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Rov (A) ) t 5 J) https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis CAp R - REPGI-T of the MO= "rILSON OBGERVA TORY "TAR WORK AS RELATED TO The Mount vTilson Observatory office, shops and laboraOrdinary work tories are located in Pasadena; and all business, but that of the M. 7ilson Lebor- of the experiments and observations which are made at the observatory on lit. "rilson, is transacted here. In the ofatory. fice, there are employed, and have been for some years past, about ten women wh , do the greater part of all the computing. These women are necessarily college women with The a technical training in mathematics and astronomy. and seven a on are based s computer of these working hours a half hour day with three hours work on the sixth day a forty-one hour week. "rr"Tork Due to war emergencies and the well known shortage of lens existing in the United 3tates, the Mount "'noon Observatory, well equipped vith its scientifically trained men, has undertaken this kind of work. The "big" guns before being sent abroad must be furnished with the finest and truest kind of sights, the main part of which is a These prisms are _lade by some three prismatic lens. other laboratories - that oT John A. Brashear (the largest) Spencer Lens Co. Keufeal & Esser Co. The Mount "Tilson Laboratory is handling the defectiVe lens At present date, there is a made by John A. 3rashear. contract between the two laboratories whereby fifty prisms That being the number tht must be sent here each day. can y handle under its present Etiporator the Mount Wilson working conditions. There are some fifteen women employed in the Laboratory. Kind of work done by women Men are employed for the heavier work, such as grinding and The women do the following types squareing of the edges. of work: - https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis 1 - Inspection and sorting of the prisms for different kinds of defects. 2 - The smoothing down of surface defects with wet powdered corundum. 3 - 3moothing and polishing of the heavy glass plates upon which the prisms are perfected. All of the work done by women requires very little physical The prisms are about one and one-fourth inches in effort. The:/- sit at long length and some half-inch in width. tables close to the windows where the light is best. 7et corundum is placed on the glass plate, then the surface of the prism is rubbed on this until the defect is erradi- Report of the haunt i_lson Observatory 7ar Tor as related to women - PG 2 This process, of course, requires constant cated. watching to see just when it has been sufficiently In the beginning all workers had very sore smoothed. fingers but in Short time their hands became toughened, also they learned to handle the sharp edges of the prism very carefully. Skill ao related to previous work. as related to time worked Type of women General working conditions. Length of day. https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis The greatest Skill and accuracy seems to be obtained by those women who have done something with their hands The girl considered Previous to taking up this work. in an embroidery worked had the best v.orker in the shop ess and delicatedeftn a es Besid shop for three years. t of mechanical in amoun certa a ness oftouch, a true eye and who had some women that It was noted sense is required. more d e quickly. skille becom knowledge of piano playing r worke d skille a become The length of time for one to type and y nalit perso the seems to vary so directly with of woman that it was hard to determine what might rightly be considered an apprentice period. The laboratory has been running but three months on war work. In that time some women have become proficient in two or three weeks, but it is judged that in that period of time a woman either will absolutely fail or make good to some degree. From interviews with women doing different types of the worl:, there seemed to be no direct strain or physical All said they were not as tired at the reaction felt. work i.e. end of the day as they had been doing previous The women as etc. won: oifice ing, embroider, piano teach ge, intelavera the th-n type r highe a a whole represented work. ligent and eager in their in rather At present the war work is being carried on run to its being now is atory cramped ouarters nd the labor it and work this in tial essen Light is very capacity. where room main the of r is all natural save in one corne Due to the fact that there an artificial light is used. where the smoothing is phere atmos must be no dust in the windows, which can be in process, the lower prts of all More ventilacloth. raised, Ere covered with fine White an elecwhich shaft in tion is insured by means of an air temperThe o. dynam tric fan is inserted and run by a small the for ble possi es even ature of this room must be kept as s. e varie ratur tempe glass expands and contracts as the '"ages are raised All beginners receive 42.00 a week. Skilled worker A ed. as fast as the worker becomes skill expected as time is It 0. receiving from 1.6.00 to c318.0 bee -1 ,,ith to-13 1.-.'ratrgoes on, that all women who have lly be raised. for any length of time automatica tions under which work Due to the present cramped condi of the industry, the is being done and to the newness andadeouate output. laboratory has been unable to produce they had received orders Through the Ordnance Department, as there were plenty of to rush all work on the prisms Report of the Mount '7ilson Observatory 7ar 7ork as related to women - PG 3 guns but an insufficient number of sights. As a consequence the government was not able to send the guns abroad. 3o at this time the Mount "'ilson Laboratory i)etitioned the government to grant them a nine hour day for the women. As a war measure, the men had been working from ten to twelve On October 17, there was received a sixty day hours. permit by the State of California Bureau of Labor, to work the women nine hours. This was done for three days and in thrt time it was made possible to set of all but 300 of lens on hand so as to be in 7ashington by the first of But now on October 21, an eight hour day is November. again in force. This permission was desired for an emergency condition. 7ithin six weeks, the Mount Pinson Laboratory will have a new and fully equipped building for the handling of all was work. They will t.ei be able to emloy about 150 to 200 women under the most modern of working conditions. The pollen by that time will also wear a regulation uniform while working, and have adecluate dressing and rest rooms. Under these conditions it is expected that there will be employed two shifts, i.e. one shift arriving as soon as it is daylight working eight hours, another arriving later in the morning and workin as long as the light permits in the afternoon, on an eight hour day. Conclusions https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis In commenting on the v,ork done by women, one miht say it requires close application, attention, good eye sight and delicateness of touch, but the workers are not hurried or rushed - acuracy and sureness are required So while there must be a certain amount rather than speed. of strain, there is not the nervous condition and tension that is part of so many industrial occupations. Information and the opportunity of stunying the tory were obtained through the courtesy of abora- 7!a1ter S. Adams, Director in Charge, G.T.Ritchey, in charge of 7ar 7ork, Mr. Davidson, Laboratory foreman and expert workers in the Laboratory, expecially Miss McNabe. 12, IJ Q • f 1 A . October 28, 1918. Froat Mary Van Kleeck, Director, Woman in Industry Service. To: Major F. W. Tully, War Department. Subject: Mount Wilson Solar Observatory - request to slanloy women nine hours a day. Before seniing our letter of October 16th, we had wired the Industrial Welfare Commission for an investigation of the Mount Wilson Solar Observatory. They have renlied that they would make this investigation with a vie, to determining some method of adjusting the problem in conformity with the state law. As soon Its the reply is received, it will be forwarded to you. MVVALL https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis Mary Van Kleeck, Director Woman in Industry Service. https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis WAR D EPARTIVI E WAS H I N GTO N. October 22, 1918. From: To: Subject: War Department, ::ajor F. ':.. Tully. ry Van Kleeck, irector 'iomen in Industry. 7.1ou t Wilson Solar Observatory women nine hours a day. - r3cludst to employ As explained to you personally, under an emergency this office r3quested the authorities of California to vary their State law so as to permit the number of hours /orked by women to co-incide with the number of hours worked by men, ' 1,3rmission allowing this variation was namely, nine hours. asked for a period of thirty days to allom investigation being made. In your letter of October 16th. you state that you are taking action looking towards an investigation. It is hoped that you /ill be able to make such investigation, and that this office may have the advanta-;.e of your recommendations before the period of exemption expires. / F.,71. Tully, ajor, Ord. U. S. A. Detailed to Office of Secretary of War. https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis rctober 22, 1918. Fre:rat .. e?artnent, :ajor F. Tully. in Industry. Tn: Viss '1.ry Van Kleeck, ireotor Man 9vbject: t Alson o1ar Obslrvatory women nine hours a day. - rimiest to emnloy 4s explained to you personally, under an enormrcy r3(xected tho authorities of Califorria to vnry tis off1 their Stnte lacr E0 as to permit the numbor of hours -vorked by Porlor to co-iroias with the nm7.)ar of hours worked by men, ?emission allowing this variation was mmoly, nine hours. of thirty days to allelit investiatien being asited for n made. In your letter of uctober 16th. you rtate that you are taking action lookinc tcrards an InvesW1,.tion. It is hoped that you will ho able to maks such investiction, and that this office my have the advantare of your recommendations before the period of exemntion expires. F. najor, Ord. U. 8. A. )otailed to Office of :;ecretary of War. Gen. No. GOVERNMENT RATES TELEGRAM OFFICIAL BUSINESS DEPARTMENT OF LABOR FROM worutRRIATil olP0140rY Washington,L. 15, 1918 Night Letter Mrs. K-Itlir-rine Philips' Edson, Irdustrial Welfare Coalarission, ExecutIve .rket Street, San Fr: misco, Cal. 525 M , levuest for parmissior. to Qufloy toit.en Mount Vlieon '1%ba.6rw.tory nine hours ecislion day filal llith Secretary of 1L.r. 14:Ixexption ;;:.-Lnnot Qs granted pandit t: :persona you fro.,. or fro.. ruport ask 'de Defioase. Liatiori3;.1 Coux44;11 by plan on whom you refer a.z.tter on exact coulitiona rI recommendation of other adjustment possi b1t. CHARGE https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis ilary VIn Kleeck DEPAR TMEN r OF LABOR. ArF'ROPRIA I ION FOR . 14— 17 1 October 16, 1918. FrocL: https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis ce Mary !en Xleeck, Director, Wman in Industry Servi F. W. TI-111!,, War De ,Artment Eubjact: y Mourt Wilson Solar Observatory - request to emplo woqien nine hours a lay. T.1::e In tbis case Lire received from your office. of Crtlifornia for 114 'nave wirel the Ithustrial Welfare Coma.esion rcrort. 1$3 re173n1ing action by the Council of National Dtlf011 e is not empowered garding a r1n of issuing permits, this offic t law, but reclo7nlervic),tion involving susrensions of the state labor are talring antion which may reau3.t either in some other :aay be based 1-tter. ailjustmont or in data. uron thich a recommeniation Mary Van Kleea, Director Woman in Industry Servica. iss 1L,Ln ,jor Tu.A.ey says that the Woman :!rancil of the ;.ork for Instrial Service section aorroves nine hwirs a..en t. Wilson, Solar Observatory/ 're Let him kno - ter is. a!. https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis us soon as possi,23 :,hat your acti.:.n on 'ajor Tvlley's 11,11th Holines. https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis WAR DEPARTMENT. WAS H I N GTO N. October 0, 1916. From: War Department, Major F. W. Tully. To: Miss ::ary Van Kleeck, Director, ';:omen in Indlstry Service. Subject: .omen Operatives at 7,:t. Wilson Solar Observatory Pasadena, California. I an referrit_; to you herewith application of the Mt. 7:i1son Solar Observatory, 'asadena, California, for variation in the State laws so as to permit women to vork nine hours with men working a similar period. Will you please advise this office if in your judment a Certificate of lmergency should be issued as requested. F.' Yr. Tully, ajor, Ord. U. S. A., Detailed to Office of Secretary of War. https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis October 8, 1916* From: War Department, Major F. To: Miss Nary Van ;Cleeck, Director, ',omen in Ind-ustry Ifervice. ;:ubject: omen Ope latives at °:t. Wilson Solar Observatory -ssaoena, California* Tully* I am referrinc to you herewith ap -lication of Vinson Solar Observatory, asadena, California, the for vfLriation in the State lam so as to permit women to -Tork nine hours with man working a similar period* -All you ploane advise this office if in your ludrrent a Certificate of L;mergency should be issued as /nal-posted. F. Tully, !,:ajor, Ord. U. S. A„ Detailed to Office of Secretary of October 7, 1913. From: Warms Brest%) Industrial Service Section. To: ',iocretary Kajor I. w. Tally, U. 3. A. Office of the of War Subjaol: VATORY WOMICK OPIRATTYT, at T. WILSON SOLAR OBSUR PASADENA, CALIMRMIA. • 2. 2, https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis the The above earr ,i matter has boss referred to your of de outsi e sourc lamas Branch, free a office, md MO it is our understanding that such e rmttere are to be referred ally from the offic with this g filin are of tbe 3ecrotmry of ‘'iar, we you, Attaohed are copies of all matter which no hnvc on the subjbot. ...m.1.111.111111.111.11•126.96.36.199.01••••••••• B. H. GITCHELL, Ujor U. S. -. Chief, Industrial Service Section, Ordnance Dept. c p y 38976 Q38 TV 47 GVT PASADENA CALIF 1048A Oct 2 Majo Jamos G. Scrugham PRODUCTION DIVISION ARMY ORDNANCE SEVENTH AND B STS WASHINGTON DC OUR MIN WORKING NINE HOURS PER DAY WOMEN SHOULD WORK SAME HOURS 70 COOPERATE PROPERLY CALIFORNIA STATE LAW FORBIDS PERIOD CAN YOU GIVE US NECESSARY AUTHORITY FOR GOVERNMENT WORK G W RITCHIE Note: Capt. Foster this JPM https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis — MT WILSON OBSERVATORY can you see Mr. 0'14eil as to the chances for 0• y 38976 Q38 TV 47 GVT PASADENA CALIF 1048A Oot 2 Maj. James G. Sorughas PRODUCTION DIVISION ARMY ORDNAlv; 3EVENTH AND B STS WASHINGTON DC OUR MEN WORKING NINE HOURS PER DAY WOMEN SHOULD WORK SAMX HOURS frO COOPERATE PROPER,Y CALIFORNIA STATE LAW FORBIDS PERIOD CAN YOU GIVE US NECESSARY AUTHORITY ,'OR GOVERNMENT WORK G W RITCHIE Not*: Capt. Foster - https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis this JPM WILSON OBSNRVATORY 4.4 can you so* Air. ' oil as to the chances for COPY FBF/amb October 5, 1918, F 282i. Capt. F. B. Fe3ter From: To n, Carriage Branch, production Division, Cannon Sectio Section, Production Divi. Womens Branch, Industrial Service ion: lire. Tead: sion, "B" Building. Attent atory.Women Operatives. Subject: Mount Wilson Solar Observ n : you yesterday regarding wome 1, Referring to conversation wit, our to y Solar Observatory. In repl operatives at the Mount Wilson n: tio ation was furnished this Sec request, the following inform 3rd. Fourteen women now "Referring your wire October weeks. Their work affected, at least 100 within six prisms; also operating fine skilled optical work on small producing small lenses grinding and polishing machines m 412.00 to $20.00 per and prisms. Wages at present fro k direct contract." week; exclusively Government wor necessary steps in the matter 2. It is requested that you take the ements have been made. advising this Section what arrang By Order of Brig. Gen C. C. Jamieson, U. S. A. https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis J. G. SCRUGHAW Lieut. Col. Ord. Dept. U. S. A. By (C. S.Dame) C. S. DAME Major, Ord. Dept. U. S. A. October 5„ 1918. T 2622 Capt. F. B. Foster From; ge Branch. Production Division, Cannon Section, Carria To n, Production Divi. %mons Branch, Industrial Service Sectio Teadt Buildin, Attentiont M. 01012, Subjeott ives. Mount Tilson Solar Observatory — Women Operat 1. regarding women Referring to cosverlAtion wit you yesterday atory. In reply to intr operatives at the Mount ailson Solar Observ this Section: request, the following information was furnished new *Referring your wire October 3rd. fourteou women work Their weoks. six affected, at least 100 within ing fine ski1136 optical work on small prisms; also operat lenses small in,; produc grinding and polishing mak:lines ':20.0C per and prime. Wages at :,resent from $12.0C to ct." contra direct week; exclusively Goverument wurk 2. in the matter It is requested tha-6 you tike the neco6sery steps made. advising this Section what arrangements have been By Order of Brig. Gen C. C. Jamieson, U. S. A. https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis J. G. SCRUGHAM Lied, Col. 0,-d. Oept. U. By (C. S.Damo) G. S. DAME Major, Ord. Dept. U. S. A. A. FOrZie. NO. 2.SSC, JBSifk.fh WAR DEPARTMENT OFFICE OF THE ChIEF OF ORDNANCE INTRAOFFICE MEMORANDUM FOR USE WITHIN THE ORDNANCE OFFICE ONLY DATE__OciallerA COPY rROM: Major_S. Z. Thompson Est. & Rau: TO __Claxa_161._Tead Wantons/ Branoli SECTION , Indixotriel Service_ BUREAU OR DIV. NAME SUBJECT. ,Progress BUREAU OR DIV. NAME SECTION Matter of increasing shifts for women at Mt. Wilson Observatory at Pasadena, California, from eight to nine hours. 1. 'me Mt. Wilson Observatory at Pasadena, California holds contract P 13490 ..960 C for 967 sets of Optics for Altimeters, and practically the whole Anti Aircraft Range Finder program is de. pendent on the prompt manufacture of these lenses. 2. It is indicated that need warrants that nine hour shifts be substituted for the eight hour shift now called for by the State laws of California, but only for the period of time neces. sary for the completion of this contract, and for only those female employees actually engaged in working on this contrect. Sanford E. THampson, Major, Ord, Dept., U. S. A. By: (J. B. School) J. B.SCHEEL, Captain, Ord. Dept., U. S A. COPY No CARBON COPY AND https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis NO RECORD REQUIRED PEN OR PENC, L MAY BE USED 8695 FORM NO. 2600 a * 1115/fit.fh WAR DEPARTMENT OFFICE OF THE ChIEF OF ORDNANCE INTRAOFFICE MEMORANDUM FOR USE WITHIN THE ORDNANCE OFFICE ONLY DATE_AW4401,4w40_14411_____ COPY PROM TO DIV. Ertl" SAFtr SECTION i —1roasaiAarao Clara IL Toad SUBJECT: g Matter of increasing shifts for yam at Mt. Wilson Observatory at Pasadena, California, from sight to nine hours, 1. The Mt. Nilson Observatory at Pasadena, California holds contract P 11490 .960 - 0 for 967 site of Optics for Altimeters, mad practically the whole Asti Aircraft Nage Tinder program is do. pendent on the prompt sommfacture of these lenses. 2. It is indicated that need warrants that nine hour shifts be substituted for the eight hour shift now called for by the State laws of California, but only for the period of time niecesary for the completion of this contract, and for only those female employees actually engmgod in working en Lhis contract. Thompson, Sanford Major, Ord, Dept., U. S. A. Byi (J. B. Soh el) J. B.SOMKSL, Captain, Ord. Dept., U. 3 A. C No CARBON COPY AND https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis NO RECORD REQUIRED PEN OR PENCIL MAY BE USED 8695 DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TELEGRAM 7Cwu hh °CT 1 7 kiwi, 9 SanFrancisco CALIF Oct 16 18 Mies Mary VanKleeck, vision Women Industry Dept of Lapor 7ashington DC answer Mrs. Edson enroute wire forwarded will wire Friday. Industrial Welfare CommilithiOn 455pm https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis