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https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  rocheti ,-,n r nch ce ection e•rvi J Indurtri  Amy Howes, womenic  From:  rn&  In,  rvice ,ecti n.  tri 1  'read, Director ar:en'L Branch, rlara Industrial -ervice Section.  o: .ubject:  lIrG,4111v.ukee, Visit to plant of HUMMEL AND DO'l n and Irene Gibson, 2rly e conein. Inspected by tlertrud "Tovember 7, 1918.  40apQn for visit. ione for The visit was made to advise regarding c ndit district the in r wqnim I'cork. A government inspecto n. worAt ying h st reported that the company was emAo ) Pe recnif I nterviewed. r. (!. T. !,arke, General :unerintendent. to Klockein. Chief Army Inspector. r. 0. J. Ftrey, Assistant Army Inspector. rtment. lee Anna cbabeck, Forewoman of stitchine depa rgan17ation.   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  r. J. . Rummel, President. rr. T. ,. rioss, "Tics President. MoKemen, Secretary ind Treasurer. Kr. G. There has been no rorganizati n for  11. c .itrbets.  cts. 8/31/18 P14441-12721: in fibre conuse for s disc d boar For 1,/26,000 fibre um guns. tainers for propelling earges for 155 ipt of order rece r afte y d n Deliveries are to begi The contract a day. 00 50,0 and ',routed at the rate of *hull be complete.d 1/15/19.  vumnel and Downing. eroducts other thil ordnance. About 0 of tve r,0-,1any's monthly outwit is for erdnance. It ,olds no !:avy o- .ircraft eontr ctr. The co7Imercial pror.zets formerly and at resent tired 2rf, .-vte 'card 7,rLcking boxes mnd cartons for food stuffs. 4A3ent feattiree resugidingp_es-joyment. 1.  Source and character of the labor amply. The city of tAllop.ukee :trovides the labor. Very few foreigners are emnlo ed. The women te. for the most interesIed. - art y(IwIg and seem induPtrious  2.   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Numbers mmnloyed. em-lo:,-ed. Of these About 500 'len and 150 rorlen w ren only 30 are on Ordnance 'fork, 22 ei-mnqny em -loyelso and 8 government lnapectors.  Men and 'amen work the x“:.me number of b urea to 9 boars 4nd 45 ninates cly. The 1,-Ire  totalling  are:  MonO;A; to •'1"1diAy 7:00 , to 12:00 to 5:30 12:45 1.raturday 7:00 'L."(. to 12:00  3212.:  tar hate rf?cently been extended from The lunch • 30 ninate 'eriod to a 45 .f.inute ,eriod, but the company has not an yet extended the closiag ti.ic to 5:45, no em:Joyeet virtually work only 9 hours and 45 minutes a for 10 hours. day, hut are •  Wages. Ti,-e rate*. :'omen eniAoyed by the cam -any r(?esive 200 an hour for a straight tPn hour day, molXing .'2.00 a dNy. r. Tarim ptited tt.t the hie 8 si;our di-4y law had never been mentioned to the c mnony. About 30% of the wmmen are paid by the ti 'e. ilovernmelat inspectors r‘tceive 200 an hoAr for 8 and time and a half for the two ourt over tie, 42.20 a 4,4y.  king  .1-  Rummel and nomming rfo.  74) of the Altof;ien 4re on piece vork. lee* ratrs. Fw:r dq) .- is the average length of time re-uired before vorvm mit on Piece work. ;amounts received on Aece work average daily about aP follows: Ltitching operation 0 Crea6ing s Printing I. Glueing  5.  ':inimum v2.75 2.50 2.60 2.25  ./-aximum  A.75 3.00 3.20  uccupati-ne of ',amen. throighoqt the rhop working on regular commercial products are emplo;,ed in stitching, crelising, feeding glueing, and helping the printing presses, various machine operators. 'omen doing OrdmInce Irork ing, -,nd wrapping.  erw,ged in peeling, inspeet-  ilpAing. Fifteen oonen are at +work on this operati,n. The work consists in knocking with 3 wooden hammer the pante hoard discs from the large piece of paste hoard from wtich they have been cut. The wilmen sit at benches to do thin. Iffepeptits. There etre eight government inspectors wto out the dines throigh the following stAges of inepeeti,m: I. Viewa examinati in. 2. Test for t,le.psness (.001 inch) with micrometers. 3. Test for diameter (5.625 inches) with a go and no go g-uge. 4. Test for strength with a rullen compressed air maehine. s. -one of t)ese occupations are replacement oneli  6.  Training. fellor Koremen the w.men receive.  7.  orkmen give the only training Whieh  Amployment managep4ent. Kr. Parke, General f'u erintendent, em loys both men sand oremen arrange for tr.rsfere vemen ;.ind pieties them. and disekarge. NbeenteeE, ;Ir. not looked no.  S.   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  verking eonditions. Indurtrial relati no and eho-, nrr,rtices. lir. Parke et.ted t , t ttere v. ad bePn no tricoble from organized  "umriel F.Ind :mxfling   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  .4.  labor. He does have difficulty with high labor turnover, especially in the case of the men. The ro-Ien eemm to be more st,ble. l.ntq_nttrutl,ion &Jit *ho: 14Yot. The plYtnt from the .%oint of view of c,,ristructin might be celled Lodel. It is a new six Ftory steel frame and brick building with abo,It ninety ercent ,xindow space. Lighting and ventilati-n throlgoAt the plant are both excellent l'actocy hl'iseWe nit. The entire factory seamed clean Find orderly. Apologist were made for a corner rhich mclrewhat torn up because of a ner mach no being installed there. Itven this section did not seem articular.. ly untidy, indicating the st-,ndards of cle;.nliness and order were camparatively high. cciderq and h4tJ hazard. There lc gret, d' nger of accident fron the unguarded staying or stitching rlich.nes. les .6hubeck re orted that one accident had happened neveral ye rr Ago, but th4t since then the thought of danger never seemed to occur to the o:.ler' tore. It would seen wise to attach peret,nent 'Ade guards to these pAitching machines. Vorking conditiAls in general, however, appear to be conducive to good icath. ignitt.tn and arvit ce features. Toilet and washing facilities. These fAalities are the sqme on all the floore of the blilding. In eaeh case tv,ere Is a toilet roon with two enclosed, epringseat toilets. Just outside the toilet room there are Porcelain wrsh tro-ighs with About 30 fLucets. At the end of each troJgh there is a bqbbler fountain eonnected witertesian well. mloek room. On each floor where women )2.1e employed there is a good mired cloak room itouleped with individual lockers and a few tablet %nd chairs. Those are also used As rect rooms. lunch room. A new lunch room is now being built on the fifth floor and will be ready for occu-ancy within a week. This is a roam about 25 feet by 75 feet and it very well lighted and ventilated, It has recently been freshly painted and is equipped with Omit fifteen small tables. Mot drinks will be served here free of charge every noon Medical care. The only provision made for Attlical care conriete inthe keeping of a first aid kit in the office of the foreman of the rtying machine room.  J.mmel md nowning Co.  c  endations. 1. Permunent guards should be .  A   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  it •rm the st, ying macb Ines.  ere - ould be z• scientific --ltbod for first aid treatment.  tai n.  The al'ove suggestl ,ne were mde to AMY Supervisor in . omen's lirAnch, Industrial -ervice -eeti n.  IITIAD"!.;  Insrectr.  r•  rke•  311:hg - r,,- .••'0 ;  •  rodLotlou '"oments Branch Tneustrita ervice F.eetif:n PTOM:4  Ilfinros, ibises*• Pr3rich. Inductrial :iervice  ecti-n.  To:  nAra M. Toad, Tlrector -omen's Branch, Induetrial .ervice  ,ubj.act:  citt to lant o -iseonsin. Inspe  fak CsImpuly, gilwaukee. de 1111074 /fovember 6, 11.  -*aeon i9r The visit was made at the re ueet of a government inspee. tor in the Aistrict iriv'o suggested that the Avice of the P.oments !ranch Inigl.t be valuable. Perfont,OVervAewed. .!r. I. 2'. L. Cornell. superintendent. Ar. 14, T. tudems, Chief Army Inspector. c-ri,:-Atitzatt Dn. r. 2. . Stretch, President. r. F. 40 Jacobs, Vice iTeeident and ales Manager. r. N. w. Rottman, :ecretary and Tre,leurer. The present organisation is about fix year*: old. The work on urdri4nee contrr!ets fun caused on rRorgunizatifm. ClogVacts.   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  , IA6178.1463 For 458,000  4/18/18  tong brqeits for cleaning rod on 1917 liveries to ethrt 6/25/18 and proceed ode1 if.. at the rte of 150,000 per -onth until contrast is campleted. r11893.2043 i/13/18 Yor 2,000,000 tong brurhes for cleaning rod on 1903. 1917 V. S. Rifles. Deliveries to start uixty d4ys after d'kte ol order 7ald contract to be complete by 1/1/19. P16903..2792 10/22/18 For 3.000,000 thong brui*oe for cle nitv rod ()11 1903.. . Rifles. Deliveriee to start linety days 1917 after d4te of order iin(l ecntrat to be complete by 2n2/19.  .2.  i1wukee -'rush Co. :algalla_alLtLAL:JI_Jrjalgaw  ,t :)revent hboilt 50; of the 0 tput is for the A•ervince nep-rt ent. The comnany has qo °Vier t,:overnment tr%ctL. C!ommercial products r.an,if etired ere .kre floor, street, and Iliffing brueles. pent. 1.  Source and ertr;.,cter of the llibor sup ly. Almost 11 the wt)men it,orkerc are joung 2,merican Girls. There are a few Po1ii. wo en. All live in the city of 1.1 aukee. "wnbers e-  1oyed.  There are bb,, tt 60 men -tnd 60 ,- f,amen em-,loyed. A-,prox• iswittay 40 'o en are engived in Ordnance nroduct on.  3.   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  ffolrs. Vets and women work 10 h,)urs The hours are:  (Fty ;4;n0  55 'airs  a week.  Mende, to Frid/4 7:00 A.Y. to 12:00 12:45 11.. to 5:45 ts,aturday 7:00 A. . to 12:00 Tages. imit. ej Coripuny  Government inspectors receive $2.40 & dog. 'lryiloyetts rf.c—sive the following wAkee:  C2.25 a day. For trimming 2.25 a day. or cli-ing leer inspecting 2.25 a (14y. neginners on h-nding and twisting are given a rage of "n.00 while leAening.the op-rations, ,0,ieh usual y re• role siboA a week. They :ire then Alt on piece rate. 'Ruining' on piece -rork average $e follows:  ?time  'ending Twisting  :1.50 u day. 4.00 a di.  of-oupatione. he ot)erations performed by .cylen are as follows:  .3.  Milwaukee lirush Oe.  ending. This eperati-n Lc perfoned on a email punch press. A braes wire :...it five inches long is inserted half itc length in the iie,.(1 of the brush. As the press doseends the Lead is forced town a small opening so that the extending wire is bent double. • Yro:n the bending operation U,e brushes are en o the twisting machinee. These wer- invented by )Ir. "ornell the Superintendent. -ere the head o! the brush is plead in the tall end of the machine and the utre end left free. The women than insert the bristle* between the tryo pieces of wire. These are distributed the length of the wire by hand and then the wire wad Is fhotoned in the head of the maehines. The head of the traohine revolves rapidly, twisting the wires 'phi& hold the bristles. The movment is controlled by a foot lever. The wire ends lel& project beyond the bristles are cliped off on mnall automatic screw maehines. The trimming machines are Mr. Cornell's own *. The main part of the machine is a hollow cylinder about two inebes long and one inch in diameter. Insi the cylinder are mnall blades. The brush is inserted in the center. As it cease in cnt'..ot vith Us revolving blades, the bristles are trimmed to the correct size.  inialittalaL•  The women engaged in inspecting examine for:  height. a. brush part. of Length b. brush. of c. Diameter of bristles. distribution C. ',Yen 6.  Training. The only trtining which the vat-ken receive is given by the for ten.  7.   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  71nploymeat seaaagement. Zr. r'ornell, General 1.unerintendente employs both e ten and worten. !re aloe places theme arranges transfers, and discharges them4 Transfer methods are very sjmple. If an traria** grows tired of one oeenpatione she is permitted to &lenge for q short neried until she is rested. Turarrer among warlen is enormous. "r. r7ersell did not estivate it In oercent but granted that it was hampering production. 'Te believes that the principal reason for this turnover is the fact that to many of the women are married und haw no real interest in the work. Ye does not consider t.Y%t tie company is at fault.  •  .4.  Milwaukee Bruc.h Zo. 8.  orking c6nditi ns. AfiVstrita relatiolle 0414Okop ;,r4ctices. helot' 41e between e4;loyer and emplo,jee ax;.. vex-Li ir,formal. rr. Cornell Y4nd1es all luestions of discipline and will not . aryone else to superintend. Tre prides h mself on 7diow : being lenient to those whom he cneiders deserving of leniency. - r atart.tuLsa3....ALais The blilding is an tgaa_s_j aj "-+ old one-story brick structure invery ly.4.d repair. The long narrow room In 10441 the wo en work on the Ordnance material is dnrk, dirty, and poorly ventilated. The only light and Ai* in the room crae fr m five small dirty -Indows at ti- e side and buck of the workers. The company does no torn the building and for that reason is unwilling to make rimy improvements. The fire hazard lc greut. There is a largo mount of Inflammable ntortal in the sho, gangways are @congested, and exito %re few and hqdly located. FrtptiorY Y:outiOceDiria. The factory ap-:eared to he in a very dirty coition. floor space is b dly cluttered and the entire shop is poorly kept u-. \çcgcn id hlallbpeipard. On accc;unt of the rork there le little .J1ger from lwn complain operati ins. •,ome of sore. No hands and bristles make their worn by the woven.  of the nature the =Lein! th'it the wire uniforms are  lt, ZAaLImilipm.ang-LazisijmAimu tled by the  The Uilet and raehinit women engged in faoilitieL which re (rdnance work consiet in an inside mull toilet roam entaining two dirty toilets 7Jnd an old rlsty iron tr• 40. The room it painted an ugly dark gray. There is a mall co'Thinati n cloak, rest and lunch room. NO special person seems to be responsible for keeping this clean. The wen i7enera1ly eat lAnch in the shop. There it  o ;,rovlsion for nedical cre.  Community conditi ne. Al'. the orrployees live in the city of llisaukee. Trolley lines ran vit)in a e'onvoniAnt distanee fre.1 the plant. _Aapmend:Ai ns. 1.   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  There Elould be a reorgtni7ati'n of employment methods. new fully e,!uipped toi et and wash ro a'Should be inat lied.  A  -11.-kuukee TTush 'so.  1. 4.   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  comfortable rest room thluld be nirni&ed. 7entilattou in the pork sl,o, etlf3uld be i Droved.  7Ye above recommenetionE werf. discussed with Mr• Cornell, expreseed appreoiation of the aseist.u, .ierintendert v; anee offered 4 tIle omen's Br AY HIM.% , nranett, ' Supervisor in Tamen Industrita .ervice Seetion. 14:  Inspector*  nB:re:bg  Production 'omen's Br nch Industrial ,:ervice ectim From:  Amy Herss, *,omen's Br:Inch, Industrial service ,ecti-n.  To:  Clara Te4d, Arector omen's Branch, Industrial Service Atcti n.  ,ubject:  Visit to plant of MilwAnkiAL Wisconsin. rfetwber 31, 1918.  Inspected by Gertrude Bruyn,  14olsgn for visit. The visit was made at the re,-Inest of a Government Inspector in the district who reported that Innen were lhorking in this plant I:rid suggested that the advice of the cimenie Branch might be of value. Perrone interviered, r. George - arkham, President. r. Arthur Ilank, Government Inspector. r. Robinson, Ship.ping Clerk. r. Curly, Assist/int Government Inspector. lass Bessie Lawrence, 'Forewoman of Government Insvectors. 2nanitation. -r. Gorge P. Wiarkbam, Prepident. r. Winkler, Vice l'resident. r. . J. Hanson, ::ecretary. The com:)any was org nise4 in 1909 and there has been no 11,ecial reorglnization for war contracts. antrfiptsv   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  GA208 for n0,000 brass c;krtridge cases for 4.7 1-,owitzers. reliverios to start four months from receipt of order .nd contract to be ems.' nthe After that d.Ae. 7leted three  01379-757 for 1,500,000 Mark II cartridge cases for 30, 15 pounder guns. Deliveries to stnrt January 15, 1918 and roceed at the rate of 9,000 /. day until the ntract is completed.  i:ederal  reared  te 1 Co.  -2-  10460-2088TV for 68,500 I Livens projector gas shell. ieliveries to st;rt July 31, 1918 and contract to bi- cleted by J,nuary 1, 1919. 11902-2217T, for 13,500 w_is c,linders attachments to 1-Acementsots. Dolivf,riep to start 30 d,ys after receint of steel and .)roceed pt the rate of boo a day until the contract is cowleted. rodlIction. Delayed orodIction on these gas shell, ccording to r. 7arkham, is due to the fact that they have been unable to lerfect A welding process. Only seven firms in the United 'ttee are making these Livens projectors and all are having the same troqble. A new forge vrelding furnace is now eing set nr and when that is completed it is estimated that 100 Livens will be it outevery 24 hoi rit• _Products other than ordnane. At the present time the firm is doing 100,4 war work. Before the war its commercial proclUctr rere pressed steel and brass tanks for acetylene and prest-o-lite. The camr,any has no contracts with other Government departlents. Salient lehtures reg.rtrding er:Dloxment. 1.  Eoures and character of labor Fuoply. The labor supply is drawn entirely from the city of Wilwaukoe. The men e-Ip1syees seem to be of a very rough class but most of the women are of a higher grade. light vomen employed at washing the cartridge cases ere middle-aged, foreign women, rather coaree pnd hardened.  2.  Nuabere employed. The total number of men emnloyed on all three shifts is about 500. Abo,It 50 women are employedl  3.   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Hours. :-.4tift I to 3:00 7:00 (5 minute lunch noriod)  Ehift II 3:00 P.N. to 11:00 (5 minute lunch period)  '1, 11eral Pressed . teel Co.   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  .Sbift III. 11:00 P.M. to 7:00 A.k. 15 minute lunch period) Women,  AnAaoyees of the Company. Monday to ;:iaturdaY 7:30 . to 12:00 1:00 P.M. to 4:30 71mplo eon of the Government. L;onday to ,.'aturday. to 12:00 8:00 1:00 to 5:00  All vorking h ure for both men %nd ‘omeM tOtA, to eight bnlirs a day and forty-eight hours a •eek. 4.  Wag's.  mAn.  Amployees of the company brAin on time rates of $1.50 a d.y. It van impossible to obtain very aecurnte information regarding Died* rates. el.50 mos given as the minimum earning on pieee Tcyork qnd $12 as the mtximum. Government innoectors receive 0.50 a day.  .4r/ten. Company intviectors receive 42.40 a day and the ?.68. Government inspectors receive 12.50 a vmshere day. Just rev.ntly there has been stage 4gitation concernIng wages. !ri. ;:arkham stated that 4.ibout a week ago a committee of lq,'en by the comnany had visited the General 6uperintendent asking for a raise in maims. These women 'were employed on inspection and received $2.40 a day. The request vas for a raise of ne a d4Ay. '- :ven this would not bring their wages up to the same amount that the eight washers nere receiveing, mhich is $2.66. Ar. Welekham said the matter had not been decided but also stated that be felt sure they rould not rs,ise comvany inelltetors higher than government.  5.  uoeupatione of women. Women are avoloyed st mashing and inspecting cartridge eases. Xight mmmen 17-Ish the finished cartridge cases.  There ftre two sots ef troughs, each set c,,,,taining four  tel Co.  Federal Pressed   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  -4.  different solution, ,,nd one woman st Ids at eRch of these F.inks. The cartridge eases %re trucked to the trolxghs and the women immerse them horizontally in each of the four soluti•ns, each ti e scrubbing the outside surface with a stiff brush. The first eolqtion, is a strong reap polder rolution, made of "Wyandott soap powder", second, a weak seep powder solution, then mars water, and lastly, hot water. The cases then dry for six hours before they are inspected. The inspection enerations (-,nbist in:  6.  a.  Vit*ual examination for 1. Dents 2. Scratches 3. Defective lAttal 4. Greasy surface.  b.  Tests for 1. Wall thickness 2. The diameter of the primer hole 3. The diameter for the counter bore. 4. The depth of the countre bore 5. The diameter of the brise and dilmeter of the 4,houlder. 6. 'Me height of the /loulder 7. The ghickness of the flange 8. The inside of dinmeter of :i.”101. 9. The length of over-A.1. 10. '11-'e diameter of murzle with ring gauge. 11. The diameter of neck with ring gauge. 12. The thicknesr; of base. P. The cr)ncentricity of the primer hole. 14. The indent heipi-t throagh the primer hole.  ;raining. The foremen give the only training "4-irh the -,omen receive.  7.  Nnployment management. All women Eire ?.ired eitYer by Mr. AiguRtus Johnson, Chief eampany Ins actor. or by IT. Blank, Chief Army Inspector. ''-here is no centralized employment agency for the ,Iimen. There is in employment office to vhich plen may apply, hut there le no definite person in Charge there and the superintendents for the different shifts Interview applicants. Mr. Uarkham reported that the labor turnovr!r Eimong the men during the summer had been u.plroximately  Federal   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  reseed .teel Co.  -5  a m ,nth. He attributed this to the fact that a very rough clams of labor was emnloyed and the employees acquired the habit of working there three day, and then laying off. He . opes tint in the cold weather Vex-ft will be no temptntion totake suoh vacations. Al fr as "r. l*rkham knew the turnover :Among women has been small. ”r. lank reported that only twe government inspectors had left since women were first employed last spring.  S.  Working conditif,ns. .p 4pv,cticer. A shop ma.. indUrtrialyelations and sho nittee of women recently conferred with Mr. garkhma regarding a raise in wages (see paragraph under 41,$). The Federal Presued Lteel Company is not a Tamber of the Milwaukee ilianufaetlrers' Association. It will not join this associati n until the work on Government contracts is co:-pleted. 1,1unt construqtion and ahop Wout. The main nart of the plant iv a brick and reinforced concrete one story rectangular buileing with about 50,,, window sp cc. This was built in 1912. Just two m. nth!, ,g0 t ere was added to this a new wing almost as large at the original building. This it a steel frame brick building and practically 90% of its wall svce is windows. The whole plant now covers approximately to acres of ground. filleting and ventilation in the old buildings are poor, hut in the new part where the women work are excellent. The building itself is fire-proof and the women are located near two doors of the bi.o2 on the ground floor. m throAghout the plant. There is a sprinkler vyst, Accident and health harard. No serious health or accident problems were noted. The inspectors have chairs with b.cks and may Fit qt their work. The w'men eng - ged in vmsling the cartridge cases are provided it,ith rubber gloves and stand on woo''..n racks; so their fees are kept in a dry PO dition. "o uniforms are .rorn. nitatin and service featur s. Toilet and washing facilities. There is a new toilet room ci)ntaining five enclosed toilets. Ventilation here i good. Adjoining this and in one end of the rest room there le a long wash trough with running cold water. Paper towels and soap are provided. There is also drinking rater in thir trowb.  4,Aeral Pressed Steel Co. Rest room. The rest find lunch ro.lm, at one end of which is the w71shing tro40, is a room about 20 by 50 feet just newly painted. It contains tables hnd benches where tYe women eat Veir lunches. At present clothes 1- ang on hooks around the edge of the room, but thiP room and lockers are being built just outside these !;rovide individual locker space for the women. There is A very small dressing room next to this row of lockers. Aidical care. The only medical care given the ,,mployipes is administered by one of the men eloyeee who owls a first aid kit. 'Ir. Blank reported t'.:t this W4s a very To his knowledge, however, there had poor arrangement. been only two vary minor accidents to w-lien und tt'ese were small scratches from rugh brass.  9.  Community conditions. A trolley line connecting with the center of the city rune within three blocks of the plant. lost emploiees travel on this to and fran work. The trip takes aboA holr.  econrd.Li  a.  1.  Etudy ahould he wade of cause fur t1.1c 'igh tarnover of 71en an the feasibility of :iubvtituting wrmen for tf'e çrt1.1. press operAti hos  2.  A first aid room elould be ("Quipped.  3.  There should be running hot uttr in the wash trough*.  Alaiaatic•   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  These recommendations were discuseed rith Mr. Rrkheam and the assiet,Irce of the women's PrrInch offered. A;01 HE Supervisor in ';omen's Branch, Industrial EArrvice :Jection. By:  WIRTRUDIT BRUM Inspector.  WAR DEPARTMENT  OFFICE OF THE CHIEF OF ORDNANCE  )  PRODUCTION DIVISION  23  SEVENTH AND B STREETS NW. WASHINGTON  Answer should be addressed to"  oopy  Section,Production Division,Seventh and B Sts. NW.,Washington,D.C."  In replying refer to No.  .1'reon:  Office of the Chief of Ordnance, Womens Branch, Amy Director. Chicago Jistrict OrInsnce Office.  —11,70'3  an. Clara M. Teed, Director, Weems Branch, Industrial Service 5ection, SUPFLEMMNTARY FZPORT - Visit to GiehOlt Manufactu:irk; 3cimpanY and NOT STERN upgais OWANY, Milwaukee, eloconsin, inspected by AvisTiig, :ctober 30, 1919.  MASON  Tp3 vT5IT  Theseclosley affiliate tima of the pregress made in the  plants were visited to obtain laforma, winFt litnd ermoloyment of womea.  LIAM 41STERNAweii) Jr. •3. ,. Johnson, President Mr. Bullard, 4uperintemdent of Instruction Miss Koppke, instructor. nalisW 3alt" The GiClolt Company employs novmbout 140 worlr, 1114: if these romcr. have bean trained in the vestibule school. The outline of this cnrse it beleu. 010.1111c e c9t17,10 1. Lecture on the various measuring scales used in weerine shcr work. 2 Drawing lines and measuring same within limits of 1/16th. 3 Drawing lines arid measuring game within limits of 4 Measuring cold rolled Ttock for lengths and diamteero usin3 both scale an calipers, Limits 1/'64th. Step 5 7,elsuring sa-ple pieces, letting: lentrth bore and sutiSde diamters in 64ths, using scale, inside and outside caliper*. Step 6 Lecture en micrometer caliper. Step 7 i-iemeuring cold rolled af.ock, using scale and mierometer. Step 8 Uemeuring sAmple pieces, using oale for length, calipers a..11 miere• meters for inside and outside Rattan= di/Mier% step 9 Sketchinp: nlug guage, milling outtor and snap guage, inserting dimensions in thousandths. Zxplaining use of thickness guage and applying same in practise. Step 10 Using bevel protractor, measuring standard threads. Calivring drill sises, guagiag tapped holes and selecting machine screws to fit same. Using depth guage. Inserting dimensions as indicated in drawing. Ste, 11 Practise in reading drawings, review of tools and use of mimeo Step Step Step Step   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  OW.  WAR DEPARTMENT OFFICE  OF THE CHIEF OF ORDNANCE  PRODUCTION DIVISION SEVENTH AND B STREETS NW. WASHINGTON  Answer should be addressed to  Section,Production Division,Seventh and B Sts. NW.,Washington,D.C."  In replying refer to No.  The firm hnn found this !shoal of infinite value in determingin placement. The rating the foreman accords the girls tater a week or two of employme nt inveriably coincided with the school rating, a fact whioh would seem to check up an the value of the school. The firm has not allowed the plan of refusing to put girls who fail in tha school to work because they do not wish people to 1, 1eve the plant with a grievance. But girls wino fail in the school rarely 1,1at and uutall) quit voluntarily within a week. (A sample rating card is filed in +he 30cord .1.1orm ?elder.) At the preset.,t tins wen are g,racuated froL, the ochool into the shop. This week they exneot to put a woman through a part of the course in the ass's service school. This will be begun by having a woman take a lathe apart and recemetruct it and tlirgrind a complete Let of tools. If thiz emceed., they will put more women through thia training. The course for met. is as follows: 1. Dismantling L lisolt t-;c1.Grindinz elahins to learq its construction, 2. Assembling, adjusting, and oiling the grinding machine. 3. Grinding a sek ef standard tcels ca the Lrinding machine to learn clearness and rake. 4. Bris'ling wid cleaninr thr zrinding machine to toon oars And n'atness . 59 Dismantling ta standard belt-driven Gisholt turret lathe. 6. Scraping bearinge, Vs, etc. for uee in overhauling machincry. 7. Asse-414!..n, a0justinl cilin ti lithe to learn vonstre44ion und care. 8. Operating the lathe to be familir with all of ito movements. 9. Hcavy cuts on .1.2R-in, stnndmre belt-del/my tholt 17xthft (7) is oution.  le Placing tools on lathe is pr layout sheet for maohinin oouniwarshat pulley. 11 Operatilg 28.in, lathe on counterpart pulleys, as per time study. 12 Dismantliae tool setup to teach proper disposition of tools. 13.Cleaning lathe and tools to trush care and nentnosm 14 3oring jaws on en lip.31-in, staniA: .4 motor.driven Oisholt turret lathe for practise. 15 Cutting ihreade on lathe to learn methpd and practise. 16 Turning tapers on lathe to learn method and prestige. 17 Placing tools on lathe as par layout for drIliing, 14oring, reaming and turning a steel piece. 18 Operating the machine on a steel pekes for experience on etch work. 19 Dismantling sot-up andoleaning tools to teach care and neatness . 20 Placing tools an the machine as par layout sheet for asking crosshead pins frem bar stock. 21 Operating =Ghia* on crosshead pins for experience with bar stook tools. 22 Dismantling ans cleaning up tools to teach care and neatness.  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  WAR DEPARTMENT  OFFICE OF THE CHIEF OF ORDNANCE  PRODUCTION DIVISION SEVENTH AND B STREETS NW. WASHINGTON  Answer should be addressed to"  Section,Production Division,Seventh and B Sts. NW.,Washington,D.C."  In replying refer to No.  23 Caulking up macAno to teach care and neatness. 24 Istimating the basis for planning method and tooling ef work. 25. Taking a new man for a trip througie all departments ef the factory.  04, xi:  ItTlistniTliati 0;14MGE PUNT  At present men only are empleyed in the ordnance plant. If woer ars usad later they mill came from ths Uishelt shop School. The management is unable to estimate hov far the sxpansion will lo because of the unsettled war situacion. iliTkiL 72:  4.32:101T  21hen interviauwa in :tgard to ths installing ef a woman employment executives Mr. Jehmeon esld it miGht be future calvslopmeht but would depend on the continuance of the wars an .lso on whether women are employed after the war. Ile stated that the company is 50 experiencd that in porsonnol matters that evea if they sLould iastall an a wama!-A exsoutives they would not need outside help in Using so but:ould take someons from the plant for the work. AMY HIS SupemIsc: iL WMAWS LrancA Indust:ial 3erIice isctien By  AVIS RING Suporvisor in 7.mploymen., Uanagiement.   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Production -,omen's ranch Indurtrial z.ervice -ection  r4neh. Industri:  .ervice z.ection.  Yrom;  Amy Hewes. %omen's  To:  rr. eAara M. Told, Areetor -omen'e 3ranch, Industrial f.ervice Section.  -ubject: :  Visit to plant oft-ARIM AN.D Lulaz(TXli IWANY, Dubuque, ':ov '"17-1192e-trliiii Hewes and !tuth Iowa. In E. Knowlton.  'leason for visit. r..!Aayton of the ?roductim rivision requested an inspection of the plant. ft letter advising rest periods had been sent and the visit wur. 1:.ade to follow up results in regard to ruggestique made.  Pqrsons interviewed. Yr. John Loetsct.er, :4cretary. 4iss Paley, Government Inspector. Organisittion. C. Leetsaher, President. J. M. Burch, Vice i.resident and Treasurer. A. A. Loetscher. Superintendent. John A. Loetscher, Lecretary. Fr4nk nein, Army Inspector. Coptrakts.   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  149188-17565a 67,406 ammunitiJn boxes Browning Aaehine gun. to start July 1, 1918, 1500 a day until complete*. or  9/11/18 P14820-25093a l!rovning machine the for boxes tion ior 125.000 ammuni . gun 't1917, water cooled !Ieliveries: 3,000 boxes k day, to bogin 9/23/18. to 1-e completed 11/18/18.  Farley and Ivetscher ro.  .2.  Producti n. Production on present contracts ie practically completed. pork on the new contract will begin in the immediate future. 0 dna  ethrdcs  The aotwany has contr-Lcts with the '.onstruction Division and is making window saehes and door franet for the cantonments. It aim) holdr 'avy aunts-lots. eg . .  L nilijeapjaLata.  r  1.  rai4i  oirce and dharactor of labor sup:ly. 46 scarcity of labor was retorted. The mowen employed are residents of the town and live at home.  2.  Numbers employed. .ten 'Ammon  600  160  no one under 16 is employed.  3.  Hours TAonday to f':aturdly. 7:00 A. . to 12:00 . to 5:10 12:30 The hotre total ten ”er d:Ly and 60 ner week. Wen production conditions permit U'e schedule v.111 be 55 hours with Zaturday half holiday. Thirty minutes are allowed for lunch at noon. There hre eriods for women of five minutes each, one at and one at 3:00 F'.g. Notices of the rest :0 -myriods :Are posted as "according to the Federal Ct4tute0. In praetice they exceed five minutes. A majeirty of the workers use the olnortunity to eat pandwicher, or drink coffee.  4.   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  They begin at 234e The qmen are all naid atimo r. a in few and cases to pe an and are raised to 25, 274 an hnur. hour. Until recently the beginning rate was Time and Ane half ie not elven for the ten hour day.  20e  71-Aft majority of men are on tine rates to #3.50 a dv.  average 43.00  arley and Loetscher Co.  5.   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  -3-  (:coupattins. The TArovning Nmmunit on /;ox hap an swtside dimeneinn of 74 x 12+ x 4i inches and weighs ahwit five bounds when completed. It is very carefully and strongly made. Mr. ixpetscher said that they had been putting out too finished a product and hereafter as a result of Washington conferences would aim more for quantity orod'tcti n. The 0-erati ns the women perform may be divided into for grou s, (1) Putting on the lid, (2) Puttying, (3) Painting, (4) i-itting. 14omen do some inspecting and assist in packing. The work is performed by kroups and the box is passed along from one to another for the successive steps. In fitting on the lid women ire em7loyed as follows: 1. it lid on box 4nd see tht lock c,Atches. 2. Drive two nails to fasten lid. 3. Drill holes for screws in cover. (rne ,, ; ornan ,does this by hand. 4. Saw lid for hinge - one woan. 5. Put on hinge - 1crewe Pre driven in by a ecrew driving macAane in two operntione. The nutty ir ;tut in around the corners And edges with fingers. A first inspectic,n by company and government is made before nainting.  In the jut spraying dep-trtment one wevntin blows out the dust in the box tth compressed Far. The 1-Ixes are sprayed inside and out with linseed oil and the outride is painted dull gray to decrease visibility. -omen nut the boxes on hooks of a revolving (mos which carries then under a hood Where they tirr. sprayed by men. ..omen remove the "boxes after they are sprayed. They also touch them when paint in rubbed off. The boxes are placed on trucks with shelves and unloaded on rneks in the drying room by women. The shelves weigh approximato/y thirty pounds and are lifted by two women. In the fitting department the pins which hold the handle are 2ut in and the leather handle is put on. One woman is etaployed on the final government insnecti.n. The texec are given a visual inspection and tented with a gauge. Varinticin in inside dimensions of 1/16 of an Inch is permissible.  Variety 6.  nd Loetscher  o.  -4-  Training and :11botitutin. Training is not essential. It'e worker doer the work as well kt the end or the first d.ty as at the ene of a month or more, necording to Ass Paley, an cy,ervtive, orien f•avp who had performed many of the onerati•ns. been substitutd for young boye and old men to a great extent.  7.  Imoloyment management. 'omen are employed by 4 1k*. Jack Loetscher, General Yoreman. 'Omen were first taken on In -wrist. nuring the last two months it le reported that labor turnover has very muCh decreased. The wage scale is high for the town. 'orking conditimne. The plant ennsists of two brick -4101t con strIeti hlileings connected by an overhead passageway. The newer building is a five story firepreef brick structure. ri exception is The etop is cl4vin and well lintileted. the paint spraying department dhere exhaust seams inadt• quate. ieeident hazard. The hazards appear small. ne -ir ra4cbines are re uired to wear uniforms. are working on saws. _anjitatin  oen working Vo omen  nd service features.  The main toilet room i on the necond floor in the new building. There are four toilets and six bowls with cold imter. On the third and fourth floor two toilets and locker rovms are partitioned off, ef?,ell with three open tot lets 6nd two wash 'howls. The woilen object to the ooen toilets and as a rule use the second floor room in the new building. Tabler :)nd benches .re •placed in the locker room on the second floor. The janitress made* hot coffee for the women's lunch on a small gas stove.  9.   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Community conditions. Dubuque is a town of 43,000. The peonle are largely well-to-de German farness. A trolley line connects the different parts of the town.  -5  Farley and Lottscher co.  LluanIngAti_41. 1.  The exhaust on the nnint spraying macoine made - ore effective.  2.  ,Partitionv should be put i. to seunrate the toilets in the old building.  /.  A time and output study sh-uld he mdo to determine the most effective length and time for rest periods wid methods of relieving choke points of production, know to exist.  be  rtetion tAten.   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  The recommend:Ai - no above were made to Ir. John LottnOler. If the plant continues to do work on *lea women will be used the toilets will be rearranged. It is ex7ected that the painting operati n may be omitted from the new c.ntr'Ict. The tie study will be made if the ,- -Aant fills its new contract.  AUY  Supervisor in -.omen's Branch, infiuf!ftri I service Stet' n.  WITH R. KNO.71.r.;  •  Teepector.