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"or 'he ,-,11 °,  itctivitiet4  -re 4 try,  .0  t,r10 liee.08  !sc.:40n, esiz.i,:.oyer. ,• ,n1 the  .Lry  —  •  I 17.  ry  L  .!"eA-!,  •  ,  ,v L  '  f i  n Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  •  '  "  J,t I'  ...f! •,  ..f, Pc.  ;,1  ..),.  ,' ID—  ,  % •  I  •  , 11 •  •••••:7"::  ",100t.:, •  r,cLu  • HTIPTT:  4 710Q7M  .AvT17 .1.uco -.  .4717,1  tie v 7 q1vNle 0X-m TT. 1T lnq  T;;Tx Ur',,11,VelZ%0 UT /1%g7  u!r.s1  g APT 4  k)  dr,  po-pojjv  Aq  TaTo :  ul ,P.Irt417: Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis oqi  Tly  (,01. 1190/10 01,11  •  311S - D-5 Tomen Workers luring Reconstruction. Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  V  WOMFN WOR7FRS DTMIND RECONST7TOTTON.  The  11,.$ applied an acid .test to social programs and social  prliige,Jphies. We  inot talY. today about labor logislotion and use the  same ,icguage that  -A9  used a year ago 1211 certainly the outlook since  net in Washington five yore ego has c'nangel caunletely. Reconitruction 's• met Is not restoration. NeN forces, new ideas have been set free. Soso of the old programs gni the olA 7.hilosophies will receive from themn a new seat and a ne. motive power. But none will survive permanently which loss not have in it the vit:Ility of the neN enirit. The new. eririt demanis not fairer conlitionp of labor, trut a fnAror  erely  hare for labor in determining its  own conittions. Pohier rather than regard is the definition of inlustrial lemocr9cy. The new spirit will busy itself especially among those groups which hve had the least poAer. Women morkers constitute one of these groups. No 7rogram of reconstruction affecting them, whether put forwari  4, labor,  by em7)loyers, by public-eririted citizens or by the government will accagolish r,ults unless it can ,:et the test of the new 97,irit. Quite aside from the realizatio4 of the nurposes for which the war has bem fought is the exnerience gained in the nrocess of carrying on the war. Had we hal no purpose when the wqr began this experince would have forced its formulation. Indeed it is clear that a wile-spread ci-lallenge of existing conlitiens and forms of government htts groNn out of the whole momentous task of raising amiss, training them and equipning the  for war.  To women workers the war bro-Ight extraorlinary recognition. The newsparers told stories of their aehievoments. Employers united in praising their power to increase output. Applause instead of prewar discouragement greeted those ithe ventured into nev fields,a Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  machinists, elevator attendants or  -2or traffic  policemen,  releasing men for military service. England's experience  Is familiar. It *las the War Department, certainly not to be accused of a desire to advance the cause of feminists, which declared that only through women° $ %ark coull the country "hare to emerge victorious from a struggle without parallel in her long ani glorious history." In the United St4tes thy,. introduction of 'men into new occu:ations *ea much lees estensive than in Great Britain but the recognition of tht) need  for it  was wiiesnreal. The annropriation for a Nome n' s iivision in the fiepaztlent of Labor, ..,nich had. been Alvocated for eight years before we orLered the war w ae finally of its necessity. ale ie in July 1918, presumably because the vow convinced Congress of getting Six months earlier, the Ordnance De-oart :lent, charged with the task taunitions orlaced, c...ame to realize that Labor orobleias, including No.:T.Jnes work, %ere an essential factor in pro,luction and organized the Iniustrial Service Section with the Women's Branch as a part of it. The United States Railroad Administration established a Womene s Section in its Labor Division. For several weeks bnfore the signing of the ar7.istice, the introluction of a larger nirLber of women workers was the outsteniing problem facing the Employment Service. Not only ill Nolen constitute the chief reserve surply of 1-bor. Al.r,Iely they ;Imre taking-an active ani efficient part in the production of munitions as well as in the peacetime industries eszentlal to civilian life inring the war. Moreover t!le:7 •ere being called to participate in problems of the relation of govern,ent to labor. The record made by trade union women aroointed to official positions in the federal governtrent is not merely interesting in the history of the war. It is prophetic. In the *men's Branch of the Orinance De, in the Woman in Irrilstry Service of the Departnent of Labor, and in its T-....,1n,r,lent Service, in the hormones Section of the Railroad Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  -3and in the staff work of the War Labor Board, trade union women with experience in their ova trades vows called for the first time into the service of the federal governrent ant they have lemonstrated their ability to deal with labor problems frail the point of view of the nation's best interests. The entire War Labor Administration in eihich these working women hail their share of responsibility kas a recognition of the fact that industrial relations aril labor conditions are properly ;in' inevitably subjects of govermental concern. Further, the policies developer! by the War Laoor Administration clenrly indlcate the conviction of those Nho shared in it that the proinctive efficiency of a nation at war depends Iron those standards of wages, hours and :orlfing con4  itions for Nhich the labor movement ran:l the reformers have long so-ught recogni-  tion. Nor are facts 1,acking as the basis for their conviction. The greater efficiency of the shorter Nork-lay, for oxam-ole, has become al;cost a truism to those who have follo:4.ed the experience of the nations at war. .1  This is a bacl-grouni for a d.isellsoion of the oroblems of wo:ren ..prkers l - uring reconstructionAThe national imr.,ortance of their ,vork has be3n clearly and officially recognised_ Tioy nave iemonstrated their efficiency in numerous instances. The war has sho vs% that for both mon ani soaien effective service derenis upon a high standari of coniit .ons of labor. Anl the ne A rArit has received ernression in the • goivrnif,ent's en-lorse ,ent of collective bargaining. But reaction Las set in, an4, it: forces seem to be affecting at onae the strttus ofwomen workers. Resolutions halo bean passed by at least one central labor union el-II -ling on the wo:zen who have entered iniustry luring the •Aar to leave r-4-t  tieir jobs now that the war is over, A trad.e union Icoarosel entirely of men has gone on stri'm derrianiing the lischarge of tre v..-omen efarloyedin their ocouration, and have received from the War Labor Bolri a favorable verlict on tneir case. Not a fah -public speakers have eieciArel., as one expressed it, that "The .N.Inen have Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  resnonded with fine patriotism to the appeal to take part in industry during the .war. It now becomes their duty to withdraw. It becornes our duty to persuade their to withdraw.** Before the ‘rer the bill intorlace4 into Congress providing for the croation of a wonen's division in the DeplrVient of Labor lefined the •oroblems with which It "%could deal in these ,Nords: he said division shall investigate ani report to the said department uron all uatters pertaining to the welfare of Noon are shall especially investigate the welfare of wage-earning omen in the NO:flen, the questions of competitive influence of Luodern industrial mechanism of several irriustries, the adjustuant and larragfi nt to the physical and nervous organization of women, ani the influence of iniustrial ear•loyments upon the subsequent home life of Nage-e arning women." To these must now be aided the complications of a wider range of possibilities for wo.f,ents emolo:Trt,mt laLonstratel itring the ?tar qui a consequent widening oiTng of :Den's standards by women. i of the area of possil ble u.rrier, P` I-1 Fear of unauployment and fear of Asge cio:wetition aro back of the riki..:iand that women withdraw froia industry. Couched in of g'.vilLg back tl:eir jobs to rlturning soldiers the demand acquires an atmosphere of the war spirit ;ind a patriotic appeal which obscure its real import. It is hardly necessary to point out that the reinstate7aent of the returning soldier in nis foruier position if he wants it is an ethical obligation which :1_)11.8 whether his ;Jaee has been taken by a  man  or by a clan, and oven a col:pieta and universal r, cognition of this ethical  oblivtion woull not settle the problem which it is assue1 to illustrate. The 2' t with langer in its possibilities of forcing the ivoalszt griglIgh is situation whole to join together as a group to defend their right to employ-,nent against the Op osition of the nion in an industry. The Cleveland Street Railway Company has only or  ilundred and seventy wo.ien euroloyed as conductors and the de Land on the  -cart of the :;en' s Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  trade union for the 1r di scils.rge is only one i is t ance out it  I is a linger signal. Carried further such a problem as that would inject into the labor movement a new alignwent of man Norkers against women workers. The antagonism would be twit more unfortunate because it has its roots in a two-foil fear common to :Alm workers and morrien worker., - the fear of lrita.:..lorn.Int alai the fear of a cut in 4:10 rates. That the wey out is a nnitel attack u-..on the anuses of these fears rather than a conflict betAeen the tAo groups who are tneir victims would seem too obvious to require proof. Success in this 2roblem le7)enis 1 hover, upon the extension to .'ion of the right and responsibility for particiration in action in de7iling 1,1bor problems. Withol:t this rocognition, their now econoilc r1ghts24 117 ' „ blcome a tworedged sword. 0 The nivi eririt of tr.a times then Aith all the 'langers of neA develonmanta acoentuating oil difficulties for oxrxon in industry de:nands an enlarge:r,ent of the bounds of activity and a comprehensive program. First there is needed a ne8 formulation of stfuri-rds alrearly demonstrated to be attaibatie qrd  and, second, the situation demands a clarifying  VIOA  of tre  administrRtive agencies necessary for the attainment of standArds, incluling agencies of govertrient, manao,ement in 'n;ustry,  trio organization of  workers. The fear of =mu loymant must be lessened by the further growth and the F;trengthening :)f the natural system of labor exc - anges, efficient enough .an  c'omnrehensive enough to reduce unew:loyment to a minimum ale to afford a  basis for analysing the onuses of the minim= Ahich is left when es many as possible of the jobless workers have been placed in the wicant jobs. • The near of a cut in sms :Lust be :net by a wise extension of acr,=nc!les of adjustAent anl these wel be successful only in so far as they derive their Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  -6tneir strength ''roal real c)llective bargaining beginning in the inlivid.ual shop ani exteh'ing over a wile eno-Igh area of industry to be truly rerrer,entative of the col)ective will of mana;-,enent aril workers. It is the absence of these agencies of adjustaaent which makes the 7,re,Aont situation so strained, each side,whiting anxiously the first test of strength an the  ,-;_ir_terr)nce of wages paid during the  Nar or tneir reuction to prewar rates or 10A0A But it is not sufficient to leave to mana,,,edient ani workers alone tne setCe ,ent of issues are fundamentally im ortare to the entire citizenship of the country. Recently a :lianu!-"acturer in a lqrgo in4ustrial state coariained testily of t!-wo unjustifiable ar.osition of a voluntary rt.Iform orionization to a legisl-tive nrogram which hal been alantal by ranr'isentatives of t:L! ornized crogram in question wauld  7.anuf-cturers anl the organized v.orkers. Tho  remittal extension of hours for so,,len in a very troublesome, unorganized industry. Doubtless tha intarcass of these women and the public interest Which male necessary 44is means of limiting their hours and safaguarl.Ing their health hal been sacrificed to an exchange of courtesies resulting in gains for the groups renresented in the prelegislltieliconferunce. Labor legislation crinot reflect the best thought of the citizenship of the country if its course is thus to be determined by a -rocess othur than 7ublic education. _N\ .A..-Labor legislation must meat the test of the nes spirit wh.fle it busines itself with specific gains very necessary for workers in induatry. The fear which the knerloan labor movemant frequently expresses of r.olitical action as or-osed to voluntary economic action Lutist inlicate either a reluctance on tna .s,art of labor to use its own political powers, or a lack of flexibility, or ras2onsiveness to local and concrete needs an the nart of goversauntal agencies for adalinistration of 1-bor laws. It is not difficult to prophesy Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  that  tho problem of labor legis-  -7.,'Aion just ahead is not the foreulation of concrete aims but the development of a  sprit  Tiethod in administration. Nor is eAministration of labor lass  a distinct anl separate  roblem. It is rather rut of the task of govIrmlert in  all its units, municipal, oounty, state, ani national The concrete aims for women workers have been formulated by the Wauan in Industry Service of the Dere.rtent of Labor. They are based unon exrerience of the governant in socuring proluction for the war, and they repreAent also the result of conferences xith state commissioners of 1,bor, emPloyers lied *omen workers. They may be suriviarised as follows:I. HOURS OF LABOR. A working day of eight hours and a working week of forty-eight hours. At least three-quarters of an hour for a meal. One day of rest in seven And the prohibition of night ?pork, ist periods and the observance of Saturiay Lalf holiday. II. WAGES. The ostaolisivient of wages on the basis of occupation and not on the basis of sex. A minimum 4ate governing the cost of living for 4Lv)anlants and not merely for the individual. Tha same Aage for the SAMO work as men with increases equal to those received py the ..en in the same industry. III. WORRING CONDITIONS. Proper provisions for comfort and s'Adtation and protection against the risk of accident or ocm-ational disease and the prohibition of hems Rork. IV. EMPLOYMENT MANAGEMENT. Provision for recognizing through embloyment .tianagement the responsibility of industry for conditions affecting labor and the ar-ointment of wolien in resronsible positions in the em-qoyment Tainage:aent derartqlent of Ennio:Ting women. V.  Cooperation of woi,rers in enforce :ent of standards. Provision for colleetive bargaining.  VI. COODERATION WrTH OFFICIAL AGENCIES. The extension of the activities of federal, state amid locel agenciss in the difficult problems of adjustJient in the reriod of reconstruction follo;4ing the war. These are not new ai,as 'DIA they  a,ve received new surport in the mar. Nor  are tbcy all to be included in a program of laoor legislation. Same :east be secured through collective action of voluntary groups of workers and all must rec, :.ive their Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  •  snotton and ouT)rort from these groups. Ts° Maas for labor legielAion for  fi,1:1-10r.: Alor.e-ers  ;y be erapb.asizePi  as of iyrc:frliate turor -ince. They are the enactment into law of the eight hour the f,liler representattion of wia.len in irn-oryInt  7  Jsitions in ads:anis-  Lratiya of labor la•Ns. The first has the sanction of oz-,) - ertence tzzt an examination ..abor laws shoos how 762 the Isajority of  tates n.-111 below such a st ir.%,r 1,  pr-; sloori,i 411 create oqtrosts of oos4rvatio11 rieceisary in the zasw ridions of •,.3(1n to !..-.11)str7. TTnierlying all the problarfas  of 47,20/n :or rs in rsconstruction is  the  crInlingef khich tneir taw position ani tneir ohi 7-mobletss offer to the labor ...0v0.ezz, .-.3n4 the citizenship of the country. The Nne.ter .71.11 shol. (.41 ther labor other citisens co.:i-rqh)ni the ren1 :ne -ming of the challenge. Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  pi  14,.,ry Tan rector Woman in Inilustry Srvioe. Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  pg E.-11  From Mary Van Kleeck-Plans for reconstruction in relation to the Women in Industry.  November 11, 1A.8. Troa.:  %ary Van Kleeck, Director, Woman in Industry Service.  To:  Felix Frankfurter, Chairzan, Oiar Libor Policies Bo,r4.  FIlbject: plans for reconstruction in r!lation to toe Woman in Iml116tr7 Service An resronse to yol:r request for sugestions as to tn eiiate acticn to be taxen by the War Labor Policies Board in relati on to pronleus of Women in Inl- try Service As ‘ ,,Irt of the program of reconstruction. r  ietr: TAEK.  Obviously the loL:ediate task is to acaomplish the Gnaws free* war basis to s panes basis with the laest possible unemployment and with the reinstatexant of the largest possible number La normal occupa tions for *hich they Ire best adapted. Thus stElei the task Is the same for all woris including women and mea this aamarandu* astuaas therefore tnat the funiamental aspects of the program so affecting both rum aid ewes are being worked out. In it will be inferred thi secee)ity for a policy with referm,oe to cancellation of contrgtcts with Ina regard to its relation to tne transfer of labor froqi one occur, TIltion to another; the conviorgian of .plAtts L5h.nufatzturing wunitions to the :Anafacture of products required in .04,4440; plAns for public workers liad consultation on this point aith Govurnors of st,.tos, in order that Ole states ay -lain with full knowledge of the plans of the feleral gov42rnalent; and that iemooilisation of returning soldiers et a suf:Iciantly slow rat:1 to insure their reinstatement in normal occupetiow. The palpation peculiar to *awl in relation to this task relates to those iiho have taken men's places and those Who although mot pr3viousl7 employed, have been drawn into gainful emOopiont for p,Ariotio resson e. Many persons are asking whether these moialen shouli not U44 withdlraw to give place to the men. it least one oentral federated Lor boly (that in 1144 YJrkCity) has passed a resolution calling on these -Nozaen to sithlraw. AO information is available showing the extent of the employment of wcAin not hitherto gainfully ftiployed. Such evidence as there is at hand seams to Ladicz.ta thAt the number is smaller tWin is generally suoseel %mi that lnrge nun.lbera of ,J;ximw:: eta0.oycil it': the iniustries have been transferred te fro.:•:. other c)c14_,tiuns. For them it Ail oo neoessory to arrange . for their transfer to nomal amF,loyar.lut unless the plants in Which they are employed are converted to production in tine unier conditions aking it possible to retain the gime personnel. For the women Who have taken .1.4kal s places or aorta been drawn into intastry for the first tia4e, the question is more c.),Iic-ited. It ivoull seem to be a fair policy for bi.siness organisations to re-instate returning soldiers ir the positions Which they hell before the mar, if they wish to be re-instated, but it is inconceivable tnat the federal governa.ont should urge upon July group of Narkers, ther mon or maimon, that they withdraw entirely from gainfu l emplornt if they Ash to alake this contribution to the economic Aire of the nation. The problem -here is not one of withiramal of any group of workers voluntarily but rather a task of organisation of industry in such a *lay as to utilise to the full all of the available :40ari-ing forces of the country. That this Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  working force is needed in larger numbers thee ever before, cannot be doubted. The problea of making possible esea47 employment is not one which oemaerna women in industry as a separate group. There remains therefore a task of dealing with the individual ease through suah an moneyas tte imploymest Service. Thus women who have so equipment through past experience for the new work to be undertaken, will normally find that there is no demesd for their eerk. For those who have had some experience in gainful emplerruent however, during the war, there will usloubtelly be a dozand for training Which will fit then for continued employment. There is is inclustry, hoomver, a large group which should be withdram at the earliest possible mowent. This is the grow of children in industry. of Whom there sere 1,9900)00 under sixteen, according to the °ensue of 1910 amd of these, 557,646 were Ullman-Agricultural pursuits.  to  With reference to the tnuellate task of reconstruction as it relates o:.en or children in industry, it is therfore  Jammu:14'214R a. That provision be made for the representation of in the groups in the government eho will determine policies of cancellation of contracts and other aspects of the relation of the government as o purchaser to the labor conditions imosliately following the war. b. That plans be made to enable the Woman in Iniu.stry Service to establish such connections with these groups as to insure knowledge ittsOmplatsmerning the policies and plane for 042oe11atioa mid conversion of plants, in rder that the necessary plans soy be deveieped for the transfer of MOOR employed in these plants or for their continued employment. o. That &nor consultation with the Children's Bureau, a statement be issued by the War Labor Policies Bo%rd or cone other appropriate federal agency regarding the desirability of raising the age limit for the employment of children in industry. This statexent should also be of assistance in securing the passage of a new federal Law. It will have added force if made a part of & reconstruction program. II.DEVELOPING  iticw snows 101 TBK  EMPLOYMENT 01  weggi.  The probles of waaell in industry falai have been familiar before the mar will be accentuated during the reconstruction period. These include danger to health from unsanitary working coalitions and hasardous occupations; the general conditions in the sweated trades which have always borne heavily upon women workers; a distinctly loser wage scale for so-en than for mon despite the demonstrated necessity for large numbers of women 4orkers to support dependents; inadequate avortuaitles for training and limited chances to be advent's& to more responsible sark in maw industries hind the danger to health involved in loft hours and employment at night. Those coalitions have alloys been a check upon the rendering of the most Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  efficient service by women 4orksrs. The war has dencnstrated that the ramge of possibilities for efficiency by wassa in industry is much larger than has been assumed in the past. This is notably illustrated in the work of wo..lea in machine trades. This suggests that in planning vocational training the wider range of occupations open to women shJuld be fully recognised and in the work shop correspondingly largo epoortunites should be given to women. On the other hand the danger that women may become the eompetitorsof men throngh underbidding, is very real. These complicated problems can only be met by a variety of methods of attack. They suggest the necessity for strengthening the resources of the federal government for dealivg with these problems. This should be lone at once. Otherwise the difficult questions concerning women in industry will be a constant c.dstacle in the development of any reconstruction program for labor. It is probable that such federal agencies as the Women's Branch of the Ordnanee Department will be discontinued, as the production program of the War Department bosoms unneosssa ry and it is the more important therefore that the force in the Department of Labor should be increased. It is therefore Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  =MEM a. That in accordance with & supplementary mazoranium provision be made for an enlargement of the Woman in Industry Sergioe to maks possible the addition of a field, force and the carrying out of plans for a program of education of public opinion. b. Luoadiate issuance of standards governing the employ:slant of mamma already adopted by the War Labor Policies Board with such changes in the introductory statement as will Aoki. the standards applicable to the reconstruction period and not merely as in its first form to the war industries. o. That the following resolution regarding night work be adopted: INERKAS, On September 6th the War Labor Policies Board endorsed the plan which provided for federal control of night work of *mien through the insertion of a clause in contracts prohibiting the employment of women bet4een the hours of ten p.m. and six a.m. in any plant working on a contract for the federal government unless the plant hold a certificate from the Secretary of War or the Secretary of the Navy granted with the approval of the Secretary of Labor after demonstration that production Oar the war required the employnt of women at night for a epecifled period in that particular plant and Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  -3a  WHEREAS,  By this action the Wer LAbor Policies Board recognised that the employment of mmaen at night is harmful because of its bad effects on health, family life, the welfare of children and industrial efficient, and that only an extrews emergency created by the war could Justify night work for women in any pLt working for the federal goverment.  BE IT RESOLVED that new with the prospect of an early restoretin of peso. and the necessity for strengthening the safe-guards for MIMS workers in the difficult period of reconstruction, the Board here* reaffirms its conviction that the employment of lemon at night should be prevented and urges upon all federal departments that pen hug the enactment of legislation in those states which at present have no laws prohibiting night wolrk of women, the employment of *Quer) at night in plants working on contract for the federal government shall be controlled through provisions in the contracts sad shall cease at the earliest possible moment consistent with the imlatliete demands of the ems, and that, furthermore, the emrloyment of masa at night in ell arsenals, navy yards, and other establishmmsts °awe or lontrolled by the federal government, shall be .....acontinued as soon as possible and that with the restoration of peace, night work of women shall be prohibited in all plants under federal oontrol whether by contract or ownership by the federal government.  III.  AOFNCIES WOMB iAVILICIL_AMINIrSAMMLACI 11 lit FSMIAL GOVICENNOT MA! ACT. A. The legarla_ aorernwt as emr,layer.  During the witer the federal govermmemt has bed nauMpreeeden ted opportunity to develop standards through the oontrol of plants nommteeturing for federal departments. Although its control luring the Menstruation period will be very muoh lees extensive then standards which it maintains in plants owned by the federal government will have a Ariarked influence in private industr y. Its control through contrasts can also be continued even though the contracts will be fewer in number. It is therefore  11EQUEMIR a. That the standards endorsed by the War Labor Policies Board be ma4e strictly enforceable arsenals, navy yards and in plants working an contract for the federal government. b. That the limns in Industry Service be given over cowntions affecting women in governsuperviox. ment meted plants with the right to inspect and report as a basis for advising the department responsible for the plant, tble supervision to become effective when such exislAng easnciels as the Woman's Branch of the Ordnance Ds artment, discontinue the supervision now exercised. c. That the Woman in Industry Service be authorised to secure from all the federal departments facts ateout their activities with relation to women in industry during the ear. In the Council of National Defense, in the CkMartermaster's Department and in the Ordwtrace Department, noteworthy work has been dons to raise standards affecting women. In the government arsenals employment management departments for aWien have been eatablshed. The record of these activities will have an influent* in showing standards already adopted by the federal government. Authorisation is necessary, however, in order that the records may be collected In a central place before the discontinuance of activities in these departments. B. State Lagrjorgialltim. Ai the control of the federal government exercised luring the war is lessened, the responsibility of states will 'norm's. One of the primary purposes of a komen's Bureau in the Department of Labor will therefore be to strengthen in every possible aky state labor legisla tion and its enforcerAnt. This can be ions by establishing close °connections with state lawn departments and by assisting state groupstbo secure necessary information on which to base Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  plass for labor legislation and a4ministratioe4 It is in this connection especially that adAitional resources for field work for the Waaan in Industry Service are imperatively needed. It is therefore  a. That the Swan in Iniustry Service be authorised to suggest to the Secretary of Labor thet women holding important positions in state labor departments be deputised to act for the %mean in In4ustry Service. b. That the Waaamin Iniustry Service be authorised to call a conference of representatives of minimum ewe 00114ssione already established in thirteen states to confer with then regarding their task In the reconstructionperiod. c. That the Volum in Industry Service be authorised lie maim necessary arrangements with the Council of liatiemal Defense to establish oontinuing relations sithAte Committees on Women in Industry *tic& may lecile to continue their activities especially in Norking fx mare adequate state legislation end in developing the necessary public opinion to make possible constructive action for women in industry in the states both by voluntary and official agencies. C. iisasugulaanagement in, the Plants. The test of federal activities will be the actual results in the various rlants and industrial establishments throughout the country. The application of standards and policies will devolve largely upon the individual shop organisation, including employers and workers. The further development of inNaligent employment management will be of great importance in relation to the problems a omen in industry. It is therefore Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  mom= a. That the Woman In Inluatry Service be authorised to call a conference of employers with a view to the organisation of a pormanent advisory council which will exert an inzlicenoe in the establishment of such methods on tte part of the management of the iLdustittee of the country as shall be in accord with the highest standards already demonstrated to be practicable in the ampler/smut Of 4tiasn. b. That thellaman in Industry Service include in its purpose, especially in planning for enlarged resources the task of industrial couneelling Which shall make available for the industries of the country the best experience in Ole employment of women. This ehoull be done not only through  -6publication but through visits to plants fer a len, ensue' period to assist in a practical maw in their problems. D. Anamealatutsgudjigosagrigarg. It will be impossible to deal effectively with any of the problems affecting the women in industry unless the women themselves participate actively in their solution. It is therefore  1E014 moo a. That representatives of working Roam be added to such el. adjustment hoards in the federal government as nay GOMIINOO to furction through the reconstruction period. b. That the %man in Industry Service be authorised to continuo the Advisory Council of working semen already established and to call them irto consultation at an early late to confer regarding the program of reconstruction.  Obviously it will be impossible to continua useful work unless public backing is secured in the develop.sent of higher standards for the employizsnt of woman. It is therefore  =MEM a. That the Woman in Inlustry Service be authorised to formulate a program of public education through exhibits, moving pictures, published reports, lectures an4 other methods, the plans to be worked out by the Woman in Industry Service and to be put into effect through tne cooperation of such agencies as the U. S. Employment Service, the Information sal Educetion Service and state groups. b. That the Woman in Industry Service be authorised to secure the cooperation of the Navy, Shipping Board, and the various divisions of the lir Department, in securing a photographic record of *omen's mmek in arsenals, navy yards and plants Which may continue to Imenufacture on contract for the federal government. Y. Emrloyment Service. A large part of the task of transferring women from ane occupation to motile will of course devolve upon the Employment Service ant on the other hand the successful carr 14 out of policies in connection with the federal government will depend upon the unity of purpose of the women responsible for work for women in the smrloylent service. In the interest of closer cooperaticw, it is therefore Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  -7-  pcom'ENDU That WI amens of developing the policies necessary at this time end sewing unity of action through the red,ral agencies. the Women in Industry Service be authorised to call regional conferencesof women in the Deployment Service acting in this matter through the state directors and in other mays to develop closer contact with the *omen's mark In the Employment Service. G.  '1:012jaiLjaisaatjtaitatiag.12alajsrlau,  The successful emplement of women will depend in large part uron the nolicies guiding those institutions now existing in cities, states aui the federal government match are responsible for the development of vocational education. Policies in connection with training are so intimately associated with all the other aspects of Nomen's work that it should he made possible and appropriate for she Woman in In4ustry Service in the federal government to develop plans to be recommended to local trade schools, state departments of eitientiOU and such national agencies as the Federal Board for Vocational Edueation, ani the Training and Dilttion Service. It is therefore Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  YLECWID412 That the Women in Industry Service be authorised to include this subject in its activities as soon as sufficient resources ' can be provided and to make such investigations as will result in recomisendations to the approrriate agencies on the subject of the training of asses.  jUMMARY OF RECOMIIIIME 1. REPRESENTATION OF VOMIN 11 GROUPS NOW PLANNING THE POLICIES OF THE PRODUCTION MRPARTMENTS OF THE GOVERNMENT WITRREMENCE TO CANCELLATION OF CONTRACTS AND CONVERSION OF PLANTS. 2. PROVISION 701 INFORMING THE NOMAN IN INDUSTRY SERVICE OF THESE PLANS AND POLICIES IN ADVANCE. 3. STATEMENT IN COODERATION WITH THE CHILDREN'S BUREAU REGARDING THE mamma OF maRz STRINORNT CHILD LABOR LEGISLATION AS A RECONSTRUC*TIONNBASDRE. 4. ENLARGEMENT OF RESOURCES OF THE WOMAN IN INDUSTRY SEJIVICZ. 5. ISSUANCE OF STANDARDS  mums THE  EMPLOYMENT OF NOM.  6. ADOPTION OF A RESOLUTION 011110M IOW OF wows Loolaws TOWARD 215 PROHIBITION rw GOVFRNMINT 011112 PLAINS AND rig PLANTS Immo ON CONTRACT FOR THE FEDRAL GOVTR1MINT. STRICT ENFORC0V1T IN GOVERNMENT OWNED PLANTS OF THE STANDARDS GOV:I/WING TFY i'l/oLOYMENT 01 UMW. Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  8. PROVISION' POI ADVISORY RELATIONSHIP ET THE WOMAN IN INLUSTRY SERVICE TO THE CONDITIONS /MUTING WOWN IN GOVERNMENT OED PLANTS. 9. PROVISION FOR POVULATION OF REPORT =ACTIVITIES 7OR WOMEN 111 INDUSTRY IN THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT DURING THE WAR. 10.  DEPUTIZING OF WOMEN IN IMPORTANT POSITIONS IN STATE LABOR DEPATMENTS TO ACT FOR THE *OMAN IN INDUSTRY SERVICE.  11.  CONFERENCE 07 PXPRESENTATIVES 07 STATE MINIMUM WAGE COM-ISSIONS.  12.  ESTABLISHWNT OF CONTINUING RELATIONS WITH STATE COMMITTLES ON WOMEN IN INDUSTRY ESTABLISHED DURING THE  13.  CarMIREWAi; OF EMPLOYERS AND ORGANIZATION OF ADVISORY COUNCIL REPREFENTINSMANAGKMENT.  14.  INCLUSION OF INDUSTRIAL COUNSELLING OF PLANTS AMONG THE PURPOSES OF THE WOMAX IN INDUSTRY SERVICE.  15.  RFPRESENTAT/ON OF =XING WOMFY ON FEDERAL WAGE ADJUSTMENT BOARDS FUNCTIONING AFTER Tilt WM.  16.  CONTINUANCE OF PERMANENT ADVISORY COUNCIL OF WORKING CONNECTION WITH RECONsTRUCTION PROBLEMS.  17.  DEVELOPMENT OF A PROGRAM OF PUBLIC ELUCATION ON STANDARDS AFFECTING WI rR INDUSTRY.  18.  PROVISION FOR PHOTOGRAPHIC RECORD OF WOMEN'S "'X= IN GOVERNMENT PLANTS AND IN TYPICAL WAR INDUSTRIES.  1'2.  wait IN  ESTABLISHMENT OF CLOSER COOPIRATION NC TOE WOMAN IN =ISM swim AND STATE SOPSITITINMENTS IN TOE CIPLOYMEr  maul! 4014E1 EXAMINERS 20.  INCLUSION OF THE FORMULATION OF Panay 701 TRAINING WOMEN _WONG THE PURPOSES OF THE WOMAN IN INDUSTRY SERVICE.  MVIVALL  Nary Van Etioeek, Director 110mas in Industry Service.  IFSDERAL POLICIFS FOR WOPIEN IN INDUSTRY  With the signing of the armistice women in industry assumed a position in the public mind radical:y different from their et tus two weeks earlier.  Two weeks befr)re government  officials, employers, the wives, mothers and friends of soldiers and all the rest of the general pi,blic were showing Iivelyinterest in persuading women to undertake new ocaw:ationa in order to release wen for the wax aril to serve with adequate supplies those already at the front.  With peace in sight the changed  seemed to be swift and radical. quently was wheter worcen woul  The queltion heard most frenow rotire from indus:ry.  At  least one central labor union passed a resolution calling upon wonen to give up their positions in order that there might be place for returning soldiers.  For the moment it earned as though  the remarkable reconition of  he impr'Ttance of women's work in  the war was leaving no permanent impression.  The old idea that  their position in imtustri was a trancient one was now uppermost In the public mind with the added strength of a patriotic appeal to recognize the right of the soldier to his job. raised cannot be settled in a few weeks.  The issue thus  About the simmer to it  will center the policies to be adopted by federal and state agencies and by those voluntary asaociations of employer6 and workers trough Which standards gov,:n.nin Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  the employment of women are  -2-  No wise policy for the period of reiejustment can on of be developed without clear realisation o' the positi for industry women in industry during the war and the lessons whicih the war taught.  The outst,Anding fact was the change in  attitude toward the work which wo,len could do. of their new occpations occur readily to mind.  Illustrations They have  tors, taxicab been conductors on street cars, elevator ordira tions and driver, railroad employees in a variety of occuna trade usually machine operators in branches c)* the machinists' co-sidered men's work.  It is not to be forgotten that before  y the war there were very few large industries in the countr the change in which there were not some wo-nen employed, so Vitt the attitude of was not so much the work wlich they did as employers and the nublic toward it.  As the war went on it was  ftnd in his expected of the progressive omplot7er t:hat he would 9nO the space organization as many nlaces as Possible for women, ptions of the successgiven in .nagazines and newspapers to descri ce of the ful emoloyrent of -yomen In unusual work gaire eviden keen interest in breaki - Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  donlin barriers.  With the employment of wo-)en in new positions and level, exoerthe hecessitv for keeping prodilction at its normml vhich made twice very so,,r, taught that there were conditions there were confor the effective employrent of women and that iitions which pa  obstacles into the way of their proviucing  sisfactory results.  This fact led tio the organization af  the conditions of agencies in the federal government to study  "3' ' 1  wonen's employment and to advise the industries regarding hours, wages and proper working environment.  The Ordnance Departra,nt,  faced with an enormous production Torm, organized as part of Its Industrial Service Section a Women's Branch with representatives in every district office of the Department and in serials amployinc women.  be ax -  The U. S. RaAroad Administration es-  tablished a Women's Section in its Labor Division.  Wit  the  organisation of the War Labor Administration, established by approrriation from Conpress early ir the summer of 1918, the Woman in Industry Service began its work ai i)art of t;)e De - artment of Labor.  Its Punctior waF; to advise the Secr!tar  all matters affecting the employment of women.  of Labor on  A. tIle Secretary  *lad been designated by the President as the La'oor Administrator, to develop consistent national policies for Tabor inringthe war, this position of the Wo7tan in Tndustry Service was an importlnt one.  The Woman in Iniustry Service was ale° represented on the  War Labor Policies Board, organized to represent those departments of the govern:aent concerned with production for the war, sod concerned t'nerefore with 13.bor problems as a flIndamental aspect of Aloductior. Several different statements of standards which should govern the employment of women were issued by various agencies associated i  the War Labor Administration, and these fommed for  the firyt time e definition of the policy of the federal government.  General Orders #13 by the Chief of Ordnance, whidh were  issued simullaneously by the Quartermaster General as sw,gestions Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  to manufacturers 'marking on cortracts for those departments and to plants under te control of the government, declared thst the eight hour day, prohibition of night work, one day of rest in seven, a minimum wR,2;e based on the cost of living, and equal P&7 for  omen don  the srame work as men, were held to be  *mechanisms of efficiency."  Simil, tr conditions were urged by  the Corr itt7;-.! on Women in Indus:AT appointed by the ComTittee on labor crr. the Advisory Commission of the Council of National Pefense.  The U. S. Ra"lroad Administration also adopted the  principel of eqw)1 pay 4'or eAual work.  In the state-lent of  national prlAcies Which should underlie industrial relations during the wn-, formulated Oy the War Labor Conference Board and co firmed by the President when the War Labor Board  111014  appointed, it was stated tat "if it sall become necessary to employ women on work ordinp.rily performed by -en, they must )e allowed equal pay for e nalmor' , Tnd must not be allotted tasks dispeeportionate to their strength.' At the same time all of the othe- cr:nciples 131d down by this Board, such as the right to collective bargaining, applied also to woman workers. The great gain in this consensus of opinion of the various federal a..tencies rests unon the fact that the ststenents were issued when the whole energy of the country was concentrated uponi prodOtion.  Standards for whiel the labor movement and those  public spirit,-d citizens intere4tei in labor legislation had strugijed ;or many ye..a*s, thus during the etreee0of war received the sanction of the feieral government as conditions essential Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  to satisfactory production. The means of enforcement were found in the two-fold relation of the government to industry, first as an employer of Labor in government awned plants, and second as the largest ourchaser of the products of industry durine the war.  Certain  provisions regarding labor conditions were written into khe contracts.  rarly in the war the contracts with the Quartermaiters  DepartrTnt contained clauses prohibit/re the giving out of army chothing to be made or finished in tenements.  One of the first  acts of the War Labor Policies Board was its r7)commendation that the provisions of the federal ehild Labor Law, whidh hul recently been :ioelared unconstitutional by the Supreme Clurt,should be written into oortracts of all the producing dep9rtments represented dn the Board.  Shortly afterward a clause requiring fall  cowliance with state la )or laws was added to the contracts and A the snme time officials of state departments of labor were Jeputized by the Secretary of War, the Secretary of thq Wavy, the iJirector of the Shippin_ B-ard and the Director of the Housng Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Corporation to co-operate with federal agencies in enforcing this contractual obligation. It should be noted that the contracts never contained 11 of tr!e provisions included in the standards issued by the var.-loam government departments for the employment of wo,-en.  For  example, the prInciple of the same wage for the SAMO Nork was not included as a contractual obligation.  From the point of view of  -mforcment the significant fact in the conditions of women's work  during the war was the insistence of the federal government upon the observation of state labor laws.  In its statement of policy  the federal govsrnment went much further mi laid the basis for high standards in state labor legislation. Immediately after the signing o relation c)  the armistice the  tho federal government to labor conditions changed,  since its power of enforcement restirlg on its contracts with industry waeniecreased with the curtailment of contracts.  Per  ..r•ren workers, therefore, the nroblem during the period of readjustment is to find new means of enforcement of standards which have received such authoritative sanction from the nation at war.  The agencies t. be relied upon now include the states,  through laOor legislation and throuAl vocational training, the 'ndustries, telroui . h the volunttry adoption of high standards of labor conditions in shop organization, and workin  women them-  selves, throw+. the strengthening of collective action by them. Clearly the three groups will need the leadership of federal agencies since in peace no less than in .war the problsms of labor are questions of nation1.1 imoortmce. Within a month after the signing of the armistice the Woman in Industry Service of the Department of Labor with the aporoval of the Secretary of Labor issued the following ststement of stlndards whieh shoilld be a guide in the employment of women after the war.  The staterent is based on the experience of the  nation durini., the war. Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  It has been endorsed by the War Labor  -7-  Policies Board. Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  ZAMABlaj_0117  faNDIQ FOR TRY IN'ILOWSIT OF W731  (i1. the following outline the word "shall" and the larger type indicate those provisions whtCh 0. t,is -post vital im - ):tncP:.) I. 1.  ROTES 07 LAMP  WAIL! ROW'. NO WOMAN CRAY.. BE EMPLOTTD OR RERWITT2D TO WORK MORF IRAN igiGu'r TIOURS IN ANT ONF DAY OR FORTY7IgHT HOURs IN ANT ONE w77K. THE TIvr TITFW TAR wol:m ar wommirnTTOTrIr SHALL BF/,-N AND Ii7ND AND TRF TTVE ALLOVED FOR MEAL PALL BE PPOryd) IN A CONSPICUOU-1 PLACE IN EACH wOPTC ROW AND A RPCOPP sITta 1317. KIPAIT 111. TR! ovrPrvz: OT ETR WOMAN TopKTR. alUdI HOLIDUQ1N JSATURDAY. Ihoilld be the custow.  Obeerv-Irtoe of the half-holiday  ,MAN wORTIrc SRAM RAVE -rirDJOv PF"'T ru 57rwy, IrVFRT' 'PT"tre;T IN VyRI SYsTrli DAYS. "'''S. 'LL7.,TED  AT LFAST TRREE-QUARITR9 OF AN HOUR PALL MFAL.  S.  TIST 7)1!RI1Q1. A rest period e ter minutes should be allowed in the middle of eael working period without thereby increasing the leirth of the working day.  6.  goBT won. NO mnmAN SHALL BF EMPLOT-P TrirTW-rn Tyr IIIRs Or TrN P.v. itT1 SIX 4.M.  • II. 1.  WAG,  THF qA7F. wORX ENALITT WITH MICIVArTS. WITM no AS MTN MALT, Rreptvr T7F SAME WAVS WITH 91CR PRome TIONATE INCREASES A',7 T7P '4FN ARr ITTCTIV-TnG IN THE SAME IVDOSTRY. Slight Changes made in the process or in the arrangement of 7!ork should not be regardbd as justifying a lower wage for a woman than for a man unless statistics of production show t at the output for the job in question is less whni wo-on are employed than when men are employed. If a difference in output is demonstrated the difference in the wage rats should be based ticri the differeacs in production for the job as a whole and not determined arbitrarily. Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  sea  2.  nig  BASIS oFATERmIyAnalf OF igiATI. WAGE'S ST/OULD BE FSTAIMSRFT ON TRF BASIS OF OCCTPATION AN*. Noir ON THE BASIS OF SEX. THE MINIM! WACE 1?A7F MOULD covrR THE COST OF tIVV1 vnT? T?PRNOENTS ANDNIP .NTPELT FOR THE INDIVIDUAL. III.  1.  64,  FORKING COMILL2a.  comr9RT Agp uaLTATION •  State labor laws and industrial codes ihoulii be consulted with reference to previsions for co-ifort and sanitation. washing fa_Alities, with hot z.rld cold water, soar, and individual towels, Should be provided in sufficient number and in accessible loclose of cations to makp washing before meals and at the work (Inv convenient. Toilets Should be separate for men an'':wir clt. ind accessible. Their numbera should have a s andard ratio to the number of workers employed. Workroom floors should b kept clean. Dressing motile should be provided adjacent to washing facilities, making possible cllani7P of clothing outside the workrooms. Best moms Should be provided. Lighting should be arraaged SO ;IS direct rays do n.)t shine into the workers' eyes. Ventilation sho id be a,iequate and heat sufficient. Drinkiiig water sihoul .)t) cool ml acoessiblil with individual drinkin cups or bubble ma :e for tilio fountain provided. Provision shou1.1 worker ia to *scum a hot Nnd nouriLing meal eaten outside the 4orkroow, .sift, if no lun&. ro-ms are accessible near the plant, a lunch room Should be maintained in the  POTPUBE IT 104. Continuous standirki %nd coLitinnous sittirg are both injurious. A seat should be provided for every woman employed and its use encmkraged. It is possible and desirable to adjust the height of the chain) in relation to the height of machines or work tables so tha; the worker maiy with evival convenience and efficiency stand or sit at her work. The seats shr,lad have backs. If the chair is hlgh, a foot rest Shouldbbe provid-A.  3.  WETY. Risks from machinery, danger from fire and exposure to duA, fumes or other occuational hazards Should be scrujlulously guarded afAinst by observance of standards in state and federal codes. First aid equipment Should be provided. Fire drills and othe- no:rims of education of the workers in the.ob3ervancP of safety rigulations sho, Ad be instituted. Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  4.  ining SELtPT ION OF OCCUI3AT Ifr 4'01 WOMEkt. In determ attenwo:nen, what occuations are suitable and safe for ing follow tion should be centered especially on the conditions which would rsnder the ervalloymInt or eo- en undesirable if changes are not made:4.  Corstant standing or other postures causing p4yeical strain.  B.  Rlpeatod lifting of woi6nts of 25 pounds or over, or oV,Ir abn,rmelly fatiguing motions.  C.  Operatio% of mochantcal devices requirtng undue strength.  T).  degrees, ZxposDre to excessive heat,-t t. 14, over or excesive cold,-that is,under 5' degree.  T.  Xxposure to dust, fumes, or othsr occupatioilal poi3ons without adequate szfegurris against dioease.  TR 1!ROFTBIT71) 2CCUP4TIlr5. Tomry MUST NOT BF FXPIJIED PROM AYE S CHIC/J POISON OF TT! UP OCMPATTONS INVOLVING TO Br TIRIP INJURTIrs TO WO'leic THAN TO MIN, MUCH AS CUMIN s on PPoC!S! T VT LVAD INDUSTRIES. Subsequent ruling . be issued will ths1 imngernuR trad-1 S.  Uniforms with caps Am; comfortablesissee are desirable for health and safety in occupations for which Tachines are used or in which the processes are dusty.  uoyoRmq.  Iv. 1.  ALL BTz 1IVFN OUT T7, Br 7,orr IN 71107“' UTT 70 R NO WORK TKO LIVING OP SUPITTNG RPPOSFS OP TN ROMS DIRRCTIX COWNIT T. FNFMEn r7 Or IN t.ITY DwELLI7'"TC)0 'WITH LIVING CR c117111 V.  1.  2.  R047 471-qT'  EMPLOVENT MANA2r'NFIC  IT,$. In E„TRING. SEPARATIONS A_11k714,1VTATION OF CONDUT establishing satisfactory relations between a com„)any and nt Charged its omployels, a personnel departrtrt i im - orter transf ment, asPign ion, select for ty with responsibili proper of ishent estahl te ttz.(1 or withdrasal of worko7a woren core tionr.  nmwm roRKER. Where women are employed, splurgiqux competent woman should be appointed a3 ankaoy,-nt exeing cutive with responsibility for condition affect isory superv women. Woos should also be appointed in Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  positions in the departments employing wnmen. 3.  SELECTION OF VOIXERS. The selection of workers bast ohysio.Q1 equipadapted tl this reluirtrlents other qualifications is ,b experience ano , ment and throvd, as tra-cortant as the determination o tLe cinditions of the work to be dora. CO-OPERATION OF WORMS IN rwarrmENT OF STANDARDS ,  1.  E9T ITFerkr THE 4ANA:3F1TNT THE EtSPONFIBILITY SornULD CONDITIONS EMPFCTIMY AND WISELY ALOMP TO Dirmomm GFNUIRE CO-OPERATION T7P EF;MLISRED. WHICH ,SHOTIO BE FsSENTTAL TO PRODUCTION CAN BE SFCUPPM OICY I DETINTT E CRAWELS Or COIWUNICATION DFTWEEN EMPLOTE9 AND1R0UPS THFIR WOPIrrPs AR! FeT2iBLISorD. THE NEED 07 OWING TETRODS Or JOINT NEGOTIATION BETwErN EMPLOYERS AND TROUP'S OF FMPtOYFFS IS F91FCIALLY GREAT /N TNE LIP? Or TIT7 ciTmcm PoIrT OF CONTR1VVRT! %TIM MAY ABIn IN A . T. FIISTTNG CRANAFTA SHO7LD BE Trir LITT TPF PFTSFI: PRESERVED KC Nrw O'Ir!! 'PENED 1r PECITIRET,), TO movrn rASTER Accrs rom, DISCUTION AFTWFTN EMPLOYER AND PMPL1T7ES. VII.  q0-0'EP4TIT: wITR OFICIAL AGENVIgS  The United states Government and State and local communities have established agencies to deal with conditions of labor, including st?.ndards of working conditions, wages, hnurs, emnloyment and trainIng. These should be called upon for assistance especially in the difficult problams of 54justment in the parity': of Ivconstruction following the war. Inquiritis reardh-u. the empioyment of women mar hs addressed to the Wqman in Industry Service, De-Artciant of Labor, Ira-thin -ton, D. C., and tl-lese will be dealt with directly or refmrred to the of-icial federal or state a,ency belt equipned to give tl!e assistant)* needed in each instance.  The new note In this outline is in the paragraph Whidh deals with the  ants of •ietermination of wages.  The pcimiple  of evil pay for alual work is but a partial step.  In its  applicatior, luring the war, one employer, for irstance, objected to payi-1„: yooTlen In one deportment the wages which men in the  -11-  same position had been earnlna, while  Ns:  An in at, adjoining  tePartment were receiving about half as mucn for work which mms different but no more difficult to learn.  In the opinion of  this employer it is indicated that women's rates should be established in the occupations hitherto filled by men. the principle of equal  vr for e l- ual work be  If  4ound as the  support of it during the war would seem 60 indicate, such an instance suggest  an anomaly of long standing in basing wages  not upon. occmpaion but upon sex.  Undoubtedly tere will be  treat differencfls in wage rates in different processes and in different industries, but tl:e difference Should mt be due to the fact that certain occupations are filled more ltsrgely by women than by men. The comparative wages of  Merl  and women will be the  most crucial problem of the readjusl.ment Period.  As women have  entered a wider range of occupations it will be possible for th em to become the unwilling competitors of roen in lowering standards of wages.  Moreover, now as before the war, wmen are worklng to  earn a living and the facts show that many are also supporting dependents.  Low wewes for wo,an mean an inadequate standard of  living ir the families in wl,ich they are the Chief suvort. Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Low  wiwes for women mean al4sower wage scale in those indus'ries in which t'sey are entering in large numbers.  The upbailding of the  country after the war will depend upon the possibility of main tainine and raising the standards of living.  A theory of wages  which estiJaiehes a lower scale for ap..-roximately one-third of the workers of the country, that is, the women, is a menace to  ett  -12-  the stlndard of livinR of the country. ' ii,,ldter to his job is nDt The right of the returne, a labor pailityru-lon which t  proisrmea for isc'pien in industry.  hiiii  between A firm and t-,•!ie soldier,  rt is a matter of the  r  and public opinion has endorsed  nd just the determina-  tion of many com::anies to rsi ,A1;5,0 t'oe men who ,,,ave gone to In many ins''aicas, however, the former positions of the soldiers are ni-)t held by women out by !,en. of  %Wien' a  work, nThr is the  4I'}• '- ;.s is not a problem  osition of the wonan holding a  soldier's job any different from that of a man who 11-.4.e taken his :pl..!,ce.  For both  (nen  txnd mrnen workers the latt.edia'Al task is to  ewoom,lish the change from a yva.r basis to a peace basis with th e the reinstatsment of the  unemployflent  1ef.13:t  4t; number of soldierR and war workerz; in normal occupations ./ihicia they are best adapted. enormous,  The task of production ahead is  . ave been With the reinii :ding of those things which :  deF,troyed durint. the wn.r 3rd with the opening 12-: of new markets. This presents, therefore,  a of organi.,ation of indnetry in  such a way as tc, utiliIe to the #.`ull all of the availa'rJe working forces of the country. ial -ortnt part of  Wowen befor  the 'war I-441re constituted  working force of the country.  If the  tendencies clearly reflected in their increast-H- em2loyment in the century before we entered. the war are to b3 a guide, then the probl4  vvomen in indl)stry are evidently a permanent part of  the labor problem which the country now faces.  The experience of  the war gives ground for optimism if out of it own be evolved Epre Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  effectivq  tate Action, And Paost funcikffnental If 411, a new  (*Itch shall spirit -.4.nd method of self government in industry 6ive equal recognition to ., vcr;era workers. Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  ment sea be Level.. Yie vise yeller for the period of readjust isinstry  Jeltion of wows in aped without clear realisation of els stry whieh the war taught. Ilse indu awing the war mad the leSIOSill for tude toward the work which mass outstanding fast was the ohmage in attiseespations ewer readily to mind. soal& do. Illestrations of these sew elevator operators, tsudenb Thep lave bees sendosters on street earl, osespatiems and wahine spars drivers, railroad envie/es in a variety of usially sonsidered monis weir. e Mors in Ineinshes of the aschisistse trad war thore wen very few large the re befo It is not to be feeejettes that e were not sem lemon iniustries in the esimatior in fattish therwork 'Web they did asaltreatr ate. as that the change was net se mesh the it. As the war went an it was tide of emplqpire mind the publie tenet he would find in his organir that onpoSted of the prfberesSIVe slegfill wen% and the spas* gives in MIL for sation as maw plans as possible ions of the massessful sepleyamst of sillies and newspapers to deseript the keen interest in breaking down wean in unused week gem eVidiesse of barriers. tions and the asseslith the soptepasst of wane in am posiperionee very sson il lewil,ex sit/ ter keeping predestion at its assa made for the Westin emplqr. eh Uwe* that then wen sorwilties. uttli ns which rut obstaeles in the itio eond wit of women end that there wore results. If msy samary of this wow of their peamelng satisfactory d be the Stateliest that it pointed war 'repertoires wen attempted it woul k would elimialate the old custom to the preStitlability ef a volley *in i•shilled week as the assumption of assigaimg wean toimikilled or slat esempatiense We held dmirieg that Ow esOi net quail, tor *JAW intneseed WO the ileSugations watil the ups tlist women should not be ea /kit it is shows is eontitints and tut wan aide site and thoiseem g* be emphasised. be atiat majerity met entlasion of Walla which Mintor women, to the gnat advantage of the at agtiaaa sea be neg eats mis iep3ee4 in them. mama before the war halve constituted as importont part of the . If the tendemeles clearly reflested in working gyros of itoo octuatry century before we entered the war are their insreasimg emplipmont in the of rozasn in industry are evident4 a to be a yids, then *Ise problems shieh the eimstry new teen. be permanent pert of the labor problems ems be Wel.aupariasia of the ear gives pima for optimise if out of it • moot fenismostal of all, um Mint el nen Westin State Notion, mad stry whisk shall give equal raele?' sad method of seltegovermssut in inie anion to IMO vomiters. Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  ":75"":"..•  " • "  1 7. Z-11.4g4"  /7 airy Tan rise* dereol•• iod of readjustment Can be No wise policy for the per position of women in Indust" ation of the sped ultheut clear realis ns for industry which the war taught* 2he lemo whisk miss daring the liar Dad the attitude toward the work in nge cha the was t y IS it. entetanding gna oecupations ewer readiltai new se the of s ion deab rat ust re, Ill Soul& dea card, elevate,/ eipsestoi eet str an si ter tus hine operThey have been een y of userepati one sad mac iet var a in es lmy 's work. drivers, railroad sup de usually tra s° ist hin nee the large ators in bamboo of war there were very few the ore bef t tha ten It Is not to be forgot e WW1 employed. in which there wore not son did as the &Wy ntr cou the in s rie indust ch they not so much the work whi so that the che,nge was the ver went on it was As it. public toward the and ers loy his argmni emp illie of r that be would fled In gye mpl ve ssi ire pro the of e* given in usg*greeted sible for masa, and the epe pos as ces pla y gam esplemmit of Nation as ptions of the successful cri des to s per spe new in bresitiag down Widnes ant dence of the ken interest evi e gav k wee ai meow in =m barriers. assess r Men in new positions and the of nt yme Aci ele the h Wit porisece very am n at its noneal level, eig , sity for keeping produstio effective employ the Which made for s ion dit con e wer put obstacles in the tuut;ht that there re were conditions 'shish meat of 'women and that the y stuumary of this so iStattory results. If way of their producing sat mit that it pointed ted it would be the stateu war experience were attemp ate the old metal min policy which would eli to the prafitillability of a ed or soni-akilled work on the assuceptial of assigning women to =skill We held during for Skilled eocnpations. upations until that they could not quail* occ not be introdueed into the the *sr that wows should in conditions end lsamme. Bat it is alma who and e sat e *M e T wor VA the great majority should be sophasizede ch whi m is of ion lus inc advantage of the not e ter women, to the great saf e mad be sae ons ati irp of oec asei employed in thoh, of the stituted an important part Nom before the war have con reflected to, If the tamilmills# eleani working fermi of the eolutry. the d the war are ere mit y ipstors we isl ois in st pme lli emp g a their inereaSin in in industry are evidently of m le ob pr the n to be a ipdde, the ntry now faces. The or problem widsh the cou be evolvpermsent part of the lab optimism if out of it can for und gro es giv wax spirit overtones of the t fundamental of all, a net mos and , ion act te ed mire effective sta give equal recogt in indsultry Which shall men ver .go f.. sel of hod met and workers. atlas I* Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  IMINIM.  „PeldeMIHNIMPOSIORPAHN Mr.27 Tam 2:Week  be develiod of readjustment can per the for y lic .0o e ustry No vis position of women in ind the of on ati liz rea ar ght. The oped without cle ustry which the war tau ind for s son les the which 'women daring the war and de toward the work itu att in nge cha the y to mind. outstanding fact was occupations occur readil new se the of s ion , tairicb Illustrat co'21d do. rt, elevator operators ca eet str on rs eto operThey have been condla occupations and machine of y iet var a in es d males work. drivers, railroad employ de usually considere tra s' ist hin mac few large ators in branches of the war there were very the ore bef t tha at employed, some It is not to be' • which there were not in ry it ii ro th as the attiin did s they industrie h the work: which muc so t no s wa nge t on it was cha wen so that the As the war toward it. lic pub the and organiers his tide of employ that he would find in er loy emp ve ssi in maggre en pro giv ce expected or the for women, and the spa le sib pos as t of ces men pla loy y l emp zation as man ons of the successfu pti cri des to s ng down Der aki epa bre in azines and new of the keen interest ce den evi e gav k wor l women in unusua barriers. the necesren in new positions and ire of t men ;oy emp e very soon Vath the normal level, experienc s it at n tio duc pro ive employsity for keeping which made for the effect s ion dit con e wer taught that there s which put obstaclec in the there were condition t tha and en wom of t If any summary of this men satisfactory results. ing duc it pointed pro ir the of y wa ld be the statement that wou it ted emp att war experience were eliminate the old custom a policy which would of ty ili cab cti pra d work on the assumption to the killed or semi-skille uns to en wom ing We held during ign ns. of ass . for skilled occupatio n* va not ld cou y upations until that the bo introduced into the occ not uld sho en ions and wom t the imtr tha But it is change in condit lesome. who and e saf majority e at The gre they were mad should. be emphasized. ch whi en wom of the of age at advant not exclusion e for women, to the gre saf de ma be n ca of occupations men employed in them. t of the e constituted an important par hav r wa e th ore bef Women lected in If the tendencies clearly ref country. the of ce the war are d for g ere kin ent wor y before we lOrment in the centur emp g sin dently a rea e evi inc ar ry ir ust the problems of women in ind e *h n the The de, es. gui w fac a no ntry to be or problem which the cou lab the eveltof t be par n ca if out of it permanent es ground for optimism giv war rit the spi of new e a of all, experienc ion, and most fundamental act te sta ive ogect al rec ed more eff ch shall give equ overnment in industry whi and method of self-g s. rition to women worker Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis