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The full text on this page is automatically extracted from the file linked above and may contain errors and inconsistencies. Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  L  ( Copy )  DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Office of the Secretary WASHINGTON  August 19, 1918.  Mr. John Riley, Organizer American Federation of Labor, 4356 S. State St., Chicago, Illinois. Dr Sir: ituYour letter of August 17 with reference to the subst rly forme jobs other in tion of women as freight handlers and saloon porters, hold by wan, and the hiring of colored women as with the proper once at r I am taking up the matte is received. and action, ion tigat inves representatives of the Department for r as soon as matte the an will acquaint you with the progreee of possible. n, Appreciating your interest in this matter, I remai Yours very truly,  Director of Negro Economics  GMI-EAL  thivh'& -t Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Y  1‘,  h  ,  b Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  • y.  U • hi y u U • Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  4  Mr. r. F. • •fi n U. S. 1".,1.1rD:. Carc - 1..)e. ,r tint,  Acc  2rx •  • k: _Jr  •  n  •,  y  L -;-. 11 . '1  _h.'  i. ,.-1 u.  ,  i.  .,  .  • • ..'h :- L .6 ,  • Y '  n ',  -4 ./ '.-)  ! V - —..1' .: '  y,  . n i . .'.1  y  U '. Y  t r  ti • U  •, 1  ..1 ' 4 Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  "  1;,  'r Mien Mer,hris ry  f L ,Dr, Mr. rilson, h  referrel  your letter of Jury 1. -th to the Woa!an in in'Avstry Service. Enclo*ej you will find ,coy of the of AuEust 15th  fl  ; my own  er;u  Thulking you for  thf, AF:-.Lt. at SeerA5ry, te4 Juy 31ct.  the .st,ti).1 of this  ?trtment to 8. 8ituAiln that i Goa  VQ  licely to be of  t, I(At Very eircerely yours,  ANFERSON, :irector, kites AeA.A!-nt  criLry,  UnLA,  IrJn!utry Servic.  DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY  File 7-3s Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  WASHINGTON  August 19, 1918 MEMORANDUM FOR MISS VAN HUME CHIEF OF DIVISION OF TVOMENIN INDUSTRY:  The enclosed letter with my reply calls to your attention a matter which may need investigation and action.  Res ectfully,  Director of Negro a:ori oulics  GEH-EAL  CHICAGO, ILLINOIS. August, Nineteen Eighteen.  Dr. George E. Haynes, Director, Negro Economics, Office Assistant Secretary of Labor, Washington, D. C. Ly dear Dr. Haynes:I wish to call your attention to a situation in this vicinity that is raridly becoming a serious menace to the rights of workingmen, if allowed to continue will undermine and destroy the vitality of the nation. I refer to the systematic efforts on the part of the employers to break down existing labor standards by placing women to work on jobs that were formerly held by men and paying them a wage much lower than that paid to the men for the same class of work. The Wabash Railroad has a gang oI freight handlers, all colored women, who are working ten hours per day for 3.25, as compared with 4.80, the pay received by the men. And a few days ago the Ritzwoller Cooperage Company put five Polisn women to work on a job where they were exposed to excessive 11.3at. I personally saw them leaving the plant after working ten hours covered with dirt and dust, and their clothing wringing wet with perspiration. Now the saloons are hiring colored women as porters. Are we going to sit by and see these conditions prevail, and in so doing encourage the enemy, and become a nation of imbeciles and deformed human derelicts by allowing these greedy financial vultures to destroy the future prospects of the American people? We must take immediate steps to bring about a governmental regulation of industries, in order to properly safeguard the future motherhood of America, for the same methods are being used all over, and we cannot gainsay our responsibility in this, the most crucial period in the history of the nation. Fully realizing how necessary it is at this time to fortify our industrial army against those that have only their own seifisn interests to promote, we must regard these things seriously; and all those guilty of SUCh crimes are arch traitors to the country, for they are deliberately giving aid to the Imperial German Government in its conquest to become the dominating power of the World. Respectfully submitted, .(Lekt JR/B Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Organizer American Federation of Labor.  S,49  42/  e Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  .1  y,  )y y u  •••  ,  h  u.  r,  i  '  In  if; Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  1,  J 1.314 13",n Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  n  THE  NEW  YORK  TIMES, SUNDAY, OCTOBER 6, 1918.  PRESENT ECONOMIC, STATUS OF WOMEN • L ,portunitieg Thrown Open to Them by the War They Have  New 0  Equal Pay  Movement to Oust Male Industrial Slackers  Won  meW'trades are applicable to many °pier industries." Miss Mary Van Kleek, Director of the new Women in Industrial Service of the Department of Labor, who is the only woman member of the War Labor Policies Board, co-ordinates women in industrial war work with the national labor problem. "Every woman who is able to work will be needed, and the call is Just as direct to women woo are economically independent as to others," she said. "In some cities women of the leisure class are proposing to do volunteer work. I think that is a mistake. Women of the leisure class who go into labor should do so on exactly the same basis as other women. That is, they should conform to the standards and receive the pay for the particular work they undertaxe to do. For this they should undergo whatever training is necessary, so that they will be on a footing of efficiency with the others. If this were not done, if they approached the work in a merely voluntary, amateur way, it is readily seen that standards would be lowered and an injury inflicted; this is especially apparent in the effect there would be on wageswith women who are economically independent working without pay. "This is the practical way, and the whole problem should be approached in that way. We shall need all the women . -workers that can be obtained. but, I  munerative. The vacant clerical posi- 400.000 on certain known increase& in tions had to be filled, but, in a consider- typical instances; for the last two able degree, this was done by shifting. months the rate of influx has been *aidOUTPUT OF WOMEN The pay of women in city clerical posi- ing rapidly, and with the greater; detions was a strong inducement to coun- mands for women workers this is ;ceras compared with output of men in similar work, by industries. try school teachers, and, according to tain to continue." (Compiled by National Industrial Conierence Board.) statement, 100,000 Miss Obenauer thinks the increaea of authoritative an school teachers have left their schools women in clerical work since the !ben Si ogi for new employment. Many nurses also ginning of 1915 is about 500.000, or abbot F P. El tt . Fo1 7 P 5,2'2Fe. .gg T .' double whiat it was in 1910; this wobld shifted over to new work. 4 t 7;rt; ; Classification of Estab, a s-=From the time of our entry into the make a total gain of new women wirkp lishments z t war this transfer to better paid em- ers in these two fields of about 1,004000. . T.e* ca, 5 0 connected with the production The total number of women in ga#tiful ployments re • 03 co of supplies for the war received a new employments in this country at this time Automailes and Auto-impetus. Women began to make the is between 10,000,000 and 12,000,000S ac10 1 3 mobile accessories 1 2 1 ' change not only for economic but also cording to the summary of various estiTypewriters and other for patriotic reasons, and the war in- mates. 6 light machines 2 1 .. 1 How many more women will be remachinery, Electrical dustries daily took on a new attraction 18 apparatus, supplies 2 2 2 4 2 At the same time economic forces began quired when an army of 5,000,000 is in Foundry and machine Here again to work more powerfully. People began the field or in training? shop products 37 1 5 12 11 5 1 2 33 to save, and this cut heavily into the the experts on these matters d(ffer. Munitions 4 1 2 1. 3 2 Railway equipment 7 1 1 3 1 Women em- Some at the upper end say not less than nonessential industries. necessary by the labor situation is that Tools, cutlery,and hardThe average of wages paid to women Miss Obenauer thinks that ployed in the novelty industries, in ar 4,000,000. ware 16 :3 5 2 4 .. .. 1915, 15.9 cents In are: company by this ne man shall occupy a position that a tificial flower making, in feathere, in 2,500.000 will be all it is necessary to metal . Miscellaneous in 1918, 35.1 cents per hour, a hour; per 20 .7-- - 4 3 1 products millinery, in a score of others, found enlist. woman can fill. gain of more than 100 per cent. Women the demand for labor there slackening. "In my opinion," she said, "one new Certain employments, after Investiga- wage changes in four other factories en127 I 30 15 28 Total 30 11 7 'Then came the War Industries Board woman will be required for every new tion by community labor boards, will be gaged in similar work are: with control over the supplies for in- soldier who goes into the field. I base 1513, 13.7 cents per hour; 1918, 35.1 officially noted as "woman's work." dustries, and the singling out of non- this on the estimate of the statistician cents. allowwork to paid to the a fair men, or plus seem to have no medical tests essential industries, with the effect ot of the United States Chamber of OeniThe lists will be progressive in char1915, 16.1 cents per hour; 1918, 27.5 ance for the cost of the extra appliances, support their views. accelerating the shifting of women from merce that four workers will be rcacter; new occupations will be added to cents. In a summary as to the efficiency of one employment to another. should equal the total which would be (tufted behind every soldier in the Indus. the published lists as new facts and new 1915, 16.1 cents per hour; 1918, 30 cents. paid to men engaged in such work." women in the metal trades, which bears The normal increase of women in the tries providing the supplies for the war. cents. 27.6 hour; an cents 17.4 1915. Just recently in France various writers on the greater number of new occupa- manufacturing industries is 100,000 • The equivalent of the other three men emergencies develop. The motive force In a textile factory the comparison of on economic and social subjects have tions entered by women during the war, relied upon to impel men to relinquish and prior to the activity brought will be obtained, in my opinion, by wages to women, hourly average based been discussing the effects of the eco- the recent research report of the Na- year, on by the war business had been slack ,reater conservation of skill, the maxinon-essential employments for the war on a guarantee, is: 1915, 13.7 cents; 1918, nomic emancipation of women, due to tional Industrial Conference Board says: awn use of men unfit for military servso that there was a large surplus of un Industries will be, as the plan of pub- 33.5 cents. "Experience of employers in the metal higher wages, and a main concern, as e, the elimination of non-essential inemployed women wage earners to dra fairly considered are increases These expressed by some of the writers, was trades in the United States has clearly upon. This shifting, as pointed ou licit7 indicates, the pressure of public iustries, and the adaptation of all typical throughout war industries in that the admission of women to the new demonstrated the practicability of emndustries possible to war service and opinion, believed by the promoters of above, is an important factor in thi which women are employed. Miss Marie and better paid occupations would deter ploying women in a large variety of .he use of labor-saving machinery." the plan to be the strongest force that L. Obenauer, Chief Woman Examiner of them, in greater numbers, from marry- manufacturing operations. • • • In reWhere will the women, certainly not could be appealed to in the present the National War Labor Board at Wash- ing or consenting to bear children and viewing the record of efficient performATTENDANCE AT WORK kely to be less than 2,000,000, come on the thus have a tendency to lower the birth ance by women it must be emphasized authority an considered ington, rational determination to see the war of married women as compared with prom? The largest reservoir that can be subject of women employment, estimates rate in France. The views of writers that most of the tasks in which they attendance of unmarried women and irawn upon with the least disturbance through to a finish. manuwages in women's increase in the who hold this opinion seem far-fetched are engaged are semi-skilled work of a men o domestic life are women not now With more and more directness, as the facturing war industries since 1915 to repetitive character in which rapidity, to some persons in this country. (Compiled by National Industrial ainfully employed who are unmarried But cent. per 100 and between 80 campaign unfolds, attention will be fo- range Conference Board.) What is the attitude of employers to lightness of touch and natural dexI not at the head of a household Of cused on men who are working at jobs this advance refers only to employments the new principle? That has not yet re- terity are more important than skill actis class of women in 1910 there were as ma- ceived a general expression of opinion. quired through long training and exengaged were women which in C that women might do. the United States 2,000,000 between National Industrial Conference perience. It is too early to form conThe "It should be understood that this re ages of 16 and 45. Some of these Board on "Wartime Employment of Wo- clusions as to the ability of women plan will be put into effect in no hapere still in school, but the number, as WAGE RATES OF WOMEN The men in the Metal Trades" in its most perform work of higher skill. hazard fashion," said N. A. Smyth, As+mpared with the total, was not large. as compared with rates to men by recent research report says: "The prin- necessity for immediate increase of outsistant Director of the United States is from this class chiefly that the new industries. ciple of equal wages for equal work has put made it essential to give women Employment Service in Washington, the 0 omen workers have been drawn, but (Compiled by National Industrial found fairly general acceptance among specialized training for particular jobs other day, "but only after careful invesere is undoubtedly still a surplus left Conference Board.) employers in the metal trades." As to rather than to develop them into gentigations conducted in a friendly spirit that class. Many of them are women Wage Rates of the attitude of men workers, this report eral mechanics. Even in England, where and with special precautions not to inWomen's atif leisure, economically independent. Women. t e n dance says: "A large number of employers re- in one place or another women are used flict injustice on any one, but the fact Jut among the leaders of women workbetter than perted quiet acquiescence or even friend- in practically all operations in the enis that there is an alarming shortage of 575 11.8 4,965 33 men's ers there is strong opinion that, with ly co-operation of their men. A munition gineering and munitions trades, they Women's atman power in the war industries. This the drafting of the man power of the tendance plant employing 694 women found that have not received the broad training made necessary the carrying out of this country to meet the war needs, a new cr Classification of to equal 'the male workers in the establishment which skilled workmen receive." program. 0 20.7 723 3,483 23 men's responsibility falls on the women of the Establishments. accepted the introduction of female Women's at"The employer who retains men of Of the results found as to output, in country, and that women of independent tend anoe inevitable, processes as in new workers establishments in the the survey of 127 physical ability in these prescribed occuca means haVe as little excuse for not worse than and there was no friction.' • • • metal trades made by the National Inpations, and the employe who delays 924 12.8 20 7,213 men's working as women who are driven to (1.Again and again the reported attitude is dustrial Conference Board, this stateleaving such positions for essential Automobiles & so by the necessity of supporting chi; 3 Total 76 15,666 2,222 14.2 1 4 auto access'r's 10 remarkably satisfactory,' 'very favor- ment is made: "Eliminating the twenwork, will alike be unenviably marked dren. Two of these women leaders d, Typewr's, other able,'friendly,' or is described by a ty-eight establishments in which, for in the community. When the lists have 2 2 6 light mach's clared that the principle of the draf• brief but expressive '0. K.'" been prepared by the community labor one reason or another, no comparison new economic situation of America's was just as applicable, as matter ce Elec. machin'ry, 3 2 appar.,& supp. 18 1,N here the War Labor Board has made can be made, this summery' indicates hoards and approved by the Federal Diwomen, for it Is'thatwhich has opened justice, to women as to men. One e•-• Foundry, mach. awards of equal pay for equal work the that the output of women compares rectors and Advisory Directors of the 4 7 8 new occupations to them, so that the these was Miss Obenauer, who said: shop products 37 18 earnings of women who were doing this favorably with that of men, since it ap- foundation is laid for the great increase 2 various States, it is believed that the 13 5 6 Munitions "I would be in favor of drafting e 1 7 6 .. Railway equip work have gone up, in some classes of pears that in thirty establishments of in women workers which the enlarged force of public opinion and self-respect women who are physically fit and ab cutlery, Tools, an hour. The the remaining ninety-nine the output from 45 to 65 cents work, will prevent any able-bodied man from 1 3 3 army plans call for. anl hardware 16 ' 9 to leave their families for Industrial Pt working hours per week range from 48 of women was greater than that of keeping a position officially designated Miscellaneous That the greatest change up to this service. There would be a great Re 4 3 7 6 metal products 20 to 52 hours. In a 52-hour week at 50 men in all operations on which both time has been the shifting is borne out as'woman's work.' The decent fellows antage In this. The selective metho cents an hoar one of these women sub- were engaged; in six it was greater in by the investigation of the National Inwill get out without delay; the slackers 12-'7 53 29 24 21 could be employed, and women could , Total I stitutes would earn, including a 10 per some, equal in others; in thirty it was dustrial Conference Board, which says: will be forced out and especially, I fitted to the tasks best suited to then In this table the column headed cent. bonus for full time, $28.60. 'The equal to that of the men. In other "Frequently women who have entered think, by the sentiment of women who There is much lost effort, owing to the women's rates "equal to men's" earnings of some of the women run to words, in sixty-six establishments, or the metal trades in the present war labor stand ready, in order to bring the war lack of a system or any authority to means that rates were the same for $3Z a week and more. Women who have ' two-thirds of those furnishing definite emergency came from a great range of to a victorious conclusion as soon as provide one. Sonic women are in indusmen and women, whether on piece won their way in the shops to doing a information as to output, women's pro- occupations to their new employment. possible, to take their places." trial work who should be in their homes, or daywork respectively; in some man's job are being received into unions. duction was equal to or greater than An automobile manufacturer employing The lists will probably include, accordand some women are in their homes who cases women were engaged exclusiveWomen have been admitted to the Inter- that of men in the operations on which 423 women in twenty-three different deing to the United States Employment should be at work, as women of leisure ly on piecework; in other cases on national Machinists' Trades, the wire- both were employed. In only fifteen partments reported that they had selService, "sales clerks and floor walkers who are free from domestic responsibilitimework. werkerse the ironworkers', and wood- establishments was it found that women dom been previously engaged on maIn every sort of mercantile establishties. It is a mistake to try to induce workers' unions. ment; clerical, cashier, and office staffs In another automobile women who are needed at home to enter produced less than men in all operations chine wprk. The increase in the earning power of in which they were engaged. in mercantile, manufacturing, and fiTheir plant the force of women was recruited industrial work, even at this time. Cerchine workers before the war and not women since 1915 in work outside the production in the remaining eighteen es- approximately as follows: Twenty-five nancial houses, and the offices of transtainly single women able to work should to occupations in which women have shops, in clerical work and the like, has tablishments, although less in some op- per cent. assemblers from other plants, portation companies and other public respond first and do so whether they are taken the place of men. so large, and is estimated to erations, was equal, or greater in others. 20 per cent, machine hands from other not been irtilitiea, waiters, attendants, and many dependent on employment for a living Where women do the work of men not much more than 50 per average sold147 occupations." "It appears, moreover, that the ef- plants. 20 per cent, clerical workers or not." they have made their most substantial but the whole result is that the ficiency of women did not depend on from other plants, 20 per cent from cent., mmunity labor boards will begin at Of the 47,000,000 women in the country, gain. The National War Labor Board. American woman has won her way to a the nature of the industry as such, or to housework, 5 per cent. from laundries, ma* to study the industries in their reaccording to the last census, 35,000,000 composed of representatives of employOdeettive communities with a view to de- ers and employes-" to bring. about a new economic footing, and that the basis any marked extent that they had but 3 per cent. from restaurants, 5 per cent, are between the ages of 16 and 45. Of I "mining those in which women can be settlement by mediation and concilia- now recognized is, as defined by the recently been introduced into an indus- had not worked before." tne employment of married women workBoard, that Labor the War of rulings used in war work and in what nonSupplementing this the statement is ers, the report of the National Industrial try. In none of the classifications do a tion of every controversy arising bewar industries women can replace men. tween employers and workers in the her pay shall be sufficient to support majority of the establishments report made: "In the establishments repre- Conference Board says: "In eightyTwo general orders have been prepared and that for equal work she shall women less efficient than men, and it sented in this investigation women thus five establishments reporting for the field of production necessary for the her equal pay. by the United States Employment Servis stgnificant that in the manufacture far have been chiefly drawn from other present investigation, 17.3 per cent. of a. conduct of the war "-has laid down receive What new occupations have been of foundry and machine shop products, industrial occupations rather than from total of 22,750 women employes were ice defining the methods to be followed. the following as a fundamental policy: Far in war? order Tr" e ."'t first employers by engaged In the on which women were in the past seldom the ranks of the previously unemployed. married. Many of the men who have "If it shall become necessary to em- opened the various machinist employed except as coremakers, twenty- It is probable, however, that an increas- entered the national service were the in war work who want women for einploy women on work ordinarily per- the lead are them. to ployments which have hitherto not been thought alien four establishments report women's ing number will be procured from the only wage earners in their families, and formed by men they must be allowed trades, hitherto , ustomarily undertaken by women are The progress of women has been from work equal or superior to that of men latter source if the available supply of very frequently wives who were emequal pay for equal work." • * • machines. dereeted to make application for aps prricrarilas been ap- the lighter to the heavier lama in all operations as against five finding men continues to decrease as the result ployed before their marriage found the amount en oval to the community labor board in of the war." themselves obliged to return to work. plied in several controversies. Two of Lines are being drawn as to them Inferior. A teleir district. After the propriety of required. In 1910 8,075,772 women were engaged Employment of an increasing proportion greater importance were those of the of exertion which may be "In a steel establishment where weusing women in a given industry has woman that a Schenectady works and the Pittsfield New York law provides men are employed in the manufacture of in gainful occupations, compared with of married women in industry has, howbeen passed upon by the board the of works of the General Electric Company. shall not lift weights in excess ifuses, women operators of tetrill presses e5r,041,564 men. /n 1914 the number of ever, been one of the striking social 'united States Employment Service is to The United States twerieytexeeesnuatle. In the Pittsfield case, in addition to , and milling machines are found to be women in manufacturing industries was changes of the last thirty years." give every assistance in filling the deoice Department. the American 1 from 25 to 50 per cent. faster than men. 1,649,697. According to the normal Inthe ruling of equal pay, a minimum Or-ria With regard to the general bearing of mand. In the second order two women and t'he Association, Foundrymen's standard was fixed for women's wages Another manufacturer of small metal crease of 100,000 a year this would now the investigation, the board says: "In are added to the community labor Association Founders' have there-" that in no case shall any fe- National parts for munitions states that women have reached 2,000,000. The question addition to the information secured from boards, one to represent the woman who male 21 years of age or over, of six adopted the same rule. Grinding of -- drill press operators handle 196 parts per here is how many women since the be- employers in the metal trades, scattered works, the other to represent the manby women months' expel-fence in the plant, receive metal parts may not be done I hour on day work, while on night work ginning of 1915 have been drawn into replies were received from a few other agement. They are to have full voting less than 30 cents an hour." In the in the State of New York. Under these turn out only 148. Although the these industries who had not hitherto industries. Since the information was Power on all questions concerning the Schenectady Works a standard for wom- safeguards, increasing in number, a. men output of a day shift cannot fairly be been gainfully employed and who, there- not sufficient to permit of conclusions, utilisation of women in the industries. en workers was-" in all classes of great body of women has been inducted compared with that of a night shift, this , fore, have swelled the total of women it has not been included in this report. Regulations to protect women from beemployment there shall be an increase into the metal trades since 1914. In 1914 would not explain so marked a differ- workers? This number is variously ea- l In many of these instances, moreover, ing drawn into employments that would of 20 per cent. In the wages of all adult the percentage of women workers in the ence In 'results. In a bolt and nut es- thna.ted at from 400,000 to 1,000,000. there had been no increase in the list of be injurious to them or for which they women and no women shall receive less metal trades in the United States, as "The tendency luxe been to exaggerate occupations of women since the outbreak tablishment women working on drill aro otherwise unfitted have been drawn than $15 per week." compiled by the National Industrial presses and milling machines have the number," Miss Obenauer said in of the war. The experience reported by up as follows: What actual gain for women is this Conference Board from an abstract of achieved an average increase In output Washington the other day, "and I have these manufacturers in other lines was, seen the estimate placed as high as broadly speaking, similar to that here First-Whether the kind of work is standard of not less than $15 a week, census of manufactures. was 4.6 per amounting to 30 per cent. one which it is proper for women to as applied to this great company? In cent. Of the 2,140,789 employes in these "A frequent commendation of women 2,000,000, which is certainly much be- presented by the metal trades, and POOform. Commis- trades, says the research report of the is that they are 'more teachable' and yond the fact. No general statistics therefore indicates, as already pointed Second-Whether the conditions sur- 1915 the Massachusetts Wage sion, after investigation, fixed the board, 98,112 were women over 16 years that they are 'more consciente& andjare available and I base my estimate of out, that the conclusions reached for the rounding the particular job are such that it is proper for women to be em- amount necessary to maintain an adult of age. Clerical workers are included painstaking' then men, itIthotlin-In ployed st that particular place and worker at $8.71 a week. In July of in these figures. This year, out of a some establishments they are reported under existing conditions. this year the Bridgeport Employers' As- total labor force of 384,709 in 131 estab- to learn more slowly. A common expeThird-What, if any, modifications in the conditions must be made in or- sociation, after an extensive study of lishments, 49,831 were women, as rience was that they 'follow 1nstruoder that the employment of women the cost of living, decided that such cost against 334,878 men; the proportion of tions better.'" May be sanctioned. Fourth-What, if any, limitations had increased 64.1 per cent. since 1915. women was 12.9 per cent. With regard to the physical limitaare necessary as to the ages of women It is estimated that 100,000 women are tions of women this statement is made: According to this, the cost of mainotherwise. employed or to be tenance a week of the worker in the employed in munition plants and air- "It was the consensus among employ"These orders." said Mr. Smyth, "in- New England territory for July of plane factories, as against 3,500 in the ers furnishing information that women In the chemical should not be employed on work which dicate that steps in putting the new pro- this year would be $13.08, and with last census year. gram Into effect have been taken with variations for r local conditions, these plants, on steam cars and electric cars, required much lifting or straining, such care and that proper safeguards will be figures, if well computed, would be true In elevators, as motor drivers, women as heavy machine operators. trucking, thrown around the now necessary larger for a large section of th.e country. The have taken the place of men. There is or yard labor. These opinions agree in Introduction of women into the indus- surplus gain in women's wages, there- in addition the work of women on the substance with the experience , of emtries. Proper use of the reserves of fore, is not as large as it appears, espe- farms and as section hands on rail- ployers in Great Britain. According to women must be one of the principal cially when compared with the advances roads. The Federal Railroad Adminis- the British Factory Inspectors' Report weapons in overcoming the present obtained by some of the more powerful tration announced a short time ago that of 1916: 'There is hardly a process of labor deficit. The process cannot begin unions of male workers; but from one they would be tried there to a limited any kind on which women are not emviewpoint the gain is great, for it marks extent, though the advisability of their ployed to some extent, the este absolute too soon. "On the other hand, to carry on such an official recognition of the principle work is still questioned by some labor limit lying in those heavy i:ecupations, a shift too impetuously, without proper of the economic independence of the directors, and Wisconsin has already where adaptations of plant appliances direction and control, would result in woman worker, that she shall earn passed a law throwing limitations cannot. be effected so as to bring them great harm. If men are released too enough, to support herself, instead of around the employment of women on within the compass even of :selected woe men of physical capacity above the quickly they will suffer from unemploy- being, often the case heretofore, one of railways. In England, due no doubt to the normal."' ment while they are finding their new a family group of wage earners deher part for support war, a pendent in on broader latithe necessities of the How many women have been drawn ef women go into industry positions giveii in assigning women of into gainful employments by the tee. ;rapidly they will suffer from under- larger earning power of male mem- tude . strong build to heavier work. It is con- who had hitherto been so engaged taking jobs for whirls e2-eey are not fitted bers. This independence, or progress toward tended by one class of observers there There are no comprehensive statisti or from laboring under conditions which are not suited for women. All decisions it, has just now a pertinent interna- that the physique of the women of on this, but the consensus among ern The recent conductor- Great Britain is to be permanently ployment experts is that the public has with relation to the use of women in tional bearing. Industry will, ol course, be in accord- ette strike in London for recognition of benefited by the ability which women an exaggerated idea of the number of ance with the resolutions of the War the principle of equal pay for equal have shown to stand up under work new recruits up to this time. What has Labor Policies Board. It will be seen work is seen by some as the beginning heavier than it was thought they could given the impression of a vast induction (Oat authority is given to community of a revolution in women's wages in bear, and that this is especially true of of women into gainful employment for Moor beams to take into consideration Great Britain. in France a early as outdoor work. Women there through- the first time is the extensive shifting, special local conditions, and in this way 1916 a Ministerial circular said: " Wo- out the day are engaged in lifting in greater and greater degree, from one the system is given adaptability and men on work recognized as man's: If weights of from 50. to 60 pounds. In occupation to another. From an ecoelasticity, while the requirement that the women performed all the work they some cases women have .tre'66-rffil5loyed nomic standpoint, the two ma;n factors lists of 'women's work' be submitted should be paid the seine rates as. the in lifting 100 pound bags of coke and In this shifting have been 'better pay for approval to the Federal Director men, but if they had the help of men loading them on carts, though this is and Use lessening demand for workers and Advisory Boards in the respective , in some part of the work, or if special not appreved, nor is the unloading of In nonessential industries. The appeal States assures a reasonable uniformity." machinery had been installed to bring hekvy piece of limestone from care. was strong to domestic 'servant', and Up to this time much has been heard the work within their power, deductions Those who contend that the health and there was a heavy shift from this er men are to be increased by ployment, and also from lodging hotise women in war work, but, accord- might be made for these things. Their vigor of Digitizedabout for FRASER very reef their bodice An hew" ec frr, oshat wasi the excrel hintItt 4pjg -• thee ol;ios a. Atiking- ,9411 MEN workers are to be mar- made, the great call is about to be made. This, as pointing to the place of women shaled to shame men who in this country in the future, brings dnesre essential duties. Lists into new importance the questions as . of occupations in which men to what women have accomplished in should be replaced by women are to be the war thus far, what new occupations have been opened to them, what new published in the daily papers, with the rights as workers by the side of men implication that men who persist in re- have been accorded them, what ecoinmaining in them will be confessed nomic gains have been won by them. As to economic gains, here is a table dustrial slackers. showing changes in woman's wages in These are the most radical features an Eastern metal work plant engaged in of the new plan of the United States the manufacture of war supplies: Employment Service, designed to bring Wages Per Hour, Cents. into the war industries large numbers 1915. 1918. of men now engaged in non-essential 17.1 28.70 Foot press operators 18.1 28.8 industries and needed for carrying out Trimmers 26 14.05 Bench workers the new war program of an army of Power press operators 29.5 15.7 34.9 16 5,000,000 men. The drastic aim deemed Inspectors Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  •st,uahl ol junb3  lAr  w;men tr-  !oyir  not in favor of trying, by campaign methods, to enlist, say, 1,000,000 women, for occupations for which they have had no preparation, women without any industrial experience. There is great danger in inducting women into jobs for which they have had no previous training. In the first place, it should be determined for what kind of work the woman is suited, and then the peourninary training should be given. The question should :not be considered Irian the standpoint of the woman and the job, but that of the worker and inb; that is, suitabilie) , on the basis of antcie .,nc The Y' success of the whole labor program depends on the observance of these principles, and unless they ee-e applied to women as well as to men women would be taken in to serve In the capacities of unskilled workers, without consideration of their fitness for special and atore useful taskt.. eesd the result woule be a positive loss tie the labor output of the nation. In certain macjiine processes, for example, it has been found, according to repores of manufacturers, that the results oae tamed by women workers are more satisfactory than those by men. There is no question as to the efficiency of women where they are introduced under the right conditions to a work for which they are naturally suited. It is for this reason that we are placing so much emphasis on a study of occupations, with regard to the employment of women, and preliminary training for v•-• Mons selestV."01.11.1,4 ths,,  INE operaa new to New York, of which seven are novelties also in Clea:ago. together with a baker's 6ozen of revivals, and a standard 71,....4 that even now holds exclusively all aee . Leeeee serious work of modern 'L;rteate--eritness "Pelieaa," "Louise," "Jeagleur "—whenever heard in the East as well as West, are announced by the Chicago Opera Association in Re annual prospectus of completed plan e Just issued for the coming season. There are a half-dozen new American .trtiste already engaged, almost as many both from France and from Italy, and a few from Russia. including Russian dancers. Twenty-two names in the company's roster, in fact, are new, e compared with about forty-four retained, which is a high proportion of new material in wartime, whether of stars or repertoire. New American artists in the Chicag. personnel are Beryl Brown, Dora GI. eon, Dorothy Jarclon, Margaret Naman, and Emma Noe, five sopranos, Of whom Miss Gibson has sung at Convent Garden. and Make. ;camera, with -ie former  Opening dates for orchestra and opera yet to come include the New York Symphony, act. 31; Boston Symphony tour. Nov. 7; Metropolitan Opera, Nov. 11; Philharmonic season, Nov. 14; first Philadelphia visit, Nov. 19, and RUssian Symphony, in December.  N Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  OCTOBER. 6—Toscha Seidel, violin, afternoon, Carnegie Hall. 6—Josef Rosenblatt and Max Rosen, Hippodron.e. 6—Italian Grenadiers Band, Lexington Opera Monee. 6—American Singers' Society, evening, Park aalea tre. 7—Violet Ewart, piano, evening, Aeolian Hall. 8—Paris Conservatoire Orchestra, Metropolitan. 10—Phiiharmonic Orchestra, evening, Carnegie Hall. 11—Adelaide Pierce, alinnette Warren, Aeolian Hall. 12—Itallan war benefit, evening, Metropolitan. 12—Murray - Weldon Quartet, evening, Aeolian Hall. 13—Margaret Namara, soprano, afternoon. Aeolian Hall. 13—Paris Conservatoire Orchestra, evening, Metropolitan. 15—Nelli Gardini, soprano, evening, Aeolian Hall. 16—Koscak Yamada, orchestra, evening, Carnegie Hall. 17—Ain-ore La Croix, piano, afterAeolian 1 tall.  Worcester's Delayed Festival. Louise Homer, Mabel Garrison, and Reinald Werrenrath are among . soloists from New York who will sing this week, barring further delay, at the Worcester Music Festival. Last week's postponement was due to the closing of Mechanics' Hall during the influenza quarantine in New England. The five programs, previously told, are all American; the principal works for chorus are Chadwick's "Judith" and Hadley's "Ode to Music," and for orchestra. Kelley's "New England" symphony, MacDoweIl's "Indian Suite" and his concerto No. 2, with Frances Nash at the piano. Schelling's"Symphonic Legend," three of Sidney Homer's songs, Rubin Goldmark's "Samson," and Herbert's thirdact prelude to "Natoma," arehli "first festival performances." Shorter works represent Parker, Foote. Loomis, Damrosch, Burleigh, Ross, Mrs. Beach, Cadman,Siemonn, Gilbert, and Miss Daniels. Believing in Boito's "Nero." With much excuse of hope deferred, a writer in The London Daily Telegraph remarks that the world will " believe In" a promised production of Boito's  Nero" only when—after, and not before—it has taken place. The work, called " Nerone" in Italian, was held back for years until the composer's death. Boito's obltuarists, or most of them, alluded to his supposed completion of the score of "Nerone," upon which he had worked, on and off, for some forty Following shortly upon the years. poet-composer's death, however, camp reports from Italy to the effect that he had destroyed all but a few fra.gments of the work which had been spoken of as his masterpiece. A B.•itish critic found it by no means easy to credit such a story. And now comes the statement —" on high authority "—that "Nerone" is actually, at long last, to be brought to a hearing during the coming season at La Scala—that historic house which witnessed the stormy production, in 1868, Mefistofele." of Boito's •,• Argentina and the Colon. North America has its opera war tax, its ticket speculator, and free ticket problems, but South America appears to have solved at least one of these. Buenos Aireo possesses the second largest opera house in the world. The Argentine Government, wishing to further an interest In the best music, systematically distributes a large number of free tickets, the plan being that at least one member of each household shall be enabled to attend once in each session, "regardless of financial considerations."  War conditions have ITHIN the week some of Amer- of California. lea's leading orchestras will start made it hard to get new music for their season, two of the fore- thirty-four programs, but the Women's most next Friday, under wartime con- Auxiliary has recruited members of the clItions of a wholly new regime. Pierre musical association from 291 to 417 in Monteux, whom the Metropolitan re- , Mr. Hertz's four years. A new season by the New Orleans leased for this month to fill an emergency in Boston, will conduct three pairs Philharmonic Society, one concert each of concerts there, with programs more month, is announced, in which the than half French. For next leralay and South's leading musicians will be assistSaturday, when the reorganized Boston ed* by Marie Sundelius, the Flonzaleys, Symphony'begins a thirty-eighth year, Novaes, and Heifetz. .....• M. Monteux has chosen to present after French . Orchestra and :Massager. ten days' rehearsal Cesar Franck's symphony in D minor, Schumann's ovese The Conservatoire Orchestra of Paris, tore to "Manfred," Rabaud's "La Pro- which is soon to play in New York. Nocturne." . and Debussy's in the late '70s and '80s was reckoned cession "Iberia." ! among the most finished in Europe, Vale Dclamarter, an American ,on,- though less has been heard ,of it over i p. ser, conductor, and critic, is tilt-, ri, ',-; here hi ree.ea years. Andre Charlea the Chicago C'r'l'cr-f- ' Prosper MeaFager, its presem conductor, , lateicr pro tem. of taa, succeeding Frederick Sto..:1.: as once was long identified with the Opera. , before he did with the Musical Art So- Comique, where be became joint musical ciety. Mr. Stock, in the present case, dicector with Albert Carre and after confronted with a situation less dif fi- ward sole general director, 189S-1003, cult than that of Dr. Muck in true East, and in 1907 director with •Broussau of announced a few days since that h pre- the Paris Opera. Since the death of ferred to follow rather the example of • Marty in 1908. he has conducted the Fritz Kreisler. who withdrew from the . concerts of the Conservatoire. He came stage as an enemy alien during the war.. to New York some years ago to present Mr. Stock, under the 'United States laws, at the Broadway Theatre his opera, will be a citizen by February next, when "Veronique," which he had produced , it is understood he will resume his place in 1898 at the Bouffes Pani Aennes. In Chicago. Though " Veronique" and its corn•.• ' poser-conductor made little stir in Amer, Bele-fans Share Honors Here. lea, in those days, when this country was Carlo Liten, the Belgian tragedian, in , occupied in the Spanish War, M. Mese Caof " music Elgar's recitations to nis will, sager is better known- In London, where rilion " and "Le Dra,peau Beige," "that at the ; The Telegraph critic hails him Orchestra Philadelphia assist the I charming Frenchman, Andre opening of its nineteenth season on Oct. ! gifted and Messager, whose musical sympathies 18 and 19. Alfred Cortot and Henri as eclectic as those of any Casadesus, of the Conservatoire guests, are probably living." will appear in December and March, musician The British writer says it is "not while other soloists are Matzenauer, without interest to remember that, alOrnstein, Seidel, Thibaud, Bauer, Hofthough his chief successes as composer mann, Zimbalist, and Gabrilowitsch, to• been won in the field of operetta. gether with Maggie Teyte. Marcia van have days before Paris musicDresser, Povla Frijela Edwin Evans, a Messager, in lovers, long ere the war, became ac. Philadelphia baritone, and from the orchestra's own forces, Thaddeus Rich. climatized to Wagner, knew all that scores backward, and t00% Hans Kindler, and (Thai Sane-11.4f, wife coninoser pleasure in directing performof Leopold Stokowski, the eonduetor. particular ances of -the Nibelung dramas." Te the fifty borne ooncerts are added What, by the way, the same authority thirty-six afield, including for the first asks, has happened In connection with time five visits to IV." 'York. the promised production in London of Eugene Ysaye, "grand old lion " the version of " Monsieur Beaucaire." among the fiddlers, laying down the which, as was announced more Ilia» bow for the baton of a cOncluctor, has 'bf Messager was then writing prepared for his season with the Cin- a year ago, score? cinnati Symphony Orchestra by cxamin- the arrangements at that time ing, it is said,"great numbers of Amer- "The advanced for the prestrain compositions" brought to him dur- seemed to be well the work, and friends to ing the Slimmer here in the East. La tei.entation of composer had played over his Ohio papers quote him as "highly \-1-ioin the praises of the charpleased with the result." Ysae-e, they score were loud in charm and grace of the muadd, is particularly interested in the i act eristic , works of Charles Martin Loeffler, native \ sic." He would gladly hear of the producAlsace, where Americans are making the musical "Bea.ucaire" being . story now, and remembered n ith tion of realization, the more so as no work -anz Kneisel at the Boston Symphozty's near been done in London est desk. The conductor's programs, , of Messageras has revival of "delicious 'VeAct' he has submitted to the Cincinnati 1 since the quote the Englishman's erectors, include the performance also I r6nique'"—we the Adelphi, some four of representative works of French, Bel. I adjective—at ago. glen, Italian, English, Russian, and Po_ I years •.• lish composers. Belgium's; Great Music of Great War. The war has not spared impressions musicians. Ysaye has lost in it his 1 When musicians put their War into great symphonies, homes at Brussels and Namur, and the I of the Great a hundred years from now, as men . rnings of his career invested in Bel- !say, t from Beethoven down did for a cuin securities taken by the Germans. after Napoleon, some one may -co of his sons have fallen in battle. ' utrY ,1 write on the title page of a battle ncinnati is told; his wife is a refugee symphony these words occurring in a .Nice, and a third son, Anton, has ! from the front printed in et. been decorated by the Belgian Gov- , cable despatch ' THE TIMES the other day'from Philip atnent for bravery on the field. ! Gibba: se• 1 "There is a great music of-war over Li Ian Corn oser Wins West.  W  the quartet musical Ne my conduct have seen n ods or orga] tions that organizatiat "gut, as they are not ards attaire don them, and the sts daily or a the one hat ize them hi hand, if tie the loss, I activities."  Toscha S season witl this aftern Lyceum's Brueh cow berg at tin minor, Sat among shot of the Heb Josef R. Rosen, vio manitarian afternoon. Marcell°. Massenet's Nidr " of his own Rosen, whi Chopin-Am The bana adier Guar.:lea tamous eera from the war, will give two concerts this afternoon anti evening at the Lexington Opera House before leaving for Washington and Cnicago. Commendatore U. Tarditi is the leader, and the proceeds go to the Italian war relief. Violet Ews.rt, an Australian pianist who has made the works of MacDowell known in her own land, will make her debut here Monday evening in Aeolian Hall, playing Roger-Ducasse's "Varitons on a C'eorale," Brahms's scherzo, Op." 4. Macrowell's "Reltic" sonata. Koingold's " Fairy Pictures," and Liszt's "Mazeppa." The Franc', orchestra. known as the Society of Csncerts Con-  a meeting on Tuesday evemng at atom -1 : sings there—possibly not to the entire way Hall. Five singers will assist Henry T.!entertainment of the neighbors—but, as Fleck at Hunter College on Thursday In the case of much stone going through night in airs from "Cavalleria. Rusti- 1 a mill, at regular intervals gold is found, or a Melba emerges and shines came." Zoe Cheshire, harpist, will give a re- luminously in the world. "Our sunny" land with its open-air cital Thursday evening at the home of life Is bound to find expression in music Dr. Charles W. Pease. • that will stamp its origin. An illustraPLANS OF THE MUSICIANS. tion is William Murdach, a young Australian pianist, who visited America Florence Easton, soprano of the Met- with Clara Butt. some years ago. Going ropolitan, and Francis Maclennan, tenor, I to England to complete his studies, he will sing Oct. 16 on the Sub-Treasury was attracted by the work of Debussy steps for the Liberty Loan. and others of the French Edwin Goldman, as permanent . con- school who found no place in the cur-  I  IL 11 III  In , pc  chorus, conducted by Giulio Setti.  City College Organ Silent. Free organ recitals by Samuel A. Baldwin at the City College will not be resumed at present. The Great Hall is now in use as a barracks, end Oa musical activities of the collaa inc ac. of necessity be confined to tmc aa.mix.-• 3 of the Students' array Training Co.....  Orange Red Cross Rec.zal. William R. Org.nist •Z Arlington Avenue Church, East Orate.; will give a recital tomorrow evening  1  A 1227  11111111111111/ IMIei.11111 111111i1M111 mtnitint) h. Vinous.. mummy uitlio  The  ( NTOCALIQN RECORD'S Tone Portrait of a Xich Baritone Voice HE subject is Giacomo Rimini's masterly interpretation of the ever-beautiful "Eni Tu? (Is It Thou?) from "The Masked Ball." This number, one of Verdi's great inspirations, requires vocal and- dramatic ability of the first rank—and Rimini's fine voice and appealing temperament render him peculiarly well-fitted to sing the music of his famous compatriot. As a tone-picture, the Vocalion Record of this great aria is faultless. Every note and phrase is natural and true to life. Every shade of tone-color and expression is caught and retained by this advanced process of recording. It is recognized among musicians that such portrayals of human and instrumental tones have never before been heard.  T  Besides the opportunity !to play the glorious new Vocalion Record, this versatile phonograph offers many other unusual advantages. It plays all standard disc records—plays them with  fuller, clearer tone. The Graduola tone-control feature offers you the privilege of indulging your own fancies as to tone-color, accent and expression.  In MANHATTAN 29 West 42nd St.  Iii THE BRONX 367 East 149th .St.  This young Italian 13aritone hils - already/ won an enviable reputatioz in operatic circles, both in Europe ahd the Americas. For the past two years Rimini has been one of the leading baritones of the Chicago Opera Association, having been conspicuously successful in La ,Tosca, Aida, The Barber of Seville, Isabeau, and the Jewels of the Madonna. Rimini's voice is of rich, sonorous quality and is reproduced with the utmost naturalness on his Vocalion Records. Pay a visit to the Record Department, Aeolian Hall, and ask to hear "Eni Tu?"from"The Masked Ball."  The Vocalion case designs are distinctive. In appearance it has no equal. Its mechanical features, such as the Automatic Stop, Volunome, etc., are the most effective on the market today. The Aeolian-Vocalion is priced from $50 upward. Models containing the Graduola from $115. Sixteen beautiful period styles from $240, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  ATTACHED HERETO ARE_....  _IPAPERS  BRANCH 1094 _MONTH  DAY  HOUR CLARA M. TEAD loMEN'S BRANCH INDUSTRIAL bERVICE SECTION Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  C.?  Ditiumuorr WA8HING1111 October 31, 1918.  Lois B. Aantoul, Asst. Director, lanales Breach, Industrial Service Section, °Amass Dept., Viehingten, D. C. Deer Miss Amateel, I me eitelosiag herewith copy of report from Mr. Luther G. White 'be bas been investigating the wages of women employed in smnufaoturing saddlery at the firm of' S. D. Myers, **atwitter, Ti., as requested by yom in your letter to as of September 3, 1918. Trusting that same is satisfactory, Cordially years, Samuel S. iteseasoba !S. Major, J. A Chairmen, Harness A 4addlery Adjustased  (Signed)  0011Mie0,tfts  copy October 28, l9111. Maier 3. 1. Resensohn, Chairman, Maness & Saddlery Adjustment Commission, WaCkiagtoa, D. C. My dear Major aeseasohn, Regarding wages paid to women in the saddle nanufactory of S. U. Sweetwater, Texas, I find on careful investigation: at *port auk The these prices have been materially increased since the receipt of • complaint in regard to the emu, forwarded by the Ord. names Deportment through Lois B. Asalboul. Tho prices now magi from $l4.25 to 417.25 per week of fifty-four hours, of which three hour* %re not worked; that 11 to 3ay, the employees work fifty-one hours and are paid for fifty-four. 4popp4i.The sanitary arreagements and general lay-out of thofastory are excellent. Mr. Myers somas to me a man anxious to do the best that he could b) his employees of either sex, and to give every ems a square deal, adjAAAn interview with some of his women workers developed the fast that they were now thorougbly satisfied with wages and conditions of employment.  •  horit-Mrip Myers is president of the Local Board of the National Council of Defense. He i$ also a Texas •aanger. in the performance of his necessary duties in each of these positions, he has undoubtedly offended grievously a certain pre.German elemont found in that 'elitism. He believes, and cited to as instance* which gave a certain *redone* tchis belief, that the complaint made against his was made at the instigatioa as, though net directly bY, memo may who had been offended by his strong preifterican Activities. This seems to me decidedly probable. I think that the Commission cannot justly find any fault with the manner in which Mr. Myres is dealing with a rather difficult problem. 3wr,stwater is a rather mall town. friess there are 1.14 because of a long drouth. Many houses are empty particularly more per week suffices to Supply more for comfortable ;14.25 of wage and a wags would 'apply in other sections. Since one larger living than a in tau, having a room with a provide bath, hotel best may live at the pretty alias, too, for ;200 a day, it may and good mad all seals, of cost living in Sweetwater is met what we be seen that the high knew elsewhere. Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Aespectfully submitted, (signed) Luther C. Alit*.  and addressed to All communications should be accompanied by carbon copy  WAR DEPARTMENT  OFFICE OF THE CHIEF OF ORDNANCE  To insure prompt attention, in replying refer to  PRODUCTION DIVISION WASHINGTON  No. Attention of  September 12, 1918  03-5845  Miss Mary Van Kleeck Director, Woman in Industry Service Department of Labor Washin ton, D.C. Subject:  to Visit of Mrs. stogie, U.. Empio2ment i.)erviu Company. Boston. Valve lc American Steam Guage  My dear Miss Van Kleeck: 4•111  Your attention is invited to a paragraph in a 1. letter which I have received, dated September 6, from Miss Suzanne Wunderbaldinger, representative of the Women's Branch in the Boston district office. It reads: "I had an interview with Yr. Jerould of the American Steam Guage & Valve Computy, telling him about the letter concerning low wages paid by his concern. He explained that they were gradually increasing the wL,ges,-everybody now getting oa.po after the first four weeks; bench leaders getting 0.2.00 now, and monitors being paid d13.00 per week. He is considering paying a bonus of 41.00 per week for perfect attendance. When he makes his decision as to whether or not thjs bonus will be given, he will notify us. Owing to the fact thct Mrs. Stone of the U.. Employment Service office, in Boston, had visited the plant and said she thought it one of the best as to working conditions, and that sLd felt trlat they were paying i- ood wages for the work done, the Company does not feel called upon to make any further increase." Miss Anderson referred to me about two weeks 2. ago an anonymous complaint in regard to conditions of work for women at the American Steam Guage & Valve Co. I explained to Miss Anderson that we had been 3. work at this plant, and would use the fact that some doing complaint had been made to your section as additional pressure in securing results at the plant, where lengthy promises had been made by Mr. Jerould, Works Manager. Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  S  r 4. I should like to talk with you about the situation at the American Steam Guage & Valve Company, and also about the matter of policy which is involved in having representatives of the Employment Service visit plants in which representatives of other government departments are already working. Sincerely yours,  Clara M. Toad Director, Women's Branch Industrial Service Section  CMT/afl Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  UNITED STATES RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION W. G. McADOO, DIRECTOR GENERAL  GENERAL ORDER NO. 27  WAGES OF RAILROAD EMPLOYEES Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  WASHINGTON MAY 25, 1918  WASHINGTON GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 1918  UNITED STATES RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, OFFICE OF DIRECTOR GENERAL. WASHINGTON, MAY 25, 1918.  GENERAL ORDER NO. 27. PREAMBLE. In promulgating this order I wish to acknowledge the patriotic service so unselfishly rendered by the Railroad Wage Commission, consisting of Messrs. Franklin K. Lane, Charles C. McChord, J. Harry Covington, and William R. Wilcox, in connection with the important question of wages and hours .of service of railroad employees which I referred to them by my general order No. 5, dated January 18, 1918. This Commission took hold of the task with great energy and devotion and has dealt with the entire subject in a thoroughly sympathetic spirit. Manifestly in a matter of such magnitude and complexity it is impossible to find any general basis or formula which would correct every inequality and give satisfaction to every interest involved. But the Commission has made an earnest effort to do justice to all concerned. I have felt obliged, however, to depart from its recommendations in some particulars. With respect to hours of service the Commission says: "Manifestly, therefore, at this time, when men must be constantly taken from the railroads, as from all other industries, to fill the growing needs of the Nation's Army, hours of labor can not be shortened and thereby a greater number of men be required for railroad work. The Nation can not,in good faith,call upon the farmers and the miners to work as never before and press themselves to unusual tasks, and at the same time so shorten the hours of railroad men as to call from farm and mine additional and unskilled men to run the railroads. While the Commission is strongly disposed to a standard day, in so far as the nature of the service will permit it, its lb-in judgment consequently is that the existing hours of service in effect on the railroads should be maintained for the period of the war. "But with this we earnestly urge that a most exhaustive study be made of this matter of hours of service, not with a view to the adoption of some arbitrary and universal policy which shall have no regard to the kind of work done, or to the effect upon the railroad service, but with these very considerations in mind. And we have gone into this matter far enough to justify to ourselves the belief that Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  (2)  1  3 by the steady application of such sympathetic consideration, the railroad service may be improved, and at the same time fuller opportunity be given for lifting a burden that falls disproportionately upon some of the less favored of the railroad workers." The Commission also reached the conclusion that as to overtime "the existing rules and conditions of payment should not be disturbed during the period of the war." The Commission has pointed out that this is not the time for any experiments which might lessen the tons of freight hauled and the number of passengers carried when the urgent and serious necessities of the war compel sacrifices from all, and that the adoption of any plan which would prevent the Government from working its men as long as they have been in the habit of working under private employers would be to take advantage of the grave war necessities of the Government and to embarrass it in carrying forward essential operations of the war at a time when the need of service was never greater and the ability to call in outside men is seriously impaired. There has never been a time when the public interest demanded more urgently the. devotion and unselfish service of all classes of railroad employees. I agree with the Commission that it is not practicable at this time, when the war is calling upon every class of loyal citizens for service and sacrifices, to reduce the actual hours of labor to eight in every line of railroad work. Nevertheless I am convinced that no further inquiry is needed to demonstrate that the principle of the basic eight-hour day is reasonable and just and that all further contentions about it should be set at rest by a recognition of that principle as• a part of this decision. Recognition of the principle of the basic eight-hour day in railroad service is, therefore, hereby made. The question arises as to what further steps can and ought justly to be taken to strengthen the application of that principle, and when. This question must be solved in the light of the varied conditions of railroad employment and will have to be studied in detail by the Board of Railroad Wages and Working Conditions herein and hereby created and in the light of what is reasonably practicable under war conditions. No problem so vast and intricate as that of doing practical justice to the 2,000,000 railroad employees of the country can be.regarded as completely settled and disposed of by any one decision or order; therefore the Board of Railroad Wages and Working Conditions is hereby established and will take up as presented any phases of the general problem relating to any class of employees or any part of a class of employees which may justly call for further consideration. It is my earnest hope that railroad officials and railroad employees will realize that their relations under Federal control are not Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  4 based upon the old conditions of private management. Dissensions and disappointments should be forgotten and all should now remember that they are not only serving their country in the operation of the railroads, but that upon the character, quality, and loyalty of that service depends in large measure our success in this war. It is an inspiring task—this task of putting upon a more just and equitable basis the wages and working conditions of loyal workers in railroad service—and I confidently expect the patriotic support and assistance of every railroad official and every railroad employee in performing that task with credit to each other and with honor to their country.  ORDER. Respecting the wages, hours and other conditions of employment of the employees of the railroads hereinafter mentioned, It is hereby ordered: ARTICLE I.—RAILROADS AFFECTED. This order shall apply to the employees of the following railroads: Alabama & Vicksburg Ry. Co. Alabama Great Southern R. R. Co. Ann Arbor R. R. Co. Arizona & New Mexico Ry. Co. Arizona Eastern R. R. Co. Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe Ry. Co. Atlanta & West Point R. R. Co. Atlanta, Birmingham & Atlantic Ry. Co. Atlantic Coast Line R. R. Co. Atlantic & St. Lawrence R. R. Co. Atlantic City R. R. Co. Baltimore & Ohio R. R. Co. Bangor & Aroostook R. R. Co. Bessemer & Lake Erie R. R. Co. Boston & Maine R. R. Buffalo & Susquehanna R. R. Corporation. Buffalo, Rochester & Pittsburgh Ry. Co. Carolina, Clinchfield & Ohio Ry. Central of Georgia Ry. Co. Central New England Ry. Co. Central R. R. Co. of New Jersey. Central Vermont Ry. Co. Charleston & Western Carolina Ry. Co. Chesapeake & Ohio Ry. Co. Chicago & Alton R. R. Co. Chicago & Eastern Illinois R. R. Co. Chicago & Erie R. R. Co. Chicago & Northwestern Ry. Co. Chicago, Burlington & Quincy R. R. Co. Chicago Great Western R. R. Co. Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Chicago, Detroit & Canada Grand Trunk Junction R. R. Co. Chicago, Indianapolis & Louisville Ry. Co. Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul Ry. Co. Chicago, Peoria & St. Louis R. R. Co. Chicago, Rock Island & Gulf Ry. Co. Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific Ry. Co. Chicago, St.. Paul, Minneapolis & Omaha Ry. Co. Chicago, Terre Haute & Southeastern Ry. Co. Cincinnati, Indianapolis & Western R. R. Co. Cincinnati, New Orleans & Texas Pacific Ry. Co. Cincinnati Northern R. R. Co. Cleveland, Cincinnati, Chicago & St. Louis Ry. Co. Coal & Coke Ry. Co. Colorado & Southern Ry. Co. Cumberland Valley R. R. Co. Delaware & Hudson Co. Delaware, Lackawanna & Western R. R. Co. Denver & Rio Grande R. R. Co. Detroit & Mackinac Ry. Co. Detroit & Toledo Shore Line R. R. Co. Detroit, Grand Haven & Milwaukee Ry. Co. Detroit, Toledo & Ironton R. R. Co.  5 Duluth & Iron Range R. R. Co. Duluth, Missabe & Northern Ry. Co. Duluth, South Shore & Atlantic Ry. Co. Elgin, Joliet & Eastern Ry. Co. El Paso & Southwestern Co. Erie R. R. Co. Florida East Coast Ry. Co. Fort Smith & Western R. R. Co. Fort Worth & Denver City Ry. Co. Fort Worth & Rio Grande Ry. Co. Galveston, Harrisburg dz San Antonio Ry. Co. Georgia R. R. Lessee Organization. Georgia Southern & Florida Ry. Co. Grand Rapids & Indiana Ry. Co. Grand Trunk Western Ry. Co. Great Northern Ry. Co. Gulf & Ship Island R. R. Co. Gulf, Colorado & Santa Fe Ry. Co. Gulf, Mobile & Northern R. R. Hocking Valley Ry. Co. Houston & Texas Central R. R. Co. Houston East & West Texas R. R. Co. Hudson & Manhattan R. R. Illinois Central R. R. Co. International & Great Northern Ry. Co. Kanawha & Michigan Ry. Co. Kansas City Southern Ry. Co. Lake Erie & Western R. R. Co. Lehigh & IIudson River Ry. Co. Lehigh 8: New England R. R. Co. Lehigh Valley R. R. Co. Lq,ng Island R. R. Co. Los Angeles & Salt Lake R. R. Co. Louisiana & Arkansas Ry. Co. Louisiana Ry. & Navigation Co. Louisiana Western R. R. Co. Louisville & Nashville R. R. Co. Louisville, Henderson & St. Louis Ry. Co. Maine Central R. R. Co. Midland Valley R. R. Co. Michigan Central R. R. Co. Minneapolis & St. Louis R. R. Co. Minneapolis, St. Paul dr S. Ste. Marie Ry. Co. Missouri, Kansas & Texas Ry. Co. Missouri, Kansas & Texas Ry.. Co. of Texas. Missouri Pacific R. R. Co. Mobile & Ohio R. R. Co. Monongahela Ry. Co. Morgan's, Louisiana dz Texas R. R. & S. S. Co Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Nashville, Chattanooga & St. Louis Ry. New Orleans & Northeastern R. R. Co. New Orleans, Texas & Mexico R. R. Co. New York Central It. It. Co. New York, Chicago & St. Louis R. R. Co. New York, New Haven & Hartford II. It. Co. New York, Ontario & Western fly. Co. New York, Philadelphia &.Norfolk R. R. Co. New York, Susquehanna & Western R. It. Co. Norfolk & Western Ry. Co. Norfolk Southern R. R. Co. Northern Pacific Ry. Co. Northwestern Pacific R. It. Co. Oregon Short Line R. it. Co. Oregon-Washington R. It. & Navigation Co. Panhandle & Santa Fe Hy. Co. Pennsylvania Co. Pennsylvania R. R.Co. Pere Marquette R. R. Co. Philadelphia & Reading Ry. Co. Philadelphia, Baltimore & Washington R. R. Co. Pittsburgh dz Lake Erie R. R. Co. Pittsburgh & Shawmut R. R. Co. Pittsburgh & West Virginia Ry: Co. Pittsburgh, Cincinnati, Chicago & St. Louis R. R. Co. Port Reading R. It. Co. Richmond, Fredericksburg & Potomac R. R. Co. Rutland It. R. Co. Seaboard Air Line Ry. Co. San Antonio & Aransas Pass Ry. Co. Southern Pacific Co. Southern Ry. Co. Southern Ry. Co. in Mississippi. Spokane, International Ry. Co. Spokane, Portland & Seattle Ry. Co. Staten Island Rapid Transit Ry. Co. St. Joseph & Grand Island Ry. Co. St. Louis, Brownsville & Mexico Ry. Co. St. Louis-San Francisco Ry. Co. St. Louis, San Francisco & 'reXaN Ry. Co. St. Louis Southwestern Ry. Co. St. Louis Southwestern Ry. Co. of Texas. Tennessee Central R. R. Co. Texarkana & Fort Smith Ry. Co. Texas & New Orleans R. It. Co. Texas & Pacific Ry. Co. •  6 Toledo & Ohio Central Ry, Co. Western.Maryland Ry. Co. Toledo, Peoria & Weste7n By. Co. Western Pacific R. R. Co. Toledo, St. Louis & Western R. R. Co. Western Ry. of Alabama. Ulster & Delaware R. R. Co. Wheeling & Lake Erie R. R. Co. Union Pacific R. R. Co. Wichita Falls & Northwestern Ry. Co. Utah By. Co. Wichita Valley By. Co. Vicksburg, Shreveport & Pacific By. Co. Yazoo & Mississippi Valley R. R. Co. Virginian By. Co. And all terminal, union station, and Wabash By. C1o. switching companies, all or a majority of Washington Southern By. Co. whose stock is owned by railroads named West Jersey & Seashore R. R. Co. above.  Such other railroads as may be retained in Federal control on July 1, 1918, will be added to the foregoing list by order of the Director General. • The Pullman Company, whose status is now being considered, will also be added by order to the foregoing list, if decision shall be reached to retain it in Federal control. ARTICLE II.-RATES OF WAGES AND METHODS OF COMPUTATION. Increases in wages, effective as hereinafter provided, January 1, 1918, are hereby established as follows: Section A.-RATES OF WAGES OF RAILROAD EMPLOYEES PAID UPON A MONTHLY BASIS. 1  2  3  4  To the monthly rate of pay of men receiving in Decemher, 1915, the amounts named in this column,  Add the per cent named in this column.  Equivalent to amount named in this column.  Making new rate per month as shown in this column.  Under $46 (except as provided in par. 13, page 22) $46.01 to $47 $47.01 to $48 $48.01 to $19 $49.01 to $50 $50.01 to $51 $51.01 to $52 $52.01 to $53 $53.01 to $54 $54.01 to $55 $55.01 to $56 $56.01 to $57 • $57.01 to $58 $58.01 to $59 $59.01 to $60 $60.01 to $61 $61.01 to $62 $62.01 to $63 $63.01 to $64 $64.01 to $65 $65.01 to $66  $20.00 43 20. 21 $67. 21 43 20. 64 68. 64 43 21.07 70.07 43 21. 50 71. 50 42. 35 21. 60 72. 60 41. 73 21. 70 73. 70 41 21. 73 74. 73 41 22. 14 76. 14 41 22. 55 77. 55 41 22. 96 78. 96 41 23. 27 80. 37 41 23. 78 81. 78 41 24. 19 83. 19 41 24. 60 84. 60 41 25. 01 86. 01 41 25.42 87.42 41 25. 83 88. 83 41 26. 24 90. 24 41 26. 65 91. 65 41 27.06 , 93. 06 Columns 2 and 3 in the above table are explanatory of the method of arriving at the "new rates2'included in column 4. The roads will substitute for the "old rateav of December, 1913, scheduled in column 1, the "new rates?' listed in column 4. Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Section A.-RATES OF WAGES OF RAILROAD EMPLOYEES PAID UPON A MONTHLY BASIS-Continued.  L  1  2  3  4  To the monthly rate of pay of men receiving in December, 1915, the amounts named in this column.  Add the per cent named in this column.  Equivalent to amount named in this column.  Making new rate per month as shown in this column.  41 41 41 41 41 41 41 41 41 41 41 41 41 40. 87 40.44 40 40 40 40 39. 36 38.74 38.13 37.53 36.95 36.38 35.82 35.27 34.74 34.22 33.70 33.20 32.71 32.23 31.75 31. 29 30. 84 30. 39 29. 96 29.53 29. 11 28.70 28. 29 27. 89 27.50 27. 12 26. 74 26. 38 26.01 25.66 25. 31 24. 96 24. 62 24.29 23.96  $27.47 27.88 28.29 28.70 29. 11 29.52 29.93 30. 34 30. 75 31.16 31.57 31.98 32.39 32. 70 32.75 32.80 33.20 33.60 34.00 33. 85 33.70 33.55 33.40 33.25 33.10 32.95 32.80 32.65 32.50 32.35 32.20 32.05 31.90 31.75 31. 60 31. 45 31. 30 31. 15 31. 00 30. 85 30. 70 30. 55 30. 40 30. 25 30. 10 29. 95 29. 80 29.65 29.50 29. 35 29. 20 29. 05 28.90 28.75  $66.01 to $67 $67.01 to $68 $68.01 to $69 $69.01 to $70 $70.01 to $71 $71.01 to $72 $72.01 to $73 $73.01 to $74 $74.01 to $75 $75.01 to $76 $76.01 to $77 $77.01 to $78 $78.01 to $79 $79.01 to $80 $80.01 to $81 $81.01 to $82 $82.01 to $83 $83.01 to $84 $84.01 to $85 $85.01 to $86 $86.01 to $87 $87.01 to $88 $88.01 to $89 $89.01 to $90 $90.01 to $91 $91.01 to $92 $92.01 to $93 $93.01 to $94 $94.01 to $95 $95.01 to $96 $96.01 to $97 $97.01 to $98 $98.01 to $99 $99.01 to $100 $100.01 to $101 $101.01 to $1D2 $102.01 to $103 $103.01 to $104 $104.01 to $105 $105.01 to $106 $106.01 to $107 $107.01 to $108 $108.01 to $109 $109.01 to $110 $110.01 to $111 $111.01 to $112 $112.01 to $113 $113.01 to $114 $114.01 to $115 $115.01 to $116 $116.01 to $117 $117.01 to $118 $118.01 to $119 $119.01 to $120  $94.47 95. 88 97.29 98.70 100. 11 101.52 102.93 104. 34 105.75 107.16 108.57 109.98 111.39 112.70 113.75 114.80 116.20 117.60 119.00 119.85 120. 70 121.55 122.40 123.25 124.10 124.95 125.80 126.65 127.50 128.35 129.20 130.05 130.90 131.75 132. 60 133. 45 134. 30 135.15 136. 00 136.85 137. 70 138. 55 139.40 140. 25 141. 10 141. 95 142. 80 143.65 144.50 145. 35 146.20 147.05 147.90 148.75  Columns 2 and 3 in the above table are explanatory of the method of arriving at the "new rates!' included in column 4. The roads will substitute for the "old rates!' of December, 1915, scheduled in column 1, the "new rates!' listed in column 4. Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  8 Section A.-RATES OF WAGES OF RAILROAD EMPLOYEES PAID UPON A MONTHLY Bmus-Continued. 1  2  3  4  To the monthly rate of pay of men receiving in Decemher, 1915, the amounts named in this column.  Add the per cent named in this column,  Equivalent to amount muned in this column.  Making new rate per month as shown in this column.  $120.01 to $121 $121.01 to 8122 $122.01 to $123 $123.01 to $124 $124.01 to $125 $125.01 to $126 $126.01 to .14 127 $127.01 to $128 $128.01 to $129 $129.01 to $130 $130.01 to $131 $131.01 to $132 $132.01 to $133 $133.01 to $134 $134.01 to $135 $135.01 to $136 $136.01 to $137 $137.01 to $138 $138.01 to $139 $139.01 to $140 $140.01 to $141. $141.01 to $142 $142.01 to $143. $143.01 to $144 $144.01 to $145. $145.01 to $146 $146.01 to $147 $147.01 to $118 $148.01 to 8149. $149.01 to $150 $150.01 to $151$151.01 to $152 $152.01 to $153 $153.01 to $154 $154.01 to $155. $155.01 to $156 $156.01 to $157 $157.01 to $158 $158.01 to $159. $159.01 to $160 $160.01 to $161. $161.01 to $162 $162.01 to $163. $163.01 to $164 $164.01 to $165 $165.01 to 8166 $166.01 to $167 $167.01 to $168 $168.01 to $169 $169.01 to $170 $170.01 to $171 $171.01 to $172 $172.01 to $173 ti 74 Al in R174  23.64 $28.60 $149.60 23.32 23.45 150.45 23. 01 28. 30 151. 30 22. 70 28. 15 152. 15 22.40 28.00 153.00 22. 11 27. 85 153. 85 21. 81 27. 70 154. 70 21.53 27.55 155.55 21.24 • 27.40 156.40 20. 96 27. 25 157. 25 20. 69 27. 10 158. 10 20. 42 26. 95 15S. 95 20:15 26. 80 159. 80 26. 65 19. 89 160. 65 26. 50 19. 63 161. 50 26.35 19.38 162.35 26.20 19. 13 163.2€ 26.05 18.88 164.05• 25.90 18.64 164.90 18..39 25. 75 165. 75 25.60 18. 16 166.6€ 25.45 17.92 167.45• 25.30 17.69 168.3( 25.15 169.15 17.47 25.00 17.24 170.0€ 17.02 24.85 170.85 16.80 24.70 171.7€ 16.59 • 24.55 172.55 16. 38 24. 40 173.4( 24.25 16. 17 174.25 24.10 15.96 175.1() 23.95 15.76 175.95 23.80 15.56 176.84 15. 36 23.65 177.61 23.50 15. 16 178. 5( 14.97 23. 35 179. 315 14.78 180. 2( 23. 20 14.59 23.05 181.01 14.40 22.90 181.9( 14.22 22.75 182. 71 14.04 22.60 183.64) 22. 45 184. 41 13. 86 13.68 22. 30 185. 34) 13.51 186.11 22.15 13.33 22.00 187.01) 13. 16 21. 85 187. 81) 188. 71) 13. 00 21. 70 189. 51 12. 83 21. 55 190. 41) 12,66 21. 40 12.50 21.25 191.21 21. 10 12. 34 192. 11) 20. 95 12. 18 192. 915 20. 80 12. 02 193. 81) 20. 65 11. 87 ... 194. 61 Columns 2 and 3 in the above table are explanatory of the method of arriving at the "new rates!" included in column 4. The roads will substitute for the "old rates!' of December, 1915, scheduled in column 1, the "new rates!' listed in column 4. . Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  9 Section A.-RATES OF WAGES OF RAILROAD EMPLOYEES PAID UPON A MONTHLY BASIS-Continued.  To the monthly rate of pay of men receiving in December, 1915, the amounts named in this column.  2  3  4  Add the per cent named in this column.  Equivalent to amount named in this column.  Making new rate per month as shown in this column.  $20. 50 11. 71 $195. 50 $174.01 to $175 20. 35 11. 56 196..35 $175.01 to $176 20. 20 11. 41 197. 20 $176.01 to $177 20. 05 11. 26 198.05 $177.01 to $178 19. 90 11. 12 198. 90 $178.01 to $179 19. 75 10. 97 199. 7'5 $179.01 to $180 10. 83 19. 60 200. 60 $18001 to $181 10. 69 19. 45 201. 415 $181.01 to $182 19. 30. 10. 55 202. 30 $182.01 to $183 10. 41 19. 15 203. 15 $183.01 to $184 10. 27 19. 00 204. 00 $184.01 to $185 18. 85 204. 85 10. 14 $185.01 to $186 18. 70 205. 70 10. 00 $186.01 to $187 18.55 206. 55 9. 87 $187.01 to $188 40 18. 9. 74 207. 40 $188:01 to $189 9. 61 18. 25 $189.01 to $190 208..2 9. 18 18. 10 209. 10 $190.01 to $191 17. 95 9. 35 209. $191.01 to $192 17. 80 9. 22 210. 80 $192.01 to $193 17. 65 9. 10 211. .4' $193.01 to $194 17.50 8.97 212...50 $194.01 to $195 17. 35 8. 85 213.35 $195.01 to $196 17. 20 8. 73 214. 2p $196.01 to $197 8. 61 17.05 215. 0,5 $197.01 to $198 8.49 16.90 215. MD $198.01 to $199 216. 75 16. 75 8. 375 $199.01 to $200 217. 60 8. 26 16. GO $200.01 to $201 16. 45 218.45 $201.01 to $202 8. 14 219. 30 16. 30 $202.01 to $203 8.03 16. 15 7. 92 220. 15 $203.01 to) 16.00 7.80 221.00 $204.01 to , 4 205 15. 85 7. 69 221. 85 $205.01 to ,`,..`)C(i 15. 70 7. 58 222. 70 $206.01 to $207 223. 55 7. 48 15. 55 $207.01 to $208 7. 37 15. 40 224. 40 $208.01 to $209 15. 25 225. 25 7. 26 $209.01 to $210 7. 16 15. 10 226. 10 $210.01 to $211 7. 05 14. 95 226. 95 $211.01 to $212 6. 95 14. 80 227. 80 $212.01 to $213 6. 85 14. 65 228. 65 $213.01 to $214 14. 50 6. 74 229. 50 $214.01 to $215 14. 35 6. 64 230. 35 $215.01 to $216 14. 20 6. 54 231. 20 $216.01 to $217 14.05 6. 445 232. 05 $217.01 to $218 13. 90 6. 35 232. 90 $218.01 to $219 13. 75 233. 75 6. 25 $219.01 to $220 13.60 6.15 234.60 $220.01 to $221 13. 45 6.06 235. 45 $221.01 to $292 13. 30 5. 96 236. 30 $222.01 to $223 5. 87 13. 15 237. 15 $223.01 to $224 5. 78 13. 00 $224.01 to $225 238.00 5.69 12.85 238.85 $225.01 to $226 5595 12.70 239.70 $226.01 to $227 5.50 12.55 240.55 $227.01 to $228 Columns 2 and 3 in the above table are explanatory of the method of arriving at the "new ratee included in column 4. The roads will substitute for the "old rates' of December, 1915, scheduled in column 1, the "new rates?' listed in column 4 61513*-18--2 Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  10 Section A.-RATES OF WAGES OF RAILROAD EMPLOYEES PAID UPON A MONTHLY BAS1S-Continued. 1  2  3  4  To the monthly rate of pay of men receiving in December, 1915, the amounts named in this column,  Add the per cent named in this column,  Equivalent to amount named in this column,  Making new rate per month as shown in this column.  $228.01 to S909 $229.01 to :.--;':{) $230.01 to :',1 $231.01 to :•-4.':2 $232.01 to $2:1:1 $233.01 to S.'t; I $234.01 to '':") $235.01 to 2:6 $236.01 to ''.2:>7 $237.01 to .t42::i $238.01 to $229 $239.01 to $210 $240.01 to $211 $241.01 to $2-12 $242.01 to $21:1 $243.01 to $211 $244.01 to $215 $245.01 to $216 $246.01 to $217 $247.01 to $2-18 $248.01 to $249 $249.01 to $250  ,  5.415 5. 33 5.24 5. 15 5.065 4.98 4.89 4. 81 4. 73 4.64 4.56  $12. 40 12. 25 12.10 11. 95 H.80 11.65 11.50 11. 35 11. 20 11.05 10.90 10.00 9.00 8.00 7.00 6.00 5.00 4.00 3.00 2.00 1.00 .00  $241.40 242.25 243.10 243. 95 244.80 245.65 246.50 247. 35 248. 20 249.05 249.90 250.00 250.00 250.00 250.00 250.00 250.00 250.00 250.00 250.00 250.00 250.00  Columns 2 and 3 in the above table are explanatory of the method of arriving at the "new ratesv included in column 4. The roads will substitute for the "old rates/. of December, 1915, scheduled in column 1, the "new rates1' listed in column 4. METHOD OF APPLYING INCREASES TO MONTIILY RATES.  (1) The employee who holds the same position to-day that he did the last day of December, 1915, and who then received $75 a month and has received no increase since, will receive an additional wage of $30.75 per month. If ho has received an increase in these two years of $10 per month, the recommended increase of his wage will be cut down by that much, making his net advance $20.75. (2) Employee "A" occupied the same position in 1915 and in 1918: Salary, 1915, $150 per month; 1918, $175 per month. Basis of increase on salaries of $150 per month is 16.17 per cent, or $24.25 per month. New salary, $174.25; present salary, $175. Present salary undisturbed. (3) Employee "B" in 1915 received $100, and on the same desk in 1918 received $112.50 per month. Basis of increase on $100, 31.75 per cent, or $31.75. New salary, $131.75. Present salary, $112.50. Employee "B" is entitled to receive back pay from January 1, at the rate of $19.25 (the difference between $131.75 and $112.50), and to receive monthly, hereafter, $131.75 instead of $112.50. Back pay due January 1 to May 31, $96.25. Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  11 (4) Employee in December, 1915, received $100 per month, enhim, with this increase, to $131.75. His salary had been raised for same position on January 1, 1918, to 1 L5. He is not, th-refore, entitled to any advance or back pay. Present salary undisturbed. titles  Section B.--RATES OF WAGES OF RAILROAD EMPLOYEES PAID UPON DAILY BASIS.  Old rate per day.  $0. 75 .80 .83 .90 .95 1.00 1.05 1.10 1.15 1.20 1.25 1.30 1.35 1.40 1.45 1.50 1.55 1.60 1.65 1.70 1.75 1.80 1.85 1.90 1.95 2.00 2.05 2.10 2.15 2. 20 2.25 2.30 2.35 2.40 2.45  New rate per day.  $1. 52 1.57 1.62 1.67 1.72 1.77 1.82 1.87 1.92 1.97 2.02 2.07 2.12 2.17 2.22 2.27 2.32 2.37 2.42 2.47 2.52 2.57 2.65 2.72 2.77 2.83 2.89 2.96 3.03 3. 10 3.17 3.24 3.31 3.38 3.45  Old rate per day.  $2.50 2.55 2.60 2.65 2.70 2.75 2.50 2.85 2.90 2.95 3.00 3.05 3.10 3.15 3.20 3.25 3.&0 3.35 3.40 3.45 3.50 3.55 3.60 3.65 3.70 3.75 3.80 3.85 3.90 3. 95 4.00 . 4.05 4.10 4.15 4.20  New rate per day.  $3.53 3.60 3.67 3.74 3.81 3.88 3.95 4.02 4.09 4.1,6 4.23 4.30 4.36 4.41 4.48 4.55 4.60 4.65 4.70 4.72 4.77 4.81 4.85 4.90 4.94 4.98 5.03 5.07 5.11 5. 15 5.20 5.24 5.28 5.32 5.36  Old rate per day.  $4. 25 4.30 4.35 4.40 4.45 4.50 4.55 4.60 4.65 4.70 4.75 4.80 4.85 4.90 4.95 5.00 5.05 5.10 5.15 5.20 5.25 5.30 5.35 5.40 5.45 5.50 5.55 5.60 5.65 5. 70 5.75 5.80 5.85 5.90  New rate per day.  $5.40 5.45 5.49 5.53 5.58 5.62 5.66 5.71 5.75 5.79 5.83 5.88 5.92 5.96 6.00 6.05 6.09 6.13 6.17 6.21 6.26 6.30 6.34 6.38 6.43 6.47 6.51 6.55 6.60 6.64 6.68 6.73 6.77 6.81  Old rate per day.  $5.95 6.00 6.05 6.10 6.15 6.20 6.25 6.30 6.35 6.40 6.45 6.50 6.55 6.60 665 6.70 6.75 6.80 6.85 6.90 6.95 7.00 7.05 7.10 7.15 7.20 7.25 7.30 7.35 7.40 7.45 7.50 7.55 7.60  New rate per day.  $6.85 6.90 6.94 6.98 7.02 7.06 7.11 7.15 7.19 7.23 7.28 7.32 7.3(3 7.41 7.45 7.49 7.53 7.5S 7.62 7.6(3 7.70 7.75 7.79 7.83 7.83 7.91 7.913 8.00 8.04 8. OS 8.13 8.17 8.21 8.25  "Old rates" are those of December, 1915.  For common labor paid by the day, the scale of new rates per day shown shall apply, with the provision, however, that as a minimum 20 cents per 8-hour day, 221 cents per 9-hour day, 25 cents per 10hour day, 27i cents per 11-hour day, and 30 cents per 12-hour day will be added to the rates paid per day as of December 31, 1917. Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  12 METITOD OF APPLYING INCREASES TO DAILY RATES.  (1) Employee, December, 1915, $3.00: $109.98 Increased to new rate of $4.23 per day Jan. 1, 1918, his pay was raised for same work to $3.50 per day,equal per month 91.00 to Difference in • pay'. 1 month 5 months An 8-hour 26-day month both years. Worked 62 hours overtime, at new 1918 rate Was paid 62 hours overtime at Total back pay due Jan. 1 to May 31, 1918  18.98 94. 90 52 9t $32. SO 37. 5t 23. 25  9.55 104.45  (2) Employee "C" was employed in 1918, but not in 1915. Rate of pay on the district where he is employed in 1918, in 1915 was $1.10 per day. The 1918 rate of pay is, on the same district, $1.50 per day. The new rate is $1.87 per day. He will, therefore, be entitled to receive from January 1, 1918, to May 31, 1918, 37 cents per day additional for each day he worked in that period. Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  13 Section C.-RATES OF WAGES OF RAILROAD EMPLOYEES PAID UPON HOURLY BASIS. [Rates of pay in eents.per hour.) Old rate per hour.1  New rate per hour.  Old rate. per hour.'  New rate per hour.  Old rate per hour.'  New rate per hour.  10 10.5 11 11.5 12 12. 5 13 13.5 14 14.5 15 15.5 16 16.5 17 17.5 18 18.5 19 1.5 20 20.5 21 21.5 22 22.5 23 23. 5 24 24.5 25 25. 5 26 26. 5 g7 27. 5 28 28.5 29 29.5 30 30. 5 31 31.5 32 32.5 33 33. 5 34 34. 5 35 35. 5 36 36.5 37 37. 5  19.75 20. 25 20.75 21. 25 21. 75 22. 25 22. 73 23. 25 23.75 24. 25 24.75 25.25 25.75 26.25 26.75 27. 25 27. 75 28.25 28.75 29.25 9.752 30. 25 30. 75 31. 25 31.75 32. 25 33.0 33. 75 34.50 35.00 35.50 36.00 36.75 37. 50 38.25 39.00 39. 50 40.25 41.00 41.75 42.50 43.00 43.75 44.50 45.25 46.00 46.75 47. 25 48.00 48. 75 49.0 50. 25 51.00 51.50 52. 25 53.00  38 38. 5 39 39. 5 40 40. 5 41 41. 5 42 42. 5 43 43. 5 44 44. 5 45 45. 5 46 46.5 47 47.5 48 48. 5 49 49. 5 50 50. 5 51 51. 5 52 62. 5 53 53. 5 54 54. 5 5.5 55. 5 56 56.5 57 57.5 58 58.5  53.75 54. 25 54.75 55. 50 56. 00 56. 75 57. 25 57. 75 58.25 58. 50 59.00 59. 50 6000 G0. 25 60. 75 61. 25 61..50 62.00 62.50 63.00 63.25 63. 75 64. 25 64. 75 65.00 65. 25 65.75 66. 25 66.50 67. 00 67.50 6.8. 00 68.25 68. 75 69.25 69. 75 70.00 70.50 71.00 71.50 71.75 72. 25 72.75 73.00 73.50 74.00 74.50 74. 75 75. 25 75. 75 76.00 76. 50 76.75 77.25 77. 75 78. 25 •  66 66. 5 67 67.5 68 68.5 69 69.5 70 70.5 71 71.5 72 72.5 73 73.5 74 74.5 75 75.5 76 76.5 77 77.5 78 78.5 79 79.5 80 80.5 81 81.5 82 82.5 83 83.5 84 4.5$ 85 85.5 86 86.5 87 87.5 88 88.5 89 89.5 90 90. 5 91 91. 5 92 92.5 93 93. 5  78.50 79.00 79.50 79. 75 80. 25 80. 75 81. 25 81. 50 82.00 82. 50 83.00 83. 25 83.75 84. 25 84.50 85.00 85.50 86.00 8.25 86.75 87.00 87.50 88.00 88.25 88.75 89. 25 89.7k 90.00 90.50 91.00 91.50 91.75 92.25 92. 75 93.00 93.50 94.00 94.50 94.75 95.25 95.75 96.00 96.50 97.00 97.25 97:75 98.25 98.50 99.00 99. 50 99.75 100. 25 100.75 101.25 101. 50 102.00  . Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  69 59.5 60 60.5 61 61.5 62 62. 5 63 63.5 64 64.5 65 65.5  "Old rates" are those of December, 1915.  Old rate I New rate per hour.' per hour.  94 94. 5 95 95. 5 96 96. 5 97 97. 5 98 98. 5 99 99. 5 100 100. 5 101 101. 5 102 102.5 103 103.5 104 104. 5 105 105. 5 106 106. 5 107 107. 5 108 108. 5 109 109. 5 110 110. 5 111 111. 5 112 112.5 113 113.5 114 114. 5 115 115.5 116 116.5 117 117. 5 118 118. 5 119 119. 5 120  102.50 102. 75 103.25 '103. 75 104. 25 104. 50 105. 00 105. 50 106.00 106. 25 106.75 107. 25 107.50 108.00 108.25 108. 75 109. 25 109.75 110.00 11.0.50 111.0') 111. 2.) 111. 75 112. 25 112.75 113.00 113.50 114. 00 114.25 114. 75 115.25 115. 75 116.00 116. 50 117.00 117. 25 117. 75 118.25 118.50 119.00 119.50 119. 75 120.00 120.00 120.00 120.00 120.00 120. 00 120. 00 120. 00 120.00 120. 00 120.00  14 While it is expected that the Board of Railroad Wages and Working Conditions hereinafter created shall give consideration to all questions of inequality as between individuals and classes of employees throughout, sufficient information is available to justify certain conelusms with respect to the mechanical crafts, and in the case of machinists, boilermakers, blacksmiths, and other shop mechanics who have been receiving the same hourly rates, the increases named in this Order shall apply, with a minimum wage of 55 cents per hour. It is recognized that this may still leave among shop employees certain inequalities as to individual employees,to which the Board of Railroad Wages and Working Conditions will give prompt consideration. For common labor paid by the hour, the scale named herein shall apply, with the provision, however, that as a minimum, 21 cents per hour will be added to the rates paid per hour, as of December 31, 1917. METHOD OF APPLYING INCREASES TO HOURLY RATES.  (1) Machinist worked in January, 1918, 8 hours per day, 27 days, total 216 hours straight time. The rate of pay for this position in December, 1915, was 34 cents per hour; new rate under this order 48 cents per hour, but with minimum rate of $118.80 55 cents per hour as herein ordered, will receive In January,1918, his rate of pay was 371 cents per hour,for 216 hours, equals.. 81.00 37.80 Difference one month On basis of working same amount straight time each month for five months 189.00 (January 1 to May 31). Also worked in same period 90 hours overtime at time and one-half, $74. 25 new 55 cents minimum rate, or 82i cents, equals. 50. 63 Was paid 561 cents (time and one-half) 23.62 Balance due January 1 to May 31, 1918.  212.62  (2) Machinist worked in January, 1918, 10 hours per day, 26 days, total 260 hours straight time. The rate oi pay for this position in 1915 was 34 cents per hour; new rate under this order, 48 cents per hour, but with minimum rate of 55 cents $143.00 per hour as herein ordered will receive 97.50 In January, 1918, his rate of pay was 37i cents per hour; 260 hours equals 45.50 Difference 1 month On basis of working same amount of straight time each month for 5 227.50 months(Jan. 1 to May 31) Also worked in same period 90 hours overtime at pro rata rate, new $49. 50 55-cent minimum rate, equals 33. 75 Was paid at 37i-cent rate pro rata overtime or 15.75 Balance due Jan. 1 to May 31, 1918  243. 25  (3) Machinist "D" was employed in the same shop in December, 1915, and in 1918 on the same class of work. His hourly rate in December, 1915, was 35 centS for 9 hours, 26 days a month. He Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  15 was paid for overtime and Sunday work at time and one-half. On January 1, 1918, his hours were reduced to 8 and his rate increased to 40 cents. The new hourly rate applicable to his 1915 rate, viz: 49,. cents being less than the minimum of 55 cents, his new rate will be 55 cents per hour. In 1918, from January 1 t'o May 31, he worked 234 hours per month or an average of one hour overtime daily on the 1918 schedule. This for five months gives him 130 hours overtime. He has been paid as follows: 1,040 hours straight time, at 40 cents 130 hours overtime, at 60 cents Total  $416.00 78. 00 49-1. 00  His back pay will be computed as follows: 1,040 hours straight time, at 55 cents 130 hours overtime, at 82)4- cents  572.00 10/. 25  Total Deduct payment at 1918 rates  679. 25 494.00  Back pay due  185.25  and his future rate per hour will be 55 cents. (4) In the case of employee "E," who was employed in a shop where the rate for his position was 35 cents per hour for 8 hours' work in 1915, with time and one-half for overtime, but in the same position and same shop with the same hours in 1918 his rate is 45 cents per hour; his earnings in 1915 in the standard 208-hour month would be $72.80 per month, and he would be entitled to the new hourly rate of 491 cents per hour. His straight time and overtime earnings and back pay would be computed in exactly the same manner as machinist "D." The principles illustrated will apply to all men paid by the hour, whatever their occupation may be. Section D.—RATES OF WAGES OF RAILROAD EMPLOYEES PAID UPON PIECEWORK BASIS.  METHOD OF APPLYING INCREASES TO PIECE RATES.  (1) The pieceworker shall receive for each hour worked, the same increase per hour as is awarded to the hourly worker engaged in similar employment in the same shop. (2) If the hourly rate has been increased since 1915 to an amount greater than the increase herein fixed, then the higher rate shall prevail. (3) Where there was no piece rate for an item or operation in the piece-rate schedule of 1915, adjust the current price by such an amount as a similar item or operation has been increased or decreased since December 31, 1915, or as near such a plan as practicable. (4) It is understood that the application of this order shall not, in any case, operate to reduce current earnings. (5) When a pieceworker works overtime or undertime, he shall receive that proportion of the increase provided in the schedule which the time actually worked bears to the normal time in the position. Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  1  16 (6) Overtime is not to be considered solely as the number of hours employed in excess of the normal hours per month in the position, but rather the time employed in excess of the normal hours per day. (7) Employee "F" was employed under a piecework schedule in a shop wherQ the basic hourly rate was 35 cents for eight hours, with time and one-half for overtime. This rate under the plan illustrated above will be increased to 49/ cents per hour. Difference, 141 cents. Regardless of the schedule of piece rates under which he is paid, under this order "F" will be entitled to receive 14/ cents per hour in addition to his piecework earnings for every hour worked in 1918 unless the hourly rate shall in the interim have been raised and a proportionate increase made in the piecework schedule. For example: Assume that "F" made $9e in December, 1915, at his piecework. At the hourly rate he would have earned only $72.80, and his hourly rate must therefore be increased to 49/ cents. If,.in January, 1918, he has attained sufficient skill to earn $100 on the same piecework schedule, he will be entitled to receive, nevertheless, 14/ cents per hour for each hour of straight time worked, and for each hour of overtime, 211 cents additional (if time and one-half for overtime is in effect). Assume that in the five months, January 1 to May 31,"F" has worked 1,040 hours straight time, and 130 hours overtime, and has, at his piece-work schedule earned $500. He will be entitled, nevertheless, to receive as back pay, the following amount: 1,040 hours at 141 cents per hour 130 hours at 211 cents per hour  $150. 80 28. 28 179,08  But if in January, 1918, the basic hourly rate had been increased to 50 cents, and this increase had been correspondingly expressed in his piece-work schedule, he would be entitled to no back pay. If, on the other hand, the hourly rate had been increased from 35 cents in 1915 to 45 on January 1, 1918, and this increase had been expressed in a corresponding increase in the piece-work schedule, then"F"would be entitled to receive back pay at 41 cents per hour for straight time and 61 cents per hour overtime. If the practice in the shop, however, had been to pay pro rata for overtime, then the rate for such overtime since January 1, 1918, would be pro rata at 4/ cents, or 141 cents per hour, according to whether piece rates had been or had not been increased. (8) Employee's December, 1915, rate was 38i cents; which rate in this order for 8 hours per day entitles him to 54f cents per hour. His basic rate had, by January 1,, 1918, been raised to 421 cents per hour. Piece work rates had not been raised in the interval. This Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  17 man earned in 208 hours $100. He is entitled to a raise of 11i cents per hour. Hi cents X 208: 1 month 5 months  $24. 44 122. 20  Section E.-RATES OF WAGES OF RAILROAD EMPLOYEES PAID UPON MILEAGE BASES.  The following rates will apply "per day" or its established equivalent in "miles": _1 ,  Passenger engineers. New.  Old.  Passenger engineers. Old.  New.  Passenger engineers. Old.  New.  Passenger engineers. 011..  New.  _  $4. 56  $4. 10 4. 15 4.20 4.25 4.30 4.35 4.40 4.45 4.50  4.62 4.67 4.73 4. 78 4.84 4.90 4.95 5. 01  $4.53 4.55 4.60 4.65 4.70 4.75 4.78 4.80 4. 90  $5.04 5.06 5.12 5. 17 5.23 5.28 5.32 5.34 5. 45  Passenger firemen.  Passenger firemen.  Old.  Old.  New.  New.  $4. 95 5.00 5.05 5. 13. 5.15 5.28 5.35 5.40 5. 53  $5. 51 5.56 5.62 5.71 5.73 5.87 5.95 6. 01 6. 15  Passenger firemen. Old.  New.  $5. 55 5. C5 5.90 6. 00 6.05 6.25 6.30 6. 50 7. 00  $6. 17 6. 29 6.56 6.68 6. 73 6.95 7.01 7.23 7. 79  Passenger firemen. Old.  New.  _ $1. 91 2.25 2.33 2. 34 2. 40 2. 42 2. 45 2. 50 2.51 2.55  $2. 46 2.90 3.00 3. 01 3. 09 3. 12 3. 15 3. 22 3.23 3.28  Passenger conductors. Old.  Now.  $2. 89 3.00  $2. 50 2. 60 --  $2. 60 2.62 2. 65 2. 69 • 2. 70 2. 75 . 2. 76 2. 78 2.80  $3. 35 3. 37 3.41 3. 46 3. 48 3.54 3.55 3.58 3.61  Passenger conductors. Old.  $2. 68 2.75  Now.  $3. 10 3.18  $2. 84 2. 85 2. 90 2. 95 3. 00 3. 05 3. 10 3. 15 3.20  $3. 66 3.67 3.73 3. 80 3. 86 3. 93 3. 99 4. 06 4.12  Passenger conductors. Old.  $2. 90  Now.  $3. 35  $3. 30 3.35 3.40 3. 45 3. 60 3. 75 4. 00 4. 15 4.25  $4. 25 4.31 4.38 4. 44 4. 64 4. 83 5. 15 5. 34 5.47  Passenger conductors. Old.  $3. 47  New.  $4.01  ---  Passenger baggagemen. Old.  New.  $1. 40 1. 45 Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  $1. 94 2. 00  Passenger baggagemen. Old.  $1. 49 1. 54  Now. $2. 06 2. 13  Passenger baggagemen. Old.  $1. 61 1.65  Now. $2. . 23 2.28  Passenger baggagemen. Old.  $1. 70 2.00  New. $2. 35 2.77  18 Passenger trainmen. Old.  $1.35 1.43 1.46  New.  $1.88 1.99 2.04  Freight engineers. Old.  $4.25 4.50 4.70 4.75 4.80 4.85 4.86 4.87 4.88 4.89 4.90 4.95 4.97 5.00  New.  $4.91 5.20 5.43 5.49 5.54 5.60 5.61 5.62 5.64 5.65 5.66 5.72 5.74 5.78  Freight firemen. _ New. Old.  $2.25 2.36 2.45 2.47 2.50 2.56 2.59 2.60 2.70 2.75 2.78 2.81 2.85 2.87 2.90  $3.02 3.17 3.29 3.32 3.36 3.44 3.48 3.49 3.62 3.69 3.73 3.77 3.83 3.85 3.89  Freight conductors. Old.  Now.  $2.78 $2.31 3.49 2.90 3.46 ' 4.17 4.37 3.63 4.64 3.85 3.90 4.70 4.79 3.975 4.82 4.00 4.94 4.10 4.98 4.13 5.02 4.165 5.04 4.18 Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Passenger trainmen.  Passenger trainmen. Old.  $1.47 1.49  New.  Old.  $1.50 1.55  $2.05 2.08  New.  $2.09 2.16  Freight engineers.  Freight engineers.  Old.  Old.  $5.05 5.06 5.10 5.13 5.145 5.15 5.17 5.20 5.25 5.28 5.30 5.33 5.35 5.39  New.  $5.83 5.84 5.89 5.93 5.95 5.95 5.97 6.01 6.06 6.10 6.12 6.16 6.18 6.23  $5.40 5.43 5.45 5.50 5.55 5.555 5.60 5.61 5.65 5.665 5.70 5.75 5.83 5.85  $2.93 2.95 3.00 3.01 3.03 3.04 3.05 3.07 3.10 3.13 3.15 3.16 3.19 3.20 3.22  Old.  $4.24 4.25 4.27 4.38 4.40 4.42 4.43 4.48 . 4.50 4.51 4.52 4.53  Old.  New.  $3.93 3.96 4.03 4.04 4.07 4.08 4.09 4.12 4.16 4.20 4.23 4.24 4.28 4.30 4.32  Freight conductors. New.  $5.11 5.12 5.15 5.28 5.30 5.33 5.34 5.40 5.42 5.43 5.45 5.46  $6.24 6.27 6.29 6.35 6.41 6.415 6.47 6.48 6.53 6.545 6.58 6.64 6.73 6.76  Freight firemen.  Freight firemen. Old.  New.  $3.23 3.245 3.25 3.30 3.35 3.40 3.45 3.465 3.50 3.55 3.57 3.60 3.63 3.65 3.70 1  New.  $4.34 4.355 4.36 4.43 4.50 4.56 4.63 4.65 4.70 4.77 4.79 4.83 4.87 4.90 4.97  Freight conductors. Old.  $4.54 4.55 4.63 4.64 4.66 4.74 4.77 4.80 4.83 4.84 4.86 4.87  New.  $5.47 5.48 5.58 5.59 5.62 5.71 5.75 5.78 5.82 5.83 5.86 5.87  Passenger trainmen. Old.  $1. 60 1. 87  New.  $2.23 2.61  Freight engineers. Old.  $5.90 5.95 5.995 6.00 6.10 6.25 6.50 6.75 6.80 6.85 6.90 6.95 7.00 7.25  New.  $6.81 6.87 6.925 6.93 7.05 7.22 7.51 7.80 7.85 7.91 7.97 8.03 8.09 8.37  Freight firemen. Old.  $3.75 3.80 3.90 3.905 3.95 4.00 4.05 4.10 4.125 4.18 4.25 4.30 4.50 4.55  New.  $5.03 5.10 5.24 5.245 5.30 5.37 5.44 5.50 5.535 5.61 5.71 5.77 6.04 6.11  Freight conductors. Old.  $4.88 4.96 5.04 5.08 5.10 5.14 5.21 5.67 5.69 6.12 6.45 7.09  New.  $5.88 5.98 6.07 6.12 6.15 6.19 6.28 6.83 6.86 7.37 7.77 8. 54  19 Freight brakemen and flagmen. --Old.  New.  $2. 23 2.64 2. 69 2. 99 3. 14 3. 25 3. 35 3. 38 3.46 3. 63 3.65 3. 70 3.72  $1.60 1.89 1. 93 2. 14 2. 25 2. 33 2,40 2.42 2.48 2.60 2.62 2.65 2.67  Freight brakemen and flagmen. Old.  $2,70 2..72 2. 75 2. 78 2. 80 2. 82 2. 83 2. 85 2. 88 2. 95 2. 98 2. 99 3.00  New.  $3. 77 3. 79 3.84 3.88 3.91 3.93 3. 95 3. 98 4.02 4. 12 4. 16 4. 17 4.19  Freight brakemen and flagmen. Old.  $3. 02 3. 10 3. 13 3. 14 3. 15 3. 20 3. 21 3. 25 3. 29 3. 33 3. 41 3. 46  New.  $4. 21 4. 32 4. 37 4.38 4. 39 4.46 4.48 4.53 4.59 4. 65 4. 76 4.83  Freight brakemen and flagmen. Old.  $3. 48 3. 60 3. 62 3. 66 3. 707 3. 71 3,93 4. 24 4. 26 4. 62 4. 96 5. 37  . New.  $4. 85 5. 02 5. 05 5. 11 5. 17 5. 18 5. 48 5. 91 5. 94 6. 44 6. 92 7. 49  "Old" rates are those of December, 1915. If there were mileage rates in effect in December, 1915, which are not included in the above tables, they shall be increased in accordance with the following percentages: Percent.  Road passenger engineers and motormen Road passenger firemen and helpers Road passenger conductors Road passenger baggagemen Road passenger brakemen and flagmen. Road freight engineers and motormen Road freight firemen and helpers Road freight conductors Road freight brakemen and flagmen  11+ 281 151 38+ 391 151 341 201 391  METHOD OF APPLYING INCREASES TO MILEAGE BASIS.  (1) Rates for overtime as now in effect, whether providing for pro rata basis or in excess thereof, shall be increased by same percentage as straight time rates. (2) Miles run, in excess of the established equivalent of a day (or of a month where such basis prevails) shall be paid for pro rata. (3) If any increase has been made in the mileage rates of employees paid on that basis in December, 1915, it will be understood 'that the per cent of increase allowed by this order is inclusive of such interim increases and that the new rate is computed from the base rates of December, 1915. (4) Example (1): Engineer "G," passenger service, received $4.25 per day of one hundred miles in 10 hours in December,1915. According to this plan, although in 1918 this rate was $4.25 per hundred miles in 8 hours, the rate will be increased 111 per cent to $4.73 per 100 Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  20 miles ($4.7281 equalized as $4.73). He will be entitled to back pay for every 100 miles run at the rate of 48 cents per 100 miles. Example (2): Conductor through freight: 2,950 miles at 4 cents, at new rate, would entitle him to 4.82 cents, or.. $142. 19 118.00 He was paid 24.19 Leaving to be paid He made 26 hours and 10 minutes overtime, equivalent, on basis of 121 miles per hour, to 327 miles, which, at the increased rate of 4.82 cents 15.76 per mile, entitles him to 13.08 Was paid, at 4 cents per mile A difference of One month Five months  2.68 26.87 134.35  This principle will apply to all employees of the train and engine service who are paid on the mileage basis. There are some railroads in the United States upon which men in the train and engine service are paid on a monthly wage. Such employees will be entitled to the increased rates named in Article 2, section A. (5) Since the application of the increases hereby granted will tend in individual cases to give increases greater than is appropriate or necessary to those train and engine men who make abnormal amounts of mileage and who, therefore, make already abnormally high monthly earnings, the officials of each railroad shall take up with the respective committees of train and engine men the limitation of mileage made per month by employees paid upon a mileage basis, so as to prevent employees now making such abnormal mileage profiting by the wage increases herein fixed greatly in excess of employees habitually making a normal amount of mileage. It shall be understood that any such limitation of mileage so arrived at shall not preclude the officials of a railroad from requiring a train or engine man to make mileage in excess of this limitation when the necessities of the service require it. The officials of each railroad will report to the Regional Director such arrangements agreed upon and any cases of failure to reach such agreements. Section F.—GENERAL RULES FOR APPLICATION OF WAGE INCREASES.  (1) In the application of the scale the wage runs with the place. If in the past two years an employee has been promoted, his new wage is based upon the rate of increase applicable to the new schedule governing the position to which he has been promoted. (2) In applying these percentages to the hourly, daily, monthly, or mileage rates for December, 1915, in order to determine the rates to be applied, beginning January 1, 1918, each decimal fraction over 1 per cent shall be equalized as follows: Less than one-fourth of 1 per cent, as one-fourth of 1 per cent. Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  21 Over one-fourth of 1 per cent, but less than one-half of 1 per cent, as one-half of 1 per cent. Over one-half of 1 per cent, but less than three-fourths of 1 per cent, as three-fourths of 1 per cent. Over three-fourths of 1 per cent, as 1 per cent. (3) These increases are to be applied to the rates of wages in effect on December 31, 1915. They do not represent a net increase at this time. (4) As to the employee who may have been promoted since December 31, 1915, his increase will be based upon the rate of his present position as of December 31, 1915. (5) As to the employee who has been reduced in position, his increase will be based upon the rate of his present position as of December 31, 1915. (6) The new rates named herein, where they are higher than the rates in effect on January 1, 1918, will be applied to the occupants of positions that carried the rates in December, 1915. (7) In those cases where increases have been made by the railroads since December 31, 1915, in excess of the amounts herein ordered, present wages shall apply, for in no instance shall the application hereof operate to reduce present rate's of pay. (8) Reductions in hours between December 31, 1915, and January 1, 1918, are not to be regarded as increases in pay. (9) The wage increases provided for herein shall be effective as of January 1, 1918, and are to be paid according to the time served to all who were then in the railroad service or who have come into such service since and remained therein. The proper ratable amount shall also be paid to those who have been for any reason since January 1, 1918, dismissed from the service, but shall not he paid to those who have left it voluntarily. Men who have left the railroads to enter the Army or Navy shall be entitled to the pro rata increases accruing on their wages up to the time they left, and the same rule shall apply to those who have passed from one branch of the railroad service or from one road to another. (10) This order applies to foremen, chief clerks, and others employed in a supervisory capacity, as well as to their subordinates. (11) This order shall be construed te apply to employees of railroads operating ferries, tugboats,lighters, barges, and any other floating equipment operated as terminal or transfer facilities, but shall not be construed as applying to railroad employees on cargo and passenger carrying equipment on lakes, rivers, or in coastwise or ocean traffic. (12) The provisions of this order will not apply in cases where amounts less than $30 per month are paid to individuals for special service which takes only a portion of their time from outside employment or business. Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  22 (13) Office boys, messengers, chore boys, and similar positions filled by employees who are under 18 years of age will receive the following increase per month: $20 increase per month where December, 1915, rate was from $30 to $45 per month. $15 increase per month where December, 1915, rate was from $20 to $30 per month. $10 increase per month where December, 1915, rate was less than $20 per month. ARTICLE III.—RULES GOVERNING CONDITIONS OF EMPLOYMENT. Section (a).—THE BASIC EIGHT-HOUR DAY.  The principle of the basic eight-hour day is hereby recognized. Where employees are paid upon a daily or monthly basis, the new compensation herein established will apply to the number of hours which have heretofore constituted the actual day's work. For example, where an actual day's work has been 10 hours, the new cornpensakion will cover the 8 basic hours and 2 hours overtime. Additional overtime will be paid pro rata. METHOD OF APPLYING BASIC EIGHT-HOUR-DAY RULES.  (1) Position which in December, 1915, paid $2 per 9-hour day: Old rate, $2 per day. New rate, $2.51 for 8-hour basic day. Overtime, 31.4 cents per hour. New rate, $2.83 for 9-hour service; 83 cents increase. (2) Position which in December, 1915, paid $2.40 per 10-hour day: Old rate, $2.40 per day. New rate, $2.70 for 8-hour basic day. Overtime, $0.68-2 hours, at 34 cents per hour. New rate, $3.38 for 10-hour service; 98 cents increase. (3) Position which in December, 1915, paid $75 per month, working 10 hours per day for 26 working days: Old rate, $75 per month. New rate, $84.60 per month basic 8-hour day. Overtime, $21.15-52 hours, at 40.67 cents per hour. New rate, $105.75 for same service; increase, $30.75. (4) Position which in December, 1915, paid $100 per month, working 11 hours per day for 31 working days: Old rate, $100 per month. New rate, $95.82 per month basic 8-hour day. Overtime, $35.93-93 hours, at 38.64 cents per hour. New rate, $131.75 for same service; increase, $31.75. Section (b).—RATES OF PAY FOR OVERTIME.  This order shall not affect any existing agreements or practices for the payment of higher rates of pay for time worked in excess of any standard day. Time worked in excess of the basic eight-hour day hereby established will, when there is no existing agreement or practice more favorable to the employee, be paid on a pro rata basis, as indicated in section (a) of this article. Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  23 Section (c).—NO REDUCTION IN TOTAL INCREASE.  Pending consideration by the Board of Railroad Wages and Working Conditions hereinafter provided for, no reduction in the actual hours constituting a day's work shall operate to deprive any employee, paid by the day or month, of the total increase in pay granted him by this order. ARTICLE IV.—PAYMENTS FOR BACK TIME. Each railroad will, in payments made to employees on and after Juno 1, 1918, include these increases therein. As promptly as possible, the amount due in back pay from January 1, 1918, in accordance with the provision of this order, will be computed and payment made to employees separately from the regular monthly payments, so that employees will know the exact amount of these back payments. Recognizing the clerical work necessary to make these computations for back pay and the probable delay before the entire period can be covered, each month, beginning with January, shall be computed as soon as practicable and, as soon as completed, payment shall be made. ARTICLE V.—EMPLOYMENT OF WOMEN. When women are employed, their working conditions must be healthful and fitted to their needs. The laws enacted for the government of their employment must be observed and their pay, when they do the "same class of work as men, shall be the same as that of men. ARTICLE VI.—COLORED FIREMEN, TRAINMEN AND SWITCHMEN. Effective June 1, 1918, colored men employed as firemen, trainmen and switchmen shall be paid the same rates of wages as are paid white men in the same capacities. Back pay for period January 1, 1918, to May 31, 1918, will be based only upon the increases provided in Article II of this order for such positions. Back payments will not apply to the further increased rate made effective by this Article. ARTICLE VII.—BOARD OF RAILROAD WAGES AND WORKING CONDITIONS. There is hereby created a Board of Railroad Wages and Working Conditions which shall consist of the following members: J. J. DElimony, F. F. GAINES, C. E. LINDSEY, W. E. MORSE, G. II. SINES, A. O. WHARTON. Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  24 This Board shall at once establish an office at Washington, D. C., and meet for organization and elect a Chairman and Vice Chairman, one of whom shall preside at meetings of the Board. It shall be the duty of the Board to hear and investigate matters presented by. railroad employees or their tepresentatives affecting, (1) Inequalities as to wages and working conditions whether as to individual employees or classes of employees. (2) Conditions arising from competition with employees in other industries. (3) Rules and working conditions for the several classes of employees, either for the country as a whole or for different parts of the country. The Board shall also hear and investigate other matters affecting wages and conditions of employment referred to it by the Director General. This Board shall be solely an advisory body and shall submit its recommendations to the Director General for his determination. ARTICLE VIM—INTERPRETATIONS OF THIS ORDER. Railway Board of Adjustment No. 1 is authorized by Article 9 of General Order No. 13 to perform the following duty: Wages and hours, when fixed by the Director General, shall be incorporated into existing agreements on the several railroads, and should differences arise between the management and the employees of any of the railroads as to such incorporation, such questions of difference shall be decided by the Railway Board of Adjustment No. 1, when properly presented, subject always to review by the Director General.  In addition to the foregoing, other questions arising as to the intent or application of this order in respect to the classes of employees within the scope of Railway Board of Adjustment No. 1 shall be submitted to such Board, which Board shall investigate and report its recommendations to the Director General. Similiar authority may be conferred on any additional Railway Board of Adjustment hereafter created. Decisions shall not be rendered by such Boards until after approval by the Director General. Prior to the creation of additional Railway Boards of Adjustment to deal with questions as to the intent or application of this order as it affects any other class of employees,such questions, with respect to such employees, shall be presented to the Director of the Division of Labor, United States Railroad Administration, Washington, D. C. W. G. McADOO, Director General of Railroads. Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  0 Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  :  _  r Arr.  u  h  th  ,- y  the :1 --sit _  r,  7  c  r,  •  1. al  i1C3  ..y  :t•  .  ir rr')to thErn.  I  _•)n  ih  u1-3- -ra,o-nt  •-• 1th  . •  • t .i. I  t  t,er  ..  • 1, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  AtiAINSI ui 10 UNIFORM IN SERVICE OF UNCLE SAM  ir A.4  ti ti  Ir  S. D. Mi FRS Refused a place in the government service when he volunteered at the outbreak of the war, and told that he could serve his country best by stickIng. to his business, was the experience of S. D. Myres, now in Dallas attending the Cattle Raisers' Convention. Twenty-one years ago, when Mr. s Myres located at Sweetwater, Texas, the place was a typical Western town, with real rattlesnakes, wild cowboys f_ iand nimble prairie dogs in full evidence: Myres engaged in saddle making j a small way, using the back of a local hardware store as his shop. He had the advantage of being a journey• man, having served a regular apprenticeship, and by honest dealing and ( superior workmanship his business (i • rapidly increased, until it is t one of Texas' largest plants making strictly high grade saddles. • Myres has made some of the most widely known saddles of the past twenty years, notably the $20,000 saddle used by J. C. Miller in the 101 Wild West show. Myres has twice been mayor of his lie me city, and during his administratiOns the beautiful and permanent street which characterizes Sweetwater was constructed. When the United States entered the war Mr. Myres learned that practical mechanics of all kinds were wanted in the ordnance department, and volunteered his services. He was informed that he could serve best by makitig cavalry saddles. He has been producing three times the number of saddles required of his plant, and they are said to be of the highest grade and finish, such as United Slates cavalrymen should have. G. P. Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  a Million" ima in Six Reels. nd Screen Telegram. Y GARDINER,"The Human Fly," will the Old Mill on his climbing 30, 4, 8:30 and 10 p. m.  DRONE irsday Matinee, Friday and Saturday  I to War Relief Fund Wounded Soldier, : in Texas.  'Follies" Beauties OF THE SEASON  20  BIG TIME VAUDEVILLE STIRS  KENNETH A. O'HARA  •  MILITAIRE AUDEVILLE REVUE C.elly Field Orchestra I  Seats Now at Field-Lippman's and Hippodrome Theater.  g Sunday, March 24  LAST RAID AND IN,- Anti  ernmionit  Si A C ow  e  114-411; 1t-11BOY S UPPLIES  -5 (4  (  WEETWATER TEXAS  _•(  •  t.  -  F  2 , Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  C  • aA)  LL  e  3 )/3 a4 2  7 } J J-  SAvni)LE Cow Bow S vpmEs e3WEETWATER,TEXAS 4  2f/t  ) -14,l-i-x-42  ,LL7ez_40  ct_ r , tot e ( a,t,t cL •  CLA 4,-64 eCeZt-t-c2ute,OA cLq'a-tA d i41 11 •"/".c.t,  ?Alt tc-tetAi,  (1-t au.?  4  11LA ' 1.`  1  )-c.,t,t-t_t  (i td)4  a_AA.(C  A.  eik  IC,46-tLA  t__L AA-4  lit  •A k  OIXA-  ) -ei ea.L...1.•  I  f1  "--..61-6/ .L6  tvitt 1I  4-1) (1 .(7 tA  A_Jc4 44t  ft.AAA‘fr-s-A4-. L,u------L. .--t,LA.A. ,  CtLi 4.4 A.A4itLA-'4.atd LIIA'614 )1 M'l t t ' . e.00.-'(.1)Tet _„461 ), -•. /40-10)%, e .e.... A l ' 14, „ ,..4,....0 CrLAA''' (--?).4-; , cat akt ig.kJ.64iL4-1 i ZII-?  1/ e‘lil  et 2WL cAlt, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  tAJLA_A I  '  ,-&-fvle. d..0-4..4,140  d144,0  a4.4L. -14-€.1 f  44.k.  e. A  -t_kA fi  A&A1id  Ld jj  4  4)  4A A  0  oi/,),„'A  d  , at  Pk -111 -f  I  4 t , 4  c7/14/1  (AP  .4UL -kA.L  --Co•--1-A-- et 1 )T 14—M—A-A  (  W27t  LA Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Ire,- et.7 f I  UQtkp 4--C-e/t1 1 10 tAi/ 0-4*-A  IAA  ‘ etti -k-  ;  fri Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  _  Mrs. L. 8. Carley, P)catello,  Set)tember Z,  My receive r  yomr lettn' of August 19th and as greatly  in •..1i y-u have to eay in regard to the labor situation  in vur city.  Your c.)nditions there xre similar to fanny other  citi:- thr)ut hout this islot-tin I thr,uph  ur-,  n . the L,Dv - rnalnt  rni-.,tly trying t.  tte  ts: ths  injutic  m :1.! t 3rnni7in6  rto  Lre  t ill the -- €m in ycur ,ity unin  Lh•t they will ')z th%m  ii.. D6  re  th_t the 1:Jmen  in  c-11-ctively  rm 1 - nt h  f  i.ttn it l  the  L  . 111.)r  ething y  If there is 3i3crimin ticn 3h3n  •.  iv  h y bs.v9  riOat to put th6 ch,se  ' y uj1 in it  l'uncti  c.. y .wero  the  -r Labor Bord  1 driaciplt's i:,overnine  EruA, t  i underin6  4 ,f  N.  A  -nt  in Indu tri Service.  Pocatello, I Lhe. Aug. 19th.1218. is Mary Anderson, Womans' Division of the Dept. Tashington.  of Labcr.  D.C.  Dear T.,1iss Anderson: I have befc-e me a ccpy of "Life ana Labor" of the issue of Aug. 'his year, aref, I am locking into your face, as into the face of a sister, and epeakine *0 , you as ene whose squice is so next' tc the hearts of hundreds ot thousands or women of Leeie great naticn facing the problems of combattng a force which threatens us jointly in the future enjoyment of the security of our Republic and the happiness of its millions of homes with the civilization of the etit re world in jeopardy, at the "hands of a oom.Aon foe of civilieaticn. America has received in kindneee and brotherliness as - itieene by adcptioe and by bitth eany who have beenfound wanting in that spirit of righteousness and brotherliness which should mark a citizen in deed as well as in word. Every part of our domain has been violated by those who uncir the cover of words have loaned themselves siducuily and actively to creating conditions which have aided , and abetted and given comfort and aid. to the comon foe of civilization. We in this city and state have been no exception. Idaho, ae a state has been peculiarly positioned in its greet woman struggle for proper hours and working conditions, vith adequate wage, beceuse of the fact. that no one industry empleyed encugh eomen tc make possible an ore nizatior which eould permit them to unite in a ccmecn effcrt to secure the adoption of measures tending to protection, and to adapt the working condition to the woman; to surrcund them with the safeguards necessary tc promote their health and mcral standards, and to geent them economic justice, Allah shall ever maintain the equity between them and their Prother Man in the wage markets of the state, -particularly now that the stress of war, and the home necessities have driven our women into the shops and eleewhere ir position and work formerly empl ying men only. Thus- the women cf Pocate]lo, employed in the shops dna cther departments of labor, are now making an attempt tc org,nise a Torking Trade Union Coe .ittee, that they may have some adequate means of protecting themselves in all ways- and of bettering their conditicn as wage earners, and aiding our Government in its riiAr activities thus actuated in behalf of all labor and all Governments that civilization may be presenyed, and the world made safe for panecracy and the victory of lasting peace secured to all th world. These women have realized that conditions under which they are employed lack much to be desired, end that only by orgenization would thy be able to secure tl.ose inherent rights granted to citizens of this Great Republic under our Inspired Constitution, and recognised by those executadg the same, as officials clothed with ITS authority. They have attempted to organize, and have been intimidated, until many anxious woman wage earner does not dare to make the attempt to unite with the little body cf women who have put their shoulder to the ':;heel to thus better cerve their country, by havine a voice in eaterrround them in the service of theiT mining the conditions which shall labor, to the Government and their families at this critical time in -aticnal events. eTany of these workers have read in the press of Government issues of the desire of the dovernment to extend such relief, relating to the hours of labor- the a,2aptioe of the work to woman, and of proper safeeuarde and conditions surrcundirg them in that service, and while they desire to avail themselves of the protection cf th, Cceernment upon these _atters, are not only intilated.4 but being discharged, for rc other in the reedon than daring to "nioniee, while cethere have been recorde4 are local paper, as bging entirely satisfied with the conaetions as A-)ey the ir.1 women the which to an0 not-eith-standing tkie evils which exist stops are forced daily to tolerate, amag which is cursing by cfficer Them wpmen, j am told high in command concerning work and employees. The cteiged to particulars. in , this men thfrom g y,Wvexceted lo women. "e sameindignities es (The night Mr Paquin was here with us- over 200 shop men signed up to uni.on- yet n9t one word In the paper about this-tut thatMr.ft gave him '4 mosb coraia4 aamission to tne sh3psetcrr, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  it is to be regretted that the press of Pocatello, hag failed to make known to the reading public the effort of Labor, to assist the Government by means afforded ehru organizef efficiency, and protected wage earners, but we presume that intiaidatier of the paper trust , at the hands of foreign Monied interests have practically subsidized the majority of the publications of our land, so that they are unable to rublish any news relative to the interest of either the tax payer- business Ian cr wags earner, hence we excuse our local paper, that it way secure its print paper, to do an well in recording the real news, as it does. However, we doubt the entire candor of the wage earner who has been thur reported, as being free , also from irtinidations and threats or cther -lements not of a free agency. Yet cnly this, but , high cfficiale eo so far as to deny tc the re-eresentitives of the Government, I urnleretend, a rigit to personally visit the shops , that the conditions coplained of by the men employed may be investigated and observed by such officials. A young man this mornine told me personally that he had heard the Pfailway official enquire how eert,in Government Agents had secure q pdrilissio to th- hcps- that he sht post the inlards akainst such IM.VtiVtl ie the future. He also ve0fiec suatement pmners hal reue rep.rlaing e usive eangnage ana cursine indulged in by another 0 fecial 1-10 aiiway - tcwara snop men ene wcmen.  Ti  Personally, T believe the situation here, to require the close and ie:o-ar-tial investigation of proper authorities in behalf of the woman , not onle In the shops - but generally. Just hcw that can be done, I am'unable to suggest, in as much as there is not a woman here whc has had any experience in meeting such prcblems, whc is qa-lified as an experienced cre,_niztr or able to take her time to make Proper arid thou' investigations in an in tellegent manner, entirely i me)arlfal ana just. chair woman of That is just the question that ccnfrcnte me rersonally that Com:Attee, :ikiLe investie tions upon my own Thile I have had much exparierce in irtitative ir behalf of the public and th Govrnment, I have et those times been able to spare both time and mcney for such work, while new must work constantly to meet the payment of past services, an live. 70'e-ever e as the men aee Uniclizirg, we nay be able to acquire strensth Etna aid from them, to meet :nis condition and that eventually an adjuetment can be atteined which will safeguard any hostility on either side, which shall in any eise disturb the functions of continued operation of and duties Qf Labor to the Goveenmeztt in th:' management and execntion of railway traffic matters, 7ut I feel sure that tells joint investigation must come scon, that labor may not be deprived of serving the Government eith all its heart and brawn, intent and devotion. The ecIditions of open shop have made of Poc-lello a place of constant anxiety to business men as well as all classes of population, because unorganized, a floatif_e populatice wao kept ceestantly pouring thru this state-ehich has brot its evils cf many kinds, and race pcssible the icwer-ing of wage scale and standards of labor, which makes for a full day well served and recompensed. Taxes have ,n-opt up ee the taxpayers- and evils unmentionable have festeren In cur courts and public life,and citenzry has been penalized end pauper lzed by enferced subjugation of justice and equity to open evasions et' uhe law, vJiie our town has been the victim of floods of uneclucated are' foreign labor, equally incompetant- to whom wages often exceeding that paid far better skill received far less and to ehite men, with families and who , eventually has been forced to move on,because the barest existance of starvatien wage was afforded'. by the management of the C S L RY. These and many more hear siclePiing things came to my ears, as I heard day by day the stories cf labor- whc came tc me. in Ty former employment as a salaried loan agent, which place I cccuried for lt, that I might learn eh , truth about labor- and help solve The problem of Idaho ana its peol.dies. , I found the conworking along the raZwkly %her I came frOL enver here, Tomv working h?re, 1, e foul I as heartrer:ing, -pticne of labor as o_ licentious insults the to submit to le hours and more, and compelled,beftred"if with -cndi, they resented men- also in the same mploy- or best in is to destroying all that whal'v tendinz tiore of eewlcvment n. t nearbodiiy or woman- to say notning hand of Imperial to Eeyver was te uncover the 7ederal Govt. 7,11r self atpeJ.nted mission uloheavals the help to 1914 in t nos E, labolemany .c fee._ Ih: rgai.n2t . together ania capita ists ana labor -to get conalion of labor cuulying the studying to Priod eelked I Ila?‘ sr,ent b 14ionthe which fer-er,pi-ue I come aru ,apitai froa Fapid ulty ,S Dak and Omaha, had I needed. if L'eUver, to go o as a waitress, to get the meney I recognise as the western from Puget Soun,;. and Portland rregon, which Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  adquarters of Prussian Money power, and the source from which emeeetea che many activities directly affecting labor in Idaho, as well as other important functions. and agriIdaho with its wealth of power and resources of Mine- eeezine cution perse icus be malic to rs appea what by red hinde culture has been of all most but , en of citiz and prosecution sbich endengers @verY class ed. cred:t are the wage workers, for it is thru them that these ;onditione not been pes-ittad to Idaho waEe sorkees feel thesefore that they have defense ef our homes great its in t -nmen render the service to our Gove e to bring themselves desir They wish. would. they as ies, IiIrt and lives this constant , which iency effic and ce servi of state up to the highest them, as home makers, and taxdenial of personal rights inflicts upon BY Wic8e acte deprives our thcse of payers and citizens, at the bands aid to win the war and snu ce servi -Golsernment of their full desire of following must bring. tment adjus the which , peace after ward to win the society, and What ever destroys the home- destroys the Government and with them civilization. an official of th: 0 Te hear rusors that a certA.n citizen sho is also take steps to rise would remarked that if labor unionized- that gthey ced. Pork has be advan would livin of cost the and them, rents upon they sould have say rs ‘ieale sdvenceU from 31t te 39d Waolesele, and local have refused to buy, of nsder to have from 5o Lo 75 9 fer the same- and updo nct knyw how far this threat has beet T actea Packers and shiprers, am as , while worth ry enssi slake to -on as I ate net in s position or opporturityN to Inform employed all day long, and have very little time an tsxes are rents s and price that fact the and sd rumor myeelf beycn ello. Pocat in all known tc be very high the trein men in 17:ct onls have th- shop men been unjustly tr eted- buttreci ble to a few are directly softie respects, and scat of these thingsor ement of the manag nment Gover officials, sct in syppathy si2e labsr railways. spirit of op osition, cr Personally, I can see nc way to r.luee this railways- and labor secure adequate justice to the stock-hclders of the and Gcvernment themof employed by them- ; cr to the public as users Gcvernment should the that but these of all over which hae sovreignty ement even mssnag rate corpo of ses premi the be clothed with assisority in tha-t at this time actuating its position of grester eieniricance than aomiesation of Amin the matter or to effectually remove this foreignout Constitution to by enlarging -merican Injustry and pecples, save of the same, by an enableing act cing Finan nment Gover t dirsc provide for money, legal tender which grants the right of issuing a Pepresentitiva n- issued in the specific e natio Fivate of this ratio sions for all debts public and corper tions of such dimen by the Ocvernmen, of the Bon purcha all irtervine recei nment Gover the tion; valua sed upon the basis of asses installment payments of principle. est upon same. ae well as s out of the hanas the railways and all corporate bodie Tbia act eould tske finan . ly thrust plai thus ciers, whose agents are or foreign or other arid other ia Pruss e, servin of pose American upcn ,corperetions for the expreespur our ct prote est not American. It would also se vast of sums foreign monied inter relea and on ulati s 'sae:sers and Banks from foreign manip sicie gnibe forei and lieuidation of oblisaticens by direct strengh& foreign trade ffieIal for a mines mines aIl goio our n and rode way tc affcrdir (; t,,s eend Bond —agency. of a Governmentsowned_andeoneratedsmoney rence betweel diffe the to S U the of nge medium which tion, It sio4d increase the excha valua rate corpo thaI Os our present exchange and that of the ased incre for d deman labor would enable the corporations to MEET the an inccme,direct TO the Governwage, while correspondingly providing forirlz live It BillionDPT arrUn -mert which would probably provide soreth and taxpayer and producer that sumng leplair4y reducing the taxes of the e winni the end the to e to pursu leY aadine ts the power of the peopl of lhist war. this country and d powers now operating in while also This would deal to Orussi n Monie armsof as great as any victory all oqers- a death blowstrengnening our arms . ns man in ev ry land, because all natio THE in t marke a for de provi wquld It ions te a Parliment of sa 'nay ec liesewise- aria thereupon- be able to promo na natio inter for , .",oney nal natio Inter ns w c nay spring 4 similar fros which that parliment of natio of trmae uses- and defraying the expenses oftrade ions relat other and upon ns Natio of il ccunc war the the in es sit aft shall even the Peace eiv lized esecr-les that s. naticns and half fe won, ir'rithtwOusnes is won- may also for this T cannot forset that when the Central Powes- tried to frsme my all ethat schem rank e' centr a sagent ts n natio threi our ncedefia that of out and body, I defied that power- and that th- US save has which , risen has m presvnt sreat sepional Bank syste -co tsis  tpA Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  all t4t earnestness and desire to dc only that which is just; to eerve all that is good and useful have I pursued ey ccurse to serve 4 Government ane this nation, as a simple citizen shc respects and honor,: them both; Who knoes no weariness of heart, or lair v of body to serve to the best of y ability to the end of gaining equity to all concerned, and as little harm fe any, as may be pcseiblea - othat.onlv al I serve also enjoy tht fruits of citizens may e secure this for my fellow labcr and prosperity mingled with peace fcr all tht wcrld. Victory for righteous Arms cr the battle field clothed with that Love which springs from 'Brotherhood, Dlended upoe equity, and enforced by statutes recognisini the Value of Man, as Gode' great ,.reatioe- and the Earth his jeelling place, made an abode not cnly fitting for Gods' Creature Man- but also the Divirit:' made flesh. I now ask consideration for a Re resentitive money- by wl,ich the greatest Corporation known to mankind- a Government- may be cicthed with the power and authority to repre,elet all the people ALL of the time, and to grant it the right to perform the fun2tions which shall make a living fact the n 1 .4. 1 y that very act- not only win the war- but x,i .u eopns , aal G'tlarap,tee, Lior win ,n peaee, oteulier Witflize own source of mair,tniace from performing all f th, functions and powers of Government, for its people.for enich it was ete. grea d I predict that th2 income from Bond Purchases bade by our qovernment of within QUY Cwn Corporate _enterprises, of a public utility nature- will 'eo years arler sucn adop-tion,vield TilinaWinaniFtR8 a maintence fun -1 to the Governmentmost remote corner of the earth, with all nations as well as cur own. That, th,=, Flag of our beloved eountry- will be honored abeve all other Flags, because of that great act- assuring the removing of the cause for all wars, which is 7sury. This week a man whc is a railway train man -gf icte in th- union, called b upce the issues- 2po,occ and remarlred that where they stood in Sept vetrong rcr a uovernment owned money - that caay- Leney exceeded tnat sum 'total, and that it would only be a matter of time- when the Government the must act up9,e tLis Ytal point- to eave itself and or nation fr_em it,ena iabier ane: eapitai at tne nanas of Finance Kings piundering . u'erace mhich threatens aworld peace- and eittine behind th: Prussia, DamoclIcy frce att-A!.inc; taat encl. te me, A row eonths ago- a represertitive of capital made thet same remark coming me4e.y ilueeree eeLles to aay that te me, ene (2-•• a_olc,iee for failure to reeognise my lcyal service to the citizens sooner- and to the Government, that I- mie,;ht now be prepared to have met wit greater dispatch the emereeecy of war to defend cur s.lves - while we mcved to legislate thee t actg. e Gcvernment ceLed !soney in circulation, white slavery cola,: not exist; impoverishment of labor- or esabarassment of Ocrportioes for finance and depression of securities would be i.apossible. The iar'eet t111%.A which is in THE fflan would be established, and great prosperity eerand functions to paternal tall eovernmen provide affluence of the -vice for its peoples. the land the I predict under such adoption- the greatest stampede to participa te will bankers even thet so great known ever world has which business, banking the over t take to GovernMen and will compel ale additicnal incomes to Government powers of representation _ill acid and reclaimation of both Man and the earth to civilization. of even It can be aecolished without a panic- or depreciating values to loss without retired be can which our present eionitary mediums, buddens, tax ore e . still g decreasin thereby citizens, and bankers the iIch must ineci1th ProueIn powers of the nation. -- —111 eaticealiz2 cue Ccrperete ereaticns called railways .etc, -ut 7iss Anclerecn, Thy have T mentioned this greater sueect, when I your set down to tell you about Poce'ellc and its conditions- tc ask presented iticns L con, the overcome pueulal sug,:_eetions as to how we can have nct if ,."1-cn seems well rilih impoeeible to get them tcgetherende.7yor best .our intliition that behind also re-eimised wit me wcm ns' tely than all detertnina more cenyint power inancial stood tit unseen else cur riht, and with a womans' fearlessness, I have defied them cause for wars- Usury, which and struck boldly at the root of the sources of movernme4t erruge oheinsubt comPells Taxes and all its just powers or Governof t support, which deprives the Governmen before its -ing a people, and representing them equally in justice bars of judgement. advance to Usury destroys the market in the man- for as taxes cost of living maintain usurous exchange systems- so also advances Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  until a time comes when such an nation cannot consume what they have created by corporate powers; then to make up the deficit, prices are raised- and finally - even the producing powers are impaired. when ware for trade are instituted by Money Rings to collect the interest on rsury and the principle- when ensues all that we today witness. Everywhere riots for food- everywhere advancing prices- and correspondingly advancing taxes. Wars- and famine stalk the land chaos retms in every place sind every industry. Woman like- I cannot deal with symptoms when civilization stands upon the brink of the precipice of world distruction, at the hands of Shylock who now demands the pound of flesh nearest the hearts of the women of the world- our fathers- our sons our brothers- and husbands- either in the industries or battle field- while usuruy holds high carnival in the seat of finance - and topples over Governments as a child topples over the house made of blocks in the nursery. I must deal with the?2 CAUSY. The mother love of all women- must sense the crime of Usury- and stand defiant upon the demands of shylock who stands at tte door of every Governments Treasury ; and snarls at the gate of industry while it barters the sacredness of womanhood upon its unholy altar of usury as lustily in this century and hour as it did when Rome fell - or Jerusalem the great city- met her fate in centuriss long passed. I demand a dollar which represents the value of Man- Odds' Greatest Creation, and the abolishment of the power of Shyloct ofer this nation and all others. An Electric Dollar for an Electric Regional sank engine- that the fluid values of Man values may circulate in the arteries of this Government - and reach the veins of commerce that it may stimulate the GREAT HEART - OUR GRVIMMENT in this its great hour of peril and of World Saving. What is a Government but the phild of Society, which we have created to represent and protect us- and which as yet we are using the trans-fusion of blood method to sustain such creation: How long before such a foolish method must destroy both parent and child! Yet - I - stand before you- only a woman - who realizes that only as the masses are able to understand, can we expect advancement of civilization and the powers by which it is sustained as laws-. I await - your understanding of this my most feeble arraignment of Usury which is the cause for wars- and of a way to remove that cause, knowing that as you shall think- so shall it be done, that r cannot expect adoption of these things- unless there be at least numbest* to support them, and the time to forward them for adoptio n. Is my life to be in vain ? Is the labor of my hands and brain which Las stood firmly behind many of the mOst importa nt incidents of national preservation - to come to a time and place where all I have wrought, shall fail to secure the prize of Victcry of Arms and of a just and lasting peace ? is my hope to be frtstrated by inaction or failure of the masses to rally to forestalling the Revilution of starvi4; millions who may starve because of this antequa ted money money system which destroys both the soonsuming and creatin g powers of nations? Shall the hope of thousands of men who have dared to say they would deeett all other causes- for that of a Sound Dollar. to be accounted as nothing in the scale of human concept? Tearshunger and want abound. I would fill the empty hands of labor and capital - and of the Government with power that all that is just and kindly to mankind might be granted, not in charity- but as a human right, Divinely ordered. America', Land of the noble Free, your mission to the many mother lands is plain' Women of America: Mothers of these brave men- to you I appeal- that your ears may be opened and your understnding awakened, before it is too late: Miss Anderson- a few years ago, I stood before an audience of seiOral hundred in a western house of Worship -at their command- I delivered a message which rang around the world the the subsidized press never lent their aid. Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  that -I planted that message as a preeious seed of Liberty and Truthsorrows some day- it wibuld be watered with the affliction of many .and out of that seeding and sorrow- grow up tc be a great towring three from whose branches would bloom the seed of this salvation. Then I disappeared from their midst-. Nu longer was the writer and midst creator of Advertising and Land occupation to be found in their (the later) or the Government to find me there - but elsewhere - they have followed the mere woman who dared to meet Shylock on his own 'ground- and defy him- in word and deed in behalf of the people and Government whose kindly protection I have enjoyed. C`)  My employer is about to close his business out, and I am anxious to see the women well organized before I return to the roast. Tho the Union men say I must remain - yet a while- and help them \‘ get these women organized- that I am needed sorely, all of which '"I recognise, and I want to know the best way to procede to serve them. because Idaho is the state lying immediately behind Oregon have selected to organize to come to the J and washington- which support of the Government in a national crisis in Finance or War. I am well known in the Coast- .tho I have been absent 3 yrs.4 monts yet many of my Pocatello Ry Boys are there in the service- and many in the trenches of rurope. My first duty is to these women as wage earners- and to those who may be forced into the wage world by the next draft now approaching. and as I have intimated - conditions here in the railway shops could be greatly improved if we can get organized- and without any trouble whatever, in spite of their attempt to discharge all union womenand thereby intimidate the men also. I wish to offer an appolOgy for my letter in its appearance, for much of it was written while waiting upon customers- phone and perhaps a half a hundred other interruptions, and the fact that the machine at the store is not in good condition as my own. •  4\ 1 /  \\•  This letter is not intended as an official letter, but one of seeking counsel on my part for i have hitherto worked all alone and had no need to familiarize myself with organization methods or to carry the weight of numbers, tho I have directed labor at work on big ranches and solved problems of development of resources and financing, together with rallying all of th-se to the building up of national defense, particularly in the N W Pacific. I have been selected for many important functions for the people and Government at various times and places- but this is my fiTst attempt to help organize the wage workers. The securing of at Million for coast defense was far easier than this to me, or the foiling of Prussian agents in Oregon and the Puget Sound less difficult . I landed in Oregon during the Land fraud cases - and saw much service  am just finishing reading a law course, as an aid to understanding \'‘.problems of legal significance in National and International Laws `•,, N cl yet to be framed. ' • , I am employed in a store- therefore have no pe -sonal knowledge or 1, immediate contact with the women in the shops- while I am so welJ known that the Supt - who fears and hates me would never permit me to be employed there. Oh. I wish I could talk as your organizers can talk and use your arguments- but- mine are dressed up in clothes to educate the other half of industry to take the hand of labor in its own- for their cause is A CoAnon cause. Thank God for the warm hand clasp of uncle Sam with tabor- which now permits me to join owe its them ir defence Plf oft Flag and nation- even caDital will security to LAtiOrt as i toia them long ago, is they railea to see the dangers of a private owned and issued money- compelling taxes for Govrnment maintance. Those capitalists have sat witn their knees against my humble desk- to ask my aid- and counsel- and I Have pointed calmly to Labor Rights and a Sound DOCar -so Uncle Sam could have a -Teal income of His own ,some day,- and they- be free also from ursurY rourB rraternally. Mrs. L S Carley  Box 783 pocatello, Idaho (I was born and reared upon a farm)  4, I  Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  unlich+Ar tht. the L.,-)v-rnmnt  Mt aec.u .- g: of y)ur  th t  ortr,thinf,  C3nn-ctiout.  I  th..1 cn'y ,ne  .,.,%en of N=1.te,-i,u,-!,  Nhc  to ,gr-f-, sith yau th,at th.A  m  The War L-Jbor 3oar' at* ;hich Ir. T-ft j,)int chtdrmen,  the ,gency thru, h -.hich the .,:l:vernm,..nt  ,. ttlr,- the 1, .or ,4 1fliutc,F,  thb  nu h vc n) ouot  ere ,b - ut Bri4e'ort, ,C;onn.3cticut, _n  hov thi .  -: I n120  order out of chr,- in r.h-t city, lie  trying getting -tt  mesaur& of jurtictl far thti mtn  emdloy, 1 in tht, e esonti, 1 cl.r I belivc, th-t - ity.  Mr. ITPLI.L,h  rolen  .  le Allt ou_ht t , hq der_ in your  It w -uld only q very few ?c,i,:yle taa  tJ  their comAttints before the Ihlt- L9bor 6Bo'xf:, thr;t -oull taen be in . ;.,osition to u: :iv. whole  ue.4tion.  I da not knov bow fAr you -AEht tvi 101, to hl, ta ,t sIL ituittion.  If you c.)111.1 L ive ciny held I :111 3ure thf,t, the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  , _,18.  2, iT . 3r very ,r:tcful t 7  r • .n1 ho  tr,clo. nKinL y.0  , Li he:-x fruu  ru.  t tE.L.nt  th%  ,a: ca—)  vur in  Jf 7,12%  „f  .70iti_n7.- in th.: 71unit1.-n  V,ry  LV,6H5A, Lirect,r, W:r1,tn in InduFtr!  4r. 114d n L. ,r-un7ictl, AVF, • H .•r.uryt  r  COUNCIL OF NATIONAL DEFENSE WASHINGTON  WOMAN'S COMMITTEE 1814 N STREET NW.  August  8, 1918.  Miss Mary Anderson, Assistant Director "omen in Industry Service , Dept of Labor Ouray Bldg. 8th and G. Sts. 'ffashington D.C. My dear Miss Anderson: I am referring to you a second letter from Mrs. Braunlich of 'Ciaterbury, Connecticut, together with ply.  Sincerely yours, •  (Mrs. Samuel F. Harding) Executive Chairman Department of Uomen in Industry Miss Agnes I:estor, Chairman H/B Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  August 28, 1918.  Ara. 17'. U. Braunlich 22? Hillside Ave. qateebury Gonne,Itii.ut delr  -ratznitch: T. ;--4.  yt.).1.r lette:: of  2.4irio-t do anything dire:Al; to improve ..**.-:)nditio.s in '4aterbury but I will refer your latLer to 4iss Au'y nder3on, T.Arect,ri. ....omen in Industry ervice, of the Dve.rtment of Labor., Miss Atid.ersor: wa.:3 i, riiorly a mbar of the V,owan's r:nch of the Ordna.ilca r_x:1partment and knows oonclitionf.4. in munitions factories in Connecticut at first hand. he is a very big tne., interonteci in the welfare If women workers. I am sure that if anything can be done through governmental agencien to inprove conditicris in Connecticut •:iss •%nderson will see that it is done. I know that sne would be veiy glad to have you maks detailed regorts to her of conditions which need reilodying. Very sintierely yours,  (Ars. B. Harding) .;xecutive Chairmen Department of lien in Industry Miss Agnes Nestor, chairlan Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  10(-par  /-`71--4/•  ta// 7  (04004.44 Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  f  J '1 , ,4-7  ,r7" ;tato  e-eru,ce  /tA;l•I  •  5M.  041--f-r  I A-  (ne  .  1)4 14  CA,t,  A Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  - •.:-*!*--: 17  frt  /rz.c: &6*-7.1 f.Li_e tz_et"  de4.4.4/IaAJ ,  ,T et_4.7 j  4arkr444E-(-4-  417. /6&  /4Z7  r.A  ruI  Zr( Cle  r  / 7 7t °(  C L e i  to  >V1)1/ Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  2/k  P7W 744  4°  OLO  :7 /etO  eeC  S  -‹-;c /L4  ,4Z,f  •016-*  •fr  / I -/ 4./4  2Z  ,zate4e.e  / "  1  "  , Ale„ ,c„.  /  , - 7--7Vx...a.4....c. r '1..4.•' P----17.-0-c--f.„-t.. /0 '  A;','. i k f.  - e- ,; 1/ / .  ,  c  11•:-. As 1( .t. . c  . dft ceet4  •  i.e, ( -,,  / Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  , /e...., fv, ./„...1....... 7- C.:•:,-.4„..,c..r. xr..... / 6  11111.1.•  ) 4 1 "We  • /' inns.  21 f. Oe.<-4—e2 A;741Vell--0e.  I  /&04•••-a Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  at.  a.. A7--7-2-7-t-ez.-4-4.  •  • • "s•  •  •  Xxlidg-;<14/-e--%-•,  ,-  .  ,  a,, r , fi-  (, 4  / , ., , , i /,4g- x_4-7,.- / ,-, ,i  d.,-<.•  i  ( 1‘,  tr...  /  417•-,,  -4.-4-"L'  a  -"Alp.. A  ,  -. Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  / "A..."7.,</ i A,  ...1 4; ,. (  freAAt 7„60—ri CZ, •J'e  I  44./4t_v7,4-r_e 12-ei-cA4 /7.e-o-ce  /  41.1/ Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  "*L  4111111.111111.  r7.--e, •  „  17414.-37.,,,,„ry,„  j "1- • rric~)-g-c-o )7-v  a-11,-40  yel- Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  x,te.7:1 a-(7  9.)  ••••.  „.1,7,0•-cs4 , • 4' /Cm•  •••  C'"?4. • , 427e  fr7.<  " leigrA  c7 rrdz.:17 /---/A7  tec-W  t'`27>44/ z  •  „.4 ir"ZIC60ei<1 Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  •  ate,t0;  •  •" 1  •  7 44t-a  174-1- 7vArui  , Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  '  &444-41/  tzA?27  4;eeN  UNITED STATES RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION W. G. McADOO, DIRECTOR GENERAL  DIVISION OF LABOR  INTERSTATE COMMERCE BUILDING  W. S. CARTER, DIRECTOR  WASH IN GTON  August 28, 1918.  Miss Mary Anderson, Assistant Director, Women in Industry Service, United States Department of Labor, Washington, D. C. Dear Madam: I have your letter of the 23rd with reference to complaint made by Mr. John Riley, Organizer of the American Federation of Labor that "the Wabash Railroad Company has a gang of freight handlers, all colored women who are working ten hours per day for $3.25 a day as compared with $4.80 a day the pay received by men". I hope within the next few days to complete the organization of the Women's Service Section, when this complaint will be taken up for investigation. Yours truly,  '164'4-4 12 Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  I  •  4.;, nUT t,IL4. .to Tj u u.A tr'np, •..  •1  q  I , ,, 1,  , • I'  ,  ,  (  —  I  .  f.  .1  ,  L I  ; 1.1,‘ u.  '4  9tts., Aq  • •-•  .1 -nu  Lc.  ;-31 .40LT LI ao9  Tc  ,! 4 LI • Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis ,  Ai; .3uTJC  , UT,  •  0:At, 81 0-,  c.1.  U9  7  :qt.: •  41:1  q,  LI  t  rs•  J  ;  nrv ,  Yt  • ......1c14 •A. A.zr151-  •  • 1- • )  .1 T1 .  •  r' .  ,4 •  :  V.,  WAR I  DUSTRIES BOARD WASHINGTON  B. M  IN YOUR REPLY REFER TO  RUCH CHAIRMAN Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  _ugust 26, 1918.  Miss nary Van Kleeck, Director, Woman in Industry Service, Department of Labor, Washinctoa, D. 3. Dear Miss Van Kleeck: I am enclosing herewith copy of letter from Tionorable 7/. W. Lufkin, Congressman 6th District of Massachusetts, which i3 self-explanatory. Will you please furnish me with such information as you may have on this subject so that I may advise jorv7ressman Lufkin, Yours very truly,  hai  n Labor Division, Industries 3oardb / Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  HOUSE 02 .2APEESENTATIVES Washington, D. C.  August 16, 1918. Lly dear Sir: I am in receipt of a leter from a constituent of mine, Mr. Frank B. Ireland of 29 Middle St., Newburyport, Massachusetts, asking if I can find out for him Whether there is any ruling Which provides that on Government work women shall be paid the same wages as men for doing the same kind of work. I shall appreciate any information you may be able to give me on the subject. Very truly yours, (signed) Chief, Labor Board, War Industries Board, Washington, D. C.  W. W. LUFKIN Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  =u:a  8, LA.8.  ri,tt. ar the  7.t in  n 1.  -; or-  .  t r:u Ati--n in in In  •.ry.  r'nra• 1r1 thAprit-  f  '  'Ae-t  I  full  (o  rrrnt ouht t.)  ibck y u •Jr  rit,  r. u.  wf.- cert.- inly t  fj r)77  to .  the 11 th t  i i..1  ff%.(  th ndtni 11  tXi't f ct. .b L-  Uj _(•  ,n  ‘44,H. Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  ,  -  n Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Wirnipeg,Man., August 20,1918.  Miss Mary Anderson, Ordnance Department, Navy Bldg., Army Seventh & R Streets, Washington, D.C. Dear Miss Anderson:Allow me to be one more to express her gratification and delight that Secretary Wilson had the. good sense to add a Trade Union woman to the new Federal Bureau, also that the selection fell on one as worthy as yourself. I followed with delight your activities in organizing the packing districts of Chicago, and only wish our Canadian women even in some of the less ardukous occupations, were as well organized. Our Dominion Department of Labor has given me the assurance that they will consider following the example of U.S.A. as soon as we can convince them or rather show a definite plan that will ensure beneficial results to the worker, and as so many of our politicians "seem to hail from Missouri", I would be delighted to receive any information that you might care to pass on to me for the harvest truly is great and the laborers are few. I expect tc interview the Minister of Labor within a couple of weeks' time and any literature or plans that you might pass on to me, you can rest assured will be used for the good of the Cause. We have had a vary strenuous surtiver here - at one time it looked as if industrial Canada from Coast to Coast was going to be tied up entirely. The Capitalists along 7ith the privile7ed interests are getting together now for another desperate attack on Organized Labor and under the cloak of patriotism it looks as if many attemps will be made tc• use women as a 1ver to crush Trace Unionism and the pity is so very few of our women have any organization at all. Thanking you and wishing you continued good health and rirosperity, I remain, Your, sincerely, Linton Street, ' Winnipeg, Man., Canada. P.S.- I rel;resent the workers on our Manitoba Wage Board for Women and any information about the probability of U.S. enacting a Federal Minimum Wage for Women, will be of great interest. L.M.F.  WOWS WDRIXRS by Mary Anierson, Assistant Director Woman in Industry Service, Department of Labor . WATTZ  Em  Woman are doing their share of our country's work und_er many new conditions and it therefore becomes a national responsibility to see that they are not sacrificed or exploited. 4omen's wages sho id bedetermined in the same manner as men's wages.  As Miss Mary Van Kleeck, Director of the ftmen in  Industry Service of the Department of Labor has well said, *wages should be determined on the basis of occupation and not on the basis Of eex."  Women doing the ame work as men should receive the same  wages with such proportionate increases as the men are receiving in the same industry.  Slight changes made in the process or in the  arrangement of work should not be regarded as justifying a lower wage for a woman than for a man unless statistics of production show that the output 0/4604041404/40 for the job in question is less when woten are employed than when men are employed.  If a difference  in out out is demonstrbted the difference in the figze rate should be based upon the difrerence in production for the job as a whole and not determined arbitrarily. During the period of the war eaployers hnve been outspoken in their praises of women's work.  They have said very truthfully  that the women who have taken men's places have been just as efficient and in many instances have done more and better work than men whom they replaced or those with whom they worked side by side. attitude on wages has been curiously illogical. Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  But their  ....rommeoe  ••••.  416 (2 V  CIA  1.  i  -2*We will pay them twenty five cents an hour".  Answer:  The query went forth again:  "'You have said women are more  efficient than the men ,,,nd that they do more work =i1,1 better work; don't you think that they ought to receive the same pay that these very inefilwieffamepwAnig8h4i8f4)  a manufacturer with very icOportant  war contraiiftlWantat4oVifaiNifecoiRtfO(Yrf ali*Y fReiRPMAIP. $601,0One6eblethe employment of qomen between the hours of ten P. M. nd  six  A. cpsti,  APPloitiir  Art#44044141*914bi$121t404" and  better%bihrqnd "AN  Woe ikfr iffergsairrerVeltiezniewTirk  workers then men;  tie  !8oi  thqt they liJ more work greEter regularity; that  he ,;•,,-1 a nR1Pt V9freiftsittileiP Mat 111AV IPiry;cilktefrail& arilf  otir  their work had to be throne on the scrap pile. A casual inquiry was "How much are you paying an hour for this work?" "Oh",  WPC)  the reply, "we are paying the men forty cents tn  Dour with a fifteen per cent bonus for night work." Anot-rer question: "How much are you intending to pay the women for working at nigrA?" Answer:  "We will pay them twenty five cents an hour".  The query went forth again:  "You have SPid Aomen are more  03,-Icient than the men ! ,nd that they do Laore work  n1 better work;  dontt you think that they ought to receive the same pay that these very inefficient men are gItting?" Renly:  "But women have not the same family resronsibility  that in have." Question: "Do you know how alany of your men employees have family responsibilities?" Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Rely:  "Some do  nd some do not."  The same question was asked as to the woilien.  is said that  -'3.-  he he had in his employ widows who had children dependent upon them and admitted that girls probably had the same responsibility toward their families that young men had, "But", he said, "the nianufacturers in this city are not paying the sbme weges to the women as to the men.  If they  did, it ,Nou.‘d bring on a revolution." Ho was asked "Have the employers an undorstanling that equality shall not prevail as to wages for men an  women?"  His allswer wss "Yee". Statements are frequently made by employers th?:.t they are paying the same wage for  he same work to woman as to men.  No  doubt in many c,ises this is Literally true, but more often the statement will not bear analysis.  For example, one company which is Ilsing 'Nom=  to do heavy hauling claimed to be paying women the same money as the men, givink, the rate as thirty-two and one-half cents as hour, 'out at the  )400  time the stPtement was made the rate for men was from torty  to forty-two cents.  Another statement, which is r,robably more accurate,  comes from s lumber operator who says, "The women receive the wages formerly paid to men for the same work".  ,Alicb men would Paying women a wage at'  not be available at the time is not in any sense equal pay for equal work. "The waitresses of et big midlle-west city report s4ailar discrimdnation.  The waitresses' union had difficulty this year in  signing up its contracts.  The con racts coatained a cluse stating that  where women were employed to take men's places doing an equstl amount of work they must be paid an equal wage with the men.  The emOoyers admitted  th,lt they were intended to fill vacancies left by men with women, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  -4-  employment of women should be resorted to merely in order to obtain cheap labor. As a matter of public health we must see to it that women are paid equal wages for equal work. Otherwise, tIleir employment can be and is daily being male the excuse for undercutUng the staniard wages of men End so reducing the standards of living in the oommunity. It is true that in many of the new occupations the woman are unskilled and need training. Yet even while they are being trained, they shouid as a matter of health be paid an adequate w;ge." Employers will alvince the sawa arguLants agalst wage increases for woman that they have long used in opposing the remerids of men workers.  They will claim that regardlesi of the esseltii  fairness of any wage increase that might be asked by the workers, the financial condition of the business v1.11 not stani the burden of a higher labor cost ani that .ritat consideration should be given to this act; tht it shuulki, an iacree sho.Ald be given.  the only factor in ,letermining whether flo4ever, a. careful inquiry into the profits  will often show that there is a large overhead expense, such as dividends pail. in thl form of large Aalaries, or Ur:A v,astaful methods lissipate the profits leaving no money for increasing wage9.  The only way to  obtain a thz,rongh knowledge of what an iniukary can or cannot stani in the way of increased labor lost. is to refer tioa  hle matter•to a  court of arbitrttion. In the arbitretion of questions concerning wages End houre In the racking house4 indrstry the 7sckinz firms lid not give the usual testi4,4ny that the profits of the industry will not warrant a substantial inorease in wages or that the highly comoetitive nature of the business would forbid the °bangs.  Obviously, this  as because the  Norkers en4 the Teople had been realIng of the large dividends in this industry.  The lawyers for tha firm, in suing up the case, begged  the arbitrator to hove in mind, in considering this question, that granting Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  must submit to ill treatment anqbeonstant nagging. by the men and women directly in dharge of the work can render only poor ervi inefficient service; while those who are alequately paid and thereby btter nourished, who have shorter hours Whidh means lessened fatigure, who this increase would create unrest end dissatisfaction in other industries have sftlf-government through shop ccumittees and the right to take up paying less than the packing houses' employef-ts would be receiving gni4 the grievances thr1 constantly arise between the foreman or forelady therefore, an increase should not be granted. and the workers, do work of better qualit and proauce a griviter output, result of the arbitration was the establishment of the basic eight-hour day with time and one-half for overtime, donble time for all time, work on Sundays and holidays, the same rate of pay for eight hours as was -reviously pail for ten hours with increase in the hour rate and riece rate.  AU  eviditionta  Thus order instesd of chaos  was established in the packing industry. Another claim frequently urged by the employers is that Vila amotInt of increase in wages adds directly to the exl,enses of the !Justness and, therefore, automatically results in reduction in prol'its.  This claim  is based upon the assumrtion that the employer will have to pay a higher price for the same quality And the sums amount of mork th3t he obtained under the lower wage scale.  That tnis assumption is erroneons has bawl  conclusively proven by generations of industrial experience.  Workers  whose '-ges are low, houre ol work long, working concii-vions poor, aho must submit to ill treatment awl constant nagging by the men and women directly in charge of the work can render only poor and inefficient service; while those who are.c4lequately paia and tflereby betttd. no,irished, who have shorter hours Which means lessened fatigure, who have self-government through shop comittees tind the right te take up the grievances th-t constantiy arise between the foreman or forelaly and the workers, ao work of better qualit Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  and produce a gre4ter output.  -6.  liperlence has proven that increases in the amount of the output an improved quality entirely offaet tne increase in wages.  its  This is illustrated  in the case of Hart, Schaffner, and. Marks, a large clothing firm employing about 3,0.7)0 people  1 ;lom about eixty-threl 7,er cent are women.  During  the first two years of the agreement between th firm an-i. the union wages had increased from twenty-five to eighty ner cent. ani at the same time nrofits were doubled.  This was due to the increaeed efficien7 of the  workers whfch decreased Y) a large extent the need for sub-foremen and examiners and increased the volume of business becvlise of better workmanship. SOSO of the largeet of our inrfustries have voluntarily rfiale large innrevses in wages against the rrotett of bnainess competiters and associates Who nredicted that the effect wo-,71d be the financla1 ruin of the induary.  The practloal reaults, however, completely  for the expenie per unit of -,roduction was , refuted these .redictions very much decm.sed as a result of better service rendered, and rrofit to the emrloyer shower, the corres-onding increase. Another beneficial result of paying adequate wages th4t sho.A.d be mentioned is the immediate decrease in the "labor turnover" which means the constant hiring of largo nualbers of Aovkers to take the places of those who leave.  The gre..tast ni.111r of employees leaving  their place of emoloymemt can be found without a doubt in the establishments 0.14ute wages are iaJ low that men and women oannot maintain thewselves and their families in health, thereby becoming a charo upon society as a whole, through the medium of charitable organizations, In order to supply the difference between their actual wage and a living wage.  This can at its best be done only in a very meager way for a  limited time. Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  It is conceded by all enlightened employers of labor tbat  Industry.  The lawyers for t • firm* in summimg! mp the case* begged the  arbitrator to hove binds', in considering this question* that granting this isonsas irould create unrest and dissatisfaction in other industries ja Inc less Wm the packing houses' employees vould be receiving and* o rastlt if the arbi-  tiorefore, an increase sOcula not be tpantedle  trAion was the establish; emt of the basic eight-hour da4- -nith time aril one-Laif for overtime, doublt: time for all or  o  Jundsos and holidays*  the same rate of ac for eight heurs as -- Ris prev.13,4sly paid for ten haul's with elk additional in the hour rte and ,)iece  ThIs order  indastrY.  iuste..d. of abaft vas es1abli3Led in  Another claim fequesitl;; .alged "od, tle avlopors is Clat the amount of increase in :Igos adds directly to the elpenses of the business awl, thersftris, autenstioally results in reduction In profits. This ni-Im is based  on the assumption that two employer will liave to psy a  ar price for the same nuality and the m.--ne anatz t of work the% he obWand .1  a- the lower wage scale.  Tilst this acArrption is errouseueks  lisegiesesimaiy•ly proven by genortio:  f i_-_ductrial experience.  -4ricers  igirimpe law are Ismi bawls of worm long, vr1ci-a6 ounditions poor, AO awn madmi4 to ill tro4tmest and co:t ut utgging Ix; the 71en and women direetlyM charge of the work* can rend.,r ola poor and i.:.effieisat serviee.  Those who are a4ompato47 pit aud therekT better noHrished* shorter hours Ala mesas lessened fatile, 7/17.0 have selfnt through shop cttees and tie right to t-ke up the grievances that comstaltly arise betm n te foreman or forelady and Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  -7.  there is not only a large cost in constantly training people in an industry, but that there is alao a decido4 reduction of product due to the continuous introduction of new kaid untrained worlers.  This  very eiFensive rrocese cotld be elialn.ted if tlio money awl tlue tpent in "hiring and firing" anci training (oul;  e Ldeese to tlaB viEgoc of the  em7loyees. Certain Boyd Fis-r, -ho condieted courses  tOt,W11111/1  NM  the employment  management for the United States Gorernaient, says:  "One of the basic reme,i3s for higt labor VA'ncirer is the 2syTent of an adequate wage.. .. . . By an adequate w-ge I do not meen the minimum wage. r mean a i.:ood fat ,*t4ga. Ons that will clothe anl eiucf4te their dhildren as well as feed ti-em properly.' Wage questions effecting both men and women can best be handled by collective bargaining anl by arbitration. of these two workshop.  !Pet  The combination  mens the ir-lication of sounl ('?hnocracy in the  No one knows bet,ar then the trate unionists that the  average wage eerner has had vary little control over the conditions of his of her life, especially over that part of life Which is the core of all the reat, the job.  Co,lective bargaining means that the  workers have got together, have elected their committeep let us say, sent this committee to the employer; base been toll there is nothing to discuss.  The committee suueats arbitration.  is not ing to arbitrate.  They are toll there  The workers begin to vInderstan1 that in  industrial democracy they have no representation, that there Is not actually industrial democracy.  The National War Labor Board, by  proclamation of the President, instituted collective bargaining, in many cases where there was no organisation. Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  The first  -8-  reads: *rhe eight of workers to organize in trade-unions &fell to barbsin throagh chosen rereantotives Is  ,ecognized and tAffirmed  This right shall not bs Jenied, abrilgol, or interfered e;Lth by the emnloyers in any ev.nner whteoev,?r."  It  iA  b...?comil.Ag clearer :11:d. cloarer  to all thinking ton and worien that we oL,nnot hi,ve real ,..emocracy unless we have ,lemocracy in the workshop. The arbitration policy that I am most familiar with is that instituted uy Lhe Pc!ct and Shoe Workers Intcrvational VnIon more than twety years ..zo.  It  vr,y succoteful, so Juch so that  Brockton,. Massachusetts, the larg -nt s.o  enter in this country, has  had no strikes or lockouta since Via ;.6reeAnt Wt.:4 eign3d.  The first  firm that entered into thls - rbitratioa egreathaat ass W. L. Douglaa Shoe ComPanY of Brockton, Masseehuaatte, a'oat twenty one ;,reare ago. Mia..ny shoe Orme, both in Proekton and other 1,2ealitiez, :lave outsaed into sililar agreements becauae they 1-ave seen the res-elts of this .colicy of reaee.  EJ.1)loyers know that Juring  .7f1 of  he i,gra'Aolut  will be no strikes Rai the employee* 1-noi/ tIwt there 1.Ul be tio locout by the firm.  They 1;.no.,Y th t wages, hours of work and other Aorking condi-  tions which cannot be oortinuously agreed upon will be subetted to arbi trbtion and thn decision that Is r.iached All be final and binding upon the employer, the union, and the emnloreee. For years, many ieonle have t,houht of shortened hours of labor and of inersases In wages from the eteravint of its aaaning a feer more dollars on pay lay, and another hour or to thet would ckot have to be spent in the fector7.  It it tIm7, to look at enrols as  something more than a. fel more dollars on posy day and anther hour or two out of the factory. Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  It is something mere than that.  Wag.. datersans  .9.  health of body as well as of mind. life,--the standards of living, the worker shall live, whether in one The sages received determine where the room or two, in a Cheap at pure air and sunshine.  with crowded tenement district or in a home  of food cn be Wages will letermine what kind  rmines the -malty of children had for families ani that in turn dete ani the future citizenship. Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  _  The 6hee1ing Gan Company. (In connection with attached re:ort).  In two conferences I held with Mr. 'horse, general manager of the Wheeling Can Company, he went very tip)roughly into details as to their operating )1Pns, care of the help, ani profit and loss statements.  They  have 500 employees, about half being women, mostly between sixteen and twenty years of age.  wachinists were given  They have twenty m'chinists.  eight-hour basis on June 24th to avoid strike; others are on fifty-four Machinists receive 57-1 to 65 cents per hour; one 2 dyemaker, 75 cents T)er hour. Machine shop has been union for two years.  hours per week basis.  There is no proslect of trouble at this mand for an eight-hour day has peen met.  lant as machinists' de-  criticized the wages paid to  girls which, according to Mr. Morse's statement, are as follows: 11 - 18 year old girls, rppresenting 501 . 1 1.51 to $12. per Tcek of 'omen employees .... An older group reprcsmting 35 Vjomen employes Anothr grou2 --1---- nting 152: rilployees  of • • •  J.  .11 to 1.15. pr  $16.50 to $16.90 "  Mr. Morse then asked the privilege of showing me detailed profit nd loss statements, and met me again in the evening for that purpose, bringing copies of monthly statements submitted to their directors, covering the first four months of this year.  This statement shored that during  the first two months they lost money ,ind, at the end of the four months, were about even, but they were running very close to the margin.  The  copies of re ,orts and Mr. Morse's statements indicate that they would not be able to Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  the tt5r more than one or two per cent to their stockholders for  The Wheeling_ Can CemeanV. year, this situation being due largey to the fact that about forty per cent of their output is on 1.rig time contracts made when labor, fuel and materials were much lower than at the present, and their contracts only provided for re-adjustment based :n change of rice in raw tin. Some of these contracts extend to 1922, but they are beginning to exeire in 1919, when they will be gradually getting into a better position to increeee wegee.iWr. Mor:. ct'at d that most of the women and girls were living at home and as proof of that he stated that he had proposed starting a home for girls in a large house they could rent in the city. They found that there were so few girls who did not have homes that there would be very few who would take advantage of the place. I may say, also, that they arrange their work so none of the women employees work at night The nearest connection with Government work 7hich this plant seems to be engaged  in is that the Government is probably purchasing  some cannei goods from conrdaniel they are supplying with cans. The opinion I formed of Mr. ilorsu is that he is a man who is giving a greet deal of attention to the care of his employees, and that if the Government should advise an increase in wage for the em loyees he would accede to their wishes, though it seems evident that any material increase at the present time would result in loss to them on account of not being able to make up for it by changing the price of their cans under the long time contracts.  • Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  ELB-RT E. PECK, Major Ord. R. G.  The *heeling ki-n Corn -;ny. (in connecti,n with .tt ,ch'  r- r.;rt).  In tw-, c.nfa.rncs I h,=1.1 ?.ith Mr. A re, Etners.1 ...wq:cr of the into . Wheeling etn Com-ny, he .Fent very th r.,whly o_  tinc  have 5)) ,E;s•1oye7s, twEinty yer:r  Thi h  hourrl  c-J. week  t-,nty  h1nit.  n June '4th to ftvcil -tr_Kr4  i.  i-chinif-t - receive 57-  Db.Si3.  r h chine cho':  h ur.  lyemsker, 75 cent  y har. peen met.  irls which, ,Accor!ini t  r.  .hini t  th r -  nd  -er  elven  on fifty-four  to 65 (tnt  r h,.ur; one  peen uni„n for tea yt.%.r.  Thrre is no .:rp.f)ect of tr -lu"plE tit this mt,nd for 'II eifht-hour  1ocs stAent.  wmen, motly oetw6en Axteen  h.df  o:  Toflt in  n  c(.17.e of tht  ac, to their  1.,nt  machini-t-' ie-  1 critici.2e1 the w  orret- sttitemnt,  r-  to  follow -:  18 - 18 ytfr. old girls, renre - -ntirw 5)" of Women cml.oyee 1 ).52 to ,P o:  4n oler Erpu.- rE-mWomen cm,)loyee,-  •.14.)) to 1:15. ,'cr reek  Another rou) Wo1nt-J1 tm,,1)ye Mr. Morre then -t,lcc ni locs statement, gn ')ringinE. co ie-  rIth: of thi  the firFt t., Jnth  )e  of re ort-  yr%r.  'hcy lo t uonoy  were Ftut even, .)ut thEi  _r:fit  m  in in the ev ninL for th ,t  MF  tJ This sttem,c.nt  la)  th t  urin6,  t the #(11 of the four month:, The  th t thy  to ,hy more than one or two per cent to their ,tockhol Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  ur. oEt,  ,-unnint, very cloce t, th- marrin.  n: Mr. Morsel-,,  If  16.5) t. ,19.90 "  of unthly A••tement  th,f:r-t f ur  co i,ie  15'"1  rivil.,e of ivt  wcek  uli n2it r  f r  —  The Wh.-ling C n Corn  y,  e'y t  '  r, thi, Fitu.ti n bing  hut fa-ty  •- ut ut IF _n I nE timE c ntr (t:  ,r c,nt :f  w,uch locr t.ri  w -r  n1 rn'It  t th  rIviled f r re- •.:justment  n'f  tn. Nit  r-  n 1' )r)r, fuel  nt, _n  n ch,ngc of  thtir contr-cts  rice in r,17 tin.  Some of these contract,, extend to 19Pf', out they or, beginning to ex:ire in 199, 'hen they viii be Er.. LettinL into a pater p -)sitiAl Ar. Aors€ -t-t 1 that ivict c.)" the wbLen cl.nd girls  to incre  n. A - )roof of th,Lt he stA,.7,1 th.-A he h.i .)ro:Js-,1  m  were living  h me for t_irls in  Ptrtinc  1.re0, hu  Th - y foun]/th t therE- ':ere ,o f,- iiri  they culd rent in the city. h  would be v ry fF.w who wulc t3Ke I 7iy  y,  Thr n :(,1117 ti%  of t-E  lso, thht they arr nE:e their w.,rk  rt cnnnrcti-n with  f_JIer1  inion i firm t !€7.1  rntent  tnev A'  r  r.;  n  h  thikh it  u"  th' 1 Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  of thr  t.) their -i  - •t thc  rk - hich thiz;  l nt  u....-dyinc with cons.  rr,!-ent time woulj rf,c.uit in to u  t.norct:.  f,r it  ch ncinL. the  an: ttat '.r the  in  jo  n  tht he  fottentj n t. thc crru of hi-  if th-- Go-rr -nt oh u1 1 •  n t - :171  non  in i- thlt the Goivrn-l-nt  2r ;i1 c 11)  c  in:r  ce.  work Pt night  1 1:y(  ,n  thf..t there  not h ve h  loyEes  civi'ent ts t !iv m--.teri%1 t  them on .cc)unt of  rice of their c  un!er  All communications should be accompanied by carbon copy and addressed to  WAR DEPARTMENT  OFFICE OF THE CHIEF OF ORDNANCE  To insure prompt attention, in replying refer to ),  PRODUCTION DIVISION WASHINGTON  No. Attention of -5-3 3-1."  03-5545  ,.•••••••• Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  1 Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  a Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  IN IPVU:rRY ,RvICE Aut,ut 4y  ear Mi  1,41S.  110.seyt Enclo3e  wfll  troll *.re. 3en7l1e  66rnes, Sweetw!Iter, Texas, t.J Wo aOs Committee to us by fir.  of the  f the Louneil of Pktional IdefenFe, refe rred  iir:!ing. I ho ,e tht  e6n t'ke thin m.itt-r  neh  to try fr  the Orinanee  *ith wh.ltever auth.)rity th: re  in the Orm .,nee .4),;Lrt:1), ..,nt to t!,ko u. t,h,t th.&. firm i-  or  F.,H)  The letter exitrict vlien  the ,-rt. , ent exit With best winhea, Iour2 sincerely, )eRY f\tc.:ehsrim, Aeekt-mt -ireetor, W -)Itli in In kisn Olga lialeey, Dr.'ri:nce DertTent, W?te.hington, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  COPY S. D. Pkyres ManufRcturer of High Grade Saddles anl (dowboy Su-221ie8 Sweetwater, Texas. August 2, 1918. Mrs. Samuel 3. Harling: Xy dear Mrs. Harling: Your letter of July "9th received today. S.D. Ayres iR the name of the employer. The contract is a government Job or contrnet for 7,1)) army sadlles. The men cut the lc. ther, dress the trees -n u,e the acid. We wo.n.en, there. !:re six women en : three girls do the work .1Fn _id befors the war. We drft the ghee: hide nd cut them with knives, then them to the slcille skirts ,;ads, then we 7olish cot Ara,), cinch styru lei then we split letther on the machines, skive all the leather fixtures,unch holes an use finiFhing knives or edge tool-, lo all the er-a in on mh.chinry -.11 pith the hramers z.,n' the braes plater. Aen heve piece pork !Al': one eer week. ko len ,v)rk for less thr, :er who hf-ve been on 3 weeks get 15c er hAir working three tt:3648 anj longer get 2)c _,er hours 1t hour we get 33c. 3(-ys F:TO riris  Let LE high as Jay :11c1 boys an girls women wh..) huve been hour. We women get g ket 8 hours.  Thi-, is Mr. Myrey =econ,! contract. on t1.1 the women .t.1-4 girls nee' the work muLt work t these prices if we can't get more. 3ut 0,, the ,)re,=..ent 2ricer of food and clothing we can h'Irdly exizt u the ay. I would rAher my name We!' not used i would lcY-6 my job. h...r our emiqoyer r.;ap: if we don't like the 61 w c.nwulk others will t, our ,-.Lces. jut he ,Jso sys (and so does the foren) thht the women' bnd girls' work is 1Daf. unA that we work fat. 1 Jnly wont wh',t I e•Jrn. men get on the t)7isis of 5) ,.nd 5)c .?er hour islc] work 10 hours. I will t;:ppreci:Ae my efforts you use to get ue on better ay. Mr. Myres aims to try for a 5,:))0 saPle cc.ntrct we hve finished this contrEct.  answer in t'kini u  If thi - is not %11 the inform._ti:11 y u needm will vu will -end me. IhPnkin. LAI for your kindness thi• m,.tter, Itria i7ur .incer,ly, Ar . 3ennie ixemitx 3arnes Sweetwater, TexuF, 'lox 14. Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  COPY S. D. fflyres Manufacturer of High Grade Saddles and Cowboy Su?, lies Sweetwater, Texas. AuEurt 2, F.  aimuei 3  y cic- L7r  ;  Your letter of July 29th received today. S.D. Myres is the name of the employer. The contract is a government job or contract for 3,000 army saddles. The men cut the leather, dress the trees and use the acid. We women, there are six women and three girl s do the work men did before the war. We draft the sheep hide ,nd cut them with knives, then ?ste them to the saddle skirts Ald sinch pads , then we polish coat straps, cinch ?ads styrup leas then we split leather on the machines, skive all the leather fixtures, punch holes and use finishing knives or edge tool s, do all the crea,ing on machinery and with the hammers and the brass plates. have piece vork Lne FO'IC fcr wcc". i hien work for less than $3 per who have been on 3 weeks get 15c per hour, working three weeks and longer get 20c per hours last hour we get 30c. 3oys and girls  get ur high us W.JJ day and boys and girls women who have been hour. We women get 9 get 8 hours.  This is Mr. kyres second contract , and all the women and girls need the work and must work t these prices if we can't get more. But at the oresent prices of food and clothing we can hardly exist n the pay. I would rather my name Was not used as I would lost my job. rur our em:Dloyer says if we don' t like the )ay we can walk out, others will take our places. ut he also ays (and so does the foreman) that the women's and girls' work is 134 and that we work fast. I only want what I earn. Men get on the basi s of 50 and 63c per hour and work 10 hours. I will appreciate any effo rts you use to get us on better .)fity. Mr. Myres aims to try for a 5,000 sadd le contract then we hve finished this contract. If this is not all the information you needm i will answer any questions you will send me. Ihan king you for your kindness in taking u2 this matter, i am fours sincerely, Mrs. Bennie tirmwxx 3arnes Sweetwater, Texas, Box 14. Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  :727,1 INT I  27  71f  Aw:uot 6, kie4r Yr. Ir reLArl to the letter of July 22nd to Dr. Annu Eowqr1 Shit' frrl Mrs. Barry r?.rnea., eweetwater, Teux, I -Ill six , for yolr irfrrneicr that I hims taken ur thl: ,vatirr vith Yrs. BarrcP •Iy" avystit ar early rmrly. Tha  yr,v for rerorti-1 this rratter ic the woren in  Induetry  ervice. Very sincerely yeure,  Assistant Pirector„ Ilsron tn SPrvIce.  Urs. Samuol B. narding, Committoe, Council of National DefensP, 181A N Street, r. Washinten, D. 0.  11(4,7v14 TN 1N1OSTRY SERVL.0  Aw4u8t 5, 191e.  11::, dear M.-s. Burnest Your lett& of Jutty 22n1 to Dr. Anna Howard Shaw,'man of ths Woman's Committee, Council of Defen se, has been referrednto Miss Mary Van Kleesk, Direotor of tne Women in Indus%ry Service of the Labor Del-a-trent. I tike this opportunity of answeril; your letter in giss Van Kleeck's absences am very that you have .gritten on this matte ', because nary woron in this country are worki Ag, (loin, : the SAM6 work and the armunt of .3ork that nen are doing for ices pay, and t!..!ers is a great terdencry to put women Into industry, %ill they aro seldon gettiag equal I14:: for equal work. What we would like to know are the followl.nI fcte: The ham° of your employer and the company, ho, many men it is em7loying and how many women. If possible ot - ld yc,,! t;711 us hew many wen have replaced men? That the waTes of the ren And what aro the wa4e$ o: the woren ? dow many hou-s A 667 ar' yu torking? 'That part of t2;18 . :iork de the wcwen do, and at pert do the men Jo, Ars you working by the hour or do yotl 'Ilve piece work'! If we can get the required information it mt7,ht be possible to take this matter up with the war Labor 3oa-1. Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Sincerely yours,  Assistant Director, 7forien In Industry Service, VI's. Bennie Barnes, 9seet water, Texas. Box 14.  COUNCIL OF NATIONAL DEFENSE WASHINGTON  WOMAN'S COMMITTEE 1814 N STREET NYC  ary Van Kleeck Chief 'Amen's Division, Department of Labor. 604- Curay 21dg. 8th & G. Streets  dear !lissan deeck: I am enclosing a copy of a letter received by Dr. Shaw from Mrs. T'ennie 'farnes, Sweet ..:aterITenas togeth er 7:ith my rely. I talked with L:iss 1:.ortensen of the car Labor Policies P.oard about the matter and she told me that you wished everything of this sort to pLss through your office. Sincerely youiL,  / 6amuel . &xecutive Chair: ._ Department of 'Amen in Indust  ,)11tAQI Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  f  eit.A-f7Z Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Cd/47  • •  A  July 29, 1918.  "enni2 '- arnes ater Texas .).0.ox. 14. Ey dear Your letter of July 22nd to Dr. Shaw has been referred to me, as ex„!cutive chairman of the Dep4rtment of .omen in Industry. . _Before_ I can take upthe matteAwith the ?roper author- 7) ities of unequal pay receiveci 2by the women in your shop, I will have to have more information than is contained in your letter. First, what is the name of the employer or company? Is the contract on which yop are working a government contract? Are the women doing just the same work as the men at 2resent employed in the shop? Are they doing work which m2n did before the war? Can you give me an exact description of the work which you and other women do in the shop arid the rate of pay? :nd, also a description of the work d by men and their rate of pay? Is the work piece-work or on a basis? Sincerely yoa.s, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  (Mrs. Samuel Harding) Lt;xecutive Chairman Department of Y;omen in Industry.  All communications should be accompanied by carbon copy and addressed to  WAR DEPARTMENT  To insure prompt attention, in replying refer to  OFFICE OF THE CHIEF OF ORDNANCE  PRODUCTION DIVISION WASHINGTON  No. Attention of  03-68,15  Liss Mnry Van Tleeck Director, women in Industry Service Department of Labor 604 Ouray Building Washington, D.O. "ir dear Liss Van aeeck: Enclosed please find report on wages of girls also at t e Wheell:Lg Can Company of ':heeling, to report made of conditions in MieelLig relative labor troubles, by Major Peck of the Industrial Service Section. The report on wa':es of girls was referred to me by Major Peck, with a request that the Women's Branch investigate the possibility of obtaining a higher rate of pay. I find that the Wheeling Can Company does not do work for the Ornance Department, and only in- ent, so I am referring the directly for the govern l matter to you for any action you think best. I should like to have the larger report by Major Peck returned to me, as it is the only copy in te files. Major Peck tells me he has since found out that te Wheeling Can company is owned by the ahittaker Glessner Company, a corporation capable of paying higher wages. He also mentioned the Wheeling Stamping uomptny, where the girls -yore receiving a very low rate of pay on piece work. 'de have, however, no report on that. Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  By order of tic Chief of Ordnance. Sincerel:, yours,  h,4 Lois T 3ranc7 !lost. _Director, -.2.:eb Scti-n Industrial Ser77.1 Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  , r  ri  '-'. •  r, y  •  '  'u- tjtin in  t, ,  t .; t.  try  ny -.)f the ett:.1..yfet ..,..yint7 n • ..)cc?ute of th!.t fiact, if they .t .h7- ir 7.--1; _LT: • !I •:27' i• e C h ur • y ') • I' in y ir)  „. J., n .n r ht it 1-, !wt. .uit.  •1-1,;  •r•x).7.-.Eent ir ut  th, t ern. .  nt 1 for Lc, •uit  ;y  r •  t •y  T1  r ./  t in t,  trv.  1.,  ti:;•1:‘  • I  u 7 t  .; .  .0 .r.; • if'  .h t-  y u.  -I Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  WOMEN 114 INDU6tirtY tite..4-LVik:r; July 22, 1C;l.  -so J. Richmoud, Indiana.  Mr.  R.  Dear Sir  Your letter o; July 13h  oLiaeret.if.  for rs-,-.1y. yallor has bqcin reorrsi te., this .1ce  7,1nc1os3d  - 'olicies BcAri l *:'ar Labor l pie tie find resolutions of the /i•iatlora in refa  Yti  h  .,-,troduotion  f Itory.t,n  cvc..y Ot  nuroe wit:. suAgest;.or.s fcr Orders .0.3 issued by tl'Is Chief of Orti manufacturir4 munitions. stands,rds to be observed in plants Vr'virtfly yours,  Dtreotor, :orr:er, ir Industry 3ervice. Er143101V,re13-2. Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  ;  t--eiAt 04- ,5QL.z , 71--Li 744  /fr 6k-7  at)7  4V-e4  /G a  t-f/t  74 1 '  -/a/(A-t-  ktfret47dt-4  aAkt-/  itAA- Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  t‘e,  e.A.4  / 1 2t a  si  ot14. /rf,t  it144  17e;ae4Adow  774-, aike.14. e?"(.4.4c 9 vg.4-444,4- Vc44/1,z_ p-ed  a,40  ;•104, 14. 44 r  ‘ 4/44.44,  /.21,0 /Av2.072,  pecl/a/4% at4A44,tee.„  CARBON COPY AND ADDRESSED TO ALL COMMUNICATIONS SHOULD BE ACCOMPANIED BY  WAR DEPARTMENT  TO INSURE PROMPT ATTENTION  OFFICE OF THE CHIEF OF ORDNANCE WASHINGTON  IN REPLYING REFER TO  KM/cm  No ATTENTION OF  July 29th, 1918.  Miss Mary Van Mead:, Department of Labor, Woman in Industries Service. Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  My  dear Miss Van KleeCk:  Your letter of July 26th in regard to Miss Doan is received. I will get definite information on the question of the docking of salaries, and will communicate this information to Miss Doan. Thanking you for referring the matter to ma, I am Sincerely yours, \_ Mann, Kristine Dr. Workers' Branch. Civilian of Director  July 20, lc.113.,  ry (Isar Major Rogers: , isc,3 !v.; •Ct,?(Iti ,r It has cc.r-e b 0:3n cut ..-rithout first Oleferrii:g Tr:Aril/ford woron z.r.trr..311. c.c. the '"Ltr N,rt-trorL,, the ratter to the Ordnance This wf,uld 900M to be crntrary tr tho sxcrass request of vArious .', no ci,ar.,:es 30 r4.1 0 'ho have 7overn,rqnt alltho in existing standards except to bring present c - nlitions Iv to s'ar.dards a1rs,t-?7; neseceary understand 'Ca& /ass Reeder hafi seri Tomen's the of office information al-.ut the Flees rates to the Branch this week in her we.skly repor4, u1 thiw will fintibtless be brotr;tt to your attention. As the National Ytr labor Policies Board iv much interested juot now in oltis of pay for .oren, I should be glal to be kept informed of any action which rri;ht be taken ut Friarkford Arenal. as it •::culd . be helpful in dcAling with other wee f.-s of the problem of w.ies for women. S i.noe rely yours,  Director, -oren in Industry Service, raJor r. C. Roe -o, Iniustrial Service Section, Orinan,C .0-,7artinent, Washin,7,ton. Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  11116 National Women's Trade Union League Wrishingten Piess Ser7e.e fieem 210 A. T. ef L. BwieLding Ahel M. Smith, in charge  ASK MI17MUM WAGE Washington, September 6.-  11.eltappd. on receipt,  1-np  WOMEN ON SAME PY,L'IS AS FOR MEN. Should the minimum wage for women be computed  for the support of a woman alone, while the m3.nimum for mon :;,s comralted for a family of five?  This questicn, says the National Women's Trade Union League, is  one which must be faced in co7neetion with the cost-of -living survey which has just been undertaken by the U. S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. The figures sought, according to the official announcement, are needed by the National War Labor Board and all ether wage adjustment boards because every claim for higher wages in these days is based on the increased cost of living.  Will the  adjustment boards, the women workers are asking, revise their method and compute for women and men on the same basis, now especially as the draft proceeds and wj..-n are rapidly becoming the chief or almost the sole support of their families? "Wage fixing for women as usually done", says the Women's Trade Unicn League, "is not our idea r.f a square deal. equal pay for equal work.  It collides right off with the principle of  But, principle and theory asAe for the moment, the  straight fact is that most women wage earners, jilet hke mest men wage earner, Only :ea few, r elatively, like  have other people besides themselves to look after.  the few detached men, have themselves alone to consider. "Time and again investigations have proved this.  The New York Factory Inves-  tigation Commission, for example, several years ago, found that about 75 per cent of the women factory workers in' New York State had dependents er partial dependells. In the Bureau vof Engraving and Printing at Washington, where the women workers ceele from families who have lived for years in the vicinity, the percentage who have de pendents is 70.  In one of the recent cases that came before the National War I bor  Board, according to Miss Marie L. Obenauer, &hie' of the Division of Women Exam - ers out of 150 women's budgets representing a perfect crass section or miniature of C 1- , plant, there was inly one where a girl was found to have nobody but herself to leok after.  Taking the entire plant, with thousands of workers, in only 22 per cent of  the cases could the women's earnings be disentangled from the family budget: "Economic equality for women is long overdue.  The National Women's Trade Unio  League urges labor authorities to recognize this fact and utilize their wage-fixing powers to establish it." Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis