Is everything on FRASER® free of copyright restrictions? How do I obtain permission to use documents on FRASER?.
Most documents on FRASER are in the public domain (free of any copyright restrictions), but we have included some documents for which permission from copyright holders was obtained to post the material on our website. The inclusion of documents on FRASER does not necessarily mean they are free of restrictions for all users. The Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis does not own copyright for the majority of documents included on FRASER and cannot grant or deny permission to use the content. The responsibility for making an independent legal assessment of the copyright status and ownership of an item and for securing any necessary permissions rests with the individual who wants to use the item.
In general, works published in the United States before 1923 and works created by the U.S. government are in the public domain. Additional information on copyright and public domain status is available from the Cornell Copyright Information Center, Copyright Clearance Center, and the U.S. Copyright Office.
Is it possible to suggest a publication to be included in FRASER?
Yes. We welcome suggestions for adding publications and statistics to FRASER. Please feel free to contact us with the name and dates of the publication you would like to include. In addition, if you know of a repository (library, private company, and so on) that would like to donate the publication for scanning, please let us know.
Can I get the data in spreadsheet or plain text format?
Converting scanned tables into spreadsheet format is complicated by the quality of the scan and the layout of the table, and this makes converting images to a usable format cost-prohibitive. The text in FRASER PDFs has been generated by optical character recognition software but has not been corrected. Users may copy the text into a spreadsheet, but for accuracy the user must verify the formatting and content.
Why are some publications missing an issue? For example, there is no July 3, 1953, issue of Weekly Business Statistics.
Despite our best efforts, in some cases we have not yet located all issues of every publication. It is assumed that a complete series will be found within the Federal Depository System (those libraries collecting federal documents and publications), but this is not always the case. We continue to search for missing issues and ask that anyone with information on their location please contact us. Our goal is to make our digital collection complete.
When an issue was not published, we have indicated this in the publication’s information.
What is the difference between FRASER and ALFRED®?
Both FRASER and ALFRED offer the ability to locate unrevised data, but they do it in different ways and are likely serving different users. As you are probably aware, data are frequently revised. Often they are revised multiple times after the initial series and then are typically revised less frequently over the course of many years through overhauls of the data construction or benchmark revisions. In any event, data that illustrate some moment in history are often significantly different than the data initially released.
The difference between ALFRED and FRASER is that ALFRED captures every vintage of a data series held in FRED, and accurately provides it in a spreadsheet or programming interface. FRASER captures the digital image of many data publications and provides the data as an image. The images have optical character recognition (OCR), but they have not been corrected and so require human quality checks.
More precisely, ALFRED applies only to series in FRED, and the vintages captured typically date back to the early 1990s. Vintages for a select group of series have been reconstructed and placed in ALFRED, but for the vast majority of FRED data the revisions have been captured for ALFRED only as long as the series have been in FRED (FRED started in the early 1990s). A major bonus for ALFRED users is that data are provided in a spreadsheet format. ALFRED is terrific for users who want to examine a series and its revisions over time.
The unrevised data series in FRASER date back much further. For instance, publications such as Survey of Current Business (back to 1921), Employment and Earnings (back to 1954), and Business Conditions Digest (back to 1968) tracked the economy in multiple ways and with multiple series. The publication images capture the data released at the time and do not represent the revised data as seen today. FRASER is likely best for users who are interested in understanding the state of the economy as understood by policymakers and others at a particular point in time.