26
1.19
.93
.65
.72
.81
.57
.31
.25

.22

4.46
4.21
2.98
2.27
2.56
2.05
1.43
1.35
.98
.74
.52
.59
.50

2.56
1.88
.99
.64
.50
.31
.18
.14

0.02
.01

.69

.01

.12

.10

.07
.07
.06

143

F 118-157

NATIONAL INCOME AND WEALTH

Series F 104-130. Gross and Net National Product, by Major Type of Product, in Current Prices: 1869 to 1931—Con.
[In billions of dollars. 5-year periods are annual averages]
Gross producers’ durables
Period

Total

War

Total

118
1927-1931_____________________
1922-1926_____________________
1917-1921_____________________
1912-1916- _ _ _
1907-1911.
1902-1906_______ _
1897-1901.
1892-18961887-1891____________________
1882-1886_____________________
1877-1881____________________
1872-1876____________________
1869-1873.

Non war
119

120

121

5.85
5.54
5.57
2.28
1.62
1.36
.84
.60
.64
.53
.45
.41
.39

5.68
5.44
4.53

0.17
.10
1.04

3.69
4.95
.88
1.71
2.28
1.81
1.14
1 31
1.10

.78
.46
.54
.46

Private and public capital formation
N et construction
N et producers’ durables
Private
Public
Nonfarm
Total
Non war
War
Other Non war
War
resi­
dential
122
123
124
125
127
126
128
1.59
3.16
.09
.64

.66

.56
.36
.50
.63
.45
.23
.18
.16

0.72
.90
- .1 4
.69
1.31
1.07
.69
.74
.40
.28
.20
.33
.28

1.56
1.08
.38
.37
.32
.18
.10
.07
.06
.05
.03
.03

- 0 .1 7
- .1 9
.55

.01

1.94
1.49
1.50
.49
.39
.50
.20
.13

1.96
1.99
.93

-

0.02

- .5 0
.57

.20

.18
.19
.16
.18

.02

N et change in—
Inven­
tories

Claims
against
foreign
countries

129

130

0.04
1.21
2.54
.67
.46
.47
.47
.22
.24
.33
.44
.39
.35

0.68

.65
2.75
.93

.02

.17
.31
- .0 3
-.1 0

- .0 6
.06
-.1 1
- .1 8

Series F 131-157. Gross and Net National Product, by Major Type of Product, in 1929 Prices: 1869 to 1931
[In billions of dollars. 5-year periods are annual averages]

Period

N et
Gross
national national
product product
131

1927-1931__________
1922-1926...................1917-1921__________
1912-1916__________
1907-1911__________
1902-1906__________
1897-1901__________
1892-1896_______ __
1887-1891________
1882-1886__________
1877-1881_________
1872-1876__________
1869-1873__________

93.4
84.4
67.7
59.7
52.5
45.0
35.4
28.3
24.0
20.7
16.1
11.2
9.1

132
82.6
74.6
59.0
52.6
46.6
40.2
31.4
24.9
21.3
18.7
14.6
10.1
8.3

Flow of goods to consumers
Commodities
Total

Perish­
able

Semidurable

Durable

133

134

135

136

76.0
66.4
52.4
46.6
40.9
34.3
26.7
20.9
18.1
16.2
12.4
8 .5
7.0

26.6
24.1
18.5
16.5
14.1
11.4
9.0
7.5
7.1
5.4
3 .5

20.0

2.8

Gross producers’ durables
Period

144




Nonwar

War

145
1927-1931_________________
1922-1926_____________________
1917-1921______ ______________
1912-1916____________ _______
1907-1911____________ _______
1902-1906 ________ ___________
1897-1901_____________________
1892-1896___________________ _
1887-1891_______________ _____
1882-1886........................ ...............
1877-1881. ...................................
1872-1876.................................. ..
1869-1878.................................... ..

Total

146

147

6.05
5.58
5.09
3.57
2.98
2.72
1.75
1.47
1.82
1.00
.77
.51
.46

5.87
5.48
4.09

0.18
.10
1.00

9.77
8.40
6.44
6.72
5.79
5.02
3.96
3.21
2.92
2.49
1.96
1.37

1.22

8.18
7.55
4.85
4.33
3.74
3.27
2.62
2 11
1.95
1.50
1.07
.77
.64

Total
Services
137

Gross
138

31.5
26.3
21.1
17.0
14.9

17.4
18.0
15.2
13.1
11.7

11.8

10.8

8 .7
6.6
5.7
5.1
4 .0
2 .9
2 .4

8 .7
7.4
5.9
4 .5
3 .7

2.6
2.1

Private and public capital formation
Gross construction
Private
Public
N et
Total Nonfarm
resi­
Other Non war
War
dential
140
139
141
142
143
144
6.58
8.19
6.58
6.05
5.71
5.94
4.73
3.98
3.24
2.52
2.23
1.62
1.30

Private and public capital formation
N et construction
Private
Public
Total Nonfarm
Other Non war
War
resi­
dential
150
151
152
149
148
3.80
5.06
.95
3.11
4.31
3.85
2.80
3.29
2.61
1.79
1.13
1.11
.93

1.64
3.31
.09
1.19
1.29
1.24
.96
1.40
1.63
1.11
.60
.40
.34

0.71
.93
- .1 0
1.24
2.41
2.22
1.60
1.70
.84
.57
.45
.65
.54

1.62
1.00
.34
.66
.61
.40
.23
.19
.14
.11
.08
.07
.05

- 0 .1 7
- .1 8
.61
.02

10.6
10.8
6.0

7.4

8.0

7 .0
5.5
5.5
4 .4
3 .1

2.1
1.8

1.5

3.34
4.70
1.31
2.34
2.30
2.10

1.72
2.09
1.41
.82
.55
.47

2.02

4.57
4.34
2.99
3 92
4.73
4.21
3.30
3.14

2.01

1.47
1.14
1.13
.92

N et producers’ durables

2.66

1.75
.92
1.12
.95
.65
.43
.34
.27

0.02
.01

.74

.02

.21

.16
.13

.11

N et change in—

Total

Non war

War

Inven­
tories

Claims
against
foreign
countries

153

154

155

156

157

1.98
1.50
1.44
.76
.72
1.01
.41
.32
.42
.32
.33
.19

.22

2.00
2.01
.86

-0 .0 2
- .5 1
.58

0.11
1.00
1.60
.85
.65
.75
.87
.42
.41
.51
.66
.46
.39

0.69
.64
2.60
1.33
.03
.32
.66
— .05
— .20
— .10
.10
— .16
- .2 4

chapter F

NATIONAL WEALTH AND SAYING (Series F 158-345)
F 158-251. General note.
The national balance sheet is derived by summing similar
balance sheets for groups of transactors in the economy—
nonfarm households, agriculture, unincorporated business, cor­
porations, etc. The balance sheet of each group is in turn
derived by summing the balance sheets of the constituent units,
based as far as possible on a comparable valuation of assets
and liabilities. In deriving the balance sheet, no creditordebtor or owner-issuer relationships among units are elimi­
nated; for example, the debts of households to corporations
appear on one side as assets of corporations and on the other
as liabilities of households. When all relationships among
constituent units are canceled, whether these units be in the
same or different groups, the balance sheet reduces to a na­
tional wealth statement. This statement shows only tangible
assets plus the net balance of United States claims against
foreign countries, in effect, consolidated net national worth.
(In the series shown, the estimate for total tangible assets in
the national balance sheet differs very slightly from that in
the national wealth statement because of a minor disparity in
the treatment of monetary metals.) Thus, the national balance
sheet adds to the national wealth statement a comprehensive
summary of the various types of financial obligations outstand­
ing at a particular date, and provides perspective on the
magnitude of financing activities in the Nation’s economy.
The national balance sheet falls somewhat short of the goal
of a comprehensive summary of the assets, liabilities, and net
worth of all transactors in the economy, since, for lack of
data, obligations among households are not included, and in
the case of corporations with subsidiaries, the balance sheet
of the parent company is used, thus eliminating relationships
among the subsidiary units. In addition, intangibles such as
goodwill and patent rights are excluded from the balance sheet.
Finally, and this limits the comprehensiveness of the national
wealth statement as well, inventories of nondurable goods in
the hands of consumers, expenditures on soil improvement,
subsoil assets, and military and naval equipment held by the
government are omitted. Needless to say, no account is
taken of the economic value of the stock of the Nation’s human
resources.
The value for “equity” in the national balance sheet exceeds
total national wealth, that is, consolidated net national worth.
This is primarily because in the balance sheet the net worth of
the various constituent units are added together. For exam­
ple, the net worth of a corporation is added to the net worth of
the stockholders. In the national wealth statement, however,
they are consolidated. That is, the outstanding stock of the
corporation is canceled against the holdings of the owners, leav­
ing only the net worth of the stockholders and the undistributed
earnings of the corporations. Stated differently, the “equity”
entry in the balance sheet includes the equity of intermediaries
as well as of ultimate owners.
F 158-196. National balance sheet, in current prices, 19001955.
Source: 1900-1949, Raymond W. Goldsmith, et al., A Study
of Saving in the United States, vol. Ill, Princeton University



Press, Princeton, 1956, pp. 60-61; 1955, National Bureau of
Economic Research, Thirty-Seventh Annual Report, p. 36.
The figures for 1955, which were prepared by Raymond W.
Goldsmith and Morris Mendelson, represent preliminary esti­
mates and in some cases are not fully comparable with those
for earlier dates.
The national balance sheet is derived by summing similar
balance sheets for various transactor groups in the economy—
nonfarm households, agriculture, unincorporated business, etc.
(see general note for series F 158-251). For most of these
groups, however, balance sheets of the constituent units are
nonexistent, so that in practice the group balance sheet is
compiled from separate estimates of the various categories of
assets and liabilities, net worth being derived as a residual.
Only in the case of corporations and the Federal Government
does a substantial proportion of the items come from their
own financial statements.
The estimates presented are in current prices rather than
original cost. Essentially this means that reproducible tangi­
ble assets are valued at reproduction cost, and nonreproducible tangible assets and intangibles at market value, though
some intangibles, particularly short-term claims, are valued at
par or face value.
In deriving the estimates, a problem sometimes arose be­
cause of a difference between two groups in the value at which
the same item is carried on the balance sheet, a difference
not attributable to bad debt reserves alone. Where this was
the case, no attempt was made to force consistency. Both
valuations were carried over into the national balance sheet
on the appropriate sides. This, together with the treatment
of net holdings of foreign assets and liabilities, principally ac­
counts for differences between the asset and liability totals
for certain intangible items; differences which are generally
small compared with the balance sheet totals.
The following statement from the source bears on the relia­
bility of the estimates:
There is unfortunately no way of estim ating the m argin of error in
the individual items of assets and liabilities and net worth, or in the
balance sheet totals. This is due partly to conceptual difficulties, i.e.,
the difficulty of agreeing [as to] what should be regarded as the true
figure for a given asset or liability of a given group at a given date,
even if the basic principle of valuation at current prices is accepted.
It also reflects the absence, in almost all cases, of benchmark or alter­
native estim ates. The margin of error obviously is considerably lower
for assets like cash, inventories, bonds, and farm and residential mort­
gages, and for the corresponding liabilities, than for items like structures
and equipment, land, accounts receivable and payable, common stock,
and interest in unincorporated business. The estim ates of net worth,
being derived as residuals, are of course particularly subject to error,
and the more so, the smaller the proportion of net worth to total assets
and liabilities. Similarly, the figures are as a rule more reliable— for
the same class of assets or liabilities—for groups like corporations and
agriculture, for which comprehensive balance sheets of some type have
been available, than for nonfarm indiv'duals, unincorporated business,
personal trust departm ents, and governm ents, for which they have had
to be developed practically from the ground up. Finally, the margin
of error is undoubtedly smaller—again for the same group and type of
asset or liability—for the last three benchmark dates [1939, 194b, and
19491 than for earlier dates. This statem ent, however, must be quali­
fied by the fact that over-all national wealth statem ents, which provide
valuable checks, exist for the first three benchmark dates, but are
entirely absent for later pnes.

The source provides considerable additional detail, in par­
ticular, balance sheets for separate transactor groups, such as
nonfarm households, agriculture, etc., and makes it possible
to trace the patterns of claims and counterclaims among the
various groups.
145

NATIONAL INCOME AND WEALTH
F 197-246
F 197-221. National wealth, by type of asset, in current expenditures on construction . . .. ” (same source, p. 259).
For some of the components of total wealth, the reliability is
prices, 1850-1956.
Source: 1850-1900, Raymond W. Goldsmith, “The Growth of strengthened because of the possibility of checks against al­
Reproducible Wealth of the United States of America From ternative estimates. “This is the case primarily for residential
1805 to 1950,” International Association for Research in Income real estate, farm structures, inventories and international
and Wealth, Income and Wealth of the United States: Trends assets . . . . Checks are less satisfactory for nonfarm business
and Structure, Income and Wealth Series II, Bowes and Bowes, structures and equipment . . . but the information provided
Cambridge, 1952, p. 306 (estimates for 1805 presented in this in corporate balance sheets submitted to the Bureau of Inter­
publication have not been reproduced here because of ques­ nal Revenue assures us that the Perpetual Inventory estimates
tionable reliability) ; 1900-1945, see source for series F 158- are not too far off the mark for the last 20 years. The
196, pp. 14-15; 1949, 1956, preliminary estimates by Raymond only sectors of reproducible tangible wealth in which the Per­
W. Goldsmith, following the methods of A Study of Saving petual Inventory estimates can be subject to no checks, or to
in the United States, vol. Ill; final estimates to be published only very unsatisfactory ones, are consumers’ durables and
government fixed assets . . . . ” (same source, pp. 260-261).
by National Bureau of Economic Research.
The same source also presents considerably greater detail
The estimates for 1900 to the present were constructed by
Goldsmith by means of the “perpetual inventory method.” In (for example, annual estimates for 1896-1949). Estimates of
this method, the stock of an asset in existence at a given point national wealth by contemporaries are also available for vari­
in time is estimated from annual output totals extending back ous dates during the 19th century. See, for example, Samuel
over a period equal to the average life of the asset, the output Blodget, Jr., Economica; A Statistical Manual for the United
total for every year being depreciated to the end of the period, States, 1806 edition, and Annual Report of the Director of the
and the results summed. The underlying estimates for 1850 Mint, 1881.
appear in the Census Office, Preliminary Report of the Eighth F 222-246. National wealth, by type of asset, in 1929 and
Census, 1862, p. 195; and those for 1880, 1890, and 1900 in
1947-49 prices, 1850-1956.
Simon Kuznets, National Product Since 1869, National Bureau
Source: 1850-1900, see source for series F 197-221, p. 307;
of Economic Research, New York, 1946, pp. 202-215. In every 1900-1945, see source for series F 158-196, pp. 20-21; 1945case, the original estimates were adjusted by Goldsmith, that 1956, see source for series F 197-221.
for 1880 substantially, to improve comparability with the
estimates for 1900-1956. The basic sources for these earlier
These estimates were derived by adjusting the current dollar
estimates were returns on stocks of various assets in the in­ figures for a given class of assets in series F 197-221 for the
dustrial censuses and censuses of wealth. Hence, there is a change in price or cost of construction of that type of asset
sharp break in the method of derivation between the earlier between each year and the base year. Thus, conceptually,
and later estimates. However, the figures for the overlap changes over time in the constant price value of a category
year, 1900, agree reasonably well. The figures for 1850 ex­ of assets reflect changes in the physical stock of that asset
clude the value of slaves.
and not in its value. For 1945-1956, a different base year was
The estimates for 1900-1956 are in “current prices,” that is, necessary because estimates in 1929 prices for the most recent
each asset is valued at its replacement cost in the given year. years are not available. This shift in base years introduces
This is preferable to valuation at original cost, whether de­ some element of incomparability, since the relative weights
preciated or undepreciated. Assets appearing in the wealth of individual assets in the price index differ between the two
statement for any given date were produced in different years, years.
and since prices change from year to year, summation of orig­
For 1900-1956, an attempt was made to adjust for price
inal cost values would often result in an arithmetic aggregate changes by fairly narrow classes of assets, using construction
without economic meaning. (However, totals in original cost cost or price indexes referring specifically to the assets in each
are also given in A Study of Saving in the United States. . . .) class. For 1880, 1890, and 1900, a more summary adjustment
For the estimates for 1850 to 1900, which are primarily from was used. Only three separate deflators were employed for
the Federal censuses, the basis of valuation is not always construction (residential, other private, and farm), and a single
certain, and is not uniform among types of assets and among deflator was used for all types of equipment. For 1850, the
industries. It is possible that the figures may approximate same price index (Snyder’s index of the general price level)
either current market values or original cost, depreciated or was applied to all types of structures and equipment, although
undepreciated, or some combination of the two. Some assur­ for the adjustment of inventories the wholesale price index
ance as to the comparability of the earlier and later sets of was used.
figures on this score is provided, however, by the overlapping
Goldsmith states
of a con­
values for 1900, though this comparison applies only to a stant price estimatethat the conceptualtosignificance If land is
for land is open question.
single year.
carried for all dates at its absolute value in the base year, the
As to the reliability of the estimates, the source (Income and relation to the constant price value of reproducible assets tends
Wealth of the United States: Trends and Structure, p. 264) to become unrealistic, particularly at dates fairly far removed
states “that the margin of error in the estimates is substan­ from the base year. In the present estimate, an alternative
tial, amounting to hardly less than 10 to 20 percent at any procedure is followed, a constant price value of land being
date; that this relative margin increases as we go back in derived, generally speaking, as a fixed proportion of the
time; but that it is not at all certain that comparability is im­ constant price value of structures. This permits derivation of
paired by as much as the size of the margin may imply because a constant price series for aggregate national wealth, but it
the error probably tends in the same direction for most if not should be recognized that the deflated estimates of land values
all benchmarks although it is likely that the understatement included in the totals cannot be conceived as reflecting changes
is more pronounced in the early part of the period than in the in physical units alone.
latter.” With regard to the estimates for 1900-1956, derived
The adjustment for price changes introduces errors in the
by the perpetual inventory method, it is noted that “the most estimates in addition to those discussed in connection with
important source of error . . . resides in the estimates of series F 197-221. On balance, any error is likely to lead to­
146




F 247-260
NATIONAL WEALTH AND SAVING
wards an overstatement of the price rise over the period and the Goldsmith estimates exclude military assets. Another im­
hence an understatement of growth rates because the tech­ portant difference is in the. treatment of consumer durables,
niques used in adjusting for price change fail to make ade­ which in both the Department of Commerce and Kuznets in­
quate allowance for improvement in the quality of the assets, come estimates is not considered investment, but in the Gold­
and there is no evidence that the error is larger for one part smith estimates of saving and wealth is so considered. Finally,
of the period than for another, although the possibilities of there are important differences in the scope and valuation of
error are certainly greater in the 19th century than the 20th. capital consumption allowances. Beyond the conceptual differ­
In addition, it is likely that the failure to allow for quality ences, there are variations in the sources and techniques em­
improvement has a differential effect on the different compo­ ployed by the different estimators. The broad outlines of the
nents of wealth. In particular, it leads to a more serious relationships among the different social accounts can, never­
understatement in the growth of components such as producer theless, be distinguished. In addition, the saving statistics
and consumer durables and livestock than for structures and throw important light on the nature of the different groups
inventories.
of savers in the economy and the forms that saving takes.
F 247-251. Value of stock of structures and equipment in F 252-260. Gross private saving, in current prices, 1929-1957.
specified sectors, in 1929 prices, 1880-1948.
Source: 1929-1945, Office of Business Economics, National
Source: Simon Kuznets, Capital in the American Economy: Income: 195U Edition, A Supplement to the Survey of Current
Its Formation and Financing, National Bureau of Economic Business, pp. 164-165; 1946-1957, U. S. Income and Output,
1958.
Research, New York (forthcoming).
The following are definitions used by the Department of Com­
These estimates fall somewhat short of the value of all
reproducible wealth in each sector, since the value of inven­ merce :
Gross private saving represents the sum of series F 253-256
tories is omitted, and considerably short of total wealth, since
land is excluded. Also, data are not available for other busi­ and F 260. Generally speaking, it is the total of household
ness sectors; for example, trade and the service industries are and business saving. Saving through government, including
omitted. However, it is estimated that the four sectors in­ government insurance funds, is excluded. Household ex­
cluded here accounted for about 80 percent of the stock of penditures for consumer durables, except on residential con­
struction, are not treated as saving. Series F 252 is “gross”
structures and equipment in 1880.
The underlying sources of the estimates are three mono­ in that it includes business capital consumption allowances and
graphs prepared in connection with the National Bureau of depreciation on residences.
Personal saving represents the excess of personal income
Economic Research Study of Capital Formation and Financing:
Alvin S. Tostlebe, Capital in Agriculture: Its Formation and over the sum of personal consumption expenditures and per­
Financing Since 1870, Princeton University Press, Princeton, sonal tax and nontax payments. It includes the current saving
1957; Daniel Creamer, Israel Borenstein, and Sergei P. Dobro­ of individuals (including owners of unincorporated business),
volsky, Capital Formation and Financing in Manufacturing and nonprofit institutions, and private pension, health, welfare, and
Mining (forthcoming) ; and Melville J. Ulmer, Capital in Trans­ trust funds. Personal saving may be in such forms as changes
portation., Communication, and Public Utilities: Its Formation in cash and deposits, security holdings, indebtedness, and re­
and Financing (forthcoming). With the exception of the last serves of life insurance companies and mutual savings institu­
monograph, the approach followed in deriving the estimates of tions, the net investment of unincorporated enterprises, and
capital stock differed rather noticeably from that chiefly em­ the acquisition of real property net of depreciation. Inventory
ployed in obtaining the figures presented in series F 197-246, profits and other capital gains are excluded.
since the basic data, such as census returns on capital or
Undistributed corporate profits represent the difference be­
balance sheet items in Statistics of Income, related to stocks tween corporate profits after tax and dividends. Corporate
rather than output flows. Further detail on capital investment profits after tax are the earnings of corporations organized for
by type and/or minor industrial sector is given in these mono­ profit which accrue to the residents of the Nation, measured
graphs.
after Federal and State profit taxes, without deduction of de­
pletion charges and exclusive of capital gains and losses.
F 252-345. General note.
Dividends measure cash
Statistics of saving provide the link between the statements tions organized for profit dividend disbursements by corpora­
to stockholders who are residents of
of national income or product, on the one hand, and the nation­
al wealth statement and balance sheet, on the other. Gener­ the United States.
Corporate inventory valuation adjustment is the excess of
ally speaking, for the Nation as a whole, aggregate saving,
which equals national income less national consumption, is the value of the change in the volume of nonfarm corporate
identical with net national investment, and the latter, in turn, business inventories, valued at average prices during the period,
is equal to the change in real national wealth. For the indi­ over the change in the book value of nonfarm corporate in­
vidual economic unit, however, saving is equal not to the ventories.
Capital consumption allowances represent the sum of busi­
change in holdings of real assets, but to the difference between
the change in total assets (both tangible and intangible) and ness depreciation charges, accidental damage to fixed business
total liabilities. The national balance sheet registers the effect capital, and capital outlays charged to current expense.
of saving on the stock of intangibles as well as tangibles.
Business depreciation charges are charges made by private
The link provided by the saving statistics is imperfect for business against receipts for the current consumption of dura­
both conceptual and statistical reasons. To note only some of ble capital goods and comparable allowances for nonprofit in­
the principal conceptual differences, there are, first, variations stitutions. They include depreciation charges against ownerin the treatment of government. In the Department of Com­ occupied houses. Depreciation reported by business is not
merce estimates of income and saving, government investment adjusted for changes in the replacement value of capital
and government saving are excluded, while in the Kuznets goods, except for farm enterprises.
income estimates, and the Goldsmith saving and wealth esti­
Accidental damage to fixed business capital represents the
mates, Government saving and investment are included, though value of the physical losses by fire, natural events, and other



147

F 261-345
NATIONAL INCOME AND WEALTH
accidents to fixed capital of private business not covered by saving subdivided among three major groups—nonagricultural
depreciation charges.
individuals (including private nonprofit institutions and per­
Capital outlays charged to current expense represent new sonal trust funds), agriculture, and unincorporated busi­
construction and purchases of new durable capital goods in­ ness. There are also some differences in the scope of the
cluded in gross private domestic investment (series F 72) that saving concept. While these estimates include all forms of
are charged as current expense by business rather than en­ saving covered in series F 252-260, they also cover saving in
the form of consumer durables, and of brokers’ and dealers’
tered on capital account.
Excess of wage accruals over disbursements represents commissions and profits on change of hands of existing assets.
In addition, in deriving these estimates of net saving, capital
wages earned during the current period but not disbursed.
allowances have been valued at replacement cost.
With respect to reliability of these estimates, the Depart­ consumption of figures, however, includes saving in the form of
Neither set
ment of Commerce notes that the margin of error in the soil
additions to
estimates of gross private saving and its components tends tant improvement or exists betweenmilitary assets. ofAn impor­
difference also
estimates
generally to be high. Because personal saving is derived as in the technique of derivation. The the two sets series F 252estimates in
the difference between two much larger totals, it is subject to 260 were derived by the income approach; these figures, with
large percentage error in both level and movement. Undistrib­
exception of
were
uted corporate profits is more accurate, but the corporate in­ the balance sheet those for corporate saving,they areobtained by
the
method. In this respect,
similar to
ventory valuation adjustment is liable to considerable error, so
of personal saving presented in series F
that the reliability of the two items combined is not high. the estimatesdifferences in techniques and in concept cause261the
Furthermore, while approximately half of the estimate for 303, though
actual estimates for personal saving to differ between the two
capital consumption allowances is based on fairly solid data,
e.g. because of
series F 337 (but not in
the remainder is estimated on the basis of a variety of sources tables, F 289) of stock inclusionofinsmall corporations not dis­
series
issues
and methods, and some of these are subject to a wide margin tributed by security dealers.
of error.
statement from
source (pp.
F 261-303. Individuals’ saving, by components, in current anThe following the reliability of the estimates: 40-41) provides
indication of
the
prices, 1929-1957.
the
errors
the
estim ates of group and
have been constructed indi­
Source: 1929-1932, Irwin Friend and Vito Natrella, Indi­ theEvaluation ofmarginpossible national insaving individual seriesforfrom which
cates that the
of error is hardly under 10 percent
any given
viduals' Saving, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1954, pp. 85
year or for the average annual figure in any series, that it is probably
in the order of magnitude of 20 to 30 percent in many of them, that
and 91 (except series F 293 for 1929-1932, Raymond W. Gold­
it may run even higher in not a few cases, but that the relative margin
of error in most cases is reduced for sequences of several years and
smith, A Study of Saving in the United States) ; 1933-1957,
generally the smaller the longer the period. . . .
Securities and Exchange Commission, records.
Most of the components utilized in building the estim ates of saving
saver groups are
independent; and
Conceptually, individual saving in series F 261 is iden­ of any of theformajor major saver groups statisticallylargely independent
the estim ates
the
are very
of each other except for those of nonfarm households and unincorpo­
tical with that in series F 253. However, the total is derived
rated business enterprises. Accordingly since the number of components
in an entirely different way. In the procedure followed in
of saving is large for each of the groups, running to several dozen
even if only those of substantial quantitative importance are taken into
obtaining series F 261, referred to as the direct or balance
account, there is reason to assum e that errors in one direction, i.e.
overstatem ents or underestimates of saving, made in any one year in
sheet method of estimating saving, the total is derived by
some of the component series w ill be offset by errors in the opposite
summing the changes in the various assets and liabilities of
direction in other series. As a result, the relative error in the estim ates
of saving by the major groups, and still more the estim ates of broad
the economic units included in the personal sector. Since
aggregates such as national or personal saving, may be expected to be
the reliability of the underlying components varies widely, it is
considerably lower than the average of the relative errors in the com­
ponent series. Indeed, it is quite possible that, if we take account of
not possible to state unequivocally that the total in series
the number of independent com ponent series and their relative size, and
even take a pessim istic view of errors in constituent series, the relative
F 261 is subject to a smaller margin of error than that in
error of national
series F 253. Rather the two series should be viewed as pro­ average exceed som or personal10saving in any one year does not on the
ething like percent.
viding a reciprocal check, with the present series also present­ of The quality of most of the individual series used into the measurement
saving has undoubtedly improved. It would seem
be substantially
ing detail on the various types of saving. While the difference
poorer for the period before the thirties than for the last two decades,
and within the earlier period, in turn, to be particularly poor for the
between the two series is substantial for a few dates, they are
years before approxim ately 1905. Nevertheless, there is no statistical
evidence, such as might be provided by the difference between estim ates
generally in fair agreement with regard to absolute amount.
of saving and investment, that the estim ates of aggregate saving have
relative errors in the
the period
in the
The estimates for saving in the form of currency and de­ larger Indeed, from that pointearlier part ofrelative errorthan the estimlater
part.
of view, the
in
ates
posits (including deposits in savings and loan associations)
would have to be regarded as substantially the same through the thir­
ties, and as considerably lower only for the last decade. There is,
have a relatively small margin of error, while those for saving
however, evidence . . . that the error is . . . in the direction of an
overstatem ent
saving
in the form of corporate and State and local securities prob­ ment during theofthirties. in the first three decades and an understate­
ably have a greater margin of error. Generally speaking, the
estimates for the earlier years, particularly 1929-1932, are F 316-345. Personal saving, by major components, in current
prices, 1897-1956.
subject to greater error than those for the later years. For a
discussion of the limitations of the estimates for a number of
Source: 1897-1945, see source for series F 304-315, pp.
the components, see the source (Friend and Natrella).
353-355; 1946-1956, preliminary estimates by Raymond W.
F 304-315. National saving, by major saver groups, in current Goldsmith and Morris Mendelson, following the methods of A
Study of Saving in the United States; final estimates to be
prices, 1897-1945.
Source: Raymond W. Goldsmith, A Study of Saving in the published by the National Bureau of Economic Research.
See text for series F 304-315 regarding concept and relia­
United States, vol. I, Princeton University Press, Princeton,
1955, p. 345 (saving, excluding consumer durables, computed bility of personal saving estimates.
by subtraction of estimates of saving in consumer durables
The estimates for 1946-1956 are not fully comparable with
for nonagricultural individuals, p. 359, and for agriculture, p. those for earlier years. The savings and loan association lia­
756).
bility called loans in process and the surplus of mutual finan­
In contrast to series F 252-260, these series provide an esti­ cial intermediaries are imputed to personal saving in the new
mate of saving by government (thus permitting the deriva­ estimates, though not in the earlier figures. Furthermore, in
tion of aggregate national saving), and estimates of personal the estimates for the earlier years brokers and dealers were
148




F 316-345
NATIONAL WEALTH AND SAVING
not distinguished from other unincorporated businesses, and Commission data, particularly in the case of net trade debt
the estimates for the components of saving included the of nonfarm, noncorporate business (included in series F 344).
changes in the assets and liabilities of these brokers and This change was made primarily to achieve consistency with
dealers. In the new estimates, brokers and dealers are treated other bodies of data utilized in the National Bureau’s postwar
as financial organizations and personal saving through brokers Capital Market Study where flow-of-funds data are used ex­
and dealers is assumed to take the form of changes in equity tensively. The result is that the present estimates of per­
in these organizations. Changes in loans in process, surplus sonal saving diverge more from the SEC estimates than do
of mutual financial organizations, and equity in brokers and those of earlier years.
dealers are all included in total personal saving (series F 316
Loans in
Other
Equity in
process of
savings
brokers
and F 317), but not included in any of the components shown
Year
saving and in mutual
and
loan asso­
financial
in series F 316-345. The data for these three forms of per­
dealers
ciation
institutions
sonal saving are given in the tabulation below.
Bil. dol.
Bil. dol.
Bil. dol.
There are also other differences between the new and old
1956____________________________________
.12
.61
estimates which reduce comparability. The estimates of ac­ 1955____________________________________ - . 0 2
.12
.54
- .1 7
.24
.27
.63
crued tax liabilities were not carried forward and as a result 1954____________________________________
.06
.47
.09
1952____________________________________
.08
.37
- .0 6
the estimates of personal saving are somewhat higher in most 1953____________________________________
.02
.41
- .0 3
and lower in a few years than they would otherwise be. 1951____________________________________
1950____________________________________
.14
.40
.04
1949____________________________________
.01
.04
.42
Finally, in several instances, changes in the sources of data 1948____________________________________ - .0 4
.35
.06
.06
.30
- .0 9
used influences comparability. The most important of them 1947____________________________________
1946____________________________________
.10
.25
- .1 4
is the substitution of flow-of-funds for Securities and Exchange

488910 0 - 6 0 - 1 1




149

F 158-196

NATIONAL INCOME AND WEALTH

Series F 158-196. National Balance Sheet, in Current Prices: 1900 to 1955
[In billions of dollars. As of end of year]
Deposits in—

Total
assets
(F 181
plus
F 196)
158

Year

Tangible
assets

Currency

Commer­
cial
banks

Other
financial
insti­
tutions

159

160

161

162

163

1,329.0
881.3
570.3
395.0
322.4
426.9
326.2
167.6
90.2

1955________________________ 3,0 7 4.0
1949________________________ 2 ,0 1 6.0
1945________________________ 1,557.5
1939________________________
877.2
1933________________________
733.1
1929________________________
981.8
1922________________________
653.0
1912________________________
308.6
1900___________________ _ _
159.0

Total

1,745.0
1,134.7
987.2
482.2
410.7
554.8
326.8
141.0

Intangible assets
Pension and
retirement funds
Life
insurance
reserves Private Govern­
ment

54.0
49.0
45.0
22.4

8.1

6.5
6.9
2.5
1.4

68.8

145.0
131.1
137.9
54.1
36.2
44.8
34.2
15.8
6.7

164

165

80.0
58.8
44.3
29.2
20.9
17.5
8.7
4.1

112.0

53.4
44.0
28.8
18.8
17.9
10.5
4 .5

2.6

Receivables from—
Business

House­
holds

Loans
on
secu­
rities

167

168

169

166

15.0
6.8
2 .9
1.0
.7
.5

58.0
38.8
25.5
6.2
3.0
1.5
.3

.1

123.0
64.0
41.0
26.3
30.2
46.7
32.7
17.2
10.9

1.6

44.0
26.8
11.7
14.6
11.9
15.3
11.1
5.6
1.9

9.0
3.6
8.1
2 .7
5.2
16.3
6.7
2.3
1.3

Intangible assets—Con.
Mortgages

Securities

Equity in—

Nonfarm

Farm

U. S.
govern­
ment

State
and
local
govern­
ments

Corpo­
rate
bonds

Preferred
and
common
stock

Unincor­
porated
business

Finan­
cial
nonprofit
insti­
tutions

Govern­
ment
corpo­
rations

Accruals

Other

170

Year

171

172

173

174

175

176

177

178

179

180

1955_____________________________________
1949______________ __________________ _
1945_____________________________________
1939____________________________________
1933____________________________________
1929_____________________________________
1922_____________________________________
1912___________________
_ _ _
1900____________________

9.0
5.4
4.7
6.6
7.7
9.6
10.8
4.3
2.3

121.0

60.8
33.1
32.0
33.5
37.3
16.3
7.5
4.4

272.0
253.3
274.4
47.0
23.9
16.2
23.0

46.0
21.9
15.9
19.8
19.1
16.9
10.4
4.4

1.2
1.2

69.0
39.5
25.9
32.5
37.7
38.1
23.7
14.5
5.2

2.0

437.0
158.8
150.8
100.1
101.7
186.7
76.1
38.0
13.9

9 .0
5.0
3.3
2 .3
2.3

83.0
51.7
26.1
17.6
27.5
22.2
8.9
6.3

68.8

6C . 0
►

0)

26. 5
17. 2
4. 5
3. 1
4
7

2.1
1.2
.6

23.4
19.0
7.8
5.4
7.6
4 .7
1.1
.7

.3

39.1
30.7
18.0
24.0
45.3
26.6

8.2
6.0

Liabilities
Pension and
retirement funds

Deposits in—

Year

Total

181
1955_____________ 1,265.0
1949_____________ 874.0
1945_____________ 772.5
1939_____________ 356.5
1933_____________ 281.4
1929_____________ 324.3
1922_____________ 222.4
1912_____________
94.1
1900_____________
47.2
1 Consolidated

150

Payables to
Life
Borrow­
Other
Finan­
ing on Mort­
Currency Commer­ finan­ insur­
ance
cial
secu­
gages
Other
cial
cial reserves Private Govern­ inter­ business House­ rities
ment
holds
banks insti­
medi­
tutions
aries
182

183

54.0
49.2
44.8
22.2
7.7
6.4
6.8
2 .5

165 0
131.1
137.9
54.1
36.2
44.8
34.2
15.8
6.7

1.2

into Federal Government.




184
112.0

53.9
43.5
29.0
18.9
17.9
10.5
4 .5

2.6

185

186

187

188

189

82.0
58.8
44.3
29.2
20.9
17.5
8.7
4.1

15.0
6.8
2.9
1.0
.7
.5

58.0
38.8
25.5
6.2
3 .0
1.5
.3

63 .0
34.8
18.6
17.4
18.3
25.4
20.4
10.1
4.3

77.0
51.1
31.7
24.6
19.4
28.6
23.0
10.8
7.6

1.6

.1

190

Bonds
and Accruals Other
notes

191
.9
.8
.4
.3

1.2

.5

2
.1

192

193

194

195

9.0
3 .6
8.1
2 .7
5.2
16.3
6.7
2.3
1.3

130 0
66.2
37.8
38.6
41.1
46.9
27.1
11 8
6.7

397 0
316.1
320.3
107.3
83.8
76.1
59.5
23 9
10.4

1C>4
23.4
19.0
7 .8
5.4
7.6
4 .7
1 l
.7

0

Equity

196

1 809 0
39.3 1,142.0
784.9
37.3
15.9
520.6
451.7
20.6
33.5
657.4
430.6
19.9
6 8
214 5
4^0 111.9

NATIONAL WEALTH AND SAVING

F 197-221

Series F 197-221. National Wealth, by Type of Asset, in Current Prices: 1850 to 1956
In billions of dollars. As of end of year except as noted. Figures in italics for 1900 are comparable with earlier years; those in regular type are comparable with later years]
Reproducible tangible assets
Structures

Total
national
wealth

Total

197

Year 1

198

1,448.2
900.2
561.2
395.6
330.2
439.1
334.2
165.2
87.7

1,199.6
728.7
446.1
305.3
241.0
313.2
233.2
109.1
59.1
63.8
46.1
25.8
4.5

1958 __________
1949___________
1945____________
1939____________
1933____________
1929____________
1922___________
1912____________
1900____________
1900i _
1890 1________ _____________
1880 i______________________
1850 1________ _____________

Year

Total
209

1956____________
1949___________
1945____________
1939____________
1933____________
1929___________
1922____________
1912_ _
19001900 1.
1890 1______ ___
1880 1_
1850
_ __

120.2

79.2
52.0
30.4
21.9
38.0
32.6
16.7

10.0

11.8
9.6

6.6
1.1

Total

Nonfarm
Nonresi­
Resi­
dential
dential

199

200

721.7
432.9
275.7
188.5
159.4
189.8
134.5
62.5
35.0
35. 0
25.0
13.3

350.1
216.0
143.2
86.3
69.6
89.5
56.6
25.4
15.7
15.0
10.8
4.9

Reproducible tangible assets—-Con.
Inventories
Private
Public
Live­
Nonfarm
Crops
stock
210
211
212
213
11.2

12.9
9 .7
5.1
3.2
6.5
5.4
5.6
3 .1
3 .3
2.6
2.0

.5

7.1

6.0
6.0
2.2
1.8

3 .0
3.1
2.6
1.4
.2

95.0
56.9
33.6
22.1
16.9
28.4
24.0
8.4
5.4
8 .5
7.0
4 .6
.5

7.0
3.4
2 .7

1.0
.1
.1
.1

151.7
91.6
56.0
49.4
46.7
55.0
42.6
22.6
12.5
U .3
10 .3
5 .8

Mining
(under­
ground)

Farm

Insti­
tutional

Govern­
ment

Total

202

201

.8

Equipment

203

204

205

206

207

208

137.3
74.6
45.4
33.8
26.2
23.4
15.5
5.9

331.2
188.1
94.5
66.7
54.9
80.6
61.7
27.3

177.6
98.0
48.3
34.2
29.2
38.4
30.8
13.8
6 .5
9.3
5.8
3 .0

153.6
90.1
46.2
3 2.5
25.7
42.2
30.9
13.6

26.1
13.6
7.8
4.7
3 .4
4.1
3.3
.9
.4

21 .1

34.3
24.8
16.3
9.0
8.7
12.2

12.4
5.6
3.3
3 .6
2 .7
2.0
.7

Monetary
gold
and
silver

Total

AgricuU
tural

214

215

216

26.5
28.4
23.9
19.6
4.7
4.8
4.4
2 .5

1.6

1 .7

1.2
.6
.2

230.8
157.7
117.4
88.6
81.1
113.5
92.8
58.2
30.9
(3)
(3)
(3)
(3)

74.0
50.7
43.5
23.2

22.8

34.9
41.5
31.6
14.5
(3)
(3)
(3)
(3)

22.2

12.4
7.0
5.4
4.8
5.6
4.1

2.0
1.1

2 .0

2 .I

1 .2
.6
.1

Land
Private
Nonfarm
Resi­
Nonresi­
dential
dential
217
218
54.4
33.9
22.6
22.9
18.7
24.1
15.4
7.0
4 .4
(s)
(3)
(3)
(3)

12.6

15.3
10.3
5.4

51.1
34.3
23.3

22.2
22.1

36.1
19.8
10.2
6 .5
(s)
(3)
(3)
(3)

Forests
219
12.2

7 .5
3 .8
2 .9

2 .2

3 .1
3 .5
2 .0
1 .5
(3)
<*)
(3)
(3)

Producer Consumer
dura­
dura­
bles
bles

2 .2

6.0

6. 0
4 .5
2 .4
.3

Public

N et
foreign
assets

220

221

39.1
31.3
24.2
17.4
15.4
15.3
12.6
7.5
4 .0
(»)
(3)
(3)
(3)

17.8
13.8
- 2 .3
1.7

8.1

12.4

8.2

- 2.1
- 2 .3
—1.1
- 1.6
- .5
-.2

1 As of June 1.
4 Producer durables in the hands of nonagricultural business included with nonfarm nonresidential construction.
3 N ot available.




151

F 222-251

NATIONAL INCOME AND WEALTH

Series F 222-246. National Wealth, by Type of Asset, in 1929 and 1947-49 Prices: 1850 to 1956
[In billions of dollars. As of end of year except as noted. Figures in italics for 1900 are comparable with earlier years; those in regular type comparable with later years]
Total
national
wealth

Year

Reproducible tangible assets
Structures
Total

Nonfarm
Resi­
Nonresidential
dential

Total

Mining
(under­
ground)

Farm

Total

229

227
1947-49

Govern­
ment

Insti­
tutional

Equipment
Pro­
ducer
dura­
bles
232

Con­
sumer
dura­
bles
233

p r ic e s

1956.
1949 _
1945_

1,118.9
885.4
774.3

940.6
719.2
617.1

541.0
430.0
403.0

435.6
424.8
421.5
445.8
336.6
265.3
179.5

331.5
317.8
301.5
318.7
238.0
186.3

266.7
212.8
198.5

185.3
191.7
194.1
193.5
140.4
113.2
73.0
81.5
58.4
31.1

107.7
88.0
81.6

19.8
13.4
11.3

44.5
49.8
55.5
56.8
44.8
39.0
24.9

5.2
4 .5
4.1
4.2
3.3
1.7

16.1

102.9
79.4
77.9

268.5
181.2
119.1

128.0
91.9
61.5

140.5
89.3
57.5

4 .4
5.1
5.7
5.6
4.3

27.8
24.3

37.2
35.5
30.1
23.8
15.1
11.2
5.1

89.4
78.8
72.0
83.0
60.7
49.6
30.0
36.5
24.3

42.6
34.7
33.9
39.1
31.8
24.6
13.5
19.9
11.-7
4.7
2 .4

46.9
44.1
38.1
43.8
28.9
25.0
16.6
16. 6
12.6
6 .5

12.1
11.6

22.2

1929 p r ic e s
194519391933.
1929_
1922 _
1912_
1900 _
1900 i_
1890 i_.
1880 i_.
1850 i_.

122.6

139.0
99.7
53.7

10.8

60.8
48.2
33.1
35. U
26.0

Total
234

Live­
stock
235

Crops

Public

Non­
farm

10.4
11.3
12.5

12.0

9.4
6.8

U.7
2 .7
1.4
.3

23.2
13.2
2 3 .0

11.6
2.1

Reproducible tangible assets— Con.
Inventories

10.1

Mone­
tary
gold
and
silver

Total

11.2

Land
Private
Nonfarm
NonresiResi­
dential
dential

Agri­
cultural

Public

Forests

N et
foreign
assets

239

236

1947-49
PRICES

1956_________
1949_________
1945____„____
1929 p r ic e s
1945_________
1939_________
1933_________
1929_________
1922_________
1912_________
1900_________
1900 1________
1890 i________
1880 1________
1850 i________

14.7
13.6
14.9

107.2
81.7
73.3

10.8
2.2

1 As of June 1.
2 Producer durables

3 .9
3.2
3 .0
3 .0
3 .2
3 .6

6. 6

23.9
26.2
21.7

164.3
153.4
160.0

50.9
49.4
53.8

41.3
33.4
31.3

33.3
33.0
34.2

5.3
5.7
5.9

33.5
32.0
34.8

2.1

12.7
10.9
4.2
4.3
4.0
2.1
1.3
1 .7

103.3
105.0
109.2
114.7
90.4
82.2
61.6

35.9
31.8
34.5
34.9
35.5
36.3
28.0

20.9
22.9
23.4
2 4.4
16.6
13.3
9.2

(3)

(3)

(3)

(3)
(3)

(3)
(3)

2 2.5
2 6.4
2 8.5
37.0
22.7
20.2
15.2
(2)
(3)
(3)
(3)

3 .1
3 .4
2 .9
3.1
3.2
2. 6
2 .5
(3)
(3)
(3)
(3)

2 0.4
20.0
15.3
12.4
9.9
6 .7
(3)
(*)
(3)
(3)

1.6
.1

.1

.1

22
11

9
10.3
7.1
4.3

2.6

2. 6

2.3
2.0
.3

1.1

7.8
3.8
3.7

30.8
24.9
21.1
28.4

7.5
7.9

7.2
7.1
6 .5
7.2
6 .5
6 .4
6.U
6.2
4 .5

44.0
36.4
31.2
38.0
32.9
21.3
18.2
19.3
15.6

76.5
56.9
46.9

8.2

1.2
.6

.3

.8

in the hands of nonagricultural business included with nonfarm

(3)
(3)
(3)

(3)

(3)

20.8

14.0
12.9
- 2 .7
2 .1
10.8

12.4

8.2

- 3 .2
- 4 .7
- 3 .1
- 3 .6
- 1.0
- .3

nonresidential construction.
3 N ot available.

Series F 247-251. Value of Stock of Structures and Equipment in Specified Sectors, in 1929 Prices: 1880 to 1948
[In billions of dollars. Figures in italics for 1900 are comparable with earlier years; those in regular type are comparable with later years]

1948, Dec. 31______ _ _
1940, April 1____________
1930, April 1___________
1922 Dec. 31
1 Includes

152

Agri­
culture 1

Mining

247

Year

Total,
specified
sectors

248

249

103.9
85.2
92.9
78.0

value of farm residences.




18.5
13.5
15.5
15.3

5.3
4.7
6.2
5.3

Trans­
portation
Manu­ and other
facturing
public
utilities
250
251
34.8
25.3
27.0

22.0

45.3
41.6
44.2
35.4

1912, Dec. 31 __________
I
1900, June 1_ _
\
1890, June 1_ .
__
1880, June 1 _ _ ____

Agri­
culture 1
248

Trans­
portation
Manu­ and other
facturing
public
utilities
250
251

Mining

247

Year

Total,
specified
sectors

249

65.1
38.5
39.0
29.1

20.6

}

13.4

3 .4

8.8

1.6
0.8

7.3

6.6

0 .4

/
\

15.3
7.2 }
7.6
4 .5
1.9

33.0
21.0

16.5

11.8

F 252-275

NATIONAL WEALTH AND SAVING

Series F 252-260. Gross Private Saving, in Current Prices: 1929 to 1957
[In billions of dollars]

Gross
private
saving
252

Year

1957
1956
1955
1954
1953 ___ ___ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
_ _ _
1952___ _ _ ___ _______ __ __________
1951 _ _ _ _ _ _ ___ _ _ _ _ _____ _ _
1950________________________________________
1949________________________________________
1948________________________________________
1947________________________________________
1946 ___ _ ________ _ _ __ ___ _ _ _
1945_______________________________ _______
1944________________________________________
1943______ _ _ _ _ ______ __ _ _ ___ _ _
1942
1941
1940 __ _ _ _ _ _________ . _ _______
_ ___
1939__ ___ ___ _________________
1938 _ ___ ___________ ______ _ ___ _
1937______ ___ ______ __ ___ ___ _ _ ___
1936__ _
__ _ ______ __ _ _______ _ _
1935 _ _ _ _ _ _______ ______ _ _ _
1934
1933 _
_ _ _ . _____
1932 _
_
__
_ ___
1931__ _ _ _
1930-_ _ _ _ _ _ _
.
_
1929__ _ _ _ _ _

Personal
saving

Undis­
tributed
corpo­
rate
profits

253

254

66.32
64.21
59.58
54.35
54.14
52.18
49.20
40.32
36.10
37.62
23.57
26.52
44.25
54.15
49.30
41.90
22.59
14.59
11.16
8.88
11.50
10.15
8.37
4.96
1.94
2.05
7.72

20.71
21.05
17.51
18.86
19.83
18.94
17.68
12.64
8.50
10.99
4.70
13.46
28.66
36.93
33.01
27.77

11.11

4.20
2.87
1.05
3.74
3.61
2.03
.09
- .6 5
- .6 5
2.51
3.41
4.17

12.20

15.70

Corpo­
rate
inven­
tory
valua­
tion
adjustment
255
- 1 .5 5
- 2 .5 6
- 1 .7 4
- .3 2
- 1.00
.98
- 1.20
- 4 .9 7
1.86
- 2 .1 5
- 5 .9 0
- 5 .2 6
- .5 6
- .2 9
- .7 7
- 1.20
-2 .4 7

9.42
11.03
11.82
7.00
8.86
8.28

10.68

13.56
8.52
13.27
11.72
7.66
3.60
5.70
6.00
5.18
4.91
2.44
1.17
- .92
.05

-.2 0

- .7 1
.96
- .03
- .74
- .2 3
- .6 3
- 2 .1 4
1.05
2.41
3.26
.47

-.22

- .6 7
- 1 .6 2
-2 .4 3
- 5 .9 7
-5 .3 7
-3 .0 1
2.45

Total
256

Capital consumption allowances
Accidental
Capital
Business
damage
outlays
deprecia­
to fixed
charged
tion
business
to current
charges
expense
capital
259
257
258
33.70
30.76
27.94
25.20
23.07
20.87
18.75
16.50
15.09
13.10
11.06
9.04
11.25
10.79
9.85
9.16
8.08
7.32
7.12
6.94
6.91
6.70
6.67
6.60
6.66
7.04
7.55
7.74
7.70

37.74
34.69
31.99
28.81
26.53
24.00
21.97
19.07
17.28
15.47
13.03
10.70
12.55
12.01
10.87
10.16
9.04
8.15
7.84
7.78
7.75
7.50
7.24
7.12
7.16
7.62
8.17
8.54
8.62

0.90
.73
1.06
.92
.81
.68
.91
.62
.52
.57
.57
.41
.38
.36
.40
.48
.27
.25
.22
.39
.30
.38
.24
.24
.28
.33
.35
.39
.41

Excess
of wage
accruals
over
disburse­
ments
260

3.14
3.20
2.99
2.69
2.65
2.45
2.31
1.95
1.67
1.80
1.40
1.25
.92
.85
.61
.51
.69
.59
.50
.46
.53
.42
.33
.28
.23
.25
.26
.42
.51

- 0 .0 8
-.0 2
.07
.02

- .0 5
.04
.02
- .0 3
.01

- .1 9

.21

Series F 261-303. Individuals' Saving, by Components, in Current Prices: 1929 to 1957

Year

lnai vict­
uals’
saving
(F276 +
F 279
minus
F 294)
261

Total

Non­
farm
homes

262

263

30.58
15.17
1957_____________________ 22.30
16.22
30.67
1956____________________ 19.50
17.34
32.99
1955_____________________ 18.15
14.24
1954_____________________ 16.64
27.61
1953
_ _ _ _ _ _ 21.09
25.53
12.75
25.24
11.96
1952_____________________ 19.16
26.29
11.61
1951_____________________ 19.93
12.70
27.73
1950 ___________________ 10.01
18.36
1949_____________________ 8.09
8.23
9.00
1948_____________________ 11.19
22.41
14.97
6.76
1947_____________________ 7.05
4.42
1946_____________________ 12.13
11.49
1.09
1945_____________________ 29.52
4.31
3.18
.98
1944_____________________ 35.14
1.14
2.68
1943_____________________ 33.73
5.62
1.90
1942_____________________ 29.99
8.96
3.67
1941____________________ 11.12
3.15
6.92
1940_____________________ 5.13
5.54
2.79
1939_____________________ 4.03
.41
4.08
1.83
1938_____________________
5.45
1.63
1937_____________________ 4.06
1.27
3.05
1936_____________________ 3.96
3.02
.54
1935____________________
1.64
.19
.07
1934____________________
.42
.10
.09
1933____________________ - 3 .1 7
.35
.62
1.57
1932____________________
1.25
3.23
5.64
1931____________________
1.52
5.19
4.73
1930____________________
7.78
3.20
5.82
1929____________________
1 Includes farm dwellings.
2 Includes accidental damage to fixed property.



[In billions of dollars]
Investment in tangible assets
Gross investment
Other construction and producers’ Inventories of noncorpor­
durable equipment
ate and farm enterprises
Non­
Non­
corpor­ Farm
Non­
ate
profit
Total nonfarm enter­ institu­ Total
Farm
farm
enter­ prises 1 tions
prises
264
266
267 | 268
270
265
269
14.60
14.80
14.80
13.09
13.14
12.44
12.99
13.04
11.49
10.76
9.91

6.66

3.25
2.15
1.84
2.38
4.10
3.18
2.63
2.28
3.09
2.42
1.78
1.19
.78
1.01
2.19
3.68
4.57

8.10
8.86

8.60
7.02
6.91
6.32
6.48
6.96
5.76
5.53
6.01
4.34
2.05
.96
.78
1.16
2.55
2.04
1.68
1.36
2.03
1.68

1.26
.94
.70
.69
1.25
2.02

2.43

4.07
3.83
4.19
4.19
4.70
4.71
4.99
4.65
4.52
4.28
3.33

1.86

1.08
1.13

1.02
1.11

1.31
.93
.73
.69
.87
.60
.44
.17
(3)
.12
.54
1.14
1.58

2.44

0.80
- .3 6

2.01

.29
- .36
.84

2.12

1.87
1.53
1.41
1.53
1.44
1.21
.95
.57
.45
.12

.06
.03
.11
.24

.21
.22
.22

.19
.14
.09
.08
.08
.20
.40
.53
.56

.86

1.68

1.99
- 1 .3 5
2.66
-1 .7 0
.41
- .0 3
.05
- .3 0
1.34
1.18
.59
.12
-.02

.73
- .6 4
.70
-1 .3 1
- .7 6
- .7 5
-.21

0.04

.12

.56
.26
- .0 8
.50
1.18
- .4 9
.92
.06
.38
.43
.50
-.1 2
.18
.73
.32
.06
- .1 3
.21
.48
.16
.01
- .5 0
- .7 8
- .5 2
-.20

-.2 2
- .4 7
.26
(3)
3 Less than $5 million.

0.76
- .4 8
.30
.49
- .62
.92
1.18
.82
-.8 6
1.73
- 1 .7 6
.03
- .4 6
- .4 4
- .1 8
1.16
.45
.27
.06
.10
.52
- 1.11
s .54
-1 .3 2
- .2 6
.04
.31
- .2 5
- .2 5

Depreciation 2

Total

Noncor­
Non- porate Farm
farm nonfarm enter­
homes enter­ prises
prises

271

272

273

14.33
13.36
12.81
12.14
11.58
10.89
10.26
9.01
8.21
7.15
6.15
5.04
5.57
5.38
5.14
4.84
4.33
3.94
3.81
3.84
3.77
3.65
3.45
3.37
3.32
3.26
3.48
3.66
3.68

4.64
4.26
3.92
3.61
3.32
3.02
2.83
2.53
2.29
2.12
1.94
1.84
1.81
1.80
1.79
1.76

5.24
4.85
4.68
4.46
4.31
4.07
3.85
3 .45
3.22
2.72
2.37
1.76
1.51
1.47
1.45
1.37
1.16

1.68

1.62
1.56
1.58
1.54
1.53
1.47
1.47
1.48
1.42
1.46
1.46
1.44

1.02

.95
.96
.97
.95
.90
.87
.83
.79
.82
.82
.81

| 274
3.92
3 .75
3.74
3.63
3.53
3.42
3.24
2.74
2.44
2.07
1.62
1.23
2.04
1.91
1.71
1.51
1.29
1.13
1.12
1.12

1.09

1.00

.91
.87
.84
.89
1.05
1.23
1.27

Non­
profit
institu­
tions
275
0.52
.49
.48
.45
.43
.39
.33
.29
.26
.24
.23
.22

.20
.20
.20
.20

.19
.18
.17
.18
.17
.17
.16
.16
.16
.16
.16
.16
.16

153

F 276-303

NATIONAL INCOME AND WEALTH

Series F 261-303. Individuals’ Saving, by Components, in Current Prices: 1929 to 1957—Con.
[In billions of dollars]

Year

Investments in tangible
assets— Con.
N et investment in tangible
assets
Total
(F 262 Nonfarm Other
minus
homes
F 271)
276
277
278

1957_______________
1956_______________
1955_______________
1954_______________
1953_______________
1952_______________
1951_______________
1950_______________
1949_______________
1948_______________
1947_______________
1946_______________
1945_______________
1944_______________
1943_______________
1942_______________
1941_______________
1940_______________
1939_______________
1938_______________
1937_______________
1936_______________
1935_______________
1934_____
1933__________ _ _
1932_______________
1931_______________
1930__ _ _ _ _
1929_______________

16.24
17.31
20.18
15.47
13.94
14.34
16.03
18.72
10.15
15.26
8.82
6.45
- 1 .2 6
- 2.20
- 2 .4 6
.79
4.63
2.97
1.73
.24
1.68
- .6 0
- .4 3
—3.29
-3 .2 1
- 2 .6 4
- .2 5
1.07
4.10

10.53
11.96
13.42
10.63
9.44
8.94
8.78
10.17
5.94
6.88
4.83
2.58
- .7 2
- .8 1
- .6 5
.14
1.98
1.53
1.22
.24
.09
- .2 7
- .9 3
—1.27
—1.39
—1.06
— .20
.07
1.76

5.71
5.35
6.76
4.84
4.50
5.40
7.25
8.55
4.21
8.38
3.99
3.86
- .5 4
- 1 .3 8
-1 .8 1
.64
2.64
1.44
.51
(3)
1.59
- .3 3
.50
- 2.02
-1 .8 2
- 1 .5 9
— .05
1.00

2.34

Increase in financial assets 4
Currency and bank deposits
Total
279
24.29
22.90
22.46
17.40
18.85
20.06
14.06
11.09
6.94
6.98
9.47
13.48
34.38
37.90
33.94
24.14
10.04
4.60
4.02
1.60
2.74
5.01
2.12

2.80
- 1 .4 7
- 1 .3 9
.45
1.03
2.37

Total
280
5.65
4.87
3.81
5.41
4.93
7.14

6.00

3.74
-1 .3 8
-1 .7 8
2.07
10.61
19.01
17.57
16.20
10.95
4.84
2.93
3.04
.42
.46
3.66
2.47
1.81
- 1 .2 8
- 1 .7 0
- 1 .5 8
- 1 .4 6
- 3 .5 7

Currency Demand
deposits
281

282

-0 .0 3
.03
.37
- .3 6
.58
1.11
.77
- .0 6
- .7 9
- .4 6
- .4 3

Time
and
savings
deposits 5
283

- 0 .9 2
.57
- .0 6
1.08
-.2 1
1.52
3.08
3.20
-1 .5 6
-2 .2 3
.22
5.12
7.19
5.87
7.12
6.05
2.54
1.45
1.90
.36
- .4 9
2.04

.12

2.96
4.55
4.72
4.12
2.18
.77
.45
.04
.20
.52
.23
- .10
.16
.28
1.01

.03

-.1 2

Increase in financial assets— Con.
Private insurance and pension reserves

6.60
4.27
3.50
4.68
4.56
4.51
2.14
.59
.97
.91
2.28
5.37
8.86

7.15
4.36
.78

.11

.71
.69
.02
.74
1.09

1.02

1.22

.24
- .5 4
- .31
- 2 .1 8
- 2 .5 4

1.67
- 2 .6 5
- 1 .4 4
- 2 .2 7
.69
- .9 2

1.21

Total

Insur­
ance
reserves

Insured
pension
reserves

Noninsured
pension
funds

Total

Con­
sumer
debt

291

292

293

294

295

18.23
20.71
24.49
16.24
11.70
15.25
10.16
19.81
9.00
11.05
11.24
7.79
3.61
.57
- 2 .2 6
- 5 .0 7
3.55
2.44
1.72
1.43
.36
.45
.04
- .9 1
- 1 .5 0
- 5 .6 0
- 5 .4 5
- 3 .0 9
.64

2.58
3.14
6.09
.96
3.65
4.36
.99
3.64
2.64
2.41
2.81
2.32
.48
.14
-1 .0 3
- 2 .9 6
.69

- 0 .0 7
- .7 5
.60
.86
.40
.60
- .3 0

10.15
12.41
13.98
10.54
8.58
7.89
8.36

.22

8.86

1.01

- .2 3
-.1 2
- .4 9
.06
- .0 4
- .4 7
- .2 5
- 1 .0 6
- 2.10
- 2.20
- 1.66

1957_______________
1956_______________
1955_______________
1954_______________
1953_______________
1952_______________
1951_______________
1950_______________
1949_______________
1948_______________
1947_______________
1946_______________
1945______________
1944_______________
1943_______________
1942_______________
1941_______________
1940_______________
1939_______________
1938_______________
1937_______________
1936_______________
1935_______________
1934_______________
1933_______________
1932_________ _____
1931_______________
1930_______________
1929_______________

7.81
8.05
7.57
7.31
6.88
6.39
5.41
4.82
4.31
4.15
3.94
3.72
4.38
3.81
3.05
2.61
2.22

1.90
1.77
1.60
1.82
1.75
1.60
1.38
.62
.29
.87
1.15
1.21

3.56
1.58
4.44
1.20
4.19
1.30
1.18
4.21
3.94
1.10
3.76
1.12
.98
3.09
3.!92
3.71
3.75
3.i64
3. 42
3. 46
3.21
2 .;85
2 .49
2 . 14
1.85
1 . 72
1 . 54
1 .76
1 .67
1 .55
1 .33
57
.24
82
1 . 10
1 .05

2.68

2.41
2.08
1.93
1.84
1.51
1.35
.90
.60
.40
.30
.30
.93
.60

.20
.12

.08
.05
.05
.06
.06
.08
.05
.05
.05
.05
.05
.05
.16

.81
- .6 2
.58
1.29
.83
.40
-.1 0
-1 .1 3
- 1.22
- .5 7
.84

3 Less than $5 million.
4 Includes changes in assets of noncorporate enterprises of the types specified. Ex­
cludes changes in government insurance and pension reserves, and small amounts of
Armed Forces leave bonds.

154




Total

284

285

4.80
4.83
4.79
4.45
3.64
3.05
2.07
1.54
1.51
1.19
1.20
1.18
1.06
.81
.55
.25
.36
.20

.04
(3)
- .0 6
-.1 1

-.20

- .29
- .5 8
- .5 9
- .38
.06
.48

6.02

5.16
6.29
.23
3.41
3.48
.58
.99
2.51
3.42
2.26
-2 .0 3
9.93
15.71
14.14
10.33
2.64
- .4 3
- .8 3
- .4 2
.57
- .3 4
- 1 .7 6
- .09
- .23
.61
1.54
1.28
4.25

Other
State
U. S.
U. S.
savings Govern­ and local
govern­
bonds 6 ment
ment
286
287
288
-1 .9 1
- .0 9
.26
.60
.20
.09
- .4 7
.25
1.46
1.60
2.08
1.22

6.85
11.80
11.14
7.98
2.75
.86
.66

.41
.42
.28
.13

1.95
1.54
1.62
- 1 .6 0
.06
.35
- 1.00
- .4 6
-.1 0
- .2 8
- .8 5
-3 .1 0
4.44
4.64
3.37
2.56

.66

- .3 9
- .6 4
- .6 1
.71
.58
- .5 6
1.09
.60
.70
.84
- .49
- 1 .2 7

Increase in debt to corporations and financial intermediaries
Mortgage debt
Net
trade
On non­
debt of
Securi­
corpo­
noncor­
On
ties
rate
On
porate
Total
nonfarm nonfarm farms nonfarm
loans
homes
enter­
enter­
prises
prises
296
297
298
300
299
301

290

Year

Securities

Savings
and loan
associa­
tion
shares

.32
.43
- .7 6
- 2 .3 4
1.48
1.38
.58
.27

5.34
5.87
5.54
4.37
.14
- .5 4
- 1 .0 5
- .3 7
.93

-.2 0

.48
.16
.07
- .4 4
- .3 2
.98
-.2 2
-1 .4 4
- .6 4
.40

-.1 1

5 Includes
8 Includes

.86

1.11

8.25
10.38
11.93
9.01
7.30
6.52
6.59
7.29
4.12
4.72
4.62
3.60
.22

- .0 5
- .3 8
.10
.82
.85
.50
.17
.01
- .0 9
- .1 3
.55
- .6 2
- .8 9
- .3 4
.11
.86

1.53
1.53
1.48

1.20
1.00
1.02

1.48
1.30
1.03
1.07
.81
.79
.16
- .1 3
-.20
- .1 5
.16
.04
.11
.08
.15
- .2 8
- .2 4
- .0 4
.66
- .2 4
- .1 7
.41
.37

0.38
.50
.57
.34
.29
.35
.30
.27
.19
.08

.11
-.0 2

- .2 5
- .3 6
- .4 8
- .3 1
- .0 6
- .0 3
- .1 3
- .0 9
- .0 8
- .0 7
.06
.47
- .2 6
- .3 1
- .1 3
-.1 2
-.1 2

3.52
3.96
- .1 8
1.57
- .4 7
2.17
.35
2.42
- .9 6
1.84
1.25
1.11

.86

- .3 2
- .6 4
- 2.01
1.28
.53
.33
1.77
.43
- .4 3
- .5 5
- 1 .3 8
- .3 1
- .9 8
- .3 2
- .1 6
.06

1.98
1.44
1.68
.66

1.83
.96
.38
.49
.41
.98
.33
- .1 5
-.20

- .0 5

-.1 2
-.22

- .2 8
- .4 6
- .2 3
- .2 3
- .0 5
- .4 7

-.1 2

— .79
- .6 7
- .2 9
.58
.78

.88

Corpo­
rate
and
other
289
3.99
2.27
2.73
.57
1.32
2.07
1.67
.71
.73
1.12
.69
(3)
-1 .1 6
-.6 8
- .2 6
.01
- .5 0
- .4 4
- .6 2
.02
- .5 1
- .7 3
- 1.20
- .3 9
- .1 6
.20
.12

.98
4.64

Nonrealestate
farm
debt

Bank
debt, not
else­
where
classified

302

303

0.64
.23
.54
.34
- .3 7
.30
.96
.81
.41
.70
.60
.45
.03
-.1 0
.04
-.0 1
.29

1.41
1.72
3.46
1.97
- .0 9
- .0 8
-.2 1

.20
.10

3.85
1.25
1.80
1.87
.61
.01
- .1 5
.01
.47
.03
.07
.04
- .3 4

-.22
-.1 0

- .0 6
- .1 4
- .3 5
- .5 8
- .7 1
- .3 4
.38

.21

.26

- .0 4
.19
- .3 0
- .2 6
- .4 1
- .4 6

-.2 0

.01

shares and deposits in credit unions and the Postal Saving System.
increases in redemption value of outstanding bonds.

F 304-315

NATIONAL WEALTH AND SAVING

Series F 304-315. National Saving, by Major Saver Groups, in Current Prices: 1897 to 1945
[In billions of dollars]
National
saving
Year

1945
1944
1943
1942
1941
1940
1939
1938
1937.
1936
1935.
1934
1933
1932.
1931.
1930.
1929.
1928.
1927.
1926.
1925.
1924.
1923.
1922.
1921.
1920.
1919.
1918.
1917.
1916.
1915.
1914.
1913.
1912.
1911.
1910.
1909
1908.
1907.
1906




Total

Including Excluding
consumer consumer
durables durables
304

Including Excluding
consumer consumer
durables durables
307

- 7 .3 1
- 7 .2 8
- 3 .6 4
4.50
14.31
10.98
4.84
2.00
7.29
1.56
.24
- 4 .4 2
- 8 .8 5
-1 0 .4 9
- 3 .3 1
5.82
15.97
10.91
13.69
15.89
15.45
12.13
13.61
7.95
2.26
9.97
6.57
1.61
9.93
9.58
6.27
3.51
4.14
5.23
2.93
4.60
3.69
2.45
3.13
4.21
4.31
2.04
2.77
3.95
2.20
2.10
2.82
1.62

- 6 .5 6
- 5 .6 1
- 2 .1 4
5.81
11.23
8.76
3.47
1.87
5.32
-.21
- .3 3
- 3 .7 6
- 7 .3 4
- 8 .3 9
- 2.21
5.89
14.02
9.25
12.02
13.18
12.82
10.29
11.42
7.05
2.57
9.46
6.10
1.91
9.26
8.74
6.07
3.35
3.69
4.76
2.58
4.11
3.24
2.35
2.70
3.70
3*. 94
1.82
2.49
3.67
1.98
1.92
2.59
1.49
.79

36.41
39.30
36.17
33.24
13.97
8.54
6.85
3.72
7.32
5.28
2.35
- .9 5
-3 .8 1
- 3 .2 7
2.47
5.62
11.49
6.01
10.07
10.10
10.74
8.62
9.88
6.30
1.29
6.57
9.76
12.69
10.07
5.56
4.68
2.55
2.67
4.24
2.09
3.24
3.00
2.00
2.10
3.24
3.46
1.42
1.50
2.94
1.36
1.27
2.19
1.29
..5 5

37.15
40.96
37.67
34.55
10.89
6.31
5.49
3.58
5.35
3.51
1.79
- .2 9
- 2 .3 0
- 1 .1 7
3.56
5.67
9.53
4.35
8.40
7.40

8.11

6.77
7.70
5.40
1.59
6.06
9.30
12.99
9.40
4.72
4.47
2.38
2.22
3.76
1.74
2.76
2.55
1.90
1.67
2.73
3.08
1.19

1.10
1.96
1.16
.41

Personal saving
N onagricultural
Agriculture
individuals
Unincor­
porated
Including Excluding Including Excluding business
consumer consumer consumer consumer
durables durables durables durables
309
312
311
29.31
30.78
27.85
23.80
10.54
6.54
6.08
3.95
6.32
4.26
.62
- 1 .4 5
- 3 .3 8
- .7 2
6.01

7.99
10.98
6.28
10.17
9.30
10.52
7.74
9.81
5.96
3.01
6.50
10.33
10.92
8.65
5.85
4.47
2.07
2.85
3.88
2.78
2.79
3.08
2.30
2.25
2.90
2.87
1.56
1.61
2.21
1.78
1.07
1.72
.82

.66

29.92
32.21
29.37
25.15
7.71
4.39
4.86
3.78
4.50
2.67
.18
- .8 0
- 2 .0 6
1.08
6.85
7.92
9.16
4.72
8.44
6.69
8.09
5
7..67
4
2.76
5.77
10.08
11.29
8.30
5.14
4.34
1.95
2.44
3.48
2.50
2.41
2.72
2.24
1.87
2.44
2.53
1.36
35
1.97
1.58
.91
1.52
.72
.54

3.61
4.22
4.40
5.04
2.74
.95
.83
.39
1.29

-.02

1.25
-1 .1 3
.02
.19
.01

- .1 8
.13
.11
-.11
- .0 4
.07
.58
.33
-.20
- 1 .8 4
-1 .6 3
-1 .7 6
1.50
1.22
- 1.10
.21
.40
-.66
.27
- .6 5
-.01
.10
.03
- .2 7
.10

.10

.08
- .1 4
.48
- .3 5
- .0 3
.11
.23
.04

3.75
4.44
4.38
5.01
2.49
.86

.69
.43
1.14
-.20
1.13
- 1.12
.20
.50
.26
- .0 5
-.0 1

.01

- .0 6
- .1 4
- .1 4
.59
.29
- .0 3
-1 .2 9
- 1 .4 2
- 1 .9 7
1.43
.90
- 1 .2 3

.12

.36
- .7 0
.19
- .7 2

-.1 1
.00

-.01
- .3 2
.04
.06
.05
- .1 6
.45
- .3 7
- .0 5
.08
.21

.02

3.48
4.31
3.92
4.39
.69
1.06
- .0 6
- .6 3
- .2 9
1.04
.48
1.63
- .4 4
-2 .7 5
-3 .5 5
2. 2 0

.38
- .3 8
.02
.85
.16
.30
- .2 6
.54

-

.12

1.71
1.19
.27
.20
.81
.01
.07
.48
.09
- .0 4
.46
- .1 7
- .3 3
.12
.25
.49
-.22
.03
.25
- .0 7
.24
.36
.23
- .1 5

Government saving
Corpo­
rate
saving

State
and
local

313

314

2.51
4.79
4.23
2.86
1.70
1.62
- .0 9
- .5 7
- .5 5
-1 .4 1
-1 .2 9
-2 .7 2
-4 .6 9
-5 .0 3
-3 .3 6
- .5 1
2.14
2.11
1.37
3.39
2.37
1.46
2.35
.95
1.34
3.44
2.48
.42
2.53
3.19
1.25
.74
.92
.57
.58

2.59
3.17
2.72
1.82
1.72
1.85
.80
1.50
1.31
1.23
.75
1.41
.77
- .9 5
- .4 8
.90
1.25
1.75
1.11

Federal

1.10

.42
.41
.77
.73

.68

.40
1.07
.72
.65
.67
.55
.37
.29

1.22

1.32
1.27
.41
.50
.09
- .1 9
.13
.06
.16

.22
.20

.20
.45
.30

.20

.16
.22
.08
.16
.12

.14
.23
.14

.22
.12
.12

.07
.07
.07

-4 8 .8 1
-5 4 .5 3
-4 6 .7 6
-3 3 .4 2
- 3 .0 8
- 1.02
- 2 .7 3
- 2 .6 4
- .7 9
- 3 .5 4
- 1 .5 8
- 2 .1 6
- 1.12
- 1 .2 3
- 1 .9 3
- .1 9
1.10
1.04
1.14
1.17
1.02
.80
.96
.20
- .4 5
.15
-5 .8 1
-1 1 .5 6
-2 .8 3
.61
.15
.03
.10
.13
.06
.09
.05
- .0 4
.10
.12

.04
.06
.06
.09
.03
.01
-.11
-.00

.02

155

F 316-330

NATIONAL INCOME AND WEALTH

Series F 316-345. Personal Saving, by Major Components, in Current Prices: 1897 to 1956
[In billions of dollars]
T otal 1
Year

Includ­ Exclud­
ing con­ ing con­
sumer
sumer
durables durables
316
317

1956______ 35.60
1955______ 33.33
1954______ 27.59
1953______ 28.61
1952______ 27.27
1951______ 28.67
1950______ 25.30
16.58
1949______
1948______ 22.22
19.12
1947______
1946______ 21.33
1945______ 36 41
1944______ 39 30
1943______ 36 17
1942______ 33 24
1941______ 13.97
8.54
1940______
6.85
1939______
3 72
1938______
7 32
19372_____
1936______
5.28
2 35
1935______
- .95
1934______
1933______ - 3 . 8 1
-3.27
1932
2 .47
1931 1
5.62
1930______
11.49
1929
1928
6.01
10.07
1927
10.10
1926
10.74
1925
8.62
1924______
9.88
1923
6.30
1922
1.29
1921 _ _ _
6.57
19209.76
1919
12.69
1918-. _
1917-_ _ J 10.07
5.56
1916__ _ _
4.68
1915-- _ _
2.55
1914___ __
2.67
1913__ _ _
4.24
1912______
2.09
1911______
3.24
1910___ __
3.00
1909_2.00
1908______
2.10
1907 _
1906
3.24
1905__ _
3.46
1.42
1904
1.50
1903______
2.94
1902
1.36
1901______
1900 _ . _
1.27
1899 _ __
2.19
1.29
1898______
.55
1897
__
1 Components

156

28.96

22.20
21.78

Nonfarm
construction
NonResi­
residen­
dential
tial
318
319
10.71

12.02
8.34

21.60
7.90
22.59
6.93
22.09
7.10
13.44
7.29
8.48
4.07
14.16
5.00
10.57
2.46
15.34
1.01
37.16
-1.33
-1.44
40.97
37.68
-1.19
34.55
-.26
1.78
10.89
6.31
1.29
5.50
.95
.14
3.58
5.36
-.06
-.31
3.51
1.79
-.99
-1.50
-.29
-1.60
-2.31
-1.17
-1.45
3.57 . - .51
5.69
-.07
9.54
1.45
4.34
2.73
3.17
8.39
7.40
3.79
8.11
4.00
6.78
3.75
7.70
3.16
5.40
2.19
1.59
.90
.54
6.06
9.30
.75
-.06
12.99
.38
9.40
4.72
.69
.61
4.47
2.38
.60
2.23
.73
.72
3.76
1.74
.65
2.75
.73
2.55
.73
.55
1.90
.68
1.67
.61
2.72
.55
3.09
.36
1.18
.40
1.22
.27
2.67
1.14
.14
.00
1.09
.07
1.96
.04
1.17
.07
.40

1.98
1.80
1.38
.97
.66
.91
.72
.40
.29
-.07
.18
-.30
-.44
-.50
-.39

-.10

-.16
-.19
-.21
-.17
-.25
-.44
-.44
-.41
-.24
.04
.45
.65
.69
.81
.85
.72
.51
.47
.40
.27
.24
.07
-.01
.13
.17
.06
.09
.20
.15

.10

.13
.14
.14
.24
.18
.13
.11
.15
.23
.19
.20
.12

.13
.15

Farm
construc­ Consumer Producer
durables durables
tion
320

321

0.25
.40
.47
.57
.77
.75
.64
.55
.65
.48
.36
-.17
-.11
-.05
-.04
.09

6.65
11.13
5.81
7.02
4.68
6.58

.02
-.02
-.09
-.04
-.10
-.14
-.26
-.26
-.29
-.23
-.13
.05
.10
.15
.06
.08
.06
.09
.04
-.04
.39
.64
.41
.44
.29
.17
.17
.17
.18
.16
.18
.16
.13
.12
.12

.12
.12
.12
.12
.11
.10

.08
.09
.07

0.81
.91
.62
1.54
1.79
2.44
2.62
2.51
2.95
2.46

11.86
8.09

8.06
8.55
5.99
-.75
-1.67
-1.51
-1.31
3.08
2.23
1.35
.14
1.96
1.77
.56
-.66
-1.50
-2.10
-1.10
-.07
1.95
1.67
1.68
2.70
2.63
1.84
2.18
.90
-.30
.51
.46
-.30
.67
.84

.21
.17

1.11

.67
.46
-.18
.15
.83
.49
.20
.09
.52
.33

.00
-.35

-.59
- .70
- .44
.03
.36
.18
.20
.31
.23
.07
.18
-.12
-.37
.36
.23
.25
.28
.13

.44
.48
.35
.49
.45
.10
.43
.52
.37
.24
.28
.27

.22

.18
.23
.12
.15

do not add to total for years 1946-1956; see text for explanation.




-.00
.06

.16
.15
.07
.11
.10

.05
.18
.17

.10

.07
.09
.14
.06
.03

.02
-.0 1

- .0 4

Cur­
rency

323

322

Inven­
tories

324

-1.02
.97
.55
- .56
1.00
2.41
2.73
-1.57
2.44
-1.68
.32
.05
.35
-.17
1.64
.79
.56
.13
-.02
.90
-.67
.80
-1.31
-.82
- .54
- .23
-.73
.20
-.26
-.23
.03

.10

-.92
.47
.11
-.80
1.97
.56
-.17
1.19
-.82
.41
.50
-.21
.51
- .4 5
.47
- .0 6
- .03
- .2 4
.25
.27
- .1 3
- .0 4
.54
- .5 7
.19
.21
.27
-.1 0

2.87
4.58
4.67
4.21
2.13
.89
.45

-.01
.20
.53

Credit
Commer­ Savings unions Savings
and
cial
bank
and
loan
bank
deposits coopera­ associa­
deposits
tions
tives
325
3.87
3.80
6.29
4.28
6.96
4.68
3.54
-1.42
-1.43
2.48
9.48
13.26
10.59
9.98
6.26
2.54

2.00
2.44

.09
.13
-.91
.37
-.02
.96
.61
.33
.30
- .1 4
.05
.09
- .0 7
.04
.06
- .2 8
.12
.06

.34
.35
2.77
2.48
2.14
-1.83
-1.98
-3.66
-.90
-.80
-1.75
2.64
- .36
1.58
2.08
1.25
2.47
-1.36
-1.02
4.06
1.46
2.85
2.92
1.73
.21
.50
.76
.79
.46
.67
-.1 0
- .2 8
.47

.22

1.12

.18
-.01
.19
.31
.75

-.00
.00
-.06
-.05
-.04

-.10
-.03

- .0 7
.06
.06
.04
.06
.12
.04
.03

.14
.22
.45
.63
.29
.59
.33
.18

326

327

0.66
.60
.54
.53
.47
.39
.35
.30
.29
.28
.16
2.75
2.32
1.57
.28
.03
.25
.36
.19
.23
.35

.21
.34
-.02
.31

1.03
.76
.16
.59
.66
.54
.47
.51
.44
.40
.28
.51
.44
.18
.15
.35
.17
.13
.19
.20
.16
.15
.17
.06
.07
.17
.18
.13
.12
.15
.13
.19

.12
.12

.09

.21
.17
.11
.11
.15
.11
.08
.07
.07
.06
.06
.05

.00
-.00
- .00
-.00
.03
.03
.03
.03
.03
.03
.03
.03
.03
.03
.03
.03
.03

.02
.02
.02
.02
.01
.01

.01
.01
.01
.01
.01

4.85
4.77
4.41
3.60
2.99
2.07
1.49
1.48

1.21
1.20
1.18
1.11
.83

.61
.30
.40
.29
.17
-.00
-.09
-.18
-.30
-.24
-.36
- .42
- .23

.20

.53
.69
.74
.63
.60
.60
.45
.35
.28
.28
.17
.11
.13
.09

.10

.08
.08
.09
.08
.06
.06
.04
.04
.03

.01
.01
.01
.01
.01

.02
.02
.01
.01
-.0 1

.01
.01
.01
.00

-.01
-.0 2
.00
-.0 2

‘ Components do not add to total; source offers no explanation.
-

Life
insur­
ance
reserves

329

328

Mort­
gage
hold­
ings

330

1.75
1.31
1.19
1.04
.81
.82
.55
.66
1.13
1.28
1.46
.65
.02
-.24
-.23
.08
-.28
-.29
-.20
-.09

.10

.13
-.53
-.90
-.23
- .18
.78
1.89
1.65
1.32

.68

.43
-.46
.18
-.18
.28
2.24
1.14
.51
1.11
.55
.27
.47
.62
.26
.25
.22

.06
.08
.07
.04
.07
.07
.07
.06
.05
.05
.06
.06
.06

4.97
5.41
5.32
4.92
4.81
4.12
3.84
3.75
3.63
3.51
3.36
3.38
3.19
2.87
2.50

2.20
1.84
1.72
1.61
1.62
1.69
1.51
1.13
.54
.27
.77

1.01
1.12
1.29
1.25
1.14

1.02
.82
.79
.66
.53
.62
.53
.37
.39
.35
.27
.20
.23
.23
.25
.21
.21

.18
.17

.21

.19
.17
.15
.15
.14
.11
.10
.10

.08

F 331-345

NATIONAL WEALTH AND SAVING

Series F 316-345. Personal Saving, by Major Components, in Current Prices: 1897 to 1956—Con.
[In billions of dollars]
Pension and retirement
funds
Year

U. S.
Govern­
ment

State
and
local

Pri­
vate

Share in
saving of
foreign
corpora­
tions
Corpo­
rate and Stocks other
than
foreign
U. S.
bonds
subsidi-

U. S.
Govern­
ment

State
and
local
335

1954
1953
1952
1951
1950
1949
1948
1947
1946
1945
1944
1943
1942.
1941
1940.
1939
1938
1937
1936.
1935
1934.
1933.
1932.
1931.
1930.
1929.
1928.
1927.
1926.
1925.
1924.
1923.
1922.
1921.
1920.
1919.
1918.
1917.
1916.
1915.
1914.
1913.
1912.
1911.
1910.
1909.
1908.
1907.
1906.
1905.
1904.
1903.
1902.
1901
1900
1899.
1898.
1897




2.05
1.90
1.48
2.31
3.37
3.22
.52
1.98
2.94
3.34
3.33
4.80
4.41
3.71
2.42
1.68
1.14
1.11
.96
1.25
.45
.14
.05
.03
- .0 4
- .4 0
.13
.16
.13
.13
.16
.16
.09
.04
.04
.03

1.41
1.30
1.22
1.04
.96
.84
.74
.62
.53
.39
.34
.25
.26
.24

.02

.02

.01
.01

.22

.20

.19
.18
.16
.16
.13
.12

.11
.09
.07
.07
.07
.07
.07
.06
.05
.04
.04
.04
.03
.03

.01

.01
.01
.01

2.50
2.16
2.00
1.79
1.69
1.48
1.02
.73

.68
.66

.54
.80
.60
.20
.13
.08
.05
.05
.06
.06
.08
.05
.05
.05
.05
.05
.05
.16
.08
.07
.04
.03
.02
.01
.03
.01

0.95
2.63
- 1 .3 4
.20
.15
- 1 .4 7
- .3 9
.85
- .1 8
2.08
- .3 4
11.84
17.80
14.67
10.57
3.40
.29
- .0 8
.00
1.03
- .9 0
- .2 3
1.11
.69
.72
- .2 3
- .4 7
- .9 8
-2 .2 6
- .6 4
- .3 0
- 1 .5 2
- .2 8
-2 .6 9
- .6 1
- .6 7
3.15
8.67
3.40
-.1 2

.01
.00
.00
.00
.00

-.00
-.00

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.01

- .0 3
.00
- .0 8

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

-.01

.00
.00
.00
.00

Less change in liabilities

Securities

-.00
.00
.02

.01

-.02
-.02

-.02
- .0 3
- .0 5
.13
.09

-.02

1.67
1.87
1.10
1.84
1.13
.26
.59
.72
1.11
.50

-.22

- .3 1
- .0 8
- .1 5
- .1 8
- .1 5
- .1 3
-.12
- .0 5
.10
- .3 6
-.01
-.86
- .9 1
.13
1.78
.59
.51
.38
.45
.15
.23
.20
.62
.75
.70
.68

.03
.50
.21

.22

.30
.23
.01
.14
.11
.14
.01
.21

.12

.07
05

.02
.02
.00

.03

.02

.06
.03
.03

1.67
2.03
-.68
.25
- .1 7
- .6 4
- .2 3
- .4 7
- .1 7
- .4 7
-1 .1 7
-1 .5 8
-1 .1 4
- .6 5
.06
- .9 6
- .4 2
- .6 7
- .0 5
-1 .0 6
- .9 2
- .9 4
.04
-.10
--.4 0
.56
.67
.66
1.63
2.02
1.90
1.94
1.44
1.57
1.26
1.40
1.67
.52
1.01
.69
1.09
1.46
.47
.20
.67
.41
- .0 3
.53
.61
.08
.42
.66

.30
.08
.47
.39
.24
.29
.12
.06

3.50
3.21
2.13
1.90
2.42
2.56
2.14
1.50
1.71
1.76
1.70
1.25
.52
.47
.19
.63
.49
.57
.23
.83
.19
-.0 7
.42
.44
.23
.60
1.28
4.79
3.41
2.08
1.76
2.09
1.25
1.23
1.35
.96
1.82
2.00
.96
.96
1.38
.69
.46
.54
.93
.25
.80
.75
.66
.69
.81
.35
.36
.48
.72
.56
.26
.54
.10
.11

.05
.04
.03
.03
.03
.03
.02
.03
.03
.03
.05
.04
.04
.04
.04
.04
.03
.03
.03
.03
.03
.03
.03
.03
.03
.03
.04
.04
.03
.03
.03
.02
.02

.01

.01
.01
.01
.01

.01

.01
.01
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

Nonfarm mort­
gage debt on—
Debt
Con­
Farm to banks Borrow­ sumer
and
Resi­ N onresi- mortgage and other ing on
dential dential debt
insti­ securities other
tutions
debt
struc­ struc­
tures
tures
340
342
343
339
10.90
12.58
9.44
7.80
7.01
6.92
7.29
4.42
5.21
4.98
4.28
.39
-.11
- .5 5
- .2 3
.96
.78
.57
.20
.11

0.97
.81
.71
.46
.42
.44
.37
.37
.48
.53
.51
.04
- .0 9
- .1 9
- .1 4
- .0 6
- .0 8
-.11
- .0 6
- .0 6

- .2 3
.01
-1 .2 6
- 1 .1 5
- .5 6
.57
1.95
2.50
2.39
2.60
2.18
1.74
1.70
1.00
.81
1.17
.36
.27
.62
.33
.25
.36
.41
.22
.20
.24
.23
.13
.14
.19
.17
.13

-.10
- .0 9
- .0 8
- .1 4
.07

0.84
.78
.52
.51
.59
.61
.49
.29
.22
.17
.14
- .2 5
- .4 6
- .5 6
- .4 2
-.11
- .0 9
- .1 8
- .1 6
- .1 5
- .1 9
- .0 9
- .0 3
- .7 1
- .6 0
- .2 8

.21

-.2 2

-.20

.11
.10

.06
.06
.03

.02
-.00

.02

.39
.55
.54
.54
.80
.55
.55
.30

.20

.35
.15
.10
.19
.12

.10

.13
.14
.08
.08
.09
.08
.06
.06
.07
.07
.06
.05
.05
.04
.04
.03
.03

.02

-.12
.01
.11
- .0 5
- .1 9
- .7 4
-.11
.09
.49
1.77
1.31
.60
.71
.57
.27
.28
.36
.42
.41
.31
.12
.11
.11

.10

.10
.10

.09
.09
.09
.08
.08
.08
.07

0.45
3.01
1.74
- .3 2
.17
- .2 7
4.09
.42
- .3 7
1.87
2.28
.48
.05
- .0 4
- .5 5
.82
.49
.28
-.10
.28
.15
.17
- .2 3
- .9 5
-.88
- 1.22
- .9 9
.05.
.19
- .2 3
- .0 4
.21
- .8 3
.64
-.21
-1 .4 8
.92
1.78
.41
1.04
.63
.64
.01
.11
.32
.14
.16
.30
.03
- .0 3
.34
.04
.28
.27
.30
.23
.22
.07
.14

-

0.02
.95
.70
.50
.41

Tax
lia­
bilities
345

1.25
7.31
1.29
4.22
5.98

-.10

2.68

.33
.19
- .03
- .0 3
-1 .5 0
1.38
1.57
.56
.06
- .0 9
- .2 8
- .1 5
-.10
- .5 2

2.77
2.97
3.48
2.87

2.00

- .0 8
- .6 7
.79
.37
.14
.28
.40
.11
-.02
.10
.05

1.46
.31
-1 .5 1
- 4 .2 0
.98
1.30
1.10
.42
1.22
1.10
.23
- .8 5
- .4 6
.44
1.14
1.28
1.09
.98
.35
.45
.64
.15
.30
.13
- .1 5
.57
.65
.15
.26
.32
.19
.10
.14
.16
.14

- .4 1
.70
.61
-1 .0 9
2.44
.49
.08
- .5 4
-.22
.55
.26
.39
.48
.33
- .1 9
- .5 1
- .0 3
.40
.38
.19
.15
.08
.18
-.10
.25
- .1 9
-.02
.30
.61

.01

.12

.02
.02
.02
.02
.02

-.1 1

- .2 8
- .0 4
- 1 .0 3
- 2.01
-2 .0 5
- 1 .3 3
1.65
1.33
-.00

1.48
.84

-.10

.66

.11

.04
- .0 5
.04
.14
.03
.07
.08
.15
.11
.11

.07
.07

.17
.01
.09
.13
.11
.06
.07
.08
.07
.06
.06
.05
.03

.68

.24
.18
.14
.04

.02

.02
.02
.02
.02
.02
.02
.02
.02
.02

157




chapter G

Consumer Income and Expenditures

FAMILY AND INDIVIDUAL INCOME (Series G 1-190)
G 1-190. General note.
The development of reasonably reliable nationwide estimates
of income distribution for families and individuals was depend­
ent on the availability of comprehensive basic source material
from Federal individual income tax returns and from repre­
sentative sample field surveys of family incomes. Annual
tabulations of tax-return data originated during World War I,
but until the 1940,s, when the minimum income requirement
for filing returns was substantially lowered, these tabulations
provided information for only a small fraction of the upperincome population. Sample field surveys of family incomes
that were designed to cover all income and occupation groups
in the Nation were not introduced until the 1930’s.
Reflecting the lack of adequate source data, the early esti­
mators of income distribution had to piece together various
sets of sample income statistics that were available for se­
lected occupation groups or local areas, and combine these
figures with income data from State or Federal income tax
returns or with income distribution series derived by applying
yield rates to estimated size-class distributions of wealth.
Among the early estimators were Charles B. Spahr who con­
structed a family income distribution in 1896, Willford I. King
who developed income distribution estimates by size-class for
families for 1910, and for individuals for 1921 and 1928, Fred­
erick R. Macaulay who constructed income distributions for
individuals for 1918, and Maurice Leven who did the same
for families and individuals for 1929.
The following publications relate to these early efforts:
C. L. Merwin, “American Studies of the Distribution of
Wealth and Income by Size,” Studies in Income and Wealth,
vol. 3, Conference on Research in Income and Wealth, Na­
tional Bureau of Economic Research, New York, 1939.
Charles B. Spahr, The Present Distribution of Wealth in
the United States, New York, 1896.
Willford I. King, Wealth and Income of the People of the
United States, New York, 1915; also unpublished manuscript
at the National Bureau of Economic Research, New York.
W. C. Mitchell, W. I. King, F. R. Macaulay, and O. W.
Knauth, Income in the United States, National Bureau of
Economic Research, New York, 1921 and 1922.
Maurice Leven, H. G. Moulton, and Clark Warburton,
America's Capacity to Consume, The Brookings Institution,
Washington, D. C., 1934.
The Consumer Purchases Study of 1935-36 was the first
sample field survey in the United States in which income data
were collected from all types of families without restriction
as to occupation or earnings group. Based largely on the
300,000 family income schedules collected in that study and
on tax returns for upper incomes, the National Resources Com­
mittee constructed estimates of family income, by income sizeclass, for a 12-month period during 1935 and 1936. Aside
from their firmer statistical basis, the figures developed by
Dr. Hildegarde Kneeland and her staff represented a marked
improvement over earlier estimates by providing separate in­
come distributions for numerous subgroups, e.g., for families
classified by major occupation of the head, type and size of
community, region, color, and family size. (See National. Re­



sources Committee, Consumer Incomes in the United States:
Their Distribution in 1935-36, Washington, D. C., 1938.)
The Survey of Spending and Saving in Wartime provided
the only other pre-World War II statistics on the distribution
of families, by total income brackets, on a nationwide basis.
This survey for 1941, though much smaller in size than the
1935-36 study, represented a further advance in that the
sample of families selected for interview was designed specific­
ally for the purpose of “inflating” the results to produce na­
tionwide estimates of family income distribution. (See Bureau
of Labor Statistics, Family Spending and Saving in Wartime,
BLS Bulletin 822, 1945; also Bureau of Human Nutrition and
Home Economics, Rural Family Spending and Saving in W ar­
time, U. S. Department of Agriculture Misc. Publication No.
520, 1943.)
Detailed distributions of families, and of persons 14 years
old and over, by size-class of their money wage and salary
income in 1939, were provided by the 1940 Census of Popula­
tion, the first decennial census to include income questions.
For items of income other than wages or salaries, the census
obtained only a “yes” or “no” response as to the receipt of
$50 or more, so that over-all size-class distributions on a total
income basis are not available. A 5-percent sample of these
returns was tabulated with extensive cross-classifications. For
many types of analysis, e.g., for studying occupational differ­
entials in wage-salary earnings distribution, these tabulations
for 1939 comprise the best available data for comparisons be­
tween the prewar and postwar periods. (See Bureau of the
Census, Population— The Labor Force (Sample Statistics) :
Wage or Salary Income in 1939; and Population—Families:
Family Wage or Salary Income in 1939. For other decennial
census reports that include income data, and for list of avail­
able tabulations, see Edwin D. Goldfield, “Decennial Census
and Current Population Survey Data on Income,” Studies in
Income and Wealth, vol. 23, Conference on Research in Income
and Wealth, National Bureau of Economic Research, Prince­
ton, 1958.)
For postwar years, annual nationwide sample survey data
are available from two sources: The annual Current Population
Surveys of the Census Bureau which present distributions by
total money income brackets for families and for persons 14
years old and over for 1944-1957; and the annual Surveys of
Consumer Finances conducted by the Survey Research Center
of the University of Michigan for the Board of Governors of
the Federal Reserve System, which furnish distributions by
total money income brackets for families and for “spending
units” for 1945-1957. Income size-class distributions from both
these sets of sample survey data are available for numerous
subgroups of the population. (See Bureau of the Census,
Current Population Reports: Consumer Income, Series P-60,
Nos. 1-29, and Series P-S, Nos. 22 and 22-S; and Board of
Governors of the Federal Reserve System, “1958 Survey of
Consumer Finances: The Financial Position of Consumers,”
Federal Reserve Bulletin, September 1958, and corresponding
articles for earlier years.)
159

G 1-190
CONSUMER INCOME
In the 1950 Census of Population the income questions cov­
ered all items of money income, not just wages and salaries.
The tabulations based on this census show separate money
income distributions for families for local areas, and for per­
sons 14 years old and over, classified by demographic and
socioeconomic characteristics. (See Bureau of the Census,
1950 Census of Population, vol. II; see also article by Goldfield, cited above.) Comparative distributions for 1939 and
1949 of persons classified by money wage or salary brackets
and cross-classified by sex and detailed occupation and industry
groups have been compiled from the census material by H. P.
Miller. (See Herman P. Miller, Income of the American Peo­
ple, John Wiley and Sons, New York, 1955; and “Changes in
the Industrial Distribution of Wages in the United States,
1939-1949,” Studies in Income and Wealth, vol. 23, Conference
on Research in Income and Wealth, National Bureau of
Economic Research, Princeton, 1958.)
In addition to these nationwide surveys and censuses, other
postwar surveys providing income data for selected population
groups are the income-expenditure surveys conducted by the
Bureau of Labor Statistics, which show urban family income
distributions for 1944 and 1950, several studies of farm family
incomes by the Department of Agriculture, and a number of
surveys in individual localities conducted by the Bureau of the
Census. (See Bureau of Labor Statistics, “Expenditures and
Savings of City Families in 1944,” Monthly Labor Review,
January 1946; “City Family Composition in Relation to Income,
1941 and 1944,” Monthly Labor Review, February 1946; and
Study of Consumer Expenditures, Incomes and Savings, Sta­
tistical Tables, Urban U.S.—1950, vol. XI, Details of Family
Accounts for Incomes, Savings, Insurance and Gifts and Con­
tributions, tabulated by the Bureau of Labor Statistics for
the Wharton School of Finance and Commerce, University of
Pennsylvania, 1957; Department of Agriculture and Depart­
ment of Commerce, Farms and Farm People, A Special Coop­
erative Report, 1953; and Farmers' Expenditures, A Special
Cooperative Survey, 1956.)
Since 1937, income distributions are also available for work­
ers covered under the Old-Age and* Survivors Insurance Pro­
gram. These figures show workers classified by size brackets
of “covered” wages and salaries (and, since 1951, “covered”
self-employment income). The group of workers covered by
these series was substantially expanded in the postwar period,
but the usefulness of the series is limited by the upper limit
of $4,200 for “covered” earnings for 1955-1957 ($3,000 prior
to 1951; $3,600 for 1951-54). (See Social Security Adminis­
tration, Handbook of Old-Age and Survivors Insurance Statis­
tics: Employment, Wages, and Insurance Status of Workers
in Covered Employment, 1953-54, 1957, and earlier issues.)
Distributions of Federal individual income tax returns by
income bracket are available annually since 1913. Until World
War II, the minimum filing requirements were relatively high
so that the tabulations covered only a small fraction of the
population. Successive lowering of the filing limit coupled with
the rise in incomes after the depression of the 1930’s led to a
very marked expansion in coverage so that all but a very few
groups of the population are included in the postwar tabula­
tions. (See Internal Revenue Service, Statistics of Income,
Individual Income Tax Returns, annual.)
Tax-return data have been used in several studies to meas­
ure changes in relative income distribution over time. Rufus
Tucker applied measures of dispersion to tax-return distribu­
tions for 1863-1935. He included in his series some less re­
liable tax data for the Civil War period. (See Rufus S.
Tucker, “The Distribution of Income Among Income Taxpayers
in the United States, 1863-1935,” Quarterly Journal of Eco­
nomics, vol. L II, 1938, pp. 547-587.) The most detailed
160




AND EXPENDITURES
study of the tax-return statistics is that by Simon Kuznets
(see text for series G 131-146).
A number of the family income distribution estimates for
the pre-World War II period were developed by integrating
tax-return and survey data. Among them are the estimates
of The Brookings Institution for 1929 and the National Re­
sources Committee for 1935-36, both cited earlier, and the Sur­
vey of Spending and Saving in Wartime distribution for 1941
as subsequently adjusted in the light of tax-return data by
Joseph Pechman. (See Joseph Pechman, “Distribution of In­
come Before and After Federal Income Tax, 1941 and 1947,”
Studies in Income and Wealth, vol. 13, Conference on Research
in Income and Wealth, National Bureau of Economic Research,
New York, 1951.) In developing these prewar distributions,
data from Federal individual income tax returns could be used
only to construct estimates for the top ranges of the family
income scale, which were then linked directly to field survey
data for the low and middle income brackets.
The much broader coverage of Federal individual income tax
returns introduced in World War II, coupled with the avail­
ability of annual postwar sample survey data, made possible
the construction of family income distributions for the post­
war period that are more firmly based statistically than the
earlier estimates. As part of its national income work, the
Office of Business Economics has developed distributions of
families and family income by brackets of family personal
income for 1944, 1946, 1947, and for each year, 1950-1957, by
combining the two sets of source data and adjusting the re­
sults so that they accord statistically and definitionally with
the personal income series prepared in that office. (See Office
of Business Economics, Income Distribution in the United
States by Size, 1944-1950, 1953; revised and brought up to
date in articles on income distribution in the Survey of Current
Business, March 1955, June 1956, April 1958 and 1959.)
In order to derive meaningful comparisons over time, the
family distributions for the prewar period required adjust­
ment to make them consistent with postwar series. Adjusted
family income distributions reasonably comparable with the
postwar series of the Office of Business Economics were de­
veloped for 1935-36 and 1941 by Selma Goldsmith, et al (see
source cited for series G 1-28 for 1935-36 and 1941). Mrs.
Goldsmith also adjusted the figures in The Brookings Institu­
tion study for 1929 to remove the major elements oi incom­
parability. (See Selma F. Goldsmith, “The Relation of Census
Income Distribution Statistics to Other Income Data,”
Studies in Income and Wealth, vol. 23, Conference on Research
in Income and Wealth, National Bureau of Economic Re­
search, Princeton, 1958.)
Direct comparability among income distribution series is fre­
quently precluded by variations in definition or coverage which
are due in many instances to the different purposes for which
the data were collected. Definitional differences may apply to
the basic unit of classification, to the definition of the income
measure, or to the time period to which the income data or
the definition of the family unit refers. (See Simon Kuznets,
“The Why and How of Distributions of Income by Size,”
Studies in Income and Wealth, vol. 5, Conference on Research
in Income and Wealth, National Bureau of Economic Research,
New York, 1943, and “Economic Growth and Income Inequal­
ity,” American Economic Review, March 1955, vol. XLV, No.
1; Dorothy S. Brady, “Research on the Size Distribution of
Income,” Studies in Income and Wealth, vol. 13, Conference
on Research in Income and Wealth, National Bureau of Eco­
nomic Research, New York, 1951; and Income Distribution in
the United States . . ., cited above.) For measures of the
effect of alternative income definitions on changes observed
over time in relative income shares of top income groups,

FAMILY AND INDIVIDUAL INCOME
G 1-117
see Selma F. Goldsmith, “Changes in the Size Distribution distributions with respect to their comparability with the post­
of Income,” American Economic Review, May 1957, vol. war series, see source for prewar figures.
XLVII, No. 2.
G 29-56. Families and family personal income, by income level,
Aside from definitional variations, the several sets of in­
1935-36 to 1957.
come distribution statistics differ with respect to the extent
Source: 1935-36 and 1941, compiled from unpublished tabu­
to which adjustments have been made to allow for incomplete lations underlying estimates shown in source for series G 1reporting of family incomes. Tabulations of the postwar 28; 1944-1954, Office of Business Economics, Survey of Current
sample data on family incomes from the Current Population Business, April 1958, p. 15; 1955-1957, Survey of Current Busi­
Surveys and the Surveys of Consumer Finances, for example,
represent “inflated” income data obtained directly through in­ ness, April 1959, p. 14.
For definitions of terms, see text for series G 1-28.
terviews with sampled families. These tabulations understate
family money income as estimated from business and govern­ G 57-74. Families and unattached individuals and family per­
mental data sources. Income distributions from these field
sonal income, by income level in 1950 dollars, 1929-1957.
surveys are therefore not directly comparable with the Office of
Source: 1929, Selma F. Goldsmith, “The Relation of Census
Business Economics income distribution series which account
for larger money income aggregates for most major types Income Distributio