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CHIEF SECRETARY'S OFFICE,

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PROGRAMME OP TRIP TROUGH F.I,S, OF MR, STRONG
AND PARTY.
4444+444.44.4.14444414414.014444

Fridflf let October.
7.7
7.

leave iUllifcaPore

p.m. exrive !ilala Lumpur.

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liar. hotel.

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a.i', LeaNe .ouRla Lumpur oy oar to 6ap via

'pend ipht nt G,4) est itouee.

a.m. Leave 6ap and return to Kuala Lumpur via Lentong.
niTht It btation Hotel.
L:Jitilz/ 4th Cictober




Leave
1.

11=Ia Lumnur for: -

enang - if shin leaves on 5th.

2. 1poh.

mend hnlf dny at Pooh

mlfscsr.

Hotel and go on to Penanr? 5th October.

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government lbotiee
11"YMeYO " BURMA
MA

The

12th October

near Mr. Strong,

I am very sorry that I was not at

Rangoon when you paid your visit there. It would
have been a great pleasure to meet you, and
should have been very interested in hearing your
views on many subjects.

I am glad you liked Rangoon and found
there evidences of prosperity and contentment.

There is a great deal of development which has to
be undertaken and I hope for many improvements
during the next five or ten years.
With kind regards,
Yours sincerely,

Benjamin Strong Esq.,

Governor of the Federal Reserve Bank of




York,

Q/0 the Consul for the United States of
America,
Rangoon.

192°

ON HIS MAJESTY'S SERVICE.

414.

Private cretary to

H. E. the
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GOVERNMENT HOUSE.
DARJEELING.

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Copy of a telegram dated itith October, .20 from the Private
Secretary to 1i. h. the Cio vernor of Bengal to Benj Enna ',..)trong,Esq




Your letter received only this afternoon
very sorry wi

ch rebret fern

.

roams oovernment rouse filled durint,, holidays

so im-cossiO1 e suFiest you stay here feel sure otrIer6ise
Lord Ronal dshay would gladl j have put you up

.

A

enquiring

out :iostel s and ,d11 wire Lo-ni6eit to Siliguri and Cal cut ua

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TELEGRAPHS.

NOTICE.

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GOVERNMENT HOUSE,
DARJEELING.

st October,

1 w20

My dear Gamble,

I enclose for your information a letter
Lord Ronaldshay received from Sir William Duke introducing
Mr. Governor strong of the Federal Reserve Bank of New York.

I would be grateful for any assistance you can

render Mr. Strong and his party in India. You will find him
a del ight ful companion .

Yours sincerely,

Captain V. F. Gamble,

Private Secretary to His Honour the Lieutenant-




Governor of United Provinces of Agra and Oudh.




London, ....sal..




ON HIS MAJESTY'S SERVICE.

GREAT EASTERN HOTEL L.
CALCUTTA

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M zovernor Strong.
1.

I have wired to Sir George Lloyd and Mr . Hailey. Reply
will come to Major Vaux. Please tell him where to

send it.
2. 1 send letter of introduction to the Chief Commissioner,
Delhi, in case Mr. Halley is not there.
3.

lf you would like my guide book and map, take it and
return from Bombay.

4. I send a tour programme to help you.
5. I send also I etters addressed to the Private Secretary
Luanow and Commissioner of Agra in case you need -them.




Good-bye

Best wishes to you all .
Sd.

.

R. Gourlay.

22. 10. 20.

00542
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BANK OF BENGAL,




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Insured for

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THE STUDIO, DARJEELING
Gold, Stlaer and Bronze Medals, A llahabad, 1910

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411 Letlers to be addressed

" BANK OF MADRAS."

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telegraphic Address

ROPA "

MADRAS,

29th October 1926

clear Sir,

Tn the absence of Sir Bernard Hunter I have to acknow-

edge .7ith thanks receipt of your letter of 26th
instant. Sir
ernard I feel sure will learn with regret

that he is not to have

he pleasure of meeting you ani Mr.Miles.
I am,lear sir,

Yours most faithfully,

njamin Strcng Esq.,
Great E9::tern Hotel Ld.
Calcutta.




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http://fraser.stlouisfed.org/Lii CsabLa &I:ens-3412- 5-8-18 -8L,000 Bks. (Eds. il..
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

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A6

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Home Department,
Special Branch,
"Race View,"

Simla, the 5th November, 1920.

My dear Sir,
I have pleasure in enclosing,
with my compliments.

a copy of the

last

Moral and Material Progress Report of India,

emitled "India in 1919."

Yours very truly,

i4(9-,414,144P0111."10.

Mr.Governor B. STRONG,
c/o The Hon'ble Mr.W.M.Hailey,C.S.I.,
S 1 M L A
"Peterhoff,"




.

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TH,P,_, EUROPE HOTEL,

Times of
nomination
restricted,

Liability of
proposer and
seconder of

Visiting

MI.-No gentlemen may be nominated to
Member lllll re than three
times within a period of twelve successive

be a Visiting
months.

XXL-The proposer and seconder of a
Visiting Member
be jointly shall
and
severally liable for all amounts which may

SINGAPORE CLUB.

be due from him to the Club.

Member.

Member of the Shanghai or
Members of
Hongkong Clubs or The !lin Club. Novara
certain other
F,Iiya. visiting Singapore shall on being introClubs may be
duced by a Member of the Club be entitled
enrolled as
to the privileges accorded to Visiting MemVisiting
Members.

bers,

Members of other Clubs may be

Visitor's Membership Card

accorded similar privileges at the discretion

of the Committee.

After a

residence in

Singapore of three months these privileges
shall cease.

Visiting Members requiring- their' accounts are requested to give half an
hour's notice.

<8>


http://fraser.stlouisfed.org/LTD., PRINTERS, SINGAPORE.
FRASER & NEAVE,
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

Visitors must register in the Secretary's
Office before using the Club.

SINGAPORE CLUB.

SINGAPORE CLUB.

RULES RELATING TO

VISITING MEMBERS.

XI V. -Any gentleman who may tempora- Mode of
rily visit
shall upon being becumitig a
Singapore
proposed and seconded by two Ordinary Visiting
Members become a Visiting Member for a Member.
period or periods
exceeding three
not
months in the whole in any one year from
date of admission at a subsc imion of Aio a
month or part of a month. Unless he Visiting Member makes use of the Club House
for at 1.-ast one week, no subscription shall
be payable, but this privilege hall only be

Visiting Member.

available once in the twelve months.

Proposed by.1..INN....41..;

XV.- The nomination of a Visiting Mem- Nomination

.7b1

ber shall be posted in the Club.

to be posted.

XVII -The Secretary shall forward a Membership

Membership Card to each Visiting 'leather card.
on nomination.
A Visiting Member shall be required Registration.

Seconded

before he is entitled to the use of the
Out, to register his name in the Visiting
Member's Book kept in the Secretary's

Duration of Visit

Office.

From.11

0

,57-4'.Cct., Ig2,0

XVII.-Visiting Members. shall be ers Privileges of
titled, subject to th. 11)-Laws, to all the Visiting
privileges of Ordinary Members except Members.
voting, nominating Ordinary or Visiting
Members and introducing guests to the
Club.

t1920

XVIII.-The Membership of a Visiting Expiration of
Member shall expire .f he or his proposer Visiting
or seconder signifies in writing to the Membership.
Secretary his desire that such Membership

,




shall cease.

Secretary.

XIX.-The Committee may in their dis. Withdrawal
cretion at any time withdraw the privileges of privileges.
accorded to a Visiting Member.
















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GOVERNMENT HOUSE
GANESHKHIND

14th November 1920.

ti
-\/

My dear Sir,

Very many thanks for your letter of the 11th
November.

Unfortunately you will be arriving in

Bombay just when Government House will be very full
as the Commander-in-Chief and Party and many Military
Officers will be staying there on the 19th.

The

Commander-in-Chief leaves on the 20th so Their Excel-

lencies regret very much that they cannot take in both
your son and his old college friend for those two days.
4 1414 /1444 krg go/

.

If however, it is possible, I will let you know when
you arrive in Bombay on the 18th.
Yours sincerely,

4

k.(

To

Benjamin Strong,Esq.,
Hotel Cecil,
Delhi.




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(To meet H. E. the Commander-in-Chief and the Hon'ble Lady Monro.)




GOVERNMENT HOUSE.
MESS DRESS.

DINNER LIST.

State Bungalow, Friday, 19th November 1920, at 8-30 p.m.
G.
( The Hon'ble Sir NORMAN MACLEOD, Kt., Chief Justice, Bombay
1 Lady MACLEOD

The Hon'ble Sir GEORGE CARMICHAEL, K.C.S.I.,

I.C.S.,

Ordinary

C.I.E.,

Ordinary

Member of the Bombay Executive Council.
1 Lady CARMICHAEL

The Hon'ble Sir IBRAHIM RAHIMTOOLA, Kt.,
Member of the Bombay Executive Council.

Sir LAWLESS HEPPER, Kt., Director of Development, Bombay

1 Lady HEPPER

( Monsieur E. BONIN, French Minister at Teheran
Madame BONIN

The Hon'ble Mr. A. H. FROOM, Additional Member of the Imperial
Legislative Council and Chairman of the Bombay Chamber of Commerce.

Major-General Sir WYNDHAM KNIGHT, K.C.I.E., C.B, C.S.I., D.s.o.,
General Officer, Administration Staff, Southern Command.
Major-General W. B. JAMES, C.B., C.1.E., M.V.O., G.O.C., Bombay District..

Rear-Admiral H. L. MAWBEY, Director, Royal Indian Marine, Bombay ..

Colonel G. M. ORR, D.s.o., Embarkation Commandant, Bombay
t Mrs. ORR

f Monsieur J. DUTARD, Consul for France
I. Madame DUTARD
Paymaster Lieut.-Commander E. E. BRIGHTMAN, R. N., Naval Secretary
to the Director, Royal Indian Marine.

Major D. W. PAYNE, D.s.o., M.C., G.S.O. IL, Bombay District
Major B. S. WARD, O.B.E., D.A.Q.M.G., Bombay District
Major C. ROBB, D.A.A.G., Bombay District
1 Mrs. ROBB

HOUSE PARTY.

( H. E. General Sir CHARLES MONRO, c.c.s., o.c.s.I., G.C.M.G., Commander -in -Chief in India.

)

The Hon'ble Lady MONRO
Lieut.-General Sir WILLIAM MARSHALL,
-j

G.O.C., Southern Command.
Lady MARSHALL

G.C.M.G., K.C.B., K C.S.I.,

Lieut.-General Sir CLAUD JACOB, K.C.B., K.C.M.G., Chief of the General
Staff.

1

Lady JACOB

Mrs. GRAFTON YOUNG (Wife of Lt.-Colonel C. J. Grafton Young,
1.m.s., Surgeon to H. E. the Governor of Bombay).

Major W. W. MUIR,
Chief.
H 518

O.B.E.,

A.-D.-C. to H. E. the Commander-in.

1

L.




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a

2

G.

Major Z. G. BURMESTER, Assistant Military Secretary to the G. 0. C.,
Southern Command.
Captain A. B. H. BRIDGES, O.B.E., R.A.M.C., Surgeon to H. E. the

L.

1

1

Commander-in-Chief.

Captain C. R. B. KNIGHT, A.-D.-C. to H. E. the Commander-in-

1

Chief.

Mr. BENJAMIN STRONG

1

Lieut. H. W. JACOBS, A.-D.-C. to the Chief of the General Staff..

1

Miss BOWEN

HIS EXCELLENCY and Staff

1

11

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Captain, A.-D.-C.

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LIST 01

-I-HIND et

. ().13.F

Dunlop, Mrs. R. W. L.
Dawson, Mr. 1', S.
Deshpande, Mr. S. R.
Daniels, Capt.
Deen, Mr, F. F.
de Klee, Miss.

Dale, Mr. V.
http://fraser.stlouisfed.org/
de Mello, Mr.Bank ofPadna.
Federal Reserve Ayres St. Louis

PASSEN0ERS
BY THE

Griffiths, Mr. V. M.
Garner, Mr. C. S.
Grimsay, Capt.

Israni, Mr. G. J.
Irving, Lt. D. F. and Mrs.
Izat, Mr. G. F.
Issac, Mr. E.

Green Mr. H. Ii.
Gandhi, Mr. H. R.
Johnstone Capt., Mrs. &Mks
(;Teen, Mr. A. & Mrs.
Jonstone, Brig-Genl, A. A.,
Goodwin, Capt. A. E.
Gibson Fleming, Mrs. R. T. Mrs., 3 Children & Nurse.
Jakjivan, Mr. R. S.
& Child.
Johnstone, Major.
Grieve, Capt.
Johnson, Miss A.
Gopaliengar, Mr. S.
Javeri, Mr. R. M.
Griffith, Major R. E.
Javeri, -Mr. G. H.
Gow, Mr.
Jones, Major J. W.
Horman Mr. A. K., Mrs.,
Infant and 2 Children.
Kiltour, Mr. H.
I itres, Revd W. P.
Kitchen, C. I. E., I.C.E.,
Mr. A. J.W.and Mrs.
Henry, Miss R. J. L.
Kingsmill, Miss Bruce
Harper, Mr. G. M., Mrs.,
Infant, Daughter, and Kalsia, The Rajah of
Nurse.
Keiger, Mr. F.G., Mrs.
Hodgshon, Lt. F. \V.
and 4 Children.
Hughes, Mr. F. S.
Kharidia, Mr. M. P.
Hughes, Mr., Mrs. Child
Khan, Dr. Rafi ;& Mrs.
and Infant.
Kadir, Mr. Abdul.
Hallam, Mr. T.
Kendall, Mr.
Hutchinson, Mr. A.
Lawson, Lt. G.
Hart, Mr.
Lacey, Mrs. F. S.
Hart, Mrs.
Lang, Lt. H. and Mrs.
Holm?, I.C.S., Mr. A. T.
Lacey, Mr. P. H.
Halliwell, Mr.
Last, Miss
Hartley, Lt.
Leman, Mr. C. E.
Hardikar, Mr. S. W.
Levantiep, Mr.
Hughes, Mr. A. B. & Mrs.

Handry, Lt.
Hall, Capt, F. \V.




Longfield, Mr.
Lang, Lt-Col, G. G. & Mrs.
3

Laithwaile, Capt.
Lemare, Capt. W. R.
Lewis, Mr. J. F.
Littlejohn, Miss.
Myrtfrer-CfrAq47-,--6-.-6r64.
1.1%.rzregleet.1-6ieGlsaolaii.

Main, Capt. B.
Moore, Major.
Montague, Capt.
Mansfield, Mr. M. 0.

Musa-Misri, Mr. S. R., Mrs.,
Miss & 4 sons.
Moore, Major H. D.
Meathwall, Lt,

Shoubridge, Mr. H. 0. B.,

Payne, Miss.
Pa lid, Mr. H. T.

Mrs. and 3 Children.
Suiter, Mr. J. A.
Sethi, Mr. H. J.
Shahzaman, Mr.
Smith, Mr. N. F.

Qua le, Capt.

Ross, Mr. T. M.
Roberts, Lady & Miss
Rebel lo, Dr. A. C.

Stewart, Capt.
Stainer Simpson, Mrs.
Shroff, Dr. C. N.
Stranton, Mr. Richard.
Strong, Mr. B.
Strong (Jr.), Mr.
Stainton, Mr. V.
Stewart, Mr.
Skyrianos, Mr. P.

Rebel lo, Mrs.

Robb, Mr. T. W.
Rose, Mrs. & Child.
Robins, Miss G.
Roper, Mr. F. E.
Rayton, Mr.
Richards, Mrs. P.

Walker, Lt.-Col. E. C.
Warner, Miss M. L. H.
Willmore, Lt.-Col. W. S.
Wilson, Lt. F. H. A.
Wright, Miss A. F.
Webb, Mr. W. H.
Watt-, Mr. IT. K.
Walter, Mr.

Weldon, Capt. S. W.
Webb, Capt. G, & Mrs.
Whitmore-Clarke, Mr. D. M.

Walter, Mrs. and Miss.
Webb, Mr.

William, Mr. & Mrs. L. E.

C.

\Vinton, Mr.

Wart, Mr.
Weir, Major
Webb, Mr.

Stuart.

William, Mr. and Mrs. L. E Young, Mr. A. Pallister and
Mrs.
Stuart.

Ricketts, Major F. R.
Thor low, Mr. NV.
Reuben, Major W. Mrs. and
Tyrrell, Lt.-Col. J. F. and
2 Children.
Riza, Mr. Haji & Mrs.
Robinson, Major.
Richardson, Mr.

Mrs.

Tutton, Capt.
Tudor-Owen, Mr. \V. E. and
Mrs.

Thomas, Major R. II.
Short land, Mr. C. V. M. and Tanish, Lt.-Col. J. R.
Mrs.
Travers, Mrs. A. 0.
Scott, Mr. F. B. & Mrs.
Tamms, Capt.
Simpson, Major G. 0.
Taylor, Mr. J. A.
Smith, Mr. W. R. G.
Thomas, Lt.
Smith, Mrs.
Vredenberg, Mr. E.
Sangster, Mr. W. & Mrs.
Stevenson, Miss E. I.
Vines, Lt. R. G. and Child.
Vauchen, It. M. V.
Stranack, Mr. B. H. A.
Shakespear, Mr. W.
Whitehurst, Mr. S.
Sparkes, Mr. C. P.
Wilson, Mrs. G. S.
Seddon, Mr. S. H.
Warburton-Booth, Miss.
Seaton, Mr. \V. A. and Mrs.




5

CAXTUN WUH.S JUMAAY. K:

INDIAN (BRITISH) EXCHLUGE.
(1 Rupee = 16 Annas
"oney of India:
(1 Lnna = 12 miss

-411 Conversion:

DollLLrs into Rupees.

What amount in rupees will :A4.65 buy at rate 33.75 cents per single rupee:'
Operation:

.3375) 84.6500
6750
17150
16875
27500
27 000

500

Explanation:




250.8 rupees
1 6

12. 8 annas
1 2
9. 6 2ies
Answer - rupees 250, annas 12,
pies 10

Divide the amount in dollars and cents by the rate per rupee to find
amount in rupees and decimal of sa:e.
i.ultiply the decimal (not
the rupees) by 16, because 16 annas = 1 rupee.
Talltiply the decimal
(not the annas) by 12, because 12 pies = 1 arena.




)zt,

)21

J

Memorandum by Mr. M. M. S. Gubbay, Controller of Currency,
on the probable Effects of Inconvertibility.
I regard as an almost inevitable certainty that inconvertibility, or, as I
should prefer to put it, inability of Government to provide sufficient metallic
currency, must be followed by an immediate and complete dislocation- of
credit throughout the country, and consequently of trade operations, whether
internal or for the purpose of export.

2. It is immaterial that this inability to provide metallic currency should
be caused not by any deterioration in the Government's general financial
position as a whole, but solely by reason of an increased demand for a
reduced world supply of silver. Such economic considerations as suggest any
appeals based on the necessity of conserving metallic resources for Imperial-

purposes are in no way intelligible to the mass of the Indian population,
agricultural or industrial. To them, suspension of specie payment will
have only one meaning, namely, that the Government in whose good faith
and power they have hitherto placed implicit trust.has come to the end of its

resources and can no longer pay in its own coin.

The fact that the

Government are possessed of large credits in England would utterly fail to
make any impression on the situation which would then arise.

3. The principal feature of this situation would be large withdrawals of
deposits from banks generally, but, more particularly, probably. complete
withdrawals from Government's Post Office Savings Banks.

Banks in India, especially Presidency Banks, are agreed that bank

deposits would in such an eventuality be heavily drawn on, particularly at
their up-country branches. We have had practical experience of the sensitiveness of the Indian's disposition to any influences' or reports causing him
to suspect the security of his deposits. The outbreak of war in August 1914
was followed by the withdrawals in the first two months front the Post Office
Savings Banks of 4,000,0001., representing one-fourth of the total deposits on

the last day of July 1914, and a further 2,500,0001. were withdrawn in the
succeeding three months. That the lack of confidence which these withdrawals imply did not spread, was solely due to the facilities which
the Government of India were then fortunately in a position to extend to the
fullest extent for payment in silver. The silver balances in the months of
September to November 1914 were reduced by 1,750,0001., the bulk of these
issues, save for an insignificant amount representing genuine trade requirements, being directly attributable to the run on the savings banks and the
4. Thanks to the confidence
demand for en bloc casbment of notes. which these large payments of
silver re-established among the small investors, it has since been possible
to attract their savings into the three loans issued in India since the war,
the Post Office sections of which are a new feature introduced since 1915.

In

the aggregate these have brought us in approximately 10,000,0001. this

-official year, of which about 6,333,0001. are in the form of cash. certificates
payable on demand. The suspension of specie payment will naturally give rise
to an immediate demand for the en bloc cashment of these certificates on a
large scale, thereby effecting a further deterioration of our general position.

The value of Government securities would also immediately depreciate,
particularly the value of War Loan securities, as these latter are held to (rite
a large extent by individuals who have previously never held any Govern-

ment security, and who for the first time have ventured into an investment of
this kind under the stimulus of appeals to their loyalty and patriotism, and
-on receipt of the completest assurances of the security of sums so entrusted to
Government. We should have to recognise that, during the rest of the war,
and probably for many years after its close, our credit generally, and more




OT 584

particularly with the small investor, would stand very low. Our anticipations as regards a War Loan in 1918-19, and of borrowing through.
Treasury Bills, are entirely based un the continuance of existing conditions
as to convertibility. These anticipations Avill need to be modified very
sensibly if the suspension of specie payments is forced on us.
.

5. In addition to the shock to general credit operations which must

admittedly follow on the suspension of specie payment, a situation would
arise under which trade operations connected with the movement of crops

both for internal purposes as well as (but more particularly) for the
purpose of export would instantly come to a standstill, and might not for some-

considerable time be capable of resumption except on a very limited scale,
and then only under peculiarly disadvantageous conditions as to prices.
Broadly speaking, all such trade operations in India are conditioned by a
provisionally adequate stock of metallic rupees, for it is only with this form

of currency that the cultivator can be tempted to part with his produce.
Consequently as each crop reaches maturity, there sets in from the chief
commercial centres, and perhaps more particularly from the seaports,
a movement of -metallic rupees to the country districts varying in its.
direction, volume, and intensity, with the crop, its character, and price

levels. This movement of specie is effected largely through the medium of
the facilities afforded by the Currency Department. Currency transfers

which. represent a system under which payment at one currency office
results in a corresponding disbursement at another currency office to any
person nominated by the payer constitute the most common form in which
metallic funds are obtained up country by leading export firms. Another
method, however, which is more particularly employed by Indian merchants
engaged in the internal trade of the. country through which rupees can be

obtained at currency points is that afforded by the despatch of currency
notes to these points for presentation at the nearest treasury for exchange .
into rupees. With the facilities introduced in the last five years for
obtaining currency transfers between Treasuries and Currency Offices in
India the use of this latter method is becoming increasingly less frequent.

Thirdly, the method which is more particularly resorted to by the Presidency
Banks in Bengal and Bombay in order to provide their up-country branches

with the necessary metallic currency (luring the crop season is the direct

remittance of specie from the Calcutta and Bombay Currency Offices.

I have

kpowu the Bank of Bengal to remit as much as Hs. 20,00,000 in silver'in
one day to the jute districts.
.6.* Subsequently, as the cultivator exchanges his rupees for commodities

more particularly imported goods which he requires for his use, the

metallic rupees disbursed at the commencement of the crop seasons return
to the chief commercial centres and a portion finds its way back into the
Currency Offices. A considerable amount, however, of the rupees disbursed
in connection with the purchase of crops remains in the hands of Indian
Shroffs and is utilised by them for the financing of crop purchases in the
following season. The rupees which are returned to Currency Offices are
mostly those received.by banks and European firms in connection with
payment by the cultivator for his imports.
beginning of each crop season
upees from commercial centres
extent to which this movement

upees to the value of nearly

Offices for the purchase of jute

otton crops, and .a rather larger
These figures represent issues

will be understood they were

sible to estimate by the metallic

agraph 6 above, are constantly

ot be too frequently emphasised
Government. of. India for silver

e trade operations the require-

e producing districts




to the--

Silver is not immobilised in theCurrency Reserve, simply to guard against the contingency of a run thereon.
Similarly too, gold held in the Reserve has, when, as in May last, the silver
reserves fell to a low point, been released to render possible the export of
produce required by the Home (fovernment. The further reserve is
treasuries apart from sub-treasuries scattered
distributed over three lu
all over the continent.. Reserves are held at the three chief seaports for the

commercial centres and for export.

purpose of the support of any Cerrency Office or Treasury situated up

country at which a strong trade demand for currency may set in.
8.

it does not require any very elaborate demonstration




to prove

that the whole of this mechanism will be instantly and severely dislocatedby a suspension of specie- payments. That it will react on the purchase

C
4

.

notes was 15,400,000/. as against an absorption of silver in the same period
of 11,000,0001. Thanks to the expansion of our note circulation, we have
been able by gradual stages to increase the fiduciary issue of notes from
.9,333,0001. to its present figure of 41,333,0001., and it is contemplated
to increase the fiduciary issue still further to 57,333,0001. The silver metallic
reserve, which on the 31st July 1914 was about 45 per cent. of the total
circulation, had fallen to 26 per cent. on the same date in 1917, and on the
15th January 1918 was as low as 15 per cent. The depletion of the metallic
reserve, which now stands at 10,800,0001. of silver, has come about by
large withdrawals of silver currency required for effecting the movement to
the ports of wheat, gram and cotton, the total withdrawals in the months of
November and December being just under 9,000,0001. Of this quantity
Northern India has taken rather more than 3,000,0001. mostly for wheat,
the balance having been largely absorbed in Bombay in connection with
cotton purchases.

0

CO

10. Our paper currency has been subjected to a very real strain, and has
withstood it solely because of the general confidence in the Government's
power and readiness to redeem its notes in gold or silver and of the tangible
evidence thereof which is afforded by the facilities for encashment. The
credit of our notes has in fact increased with the extension which has been

made in these facilities. Their wide acceptance, as illustrated by the
statistics just quoted, has been further stimulated by the disappearance in
many localities of the charge previously almost universally made by money
changers for changing notes into rupees. Any curtailment of the present
encashment facilities would bring about a return of the former disability ;
indeed, in December 1916, when the sudden and enormous drain upon our silver
resources compelled recourse to the temporary application in a few localities

of restrictions on the facilities for encashment, the reappearance of these

disabilities was at once observed and reported by the local authorities. It is
no exaggeration to state that the large expansion in our note issue has only

been possible because of the arrangement introduced in 191.4 and since
developed for the free exchange of the notes at treasuries and up country
branches of presidency banks.

11. The maintenance of the present credit of our notes is almost of
vital' importance if the supplies of produce and the services required
from India for the general prosecution of the war are to continue
unimpeded. India has in the first eight months of this financial year
shipped, after purchase through the ordinary trade channels, -15,000,0001.
of articles which are classed as being of national importance. The
largest items in this amount are wheat, gram, and barley, 14,500,0001. ;
hides and skins, 3,000,0001. ; rice and seeds, 3,250,0001. I understand that
even larger quantities are to be shipped in the next few months, of wheat,
gram, barley and rice, and that American requirements of jute and jute
goods will be in excess of even the large supplies shipped to her so far in
All
this financial year which in themselves amount to 6,250,0001.
these are articles the purchase of which is peculiarly dependent on a
sufficient supply of metallic currency being available for trade operations ;
more particularly is this the case with jute, for the jute growers' preference
for silver has never even yielded to the attraction of gold eyes when this

metal was freely available. It must be definitely realised that any breakdown

in our ability to meet demands for rupees will result in an immediate
reduction, if not complete cessation, of the purchases of these goods.

12. It will affect also other purchases for war purposes. The commissariat are large buyers of foodstuffs and fodder for despatch overseas ;

these purchases, apart from purchases for local use, being estimated at
Purchases are also made in Mesopotamia of dates and of
10,000,0001.
requirements for local military use. These, too, 1 am informed, have to
some extent to be effected by payment in gold or in silver. Recruitment
for labour corps, which is largely from among the backward agricultural
classes, will be also almost certainly affected.




CIO

13. The Chief apprehension is, however, in regard to the effect of a suspension of specie payments, firstly in Northern India and the Punjab principally,.

and secondly in industrial centres. It is to the Punjab that we look for
recruitment for the army, and these recruits come largely from the districts
to which we are looking for supplies of wheat, gram, and barley. The
Punjab was with Bombay the chief province in which savings bank deposits
were affected by the distrust caused by the outbreak of war. Since then this
confidence has so far been restored that in the aggregate we received from

the Punjab for the war loan, inclusive of cash certificates, 'just under

4,000,0001., representing over 610,00() applications. In the Central Provinces
applications numbered over 640,000, for a total value of 3;400,000/. In both

these provinces, partly under the direction of government, and partly under
the stimulus of good prices, a large acreage has been placed under wheat in
the full confidence that the crops would, as in the last three years, find large
purchase in government through its agents. Inability to obtain payment in
the usual currency will create a deep feeling of distrust and resentment, and

a want of confidence in the power of government. This feeling will
react to a degree which it is not possible to exaggerate on recruiting, while
economically it will lead to a withholding of produce from the markets, and

as a considerable portion of Northern India is a wheat eating population,
the resulting high level of prices will carry consequences similar to those
which caused such anxiety in 1915.
.

e industrial centres, more particularly amongst the mills or
mbay and Cawnpore, the inability of employers to pay in

sult immediately in a cessation of work, and the situation will

ed by the consequent increase which must take place, as is
in paragraph 3 of Government of India's telegram of 7th, Is
es generally. There is already evidence of discontent at the

of prices, and frequent instances of looting of shops in certain
The possibilities of
rising from this cause have led some of the Local Governments
emedial measures, and existences of discontent, particularly in
ve been very recently emphasised to me by the Municipal and
orities of that city. Wage earners in Indian industries are
aid in silver, the average earnings being indeed so small as not
e of payment until the recent introduction of small value notes
form of currency. The daily record of issues from Calcutta

Bengal have already come to notice.

ffice, which have come before me during the last eighteen
w the extent to which silver is used for these payments.
ess has been made in the direction of substituting payments
metal payments, but progress must be necessarily slow.
uently discussed with individual Calcutta millowners and

obable effect on their labour of forced payments in notes and
ways warned of the disastrous effects of such a course on their
Their anticipations have been invariably that disturbances
o violence, requiring armed force to quell, would immediately
e dispersal of labour would be the ultimate consequence. I may
December 1916, large withdrawals of rupees from the Calcutta
fice for despatch to the Punjab and Bombay, led to the rumour
mill hands in Calcutta that supplies of rupees in Calcutta were

and the prevalence of this rumour was such as to cause the

missioner to communicate informally with my department on the

the political consequences which might follow on the suspension

, such opinion as I can offer must be necessarily subject to the
that I am not in a position to advise as to the extent to which the
ical agitation has permeated the general masses. Prima, facie,
ee every reason why capital should be made by those responagitation of our failure to implement our promises to redeem
note issue. More particularly such a failure, after the extensive
dertaken in connection with the Indian war loan, would offer an







From
FEDERAL RESERVE BANK
OF

No.

c :4/1

41feuipt

TRANSL.kTI

,ttAB72

4 444

16 WORM.

DAM) SHANGHAI

.

RBO'D AUGUST 16, 1920

4C%

Federal Reserve Dan:: :tow Yo

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14
Freak(Teetword) Virip

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London about middle

of December visiting only PHTAmaqpospOrBelgium Eolland
,V4-27740-N

Steamship service very irregulhAikCabl1104raiga 0/0

Javasche

mail International Banking Corporation Bombay until changed all
well.

Underlined words mutilated.




LEYAJ-we readp-NEILAJ
AFITYS-"
"

4




Translation of Incoming
(-2Date

CABLEGRAM

v(7

From
FEDERAL RESERVE BANK
OF NEW YORK

No.

G/

TRANSLATION OF CABLEGRAM

SEP

1

27 WORM
VEDLt:AL
OF Inc

r;VE

GAPORE,
GUST 28, 1920

Jay,

Federal Reserve Bank New York

#6

Gaunt

(

testword )

Referring to your telegram 2nd

only suggest courtesy asking Bank of England will there be any
object served by leaving portion.

Cable address c/o Java Bank until

September 26th mail International Banking Corporation Bombay until
September 15th.

Planning sail from there on or before rovember

15th arriving; at londan before middle of December I shall

telegraph exact data as soon as passage engaged delighted to
hear your decision.




Strong

INTEROFFICE

ROUTE SLIP

OFFICE SERVICE
MESSENGER SECTION

10/1/20
DEPARTMENT
DIVISION
SECTION

fikE MARKS

A copy of your cablegram to

Gov. Strong, signed "Jay," has been
placed on Mr. Jay's desk, this morning.
FROM

H. A. B.
DEPARTMENT
DIVISION
SECTION

N. B. USE THIS
 FORM INSTEAD OF OFFICE ENVELOPE WHEN POSSIBLE.
TO INSURE
http://fraser.stlouisfed.org/ PROMPT AND ACCURATE DELIVERY ALL COMMUNICATIONS SHOULD
BE DISTINCTLY LABELED.
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

ourt-resm

Translation of Incoming

FEDERAL

" RVE BANK

FEE

Date

CABLEGRAM

ORK

"To
From

x--1-5;t:4,144-4

1

3o/9Zo

'AV

e
AM

?S

rds

Recei v

SINGAPORE

epteril.er

Jay,

ederal ;reserve

ar. k ,

cw York.

7.

(Teetword ok)

,:xpect to : rrive Paris )ecember

th

meeting me there

we can visit russels Amsterdam and London last. Telegraph particulars
.

explosion were rtny friends injured. Reply immediately Hongkong and IJIanghE
'orporation ;%angoon.

ail hereafter care of ''organ London cable

excet above International anking corporation r:alcutta until October 15th

ell well.
strong .
Underlined words .titilated
PARSS We read PARIS
"
_DUGS 12ecember 6th




"




Darjeeling, October 23, 1920.

Illit
-

:

-2-

easily worked, and has been an

set of nose ornaments.

rticle of commerce possibly for centuries.

also a

The disk is worn by piercing the left nostril, about half an

Onch above the nostril, and lies flat against the left side of the nose.

The ring is

worn by piercing the septum and frequently two of the rings and one disc are worn at
the same tine.

Those and many other gold Ornaments, usually necklaces and large ornate

disks worn on top of the head, are sold (if the buyer knows his business) by weight, plus
an alloanoe for workmanship and profit, running; from 25$ to 50,;: in excess of the value
as bullion.

The unit of weight is a tole, being 180 grams,

new silver rupee piece.

exaotly tue volost of a

By requiring the Lahratta to weigh what you buy, in front of

you, he oust disclose the number of toles weight, and if one knows the bazaar 1.rice of

gold per tola ( now 28 rupees) one can estimate :Law much he is charging or overcharging for weelesanship and profit.

Tell tnelaahratta to "weigh" and about 214 comes off

the price without further debate.
iag.

Thereafter one must use wits and skill in bargain-

You would enjoj a bout with tnose fellows.

air of indifference hard to match.

;hey all have poker faces and an

But sometimes the scales are crooked tool

Those

ornaments are the real native aoardings, exactly what they wear, and what I have seen
the-i m4 king in tneir tiny workshops.

Lacond;

For -r. Pittnan I an sending a pair of silver anklets, the same as

thousands seen every clay on the streets.

Some are a bit larger than these, many are

smaller and lighter, frequently two pairs are worn, and most of the women have callouses
from the weight and friction, as well as verf black ankles:
of thin light weight anklets, as well as many other ornaments.

Young girls wear a number
The variety of these

silver ornaments is really endless, heavy necklaces some made of nundreds of silver
coins, chains, bracelets, huge long complicated of :airs worn on the saculders and hanging down to the waist, etc. etc.

turquoise being the favorite.
they were weighed.
simply'said "weighs ".

rupee."

Many of then are set with semi preoious stones,

I bought the anklets first, and asked the ; :rice before

He said, (after hunting for an English word) "fifty rupee".
They weirhed 33 1/2 tola.

I

'ithout another word ho paid "forty

I finally bow:ht them for about 39 rupees, with various other things,
the




-3-

'rgainirg centering on the final total sum.

They despise jou if you buy without a

haggle, and sometimes one is caught by not starting low enough, as my son was Jester -

ay when he offered 15 rupees for an article which they asked 50 rupees for,

They

snapped up his offer and later Miles bought a rather better knife than Ben had purchased
for 8 rupees!

The anklets may interest Mr. Pittman, as they consume so much of the

silver in weight, which disappears out here.

Ton*. Strauss I am sending a string of necklace rupees, no larger nor as
large as many that are worn by the women.

Frequently they are made of a number of rows

of 1/2 or 1/4 rupee coins, now no longer minted.

It is no unpommon sight to see the

Mahrattats boy squatting in the road in front of his booth scrubbing these with soap
and water or caustic Bead, to make them look new.

The prohibition against the coins

being used for other than money purposes seems to be neither observed nor enforced.
Now these rather tawdry souvenirs mal prove to be pleasant reminders of the
"Pittman Act" in which you and Mr. Pittman and Mr. Straus were so greatly interested.
Since reaching Bengal, and Darjeeling Where the Government now is, for the hot season,
I have had many opportunities to get light on the situation here, as my letters to
Lord Ronaldshay, now Governor of Bengal, opened every door.

I never realized what a

narrow shave they had from a great calality, due to inability to redeem the rupee,
Air. Alder of the currency office told me that it was a matter of hours, they resorted
to two bank holidays, and were down to four

of rupees, when word arrived that

the Pittinen Act was law, and the silver would be forthcoming.

tion would have ceased.

:',E)

A day later and redemp-

I thought you would be interested in seeing where some of

it went.

Just now, as the immediate result of discontinuing the sale of "reverse
Council bills" and the sale of gold to the bazaars, rupees have suffered a serious decline, from a top rate of 2 shillings 4 pence, some time ago, and recently 2 shillings
(when

the soverign was made legal tender here for 10 rupees) to I shilling and six

pence or lower.

Gold has advanced to 28 rupees per tole, against 25 recently, and the

last rite for dollars I hard was 374 rupees per ::.400.



Silver is now redundant, the

,111

-4note circulation had an enorm:Jus increase and recently has been somewhat reduced, while

where is some prospect that India will soon export silver.
have over expanded both their currency and credits, and over bought abroad.

Behind it al
The balance

of trade (visible) has recently been against India, an unusual situation and one they
were not nrepared to cope with.

Also i fear their presidency bank rate, 5%, is too low

and induces a transfer of borrowing from London, with their 7% bank rate.
There have been some failures here in the bazaars, more are sure to come, and
:Sr. Dodo, the Calcutta agent of the Hongkong & Shanghai tells me dishonored bazaar bills
are a daily diet for all the bunks.
I am sending you a copy of the report of the Babington- Srnith Commission, which

you may already have seen.




My warmest regards to you all,
Sincerely yours,
Benj. Strong

Translation of Incoming

FEDERAL RESERVE BANK
OF NEW YORK

CABLEGRAM

Date a-

4IV

From

t

No. C

Ii2.4 4 A

/
AM

Calcutta.

Receiv.d

October 28, 1920.

Federal Reserve Bank,
t

vE.0

Pew York.

repeat open message OCT 2/(1920
Cable four garbled. Cannot decipher
Corporation, Bombay.
care International Banking
Strong,.




P

Translation of Incoming

FEDERAL RESERVE BANK
OF NEW YORK

From

No.

Date

CABLEGRAM

0)/10/
)7Q

A-11-e---"(

c- '2/L"0
Are'
-ritg

1°

er

TRAmmpATION OF CABLEGRAM
-,

Delhi
26 words

Received Nov.l 0,1920.
Mr. Jay
Federal Reserve Bank,

New York City, N.Y.
#9.

(Testword O.K.)

#8 not numbered.

received very sorry about trip.

Replying to your telegram just

Sailing from Bombay per Steamer Nov.2Oth

due Marseilles 4th December. Mail address c/o Morgan Grenfeli London.
Mail me full report conditions and developments to reach there beginning
of December.

All well.
Strong

Underlined words mutilated.
KANEM
UTNYI
ALEND
RAGIC
IKPHE
IYSWY

we
we
we
we
we
we

read
read
read
read
read
read




UTNYV
KAGIC
UKPHE
VYSWY

-

not
KUWEM
trip
Nov.20th LAEND
me
there
well

L.

December

BISGAARD-

2nd

19,170

BANGKOK..

Benjamin Strong, ITsq.,
AI"

c

FEB 2 4 1921

In ternati onal Ranking Corporation.

Bombay.
Dear Yr. Strong.

I beg you to forgive that I have not forwarded enclosed photos
before now. I have had the matter fully in mind,but have on account of

pressure of work been compelled to leave my private matters over until
now. my prints, enclosed,are far from being masterpieces,- but as you
know I have never pretended to be a master of photography, mmommillimmem

on the other hand I have seldom male anything so bad as the present
pi °tures.

It was a pity that you and ,:our party had no time to rush up
here to old P i am

,

i t

i s indeed worth seeing; - peopleiwbo have been all

over the Fart Ceylon & India included, and whom I advi ced to RO to Siam,

have lately written that nothing can be compared with it in the Fast.

-

It ie the at of the old time - rapidly disappearing. The King,Rama
the 5th,a1po called Vajiravudh,has now declared that he iP going to
marry ( the 1/5/1921)

Harem, concubines and amazones belong, to the past, faded away as

as did the beautiful faces of the ladies within the gate of the inner
palace wall, but the golden Palaces remain, the old art and the stately

processions with the "white" elephants, the gay

colours and Milted

arms playing in the strong sunlight are still the unique slights worth
seeing not to speak al -out the hundredyears oll anted state barges on
the river pulled by hundreds of fantastic dremsed oarsmen. No
I

,

better stop now - am I not swearing like an old pirate when

come across the stupidity in the court,when the Thermometer




how

102

(2)

in the
bad

shade,when the mosquitos are chasing one -

the cholera and plague spreading etc.etc.-

when one wishes

when the "Tommy" is

1.P.

the moment of life

that one was sitting in the old Country free from all

kind of pestilence or the vast and Rastern life, when the brain is one

boiling porridge and no thought strong enough to distinguish the difference between ones left shoe and yesterday morning. Yes, indeed,

do not know why I advertise for Nam as were

I

I

the Agent or a Tourist

Bureau. -

I am free from boils now,my
since our return. virrt the "Mary",

wife has however not been well

then bitten by a poisonous

ant, -

thereupon bitten by a do insect, and now rheumatism. The latter is
due to the

electric

fans. To live under them one must have a head of

brass.

Kindly accent my wires and my heartiest thanks for yours and

during

the time we

I travelled together. am

your party

kindness

glad that I

finally came across the real America. We both of us wish

you and your

on all success in life.

With kindest regards and our best Xmas greetings to both of

you.




Yours si ncerely,

February ^4, '921.

Dear Mr. Biegaard:

It wte a great pleasure to receive yJur letter of December 2nd,
which I fouild on my desk only this morning.
You may realize the cause of
the delayed delivery when I tell you that I finally eailed from Bombay on
November 20th, CO that the letter has been following me ever since.
Its very nice to have those prints. They will be a reminder and
souvenir of our journeys together, although no reminder is needed to keep
green the memory of such good company.

We often discussed the possibility -)t" a visit to Siam, but the
everlasting delays of traveling in the East, so shortened our time that
it was really cut of the question. Besides that, mattorm were developing in business affairs at home which seemed to make it my duty to return
as promptly as I could, without spoiling the trip.
Miles remained behind in India to do mire sightseeing than my
time permitted. The two boys dropped off at Pnrt Said for a short visit
in Egypt, and since then have been through italy, had a few weeks in
France, and Ben is now in London, expecting to sail for home in a few
days.
I
as very r.)rry indeed, to !earn that Mrs. Biegaard has not
been well,
whatever may be the cause, and certainly your letter indicates that there is a variety.
Please wish her, from me, a speedy recovery to good health, ft;.r otherwise life isn't worth living.

With my Lest regards to you both, and again thanks fo: the
pictures, I am
Very sincerely yours,

L. Biegaard, Esq.,
Bangkok,
Siam.

BS:MM





Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, One Federal Reserve Bank Plaza, St. Louis, MO 63102