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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

,irir1i.1

June 10, 1919.
Miss Mary Van neeck
Jr..d.son Hotel,
53 Washington Square,
New York City.
Dear Mary:
Mrs. Robins is in Washington gathering information as to
the possibilities of hi,miling this coming international working wOmen's
conference.
We had luneh with Miss Lathrop and Miss Abbott this noon
and we talked over the possibilities of maternity benefits as one of
the agenda to be 444014sed in the Conference next fall. It seems to
is thb.t we must work. out that question in conjunction with the Children's
Bureau.
The other question on the agenda that ought to be considered
by the Children's Bureau is Child Labor. Then we have the question of
Then we have
eduoation that ent#irs into the subject of child-labor.
the question of the 3-hour day, night work for women, women employed
These questions are to be forsOlated
In uthealthfnl processes, etc.
and pre3ented in conjunction with wosen from other countries to the
preliminary committee of seven men that is to sit probably in London
during the summer to formnite the questions on the agenda to be presented at the international labor conference that will be held in
I feel, of courseotthat the Women's
October here in Washington.
Tilde Union League will have to send some one aver to present this
Mrs. Robins
material but that it is our duty to work:up the material.
tomorrow
thikt*UNittOk
of
Secretary
Labor
at
are
proolf
and
to owe the
afternoon to talk over with him the possibilities of this question.
I may have to take a flying visit to Atlantic City to see Mr. Compere
I an awaiting word from Elisabeth as to what
on the same question.
is the best time to see him. I think, too, that I ought to go over
there for a day or two to say "Hello" to the brothers in behalf of the
Department because they certainly know about us now since the "Staniarde
hale been disemOnted so widely. I see in the report of the llecutive
Council thfit they have reported favorably on the Woman in Industry Service
I suppose a resolution ought to be rrosented there so as to get them on
record.
Mrs. Irvin tells me that *Agana people have asked her to
speak. Two engagements would be in North Carolina between the 24th ant
30th of June.
They are meetings of two colored universities and it
may be possible that they will pay her trafeling expenses and also
If they don't pay her traveling expenses
entertain her while there.
There will be no per diem While
?
them
pay
to
do you think we ought
to
go.
I think it is very important
her
she is there so as to enable
and desirable myself that the colored people of the South know what
There is a meeting of the colored women's
our Department is doing.


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IIMN.—
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

-2-

clubs in the State of Now Jersey July 24th at which Mrs. Irvin has
been asked to speak. It seems to me it ie desirable that she should
attend this meeting if se are still in existence by that time.
1.0440 Brown is going away for two weeks beginning June 24th
to have an operation on her nose.
Mrs. Robins is to see Mt. Good, Chairman of the Appropriation
Comalttee,.4hile she is in Washington. She will be here until Thursday
night and she then goes to Now York but she probably will be back here
very soon agai rt.
The office sends love to you and hopes that your
mother is very much better.
With love and best ,,ishes,
Affectionately yours,

IWERF


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

Mary Anderson, Assistant Director
Wosan in Industry Service.

MI41.12i Laumix
U. s• Department of labor.
=Lan&
the 'umin ladastry Semlee Ins establi.shod in Atli, 1918,
snielP

appropPlatian widish onthoriaott the aosiretaxi of Labs, le

*establish a service rith apecial rehouses tO prowling sad dineleplag
the welter* of Iragargoorning wawa, Ispreilag working eiondltltnts of Wain
and advranting *war opportunities for profitable esplopnent. end In this
service to osOrdinsto and eontrol aline* in the aapartment of Saber eni
ether deparlsente having to do with agy matters of pellsy or preesitare with
reference to women wage earners."

Agtiumit 01 SlrEl _UWE( 4:7

law. ITT b‘Tilrip

Standards haw been formulated governing the employ/fent of roam.
These

standards deal with wages, hours. sellectivo harp:Linings neoessitir

for employment sumosensent in industry and the wor ing conditions which should
be established in plants where women aro onslogod•
lb assist in establishing policies regarding the employment of
wawa* a Oemnittoo on ilasarlious Occupations was organized to report on the
empleraent of woman in hourlong occupations, ea AdVisory Connell of rfk,
lag women has been formats opeelal investigations are being lads in a niriber
of cities of the **nations of employment of Neve women In industry, end an
(

initial iruiry has boon mde into the status of women in thsosehime trades
itlohigsa•
The Serdee cooperates arith the Weir and Ws, Papally**, bp alp
lasing on conditions affecting the employment of women in nenir polo sad aro

Special assistance and advise has been given In the States with a
view towards formulating or furthering Proltralli of Urination.

At the rew.

quest of the Governor of Indians a irurvcy es mode of the conditions wader


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

2 imp
Which women were soplered in that State and a report was submitted in ado
vance of the meting of the legielatnres
inforisstiss lagsrding legislation and working conditions far
maws is tarnished to these Who ore interested,
A stereopticon 91140 Uttar% and a 16mponel emillblt illustrating the standardesehtsh are

stresated OW the employment of walen he

been prepared for use throughout the country by State Labor Departments,
schools and colleEes and other organisations.

•
Miss Idary Van Baoeck is the Director of the Woman in Indvatry

51,:.Tvice.

miss Yen MAWS was in chums of the rioman's Branch of the

Industrial 5ery1ee Bodies of the ardmaise Department from the time of its
orgaaization until the ostabliabment of the

Oman in Industry 5erv1ce.

jaefore enterinc the Oregano* Department We was in charge of the Dfirision
of Industrial Studies of the Russell Sage Foundation in New York.
the Assistant Director, Miss Eari Anderson, was also in the
n's Branch of the Industrial Service Section of the Ordnance Department.

She is a member of the National %motive Board of the Boot and

Wipe 40fters Union, and is °heirs= of the Wmhington Comndttee of the
National, Wanes !rade Vales /0100.
•
Willetin No. 1, Propelled 103ityrant of Women during the Dar in the industries
of Mows Falls,
Bulletin No. 2. Labor Loss for V:omen in Industry In Indiana.
Bulletin No.


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

Standards for the Epployment of Women in Industry.
011111011...

0

U. S. DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
WOMAN IN INDUSTRY SERVICE
WASHINGTON

53

The Judson,
So. Washinzton Square,
New York City.
71 5.
June 2E,, 1;

'lary Anderson, ASEig. Director,
Wolean in Industry Service,
Department of Labor,
Washing-tcn, P. C.
Dear 14:Jae Anderson:
Do you know the dates when the International
autumn? I
Labor Conference will be held in 7es1inEton next
connection with
have been invited to speak at a mase meetinz in
Church in
the General Convention of the Protestant 7piecopal
nity which
eiportu
an
offer
Detroit on Cotcber 21st. This will
in industry.
women
discuss
I ehould wish to take aivantai,e cf to
have to
short2y
may
I
that
I am accepting with the understanding
Labor
tional
Interna
the
withdraw my acceptance if the dates for
conshould
it,
of
part
Conference, and especially the women's
flict. Will you let me know about this soon'
of
I have ycur letter of June 15th about the request
their
about
the Consumers' League of Philadelphia for advice
y. I augest
proposed investigation of negro women in industr
eAthat we
that0Taalkine. it over with '1,re. Irvin, you teillh
lphia
Philade
in
gation
investi
definite plans for an
have
ely
.ted
definit
formule
are
plans
next Fall, but that when their
asking
by
lly
especia
ions,
we shall be glad to make sugeet
2.:rs. Irvin to confer gith their field workers.
Thank you very much for eendinz me the telegram about
the Sundry Civil Eill last Saturday. To make it doubly sure
the Western Union delivered it once at six o'clock and again
at ten. I am hoping soon to have new of the action 14 the
Senate. seleanwhile I am also awaiting information about the
hearings on the employrbent service bill. I am ec glad that it
Was nci necessary for me to gc to Weshinton this seek.
Will you be back from the Y. T. C. A. conference in
North Cerolina by July 6th, and will the Secretary of Labor
be in Washington that wee.&? Of course, you will not Aish to
find out definitely about his plans until the date is nearer,
but I hope to be able to spend a few days there beginning
July 6th, and T should .gish to choose dates when I could confer
with the Secretary and accomplish Re much as possible.

 mvanK/
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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

Faithfully yours,

1

pi

Mary Van Kleeck, Director,
'owan in industry Service.

0

NeN York City
J,ne 11, 1919.
Miss Nary Anderson,
Washigton, D. C.
Dear Miss Anderson:
certainly agree that it is the work of the Woman in
Industry Service to get together the material needed for the discussion
of Women in Iniustry at the conference next fall. Is it your idea that
material should be prepared which will be nrinted in the form of briefs
as a basis for discussion?
It might be well to have Miss Jones begin
to think about the whole question at onoe so that she and Miss Campbell
could begin to compile material on the different subjects. I should
think it was very desirable for you to go to Atlantic City.
I agree that Mrs. Irvin ought to aocept the engagements
in North Carolina if she and Dr. Haynes think they will offer opportunities to further the cause in which we are interested.
In that case it
is certainly legitimate and right that her expenses should be paid by
the Woman in Industry Service in the usua1 way.
I ih0/114 think that
she would accept the July 24th engagement tentatively, calling the
attention of those ,no have invited her to the facts about the conditions of this Service.
Miss Larrabee wiil time you °Wag' ms3sages.
Very sincerely yours,

MVX:ALL-H


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

bap.,ry Van Kleeck, DIreotor
Woaan in Inl'astry Service.

MUD PRAM =PAM= OP LABOR
In LABOR ADMOISTIATIO4
(Change

Dr !male

110MAX

rs ranuerst

USTI=

reTasete4 to lliSsen's Stream)

To enatao the Seeretery of Labor to sorry into effect the provisions
of the Act nf .71117 1, 19141, eenocially tbo enclorment of omen in intiustry,
including personal service*, awl Tont iu the District of Columbia and in the
field, psr diem in liev of wubsistonco Abet', shlloAcd, trAveling expenses, law
books, honks of reference, periolicels, nompapere, survaiss an4 equipment,
oJntiugant ani miscellanaous eiTenses.
*printing and bin44Ing,
ancroaue of $110,000 enluitted)
ILtimated
lt420

Date

Imrioyoes
............

Upended
191d*
....1411.11..111011b

titalfirios
nor annilm
Diroctor
do
Aeeistant Director
(to
Mlle Clerk
lo
Iniuctrlea Xuperte
do
Ininetrisl Mtperts
do
Inftstrial Agents
Secretary to tho goireItor 4o
(SocriAtary to the Dirictor)do
Resossao 'Assistsnts
4o
Resoorch Assistants
to
erocisl Agents
1o
koctial 41144
io
SVICial AVMS
to
Fio14 Clerks
!lo
Clerks
lo
C1erks
do
Closks
do
Clerk
do
*monger

$6,000

INisiver
1

000
3,ADDO
2,500
2,4.)00
A,640
1,5W

1
4
5. 1
6)
1
-

1,600
1,800
1,500
1,400
1,320
1,600
1,400
1,3*4
1,40u.
WO

2
if))
f)
6

Nuakt-sr
1
1
#2
# 3.
#2
.
1
1

.

a
3
i)
.
;56

1
4

18
$11,472.30

Other objects of expenliturs
Tr&vel end per :item
Ouppliet and equipment ..
°trio. rental
Printing awl binding
rvies, including
Misoollamease eete
ttolegrark anA tzt.lephotte
Total ..

• it. •

*111.69*.0.11

Swims& litimat•
Dosomber 17, 1918.


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

•

25,000
12,500
5,000
4,530

1-09N

ilsop-Ooo

J,732.46
4,574.97
#4 000.72

.R
tao,a
ligt

* .1-44 1 to Demrzbor 31, inolnsive.
** Part time on field work.
# inelseively sa field work.
## Sertember 14 to December 21, inclusive.

Mary Van Mosaic
A.B., Smith College, 1904. For ten years before 1918, directing
industrial investigations for the Russell Sage Foundation, first as
Secretary of the Committee on Women's Work,and afterwards as director
of the Division of Industrial Studies. Lecturer and instructor in
industrial problems in New York School for Social 'Fork, 1914 to 1917.
/n January,1918, appointed director of the Women's Branch, Industrial
Service Section, Ordnance Department, U.S.A. In July, 1918, following
the appropriation by Congress for the War Labor Administration, which
included the Woman in Industry Service to co-ordinate all work for
*omen in industry in the Federal Government, appointed director of the
Service by the Secretqry of Labor, and at the same time appointed member
of the ler Labor Policies Board.
Beginning August, 1919, resumed
position of director of the Division of Industrial Studies, Russell Sage
Foundation.
Author of books published by the Russell Sage Foundation: Women in
the Bookbinding Trade; Artificial Flower Makers; Working Girls in Public
Evening Schools; and A Seasonal Industry, & Study of the Millinery Trade
in Dew York; ax d various articles on labor problems published in the
Survey Magazine and elsevibere.


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

•

Je
09-

,

by
Cotinuint.,: the ,)olicies oriOnally established
the
the -om'n in Industry Sixvice, the Women's 3ureau'has made
followinie; investigations this past year:
1.

GOVEIATTTENT 6t,RVICE.

7/01741:

60
7.Lis report showed, among other conditions, that
per cent of the examinations held bi t _e Civil service
that the •'2,reduring the period studied were closed to women and
than for men
vailin,; entrance salary paid woJen was nuch lower
Within two weeks after these discriminations

in the same grade.

the Civil jervice
against ::omen were bryi,ht to the attention of
all examinations
Coumission they issued a rul ng which o.oened
to men aid wopen all e.

The Bureau report of this investiga-

Congressional
tion was included in the final reHort to the Joint
Colllission on Reclassification of salaries.

54
2.

-1.A,"6"1,14.1•AA-1,-A-4-a4A4ZA.

L•

'.`401.11;144-1.1-!tFail--44This survey was based on data covering for t e prewar

firms
period nearly 9,000 firms, for the war period nearly 15,000
and for the postwar oeriod ovr 1,00 firms.

The significLnt

facts drawn from this large field bear evidence tn. t ronen were
enmloyed during the war in crafts fro: 'ici ti.3y had practicalwar, and that they a:e being retained
ly been debarred before the
in most of these industries now with an outlook of a larger use
of woman labor in these s,illed occupations for which the trade
training has been thus far denied women except as given by her
The Y.W.1.A. through its 7ar "iork Council made
employer in his shop.
this investigation because of the 7omen's Bureau lacking the funds
to make such an extensive investigation. The original report as submitted by the "far 'York 3ounoi1 was revised and condensed by the -/omen's
Bureau.

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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

-23.

.1-11)UIJ,1 TRAIIT.I1TG FOR W01,11: LLD Gril,S.
Following the disclosures made by the foregoing

study an extensive survey was made of the trade training
courses offered women and girls in over 100 trade schools
in 20 states with an analysis of the local industries for
which training wo.Jd most successfully fit women.

This re-

,9ort recommends an imrnediate program opening all vocational
classes to girls as well aL, boys, and encouraging girls to
fit themselves

or occupat-ions in the various industries

their communities.
4.

EITI;C T6 CZ iib' PiGULIG

,1E11/ HOURS OF 7:ORIC OE riTiE

EMPLOYLENT OFVALIIIT.
The Diodimplelpt legislation pa,Eed recently in
YorkAlimiting the employment of ,
;-o.len to nine consecutive
hours a day and 54 hours a weeL, and also forbidding their
employment after 10 p.m. or before 6 a.m. resulted in the
immediate dismissal of the

emu oyed in the street rail-

way colIr -,Lc_lies of refs York City and Brooklyn.

Whereupon the

Bureau tmdertoo, an investigation of women in the same employments in other cities, a-nd in C icago and 3oston it was
found that women could be employed under co_iditions far in
advance of local leal regyireme.-Its and of the reouirements
in rev: York.


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

Another investigation was ny de Of tte. effects


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

of the 46-hour law for women recently passed in Massachusetts,
of women
nt/in
unemployme
and
employment
comparing the conditions of
tne caief hart stries there with similar conditions in rev, jersey,
where the law still permits the employment of women 60 hours
a week.

The coLclsions indicated that in site of the re-

increasstricted measures the actual number of women employed
dured considerably in Massachusetts, but decreesed sii,htly
inL; the same period in 1;ew Jersey.

The proportion of women

employed decreased in both States, in 1Zew Jersey 3.1 per cent
but in Massachusetts only one-tenth of 1 per cent.
5.

TT R

E1ini

710121: Fa T:1

61.;PP OR T OF
It is generally admitted that the discriJdnation
in wage rates against women as com)ared with rates for men
serves as a serious handicao to the woman responsible for the
s1.4,eort of otAers.

What per cent 0: wave-earning wo;Jen are

the chief bread winners in their families has never been de),
In order
eted investigations.
restrl
very
termined except i,
to ascertain to what extent wo en ace contributing to the
selHort of others an intensive study was made of a limited
numb/ r of famiiies in Lanchester, 1;er Hampshire.

The total

earnings of all the workinc members of these families was
obtained from the employer's pay rolls 2or the year, Ella it
14-telAr
preparation) by combining this
(in
report,
the
that
is hoped
data with the cost of living survey made b,y the 1:!ureau of
Labor jtatistics covering the same period will show the justice
of woman's demand for a wage rate based on the cost of living

-4 for deT)endents and not merely for the individual.
6.

701,71; I:, 'Z.:, :;=6.

G".-11.1.1 I DrAI C.,

In all investigations made in the States the Women's
Bureau has worked in conjunction Nvith and many times at the
request of the State derartments of labor.

In Virginia the

Women's 3ureau made a special survey at the request of the
Governor, of the hours and conditions of 'cork for women in
industry in that State, a: d a report upon conditions in 144
plants with specific recomendations for the im)ro. .,
and working conditions was made to the Gov.,Jrnor.
- .stukr oi the same conditions was made in Ltlanta, Georgia,
and another more extensive investigation is now in progress
in Kansas in cooperation wit. the State Industrial Commission.

In a dition to these field investigations the Women's
Bureau ha6 had many demands made upon it to sundy information
in mattrs relating to the industrial problems of 1-omen.

Special

bulletins, maps and charts were issued for the International
Labor Conference on the legal regulations of the employment of
women in the States.

The Women's Bureau was even more intimate-

ly in touch with the First International Congress of Working Women
and the influence of the Director of the aureau was felt in formulating the international program for the imnrovement of all conditions throughout industry.

To meet the demands from State de-

partments of la uor, wo Jen's clubs,

universities,

c hambers

f

commerce and other private or,:zations for ecicEt onal information


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— 5 —
upon working conditions of roman the Bureau itc.s circulated
pictorial exhibits slim:Lig poor and ideal cc.-:)ditions, and
uiiotor: 1 nt illustrating different phases of women's won.
have been furnished magazines and newspapers.
staff of the Tomen's

Members of the

reau have ,artdcipated in many conferees

of wilich v.orkinc'standards were discussed.


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

Continuing the policies originally established by
the Woman in Industry Service, the Women's Bureau has made the
following investigations this past year:
1.

WOMEN IN TEIE GOVEENMENT 8311VICE.
This report showed, among other conditions, that 60

per cent of the examinations held by the Civil Service Commission
during the period studied were closed to women and that the prevailing entrance salary paid women was much lower than for men
in the same grade.

Within two weeks after these discriminations

against women were brought to the attention of the Civil Service
Commission they issued a TuLng which opened all examinations
to men and women alike.

The Bureau report of this investigai.

tion was included in the final report to the Joint Congressional
Cor,nission on Reclassification of Salaries.
2.

7OOMAN'S PART IN AMXRICAN INDUARIES DURIG TRP MUD WAR.
This survey was based on data covering for t• prewar

period nearly 9,000 firms, for the war period nearly 15,000 firms
gad for the postwar period ovor 1,300 firms.

Tae significant

facts drawn from this large field bear evidence that women were
employed during the war in crafts from which they had practically been debarred before the war, and that they are being retained
In most of these industries now with an outlook of a larger use
of woman labor in these Skilled occupations for which the trade
training has been thus far denied women except as given by her
employer in his shop.


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

-23.

INDUSTRIAL TRAINING FOR WOMEN AND GIRLS.
Following the disclosures made biy the foregoing

study an extensive survey was made of the trade training
courses offered women and girls in over 100 trade schools
in 20 States with an analysis of the local industries for
which training would most successfully fit women.

This re-

port recommends an immediate program opening all vocational
Classes to girls as well as boys, and encouraging girls to
fit themselves

or occupations In the various industries of

their communities.
4.

EIT'TT5 OF LAM FAULATING VEIR HOURS OF WORK ON WE

EMPLOLIET OF 7'0:1117.
The restrictive legislation passed recently in
Nev York limiting the employment of women to nine consecrative
hours a day and 54 hours a week, and also forbidding their
employment after 10 p.m. or before 6 a.m. resulted in the
immediate dismissal of the women employed In the street railway companies of New York City and Brooklyn.

Whereupon the

Bureau undertoo'i, an investigation of women in the saris war
ployments in other cities, and in Chicago and Boston it was
found that women could be employed under conditions far in
advance of local legal requirements and of the requirements
in NOW York.

Another investigation was mnde of the effects


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

passed in Massachusetts,
of the 48-hour law for women recently
of we on
ment/in
ploy
unem
and
comparing the conditions of employment
conditions in New Jersey,
the chief indastries there with similar
nt of romen 60 hours
where the law still permits the employme
a week.

e of the reThe condzsions indicated that in spit

of women employed increasstricted measures the actual number
decreased sliOitly dured considerably in Massachusetts, but
The proportion of women
ing the same period in New Jersey.
New Jersey 3.1 per cent
employed decreased in both States, in
of 1 per cent.
but in Massachusetts only one-tenth
8.

WOMEN FOR THE
TEE 1172PONSIBILITT oF WAGE EARNING

SUPPORT OF OTHERS.
rimination
It is generally admitted taat the disc
compared. with rates for men
in wage rates against women as
woman responsible for the
serves as a serious handicap to the
n are
Uhat per cent of wage-earning wome
rapport of others.
families has nev ,r been dethe caief bread winners in their
7n order
stigations.
termined except in very restricted inve
are contributing to the
to ascertain to what extent woinen
y was made of a limited
support of others an intensive stud
Hampshire.
number of families in Manchester, New

The total

these fnmilies was
earnings of all the working members of
for the year, and it
obtained from the employer's pay rolls
ion) by combining tills
is hoped that the report, (in preparat
the bureau of
data with the cost of living survey made loly
will show the justice
Labor Statistics covering the same period
the cost of living
of woman's demand for a wage rate based on


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

4for deLeondents and not merely for the individual.
6.

GE/VRAI MIKIS:TRIAL CONDITIOVB 142

wours

IN THE STATSS.

Women's
In all investigations made in the States the
times at the
Jure= has worked in conjunction with and many
request of the State departments of labor.

In Virginia the

request of the
Women's Bureau made a special survey at the
women in
Governor,of the hours and conditions of work for
ions in 144
industry in that State, and a report upon condit
improvement of
plants with specific recommendations for the
Governor.
hours and working conditions was made to the

A

a, Georgia,
study of the same conditions was made in Atlant
now in progress
and another more extensive investigation is
rial Commission.
in Kansas in cooperation with tne State Indust

In a. dition to these field investigations thq Women's
Bureau has bed many demands made upon it to supply information
in matters relating to the industrial problems of women.

Special

bulletins, maps and charts were Issued for the International
Labor Conference on the legal regulet!ons of the employment of
women in the States.

The Women's Auresin "as even more intimate-

ly in touch with the First International Congress of Working Women
and the influence of the Director of the Bureau was felt in formulating the international program for the improvement of ell conditions throughout industry.

TO meet the demands from State de-

chc.mbers of
partments of labor, women's clubs, univrsities,
•
commerce and other private organizations for educatonal information


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5.
upsa !working conditions of women the Bureau has circulated
pictorial exhibits showing poor and ideal conditions, and
photograph* illuetrating different phases of women's work
have been furnished magazines and newspapers.

Members of the

staff of the Women's Bureau have narticipated in many conferences
of which working 'standards were discussed.


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U S. DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
W. B. WILSON, SECRETARY

Issued through
INFORMATION AND EDUCATION SERVICE
Roger W. Babson, Chief

Washington, D. C

WOMAN IN INDUSTRY SERVICE
This contains a copy of the statement of principles concerning the employment of
women in war work as adopted by the War Labor Policies Board. It defines what kind
of work women may perform, how they shall best be introduced, under what conditions
they should be employed and what work should be prohibited.
Employers should avail themselves of the assistance of the Woman in Industry Service
for advice on the best methods of introducing women and the working conditions which
should be established.
STANDARDS FOR THE EMPLOYMENT OF WOMEN OUTLINED BY THE WAR
LABOR POLICIES BOARD
The War Labor Policies Board, for the Department of Labor, announces the Government's attitude toward the employment of women in war industry. The principles set
forth will underlie the work of the Woman in Industry Service, of which Miss Mary Van
Kleeck has been appointed Director and Miss Mary Anderson, Assistant Director.
The existing shortage of labor, aggravated daily by the military and naval demands
of the Government which requires a greatly increased production of war materials and at
the same time the withdrawal from civil occupations of about a quarter of a million additional recruits each month, necessitates widespread recourse to the labor of women in the
United States.
In order that their services may be fully utilized and their working power conserved,
a clearly defined policy is needed which shall determine what kinds of work women should
perform, how they should best be introduced, under what conditions they should be employed, and what work should be prohibited.
Standards as to hours, night work, wages, and conditions of labor have already been
defined by the Government in orders issued by the Chief of Ordnance and the Quartermaster General, and in the recommendations made by the War Labor Board, which should
be observed by all employers.
First. The shortage of labor in essential war industries should be met in part by
further introducing women into occupations easily filled by them, such as clerical and
cashier service and accoupting in manufacturing, mercantile and financial establishments
and in the offices of transportation companies and other public utilities; such as sales


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clerks and floorwalkers in mercantile establishments, including among others
department
stores, specialty stores, shoe stores, men's furnishing stores, florists' shops,
jewelry
stores, drug stores, soda water fountains, etc.
Second. Women should not be employed to replace men in occupations or
places of
employment clearly unfit for women owing to the physicial or moral conditi
ons, as for instance, in barrooms and saloons; in pool rooms; in or about mines, smelters,
and quarries;
on furnace work; in glass works, etc. In addition, girls under years 21 of
age should not
be employed in occupations or places of employment clearly unfit for them
owing to their
youth, as for instance, in the public messenger service, in street car, elevated
and subway
transportation service, as elevator operators, as bell boys in hotels, and clubs,
etc.
Third. 1. The introduction of women into war industries or into employments
involving special hazards, such as the use of industrial poisons, should be guided
by the standards as to health, comfort and safety set up from time to time by the War
Labor Policies
Board, in addition to the standards already defined by the Federal Govern
ment and by
State labor departments.
2. The introduction of women into new occupations such as street railway
service,
public messenger service, etc., should be guided by regulations concerning
hours of labor,
night work, etc., such, for instance, as those adopted by the Industrial
Commission of
Wisconsin for street railway service and by the legislature of New York
State for messenger service.
3. The recruiting of mothers of young children for war industries should
be discouraged.
The advice of the Woman in Industry Service should be sought by employ
ers regarding the best methods of introducing women and the working conditions
which should be
established.
Fourth. Older men should be more generally employed. They constit
ute a largely
unused labor reserve. In the past they have been considered superannuate
d at early ages.
It is estimated that since the war began, the maximum age of engaging men
has advanced
ten to twelve years, that is, from about 38 to 50. It has been found
that tasks can be
graded for these workers according to their strength, and that work
unsuitable for women, especially at night, can be performed by them. In many trades their
experience is
an asset which offsets less physical strength. Thus the productive power
of this large
class now wasted can be utilized.
The needs of the country require the united efforts of all classes of
workers, in accordance with their capacities; and to maintain the standards and conditi
ons of labor set up
by the Government is, in the words of President Wilson, "indispensable
to the Nation's full
productive efficiency."


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WOMAN IN INDUSTRY SERVICE.

Purpose and Duties.
The purpose and duties of this service is stated in the Secretary's
letter as follows:
of Labor
"It is undoubtedly true that the Department
earners of
wage
to
ce
exercises all of its powers with referen
best
the
that
true
It is also
both sexes and of all ages,
the
of
s
service
administration requires that the various
by including
department which are here outlined be conducted
g women
regardin
within the work of each service all questions
as well as men.
in
But the great importance of the employment of women
matmost essential war work and the development of special
it importers of policy with respect to such employment make
of
subject
the
to
devoted
tant to establish a special service
women in industry.
as
In view of the fact that the other services will,
as
well
as
women
above indicated, include within their sphere
large,
not
is
men, this special service of women in industry
will be largely policy making and administrative in character
rather than itself executive; but it will maintain close contact with all the work of the department on this special subject and will also coordinate and control such work in all
other departments."
Stated more specifically the purpose of this Service is,1,

To consider all general policies with respect to women in
industry and to advise the Secretary of Labor as to the
policies which should be pursued,

2,

To keep informed of the work of the several divisions of
the department insofar as they relate to women in industry and to advise with the divisionson all such work.

3,

To secure information on all matters relating to women in
industry and to collate such information into useful form.

4,

To establish useful connections with all governmental
departments and divisions on this subject and with voluntary agencies and societies.


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Woman in Industry. •

- 2

The Relation of the Work to other Departments.
This is sufficiently shown in the above statement, the relation
relation to
of this service to other departments being the same as its
other services in the Department of Labor.

II.

The Service is Necessary for War Production.
There is no organization which deals effectively with this subject

at the present time or is qualified so to do.

The different committees

dealing with it in Washington are as follows:
1.

The Woman's Committee of the Council of National Defense;

2.

Mr. Gompers' subcommittee on Woman in Industry;

3.

The National League for Woman's Service connected with the
Department of Labor.

None of these has executive power and is not a proper agency in
which to bring together the various persons engaged on work with refer-

ence to women wage-earners in any of the departments.

III.

The Plan here Proyosed will be Effective.
The obvious purpose of the plan is to organize a service on this

subject having real authority for the Government, instead of the committees which now exist and which have no authority, though they employ
- considerable number of persons in their work.

If the proposed service

does nothing more than to do away with most of the work of the existing
committees, it would justify itself.

As a matter of fact, however, a

well-established service with funds and authority will be able
actually to produce valuable results where numerous committees, without
authority, would practically fail.

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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

INtratiry ;, 1919.
lisemersodum iteoedisql Apprepriatiom itequeoted for thq loom is Iettnotr,
Borne' et the WesemOit Surma of the Vetted Statas DelArtment
et Sober, ter the year hostasdas Aar 1, 1114.
to the %matte,
lettsiele St

letieste.

lip

Apprepriatitee*
A revised estimate et Womme, pipottikevm, toarmsse
of $11,400 ewer the prom* Offeepriota,a or $410,000
is herewith sebeitleds lho orisimal setiftplis st
$100,000 me prepared dusts' the ear when it me el*.
dem* that if the war dheild somtimee the imerstriee
et the oesstry eeol4 depend im rapidly imereeeiss
measure Ape* the *Irk of ememos Ike sueemeetul
nee persemool late the ear
tredeeSien et se lapse
imbetries uralet have limeLvel admimistretive respeoelhilities which aeul4 heve loft *my emollor orm
11
salfrme moviole se view 0 the impertarifte et women's
week te prodmetion. Witt( the slistiag of the ersteties the prOMeme of Ammo is isiustry ftre moms the
loos sorter, sod impertost hut se rapid ea ememoies
144011 govermostat le teemed
eir sistivisior 'A, the 1,
sisseseeeary at this time*
i III

Ihe esteem* now requested represents a learease to
the oesibime4 scales of empemditure tor the slams eir**
e
peso by sewaral Atieselee et the 'Moral devromoat
t4e pow. boss iesluded heeldoe Cho ems
iskIstustry Sorwtos et the lepesimmee ft Leber, Whilk
Nos 4.014101104 AO the unifying epee, ter all emelt
erseedeatiemet the Weemals Aron* of the Dedmomee
14Nosimett. *Ma et the time et the sigittes 0 the
furutatisi, hot develfted octivittim,
solmt 0 Ala
was rated et lommudtat over $100,000 a years the LWinototal Selotiamo Seetios of the Q9srtermastar's
Deportmeee. Ohleh leelsiet mom Amkplosite asrsimi ter
Oat 40portemilia asi the Ohippimis Alsord, 411141t awl
0,114 imessolog sitosiies to SU Labrediaimet
mums tato Its sysiosidlary
amt ores sesibterles their alder Imo Me tile Otpplorde. la oddities
there ass *he work 0 the Olommittse se Weems io
Industry of
Altripary 40.41110140 et thil Ossmoil
et 110414mol Weise **I Vie lopertment et Warms io
ledustry at the femeo.o lesmittee se the Osomell.

10211.

eapportod by privato oontribso.
'he former sas
time. Oboe of their* dilate* vill coatis*. um:Also the
Ihmooslo Coomittoo oarrios forward a limited range of volt
Vhismgh ths velommis clubs. ft is impossible to istioato
aosmostoly the total ospoaditaros far woman la industry
tho roderal Oororamos4 Miro* all 'Moo cogaftlautioam
Aorta' tho war, but evidently it Imo at * rate higher
that that now requoetod taring Who ovally important
roosastriatios onto*.
StaSittoil Osstsins * statement of tbo si4o
amoths
of Oaf mod aotool onposalturos for the
*salmi Saseabor 311, 140.

Upen4itures
Dot*,

I

14

Purposos for
whisk
Orsaaisod.

it,

Iho awropriatiom of 1919 'vas mod* "to mobil' ths Soorotary st Labor to establish a service with spatial reforomeo to osmotime amd dovolopimg %he wolfare of asp.
oarmisig nem., improwios tho working ooaditiwns sf women
sad odosseiss %hair opportumitios foe profitable om'Upset, amd ts this 'orris* to etworoilnote sod osatrel
all work
Vho Departwes4 Of Labor and otter *sportmoats having to 40 with aro NOW, of potter or 'rumtope with reteromoo tog:ammo mago-sarnors01

S.

la esplanatiomot the moos" fey opoolal sorvloo for
Noose Mho SooretsOly Of Labor mode the following 'tattooulteattimg Oho sotto*, for 1019:
oist


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WON

wit is undo:M*0y true that the lonartmest of Labor
szsrelsoo all of ito powers sith rotenone* to ease
eArnere of both sows amd of all ape. It ls also
true thsit Who best adsisistratioa roquiree that tho
various sorriass of We oopartimmat Ukiah ore bore
outlimod
oomMoMWWL1F inolatimg *Wits this work
of ough *emit* all qmostions recordimi moms so voil
1110

IONS the greet tapertamee of tits omplormont of momoll
bison oesostial war work old the dovolopsomil
spoolal ms4tors of polity with mopes% to onsh
plAipment sok* it important to ostabliolli a oppoial
service 44911401 to this 016,10011 Of *1100.11
tedestry.°
It has boom the purposo of the Sorviso, Mores's, to
bring together SiONIMI14011 oemoornod with sposial ampoots of
the problem for totted illation on a 0411111.1111 bails *hi&
shoat make tho ovork of *ash mos% offostivo.

Work aeseasplisked
to at..


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s
sere stualam
egi",
ted by thelhisma in rniustry Servine atter OW
of ths emperise.. st plant. In whia wens* were
east ouneseatiello employed Suring the war, mad soup
Oaltsotiea with State departments of labor, repro,roblentAtives of sageof
rs,
earning wawa.411 6711
':
tord wars adopted by the ihr
1141144441".
Leber Pclielos Beard in(ter, with the exportation
of including the nest inportam in iederol eontiraets.
Atter the signing of ‘he sstioe a few Obangos sere
Radio, aorleistimg &Mali at the elisiaatiost of rotth.
vision. fer meditleatinns to mmst the assossities st
oar, an. the Steseards were taea so a statement of
purpose and pregismittc tlk+ resonetraction Teriod.
'hay are being wi4e1,7 distributed by State 4epart*
MOM tit likbOr ilea atomisationa interested in eon.
dittoss et wenn,
.wet. They hays home translatad
tabs Spanish by on organisatioa in Porto Xis. asd
translation into other languages aro planned by tbo
Taft Ihsanis Christian Asseetation in its work *meg
forelopborneesseus. They form a *gels for suggestions
to oppleyers empoolally as they swe actually a stateswat et coniitleme now prevailing rril found practioablo
is the best establishments of the country.

7.

La fulfillment of lastraeSions to es-ordinate all
federal activities for soma is iodustry, the Serivice orgazis4v1 theCOCIven. cm Ems II!MOM
amapeee of racrefientativos it nay Wrists" of
ea Department et labor, the War Department, the
Sailtead Administration, the Weeswa's Condit*s sad
the Censitteee outman in leustry of the Cession of
istiesal Cstesse, mad the Iroderal Bc‘rd for Vemestleaal
lidusatioso
this Seseell has hall sleekly meetlatO
&ad served MAI & seater it intormAt1-01 to its sombers
as to Nioh other's programs.

S.

The aireator at the Service has ropreaontod wawa
in Imds4U7 as the 11114101.211MOUNUM Wes
further insuring unity of Asti.* swag federal
dapsttronts in dealing with aasealls work. doting
for the War Least Policies board the 'limner assisted in formulating
statement of policy ter
the introduitton of wawa into sot easepations
developing es plan, whereby State espertmosts et
Labor should worked* the Federal Seversesset during the war lliailateasang stenlards set in flute
Wow lownl eall outlining tor the several monneeerasit a pint et cooperation for intensive
mar-tise **intim et workers for indletry. Ore
Wows is 1401.144w Service, also assisted the War
&cher Policies Shari in a scafersam, of the State


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•41..

Departmonto of labor hold is Washimgles is Bootember,
ter die purpose of sore affective oosper$41es is dee see
at their soubised reesnreee in deeltai mith thee* .rObless
tress national pets& of view.
O. At the releoet et the Seeretar, et ihr, the Sanaa in Industry
Barris,
provisions prohibiting
ung tearaway reeposeisit
L&1 illi
t wart, in plass* engaged in prodasSton for the war. The
review consisted in tyaretel serutimy of reports sebeatte4 by
industrial service sections 4f the liar Dev,artaents easterenee
with the loprrtarrot at loiter in the State ooneerned, the
seouriag of a report froe the los*1 employees* 'Moe as to
the ovailebility of a stly of Libor ambles medifirsttos
of State laws unaseessary, sad, Where nesessary, a sarle*
anstary irireotigatias by the Poem in Isalletry Service tootles* to discover other methods if &toting the esergemey.
In the coarse of dealing with these oasis* die Servile foris
salated a method of prosoder, for control of night work
and the safeguarding of air neditioatiosse iononstroted to
be neoeseary, sad after contaltationwith ergnaisetioes
vitally laterestod in tho labor laws, instals, State
Labor departatats, trite,* 'adage *Ad other rokemiory sus-.
station*, and with employers eubsitted the plait to the
Sae Labor Policies Mori. ?Le signing of %be armistice
made its odeptios Innesessary, and it is possible to
report that tbroi.ghout the war all standards in State
1/4ber loos warp rigidly weimAalsod to the advantage dl
preduetton.
OCCIIPATICIFI,
10. Tits itrtroduebitM of seam into
SUsludtag thm aoslcai industries, oaimfseture of isrplesives
sad the load twist, balsa a serious problem early in the
sumer. ivAlwaimg • rest from the liployersi Arnett**
tics of ltagars Tails for -.raisin's to employ wog** at
'tight in Oho Chariot/ ind;strioe there, this Service orgnsiliens eeeposs4 of
ised a Ressittoo en Ilesardous Oa
ropreeestatives et the Publio Noeltb Sorileel thetlurens
of Standards, and the ational IleamarOlt Conseil, hnd the
mOgitteers from the flar Departa-nt and the Navy whew, contrasts in theme lainetries were itertoeat. A °areal
fasstigation was aside in Niaqpra 74C10 by representatives
of the Pnblie R*01101 Service and tho %sea isIsdnetry
Serviee, the terser dealing with tedmial problems of
hygiene end safe*, $md the latter with policies amd ear
dittos* os-eoially Westing woven. lho report formulated
by this Sorvtoe is submitted herewith is matigmaphod tem
Labor
It is to be )Aaished is the fortheosieg
Review.
11,

A 01miLar pies* of osek ese yrsjeotod sad boos isag
not continued besets* the signing ef Cho
entities nade Cha f,Arthor introduatia If eases unaeseo•ary.

mama but


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

•••

12. 'he tagatri st Sidigara Pails revealed the need for
kfl authoritalies csientifie suitcase% of the aim
slue* leadpoisoning of firessu eausee sterility and infant sortaiitr.
Iltis Service, theretere, asked Dr. Ali** Mindltes at
the Duress of Labor Statisties to formulate sash a
'am la Industry
statement, which to now la 1170110.
Service *ill assist ii sowing station ea Its eenslusions,
bp advagating the eassIneen$ at hats laws prohibiting
presesees larsivlag svoeuro
the emplOplett et weirs
.
to lsod4peteOutng
13.

At the Imiqueet st the &wormer Of rallaaa, the ISOnstrial
Soer4 net the State eaussil of Deans. this Swift has
compi.sed a survey of isnall
111111
-1111 =MI
aM ribsiSted the rarer% Or obi& a oopr is
/Wow to sne of six State* bodes ae netta.
tion in the 'shy or weeklr hour* uf work et adult women in
A$ the request of the State Ctonnittees
spy occupation.
organised to Sake erotica co the resW.to at the our's", we
soSperated la a two days' cInferemse La Tadleaspolle ea
.venne and ehildron is induatry, 0.00,1141 is WO
WINS
,
'
Is presented
ths aselstanee it the Children's Bureau.
the results st thm survey nos only In a print** report
blA in 04140410tisou slides showing soo4itions assail
correotion and high stanurfis plready attained La Issilaas
fsotorlet.

NIEL

14.

At the regeeet it private sellOnisations in Philadsata,
ea Imigory late
1 PAID VMS /11 CARDYolalaja,
is new ili progress.
there
Agents
1'
71Jfl
with
are
working
Labor
SiAtIstios
it
of the Sums
way
aliso
that
data
so
the
fora
esrideo
this
agents ot
saw
of
survir,
hours
mationool4e
and
wave
part of the
assure
being made by the Iltiroutt, while 21$ agents will
the additional data needed to IthOw causes and poealblo
remedies for low owe trees the point of vise of the
1*(14 otandaris at wassa's work.

115.

To further the dowslopmeat at 41er nolieles is industry
Itself La Moils/ with Iowa workers, the iiirestor boo
served as a asiber of the illigaiLlUdINIUMIUMB
97 Tin wit ziousitie maw Is have cif* reopsaisi te
requests frau employers for advice by esnitag tuforustlea
or by ashlas plAnt inspections.

4-40

Ike forriso
ids Sm.aft
the seeds at
is male& te asp oeuttlasaao La
the lArgoot ladeateitie *ad to have
11111 0000b appgarea
their seameel la Ito plass sod $4114/11044
%IN Ihe federal feweraheat tom emert ea loportitaS tatlooars
eapiarer et eatems Ike Boothroe. ite oft palsy es
row et the Mow hair rosposted this foryloto to have ea
la ail seaters
or la Ipleado toter
is
atteotiai IRMO
leopootlea le
the jariodiftios at the WM,. IMO
Wm tit preipooss
Les

la OM*
ead Su0091
wed Awl% the
falroAct
problem et poliar relattill to
entatelea st Zris ampartualtlos la skilled works
An lop.
lasalry has boo *Apo late the stades ot wow la
the asebtass trade* lafiabigAs. 0a thie %mole et skis Sam
Mal istesirr the feasibility 0 a ameme sotaitelve wool,
will bo doteredmods

i9.RF14hasobarseed tries
prah am et rose are alud
aims.
VA ears
lb
et
problem
wealsoe egleasiele position. lateranies
to the
le greatly needed as a tone ter * wise volley. A asabor
of the nett et tide serirliee work*, with the Direst.,
at airs leeneedoe et the Deparkeima le midi% e twin et
brief imetiriee, oatoh bee sifted? leekedied Detroit. Ohleasa.,
tom4 St* &Oats* so a basis ter oistorataihs a preemie( Ia..
elii gliro the taste sessige
reotightlow
10.
Iowa prepared la ehart tern e
tor raterirafte.
21.

Oa the bans at Ohio aaalpties

111

stet to the leduetrial beard sr labor debees beets
portation La railaaa sod Wittosseta, sad bills booed ea thee.
eammeramda twee hoes laireaosod la Woo Obeteos

Plana ter the 12* nags tar the oemiaol year seteliempleto a ottodiamsbioa et
the stelhode already Obisoa to bs ottani,. to a limited
Tear 1110moles future stativItitte aro outlined ob the bons et
tatiaiairele ot ahem. IstOreammaalities We.oltiek atomarils tow the eapiarmeab at IMMO ima he arrelepod 401 applied,
oho toilworn


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

‘4•

a.

Zainallaaliallnadiaanna.
The asoirol at the federal Ooversosot over labor EmsditioNs has grown rapidly lose so oar sontesets have
been oartailed, hot tko istImanse et the /*derail Gov..
erument throudh the poliolos adepts* Astro it has sow.
treat will sent/also to be at post tiPorUne*. Wbe
Weans to Iminstry lorries plasm, 4mre1oro, to *any
t101014bbs inapastilie rovvested by the Soorotary at
ths ihvy ',at to *stood It, if losirod, to pants nyder
Ums juipiedistios im

otiblor PoiterTu. Dkaarlisests.

a.

11

. 4).

MULAM1111421111
Iho ruination of the State stnet Poieral Dio-ssftseoSs at
Anber in rnuggen go igloos in intivary ars 4istlast
srsunu et
singe litte dorosstasol.to. are ehargird with
isms while the roderul Depervoont is not a imm..oncerning
NY bet INternstional sod polisreshins• It is ao.
priPleiate am& soosooror OM the Moral Ileveransat
should snippli data noodled by woe Stotts as to 04041,466010
saiwyd isl smother and Whoa to assist to raisims etaniarts
sod onee001046 moiforatty. ?hitt this lint. tioparfteate
are 0000, tyyr this asitietanso is altos* isesmostrated.
emir nompoinonntsimi 41trias ths ear has oreatod a
rosysmadbility tor the Sodoral Soversomem4. WripOWW,
to the NotioNal problem* f rosonstrisstion the Federal
Govorionng ant poky won Stute sotto* tor solviss way
tiffinaltleo onto& hays national sowassittonsos. *anti ens
tog seeperatios witk the Stftte., Is, tilerstore, a National
**sloes, as moll as a eervise to the Stets*.
0,

aallIMILALLIMMIL
the alpltoation Of steNdards will dovolvo soosithe
Nonossmean la isdividool ostabilohNonts, sad this Sirvise is prolimill 0410004014 toostotais essisot with
osipleposet Namosore responsible for tho sonditiome at
wessnie weeks

d.
Obviously the sown thonsolves an an hiparterkat Smite.
in 4stssimining oenditiens of work sod to oaaporatias io
evossoisful stedoetten. Ike Items la Ietiootry Soorviso
affords ter thies a11.01110 at Nokias known their mods
sod, in towno Who 'orris, sem amilist *sir sit !non
usittoro affsettNe the relation Of the Moral Oevernment
to thins.

e•
iladerlying ell the ettortit et thaws esessies is
the ettitsto et the puhaSs. lhe NOG in Isdessb
to the public, time*
%Mr Urines *Ass le
printed reports,
eseseltstism4 and three.
Ars simptsgregide remoras aid other terse of
b t materiait the toots meted for wigs desisione
onospoSed leidelathin, sr ether *sties to improve
the senditica et wasessersdes weeen•

=
WINIST


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

Noels in intuetry is 19l0 epastitetot mem Owe 21 per mot
of tho toilet ssiber of rm.*** gstsfullg employed IR the
Unitiis Stator. It is not only their *pertness Inseams,
but the 'peels" prebtems st their employment Westin inp
lustry en She ene h^sid eed family lite amil Shild welters ea
the other heed obis% neoessitates specie' provision by the
;Were' leveremest fer eleering Wiese of pond,* mei hots
relating to their position in isdestry. Ihe wisdom et Osso
grew in diatiposisag es* on sigattey se
Nokia. rather then itself execoutire, twos Mohave hem lememstreted la the *cum' Imperious' of the Ilion lilt Dinesew
try lierwise in smoi,viss ooeperatiee ead stinsIsting
et
view
the
In
agencies,
sine
of
the
ether
tivitiee et
sevatry *ad tke diversity of its Onmiltli4ns, hswewer, tee
smell *toff wade possible by tit* ;Present a prepristion sae
been shoes Se his very isodequeto tor the 4wrelepeesd of polio
tele*. lhe sc.,90elprVstlos requested althesgh aloe small ta
Seelpftrlsoal with the implitnie ei the took will be nade offestive thressh the extension et the present plan of setivities design*/ to stings*, the aeopesistes effort et 41 ck.
asensiols eencernod in the prebleit %a the Wilma mad import&at InthietriAl *enters ef' tin smosilry.
lespeettaIly sitmitted.

lbw Yen Liseek Direst*
Owen in Inisetry 1110/10111.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

June 4, 1919.

Additions& Missommadua of work asolsagalohod by the Wows 114 I/A*0W
Seiviso of the U. S. ricartmont of Labor fres
February 1, 1119 to Jim 1, 1919.

To the Consdttos on A2propriationos

1.

Is s0000desoo wit% the arrangomost by *Isiah this
Sorties aseamod as
amonsinct is all matters atfeet1zg velem
employed /saw Yards and in plants loader the
jurisdietios of the Navy Department, inepoetiese
hove bees de and reports and rosommosestioso sob.
silted to the Secretary of the Navy isk the following insimemos: the krooklys Wry Yard, The 'rook*
suet
los Clothing it Provisions Depot, The Broad's
illapply Depot, ibe Philadelphie Navy Yard,
Almon Facts". The Charleston Navy Yard. Deeen.
soadatioas is limo mum glowered ro&ijustmant of
isprvvod
wogo rtes, better working somdiiions
sotheis of employment management, and the *stabliehmest of a definite policy by the Navy Deportees* regarding the dismissal et wefts workers.
isoause the curtailment of tio work is the Wm
Yards neeeesitated levies off smalbors et workers
it me considered noolossary is order to provost
hardship to recommend that due meth,* aikealt be
given before dismissal, that Nogro workers sboold
not be laid aft in larger propertiome Om White
workers, and that part time 4410k for the dole
forms should be arranged, rather thin ummiplip.
most for a portion of OA torso. Is the Charlestom
Wry TL,rd the lorries was asked to assist in
tabliehieg plow sort prices end cost : rises on
umisrmar aimmtastorod there.
Isapostioso are mew being made 4 osaditi,)ns
in lb* liaro Island and ihrsaurtoa navy Yards.

2.

This Serviee has else bees reiseeted to =Mt
INIUMURAIONER in wetter* relatimg
the opplapoost of women is Soversmient ortomls.
Inc,astions oiallsir to WAN mode is the envy
yards arc pleased, beginning with Oho oiroomole


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

at Bemieia, Oallfernim and at letik Island,
Illinois,
3.

Purther insestigalisee here beim sate te
**limn information regarding amajmun
111111W Short ramp have been ends of the
enpleyment of Negro roma in the steel industries in Chester and to the ahaliy industry in
Philadelphia. A more extensive surrey bas been
mode at Negro woven in the industries of Ohio.
Oondltiome India* are representative of essio.
dittoes *roughest the eountry abasing bee the
northers attitude towards the prehlan of the
Weary as represented in aed sheet Cleveland ami
the northern sort Of the Stets, and the greater
prejettee of the south as in Cientinati and the
4 mnort OA this
slathers part of the State.
prepv:rvtion.
in
1114111
worm 1111
isrostigation of 110111 Of ugly email
has been empleted. thie lavesfeeleleired factories employing two-thirds
of the plorkers in the candy industry in Philodelphia.
It 4111 found that although aage rates
have increased single before the war, the earnings of the majority are less than the cost of
living.
One et the chief senses of this low
ineeme is irregularity of *wispiest.
Copies
of the report were submitted la nenneeript fora
to the nanngement of all of the eamdy factories
which had been included is the investigation,
with thl ',vest that they submit suggestions
or recommendations as to methods of eliminating
this irregularity, to be inoerporated in the
fleal report.

5.

The first draft of the re?ort on
gUiffailkillaia-MENIM has awl.
comp eted and shows the need for the establifibi.
emat of a definite poll," regarding the future
empleynmat of 'acmes is these trades leeleiing
special training and education for ;ma me"
end a just opplioattmh of the standard et easel
ratio of per for nen end wows.

G.

As the roiliest at the Sweet boles* Vnioll as
istrostigetion has him made of
I=IIat
0011111 Wats irlagoport, Oenneetleat. It
sae toned that Wore is a oensilerable seeset
of noes work is oenneetion with this industry
at ;ht such 'fork is carried on in fronded
unsanitary surroundings, sometidg-s luring the
illness of members of the family, suffering
from lafeatieas or contagious diseases; that *


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

•sih.

lower who rata is gives than wasid be paid for
tinilar work in a history, sal that obild 'ober
is utilised. Boossmendotleas have be sods to
the sipleyers that the prattist at giviag out
hams work be dissontimmod as soon as passible sat
thnt is the nsas tiaa sash work should be saratelly
supervised and the sem rate paid for werk ions
in ths hone as would be pals far similar work toms
The empleyer in the most importis she fastory.
sat plant has emprassid latcrast in the fildirgs
and hps ass* for a special report on fasilills
lag wort kola fres his factory. If will bring the
romminammtatisms to the attention at ether spployers
isiridgarport, oed in the Sttts.

t.

6.

ir variaos SUtss.
osepaisa
special
lagislAtivo
a
*hero
linnisita,
In
this
on,
eas
attpriod
40MAU
for
hours
for snorts,
personal
/drift
to
alfiltioa
in
turnisbed,
esevise
sad assistant*, Charts showing State labor isms,
and stereeptisen *lilts thawing standards at work.
fosiitioos, ter exhIbities thronghoft the State.
Other Mats. Aiwa.* *foetal assistanee hat been gives
are Iowa, koto York, Rhode Island, Peansylvania, sad
nreparmi Illustratlog
SZLIELJEMON41 kali been'
onploynsnt of sum la industry.

These eabibits *consist of stsrecptiocii slide tootures, mad a series at panels fostaining photo?his
graphs an sketahho of actual conditions.
matorisl is bolas mldoly ciroalailed among State Leber mslowtmmais, schools, collies**, labor Saganlaatioas cad Ober grows who ore Lsterestod in
improving misdates*.
9.

In ardor to leteraisis tits effects 4f dosabilisatins loos the status ist soma workers this Serviso
nes boss acquittal to ascots alt advisory relatifs
to a

r

t
r Puri'
• We 04 A.
In view et the gmmerel lack et definite te$011041011
as to Us* "Mk SI *0
is the ear inkstrio. ant
as to tho Mare epsrmod to them by seek sisavrollsi
It to sessidered that smith a survey will he of great
value and ikrrangensalis have bast senplitod for its
inauguration.
0

10.

0

.

in connestioa with the publieatica St Ohs rororts
of this Servies an srrsnopsout hos Iossmado tar
a order tO

yr41,1


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

licatissaM unseeessary axpeases ts segaalsics
ustediterial and statistical fere. fer the limes
Under this avvasseseat
is Industry Service.
ies will advise ie
Statist
Leber
et
the Duress
Shook tabulations
wiil
work,
tewl
atstist
slamming
reports ter
edit
lt
aM
materia
set statistieal
tko
Reports
le,
advisab
shot
publications and,
br
the Demme
ed
publish
at this Service, will be
the
sea
as Joint ?ub-Apleatiame se the liervise
lareaft.
R4epeotfully submitted,

Wry Ina Ileeek, Dirseter
Wchon is Industry Service.

ADMINISTRATION - WOMAN IN INDUSTRY SERVICE.
(Change of name requested to Women' BureaU-3-

wAn LABOR

To enable the Secretary of Labor to carry into effect the provisions
of the Act of July 1, 1918, especially the employment of women in industry, ineluding personal services, and rant in the District of Columbia and in the
field, per diem in lieu of subsistence when allowed, traveling expenses, law
books, books of reference, periodicals, newspapers, supplies and equipment,
printing and binding, and contingent and miscellaneous expenses.
(Increase of $110,000 submitted)

Employees

Rate

Salaries:
5,000
par.weaum
Director
it
3,500
Assistant Director
2,500
"
Chief Clerk
3,000
"
Industrial Exports
2,500
Industrial Experts,"
2,000
Industrial Agents
"
1,800
Secretary to the Director "
1,500
(Secretary to the Director"
ti
1,800
Research assistants...
ti
1,600
Research asiistants
1,600
"
Special Agents
1,
1,500
Special Agents
1,400
.ti
Special Agents
II
1,320
Field Clerks
1,600
."
Clerks
ii
1,400
Clerks
II
1,320
Clerks
1,200
."
Clerks
9Q0
."
Messenger..
_____

Estimated
1920

Expended,
1919*

Number.
1
1
1
4
5
6
1
1
2
6
6
6
3
3
9
1

Number,
1
'1
1
f2
#1
;2
1
1

56

salaries
Other objects of expenditure
Travel and per diem.
Supplies and equipment
Office rental.
Printing and binding.
Miscellaneous service, including
telegraph 8; telephone
Total..


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

#2
=NI

1
4
1
18

$102,000

$11,472,30

. 25,000
.. 12,500
5,000
4,500

2,732.96
4,574.r?
860.72

1,000
$150/000

564.72
$20,205.57

July 1 to December 31, inclusive
Part time on field work
Exclusively on field work
September 16 to December 31, inclueive

--

AVIINISTRATION - WOW IN INDUSTRY SERVICE
sted to Women's Bureau)
(Ci.enge of nar,e requeIi
To enable tho Secretary of Labor to earry into effect the provisions
of tne Act of July 1, 1918, especially the employment of women La industry, including personal services, and rent in the District of Columbia and in the
field, per diem in lieu of subsistent)* when allowed, traveling expenses, lam
books, books of reference, periodicals, newly:laws, suloplies and equirment,
printing and bindini:, and contingent and miscellaneous exPensee.
(Increase of $110,000 submitted)

Rate

Employees

Estimated
1920

Expends&
1018*

Rata
Salaries:
Director
per annum
•
Assistant Director "
0
•
Chief Clerk
Industrial Experts
•
Industrial Experts "
Industrial Agents
Secretary to the Director'
Secretary to the Dirlctor "
0
Research Assietnts
Research Assistants
•
Special Agents
•
Special Agents
Special AL:ents
Field Clarke
Clerks
•
Clerks
Clerks
Clerks
EJ
ifessener

$5,000
3,600
2,600
3,000
2,600
2,000
1,800
1,600
1,800
1,800
1,600
1,500
1,400
1,320
1,600
1,400
1,320
1,200
900

Humber
1
1
1
4
5
6


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

•

•

•

•

•

2#
6
6
3
3
9

•

•

Total . . . .
*
**
#
##

1
4
1
18

102,000

•

•

2#

1
2

56
Salaries
Other objects of expenditure:
Travel and per diem
Supplies and orgaipment
Office rental
Printing and binding . .
Miscsllaneous service, including
teIgraph and telephone . . .

Number
1
1**
1
2#
1#

25,000
12,600
6,000
4,500

2,732.96
4,674.8?
860.720

664.72

. s iso,000

Ju4 1 to December 31, inclusive
Part time on field work
liclusively on field work
September 16 to December 31, inclusive

$ aolao6.117

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https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

•

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https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

Aire 44 1919.

irallota te ItidIMISty
Additional Nessonaten of mut eeesoplithod "by
Urns* et the U. tt. De-loolsont of Leber foss
Fehruvr, lo 1119 to halo I, 1919.

III Sae Sionodttoo on Appropriaticeist
1*

boemnunilbtiee milk the *roomesiona WOW& this
Saritoo oseafted all 4111121101Uanagraff III III
Ili all saWrs affost'ag
lbe
Yards an0 inviolate
1
ty
-1
1
11
fl;Z
jorlstlettes et the *vy Ilin,*.rtmonts leavoettese
reeemmoatitleme eohhove het ma,te aad rererto
Wry In the th1atitibel to the Seorstary of
Yard, Ihe Creeks.
lounge tnsbarisest Ike Iroottiya
l'a Clothing al Provisions 1'4;41, /he BrJoilara Moat
tbilodelphis they 140,rd„ Me Morel
Ilepply Depoto
Airesott Watery, the Otorlosten Nary 'Wet. leeemob
amedotlems tit Woo oleos severed rea4jostmest et
loge retee, better workteg semalltionl. hal Improwed
"
0111111444
employment ilialltypeftto
aethato
llehment et *deflate policy by the Chi, Dew*.
itetten merhnie.
eeet repelling the disedseal
asomese the esslielamont et the vet* la the /boy
emnbers et 'teeing%
Vert* meeseeite4e4 :Arias
it lose eeesiderai neetetary la order te proven*
hastektp to MOOMMINMi ChAt too netts* SIMP1114 be
given Were 4ismaseel, that awe mews Oheald
est be Iald otr is larger properties* thee Atte
moorterss sod that Art tine verb ter tbe nk4le
fere. tkeleAd be amassed, rather thIn uneMPliri
Caarlostas
gent (tor * porttla et the feree.
wee
betted
&oriole*
to 44miot iikee"my TKO. Om
Sibliddis pion oork 'Kees ono 'est ,,
,iteett en
mederseet nommteetured there.
leopeetleee aro apoo *slag amde et eemiltiqns
la the Mare Wend shed breserteabory Yards.

2.

late lerviee boo ales been regneetei to liMain
WIUMUMMMIUMISIM in natters relating
0401Potitimillt artostale.
Oh the ompleposet of foam
SAves made IA sbo navy
1w:risotto's einilor
yer4s sr* plammeas beginning nith the arsenals


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

at Boaleta, 4"Alfeemis amiWTIleak Week

34

Turther lirreettoeilome bore locayad* le
ohtleet ntemmatila MOW'S 11111611111A
. Short servers bevy Iowa am44, of the
of &ore memos la the steel Wootries la ahoetor *id la the emir Istectry Ist
Amer. estoolve server bee boot
III
Ute laitteteloe et Woo
some*
Neve
lode se
am.
ilesolltloas la Obla arit romrataratativis
sixotlai
1,4411
essater
Qom
thiremapteat
Altioao
tbe
asslitaral WAWA' tsaarla the Aral*
est
alierelaall
Wait
sat
la
IIOwe as rismiaseatat
greater
State,
am&
the
the
sale meromme resit et
prolOitiOo of the moll es le elmstleatt rod Ike
A revert ea thle
souther* ,Art et the Stetes
~Foy is nob

4.

Ma*

preporstiaa.

1111111.21UMILIMULUI

immiumm boo Ivirea asupietiod•

lamps
tiotiot tievorioa foctoriaa aspiarliai
of the waskors la the seedy Inimetr,
4elphle. It ioo foot the* 4thsegb aege rateti
more neteseed stomp before the Mr. Via drilialas* at titio sajerlti ere loss 'boa the scat 0
Oas Of Os ohliof mow of th1O
looms is trregelerttr of emplermost*
n j Ooptee
of the ropor$ were 'Omitted la eme
meertrt form
JIJ
to %be tommgmemme of ell of the 01.0 **sterile'
sibleb hai bees Isolltiot te the nreettgatlem,
with the requeet that 4h4, "Omit *essestIoue
er reommesmiseleme &* to oothato of ellsisatlas
thls trregalerltr, te boo ihoOrpOrs444 Mike
Mel ymport.

manuommis
aLIONSLAUSLANIMUMMIll hs* WPM
The first Apse% ot the rep*rt

esmplostei end show* %he mood ter the ostehlt.b.
meet of * Astlmite yeller ?soaring Cho retype
smpteptomt et loom le %hese temies, kooludisig
postal tralsilag
ofteeatles for emeb leek,
*OA 46 Just AVOLioatime et tke stamgeri et equal
rates of "ay fer mot emit moymk

S.

At Obe rillaaell et %he genet 'cohere Maims
toresttoptiembse %OM gado et
1111111LAS
priftefOrte SOMMirmagli
sae tonal thht there Is a oonailairabla emelt
et hose week im mostestiemettb tints niestry
opt th*t such cork Is ckrried ea La orowled
insaagilary satteanitais, osastiasa ittring tho
Mow of member* of WI
seffsrlmg
from Isteottems of "eataglow 41041woosi Oka* a


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

•411,,

Wawa wsuLi be pelt ter
*tailor work in a taetory, smA tkat ebili laher
is utilised. Reeelmendattoms have Use mom to
tes oeplereme 4moo‘ **4 vr*alkoe at iiviag sat
hese work be disesakiaAat Is IS as pesablir and
that ta Cho mesa time such toe* should be saretelli
sapervised wad the seas rate paid for work Asa*
the sass as wea14 be paia for *tail*? west 4eas
The saolever ia the mmet ispertis the feeteri.
oat plaal has espreasei tatereat is the audios*
sad hos asked for a *paella rivers sa families Wk..
Wig work hems trouble tscterr. as will bring the
reessommiatiefte is siks iltstatioa et slaw 01191*Yere
la lirSdigirert. ;kat In *a Mists.
1401,T 00$0 rate is igiVsa

arm

TO LOCAL OWNIZATIOM
Is various Stoteos
egislatirs eampelet
ameaetais oiler*C sp
for shorter hoar* far WOMB MO ferried as, this
Sergio, tarniehei, taadiiislos is leresnal odviee
*44 :44istaaa4, shorts short% State labor lams,
Asa stereopticon eltdes *beat* obaadards at we'llo.
tmg conditions, for walbitima thrlajheat the $tate.
Otihor Statists tUors special fitsei0114000 has bees gives
are To-ka, **A Tort, Rhode 141un4t Peamartiramia, god
ado.
ELI =IT

a.

me been prepay.* illmatteSlag
e employment of amen is istostry.
or
These ealithlts osestst f it.rsStt.os 41440 4.40tures, oad a ~is* lf ;A.6111 csoilalatag
Ihis
bruptill as *WOW, of aetw-.1 oustitites.
0446eri4 is belie addely elrealated emmas Hale
401. no.Ariammail* 001110014* colleges, labor snoop
iA4tions and after ippeops who aro Lasersetel Is
times•
141-roving c

9.

In a.i.or to Asteroidal the 00400 Ir stUastiazi won the status of yeses 0orkers this Service
requestei te assume as ativisery relation
has be
te ay44.

if e

I

P

, 1r

'Ts

ma
is!mite
Is 01,00/ Of taw pismeel Islik
as t* the work of 006111 Is the war istbstateMM
A.
eM
::i4
Woes
as to %he tutare voted te dius by midi applapsist
Ii Is oemsltlered ibM seek a survey will be st great
irsawl sad sw,001eassts have bees sempletei ter is
immegasabies.
10.

ta saasseSitasilk lb.pvillisattes
Ole marts
se' Skis 9srviss as arraasammat bea lissaraiiii for
a

tai avail

01


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

sistos
Ws/Um sat masesessrg ospiram is orip Wows
Wks
.
far
tore
sal
adiliortal mai stainsti
UM*" Utsmoirgassill
etry lisevias•
Isis
Is
*111 amass Is
116. Nuevo et Labor 9414ttotiss
Sabalattices
plaaaiag suitlItlaal work. gill Omsk
sils tse
repa
aM staUstioakik amiteirial, oat edit
rts
impo
tho
awl, vibes vivieribls,
an
11We
she
by
at ads 1ut.s, ill bill m101411001
taw
sad
pubAloatleas sir the Servlso
ft•
Suripati.
aiespostfuL.y ontoit t

roster
Usa nartok
Ia .
&Iry
,Arr
!a'
Ireant Is


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

2641 1919.
ChiefOlosiss
In pagans* ts year essesnaisation st July 21. rolativo tit
the list at names ter the *Metal Rsg/ster, the following list is
nikuitted:
Diroster
Assistant 'Amster
Chief Olsrk
Industrial Invert
Indostrial moat
Industrial Agent
lasisish Assistant

yiii:lasok
Nary Andarsea
Lillian It. Loth
Apses L. l'otarssi
Reim 'rpm
Baton B.
illildrod L. Jonas
Mist Is.Bestilra.)
Anne Lambe,
Oempbell
Apes

ftesial Asset
illeeetnirr

WU G. Wows

Clark
OWE
0100k
. SPOstal AVM

MA Y. aims
Miry I. Iloilo,

Mot Olerlt.

•

MOO
3600
- 2400
3000
2000
au001
1600
1600
1600
Lt00
1320
1600

WOMAN IN INDUSTRY SERVICE.

Purpose and Duties.
The purpose and duties of this service is stated in the Secretary's
letter as follows:
"It is undoubtedly true that the Department of Labor
of
exercises all of its powers with reference to wage earners
best
the
that
true
also
is
It
both sexes and of all ages,
of the
administration requires that the various services
including
by
conducted
department which are here outlined be
women
regarding
questions
within the work of each service all
as well as men.
But the great importance of the employment of women in
matmost essential war work and the development of special
imporit
ters of policy with respect to such employment make
of
tant to establish a special service devoted to the subject
women in industry.
In view of the fact that the other services will, as
above indicated, include within their sphere women as well as
men, this special service of women in industry is not large,
will be largely policy making and administrative in character
rather than itself executive; but it will maintain close contact with all the work of the department on this special subject and will also coordinate and control such work in all
other departments,"
Stated more specifically the purpose of this Service is,1,

To consider all general policies with respect to women in
industry and to advise the Secretary of Labor as to the
policies which should be pursued.

2,

To keep informed of the work of the several divisions of
the department insofar as they relate to women in industry and to advise with the divisionson all such work.

3,

To secure information on all natters relating to women in
industry and to collate such information into useful form.

4,

To establish useful connections with all governmental
departments and divisions on this subject and with voluntary agencies and societies.


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Federal
Reserve Bank of St. Louis
0

Woman in Industry.

- 2-

The Relation of the Work to other Departments.
statement, the relation
This is sufficiently shown in the above
the same as its relation to
of this service to other departments being
other services in the Department of Labor.

II.

Production.
The Service is Necessary for War
effectively with this subject
There is no organization which deals

to do.
at the present time or is qualified so

The different committees

follows:
dealing with it in Washington are as
1.

of National Defense;
The Woman's Committee of the Council

2.

Industry;
Mr. Gompers' subcommittee on Woman in

3.

ed with the
The National League for Woman's Service connect
Department of Labor.

None of these has executive power and is not a proper agency in
which to bring together the various persons engaged on work with reference to women wage-earners in any of the departments.

The Plan here Proposed will be Effective.

III.

The obvious purpose of the plan is to organize a service on this
subject having real authority for the Government, instead of the committees which now exist and which have no authority, though they employ
a considerable number of persons in their work.

If the proposed service

does nothing more than to do away with most of the work of the existing
committees, it would justify itself.

As a matter of fact, however, a

well-established service with funds and authority will be able
actually to produce valuable results where numerous committees, without
authority, would practically fail.

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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

ITovember 20,

_ .

"IFMOPANDUM
MIS
TO FILF.
SU73.7CT:

Proa,rail, 01.

.
Litry Servi„c9.

Van Kleeck had conference with the
:is Anderson and
the followinii
Secretary of Labor in interest of the main provam with
comments.
1. We ar 1..structed to prepare an appropriate letter for
the Secretary of 1or to send, which will 6ive us an advisory relation
to conditions of the employment of woulen in overncient owned plant.
2. The proposed conference of represent...tives of minicrum
sao comilissions should not be c&lled until after the peace coalmissioners
have beau named by the President, as all coferences held i Washinton
now tenct to result i-_ pressure upo the adniiaistration for the appointment of representatives of special i:-..terasts.
it does not sear desirable that "Ata Councils of
3.
Defense shocid continue after the war it is not wise to establish .
Aonshis with the State Cnaittees on Women 17. In:ust
continuinL .qa,
advisory council of employers
4. The establishment of
tanddrds
is 4 L.attar which zhoild be very carefully considered..
the
with
endorsement of the
emi)loy2Jent of wo.-ian issued
„overninL
/omen tnea,selves will have wali;nt. If they are supposed to azanate
from employers it is possible that ti,ey wocad nd secure so fully the
cooperatio'n of the Aorkeiss. These, h04aver ar Oiy ttive considerations and not a final conclusion.


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

June 25, 1919.
Miss Aqn Larribee,
Woman in Industry Service,
U. S. Department of Labor,
WashinLton, P. C.
Dear Miss Larrabee:
I enclose the revised :manuscript of
the report of Wages of Candy Makers, together with the
copy whioh was corrected by Miss Canpbell and Miss Jones.
I also sendttwo letters to Pr. Meeker, which should
aocompany the manuscript.
Will you please re-type page
the new material folloNing page 41.

38 and

Will you as Miss Jones to note my
revision of her note on Table la page 5. As I read
Table 11, page 34, it reoords 26 girls under 16, whereas
the number of children under 16 in Table 1 is 27. It
does not seem strictly accurate, therefore, to say that
the number of 6ir1s shown in table 11 is 1,irger than
the number oi. children in Table 1. I ma have misread
Mise Jones' note. Will you as her to straighten it out
before the Lf.anuscript is sent?
On page 16 the Bureau's editor has
found a discrepancy in our fioares. Will you ask
Miss Jones to verify the accuracy of the correction.
On page 48 I am not quite sure that
the referencesto the months are accurate. Will you aak
Miss Jones to oheols the 52 weeks of the year according
to an actual calendar for the year 1918, taking the first
Saturday of the year as the end of the first payroll
period.
Miss Jones made a nuagber of changes in
the footnote references. I note that the Bureau of Labor
Statistics left the original references in the footnotes
unchanEed in form. It is desirable to adopt the Bureau's
form for these. Will you ask Miss Jones, therefore, to
take the matter up with the editor. I refer, for example,
to pages 6, 9 and 21. Please tell Miss Jones also, that
for the .Lo -t part I have not accepted her sugzestions for
ohange in form in the sentences immediately preceding


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

(over)

-2Tables. Shs 11,1s evidently thought it necessary in these
sentsnoes to repeat the Table title, whereas I have referred
less formally to the main Pubjeot of the Table.
98

I hope that you will get this to the Bureau as soon
possible, as my own delay has been already so long.
Sincerely yours,

...MAELlaujcleeok Director,
Woman in Indus ry S9tVi00.
MVanKip


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

June 26, 1919.

Miss IlaptIgajilseek,
Hotel grada0219
63 Washington Square,
nOs Teat, We 7.
dear Miss ismirleeeko
Them 1 get balk to the office ea reeedm, I found
of exhibits, every set having be sent
doodad
It quite
Whe l• Iv• 0. A. peOplO
I was ewer.
meek
out taring the
many sets as we eould
as
wanted
and
are mast appreelat4ve
the panels repreduee
have
could
if
they
give then, end asked
the phelOgraphS en
if
lot
•
of
eoples
Want
it. they aims
Well" piety's. if
and
the panels, 34rtisv1tr4 the natty
their awn publicItr.
in
use
to
which thq, went a complete sit
photographs
whatever
with
then
I think that we shrrold rural&
rather
I
but
etc.,
which
we have
show factory conditions,
spread
broadeast
pictures
hate to have the 3etty and Nell
unless they are used as a set and credited IS we. 1 have
net &armored their request yet. Will you let me knOr it
yes think I should dot
Miss %Mame has also written to oak for several
Of eur pictures to use as lantern slides for the Mitional
tuberculosis A,,aoolation. I don't see a27 mums Imr she
Shouldn't have them, but I should like to be able to arrange
to have them credited to us though I to not feel sure that
we are entitled to elk for credit for photographs which were
furnished us
menufaeturers. When WO fernith a eomplete
ley-out for Life and Labor, it seems a little different.
The ismsestisas
which you pgs me for collecting
did met meet with
the material for the labor :
Uhe says exithing which is not
Ales Anderson'S approval..
particularly a question of special legislation for women
is beyond the seeps of what is wanted from us. That marrows it dawn as tar as I can Ow to reoamendations and information about lead poisoning and night work, lerilch leaves Wry
little to be deny as most of that material Ivo been assembled
already.
If you will suggest4ny other matters for special


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

laSi

, Taa Masa -• 2 is
Ns*

logislatioa for women I shall he Best grateful.
ignorsace an the subject is very dons*.

MV

We are working now on the "County Pair
bibits".
Quo puma Is finished gad loan quite fine.
I ahtll have them photographed so that you can see the
reproductions, if not the originals.
Always sincerely,
Mar, N. Winslow, Spec;a1 Agent,
%man In Industry bervice.
NOVI

1/

June 30, 1919.

MiecXary Van K1ee4t
The Judson,
New York, N.Y.
My dear Miss Van Xleeck:
The proposition of whioh I sp)lte to you over the telephone
this morning is this:
Mr. Starr is about to be reinstated in the Department of IAbor
a4 Appointment Clerk,
position which he formerly held. Hs is desirous
of retaining his assistant who has been responsible for all finances and
business affairs pertaining to the Information and Education Service. She
is an $1800 person and it is desirable to retain her until he can make
other arrsngemente, at a salary of $14411, 4bioh is tme $1200 plus the $240
bonus. He has requested that we appoint ner for a period of not to excied
three months, to be cut off at such time as he can otherwise locate her in
his own office in the Appointmont Division, she naving a-Clvil Service
status. While I know our situation relative to finances very well, I feel
that it would NI to our interest to conoods to .his request for a period
not to exceed one month, which will help him materially and. mean an e&perditure to us of $120.00. I iave this day received his permission to
plaoe an order with the Geological Survey for photographs of our posters
in amount not to exceed $500.00 to be paid far from tile Information and
7
!ducation Service for the fiOcal par 149. This will wore than offset
the expenAiture 40 will make in case the three raonths' appointment is
granted him. He will be in a position to do an favors for us relative to
appointment matters during the next year and it would perhaps pay us also
on that score to cooperate at this time if you as fit. My recom,uendation,
cooperate to this extent
therefore, and also Miss Anderson's is tnat
employee
to
be
detailed
to Mr. Starr's
this
of one month's service of
livision.
The additional photographOo work for whioh the orier will be
played today is reproduction of pazIels which we have purchased for our
travelling exhibit. Miss Winslow will order pictures spout 12" z 14"
or 16" x 2.0" which can be shipped Where it is desired in place of the
large panels. They will be of an inexpensive type and it will make little
difference to us whether to us whether they are returned or not. The
Children's Bureau has found this a very satisfactory substitute for their
larger posters and lantern elides.


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I an this day on my own responsibility requesting the
certification of a temporary stenographer and typist at $1320.
There is a little surprise party I have been keeping up my sleeve
until danger was over, to which I think it will be all right now
to give publicity. Under my interpretation of the clause providing
for our Service, I believe that the Department will have to be responsible for all of our contingent expenses, including rent, telepone, telegraph, supplies and printing. I spoke to the Chief of the
Division of Supplies and Publications the other day and I told him
that AO would expelt to be well taken care of and in talking it over
he quite agreed with me that my Lupression was correct. This morning
I have asked the Chief Clerk how much money we ogre going to be allowed
and while he believes that we are from nov on their rersonal responsibility, he has not arrived at any conclusion as to how much money they
will be able to allow us from the contingent expenses of the Department
and says he intends to look into the matter more thoroughly in order to
see whether he cannot throw these expenses back on our appropriation.
I do not feel, however, that he has a chance of getting rid of this
responsibility. I am sure you will be glad to feel that by this little
rider of ours we have dragged down some additional money through their
oversight and I hope that no obstacle will be thrown in our way of
attaining it. This will give us some extra money to work with, probably
several thousand dollars.
I also feel that it is in orler to . alce uo the matter of increasing the flat salaries of the employees in accordance with the $240
bonus chat clerks in other departments of the legislative branch are to
receive. In the Woman in InAustry Service I believe that the salaries
should be in keeting with those of osher departisents and I find upon
inquiry where there are lump sums involved, that the amount of .he
salary takes in consideration the additional $240 allowed to statutory
posttions. There are only a few people involved in this so that the increases would not amount to nearly as much coney as I belleve we are
going to be able to control through this cortingent appropriation that
I expect from the Departalent. I therefore submit tone proposition to you
for your consideration in ordtr that me may make recothmendations,W it
is approved by you, before the 15th of July. This matter, however, is
not urgent but in regard to the matter of the appointment of the clerk
for the use of Mk. Starr's office, I would be very glad to have you
telegraph your ultimatum as soon as you conveniently can after arriving
at a decision.
Sincere regards and best wishes for you and your mother,

LIE/ALL


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

Lillian M. Lewis, Chief Clerk
Woman in Industry Service.

pg - D-3


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

Problems Attending
Women in Industry: Their 'Var Record and the
their Employment.

WOMEN II INDUSTRY'
PH

Eccuo

Y.°

AND THE PROBIF.MS AVE-TIDING Tq-- IE APLOY ENT.

Mucr I. winslow, special

bgent,
Woman in Industry Service,
17.1 Department of Labor.

. ome have played their part in the war. 'ork or fiht
There was no alternative offered. -Oft
was not the -otto for them.
sTs their road to victory. ..he doors of industry were opened wide to
hen the armistice was siuned the second
greet this second great are.
draft vas well under way and manufacturers were searching eagerly for
o 9ortunities to introits*e women into work that was formerly done by men.
lans were beinc. mnde for more extensive opnortunities for training, the
.ossibility of in, reasing the emplerment of women in hazardous occupations
was being considered, and ap2eals were comm n: in from all quarters for a
,he sin-'
relation (4 state labor lars retarding night work for women. '
but the
rosters,
of
need
desperate
the
inL. of the armistice put an end to
labor
deereasing
and
production
result of the last few months• of stimulated
in°
occut:lations
tile
of
ext,ply has been significant for roman. A survey
which .,.,orten are encaced discovers a. very tide field of o ortunity for
women, and a study of the results of their employment in these occupations
le ds to the conclusion. that in many cases women will be permanently
employed in the occupations into rhich they have recently cone.
In Ohio women are replacing men in glass factories. In
Arkansas they are at work in lumber clamps. '.:12 the coast they have found
their laces in the shipyards as painters and carpenters. - va their
greatest endeavor has been in the factories and shops where they have
proved themselves capable as maehinists and in various other kinds of
metal work. '-he work done 74, women in the metal trAe embraces a great
vvriety of processes from the *violation of ordinary drill prerses and
lathes to core making, inspecting and tssembling meshautoal parts, and
many _irecise machine operations. vnny .irls sontimeneLbelle gone into
the hardware industries as screw machine hands, spat welders, gas welders,
dip braziers, and an drill press and bench -ork. Electric welding is
one of 1.ite jobs wonn are performing successfully in airplane manufacturing and they ht ye also taken the place of men in foundries as core makers,
making Naas fOr castings, strairhteners, vrinders, inspectors, chemists,
store keepers, labelers and shi;ine clerks.
Qms of the most interestinp phases of this broadeninc of
women's sphere in industry is the almost universal commendation which
has peen bestowed on their work Ay the nen who hive employed them. Out
of 99 establishments that were investigated ay the National Jndustrial
Conformal* Beard it was reported by 30 that the out-ut of the women
asseedoi that of the men in all operations in rhi.h tizro both enand equal in
galled; in six cases their output was ( r ater in some
This makes 66 establishlywea;-Others; and in 30 it was equal to VI* men's.'
*War time employment of


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

omen in the Metal qrades. Report No. 8, July 1918.

out of 99 or two-thirds la *Web MOMMitt output 'SF equal to or rreater
Vim mees when t:ley were engaged fa the sane operrfiohs. In this same
rEr2ort it was stated that of tho manufacturers of machine Shop and foundry
products, tvinty found that woman is rork ras elual or su-2er5or o that of
men in all operations, as against five vim found it inferior. in a steel
establiehment where 'often were eaplOyed in the manufacture of fses uomen
cr4srators of driA. presses and milling machines wore found to be from 25
to 50 por cent faster than men. in a belt and nut establishment women
machines have in sone cases achieved an
workinc. on drill presses and
increase in output amounting to 30:
Mere is no definite information available of the Maw of
women who have been antra-Led im war industries, nor of their former occupations: 711ot infOrmation there is, however, seems to lead to the concluSion that a very large mamber of them have been drawn from other industrial
work. In ome nInto esgaged in a war industry, C.f. had come from other
fattories, 2107fram demastic serVice and restaurants, 5 from 1: 173r:dries and
only 0 had not bees ssrployed oreviously.
In Nw -land it is estimated that the increase of 7omen
workers front July 1924 to tjuly 1917 was 1,421,000. Of this number it was
estimated that 1,392,000 were used directly to replace nen. The -nited
6tf_tes, fortunately, has not been obliged to substitute walla Ws Nth a
tremendous scale and mamsfasturers haA) boon able to safeguard the women
workers whom they were introducing on new procesres.
Mlle the largest -art of the recuiting of imam in new
occui)ations has been dame in the rar industries, the now.ossential industriec halm ease greatly incrcrsed not on1:7 the proportion of women
employed, which would asaurally come throw* any curUilment of the
number of ren, but alse the setual nnmber of :- onen Opillyed. In • urast
1918 the - ar Industries Roar( sant out a country wide questionnaire to
nowlsesential industries aSkinp. for a statement of the estent of curand - owl'
tailment of the industries sinee 1917 and of tho number of
replies
from
ten
of thos
401104yed in 1917 and 1918. An analysis of the
industries shore that whereas they were running on an averae of 74 of
their caacity, the number of vonen oapleyed had increased 28. 4. 'n nese
same industries in 1917 the average proportion of women to men em- loyed
vs.
while In 1918 35c,':. of the force were women. :lthou01 these renorts
give the facts for only a **imperatively smr11 force ef roman (27,605) they
aze indicative of the extent to which 70han hrve been introdced into other
than war industries, and of the demand that will be :30,de or them 7-hen these
non...essential industrlec are er-andin lo ca:;acity !- roduction.
One of the great objections which has always been raised
undertaking men's work is thnt they could not do the heavy
'women
against
part of the work. This objection hrs eon met in many cases by the
installation of msehanical lifting deviccE. in several monitions factories
Ow women handle heavy shells with perfect ease because of arrange-,ents of
tomes and pulleys with rhich VIcor can move shells from the bench to the
mashies and bag* again. it is not at all unusual to find women -orking on
heavy parts without doing any of the lifting because a man has eon detailed


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

to do this beLly work. The increased 1Lbor cost resulting from sunh
an arrtngenent is usually oevered by the increosed productivity of the
worker rho does not have to stop to handle the material the is working on.
Th. war Labor board in making an amrd that roma should have the ease
pip for performing the same work as men took this object info eemdldern.
makine a maw that whenever a group of wawa had to reselve assisties
ts*** In their voiles the total cost of Bush assistance should 1, deducted
from the wages of the group, .1rovided, however, that this deduction did not
roduee the women's wage below the minimum established.
Is eassioetion with the investigation made of the substitution
of )mien for men it has bees found that although mamapers wore in nr etioal4
every case' enthusiastic over the quality and quantity of the work done by
women they were often unwilling to pay them t-e same race that was formerly
employers to the authorities for
paid to men• eqsests have been an
their work was se far superior
because
7ermission to eiplev vomen at nitlit
Investigation of the
sift.
nicht
the
to that of the men who worked on
ty of employing
desirabili
the
that
fast
situation, however, disclosed the
they were
that
fact
the
by
inereased
this su -lerior t:.rouo of workers was
the
o
effieleney
arts
re
Naar
paid considerably less than the men. In
of -omen it has even stated ith Much pride that women rers paid the SSMO
the worm
we as the se% at the same time the fart being emphasised that
of
part
employers
the
were turninr omit mesh sore vox*. his attitude OR
will lead to maw oouplioations and in common justice to the is* who
have been doing such splendid work, they should be rut on oral sego rates
with the men. Without such as eqsalisstleo there sill be eerie= demier
of undercutting ands moos and a levering of the whole wage smile. The
Government, threueh the Department of .abars the Maimed Anisistration,
the ar Labor Policies Boards the ar mad Xsly Departnentsehaa gene an
record In favor of equal pay for equal viork nnd it is hoped that all
industries will soon follow suit.
She Oman in Industry .ervioo of the .S. Depart -lent of Labor
was formed in 'Ally 1918 to act as an advisory and policy for in body on
all questions soneerning Mon in industry. ue of the meet important
subjects this servic has to consider is the conditions under which
women should ,rork. In T:aglamd because of the tremendous preosure of war
preparations, on were permitted to o into °you atlone and work hours
that were a serail, messes to their health and effisiefficy. this seneee
was koon realised br the aut,orities who appointe,) a social oesndssies tO
(Insider tfte 4ealth of munitions workers. The result of the invostigetion
de by this °emission was a considerable curtailment of the hours of
work ant Inprevement of working conditions. i similar need, of protectinn
of Pensn workers in this country .has led V the adoptinn of certain standards
by the wanes In Industry 4rvicte with a view to lucre sing both the health
and efflolesey of women rorkers•
These standards have been stu.geFted 14r the -ar Labor Policies
aeard aid are in close accord 71th ressimendations issued 'ay the chief of
,Nne. and the Uartermaster General to factories -orkinr on was contractr,


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

ada.

,
, so their vol'tme of preductiou
in ordtr that these factories might 5her,
and that labor laws and reuulatioas should not be unwisely broken deft*
Za the interest of effleiemay as roll as health the abort worklav dof•
14turday, at least one-half
one de,/ of rest in seven, a half
hmir for meals, a short Mat period. in th,, middle of each v-orking period
and no night reit are advocated in the standards* "here women do the
same weft as nos they ghoul& be ,ald the same we* Ia every or,s4, their
sis as the man ts rage, as It is
wage should be determined an the came
a rell established feet that leave numbers of -omen workers must sup .ort
nortunity offered to remelt to undereut
derendents, and there mist ba no
ma's waves* rho,* wrimen aro emplOyed revisions for t 0.1r comfort end
health should be gado. ii'htimg and ventilation shoilld be adequate, plenty
of good driakimg?,eter rovided and opportunity given o seoure a nourishing
meal which ean be eaton outside of the rorkroom• Ad_quate toilet faellities
are most es:—.tdal and rest room should be ,rovided rhersver peseiblee
Ldjustiaents should be Pvds to provont roma working coatimueus..
II in a cra,aped positi9n or lifting heavy u.:ights• Proper seats should be
rovided so that continuous stnnding is net necessary, nral no - vmaa should
be enplo
11We she is exposad to ezeossive heat or cold, or to dust or
I oisonous tamen•
The immediate tl4k trmfronting the country at present is to
accomplish the change from a war to a :ease basis vith the lecst poasIbio
nnemplaymost and with the reinstatement of the largeLt number of mon nnd
,lie question
women in aomma Socupotions ear thich they are best ad4pteo* '
It reed
. 7,eouliar to romen relate. to those ,Aio Ir:ve taken NOR'S plaills•
seem ftir to the retiArninv soldiers that they be rainst tot in their old
hrve takes their places suffieleut
f.)ositions, but - to justice to tho women
notice silould be given to erw.ble them to be transferred to other v:ork.
l'h the mood for production to feed sol0 clothe and shelter other &Alone
besides our limn there is no reason to believe tqat the emrloyment of ',omen
in industry rill not increase rather thaa decrease* file problem ahead
is the orLamization °finalist*. ia ingeh a war us to utilise to the full Pll
the available workinE: forties of the eonntry. The problems of readjustment
he avaueles of the
can only be met by a variety of methods of attaek*
U.
1...
Fe.
the
of
*Meet
ployment Service, the
federal Govoramont, the local
schools, the 7:.orkinv romen themstate department's of labor, the
selvesi aad erfootive and intelliuent management in industrial Altablishmeats must all have an active part in a well...rounded nrocram*


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CROSS REFERENCE SHEET

File No.

Name or Subject

SEE
File No.

Name or Subject

"(4-)77Z

Date


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Libr

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Cat No. 03648E

For use in Library Bureau Filing Systems

CROSS REFERENCE SHEET

File No.

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SEE
File No.

Name or Subject

Date


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Libr

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Cat No. 03648E

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CROSS REFERENCE SHEET

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SEE
File No.

Name or Subject

7°
Date


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U. S. DEPARTMENT OF LABOR

VICTORY LIBERTY LOAN CAMPAIGN

, 1919.

Report for
(Bureau or Servi
of the Department of Labor for period ending

10

(7d00.-0,L

, 1919.

Total Number of Employees
Number of Women Employees

/
.. • .

Total Number of Subscribers
Number of Women Subscribers

.

/

• •• •

Total Amount Subscribed . . • ,
Amount Subscribed by Women .

00

Remarks:

3

p

c,5

.1111LWIAL..41

•

Chairman.
,k22

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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

o

U. S. DEPARTMENT OF LABOR

VICTORY LIBERTY LOAN CAMPAIGN

, 1919.

,Tro-1,,--4.-- ....,
Report for (
(Bureau or Ser ' e)
7 Lt.
/
of the Department of Labor for period ending

, 1919.

1 )4

Total Number of Employees
Number of Women Employees

/4

Total Number of Subscribers
Number of Women Subscribers

t-/

Total Amount Subscribed
Amount Subscribed by Women ..

(6-,6—o o

0

Remarks:

••••=••••


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

Chairman.

Noveoibar 11, 1A.8.
\
From:

Mary Van Kleeck, Director, Womarkin Industry Service.

To:

Tne Secretary of Labor.

Subject:

Plans for reconstruction in relation to the Woman in
Industry Service.

THE 'TM'ATE TASK.
Obviously the immediate task is to accom4ish the change from a war
basis to & peace basis with th least possible unemployment and with the reinstatement of the largest possible number in normal oceulations for which tipsy
are best adapted. Thus stated the task is the same for all workers including
women and men and this menorandum assumes therefore that the fundamental aspects
of the program as affecting both men and wo e are being worked out. In it will
be inferred the necessity for a policy with reference to cancellation of contracts with due regard to its relation to th.:1 transfer of labor from one occupation to anoter; the coriversion of plants manufacturing munitions to the manufacture of )1.oducts required in peace, plans for public works and omnsultation
on this point with Governors of states, in order t at the states may plan with
full knowledge of tne plans of the federal gov rnment; and t-at demozation
of rsturning soldiers at a sufficiently slow rate to isure their reinstatement
in nor,ial occupations.
The question peculiar to women in relation to this task relates to those
who have taker, menss laces and tho3e who althouch not previously emiloyed, ilave
been drawn into gainful employment for fatriotic reasons. MAny persons are asking
whether these woTen should not now withdraw to give plaGe to the men. At least
one central federated labor body (that in New Tork City) has passed a resolution
excallirg on these woaen to withdraw. No inforatIol; is available showing
.y
gainful
Such
hitherto
employed.
not
evidence
tent of the employment of waren
sees to indicate that toe rrimber is smaller the.ln is goner lly
there is at
sup osed and thal large numbers of women employed in the war industries have been
transferred from other occupations. For them it will be necessary to arrange
for their transfer to normal employment unless the plantR in which they are employed
Are converted to production in peace ti , e under conditions making it possible
to retain the same personnel.
For the Ismer) who have •taken menss places or have been drawn into inIi.
would seem to be
dustry for t'A?) first time, the question is ,mre com.licate.T1It
a fair policy for business organizations to re-iastate returning soldiers in
the ,ositions which they held bef )- r.1 the war, if they wis to be re-instated,
but it is inconceivable t.:vat the federal government sho:Ild urge upon any grouP
of workers, whether men or women, t at they witAraw entirely fro gainful employTent if they wish to ,TrIke this contribution to the economic life of tne nation.
proble-n ere is nit one of withdrawal of a.'y grail; of workers voluntarily, but
ratrler a task of organizatio of industry in such a war as to utilize to the full
all of the available working forceR of the country. That this


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

working force is needed in larger nmabers than ever berm's, cannot be doubted.
The problem of making possible steady employment is not one which (=cerns women
in intastry as a separate group. There remains therefore a task of dealing with
. the iniivilual case through such an agency as the Employment Service. Thus women
who have no equipment through past experience for the nem work to be undertake*,
will normally find that there is no iemand for their work. For those who have
bad some experience in gainful employment however, luring the war, there will unr
deubtedly be a iemand for training 'which will fit them for continued employment.
There is in Industry, however, a large group *hick should be
withdrawn at the earliest possible moment. This is the group of children in industry, of whom there were 1,990,000 under sixteen, according to the census of
191, and of these, 557,645 mere in now-agricultural pursuits.
With reference to the imaeliate task of reconstruction as it rechildren in industry, it is therefore
or
wean
lates to
BEcOMMENMED
a. That provision be made for the representation of morn
in the grouts in the government who will letermine
policies of cancellation of contracts and other aspects
of the relation of the govarmaent as a purchaser to the
labor ()conditions ta,eliately following the war.
b. That plans be made to •Anable the Woman in Industry Service
to establish such connections with these groups as to insure
knowledge in advance concerning the policies and plans for
cancellation of contracts and conversion of plants, in order
that tns necessary plane may be leveloped for the transfer
ef women employed in these plants or for their cortinued
in Urgent.
c. That after consultation with the Children's Bureau, a statement be issued by the War Labor Policies Board or 11040 other
appropriate federal agency regarding the lesirahility of
raising the age limit for the employment of children in inr
lustry. This statement should also be of assistance in securing the passage of a new federal law. It will have added
force if made a part of a reconstruction program.
II.

DITELOPING NET STANDARDS XS THE IMMINENT OF 10001.

The problems of *ammo in iniustry which have been familiar before
accentuated during the reconstruction period. These include danger
be
the ear will
working conditions and hazardous occupations; the genunsanitary
to health from
eral conditions in the sweated trades which have always borne heavily upon women
workers; a distinctly loser wage scale for NOMOU th;,In for nen despite the demonstrated necessity for large numbers of oozes workers to rapport dependents; in
adequate opportunities for training and limited chances to be advanced to more
responsible work inaaiW industries and the danger to health ineelved in long
hours and eivloyment at night. These conditions have always been a check upon
the rendering of the most


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efficient service by women workers. The war has demol.,strated t 'at the range of
possibilities for efficiency by woinen in industry is much larger than has been
asJumed in the past. This is notably illustrated in the work of wowen in (Lachine
trades. This suggests that in planning vooationtal traininti the wider range of
occupations open to woren should be fully recognised and in the wort( sho correspOndingly large opportunities should be given to women. On the other hand the
danger that A., .olben may bocoTe the oomPetitors of men throu h underbidding, is
very real.
Thee* comAicated problems c,9.11 only be met by & variety of fiethods of
attack. They suggest the necessity for strengthening Ulf, resources of the
federal gov--..)rnment for Jealing with these Ivoblems. This *hold be done at owe.
Otherwise the difficult questions coAularnirg women in in&Istry will be a constant
obstacle in the developmentof any reconstruction prograc for labors It i probabie
that such federal agencies as ji,a Woen's Branch of the Ordnance DeJartment will
be discontinued, as the production program of the War D4v)artent beccves unnecessary and it is the more Important therefore t:lat the force in the Dekastmorit of
Labor should be increased. It is therefore


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

ACOMMKNDED
a.

That in accordance with a supplementary oemorandum
provision be made for an enlargement of the Woman in
Industry Service to make possible ti.e addition of a
field force and the carrying out of plrais for a program of educatio of public o'inion.

b.

Immediate issuance of standards governing the employment of women already adopted by the War Labor Policies
Board with such Changes in the i-troductory statoment
as will make the standards applicable to the rPconstruction period and not merely as in its first form to the
war industries.
That the following resolution regard 1n night work be
adopted:
MMUS, On September 6th the War Labor Policies
Board endored the vlan which provided for
federal control of night work of woYon
through the i'llertio!-. of a clause in contracts prohibiting tie employuent of women
between the hours of tea p.m. and six a.m. in
any plant working on a contract for tAt
federal government unle)s the plant held a
certificate froi:. trle Secretary of War or
the Secretary of the Navy granted with the
approval of the Secretary of Labor after
demonstration t,l.t production for the war
required the employ ent of women at night for a
specified period in that particular plant and


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

-4WHEREAS, By this action the Wor Labor Policies Beard
recognised that the employment of mummat
night is hamatn1 because of its had effects
on health, family life, the welfare of children
and iniustrial efficienoy and that only an extreme emergency created by the war could Justify
might 4ork for women in air plant working for the
federal government.
BE /T RESOLVED that now with the prospect of an early restoration of pease and the niseessity for strengthening the safe-guards for women 'writers in the
difficult perloi of reconstruction, the Board
hereby reaffirms its conviction that the em laymeat of woolens* night should be prevented and
urges upon all federal departments that pending
the enactment of legislation in those states which
at present have no laws prohibiting night *cork of
women, the employment of an at night in plants
working on contract for the federal government shall
be controlled through provisions in the contracts and
shall cease at the earliest possible moment consistent
with the Laminate demamds of the war, and that,
furthermore, the amolepment of women at night in all
arsenals, navy yards, aid other establishments clamed
or controlled by the federal government, shall be discontinued as soon as possible and that with the restoration of Immo., night liork of mien shall be prohibited
in all planks under federal control whether y contract
or ownership by the federal government.
(Substantially this resolution was adopted by the War Labor
Policies Board on November 15th to response to our request)

-5III. AGENCIES TIMM MCI A Ifilligg'S =KAU IN THE FFDKR4L GOMIS= NAY ACT.
A. MaLlidgrAljumalanLeiAmliuM.
During the war the federal government has had an uwrecedented opportunity to develop standards through the control of plantsmanufacturing for
federal departments. Although its control during the reconstruction period will
be very much less extensive the standards which it maintains in pleats owned
by the federal goverabent will nave a marked inauemoe laprivate industry. Its
control through contracts can also be uontinned even though the contracts will
be fewer in number. It is therefore

MUNE=
a. That the standards endorsed by the lir Labor
be made strictly enforceable in
Policies Board
plants world is on conarsenals, navy yards ard
tract for the federal, goverm.ent.
b. That the Wmaan in Industry Service be given supervision over conditions affecti4g women in govurnwent owned plants with the right to inspect and
report as a basis for advising the department responsible for the plant, this supervision to become
effective when slush existing agencies se the Women's
Branch of the Ordnlnce Department, discontinue the
supervision now exercised.
c. That the Woman in Industry Service be authorised to
secure from all the federal /apartments facts about
their activitios with relation to weeen in iniustry
mriing the sar. In the Council of lationel Defense,
in the Qnartermaster's Departmernt sed in the Ordnance
Departzent, noteworthy work has been lone to raise
affecting wanen. •In the gov.3rnment arsenals
.
eeple3ril‘ort samiagament departments for ',omen have been
established. The record of these activities will hew*
an influence in showing standaris already adopted by
tIe federal government. Authorisation is necessary,
however, in order that the records may be collected
in
central place before the discontinuance of actiI
vities in these deportment..
B. State Labor Leaielatiog.
As tA0 control of the federal govlrn.3ent exercised during the war
is lessened, the responsibility of states will increeee. One of the primary
purposes of a Women's Bureau in Um Department of 1,14.bor will therefore be to
strengthen in every possible way state labor legisltion and its enforcement.
This can be done bp establishing close connections with state labor departments
and by assisting state groups to secure necessary information on which to ase


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

-6plans for labor legislation and administration. It is in this connection
especially that additional resources for field work for the Wo-an in Industry
Service are imperatively needed. It is therefore
RECOWENDFD

C.

a.

That the Woman in Industry Service be authorized
to suggest to the Secretary of Labor tnat women
holding importAnt 2ositions in state labor departments be deputized by the Secretary- of Labor
to act for the Woman in IndustrY Service.

b.

That the wort= i. Industry Service be authorized
to call a conference of representtives of minimum
wage comvissions already established in thirtAen
states, to corlfer with them regarding their task
in the reconstruction period.

c.

That the WOMAD in Industry Service be authorized
to make necessary arrangements with the Council of
NatiorAl Defense to establish continuing relations
with State Committees on Women in Industry whidh
may decide to continue their activities especially
in working for more adequate state legislation and
in developing the necessary (labile oiAnion to make
possible constructive action for women in industry
in the states botb by vollIntary and official agencies.

Amployment ManagerTent in the Plants.

The test of federal activities will be the actual results in the
various plants and industrial est .bliShments throu,fiout te country. The
application of stnndards and policies will devolve largely upo the
vidual ihoic, organisetion, including employerm and workers. The further
development of tntelligent employment management will be of great iftwortance
in relation to Uhe problems of woilen in industry. It Is therefore


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

RECMNENDED
a.

That the Woman in Industry Service be authorized to2
call a conference of employers with a view to tile organization of a permanent advisory council which will
exert an influence in the establishment of such methods
on the part of the management of the industries of the
country as shall be in accord with the highest sta.:Aards
already demonstrated to be practicable in the emplorient
of women.

b.

That the Woman in I1IIndus ry Service include in its ,urpose,
e3pecially in planning for enlarged resources the task
of industrial counselling which shall wake available for
the industries of tr:e country the best ex.oerience in t e
employment of women. This should be done not only through

publicatio but throuu visits to aants for a long
enang0 period to assist in a practical way in their
proplems.
D. Penresentation of Women /orkers.
It will os impossible fo deal effectively with any of the problems
affecting the wo,en in industry unless the women themselves participate actively
in their solution. It is tosrefore

BECOCE1011
alp

b.

That it be urged by the Department of Labor that
represent .tives of working women be added to such wage
adjustment boards jr the federal government as may continue to function through the reconstruction period.
That the Woman in Industry Service be authorized to continue the Advisory Council of working wonen already
est,,!dished iind to call them into consultatio - at an early
date to confer regarding the progra of reconstruction.

S. Pnblic °Pinion.
Obviously it will be Woes/bit) to continue useful work unless ,ublic
backint, is secured in the development of higher standards for the employment of
'owen. It is tlerefore

agCONSfriNDID
a. 'tat the Wollan in Industry Service be authorised to
formulate a program of public education trough exhibits,
moving pictures, published reports, lectures and other
methods, the plans to be worked out by the Woman in Industry Service and to be ml into effect through the cooperation of such agencies as the U. S. Employment Service,
the Information and Education Service and state groups.
b.

That tie Woman in Industry Service be authorized to secure
the cooperation of the Navy, ShipAn6 Bos.rd, and the various
- artmont, in securing a photographic
divisions of the War De _
arsenals, navy yards and plants
in
work
wo-en's
of
record
on cortract for the fef4ral
manufacture
to
continue
may
which
government.

T. 4141ployment Service.
A large part of the task of transferring women fro onos occupatio to
another will of Marie devolve upon the Employment Service and on tne other hand
the successful carrying out of policies in connection wit the federal government
will dei-ond upor: the unity of purpose of Ve women res onsible for lark for women
in the employment service. In the interest of closer cooperation it is therefore


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

-8JVCCOMMIRNDVD
That as a means of developing the policies necessary at
this time and securing unity of action through the federil
agencies, the Woman in Industry Service be authorised to
call regional conferences of women in the imployment Service
acting in this matter through the state directors and in
other ways tc develop closer contact with the women's work
in the Employment Service.
G.

Institutions for Training Woren Workers.

The successful employment of wolflen will depend in large part
upon the policies guiding those institutions now existing in cities, states
and the federal government which are responsible for the development of vocational education. Policies in connection with training are so intimately associated with all the other aspects of woirosn's work tat it aho id be rmsie ossible
and appropriate for the Woman in Industry Service in the federal dovernmant to
develop plans to be recommended to local tray schools, state departments of
education and such national agencies as the Federal Board for Vocational Education, and the Trainin And Dilution Service. It is therefore


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

JLECOKTENDED
riat the Woman in Industry Service be authorized to include
this subject in its activities as soon RS Sufficient resources
can be provided and to make s.46, investigations as will
result in recommendations to the ak.ropriste a*,encies on the
subject of the training de wopen.
.
2ThigigLaZallaNNEMAIZZLZ

1.

REPRRSINTATION OF ISM IN GRCUPS NOW PLANNING THF POLICIES OF THE
PADDUCTIONDEPARSIENTS 07 THE GOVFRNMENT WIT:7 REFvPENCE TO CANCELLI*
TION or CONTRACTS AND CONVERSION OF PLANT.

2.

PROVISION FOR INIMRMING THE NOM= IN INDUSTRY SERVICE OF THESE
PLANS AND POLICIES IN ADVANCE.

3.

STATEMENT IN COOPERATION WITH THE CATLDRENIS BUREAU REGARDING PRE
IMPORTANCE OF MORE STRINGENT CHILD LABOR LFGISLATION AF A RECONSTRUCTION MEASURE.

4.

FILARGFkrimr OF RESOURCES OF TwE WOMAN IN INDUS-BY SERVICE.

3.

ISSUANa OF STANDARDS GOVERNING THE

6.

ADOPTION OF A RESOLUTION ON NIGRT T',"0/?K OF WOMEN LOOKING TOWARD ITS
PROHIBITION IN GOTTRNMENT OWNED PLANTS AD IN PLANTS WUPErl ON
CONTRACT FOR THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT.

7,

STRICT ENFORCrAYNT IN GOVERNMENT OWNED PLANTS OF THE STANDARDS
PLOY VENT or 1AOMFS.
GOVERNING THE

amorirric

OF WOMEN.

-9-

8.

SERVICE
PROVISION FOR ADVISORY RELATIONSHIP BY THE WOMAN IN INDUSTRY
OWNED
PLANTS.
ENT
GOVERNM
IN
WOMEN
NG
TO THE CONDITIONS AFFECTI

9.

Y
PROVISION FOR FORMULATION OF RPORT ON ACTIVITIES FOR WOMEN IN INDUSTR
WAR.
THE
IN THE FEDERAL GOVERNVNT DURING

10.

DEPUTIZING OF wNEN IN IMPORTANT POSITIONS IN STATE LABOR DEPARTWITTS
TO ACT FOR THE WOMAN IN INDUSTRY SERVICE.

11.

IONS.
CONFERENCE OF REPRESENTATIVES OF STATE MINIMUM WAGE CONMISS

12.

ON WOMEN IN ESTABLISHMENT OF CONTINUING RELATIONS WITH STATE COMMITTEES
INDUSTRY ESTABLISHED DURING THE WAR.

13.

NTING
CONFERENCE, OF OrLOTERS AND ORGANIZATION OF ADVISORY COUWIL REPRESE
MANAGEMENT.

14.

THE PURPOSES OF THE
INCLUSION OF INDUSTRIAL COUNSELLING OF PLANTS AMONG
WOMAN IN INDUSTRY SERVICE.

ADJUSTMENT BOARDS
16. REPNEUNTATION 07 WORKING WON= ON FEDERAL WAGE.
AMER Mt WAR.

lummirma

16.

NOM IN CONNECTION
CONTINUANCE OF PERIANENT ADVISORY COUNCIL OF :VOWING
WITH RECONSTRUCTION PROBLEMS.

17.

DS AFFECTING WOMEN
DEVELOPMENT OF A PROGRAM OF PUBLIC EDUCATION ON STANDAR
IN INDUSTRY.

la.

IN GOVERN-ENT PLANTS AND
PROVISION FOR PHOTOGRAPHIC RECORD OF WOMEN'S WORK
IN TYPICAL WAR INDUSTRIES.

19.

Y SERVICE WITH
ESTABLISEMNT OF CLOSER COOPERATION BY THE WOMAN IN INDUSTR
ENT SERVICE.
THE
EMPLOYM
IN
S
TENDENT
SUPFRIN
STATE
THE WOMEN EXAMINERS AND

20.

G WOMEN WORKERS AMONG
INCLUSION OF THE FORMULATION OF POLICIES FOR TRAININ
.
SERVICE
Y
INDUSTR
IN
THE PURPOSES OF TME WalAN

MALL


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

Mary Van Ileeck, Director
Woman in Inlustry Service.

December 21, 1c18s

In response to your request for information ahout the
activities of the woman in Industry Service I eould call your
attention to the report of this Service as it is included in the
116-122).
annual report of the Secretary of Labor just issued (pages
since
work
our
We mould add t.. followtig import7nt deve1opir2ents in
this report was qvgered.


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

1. We are making a survey of the conditiong of employment of women in a state in the middle west undertaken
at tYe request of the Governor, who wished a basis of
facts for legislative policy. Sioilar pieces of work
are projected in other states.
2. The bulletir setting fort!) stmdards which should
govern the employment of women has been issued bind we
are r,sceiving response from state departments of labor
and from local groups indicatiag that these will be
helpful to them in determining next steps which should
be t.-ken in their own coTtsunities.
3. Survey of industries 41‘ch are reported to be paying
very low wages to women in an import nt eastern city
is projected.
The report on the proposed employment of 1.aen in the
chamicul industries of Niagar Falls has beet:, comJleted
and issued and as a result the Chamber of Coerce at
Niagara Falls has under consideration a program for dealing
lth problems in the community aad in the industries.
with
4.

5. The Secretary of the Navy has requested the Woman in
Industry Service to assume an advisory relationship to the
Navy Div)artment regardinb the coAditions affectine women
employed in navy plants and in plaits working under the
jurisdiction of the Navy Department. We are roquested te
maim inspections and to file full end frank reports with
recom .endations.

6.

-2-

6. By way of sum.ary it may be said tiiat our work
is now being plennod on the basis of an analysis of
those agencies Mhish can be relied upon to develop
standards for the employment of wowen. These include:
(1) The federal government as employer. The
control of the federal government over labor
conditions will grow ropidly less as war contralets are curtailed, out the influence of the
federal government will continue to be fundamental
even though the numbers affected aro smaller. The
request of the Nary Dartm nt, therefore, seems
to us to be v:ry im,ortant.
(2) State labor departments and groups inter.eted
in state labor logiilation. le have issued the
standards based on experience durng the war with
the thoutj,t tAit tv)ey would form a definite platform for state labor legislation, with of course
local vbriations to meet local needs. The work
which we are doing in the middle western state
fare dy described is in lioe with our desire to
be of service to ti- e states in the local application of these st andari
(3) Wanagemont in industry. The application of
standards will devolve upon the management of
individual establishments, and we are ,irepared
to assist especially by maintaining contact with
employment managers responsible for tPe firms'
relations with their employees.
(4) Organisations of working No;.en. Obviously
the women themselves will be the most important
factor in determining the conOitions of their
emplavent. The advisor' council of trade anion
wolLen orenized by tne woman in Industry Service
brings us information bind advice from the workers
'Ind enables us to reach them throulq,h their organizations.
the woman in Industry Service was organized during the
the necessity for
war it is classed as & w r emergeucy service,
ted.
toe readons
Briefly
dem,Instra
be
therlfore
its continuance mast
of
Secretary
are um
Labor,
the
to
for it, as we have statsd the.,
follows:


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

As

1.

The Woman in Industry Service is n t a war emergency
service. It was projected and urged continuously for
eight years before the war to deal with such problems
as the danger to health from unsanitary working conditions and hazardous occupations and from long hours


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

-3-

and employment at- night and especially que*tions
and
centering in the wages of women in their social
economic effects.
To
2. The problems existing before the war must be added
ed
the problems of rou.djustment for woren worker* em:Aoy
in
connecin the war industries and questions arising
new
in
tion with the conditions of their employment
occuAttions. The war has demonstrated Vat the range
ry
of oplortunities for effecienny by women in indust
is larger than hat been assumed in the past and attention to the conditio.: of their employment will do
much to develop their capacity for productive servioe.
From the two-fold point of view of safeguardig the
.oductive
health of the woiAen and increasing the “
s work
of
woene
ms
proble
power of the nation, the
ment.
l
govern
federa
neces9itide activity in the
3.

4.

It has been shown to bemseconomical and effective to
have •s distinct division reaponsible for these problems
es
since through maintaining coatact with other agenci
as
such
dealing with special phases of tne jroblem,
employment or training,it is pos,ible to develop a
well mun6ed program and a consistent
At' the problems of readjustment have been added to the
is need
pre-war problems of woren in industry, there
l governfedera
the
of
ces
for strengthening the resour
ult
the
diffic
ise
Otherw
ment for dealing wit_ tnetL.
conIA
a
will
ry
indust
in
questioas co corning amen
strit °potable in the development of any reconstruction
program for industry. Therefore largevresourcos are
needed now for te Woman 1.1-!. Induntry Service.

5. During the war severd of the produotio departments
of the government have maintained agencies dealing with
problems affecting women. Many of the plants v.ith which
they Lave dealt will be converted to the uses of peace
and the **tent of the problem will not be deoreased by
the signing of the armistice. These agencies, however,
have now been guspended and larger burdens are therefore
the Woman in Industry Service asi the
devolviAg
Departnert of Labor
6. The Service has under way l000rtant pieces of work, such
as t.:Et survey ealready described, of the conditions of
employment of wo,len in a state in the middle west, and
similar pieces of work projected in other places'
7. The discontinuance of the Woman in Industry Service would

be uneconomical and unwise since the pressure of the

the reestabproblems would undoubt-Idly necessitate
st posslUe
earlie
lishment of wuch an u!..ency at the
ed in
involv
date wit- the necesimry los* of effort
a new organi4ation.
of women at
1 copy of the report on the employment
truction
Niagara. Falls, a statelient of our policy in the rocoas
soo.i be prizited are
poriod and a draft of t'oe st:Indards which will
slight changed
some
be
will
There
onclosod for your information.
provision..
ant
import
any
in the standards, but they do not afflict


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

Sincerely yenrs.

Mary Van Kleeck, Director.
Woman in Industry Service.

7ational Women's Trade Uniorl„el
eadington Press Service 3/1/19
401 Continental Trust Building
Ethel M. Smith, in charge

Release on receipt

HOUSE REFUSES TO INCREASE FUNDS FOR WOTITANIS BUREAU
Washington --

After an hour's debate, before crowded galleries, the House of

Representatives late last night, in committee of the whole, voted 68 to 58 against
increasing the appropriation of the Woman-in-Industry Service of the Department of
Labor fro;e $40,000 to $150,000.

The House later confirmed this vote by passing the

sundry civil bill containinc- the provision for $40,000.
The Woman-in-Industry Service was the only one of the sc-called war services
of the rel,arteent of Labor retained in the sundry civil bill by the Appropriations
Commit tee, and to that extent the House action, both in committee and on the floor,
is counted a victory for the National Women's Trade Union League and the other
women's organizations that have secured the establishment of the service.

The In-

adequate appropriation, however, is Characterized by officers of those organizations
•
as typical of the alleged chivalry of politicians -- which in this case as usual
took the form of flowery tributes in praise cf the bureau and its -.personnel, but
denied the necessary means of subsistence.

Even opponents of the areendment made

speeches laudinE, the work of the bureau.
The $150,000 asked for by the Secretary of Labor to maintain the Woman-inIService
Industry/has been the subject of thousands of telegrams to the Appropriations
Committee and other members of the House during the past week from women's or
tions all over the country, especially from the trade unions affiliated with th
National Women's Trade Union League, the orieanizel suffragists and the Y. W. C.
The rejection of the amendment proposing the increase is therefore regarded, by its
.dvocates as a direct slap at the women workers of the country whose interests the
bureau is designed to serve.
The amendment, raising the a:ropriatien to $150,000, was offered by Representative Jeannette Rankin of Montana, who waa warelly seconded

y Republican Leader Mann,

Representative Nolan of California, re_v:elieael, and, on the democratic side of the


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?OUSE REFUSES TO

racP7AE

*2-

FUNDS FOR WOMAN'S BUREAU

House, Representatives Keating of Colorado, Gallivan of Massachusetts, and others.
The oppoaitio- of the powerful Appropriations Committee, headed by Represe-Itative Sherley :f ':,entucky, and including Representatives Byrnes of South Carolina,
damocrat, and Mondell of 'yomiylg and Cannon of Illinois, republicans, with various
anti-auffrage, anti-labor members, carried the Rouse in support of the committee's
report and held tile ap_:ro,?riation down to :40,000.
A woman's bureau in the Department of Labor has been advocated

tae ijrational

Women's Trade Union League and other women's organizations for more tha,., eiGht
years, and a bill for its establishment was on the calendar of the House When the
United States elatered the war.
was created as a war necessity.

Under the war labor administration this bureau
Its advocates point out that the probles it haa

to deal wit-a axe if anythinF„ more acute now than before or during the war,

they

insist th,A thc bureau dnould be z.ade permanenti
Thc u.frector of the Bureau is Miss Mary Van 7leeck, and the assistant dircto
ia MiS8 idary Anderson.
policies and efficiency


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Their .,--laiinistration ha- bean widely commend.ed for its wi

THEWOMAN

IN

INDUSTRY SERVICE

larking Nomen in 40r
Not until July, 1918, when the second battle of the Marne had begun
the never yielding onsard march that did not cease until November 11, 1918, Has
the service which working semen were making to the Government, to the people,
recognized by the arsation of the Woman in Industry Service of the U. S. Denartment of Labor.
After the second draft men were being subtracted from the industrial
sorld at the rate of a quarter of a million a month.

Women were not only being

substituted for men, but hugely expanding needs required more than substitution.
There sas, under the direction of the Women's Committee of the Council of
National Defense a nation-aide registration of women, the skilled and the unskilled, the employed and the unemployed.

Woman alio were organised for war

relief coniucted campaigns urging women to enter munition plants and clothing
factories and canneries, as a patriotic duty.
The Federal Government had found it necessary to put forth such labor
advertisements as this - "Mere is urgent need for 1,000 women to sew on sailors'
uniforms for 10 hours a day in the Charleston Navy Yard.

All women who aro free

to leave their homes luring the lay are urged to offer their services.°
Al] this, in 1917, the year of America's entry into the war, when women
were more than sealous to serve their country, when the Government
was urging them
to core in.
Yet a year and a quarter of a year went by.

The middle of June, 1918,

cams, shen Chateau Thierry had fallen and the enemy's guns were sounding
in Paris
and hundreds of thousands of American men clothed in uniforms that
had been sewed
by knerican women, sere massed in between Paris an


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

the Marne.

-2-

For a year and more momen gho hal never before run machines had
been given intensive short time training, and at that moment were running
machines in shops which had never dreamed of this practically unlimited supply
I
And a great process of women was filing into the factories, and
of labor.
every evening was returning to the homes, where the home work did not and
could, not atop - because whatever else they do women must continue the race
and children had been born who were too young to go to mar, children for whom
the war 4iis being fought, to whom the world should belong after the war, and
after the peace should hate become peaceful.
Creation of the Service
The work of women in munitions had been formally recognized in
January 1918 by the creation of a section in the Ordnance department wherein
the special problems and needs of women in munition factories was overseen.
It was a division in the War Department.
supremacy.

It was the declaration of War l s

No one thought of the work ions as being "labor".

It was "war".

But vary soon the Governiaent and the War Department had seen that
the needs of war would extend far beyond the making of munitions, that soldiers
Ani sailors must be clothed and fed, even rrovided with tobacco and with musical
instr-Iments, and that every industry continuing past April 191? must be an
"essential" industry, with women working in it.

At one time every mill in the

country making sheeting was making every yard of it for the Government, and
the Govern:nent using every yard for war purposes.

The whole country had be-

come a war factory, with every loom as well as every foundry working day and
eager to work night in the universal service.
The intricate and critical problems of women who work were oeing more
and more recognized by the women already serving in various advisory capacities


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-.3-

and in the actual overseership at Washington.

Gradually the scheme was being

developed which should lead to a separate definite division, under the Government,
under the Department of Labor, supervising, consulting, administering, yarning,
wherever were found women working for their stressful country.
The debate which led to the creation of this Service was swift.

On

February 12, 1918, the Secretary of Labor had submitted estimates of appropriation
for the year ending June 30, 1919 - $49,350.

The enabling act ran:

*To enable the Secretary of Labor to establish a service with special
reference to promoting ani developing the welfare of sage-ei-irning women, imrroving theisorking conditions of women and advancing their opportunities for
profitable employment, and in this service coordinate and control all aork in the
Department of Labor and other departments having to do with any matter of policy
or procedure Nith reference to women wage earners."
But because the fiscal year has the habit of beginning on the first of
July, the establishment of the Bureau was dated July 1918.

On the 9th of that

ilonth, the Secretary of Labor designated Mary Van Kleeck, chief of the Women's
Division in the Ordnance De7lartment, as director of the foman in Industry Service.
The Service was confronted at once with the problerls involved in a
reridly increasing reliance iron the work of women, as the sole reserve force of
labor to be called won to measure up to the demands of an augmented program of
nroduction for the war in the face of the withdrawal of alen for military service
at the rata of a quarter of a million a month.

It

as clear that for the sake

of production and for the good of the Nation the Federal Government must provide
not only for the recruiting of women workers but for the safeguarding of the
health and efficiency of these women who were meeting in wany instances the requirements of new and unaecustomed tasks.


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Beca4se they were nod for wo:Jen - at

-4-

least in such large numbers - standards for their employsJent aai not been
establiihed in the custoals of industry.
It .vas this necessity for rapid increase in the employLient of momen
which constituted the peculiar problem of the war.

Fundamentally, however, the

purpose of the Department of Labor iniits relation to women in industry - to
safeguard the interests of 4amen workers ani to make their service effective for
national good - was identical in peace or war.

That is to sly, 'with all the

changes brought by the mar the organic act creating the department was still
a'p itcable.
The purpose of the Denartment of Labor shall be to foster, promote and
develop the welfare of the wage earners of the United States, to improve their
working conditions, and to advance their opportunities for profitable employment.
The difference luring the war was the wider 'nubile recognition of the
necessity for "advancing the opportunities" of 'women "for profitable employn:ent,"
couching it, hosever, in terms of recruiting women for a wider range of occupations
in order to release men for military services
Added to this difference in point of vies was the fact that the urgent
necessities of a nation at war would influence poliuy lust to the extent that in
time of mar measures which in the long run are essential to the national good
must frequently be modified for immediate military necessity.

This is one of the

evils of mar.
When the Secretary of Labor recoramenied to Congress an annropriation for
a special service for women in industry, he outlined its purpose and functions
as
follows:
It is unloubtedly true that the Deoartment of Labor exercises all of its
powers with reference to gage earners of both sexes and of all ages.
It is also
true that the best alinistration requires that the various services of the lepartment which are here outlined be conducted *y including vi thin the work of
each service all questions regarling momen as hell as men.


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

-2-

But tho graat importance of the employment of women in most essential
war sork and the development of special matters of policy witA respect to such
eTployment sake it imporant to establieh a special service devoted to the
subject of eomen in Industry.
In view of the fact that the other services, All, as above indicated,
include sithin their sphere soman as sell as men,this special service of women
in iniustry is not large, sill be largely policy making and administrative in
maintain close contact Nith all
one:water rather than itself executive; bnt
the sork of the denartment on this special subject anl 411 also coordinate and
control such work in all other deartments.

I

Stated more specifically the purpose of this service 4as
1. To consider all general policies Nith respect to ,iamen in industry
and to advise the Secretary of Labor as to the policies Nhich should be pursued.
2. To keep informal of the ,ork of the several divisions of the department in so fsr as they relate to vomen in iniustry and to alvise sith tne divisions on all such work.
3. TJ secure inforaation on all matters relating to Namen in inlustry
ani to collate such information into usefUl form.
4. To establiih useful connections sith all governmental departments
ani divisions on this subject awl sith voluntary agencies and societies.
In annoucning on July 9, 1918, the appointment of the director and
assistant director, the Secretary further stlted the purposes of the Woman in
Industry Service as folloes:
In recognition of the great importance to the Nation of the work of
Hymen in industry, and tho urgent neoessity for a national nolicy la determining
the conons of their employment, I have urged and Congress has now granted
the necessary authority to establish a Woman's Division in the Department of
Labor.
Its immediate task sill be to develop in the industries of the country
policies and methods shich will result in the most effective use of somen's
services in production for the mar, while at the same time preventing their
Its large and very necessary aim sill
employaent under injurious conditions.
imporance
of the conditions of A)::Aen's
national
be to focus attention on the
and
as
standards
affecting the welfare of toe
sork as influencing industrial
entire /Cation.
The Women's Division will be charged primarily sith determining policies
rather than carrying on detailed administration.
Because of this policy-making
funztion of the loment s Division, its lirector will servecas a member 61! labeller
Labor Policies Board.
It will coordinate work for momen in other divisions of
the Departmlnt of Labor and in industrial service sections of other departaants
of the Federal Government.
It mill coorerate mith State denartments of labor,


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

-6-

morking with and through them, in order to bring about united action by the
The Woulen's Division will conStates in national problems of somen's work.
cern itself primarily with war condition* but mill be mindful of the need for
observing and interpreting the tendencies in momen's annloymont which are likely
to have permanent social effects.
The Woman's Division has been established in response to noels widely
felt ay all, men as well as women, who are conscious of the increasing Share
Nomen vast have in the industrial activities of the war.
The problems of women
in industry are so aanifold and complex that a clearing house of th(yught and
The Wo:nen's Division nas been
leadership is needed in the National Government.
established to give this leadership.
The personnel of the Service included as assistant director Mary
Anderson who later became director of the permanent Women's Bureau of peace
times, and Agnes Peterson ae field director sho later became assistant director
of tile Nomen's Bureau.

Thus the permanence of the service was determined even

in the temporary organisation.
Counoil on 4o.;len :11 Industry
To accomplish the task of coordinating the efforts of all Fedora'
agencies concerned in *omen's gork the Woman in InAnstry Service was authorized
by the Secretary of Labor to organize the Council oft Women in Iniustry, composed
of women reprlsenting every division of the Dtpartment of Labor and other Federal
department having organized work related to problems of women in industry.

Its

membership included the Woaen's Branch of the Ordannee Derartment, tha W(xLan's
Section of the Railroad Administration, the Federal Board for Vocational Educltion,
the Comlittes on Women in Industry of the Aavisory CocLaission, anl the ;o:nan's
Coaadttee of the Council of National Defense, and from the De7,artment of Labor
representatives of the services concerned 41th investigation and insnection,
training and dilution, information an4 educ'Aion, and working conditions, the
United Statez Employment Service, the Imaligration Bureau, the Chiliren's BureaU,
tha Bureau of Naturalization, the Bureau of Labor Statistics, the United States
Housing Corporation, ths War Labor Board, and the War Labor Policia6 BoArl.

The

council did not assume any executive or administrative functions, nor lid it have


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

-7-

any authoOty over the programs of its mambers.

It was a forum for discussion

of the important questions coming before the Woman in Industry Service and the
other groups coo?erating with it.

Auong the subjects for discussion hiate-een

the safeguards to be established in nem occupations, the enforcement of State labor
law', the regulation of night work under

r conditions, the avlication uf the

principle of equal pay for equal 'eork, and the recruiting and training of aomen
orrer-at-ton-r-wh-Wa--

workers.

the

Serviee4 viete-;e-t-i-ng-e---e-f---the -cowed-1.
Recruiting Won for New Occupations

The outstanding question concerning loiLen in industry which grew daily
more ixrortant illring the war eas the necessity for greatly increasing the proportions of

amen in the essential industries of tL

country in order to meet the

demands of production and at tha same time to release

Men

for military service.

The !linger of hysterical campaigns which would stimuLlte the recruiting of vvomen
without seeing to it that their services should becolLe effective for production
or that proper safeguards for samen eorkers shauld be established was increasingly
great.

It was difficult for those unfamiliar with the difficulties of introducing

a new and untrained nersonnel into in,tustry to appreciate the care which must be
taken to avoid actual decrease in production by rapid and careless methois of
filling posItions.

Nor could those who had not been familiar :with the efforts

through !gany years to build up standards of protection for the health of the
workers appreciate how fundamentally important were the maintenance and extension
of those stanAaris during the war.

The situation was mat more critical by the

fact that those companies whose policy to their men eor;ters had naver won their
continence wni coo-eration :4-j:3 likely to arouse suspicion that the aar ecoorgency
would be usei as an excuse for employing women at lower rates of pay and under


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

-8-

conrlitions Aleh would waken any control guined by the farkers through
collective bargaining.
The following program sas rroposai by the Wooehn in intustry Service:
1. Standards governing tha eienloyment of women in industry seauld be
authoritatively issued after aioetion by the War Labor Policies Board, with the
teo-foll purpose of controlling conditions especially in nee oconeations for
iomen and also serving as a guide in the selection of occupations in which the
That is to say, instead of offering
emploeeent of on alight be increased.
a list of occupations in which women should be substituted for men, the Federal
Government eaull promulgate stenlirds together with the statement that in Any
occu.pation in /ditch these standards were upheld, the extension of the employment
of eomen eaull be leairable, at tee same time calling attention to the neeessity
for grlatly increasing the employment of somen under these conditions.
2. Certain broad, statements could be male about occupations in shich it
Noel?), itea daei,eble Leo eieploy eo..een but these must alsaes be in the natlire of informatian rather tnan authoritative rulings, since local conditions would make a
recommendation for the employment of vomen unwise in one locality and vise in
another 'here both the nature of the proaess and the eonlitions surrounding it
sere different.
3. Cer:ain occupations Wvich had been erovel to be .00re injurious to
/omen than to men should be listed as a group from ehich eomen should be excluded.
4. Instead of attempting to formulate a detailed program for the country
as A ehole, the War Induetries Board ani the United States Imployment Service would
be asked to name those localities in which the shortage of labor wee most acute.
The various Federal agencies concerned with investigetien, training, placement,
health, end sorking conditions, /mull then be asked to concentrate their efforts
in tnose localities in order to solve the problems there and ale° to give a
foundation for experience for an increasingly adequate program of labor distribution throegheut tee eountry.
5. Inquiries into cir:ain typical occueatiens Should be pushed foreard
rapidly by the Woman in Industry Service sith a view to making definite recomaendationarwtgariing ohanges in the procase and the establishment of conditions which
had bean rrovel most effective in the experience of astabliShments emnloying somen.
S. Meantime plans should be formulated for exhibits of NOMOM's cork and
other fors of educatlonal eresentation of facts 4rich should result in enlisting
the services of eomen in the war industriea, shile winning also the cooleration
of inJustry in establishing conditions ehich should make for the largest production over a long period.
Progress .vas malA in each section of this program, although the signing
of the arolistice made it unnecessery to introduce eomen in such large numbers in
this country as in Great Britain or France and the program as a whole therefore
was not cerriei out.


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-9-

Standards for Employment
The development of "Standards" for the emploTrient of aomen in industry
mas the important, pen:anent work of this Sertirce.

War needs ha& tended to

Sullenly we sere back in primitive days and Nays.

loosen all safeguards.

Women

aare morking lj and 12 hours a lay as of old, even though they were perfor:ning
their patriotic service under the enthusiasm of aar instead of staggering lay by
day under industrial pressure.
Women wore working nights in certain looalities, lith tho old dangers,
rhysical and moral, still lurking in the Imillumined corners and the o14 , neglect
of ho,ne as oertain.
Waizen sere 4orIcing in "Iman'e oocupations" with no provieions made for
them as wo:aen, no rlst rooms, cloak rooms, toilet rooms.
Early in the war the Chief of Orinance in Council isJue-1 General Orders
Number .1;i, to arsenal commanders, to mAnufacturers of mundtions, to Quartlrmaster
Generals, covering the conditions of 4ork for both men and 4o:zen.

thee. in

truth embodied protective safeguarda, they a3re denominated "mechanisas of
efifiziencyn, for their purpose was to protect the sorkers in order that the workers
might sork to the utmost.

When t 3 *oman in Industry Service oame into play,

there Nall a further consIderation of
-perienos

xu..1,an iniutrias before the 4ar.

benefiting ,•olaen, based on exThe Sorvize ciorked on the shaping

of a stAtelvent of StanAarts from July to November; the Hell mas being surveyed
with care, anl the neeled standards dere being phrasal.
The Novewber end of the 4ar lit not aff3ct the -permanent value of these
standards in any degree.
of Ao:aen in industry.

Those who dred them knew ?that aere the zontinuing needs

They knew t c. e condtions and needs of woAtn working before

the sar, tne increase from 5 to 8 millions in the ten years leading up to 1910,
the probable greater increase to 12 if not to 15 milUons in the decade which


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

-10-

shich incluied the war; and t'aey knev the continued importance of answering these
needs.

For peace has its industrial perils no less than war.
Therefore the Standards were published in December, 1918.

An a hundred

thousund copies of the pamphlet 'nave heen demanded by industry ur. to date.
The chief -ooints covered are:
Hours: no %Irian shall be auployed or permitted to sork more than eight
ir any one lay with a half holiday on Saturday.
Nitht work: no on shall be employed between the hours of b) p.m.
and 5 p.m.
WAges: women doing the slme ,vork as men shall receive the same sages ...
wages should be established on the basis of occupation and not
on the basis of sex. The minimum sage rate should cover the
cost of livAng for depenients and not merely for the individual.
Prhhibited Ocaunations: omen ..:1113trot be ea.71loyed in occupations insolving the use of poisons 4hich. are .oroved to ba Lac:ma injurious
to women thin to men, such as certain r.rocosses In the lead
indn3trie4.
ne in rooms used for
Rome Work: no work_shall be given out to be
13ving or sleering purposes or in roo:as directly connected sith
living ant sleeping roams in any dwelling or tenement.
3oonerm1on of V:1,4 sor)-ers in establishing standardl
The genuine cooperation essential to production can be secured
only if provision is uade for the workers as a group acting
through their chosen representatives to bht.re lo tho zontrol of
the conditions or their airrplorlent.
Haz&rlons Industriea for Wowen
To protect :o,zen in this aivance froal exploitation by omr,loyers anxious
to Trash VI-1)1r output to the highest possible figure, and from the natural zeal of
te woven both to make their output serve the war needs to the Lit

and to Alake

it equal that of men and therefore justify their iaterloring into men'eveste d
interests" the work of the Wo:aan in Industry Service saki at once cut out for it.


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Should women

or

in hazardous industries?

-11was begun; it had
The question presented itself as soon as the Service
presented itself before.

For even when war urged every laborer into employment,

working conditions were hasardans
there 'las a shortage of labor in occupations where
ant disagreeable.

ly - no
The Service felt that it must go about this careful

call to service and to death,
arening wide of the doors to women, no high-sounding
woxen and disaster to the
or Norse than death, to perxanently ruined health for the
chilir3n of the future.
which were designed
To meet this problem a series of inquiries was planned
employed safely and the deto determine the occrrations in Which women might be
hazards not inherent in the
tailed and rractical measures needed to remove all
essential nature of the procaas.

To direct this work the Woman in Industry Ser-

vice organized the Committee on Hazardous Occupations.
Falls, where the chemical
The first place selected for a survey was Niagara
war industries.
inlustries orere of great imrortance as basic in the
Two representatives of the Industrial Coalission of New York State were
in putting into effect
added to the committee for this survey, to insure cooreration
ion and safety, and other
the detailed recommendations for dust removal, sanitat
precautions against occupational hazards.

These recommendations Nere worked out

for
in 1:•ractical detail by physicians, engineers, and women investigators acting
the committee.
It was discovered that men had not volunteerel for 21any of these jobs
because contitions were bal.
It was discovered that conlitions that mere recognizedly bal for .omen
were bad for men.


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Therfore, correct the bad conditions for both men and women.

-12-

rniustrial poisons are bad for both.

But lead is a race -poison.

The woman sho sorks in certain chemical occupations is liable to lead poison
which too often means the loath within her of the futnre.

This &Witted

scientific fact received emphatic assurance through the investigation made by
the lo.iisa in In.Suotry Servtce.

Aril, therefore, because potential mothw*hood

should be the most precious possession of the race the Woman in Iniustry Service
recommenied the absolute exclusion of women from this occupation.
It was the only ocennation forbidien to wor,en by these copetent 'radical
and in1ustrial investi4ators.

In every other enploreent, even where hazards and

clangers %ere evident, the Service recommended, not exclusion but change in conditions.

If the reco.smended changes 4ar3 hell not to be practical at the time,

then postpone Amt of the employment of momen was recommended.

When changes sere

male and somen care admitted to the occupation, men came also into the benefit.
And it 4as never liscovered that men ob,jected to beinl sefeguarded.
The matter of lifting heavy .leights and apereting heavy nlachi_nes, .vas
made a concern of this Service for women.

Machine shops and work shops generally

wiled iechcmical devices vlich saved the strength and the health of soluen workers.
Specializing the Jobe ma,le for greater ireel ani greater out-'t t1!an had been
possible .then men lathre4 under hanlicalos of he9ivy burdens Ani heavy machines.
For even sith their greater strength men sere comrellei to work more slowly
without mechanical equipent and so could not attein the fullest posaible out"ut.
Industry, and men, will benefit by these improvements In the pv?.eeful future.
Hazards )f the Night
These ininstri.al hazarA.s eere at once complicated with might work it hap-ened t-!7at the same indl)stries which by the nature of their products sere
lazarious for the sorkees wanted to mork them at night.


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

And instantly in other

-13-

industries, even in the twelve States where night work for somen was forbidden
by law,

t was felt that under stress of aar al2 restrictions on aork shauid be

lightenel and in orler to feed the gun s niiht Should be turned into day.
Thirty-six States had. no restrictiona on night work for women, ani
among these were industrial States where the Governxent had placed oontraata for
great rantities of rlunitions.
Tile request of the employers

association addressed to the Bureau of

Labor Statistics asking that the Federal Govermlent should _cake it pcH6lhle for
the employers in war industries in Niagara Falls to disregari the Nea York State
law nhich nrohibits the employment of ao_ien in factories at night was but one
of
many similar rsqllests
early antumn of 1918.

Nith increasing frellency tiring the sllier tnd
Following the organisation of the Woman in Industry

Service. all such arr,eals vhJch reached t a officg,. of the Socretary of War Nere
referred to the service for review.

The Nol'An in InellIstr7 Servce in turn

morkai on thes3 asses in coo-eration .1itt the various inlustrial serv'e
cectinns
Of t'ne other Feieral departments, esnecially the Women's Branch of the
Ordnance
Darartment, xhich made tne initial investigation in tho majority of pints making
this request.
In the comnlicated .rroblems ahich these fr::itances illustrdted there
Nas presented the necessity for vorking out a program xhich should protect
the
health of the votrien at veer and reenforce stIndarls alrea4 set in
of the States, while at the same time speeding
reriod of the lay..
uron to solve
this.

No problem which the

labor lass

7roduction in the most critical

oman in Intustry Service sda called

as more difficult or more far-reaching in its significance than

Before a wise progrem could be derrelored it vas necessary
to study in

the concrete case the importance of vomen's vork in the
production of the -plant,
to

no


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

the needs of the Government for that particular product, and
to consult

-14-

those organizations, especially those of the workers themselves, which had been
responsible for legislation to protect women against night work in some of the
most important manufacturing States.
Twelve States - Connecticut, Delaware, Inliana, Kansas, Massachusetts,
Nebraska, New York, Oregon, Pennsylvania, South Carolina, Utah, and Wisconsin had laws which prohibited the employment of Roman or girls, or both, in factories
luring the night hours.

In two of these - Massachusetts by legislation creating

a special board for the period of the war and in Wisconsin through the regular
powers of the industrial commission - it was possible to grant permits making
rossible night work for limited periods.
plants.

These

lawis

applied to the munitions

They had been enacted in time of peace, and they expressed the opinion

of the public in those States that night work for

4=011 mats

harmful because of its

effect upon the health of the hoen awl their childrean and because of its influence
on family life.

!Aoreover, experience had shown that night aork was uneconomical

for production, with less individual efficiency anl greater cost for sages and
supervision than by day.

These considerations hal led the representatives of 13

European nations meeting in 1913 in Berne to agree to eliminate night work for
women in their manufacturing iniustries.
hatbsen generally abandoned abroad.

During the oar, hosever, this standard

In England, for examcle, ahere the employment

of somen at night work hal long since been lone away sith, the increasing reliance
upon the sork of somen in the manufacture of munitions had led to the general
breaking down of this measure of protection.
At the very beginning of oux particination in the mar the Federal Government, through the Council of National Defense, had declared its policy not to permit
the sar to be the occasion for losering standards of employment, especially those
mhich had been established to protect the health of homen and children.


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

As these

-15protective measures 'fere for the most part contained in State legislation and dere
not national in scope, this eeclaration of policy took the form of an apreal to
the States not to abandon or weaken lass enacted for the protection of the workers
unless the Federal Government itself should find that the national need in the
emergency of the war demanded their modification.

This, however, would be a con-

dition shich only the Federal Government could determine with authority.
In avolying this policy to the problem of night "fork for women it vas
necessary to recognize that the differences betseen different States gave rise to
great inconsistencies.

Thirty-Six States had no legislation prohibiting night

sork for 40men, and these included such imnortant manufacturing States as New Jersey,
Illinois, and Ohio, all of Anich large quantities of munitions were manufactured
on contract for the Federal Goverment.

If the Federal Government recognized its

responsibility for the conditions affecting the health of the women in munitions
plants, as it did by establishing such agencies as the Woman in Industry Service
and by formulating the policy just outlined, it could not ignore the fact that the
employment of

omen at night in a factory in Illinois, ahere no law prevented,

as

as injurious as it mould have been in a plant in Nev York shore night dork had been
eliminated by act of the legislature.
To aid in developing a plan which sould give due seight to all the
apparently conflicting interests, the Woman in Industry Service called into conference representatives of thoss grout's and organizations most vitally interested in
standards of working conditions established for the protection of sorking somen.
At these conferences typical requests for permission to employ women at
night more described.

In one nlant, for instance, shich was probably more vital

to the success of the ordnance program than any other single establishment, the
chief reason for sishing to employ women on the night Shift


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

vas

a shortage of

-16-

houses which would not be remedied in less than three months, so that no large
numbers of men could be added to the population of the town, but in the families
Of the men alrealy living in the community were daughters, sister, and wives,
who would be available to increase the working force.

These could not all be

used on the lay Shift because many of the processes involved too heavy work for
women, an4 it was necessary, therefore, to employ men and women together with a
division of tasks between them.

In sore plants the problem was further com-

plicated by the rractice of ratating shifts, whereby every man in the force took
his turn at night.

To change this practice when women were introduced would

cause discontent among the men Who Avuld then be obliged to work steadily, or at
least more frequently, at night if the women in the force worked only by day.
No two instances mere exactly alike.

The one fact common t* them all

was that the - oposal to employ women at night couA not be disconnected from the
whole production and the employment policy of the plant.

In some cases the

shortage of men for night work was due not to an actual shortage of labor in the
coTImunity but to low rates of ray or too long hours on the night shift, or the
absence of an efficient organization for employment management in the plant.
Under such conditions it was not merely for the sake of the women workers that
the employuent of women at night sas-dlae-net-te-en-ae4va4-sher4ege-ef-iekter-ie
eite-semmiarr44y-bne-te-iew-ratres-ef-pay-er-tee-1eng-here-en-the-a4ght-sh+0)7-er
the-aeeemee-ef-an-eff4eieet was to be discouraged by the 4oman in Industry
Service, but it was quite as necessary to discourage it for the sake of production,
sinca in such a situation production could not be made satisfactory merely by a
night shft of

NOMOM.

Satisfactory .roduction
.
required a thorough ov)rhauling

of the employment policy of the company which would result in a more effectite
use of the working force already available.


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

-17revealed a very strong
The conferences held to consider this subject
lowered, and that, in nartiopinion that standards, in general, should not be
should be vigorously discouraged.
cular, the practice of employing women at night
11though there

as

be ione it was generally
diversity of opinion as to vhat 6hould

could declare with authority
agreed that it was only the National Government4hich
require modification of
whether or not the emergency was serious enough to
peo-lle of several States as
standards which had commended themselves to the
necessary to protect the health of women at work.
The plan finally proposed
and control night mor

for

as that the Federal Governmentalbould regulate

omen in all plants iorking on war contracts for the

4vhich voull prohibit
Federal Government, through u provision in the Qontrate
granted.
night mork unless a special war emergency permit were

:This plan pro-

or the Navy that it was
vided that if it 4ere demonstrated by the War Depart.aent
in adequate production, to
necessary in a specified instance, in order to :aainta
the Secretary of War or the
csploy wo:aen between tha hours of 10 p.m. and 6 a.m.,
ent antroved by the Secretary
Secretary of the Navy, under conditions of employm
would send to the State
of Labor acting through the Woman in Industry Service,
a national
agency charged with enforceent of labor laws a declaration that
to grant a
emergency existed in this particular instances and Noun call upon it
partiailar, specified plant for a specified, limited period a temporary mar
certificate allowing the employ.lient of women at night.
In connection with the altinistration of the nroposed plan it was proviie4 that thorough inv9stigat1on should be made in each instance to determine
the necessity for night work, and that each establishment to which a certificate
might be grantei should be under the continued supervision of a designated Federal
department, irider oonditions satisfactory to the Ded,:irtment of Labor.


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

-18-

A little more than a month later the signing of the armistice male
final action by the Council of National Defense unnecess,iry, and, therefore,
the plan was never put into effect.
'.7acies ani Iniustrial Relations
These aomen who *ere receiving so much attention and th,Jught from the
Government, recruited by the urge of high patriotism, or, recruited leliberately
and persuasively by high wages, came from the kitchen, from the tomes, from the
counters, the looks, the school rooms, and from the factories where they had won
their familiarity mith the Whirr and intensity of factory life.

They performed

old familiar tasks, for war foods and fabrics required no alien feminine skill.
They c
- erformed new duties the like of ',Which had never before felt feminine hand.
Fifty per cent of the makers of explosives were women.

Ninety-five

out of every hundrel of the makers of hand grenaltes were No men.

Steel doubled

its woicen after the first draft, treble/ them after the seconci.

Only one woman

hai been dorking on airplanes in 1514.
craft in 118.

More than six thousand were ousy on the

They became lathe operators, so the key machine of modern

industry caae into their hanis.

They even oneraced cranes, riling high above

the floor of the industrial world and keeping their eyes fixed and true, with
such success in one factory that the man preferred the Nork of women and petitioned
that they be allowed to re:ain permanently operating cranes.
The introduction of women into these nea occupations gave the question
of their wages a new signcance.

If their omployaent in work hitherto done

by men Nere mAle the occasion for reducing the rates previsouly paid for the same
work, the man employed souil naturally oppose the extension of women's employalent
as a menace to the wage standarils attained by the aen, and the morals of industry
•

be affected by the resulting diaoontent.

It was a realisation of this

langer vhich lel to the first official endorsement bry the Feleral Government of


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

-19-

the princi7,1e of "equal nay for equal work."
It soon became evident, bomever, that the idea axprassel in the usual
r'nrase, "oval l'ay for equal eork," 4as not comprehensive or fundamental enough
to secure substantial justice for morking women or to nrevent the lowering of
stanlaris through the extension of their employment.
For example, the men in certain occm)ations had set
::.aohines in adlition to operating them.

their osn

Jnen Romen took tneir -elacas the

necessity for mainttining production preventel giving time to training them in
a thorough knomledge of the machinery /ditch they handled., and, hence, in some
instances, a man was employed to set up the machines fior a grow of momen.

The

sor1r of the momen was regarded, therefore, as not equal to that of the :Len.

The

rates mould then be sat according to the prevailing standards of No:lan's Nage*.
I thorough ap,:.lication of the principle of equal 7ay for equal work mould seem
to have required that sages should hate been based on output and they they should
have been set only after cereful study of the actual effect of the now arrantement
of sorIe en the putput of the group as a shole, rather than an arbitrary reduotion
tor eeratagenstomarily regarded as the standard for women.

It was by no means

impossible to finl instances where th,ise new methods of doing the job had resulted
in an increase in output when motion lid the work, and in these instances the illjustice of a reduction in eernings vas more clearly emphe.sized.
In formulating staniaris for the smployment of women the Wo4an in Industry
Service, therefore, made the !alloying recommendation:
iomen doing the same mork aa men shall receive the same Nages, with
such proppettlaikes increases as themmen are receiving in the same industry. Slight
ciiringes sal: in the nrocess or in the arranement of work should not be regarded
as justifying a lower wage for a woman than for a man unless statistics of production
show that the output for the job in question.ls less mhen momen are employed than
when men are employed.
If a difference in output is demonstrated, the difference
in the Naga rate should be based upon the differenee in production for the job as
a shole, and not determined arbitrarily.


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

-20-

But this statsment, also, was net fundamental.

The tendelicy to set

omen's rats* on jobs in Which so!nen took men's places clearly raised the question
of shy there should be a wage level designated as somen's rates.

In one

lant,

for example, the somen who took e.en's places, ioing the mork exactly as the men
had ions it, actually nroduced more, out the employer objected to paying them the
rates which the men had received becanse, he
ment doing sork customarily considerel a

aii,

oMen in the adjoining depart-

amanse occupation sere receiving

"lemon's eages" for work no less difficult than this now occupation into which
Nomen had so recently been introduced.

Justice corn' elled him, he believed, to

establish Roman's vages for all sork lone by moelen in his shop.

He sae being

guided, of course, by the practice and opinion concerning momen morkers which have
rrevailel in industry for many years.
The Women in Industry Service held that the exnerience of the wax was
forcing a fresh examination of the basis for determining :omen's sages.

If the

principal of equal 7,ay for equal work sas acce7tel, as it had been officially,
with the sanction of eublic oninion, it was impossible in logic or in justice not
to push its aprliction further and to accept the more fundamental conclusital thist
the wage vAlue of a job is as great when a woman 'toes it as when a man does it,
and that the eve should be determinel for the occupation and not for the eax of
the worker.

The Tomen in Industry Sorties, therefore, formulated the following

statoment of the basis for determining Nages:
Wages should be established on the basis of occupation ani not on ;he
The minimum wage rate should cover the cost of living for dependant;
basis of sex.
and not merely for the individual.
The Permanent Gain
The establishment of definite standards for the employment of Acen, the
preservation of safeguards which had alrealy been put aronni thwa, and the insistence ulon tine recognition of women as an integral part of .1- 4ustry vere all
significant ani lasting steps which occ-erred luring the war.


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

-21-

But the big permanent gain 13 tne Women's Bur,au.

Ten 7ears before

Criorica enterei tne Nar Mary McDomell nal arpeared before till Apnrotriations
Committee of Congress, and asked for an aprroprlation making -poscible a special
investi&Ation of

:Len in iniustry.

The money xas grante, the survey was

male, the retort fills nineteen volumes.
Efforts ;Aire :cede to secure from the Government a perxament bureau
to care for •women in industry.

The year before America entered the sar a bill

was introduced, asking for such a function of Government.
The war came.
neglect.

The need of :;omen was to

The bill failed.

evident and too i=ortant for further

The Service for Woman in Inlustry 4aS created.

few mar Services continued during the first yrir of pea:!e,

It 111..:s one of the
Aril finally, in

1920, the Women's Bureau becaxe c. statutory fact, permanent evi'ence that women
during the war hal won their fight for recognition as


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

omen and as workers.

-1Tir]

liam

U;:flERVICS

Activities in the period from, July 16 to Octooer 15, 14.8.

The %man in Industry Service was organised early in July
the effects of the first draft *ere becoming mere mei more evilens and
the Li—art:mos of the menloywont of
*ithih afC

IfOr.411 OM

growing daily more significant.

eeks the unnaunoe.3nt of the plans to extend the lraft to inclule

all men bet4een the 4ges of 18 aelli

brace% a still keener reiAlsation of the

feet that pro)uction for the oar genii Upend in increosing measure upon the
straitly* emeioyment of a grov.ing fires of women workers. The adjustment of
so 1 rge a number of now workers to unact;u6tomed tasks whict is now in process
mai 'skit& *111 bacose more extensive ea the war goes on Is a labor problem
without precedent. No less momentous is the task of social adjuatmeent laths
hoes and is the oo,umunity *Joh is also imposed by the increasing e4ti loy-4ent
of
women am breadwinners.
The 'mean in Iodu.try service is chmrged with the duty of (levelaping standards and policies to insure the effective emnloy,Lent of
conserving their health and ,,,olfere. It is instructed to kse

MNWWQ

while

th close touch

with the other divisions et the Department of LAbor, each of •%tick hoe
a relation
to manta in industry ;intl to co-ordinate such work in other isder..1 dspartth
ents.
It is exrected to work 4th state departaonts of li400r. Its aim is to
urdte in
the active o!Arryiag out of a consistent end rounded program all of
the agencies
which touch v4rious phases of the problem. The representation of
the Service on
the War Labor Policies Board through the membership of its
lirector on the Board
is a memos also of viewirig prob1.3,46 of wotwea's work as they
should be viewed In
proper relation to Ilbor problem, attesting both mftn and
*wen.


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

-2-

It is a two-fold problem with which the country wust no,/ deal.
Women's mork mist be wade more heelthral amid more productive by the establishment
of better Aorkin

conditions in their accustomed mark and the conditions of their

emrloymeht in

occupations

WOW

list be determined and estataishel ea the right

basis. All this suet be acoomplished without loAaring starAards already attained
Ails meeting the sstraorlinary dwaands for maximum production which the eallrging
war program imposes ass national necessity in the greatest crisis in the history
of this country.
1. Council op limn in Indust?'"
As u weans of ca-ordirvIting the efforts of the federal agencies
concJrnod in wemen's :work& Gamma composed of women repre,enting every division
of the Department of Labor and other federal departments having organised work to
teal with problems of Aomori in industry has been organised for weekly conference.
It represents the WaTen's Br,
..nch of the Orinanoe Department, the Wol.en's Section
of the Railroad Atainistration, the Federal Board for Vocational Cduc.tion, the
Wowen's Committee and the Committee oniowen in Iniustry of the Advisory Comisalan
of the Council of National Defense, and from the Del Artment of Labor the divisions
concerned with Investigation and Inspection, Training &al Dilution, Intonation and
telucatioamod iforkiog Condition, and the U. S. Naployment Beryls*, the Lu,igration
Bureau, the Children's Bureau, the Bureau of Naturalisation, the Bureau of Labor
Statistics, the Urdted States Housing Corporation, the Wur Ltibor Board and the lir
Labor Policies Board. The equnci; has taken up for discussion the inportani
questions coming before the %Awn in Iniustry Service and included in the activities
of the grows represented, for determination of policies, especially the safegu,-,ris
to be established in

WIN

occupations, the anforcemant of Stale labor laws including

the prohibition of night work, the aplication of the principles of equal pay for


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

for equal work, and the recruiting and training of iacvisn .orkers.
2. Colttee on Hask4rioas Occup.Ation,
Shortage of labor is likely to be felt first in those oocupations
in *thick media coalitions are hasardous or disagreeable and the danger is therefore
that mononnwor he introluced first la° the.. oompations involving hazards to their
health. To meet this problem a series of imquiries has been planmed designed to
.hich .4owen ivay safely be employed ani the detAled
determine specific oompations in ,
sod practical nossures ehioh nay be taken to recaove all hasarde not inherent in the
essential ration ef the proses..

To lirect this work, the %non in Imdustry Service

has organised it. soLumittee composei of ropresentsitives of the Surgeon GensrEals Office,
The Army Ordains* 'areas, and ths Chemical Warfare Service of the War DepArtment,
the United States Public Health Service, the Hwy, the Burstlu of Standards of the
Depnrtment of Cc:wawa*, the War Industries Board,.ani the Working Conditions Service
of the DeTartukent of Labor. The first place selected for survey was Niagara Palls
whose chemical Andustries and mana/aotarAos of metals and alloys are basic in
ttie war industriee. Two representatives of the Industries Commission of New York
State 4ere Added to the insinIttes to insure ob-a-.‘eration inputting into effect
the letailei reoaenl7tions for lust reoloval, sanitation and

:Ina safety An3 other

1 ractioal
protections against eacu-, ,tionAl. hasArds ehich have been worked out in ,
detail by ohysiciens, engineers, and moon inwestigators acting for the Coadttoe.
3• DEBbilialgiLILAUSEIMIS
The r3port on work 4sne

tar

the Committee at *agora Falls *ill be

the first of a series setting forth the results of practical eXpdrienall is safe-

guarding mouton lorkers inivirious occupations. These will be the basis for specific
standards mhioh after ap.-roval by toe War Labor Policies Boari will form a code of
industrial conlitiJna tiloc;Ing

40

An. A bulletin setting forth standards which

Ahould govern the staploynt of uoirien in ,..ny eocutation is IZw redly for printing
ani will be issned shortly.

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1%1, of

1-:L 4/

.;ft23rt

.f.11

•.3o-9rse, the basis for the addii,- I

J

felerq.1 c!,overnclant. In the .; '1n_i

sc%3ver 1 the raramount needs of
of it-my

-

a_

-

as to the force of state labor 1;,-.

-jr_ial to

for the federal sovern .rit and in a number of instances

,i t-

state officials the right of inspection of their plants. .'his
3r.;,

'iard t

to

uation sinca tn,afe .,are no federal

.

not safiiciant adairdstrative machinery to enforce raLul6-ions by ZJI_r_i
tents. , Aoreover such a situation if allowed to continue would s',riously weaken

a-tthorit:- of the states for the period after the war when the federal
lenartents will cease to be so lurge a p-urchaser of the products of industry and
relation to irdustry Which no,v obtains through

aill therefore, not have tl-e
the

of contracts.
To meet this situation the War Labor Policies Board has

...:aused to be irserted lido the contracts clauses requiring full compliance with
6:4:44.

st—ta

6

wl)t of the contract. To

$ 1144,
,
JVbaJLATi•:

affective

ake these contract clauses

,..tisisted the War Labor Policies Board to

vork out a scrielme of co-oilareltion ostvesan spate and federal
,e2.1 of the federgl
4-1-n


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oitractA.

aincies whereby the

,u-teht, the Secretary of ITir, the Secretary of
der-

tes Po-nsinp' Cor-o'r-tion, and the director
44 r1 -* -r of tl-e 7r4 t1A St,
,111 lo lJtiza
th,3 elit'orcJ_cr,t

•taCi Lc
' tc,a cl,ses of t'29 ccntract6
?Cf,o;:tiy3

oC
/

.16t

trtiJn
hich one
r of the

5. Nikilt ..,,ork of wgen
It 444 evident at the conferenoe tht state officials saes much
concerned over the enoloyment Of wawa at night. This problem has absorbed much of
the attertion of the Woman in Industry Service since early in July. With the lathdrawal of men into militAry service ,-At An increasingly rapici rate and with the consequent enl -xged prograth of production, the pressure upon industry to utilise its
.)nt

n

';achinery 24 hours a day for the pro4uction of munitions, has become

very great and -vith it has

co

:An
n

insistent leind to erstiloy women

t night. In

seven states night work is prohibited but in t o of these state authorities have
.'.10.ver to gra,s6 eimartions to p

r1,:nts. In forty-une et t* 1m:3111.11J:4 such

ortant menufacturize states as Illinois, Ohio, Nee Jersey and Connecticut, there
are no la*. prohibiting night

4ork.

In these states, therefore night .vork of women

is tbr practice at Ina number of lawartarg munitions pl_luts ale this practice is
likely to increase unless the !sclera" goverrsnent tikes control of the situation. In
those states hiving night work laws state officiFtls and others interested in the
situation already woe *video)* that unless so.m constvoctive measures We taken by
the fed.erftl goverment, the night -work laws which have bean placed on the statute
books as the result of years of persistent effort, will be attacked
sessions of tiv legislattires

At

the cogdng

in that event repeal will be asked for on the gramni

of natiorml necessity.
The 'Woman iii Inivutry has held a onsber of conferenoile in Washington
to discus* this subject with repreisent•itivee of voluntary ogganistAtions interested in
labor legislation with men arki Norhon leaders in trade unions, ,.ith re.-resantativs* of
the federal agencies concerned in this problem an3 with state officials. The plan
evolved

As

a result of these conferences aft in every instance unanimously Am:proved

by those prclasont at tie conferences, is that the federal government should take control of night .Tork

n1 tnat in no state, whether there is a law prohibiting it or

not, would rdght work. under this rlan be permitted,


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

3x0ept

4, bertific

te issued by

by the Secrettri of

or the Secretary of the Navy through the st4te agenci

charge.t with enforcedIent of 1.-koor laws. In those states h.tving no prohibition
of night work the basis of control will be a clause in the contracts prohibiting
the estployment of women &flaw 10 p.m. or before 6 /41s

vithout a war emergency

certificate. In those st-ites having laws prohibiting rdght ',fork the certifioate
would be issued under the war powers of the federal government ani would
result
in 9, temporary ,00dification of state regulations in a nFltional emergenc
y. Is
certificate would be issued until the War Department or the Navy had determined
that it was an emergency in production which could not be met in !irgf other
soy,
thorough investigation by the Depqrtment of Labor reprnzented tif the Woman
in
Iniustry Service would be :.nuAle before .,rer certificate was granted and
the working
con':it ions which should be established, would be recomitended in evAch
instant)* by
the Secretary of Labor wain through the Woman in Industry Service in a
state -“ent
which *cold be attached to the eertificate. The WOMMIII in Iniustry
Service would
then supervise the plant iliring the period of certificate and the
certificate
would be revoked if in are' cites conditions were not courlied with.
In no cacie vould
a certificate be issued to a pl‘snt in vela women Oere emnloyel
longer than 8 hours
day or night and in law plant absolute cespliunce Adth standards
set by the st:Lte
deplrt ent of 1 rbor and by the federal government, ircluiin.g the
princi le of the
ewe psty for the same work for melon taking men's planes, would be
required. The
plan has been Avrroved by the War Labor Policies Board and is now before
tne
Conrail of National Defense for lecision. The groups with whom we have hat
confer,
are strongly opposed to ser weakening of st4te laws and will insist
uron convincing
leatonstration that a national emergency exists before eqf
temporary .;,odificati on
or susvenaion is permitted.
The whole plan °onto -1 des control of night work with
the
asTurincto that it will be r,:stricted to those plants
where national emergeney


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

-7exists and that every other method posisible Ni11 be tried first. It should result
in leaving intact on the statute books the state labor laws and encouraging their
absolute nnforeement in all plants not holding a pertilit from the federal government.
6. JOsioresimpaticos of morkina 40402.
In evader that we night buys the advice of working lames

irriT

0-10,14 practical ezreriencs is an invaluable gniie, the national trale undons having
an members, mere rmIT

to sena women delegates to a conference willed

tly

the

in in Industry Service in itimshington on 0,..:tober 4th and 5th. This conference
resulted in the formation of a permanent advisory council of *Writing amen. It also
resIX lted in a series of resolutions forming a statement of the opinion of working
women on the probleas now confronting the WMUMI
7.

Induutry Service.

pres_ntation of tnrloyers
Plans are now under way for the organisation of an adVisory

CoUniell

representirg management.
8. Other Problems

Wages 3nd industrial relations and ths policy which should rimerlie training for women .vorkers daring the mar have alio received serious conslimatinn
from the Woman in Industry Service. On the whole problem of the employment of negro
*amen its it is hoped that the Woman in Ind,istry Service in co-oreration 4ith tbs
director of Negro Eco noJico mar undertake soae active work.
At this moment it may be wad that the recruiting, training ami
placing of women worker, and ths determination of conaitions which will ma4e their
emnloyment most effective, is the basic problem involved in securing &n active force
of workers for the industries of the government. A plan for establishing the necessary
administrative ulachinery to accolimlish this

1st undertaking is no* in process of

formulhlion. Determination of tbs occu-ations in ahich wohen should

men ,

has obviously a very direct heart ng on the work of locelk Araft boards and the WI*:
Industries Boara is ieenly interdsted in it frorm the point of vie

of production for

the war. The success of the undertaking will depend upon the active oo-operation of
all of the agencies oonciirned with the effective use of the man po ;Aar of the nation.


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