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https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis ,irir1i.1 June 10, 1919. Miss Mary Van neeck Jr..d.son Hotel, 53 Washington Square, New York City. Dear Mary: Mrs. Robins is in Washington gathering information as to the possibilities of hi,miling this coming international working wOmen's conference. We had luneh with Miss Lathrop and Miss Abbott this noon and we talked over the possibilities of maternity benefits as one of the agenda to be 444014sed in the Conference next fall. It seems to is thb.t we must work. out that question in conjunction with the Children's Bureau. The other question on the agenda that ought to be considered by the Children's Bureau is Child Labor. Then we have the question of Then we have eduoation that ent#irs into the subject of child-labor. the question of the 3-hour day, night work for women, women employed These questions are to be forsOlated In uthealthfnl processes, etc. and pre3ented in conjunction with wosen from other countries to the preliminary committee of seven men that is to sit probably in London during the summer to formnite the questions on the agenda to be presented at the international labor conference that will be held in I feel, of courseotthat the Women's October here in Washington. Tilde Union League will have to send some one aver to present this Mrs. Robins material but that it is our duty to work:up the material. tomorrow thikt*UNittOk of Secretary Labor at are proolf and to owe the afternoon to talk over with him the possibilities of this question. I may have to take a flying visit to Atlantic City to see Mr. Compere I an awaiting word from Elisabeth as to what on the same question. is the best time to see him. I think, too, that I ought to go over there for a day or two to say "Hello" to the brothers in behalf of the Department because they certainly know about us now since the "Staniarde hale been disemOnted so widely. I see in the report of the llecutive Council thfit they have reported favorably on the Woman in Industry Service I suppose a resolution ought to be rrosented there so as to get them on record. Mrs. Irvin tells me that *Agana people have asked her to speak. Two engagements would be in North Carolina between the 24th ant 30th of June. They are meetings of two colored universities and it may be possible that they will pay her trafeling expenses and also If they don't pay her traveling expenses entertain her while there. There will be no per diem While ? them pay to do you think we ought to go. I think it is very important her she is there so as to enable and desirable myself that the colored people of the South know what There is a meeting of the colored women's our Department is doing. https://fraser.stlouisfed.org IIMN.— Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis -2- clubs in the State of Now Jersey July 24th at which Mrs. Irvin has been asked to speak. It seems to me it ie desirable that she should attend this meeting if se are still in existence by that time. 1.0440 Brown is going away for two weeks beginning June 24th to have an operation on her nose. Mrs. Robins is to see Mt. Good, Chairman of the Appropriation Comalttee,.4hile she is in Washington. She will be here until Thursday night and she then goes to Now York but she probably will be back here very soon agai rt. The office sends love to you and hopes that your mother is very much better. With love and best ,,ishes, Affectionately yours, IWERF https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis Mary Anderson, Assistant Director Wosan in Industry Service. MI41.12i Laumix U. s• Department of labor. =Lan& the 'umin ladastry Semlee Ins establi.shod in Atli, 1918, snielP appropPlatian widish onthoriaott the aosiretaxi of Labs, le *establish a service rith apecial rehouses tO prowling sad dineleplag the welter* of Iragargoorning wawa, Ispreilag working eiondltltnts of Wain and advranting *war opportunities for profitable esplopnent. end In this service to osOrdinsto and eontrol aline* in the aapartment of Saber eni ether deparlsente having to do with agy matters of pellsy or preesitare with reference to women wage earners." Agtiumit 01 SlrEl _UWE( 4:7 law. ITT b‘Tilrip Standards haw been formulated governing the employ/fent of roam. These standards deal with wages, hours. sellectivo harp:Linings neoessitir for employment sumosensent in industry and the wor ing conditions which should be established in plants where women aro onslogod• lb assist in establishing policies regarding the employment of wawa* a Oemnittoo on ilasarlious Occupations was organized to report on the empleraent of woman in hourlong occupations, ea AdVisory Connell of rfk, lag women has been formats opeelal investigations are being lads in a niriber of cities of the **nations of employment of Neve women In industry, end an ( initial iruiry has boon mde into the status of women in thsosehime trades itlohigsa• The Serdee cooperates arith the Weir and Ws, Papally**, bp alp lasing on conditions affecting the employment of women in nenir polo sad aro Special assistance and advise has been given In the States with a view towards formulating or furthering Proltralli of Urination. At the rew. quest of the Governor of Indians a irurvcy es mode of the conditions wader https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis 2 imp Which women were soplered in that State and a report was submitted in ado vance of the meting of the legielatnres inforisstiss lagsrding legislation and working conditions far maws is tarnished to these Who ore interested, A stereopticon 91140 Uttar% and a 16mponel emillblt illustrating the standardesehtsh are stresated OW the employment of walen he been prepared for use throughout the country by State Labor Departments, schools and colleEes and other organisations. • Miss Idary Van Baoeck is the Director of the Woman in Indvatry 51,:.Tvice. miss Yen MAWS was in chums of the rioman's Branch of the Industrial 5ery1ee Bodies of the ardmaise Department from the time of its orgaaization until the ostabliabment of the Oman in Industry 5erv1ce. jaefore enterinc the Oregano* Department We was in charge of the Dfirision of Industrial Studies of the Russell Sage Foundation in New York. the Assistant Director, Miss Eari Anderson, was also in the n's Branch of the Industrial Service Section of the Ordnance Department. She is a member of the National %motive Board of the Boot and Wipe 40fters Union, and is °heirs= of the Wmhington Comndttee of the National, Wanes !rade Vales /0100. • Willetin No. 1, Propelled 103ityrant of Women during the Dar in the industries of Mows Falls, Bulletin No. 2. Labor Loss for V:omen in Industry In Indiana. Bulletin No. https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis Standards for the Epployment of Women in Industry. 011111011... 0 U. S. DEPARTMENT OF LABOR WOMAN IN INDUSTRY SERVICE WASHINGTON 53 The Judson, So. Washinzton Square, New York City. 71 5. June 2E,, 1; 'lary Anderson, ASEig. Director, Wolean in Industry Service, Department of Labor, Washing-tcn, P. C. Dear 14:Jae Anderson: Do you know the dates when the International autumn? I Labor Conference will be held in 7es1inEton next connection with have been invited to speak at a mase meetinz in Church in the General Convention of the Protestant 7piecopal nity which eiportu an offer Detroit on Cotcber 21st. This will in industry. women discuss I ehould wish to take aivantai,e cf to have to short2y may I that I am accepting with the understanding Labor tional Interna the withdraw my acceptance if the dates for conshould it, of part Conference, and especially the women's flict. Will you let me know about this soon' of I have ycur letter of June 15th about the request their about the Consumers' League of Philadelphia for advice y. I augest proposed investigation of negro women in industr eAthat we that0Taalkine. it over with '1,re. Irvin, you teillh lphia Philade in gation investi definite plans for an have ely .ted definit formule are plans next Fall, but that when their asking by lly especia ions, we shall be glad to make sugeet 2.:rs. Irvin to confer gith their field workers. Thank you very much for eendinz me the telegram about the Sundry Civil Eill last Saturday. To make it doubly sure the Western Union delivered it once at six o'clock and again at ten. I am hoping soon to have new of the action 14 the Senate. seleanwhile I am also awaiting information about the hearings on the employrbent service bill. I am ec glad that it Was nci necessary for me to gc to Weshinton this seek. Will you be back from the Y. T. C. A. conference in North Cerolina by July 6th, and will the Secretary of Labor be in Washington that wee.&? Of course, you will not Aish to find out definitely about his plans until the date is nearer, but I hope to be able to spend a few days there beginning July 6th, and T should .gish to choose dates when I could confer with the Secretary and accomplish Re much as possible. mvanK/ https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis Faithfully yours, 1 pi Mary Van Kleeck, Director, 'owan in industry Service. 0 NeN York City J,ne 11, 1919. Miss Nary Anderson, Washigton, D. C. Dear Miss Anderson: certainly agree that it is the work of the Woman in Industry Service to get together the material needed for the discussion of Women in Iniustry at the conference next fall. Is it your idea that material should be prepared which will be nrinted in the form of briefs as a basis for discussion? It might be well to have Miss Jones begin to think about the whole question at onoe so that she and Miss Campbell could begin to compile material on the different subjects. I should think it was very desirable for you to go to Atlantic City. I agree that Mrs. Irvin ought to aocept the engagements in North Carolina if she and Dr. Haynes think they will offer opportunities to further the cause in which we are interested. In that case it is certainly legitimate and right that her expenses should be paid by the Woman in Industry Service in the usua1 way. I ih0/114 think that she would accept the July 24th engagement tentatively, calling the attention of those ,no have invited her to the facts about the conditions of this Service. Miss Larrabee wiil time you °Wag' ms3sages. Very sincerely yours, MVX:ALL-H https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis bap.,ry Van Kleeck, DIreotor Woaan in Inl'astry Service. MUD PRAM =PAM= OP LABOR In LABOR ADMOISTIATIO4 (Change Dr !male 110MAX rs ranuerst USTI= reTasete4 to lliSsen's Stream) To enatao the Seeretery of Labor to sorry into effect the provisions of the Act nf .71117 1, 19141, eenocially tbo enclorment of omen in intiustry, including personal service*, awl Tont iu the District of Columbia and in the field, psr diem in liev of wubsistonco Abet', shlloAcd, trAveling expenses, law books, honks of reference, periolicels, nompapere, survaiss an4 equipment, oJntiugant ani miscellanaous eiTenses. *printing and bin44Ing, ancroaue of $110,000 enluitted) ILtimated lt420 Date Imrioyoes ............ Upended 191d* ....1411.11..111011b titalfirios nor annilm Diroctor do Aeeistant Director (to Mlle Clerk lo Iniuctrlea Xuperte do Ininetrisl Mtperts do Inftstrial Agents Secretary to tho goireItor 4o (SocriAtary to the Dirictor)do Resossao 'Assistsnts 4o Resoorch Assistants to erocisl Agents 1o koctial 41144 io SVICial AVMS to Fio14 Clerks !lo Clerks lo C1erks do Closks do Clerk do *monger $6,000 INisiver 1 000 3,ADDO 2,500 2,4.)00 A,640 1,5W 1 4 5. 1 6) 1 - 1,600 1,800 1,500 1,400 1,320 1,600 1,400 1,3*4 1,40u. WO 2 if)) f) 6 Nuakt-sr 1 1 #2 # 3. #2 . 1 1 . a 3 i) . ;56 1 4 18 $11,472.30 Other objects of expenliturs Tr&vel end per :item Ouppliet and equipment .. °trio. rental Printing awl binding rvies, including Misoollamease eete ttolegrark anA tzt.lephotte Total .. • it. • *111.69*.0.11 Swims& litimat• Dosomber 17, 1918. https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis • 25,000 12,500 5,000 4,530 1-09N ilsop-Ooo J,732.46 4,574.97 #4 000.72 .R tao,a ligt * .1-44 1 to Demrzbor 31, inolnsive. ** Part time on field work. # inelseively sa field work. ## Sertember 14 to December 21, inclusive. Mary Van Mosaic A.B., Smith College, 1904. For ten years before 1918, directing industrial investigations for the Russell Sage Foundation, first as Secretary of the Committee on Women's Work,and afterwards as director of the Division of Industrial Studies. Lecturer and instructor in industrial problems in New York School for Social 'Fork, 1914 to 1917. /n January,1918, appointed director of the Women's Branch, Industrial Service Section, Ordnance Department, U.S.A. In July, 1918, following the appropriation by Congress for the War Labor Administration, which included the Woman in Industry Service to co-ordinate all work for *omen in industry in the Federal Government, appointed director of the Service by the Secretqry of Labor, and at the same time appointed member of the ler Labor Policies Board. Beginning August, 1919, resumed position of director of the Division of Industrial Studies, Russell Sage Foundation. Author of books published by the Russell Sage Foundation: Women in the Bookbinding Trade; Artificial Flower Makers; Working Girls in Public Evening Schools; and A Seasonal Industry, & Study of the Millinery Trade in Dew York; ax d various articles on labor problems published in the Survey Magazine and elsevibere. https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis • Je 09- , by Cotinuint.,: the ,)olicies oriOnally established the the -om'n in Industry Sixvice, the Women's 3ureau'has made followinie; investigations this past year: 1. GOVEIATTTENT 6t,RVICE. 7/01741: 60 7.Lis report showed, among other conditions, that per cent of the examinations held bi t _e Civil service that the •'2,reduring the period studied were closed to women and than for men vailin,; entrance salary paid woJen was nuch lower Within two weeks after these discriminations in the same grade. the Civil jervice against ::omen were bryi,ht to the attention of all examinations Coumission they issued a rul ng which o.oened to men aid wopen all e. The Bureau report of this investiga- Congressional tion was included in the final reHort to the Joint Colllission on Reclassification of salaries. 54 2. -1.A,"6"1,14.1•AA-1,-A-4-a4A4ZA. L• '.`401.11;144-1.1-!tFail--44This survey was based on data covering for t e prewar firms period nearly 9,000 firms, for the war period nearly 15,000 and for the postwar oeriod ovr 1,00 firms. The significLnt facts drawn from this large field bear evidence tn. t ronen were enmloyed during the war in crafts fro: 'ici ti.3y had practicalwar, and that they a:e being retained ly been debarred before the in most of these industries now with an outlook of a larger use of woman labor in these s,illed occupations for which the trade training has been thus far denied women except as given by her The Y.W.1.A. through its 7ar "iork Council made employer in his shop. this investigation because of the 7omen's Bureau lacking the funds to make such an extensive investigation. The original report as submitted by the "far 'York 3ounoi1 was revised and condensed by the -/omen's Bureau. https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis -23. .1-11)UIJ,1 TRAIIT.I1TG FOR W01,11: LLD Gril,S. Following the disclosures made by the foregoing study an extensive survey was made of the trade training courses offered women and girls in over 100 trade schools in 20 states with an analysis of the local industries for which training wo.Jd most successfully fit women. This re- ,9ort recommends an imrnediate program opening all vocational classes to girls as well aL, boys, and encouraging girls to fit themselves or occupat-ions in the various industries their communities. 4. EITI;C T6 CZ iib' PiGULIG ,1E11/ HOURS OF 7:ORIC OE riTiE EMPLOYLENT OFVALIIIT. The Diodimplelpt legislation pa,Eed recently in YorkAlimiting the employment of , ;-o.len to nine consecutive hours a day and 54 hours a weeL, and also forbidding their employment after 10 p.m. or before 6 a.m. resulted in the immediate dismissal of the emu oyed in the street rail- way colIr -,Lc_lies of refs York City and Brooklyn. Whereupon the Bureau tmdertoo, an investigation of women in the same employments in other cities, a-nd in C icago and 3oston it was found that women could be employed under co_iditions far in advance of local leal regyireme.-Its and of the reouirements in rev: York. https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis Another investigation was ny de Of tte. effects https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis of the 46-hour law for women recently passed in Massachusetts, of women nt/in unemployme and employment comparing the conditions of tne caief hart stries there with similar conditions in rev, jersey, where the law still permits the employment of women 60 hours a week. The coLclsions indicated that in site of the re- increasstricted measures the actual number of women employed dured considerably in Massachusetts, but decreesed sii,htly inL; the same period in 1;ew Jersey. The proportion of women employed decreased in both States, in 1Zew Jersey 3.1 per cent but in Massachusetts only one-tenth of 1 per cent. 5. TT R E1ini 710121: Fa T:1 61.;PP OR T OF It is generally admitted that the discriJdnation in wage rates against women as com)ared with rates for men serves as a serious handicao to the woman responsible for the s1.4,eort of otAers. What per cent 0: wave-earning wo;Jen are the chief bread winners in their families has never been de), In order eted investigations. restrl very termined except i, to ascertain to what extent wo en ace contributing to the selHort of others an intensive study was made of a limited numb/ r of famiiies in Lanchester, 1;er Hampshire. The total earnings of all the workinc members of these families was obtained from the employer's pay rolls 2or the year, Ella it 14-telAr preparation) by combining this (in report, the that is hoped data with the cost of living survey made b,y the 1:!ureau of Labor jtatistics covering the same period will show the justice of woman's demand for a wage rate based on the cost of living -4 for deT)endents and not merely for the individual. 6. 701,71; I:, 'Z.:, :;=6. G".-11.1.1 I DrAI C., In all investigations made in the States the Women's Bureau has worked in conjunction Nvith and many times at the request of the State derartments of labor. In Virginia the Women's 3ureau made a special survey at the request of the Governor, of the hours and conditions of 'cork for women in industry in that State, a: d a report upon conditions in 144 plants with specific recomendations for the im)ro. ., and working conditions was made to the Gov.,Jrnor. - .stukr oi the same conditions was made in Ltlanta, Georgia, and another more extensive investigation is now in progress in Kansas in cooperation wit. the State Industrial Commission. In a dition to these field investigations the Women's Bureau ha6 had many demands made upon it to sundy information in mattrs relating to the industrial problems of 1-omen. Special bulletins, maps and charts were issued for the International Labor Conference on the legal regulations of the employment of women in the States. The Women's Bureau was even more intimate- ly in touch with the First International Congress of Working Women and the influence of the Director of the aureau was felt in formulating the international program for the imnrovement of all conditions throughout industry. To meet the demands from State de- partments of la uor, wo Jen's clubs, universities, c hambers f commerce and other private or,:zations for ecicEt onal information https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis — 5 — upon working conditions of roman the Bureau itc.s circulated pictorial exhibits slim:Lig poor and ideal cc.-:)ditions, and uiiotor: 1 nt illustrating different phases of women's won. have been furnished magazines and newspapers. staff of the Tomen's Members of the reau have ,artdcipated in many conferees of wilich v.orkinc'standards were discussed. https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis Continuing the policies originally established by the Woman in Industry Service, the Women's Bureau has made the following investigations this past year: 1. WOMEN IN TEIE GOVEENMENT 8311VICE. This report showed, among other conditions, that 60 per cent of the examinations held by the Civil Service Commission during the period studied were closed to women and that the prevailing entrance salary paid women was much lower than for men in the same grade. Within two weeks after these discriminations against women were brought to the attention of the Civil Service Commission they issued a TuLng which opened all examinations to men and women alike. The Bureau report of this investigai. tion was included in the final report to the Joint Congressional Cor,nission on Reclassification of Salaries. 2. 7OOMAN'S PART IN AMXRICAN INDUARIES DURIG TRP MUD WAR. This survey was based on data covering for t• prewar period nearly 9,000 firms, for the war period nearly 15,000 firms gad for the postwar period ovor 1,300 firms. Tae significant facts drawn from this large field bear evidence that women were employed during the war in crafts from which they had practically been debarred before the war, and that they are being retained In most of these industries now with an outlook of a larger use of woman labor in these Skilled occupations for which the trade training has been thus far denied women except as given by her employer in his shop. https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis -23. INDUSTRIAL TRAINING FOR WOMEN AND GIRLS. Following the disclosures made biy the foregoing study an extensive survey was made of the trade training courses offered women and girls in over 100 trade schools in 20 States with an analysis of the local industries for which training would most successfully fit women. This re- port recommends an immediate program opening all vocational Classes to girls as well as boys, and encouraging girls to fit themselves or occupations In the various industries of their communities. 4. EIT'TT5 OF LAM FAULATING VEIR HOURS OF WORK ON WE EMPLOLIET OF 7'0:1117. The restrictive legislation passed recently in Nev York limiting the employment of women to nine consecrative hours a day and 54 hours a week, and also forbidding their employment after 10 p.m. or before 6 a.m. resulted in the immediate dismissal of the women employed In the street railway companies of New York City and Brooklyn. Whereupon the Bureau undertoo'i, an investigation of women in the saris war ployments in other cities, and in Chicago and Boston it was found that women could be employed under conditions far in advance of local legal requirements and of the requirements in NOW York. Another investigation was mnde of the effects https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis passed in Massachusetts, of the 48-hour law for women recently of we on ment/in ploy unem and comparing the conditions of employment conditions in New Jersey, the chief indastries there with similar nt of romen 60 hours where the law still permits the employme a week. e of the reThe condzsions indicated that in spit of women employed increasstricted measures the actual number decreased sliOitly dured considerably in Massachusetts, but The proportion of women ing the same period in New Jersey. New Jersey 3.1 per cent employed decreased in both States, in of 1 per cent. but in Massachusetts only one-tenth 8. WOMEN FOR THE TEE 1172PONSIBILITT oF WAGE EARNING SUPPORT OF OTHERS. rimination It is generally admitted taat the disc compared. with rates for men in wage rates against women as woman responsible for the serves as a serious handicap to the n are Uhat per cent of wage-earning wome rapport of others. families has nev ,r been dethe caief bread winners in their 7n order stigations. termined except in very restricted inve are contributing to the to ascertain to what extent woinen y was made of a limited support of others an intensive stud Hampshire. number of families in Manchester, New The total these fnmilies was earnings of all the working members of for the year, and it obtained from the employer's pay rolls ion) by combining tills is hoped that the report, (in preparat the bureau of data with the cost of living survey made loly will show the justice Labor Statistics covering the same period the cost of living of woman's demand for a wage rate based on https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis 4for deLeondents and not merely for the individual. 6. GE/VRAI MIKIS:TRIAL CONDITIOVB 142 wours IN THE STATSS. Women's In all investigations made in the States the times at the Jure= has worked in conjunction with and many request of the State departments of labor. In Virginia the request of the Women's Bureau made a special survey at the women in Governor,of the hours and conditions of work for ions in 144 industry in that State, and a report upon condit improvement of plants with specific recommendations for the Governor. hours and working conditions was made to the A a, Georgia, study of the same conditions was made in Atlant now in progress and another more extensive investigation is rial Commission. in Kansas in cooperation with tne State Indust In a. dition to these field investigations thq Women's Bureau has bed many demands made upon it to supply information in matters relating to the industrial problems of women. Special bulletins, maps and charts were Issued for the International Labor Conference on the legal regulet!ons of the employment of women in the States. The Women's Auresin "as even more intimate- ly in touch with the First International Congress of Working Women and the influence of the Director of the Bureau was felt in formulating the international program for the improvement of ell conditions throughout industry. TO meet the demands from State de- chc.mbers of partments of labor, women's clubs, univrsities, • commerce and other private organizations for educatonal information https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis 5. upsa !working conditions of women the Bureau has circulated pictorial exhibits showing poor and ideal conditions, and photograph* illuetrating different phases of women's work have been furnished magazines and newspapers. Members of the staff of the Women's Bureau have narticipated in many conferences of which working 'standards were discussed. https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis U S. DEPARTMENT OF LABOR W. B. WILSON, SECRETARY Issued through INFORMATION AND EDUCATION SERVICE Roger W. Babson, Chief Washington, D. C WOMAN IN INDUSTRY SERVICE This contains a copy of the statement of principles concerning the employment of women in war work as adopted by the War Labor Policies Board. It defines what kind of work women may perform, how they shall best be introduced, under what conditions they should be employed and what work should be prohibited. Employers should avail themselves of the assistance of the Woman in Industry Service for advice on the best methods of introducing women and the working conditions which should be established. STANDARDS FOR THE EMPLOYMENT OF WOMEN OUTLINED BY THE WAR LABOR POLICIES BOARD The War Labor Policies Board, for the Department of Labor, announces the Government's attitude toward the employment of women in war industry. The principles set forth will underlie the work of the Woman in Industry Service, of which Miss Mary Van Kleeck has been appointed Director and Miss Mary Anderson, Assistant Director. The existing shortage of labor, aggravated daily by the military and naval demands of the Government which requires a greatly increased production of war materials and at the same time the withdrawal from civil occupations of about a quarter of a million additional recruits each month, necessitates widespread recourse to the labor of women in the United States. In order that their services may be fully utilized and their working power conserved, a clearly defined policy is needed which shall determine what kinds of work women should perform, how they should best be introduced, under what conditions they should be employed, and what work should be prohibited. Standards as to hours, night work, wages, and conditions of labor have already been defined by the Government in orders issued by the Chief of Ordnance and the Quartermaster General, and in the recommendations made by the War Labor Board, which should be observed by all employers. First. The shortage of labor in essential war industries should be met in part by further introducing women into occupations easily filled by them, such as clerical and cashier service and accoupting in manufacturing, mercantile and financial establishments and in the offices of transportation companies and other public utilities; such as sales https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis clerks and floorwalkers in mercantile establishments, including among others department stores, specialty stores, shoe stores, men's furnishing stores, florists' shops, jewelry stores, drug stores, soda water fountains, etc. Second. Women should not be employed to replace men in occupations or places of employment clearly unfit for women owing to the physicial or moral conditi ons, as for instance, in barrooms and saloons; in pool rooms; in or about mines, smelters, and quarries; on furnace work; in glass works, etc. In addition, girls under years 21 of age should not be employed in occupations or places of employment clearly unfit for them owing to their youth, as for instance, in the public messenger service, in street car, elevated and subway transportation service, as elevator operators, as bell boys in hotels, and clubs, etc. Third. 1. The introduction of women into war industries or into employments involving special hazards, such as the use of industrial poisons, should be guided by the standards as to health, comfort and safety set up from time to time by the War Labor Policies Board, in addition to the standards already defined by the Federal Govern ment and by State labor departments. 2. The introduction of women into new occupations such as street railway service, public messenger service, etc., should be guided by regulations concerning hours of labor, night work, etc., such, for instance, as those adopted by the Industrial Commission of Wisconsin for street railway service and by the legislature of New York State for messenger service. 3. The recruiting of mothers of young children for war industries should be discouraged. The advice of the Woman in Industry Service should be sought by employ ers regarding the best methods of introducing women and the working conditions which should be established. Fourth. Older men should be more generally employed. They constit ute a largely unused labor reserve. In the past they have been considered superannuate d at early ages. It is estimated that since the war began, the maximum age of engaging men has advanced ten to twelve years, that is, from about 38 to 50. It has been found that tasks can be graded for these workers according to their strength, and that work unsuitable for women, especially at night, can be performed by them. In many trades their experience is an asset which offsets less physical strength. Thus the productive power of this large class now wasted can be utilized. The needs of the country require the united efforts of all classes of workers, in accordance with their capacities; and to maintain the standards and conditi ons of labor set up by the Government is, in the words of President Wilson, "indispensable to the Nation's full productive efficiency." https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis WOMAN IN INDUSTRY SERVICE. Purpose and Duties. The purpose and duties of this service is stated in the Secretary's letter as follows: of Labor "It is undoubtedly true that the Department earners of wage to ce exercises all of its powers with referen best the that true It is also both sexes and of all ages, the of s service administration requires that the various by including department which are here outlined be conducted g women regardin within the work of each service all questions as well as men. in But the great importance of the employment of women matmost essential war work and the development of special it importers of policy with respect to such employment make of subject the to devoted tant to establish a special service women in industry. as In view of the fact that the other services will, as well as women above indicated, include within their sphere large, not is men, this special service of women in industry will be largely policy making and administrative in character rather than itself executive; but it will maintain close contact with all the work of the department on this special subject and will also coordinate and control such work in all other departments." Stated more specifically the purpose of this Service is,1, To consider all general policies with respect to women in industry and to advise the Secretary of Labor as to the policies which should be pursued, 2, To keep informed of the work of the several divisions of the department insofar as they relate to women in industry and to advise with the divisionson all such work. 3, To secure information on all matters relating to women in industry and to collate such information into useful form. 4, To establish useful connections with all governmental departments and divisions on this subject and with voluntary agencies and societies. https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis Woman in Industry. • - 2 The Relation of the Work to other Departments. This is sufficiently shown in the above statement, the relation relation to of this service to other departments being the same as its other services in the Department of Labor. II. The Service is Necessary for War Production. There is no organization which deals effectively with this subject at the present time or is qualified so to do. The different committees dealing with it in Washington are as follows: 1. The Woman's Committee of the Council of National Defense; 2. Mr. Gompers' subcommittee on Woman in Industry; 3. The National League for Woman's Service connected with the Department of Labor. None of these has executive power and is not a proper agency in which to bring together the various persons engaged on work with refer- ence to women wage-earners in any of the departments. III. The Plan here Proyosed will be Effective. The obvious purpose of the plan is to organize a service on this subject having real authority for the Government, instead of the committees which now exist and which have no authority, though they employ - considerable number of persons in their work. If the proposed service does nothing more than to do away with most of the work of the existing committees, it would justify itself. As a matter of fact, however, a well-established service with funds and authority will be able actually to produce valuable results where numerous committees, without authority, would practically fail. https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis INtratiry ;, 1919. lisemersodum iteoedisql Apprepriatiom itequeoted for thq loom is Iettnotr, Borne' et the WesemOit Surma of the Vetted Statas DelArtment et Sober, ter the year hostasdas Aar 1, 1114. to the %matte, lettsiele St letieste. lip Apprepriatitee* A revised estimate et Womme, pipottikevm, toarmsse of $11,400 ewer the prom* Offeepriota,a or $410,000 is herewith sebeitleds lho orisimal setiftplis st $100,000 me prepared dusts' the ear when it me el*. dem* that if the war dheild somtimee the imerstriee et the oesstry eeol4 depend im rapidly imereeeiss measure Ape* the *Irk of ememos Ike sueemeetul nee persemool late the ear tredeeSien et se lapse imbetries uralet have limeLvel admimistretive respeoelhilities which aeul4 heve loft *my emollor orm 11 salfrme moviole se view 0 the impertarifte et women's week te prodmetion. Witt( the slistiag of the ersteties the prOMeme of Ammo is isiustry ftre moms the loos sorter, sod impertost hut se rapid ea ememoies 144011 govermostat le teemed eir sistivisior 'A, the 1, sisseseeeary at this time* i III Ihe esteem* now requested represents a learease to the oesibime4 scales of empemditure tor the slams eir** e peso by sewaral Atieselee et the 'Moral devromoat t4e pow. boss iesluded heeldoe Cho ems iskIstustry Sorwtos et the lepesimmee ft Leber, Whilk Nos 4.014101104 AO the unifying epee, ter all emelt erseedeatiemet the Weemals Aron* of the Dedmomee 14Nosimett. *Ma et the time et the sigittes 0 the furutatisi, hot develfted octivittim, solmt 0 Ala was rated et lommudtat over $100,000 a years the LWinototal Selotiamo Seetios of the Q9srtermastar's Deportmeee. Ohleh leelsiet mom Amkplosite asrsimi ter Oat 40portemilia asi the Ohippimis Alsord, 411141t awl 0,114 imessolog sitosiies to SU Labrediaimet mums tato Its sysiosidlary amt ores sesibterles their alder Imo Me tile Otpplorde. la oddities there ass *he work 0 the Olommittse se Weems io Industry of Altripary 40.41110140 et thil Ossmoil et 110414mol Weise **I Vie lopertment et Warms io ledustry at the femeo.o lesmittee se the Osomell. 10211. eapportod by privato oontribso. 'he former sas time. Oboe of their* dilate* vill coatis*. um:Also the Ihmooslo Coomittoo oarrios forward a limited range of volt Vhismgh ths velommis clubs. ft is impossible to istioato aosmostoly the total ospoaditaros far woman la industry tho roderal Oororamos4 Miro* all 'Moo cogaftlautioam Aorta' tho war, but evidently it Imo at * rate higher that that now requoetod taring Who ovally important roosastriatios onto*. StaSittoil Osstsins * statement of tbo si4o amoths of Oaf mod aotool onposalturos for the *salmi Saseabor 311, 140. Upen4itures Dot*, I 14 Purposos for whisk Orsaaisod. it, Iho awropriatiom of 1919 'vas mod* "to mobil' ths Soorotary st Labor to establish a service with spatial reforomeo to osmotime amd dovolopimg %he wolfare of asp. oarmisig nem., improwios tho working ooaditiwns sf women sad odosseiss %hair opportumitios foe profitable om'Upset, amd ts this 'orris* to etworoilnote sod osatrel all work Vho Departwes4 Of Labor and otter *sportmoats having to 40 with aro NOW, of potter or 'rumtope with reteromoo tog:ammo mago-sarnors01 S. la esplanatiomot the moos" fey opoolal sorvloo for Noose Mho SooretsOly Of Labor mode the following 'tattooulteattimg Oho sotto*, for 1019: oist https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis WON wit is undo:M*0y true that the lonartmest of Labor szsrelsoo all of ito powers sith rotenone* to ease eArnere of both sows amd of all ape. It ls also true thsit Who best adsisistratioa roquiree that tho various sorriass of We oopartimmat Ukiah ore bore outlimod oomMoMWWL1F inolatimg *Wits this work of ough *emit* all qmostions recordimi moms so voil 1110 IONS the greet tapertamee of tits omplormont of momoll bison oesostial war work old the dovolopsomil spoolal ms4tors of polity with mopes% to onsh plAipment sok* it important to ostabliolli a oppoial service 44911401 to this 016,10011 Of *1100.11 tedestry.° It has boom the purposo of the Sorviso, Mores's, to bring together SiONIMI14011 oemoornod with sposial ampoots of the problem for totted illation on a 0411111.1111 bails *hi& shoat make tho ovork of *ash mos% offostivo. Work aeseasplisked to at.. https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis s sere stualam egi", ted by thelhisma in rniustry Servine atter OW of ths emperise.. st plant. In whia wens* were east ouneseatiello employed Suring the war, mad soup Oaltsotiea with State departments of labor, repro,roblentAtives of sageof rs, earning wawa.411 6711 ': tord wars adopted by the ihr 1141144441". Leber Pclielos Beard in(ter, with the exportation of including the nest inportam in iederol eontiraets. Atter the signing of ‘he sstioe a few Obangos sere Radio, aorleistimg &Mali at the elisiaatiost of rotth. vision. fer meditleatinns to mmst the assossities st oar, an. the Steseards were taea so a statement of purpose and pregismittc tlk+ resonetraction Teriod. 'hay are being wi4e1,7 distributed by State 4epart* MOM tit likbOr ilea atomisationa interested in eon. dittoss et wenn, .wet. They hays home translatad tabs Spanish by on organisatioa in Porto Xis. asd translation into other languages aro planned by tbo Taft Ihsanis Christian Asseetation in its work *meg forelopborneesseus. They form a *gels for suggestions to oppleyers empoolally as they swe actually a stateswat et coniitleme now prevailing rril found practioablo is the best establishments of the country. 7. La fulfillment of lastraeSions to es-ordinate all federal activities for soma is iodustry, the Serivice orgazis4v1 theCOCIven. cm Ems II!MOM amapeee of racrefientativos it nay Wrists" of ea Department et labor, the War Department, the Sailtead Administration, the Weeswa's Condit*s sad the Censitteee outman in leustry of the Cession of istiesal Cstesse, mad the Iroderal Bc‘rd for Vemestleaal lidusatioso this Seseell has hall sleekly meetlatO &ad served MAI & seater it intormAt1-01 to its sombers as to Nioh other's programs. S. The aireator at the Service has ropreaontod wawa in Imds4U7 as the 11114101.211MOUNUM Wes further insuring unity of Asti.* swag federal dapsttronts in dealing with aasealls work. doting for the War Least Policies board the 'limner assisted in formulating statement of policy ter the introduitton of wawa into sot easepations developing es plan, whereby State espertmosts et Labor should worked* the Federal Seversesset during the war lliailateasang stenlards set in flute Wow lownl eall outlining tor the several monneeerasit a pint et cooperation for intensive mar-tise **intim et workers for indletry. Ore Wows is 1401.144w Service, also assisted the War &cher Policies Shari in a scafersam, of the State https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis •41.. Departmonto of labor hold is Washimgles is Bootember, ter die purpose of sore affective oosper$41es is dee see at their soubised reesnreee in deeltai mith thee* .rObless tress national pets& of view. O. At the releoet et the Seeretar, et ihr, the Sanaa in Industry Barris, provisions prohibiting ung tearaway reeposeisit L&1 illi t wart, in plass* engaged in prodasSton for the war. The review consisted in tyaretel serutimy of reports sebeatte4 by industrial service sections 4f the liar Dev,artaents easterenee with the loprrtarrot at loiter in the State ooneerned, the seouriag of a report froe the los*1 employees* 'Moe as to the ovailebility of a stly of Libor ambles medifirsttos of State laws unaseessary, sad, Where nesessary, a sarle* anstary irireotigatias by the Poem in Isalletry Service tootles* to discover other methods if &toting the esergemey. In the coarse of dealing with these oasis* die Servile foris salated a method of prosoder, for control of night work and the safeguarding of air neditioatiosse iononstroted to be neoeseary, sad after contaltationwith ergnaisetioes vitally laterestod in tho labor laws, instals, State Labor departatats, trite,* 'adage *Ad other rokemiory sus-. station*, and with employers eubsitted the plait to the Sae Labor Policies Mori. ?Le signing of %be armistice made its odeptios Innesessary, and it is possible to report that tbroi.ghout the war all standards in State 1/4ber loos warp rigidly weimAalsod to the advantage dl preduetton. OCCIIPATICIFI, 10. Tits itrtroduebitM of seam into SUsludtag thm aoslcai industries, oaimfseture of isrplesives sad the load twist, balsa a serious problem early in the sumer. ivAlwaimg • rest from the liployersi Arnett** tics of ltagars Tails for -.raisin's to employ wog** at 'tight in Oho Chariot/ ind;strioe there, this Service orgnsiliens eeeposs4 of ised a Ressittoo en Ilesardous Oa ropreeestatives et the Publio Noeltb Sorileel thetlurens of Standards, and the ational IleamarOlt Conseil, hnd the mOgitteers from the flar Departa-nt and the Navy whew, contrasts in theme lainetries were itertoeat. A °areal fasstigation was aside in Niaqpra 74C10 by representatives of the Pnblie R*01101 Service and tho %sea isIsdnetry Serviee, the terser dealing with tedmial problems of hygiene end safe*, $md the latter with policies amd ear dittos* os-eoially Westing woven. lho report formulated by this Sorvtoe is submitted herewith is matigmaphod tem Labor It is to be )Aaished is the fortheosieg Review. 11, A 01miLar pies* of osek ese yrsjeotod sad boos isag not continued besets* the signing ef Cho entities nade Cha f,Arthor introduatia If eases unaeseo•ary. mama but https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis ••• 12. 'he tagatri st Sidigara Pails revealed the need for kfl authoritalies csientifie suitcase% of the aim slue* leadpoisoning of firessu eausee sterility and infant sortaiitr. Iltis Service, theretere, asked Dr. Ali** Mindltes at the Duress of Labor Statisties to formulate sash a 'am la Industry statement, which to now la 1170110. Service *ill assist ii sowing station ea Its eenslusions, bp advagating the eassIneen$ at hats laws prohibiting presesees larsivlag svoeuro the emplOplett et weirs . to lsod4peteOutng 13. At the Imiqueet st the &wormer Of rallaaa, the ISOnstrial Soer4 net the State eaussil of Deans. this Swift has compi.sed a survey of isnall 111111 -1111 =MI aM ribsiSted the rarer% Or obi& a oopr is /Wow to sne of six State* bodes ae netta. tion in the 'shy or weeklr hour* uf work et adult women in A$ the request of the State Ctonnittees spy occupation. organised to Sake erotica co the resW.to at the our's", we soSperated la a two days' cInferemse La Tadleaspolle ea .venne and ehildron is induatry, 0.00,1141 is WO WINS , ' Is presented ths aselstanee it the Children's Bureau. the results st thm survey nos only In a print** report blA in 04140410tisou slides showing soo4itions assail correotion and high stanurfis plready attained La Issilaas fsotorlet. NIEL 14. At the regeeet it private sellOnisations in Philadsata, ea Imigory late 1 PAID VMS /11 CARDYolalaja, is new ili progress. there Agents 1' 71Jfl with are working Labor SiAtIstios it of the Sums way aliso that data so the fora esrideo this agents ot saw of survir, hours mationool4e and wave part of the assure being made by the Iltiroutt, while 21$ agents will the additional data needed to IthOw causes and poealblo remedies for low owe trees the point of vise of the 1*(14 otandaris at wassa's work. 115. To further the dowslopmeat at 41er nolieles is industry Itself La Moils/ with Iowa workers, the iiirestor boo served as a asiber of the illigaiLlUdINIUMIUMB 97 Tin wit ziousitie maw Is have cif* reopsaisi te requests frau employers for advice by esnitag tuforustlea or by ashlas plAnt inspections. 4-40 Ike forriso ids Sm.aft the seeds at is male& te asp oeuttlasaao La the lArgoot ladeateitie *ad to have 11111 0000b appgarea their seameel la Ito plass sod $4114/11044 %IN Ihe federal feweraheat tom emert ea loportitaS tatlooars eapiarer et eatems Ike Boothroe. ite oft palsy es row et the Mow hair rosposted this foryloto to have ea la ail seaters or la Ipleado toter is atteotiai IRMO leopootlea le the jariodiftios at the WM,. IMO Wm tit preipooss Les la OM* ead Su0091 wed Awl% the falroAct problem et poliar relattill to entatelea st Zris ampartualtlos la skilled works An lop. lasalry has boo *Apo late the stades ot wow la the asebtass trade* lafiabigAs. 0a thie %mole et skis Sam Mal istesirr the feasibility 0 a ameme sotaitelve wool, will bo doteredmods i9.RF14hasobarseed tries prah am et rose are alud aims. VA ears lb et problem wealsoe egleasiele position. lateranies to the le greatly needed as a tone ter * wise volley. A asabor of the nett et tide serirliee work*, with the Direst., at airs leeneedoe et the Deparkeima le midi% e twin et brief imetiriee, oatoh bee sifted? leekedied Detroit. Ohleasa., tom4 St* &Oats* so a basis ter oistorataihs a preemie( Ia.. elii gliro the taste sessige reotightlow 10. Iowa prepared la ehart tern e tor raterirafte. 21. Oa the bans at Ohio aaalpties 111 stet to the leduetrial beard sr labor debees beets portation La railaaa sod Wittosseta, sad bills booed ea thee. eammeramda twee hoes laireaosod la Woo Obeteos Plana ter the 12* nags tar the oemiaol year seteliempleto a ottodiamsbioa et the stelhode already Obisoa to bs ottani,. to a limited Tear 1110moles future stativItitte aro outlined ob the bons et tatiaiairele ot ahem. IstOreammaalities We.oltiek atomarils tow the eapiarmeab at IMMO ima he arrelepod 401 applied, oho toilworn https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis ‘4• a. Zainallaaliallnadiaanna. The asoirol at the federal Ooversosot over labor EmsditioNs has grown rapidly lose so oar sontesets have been oartailed, hot tko istImanse et the /*derail Gov.. erument throudh the poliolos adepts* Astro it has sow. treat will sent/also to be at post tiPorUne*. Wbe Weans to Iminstry lorries plasm, 4mre1oro, to *any t101014bbs inapastilie rovvested by the Soorotary at ths ihvy ',at to *stood It, if losirod, to pants nyder Ums juipiedistios im otiblor PoiterTu. Dkaarlisests. a. 11 . 4). MULAM1111421111 Iho ruination of the State stnet Poieral Dio-ssftseoSs at Anber in rnuggen go igloos in intivary ars 4istlast srsunu et singe litte dorosstasol.to. are ehargird with isms while the roderul Depervoont is not a imm..oncerning NY bet INternstional sod polisreshins• It is ao. priPleiate am& soosooror OM the Moral Ileveransat should snippli data noodled by woe Stotts as to 04041,466010 saiwyd isl smother and Whoa to assist to raisims etaniarts sod onee001046 moiforatty. ?hitt this lint. tioparfteate are 0000, tyyr this asitietanso is altos* isesmostrated. emir nompoinonntsimi 41trias ths ear has oreatod a rosysmadbility tor the Sodoral Soversomem4. WripOWW, to the NotioNal problem* f rosonstrisstion the Federal Govorionng ant poky won Stute sotto* tor solviss way tiffinaltleo onto& hays national sowassittonsos. *anti ens tog seeperatios witk the Stftte., Is, tilerstore, a National **sloes, as moll as a eervise to the Stets*. 0, aallIMILALLIMMIL the alpltoation Of steNdards will dovolvo soosithe Nonossmean la isdividool ostabilohNonts, sad this Sirvise is prolimill 0410004014 toostotais essisot with osipleposet Namosore responsible for tho sonditiome at wessnie weeks d. Obviously the sown thonsolves an an hiparterkat Smite. in 4stssimining oenditiens of work sod to oaaporatias io evossoisful stedoetten. Ike Items la Ietiootry Soorviso affords ter thies a11.01110 at Nokias known their mods sod, in towno Who 'orris, sem amilist *sir sit !non usittoro affsettNe the relation Of the Moral Oevernment to thins. e• iladerlying ell the ettortit et thaws esessies is the ettitsto et the puhaSs. lhe NOG in Isdessb to the public, time* %Mr Urines *Ass le printed reports, eseseltstism4 and three. Ars simptsgregide remoras aid other terse of b t materiait the toots meted for wigs desisione onospoSed leidelathin, sr ether *sties to improve the senditica et wasessersdes weeen• = WINIST https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis Noels in intuetry is 19l0 epastitetot mem Owe 21 per mot of tho toilet ssiber of rm.*** gstsfullg employed IR the Unitiis Stator. It is not only their *pertness Inseams, but the 'peels" prebtems st their employment Westin inp lustry en She ene h^sid eed family lite amil Shild welters ea the other heed obis% neoessitates specie' provision by the ;Were' leveremest fer eleering Wiese of pond,* mei hots relating to their position in isdestry. Ihe wisdom et Osso grew in diatiposisag es* on sigattey se Nokia. rather then itself execoutire, twos Mohave hem lememstreted la the *cum' Imperious' of the Ilion lilt Dinesew try lierwise in smoi,viss ooeperatiee ead stinsIsting et view the In agencies, sine of the ether tivitiee et sevatry *ad tke diversity of its Onmiltli4ns, hswewer, tee smell *toff wade possible by tit* ;Present a prepristion sae been shoes Se his very isodequeto tor the 4wrelepeesd of polio tele*. lhe sc.,90elprVstlos requested althesgh aloe small ta Seelpftrlsoal with the implitnie ei the took will be nade offestive thressh the extension et the present plan of setivities design*/ to stings*, the aeopesistes effort et 41 ck. asensiols eencernod in the prebleit %a the Wilma mad import&at InthietriAl *enters ef' tin smosilry. lespeettaIly sitmitted. lbw Yen Liseek Direst* Owen in Inisetry 1110/10111. https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis June 4, 1919. Additions& Missommadua of work asolsagalohod by the Wows 114 I/A*0W Seiviso of the U. S. ricartmont of Labor fres February 1, 1119 to Jim 1, 1919. To the Consdttos on A2propriationos 1. Is s0000desoo wit% the arrangomost by *Isiah this Sorties aseamod as amonsinct is all matters atfeet1zg velem employed /saw Yards and in plants loader the jurisdietios of the Navy Department, inepoetiese hove bees de and reports and rosommosestioso sob. silted to the Secretary of the Navy isk the following insimemos: the krooklys Wry Yard, The 'rook* suet los Clothing it Provisions Depot, The Broad's illapply Depot, ibe Philadelphie Navy Yard, Almon Facts". The Charleston Navy Yard. Deeen. soadatioas is limo mum glowered ro&ijustmant of isprvvod wogo rtes, better working somdiiions sotheis of employment management, and the *stabliehmest of a definite policy by the Navy Deportees* regarding the dismissal et wefts workers. isoause the curtailment of tio work is the Wm Yards neeeesitated levies off smalbors et workers it me considered noolossary is order to provost hardship to recommend that due meth,* aikealt be given before dismissal, that Nogro workers sboold not be laid aft in larger propertiome Om White workers, and that part time 4410k for the dole forms should be arranged, rather thin ummiplip. most for a portion of OA torso. Is the Charlestom Wry TL,rd the lorries was asked to assist in tabliehieg plow sort prices end cost : rises on umisrmar aimmtastorod there. Isapostioso are mew being made 4 osaditi,)ns in lb* liaro Island and ihrsaurtoa navy Yards. 2. This Serviee has else bees reiseeted to =Mt INIUMURAIONER in wetter* relatimg the opplapoost of women is Soversmient ortomls. Inc,astions oiallsir to WAN mode is the envy yards arc pleased, beginning with Oho oiroomole https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis at Bemieia, Oallfernim and at letik Island, Illinois, 3. Purther insestigalisee here beim sate te **limn information regarding amajmun 111111W Short ramp have been ends of the enpleyment of Negro roma in the steel industries in Chester and to the ahaliy industry in Philadelphia. A more extensive surrey bas been mode at Negro woven in the industries of Ohio. Oondltiome India* are representative of essio. dittoes *roughest the eountry abasing bee the northers attitude towards the prehlan of the Weary as represented in aed sheet Cleveland ami the northern sort Of the Stets, and the greater prejettee of the south as in Cientinati and the 4 mnort OA this slathers part of the State. prepv:rvtion. in 1114111 worm 1111 isrostigation of 110111 Of ugly email has been empleted. thie lavesfeeleleired factories employing two-thirds of the plorkers in the candy industry in Philodelphia. It 4111 found that although aage rates have increased single before the war, the earnings of the majority are less than the cost of living. One et the chief senses of this low ineeme is irregularity of *wispiest. Copies of the report were submitted la nenneeript fora to the nanngement of all of the eamdy factories which had been included is the investigation, with thl ',vest that they submit suggestions or recommendations as to methods of eliminating this irregularity, to be inoerporated in the fleal report. 5. The first draft of the re?ort on gUiffailkillaia-MENIM has awl. comp eted and shows the need for the establifibi. emat of a definite poll," regarding the future empleynmat of 'acmes is these trades leeleiing special training and education for ;ma me" end a just opplioattmh of the standard et easel ratio of per for nen end wows. G. As the roiliest at the Sweet boles* Vnioll as istrostigetion has him made of I=IIat 0011111 Wats irlagoport, Oenneetleat. It sae toned that Wore is a oensilerable seeset of noes work is oenneetion with this industry at ;ht such 'fork is carried on in fronded unsanitary surroundings, sometidg-s luring the illness of members of the family, suffering from lafeatieas or contagious diseases; that * https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis •sih. lower who rata is gives than wasid be paid for tinilar work in a history, sal that obild 'ober is utilised. Boossmendotleas have be sods to the sipleyers that the prattist at giviag out hams work be dissontimmod as soon as passible sat thnt is the nsas tiaa sash work should be saratelly supervised and the sem rate paid for werk ions in ths hone as would be pals far similar work toms The empleyer in the most importis she fastory. sat plant has emprassid latcrast in the fildirgs and hps ass* for a special report on fasilills lag wort kola fres his factory. If will bring the romminammtatisms to the attention at ether spployers isiridgarport, oed in the Sttts. t. 6. ir variaos SUtss. osepaisa special lagislAtivo a *hero linnisita, In this on, eas attpriod 40MAU for hours for snorts, personal /drift to alfiltioa in turnisbed, esevise sad assistant*, Charts showing State labor isms, and stereeptisen *lilts thawing standards at work. fosiitioos, ter exhIbities thronghoft the State. Other Mats. Aiwa.* *foetal assistanee hat been gives are Iowa, koto York, Rhode Island, Peansylvania, sad nreparmi Illustratlog SZLIELJEMON41 kali been' onploynsnt of sum la industry. These eabibits *consist of stsrecptiocii slide tootures, mad a series at panels fostaining photo?his graphs an sketahho of actual conditions. matorisl is bolas mldoly ciroalailed among State Leber mslowtmmais, schools, collies**, labor Saganlaatioas cad Ober grows who ore Lsterestod in improving misdates*. 9. In ardor to leteraisis tits effects 4f dosabilisatins loos the status ist soma workers this Serviso nes boss acquittal to ascots alt advisory relatifs to a r t r Puri' • We 04 A. In view et the gmmerel lack et definite te$011041011 as to Us* "Mk SI *0 is the ear inkstrio. ant as to tho Mare epsrmod to them by seek sisavrollsi It to sessidered that smith a survey will he of great value and ikrrangensalis have bast senplitod for its inauguration. 0 10. 0 . in connestioa with the publieatica St Ohs rororts of this Servies an srrsnopsout hos Iossmado tar a order tO yr41,1 https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis licatissaM unseeessary axpeases ts segaalsics ustediterial and statistical fere. fer the limes Under this avvasseseat is Industry Service. ies will advise ie Statist Leber et the Duress Shook tabulations wiil work, tewl atstist slamming reports ter edit lt aM materia set statistieal tko Reports le, advisab shot publications and, br the Demme ed publish at this Service, will be the sea as Joint ?ub-Apleatiame se the liervise lareaft. R4epeotfully submitted, Wry Ina Ileeek, Dirseter Wchon is Industry Service. ADMINISTRATION - WOMAN IN INDUSTRY SERVICE. (Change of name requested to Women' BureaU-3- wAn LABOR To enable the Secretary of Labor to carry into effect the provisions of the Act of July 1, 1918, especially the employment of women in industry, ineluding personal services, and rant in the District of Columbia and in the field, per diem in lieu of subsistence when allowed, traveling expenses, law books, books of reference, periodicals, newspapers, supplies and equipment, printing and binding, and contingent and miscellaneous expenses. (Increase of $110,000 submitted) Employees Rate Salaries: 5,000 par.weaum Director it 3,500 Assistant Director 2,500 " Chief Clerk 3,000 " Industrial Exports 2,500 Industrial Experts," 2,000 Industrial Agents " 1,800 Secretary to the Director " 1,500 (Secretary to the Director" ti 1,800 Research assistants... ti 1,600 Research asiistants 1,600 " Special Agents 1, 1,500 Special Agents 1,400 .ti Special Agents II 1,320 Field Clerks 1,600 ." Clerks ii 1,400 Clerks II 1,320 Clerks 1,200 ." Clerks 9Q0 ." Messenger.. _____ Estimated 1920 Expended, 1919* Number. 1 1 1 4 5 6 1 1 2 6 6 6 3 3 9 1 Number, 1 '1 1 f2 #1 ;2 1 1 56 salaries Other objects of expenditure Travel and per diem. Supplies and equipment Office rental. Printing and binding. Miscellaneous service, including telegraph 8; telephone Total.. https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis #2 =NI 1 4 1 18 $102,000 $11,472,30 . 25,000 .. 12,500 5,000 4,500 2,732.96 4,574.r? 860.72 1,000 $150/000 564.72 $20,205.57 July 1 to December 31, inclusive Part time on field work Exclusively on field work September 16 to December 31, inclueive -- AVIINISTRATION - WOW IN INDUSTRY SERVICE sted to Women's Bureau) (Ci.enge of nar,e requeIi To enable tho Secretary of Labor to earry into effect the provisions of tne Act of July 1, 1918, especially the employment of women La industry, including personal services, and rent in the District of Columbia and in the field, per diem in lieu of subsistent)* when allowed, traveling expenses, lam books, books of reference, periodicals, newly:laws, suloplies and equirment, printing and bindini:, and contingent and miscellaneous exPensee. (Increase of $110,000 submitted) Rate Employees Estimated 1920 Expends& 1018* Rata Salaries: Director per annum • Assistant Director " 0 • Chief Clerk Industrial Experts • Industrial Experts " Industrial Agents Secretary to the Director' Secretary to the Dirlctor " 0 Research Assietnts Research Assistants • Special Agents • Special Agents Special AL:ents Field Clarke Clerks • Clerks Clerks Clerks EJ ifessener $5,000 3,600 2,600 3,000 2,600 2,000 1,800 1,600 1,800 1,800 1,600 1,500 1,400 1,320 1,600 1,400 1,320 1,200 900 Humber 1 1 1 4 5 6 https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis • • • • • 2# 6 6 3 3 9 • • Total . . . . * ** # ## 1 4 1 18 102,000 • • 2# 1 2 56 Salaries Other objects of expenditure: Travel and per diem Supplies and orgaipment Office rental Printing and binding . . Miscsllaneous service, including teIgraph and telephone . . . Number 1 1** 1 2# 1# 25,000 12,600 6,000 4,500 2,732.96 4,674.8? 860.720 664.72 . s iso,000 Ju4 1 to December 31, inclusive Part time on field work liclusively on field work September 16 to December 31, inclusive $ aolao6.117 13410, 4 .61.1.4,......4.0110.004701. , 4 14 (Iirr-J1 P f 110 fv, Airemaimmorr atria* t Ato 19,20 ;xieeher• a • rt etorooto••••••••••••• I,t.ZI - ' r'44)terilb.••••••P• ' 414410 : • .:1, f . 1 :...t`3It•••11.••40..0•11000. ''••• •••••••••••••• AT,;. ,i... tr: 1 •••••••••• 046.« -.-, •tr.,:4 ' 1- 1 ••••••••••• 04••• ,4er 1...v 1 St' '" le lour it•A',C! : 4 1 ...,,Or0 r c!t,or••• 0;., ••• t . t,.. rat :4 t,4- ifr ,0••• tf.) 1.' ;.: : I. :t- ••*ea **ow 13••• av'i at.,:mt;.•.•••••••444..... t. ••••••.••••••4004,.• - c 4 !,.1 ••••••••••s•••411••• ••••111140se I•ft.-4Ill••••••••••••••••tA0••• 4 : I'. 40 ix-rit..4•••••••••••••••••••••••09.• 1 rit:B•••••••••••••••••04110••40010•• licv ••••••••••••••••••••••a*••• 1 .,zek,rr.th arch •al •• • •e•• . 1•14 ) ... 1,V.1:11 ita) iodoo I .,, ti. el lte. 4 )1t*-4 1.1141'..00 111:, c20 1.600 4.; i 4, ) 0r 1.4 ift, A 9 ii. 1000 1 J 4 1C.0••••••••••••••••041141111•• 04100 gia 440. •'t: ... r••••••••••••••••••• tie•46,,,,,„.......... 4 6 fassiermarimisairsimisimarmiamanisrastartmis ..014Aritte••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis • r t 4t.if82$00 0 3.1.41241.1, tune end 1.4er (04.419•••••••••••••••••••••••••••• 'YP 4,67 , ..,11••••••••••••••••••••••••• i•••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• ,,••••••••••••••••••••••••••• e 4, ) ••••••••••••*••••••• (Az4•••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• .• 4•••••••••• r--41=1.......--....4.1.7...--11)0IMO , 301.:;4347 7 411111111.11•10•010 41* https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis Aire 44 1919. irallota te ItidIMISty Additional Nessonaten of mut eeesoplithod "by Urns* et the U. tt. De-loolsont of Leber foss Fehruvr, lo 1119 to halo I, 1919. III Sae Sionodttoo on Appropriaticeist 1* boemnunilbtiee milk the *roomesiona WOW& this Saritoo oseafted all 4111121101Uanagraff III III Ili all saWrs affost'ag lbe Yards an0 inviolate 1 ty -1 1 11 fl;Z jorlstlettes et the *vy Ilin,*.rtmonts leavoettese reeemmoatitleme eohhove het ma,te aad rererto Wry In the th1atitibel to the Seorstary of Yard, Ihe Creeks. lounge tnsbarisest Ike Iroottiya l'a Clothing al Provisions 1'4;41, /he BrJoilara Moat tbilodelphis they 140,rd„ Me Morel Ilepply Depoto Airesott Watery, the Otorlosten Nary 'Wet. leeemob amedotlems tit Woo oleos severed rea4jostmest et loge retee, better workteg semalltionl. hal Improwed " 0111111444 employment ilialltypeftto aethato llehment et *deflate policy by the Chi, Dew*. itetten merhnie. eeet repelling the disedseal asomese the esslielamont et the vet* la the /boy emnbers et 'teeing% Vert* meeseeite4e4 :Arias it lose eeesiderai neetetary la order te proven* hastektp to MOOMMINMi ChAt too netts* SIMP1114 be given Were 4ismaseel, that awe mews Oheald est be Iald otr is larger properties* thee Atte moorterss sod that Art tine verb ter tbe nk4le fere. tkeleAd be amassed, rather thIn uneMPliri Caarlostas gent (tor * porttla et the feree. wee betted &oriole* to 44miot iikee"my TKO. Om Sibliddis pion oork 'Kees ono 'est ,, ,iteett en mederseet nommteetured there. leopeetleee aro apoo *slag amde et eemiltiqns la the Mare Wend shed breserteabory Yards. 2. late lerviee boo ales been regneetei to liMain WIUMUMMMIUMISIM in natters relating 0401Potitimillt artostale. Oh the ompleposet of foam SAves made IA sbo navy 1w:risotto's einilor yer4s sr* plammeas beginning nith the arsenals https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis at Boaleta, 4"Alfeemis amiWTIleak Week 34 Turther lirreettoeilome bore locayad* le ohtleet ntemmatila MOW'S 11111611111A . Short servers bevy Iowa am44, of the of &ore memos la the steel Wootries la ahoetor *id la the emir Istectry Ist Amer. estoolve server bee boot III Ute laitteteloe et Woo some* Neve lode se am. ilesolltloas la Obla arit romrataratativis sixotlai 1,4411 essater Qom thiremapteat Altioao tbe asslitaral WAWA' tsaarla the Aral* est alierelaall Wait sat la IIOwe as rismiaseatat greater State, am& the the sale meromme resit et prolOitiOo of the moll es le elmstleatt rod Ike A revert ea thle souther* ,Art et the Stetes ~Foy is nob 4. Ma* preporstiaa. 1111111.21UMILIMULUI immiumm boo Ivirea asupietiod• lamps tiotiot tievorioa foctoriaa aspiarliai of the waskors la the seedy Inimetr, 4elphle. It ioo foot the* 4thsegb aege rateti more neteseed stomp before the Mr. Via drilialas* at titio sajerlti ere loss 'boa the scat 0 Oas Of Os ohliof mow of th1O looms is trregelerttr of emplermost* n j Ooptee of the ropor$ were 'Omitted la eme meertrt form JIJ to %be tommgmemme of ell of the 01.0 **sterile' sibleb hai bees Isolltiot te the nreettgatlem, with the requeet that 4h4, "Omit *essestIoue er reommesmiseleme &* to oothato of ellsisatlas thls trregalerltr, te boo ihoOrpOrs444 Mike Mel ymport. manuommis aLIONSLAUSLANIMUMMIll hs* WPM The first Apse% ot the rep*rt esmplostei end show* %he mood ter the ostehlt.b. meet of * Astlmite yeller ?soaring Cho retype smpteptomt et loom le %hese temies, kooludisig postal tralsilag ofteeatles for emeb leek, *OA 46 Just AVOLioatime et tke stamgeri et equal rates of "ay fer mot emit moymk S. At Obe rillaaell et %he genet 'cohere Maims toresttoptiembse %OM gado et 1111111LAS priftefOrte SOMMirmagli sae tonal thht there Is a oonailairabla emelt et hose week im mostestiemettb tints niestry opt th*t such cork Is ckrried ea La orowled insaagilary satteanitais, osastiasa ittring tho Mow of member* of WI seffsrlmg from Isteottems of "eataglow 41041woosi Oka* a https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis •411,, Wawa wsuLi be pelt ter *tailor work in a taetory, smA tkat ebili laher is utilised. Reeelmendattoms have Use mom to tes oeplereme 4moo‘ **4 vr*alkoe at iiviag sat hese work be disesakiaAat Is IS as pesablir and that ta Cho mesa time such toe* should be saretelli sapervised wad the seas rate paid for work Asa* the sass as wea14 be paia for *tail*? west 4eas The saolever ia the mmet ispertis the feeteri. oat plaal has espreasei tatereat is the audios* sad hos asked for a *paella rivers sa families Wk.. Wig work hems trouble tscterr. as will bring the reessommiatiefte is siks iltstatioa et slaw 01191*Yere la lirSdigirert. ;kat In *a Mists. 1401,T 00$0 rate is igiVsa arm TO LOCAL OWNIZATIOM Is various Stoteos egislatirs eampelet ameaetais oiler*C sp for shorter hoar* far WOMB MO ferried as, this Sergio, tarniehei, taadiiislos is leresnal odviee *44 :44istaaa4, shorts short% State labor lams, Asa stereopticon eltdes *beat* obaadards at we'llo. tmg conditions, for walbitima thrlajheat the $tate. Otihor Statists tUors special fitsei0114000 has bees gives are To-ka, **A Tort, Rhode 141un4t Peamartiramia, god ado. ELI =IT a. me been prepay.* illmatteSlag e employment of amen is istostry. or These ealithlts osestst f it.rsStt.os 41440 4.40tures, oad a ~is* lf ;A.6111 csoilalatag Ihis bruptill as *WOW, of aetw-.1 oustitites. 0446eri4 is belie addely elrealated emmas Hale 401. no.Ariammail* 001110014* colleges, labor snoop iA4tions and after ippeops who aro Lasersetel Is times• 141-roving c 9. In a.i.or to Asteroidal the 00400 Ir stUastiazi won the status of yeses 0orkers this Service requestei te assume as ativisery relation has be te ay44. if e I P , 1r 'Ts ma is!mite Is 01,00/ Of taw pismeel Islik as t* the work of 006111 Is the war istbstateMM A. eM ::i4 Woes as to %he tutare voted te dius by midi applapsist Ii Is oemsltlered ibM seek a survey will be st great irsawl sad sw,001eassts have bees sempletei ter is immegasabies. 10. ta saasseSitasilk lb.pvillisattes Ole marts se' Skis 9srviss as arraasammat bea lissaraiiii for a tai avail 01 https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis sistos Ws/Um sat masesessrg ospiram is orip Wows Wks . far tore sal adiliortal mai stainsti UM*" Utsmoirgassill etry lisevias• Isis Is *111 amass Is 116. Nuevo et Labor 9414ttotiss Sabalattices plaaaiag suitlItlaal work. gill Omsk sils tse repa aM staUstioakik amiteirial, oat edit rts impo tho awl, vibes vivieribls, an 11We she by at ads 1ut.s, ill bill m101411001 taw sad pubAloatleas sir the Servlso ft• Suripati. aiespostfuL.y ontoit t roster Usa nartok Ia . &Iry ,Arr !a' Ireant Is https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis 2641 1919. ChiefOlosiss In pagans* ts year essesnaisation st July 21. rolativo tit the list at names ter the *Metal Rsg/ster, the following list is nikuitted: Diroster Assistant 'Amster Chief Olsrk Industrial Invert Indostrial moat Industrial Agent lasisish Assistant yiii:lasok Nary Andarsea Lillian It. Loth Apses L. l'otarssi Reim 'rpm Baton B. illildrod L. Jonas Mist Is.Bestilra.) Anne Lambe, Oempbell Apes ftesial Asset illeeetnirr WU G. Wows Clark OWE 0100k . SPOstal AVM MA Y. aims Miry I. Iloilo, Mot Olerlt. • MOO 3600 - 2400 3000 2000 au001 1600 1600 1600 Lt00 1320 1600 WOMAN IN INDUSTRY SERVICE. Purpose and Duties. The purpose and duties of this service is stated in the Secretary's letter as follows: "It is undoubtedly true that the Department of Labor of exercises all of its powers with reference to wage earners best the that true also is It both sexes and of all ages, of the administration requires that the various services including by conducted department which are here outlined be women regarding questions within the work of each service all as well as men. But the great importance of the employment of women in matmost essential war work and the development of special imporit ters of policy with respect to such employment make of tant to establish a special service devoted to the subject women in industry. In view of the fact that the other services will, as above indicated, include within their sphere women as well as men, this special service of women in industry is not large, will be largely policy making and administrative in character rather than itself executive; but it will maintain close contact with all the work of the department on this special subject and will also coordinate and control such work in all other departments," Stated more specifically the purpose of this Service is,1, To consider all general policies with respect to women in industry and to advise the Secretary of Labor as to the policies which should be pursued. 2, To keep informed of the work of the several divisions of the department insofar as they relate to women in industry and to advise with the divisionson all such work. 3, To secure information on all natters relating to women in industry and to collate such information into useful form. 4, To establish useful connections with all governmental departments and divisions on this subject and with voluntary agencies and societies. https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis 0 Woman in Industry. - 2- The Relation of the Work to other Departments. statement, the relation This is sufficiently shown in the above the same as its relation to of this service to other departments being other services in the Department of Labor. II. Production. The Service is Necessary for War effectively with this subject There is no organization which deals to do. at the present time or is qualified so The different committees follows: dealing with it in Washington are as 1. of National Defense; The Woman's Committee of the Council 2. Industry; Mr. Gompers' subcommittee on Woman in 3. ed with the The National League for Woman's Service connect Department of Labor. None of these has executive power and is not a proper agency in which to bring together the various persons engaged on work with reference to women wage-earners in any of the departments. The Plan here Proposed will be Effective. III. The obvious purpose of the plan is to organize a service on this subject having real authority for the Government, instead of the committees which now exist and which have no authority, though they employ a considerable number of persons in their work. If the proposed service does nothing more than to do away with most of the work of the existing committees, it would justify itself. As a matter of fact, however, a well-established service with funds and authority will be able actually to produce valuable results where numerous committees, without authority, would practically fail. https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis ITovember 20, _ . "IFMOPANDUM MIS TO FILF. SU73.7CT: Proa,rail, 01. . Litry Servi„c9. Van Kleeck had conference with the :is Anderson and the followinii Secretary of Labor in interest of the main provam with comments. 1. We ar 1..structed to prepare an appropriate letter for the Secretary of 1or to send, which will 6ive us an advisory relation to conditions of the employment of woulen in overncient owned plant. 2. The proposed conference of represent...tives of minicrum sao comilissions should not be c&lled until after the peace coalmissioners have beau named by the President, as all coferences held i Washinton now tenct to result i-_ pressure upo the adniiaistration for the appointment of representatives of special i:-..terasts. it does not sear desirable that "Ata Councils of 3. Defense shocid continue after the war it is not wise to establish . Aonshis with the State Cnaittees on Women 17. In:ust continuinL .qa, advisory council of employers 4. The establishment of tanddrds is 4 L.attar which zhoild be very carefully considered.. the with endorsement of the emi)loy2Jent of wo.-ian issued „overninL /omen tnea,selves will have wali;nt. If they are supposed to azanate from employers it is possible that ti,ey wocad nd secure so fully the cooperatio'n of the Aorkeiss. These, h04aver ar Oiy ttive considerations and not a final conclusion. https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis June 25, 1919. Miss Aqn Larribee, Woman in Industry Service, U. S. Department of Labor, WashinLton, P. C. Dear Miss Larrabee: I enclose the revised :manuscript of the report of Wages of Candy Makers, together with the copy whioh was corrected by Miss Canpbell and Miss Jones. I also sendttwo letters to Pr. Meeker, which should aocompany the manuscript. Will you please re-type page the new material folloNing page 41. 38 and Will you as Miss Jones to note my revision of her note on Table la page 5. As I read Table 11, page 34, it reoords 26 girls under 16, whereas the number of children under 16 in Table 1 is 27. It does not seem strictly accurate, therefore, to say that the number of 6ir1s shown in table 11 is 1,irger than the number oi. children in Table 1. I ma have misread Mise Jones' note. Will you as her to straighten it out before the Lf.anuscript is sent? On page 16 the Bureau's editor has found a discrepancy in our fioares. Will you ask Miss Jones to verify the accuracy of the correction. On page 48 I am not quite sure that the referencesto the months are accurate. Will you aak Miss Jones to oheols the 52 weeks of the year according to an actual calendar for the year 1918, taking the first Saturday of the year as the end of the first payroll period. Miss Jones made a nuagber of changes in the footnote references. I note that the Bureau of Labor Statistics left the original references in the footnotes unchanEed in form. It is desirable to adopt the Bureau's form for these. Will you ask Miss Jones, therefore, to take the matter up with the editor. I refer, for example, to pages 6, 9 and 21. Please tell Miss Jones also, that for the .Lo -t part I have not accepted her sugzestions for ohange in form in the sentences immediately preceding https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis (over) -2Tables. Shs 11,1s evidently thought it necessary in these sentsnoes to repeat the Table title, whereas I have referred less formally to the main Pubjeot of the Table. 98 I hope that you will get this to the Bureau as soon possible, as my own delay has been already so long. Sincerely yours, ...MAELlaujcleeok Director, Woman in Indus ry S9tVi00. MVanKip https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis June 26, 1919. Miss IlaptIgajilseek, Hotel grada0219 63 Washington Square, nOs Teat, We 7. dear Miss ismirleeeko Them 1 get balk to the office ea reeedm, I found of exhibits, every set having be sent doodad It quite Whe l• Iv• 0. A. peOplO I was ewer. meek out taring the many sets as we eould as wanted and are mast appreelat4ve the panels repreduee have could if they give then, end asked the phelOgraphS en if lot • of eoples Want it. they aims Well" piety's. if and the panels, 34rtisv1tr4 the natty their awn publicItr. in use to which thq, went a complete sit photographs whatever with then I think that we shrrold rural& rather I but etc., which we have show factory conditions, spread broadeast pictures hate to have the 3etty and Nell unless they are used as a set and credited IS we. 1 have net &armored their request yet. Will you let me knOr it yes think I should dot Miss %Mame has also written to oak for several Of eur pictures to use as lantern slides for the Mitional tuberculosis A,,aoolation. I don't see a27 mums Imr she Shouldn't have them, but I should like to be able to arrange to have them credited to us though I to not feel sure that we are entitled to elk for credit for photographs which were furnished us menufaeturers. When WO fernith a eomplete ley-out for Life and Labor, it seems a little different. The ismsestisas which you pgs me for collecting did met meet with the material for the labor : Uhe says exithing which is not Ales Anderson'S approval.. particularly a question of special legislation for women is beyond the seeps of what is wanted from us. That marrows it dawn as tar as I can Ow to reoamendations and information about lead poisoning and night work, lerilch leaves Wry little to be deny as most of that material Ivo been assembled already. If you will suggest4ny other matters for special https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis laSi , Taa Masa -• 2 is Ns* logislatioa for women I shall he Best grateful. ignorsace an the subject is very dons*. MV We are working now on the "County Pair bibits". Quo puma Is finished gad loan quite fine. I ahtll have them photographed so that you can see the reproductions, if not the originals. Always sincerely, Mar, N. Winslow, Spec;a1 Agent, %man In Industry bervice. NOVI 1/ June 30, 1919. MiecXary Van K1ee4t The Judson, New York, N.Y. My dear Miss Van Xleeck: The proposition of whioh I sp)lte to you over the telephone this morning is this: Mr. Starr is about to be reinstated in the Department of IAbor a4 Appointment Clerk, position which he formerly held. Hs is desirous of retaining his assistant who has been responsible for all finances and business affairs pertaining to the Information and Education Service. She is an $1800 person and it is desirable to retain her until he can make other arrsngemente, at a salary of $14411, 4bioh is tme $1200 plus the $240 bonus. He has requested that we appoint ner for a period of not to excied three months, to be cut off at such time as he can otherwise locate her in his own office in the Appointmont Division, she naving a-Clvil Service status. While I know our situation relative to finances very well, I feel that it would NI to our interest to conoods to .his request for a period not to exceed one month, which will help him materially and. mean an e&perditure to us of $120.00. I iave this day received his permission to plaoe an order with the Geological Survey for photographs of our posters in amount not to exceed $500.00 to be paid far from tile Information and 7 !ducation Service for the fiOcal par 149. This will wore than offset the expenAiture 40 will make in case the three raonths' appointment is granted him. He will be in a position to do an favors for us relative to appointment matters during the next year and it would perhaps pay us also on that score to cooperate at this time if you as fit. My recom,uendation, cooperate to this extent therefore, and also Miss Anderson's is tnat employee to be detailed to Mr. Starr's this of one month's service of livision. The additional photographOo work for whioh the orier will be played today is reproduction of pazIels which we have purchased for our travelling exhibit. Miss Winslow will order pictures spout 12" z 14" or 16" x 2.0" which can be shipped Where it is desired in place of the large panels. They will be of an inexpensive type and it will make little difference to us whether to us whether they are returned or not. The Children's Bureau has found this a very satisfactory substitute for their larger posters and lantern elides. https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis I an this day on my own responsibility requesting the certification of a temporary stenographer and typist at $1320. There is a little surprise party I have been keeping up my sleeve until danger was over, to which I think it will be all right now to give publicity. Under my interpretation of the clause providing for our Service, I believe that the Department will have to be responsible for all of our contingent expenses, including rent, telepone, telegraph, supplies and printing. I spoke to the Chief of the Division of Supplies and Publications the other day and I told him that AO would expelt to be well taken care of and in talking it over he quite agreed with me that my Lupression was correct. This morning I have asked the Chief Clerk how much money we ogre going to be allowed and while he believes that we are from nov on their rersonal responsibility, he has not arrived at any conclusion as to how much money they will be able to allow us from the contingent expenses of the Department and says he intends to look into the matter more thoroughly in order to see whether he cannot throw these expenses back on our appropriation. I do not feel, however, that he has a chance of getting rid of this responsibility. I am sure you will be glad to feel that by this little rider of ours we have dragged down some additional money through their oversight and I hope that no obstacle will be thrown in our way of attaining it. This will give us some extra money to work with, probably several thousand dollars. I also feel that it is in orler to . alce uo the matter of increasing the flat salaries of the employees in accordance with the $240 bonus chat clerks in other departments of the legislative branch are to receive. In the Woman in InAustry Service I believe that the salaries should be in keeting with those of osher departisents and I find upon inquiry where there are lump sums involved, that the amount of .he salary takes in consideration the additional $240 allowed to statutory posttions. There are only a few people involved in this so that the increases would not amount to nearly as much coney as I belleve we are going to be able to control through this cortingent appropriation that I expect from the Departalent. I therefore submit tone proposition to you for your consideration in ordtr that me may make recothmendations,W it is approved by you, before the 15th of July. This matter, however, is not urgent but in regard to the matter of the appointment of the clerk for the use of Mk. Starr's office, I would be very glad to have you telegraph your ultimatum as soon as you conveniently can after arriving at a decision. Sincere regards and best wishes for you and your mother, LIE/ALL https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis Lillian M. Lewis, Chief Clerk Woman in Industry Service. pg - D-3 https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis Problems Attending Women in Industry: Their 'Var Record and the their Employment. WOMEN II INDUSTRY' PH Eccuo Y.° AND THE PROBIF.MS AVE-TIDING Tq-- IE APLOY ENT. Mucr I. winslow, special bgent, Woman in Industry Service, 17.1 Department of Labor. . ome have played their part in the war. 'ork or fiht There was no alternative offered. -Oft was not the -otto for them. sTs their road to victory. ..he doors of industry were opened wide to hen the armistice was siuned the second greet this second great are. draft vas well under way and manufacturers were searching eagerly for o 9ortunities to introits*e women into work that was formerly done by men. lans were beinc. mnde for more extensive opnortunities for training, the .ossibility of in, reasing the emplerment of women in hazardous occupations was being considered, and ap2eals were comm n: in from all quarters for a ,he sin-' relation (4 state labor lars retarding night work for women. ' but the rosters, of need desperate the inL. of the armistice put an end to labor deereasing and production result of the last few months• of stimulated in° occut:lations tile of ext,ply has been significant for roman. A survey which .,.,orten are encaced discovers a. very tide field of o ortunity for women, and a study of the results of their employment in these occupations le ds to the conclusion. that in many cases women will be permanently employed in the occupations into rhich they have recently cone. In Ohio women are replacing men in glass factories. In Arkansas they are at work in lumber clamps. '.:12 the coast they have found their laces in the shipyards as painters and carpenters. - va their greatest endeavor has been in the factories and shops where they have proved themselves capable as maehinists and in various other kinds of metal work. '-he work done 74, women in the metal trAe embraces a great vvriety of processes from the *violation of ordinary drill prerses and lathes to core making, inspecting and tssembling meshautoal parts, and many _irecise machine operations. vnny .irls sontimeneLbelle gone into the hardware industries as screw machine hands, spat welders, gas welders, dip braziers, and an drill press and bench -ork. Electric welding is one of 1.ite jobs wonn are performing successfully in airplane manufacturing and they ht ye also taken the place of men in foundries as core makers, making Naas fOr castings, strairhteners, vrinders, inspectors, chemists, store keepers, labelers and shi;ine clerks. Qms of the most interestinp phases of this broadeninc of women's sphere in industry is the almost universal commendation which has peen bestowed on their work Ay the nen who hive employed them. Out of 99 establishments that were investigated ay the National Jndustrial Conformal* Beard it was reported by 30 that the out-ut of the women asseedoi that of the men in all operations in rhi.h tizro both enand equal in galled; in six cases their output was ( r ater in some This makes 66 establishlywea;-Others; and in 30 it was equal to VI* men's.' *War time employment of https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis omen in the Metal qrades. Report No. 8, July 1918. out of 99 or two-thirds la *Web MOMMitt output 'SF equal to or rreater Vim mees when t:ley were engaged fa the sane operrfiohs. In this same rEr2ort it was stated that of tho manufacturers of machine Shop and foundry products, tvinty found that woman is rork ras elual or su-2er5or o that of men in all operations, as against five vim found it inferior. in a steel establiehment where 'often were eaplOyed in the manufacture of fses uomen cr4srators of driA. presses and milling machines wore found to be from 25 to 50 por cent faster than men. in a belt and nut establishment women machines have in sone cases achieved an workinc. on drill presses and increase in output amounting to 30: Mere is no definite information available of the Maw of women who have been antra-Led im war industries, nor of their former occupations: 711ot infOrmation there is, however, seems to lead to the concluSion that a very large mamber of them have been drawn from other industrial work. In ome nInto esgaged in a war industry, C.f. had come from other fattories, 2107fram demastic serVice and restaurants, 5 from 1: 173r:dries and only 0 had not bees ssrployed oreviously. In Nw -land it is estimated that the increase of 7omen workers front July 1924 to tjuly 1917 was 1,421,000. Of this number it was estimated that 1,392,000 were used directly to replace nen. The -nited 6tf_tes, fortunately, has not been obliged to substitute walla Ws Nth a tremendous scale and mamsfasturers haA) boon able to safeguard the women workers whom they were introducing on new procesres. Mlle the largest -art of the recuiting of imam in new occui)ations has been dame in the rar industries, the now.ossential industriec halm ease greatly incrcrsed not on1:7 the proportion of women employed, which would asaurally come throw* any curUilment of the number of ren, but alse the setual nnmber of :- onen Opillyed. In • urast 1918 the - ar Industries Roar( sant out a country wide questionnaire to nowlsesential industries aSkinp. for a statement of the estent of curand - owl' tailment of the industries sinee 1917 and of tho number of replies from ten of thos 401104yed in 1917 and 1918. An analysis of the industries shore that whereas they were running on an averae of 74 of their caacity, the number of vonen oapleyed had increased 28. 4. 'n nese same industries in 1917 the average proportion of women to men em- loyed vs. while In 1918 35c,':. of the force were women. :lthou01 these renorts give the facts for only a **imperatively smr11 force ef roman (27,605) they aze indicative of the extent to which 70han hrve been introdced into other than war industries, and of the demand that will be :30,de or them 7-hen these non...essential industrlec are er-andin lo ca:;acity !- roduction. One of the great objections which has always been raised undertaking men's work is thnt they could not do the heavy 'women against part of the work. This objection hrs eon met in many cases by the installation of msehanical lifting deviccE. in several monitions factories Ow women handle heavy shells with perfect ease because of arrange-,ents of tomes and pulleys with rhich VIcor can move shells from the bench to the mashies and bag* again. it is not at all unusual to find women -orking on heavy parts without doing any of the lifting because a man has eon detailed https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis to do this beLly work. The increased 1Lbor cost resulting from sunh an arrtngenent is usually oevered by the increosed productivity of the worker rho does not have to stop to handle the material the is working on. Th. war Labor board in making an amrd that roma should have the ease pip for performing the same work as men took this object info eemdldern. makine a maw that whenever a group of wawa had to reselve assisties ts*** In their voiles the total cost of Bush assistance should 1, deducted from the wages of the group, .1rovided, however, that this deduction did not roduee the women's wage below the minimum established. Is eassioetion with the investigation made of the substitution of )mien for men it has bees found that although mamapers wore in nr etioal4 every case' enthusiastic over the quality and quantity of the work done by women they were often unwilling to pay them t-e same race that was formerly employers to the authorities for paid to men• eqsests have been an their work was se far superior because 7ermission to eiplev vomen at nitlit Investigation of the sift. nicht the to that of the men who worked on ty of employing desirabili the that fast situation, however, disclosed the they were that fact the by inereased this su -lerior t:.rouo of workers was the o effieleney arts re Naar paid considerably less than the men. In of -omen it has even stated ith Much pride that women rers paid the SSMO the worm we as the se% at the same time the fart being emphasised that of part employers the were turninr omit mesh sore vox*. his attitude OR will lead to maw oouplioations and in common justice to the is* who have been doing such splendid work, they should be rut on oral sego rates with the men. Without such as eqsalisstleo there sill be eerie= demier of undercutting ands moos and a levering of the whole wage smile. The Government, threueh the Department of .abars the Maimed Anisistration, the ar Labor Policies Boards the ar mad Xsly Departnentsehaa gene an record In favor of equal pay for equal viork nnd it is hoped that all industries will soon follow suit. She Oman in Industry .ervioo of the .S. Depart -lent of Labor was formed in 'Ally 1918 to act as an advisory and policy for in body on all questions soneerning Mon in industry. ue of the meet important subjects this servic has to consider is the conditions under which women should ,rork. In T:aglamd because of the tremendous preosure of war preparations, on were permitted to o into °you atlone and work hours that were a serail, messes to their health and effisiefficy. this seneee was koon realised br the aut,orities who appointe,) a social oesndssies tO (Insider tfte 4ealth of munitions workers. The result of the invostigetion de by this °emission was a considerable curtailment of the hours of work ant Inprevement of working conditions. i similar need, of protectinn of Pensn workers in this country .has led V the adoptinn of certain standards by the wanes In Industry 4rvicte with a view to lucre sing both the health and efflolesey of women rorkers• These standards have been stu.geFted 14r the -ar Labor Policies aeard aid are in close accord 71th ressimendations issued 'ay the chief of ,Nne. and the Uartermaster General to factories -orkinr on was contractr, https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis ada. , , so their vol'tme of preductiou in ordtr that these factories might 5her, and that labor laws and reuulatioas should not be unwisely broken deft* Za the interest of effleiemay as roll as health the abort worklav dof• 14turday, at least one-half one de,/ of rest in seven, a half hmir for meals, a short Mat period. in th,, middle of each v-orking period and no night reit are advocated in the standards* "here women do the same weft as nos they ghoul& be ,ald the same we* Ia every or,s4, their sis as the man ts rage, as It is wage should be determined an the came a rell established feet that leave numbers of -omen workers must sup .ort nortunity offered to remelt to undereut derendents, and there mist ba no ma's waves* rho,* wrimen aro emplOyed revisions for t 0.1r comfort end health should be gado. ii'htimg and ventilation shoilld be adequate, plenty of good driakimg?,eter rovided and opportunity given o seoure a nourishing meal which ean be eaton outside of the rorkroom• Ad_quate toilet faellities are most es:—.tdal and rest room should be ,rovided rhersver peseiblee Ldjustiaents should be Pvds to provont roma working coatimueus.. II in a cra,aped positi9n or lifting heavy u.:ights• Proper seats should be rovided so that continuous stnnding is net necessary, nral no - vmaa should be enplo 11We she is exposad to ezeossive heat or cold, or to dust or I oisonous tamen• The immediate tl4k trmfronting the country at present is to accomplish the change from a war to a :ease basis vith the lecst poasIbio nnemplaymost and with the reinstatement of the largeLt number of mon nnd ,lie question women in aomma Socupotions ear thich they are best ad4pteo* ' It reed . 7,eouliar to romen relate. to those ,Aio Ir:ve taken NOR'S plaills• seem ftir to the retiArninv soldiers that they be rainst tot in their old hrve takes their places suffieleut f.)ositions, but - to justice to tho women notice silould be given to erw.ble them to be transferred to other v:ork. l'h the mood for production to feed sol0 clothe and shelter other &Alone besides our limn there is no reason to believe tqat the emrloyment of ',omen in industry rill not increase rather thaa decrease* file problem ahead is the orLamization °finalist*. ia ingeh a war us to utilise to the full Pll the available workinE: forties of the eonntry. The problems of readjustment he avaueles of the can only be met by a variety of methods of attaek* U. 1... Fe. the of *Meet ployment Service, the federal Govoramont, the local schools, the 7:.orkinv romen themstate department's of labor, the selvesi aad erfootive and intelliuent management in industrial Altablishmeats must all have an active part in a well...rounded nrocram* https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis CROSS REFERENCE SHEET File No. Name or Subject SEE File No. Name or Subject "(4-)77Z Date https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis Libr reau Cat No. 03648E For use in Library Bureau Filing Systems CROSS REFERENCE SHEET File No. Name or Subject SEE File No. Name or Subject Date https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis Libr reau Cat No. 03648E For use in Library Bureau Filing Systems CROSS REFERENCE SHEET File No. Name or Subject SEE File No. Name or Subject 7° Date https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis 4/ /P; /// Libr reau Cat No. 03648E For use in Library Bureau Filing Systems U. S. DEPARTMENT OF LABOR VICTORY LIBERTY LOAN CAMPAIGN , 1919. Report for (Bureau or Servi of the Department of Labor for period ending 10 (7d00.-0,L , 1919. Total Number of Employees Number of Women Employees / .. • . Total Number of Subscribers Number of Women Subscribers . / • •• • Total Amount Subscribed . . • , Amount Subscribed by Women . 00 Remarks: 3 p c,5 .1111LWIAL..41 • Chairman. ,k22 https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis o U. S. DEPARTMENT OF LABOR VICTORY LIBERTY LOAN CAMPAIGN , 1919. ,Tro-1,,--4.-- ...., Report for ( (Bureau or Ser ' e) 7 Lt. / of the Department of Labor for period ending , 1919. 1 )4 Total Number of Employees Number of Women Employees /4 Total Number of Subscribers Number of Women Subscribers t-/ Total Amount Subscribed Amount Subscribed by Women .. (6-,6—o o 0 Remarks: ••••=•••• https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis Chairman. Noveoibar 11, 1A.8. \ From: Mary Van Kleeck, Director, Womarkin Industry Service. To: Tne Secretary of Labor. Subject: Plans for reconstruction in relation to the Woman in Industry Service. THE 'TM'ATE TASK. Obviously the immediate task is to accom4ish the change from a war basis to & peace basis with th least possible unemployment and with the reinstatement of the largest possible number in normal oceulations for which tipsy are best adapted. Thus stated the task is the same for all workers including women and men and this menorandum assumes therefore that the fundamental aspects of the program as affecting both men and wo e are being worked out. In it will be inferred the necessity for a policy with reference to cancellation of contracts with due regard to its relation to th.:1 transfer of labor from one occupation to anoter; the coriversion of plants manufacturing munitions to the manufacture of )1.oducts required in peace, plans for public works and omnsultation on this point with Governors of states, in order t at the states may plan with full knowledge of tne plans of the federal gov rnment; and t-at demozation of rsturning soldiers at a sufficiently slow rate to isure their reinstatement in nor,ial occupations. The question peculiar to women in relation to this task relates to those who have taker, menss laces and tho3e who althouch not previously emiloyed, ilave been drawn into gainful employment for fatriotic reasons. MAny persons are asking whether these woTen should not now withdraw to give plaGe to the men. At least one central federated labor body (that in New Tork City) has passed a resolution excallirg on these woaen to withdraw. No inforatIol; is available showing .y gainful Such hitherto employed. not evidence tent of the employment of waren sees to indicate that toe rrimber is smaller the.ln is goner lly there is at sup osed and thal large numbers of women employed in the war industries have been transferred from other occupations. For them it will be necessary to arrange for their transfer to normal employment unless the plantR in which they are employed Are converted to production in peace ti , e under conditions making it possible to retain the same personnel. For the Ismer) who have •taken menss places or have been drawn into inIi. would seem to be dustry for t'A?) first time, the question is ,mre com.licate.T1It a fair policy for business organizations to re-iastate returning soldiers in the ,ositions which they held bef )- r.1 the war, if they wis to be re-instated, but it is inconceivable t.:vat the federal government sho:Ild urge upon any grouP of workers, whether men or women, t at they witAraw entirely fro gainful employTent if they wish to ,TrIke this contribution to the economic life of tne nation. proble-n ere is nit one of withdrawal of a.'y grail; of workers voluntarily, but ratrler a task of organizatio of industry in such a war as to utilize to the full all of the available working forceR of the country. That this https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis working force is needed in larger nmabers than ever berm's, cannot be doubted. The problem of making possible steady employment is not one which (=cerns women in intastry as a separate group. There remains therefore a task of dealing with . the iniivilual case through such an agency as the Employment Service. Thus women who have no equipment through past experience for the nem work to be undertake*, will normally find that there is no iemand for their work. For those who have bad some experience in gainful employment however, luring the war, there will unr deubtedly be a iemand for training 'which will fit them for continued employment. There is in Industry, however, a large group *hick should be withdrawn at the earliest possible moment. This is the group of children in industry, of whom there were 1,990,000 under sixteen, according to the census of 191, and of these, 557,645 mere in now-agricultural pursuits. With reference to the imaeliate task of reconstruction as it rechildren in industry, it is therefore or wean lates to BEcOMMENMED a. That provision be made for the representation of morn in the grouts in the government who will letermine policies of cancellation of contracts and other aspects of the relation of the govarmaent as a purchaser to the labor ()conditions ta,eliately following the war. b. That plans be made to •Anable the Woman in Industry Service to establish such connections with these groups as to insure knowledge in advance concerning the policies and plans for cancellation of contracts and conversion of plants, in order that tns necessary plane may be leveloped for the transfer ef women employed in these plants or for their cortinued in Urgent. c. That after consultation with the Children's Bureau, a statement be issued by the War Labor Policies Board or 11040 other appropriate federal agency regarding the lesirahility of raising the age limit for the employment of children in inr lustry. This statement should also be of assistance in securing the passage of a new federal law. It will have added force if made a part of a reconstruction program. II. DITELOPING NET STANDARDS XS THE IMMINENT OF 10001. The problems of *ammo in iniustry which have been familiar before accentuated during the reconstruction period. These include danger be the ear will working conditions and hazardous occupations; the genunsanitary to health from eral conditions in the sweated trades which have always borne heavily upon women workers; a distinctly loser wage scale for NOMOU th;,In for nen despite the demonstrated necessity for large numbers of oozes workers to rapport dependents; in adequate opportunities for training and limited chances to be advanced to more responsible work inaaiW industries and the danger to health ineelved in long hours and eivloyment at night. These conditions have always been a check upon the rendering of the most https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis efficient service by women workers. The war has demol.,strated t 'at the range of possibilities for efficiency by woinen in industry is much larger than has been asJumed in the past. This is notably illustrated in the work of wowen in (Lachine trades. This suggests that in planning vooationtal traininti the wider range of occupations open to woren should be fully recognised and in the wort( sho correspOndingly large opportunities should be given to women. On the other hand the danger that A., .olben may bocoTe the oomPetitors of men throu h underbidding, is very real. Thee* comAicated problems c,9.11 only be met by & variety of fiethods of attack. They suggest the necessity for strengthening Ulf, resources of the federal gov--..)rnment for Jealing with these Ivoblems. This *hold be done at owe. Otherwise the difficult questions coAularnirg women in in&Istry will be a constant obstacle in the developmentof any reconstruction prograc for labors It i probabie that such federal agencies as ji,a Woen's Branch of the Ordnance DeJartment will be discontinued, as the production program of the War D4v)artent beccves unnecessary and it is the more Important therefore t:lat the force in the Dekastmorit of Labor should be increased. It is therefore https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis ACOMMKNDED a. That in accordance with a supplementary oemorandum provision be made for an enlargement of the Woman in Industry Service to make possible ti.e addition of a field force and the carrying out of plrais for a program of educatio of public o'inion. b. Immediate issuance of standards governing the employment of women already adopted by the War Labor Policies Board with such Changes in the i-troductory statoment as will make the standards applicable to the rPconstruction period and not merely as in its first form to the war industries. That the following resolution regard 1n night work be adopted: MMUS, On September 6th the War Labor Policies Board endored the vlan which provided for federal control of night work of woYon through the i'llertio!-. of a clause in contracts prohibiting tie employuent of women between the hours of tea p.m. and six a.m. in any plant working on a contract for tAt federal government unle)s the plant held a certificate froi:. trle Secretary of War or the Secretary of the Navy granted with the approval of the Secretary of Labor after demonstration t,l.t production for the war required the employ ent of women at night for a specified period in that particular plant and https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis -4WHEREAS, By this action the Wor Labor Policies Beard recognised that the employment of mummat night is hamatn1 because of its had effects on health, family life, the welfare of children and iniustrial efficienoy and that only an extreme emergency created by the war could Justify might 4ork for women in air plant working for the federal government. BE /T RESOLVED that now with the prospect of an early restoration of pease and the niseessity for strengthening the safe-guards for women 'writers in the difficult perloi of reconstruction, the Board hereby reaffirms its conviction that the em laymeat of woolens* night should be prevented and urges upon all federal departments that pending the enactment of legislation in those states which at present have no laws prohibiting night *cork of women, the employment of an at night in plants working on contract for the federal government shall be controlled through provisions in the contracts and shall cease at the earliest possible moment consistent with the Laminate demamds of the war, and that, furthermore, the amolepment of women at night in all arsenals, navy yards, aid other establishments clamed or controlled by the federal government, shall be discontinued as soon as possible and that with the restoration of Immo., night liork of mien shall be prohibited in all planks under federal control whether y contract or ownership by the federal government. (Substantially this resolution was adopted by the War Labor Policies Board on November 15th to response to our request) -5III. AGENCIES TIMM MCI A Ifilligg'S =KAU IN THE FFDKR4L GOMIS= NAY ACT. A. MaLlidgrAljumalanLeiAmliuM. During the war the federal government has had an uwrecedented opportunity to develop standards through the control of plantsmanufacturing for federal departments. Although its control during the reconstruction period will be very much less extensive the standards which it maintains in pleats owned by the federal goverabent will nave a marked inauemoe laprivate industry. Its control through contracts can also be uontinned even though the contracts will be fewer in number. It is therefore MUNE= a. That the standards endorsed by the lir Labor be made strictly enforceable in Policies Board plants world is on conarsenals, navy yards ard tract for the federal, goverm.ent. b. That the Wmaan in Industry Service be given supervision over conditions affecti4g women in govurnwent owned plants with the right to inspect and report as a basis for advising the department responsible for the plant, this supervision to become effective when slush existing agencies se the Women's Branch of the Ordnlnce Department, discontinue the supervision now exercised. c. That the Woman in Industry Service be authorised to secure from all the federal /apartments facts about their activitios with relation to weeen in iniustry mriing the sar. In the Council of lationel Defense, in the Qnartermaster's Departmernt sed in the Ordnance Departzent, noteworthy work has been lone to raise affecting wanen. •In the gov.3rnment arsenals . eeple3ril‘ort samiagament departments for ',omen have been established. The record of these activities will hew* an influence in showing standaris already adopted by tIe federal government. Authorisation is necessary, however, in order that the records may be collected in central place before the discontinuance of actiI vities in these deportment.. B. State Labor Leaielatiog. As tA0 control of the federal govlrn.3ent exercised during the war is lessened, the responsibility of states will increeee. One of the primary purposes of a Women's Bureau in Um Department of 1,14.bor will therefore be to strengthen in every possible way state labor legisltion and its enforcement. This can be done bp establishing close connections with state labor departments and by assisting state groups to secure necessary information on which to ase https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis -6plans for labor legislation and administration. It is in this connection especially that additional resources for field work for the Wo-an in Industry Service are imperatively needed. It is therefore RECOWENDFD C. a. That the Woman in Industry Service be authorized to suggest to the Secretary of Labor tnat women holding importAnt 2ositions in state labor departments be deputized by the Secretary- of Labor to act for the Woman in IndustrY Service. b. That the wort= i. Industry Service be authorized to call a conference of representtives of minimum wage comvissions already established in thirtAen states, to corlfer with them regarding their task in the reconstruction period. c. That the WOMAD in Industry Service be authorized to make necessary arrangements with the Council of NatiorAl Defense to establish continuing relations with State Committees on Women in Industry whidh may decide to continue their activities especially in working for more adequate state legislation and in developing the necessary (labile oiAnion to make possible constructive action for women in industry in the states botb by vollIntary and official agencies. Amployment ManagerTent in the Plants. The test of federal activities will be the actual results in the various plants and industrial est .bliShments throu,fiout te country. The application of stnndards and policies will devolve largely upo the vidual ihoic, organisetion, including employerm and workers. The further development of tntelligent employment management will be of great iftwortance in relation to Uhe problems of woilen in industry. It Is therefore https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis RECMNENDED a. That the Woman in Industry Service be authorized to2 call a conference of employers with a view to tile organization of a permanent advisory council which will exert an influence in the establishment of such methods on the part of the management of the industries of the country as shall be in accord with the highest sta.:Aards already demonstrated to be practicable in the emplorient of women. b. That the Woman in I1IIndus ry Service include in its ,urpose, e3pecially in planning for enlarged resources the task of industrial counselling which shall wake available for the industries of tr:e country the best ex.oerience in t e employment of women. This should be done not only through publicatio but throuu visits to aants for a long enang0 period to assist in a practical way in their proplems. D. Penresentation of Women /orkers. It will os impossible fo deal effectively with any of the problems affecting the wo,en in industry unless the women themselves participate actively in their solution. It is tosrefore BECOCE1011 alp b. That it be urged by the Department of Labor that represent .tives of working women be added to such wage adjustment boards jr the federal government as may continue to function through the reconstruction period. That the Woman in Industry Service be authorized to continue the Advisory Council of working wonen already est,,!dished iind to call them into consultatio - at an early date to confer regarding the progra of reconstruction. S. Pnblic °Pinion. Obviously it will be Woes/bit) to continue useful work unless ,ublic backint, is secured in the development of higher standards for the employment of 'owen. It is tlerefore agCONSfriNDID a. 'tat the Wollan in Industry Service be authorised to formulate a program of public education trough exhibits, moving pictures, published reports, lectures and other methods, the plans to be worked out by the Woman in Industry Service and to be ml into effect through the cooperation of such agencies as the U. S. Employment Service, the Information and Education Service and state groups. b. That tie Woman in Industry Service be authorized to secure the cooperation of the Navy, ShipAn6 Bos.rd, and the various - artmont, in securing a photographic divisions of the War De _ arsenals, navy yards and plants in work wo-en's of record on cortract for the fef4ral manufacture to continue may which government. T. 4141ployment Service. A large part of the task of transferring women fro onos occupatio to another will of Marie devolve upon the Employment Service and on tne other hand the successful carrying out of policies in connection wit the federal government will dei-ond upor: the unity of purpose of Ve women res onsible for lark for women in the employment service. In the interest of closer cooperation it is therefore https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis -8JVCCOMMIRNDVD That as a means of developing the policies necessary at this time and securing unity of action through the federil agencies, the Woman in Industry Service be authorised to call regional conferences of women in the imployment Service acting in this matter through the state directors and in other ways tc develop closer contact with the women's work in the Employment Service. G. Institutions for Training Woren Workers. The successful employment of wolflen will depend in large part upon the policies guiding those institutions now existing in cities, states and the federal government which are responsible for the development of vocational education. Policies in connection with training are so intimately associated with all the other aspects of woirosn's work tat it aho id be rmsie ossible and appropriate for the Woman in Industry Service in the federal dovernmant to develop plans to be recommended to local tray schools, state departments of education and such national agencies as the Federal Board for Vocational Education, and the Trainin And Dilution Service. It is therefore https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis JLECOKTENDED riat the Woman in Industry Service be authorized to include this subject in its activities as soon RS Sufficient resources can be provided and to make s.46, investigations as will result in recommendations to the ak.ropriste a*,encies on the subject of the training de wopen. . 2ThigigLaZallaNNEMAIZZLZ 1. REPRRSINTATION OF ISM IN GRCUPS NOW PLANNING THF POLICIES OF THE PADDUCTIONDEPARSIENTS 07 THE GOVFRNMENT WIT:7 REFvPENCE TO CANCELLI* TION or CONTRACTS AND CONVERSION OF PLANT. 2. PROVISION FOR INIMRMING THE NOM= IN INDUSTRY SERVICE OF THESE PLANS AND POLICIES IN ADVANCE. 3. STATEMENT IN COOPERATION WITH THE CATLDRENIS BUREAU REGARDING PRE IMPORTANCE OF MORE STRINGENT CHILD LABOR LFGISLATION AF A RECONSTRUCTION MEASURE. 4. FILARGFkrimr OF RESOURCES OF TwE WOMAN IN INDUS-BY SERVICE. 3. ISSUANa OF STANDARDS GOVERNING THE 6. ADOPTION OF A RESOLUTION ON NIGRT T',"0/?K OF WOMEN LOOKING TOWARD ITS PROHIBITION IN GOTTRNMENT OWNED PLANTS AD IN PLANTS WUPErl ON CONTRACT FOR THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT. 7, STRICT ENFORCrAYNT IN GOVERNMENT OWNED PLANTS OF THE STANDARDS PLOY VENT or 1AOMFS. GOVERNING THE amorirric OF WOMEN. -9- 8. SERVICE PROVISION FOR ADVISORY RELATIONSHIP BY THE WOMAN IN INDUSTRY OWNED PLANTS. ENT GOVERNM IN WOMEN NG TO THE CONDITIONS AFFECTI 9. Y PROVISION FOR FORMULATION OF RPORT ON ACTIVITIES FOR WOMEN IN INDUSTR WAR. THE IN THE FEDERAL GOVERNVNT DURING 10. DEPUTIZING OF wNEN IN IMPORTANT POSITIONS IN STATE LABOR DEPARTWITTS TO ACT FOR THE WOMAN IN INDUSTRY SERVICE. 11. IONS. CONFERENCE OF REPRESENTATIVES OF STATE MINIMUM WAGE CONMISS 12. ON WOMEN IN ESTABLISHMENT OF CONTINUING RELATIONS WITH STATE COMMITTEES INDUSTRY ESTABLISHED DURING THE WAR. 13. NTING CONFERENCE, OF OrLOTERS AND ORGANIZATION OF ADVISORY COUWIL REPRESE MANAGEMENT. 14. THE PURPOSES OF THE INCLUSION OF INDUSTRIAL COUNSELLING OF PLANTS AMONG WOMAN IN INDUSTRY SERVICE. ADJUSTMENT BOARDS 16. REPNEUNTATION 07 WORKING WON= ON FEDERAL WAGE. AMER Mt WAR. lummirma 16. NOM IN CONNECTION CONTINUANCE OF PERIANENT ADVISORY COUNCIL OF :VOWING WITH RECONSTRUCTION PROBLEMS. 17. DS AFFECTING WOMEN DEVELOPMENT OF A PROGRAM OF PUBLIC EDUCATION ON STANDAR IN INDUSTRY. la. IN GOVERN-ENT PLANTS AND PROVISION FOR PHOTOGRAPHIC RECORD OF WOMEN'S WORK IN TYPICAL WAR INDUSTRIES. 19. Y SERVICE WITH ESTABLISEMNT OF CLOSER COOPERATION BY THE WOMAN IN INDUSTR ENT SERVICE. THE EMPLOYM IN S TENDENT SUPFRIN STATE THE WOMEN EXAMINERS AND 20. G WOMEN WORKERS AMONG INCLUSION OF THE FORMULATION OF POLICIES FOR TRAININ . SERVICE Y INDUSTR IN THE PURPOSES OF TME WalAN MALL https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis Mary Van Ileeck, Director Woman in Inlustry Service. December 21, 1c18s In response to your request for information ahout the activities of the woman in Industry Service I eould call your attention to the report of this Service as it is included in the 116-122). annual report of the Secretary of Labor just issued (pages since work our We mould add t.. followtig import7nt deve1opir2ents in this report was qvgered. https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis 1. We are making a survey of the conditiong of employment of women in a state in the middle west undertaken at tYe request of the Governor, who wished a basis of facts for legislative policy. Sioilar pieces of work are projected in other states. 2. The bulletir setting fort!) stmdards which should govern the employment of women has been issued bind we are r,sceiving response from state departments of labor and from local groups indicatiag that these will be helpful to them in determining next steps which should be t.-ken in their own coTtsunities. 3. Survey of industries 41‘ch are reported to be paying very low wages to women in an import nt eastern city is projected. The report on the proposed employment of 1.aen in the chamicul industries of Niagar Falls has beet:, comJleted and issued and as a result the Chamber of Coerce at Niagara Falls has under consideration a program for dealing lth problems in the community aad in the industries. with 4. 5. The Secretary of the Navy has requested the Woman in Industry Service to assume an advisory relationship to the Navy Div)artment regardinb the coAditions affectine women employed in navy plants and in plaits working under the jurisdiction of the Navy Department. We are roquested te maim inspections and to file full end frank reports with recom .endations. 6. -2- 6. By way of sum.ary it may be said tiiat our work is now being plennod on the basis of an analysis of those agencies Mhish can be relied upon to develop standards for the employment of wowen. These include: (1) The federal government as employer. The control of the federal government over labor conditions will grow ropidly less as war contralets are curtailed, out the influence of the federal government will continue to be fundamental even though the numbers affected aro smaller. The request of the Nary Dartm nt, therefore, seems to us to be v:ry im,ortant. (2) State labor departments and groups inter.eted in state labor logiilation. le have issued the standards based on experience durng the war with the thoutj,t tAit tv)ey would form a definite platform for state labor legislation, with of course local vbriations to meet local needs. The work which we are doing in the middle western state fare dy described is in lioe with our desire to be of service to ti- e states in the local application of these st andari (3) Wanagemont in industry. The application of standards will devolve upon the management of individual establishments, and we are ,irepared to assist especially by maintaining contact with employment managers responsible for tPe firms' relations with their employees. (4) Organisations of working No;.en. Obviously the women themselves will be the most important factor in determining the conOitions of their emplavent. The advisor' council of trade anion wolLen orenized by tne woman in Industry Service brings us information bind advice from the workers 'Ind enables us to reach them throulq,h their organizations. the woman in Industry Service was organized during the the necessity for war it is classed as & w r emergeucy service, ted. toe readons Briefly dem,Instra be therlfore its continuance mast of Secretary are um Labor, the to for it, as we have statsd the., follows: https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis As 1. The Woman in Industry Service is n t a war emergency service. It was projected and urged continuously for eight years before the war to deal with such problems as the danger to health from unsanitary working conditions and hazardous occupations and from long hours https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis -3- and employment at- night and especially que*tions and centering in the wages of women in their social economic effects. To 2. The problems existing before the war must be added ed the problems of rou.djustment for woren worker* em:Aoy in connecin the war industries and questions arising new in tion with the conditions of their employment occuAttions. The war has demonstrated Vat the range ry of oplortunities for effecienny by women in indust is larger than hat been assumed in the past and attention to the conditio.: of their employment will do much to develop their capacity for productive servioe. From the two-fold point of view of safeguardig the .oductive health of the woiAen and increasing the “ s work of woene ms proble power of the nation, the ment. l govern federa neces9itide activity in the 3. 4. It has been shown to bemseconomical and effective to have •s distinct division reaponsible for these problems es since through maintaining coatact with other agenci as such dealing with special phases of tne jroblem, employment or training,it is pos,ible to develop a well mun6ed program and a consistent At' the problems of readjustment have been added to the is need pre-war problems of woren in industry, there l governfedera the of ces for strengthening the resour ult the diffic ise Otherw ment for dealing wit_ tnetL. conIA a will ry indust in questioas co corning amen strit °potable in the development of any reconstruction program for industry. Therefore largevresourcos are needed now for te Woman 1.1-!. Induntry Service. 5. During the war severd of the produotio departments of the government have maintained agencies dealing with problems affecting women. Many of the plants v.ith which they Lave dealt will be converted to the uses of peace and the **tent of the problem will not be deoreased by the signing of the armistice. These agencies, however, have now been guspended and larger burdens are therefore the Woman in Industry Service asi the devolviAg Departnert of Labor 6. The Service has under way l000rtant pieces of work, such as t.:Et survey ealready described, of the conditions of employment of wo,len in a state in the middle west, and similar pieces of work projected in other places' 7. The discontinuance of the Woman in Industry Service would be uneconomical and unwise since the pressure of the the reestabproblems would undoubt-Idly necessitate st posslUe earlie lishment of wuch an u!..ency at the ed in involv date wit- the necesimry los* of effort a new organi4ation. of women at 1 copy of the report on the employment truction Niagara. Falls, a statelient of our policy in the rocoas soo.i be prizited are poriod and a draft of t'oe st:Indards which will slight changed some be will There onclosod for your information. provision.. ant import any in the standards, but they do not afflict https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis Sincerely yenrs. Mary Van Kleeck, Director. Woman in Industry Service. 7ational Women's Trade Uniorl„el eadington Press Service 3/1/19 401 Continental Trust Building Ethel M. Smith, in charge Release on receipt HOUSE REFUSES TO INCREASE FUNDS FOR WOTITANIS BUREAU Washington -- After an hour's debate, before crowded galleries, the House of Representatives late last night, in committee of the whole, voted 68 to 58 against increasing the appropriation of the Woman-in-Industry Service of the Department of Labor fro;e $40,000 to $150,000. The House later confirmed this vote by passing the sundry civil bill containinc- the provision for $40,000. The Woman-in-Industry Service was the only one of the sc-called war services of the rel,arteent of Labor retained in the sundry civil bill by the Appropriations Commit tee, and to that extent the House action, both in committee and on the floor, is counted a victory for the National Women's Trade Union League and the other women's organizations that have secured the establishment of the service. The In- adequate appropriation, however, is Characterized by officers of those organizations • as typical of the alleged chivalry of politicians -- which in this case as usual took the form of flowery tributes in praise cf the bureau and its -.personnel, but denied the necessary means of subsistence. Even opponents of the areendment made speeches laudinE, the work of the bureau. The $150,000 asked for by the Secretary of Labor to maintain the Woman-inIService Industry/has been the subject of thousands of telegrams to the Appropriations Committee and other members of the House during the past week from women's or tions all over the country, especially from the trade unions affiliated with th National Women's Trade Union League, the orieanizel suffragists and the Y. W. C. The rejection of the amendment proposing the increase is therefore regarded, by its .dvocates as a direct slap at the women workers of the country whose interests the bureau is designed to serve. The amendment, raising the a:ropriatien to $150,000, was offered by Representative Jeannette Rankin of Montana, who waa warelly seconded y Republican Leader Mann, Representative Nolan of California, re_v:elieael, and, on the democratic side of the https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis ?OUSE REFUSES TO racP7AE *2- FUNDS FOR WOMAN'S BUREAU House, Representatives Keating of Colorado, Gallivan of Massachusetts, and others. The oppoaitio- of the powerful Appropriations Committee, headed by Represe-Itative Sherley :f ':,entucky, and including Representatives Byrnes of South Carolina, damocrat, and Mondell of 'yomiylg and Cannon of Illinois, republicans, with various anti-auffrage, anti-labor members, carried the Rouse in support of the committee's report and held tile ap_:ro,?riation down to :40,000. A woman's bureau in the Department of Labor has been advocated tae ijrational Women's Trade Union League and other women's organizations for more tha,., eiGht years, and a bill for its establishment was on the calendar of the House When the United States elatered the war. was created as a war necessity. Under the war labor administration this bureau Its advocates point out that the probles it haa to deal wit-a axe if anythinF„ more acute now than before or during the war, they insist th,A thc bureau dnould be z.ade permanenti Thc u.frector of the Bureau is Miss Mary Van 7leeck, and the assistant dircto ia MiS8 idary Anderson. policies and efficiency https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis Their .,--laiinistration ha- bean widely commend.ed for its wi THEWOMAN IN INDUSTRY SERVICE larking Nomen in 40r Not until July, 1918, when the second battle of the Marne had begun the never yielding onsard march that did not cease until November 11, 1918, Has the service which working semen were making to the Government, to the people, recognized by the arsation of the Woman in Industry Service of the U. S. Denartment of Labor. After the second draft men were being subtracted from the industrial sorld at the rate of a quarter of a million a month. Women were not only being substituted for men, but hugely expanding needs required more than substitution. There sas, under the direction of the Women's Committee of the Council of National Defense a nation-aide registration of women, the skilled and the unskilled, the employed and the unemployed. Woman alio were organised for war relief coniucted campaigns urging women to enter munition plants and clothing factories and canneries, as a patriotic duty. The Federal Government had found it necessary to put forth such labor advertisements as this - "Mere is urgent need for 1,000 women to sew on sailors' uniforms for 10 hours a day in the Charleston Navy Yard. All women who aro free to leave their homes luring the lay are urged to offer their services.° Al] this, in 1917, the year of America's entry into the war, when women were more than sealous to serve their country, when the Government was urging them to core in. Yet a year and a quarter of a year went by. The middle of June, 1918, cams, shen Chateau Thierry had fallen and the enemy's guns were sounding in Paris and hundreds of thousands of American men clothed in uniforms that had been sewed by knerican women, sere massed in between Paris an https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis the Marne. -2- For a year and more momen gho hal never before run machines had been given intensive short time training, and at that moment were running machines in shops which had never dreamed of this practically unlimited supply I And a great process of women was filing into the factories, and of labor. every evening was returning to the homes, where the home work did not and could, not atop - because whatever else they do women must continue the race and children had been born who were too young to go to mar, children for whom the war 4iis being fought, to whom the world should belong after the war, and after the peace should hate become peaceful. Creation of the Service The work of women in munitions had been formally recognized in January 1918 by the creation of a section in the Ordnance department wherein the special problems and needs of women in munition factories was overseen. It was a division in the War Department. supremacy. It was the declaration of War l s No one thought of the work ions as being "labor". It was "war". But vary soon the Governiaent and the War Department had seen that the needs of war would extend far beyond the making of munitions, that soldiers Ani sailors must be clothed and fed, even rrovided with tobacco and with musical instr-Iments, and that every industry continuing past April 191? must be an "essential" industry, with women working in it. At one time every mill in the country making sheeting was making every yard of it for the Government, and the Govern:nent using every yard for war purposes. The whole country had be- come a war factory, with every loom as well as every foundry working day and eager to work night in the universal service. The intricate and critical problems of women who work were oeing more and more recognized by the women already serving in various advisory capacities https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis -.3- and in the actual overseership at Washington. Gradually the scheme was being developed which should lead to a separate definite division, under the Government, under the Department of Labor, supervising, consulting, administering, yarning, wherever were found women working for their stressful country. The debate which led to the creation of this Service was swift. On February 12, 1918, the Secretary of Labor had submitted estimates of appropriation for the year ending June 30, 1919 - $49,350. The enabling act ran: *To enable the Secretary of Labor to establish a service with special reference to promoting ani developing the welfare of sage-ei-irning women, imrroving theisorking conditions of women and advancing their opportunities for profitable employment, and in this service coordinate and control all aork in the Department of Labor and other departments having to do with any matter of policy or procedure Nith reference to women wage earners." But because the fiscal year has the habit of beginning on the first of July, the establishment of the Bureau was dated July 1918. On the 9th of that ilonth, the Secretary of Labor designated Mary Van Kleeck, chief of the Women's Division in the Ordnance De7lartment, as director of the foman in Industry Service. The Service was confronted at once with the problerls involved in a reridly increasing reliance iron the work of women, as the sole reserve force of labor to be called won to measure up to the demands of an augmented program of nroduction for the war in the face of the withdrawal of alen for military service at the rata of a quarter of a million a month. It as clear that for the sake of production and for the good of the Nation the Federal Government must provide not only for the recruiting of women workers but for the safeguarding of the health and efficiency of these women who were meeting in wany instances the requirements of new and unaecustomed tasks. https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis Beca4se they were nod for wo:Jen - at -4- least in such large numbers - standards for their employsJent aai not been establiihed in the custoals of industry. It .vas this necessity for rapid increase in the employLient of momen which constituted the peculiar problem of the war. Fundamentally, however, the purpose of the Department of Labor iniits relation to women in industry - to safeguard the interests of 4amen workers ani to make their service effective for national good - was identical in peace or war. That is to sly, 'with all the changes brought by the mar the organic act creating the department was still a'p itcable. The purpose of the Denartment of Labor shall be to foster, promote and develop the welfare of the wage earners of the United States, to improve their working conditions, and to advance their opportunities for profitable employment. The difference luring the war was the wider 'nubile recognition of the necessity for "advancing the opportunities" of 'women "for profitable employn:ent," couching it, hosever, in terms of recruiting women for a wider range of occupations in order to release men for military services Added to this difference in point of vies was the fact that the urgent necessities of a nation at war would influence poliuy lust to the extent that in time of mar measures which in the long run are essential to the national good must frequently be modified for immediate military necessity. This is one of the evils of mar. When the Secretary of Labor recoramenied to Congress an annropriation for a special service for women in industry, he outlined its purpose and functions as follows: It is unloubtedly true that the Deoartment of Labor exercises all of its powers with reference to gage earners of both sexes and of all ages. It is also true that the best alinistration requires that the various services of the lepartment which are here outlined be conducted *y including vi thin the work of each service all questions regarling momen as hell as men. https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis -2- But tho graat importance of the employment of women in most essential war sork and the development of special matters of policy witA respect to such eTployment sake it imporant to establieh a special service devoted to the subject of eomen in Industry. In view of the fact that the other services, All, as above indicated, include sithin their sphere soman as sell as men,this special service of women in iniustry is not large, sill be largely policy making and administrative in maintain close contact Nith all one:water rather than itself executive; bnt the sork of the denartment on this special subject anl 411 also coordinate and control such work in all other deartments. I Stated more specifically the purpose of this service 4as 1. To consider all general policies Nith respect to ,iamen in industry and to advise the Secretary of Labor as to the policies Nhich should be pursued. 2. To keep informal of the ,ork of the several divisions of the department in so fsr as they relate to vomen in iniustry and to alvise sith tne divisions on all such work. 3. TJ secure inforaation on all matters relating to Namen in inlustry ani to collate such information into usefUl form. 4. To establiih useful connections sith all governmental departments ani divisions on this subject awl sith voluntary agencies and societies. In annoucning on July 9, 1918, the appointment of the director and assistant director, the Secretary further stlted the purposes of the Woman in Industry Service as folloes: In recognition of the great importance to the Nation of the work of Hymen in industry, and tho urgent neoessity for a national nolicy la determining the conons of their employment, I have urged and Congress has now granted the necessary authority to establish a Woman's Division in the Department of Labor. Its immediate task sill be to develop in the industries of the country policies and methods shich will result in the most effective use of somen's services in production for the mar, while at the same time preventing their Its large and very necessary aim sill employaent under injurious conditions. imporance of the conditions of A)::Aen's national be to focus attention on the and as standards affecting the welfare of toe sork as influencing industrial entire /Cation. The Women's Division will be charged primarily sith determining policies rather than carrying on detailed administration. Because of this policy-making funztion of the loment s Division, its lirector will servecas a member 61! labeller Labor Policies Board. It will coordinate work for momen in other divisions of the Departmlnt of Labor and in industrial service sections of other departaants of the Federal Government. It mill coorerate mith State denartments of labor, https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis -6- morking with and through them, in order to bring about united action by the The Woulen's Division will conStates in national problems of somen's work. cern itself primarily with war condition* but mill be mindful of the need for observing and interpreting the tendencies in momen's annloymont which are likely to have permanent social effects. The Woman's Division has been established in response to noels widely felt ay all, men as well as women, who are conscious of the increasing Share Nomen vast have in the industrial activities of the war. The problems of women in industry are so aanifold and complex that a clearing house of th(yught and The Wo:nen's Division nas been leadership is needed in the National Government. established to give this leadership. The personnel of the Service included as assistant director Mary Anderson who later became director of the permanent Women's Bureau of peace times, and Agnes Peterson ae field director sho later became assistant director of tile Nomen's Bureau. Thus the permanence of the service was determined even in the temporary organisation. Counoil on 4o.;len :11 Industry To accomplish the task of coordinating the efforts of all Fedora' agencies concerned in *omen's gork the Woman in InAnstry Service was authorized by the Secretary of Labor to organize the Council oft Women in Iniustry, composed of women reprlsenting every division of the Dtpartment of Labor and other Federal department having organized work related to problems of women in industry. Its membership included the Woaen's Branch of the Ordannee Derartment, tha W(xLan's Section of the Railroad Administration, the Federal Board for Vocational Educltion, the Comlittes on Women in Industry of the Aavisory CocLaission, anl the ;o:nan's Coaadttee of the Council of National Defense, and from the De7,artment of Labor representatives of the services concerned 41th investigation and insnection, training and dilution, information an4 educ'Aion, and working conditions, the United Statez Employment Service, the Imaligration Bureau, the Chiliren's BureaU, tha Bureau of Naturalization, the Bureau of Labor Statistics, the United States Housing Corporation, ths War Labor Board, and the War Labor Policia6 BoArl. The council did not assume any executive or administrative functions, nor lid it have https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis -7- any authoOty over the programs of its mambers. It was a forum for discussion of the important questions coming before the Woman in Industry Service and the other groups coo?erating with it. Auong the subjects for discussion hiate-een the safeguards to be established in nem occupations, the enforcement of State labor law', the regulation of night work under r conditions, the avlication uf the principle of equal pay for equal 'eork, and the recruiting and training of aomen orrer-at-ton-r-wh-Wa-- workers. the Serviee4 viete-;e-t-i-ng-e---e-f---the -cowed-1. Recruiting Won for New Occupations The outstanding question concerning loiLen in industry which grew daily more ixrortant illring the war eas the necessity for greatly increasing the proportions of amen in the essential industries of tL country in order to meet the demands of production and at tha same time to release Men for military service. The !linger of hysterical campaigns which would stimuLlte the recruiting of vvomen without seeing to it that their services should becolLe effective for production or that proper safeguards for samen eorkers shauld be established was increasingly great. It was difficult for those unfamiliar with the difficulties of introducing a new and untrained nersonnel into in,tustry to appreciate the care which must be taken to avoid actual decrease in production by rapid and careless methois of filling posItions. Nor could those who had not been familiar :with the efforts through !gany years to build up standards of protection for the health of the workers appreciate how fundamentally important were the maintenance and extension of those stanAaris during the war. The situation was mat more critical by the fact that those companies whose policy to their men eor;ters had naver won their continence wni coo-eration :4-j:3 likely to arouse suspicion that the aar ecoorgency would be usei as an excuse for employing women at lower rates of pay and under https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis -8- conrlitions Aleh would waken any control guined by the farkers through collective bargaining. The following program sas rroposai by the Wooehn in intustry Service: 1. Standards governing tha eienloyment of women in industry seauld be authoritatively issued after aioetion by the War Labor Policies Board, with the teo-foll purpose of controlling conditions especially in nee oconeations for iomen and also serving as a guide in the selection of occupations in which the That is to say, instead of offering emploeeent of on alight be increased. a list of occupations in which women should be substituted for men, the Federal Government eaull promulgate stenlirds together with the statement that in Any occu.pation in /ditch these standards were upheld, the extension of the employment of eomen eaull be leairable, at tee same time calling attention to the neeessity for grlatly increasing the employment of somen under these conditions. 2. Certain broad, statements could be male about occupations in shich it Noel?), itea daei,eble Leo eieploy eo..een but these must alsaes be in the natlire of informatian rather tnan authoritative rulings, since local conditions would make a recommendation for the employment of vomen unwise in one locality and vise in another 'here both the nature of the proaess and the eonlitions surrounding it sere different. 3. Cer:ain occupations Wvich had been erovel to be .00re injurious to /omen than to men should be listed as a group from ehich eomen should be excluded. 4. Instead of attempting to formulate a detailed program for the country as A ehole, the War Induetries Board ani the United States Imployment Service would be asked to name those localities in which the shortage of labor wee most acute. The various Federal agencies concerned with investigetien, training, placement, health, end sorking conditions, /mull then be asked to concentrate their efforts in tnose localities in order to solve the problems there and ale° to give a foundation for experience for an increasingly adequate program of labor distribution throegheut tee eountry. 5. Inquiries into cir:ain typical occueatiens Should be pushed foreard rapidly by the Woman in Industry Service sith a view to making definite recomaendationarwtgariing ohanges in the procase and the establishment of conditions which had bean rrovel most effective in the experience of astabliShments emnloying somen. S. Meantime plans should be formulated for exhibits of NOMOM's cork and other fors of educatlonal eresentation of facts 4rich should result in enlisting the services of eomen in the war industriea, shile winning also the cooleration of inJustry in establishing conditions ehich should make for the largest production over a long period. Progress .vas malA in each section of this program, although the signing of the arolistice made it unnecessery to introduce eomen in such large numbers in this country as in Great Britain or France and the program as a whole therefore was not cerriei out. https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis -9- Standards for Employment The development of "Standards" for the emploTrient of aomen in industry mas the important, pen:anent work of this Sertirce. War needs ha& tended to Sullenly we sere back in primitive days and Nays. loosen all safeguards. Women aare morking lj and 12 hours a lay as of old, even though they were perfor:ning their patriotic service under the enthusiasm of aar instead of staggering lay by day under industrial pressure. Women wore working nights in certain looalities, lith tho old dangers, rhysical and moral, still lurking in the Imillumined corners and the o14 , neglect of ho,ne as oertain. Waizen sere 4orIcing in "Iman'e oocupations" with no provieions made for them as wo:aen, no rlst rooms, cloak rooms, toilet rooms. Early in the war the Chief of Orinance in Council isJue-1 General Orders Number .1;i, to arsenal commanders, to mAnufacturers of mundtions, to Quartlrmaster Generals, covering the conditions of 4ork for both men and 4o:zen. thee. in truth embodied protective safeguarda, they a3re denominated "mechanisas of efifiziencyn, for their purpose was to protect the sorkers in order that the workers might sork to the utmost. When t 3 *oman in Industry Service oame into play, there Nall a further consIderation of -perienos xu..1,an iniutrias before the 4ar. benefiting ,•olaen, based on exThe Sorvize ciorked on the shaping of a stAtelvent of StanAarts from July to November; the Hell mas being surveyed with care, anl the neeled standards dere being phrasal. The Novewber end of the 4ar lit not aff3ct the -permanent value of these standards in any degree. of Ao:aen in industry. Those who dred them knew ?that aere the zontinuing needs They knew t c. e condtions and needs of woAtn working before the sar, tne increase from 5 to 8 millions in the ten years leading up to 1910, the probable greater increase to 12 if not to 15 milUons in the decade which https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis -10- shich incluied the war; and t'aey knev the continued importance of answering these needs. For peace has its industrial perils no less than war. Therefore the Standards were published in December, 1918. An a hundred thousund copies of the pamphlet 'nave heen demanded by industry ur. to date. The chief -ooints covered are: Hours: no %Irian shall be auployed or permitted to sork more than eight ir any one lay with a half holiday on Saturday. Nitht work: no on shall be employed between the hours of b) p.m. and 5 p.m. WAges: women doing the slme ,vork as men shall receive the same sages ... wages should be established on the basis of occupation and not on the basis of sex. The minimum sage rate should cover the cost of livAng for depenients and not merely for the individual. Prhhibited Ocaunations: omen ..:1113trot be ea.71loyed in occupations insolving the use of poisons 4hich. are .oroved to ba Lac:ma injurious to women thin to men, such as certain r.rocosses In the lead indn3trie4. ne in rooms used for Rome Work: no work_shall be given out to be 13ving or sleering purposes or in roo:as directly connected sith living ant sleeping roams in any dwelling or tenement. 3oonerm1on of V:1,4 sor)-ers in establishing standardl The genuine cooperation essential to production can be secured only if provision is uade for the workers as a group acting through their chosen representatives to bht.re lo tho zontrol of the conditions or their airrplorlent. Haz&rlons Industriea for Wowen To protect :o,zen in this aivance froal exploitation by omr,loyers anxious to Trash VI-1)1r output to the highest possible figure, and from the natural zeal of te woven both to make their output serve the war needs to the Lit and to Alake it equal that of men and therefore justify their iaterloring into men'eveste d interests" the work of the Wo:aan in Industry Service saki at once cut out for it. https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis Should women or in hazardous industries? -11was begun; it had The question presented itself as soon as the Service presented itself before. For even when war urged every laborer into employment, working conditions were hasardans there 'las a shortage of labor in occupations where ant disagreeable. ly - no The Service felt that it must go about this careful call to service and to death, arening wide of the doors to women, no high-sounding woxen and disaster to the or Norse than death, to perxanently ruined health for the chilir3n of the future. which were designed To meet this problem a series of inquiries was planned employed safely and the deto determine the occrrations in Which women might be hazards not inherent in the tailed and rractical measures needed to remove all essential nature of the procaas. To direct this work the Woman in Industry Ser- vice organized the Committee on Hazardous Occupations. Falls, where the chemical The first place selected for a survey was Niagara war industries. inlustries orere of great imrortance as basic in the Two representatives of the Industrial Coalission of New York State were in putting into effect added to the committee for this survey, to insure cooreration ion and safety, and other the detailed recommendations for dust removal, sanitat precautions against occupational hazards. These recommendations Nere worked out for in 1:•ractical detail by physicians, engineers, and women investigators acting the committee. It was discovered that men had not volunteerel for 21any of these jobs because contitions were bal. It was discovered that conlitions that mere recognizedly bal for .omen were bad for men. https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis Therfore, correct the bad conditions for both men and women. -12- rniustrial poisons are bad for both. But lead is a race -poison. The woman sho sorks in certain chemical occupations is liable to lead poison which too often means the loath within her of the futnre. This &Witted scientific fact received emphatic assurance through the investigation made by the lo.iisa in In.Suotry Servtce. Aril, therefore, because potential mothw*hood should be the most precious possession of the race the Woman in Iniustry Service recommenied the absolute exclusion of women from this occupation. It was the only ocennation forbidien to wor,en by these copetent 'radical and in1ustrial investi4ators. In every other enploreent, even where hazards and clangers %ere evident, the Service recommended, not exclusion but change in conditions. If the reco.smended changes 4ar3 hell not to be practical at the time, then postpone Amt of the employment of momen was recommended. When changes sere male and somen care admitted to the occupation, men came also into the benefit. And it 4as never liscovered that men ob,jected to beinl sefeguarded. The matter of lifting heavy .leights and apereting heavy nlachi_nes, .vas made a concern of this Service for women. Machine shops and work shops generally wiled iechcmical devices vlich saved the strength and the health of soluen workers. Specializing the Jobe ma,le for greater ireel ani greater out-'t t1!an had been possible .then men lathre4 under hanlicalos of he9ivy burdens Ani heavy machines. For even sith their greater strength men sere comrellei to work more slowly without mechanical equipent and so could not attein the fullest posaible out"ut. Industry, and men, will benefit by these improvements In the pv?.eeful future. Hazards )f the Night These ininstri.al hazarA.s eere at once complicated with might work it hap-ened t-!7at the same indl)stries which by the nature of their products sere lazarious for the sorkees wanted to mork them at night. https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis And instantly in other -13- industries, even in the twelve States where night work for somen was forbidden by law, t was felt that under stress of aar al2 restrictions on aork shauid be lightenel and in orler to feed the gun s niiht Should be turned into day. Thirty-six States had. no restrictiona on night work for women, ani among these were industrial States where the Governxent had placed oontraata for great rantities of rlunitions. Tile request of the employers association addressed to the Bureau of Labor Statistics asking that the Federal Govermlent should _cake it pcH6lhle for the employers in war industries in Niagara Falls to disregari the Nea York State law nhich nrohibits the employment of ao_ien in factories at night was but one of many similar rsqllests early antumn of 1918. Nith increasing frellency tiring the sllier tnd Following the organisation of the Woman in Industry Service. all such arr,eals vhJch reached t a officg,. of the Socretary of War Nere referred to the service for review. The Nol'An in InellIstr7 Servce in turn morkai on thes3 asses in coo-eration .1itt the various inlustrial serv'e cectinns Of t'ne other Feieral departments, esnecially the Women's Branch of the Ordnance Darartment, xhich made tne initial investigation in tho majority of pints making this request. In the comnlicated .rroblems ahich these fr::itances illustrdted there Nas presented the necessity for vorking out a program xhich should protect the health of the votrien at veer and reenforce stIndarls alrea4 set in of the States, while at the same time speeding reriod of the lay.. uron to solve this. No problem which the labor lass 7roduction in the most critical oman in Intustry Service sda called as more difficult or more far-reaching in its significance than Before a wise progrem could be derrelored it vas necessary to study in the concrete case the importance of vomen's vork in the production of the -plant, to no https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis the needs of the Government for that particular product, and to consult -14- those organizations, especially those of the workers themselves, which had been responsible for legislation to protect women against night work in some of the most important manufacturing States. Twelve States - Connecticut, Delaware, Inliana, Kansas, Massachusetts, Nebraska, New York, Oregon, Pennsylvania, South Carolina, Utah, and Wisconsin had laws which prohibited the employment of Roman or girls, or both, in factories luring the night hours. In two of these - Massachusetts by legislation creating a special board for the period of the war and in Wisconsin through the regular powers of the industrial commission - it was possible to grant permits making rossible night work for limited periods. plants. These lawis applied to the munitions They had been enacted in time of peace, and they expressed the opinion of the public in those States that night work for 4=011 mats harmful because of its effect upon the health of the hoen awl their childrean and because of its influence on family life. !Aoreover, experience had shown that night aork was uneconomical for production, with less individual efficiency anl greater cost for sages and supervision than by day. These considerations hal led the representatives of 13 European nations meeting in 1913 in Berne to agree to eliminate night work for women in their manufacturing iniustries. hatbsen generally abandoned abroad. During the oar, hosever, this standard In England, for examcle, ahere the employment of somen at night work hal long since been lone away sith, the increasing reliance upon the sork of somen in the manufacture of munitions had led to the general breaking down of this measure of protection. At the very beginning of oux particination in the mar the Federal Government, through the Council of National Defense, had declared its policy not to permit the sar to be the occasion for losering standards of employment, especially those mhich had been established to protect the health of homen and children. https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis As these -15protective measures 'fere for the most part contained in State legislation and dere not national in scope, this eeclaration of policy took the form of an apreal to the States not to abandon or weaken lass enacted for the protection of the workers unless the Federal Government itself should find that the national need in the emergency of the war demanded their modification. This, however, would be a con- dition shich only the Federal Government could determine with authority. In avolying this policy to the problem of night "fork for women it vas necessary to recognize that the differences betseen different States gave rise to great inconsistencies. Thirty-Six States had no legislation prohibiting night sork for 40men, and these included such imnortant manufacturing States as New Jersey, Illinois, and Ohio, all of Anich large quantities of munitions were manufactured on contract for the Federal Goverment. If the Federal Government recognized its responsibility for the conditions affecting the health of the women in munitions plants, as it did by establishing such agencies as the Woman in Industry Service and by formulating the policy just outlined, it could not ignore the fact that the employment of omen at night in a factory in Illinois, ahere no law prevented, as as injurious as it mould have been in a plant in Nev York shore night dork had been eliminated by act of the legislature. To aid in developing a plan which sould give due seight to all the apparently conflicting interests, the Woman in Industry Service called into conference representatives of thoss grout's and organizations most vitally interested in standards of working conditions established for the protection of sorking somen. At these conferences typical requests for permission to employ women at night more described. In one nlant, for instance, shich was probably more vital to the success of the ordnance program than any other single establishment, the chief reason for sishing to employ women on the night Shift https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis vas a shortage of -16- houses which would not be remedied in less than three months, so that no large numbers of men could be added to the population of the town, but in the families Of the men alrealy living in the community were daughters, sister, and wives, who would be available to increase the working force. These could not all be used on the lay Shift because many of the processes involved too heavy work for women, an4 it was necessary, therefore, to employ men and women together with a division of tasks between them. In sore plants the problem was further com- plicated by the rractice of ratating shifts, whereby every man in the force took his turn at night. To change this practice when women were introduced would cause discontent among the men Who Avuld then be obliged to work steadily, or at least more frequently, at night if the women in the force worked only by day. No two instances mere exactly alike. The one fact common t* them all was that the - oposal to employ women at night couA not be disconnected from the whole production and the employment policy of the plant. In some cases the shortage of men for night work was due not to an actual shortage of labor in the coTImunity but to low rates of ray or too long hours on the night shift, or the absence of an efficient organization for employment management in the plant. Under such conditions it was not merely for the sake of the women workers that the employuent of women at night sas-dlae-net-te-en-ae4va4-sher4ege-ef-iekter-ie eite-semmiarr44y-bne-te-iew-ratres-ef-pay-er-tee-1eng-here-en-the-a4ght-sh+0)7-er the-aeeemee-ef-an-eff4eieet was to be discouraged by the 4oman in Industry Service, but it was quite as necessary to discourage it for the sake of production, sinca in such a situation production could not be made satisfactory merely by a night shft of NOMOM. Satisfactory .roduction . required a thorough ov)rhauling of the employment policy of the company which would result in a more effectite use of the working force already available. https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis -17revealed a very strong The conferences held to consider this subject lowered, and that, in nartiopinion that standards, in general, should not be should be vigorously discouraged. cular, the practice of employing women at night 11though there as be ione it was generally diversity of opinion as to vhat 6hould could declare with authority agreed that it was only the National Government4hich require modification of whether or not the emergency was serious enough to peo-lle of several States as standards which had commended themselves to the necessary to protect the health of women at work. The plan finally proposed and control night mor for as that the Federal Governmentalbould regulate omen in all plants iorking on war contracts for the 4vhich voull prohibit Federal Government, through u provision in the Qontrate granted. night mork unless a special war emergency permit were :This plan pro- or the Navy that it was vided that if it 4ere demonstrated by the War Depart.aent in adequate production, to necessary in a specified instance, in order to :aainta the Secretary of War or the csploy wo:aen between tha hours of 10 p.m. and 6 a.m., ent antroved by the Secretary Secretary of the Navy, under conditions of employm would send to the State of Labor acting through the Woman in Industry Service, a national agency charged with enforceent of labor laws a declaration that to grant a emergency existed in this particular instances and Noun call upon it partiailar, specified plant for a specified, limited period a temporary mar certificate allowing the employ.lient of women at night. In connection with the altinistration of the nroposed plan it was proviie4 that thorough inv9stigat1on should be made in each instance to determine the necessity for night work, and that each establishment to which a certificate might be grantei should be under the continued supervision of a designated Federal department, irider oonditions satisfactory to the Ded,:irtment of Labor. https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis -18- A little more than a month later the signing of the armistice male final action by the Council of National Defense unnecess,iry, and, therefore, the plan was never put into effect. '.7acies ani Iniustrial Relations These aomen who *ere receiving so much attention and th,Jught from the Government, recruited by the urge of high patriotism, or, recruited leliberately and persuasively by high wages, came from the kitchen, from the tomes, from the counters, the looks, the school rooms, and from the factories where they had won their familiarity mith the Whirr and intensity of factory life. They performed old familiar tasks, for war foods and fabrics required no alien feminine skill. They c - erformed new duties the like of ',Which had never before felt feminine hand. Fifty per cent of the makers of explosives were women. Ninety-five out of every hundrel of the makers of hand grenaltes were No men. Steel doubled its woicen after the first draft, treble/ them after the seconci. Only one woman hai been dorking on airplanes in 1514. craft in 118. More than six thousand were ousy on the They became lathe operators, so the key machine of modern industry caae into their hanis. They even oneraced cranes, riling high above the floor of the industrial world and keeping their eyes fixed and true, with such success in one factory that the man preferred the Nork of women and petitioned that they be allowed to re:ain permanently operating cranes. The introduction of women into these nea occupations gave the question of their wages a new signcance. If their omployaent in work hitherto done by men Nere mAle the occasion for reducing the rates previsouly paid for the same work, the man employed souil naturally oppose the extension of women's employalent as a menace to the wage standarils attained by the aen, and the morals of industry • be affected by the resulting diaoontent. It was a realisation of this langer vhich lel to the first official endorsement bry the Feleral Government of https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis -19- the princi7,1e of "equal nay for equal work." It soon became evident, bomever, that the idea axprassel in the usual r'nrase, "oval l'ay for equal eork," 4as not comprehensive or fundamental enough to secure substantial justice for morking women or to nrevent the lowering of stanlaris through the extension of their employment. For example, the men in certain occm)ations had set ::.aohines in adlition to operating them. their osn Jnen Romen took tneir -elacas the necessity for mainttining production preventel giving time to training them in a thorough knomledge of the machinery /ditch they handled., and, hence, in some instances, a man was employed to set up the machines fior a grow of momen. The sor1r of the momen was regarded, therefore, as not equal to that of the :Len. The rates mould then be sat according to the prevailing standards of No:lan's Nage*. I thorough ap,:.lication of the principle of equal 7ay for equal work mould seem to have required that sages should hate been based on output and they they should have been set only after cereful study of the actual effect of the now arrantement of sorIe en the putput of the group as a shole, rather than an arbitrary reduotion tor eeratagenstomarily regarded as the standard for women. It was by no means impossible to finl instances where th,ise new methods of doing the job had resulted in an increase in output when motion lid the work, and in these instances the illjustice of a reduction in eernings vas more clearly emphe.sized. In formulating staniaris for the smployment of women the Wo4an in Industry Service, therefore, made the !alloying recommendation: iomen doing the same mork aa men shall receive the same Nages, with such proppettlaikes increases as themmen are receiving in the same industry. Slight ciiringes sal: in the nrocess or in the arranement of work should not be regarded as justifying a lower wage for a woman than for a man unless statistics of production show that the output for the job in question.ls less mhen momen are employed than when men are employed. If a difference in output is demonstrated, the difference in the Naga rate should be based upon the differenee in production for the job as a shole, and not determined arbitrarily. https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis -20- But this statsment, also, was net fundamental. The tendelicy to set omen's rats* on jobs in Which so!nen took men's places clearly raised the question of shy there should be a wage level designated as somen's rates. In one lant, for example, the somen who took e.en's places, ioing the mork exactly as the men had ions it, actually nroduced more, out the employer objected to paying them the rates which the men had received becanse, he ment doing sork customarily considerel a aii, oMen in the adjoining depart- amanse occupation sere receiving "lemon's eages" for work no less difficult than this now occupation into which Nomen had so recently been introduced. Justice corn' elled him, he believed, to establish Roman's vages for all sork lone by moelen in his shop. He sae being guided, of course, by the practice and opinion concerning momen morkers which have rrevailel in industry for many years. The Women in Industry Service held that the exnerience of the wax was forcing a fresh examination of the basis for determining :omen's sages. If the principal of equal 7,ay for equal work sas acce7tel, as it had been officially, with the sanction of eublic oninion, it was impossible in logic or in justice not to push its aprliction further and to accept the more fundamental conclusital thist the wage vAlue of a job is as great when a woman 'toes it as when a man does it, and that the eve should be determinel for the occupation and not for the eax of the worker. The Tomen in Industry Sorties, therefore, formulated the following statoment of the basis for determining Nages: Wages should be established on the basis of occupation ani not on ;he The minimum wage rate should cover the cost of living for dependant; basis of sex. and not merely for the individual. The Permanent Gain The establishment of definite standards for the employment of Acen, the preservation of safeguards which had alrealy been put aronni thwa, and the insistence ulon tine recognition of women as an integral part of .1- 4ustry vere all significant ani lasting steps which occ-erred luring the war. https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis -21- But the big permanent gain 13 tne Women's Bur,au. Ten 7ears before Criorica enterei tne Nar Mary McDomell nal arpeared before till Apnrotriations Committee of Congress, and asked for an aprroprlation making -poscible a special investi&Ation of :Len in iniustry. The money xas grante, the survey was male, the retort fills nineteen volumes. Efforts ;Aire :cede to secure from the Government a perxament bureau to care for •women in industry. The year before America entered the sar a bill was introduced, asking for such a function of Government. The war came. neglect. The need of :;omen was to The bill failed. evident and too i=ortant for further The Service for Woman in Inlustry 4aS created. few mar Services continued during the first yrir of pea:!e, It 111..:s one of the Aril finally, in 1920, the Women's Bureau becaxe c. statutory fact, permanent evi'ence that women during the war hal won their fight for recognition as https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis omen and as workers. -1Tir] liam U;:flERVICS Activities in the period from, July 16 to Octooer 15, 14.8. The %man in Industry Service was organised early in July the effects of the first draft *ere becoming mere mei more evilens and the Li—art:mos of the menloywont of *ithih afC IfOr.411 OM growing daily more significant. eeks the unnaunoe.3nt of the plans to extend the lraft to inclule all men bet4een the 4ges of 18 aelli brace% a still keener reiAlsation of the feet that pro)uction for the oar genii Upend in increosing measure upon the straitly* emeioyment of a grov.ing fires of women workers. The adjustment of so 1 rge a number of now workers to unact;u6tomed tasks whict is now in process mai 'skit& *111 bacose more extensive ea the war goes on Is a labor problem without precedent. No less momentous is the task of social adjuatmeent laths hoes and is the oo,umunity *Joh is also imposed by the increasing e4ti loy-4ent of women am breadwinners. The 'mean in Iodu.try service is chmrged with the duty of (levelaping standards and policies to insure the effective emnloy,Lent of conserving their health and ,,,olfere. It is instructed to kse MNWWQ while th close touch with the other divisions et the Department of LAbor, each of •%tick hoe a relation to manta in industry ;intl to co-ordinate such work in other isder..1 dspartth ents. It is exrected to work 4th state departaonts of li400r. Its aim is to urdte in the active o!Arryiag out of a consistent end rounded program all of the agencies which touch v4rious phases of the problem. The representation of the Service on the War Labor Policies Board through the membership of its lirector on the Board is a memos also of viewirig prob1.3,46 of wotwea's work as they should be viewed In proper relation to Ilbor problem, attesting both mftn and *wen. https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis -2- It is a two-fold problem with which the country wust no,/ deal. Women's mork mist be wade more heelthral amid more productive by the establishment of better Aorkin conditions in their accustomed mark and the conditions of their emrloymeht in occupations WOW list be determined and estataishel ea the right basis. All this suet be acoomplished without loAaring starAards already attained Ails meeting the sstraorlinary dwaands for maximum production which the eallrging war program imposes ass national necessity in the greatest crisis in the history of this country. 1. Council op limn in Indust?'" As u weans of ca-ordirvIting the efforts of the federal agencies concJrnod in wemen's :work& Gamma composed of women repre,enting every division of the Department of Labor and other federal departments having organised work to teal with problems of Aomori in industry has been organised for weekly conference. It represents the WaTen's Br, ..nch of the Orinanoe Department, the Wol.en's Section of the Railroad Atainistration, the Federal Board for Vocational Cduc.tion, the Wowen's Committee and the Committee oniowen in Iniustry of the Advisory Comisalan of the Council of National Defense, and from the Del Artment of Labor the divisions concerned with Investigation and Inspection, Training &al Dilution, Intonation and telucatioamod iforkiog Condition, and the U. S. Naployment Beryls*, the Lu,igration Bureau, the Children's Bureau, the Bureau of Naturalisation, the Bureau of Labor Statistics, the Urdted States Housing Corporation, the Wur Ltibor Board and the lir Labor Policies Board. The equnci; has taken up for discussion the inportani questions coming before the %Awn in Iniustry Service and included in the activities of the grows represented, for determination of policies, especially the safegu,-,ris to be established in WIN occupations, the anforcemant of Stale labor laws including the prohibition of night work, the aplication of the principles of equal pay for https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis for equal work, and the recruiting and training of iacvisn .orkers. 2. Colttee on Hask4rioas Occup.Ation, Shortage of labor is likely to be felt first in those oocupations in *thick media coalitions are hasardous or disagreeable and the danger is therefore that mononnwor he introluced first la° the.. oompations involving hazards to their health. To meet this problem a series of imquiries has been planmed designed to .hich .4owen ivay safely be employed ani the detAled determine specific oompations in , sod practical nossures ehioh nay be taken to recaove all hasarde not inherent in the essential ration ef the proses.. To lirect this work, the %non in Imdustry Service has organised it. soLumittee composei of ropresentsitives of the Surgeon GensrEals Office, The Army Ordains* 'areas, and ths Chemical Warfare Service of the War DepArtment, the United States Public Health Service, the Hwy, the Burstlu of Standards of the Depnrtment of Cc:wawa*, the War Industries Board,.ani the Working Conditions Service of the DeTartukent of Labor. The first place selected for survey was Niagara Palls whose chemical Andustries and mana/aotarAos of metals and alloys are basic in ttie war industriee. Two representatives of the Industries Commission of New York State 4ere Added to the insinIttes to insure ob-a-.‘eration inputting into effect the letailei reoaenl7tions for lust reoloval, sanitation and :Ina safety An3 other 1 ractioal protections against eacu-, ,tionAl. hasArds ehich have been worked out in , detail by ohysiciens, engineers, and moon inwestigators acting for the Coadttoe. 3• DEBbilialgiLILAUSEIMIS The r3port on work 4sne tar the Committee at *agora Falls *ill be the first of a series setting forth the results of practical eXpdrienall is safe- guarding mouton lorkers inivirious occupations. These will be the basis for specific standards mhioh after ap.-roval by toe War Labor Policies Boari will form a code of industrial conlitiJna tiloc;Ing 40 An. A bulletin setting forth standards which Ahould govern the staploynt of uoirien in ,..ny eocutation is IZw redly for printing ani will be issned shortly. https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis 1%1, of 1-:L 4/ .;ft23rt .f.11 •.3o-9rse, the basis for the addii,- I J felerq.1 c!,overnclant. In the .; '1n_i sc%3ver 1 the raramount needs of of it-my - a_ - as to the force of state labor 1;,-. -jr_ial to for the federal sovern .rit and in a number of instances ,i t- state officials the right of inspection of their plants. .'his 3r.;, 'iard t to uation sinca tn,afe .,are no federal . not safiiciant adairdstrative machinery to enforce raLul6-ions by ZJI_r_i tents. , Aoreover such a situation if allowed to continue would s',riously weaken a-tthorit:- of the states for the period after the war when the federal lenartents will cease to be so lurge a p-urchaser of the products of industry and relation to irdustry Which no,v obtains through aill therefore, not have tl-e the of contracts. To meet this situation the War Labor Policies Board has ...:aused to be irserted lido the contracts clauses requiring full compliance with 6:4:44. st—ta 6 wl)t of the contract. To $ 1144, , JVbaJLATi•: affective ake these contract clauses ,..tisisted the War Labor Policies Board to vork out a scrielme of co-oilareltion ostvesan spate and federal ,e2.1 of the federgl 4-1-n https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis oitractA. aincies whereby the ,u-teht, the Secretary of ITir, the Secretary of der- tes Po-nsinp' Cor-o'r-tion, and the director 44 r1 -* -r of tl-e 7r4 t1A St, ,111 lo lJtiza th,3 elit'orcJ_cr,t •taCi Lc ' tc,a cl,ses of t'29 ccntract6 ?Cf,o;:tiy3 oC / .16t trtiJn hich one r of the 5. Nikilt ..,,ork of wgen It 444 evident at the conferenoe tht state officials saes much concerned over the enoloyment Of wawa at night. This problem has absorbed much of the attertion of the Woman in Industry Service since early in July. With the lathdrawal of men into militAry service ,-At An increasingly rapici rate and with the consequent enl -xged prograth of production, the pressure upon industry to utilise its .)nt n ';achinery 24 hours a day for the pro4uction of munitions, has become very great and -vith it has co :An n insistent leind to erstiloy women t night. In seven states night work is prohibited but in t o of these state authorities have .'.10.ver to gra,s6 eimartions to p r1,:nts. In forty-une et t* 1m:3111.11J:4 such ortant menufacturize states as Illinois, Ohio, Nee Jersey and Connecticut, there are no la*. prohibiting night 4ork. In these states, therefore night .vork of women is tbr practice at Ina number of lawartarg munitions pl_luts ale this practice is likely to increase unless the !sclera" goverrsnent tikes control of the situation. In those states hiving night work laws state officiFtls and others interested in the situation already woe *video)* that unless so.m constvoctive measures We taken by the fed.erftl goverment, the night -work laws which have bean placed on the statute books as the result of years of persistent effort, will be attacked sessions of tiv legislattires At the cogdng in that event repeal will be asked for on the gramni of natiorml necessity. The 'Woman iii Inivutry has held a onsber of conferenoile in Washington to discus* this subject with repreisent•itivee of voluntary ogganistAtions interested in labor legislation with men arki Norhon leaders in trade unions, ,.ith re.-resantativs* of the federal agencies concerned in this problem an3 with state officials. The plan evolved As a result of these conferences aft in every instance unanimously Am:proved by those prclasont at tie conferences, is that the federal government should take control of night .Tork n1 tnat in no state, whether there is a law prohibiting it or not, would rdght work. under this rlan be permitted, https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis 3x0ept 4, bertific te issued by by the Secrettri of or the Secretary of the Navy through the st4te agenci charge.t with enforcedIent of 1.-koor laws. In those states h.tving no prohibition of night work the basis of control will be a clause in the contracts prohibiting the estployment of women &flaw 10 p.m. or before 6 /41s vithout a war emergency certificate. In those st-ites having laws prohibiting rdght ',fork the certifioate would be issued under the war powers of the federal government ani would result in 9, temporary ,00dification of state regulations in a nFltional emergenc y. Is certificate would be issued until the War Department or the Navy had determined that it was an emergency in production which could not be met in !irgf other soy, thorough investigation by the Depqrtment of Labor reprnzented tif the Woman in Iniustry Service would be :.nuAle before .,rer certificate was granted and the working con':it ions which should be established, would be recomitended in evAch instant)* by the Secretary of Labor wain through the Woman in Industry Service in a state -“ent which *cold be attached to the eertificate. The WOMMIII in Iniustry Service would then supervise the plant iliring the period of certificate and the certificate would be revoked if in are' cites conditions were not courlied with. In no cacie vould a certificate be issued to a pl‘snt in vela women Oere emnloyel longer than 8 hours day or night and in law plant absolute cespliunce Adth standards set by the st:Lte deplrt ent of 1 rbor and by the federal government, ircluiin.g the princi le of the ewe psty for the same work for melon taking men's planes, would be required. The plan has been Avrroved by the War Labor Policies Board and is now before tne Conrail of National Defense for lecision. The groups with whom we have hat confer, are strongly opposed to ser weakening of st4te laws and will insist uron convincing leatonstration that a national emergency exists before eqf temporary .;,odificati on or susvenaion is permitted. The whole plan °onto -1 des control of night work with the asTurincto that it will be r,:stricted to those plants where national emergeney https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis -7exists and that every other method posisible Ni11 be tried first. It should result in leaving intact on the statute books the state labor laws and encouraging their absolute nnforeement in all plants not holding a pertilit from the federal government. 6. JOsioresimpaticos of morkina 40402. In evader that we night buys the advice of working lames irriT 0-10,14 practical ezreriencs is an invaluable gniie, the national trale undons having an members, mere rmIT to sena women delegates to a conference willed tly the in in Industry Service in itimshington on 0,..:tober 4th and 5th. This conference resulted in the formation of a permanent advisory council of *Writing amen. It also resIX lted in a series of resolutions forming a statement of the opinion of working women on the probleas now confronting the WMUMI 7. Induutry Service. pres_ntation of tnrloyers Plans are now under way for the organisation of an adVisory CoUniell representirg management. 8. Other Problems Wages 3nd industrial relations and ths policy which should rimerlie training for women .vorkers daring the mar have alio received serious conslimatinn from the Woman in Industry Service. On the whole problem of the employment of negro *amen its it is hoped that the Woman in Ind,istry Service in co-oreration 4ith tbs director of Negro Eco noJico mar undertake soae active work. At this moment it may be wad that the recruiting, training ami placing of women worker, and ths determination of conaitions which will ma4e their emnloyment most effective, is the basic problem involved in securing &n active force of workers for the industries of the government. A plan for establishing the necessary administrative ulachinery to accolimlish this 1st undertaking is no* in process of formulhlion. Determination of tbs occu-ations in ahich wohen should men , has obviously a very direct heart ng on the work of locelk Araft boards and the WI*: Industries Boara is ieenly interdsted in it frorm the point of vie of production for the war. The success of the undertaking will depend upon the active oo-operation of all of the agencies oonciirned with the effective use of the man po ;Aar of the nation. https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis