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S 41 (R7K, 4-stA-ti   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Form No. :1640 A  WAR DEPARTMENT  OFFICE OF THE CHIEF OF ORDNANCE  INTRAOFFICE MEMORANDUM FOR USE WITHIN THE ORDNANCE OFFICE ONLY  • DATE  FROM:  Jlara _ . 1?ead,, Arec tor,  I Irs i  2  ary Van rieeck , NAME  .1  .  SECTION  BUREAU OR DIV.  NAME  TO:  lo/ii/le  La )or SECTION  BUREAU OR DIV.  SUBJECT:  C.; I. Old'i  1. 1: 0  017..  , CLARA M. TEAD, DIREu iCCtIL Indutriá1L;e2vice  4kI  NO CARBON COPY AND NO RECORD REQUIRED. PEN OR PENCIL MAY BE USED   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  •  ADVISORY COMM!SSION OF THE  COUNCIL OF NATIONAL DEFENSE  COMMITTEE ON WOMEN IN INDUSTRY  Washington, May 14, 1918.  MRS BORDEN HARRIMAN. CH,AIRMAN,   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Miss Mary Van Kleeck, Room B-3-113 New Ordnance Bldg., Washington, D. C. My dear Miss Van Kleeck: Following our discussion at the Executive meetinv on Monday, I am sending to you a copy of th Jeffersonville report with ich a few suggested f. •n. s is to be published. perhaps might be wis I shall appreciate it if you will I have make any additional suggestions. written to Mrs. Halleck asking her if she can make final inspection to bring this report up If not, I shall attempt to get the to date. necessary information myself. To save your time and to speed the report along, may I ask that if I do not have any su :estions from you by Monday, May 20th, I may assume that you have no changes or suggestions to make and proceed with taking up the report with Mr. Hopkins and Mr. Gompers for final approvali Yours very sincerely,  0??4A,1 MA-AB.  Execlaive Secretary.   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  I  4 61 1' .44. k  *.c..f  T_I  C.  r  ;..  ( PBEL alINARLIMPORT 11410,......, 1+41-401 1 letErV1 SHIRTS TURE OF AIDIY 111 T S SY WORK HOME THZ mem 4T.NE14.--WARTERMAE4411064110111aT ‘7FFERSONVILLE• In.  Li  ,VJA.  N4,)   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  AWL .IONNVOTION  PaTe 1 • • • • • • • • • • Scope •. • • Sources of information  6 • 0  a  •  1  Location and numbers employed .• 2 1.rowth of the home work system • 4  AWJAIZILMLia_alLig Ibe ohavastar et the work • •.• 7 2he givimgwent stations.• •.• 10 Fumigation • • •••  • •  • • • •  18  Inepeetlem.• • • • • • • • • • 20 The time Mt • •. • •. • • •  A  23  ISLiiiiiUMIKALL221ALLIMII Composition of the -aioup  • • • 27  Character of the poorer dwellings 28 The work roam • • • • • • . 0 • • 32 Comments about work • • •.• .. 3$  131  XI UMW MN!4zirrosolsrviLL -as promo et astratacture •  . • . 34  •317 Hours • • • • . • • • • • • • • • Illipos • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Previa ono for health and comfort • 37  ft   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  liedieal care • • • • • • • • • • •  38  Mara?* work • • • • • • • • • • •  39  .111111SMAZIgla • •  0  • •  0 • • • • • •  40   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Cql. dinthrop Se Wo94 in csumq4 )  W1701CWION. .59sslt. This report is principally concorned with the manufacture of army shirts out and given out at the Quartermaster's Depot in Jeffersonville, Indiana, and made up by somen in their homes.  It includes also information relative to  the clothing factory in the Depot.. Stlpoes of InfOrmation.  The data were  secured (1) from conferences with(Colonels wood and Hart)at the Depot on January, 8th and February 4th; (V from inspections of the Depot an the same dates in company with(!aptain B1ggard4)(3) from visits to the sub-stations in Louisville and Frankfort; (4) from individuals in Louisville, Including clothing manufacturers, a public health nurse, and the :resident of the Xentuc4y Consumer.' League; and (5)   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  2.  fro. visits to Op homes of 193 women engaged in etitching tho Shirts, located as follows: In Louisville, 117. In Preakfort„ In Pewee Valley, 1:74.  164 10 19  The addrITsses for these visits were for tho most part taken at random from the Government lists.  In addition, some workers were visitod at  the suzgestion of social agencies in Louisville or of other wozen shirt-iworkers. 1,ocation imag qupbers 4114oyed.  The Jef-  fersonville Depot woe established in the seventies. ;ilice the beginning of the present war a large amount of land and many titilladinge have been added.  The  2roduction of army ahirts by WSW iiesidng at home has very ?aridly increased  in January, 1918,  .04:14W4mmottaimpdObroffictials at the Depotopat Shirts were beinc!, given out to a list of approximately 21,001 women.  Ordinarily about 1{),010 of theft  women receive work from the sub-station looated in Louisville.  The number of activ, oDeratives varies   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  3.  from week to week.  During the meek sof Pebruary 4th,  at Which time a cloth shortaqe prevailed, the number of active ope,atives was stated to be 20,700, distributed as follows: Louisville NOW Albany  Jeffersonville Frankfort 2adison 3cottsburg  10,000 3,500 2,500 2,000 1,50 1,200  Tiae practice obtained of allowing to each Mona may one Wail° (10 shirts) a see--1- in Order to Wtribute the wgift as ileav 4$ Assiblem and give eapleyment to a large number.  This method, which  increases the time necessary for transportation and the chances of delay, obviously Impedes production. ,:hen the dense& came for incresee& production and storage, at the beginning of the ear, the available labor in Jefforsonville, libleb bad a mop (  lation of 13,412 at the time of th  *  became wholly inadequate. Men and women vere drawn from surrounding towns, including Louisville, in numbers sufficient to put a strain upon train and  4.  trolley facilities uhieh made regular service almost impossible. Partly in order to relieve the congestion, the sUb-station was opened In the Armory in Louisville, and this, according  Fl  to Kajor Clay, "at ene stroke tocik 9000 women 414 I,  4:1   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  off the crowded cars." Grintijirjhe &out Work System. Both Colonel Wood and Colonel Hart ax-nressed tittle:action with the homework system of manufacture because it offers an almost inexhaustible sourrA) of•labor supply for the Depot aled at the Sams time furnishes employment for saw mom these  fenny Imam is insufficient.  Both(Colia01  Wood and Major Clay, Who was in char7e at the Louisville sub-station,)expressed the belief that the work ahould be so given out as to relieve the poor. 14hia Philanthropic opportunity appeared so imlJortant to them that the exist-.  eno• of ,overty, rather than the cleanliness of the homes or the ability of the workers, determined the distribution. Home 'work has therefore been resorted 4••••   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  5.  te and ieteadily extended, in spite of the serious wastes isissreat in production carried on in that way,iin spite of unanployment existing in the real c1othin7 centers of the countryopiad contrary to Vie recommenaatimit of the ,Juartermastar Goneztl specifically stated as follossjin pi/Marts of Mmplo7p)ent in War ,Woric.  Sury of Ree(wriend.::,  tions to tImployers,ilated Dctober 11,, 1917: 'crio work shall be ;tven out to be done in rooms used for living purposes or in roams directly esmsected with living roams in any dwellin': or tsmsmsnt." The first objectioa to homeedwork of this nature is that of its wastefulness at a time in the 3ountry's affairs sites tbeisost efficient production is imperative.  This has to do specifically  with the loss of time in transporting material, particularly when an effort is made to give only small amounts sr work to each woman; mt* the inevitable delays and losses on account of the asparation of the workers from the inspectors and sukervisors of the work such as those ,mhich occur When women have to travel back  flci forth from the factor  several  times in order to rectify minor errors in the make-   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  4.  Op of  bundle of plow'. andoWth the great  opportunity for pO's%r weatmosahip mud Injury to the materials.  In the second place, the  omplpymust of unskilled clothing markers drawn from an extended rural district is expensive, hen, in the clothing centers of the country, exlmrienced workers who could doubtless perform the work far more quickly and efficiently, -.re idle. The recommendations of the  mart's..  master General were undoubtedly made, not only with these facts in mind, but also in view of the  anger of spreading diseases which is in-  herent in dwelling or tenement-house manufacture, " The chief men's olothin,T zenters of the countr7, according to the 1914 Census of .;.anufactures„ (U.S. Bureau of the Census, Abstrttet of Census of a-nufactureq,1914, p. 269,) are :New Yor, Chicago, Baltimore, Vhiliadelphia and 2ochester. In New York, *la in 1914 produced more th_n one-third of the value of the country's product, the farment tr.dee eare reported by the iederal ilaployment ;4rvice to be DOA, off workers during the winter of 1917-18. (Official Bulletin- January 11, 1918, p. 4.) :Laxly In .Laimorylp 1918, an official of the :vaasylnia State Federation of Labor stated that it ht,44 been reported to him that about 3,:r0 garment workers in Philadelphia were idle on account of lank of work. (Correspondence with H. X. :Ample, !lennsylv,..nia Department of Labor and Industry.i   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  unless such manufacture is under MCTO complete supervision than has yet been devised. 'Jo great an extension of the home work system undoubtedly is  disorganizing factor in  the clothing trade of the country, The output of the Louisville hub-station alone was stated to be 17,000 to 20,000 shirts a day.  In the long run  the clothing trade in civilian shirts probably suffers a loss equivalent to such important increases in the manufacture of ,Irmy ihirta. MeanWhile the eorrespondinp. work, instead of going to the regular shirt factories, is pnrforned in the  homes.  Clothing manut-cturers in Louisville  stated that thoy yore facin7 the necessity of closing the factories on account of dearth of orders.  Aurr had offered to take P!overnm=mt  orders and to add the necessary equipment for that type of manufacture, but bat reeeived no natio, that their application bat been received. 04.,  . DISTRIBUTING THT'  mom.  The Maracter of the Work. The princiAl product of time work manufacture is the army  et rf.   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  a.  shirt, but overalls and bed sulks are also given out. Materials for all these are received at the Jeffersonville Depot. they  Here  re cut and tied into bundles. ?mot-  ioally all the vatting is done by electric machines through many layers of foldr.d cloth. The operatives are men jho earn from ,W).0,-) to ,250.00 a month on piece  work.  Ach shirt is made from 27 pieces and the shirts are in five different sizes. Moreover, the pieces of khaki cloth are not uniform in shade.  Mistakes in assembliir the  pieces vhich should be in each woman's - adle not infrequently occur, according to the workers, who IlL.ve to bring bi'.ek the material and lose the time of the extra trip. ;Law, of the =men oamplained that their bundles contained pieces which did not match they lost much time in returning the matDrial to the station before they could get the right shade to complete their garments. 3adly out pieces, due to the occasional twisting   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  9.  of the cloth in the cutting, are another cause necessitating a return to the factor, before the work can be finished. Demorastratore were at hand at the givingout stations to teach the mothod of making up the garmonts. !ne7.7 worker Is allomeJ to %kr: home a 7:omen who are  ample shirt fom which to familiar with sewin  can learn the procesz from  the demonstrator or from the zample. Th6 unskilled women learn from their more experienced neighbors, or from their on mistakes.  The liunbor of women  at the Depot who wtre busy ripping out stitching in which mistakes bad been made, Is of the proportion of errors. tic awing machines are used.  n indication  The ordinary domesIt was stated that  a motor attachmnnt, costing 0.5.00, made it possible to mace twice as many shirts in the same lenFth o;: time, but few workers possessed them. c,)nly two of the 193 workers visited bad machines with motors. Work an the bed sacks and denim jackets is much heavier.  It is not popular with the "Oft   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  10.  'makers who object to the delay and expenses caused by broken needles on the heavy material. prices paia for the abticles manufactured are as follows: A.45 per bundle of 30 0446 shirts* or 44 cents per shirt; 43.45 per bundle of 10 Denim jumpers or 343 !- cents per jumper; ft 4? 10 Denim trousers or 342- cents yAlce Dair; w • 10 Mattress covers or 15 .1crts per cover; 04 $1.20 • 10 Bed sacks or 12 cents apiece. 2he approximIto number of garments mamafactured per wee  was stated on Fet.bruary 4th, 1918,  to be: Leesville Branch Blow Albany Branch Jeffersonville Depot Frankfort Branch 5cottsburg Branch Madison Sub-station  66,000 25,000 20,00 12,000 10,000 10,000  On ao-,ount of cloth shortage the stations were at this time giving ant a smaller amount of work than formerly. Z4e Giving-out Stations.  The bundles  ready for stitching are sent by train and truck 'This is a slightly lever price than is paid for home worr: at .he achuylkill Depot in Philadelphia ($4.50 per bundle.)   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  11.  to the various sub-stations for distribution to the "Bundle - Asuorr as the rim:en uho do the sewinrr aro =fled. ;:adh of those must present a letter from a resIJousiblu iierson before a "pass" Is issued pemitti4; theLi to tilo uat work.  For tho  two months precoding Pebruary 4th, 1913, no new passes had been issued.  Before the 9reseLt war  all of the women sowers same to Jeffersonville for th:: bundles; but nith the inorease of work the sub-stations were esLabliskii t main Depot.  lexpent the  These are looated at Louisville, New  Albany, Frankfort, .00ttsburgio and 'Aadison ip Jeffersonville and the sub-statiOhs draw workers from great distances, as is indicated by the telling lists of tams in which the workers who are register& at „Tew Albany, Louisville and Frankfort live.   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  12.  Towns in which workers live who receive work from the 7ew Albany Sub-station.  Alton, Ind. Battletown, ry. Bedford, Ind. Bommetsville, Ind. 31241147a, Ind. Bloomington, Ind. Barden, Ind. Bradford, Ind. Brandenburg, Xy. Oompbellsburg, Ind. earwood, Ind. Central, Ind. Cber1eston, tad. Corydon, Ind. Crandall, Ind. Davidson, Ind. DePauw, Ind. Deputy, Ind. Dogwood, Ind. Doolittle Mills, Ind. Dry Run, Ind. Marty, Ind. Xlizabeth, Ind. 30glish, lemma Landing. larabee, Ind. Fredericksburg, Ind. Wilma, I. Gisres4en4 Ind. Grantsburg, Ind. Greenville, Ind. Hardinsburg, Ind.  80 miles down river, 60 miles from Louisville, on Texas 114 R., 53 miles, C. I. & L., 17 miles, C. I. & L., 63 miles, Southern R. B., 100 miles, C. I. lc L.$ 20 miles, C.I. & L., 15 miles by stage, 40 miles down river, (Approx.) 53 miles, C. I. & L., 10 miles inland, 60 miles down river, 7 miles inland, 17 miles, Interurban line, 35 mlles, Southern R. B46. 14 miles, Southern R. 40 miles down river, (Approx.) .25 miles, Southern R. It., 40 miles B. & 0. L. B. out of Jeffersonville. 20 miles inland, (Approx.) 49 miles, Southern R. R. Edkerty, 5 miles inland, 49 miles, Southern B. R. Eokerty„ 4 miles inland, 49 miles, Southern R. R. 16 miles, inland. by stage, 39 miles, Southern R. R., 30 miles down river, (Approx.) 31 miles, 04 I. & L., 27 miles, inland by stage, 10 miles Wand by stage, 9 miles, Southern R. 39 miles to inglish, 5 miles inland4 12 miles, C. I & L., 27 miles Southern, Uilltown, 10 miles inland,   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  LS.  lard Park, Ind. Himitingsburg, Ind. Laconia, Ind. Lanesville, Ind. Leavenworth, Ind. Lexington, Ind. Little York, Ind. ifloust Point, Ind. Lagnet, Ind. Magnolia, Ind. MMismeo, Ind. Miltinsiburg, Ind. Martinsville, Ind. Marysville, Ind. Manckport„ Ind. Uinta, Ind. Milltown, Ind. Mitchell, Ind. Moresville, Ind. ULU, Ind. Jew Amsterdam, Ind. New Middletown, Ind. NOW Philadelphia, Ind. New 5E liibury, Ind. Newton Stewart, Ind. Borth Vernon, Ind. Oriole, Ind. Orleans, Ind. Otisco, Ind. Oxionia, Ind. Palarre, Ind, Paoli, Ind.  3 miles, Interurban line, 68 miles, Southern B. 40 miles down river, 2 miles inland, (ApprOx.) 13 miles inland, 75 miles down river, 22 miles out of Jeffersonville, on B. & O., 30 miles, 3eettsburg4 Interurban, 7 miles inland, 9 miles dews river, 80 miles down river, (Approx.) 39 miles, Southern to 2ing1is14 7 miles inland, 32 miles, Southern 2. 20 miles, C. I. & L., to Borden, 4 miles inland, 81 miles, Penn. B. to iranklin, 20 miles Big Pour, 16 miles an B. & 0., out of Jeffersonville, 40 miles dolt river, 46 miles, Southern B. B41.. 27 miles, Southern R. B., 63 miles, C. I. & L., 61 miles, Penn. R. to frsaklin, 31 miles Big Four, 19 miles B. & O., out of Jeff., 60 miles down river, (Approx.) 14 miles inland, 32 miles, ";. I. & L. to Morris, 4 miles inland, 17 miles, Southern Junction, 49 miles, Southern E. _u„ 7 miles inland, 53 miles, B. & 0.„ 80 miles down river to Alton 7 miles inland, 58 miles, C. I. & L., 19 miles, B. & O. free N. A. 20 miles, inland by stage, 58 miles to Orleans, C. I. & L. 6 miles S. an C. I. & L.,   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Crossing, ind. Pekin, Ini, Prinestown„ Ind. Ramsey, Ind. Riddle, Ind. Sales, Ind. Sattillo, Ind* Sellorsburg, Ind. Smedley, Ind. South Boston, Ind.Sulphur, Ind. lieuell, Ind. Temple, Ind. Timer, Ind. Mooney Ind. West Fork, Ind. West eoint, 4., hits Cloud, Ind. Adkliffe, Ind.  43 miles, B. 80. O., L., 25 miles, C. I. 105 miles, Southern a. R., 20 miles, southern R. R., $9 miles to English; Southern R. R., inland, 6 miles, 28 miles, C. I. & L., 51 miles, C. I. & L., 8 miles Interurban line, 40 miles C. I, & 4,4 miles C I. & L.• to Baraboo, 5 miles inland, 59 miles, English, Southern R. R., 16 miles inland, 46 miles Southern R. 35 miles 3outhern P. 65 miles dawn river, (AR,Tox.) 2 miles inland, 32 miles Southern R. R. to ILaromgo. 5 miles Wand, to Taswell, 45 miles Waal 6 miles Wend, 2 miles from Louisville, (Approx.) 25 miles to Corydon. Southern 5 miles inland, 49 miles Southern E. E. to ckerty, 8 miles inland,  calf CroOk, 4. Towns in ehieh workers live who receive work from the Louisville Sub-station. Ammons Anchorage Der4steem Dearerd Delmont Dig elifty Big Son BlaOk Rock Bloomfield Bonnieville Bondville Boston BrandenburR  Bremmsbusig Duftmer Buechel Chips* Comphellsburg Gamerville Carrollton Cecelia Cecelian Clark*ston ClemmOmt eloverport Colesbarg  Crestwood Crenshaw Ouster Destewille Nearly Times lestmeed Urea Elisabeth Elizabethtown Dsinence Fern Creek Finchville Fisherville Frymore   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  15.  Forrest Station Garfield Gotham's* Glas3ow Glendale Gotham. Guston Earned Earrods Creek Hazelwood Bodgiwville Horse Cave Mors Irvington Jeffersionkown Jeriehe reesesisla La Grasso Umilt0111011111  Lakeland Lobelias Ainetlea LeithtieId Jambi Ridge Ledieburg Long Greve Low un Loretta  Prospeet Lotus , i1Oher lodon RiWtOk Lyons Richsrdson Lodge Nagraa4y Binelville iiativoolL itiltiotoya Beeklavon Shelbyville Milton St, Helen MAIM INNAlaibintem St. Jobs ltsilathem Manuel slur perdirrille *slsenvlliet3hively WM Castle Simpsorville skylight We Haves seam Hope No Moo Liberty South Parr Stithten Nolen Sulphur Waimea 2a7lerville Okelams 'alloy Station Oemabere Teeohdale Orel Time Grove Paducah Wald, Paris Webster Pemdletes Park Haven Willitbire Perm* Valley, White Mills Pleasure Ridge Thsodlavnt  Towns in *Loh miters live who reosive wort frem the Frankfort Sob-station.  Dayied Sell Point Benson Bethlehem Blackville Chwistiansburg Cropper Elkhorli Manville ?ails lammdsle imanklimbms Gowmploona Goat G1ems's  Pleasureville Polsgrove Spring JU,tion Stomping Ground Stan ford awallowfield awitser Thornhill Truesdale Tyrone Versailles Itobelasclllii West Point lc-Jetport Orville Woodlake Ottersville Parses station' Worthingten Green Hill Hatton Honeysuckle Jett Leestown Lexington Lockport Midway Mosterey Mir   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  14.  The workers in some of the distant towns de not appear to make much out of the esmang.  In  two instances they stated that the money received from the work vas nearly all spent on the railroad fare to the sub-station, but it made possible a trip to the city idliCh could not have been taken otherwise.  It is evident that in such eases the shirts  are turned in only at such time as is convenient for making the trip.  This often means that they  are gre4-tly delayed in reaching the sdb..station. The Louisville Sub-station is located in the Armory, and occupies most of the enormous floor space of the building.  The room is divided into  aisles, on the general plan of the inspection imam In Ellis Island.  Bach woman waits with her bundles  until a number is thrown out to show that one of the 44 inspectors is ready to examine her mork, and then moves down one of the aisles to the long tables, on the other side of which the inspectors stand. The bundles are opened and the lurk graded on a card   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  17.  Which also shows the time the work vas tikes out and If the work is in need of correction,  returned.  and unless some radical change has to be made, the sewer may repair it on machines provided in the building to save the worxer from carrying it home again. TheuTrouble Desk" explains in detail what Is wrong, gives advice, and supplies extra pieces of goods vthen necessary.  When the inspectors are not all busy,  sole of thee may also assist in the repairing.  The  worker cannot get her pay "Inn her bundle is ac*opted., nor can the tarn in part of her bundle; so that if the does her repairing at home all 10 shirts have to be carried back although only one say have failed to pass the inspectors.  After her work has  been graded, the worker theis tams her card to the pay window and on to the place there asm, bundles are 7iven out,  If the worker declines to sake the de-  sired changes, she turns in her bundles, loses her pass, and receives no pay for the bundle. Both men and mmen inspect returned work..   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  le•  The women are paid $50.00 a month.  The men, *ho de  Ozactly the same work, geoeive 0100.01 a month. Agents for sewing machines, needles and motors are allowed to have stands in the Armory. 2hoy do not pay for this ccncession.  The Government  sells at cost bags suitable for carrying the bundles. -4orkers are encouraged to use them in order to protect the cloth. Se sub-station at Frankfort, Kentucky, Is situated In the old Capitol building.  When it  was visited (January 24, 1918) it bad been open four months.  Very fey les= were in the station,  though quantitie0 Of pulse's Of both shirts and bed sacks were ready to fro Out.  signs en the mall  urged women to show their patriotism by sewing army shirts.  A woman was seen taking may an unwrapped  bundle of Shirts contrary to the injunction not to take bundles out without wrapping them. . The fun/gating apparatus at algatani Jeffersonville and at Louisville vas inspected.. After examination the inspectors spread the shirts  19.  on rams or tables behind them.  The racks  are tbseled into the fumigating room at the end of the day and subjected to the fumes of formaldehyde during the night.  Every  ,:arment is supposed to m:o through this process, but it is to be noted that the •   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  capacity of the fumigator at Louisville is 14,00,; shirts, while 17,010 to 20,000 shirts are received each day.  It Is mmmifestly  impossible for all shirts to be fumigated when the sub-station is receiving the normal number. LL-m10-00,01-bilie offleer in charge of the procestObst it is effective in destroying vegetable germs only.  The plant is not  equipped with any means of applying steam under pressure to destroy the forms of anlmal life Alia may inhabit the garments. When the afa-anee of the shirts is suspicious, they are left for several days in the fumigating room.   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  ZS.  #  0111Deet1en qf Homes. Capt. H. H. °heal, writing from the Jeffersonville office January 16th, stated: ”The total nnaber of dewing operatives employed at the several stations being operated Under the direction of this office is approximately 21,000 and the number of sanitary inspectors employed is 15." Two of the 15 inspectors are women and re-  ceive t.50.-) a month.  The men receive 460.00. Each  Inspector is expected to make about 30 visits a day and Maer-hts-or her recordlpup to date. The department has established three marks for denoting the condition In which a house is found as follows: Class A - Entirely satisfaetory and not to be reinspected for at least six months. Class B  fair and to be inspected at an early date.  Class Cu..  Unsatisfactory. A roassfabla opportunity is given to olisaga conditions and the pass naeasaary to take work out is forfeited if this is not done. Thirty visits were made with the  officer in charge of the inspeitien Department of the Louisville district and with one of his staff.  The   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  21,  investigator who aftonpanied the Chief of the in*peen= Department agreed with him in the classification of the homes visited and reported that In his explanations to the home workers of what was expected of them he ilas clear, kind, and decisive. The Chief is accustomed to make visits to check up the work of his staff. In the country and in the small towns the workers are given cards, 4hich they are asked :nato return after they have had a physician's air_, ture to the statement that the condition of tie house is sanitary.  T-iotices in the sub-station in  q-ankfort stated that an inspector as to visit the homes, but no inspection had been made of any of the 10 how's visited January 24th, 1916.  In  y Pewee Val1e7 none of the 19 homes visited Januar 11th, 1918, had been inspected, but after the women had been working five months cards were distributed for them to sign. Even in ti-e  it  g of Louisville itself, a woman who had been workin for four years said that her home had not been   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  inspected during that time. The Louisville Sub-station receives a daily report free the City Health Department giving the location of contagious disease. ,;omen who have sewing at any of thee* addresses receive the followinc- notice. "WAR DEPARZIENT Office of the Depot liartermaster Jeffersonville, Ind. Address reply to Depot quartermaster, and quote File No. from: Sanitation Bureau, Deliot, Louisville, Ky. Sub-station . To: Subject:  Contagion.  1. TM: ;,";ITTAGIOUS DISASE (of . your home being reported to this at 40 • office, it is directed that you retain the shirts in your possession until your home has been thoroughly fumigated. 2. Please have the attending ,hysician certify on the enclosed card (which requires no postage) that your home has been fumigated, mailing promptly to this office before returning work, that ins ection may be made. Respectfully. CaPtain   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  ;2.5.  ives lbe OUbaistation calls in the sewing after it rece notice CMS tbe quarantine is lifted.  The Department of Sanitary Inspection in LouisVille has charge of "delinquents."  This term  is used to designate the %men who have kept work more than a month.  After a month has elapsed the  women are notified by mail to return the work and if they do not comply, they are visited by a sani tary inspector. The ;imp Lost.  Ale continuance of a method  of manufacture which has became an industrial auschreelea, because of the long delays inherent In it, calla-far -partionlar critiolaml especially nt. at a time When the need for army uniformsis urge s to 7o the time consumed in distributing the good to the the sub-stations and the transportation be added widely scattered homes of the workers must is eng..v7ed the unproductive time when the sever In household and other tasks.  In same cases the  The sewing Is a very seconnary employment. ce at files in the sanitary inspector's offi   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Louisville contain the cards of a meoup of workers Who must be visited at night because they are employed in factories or are away from home as domestic helpers during the day. It is the rule that a bundle of shirts must be returned after two maks, but they are frequently kept out much longer.  One worker  said that the asked at the sub-station if she should bring back unfinished a bundle she had had out for four looks, and was told to keep it until she could finish it. In addition to the delays and waste of time due to the scattering of the workers and their slowness in returning materials, account must also be taken of the fact that the process of home manuf:.cture itself is of necessity a very slow one. In ordor to obtain the rate, the women visited were classified according to their output.  The   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  173 women* who gave their output were divided into groups of almost exactly even thirds.  Fifty seven  were able to make :ast one bundle of 10 shirts each week; sixty (34.0 were not able to t.,  complete the bundle in a Yeeek's time emi the last third (12.4%) were able to xrtake more %NB MS bundle a MUSK.  The  difference in the number of shirts made  is to be largely accounted for by the amount of time the Imam were able to devote to sowing, but &leo to the fact that same ver7 slow workers were ineluded. [Is explainnd in another place (p.4) the Sad Of a supplement to income rather than Ability  of  the stithers determined the distribution St  - th,? study wail rande 111111! L4 ..,,c ' Week? ikiarttlf [--shortage had been the lCa IMO Slue Pregiou N cloth . eeession of the rule th:t one ',Iorker: should be ..:A.1IONIA not nere than'. en shirts a weedc,411-impoimp that no one should be entirely without work.  This  rule in itself may have operated to reduce the of the 193 SUM visited were irking on * S bed ticks and 13 were usable to teaks a definite statement as to the number of shirts they were able to sake in a week.   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  26.  number returned to the station.  In any case  it is evident at a time 'ten the cloth shortage made it ,secially difficult to keep up the output, a very considerable amount of material lees held lip in the vorkers' homes. lie workers visited often sFoke of women whom the7 knew who were making large numbers of Shirts.  These wre followed up vhenever posAble  and only seven women were found who could m&ze more than 2') shirts a week regularly.  Three micro visit-  ed who claimed thst they could occasionally make 30 shirts a week, two claimed they were able to make 40 in a week, and one women statedw.th;.4 she had once made 10 shirts between 3 A. M. and midnight, but that She would never try to do it again. On the other band, instances were foure of work that had been out a long time; in one case, three months; in five c!_ses, more than one month. Ti!ven the larrmst claims of the home workers as to the number of ,.ihirts they wore able to make in one week (40), are below the ordinary output   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  rt.  The  of the worker under factory organization. foreman of the Jeffersonville factory when  See p. 34.)  army shirts were being made three  stated that he thought me wman in'the ,factory could make ei?,ht shirts a day, or 48_ a week. #  7IL WATT 70'.4EF  gip  ,  ;  MIR Ena5.  .glep_t_oitior of  gieg.  A difference  in the making of army shirts in thn homes in war times and home work under other auspices lies in the fact that the Gorernmant employees now include a considerable number of 71mon in very comfortable ciraumstanaes tho sew from patriotic motives.  One  et those Ifts &Ember of the Xentnoky state CcOn NOON in Industry of the Council of Demitts ea fense.  ghe stated that the 2ay was sc poor that only  Tatriotic impulses :led her to undertaird the wer-4, Which she preferred to :rnittinl'.  She said. that she  knew many of "the hest ownen in the city ing shirts.  were stitch-  Another worker was a hotel keeper and a  third was making payments on a home.  At the other  extreme are the very poor in whose favor it is the   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  ZS.  plain of the Louisville Oub-station to discriminate in giving out work. Scow of these rere receiving aid from the Associated Charities at the time the visits vim asilo• „SaiiraailWACALZESIILALINUM. One fuzzily um living La squalid surroundings in an old bra. Equally undesirable duellings wore oc-orkers eh* lived in the “anty boats" cupied by the , along the banks of the river. The shanties are pica' tuesue. bat milky of them axe unsulte: for human habitation.  They are entirely without sanitary con-  ,, nienoes and are situated on low ground ,fihich is covered with water at the flood season when some of this ars actually &neat. The general disorder Which is ahem in interiors.  phonographs also characterizes the In the ploture is the next page, fro-101fter  the figure of the investigator indiettes the height of the room instill, there las a sass of pneumonia on February 5th.) The house contains four rooms in two time of 'blob chiolkono mai a pig yore kept at the the Government sovoinRsea done. A second picture   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  shown the city dump in the rear.  The third  picture is that of the hone of t% woman who aa Invalid and Who had not been ort for 18 years,  She was able to 'ass the sewing machin, but could not walk. ) (rictures are numbered 1,11 and The colornd workers in ?ewes Valley live in cabins, many of .Nhich are dirty, in poor repair and without conveniences.  Aural occupations are  combined with the 4overnment stitching.  At the  time of the visit one worker who was about 18 years old had been engaged for thc previous two weeks in hog killinl.  !Ter family consisted of  h-rself, hor husband, who was a fast hand, and two uncared-for children of two years and six months respectively.  The elder was sickly and hat never  uallead. The Work_ ;lam.  In no instance a special  room set apart for the stitching  183, discovered.  In  nearly two-thirds of the eases the work was done in either the kitchen or the bed rooms.  In five in-  stances the workers lived and worked in a aingle ?OM.   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  ,.:.  roeniq at.  in ct,ral the  to 1w nuoh .7ork vas rer7ardad as Jz. ei;ortuaity ci uen approcIated, tho':gt it .:!al-; not loaa the In order to maim a succeos of it, rst9aiy worker womsn thoucht ittIgneess,eiry to be a  eaey.  and be-Tessess good eyes an  a god machine.  Some women appeared to be wori:in deal of nervous strain.  under a good  One hirad another  charts for her. vollan to make the fronts of the lA-4 sae the case one Only In  -orker4-avessam-isfto had  ehing factory. bed4.previons experience in a stit Others had been in other  actories, however,  ed to return to the and tm workers had determin . factories in order to earn more  One had al-  ory *here she ready g.one back to a cio4ar fact rnment work intend:d to remain vntil the nove  as  more plentiful. was A source of real dissatisfaction shirts a week. the limit of one bundle of  Some  rs with ',influence workers complained that othe   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Sim  were able to get more than they. One Moan wag using four passes in order to get a larger somber of shirts.  The  Asses  were given her by nladi-s"  abs 'worked for who did not themselves want to sew *my longer.  She said, there was no objection at  the sub-station to thi!Agrangement. 14.4.-- 1Y MIR =THING Farigr A? ArriatISONVALE, In December, 1917, the Government created at the Depot a factory for the manufacture of army clothes.  Army shirts of the same kind as those  made by the home workers were being produced here at the time of the January inSpeOtion, but when it vas again visitnd ea February  th, the plant had  been P:iven over to the production of army %niforms. At that time about 200 women were being employed, the majority of eben were White.  Two hundred and  fifty lemon were said to be on the waiting list for factory positions.  It was anticipated that  1500 'men will be employed next sumer. The 2rooess of Mammfacture.  The cloth   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  ter the unifOrms as well as that for the army shirts slide by the home verhsrs is received, inspected, and out at the Depot FactiOr7.  The inspection is done by  women who sit under a framework over which the cloth Is passed in such a gay that the cloth is between the inspector and the light.  A crank turned by hand  moves the cloth over the frane.  Similarly a hand  crank is used when the cloth is :,assed between rollers for sponging.  In factories with up-to-date equip-  ment, a power driven mechanism is used for both of these purposes. The cutting is all done by men With the use of cutting machines.  Mes also assemble the pieces  for the home workers, b-.:ndles and coullit off the appropriate number of buttons for each.  In per-  forming the latter occupation they were seated and the work was as light and easy as any that could be found in factorv production. ?he stitching room vas 4npped with special one and two-needle pr machines for work on the coats and trousers of uniforms.  The foreman   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  stated that the operatives were for the most part women who had had no previous experience in Dower ammillne stitching.  At one end of the room women  were pressing on the Hoff-Man machine.  This re-  quires throwing the entire weight of the body on the release.  In the report of the United States  Bureau if Labor Statistics on the Amployment of Women in Power Laundries in Milwaukee,* the opinions of medical authorities are cited showihg that such occupations endanger the health of young women, possibly producing a distortion of the spine with a one-sided development of the body and possibly pelvic disorders.  If it is not  expedient to install presses operated pneumatically in order to prevent  his strain and danger  to the women workers, it Should be .1)ssible to substitute the men engaged upon such light tasks as that of sorting buttons for the women at the ,Iresses. *U. S. Burea- of Labor Statisics, Report an the imployment of Winton in Power Laundries in Lil122, May 1913, p. 21. waukee, Bulletin   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Colored women were employed in a separate roam to repair the shirts made by home workers. They were also employed in the packing roam. Hours.  The schedule of hours at the  time of the inspection provided for a nine-hour day fro-. 7:30 AA lunch.  Mb  to 400 P  M6 with one-half hour for  it latt-fitmted—fAlhe schedule wasregular17  maintained. -Anti  A flat rate of ei-)0.00 a month  sia" paid to all women operatives in the stitching riem regardless of occupation, skill or output. Women who insect cloth were also paid ,g)0.0.) a month, though men were paid 300.01 for the same work. Provisions for Health and evfort.  At  the time of the inspection only five toilets were available for the use of the 200 women ampler'''. These were used by white and colored womendieorimlmately.  A sixth toilet was used as a locker  for the mops and buckets of the janitress.  Ad-   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  3e.  ditional toilet aseemaodations begun at the time of the first inspection were no nearer ready for use at the second visit.  Me locatior of the toilets  in use was such that rorkors in the stitching roam had to pas througt several other roams and out of doors in order to roach them. There was no provision of a rest or wash roam of any kind and no arrangement for hanging up outside clothing.  The hats and coats of the workers  were in the work roam on chairs and piles of cloth. : lunch roam Is Provided in a separate building and hot flood is served in cafeteria fashion, b 't the room is not large essugh to aocomoodate comfortably the of loon  and ethos, Depot workers.  Al-  thoutth It is spew& to employees, none of the women workers in the clothing factory use it.  The greater  number bring their lunch and eat it in the 'work roams. Some of them patronize a small growerv just outside the tate which does a thriving business at noon. Iltik-ca4 CIRO* stationed at the 'Depot.  T..Yo medical officers are A Red Cross first-aid roqm   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  39.  tarnishes the usual emergency service. WeViire Worlp  Three welfare secretaries  the Government. are maintained In Jeffersonville by this work. They' aro not especially trained for  No  d be secured. statement of their specific duties coul   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  40.  21272111111== The Committee holds the opinion that several changes should be made with respeat to the manufacture of army shirts and other supplies as carried on at Jeffersonville, and scoorcitugly makes the following recommendations: 1.  jiataggelLogaingy _Worts And oVaer,  &Mottt.2Atiimin ix* sameactutg_ a; th33 Jefferotanjaie DePot eitte.14 be abolkshed,  The  efficient manufacture of standardized articles of clothing requires skilled workers, constant supervision and inspection, the application of power machinery, and countless incidental econs onies of time and effort.  !one of these are  possible under a home work system.  Ihe dela7s  due to the transportation of the workers for long distances, the slowness of the wonen in returning Flarments, mistakes in the distribution of materials, and asulty workmanship on account of lack of supervision should be eliminated at once.   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  41*  4rov dhirks dhari4d  2.  Al.tbor by,private concarns or factories,_  manufacturnd, Government  the_Astablidhed clothin3 centers  ja_the country.  Thse clothbr centers bre  alreexir suffering from unemployment, thnir workers are numerous and are already adequtely trained and experienced for this type of work, and the potential labor supply for steady factory work is gremter. Economic distress of individmals and  3*  vtoinityk Whether  f4.4.11„?.$  satAggLI9Aumsdizacical_ _hant. qble agencies,  The present policy of the  Depot, that of awarding work on the basis of the financial necessity of the applicant, although doubtless due to admirable philanthropio motives, tends to divert the function of Charitable assistance from the local unit to the federal f7overnment*  It has continually been the policy  in this country to leave to the local authorities,   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  42.  in part, and to  stae authorities in  part, the administration of charitable funds. Tbe assumption of this task by the fpderal government, without special authoritation, appropriation, or machinery, mlans confusion of responsibility in Atatever communities it is adopted. 4.  Th9 maintainence of the Jeffersom. vic1J,e plctory Should not be contAnued.. Jeffersonville lacks the trained labor, proper transportation, and ade(rate housing facilities for the forded development of a clothing center.  Only loss results from the  utilization of untrained and unskilled .orkf:Irs at a tirle when experienced women are nvallable in other clothing districts.  The factory  building itself could be used for star:age. f'he many supplies piled in the open indicated that additional storage space Is urgently needed. 5.  (rovisional hecamlendation.)  In ease it is   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  43.  found inexpealent to Alscontinue the JetforsorTillo factory imlediately, the folloling reconnendations arn made: a.  The nrocess of manufacture  lhould bl reorganised by an experienced clothinT manufacturer.  It is assumed that  this would include the glibstitution of machinery for the hand work in the preliminary prooessF,s of examining and preflaring the cloth, and the substitution of men for women in tile operation of the Foff-Man machines. 1)4,  The basis of pay should be  revised in accordance with the value of Pit worker to the establishment.  The pres-  ent flat :!:,50.01 a mon0 pas, for all vomen amployees should give way to a system in which comparative output is recognised, while at the same time tbs hariabips of a strict piece work system aro avoided.   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis