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LA15307 sb Qs,lozi tvv2.3-1 https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis e(22 - ) t, , https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis , AAORANAJA roi FROM: The ::ecrt-ry :)f A.vor V,n iArector flLfl in in 11.r; "-rvice c-refuili th 14-.ttk:r frow in to irc,:int 3ocgs, • 21-iem in Iccor:! with her 3 inim frow becufe of the num.....er oFy.UnL 1,1- 15 $1 not nt-1 . •n•in eill*lorA. limes their r • r.c• , in Ac...)r.1, u iflc., ur u r ▪ in c .f • thc the. uhief ;.;.f ',:r,...n(-Jff to ▪ c;:11Id L .D!' the civiLiAl v:r3 ncwi.1 in.uiry into thti. m!7;ke i1meto tht, concLu-Aon th..t exericnce, 7 'n:.! on th,-, j''3,5*f , must .3e: i f-avs„. ;ros)leqa Thich in the thrtt thi if the Lle-,,rt1;nts ekloyinE,. tbece 7forker, ,ince. it 1_ only iy Je 1-Ja4r*i .,)eJrz)nal c.ntct t! -.t the .:ini;er J.t is my conviction, th,3reff.)re., th%t efich ferc,1 the. of JeveL) 4nef. 31131111 5e ch!.i.ro *ith th n curleLoy.. it of Uf%re x laterr7kfit o the hetqth it it 307.;.rt 21, etch 'r 7 nection with thi: rJr tLe to me thk.t tre ;any ve,ry well O? t Hivim 4t cintr„;,.tithe in exch:.ng,:: of ex,..,rincts. ihe not Al.! 4, pltn relch th beginninf, jJ; thfi.t it will 1.), merely irvtivium.13 in f,aly direct ;ITI:j derflonal way. h?,ve, wother" oIntint of Tour juirmcnt tht the t ,e resent,nen c.us mi6ht i3trict 4 , the to coming for the girl Ltnd u. ,nt rvi5lon govern th-,t, n im.lic-tio )eca.use of it rze -ut by survt,il'ince Wr..Fns.ie,Fl.wm3 to me) t,) o ex,eriemce. 74 .;• DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY WASHINGTON August 2, 1918. is Vary Van neeck. Director, doman in industry Service, Department of Labor. 1,7. dear Liiss Van 1:1eec: By direction of Secretary Wilson, I am inclosing you herewith co3y of a letter received, by reference from the President, from :rs. Lucy H. 13o;i3s, to;fether with copy of the recretary s reply to the President. You will note that the Secretary is placing this correspondence in your hands for a report upon the advisability of making the apoointment su:gested. Sincerely yours, Assistant to the Secretary. Incl. 77-H https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis Sunday, July 28th, 1A8. President :;oodrow :hite House. dear 12r. President, ‘Ls this is a matter of vital importance, I am writing to implore you to appoint at once a Mother in connection with the Housing Bureau or independently, to look after the girls who come here to work for the government. I have worked for and among these girls for a long time and I know the conditions - their wants and their needs. I cannot carry the work on without help and funds any longer as I have There should be a Mother established in a down town ofbeen doing. fice where these girls and boys can come with their troubles and where Their health, their morals, their future is in they can be adjusted. They are the mothers of the coming generation, if they the balance. are not cared for now - /hat may we expect? I am in daily receipt of letters from the homes of these girls and from broken-hearted mothers who have made sacrifices to send their girls here to work for the government. 7/hat can be expected from young unsophisticated girls from rural districts turned loose in this city at this time with no mother to go to for help and advice. 'dell, I wish you knew the half, I venture to say that only a few hours would pass before some one would have the power to help and comfort them. I am not writing to ask you to appoint me for this position - Mr. President, but because of my interest in the stranger that is within our I was asked by Mt. Prank Clark and others of the .Louse and gates. I consented, having Senate if I would accept a position of this kind. was not I appointed - why I but position the for been highly endorsed to do my duty at all continue shall I care do not know, nor do I good see a mother al)pointed to is desire one times and at any cost. MY ask you in the to writing am therefore to help these boys and girls, before charge get in conditions woman name of heaven to place such a be If you at done once. something It is imperative that any worse. can the you names cases without want the plain facts in some of the I feel now that you know the facts that something will be have them. done. !lith my highest regards, Sir, and sincere good wishes, Most respectfully, Mts. J.F.Boggs, Rockingham, City. (Signod) Lucy looe Boggs ?rank Clark, Mt. Ben Johnson, Gen. Estopinal, Sen. Eansdall of La. and others can give you a few facts on the above subject. Mr. https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis (Signed) L. ii. Bogs. 4 - August 2, 1913. 1y dear :Ir. President: have your letter of the 29th ultimo, inclosinc a communication from itrs. Boggs suggesting the appointmont of a "mother" for the working girls who are coming into the District. The same suggestion was made to me orally some time ago by 1Trs. Boggs. At that time I assured her that when our dmaitoriss were erected I would be glad to name her as one of the matrons in charge of housing halls. I have understood that the jar Department and the Dis- trict Commissioners each have agencies assisting in providing housing facilities for girls coming into the District for Governmental servic. I did not deem it advisable to take the additional steps suggested by Bogs until I could get a reeort on the subject matter from the Woman in Industry Service which we then contemplated creating. That service has recently been organized with Liss Van Kleeck as Director, and I have taken the liberty of -)lacing a copy of Ili's. Boggs' letter in her hands with a request for a report upon the advisability of making the appointment suggested. My hesitancy in acting was based upon the fear that it was a two-edged sword, and while it would undoubtedly be a benefit to some girls the implication that they needed Governmental sueervision and surveillance might be resented by others. I shall write you again as soon as I receive a report from !ass Van Kleeck. https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis q. rift- is ft 2 I am returning :Its. Boggs' lotter herewith. Faithfally yours, (Signed) W. B. Wilson, Secretary. The 'resident, https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis The White House. https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis - / „glans* 7,411011 DTPA111"1.2.V. Office of the Cider Clerk !Aohiricton Nov ,::*a, October 29,1116. The meeting of tha ("abinet as called to order by tile eeretary at 11 Oolook on the above date. Absentees noted: 6ollol:or, Cnildrents and "ure-,u of Danigliellook Cemmanlaatisa from mr. Reynolds, Offering his, services to 41y of the branthes of the Department for publioity work. la *ream or servise impressing adman f4r this servioo, the Lieeretary answered aosorainly. The matter of reeommusistion for amvintneats in other departments was brought up through a sommuniestion frost Vac Informatics mad Sdneation •,ervioe. The Seeretary &Wasted ikat reeommendations for appointments in other ewrtments of employees of that -mpartlent or of this shall not he made eneept by or through the softie* of the 4oeretar7. No restriotions were placed. upon iwadag reeemeidistiens of proems /she are net enoloyed in this or other Departments. ThP semmissionar Of UaturAhisatiOn 'resented a Semmuniaution Ireother br,nehes of the Jopartnent offering transfers to against testing employe** of that Bureau at inereased salaries. !he Chief 'lark sille &treated to prepare a ammeraadma based on tne Sseeutive Jrder of novembv 4, 1917, relative to interdapirlasental transf*VI6 Memorandum from the 007Sornor of Alaska relative to tie) importaw tion of '''aSSISIt laborers to Alaska for seasomal eesepations. Imforred to the :11.reala of Tmaigratians Report of the rnvestlatta and Inspection •;ervioe relutive to the alleged rate riot In the Intermitional gamester pleat in qbieugo, vas received sad it AMA deciaed that this vas not proven to he a matter of saffieient imeortanae to require astiona Report of the Investigation and Inspection 3ervioe relative to alleged race trouble in Ship yards at Philatelphia. lieferred to the mireetor of negro lowtomles with direetions to confer with the Director of TnvettWation and Inspection Jarvis. thereon. !zemerandom the activities of an lrgonistAN 9000111,114041 prepare a memorandum •ln t,:e rabies*. from the Assistant ,ecretary, Sailing attention to employee of the U. 3. anploposnt 3erviee in the MON lpaity lupus, T,A4 Usretary stated that he load to the Ampleiment erviee, setting forth his ideal https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis 17,1nutos ••240. .1aus & statement as t) the IOW; renorts ailed F)r WummoralwA GI* Juiy 20th and August 7th, sod requested, in order ' 164k bureau or service night :mow What the ethers viers doing, that sixteen espies of this import be prepared and delivered to the (Ala Olerk for distribution among the other offices of the Department. AAJOIMPIMMIL. Chid Clark. Aperetary to the Cabinet. G Apprevots vt, 11. 1/L5ON 3es:rotary* https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis NW;09-2r. April 18, 1919. To the Secretary of Labors eleefieage rith year suggestion following the meeting of the Departmental inbinet is %seder last, the attaehed memorandum showing the death in the appropriation for the Ifsmnn in industry Berviee whieh will be ineurred ir June 30th if our present plan of work is eontimeedo is enhmitted4 the defieit in our budget as it was originally planned is due primarily to the additional week aradertainmi by MB at the reque • If the Maly Department and the Ordains° Department. Both these st departments have asked us to advise this regarding the conditions of employment of women in plants owned by the Goverment or coming under o :nriedletion of these divestments. this has seemed to us tee important a ropiest to ignore. bellowing the request of the 'ivy we appointed on our staff Nies Belem Demo fir a three menthe perile d ending April 21sto to indertake this work. Later the similar re.. quest some from the Oransmee Department and this additional under taking, together with the resent complaints of conditions in two Navy Yards on the Paola. °east* have led us to believe that we must continue Miss Bryan's apptintment beyond April 21st and provide additiomal Amide for traveling expenses. other appointments of members of our staff would also expire earl, in Ago these of Mrs. Miles B. Irvin, who is in charge of our work for Negro women and WS. Nthel L. Nest, who is one of our field workers. It seems to us hichly important to continue Mrs. Irvin's appointment for the rellgilier Of the flseal year in order that she may continue to wort with the elite of the Director of Nigro ftememlos and prepare a report of the fasts which halve come to her attention as defining the present outstanding aspect s of the problems of Negro wows in industry as a basis for future progr ams. Mrs. Best is greatly needed to represent us in the field in response tn several requests for the advice of the limn in Indust ry Service in local situzAions. As you will net. in the attaehedmomo romdins we shall need OZ,000 in addition to our present appropriation to continua our pres,mt staff and to carry out our plans up to aims SOth. It is recommended that this amount be semarei by the appointing an another pay roll of the Department three member s of our -2staff, Miss Helen Bryan, Mrs. Helen B. Irvin, and Mrs. Mel L. Bost, whose appointments would expire within the next math. We would also gamest that Lass Agnes L. Peterson of our staff be transferred to ame of these other pay rolls and that for these four an allowance for per diem in lien of subaistense while in the field be made from another appropriation, with the asieretanding that this allowance for field work might be drone spa Iff other members of the staff if these four were not continuously in the field, but the amount estithe cost of transportation would be mated would bot be exceeded. paid from the present appropriation of the Woman in Industry Service. In addition to the amount which would be made available through the transfer of these speoial agents and industrial experts to other pay rolls, it is *vested that approximately 4500 will be refunded to our appropriation by the national Womees trade Union League, as covering Miss the salary of Miss Miry Anderson during her absence in Paris. of view Anderson's expenses are paid entirely by the League but in the importance to women in industry of Liss Anderson's opportunity to represent them in Paris, it seemed appropriate and desirable that she should be released :or this journey and had it been possible it would have seemed to be legitimate for her salary to be continued. the national WOMORIS Trade Union League, however, very generously offer to have this amovint refunded to our appropriation. It is understood of course, that if members of our staff ale transferred to other pay rolls they will be assigned for work in the %man in Industry Service and in effect will have precisely the same positions as they new Oecupy and will ust in the nale of and under the direction of the %man in Ildustry Service. As a number of pressing tasks are needing attention an early decision on this request will be greatly appreciated. Mary Ten new*, Director, %mai in Industry Service. • https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis Nile MALL https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis 3, e,..,te1!)er TA The 5ecretIrlf_kabpr FRAi: M!try Ttn Kleeck, Zr--lotJr, '1'.):a -Ln in Inaustry So/vice. hLV c ?...refui....y rev i- 4 th6 Dir)ot r Jf ?Nigro Economics f..11 i. ti ttent v.ri,us exd.vr- fir 4,rk uffectint no6rof-) ,f the Deotrtbent. the ast.c)11-halant _f t w_ayula ippoint f 03- It 114.s 000n ,ur int5nti,n, 31:1ce ahn in In,luetry Servic, ti n our stLff, .e'n2i1i. wirk ir cl:)se 6- Ah ths Dire)ct)r of Nei Ecin,xic3. ;e hlve z:aan in c)nterence with Dr. H'Iywa. reb .rdine c nALLtei for Lhici vsition And ho,)e, th,lt the plin oi,L pa „ut into offuct shortly. 'vt,h reference ta the budcst e3tii,tei by Dr. ,T.ynes, however, e ft,-E1 41:it it is lArgc,r thin the i;iml.n in Inl,mtry c_ervic .Aith its 511111.1 -4propriation, cn expenl. ,4522. , ervict! 1:111 4, on.y in the The budget fir the ifoman Tha proportion of our budt6t thus fir negrc, work is c nsi4emo1y ,,A,r6er - hAn f)r the )ther divisiins :In] bureaus. n'izne fi the e n Industry of exdert WO cIn un:y oe t ap,roxi,T12ite1y ,1800, https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis -2- t.---,eter with the 'oud,et. ffice exdense iaciuded in our re6ular frill 6 ?erha,),- funct7, ean be A,,Ide source covering the r.dditifl1 ex?enses. other A total of 4,003 is the zuch is we coilLi expend with justice Aner res,:on- A'Alities of the hol-An in Industry :;ervice. In appointin,7 represent course, A )ur ot-uff to coiored f,)1. ne6ri .)aen in indczstry, h_ve ci.oe c-ntact with her 4Jrk in order 3he aiay t—ke ?Art in our ;,rogrIll as well ,s e understInd it, is Dr. HAynes' ht tintin cnnections with the sork done unier the direction of Dr. Hynes. as ,f AO shii This, anl we 1.re in fu,. .ccord. Mixy Van Keck, Director, in in Industry Service. 14, k.117144 TEE WOMCWS BUREAU UNITED STATES MARMOT OF LABOR No problem of reconstruction is more vit4 to the nation than the econoadc and industrial position of 'SWIM To preserve and to further the tendency of the war period in enlarging the oplortnaties for *anon in indlistry, to insure for them freedom to choose their occurations and & chance to receive adequate trainirg and equality of wages with mein the work of their choice, ant to establish snob conditions of employment as are most conducive to health and efficiency are tasks of such soci41 and economic significance as to require continnons study and adjustnt through an effective agency of the federal government. It is for this reason that the Sixty-sixth Congress is called uron to make permanent the Resents Burson, Which was organized during the war in the United States Department of Tabor, with the title, Won in Indrstry Service. During the first four months after its establishment, in illy,1918, its immediate resronsibility was to facilitatil the extension of the employ-flint of 170TOU in order to release men for the army are to safeguard the conditions of their work in order that their servioe might be most effective in the large nrograu of production Which was vital to the winning of the Aar. In the six months since the signing of the armistioe many demands have born made 'anon the Bureau to leal eith rroblems of lotion's work no less difficult in no less Lm7ortant to the nation than the extension of their employment iiIriug the war. Instead of an400ter deviand for tneir services, women workers now face unemplcymont, and a tendency https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis to restrict them once more to -2- the ownratione open to them before the ear. At the same time the danger is gr.lat tt,1t their less favorable position in the labor market and the removal of safeguards which the federal governmont ins able to maintain in war-time aiNv subject women 'workers to averse and harmful conditions of emplorrent. The activities of the Worlan in Irdustry Service during the war aid its work since the signing of the armistice demonstrate the possibilities before an enlarged and pernanent Wo13en's Bureau in studyi ng these rroblems amt in stimulating activity in solving. them. Its experi ence during this period is a safe gilds in plannirg the form of organization most likely to be effective. FURPOSFS FOR WHICH ORGANIZED "The appropriation for the year beginning July 1, 1918, was made to enable the Secretary of Labor to(establish a service with special reference to prodloting and laveloping the welfare of wage-earnirg nen, improving worl;ing conditions of women and slvancing their opportunities for profitable amplyaunt, ?ind in this service to 000rlinate and control all work in the Depart ent of Labor and other departaents having to do with Sny matters of polic$ or procellr, with regrew to women wag, earners." Thus the Service has had a policy-making function and also a task of coordinating the work of other federal agencies as it affected women in industry. THE YEAR'S wou As a basis for its urogram the Woman in Indust ry Service fortulate4 Standards Governing the Employment of !Men , basing their provisions uron the exnerience of plants in which women were ,Lost successfully amnloyed luring the war. In formulating them the Servic e 'soured the advice of ripresentative. of state derartruents of 1Rbor, or employer., Old of wage, earning women. They deal with sagas, hours, collective bargaining, the https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis necessity for emrloyment management in industry, and the working conl.itions which shouli be established in plants in which wawa are employed. In printed form these Standards are being widely distributed bp state departAents of labor anl organizations interested in conditions of mamon's work. These Standards were in part the result of the work of the Service in reviewing for the War Department and the Navy during the Aar, all requests for mocations of state labor laws including suspension of provisions prohibiting night work in plants engaged inproduction for the see. In the course of dealing with these requests I. Service forAlulated a method of prodelure for control of night wark and the safeguarling of any wolifications demonstrated to be necessary, ard after consultation with emmloyers and organizaAons vitally interested in the labor lama, including state depart.,nents of labor, trade urdons and other voluntary assocons , submitted the plan to the Wir Labor Policies Board. The sng of the aralistice made its adortion unnecessary, and it is possible to report that throughout the Aar elk all standards adopted in state labor lass more rigidly maintained to the advantage of production. The irtroducti,m of women irto hasardous occunations, includirg thZ chemical industries, manufacture of explosives, amd the lead trades, became a serious problem early in the summer. Following request from tho Employers' Association at Niagara Falls for permon to employ 44men at night in the chemical industries there, thlik Service organised a Couguittse on Hasardous Occuratiens comnosed of representatves of the Public Health Service, the Bureau of Standards, and the National Research Council, and engineers from the War Depart-ent and the Navy 4h4se,c4ntii*7ls in these https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis -4- industries sere important. A esreful investigation was stede in Magee% falls by representatives of the Public Health Service and the Wesan in Industry Serviee, the former dealing with technical problems of hygiene and safety ard the latter with policies and conditions especially affecting women. The inquiry at Niagara Valls revealed the need for an authoritem the scientific statement of the dangers of employing women in the lead trades since poisoning of women (muses sterility and infant mortality. The Service therefore asked Dr. Iliac Hamilton, of the Bureau of Labor Statistics, to formulate such a statement yhich has now been issued. The Woman in Industry Service will assist in securing actiot on its conclusions b4ringing to the attention of state authorities the need for legislstion prohibiting the em!Aslant of 4otosn in processes involving exposure to lead poisoning. When the armistice mes signed ani the control of the Federal Government 100porking condittons through its contracts began to be curtailed, it was clear that those natters affecting the employment of mamas which are appropriate Ivbjects of labor legislation, iatit be dealt with in the immediate future by the various states. In a number of states the isms in Industry Service was asked to assilt in fermllting or in furthering a program of legislation for the year. The states in whillIth we were able to render such assistance eme Nso 'York, Minnesota, Iwma, Connecticut, Rhode Island, and Indiana. The most extensive mark on labor laws was undertaken at the request of the Governor of Indiana, the Industrial Board anA the State Council of Defense. The Woman in Iniustry Service made a survey of coniitions in Indiana plants and submitted the retort to the Governor in advance of the meeting of https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis -5- Legislature. Indiana is one of six states having no legal limitation in the daily or weekly }lours of %cork of adult women in any occupations. StuAy of oonditions there formed the basis for a report on the tests of adequacy in 1%lbor lave as they/aro revealed in actual experiences in Indiana and in other states. The Service furthered 000perated with the State Committee organized to take action on the rc3ults of the survey in a two lays' Conferenos in Indianapolis one, reconstruotion program for women and Children in industry. The assistance of the Children'e Bureau was I11'I in this program. The Federal Government has an opportunity to influenee eonditions of employment of Nam= not only through investigations by federal &money but through the policies developed in its own arsenals and navy yards and in all other estallishments under its jurisdiction. The Secretary of the Navy has requested the Woman in Industry Service to have an advisory relation to the Navy De-artment in all matters affeotirg women emnloyed in navy yards or in plants under the jurisJiction of the Navy. Inspectioft have now been in progress f3r two lIonths and action has been taken on a number of imrortaat recommendations. The Ordnance Bureau of the War Depart.ent has also asked the 1. Woman in Industry Servioe the cooperate with it on question. of employment of woman in the arsenals and this work will b6 undertaken as soon as Lhil present limited resources of the Woman in Industry Servioe will permit. Obviously in the final analysis the adoption of standards lenend upon the action of managtlent awl workers in industry. To i‘xtber the develcriment of wiser policies in industry tn dealing with wanen workers https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis the war as am the Director of the Woman in Industry Service acted during member of the Employment Managewent Committee of the War Industries Board. by The Service he also responded to requests from employers for advice 4Onling information or by making plGnt inspections. All of the information whch it publhes is of course directed toward making available facts %bid% are needed by tianageont as well as the general public. Through an Advisory Council of morking swan the Service is end and abled to keey conttantly in touch with t-co needs of the women earloye to have their counsel in its plans and policies. war. The position of Ngro manen in industry changed daring the In their case the probltims of race are added to the problens of women's basis for economic position. IlifonLation is greatly needed as a WiSS policy. r of Negro A ffie.Lbar of the staff of this Service, vior'elng with the Directo brief inquiries, which PclnrAmics of the Department, is -flking a series of cities of Ohio, has already included Detroit, Chicago, St. Louis and several gations Which will give the as a basis for determining a program of investi facts needed. ger In the many rcports of high wv‘ges raid during the war the 4!-,n great. of losing sight of the extent of tow nal& euknloyment of women was At the roc:pest of volunt7.ry orvAnizatione in Phileilelnhis an inquiry into plants has the *ages paid to women in candy making and in a few paper box a further been made and the rarort is now in creparation. The work was ent. illustretion of cooneration beteen different birli.13 of the Departm of Agents of the Bureau of Labor Statistics worked with revreeentatives https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis the Women in Industry Bervise so that the data might also form part of the nation-wile =rimy of wages and hours now beteg made 'my the Bureau While the Woman in Iniustry Service Aould -nuke available the necessary data as 04% aesistance in local efforts to raise the standards of women's mark. The future of wasen in the machine industries in which they have Lx en largely and succassfully employed luring the viar, involves many rortant problems of policy relating to the extension of their opportunities in skilled mark. An initial inquiry has been completed into the status of moJan in the machino trades in Michigan. The results indicate the feasibility and Laportanco of a utore extensive survey of the employment of 40116U in these iniustries in other localities. 71% NEED FOR 4, &ECM BUREAU IRA In explanation DIM= the reasons for a special serviee fir mem the Seorstary of Labor made the following statealent in submitting the estimate for th) year boginling July 1, 1918: "It is unioubtedly true that the Depart:Aon of Labor exercises all of its powers with reference to wage earners of both sexes ani of all ages. It Is also true that the best administration requires that the various servivo. of the depart4ent which aro here outlined be conlucted by including within the mork of each warvioe all qu.stione regariing women as well as men. *But the groat imnortance of the employment of women inmost essential war work and the development of special matters of policy with respect to such employment make it important to esstablish & special service devoted to the subjeot of mem in industry." The need for & snecial eervice based oaths special problems of Nomsn in in4ustry is no loss true trivia:Jet than in weir. If woven lore earning as high wogs. ma mom if they hal opporturdty to choose tneir oocupations without the unreamonable restrictions imposed. by custom or prejulioe; if they were 'melting under proper oonditions, with hours short enough for health and https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis sari efficiency; ani. if they enjoyed entire aquality mith men in bezgaining 7o-ver, 1 o-fienl a Itureste. .voul,1 not bo Ty3coesar7. All the activitiss of the Department of Litho? would affect ?men as well as men, ani no special emphasis u-rr.na their nest's Nould be required. But such is not the case, and as they do exist because of coalitions in imiust ry,P it is necessary that the Derartment of Llbor should resrond to these condi ttans by or!!_ardzing a bureau, with sufficiertly wide scope an authority to be responsible and responsive to •public orinion, uirot mortal, ) to auke investigations bttt to develop a wel1-rouni3d program of thought and action. It would not render unasesseary the aetiviti.), of other agencies within or witho ut the Department of Lbor. Properly haatiod, it should serve to bring thou together for united action ot a column basis which should strengthen the work of each of them. Al the last session of the Sixty-fifth Cozgress Repre sentative Moniell spoke as follows, in arolaining why tha Cowittbe on Appropriations included none of the so-called Air serviess in the Suniry Civil Bill for the next fiscal yoar, except the Woman in Intinetry Service:"Among the activities provided for under the Bureau of Labor was an activity for ,vhich an ar,repriation of $40,000 vas node under the title of *Woman in Industry." It virtually established for the time lolling a **zoos's bureau in the Deoartment of Labor; awl I as to ear with regard to that bureau aril. the wurk it Aid that it was a bright and shini ng example of bow good work can be Imo in a helpful field. The work wos carried on intelligently, faithfully, energetioally, and, in my opini on, it accomplished oraah good. But the committee 7/4)ul9 not have been Justi fied in excwr,ting that particular activity frost all other activities, unless there hasl been surraunling it sone peculiar condition ivA.ch dinferentist e4. it from all the others. There efts this poiculiar coni•tion 4th regar d to the activities of the woman's bureau, or tha biireau having to lo with woman in inlustry, that while there gir• in tho Departuont of LAbor https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis Garry on practleally all bureams that can in a way and to a certain extent by the various of the activities Which have bean carried on in a larger way no bureau of is there cies, bureaus temporarily provided for as mar emergen h sisi a thoroug in, the DepartTent of Labor that is so organised that it on feet that lar work, and effective and satisfactory'my carry on this particu . 'Norther differentiates this wort in a way from the sark of the other bureaus mar* more, there is a conditions affecting amen in industry that is rather were the omen Then war. the of period the acute now than it was uring W't to be some men se Insought for in industrial activities. Now there are ed weaker sex as to insist so-call the of considerate of the superior claims and Which women took. ed abandon they Jobs that they, the mon, get back the ion of the activity of diminut a be fAust To a very considerable extent there and there is grobt tment, a readjus be must women in certain industries. There be in the future; will there as now, line need for intelligent work along that to way ins Justify us in ed orw.nds and it is my opinion that this work is be ions." will nark nt believing that intelligent and efficie PLAN Double apace YOA THE COMING TEAR Although a small item for this purpose was carried in the Sundry Civil Bill Which passel the, House the fact that the Senate did not pass the bill, leaves the Wassa in Industry Service without funds for continuance after June 30th of this yeer. It is nsoessary,therefore, to secure action in the Sixth-sixth Congress. To make the Bureau pormanont, legislation will be neoessary. It is proposed to introduce a bill to provide for the establishment of a Women's Bureau in the United States Dep:Artwent of Labor, for the purpose of invlstigating and reporting to tha Department upon all matterspertaining to the employment of women, and to sot for the Denartment and in cooperation with its other buxom.* and divisions in all activities directed toward fostering, promoting and developing the welfare of women employed as wage earners in the United States, improving their working conditions, and advancing their opportunities for profitable employmerl. The sin of $150,000 is asked for this purpose or an increase of $110,000 over the appropriation of $40,000 which the Service bee had d,Ariqg the present fiscal :max. It should be explained that during the war https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis -10- the activities of the Service 43re supplemented and extended by the inseection work for ;so -,en in i/e4netry carried on by the Ordnance Depart. :ent, the Ouarter.7:lasters' Department, and other divisions of the War Department and. óy Coarittees of the Council of National Defenses. These activities have now loaf; to an end. The aerro priation ehich Coress is asked to appropriate for the corning fisc4,1 year rloec not, theretore, represent an increased expenditure by the Feder Government for this purnose, but conteuelites the consolidation of these activities in on.e bureau.. CoN:epantieg on the request for $150,0 for this purpose, Rereresentative Mann said in debate .4e1 t3-,e Chairwan, .ive went into tha war and called 4,000,000 nen into the Army, and a good many more into the various civil services connected •Alth the Army. Did the women of the country hold back? Did they 1.0 their share? they in many cases take the i1ace of the men who %ere called into the service and rerform the neoesvery work in order that the Governaent might do its proper function in providing for the Army and Laking care of it u:rwre of t,e work? In every braniVa the *mien responded nobly. They did work which without them could not have been done for lack of labor. Are they not entitled to have the conditions under which they have gone into this hork- properly investigated? Have they not responded in such a way that iB cn to or little part tomard knowing whether they have -oroper treatment and work under proper conditions? They have not held back. While I do not believe in extrax4;ant appropriations, I think we can afford to give $150,000 toward investigabing and knowing the canditions urder which they labor in this voluntary Aork which they have allowed and wit?:out vtioh so Gould not have successfully taken our part in the liar." The aperopriation requested will make possi ble the extension of investigations and activities along lines alrea dy tested and rroved feasible and necessary, as indicated in the preceding state ment of the 3rear's work. ( -It te-rereslehles—tliat,_..fite. or six-itistriot offic es will be eataolished.to. coaliiier-tteritureatr-tre-b*esares-aleeekly 411 touchAvirth-tbe 4 Taryirsneeds •et-44tteass6-aeettions- of- tre -eounter--Theei rebranetroffteea-aep-isk ..acved fro& plikee-imritserlervessiton reqtdres. Although tbs-a nnonlit requested is small https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis WOMEN IN INDUSTRY STAVICF Jul- 30, l.918. MFMORANDUM FOR: The Secretary of Labor FROM: Mifs Van Kleeck, Women in Industry Service. The enclosed notice is being sent today to all De artments. https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis It is sent to your office as a matter of record. Director, Women in Industry Sertios. DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY WASHINGTON July 29, 1918. metLorandum to to Director of Woman in Industry Service: munt in accordance with previous practice, all publicity press. receive Departmental approval before it is released to the of the Authority to approve publicity has been committed to the Office Assistant Secretary. The Department of Labor has accordingly arranged to have s and to tte Committee on Public Information convey to the newspaper the prosti a,:ioeiatioh approved publicity m_Lteri,I. As news release must, of course, be exclusive to be oi value, there can be but one release office in the department. All bureau andDivision herds are instructed, therefore, to make use of the facilities of the CommIttee on Public Information through the Office of the Assistant Secretary. Mr. William L. Ohenery, 1607 d Street, N.W. - telephone Main 3474, branch 166 - is the representative of the Committee assigned to the Depsrtment of Labor. The promotion of publicity is in the Division of Information and Education. Matter intended to be mailed throlAgh the special lists . of tna bureaus is as before to be handled directly by the Division concerned https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis , Secretary. • LfV1app RES7RICI;DNS TALTIVE 711 IAPQR: All work required in carrying out this contract shall be performed in full compliance with the laws of the StAo, Territory or District of Columbia wher oh 3Abor is performed. The contractor shall not directly or ;ndirectly emTloy in the performance of this contract any minor under the -3e of fourteen years, or permit any minor between the age of 14 and 16 years to work more than 8 hours in any one day, more than six days in any one week, or before 6 a.m. or after 7 r.m. Nor shall the contractor directly or indirectly employ any person undercoing 5entence of 1:Inprisonment at hard labor whjoh may have been iniros • by a court of any State, Territory, or municipality, having criminal juris— diction. Provided, h waver, that Vla President of the Unite(' States may by executive order, modify this provision with respect, to the employment of convitt labor and provide the terms and conditions u on which such labor ;nay be employed. • https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis This provision shall he of the essence of the contract. wOfffEN IN INDUSTRY SFRVIC1C July 30, 1918. FOR: FROY: Miss Van Kleeck, Women in Industry Service In accordance with the plan approved by the Secretary of Labor at the Departmental Cabinet meetling held this morning, the first meeting of the Council on Women in Industry will he held Thursday afternoon at three o'clock in the office of the Women in Industry Service, Ouray Building, Room 604, Eighth and G Streets. The Council is organised in order to enable the Women in Industry Service to maintain contact with all of the work of the Department on this special subject. It is also hoped that the Council will be of service to the various Divisions and Buteaus of the Department by keeping them informed of the work for women in industry both in the Department of Labor and in other federal departments. It is desired that each Division, Bureau or Service of the Department of Labor should name as its representative the person res:onsible for work for women in industry in the Division. If sucti a person has not yet been appointed in the Division it is requested that a temporary representative be named. We shall appreciate it if you will notify us in advance of the name of the representative you will appoint. https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis Director, Women in InAtIstry Service. IMMEN IN INDUSTRY SPRVICE July 30, 1918. MEMORANDUM FOR: FROM: SUBJECT: The Secretary of Labor"" 'omen tn Industry Service Proposed Council on Women in Industry. In accordance with tho plan submitted by the committee of which Miss Lathrop was Chairman at the last meeting of the Cabinet, It is proposed by the Women in Industry Service to conestablich a Council on romen in Industry in order to maintain , subject tact with all the work of the De:Artment on this special them and in order to be of service to the Divisions by keeping informed of the work for women in industry through the Defartment. s from It is planned to have this Council include representative and Labor every Divicion, 'Bureau and Service of the Dera-trent of is desired It from Industrial Service Sections in other Derartments. any for ible that these represantttives sho0d be the per&ono rescons work for women in industry in each Division. If this plan las your approval it would be helrful this rorning. if it cold be announced at the meetinv, of the Cabinet in7 will be calod on If such an announcement is made, the first m -et of the 'omen in office the in o'clock Thursday afternoon at three Industry service. https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis Dir9ctor of Women in Industry Service. s-,-NrcE 0,TTI July 23, 1913. TT7TRAmDUr fcr the Secretary of Labors The Costritt ,e vn "crsr in Industrv cf which vre. me J. Borer Parriran is CYairman, has aslred for i ccnferenos 4 icn (f th on July 31st, tc discuss 'Ye Cr 4:ioT. to ths "'f-r-In in industry Service. 01 int' rrograr ir rela- Thr Cciprittee also LAANI our ar to - Yle.hrr it is desira'rle to continue its - work indefinitely. 1,1r) thz:! r,rference ynu or. this oint. It has esor.,ed to me ',hat the future of the Comrittse on ii irlustry should he incidel in tcoorlarce .Tith lecisiors govninl the oth- comrittes of T!r. ("rapers' C It ,; r&t.' o Tahcr. reat ansotance t" re ir enfsrri.n7 rith the Ccirgttes on Womer ir Irlustrv if I co,04 inforrel before July 31st as to any decisions a1ready reached rei4arrl= thssl othmr !tor-4,4tems -r the Council of National Defense. https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis Sincerly Director, rcrren in Industry Slrvice. U. S. Department of Labor. :,oman in Industry 6orvice. oumiszc Pt Dimemink.; mail 1. All inoominc Ilan is reosived by the offlee of tho thief Clerk is opened and stmftped with date of reaalpt. shore all offielel 2. ()Oficial mail includes the followinc: a. b. All netter under the ,orsan in Industry Servloe frT All matter addressed to evoman in industriv .Jerriee or Director, Assistaut .drector, or Aotilk; Direcor of Woman in Industry jervice, includiuu letter' "Attention c. All mattor addrocced without name to any ciioial of ervice. the , 3. 2ersonal mail is delivered unopened. Porsonnl mail is defined as all matter addressed to members of the staff by name (except with sietant Director, includinc fraAked nvil other titles Director or than that bearillt; ()Ian La Iadustry Service frank. amlakatiol J4:4A1 1. Official inail is seat to the heads of 417isions noncerned. office is for2. iorsonal mall for Laos() litho art, away fvoi t the Ohlet inert. of office , trv to reported varied to the last addrese It is ur,!;efti th-rt thosn who have a parmaaent bon' address in Vaadinctan ask their recular oorre000ndents to us the home edo.rePs. AttallaLitisa to every official letter v..JuLlived uy the 3uroau aaould 1. .A" umigrAd be made within twantr-four hours. 2. .11,12,1mg, All mil colm- out from t:he %rem under frank lima pass over the desk dr tho vrivete L'eorctari to the Direetor before manlag. Lettere sive() r..0 for st-mature should be Tassel in their respeotive baskets in the office of the klhief Clerk before 11.mptimjsmLAL50_13.4mc Lett,Av rnquirini: foreior postage should bear a olir attsoied to enrvelope onllinc attontio.a to the fret, Lo16 given to the office of the Chief Clerk for transmission to the Department. 3. lai 1ilaiS•Ek.§3222Lia:*--11-111. Liven in the G. P. 0. J%le iOok. kollow instructions 7tonth abotid not ue nubroviated, and iigurou alone should 4. jahadi. be . sed for the day, ac, Janunr7 2, 1919. https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis rhe date of an incoming letter should be named in the repay. Uulees instructions are Owe te the oontrary, letters should be dated the day they are dietated. name mud Pull post-office address Should be DAILJILJNi6aftAR4. placed nt the top of the letter. All 1:Aters shaule be siriO.r spaeed, vdth double space betwee USe half j3 paragraphs. letterheads. for short lettere. Whenever possible, use the reverse of original lotter for the carbon. co_py of the reply. In letters from the Director to a Representative, the foilm "Idy deer Sir", " should be used; to a Joesitor, "14y dear Mr. Senator." elk my dear ri. em:rs,oncL,noe with the Departaent of Labor, salutations and caaplimontary closings should be omitted, th,3 iyarson bei4 addressed by his title almo. Ill memoranda from this 6ervice to the Departmozt relati46 to :dersounel ahould be .r.icsetod to the Insistent ..;eorotary. stgnatLre of the -:ecretary, Icting .ieoretary, or AssistLettere for ant L''ecretary should be writton on the stationery bearin tbe headin, of the Secretary and Issistnnt Secretary respectively. 6, 314.11jact 19tter. L11 letters are classified and filed according therefore, shauld definitely refer to the uubject Li'very letter, to subject. about which it is written. If possible, a reply ahould contain the aubject regard to,"etc. in the first pasagraph ac "Repl,yini to your letter of ka,y 18, 7i INNINRIAL_saLatiata. The 7e,,.es of all letters should bear the um of Os person addressed. ijeoond and later Iages should aloe bear the number of tbe pm" e. g., Mrs, John allith„-2. -Tea. page of aeaerambam should bear the odbjeot of the Alemormaln. Bvery memorandum must be dated and signed. 8. Agiatastakazajagia. A.:11 letters to be siened by the Director or Acting Direeter Should *lose with "Yours sincerely" unless etheruise specified by the Director or.44sistant Director, except corns/geodes.. within the Department of Labor when direotions given under paragraph 5 ahead be followed. 9. Uitataitag. Letters abauld bear in the lower left-hmnd oorner initials to iLdioate the writer and typist, as follows: :heal letter is di otated, the initicras c.11' the dictator raid stenographer are written side by side: LIVE.,ILTP ,l'en the letter is prepared under instructions ander-dmedsmeltdems as to oontents but iL not aictated, the initials of typist ars placed below the initials of tha Derma instructing: am ,itari the letter is pre.parcl. without diatation or iastructions and is therefore oric,ina Alth the typist, the initials of the typist appear alone: Elk https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis _o_ https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY WASHINGTON July 24, 1916. Memorandum for the DIRECTOR, Women in Industry Service: Referring to your memorandum of July 23d, relative to the future relationship with the Committee on Women in Industry of the Coumittee on Labor of whic;1 Mrs. J. Borden Harriman is Chairman, it is the desire of the Department to have the Committee on ',omen in Industry continue its activities until the ::omen in Industry Service of the Department of Labor is in a position to take hold of and direct the work. After that time there would no doubt be many situa tious in which an organization like the Committee on Women in Industry would be able to give valuable assistance, and it would therefore be helpful if it could continue in existence. secretary. ViE;V-H https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis Copy to Director of r ORwatuifigsa4Lill' QRAEX OF JAM OttiniT108 4omen in Ind-c.stry Service. ujiiiii, MIMING TIM 11)23T1418 OF VMS plrut INMITI€UTIoll AM) TM-M. :ION eirno— July 16, 1918. Following out your instructions, the Commissioner of Labor Statistics and the Chief of the Investigation and Inspection Service submit the following outline of a practical division of the field as between the 4ureau of Labor Statistics and the Investigation and Inspection ervice. The division of foliations is indicated but not defined by the language of the Act making appropriation for the new Investigation aid Inspection Service, such appropriation being expressly granted for war emergency services. :Ivory legitimate service is now a war xLerRoney service. Avery activity of both the Baroau of Labor Statistics sad the Investigation and Inspection Serviee hao both a war emergency sad a permanent aspect. It is absolutely necessary that the two of- ficial work together in complete accord, For exsople, it is intended that the Inirsottestion and Inspection Service shall be responsible for the inspection of establithments, whether Uovernlent or private, which tire engaged upon war work, to see that proper standards of wages sad hours, hygiene, safety and working conditions in general are established and maintained. Th Before standards can be enforced they mast be evolved. ureau of Labor Statistic's has collected industrial cotes and regu- lations set up in the several Statos. https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis All this material is, of course, raw. for the .;ecretary of Labor. available for the Investigation and Inspection Worvide, and the Bureau Of Labor Statistics is pledged to render every aesistance possible to the investigation and Inspection Sorvioe in the formulation of standa rd codes, whether they shall be only war emergency codes or perman ent codes. The inspection work proper belongs wholly to the investigatio n and Inspection Service, but the agents of tte 4ureau of Labor Statistics shall report unsatist4otory conditions wherever found for the information of the Investigation and Inspection 3ervice. In general, the Investigation and Inspeotion z;ervide will undertake investigations of a briefer character wooded to more immediate use. 84101114, information for If, however, the Ouresu of Labor Statisties is en- gaged on an investigation and some Department or office desire inform s ation quickly On that subject, the Bureau of Labor Statistics Mall be called upon to furnish all the inforaation in its possession before additional field or other work shall be undertaken. If the Bureau of Labor Statistics has collected facts and materials whieh are needed and which are not in form for immeaiate use, such facts and materi als shall be put at the immediate dispositiun of the Investigation and Inspec tion Service to be put in shape for use. For example, the Bureau of Labor Statistics is in the midst of a study of labor turnover for the purposes of discovering the fundamental causes and of helping employers and employees to reduce to a minimum the https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis MAIM, for the Secretary of labor. demoralizing and extravagant shifting of workers from place to place. Any will coming to the investigation and Inspection Service for relevant information on this subject shall be taken 414) with the ftreau of Labor Statistic's to ascertain if the information is already available in that Bureau. In the sall.e way requests for information on labor turnover owing to the Aureau of Labor Statistics, if they *anima be immediately and fully complied with, must be referred at once to the Investigation and Inspection Bervice. Bequests for information regarding cost of living, industrial accidents and safety, industrial poisons, morbidity among workers, wave and ho,irs of labor, and retail and wholesale prices shall be handled in like mauler. When time can be saved by making use of the agents of the Bureau of Labor Statistics without detriment to the work of that Anima% such agents will be placed at the disposal of the Investigation and Inspeotion Service. We stroneiy feel that the principles of this working agreement should be immediately entenied to include the new Woman's Division, probably the Children's Bova% and possibly other branohes of the Department• https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis tfully submitted, tatistics, tZirAr41 --A>e/ Glue, Investigation and Inspection Service. a DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY WASHINGTON 1r '-xrder unon you I hope it rill rxt throTA• too much of r- : IP:IJUSTRY weekly progre3= rerort of your rlorvice. this co be P,9 brief '18 I i:hould is consistent -ith giving 9 picture in order th-t thereby oi mo work of your Service, week by wePk, relation of your Ivor' closer knowledge may be obtained of the to the other of the io serv9 Yr. Frankfurtr as if -II-tieIt. Such a reTort will avMable me,tns for the work him. of coordination with which I 1-ive charged I hove it may be reach me and posHible th.A a copy of each report may Frankfurter regularly evn-y Monday . https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis t3ecret=iry. Mr. DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Office of the Secretary Washington Aujust 5, 1918. The Director of the 7oman in Industry service: Secretary Wilson has directed as to send you for your information and guidance the attached copy of a leter from the, President whit is aelf-elcplanatory. Assistant to the Secretary. mob sure. https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis TH3 WHITE HOUSE WASHINGTON W 24 July. 1918. dear Er. Secretary: I am disturbed to find that the present industrial demands of the country for the supplying of war needs, either directly or indirectly, are in some instances far in excess of the productive capacity of the country and in other instances alaost as reat as the full capacity of our present organized industries. The apparent direct and indirect requirements for steel for the last six months of the present year are estimated at about twenty million tons, whereas the greatest productive capacity of the steel inFrom the dustry for an equal period has not exceeded 16,500,000 tons. data in hand, it appears that the Army will need all of the available wool in this country and as much as can be supplied from without by the shipping now available, and so it is with many other materials. I, therefore, suggest that it is highly necessary that the various departments of the Government whieh are placing large contracts of any sort should have a careful re-survey made Which would check every considerable item for the eurnose of seeing to it that material is not The war demands ordered to be in hand until it can actually be used. must, of course, be net, but it has become necessary that they should at I fear is an unnecessary curtailment and not be anticipated. destruction of the less essential industries, and this may be brought about by the accumulation of material which it is not possible to use as fast as it is received. I am solicitous that our war programme should be carried out disturbance of our usual industries and our normal economic little with as and with this in mind suggest that it is of paramount possible, fabric as plants which have been rendered idle or are existing Leportanee that by the curtailment of non-essential production idle liasly to be rendered uses as far as possible. war The present tendshould be converted to ency in mazy oases is to create new plants or enlarge old ones without a sufficient survey of such possibilities of conversion. I would be very much obliged if you would again call the attention of the bureau chiefs of your Department to the fact that I have specially (=barged the 7ar Industries Board with the conversion of existing plants to war uses and have asked that no new facilities should be provided without consultation with the 7ar Industries Board. If these suggestions are acted upon, many of the hardships that mould fall upon busiThe War Industries Board is ness may be lessened or avoided altogether. will have to be curtailed, bethat the know businesses in a position to to other uses. adaption their and materials of cause of the withdrawal The financial advantage of maintaining industrial efficiency at its best and most economical point is of course, manifest, and I am writing this letter not because the arguelent is not plain but because I tAnk it will be advantaeous just at this point to have a re-survey all around to see whether the active and energetic directors of production in the departments are keeping these questions in mind. Hon. William B. Wilson, Secretary of Labor. https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis Cordially and sincerely yours, (Signed) Woodrow Wilson, https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis r VMEN IN INDJSTRY SERVICV August 5, 1918. 1.Ty Aear Mr. Kerwin; I wish to acknowledge youf letter of August 2nd to Vise Van Kleeck, with attached copy of a letter eeceived, by reference from the Preeident, fror Mrs. Lucy i. Boggs, and a copy of the Secretary's reply to the President. Miss Van Kleeck is out of ton at present, expecting o relurn to her office Frain on Thursday, and th:dowatter will then be brouy,ht to her attention so thAt she may take it up immediately upon her return. Sincerely yours. Secrs,ary to 1/1:3s Var Klieck. Mr. H. I. Kerwin, Assistant to the Secretary of tOore Washington, D. C. https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis (atbrf. No. 22 SFRIAL https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis DEPARTUENT OF LABOR •Wattsvaix, Office of the Assistant Secretary. 7ashington August 14, 1918. TO ALL BUREAUS AND DIVISIONS OF THE DEB1RTME11T OF LABOR. At the meeting of the Secretary's Cabinet on Auguat 13, questions regarding the release of neus and the promotion of DeDartmental publicity were discussed on the basis of a memorandum of the Assistant Secretary under data of August 8, 1918, and at the conclusion thereof the Secretary directed the Assistant Secretary to call a meeting of Bureau Chiefs for the purpose of drafting a memorandum of the Secretary supplementary to and explanatory of his memorandum on the same subject under date of July 29, 1918. For your information a copy of the Secretary's memorandum of July 29, a copy of the Assistant Secretary's memorandum of August 8, and a memorandum of the Director of the Information and Education Service, all of which were before the Secretary at the discussion in his Cabinet on thee 13th, are herewith transmitted. The conference directed by the Secretary to be called with reference to the above st4ted matters is hereby called to meet in the Office of the Assistant 'Thursday, the 15th of August, Secretary at 11 o'clo' 1918. Assistant Secretary. LFP.LC •Tul.y iito 111/11. all vsktioits met ' aeseresase at* roam Freesia, roseivo Depeirtiealol effroval before it is Tolman& to the prose. Antherity to approve pablieity hes been omitted to the Offloe of the Assistant 5sorettuv. ?be Department of Labor has accordingly areandod to hwo take Oomittee on Albite inforastion 4001Mrfa to the n000ptiove anti to tie prow assoolations approve& publish, antorial• nem rasess inst. of coarse, be stabzoive to be of values teeso eon be bat one 'Naomi *Mee is Imo Dopeitment• https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis Ali Swoon teat Division Maio are inst000tetp theiroaro* to aria am et to. fisetlities of the Comosittoo n:NUS° infelostlea• *Mr A the offi00 of th. ASSiattAl Searetury. tr. 't11La* tor .telephone Vain $474, 3ransh 164. i..400rgy s 1607 a 3treets L. . is Wm representative of the Coossitteo aseldgest is tils Dellartlestil inbeir• Tbegomiolilost of pebileilky Li is the ivision of lideostion latonlitiekt• Sitter intendmi to be awalell thisoji the speelal ilstio si the ielowes is as Wan to to Maned. iiirootly by ths Divisioa eousernote (S1emo4) W. 26 lilson SeliPOSon• August 8, 1918. MEMORANDUM TOR THE SECRETARY: I respectfully advise a conference of Bureau chiefs, on subject matter of your memorandum of July 29, 1918, which deals the with (1) news release, and (2) promotion of publicity. Regarding that memorandum there are misunderstandings which, as it seems to me, can be best adjusted by such a conference. They arise in part from supposed arilbiguities in the phrasing of the memorandum, and in part from differences of opinion between Bureaus and Divisions as to their respective functions with reference to news release and to publicity promotion. As I interpret the memorandum in question it distinguishes the functions of releasing Departmental news from that of promoting publicity, placing the former function in the Assistant Secretary's Offiee and the latter in the Information and Education Service. Upon this interpretation, the duties of the Assistant Secretary are of two kinds: (1) Determination (pursuant to the requirements of said memorandum) of all questions of nwme release for publication; and (2) administrative routine (pursuant to general instructions irrespective of said memorandum) with reference to the relations of the Information and Education Service to other Bureaus, Divisions, and Services. Over the special function of news release as described in said memorandum, there appears as yet to be no serious misapOn the contrary it appears to be understood that news prehension. rising out of any of the activities of the Department, inclusive of all Bureaus, Divisions and Service., must not be first published So, also, in any way without the sanction of the Release Office. it appears to be understood that released news - usually Galled "wire new." or "spot news" - shall be released primarily to the Committee on Public Information through Mr. Chenery as the repreThere sentative of that Committee assigned to this Department. disany probability all in is a twilight zone at this point, but arise. putes within it can be readily adjusted one by one as they https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis ..2 Over the function of publicity promotion, the possibilities of misunderstanding are such as in my judgment to necessitate the conference hereinabove suggested. In addition, they may possibly necessitate also a supplementary memorandum explaining more definitely the relations of the Information and Education Service to the other Divisions, Bureaus, and Services, and the authority of the Department over them all by whomsoever the Secretary may designate to exercise such authority. As the Secretary's memorandum now stands, it seems that the promotion of all the publicity of the Department, "except matter intended to be mailed through the special lists of the Bureaus," is within the exclusive jurisdiction of the Information and Education Service; and this raises possibilities of conflict) because other Bureaus) Services, or Divisions either possess or are undertaking to Incidental, also, to those create machinery for publicity promotion. possibilities there are questions as to what distinguishes news that must be released through the Assistant Secretary's Office before any publication at all, from publicity shich is to be promoted exclusively by the Information and Education Service. On those points more specific instructions from the Secretary may be desirable; and a spirit of cooperation would doubtless be stimulated through a more general understanding, if the instructions In this connecwere made as the result of an all-round consultation. tion it may be helpful to recall the circumstances under which your At your Cabinet session memorandum of July 29, 1918) was promulgated. of July 23, 1918, you instructed the Assistant Secretary and the Direotor of Information and Education to prepare a memorandum for adjustment At the of the news release and the publicity promotion functions. next Cabinet meeting I stated the adjustment arrived at, explaining the twilight zone and proposing a postponement of the subject until the followirr cabinet meeting, owing to the absence of the Director At the following meeting, August 6, of Information and Education. July 29, 1918, having meanwhile been issued), of 1918, (the memorandum unfinished business, and you instructed I brought up the subject as the Director and my3e1f to propose alterations for your consideration if the memorandum in its present form were found by him and me to be Pursuant to those instructions, the annexed stateunsatisfactory. ment is presented as representing the views of the Director of InforThey are recommended by him, and as at present mation and Education. advised, I see no objection to their adoption if they commend themselves to you. Meanwhile, both as to the special sqbJect of news release and as to my general routine functions with reference to approvals of Bureau recommendations, I am following your oral instructions of August 6 that I be governed by your memorandum of July 29 until altered or supplemented by you, and am interpreting the memorandum as follows: https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis -3- l. As to the special subject of news release, all Departmental news, inclusive of news of Bureaus, Services, and Divisions, is required to be released by the Release Office prior to any kind of publication, (In ell ceses in whieh there is publication of such news without such release, it is because the requirements of the Release Office are disropArcied). 2. Also as to the speoial subject of News re1lAdA5 all Departmental news so released is released directly to the Committee on Public Information throogh Mr. William L. Chenery al the rerresentative of said Committee assigned by it to the Department of Labor. 3. Also ae to the special subject of news mielps„ mater intended to be wailed through s:)acial lists of the Bureaus is released as heretofore vhen submitted to the Release Office for that purpose in accordance with the sstsblished practice. (Any mailing or publication of such matter not so released is in disregard of the requireftlents uf the Release Office). 4. With reference to tie activities of the news release, office, I a atadhing for your information a report dated August 8, 1918, made to me by Mr. Reid, whom I have authorised to manage that office under me. 5. As to the general zutille furapime of the Assistant Secretary, I am troating the promotion of publicity, whether of released news or of special material prepared for publioity purpoues, aa under the exclusive control and upon the corresponding responsibility of the Information and Education Service; and pursuant to this interpretation of your momorandum of July 29, 1918, I am withholding Departmental approval from all recces.. mendations for the promotion of publicity coming from other Bureaus, Divisions, or Services, unless or until they ar,1 endorsed by the Director of the Division of Information and Eduoation or his duly authorized repreeentativ6. In sq'omitting this memorandum I respectfully rectal:mond 1. A conference with all the Bureaus and Divisions concerned; or, 'is an alternative, submiseion of the subject matter to the Secretary's Cabinet at its next meeting: .4- 2. :;uah instruatione b:/ ;11c Secretary after fu.leh conference offi oay oiler to him to be advisable for the furpose (a) of protecting the Departtant fror premature or otherwise objectionable publications; (b) of securing the cordial cooceratior cf all th un1t:3 in thq Department whcse affairs are imlved; snd () of souring confomity (eubj3ct to formal a4 peal tc tha Secretary) to the administrative requireranta cf officials abom ho charges it roepemsibility in the pramise3. issistant Secretary. LTP.U1 CGL https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis August 8, 19IS. AMMON mars° TM luncTraws rize vromittow XIIICATION MUM .tohly 29 distirocishes holmium The Seereteres mememondem ths jurisdiction et the mattes ?alio Tnformation and VAt of the Information sm4, lliestien iterviee. It deee net, henever, inasele the Westmont* Shish will Ivo neeseeary in pronto* botwsen t,A1 VItors motion and Idocabien Seeviee and the other Ammo in tho Department Laser. tat situation is ougpliostat by the phonemes of publioity ergantsations, promotioaal in nature, arsedlyanistiang in various Bureaus. It is self.ovident that the primary oseenSialo for a harmonious adjustment are' firet, Mei prevention of Pother Oradlicts in jurisdiction sions in valet lay arise thrOugb the creation of more publieity addition to thee, that sowswist; emend, a hermendeus consolidation or seeperation between existing divisions srat the Information and Ninhation In **planation of the first point, it is pointed *0 that allbiough ths Information sod ltiebsiiattera Sorvise may eemtlitst with estibliabed divisions, it to peesiblo to /Wont its relations with tho lot amerginey Services without sot conflict singe thee* are mot as yet unerginised, and their publicity activities in censequenee are not yet sPeliativo. Theletaro it emu that wad adanistratiesi dictates that She Information arid lituasttert !Wylie ahead immediately assume juriediatice in the case of all war omorgensy servioes. The *amp line of reasoning sprite', to horn* of publiisity Whieh bawls not itahrosity boon adopted by ostablishod publioity divisiens. Per instalment, ths us* of trailers for roving picture*, tho Ohms id:4mm of chain stereo, the establioh-ant of speakers' bureaus, the use of petters. and the promotion of titaturo stories, etc. Sims eemlusivo handling et these teems by the information end Ibluesitton. Service braves no een. filet with older divtstomt, it should ammo jurisdietien there aloes The moordination of ths emisting divisions, however, RAT *eft, awe Ottnieviitro as Durum* with ootoblishod work of this nature will net readt4 Sim it up. Tot It is quit* poesible OW this dttsaittes bo adjuted sadly 'either by rwhooronasee of seimwon or by the voluntary" tioimi et this mork to the tatersitten sad lidusattaa !Weiss. To sunup, WnPainie, the prineiplas Ala shitad prom She administraft Um of this eartioviee Aft ee felleess Itte intimation mad iducation Sordis Oken14, have occlusive control over I. All prosotten of publicity for lftrIbiMMOMY Services. 2. All nes or heretofore unused form, of promotion of rublioitY 'bather for War lkorgenoy Serviess or not. inistina, publicity divisions *twofer* 1. Should not bo added So oithor tft pers4v-gosl or funstiona, but 2. Should bs consolidated with tha work or tho IntomatiOn and 114uoation Zlervioo ahowever it oan bo dem harm5ntont4* https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis Dirac 4or, torattt,1on ant lilisestiett eiseirlise August 19, LAS. latiORANDUM FOR TM snORETART DeAfter oenferenoewith all the Bureaus and Divisions of the August of g partment pursuant to ::our instructions at your (Minot Meetin for your 13, I hereby and with the approval of the Conference reoommend itY consideration the subjoined draft '4emorandun at lira Relpase and Publip 29. July Promotion as a substitute for your memorandum en that subject of 191d, which is now in operation. Namely. https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis mEMAPAIRPAN RE/WAWA aiD PUB4CIX7 P49,04$1* •News jkloope and bo&t2roprotioxl are distinct functions. Nein R0141000 is the function of atithoridn irpt publieation general of news origisutting in the Department. it relates, as a should there but news," 'wire as rule, to what is teohnieally known any of or ment Depart the ef be no fire*, publication of any news Aureau, Division or Service until it has been regularly released by the Department. Authority to release for first publication has been °omitted enexclusively to the Assistant Seerotary and his authorised repres ary. Sosret from the ctions to t instru subjec e, tativen for that purpos Upon release of what is technically known we 'wire news." it news... is to be delivered to the Gommittee on Public Information for liam be teril will ry delive Such use. paper and press association L. Chenerr, the repreeentative of that Committee who has been asn signed to the Department of Labor under an arrangement betwee icated be commun con the Committee and the Department. Mr. Menery ary, with at 1807 N. Street or at the Officio of the Assistant Secret Bran& 8474, and by telephone through Main 8474, Branch 166, or Main 3. Delivery of released news material which is net of the kind inteehnieally known as Noire neve." will be determined in each stanee by the Assistant Secretary. atgUblioit: Promotion is the function of attracting publio isions subdiv its and ment Depart tention to the activities of the (after release thereof as news) by means of special articles for magnsines, newspapers, and other periodicals, and by advertising, circularising, public addresses, posters, motion picture trailers and slides, smd ether means conmenly understood as being legitimate methods for seeuring legitimate public interest in public affairs. The subject matter of such publioity is required to be under ureau. the control (abject to Departmental supervision) of the 4 Division sr Servioe to which such subject matter relates. The method sad manacement of publicity is required to be under the control (subject to Departmental supervision) of the information and Eduoation Service. This Service shall be firnishod by the ' Release Office with a copy of all released matter immediately upon the release thereof, and for this and other purposes material offered fee release Shall he supplied in triplicate copy to the Release Orfloe. Thenever, in a partioular instance the Bureau. Division or Service having centre/ at the subject matter of proposed publicity may appear to be in better position than the ;nformation and Idmostion Service to promote publicity along lines in operation therein prier to the creation of the latter Service, the matter is recuirod to be submitted by said Bureau, Division or Servioo or special instructions with re.to the DaretuatImnt ii writ foresee to special cooperation in respect thereof. The foregoing draft for consideration by the Secretary will be reported to him at his Cabinet Meeting, August 20, 1918, at 11 A. M. Respectfully, (Sim‘d) Louis F. Post Assistant necretary. LFP.LC https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis te..id•)e r ly ir r. 3ocr- tztry: t a re t. fpr cover:- ooen . lee ti-y .:.)ory .)f tae I: , y JL&f t1L k t to Li.. c, for the 61to t ite6eit:G. kry livA tveck, i7 iroctor, O ifoamnii. incluE try Lervice. 'Xi111.1.41 :Jo .,r. Lry iI1. IA DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY WASHINGTON 1607 H Street September 18, 1918. Dear Miss Van Kleeck: At the President's suggestion, Secretary Wilson called a conference of the reiz,resentatives of all the labor a.djustment boards with a view to securing a. concert of attitude •-J- id action in the deci— Rions of these v:Irious boards. This meeting resulted in a further conference of the chairmen of the variouf-3 labor boa.rds aith formulating the elements of acwion whese boards• view to national policy within the common field of As the result of this conference, recommenda— tions were wade to the Secretzry of Labor for submission to the War La.bor Policies Board• The recommendations are sought to be exisrossion of ...alley by ....ur Board e..s the CW1111101.1 a basis of an voice of the industrial activities of the government' enc:ose herewith a cocy of the recor.-mendations and invite y,-,Air e-kecial c:)nsideration bece,1.1se it is essential to take action thereon at the riieetinL of the Board on Friday next• Faithfully, Miss Mary VanKleeck, https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis Chairm.Ln. Se/te!auel- Dolr kr. Secret'irys Jn Jet.-Jber 4th ..nd 5th tho 41win in Industry 6ervice ixon telett,36 frY4 rI,A1 -11,..,1 .1)1 will hall n con frtnçt f , intern,..tion.11 uninn8 to t.ii c)urr,lei. Nlth re,:re -entJive trie )7:fm union ...7omerl T'LIJ iniu3try. in n-,ve been vAcef4. to send deLeLates, re than twenty—five to ar-zy •sxi)eot .0,1t it is n.A be rui ri th i bt, &ateto rton,i. Nwiertha canferenc..) the YTIOTI )f . , numbers r..2rtInt.ttive of Or t3 :A00r.e. t;') :te by the 4ele— h2n -pr reitly 2i)rycl, It di. be t/xte6 if you 4111 c3n3ent to Aiect Aitn them r1,-4. ,ive them your bef-in Friday morninc reotin:. The cinfvrencthr),kh the -fternoon f )ctober 5th, .1,.nd 4th all t hOevf,r time rrz, e t5 h_ve you ,a fah?.... of cour,.. yJu ,11,1 find convenient. 6o expect/ t:.) hold the meeti4J in bor;.3o1r,i on the nint fLo ir th.o conforer:ce room of t Lni H Streat, were the ,P S)ut':0,-rn rv 4I Tn https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis count .;)on yur bein, th Very rincerely your., M r, V,n Kleock, ,n in In1u2try „Arvi. 11 . I . vow https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis Nov:rabsr 21, l'AE. MYMORAIZUM Ailit The SelEytay cf Labor. At. the ,reet':11 of the Council on Women in Industry reld this aftrnoon the following resolutio,, .4as puseod, and I w4,4 aiiker:. to tirini It to your attention. WHEREAL, attantioi, of uembers of ‘,.le Counci: 04 Women in ILLiwitry 1.aL be:;r1 cali.d to te fact tl.at OfOLAIA dAployed 4* t„over,-. clerlLs 4ufli•J6 Lie daa 4r6 being t''.olit notice, 1.554*(iCi. 11/44144... t ,lat ioui,) of r;i1c.,,,. t:t; WI* AJUYIL4 tLeir transportation hwie, bo it RESULVED, taut Ai reapootfully uslc tile Secretary of govrnaiet dei.art4:,ots to the Luixdr to cail attc:hAua Laces61v for 1:-.‘2 order by the hea:i of the ad. r;:at,ent declaring that at least two weeks' notice shall be given before J.43 peren in euon section be designated diswisaai, to view ever vur, ,sr lbefof. she lettves, in order to ascertaih whetAer sufficinit ilrovision 44U bee.k wwie for esiven to Llia U. 3. her return home, tilat advance noticu iatkloyment Service or Lhe U. S. Civil Service CoLLiission tS faaate the transfer to anotAer pouon, and that eteps be taken to considor the possibility of giving .‘ranai'ortatirm home to thu women employed by the govorment during the war ut the same rate au is given to riet.zmilig solufera. UVKiP Mary Van Maack, Director, Woman in Industry Service. https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis Zitt- I October 30, 1918. Mr. H. L. Ker Assistant to tne Secretary, Department of Labor, Washiagton, D. C. My dear Mr. Kerwin: of your letter endlosing I wish to acknohledge receipt .omen for men in titution of , copy of a memorandum ou the subs the s Van Kleeck l s absence from inllis:ry, which cams during Mis io. WOL be brought to hr attent city for a re', lays. It will her return. Vary trul.i. /ours, IMP Secretary to giss Van itik FL' https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY WASHINGTON uctober 23, 1913. lerlorandum for the Director, Woman in Industry Service: By directiOn of the Secretary, I am submittin herewith, for your information, copy of a memorandum on the substitution of women for men in industry. Assistant to the Secretary. Incl. Memorandum for Secretary Wilson From Mr. Frankfurter. Subject: Substitution of women for men in industry' lhe extension of the employment of women in occui.ations in which they have heretofore been employed and their introduction into new occupations are questions that c,11 for the formulation of a central policy by the Labor Administration under your charge. The form- ulation of such a policy must be attained through the harmoniou'3 efforts of different brmches of the Department of Labor* The _•olicy must be applied by several of the Services of the De;artment and serve, as a guide to other agencies of the government as well, The objectives, broad- ly speaking, are:- https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis (a) The determination of the occupations in which and the conditions under which women should be employed; (b) The recruiting and distribution of women in appropriate employments; (c) The training of women for such employments; (d) The enforcement of the -policy not only through the appropriate arms of the De-,artment of Labor, but the other Departments of the 6overnment that are vitlly concerned in the right utilization of the labor power of the country; i.e. the enforcement of the Selective Service Law, and other agencies of the Government that can render the enforcement of standards https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis -2 effective, e.g. the War Industries Board Thi enelysis of the problem indicates the functions that are to be exercised and the agencies that ar- to discharge them. A. Formulation of a Substitution Policy. 1. Standards for substitution must be nation- wise standards and they must bind all the branches of the Uoverment. This neceesary if imroper substitu- tions are to be avoided. Inevitably, therefore, such stan&rds should be adopted by the War Labor Policies Board. These standards canot be expected to remein unchanged. Modifications in them must be ex,ected as new needs arise, and particularly as new knowledo is revealed through the actual ex erience xith substitutions. 2. The primary ree,onsibility in formulating these standards for consideretion by the Whr Labor olicies Board rests with the Women in Industry Service. To aischarge this responsibility the Women in Industry Service will need the coo eration of the working Conditions Service, the Investigation and Incpection Service, the Trailing and Dilution Service, the Bureau of' Lit,or Statistics, the Public Health Service nd Lny other bureau of the De ertment of Lebor or brench of the Government whose interests or experience make con ultation appro,-riate. https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis 3 Enforcim2nt of the Policy B. The Employment Service. 1. The U. S. Emp1oym9nt Service Ir. the instrum,-_nt of information as to the needs for labor which make substitutions , It is also resonsible for th, neceasary. cem-nt of wom-n in c3cordance with the National standards laid down by the N, ,r Ltor Policitis Board. These stind-Lrds must neceqsarily llow a certain flexibility for application to loc,d conditions within the frame of the genral stdadards. Thir Troccc cf made by the Community Labor Bcv,rdP. pt)lication should be These Uoards, therefore, shculd be directed: (14) To make local application of the n ,tional stAldards. (b) To report to the Employmsnt :erice processes at which women are locally employer' ,nd which ',4.re not included among those approved by the War Labor Policies Board in order thA this informtion Tiviy be made available to the Wom in Inr!ustry Service and the Labor Policies Bo'-rd. (c) To act generally in an advisory cap-laity to the local gmployment offices so th,t local clubsiitutions will be made in ccord,,Lnce with the rition 1 policy with as little cinfusion ani s little diverg -nce te poesible. 2. Training and Dilution Service. For *hc •=uccesPful utiliyation in w,r inustri-,s of thf, women i well Is the men now ,-mployed in non-war occupations, and of women not now productively -ployed, the TrAining and Dilution Service must work out the necesmary meins for training. Inasmuch as this Service le responsible for training it should be conFulted, as already inr2icA.ted, in the determin-tion of st md•u-ds for which wom,,n re to be trained. https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis -4-- 3. The ::ar Industries Boerd. The standards of eubstitution having once been determined by an analysis based on all available informaticn, the War Industries Board has effective mechinery for promoting and directing such substitutions. 4. The Provost Marshal General. The Intimate relstion between induetriel and military man-power n cc not be argued. Therefore, the local and the district draft boarde should be direct d to follow the nationii standards asto thesubstitution of women for men as general guides in determining whether industrial exemptions should be granted. Th- machinery for a working relation between ineustri 1 and military needs has been e-teblished by the recent areft regulations. Undoubtedly there will be modifications from time to time, both in the factors of the problem and the means by which it should be met. But theobjectives s--em clear and so elso the meens indicated above for me.ting them. October 19, 18t8. November 11, 1918. From: Mary Van Kleeck, Director, Woman in Industry Service. To: The Secretary of Labor. Subject: Plans for reconstruction in relation to the Woman in Industry Service. 1. THE IMMED/ATE TASK. Obviously the immediate task is to accoaplish the change from a war basis to a peace basis with the least possible unemployment and with the reinstatement of the largest possible number'in normal occupations for which they are best adapted. Thus stated the task is the same for all workers including women and men and this memorandum assumes therefore that the fundamental aspects of the program as affectirg both men ard women are being worked out. In it will be inferred the necessity for a policy with reference to cancellation of contracts with due regard to its relation to the tranfer of labor from one occupation to another; the conversion of plants manufacturing munitions to the manufacture of products required in peace; plans for public works and consultation on this 1)oint with Governors of states, in order that the states may :Ilan with full knowledge of the rlans of the fedora/ govern:ant; an that demobilisation of returning soldiers at a wufficiertly slow rata to insure their reinstatement in normal occupations. The question peculiar to women in relation to this task relates to those who have taken men's places and those Who although not previously employed, have been drawn into gainful employment for patriotic rekksons. Many persons are asking Whether these women should not now withdraw to give places to the men. At least one central federated labor body (that in New York City) has passel a resolution calling on these women to withdraw. No information is available showing the extent of the emr1o7ment of women not hitherto gainfully employed. Such evidence as there is at hand seems to indicate that the number is smaller than is generally surnosel an that large numbers of women employed in the war industries have been transferred from other occupations. For them it *ill be necessary to arrange for their transfer to normal emplernent unless the 71ants in Which they are amnloyed are converted to production in peace time under conditions making it possible to retain the same personnel. 'For the women Who have taken men's places or have been dram into industry for the first time, the question is more complioated. It would seem to be a fair policy for business organisations to reinstate retsurning soldiers in the positions Which they hell before the war, if they wish to be reinstated, but it is inconceivable that the federal government should urge upon arv group of workers, whether men or women, that they withdraw entirely from gainful employment if they wish to make their contribution to the economic life of the nation. The problem here is not one of withdraeal of any group of ',vorkers voluntarily, but rather a task of organization of industry in such a way as to utilize to the full all of the available working forces of the country. That this working force is needed in https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis -2larger numbers than ever before, cannot be doubted. The problem of making possible steady employmemt is not ore which conc,3rns women in industry as a separate group. There remains, therefore, a task of dealing with the individual case through such an agency as the Employment Service. Thus women who have no equipment through past experience for the new mark to be undertaken, will normally find that there is no demand for their "wk. For those Who have had some experience in gainful employment, however, daring the war, there will undoubtedly be a demand for training which will fit them for continued employment. There is in Iniustry, however, a large group Which should be withdrawn at the earliest possible moment. This is the group of children in industry, of whom there were 1,990,000 under sixteen, according to the census of 1910 and of these, 557,645 were in, nonagricultural pursuits. With reference to the immediate task of reconstruction as it relates to women or children in industry, it is therefore AECONNENDED a.. That prevision be made for the representation of women in the groups in the government Who will determine policies of cancellation of contracts and other aspects of the relationoof the government 44 a purchaser to the labor conditions immediately following the war. b. That plans be made to enable the Woman in Industry Service to establish such connections with these groups as to insure knowledge in advance concerning the policies and plans for cancellation of contracts and conversion of plants, in order that the necessary plans may be developed for the transfer of mxwm employed in these plants or for their continued employment. c. That after consultation with the Children's Bureau, a statement be issued by the War Labor Policies Board or some other appropriate federal agency regarding the desirability of raising the age limit for the employment of children in industry. This statement should also be of assistance in securing the passage of a new federal law. It will have added force if made a part of the reconstruction program. DEVELOP/N NEW STANDARDS POR THE EMPLOYMENT OF WOMEn. The problems of women in industry Which have been familiar before the war will be accentuated during the reconstruction period. These include danger to health from unsanitary working conditions and hazardous occupations; the general conditions in the sweated trades which have always borne heavily upon women workers; a distinctly lower wage scale for women than for men despite the demonstrated necessity for large numbers of women workers to support dependents; inadequate oprorturdties for training and limited chances to be advancedtaere responsible work in many industries and the danger to health involved in long hours and employment at night. These conditions have always been a cheek Iloon the rendering of the https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis most efficient service by women workers. The ear has demonstrated that the range of possibilities for efficiency by women in industry is much larger than has been assumed in the past. This is notably illustrated in the mIrk of women in machine trades. This suggests that in planning vocational training the wider ranee of occupations open to momen should be fully rocognized and in the workshor correspondingly large opportunities should be given to WOMOM6 On the other hand the danger that worren may become the competitors of men through underbidding, is very real. These complicated problems can only be mot 1r a variety of methods of attack. They suggest the necessity for strengthening the resources of the federal government for dealing with these problems. This should be dons at once. Other*ise the difficult questions concerning women in industry will be a constant obstacle in the development of any reconstruction program for labor. It is probable that such federal agencies as the Women's Branch of the jisdnance Department will be discontinued, as the production program of the Wer Department becomes unnecessary and it is the more important therefore that the force in the Denartment of Labor should be increased. It is therefore https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis RECOWENDED a. That in accordance with a supplementary memorandum provision be male for an enlargement of the Woman in Industry Service to make possible the addition of a field force and the carrying out of plans for a program of education of public opinion. b. Immediate issuance of standards governing the employment of women already adopted by the Whr Labor Policies Board with such changes in the introductory statement as will make the standards applicable fo the reconstruction period an not merely as in its first form to the war industries. C. That the following resolution regarding night murk be adopted: WHERUS, On September 6th the War Labor Policies Board endorsed the plan which provided for federal control of night work of women through the insertion of a clause in contracts prohibiting the employment of women between the hours of ten, p.m. and six a.m, in an, plant working on a contract for the federal government unless the plant held a certificate from the Secretary of War or the Secretary of the Navy granted with the approval of the Secretary of Labor after demonstration that production for the mar required the employment of women at night for a specified period in that particular plant and https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis -4- WHKREAS, By this action the War Labor Policies Board recognized that the emrlovment of women at night is harmful because of its bad effects on health, family life, the welfare of children and industrial efficiency and that only an extreme emergency created by the war could justify night work for women in any plant working for the federal government. BE IT RESOLVED that now with the prospect of an early restoration of peace ani the necessity for strengthening the safe-guards for women workers in the difficult period of reconstruction, the Board hereby reaffirms it conviction that the employment of women at night should be prevented and 'urges upon all federal departments that pending the enactment of legislation in those states which at present have no laws prohibiting night work of women, the emrloyment of women at night in plants working on contract for the federal government shall be controlled through nrovisions in the contracts and shall cease at the earliest possible moment consistent with the immediate demands of the war, and that, fnlithermore, the employment of women at night in all arsenals, navy yards, and other establishments owned or controlled by the federal goverment, shall be discontinued as soon as possible and that with the restoration of peace, night work of women shall be prohibited in all plants under federal control whether by contract or ownership by the federal government. (Substantially this resolution waa adopted by the War tabor Policies Board on Nymnber 15th in response to our request). III. AUNCI75 TqW1G11 THICH A 'OWN'S 11PSAU IN THS =VAL GOVTRW7NT MAY AC? A. Tho federal gpvernment as OUID1Oier. During the war the federal government has hi an unprecedented opportunity to ,ievelop staniaris through ths control of plsnts ma.nufacturing for federal departments. ALthough its control Luring the reconstruction period will be very much less e.ctansive tiv.) stanAaris which it maintains in plants owned by the federal government will have a marked influence in private industry. Its control through contracts can also be continued even though the contrscts will be fewer in number. It is therefore 17.cOMMENDE_p_ a. That the standards eniorsed by the War Labor Policies Board be male strictly enforceable in arsenals, navy yards and in plAnts working on contract for the federal government. b. That the Woman in Industry Servioe be given supervision over conlitions affecting women in govern. merit owned plants with the right to inspect and report As a basis for aivising the department responsible for the plant, this supervision to '50emmig effective when such existing agencies a a the lloman's Branch of the Ordnance Departmant, iiscontinue the supervision now exercised. c. That the Woman in Industry Service be authorised to secure from all the federal iepartments feats about their activities with relation to women In iniustry Auring the war. In the Council of National Defense, in the QuArtermaster's Department an in the Ordnance Department, noteworthy work has been lone to raise standards affecting women. In the governmsnt arsenals employment mamagament deprtments for women have been established. Ths record of these activities will have an influence in shewinv, standards already adopted 4 the fed, al government. Authorisation is necessary, howover, in order that the records may be collected in a central place before the discontinuance of sett. 7ities in these lepArtmants. B. StA.te La;)or Ap4AaltAtI9n. As th16, control of the federal government exercised during tbA was is lessened, the responsibility of states will increase. One of the primary purpoase of u Women's Bureau in the Departmant of Lubor will therefore be to strengthen in every possible way state labor legis1=Ition ani its enforcement. This can be ions by establishing close cona3ctions with state labor departmsnts ani by assisting state groups to secure necessary information on which to b.,se https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis -6plrlms for labor legielr,tion ant admillistrItion. It Is In this connection especially that additional resources for field work for tha.loman in InIustry Service are imperatively needed. It is therefore BlECOMMTNDED Th,t womeh hol iix important positions in state labor departrenta ne deputised by the SecretAry of Laor to ,ot for the Town in Inlustry 3srvice. b. Thlt the Woman in InAustry Service oa authorised to call a conference of representatives of minimum wage commissions alreaiy establishei in thirteen states, to confer with them reg6.rding their task in the recon,ltruction period. c. That the Woman in Industry Sarvioe be Authorised to make necessary arrangements 4th tho Council of National a:fonsa to astonish oontinuing relations with State Committees on Woman in Iniustry which may decide to continue their activities especial/7 in working for more aiequate state legislation ant in develop/46 t...4 necessary public opinion to make possible constructive action for women in inlustry in tha states both by voluntary AL,. official tr.genolos. C. 97Ettent NianlizerIntk in the Pktnts. The test of federal ,ctivitios will be the actual results in the various plants and industrial establishments throughout the country. The applictation of standards an. policies will devolve largely won the inliviival shop organi&ation, including employer* ani workers. Thee furthiv development of intelligent employmont, mealagoont will be of great itnportanoe in relation to the problems of women in inluatry. It i therefore https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis TASTIcOvp That tbe Neese in Industry Service be authorized to will a conference of employers with 4, iieW to the ganisation of a permanent advisory council which will exert anAnfluence in the establishment of such methods on the part of the management of the iniustries of the country As shall be in accord with the highest stswedards already demonstrated to be psvicticable in the employ.ment of woma,. b. That tho Woman in Iniustry Service inclule in its purpose, especially in planning for ellarged resources tha task of in!.ustrial counselling which ahQ,1 available for t e industries of the country the bast experience in the employment of woman. This Shoal/ be done not only through https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis 11114tad State. Civil Service Commission ...P.:I.* -11••••. v. • at •••••..r1 -.••••,......••••• •-eft • ••-• : ,7,71. . , •••••••.•••••••-• ••••• 4•••••••• ..11Z.J104:.,:•••:•:•2 •••••4101.1 -•••••-• publication but through visits to plants for a long enough period to assist in a practical way in their problems. D. Representation of Women Workers. It will be imrossible to deal effectively with any of the problems affecting the -omen in inluEtry unless the women themselves participate actively in their solution. It is therefore FRCOWENDED a. That it be urged by the Department of Labor that renresentatives of workgng women be added to such Image adjustamIt boars in the federal governmert as may continue to function through the reconstruction period. b. That the Woman in Inluetry Service be authorised to continuo the Advisory Council of working women already established ani to call them into consultation at an early date to confer regariing the program of reconstruction. E. Fublic Opinion. Obviously it will be impossible to continue useful work unless public backing is secured in the ekevelopent of higher standards for the emrloyment of women. It is therefore RECOMAWED a. That the *man in Industry Service be authorized to formulate a program of public education through exhibits, moving pictures, published reports, lectures and other methods, the plane to be worked out by the Woman in Industry Service and to be tut into effect through the co°nitration of such agencies as the U.S. ftployment Service, the Information and Education Service and state groups. b. That the Woman in initletry Service be authorize:11 to secure the cooperation of the Navy, Shinping Board, and the various divisions of the War Department, in securing a photogra phic record of womerle v4ork in arsenals, navy yaris and plants which may continme to warnfacture on contract for the federal moverment. FArloyment Service. A large part of the task of transferring women from one occurati on to another will of course devolve upon the Employmmt Service an on the other hand the successful carrying out of policies in connection with the federal governTent will lenend upon the unity of purpose of the women resoonsible for work for women In the emnloyment service. rn the interest of closer cooperation it is therefore https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis -8FFCOM That as a msans of develoOng the poliaies necessary at this time and securi4g unity of action through the federal agencies, the 'Van in InduAry Service be authorized to call regional conferences of •.*men in the Employment Service acting in this mattar th.ocrazh he5Law.: iirec;;:irs and in other ooys to develol, closer contact with the *omen's oxrk in the 7p7loyment Servico. in t G. Inst itutlona for Tr-Li nir..i; wothen Wore. on The srccesefill er,loyment of Aomen will depend in large part the policies gulling those institutions now existing in cities, states and the federal goverrv,ent vilich are rei,ponsible for the developient of vocational education. Policies in connection with training are so intimately associated with all tne other aspects of wosn's ,ork th,A it should 0 .Lade possible and appropriate for the Woman tn In3u3try Service in the federal government to develop plans to be recoewlended to local trale schools, state departxents of educrttion and such national agencies as the Federal Board for Vocational Education, and the Training and Dilution Service. Tt is therefore nEc71•211DED That the Worn in Induk,try Serlice bQ authorized to include this subject in its activities as won as sufficient resources can be provided. anA to nce such Imre:ligation* as *ill result In recomlendations to the appropriate agencies on the subject of the training of woi...en. qUIVARY OF REC7,1'141NDATIOn. 1. REPRESENTATION OF WOMEN IN GROUPS NOW PLANNING THE POLICIES OF THE PRODUCTION DEPARTMENTS OF THE GOVERNMENT WITH REFERENCE TO CANCELLATION OF CONTRACTS AND CONV2RSI3N OF PLANTS. 2. PROVISION FOR INFORMING THF WOMEI IN INDUSTRY AND POLICIES IN ADVANCE. 3. RVICE OF THESE PLANS STATEMENT IN COOPERATION WITH THE CHILDREN'S BUREAU REGARDING THE IMPORTANCE OF MORE STRINGITT CHILD LABOR LEGISLATION AS A RECONSTRUCTION MEASURE. 4. FYLARGFAFAT OF RESOURCES OF THE yam IN INDUSTRY SERVICE. 6. ISSUANCE OF STANDARDS GOVPRVIING THE EMPLOYMENT OF WOMEN. 6. ADOPTION OF A RESOLUTION ON NIGHT WORK OF ViOMEN LOOKING TOWARD ITS PROPIBITION IN COMMENT MED PLANTS AND IN PLAMCS WORKING ON CONTRACT FOR THE FEDERAL GOVSRNONT. 7. STRICT WNFORCEMIT IN COVET:7'417NT OWNED PLANTS OF THE STANDARDS GOVERNING THE EMPLOYMENT OF WOMEN. https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis -9- 8. PROVISION FOR ADVISORY RELATIONSHIP PT THE WaAAN IN INDUSTRY SERVICE TO THE CONDITIONS AFFECTING WOAEN IN GOVERNMENT OWNED PLANTS. 9. PROVISION FOR FORMULATION OF REPORT ON ACTIVITIES FOR W)MEN IN INDUSTRY IN THE FEDERAL GOMM-ENT DURING ME WAR. 10. DEPUTIZING OF WOMEN IN IMPORTANT POSITIONS IN STATE LABOR DEPARTMmITS TO ACT FOR THE WOMEN IN INDUSTRY SERVICE. 11. CONFERENCE OF REPRESENTATIVES OF STATE m7141 NUM WAGE COMMISSIONS. 12. EsTABLISRMENT OF CONTIMJING RELATIONS WITH STATE COMMITTEES ON WOMEN IN INDUSTRY ESTABLISHED DURING THE WAR. 13. CONFERENCE OF EMPLOYERS AND ORGANIZATION OF ADVISORY COUNCIL REPRESENTATING MANAGEMENT. 14. INCLUSION OF INDUSTRIAL COUNSELLING OF PLANS AMONG THE PURPOSES OF THE womAN IN INDUSTRY SERVICE. 15. REPRESENTATION OF WORKING WOMEN ON FEDERAL WAGE ADJUSTMENT BOARDS FUNCTIONING AFTER THE WAR. 16. CONTINUANCE OF PERMANFN.T ADVISORY COUNCIL OF woRKING womair IN coNNEcTION WITH RECONSTRUCTION PROBLEMS. 17. DEVELOPMENT OF A PROGRAM OF PUBLIC EDUCATION ON STANDARDS AFFECTING wouRN IN INDUSTRY. 18. PROVISION FOR PHOTOGRAPHIC RECORD OF WaH?Nls AoRX: IN GOrmamYNT BLANT5 AJ IN TYPICAL WAR INDUSTRIES. 19. EsTABLISINEST OF CLOSER COOPERATION BY THE WOMEN IN INDUSTRY SERVICE WITh THE wain EXAMINERS AND STATE SUPERINTENDENTS IN THE EMPLOY:Mr SERVICE. 30. INCLUSION OF THE FORMULATION OF POLICIES FOR TRAINING WOIEN AORXERS AMONG THE PURPOSEs OF THE mall IN INDUSTRY SERVICE. WEVVALL https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis 1_3. I'leelmber 10, .1( Hon. William B. Wilson, Secretary of Labor, Washinpton, D. C. My dear Mr. Secretqry: We have taken the liberty of aAciressing t':7a enclosed letter to the War Labor Bnard. We of course realize the wisdom of your policy in leavin6 tie War Labor Board free from any guince in reaching its decisioas, and we reUite, tnerefona, t'!,at this decision in no way reflects your views. We are concerned, however, that the general public believe tiiat this expresses the view of tle Department of LaOor. If an appropriate occasion arises we hope that the Woman in Industry Service with thi3 ca3e, your avroval may issue a statement, not de2.1in6 more will 4hich ,way a in but covri,Ig its general orinciples on Laoor of t , aeiDep:trti thu accurately interpret the attitude or tl'is vital subject. :pe t;lat the War Labor Board ..7iwr be Meanwhile, we h, our lot tor is to reopen the case. You will note tat myself ni not by the Woman sent :lerlonally by Miss Anderson and be in the position of in Industry Service, af we would then tha principle ry acting officially for the Department contra tn te War Labor Bard. which you 'rave ec;tablished in refe-ence Sincerely your, Mary Van Kleeck, Director, Woman in Industry Service. https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis 209 Southern Building, Washington, D. C. DecerrAber 10, 1918. Mr. W. Jett Lauck, Secretary, War Labor Board, Waihinon, D. C. My aear Mr. Lauck: Because nf the fundamel-ital imortance of the decision of the War La.)or Board in the Cleveland Street Car case, we feel impelled respectfully to protest .a,ainst the establishment of such a precedent by the federal -,,overnment. Because of our responsibility for developing a proo-r-: of reconstructio for women in industry we have a vital Llterest in the decision, Which would imply ti,at the federal govornment will not only permit but direct dismissal of an entire grou of women from an occupation as a means of settling an industrial disiT:ute in which apparently ti,ere was he) issue of strike breaking or lower wages invlved. We sincerely hone t'iat this case may be reopened by the War Labor Board, as we feel convinced that it mast hay been settled wi*h reference to immediate local needs rather than in the light of its far reaching implications for omen in inalstry. This comtaunioation i sent to you by us personill'y rather than in our of'icial capacity, since the Womn in Inriustry Service has at no time had any official relatio. to the case. Sincerely yours, U. S. DEPARTMENT OF LABOR WOMAN IN INDUSTRY SERVICE WASHINGTON December 17, 1?18. Hon. William B. Wilson, Secretary of Labor, Washington, D. C. My dear Mr. Secretary: The budget which we submitted last September was based on war conditions. Although it is true that the problems of women in industry are so important as to justify either in peace or in war the expenditure of $300,000 by the federal government, nevertheless, with the changed conditions due to the signing of the armistice it seams to us wiser not to ask for so large an increase for the second year of the existence of the Woman in Industry Service. Slower growth has decided advantages. We are therefore submitting for your consideration the enclosed revised estimate providing for a budget of $150,000. This is submitted, of course, subject to the policy which the Department may adont in reference to changes in the estimates for the services, established during the war. The report of the Committee on Organization will undoubtedly deal with the whole question of policy involved, but it seems desirable to submit the attached estimate in advance of their report so that it may receive consideration before the Committee on Appropriations calls upon us for a statement. Sincerely yours, 11 / !!VT:P https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis Mary Vaff Kleeck, Director, Woman in Industry Service. WAR LABOR ADMINISTRATION - WOMAN IN INDUSTRY SERVICE. To enable the Secretary of Labor to carry into effect the provisions of the Act of July 1, 1918) especially the emoloyalant of women in industry, including personal services, and rent in the District of Coluda and in the field, per diem in lieu of subsistence when allowed, traveling expenses, law books, books of reference, periodicals, newspapers, supplies and equipment, and contingent and miscellaneous expenses. (Increase of $110,0J0 submitted.) Emoloyees Rate ter annum Director Assistant Director Chief Clerk Iniustrial Experts Industrial Experts Supervising Agents "private Secretary Research Assistants Research Assistants Soecial Agents Special Agents Clerks Clerks Clerks Messenger Estimate 1920 Number 1 1 1 4 5 6 1 1 2 6 6 3 3 15 _. 1 56 $5,000 3,500 2,500 3,000 2,500 2,000 1,800 1,800 1,600 1,600 1,400 1,600 1,400 1,320 900 Salaries $102,000 Other objects of expenditure Sur 'lies and equipment Per diem and traveling expenses Material for publication purposes Telegraph ard telephone Office rent https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis Total $ 10,000 25,000 7,500 500 5.3000 $150,000 Revised estimate, December 17, 1918. 118. 4 Se?teo,ber '4, De :r Mr. SecrAtry: letter zy ro„to:A, you :A.01e:ii You :%7..y r5c1i th.t ry c.ir or or..! in t tha N-vy suf ezYt,th: tl,, to the Semitry in l t!4ea De,Jartilerit th,t ,ut the re.-,uect of the PLAry we :1(n nAry in [ffactin Mis9 ce. offi ur iled :or .duty 1. nomintel be ..:pp trti n1 deta etter ml our n.mir,Aion. m.:.mod in th My 111inFon kr. Ro,eeveit, the Thloueh Mr. Hose, 'tssi3taMt to t the re.uested me to sly to you tt f th,J N-.vy :;- ecre`.,r Secret,ry the thIt to the Namy procedure 13 -_4,:ltdrely auceptable of :lits.3 statement of the exderience welcome fro you 'llinaon for thie position. e preent serving as Executiv kiE Allinon is ncL CJu th of - n in Industry crAtry of the Cowmitterl on 7:.)me igh, etA inv n she ILtion:1 Defene . In tiht positi y Na.y the h whic of *omisn's liork in pl%nte in f to d itte reports huva been subm i. vrtitoth rly intered., Her th..t they I !:.i-tve been told If Mr. Ro-e he fLvy De..rtznt he'pfu. h.-tve ber, h.-73 been thi-, connection Mist= Allin on Pr4vi).a .1 Society N tion tne _1 ret.ry sistsnt Cecrat I) n' 'ctiq, 'lec ce before nin x.e Edlc%ti)n. HPr the ?romlti -,n ,f In u - tri Research the of -1 tat ,inacLor Evr fa. !ittt covere n ,f wni) n• ln ustIi:1 ent ,f tdha in work womonl aner.o he Aidervis. Ifvie Trc t Fts prt W.re_si.lca4ng ,:lotton f_ctories. Dne of ti Jf -t, by the hure u J, rieri in MI-3,chuz ,$); " t' oor deli. N,vy for thl https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis in the past as It i:ouLl eeem thht by experience o of womenle. work eal.;robl oy .;nitie u1Y1in on t prent Ai pint. po.Ation. https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis - •••• ONO This n ,min.ti ,D. is of cour,e by u t. tLe r-z., Jest Jf thc, Secrr,,-t ry f te Nvy. If -ta r a)mi r—ti n re •desirti by Idave be 0.!,ito m%kr, ,,very effurt t_) 3ecure the dt,ron oez,t fitted ftr the work, if -ny bett, r to Miss 'llin:on czi be four)... Dn tt,o basis of Jc,u..1.ia tnce with the women who v_AII be op.iidbLe we ..re inclined to belie ve tli,t e ouid be fortun-te to secure 1.1in 3n. It i u. eteI 1..11 t if you thing it ttise, inform 1 tt1 It., the .'.ecrPt ,ry f to Navy prpbRbly be Intlt tie dirs. .1.incere1y :ry V,n Kleeck, Dirc_ctor, 7:om.,,n in Industry Service. Hon. ry '1 )n, ;bor. https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis ''e,)tember 21, r. H. L. Aerwtn, Office of the Secret.,r7 nf g::Ashineton, b. C. 4) , ie,r Ar. Kmrogint If tne Secretary of Labor decide:, Sacretry of the NAry on thi3 cubject limy I write to the th,lt you notify we oehon the letter Is re711). ci.o that I v,y carry it by hand t) 4r. Ho,,;e, r110 riAle to h'i.ndle this rtittar? :incerely you's, 1,%/1 K:eectc, Oirector, 4.-ry . " )4-n 'al Ili.!.stry 1 - U. S. DEPARTMENT OF LABOR WOMAN IN INDUSTRY SERVICE WASHINGTON A9 September 2§ Memorandum , 'Alk ' 4.„ RECEIVED i. SEP 7 1 c;',\ sEcituRrs ..,., ',*.. OFFICE To: H. L. Kerwin, Assistant to the Secretary From: Mary Van Klaeck, Director, Woman in Industry Service 2/ I held the attached letter from the Department of Education of New York, in order to get soda irformation about the situation there As a result of a recent trip to New York, I nave drafted the attached letter for the signature of the Secretary if he aprroves. https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis aeck, Mary Va Director, Woman in Industry Service. 3otober 1, lila. Dr. Mlles Meisdrows Asti*, eSperintemdmat of Sehoole, Dopertmeut of lduoation, Sew Yo*, Y. aP deer Dr. !loAudrow: Ireuhmwe sake* for our opinion AO to the desirability of Openieg trade classes to woman whieh in the past biro boon organized for MOB only, and you point out that you are receiving Spolloatione from women for instruetion uot hitherto provided for them, and that you have vaoanciee in the classes of the son's trade schools. It is certainly oloar that as the sour pee on women axe neodod in increasing numbers in occupations to *lot they have not hitherto bees sametased. Preliminary training ie very desirable if these woman we to wet the mew delude oupoossfally. Doeislon as to opsaing murales shoall domed upon whether the work sad its oonditieus are such as to be healthiel for woman besides offering opportunities for training. If these opportunities exist, as they undoubtedly de in the City of Now York, the Depertemeat of Sdneation will be remiering * public service both to the comma smd to the war iuduetries if it makes available swop, posaiblo Ohms" for training for Immo both in is, and evening sdhools. The orsonisation of separate olassos for women wolild obvionsly be au usseesseary expense and a policy of doubtful wisdoll, especially as MSS GM somas are working together in the industries. https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis Sineersly yours, JaibiuiLi bItrA, MAILED Soarstarjr• oL.,,i6014 November 26, Hon. William B. Wilson, Secretary of Labor, Washin6ton, D. C. My dear Mr. Wilson: In accordance with our ot,nference 20th regard in?, the program for the Woman in suggested draft of a latt,Ir to be enclose Secretary of the Navy regarding supervision aifectne women in navy yardo. with you on November Industry Service, sent by you to the by us over conditions We are not preparing a similar letter to the War Department, because we are informed that the Washington fflee of the Womonsu Branch of the Ordnance Department will conti%ue its work until Janiary first, and it would be inappropriate for us to take action unt:a than. SiLcerely yours, MVK:P Mary V,in Kleock, Director, Woman in Industry Service. Dictated by Miss Van Kleeck and ligned in her absence. https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY WAS laber 3J, 1 Tii DI:1]CT3P. 02 TIL'.11 I have your memorandum of the 21st instant, quotin,; resolution passed by the Couacil on //omen in Industry relative to the dismissal of women employed as Government clerks in .;asiniton. This matter has been taken up at the Cabinet, and a measure has been preoared by the :Jar Deparment and introduced in Con;ress to authorize the payment by the Government warof the expenses of transportation to their homes of women aorkers discharged as the result of the termination of the war emergency. https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis Secretary. December 2, 1918. The Secretary of Labor, Washington, D. C. My dear Mr. Secretary: In accordance with your request at the Cabinet Meeting f November 26th for a copy of the r 'construction plans of the various bureaus, I am enclosing a copy of the reconstruction program of the Woman in InAustry Service, substantially like the copy formerly sent to you, but with one or two amissions sugeested by you at the conference whldh Miss Van Kleeck and I had in your office on November 20th. Sincerely yours, P. https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis Mary Anderson, Assistant Director, Woman in Industry Service. https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis Tqr DEPARTMENT OF LAB-T AUTVRIZE9 TUF FOLLOTINGS As the basis for a program of reconstruction affectlng yomen in indastry the Woman in Industry Service of the United States Deeartment of Labor has iseued standarfti based on the experience in production during the war and recoeended now for the mmployment of women in tines of peace. *In time of peace no less Mhan in tile of war," said Mary Van Kleeck, Director of the Wolnan in Industry Service, "the nation must dvend for its prosperity upon the productive efficiency of its workers. During the eerie.' of the wal clauses were inserted in the co tracts of the federal govevnment estebliShing standard working conditions and the state lapor officials co-operated with the federal government in enforcing these contract provisior,s. This atforde a basis and a precedent for4lrer continued relatio s between state and federal aeencies for the estr.blishment and mai-Asnance of stendards for wo en's work. As the contracts expire, the res.onsieillty of the state increaees. Also the industries of the country are called uio to co-operate to the fullest extent in maintaining these stindards." *The meet im-ort-nt queetio, arising now is the com)arative wabe ;aid te wo(re-1 and te men. The principle of equal pay for elual work was affirmed repeatdly by agenciesfe,Leral gov rnment during the war as a means of preventiag the loweri'g of industrial sLndards. This principle shoLld be carried furth -3r. Wages sho ld upor, sex.* be based upon occul,ation an6 The provieions considered of vital importance include the pri ciple of the iame wawa for the Iff143 work as men, witl such proportior:ate increases as t,:e me - receive ie. the same indusry; a minimum wee() covering tee cost of living for dependents aA mot merely for tne individual, and the determinatio of wage rates on the basis of occueatio rather than on the basis of sex; the eight hour day; one day of rest in every seven; prohibitio of ni,,ht work; allaAance of three-quarters of an hour for meals; ani the establishment of methods of neeotiation between 6,-ployers and ,roups of employees in determin ng wages and workiag conditions, °tear provisions include clean and sanitary worktic conditions, provision for rest reoms and lunch roms, seats properly ad.lueted te the work, adequate safety devices and first aid equipment, fire drills, iAtelligert systems of enveloytent manaeament, 'T•otection a ainst dust, fumea and excessive heat or cold, ten minute rest periods and the Protection of women 9,aint the iiftini; of heavy weiehts. https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis -2.. These standards have beet- a, roved by the Secr3tary of Labor and endorsed by the War Labor Policies Board. Copies of the complete standards are being sent to all sc;ate labor officials, as well 3s to the large employers of women throughout the country. The Woman in Industry Service is acting as a co-ordinating a„ency te ro(.cral between these groups and the various aeparta..... government dealing with the conditions of labor, wages, hours, employment, and training, in order to assist to the utmost in the difficult 1,roblan's of to,djuatilant iurin the period of reconstruction. 9). cd,z. an https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis 07, 14- https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis (rx /-# ,5--?-'"14 I .r;:t.i7L _7 , 1 - p-1--P , - https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis December ;23, 1918. Hon. William B. Wilson, Secretary of Labor, Washintton, D. C. My dear Mr. Secretary: In connection wit the relation of the Post Office Department to the Telenhone and telegraph operators, 114y we add a report to you on the dismissal of olerical workers without notioe from the office of the Executive Postal Censorship Cominittee of New York? Ws understand tilat this Cowlittee is under the Censorihip Board of the Post Office Department. we have reoeived in the office three letters froT %omen employed there, who agree in their statement of facts. One of them enclosed the attached notice, Which shows that her services were dispensed with Dieem'cer 11, 1918, while the notice itself bore the same date. All agree in the stat-,ment mnde by one of them, as follows, "Althoue we were officially assured t'At the work would not corns to an end mddenly and were beg,ed nnt to desert our posts, we were at the end given but onn dayss notice and not a cent of over that day." They all agree also in claiAng that at least trvo weeks. notice should have been given, Al. one of them points out tivtt .7any suffered great incolvenience while some wore actuillly in distress. Over one hundred mmployees are said tO have been dismissed. We have, your dispospd if you of course, the original letters, which are cure to see them. Sihcerely yourti„ MYK:P https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis Mary Van Kleeck, Director, Woman in Industry Service. .11.1111••••••• '7 ,fr• Arril 3, 1919. To: The Secretary of Labor. From: The Wo-aan in Industry Service. As you. ippobab17 know, the order of the ler Labor Board to the Cleveland Street ear Coup-Any to reinstate the woman conductors, has not yet been carried out. On .ty way from Chicago I stopped in Cleveland on Monday end have tinrefore accurAte inforliation about the ne,Iest developtnenta in the case. The Co.onany declares thi“ It will reinstate the women if the Trade Union agrees. Tha local union leclares that it will strike if the women aro reinstated. The issue now, therefore, is not merely one concerning the eaaan conductors bnt it challenges the right of the War Libor Board to act in this oase. In 'Alio situation the statement tn the New York Ttmes Migazine of Urch a)th, 1919, in which Miss Gertrude Barnum is quoted as Assistant CI;ief of the Investigation Service of the Denart.iont of Labor, is oertainly embarrassing to tile 4ar Labor Board t,o the Department as a whole, since the statecnInts oontained in it aro manifestly inaocurate. There is no question of a "third sex in industry" involved in the protests of the *awn's organizations alainst the dismissal of these conductors. They are as,ing that waLen be given the right to join a local of a Union to *latch %morn balong to other °Wes. These woman were not emr ployed as striie breakers or even when a strike was renling ani they have never at any mane* been unwilling to join hanis as moTbers of the looal union in Cleveland "for the edveneement of tne general oases of labor." Aa this artiole is only one of several snioh ars being credited to Miss Barnum, with erplicit reference to her position in tne Derartent of Labar, I feel compelled as Director of the Service reenonstble for policies of the Departmera with reference to walen in industry to nrotest against mis-statements of fact as harmful not only to women in iniustry but to the Derartment as a whole. MI/K/ALL https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis Mary Van Kleeck, Director INot.tari in Industry Service. June 12, 1919. Miss Anderson: Will you and Miss Smith decide whether it is wise to get out a publicity statement based on the enclosed memorandumiabout the employment of women as ticket agents on the Chicago Elevated Trains? I Should think that this story would run somewhat as follows: * "The Woman in InAustry Service of the United States Pepartsent of Labor has today filed with the Industrial Commission of New York State a staternnt of conditions of employment of women as ticket agents on the elevated trains of Chicago, indicating that it should be entieeet possible for the transit compvnies in New York to comply with the n3w law prohibiting night work, while St the same time retnirdng the women who have been enployed for mew years in these positions. . The ferort states that: Illtemen have teen ruecessfolly employed as ticket agents since the establishment of the present transit in Ib0000,0k Shifts of eight hours with the prohibition system. Chic74 ( of night work voluntarily adopted by the Company in Ogresment with the Trade nnion. The women's work is limited to the two shifts falliblengithin the hours of the day. The seniority rights of all the workers which give the privilege of choice of shift are maintained by the establishment of The men are entitled one list for men and another for women. to select their shifts as their length of service permits and the only difference between their seniority rights and tnat of the women si that the women are not )ermitted to On the other hand the prohibition select the night shift. of night work for women does not compel the men to work exclusively at night since within the men's list the choice of day shift becomes possible, that this plan shouli have been adopted as a practical working scheme &en the nllmit law would have permitted night work is very significant in iitioaing the practicability of adjustment to comply with a night work law while retaining women in the plettion of ticket agents." , , This is not intended to be a news story but merely the basis for one which Ethel Smith would prepare. It seems desirable to give some indication in the Press ttat there is more than one side to this story and also to get out somethift whit% is a challenge to the Conpany to Wells Swarts's report will be given to the make these adjustments. Industrial Commission tentatively next Tuesday but her work will not be Meanwhile artery effort is being node by the finished for some time. / should like to get the law repealed Leaps for Mkual Opportunities. at t https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis at the special session of the Legislature called to ratify the Suffrage The material, however, Amendment. Hence the timeliness of a news story. we ought to wait think will you tnat it and be slight may is somewhat that there is an be mgy it or cities; other from Until we have re:orts has not occurred which lists seniority angle to this suggestion about two to us. /ells Swartz is very glad to have this plblicity given but she would like us not to stress the fact that in Chicago the women work seven days a weak. Of course, the seven-lay enployment is quite urnecessary and does not affect the main points of the practicability if avoiding night work, while not robbing the man of all their seniority The only disadvantage for the men is the fact that Willapre rights. =men might shifts for Chem to fill in proportion to the day shifte, but this is not too much to expect of taem in the interest af society! https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis Mary Van Klima, Director Woman in Irriustry Service. • https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis 39 December 10, 1919. Hon. William B. Wilson, Secretary of Labor, -Washington, D. t7-My dear Mr. Secretary; We have taken the liberty of addressing the enclosed letter to the War Labor Board. We of courae realize the wisdom of your policy in leaving the War Labor Board free from anr guidance in reaching its decisions, and we realize, therefore, that this decision in no way reflects your views. We are concerned, however, that the general public believe that this expresses the view of the Department of Labor. If an appropriate occasion arises we hope that the Woman in Industry Service with your approval may issue a statement, not dealing with this case, but Covering its general principles in a way which will more accurately interpret the, attitude of the Department of Labor on this vital subject. Meanwhile, we hope that the War Labor Board may be willing to reopen the case. You will note that our letter is sent personally by Miss Anderson and myself and not by the Woman in Industry Service, as we would then be in the position of acting ,)fficially for the Department contrary to the principle which you have established in reference to the War Labor Board. Sincerely yours, Mary Van Kleeck, Director, Woman in Industry Service. (007y) January 13, 1919. Hon. .iliem B. Wilson, Secretary of the Department of Labor, Washington, D. C. My dear Mr. Secretary: Inclosed you will find a clipping from th Labor "Weekly N3WS Letter," December '3, 1918. Americen Federation of In case you hP,ve not seen this clipcine., I am sending it to you as I feel thet the headline to this article is very unjust to the iorking women of the nAt'cn, and I pirsonally know that you hr.ve no such thought in your mind. Althol,gh the article that follows has nothing in it that would call forth this headline, this article with the headline has been copiel wiiely by the Labor papers throughout the country. Hence, my de3ire to call this to your attention. Very sincerely yours, Mary Anderson, Assistant Director, Woman in Industry Service. L.G. Inclosure. MA/L'C'TB https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis TOIUN IN INDU9TRY S7RVIC7, DIPT'ATMTriNT OF LPBOP, WASHMTON, r. Je.nut ry 14, 1919. Membre of the Steff: The following regulations are prepared in accordance with the general rules of the Depertment of Labor, eni are brought to your attention in order thet you mey be informed ani eble to cooperete toward the attainment of fullest effIciency. (Signed) Lillien M. Lewis, Chief Clerk. Aperoved: (Signed) Wry Ven Kleeck, Director. 1. Gen - ral Office R-1111 tie's, Adiresses: 1. Change of adiress or of telephone number should be re orted at once to the Chief Clerk, in orde' to facilitete the delivery of twill anl telegleame. . All employes of the Bureau on Chief Clerk informed of chenges in eill be mailed to employes on 1-ewe on unless the Office is !,iivised of change iispetched, cnecl,a will be sent to the II leave requeetel to 17eep the office of their mnil and telegreph fdlreses. Checks the 15th end last ley of ench month, end of dlress before the mail of tr.t inYs last lwn AAress. 4ours:, 1. The lam requires lech employee in Federel lepertments to eork et le,st seven hours a day. The reco,3nized time for the day's work ie between th. hoihrs of 9: a.m. and 4:30 p.m. The neriod for lunch is one-h, lf heur from 17:70 to 1 o'clock, except in cases where, for edministretive rersons, other he-rs re deeigneted. 2. All ebeeecee lurieg office honrs, ecept on officiel business, should be covered by aprlicetions for leave. (See Depertment of Labor Regul, tions, a cony of ehich is in the office of the Chief Clerk.) 3. No one sheeld be absent from the office on official businsss event by direction or the oe,rson to whom he or she is res - onsible. 4. 7eceet in casee, where, for administretive reasons, other arrengements are authorized by the Director or the As,ist?nt Direetor, all members of the steff leaving the office on officiel business shoull notify thn Chief Clerkes office, by telephone or in person, mhere they are going, hol long they expect to be gone, and Plso notify her. of their return. 5. All members of the ateff laaving the office during office hours on other th. n 9fficial business should notify the proper division head anl also the office of the Chief Clerk, how long they expect to be gone and shoell report to both upon their return. 6. All members of the staff exe - cting to be absent from th -? office on other then official business for P portion of a iay, or for e loeger periol, should fill out the regular application for leave. https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis 7. Whenever it is imposFAble to arrive at the office 9 o'clock eni le- ve has not been applieJ for the day before, FpplicetIon for 1 . ve shoul.' he made by telep_onin,!; or aenlin, word to the Chief Clerk's office. 2. Room Regul tions. 1. The official ,ntr.nce to th,, Wove in Iniustry S,rvice is through Room 209. A clerk in this room will receive visitors anl furnish information concerning the whereabouts of m-mbers of the st-ff. 2. In the interest of goo' mdministr,tion the following requets Are mnde of (a) That the telepone be not used for personal cAlle ent thnt p reorpacells from the outside in office hours be discourtgei. . (b) That ehen conv'rsation is necessf.ry, it be e-rriel on in euch y manner es not to interfere with the Nork of othere in the room. (c) . Th't in 2;-oing from room to tnother, the hells be used wherever poseible. 3. The riep'rtment requires th,t at Aght the win!ows of eoch room be closed, the curtains dresn to the center of the Nineow, nlso th::t otectricity be turned'off, -11 the room ioor closed. On account of 1Pck of sufficient messEniger qervice, it is requested thrt the last r.rson leavin„; eech room see that these intructions ere complied with. PublicitY1 All ?ublicity is hhfilled through the Office of the Director beA no interview or other unpublished inform tion Hbout the ..vork of the Service is to be given exce7A at tte direction of the Office of the Director. https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis .11 initials of the writer end typist aaould be used. 10. Inolosures. Letters eoutainint one talcsue- eeould bear at the lower left-hand oorner above the initials ce: the writer the letters "Inc." and then there are two or more different inclosures "lees. (2)" or whatever the =Rubor mar be. The person eh° types a letter is responsible for piscine the inolesures kn the enveloee except when the auelosure is 4 frank addressed in that case tile frank to be inelosed is clipoed to the face to the AVM** of the correspondence before it is placed in the basket in the Uhlef Oleres office (in order that the frank mey be lolded into the letter instead of beInc placed separately in the envelope). dhen the luclosure hos been made, the person's initials should be written above "Inc." an the ceeboa +el: the letter. This provides file record of inelosieg. If for any reason inolosure other than frank addressed to ..he Bare= eennot be •ladc b;, the eerson who 3 letter with types the letter, a slip Should ;)e elieeed to the ft.cc 0, cler. meet instruotions for the henover a reply is requested, a freaked self-addressed envelope should be enclosed. he typist should make at least one carbon copy of all U. 11,le .auy be specified. The eatorial typed, and such Litigations.). 'parboil col-dos typist is also responsible for Beet), that no eorrespondence or o*her material Is seat out of the ilurenu unless copy has bow. eade and sent to the files. .,his does net apply to routieequests for publioationa Which are referred to other Departments. A carbon of every office eeeorandum ahould be sent to the files. 12. Promisee. The typist eust write a card reminder which she will attach to the oorrespondenoe for the call-up file, which will be kept in the office of the J'hief Clerk for fulfillment. The typist should initial the carbon of the letter opposite the premise, too that the file clerk may kuow that provision has been made for its fulfillment. 13. Outgoing letters. All outgoing letters, as swab, are to be oecome panied by addressed envelope aed the carbon coy, except where reverse of °rileirks], Is epee. The carbon is pinned or clipped to the letter to uhich it is a reply, and the material Is so arranged that one sees first the outgoint letter, then the envelope, the carbon, and the letter to which it is a reply. If pee-glees correspondence has been drawn from the tilts in connection with the writing of a letter, it should also be attedhed in front af the last lethen the outgoing letter is eore than one 'pace lonc, the .eittee ter received. signature of Director or essistant Director Should be an top, with the for L,,,o letter immediately below. o, first paL0 lawman, 1. UutLoie telegreas are written with two carbon copies,eon eseifold to be marked "Confirmation" which should be mailed nv.-Dri 1. • r 1 one of ehiuh Is at once to the Tarty to whom it is addressed, and ta- other riled. 2. `elegreeis to be sea collect should be so .larl.;:ed in upper rieht-hand https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis -3.. C121t 3. ,11 outool. te1(3, ri Oireotor, or k.;hiel: us bc) coa,,ternlid 4. If a telegram is in answer to :2innold to the original by the typist. https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis OAO -4- recolveCt, tio 111 iirr.02 ,3o U. S. DEPARTMENT OF LABOR WOMAN IN INDUSTRY SERVICE WASHINGTON P 5rc ,r 7t7 zw_ etttaji fill-At 4tx. 14; Ac. 6c-erA9--e---,4/ 1ke-f 417 , Ifoi_ 11,A_ 4„--- 5.e. /pi 147SIZ —y 4-0;s4 /hi IL, ?f4Ael g (tp 2ee.5 ("?i7/ a411 4j 4.0 Z'44r›,,1),&j 47 cce, 2 /4&- ( ItA: c)A CC A_Ler-e-wa— ,1 VI- A4- i iheAto /Iv 6/tr4.0/42A„, h4 intio, IL A/lL - kio,f https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis h. 14_ e9---41e4_•Li 1L - A,. 04'e t 7 A4 4 -4A https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis heair h-1)0/z1 4-19/7. U. S. DEPARTMENT OF LABOR WOMAN IN INDUSTRY SERVICE WASHINGTON 9 4 it P- I ttc C de -el-uz. fet-}ti— 1"- PAL s k‘tiA, yy 00-4_ (2( https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis sA--g/ r a_, Ay March 3, 1919. To: The Secretary of Labor. From: Mary Van Kleeck, Director, Woman in In4ustry Service. I notice that the weekly stntament sent out by the Information ani Eiumition Service rogarding the work of the Derartment, contains a digest of our ,Neekly report tut this section of the statement is not submitt , to us for anproval. Wo have always prepared our Alekly reports as confiiential stateents to you an3 frequently information is contained in them which Ns are not ready to make publio. This retJrs eimecially GO investigations in progress. May I ask for instructions frox you az; to Whether we are to continue to prepare our rerort ac a full statement of our activities, In Ahich case we would prefer not to have the information ma4e public without consultation with us, 4' whether you Aould prefer that NO should prepare a statement to be used as a basis for publicity? I am sure that you will readily appreciate the fact that reference to our activities before i.e are reaily for publicity, would somettnes seriously embarrass our work. On the other hsnd we do not wish to withhold from the Secretary's Office important information about the work Which we are loing. MVK/ALL https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis Mary Van Klesok, Director Woman in Tniustry Service. https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis Copy. DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY WASHINGTON MAR 19 1919 Lurch 6, 1919. Chief, Bureau Women in Industry, De-partment of Labor. The Department has been requested by the Joint Committee on G verment Exhibits to participate throu01 exhibits illustratiw of its various activities and achievements in the State Fairs i.vhich are to be held throughout the c(runt ry during the ensuing summer. The expense incident to the preglration of such models, charts, and other material a,c; may be created for exhibit purposes must be borne by the exhibitor. It is expected, however, that the transportation expenses of both the rrraterial and such demonstrators as are necessary for its effective display will be met by a fllnd to be provided by the Committee or the Fairs. If your branch of the Departrrk.nt will be in a position to cooperate along. these lines, it is requested that a representative be designated to attend a meeting to be called within the near future for the purpose of outlining such program as may be feasible for this Department. If, for any reason, particition be your b, anch will be impracticable, your early advice to that effect will be appreciated. Assi stant to the Secretary. m. April 3, 1919. To: The Secretary of Labor. From: The Wauan in Industry Service. I note in the minutes of the Cabinet Meeting of April lst a reference to your roquest far suggestions aa to prospective Llanagers of the Union Station project of the Housing Corroration. I have no suggestions to alako at tris time but I should bs glsd to io whet I can to assist as it seems to me most important that a woman should be selected Who hae had the snecific exrerience necessary for such a, position. There mill un,lo,Atedly be Jany oanlidates and many ntminAtions of woAen Who have general qualifications out not the 'specific saanagement which is essential in this instance. Kboitnig the eXperiena. very keen interest on the oast of wcraen's organizations in this ***et, I should be glad to give some time to it, if you eo desire. I maks this offer because I realize that there will be a good deal of letail involved in securing good nominations and in sifting ont the list of suggestions. MVK/ALL https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis Mary Van Kleeok, Director Woman in Industry Service. https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis April 14, 1919. Memorantam for the Assistant to the Secretary: The att,ohed letter from Mr. Lyndon Evans addressed to the Secretary of Labor is returned at your request. is enclose publications of the Woman in Industry Service to be went from the office of the Secretary to Mr. Evans. We have no statistics on the present situAtion in household service but in a number of sections in ttio country definite efforts are being male to organize ho*sehold service on a more definite standardized basis, in order to attract a larger number of efficient workers. Mk. Evans hould doubtless be interested in the plan now being worked out in Now York City by the Committee on Home Assistants which is composed of representatives of the Consumers' League, Teachers College, Pratt Institute, the Woolen's City Club, the Wollen's Municipal League, the Y. W. C. A. ani. the U. S.- Employment Service. lies Louise C. Odencrants forlerly of the Employment Service is Chairman of the Sub-Committee on standar& for the Committeeeon Home Assistants. She could be addressed at ?85 St. Nicholas Avenue and would I aa, sure be glad to give irtormation. MV/ALL Mary Van Fleeck, Director Woman in Industry Service. Aril 12, 1919. r. Hugh L. "Kerwin, Assistant to the Secretary, Department of Lor, Washington, D.C. hty rlear Mr. Ker win: I Nish to acknodelge your letter, 44th enclosure, to Miss Van Kleeck which came luring her absance from the city. It will be brought to her attention uron her return on Monlay. Sincerely yours, ALL https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis Secretary to Mies Van Klseok. DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY WASHINGTON April 11, 1919. 1:emorandum for the Zirector, .1.z,n in Industry Service: Tith tha return of the attached letter fro Lynden Evans, will you kindly submit a meriorandum with reapect to its subjsct matter for the information of the Secretary. Assistant to the Secretary. Inclosurs. https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis ligy 10, 1919. MEMORANWM: les 'pew Robert Watson, Assistant to the becretary. Ihry N. Winslow, Woman in Industry Service. Subject: ianibite. to agree entirely with Mr. Ford's suggestions to 20th April you. exhibits contained in tile meneirantum of I feel also that sush a sobane of exhibit as Mr. Ford has outlined will require the serviees ef one person who is expert in preparing and arranging exhibits and who should have entire charge of the Labor Drnartment exhibit. . As for methods of portraying graphically the work Of the lime in Industry Service we fool that our exhiolt which is aimed:7 The standprepared is the only possible way of showing our work. aids which are represemted en our exhibit panels are what we are The methods by adveeLting and trying t4 get generally followed. which we are presenting and backing up the standards by making special studies and investigat;ons, etc., can hardly be shown in photogra iha. In addition to that difficulty we have no funds with which additional exti:At mpterial. prepare we can _A https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis trAY T DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY WASHINGTON Nag 14 WI& Memorandum for liis s Mary N. Winslow, Women in Industry Service. I alit** karst° a ow it * soltoosplaaii stow amaraitias WWII has Ws baadad ma Ity Dr* Ford at So Newlag OerperatLoa. Ilas I rolzw$t to somata° at *Fiala° 1wI sla this 441 ts Vim prs*UIsbU$ pragmarattai of row szkibit• gpraoral ides ist MO 1911) joPY• AtiLmi Proms To s Dates Jaws Ford ltr. Bober t 'gatson April 30, 1919. Sub.'s()ts 11,:x)kibi ta. ut,44 in order to *tow the American publio effectively the sort• Of service which the Federal Department of Labor performs I would like to recommend that special attention be given in the preparation of the sm. hibits within the Department to series of photographs describing graphically the function of each of the Bureaus or Services within the Departmsn t. The meeting held this morning indicated to roe thit the tendency of each department would be to represent chiefly the kind of conditions which each service is prepared to improve. I do not wish to minimize the importance of photographs or charts showing the kind of condition which etch branch of the Department of Labor mist meet. It is hiOily important that the Children's Bureau, for example, should have charts showing relative infant mortalitw by ace groups, by months,of the year, eta.; of tha t the Immigration Service should show types of immigrants received at ialis island; that the Bureau of labor Statistics should illustrate types of occupational disowns, ani the VEtrkitig Conditions Service types of acr°Went. But in addition to photographs of this sort ?Allah forcibly indicate the need of the Department of Labor services it seems to me desirable that each Bureau or Service should be ins truoted, and if neoessary assisted to prepare a series of photographs or diagrams which woad show each of the main kinds of problem which it meets and how it meets that problem. Thus the Ohlkiren's Bureau could show how it protects the child throtIgh each s tage of it s growth beginning with pre-natal care, the care of infants, protection from poverty, from delinquency, from child labor, etc. The Bureau of Immigration could ahoy the history of the immigrant in his relations to the Bureau beginning with his first contact with the Immigration Service in the country of enigration, showing inspection of immigrants, can of &migrants at Ellis Island and distribution of immigrants; to be followed by an exhibit from the Bureau of Naturalisation showing the process of naturalisation and the various kinds of means lied to presets Âme ricaniza ti on. The same me thod of indioat Jug contacts of a Byrom with its clialtele in their usual order of INIqueiCe could be followed by so st, if not all of the bureaus of the Department of Labor. Juoh an exhibit could be made distinctly interesting and graphic, and would at the a este tism help mate ria1ly to °duos te the American voter to the significance of the remarkable wolk dcne by the Department of Labor. https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis 4'2 tal July 15, 1919. Honorable William B. Wilson, Secretag of Labor, C. My 4ear Mr. Wilson! I very much regretted not being able to have an appointment with you today Ln order that I might personally submit my resignation snd discuss with you severaa important matters in connection with it. When you return to Washington I hope that you will giVe me an early opportunity to confer with you. As I am sure you ovpreciste,it is of great importance now to plan the future program of the Women's Bureau. In submitting my resignation I venture to a*k that in advance of & decision regariing the avpoinment of my suocessor, I hate &II opporturdty to confer with you regorging this program ani the relstion of the 110111110010k new director to the policy to be adopted. Sincerely yours, mn/ALL https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis Mary Van Kleeck, Director Women's Bureau U. S. DEPARTMEffT OF LAMB, Office of the Secretary Washington July 30, 1919. To all officers of the Department of Labor: The Civil Service regulations, as amended by an executive order of the President, place upon the Federal Board for Vocational Educs.tion the responsibility of testing, training, and certifying to the United States Civil Service Commissi on disabled soldiers, sailors and marines who desire to enter Civil Service employment. The amended regulations permit the fullest cooperation of government agencies with the Federal Board, in the vocational rehabilitation of men disabled in the war against Germany. Everybody desires to cooperate with the Federal Board in the discharg e of its duties to men disabled in the service. Individuals and private institut ions are oorking with the Federal Board in a most patriotic way. The Governme nt Departments have been desirous of lending full =operation. This is now possible because of the removal of certain restrictions. Arrangements for meeting this changed situation have bean worked out by representatives of the Federal Board for Vocational Education and the United States Civil Service Commission and are stated in a publication of the FederU Board designated as C. L. H. #66, copy of which is attached hereto. Additional copies of this circular letter can be obtained by addressing the Federal Board for Vocation Educaal tion, Washington, D. C. The Federal Board proposes to discharge its obligations under the amendments to the Civil Service regulations through cooperative arrangements with the Government Departments and through the expert advice, counsel, and assistan ce of Government officials and employees. The amended regulations permit the Civil Service Commission to exempt a disabled soldier, sailor, or marine from the physical requiTements providing he has been tested or trained, and certified by the Federal Board for Vocational Education. The executive order also permits the Federal Board to utilize government facilities and the services of Federal officers and employees in the execution of this provision. The Federal Board has outlined the procedure set forth herein to reach the ends desired and you are hereby authorized to cooperate with its agents in the execution thereof. You are permitted and authorized to arrange with agents of the Federal Board to try out disabled soldiers, sailors and marines by &practical test on the job to determine if the disabled man has the physical ability to perform the work required . If the test indicates that the man can qualify physically, you are authorized to arrange with the Federal Board to train the man Non the job' for the work he is to perform, providing this kind of training, in the opinion of the Federal Board, is desirable and feasible and, in your opinion, is not seriously detrimental to the public service. If such training is deemed to be seriously detrimental to the public service, a detailed report giving the reasons for this decision should be made to the Department for transmittal to the Federal Board, and if deemed advisable for conference as to the final disposition of the case. https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis -2-. It is not expected that there will be a large number of placement training cases, which means sinply that the man is trained on the job by a government employee or official. Most casas after a try out for ph7sical ability All be trained in establiShed institutions offering suitable courser,. Probably not a very large number cf case s will need to be tried out by a practical test of physical ability.. This questi rt can usually be determined through the joint action of the Federal Board and the United Statekivil Service Commission. This is simply and solely a "tryout" and "training" proposal of the Fedand does not imply that the person being tried out for phasioal ability Board eral or trained to perform the detailed work of &position will be placed in the specific position in which he is tried out or trained but in a like position elsorihere by regu ar methods under the amended civil service regulations and Vocational Rehabilitation Act. Men being tried out or trained as set forth herein Nill receive no reration from the government other than the stipulated wane paid by the Federal Bo ard under the provisions of the amended Vocational Rehabilitation Act. Any arrangements entered Into for placement training, should be submitted to the Federal Board for Vocational Education, Washington, D. C., tarough the Federal Board district office. Before any further action is taken, km, Federal Board, through a designated representative, will confer with the person delegated by the department oncerned to represent it in these matters. If the agreement eeceived the joint aproyal of the Department representative and the Federal Board, the placement training can begin under the agreement. No further formal arrangements will be required to test or "try-out" a man's physieal ability to do the mirk of a specified job. This can be done by mutaal agreement between the local representatives of the Federal Board and the government agenqy concerned, acting under this authorization. "Test" and "Try-out" oases need itocal reprectntatives to to be referred to Was_ington only when it is impossible for amounts in reality to agree, or when the test is likely to be prolonged so that placement training. You are requested to cooperate in every way possible to assist in tas "roper conqummation of this effort. Secretary. G https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis *QUM'S BUR/1AI; U.S.Depertment of Labor Washington GRAMM IN WOMAN'S INDUSTRIAL OCCUPATIONS, 1914-1918 The tremendous range of manufacture required to equip our forces for actual warfare is reflected in the War Department's official statement that the American ordnance catalogue of supplies auring the recent war there were over a hundred thousand separate and distinet items." k When the war broke out there was a seasoned, hare-drilled army of women workers in manufacturing industries and a woman army of larger proportions in the other wage-paying activities. But the most important of the industries which sprang Into prominence as war agent and implement industries upon our entrance into the world conflict--the industries most wren/lied and strained by the first impact of war orders-were not, except in the ease of cartridge making, conspicuous employers of woman labor, thou6h some wore among the largest employers of male workers. bilethermore, so far as skilled labor was eoaeerned, with but few exceptions, woman workers were a negligible part of the working force in industries from which the blades an: bullets, the guns, grenades, an- gases, and all the other implements of war were requisitioned for the battle fields of the earth, the air, and the water. The number of women in tle iron and steel industry--which was foremost In the manufacture of firearms and ammunition--constitutod less than 3 percent of the working force in 1914, and but little more apparently in 1916. During the war, believer, the proportion of women after the first draft in the iron and steel plants was double the proportion for 1914, anti more than treble after the second draft. The labor shortage and excessive deeande on Industries essential to the prcduction of tmplaments and agents of warfare resulted during the war in in these (a) A sharp increase in the numbnr of women eorkere war. the during Industries (b) A marked decrease in the number of women in the traditional woman-employing industries, resulting In a relief of the long-standing congeetion of woman labor in these pursuits and In part contributing to a marked increase in the wage scales of the women remaiuing in these industries. employment of women labor in oth(r *killed crafts from The (0) whist' women had been practically debarred before the war. America's Munitions 1917-18, Report of Benedict Crowell, Assistant Secretary of War, Director of Munitions, Washington, 1919, p.21. https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis The success attending the musrgency employment of women in occuptions requiring a high degree of skill and the expansion of commercial trade, resulted in the retention of women in most of thsse crafts and industries after the close of the war and bade fair to encourage a larger use of woman labor. War-tims information furnished by official agencies shows the number of men and the number of women employed after the first and after the seeond draft, the number of firms substituting women for men, the smaiber of women substituted an, the number of firms Increasing the woman labor force without substitution. Theee data include reports from nearly 15,000 firma representing all leading industries and employing nearly 2,500,000 wage earners. Such reeords were supplemented by an intensive analysis of gibs, stitution based on data secured directly through personal interviews by Womenis Bureau field agents. In this particular study 562 of the 3,558 firms reporting etbstitutions during the war were visited. Establishments were selected for field work in those industries and those localities in which thu available war-time data revealed the greatest substitution of women workers for nen. The field agents also secured date on thq retention of 'men employed 9 months after the armistice in plants in *ilk substitution had occurred %luring the war. The four tables that foil's Summarize this information. The aucoeeding pages glve a list of occupations in which women were substituted for men. ?Ales 1 anu 2 show proportions of wawa in various industries befOre, during, *nu after the war; sad numbers of wamen sUbstituted and added but not substituted in a large number of planta in 21 war agent and implement or war food and fabric industries, They are based on data from the War Industries Board, the Bureau of tho Census ana other agencies. Tebles 3 and 4 oho% number,lo ana proportions of women onployed before, during and after the war in 474 identical firms ?Dated by nomen's Bureau agents. https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis Table 1. Pr000rtion of WaAen on Labor Force of Loediug Mar At and Implement Industries Before, During. and Aftc.,r the *sr.)" Industry t : : 1914I Iran snd steal and Vivi? products : Issiber and its remesadaotures : Sars,steen and eles*ric rallroadilid: railroad repair Amps : etose.alay„ and glass medinits t Leather and its finiAled predueta : Obemleals and allied pmedmets : natal and metal produfte (other thaw iron and steel) Autancbilesoinaluding bodies end : : : parts llaetriael neshineimpparstes and : suprlias : WA*,goods : Carriagssora materials andgos Agrieultural implements : 2 WWII; IV - 1 N9 /MS t : After : ASter : 19164 : first : *wand uurt : draft 29: 33: 40: 21: : : 2: 2: 39: 277* 85 : 59: 304* 79 : : 150* 61 t 46 a : 29 : 115 1 307* 98 1 95 94 55 155 330 142 t 148* : 18: : : 21: : 202: 205: 15 : 10: 175: 187: 15 a 18* 81: 1: 154 1 : 277 a : 152: 77 a 149 1 : 44 a 3 94 a 1 68 1 : : 1 : : a 16 : 154 : 263 a 85 : : 178 114 s 214 t 277: 22 : 15 : 165 : : 1 : 1919 4/ : ri29 „il : 1 t : 270 3 43 t 55 38 3 74 337 181 a 191 : : 43 : : : 173 116 2 : • : : 37 : 158 50 285 237 4V 187's Musts:al implements : 77 1 260 : 246 : 185 ShipbuiLAng,inaluding boat-bulLAng: 2: 6 : 2 . • 1 7 1 Optical pads 2 265: 327: 251 t 315 371 : . Motion stature and pbotogra-tic . • : • : dp2aratus and supplies a 278 a t 303 a 351 347 : 232 Instrumentsociettiflo dm : : : : : professional : 156 : 145 : 17I : 135 : 245 liolMsrcycles,bleyelespand ?arts : 20 t 66 : 98 I 91 : 96 Airplanon,seaplanea, and parts t t Yle : 186 ) a 25 131 3 40 Tot 116 a 7; 100 : ,107 1. a Timm d f.kt1.4 by the l'orusee Duress in 1920. Womenla Bureau pul.1200%Noulso print, Table 1, p.35. f/ Indu9trive are arrane,04 in order of importause acoordim; to the Census of Uanufactures, 1914. 1/ Prom Cons-,s of Xanufactures, Deasiber 1914 anti /emery 1929. .L/ *Aft:r first draft!; kmmtmissimm a period 7 to 8 =atlas after the first draft in Iehruorpliarah,1918, *iftc,r second draft, nsiforawdia a perto;: I. to 5 aonths after the second draft in OctIciberwi1arelber4918; 1916 refers to surzir figure.; and 1919 refers to Anguate1919, 9 after the signing of the artistic*. ed by likv.enws Btreau fieltA agents. Data dillifrom Wer Industries Board and °then. Federal agencies, sup --"'VaMtala https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis -41111.111111"1"1"1.1"1"1"4166 4.. Table 2.-Women Employed After First and Second Drafts and Substituted on Men's Work or Added Without Substitution After Second Draft in Plants in 21 War Agent and Implements or War Food and Fabric Industries. 1/ (From Schedules of the War Industries Board and (ither Federal Agencies) Industry :Increase in force :Substitution of :Firms :Total : Women :of women without :employ- :women on ments work :firms : employed :substitution :report-:Atter :After :ing wo- : : Women : Women Women : Women :first :second:men : substituted:employed: added :draft :draft :after 2d: employed : :draft 116: 488: 1,318: 34: 1,887: 2,696: 6: f(2/ : 3,412: 44) :( errfel. ) part 144: 1,437: 4,902: AutomobilesklicludiTm bodies : 9,500: :(2/ 19: 44: 1,515: 1,406: Buttons 78: 162: 36: Carriages,wagons oimicli materials 15: 324: 836: Cars(teamptmui electric)pailreetsl. 749: 776: Dental goods 14: 172: 5,277: 6,786: Electrical machineryon-‘ozmAttgoksupplies: 122: 1,137: 1,048: FurQanning,dyeing,4.4+#1 renianufactur9 Agricultural implements Airplanes,seaplanesie,a4 parts Hats, caps, and their materials (InstrumentsOcientifi043-441-e+es.T1omai Motion Dicture,photodereimit4e-e.mmere4tts alm4 supnlies ) Tem4 Darts L-otorcycles,bicyc1es Irlusic,1 instruments Optical goods Railroad repair shops Rubber goods :( • : :( -ryet-tritte.,--erfe- 1/ 7/ : 8 14 155 93 323:11,249: 8,208: 892: 768: 46: 312 38 3,339: 7: 168: 287: 77: 2,341: 3,557: 30 6 64 507: 182: 21 32: 2,827: 21: 10: 80: 462: 137: 6,633: 7,772: : 3,916: 3: :(2/ al4.4 ,63.T: 72: 246: 43 Shipbuildir+1,44. boat building :( 5: 1(2/ 30: 1,306: 1,716: Surgical appliances /4 artificial limbs 827: 812: 53: Toys and sporting goods 6,766: 3791_2,310: Miscellanig_;goods It-Total* plants repertag after *Iviih: 1st pme2nd drafts - 33 TQ4:-Total for all plantsiu4ix*; 57 26 6 107 • 19 33 23 6 73 3 • ; 2 29 50 340 1,827:47,178:54,368: 1,510 •,24 :v 1,860: :71,830: 1,543 : 980 1,953 3,412 2,713 7,806 573 131 836 317 4,751 100 1,694 699 743 799 2,412 1,917 6,739 46 51 556 38 1,385 26 104 278 3,129 283 3,386 355 346 225 1,048 103 37 994 375 101 453 89 6,518 375 174 634 374 344 3,r3 32,972 : 45,199 : 110 112 637 270: 576 : 89 452 728 : 265 262; 21 12: 5 161; 1,010 : 638 : 1,399 : 94: 10 349 206 328 72: 18 113: 144: 3: 614 : 44 47 3 134 208: 93 1,203 : 320 : 460 22 127 292 9,656 : 8,778 : 2,965 19,635 of print). Table 21, p.78. Adapted from a Study by the VR)men's Bureau in 1920. Women's Bureau Bul.12 (now out tial) draft only.(5 second the after reporting firms When figures are bracketed the lower one represents papers. abrasive end materials, roofinp; pipes, Includes beds, mattresses, brooms, pens, https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis -4- Table 3.-NuMber of Wage larmorn laployed Before, During and After the War in 474 Identical Firms In Leading War Agent and Implement Industries. 1/ : firms Industry Iron and steel and their product. Metal and metal products other tban Iron and steel 2 Lumber and its remanufaeturee Leather and its firiahed products Chemicals and allied products Autemobilest inclukAng bodies and parts Electrical machinery, apparatus and supplies Inatruments,soientific antl professional Othcr industries nnmber o; man na,ibok otwoe :After :After : :After :After : 1916 :first :secQnd : 1919 : 1916 :first :second Wraft ;craft : 2 :draft :draft 1919 162: 87,815: 85,863: 90,331: 70,710: 6,062: 10,403: 16,819: 8,467 62: 0,164: 130: 26,321: 18: 15.493: 332 15,526: 15: 6,336: 45,052: 46,8n7: 23,114: 21,046: 14,530: 13,357: 24,952: 24,122: 7,163: 13,254: 36,713: 8,795: 9,023: 11,605: 8,065 25,4181 850: 1,088: 2,701: 1,933 16,914: 5,227: 5,807: 6,1791 6,964 562: 1,856: 3,628: 1,582 23,159: 9,203: 311: 451: 2,814: 1,390 ;445. 14: 4.5491 4,605: 4,474: 5,312: 904: 1,0121 1,056: 1,103: 10: 72: 30: 15.213: 19903: 19.$81: 21.828: 2.5643 3071 1,359: 283: 328: 6.164: 985 236 .370 Adapted from a Study made by the lamenss Bureau in 1920. Women s Bureau Bul.12 (now out oi print), Table 26, p. 99. a/ Includes plants in following industries: 5, airplanes, seaplanes, an arts; 2, bicyales,motorcycles, an parts; 1, surgical appliances and artificial limbs; 3, motion piOturas on, iAlotographic apparatum and supplies; 3, ears, steam and electric railroad; 1, optical goods; 4, musical tnatruments; 7, rubber gooci.; 4, atoms, clay, ad glass. https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis -5- Table 4. - Proportion of Wage larners Imployed Defers, During, and After the War in 474 Identical lima in Leading War Agent and Iaplement Industriee.1/ Number of man per 1._000 canloieca Number of women per 1.000 OND107006 :Aftr :After 1916 :first :second 1 1919 :4rtft tdratt :After :After : Industry Iron and steel and their products Notal anG. Astal producte, other than iron nun steel Lumber and its ?manufactures Leather and its finished products Chmlcals and allied products Automobiles, including bodies and parts t Fleotrical maahinery, ap,aratus and supplies Instrum.Ints,scitntific 1,f.nd professional t Other inauatries 1916 :firbt :seeond t 1919 :draft :draft : 162: 935f 892: 343: : 65: 108 t 157: 107 62: 130: 18: 33: 15: 848: 969: 748: 965: 953: 833: 955: 714: 931: 941: 794: 866: 6841 870: 623: 320 : 929 : 706 : 936: qb9 : 152: 31: 252: 35: 47: 167 : 45* 266 t 69* 59 206: 114: 316: 131: 175: 180 71 292 64 131 14: 10: j01 886: 926: 856: 938: 781: 818: 767: 763: 74.3: 844 : 824 : 803 7 114: 74: 14: 62 : 219 t 82L 1 233: 237: 337: 156 176 197 Total, 174 3"9:i:.`k 370: er 1 , Adapted from a Study made by the Women s Bureau in 1920. tio:,ents BurGeu Bul.12 (now out of print). ?bole 26, p. 89. a/ includes plwats in following, industries: 5, airplaney,, seaplanes, and parts; 2, bicycles, motorayelos, and parts; 1, surgicel appliances aria artificial limbs; 3, motion pictures and photographic apparatus and supplies; 3, cars, steam ane. electric railroad; 1, optical Goode; 4, musical iustrusbnts; 7, ruL.ber(pods; 4, stone, clay, and glass. https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis 6 U. S. DEPAFTMENT OF LAir R WOVEN'S BUREAU Washington LIST OF OCCUPATIMIS IN wVICH NOKINitrE suBsyrrum FOR 1. Blast furnaces and steel works.-.nag chemical analyses of steel, operating crane, loading limestone rock on oars, other laboring jobs about the yolks. 2. Smelting and refining of brass and copper.-.Making chemical analyses in laboratory, shearing scrap. $. Metal rod, tube, bar, and shoot manufacturing.—reading and taking off in rolling mill, strairtening tubas, slitting, trimming, operating press, inspecting in tube mill, inspecting on draw bench, inspecting finishing room, sorting scrap, cutting up scrap on alligator shears, balling up scrap on automatic machine, oiling roll engines, grinding on emery wheels, scouring, inspecting and drying sheets, pecking bars, nailing cases, assorting nails, riveting hoops, operating stencil machine, weighing, trucking, operating cranes, testing in laboratory, laboring, machining in repair shop and tool room, shop clerking. 4. sire and wire goods manufacture..Ainding on bobbins, operating stranding machine, braiding wire, weaving netting, weighing, inspecting, operating speed lathes, operating light power press, operating lignt drilling machine, brazing (with a brasier), lacquering,filing. 5. Foundries (iron, steels brass, aluminum, etc.).--Core making by hand, core making by macnine, spraying cores, straightening and sorting nails, distributing sand to core makers with wheelbarrow and shovel, carrying plates and boxes of coyest, taking come to and from bake oven conveyor's, cleaningsnd packing cores, sorting castings, grinding castings, chipping with pneumatic hammer and trimming castings, filing castings by hand, drilling, molding, pulling up molds from sand bed and emptying them, inspecting, unloading freight cars of scrap iron, cleaning about yards. 6. Stoves and furnaose..-Turning and threading radiator nipples, bushes, and plugs; assembling radiators; operating hand-screw machine on gas stove parts; operating punch prose on sheet steel; cutting in tin shops; riveting in tinchops; assembling in tin snaps; soldering; spraying and dipping; bench work, as filing, chipping, etc. 7. Cannon and tainmem mount manufacturing.--roup boring on gun tubes on gun lathes; planing recuperator forgings on heavy planer operated by hand and foot lever; planing recuperator forgins on power-driven planer; planing bars on ithitcomb planer; snaping of breech mechanism parts OR Cincinnati caper; finisning surfaces of small parts on plain stilling macnine; boring and countersinking on turret lathe; rough and finished turning on wens lathe of pinions, spindles, and tumblers for gun serrimes, plungers, eta.; rough =Wig turning and boring axle ends; drilling holes on https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis -2.. sensitive and radial drills; grinding plungers on Landis tool grinders; milling the top, bottom, feel, and radius of elevating arch on horizontal miller; milling parts on vertical miller; forewoman of drilltgg department; operating automatic screw machine; slotting on breech mechanism; gear cutting; operating power hack saws; bench work - and filing of wheels, hand stamping, miscellaneous; inspecting. 8. High-axplosive or shrapnel shell manufacture.--Shell proper: Hand chipping, burrs removed by pneumatic hammer; rough turning to repair eccentric forgings on shells weighing 14 to 22 pounds; drilling on shell forginTs; forge inspecting with gauge; rough turning on engine lathes and on turiet lathes; facing bass square with bodymon vertical drilling machine; boring and reaming of thread on turret lathe; milling internal thread on shell nose; finish turning shell body on engine lathe; boring and facing on special-mrpose lathes; operating Warner & &may screw machines; operating Blood lathes; operating Tapping lathes; drilling fixing-screw hole on sensitive drill; operating hand-screw machines; assembling bass plates in shell base with hand hammer; driving in base plates on pneumatic rtreters; sawing off square stems on power saw; filing burrs; cutting out copper bands on punch presses; notching on punch press and fitting copper driving band; crimping band on shell by hydraulic punch pressomnbatttbqpcmoqspamixixiowlonot; turning and forming driving band on engine latre with special forming slides or on brass laths; stamping mama and number on bliss puncn press; notching on emery wheel or by hand with her; lashing on revolving wheel; varnishing with air-pressure machines; painting by hand; cleaning with cotton; inserting plug with hand wrench; marking; packing; passing shell from boxes to tables; inspecting sells after rough turning, rough boring, finish boring, mouth threading, finish turning, basing, nand turning, and final inspection, using gauges and micrometers; finish grinding shell and parts. Fusel's Turning fuse bodies, drilling, milling, reaming, turret lathe work, emgraving, assembling, polishing, filing and bencn work, tool crib work, inspecting, operating punch press. 9. Machine.gun and rifle manufacture...41mb and fini.kh turning title barrel, profiling gun parts, hand milling on gun and rifle parts, reaming, power milling,dtrilling, operating punch press, polishing, grinding rifle barrel, filing, inspecting, assembling. 10. Pistol and revolver manufaotnre..Fand milling, macAne milling, grinding and polishing, drill.press operating, bench filing, assembling, ins=a cling. 11. Torpedo manufacture.--Threading and hlurrinT, inspecting and Cusgifts polishirg, assembling, bsnch work (small lathe). 12. Navy float manufacture.-.Acetylene welding, https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis - 313. Cartridge and shot shell manufacture4W--Cartrides: Feading drawing press, feeding automatic trimaiag machine, operating mum hea,,Vply machimes fooling mouth annealing achine, footling head turning maehine, s' feeding tapering press, hooding primer making press, feeding shell priming press, feeding bullet assembling prase, plate filling for loading machines, inspecting, operating cartridge-guaging machine, operating cartridge-clipping machine, packing. Stet aed @bell: Paper shell minding, feeding sizing machine, cutting le leegth4 waterproofing, inspecting wads and shells, feeding paper shell assembly press. Bullet jackets: Operating punch press, inspecting, 14, Metal work on trench warfare material..Orenades: Core making, inspecting, castiws, operating lathe on rifle, drilling, inspectingshammer assembly of springs, fitting plugs, wax dipping. Bomb parts: Drillings inspecting gears, making gears, operating power punch press, assembling timing devices, assusibling bombs, painting bombs, varnishing bombs, inspecting bombs, acetylene welding. 15. Steam or gasoline engine, turbine and pump manufacture.-.Cutting blades on presses, aseeMbling blades in rotor disks and segments, calking tubes into tube plates of condensers, assembling pump parts, drilling on governor parts, azemmiktag turning governor parts on engine lathes, milling governor parts, grinding governor parts, assembling governor parts, drilling gasoline engine parts, grinding gasoline engine parts, operating semiautomatic lathe, operating turret lathe, erecting, painting, bearing babbittings filings packing, stockroom work. 16. Manufacture of machines, machinery, and parts..-Cutting, rough and finish threading, and throsting chasers on milling machines; rough and finish milling on die blocks; rough and fin‘zish grinding on die blocks; turnings milling, threadimaidrillings and screw-machine operating on lathe parts; operating milling machines, grinders, turret lathes, and doing bench work on milling machine parts; operating angina lathes, drill presses, and doing assembling on drilling machine parts; operating lathes, drills, and automatic machines, and inspecting and assembling tool-grinding machines; boring, facing, and turning oar blanks on lathe; cutting gears on Follows gear shaper; operating Gleason gensrator; milling teeth; burring, filing, and inspection of gear cutting machine parts; operating power punch press on looms and other machine parts; milling on typesetting, cigar, weaving, and other machine parts; drilling (sensitive multispindles radial, and vertical) on cigar, weaving, coal-cutting, and other machine parts; operating hand screw machine on various =china parts; operating automatic screw machine on various machine parts; grinding parts of various macrines; inspecting parts of various machines; bench work; filing; painting; assembling of parts and maciAnes; packing. The opening of new plantain this manufacture makes it difficult to determine where tie line of substitution should be drawn. https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis - 4-. 17. Tool manufactaring...Centering, facing on engine lathe, boring on lathe, rough turning on engine lathe, threading on chasing lathe, profiling, power milling, nand milling, operating automatic screw machina, operating hand scrim machine, drilling, counterbortmat ULppdxg, grinding (rough and finish), filing, polishing, operating punch press, burring, inpecting with guages and micrometers, pasting and shellacking, carpentering, wrapping. 18. Manufacture of cutlery and saws.--Attending saw-setting machines, milling nack-sew blades and high speed saws, filing hack-swe bladesommching on hack. saw blades, grinding on saws, inspecting saw teeth, attending automatic cutting machines on blades, attending automatic honing machines on blades, attending automatic stropping machines on blades, drilling, threading bolts, riveting pooket cutlery, asseibling pocket cutlery. 19. Manufacture of small machines...Sewing machines: Drilling, operating hand milling macine, inspecting with gusges, grinding, polishing, lapping, assembling. Typewriters: Sample writing, fitting ribbon, grinding nickel bare, doIdering type, fitting paper feed rolls, fitting segment bars, grinding key levers, reaming and tapping, drillling, assembling, operating punch Press, milling, miscellaneous machine operating, bench work. Adding machines: Making springs, bench assembling* operating drill press, operating assembling machines, operating milling machines, spot molding. Cash registers: Operating drill press, operating hand screw maeine, operating milling machine, riveting, bench work, assembling, inspecting, packing, operating for tests. 20. Manufacture of hardware and miscellaneous machine-shop products.—.Bolts, nuts, and screws: Threading bolts, burring nuts, operating hand screw machine on screws* operating drill press, inspecting. Locks: Milling, drilling, assembling, wrapping. Miscellaneous builders' hardware: Operating turret lathe, turning on engine lathe, shaping, milling, operating automatic screw machine, inspecting, assembling packing. Valves, piston rings, and fittings: Drilling flanges, turning on lathe, threading, rough grinding, magnet heel grinding, assembling, wrapping. Metal mirrors: Wiping. boaleas Operating punch press, drilling. 21. Minufaoture of agriculture implements.-..Turning and boring on lathes, operating turret lathe, milling, drilling, operating hand serve, operating automatic screw masbine, gear cutting, rethreading, grinding, operating punch press, filing, other bend* work, inspectingossesibling small parts, assembling tractors, assembling radiators, weldingisoldering, heating rivets, dry wiping, painting, peeking, bowl balancing, drafting, tacking canvas, operating crane, repairinstmel crib work, helping in tool room, laboring. 22. Manufacture of railwar, street Car, and field wagon equipment.--Metal works Drilling, milling, heatinggrivets, sticking rivets, threading bolts, operating drawing press. Other works Handling lumber, operating sanding machina„ operating planing machine, oameaflaga painting, painting and putting together boxes, mattress working, ssembling switches, scrubbing and sweeping, tool crib working, shop clerking. https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis - 5.. 23. %Dtal work in automobile manufacture.—Operating engine lathe on axle and engine parts;operating turret lathe; operatIng speed lathe; milling on engine parts; heading and slotting screws; gear cutting; stock chasing; drilling (single and multiple drills); operating punch press; straightening; bench work; inspecting; electric welding; acetylene welding; soldering; riveting; assembling steering gear, transmissions, universal Joints, etc.; laboring; upholstering; time kosping. 24. Manufacture of motor cycles and bicycles.... ring; and reaming on lathes, drilling, milling, gear cutting, operating sear hopoor, inspecting, sanding, helping rivet vachine operator, assembling wheels and other parts, packing, wrapping, time keeping and shop o?fice work. 25. Prase and bronze fabrications.--Operating speed lathe, operating engine lathe, operating turret lathe, operating band screw machine, operating autoratic screw machine, operating autcyfatic lathe, drilling, milling, grinding, cutting and punching on power and foot presses, pairing, spring making, filing, feeding for electroplating, dusting and shining, assembling, inspecting, wrapping, tool setting, time keeping. 2o. Manufacture of tin and aluminua containers and utensils.-.Casting 'bite metal; cutting sheets on shearing and slitting machines; cutting sheets on punch presses (power, tutt foot, and hand); lock seaming on draw press; soldering; heeding; flanging; lithographing labels on tin, welding; buffing and polishing; inspecting; wrapping; salvaging with hammers, pincer', and mallet; operating motor trunk. 27. Manufacture of lanterns and miscellaneous sheet metal work.... Welding, light punch press work on lanterns, inspecting, buffing, taping, sementing, soldering, assembling, testing. 28. Aluminum manufacture.—Operating rodding and carbon setting machines, helping machinists, holping electricians. 29. Silver nanufacture.--Pnlishing. 50. lieneracture of jewelry.—Polishing, atkpower drops, operating power proloses, souging and pointing, operating foot presses, drilling, operating auto prams, stone setting on presses, soldering. 51. Manufacture of rolled gold—Operating smell lathes, helping with rolling, cleaning sheets to plate, drawing and tubing. 32. Manufacture of clock's watches, and watch cases.-.Cutting on jewel lathtts, threading, fine drilling,filing„ punishing on punch presses (power and foot), sandpaperingscaees, dipping and lacquering, stringing plates for electroplating, assembling, packing, repairing. 55. Manufacture of needles and pins...Operating power press, roll threading. https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis -654. Instrument ranufacture.--Operatinn hand screw machine, operating spindlo drill press, assenbling, operating precision lathe, operating turret lathe, operating punch press, onarating bench lath*, operating Milling machine, operating grinding machine, onsrating engraving wactine, inspecting, bench work finishing. $5. Manufacture of electrical apparatus and supplies.--Making leads; winding in form armature coils; winding transformer and resistance coils; winding magnet spools; insulating or taping coils; connecting eommutators; assembling and connecting armatures; testing tor resistance and insulation; operatinn presses, slitters, and hand screw machines on mica insulations; cleaning spools; molding on hydraulic presses; spooling tissue; spraying; wiring automobiles; press oneratinn on armature bars and plates, wsitahooarc parts, and meter covers; rolling punchings; lathe operating on armature shoulders and on punchings; milling machine onerating on turbinn bucket wheels and brush holders; drill nperatinn on motor and switchboard parts; screw making on hand and automatic moc,4nes; grinding dies; slotting on automatics; stamping and attaching name plates; spinning caps; tapping; stranding wire; braiding mire; assembling; filingsand bench work; inspecting; operating millers, lather, drills, and grinders in tool regal designing tools; stock clerking. SC Met*r and electrical instrument work.—Scale drawing, Jewel shaping on jewelers' lathes, wiring instruments, lathe work, drilling, operating amtesmstic slottinn and screw machine, clearAng and attaching back plate of sister to cover. 37. Yanufaoture lf baking powder and veast.-.0perating Dresses for the separation of liquids froicenditt solids, washing and emptying centrifugal machines, removine debris. M. Manufacture of carbon and polishing nreparationsw-Meighing wax, toremwnman in charge of inspectors, operating small presses, shipping, machine helpinr in lithographic, press department. 39. Var/factvre of chemicals, acids, and dyeatuffs..tinpairing and washing mitts, filling cans, reading mrters, light inspecting, cleaning and sweeping, sewing filled bags, pecking and srippinF, operating elevator, operating power sewing machine, laboring (handling bark), double semmimg cans, side seaming cans, operating small punch press, feeding slitting neahise, labeling, operating power prestos, stamping tin. 40. Manrfacture of smokeless powder, loadinr of shells, bags, fuses, and cartridres..3mokelens powder manyfactnres Operating press, operating cutting machine, temperature raiding, moisture testing, ether weighing, forewomen, corminsary work, laundry work, bag repairing, routine analysis. Leading shellss Removing shirping plugs,'whin( shells, weighing shells, cleaning threads, gouging, polishing cartridge case mouth (using lathe chuck and emery cloth), wiping cast, hand-press stamping, painting groove in cartridge case, weighing powder, loading case with powder, peaking shells. bag loadings Weighing powder, filling bags, operating power sewing machines on bags, assembling and wrapping bags. Its* loadings Disassembling fuse parts, plaeine detonators, inserting washers, painting socket threads, screwing sockets, wrapping fuse with taps, operating Rattle crimping machine, operating pelleting machine, operating charging machinst, operating pressing machine. Cartridge loadings Operating cartridge loading machine. https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis 41. Manufacture of fortiliserse--Sowing bags by hand; trucking, shoveling, bagFing, and loading; sweeping; grinding bone; coopering; tending dry kiln. 42. manufacture of illuminating and heating gas.--Shoveling and wheeling coal, sand, etc.; lamp trimming; meteor repairing; stove adjusting; meter reading; collecting; assisting chemists; oandlepower testing; valve regulators; stock-room checking; cleaning, adjusting, and repairing gas lamps. 43. lanufaetuve of grease, tallow soap, candles, and glee.--Handling glue nets, mixing re, operating automatic soap-cutting machine, feeding automatic ins, feeding automatic soap-wrapping mao.ine, operating automatic asap swirkiaos for packing soap powder, stitching and riveting boxes. 44. Wanufacture of oils from plant, fish , and animal life..-Tricking, handling bags, sewing, cleaning fillers, crushing seed, laboring, operating mar sewing machine on bags, oiling engines, operating grabbot gin, sweeping, assisting in cotton press room. 45. Manufacture of paints and varnishes.—Labeling, shipping, mill operating, filling cans, rag cutting. 46. Manufacture of druggists' preparation.--Pmssing tablets, labeling, janitors' work. 47. Rsfining of petroleum...Operating punch press, Operating drill press, tool-house checking, operating service station, testing in laboratory, geological work, drafting, laboring, waiting on table, d riving electric truck, driving automobile, driving horses, cleanirg yards. 48. Logging oamps.--Signal work, cooking, helping in kitchen and dining rama (*flunkies"), talking care of bunk houses. 49. Sawmills.--Controlling chain and live-roll movements, operating bogging machine, piling lumber, trucking, oiling, cleaning or sweeping, handling lumber in yard, taking care of boarding house eflonkies*), shop clerical work. 50. Planing mills.—.Off-bearing, grading, sorting, bundling, tying, marking, loading. 51. lianufacture of shingles and Staves, barrel heads, and other will byeproduots.--Stock picking, operating cut-off saw, operating jointer, operating all planer, operating matcher, operating barking machine, helping machine feeders, off-bearing, bundling, Vine, shingle packing, loading, laboring. 52. Manufacture of sashes, doors, blinds, moldings, and other kinds of builders' materials.--nperating cut-off saw, operstingoortising machine, operating sticker machine, mac_ine helping, operating sanding maahine, off-bearing, assembling and pumicing sashes, bundling small moldings, matching parquet flooring, flooring, !Usk finishing woodworks cleat gang work, loading and unloading trucks, gluing. 53. leaden pecking box sad cooperage manufacture.-4perating boring 'machine, operating groovin4: machine, helping rip sawyer, off-bearing,printing, painting, lodonnisININISIVIadaPtlarMilliallaPaliri" laboring, matching and sorting staves, operating sander, 'wiping hop meohine, operating pail-sealing machine, gluing, puttiniz on wire seals, assembling pail heads, pasting, sweeping. WO ' https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis , c• -8• 54. Veneer manufacture.--Operating veneer saw; off-bearing; sorting, inspecting; and piling; feeding and taking away from dryer; assembling and gluing; splicing; operating boring machine; feeding dovetailing machine; swing ledges; operating veneer taping machine; operating drum: sander; stockroom work. 55. Manufacture of furniture.--uarking for sawyers; operating band and circular saw; operating trimmer; boring; mortising; planing; sanding(beit and drua); operating lathe; knob turning; spindle carving; press carving; composition carving; stenciling; cleaning carving; machine helping; off-bearing; cabinet making; helping cabinetmakers; nailing and gluing; finishing; staining; filling; varnishing; hand sanding; rubbing or polishing; sponging; gluing on ornaments; :tatting mirrors in frames; assembling small cabinets; making type cases; rubberstamp molding; making pads; caning chairs; operating elevator; laboring. 56. Manufacture of miscellaneous woodmork,--Nhaels: Operating spoke-finishing machine, boring foliose, sanding foliose, filling spoke crevicas, sorting spokast gaming spoke handles, planing, painting wheels, trucking and piling, helping. %sons and cars: Planing, sanding, painting. Other wooden articles: Making snap flasks by machine; cork-machine splitting; sandpapering coat hangers; nailing and riveting ironing boards; laring webs for bee baskets; gluing, tacking, and trimming linings to coffins; operating match machine; sweeping. 57. kin:amen mad seaplane manufacture.-.Metalwork: Turning on turret lathe, turning on speed lathe, drilling, milling engine parts, profiling engine parts, grinding engine parts, cutting and threading on hand-screw machine, punching on maddig punch press, filing, layout work, keeping tool room, acetylene and electric welding, brazing, helping coppersmith, sheet-metal working, coppering struts, tube bending, splicing cable, wrapping wire, soldering wire, enameling, electric rivet heating, scraping, forewomen, inspecting. Weedierks Operating band saw, helping jointer, helping molder, helping strut lathe workerthelping variety sawyer, halting band resawyer, helping power feed rip sawyer, helping cabinetmaker, sanding, gluing, finishing, building small wooden boats, painting and varnishing, assembling webs, constructing panels. Textile work: Operating sewing machine; coverimg, gluing, and sewing canvas on kaw: wings, etc.; doping; inspecting. Miscellaneous works Wiring up, assisting airplane erectors, mechanical drafting, photographing, charting. fge Manufacture of musieal instruments.--Metal work: Operating hand-screw nedhins„ drilling, milling. Woodwork: Helping planers, off-bearing in mill room, WORE cabinets:Worst hand sanding, varnishing and staining, assembling sound be. Misoellomeous works Motor assembling for phonographs, installing motors in phanographs, trimming and fly finishing, felting interiors, string spinning, electnplate stringing and cleaning, player-action work. sg. §Apbunding...Metal work: electric welding, reamer snarpening, bolt and nut threading and oiling, machine-shop helping, tool keeping. Textile work: Oakua spinning, asbestos work, raft cover sawing. Miscellaneous: Sorting refuse, sweep* ing ships, Janitor work in shops, handling lambert driving automobile, driving truck, working in restaurant, working in office. https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis - 960. Rubber manufacture.--Wnning rubber washing machines, running refining and straining macnine, separating rubber shoots, grindinp: ruober, molding rubber noels, cutting and splicing fabric for balloons, making boots, cutting fabrics for tires, joiang fabric, making beads, cutting treads, cording tires, finishing tires, inspecting tires, asking inner tubes, boxing inns? tubes and tires, taping wire coils, weighing rubber and tires, making patches and repairing tires, trucking, stock labeling and inspecting, cleaning. 61. Tanning leathsr.--Operating putting-out leaching's, operating rollers, operating oiling-off mactiines, measuring skins by hand and machine, sorting skins, is trimming, hand finishing. 62. Manufacture of shoes, harnesses, nut adasellaneous leathsr goods.-Cutting uppers, linings, and trimmings; skiving uppers and insoles; sorting cut soles, uppers, heels, etc.; molding counters; sorting counters; stamping and Slashing insoles; ganging heel lifts; tending heeling machine; inspecting and mating; assistant foreseeen; misoellaneous minor operations on shoes; harness maker apprentice; harness finishing; running speed drills; labeling; operating sewing machines; matching bolts; measuring belts; making welt on belts; operating elevators. 65. Clay and glass menufacture.--Off-bearing brick, polishing and cleaning mirrors, cleaning mod packing glass, making claw rolls, helping in puddling, molding small carborundss *eels by nand and by air pressure, cleaning sloggers and resistance rods, disk finishing, packing, trucking, molding paper stock, rssearoh laboratory work, sweeping, laboring, shop clerking. Metal work: Drilling, gear bobbing, milling, operating punch press, bench assembling. 64. hienufacture of optical goods and photographic supplies.--Lens grinding and polishing; lens mounting; lens inspecting; cutting amd marking; bench assembling; forewomen; winding paper rolls, spooling and machine assembling in photographic supply factory. Metal work: Operating lathe, operating screw machine, milling, drilling, grinding, press wmic, inspecting. https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis From, THE FIUBqTITUTION OF !NOMA" FOR MAN POWER IN gnusTRY Cleveland Chamber of Commerce Ally, 1918 Processes. Generally, throughout the United States, there is little scientific the subject of physical adaptability of =men, or of men either, to of study various erocesses. The Women's Division of the City6State Labor Ere:hone in Cleveland reports that punch presses and drill presses wore being operated by large numbers of women and girls in more than 18 plants. Lathes1 milling machines, tapping machines, roll and out thread machines, kiok presses, slotters, shapers were being operated by girls and wen In many ehoes. Double headed countcr sinking machines, grinding machines, emery wheels and buffers, centering machines, four spindle cutting oadhiness six spindle tapping machines, broachin:, filing, burring and facing machines, shears and staple machines wore being operated by mall numbers of women in different plants. Wire knotting machines, brush machines, tack machines, machines for winding and weaving wire were all being operated by women. Large numbers of mum were also winding armataree and making cores. Threading machines (outs thread on the outside), automatic acmes (cuts rin) amd automatic Cleveland. (eomplete screw from rod) were being operated by small eleibers of ecumm6 In at least seven plants women were found doing the work of skilled mechanics or assisting skilled mechanics. One woman was handling a lathe that hAd always been operated by a skilled machanie; one wns workin:; in a department manufacturing fine instruments, several in machine shops, and tool roams, and several in railroad shops, one as a shop clerk and one as timekeeper,and one as weigh clerk. In more than six plants eiris and women were doing drafting and making Women were also found on the following work, although in mall blueprints. numbers; acetylene welding, anEraving, fine gauging and testing, in supply rooms, on messenger and elevator service, dippink and spraying enamel mars, steneilincs painting, soldering, cleaning small metal parts in a bath, wiping engines in roundhouses, (in these oases the engines were "dead", and the women did no climbing), mashing windows in engines with steam up, all kinds of elem. ing and weeping, and seee doing manual labor. , Output. In those plants where they had observed Moan elosely,for the longest time, the general opinion seemed to be that mamma olsol man and boys an short, repetitive operatiors, especially an small work. Women apparently oesa less bothered by the monnteny of "narking on autaml„tio machinery. They are more patients more careful and steadier at their work. Employers using mown in the manufacture of serewis nuts and bolts find that on Blotters and facing machines the vomants output is twice that of the man. One employer found that inexperienced girls will often equal the output of experienced boys; another employer said that in feeding a trimming machine where the man will turn out 700 pieces the women will turn out 2loo. https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis 2 Special tabulation of the number of vouce earners in specifio industries in Cuyahoga County: Dolts, Puts, Washers and Rivets, not made in Steel WORKS and Rolling Mills • • • • • ..ales Females • • •• 1914 1915 1916 3! Te 4m6 • • • • • • • 1,490 358 • • 3,350 5,00 6,930 • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Foundry and Machine Shop Prodiets • • • . 19,166 40,368 45,409 • • • • • . 18.759 29,769 43,989 396 599 1,420 • • • • . 9,856 Moctrical liaohinery, Apparatus and Supplies Males 2raales Forgings Males Females Males Females • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Steel Works and Rolling Mills Males Females • • 2,983 549 3,548 712 3,061 289 5,017 6,286 473 644 1,188 4,o6c 2,131 1,168 4,653 232 2,117 14 9,610 7,110 • • • • • • • • • 9,682 274 Stoves and Furnaces. • • • • . 3,925 3,066 4,061 3,893 32 3,000 56 4,004 57 Males Females • • • • • • • • •• • • • • 9,638 7,000 72 110 A list of oompations in whi_oh women micht be used has been prepared by a committee from the employment department of the Winchester Repeating Arms Oampany. This information is particularly valuable coming from a firm that has had experi'nos with IMMAU labor, especially in the cartridge making department. Adjusters Subassemblers Armature 'winders Assemblers (leaf sight) Assistant foremen Assemblers (small parts and stook) Assistant overseers (planning, Assorters (thief sorter) preparation, inspection, Automatic serrwmaohiner (chief operators) production, schedulingote. Asessiblers Assemblers (bolt) Bench hands Assemblers (cases, cartridge DOOkkeepers Bottom sealers (chief packers) Libelers Brass inspectors (chief inspectors) https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis ballet reaging Sadler. 'arrears Clerks (ear reports) Clerks (eheekers) Clerks (cost and pay) Clerks (dispatching) Clerks (gage) Clerks (label) Compositor Camptameter operators (ehf.opers.) Corner and polishers Counterborers Counters Crimpers retailers Drillers Immel work bread boy latractors (bullets) Extractors (powder) Extrattors (primers) Extrptors (wads) Field inspectors Filers Filers (eornersrs) Filers (to gage) Filling tubes Finishers (female) Forewomen Gagers (bullet) Gagers (Shell) Gas annealers Gluers (levelers) Groove shakers Groover. (bullet) Headers (large) Headers (small) Helpers Inspectors (barrel, outside finish) Inspectors (bullet covers) Inspeetors (overseers) Inspeetors (female) Insposoto rs (grinding) Inspeetors (machine cuts) Instructors Maohine operations (ohiet operations) Matra** Messeagers (chief errand boys) Millers (hand) Numberers (receivers) Operators (automatic screw machine, Browne 3: Sharpe) Operators (comptameter) Operators (cutting-off machines) Operators hand screw machine) Operators machine) Operators magneto separators) Operators planning boards) Operators (press) Overseers (inspection) Overseers (planning) Overseers (preparation) Overseers (production) Overseers (scheduling Packers Packers (bottom sealers) Planning overseers (chief overseers) Planning board operators (chief operators Pocketing Polishers (barrels) Polishers (bolt breech) Polishers (miscellaneous) Poliehers (receivers) Polishers (sights) Preparation overseers (chief overseers) Press feeders Press operators (chief operators) Primers Primers (hand) Punching Qualifiers Remmers (hand) Reducers Reminspeotors Riveters Rubbers (stook) Schedule overseer (chief overseers) Scheduler 4- Scrubbers Sealers, bottom (chief packers) Setting up wheels (polishing) Shellacking Slotting screws Solderers (tin) Sorters (metal) Sorters (scrap) Sorters (shells) Spring benders Spring workers Stompers, steel itsneilers Stenographers Stook clerk (chief clerk) Straighteners (bayonets) Straighteners (shells) Subforemen Supply clerk (chief clerk) Sweepers Tallymen (clerk) Tappers Tappers (hand) Teamsters Testers (concentricity) Testers (primers) Tool-orib clerk (chief clerk) Tracers Tube fillers (chief fillers) Typists Varnishers (Chief finishers) Wgshing wondaws Weighers (chief clerk) Weighers (bullet) Window-curtain makers The processes on whieh women are employed, as compiled from the lists sent in by the employnent and production managers in Cleveland, are as follows: https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis Assembling Assorting-nuts, carbon Automatic drill press Batteries-rolling, pitching, testing, gluing, labelling, wrapping Ilmaeh work.light Box making Bow cutting Bottling water and labelling by machine Burning nuts Bundling weighing,hand drawing, varnishing Candy making Cake finishing Cigars-rolling, bunching Carbons-packing and sorting Cloth piling Coil winding Coring Copper connections-making, polishing Inspecting-carbons, tubing, water bottling Inspecting at machines Inspecting from bench Janitor work Labelling-batteries, bottles Milling Machine sewing-ladies' and men's garments, upholstering Maohine movis.threadimg mmehines, tapping madhines, IMIK covering, ending and lacing maohinos Packing-nutsormall parts, oils and varnishes Painting Punch presses Presses, crowning Pressing--ladiestand men's garmanta Rag Sorting-grading Drill press Drilling Shipping Stoves-oil, small parts Stitching biliklets by power and hand Stook keeper https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis 5- Forewarn= Facing nuts Filling cans and bottles Folding booklets Feeding rag picking machines Feeding rag carding machines Testing carbons Tobacco strippers Trimming..-in garment trades Grinding Gauging Varnishing Hand sewing•ladiest and men's garments, upholstering Hand nutting Heading Upholstering by machine and hand arias carbons Illrapping =all parts Wrnighmasters Those same manacers„ in answer to a question, believe that women could be satisfactorily amplayed on the following additional processess Any box making operation except handling board and paper in bulk Cutting.carments trades industry Electra magnetic press machines Feed presses.printing industry Madhino adjusters Moldins, light Machine operations, light nut making, cold bolt heading, cold S MOW tap fluting Woolen industryk.any prooess aroept those requiring heavy lifting Prone WOMB MKPLOWENT OF -10KEN IN Mt MEAL TRADES intlemal tmdustrial Conference Board leeeirek Report No.8. July 1918 MIN II ?MI MAL TRADES BUORN TIM WAR As early as 1457„ women were grinding dritts, tending licht machines, and performihg filing operations in a inehine shop in New Bedford, Mass. By 1872 they were oonmonly employed in the meentacture of nails and tasks. Gradually women were introdueed into similar cremations in other Industries, as in the manufacture of electrical machinery, apparatus, and supplies, which in 1914 enraged a larger number of item than any other branch of the metal trades. This investigation ems oarried on byname or a schedule of inquiry sent during April and May, 1918, to about 600 seleeted establishments, where it seemed probable that mem were employed =metal manufacturtmg promises. la some oases the $411111613A1ma. supplemembed by field inquiries. The widespread interest felt by saaufaoturere in the problem is reflected by their response. Replies were received from approximately 34110 establishments; but of these, may 131 employed female labor in manufacturing presesses. Out of a total labor force of 384,709 in these 131 establishments, 42.821 were women as against 334,878 INO4 the proportion of women was 12.9%. It is not possible to determine what percentage of the total number of women employees in the 131 establishments has been added or substituted on work perform. ed by leen previous to August, 1914. For 96 establishments which furnished definite figures on this point the women added or /substituted during the period sines that date number 10,801 out of a total of 34,667 female employees, or 31.2%; 5,107, or nearly 50%, have been added or substituted in 10 munition establishments. In 66 establishments, or two-thirds of those furnishing definite information as to output, women's production vas equal to or greater than that of men in the operations on which he* were employed. In only 15 establishments ma. it fovea that women produced less than men in all operations on uhieh they were Their production in the remaining 18 establishments, although less on some eger6 stinks, was equal or creator on others. Most of the tasks on which women are enraged are semi.skilled work of repetitive *hamster, in which rapidity, lightness of touch, and natural dexterity are more important than skill acquired through long training and experience. The reports of employers often refer to the special deftness of women in handling small repetitive work, and in eMeerous plants departments have teen arranged to secure a better routing of material and a subdivision of tasks which offer a sexism of light repetitive operations. This is doubtless the meet direct road te the immediate successful utilisation of female labor. Rxoludimg the 22 establishments for which in 63 of the remaining 106, sem= reeeived the on time or on piece worki in 29, lements piece their time rates were lowers in 24, both piece https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis there was no basis for comparison, same rates of pay as mal, whether rates were the same as smote but and time rates were lower. .2. The principle of equal wages for equal work found especially, mimicked recognition among employers in those industries where the employment of women is a oomparatively now feature. The need of providing helpers for seam in okay classes of wort is retarded by some mameacturers as ens of the drmibadks to their employment. The lower rates of wages paid to women in an automobile factory are attributed to the necessity of employing helpers to *Awry stock to and fres maehines. On the other hand, sway industrial managers regard the empliyuant of a lower paid helper to deliver and take may stook frost more highly paid dkilled or semi. Skilled workers a desirable *einem", even when UM only are employed. A partial solution of this difficulty is the wider use of handling, lifting, and otynveying machinery,* wherever feasible. FUTURE OP XV IN METAL TRADES Opinions of manufacturers as to the disirability of the udder employment of mom in the metal trades were as a rule favorable. Favorable opinions were often, merely expressions of satisfaction with the immediate results. Thus, among 90 employers who considered the introduction of lemon desirable, 61 had found the output of women in their establishments on some work greater than, or alma to, that of the men; 5 found it equal in some oases; while only 6 found it always less than that of the mass the others made no statememt oonoerning °imperative output. As 6 of the 6 mennfaoturers report. ing the loments output always below that of thous:swore paying the limos lower wages, the actual oost of predietion possibly was not greater VIM when ass were employed. SUMMARY Experiense of employers in the metal trades in the United States has clearly demonstrated the praotioability of aploying mama in a large variety of manufacturing operations. In a majority of establiOhnents included in this investigation where women were employed in the SONO work they have equaled or excelled ma in respect to output. In some processes their superiority is marked. As a rule, however, they have not been eiplopod on highly skilled work requiring little experisice or initiative and it is on light repetitive we made their best reoord. Nevertheless, it cannot fairly be conthat they cluded from available evidence that woken are unfitted for highly Skilled operations, stnoe, in this country at least, they have had no adequate test of their ability. In Great Britain women have proved themselves efficient in some skilled operations. It is the oonsmasus of opinion that women should not be employed on heavy work, or cminuchimery where the accident hasard is distinctly high, or on work where mime temperatures, poisonous fumes, or other serious health hasards are involved. https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis z J , , A00 1 7 441 , , Sixty fourth Congress, Second Session. House of Reereeentetives' Reeort 1205, Committee on Labor, Woman's Division in the Deoartment of Labor, December 5, 1915. rests The necessity for the establishe:lat of the division : mainly on three eroeesitiens es 1. The groin t;- army of ',leo, earning women creetes eroble a as public the to ance ng inrort reachi in the inieetrial world of far whole. throegh 2. Solutiens of teeae erobleme cen be effected only the y one eot ize recogn verich the conditi ns end ceetrective etudies nding surrou ions in condit similarities but the essentisi differences men. g earnin eage and wage earning women vithout 7.. The record of twenty five years stows Vat eA to ascertain the statutory existence the work of a division design uous and co-herent facts concernini! wo.lan in indeetry caekot he contin ties intez-ittent ectivi its eate, inadee hove been becauee its refor r . eeance entter of enl its "ere exieteeee Divis I er of Inforua n ery if Ite IriforaiatIc7n ce-elcerning wolyen 1 instry is nocess lake for healthy womanoonsiiNeata to know ehet work en4 what celitiers nenlitions women : , rorl luTter an' in vat hood; if industry is Lo il'ustrial whFt know to s are school the if e; cen eive their best servic is to -now what treini g their yon, people shoeld receive; if tie enblic legislation arch of effect the need tears is for remedial legislation rni into fit women how upon the woman and up, n the indestey. We rust know they ions condit wht the great army of wage earners and Where and under brother their to lves, join in the industrial conflict with danger to teemse given indestry wheteer wage earners, l)ni to the peblic. We eieset keow in a tbet inJestry; women suffer eore or less from unemployment t'Ari man in t ceeses -hich to eresen eue ie Liza is we must know how much of this aa g alatinguished row woL,an oerein wage of ere common factors in the lifes s affective; aen factor al wage earning men, and bow mech is due to eerscn ent of macnieery equipa the We (lust know to what extent and women equally. coesidaration into take and the general meeageeent of the various industries ,eat know We s. the physical and nervoes organization of women wage earner industries modem ny 411 fects in the effects of speed, complexity end monoto greatest le The divisiee in the physical and nervous organizatien ef nomen. ing satiat opeort.inity for service lies in its privile6e of eeterially tically accurate stetis hine by furnis of fact ons the efforts to settle questi s occuretions and intelligible Aeecrirtions of the dewands of the variou ies in the aeenc stets Upon women; in its co-operation with federal nnl the health ger endan effort to cltermine the extent to which these dauands of +/omen wage earners and in devising end sugeesting practiceble meens to lessen these dangers. https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis In 1909 the National Women's Trade Union League onlcially requested tLe flreation of a separate wouan's division within the denartment of cou,:iterce mnd labor wbich wouli devote itself to the stlAies of women in industry. As an answer to this request onfl to the increasing sentiment throughout the country in favor of an indarencient woman's division a subordinate division wa_s created in the bureau of lrbor sttist.ic i there was al.,ortioned thereto si,ch of the bureau's resources as oter Jork revitiusly voganized frid vnler my would permit. Only very recentlyhRs the pubiic coe to recognize the iap:ort.l.nce of.woaerilin industrp, and before that recognition had become articulated, Jie br3u hkJ4 inqueureted lines of 'i7ork which are valuable and *filch it canno,, well drop, but which inter] ere Aith tri adequate aliothent of funs to the -ork for women. Tis elotn;ent rImainod &Tall in proportion to the importance of the work nnd Lira v?ry existence of the division that bemmae ;ore moors difiicult with ePrly In l416 its life waa ausperided altugetuer on i..cconnt of the rnE;tgrtic:I ct the Cidef of the Division and her sixces3or and the unwillinmess of .ke the work until the division is oreLtad by efficient woen to uriiert, statute with the ,roper Irovision for seleries rkni with alequate appro.-'nation for its work. Vibles!)rend Interest in the Bill Th bill ha*. the eniorsement of i!',numerable local oxnd ette orgianizations, and is ,,oaltively backed by he following netio-Al societies: The National Wowen's TraAe Union Iv:?ague, the National ConswLers' Lagre, the General FElleraticn of omen's nuts, the Wory!en's Diviio f the &Atonal Civic Federzition,--in ell over three million n. No Wiqgilge .4fi the ;L.easure but women--ho only do Nomen eviliniate,AS a urging tne lapor‘ance nvve await WiTheatfil?rgillAatifigi elle the 3erneylvanie Stnte Feder,Ition,of Labor, the Bpltimore Yederation,of L,:lbor, the Central Labor Union of the District of Columbia, the International Union of Machinists, etc. The bill has, moreover, the endorsement of the Deoartment of Lsbor. https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis MEMORANDUM REGARDING THE WORK DONEE DURING THE WAR BY MISS MARY VAN RIE7CK 1. August 1917 undertook investigation for Storage Committee of the War Industries Bcard into the -possible employment of women in the Results published Novemstores depots and warehouses of the army. ber 1917 in Bulletin No. 9 of the Storage Committee. Miss Van Kleeck's services were loaned to the Storage Committee for this work by the Russell Sage Foundation. 2. January 1918 to July 1918 organized and served as Director of the Women's Branch of the Industrial Service Section of the Ordnance Department. In the investigation for the Storage Committee referred to in Paragraph 1 the chief recommendation was that a women's bureau should be organized in the War Decartment as the problem of introducing women into new occnpations demanded continuous attention and adjustment. The general supervisory work was done from the main office in Washington and a woman was assigned to each of the ten District offices of the Ordnance Department. In each Government arsenal uncter the direction of the Ordnance Departwent a woman was appointed as employment manager to supervise the conditions of employment of women. This was the first time woman had ever been ap7ointed as supervisors or employment managers in the arsenals. While with the Ordnance Department Miss Van Kleeck also planned the organization of welfare work for civilian employees in Washington and recommended the appointment of a woman to direct this work which was organised as the Civilian Workers' Branch of the Administration Division. 3. July 1918 to date appointed by the Secretary of Labor as Director of the V4oman in Industry Service, one of the Services organized as part of the so-called War Labor Administration, established by aoDropriations in the Sundry Civil bill passed by Congress June 1918. The nurpose of the Woman in Industry Service was to formulate staniards and policies to safeguard the interests of women in industry while making their work effective in production during the war. The Service was charged with the duty of coordinating all work for women in industry in any division of the Federal Government. To this end Miss Van Kleeck f)rganized the Council on Women in Industry which included representatives of the Woman's Committee of the Council of National Defense, tne Committee on Women in Industry of the Committee on Labor, Advisory Commission of the Council of National Defense, the Women's Section of the Railroad Administration, the Women's Branch of the Ordnance De!Artment, Federal Board for Vocational Education, and all the divisions of the Department of Labor. Miss Van Kleeck was also appointed as a member of the aar Labor Policies Board and as a Jpember of the De-r)artmental Cabinet of the Secretary af Labor. https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis -2- 4. To assist in furthering employment management in the plants as affecting women, Miss Van Kleeck served as a member of the Advisory Committee of the Employment Management Division of the War Industries Board. 3. From June 1917 Miss Van Kleeck was a member of the Committee on Women in Industry of the Committee on Labor of the advisory commission of the Council of National Defense, serving also as a member of its Txecntive Committee. The purpose of all work done during the war on behalf of women in industry as to help to win the war through intelligent handling of the vihole problem of vgmen in industry as an essential cart of the rroduction program of the nation. It was very soon discovered that adequate production depended upon the establishment of rroper standards of employment. This was especially so for women who in many important war plants constituted a new personnel. It was necessary to adjust them to new work and to establish the standards which would result in maximum production. The purpose wets not merely the protection of women workers but their most effective service as a normal part of the industrial forces of the country. It was necessary 1. That standards and policies should be formulated by the Federal Government, This was the p-erpose of the Woman in Industry Service of the U. S. Department of Labor and the War Labor Policies Board. 2. That women representing the Federal Governmmt should advise the plants in the application of these standards and policies. This was the task of the Women's Branch of the Ordnance Department, and inspectora in other Federal Departments. 3. That inspectors from state labor departments should be kept in close touch with the policies of the Federal Government and should share in the national program. To insure this cooperation was one of the tasks of the Woman in Industry Service and the War Labor Policies Board. 4. That women should be aerointed as employment managers who could aprly standards in the individual plants. The Woman in Industry Service contributed to this through membership of its Director in the 7mp1oyment Management Division of the War Industries Board. T e Women's Branch of the Ordnance Decartment had a large share in accomplishing it by assigning its inspectors to organize eaployment management derartments and by selecting and recommending women for these positions. The Women's Branch also while under Miss Van Kleeck's eirection planned and stimulated the giving of a course for health officers in munitions plants at Mt. Holyoke College. These were women who could especially supervise health conditioris. https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis -3-- 5. elves should That the cooperation of women wage-earners thems nted first a:opoi was be secured. To this end Miss Mary Anderson the Labor to d in the Ordnance Department and later transferre try Irrius in Department as Assistant Director of the Voman r in the trade leade a years for been has son Service. Miss Ander 's Trade Women nal union movement working recently in the Natio was also women Union League. An Advisory Council of trade union rship membe a with organized by the Woman in Industry Service, unions to al trade nal Natio the by sent ates composed of deleg conference called by this Service. rs should be 6. That a policy of training and placing women worke and policies worked out in co-ordination with the standards training of workers, developed by the Federal Government. For the responsible. The the Training and Dilution Service was largely a responsibility Federal Board for Vocational Education had also made it the tment Depar nce Ordna and the Women's Branch of the dination of co-or e secur To . ctors subject of advice by its inspe nted by appoi was ing Train on these various agencies a Committee as a d serve k Kleec Van Miss the War Labor Policies Board and lity of nsibi respo the was rs member. The placing of women worke of its ion relat the and the United States Pmployment Service in iniustry women with inz work to the other Federal agencies •ieal . Board ies Polic Labor was dealt with primarily through the War 7. should be secured That public suvort for all of these efforts as in accomplishing well as an aid in recruiting womm workers as aim of the Woman in results in applying standards. This wEs the time to time. from Industry Service in public statements made Woman's Committee It was also largely the responsibility of the Committee on Women of the Council of National Defense and the the Council. in Industry of the Committee on Labor of Kleeck was Director of the For ten years before the war Miss Van ll Sage Foundation. Russe Division of Industrial Studies of the during the imar see the Hearings For further details regarding work A-propriations, Sundry Civil Bill on ttee before Subcommittee of House Commi 1572. for 1920, Part II, Pages 1556 to Miss Anderson in "The Great Also intervidw with Miss Van Kleeck and by Boni & Liveright. Change" by Charles W. Wood, published https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis DeoeMber 20, 1916. Toe From: The Sesretary of Labor. 1,4try Van Eleeek, Direotor, :tam in Industry Jervice. In response to your oonTrunloc.tion of Deowber 12, tne following report is subnitted: Amount expended iievrribor 30 Aosont egpsoded and obligated Devedber 1L IpprOximato SiMPtatt returnable January 1, 19 48 . $15 .233 17,262.32 20,000.00 Our eonviction that the 4NmanIn hataltar 6ervies should be oontinued is based on the following 2411.0=14 1, The Sorvise has under oar Important pieces of work such as a Norwoy of the otoiltions of Omployment of women in a state in the middl• West undertabiii ut the request of the Governer, Who wished a basis of facts for a legislative policy. Similar pleoes of work arc projected in two other states and in ono igiportant eastern city. • The problems of readjustment for women workers Who havo bean employed in the war industries and numerous questions which arise concerning the conditians of their employment in new occupations prose for a solution and neoessitste activity somewhere in the federal government in dealing with them. Aesponsibility for this action rests with the Department of Lsbor, 3. It Is economioal and efieotive to have a distinct division rsoponsible for safeguarding the interosts of women wawa in order that their service may be made effeetive for the national good. dui:1h a °antral division, *barged as it is with responsibility for maintaining *outset with other agencies dealinv with different phases ot tne problem, such as employment or training, is necessary to brine abcolt co—ordination of effort. https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis 4. Zia iciman in Industry Secvioe is not a war emergency service. It was projeated and urged oontinuo1S4 for el&ht years before the war. Problems or the war led to its organization but the mod for it existing earlier has been accentuated rather than dooreasod by develop.aunts during the war. The problems with which vaoh an agency must deal include the danger to health from unSamitarr wealkimg eenditienn and bananiens occupations Oat fres look; hours and eqplegimant at night, aud copesial4 questions raised b. the goat that the wage male for sewn is iistinstly low Ulan for mon despite the demeastrated necessity for large numbers of lemma workers te rapport deponients. The war has demonstrated that the mange of opportunities ter *Moloney by 'Mon in industry is larger than has been assumed in the past. Attention to tho conditions of their employment will do mmah to develop their eapacity for produotive service. b. There is groat need for strengthening resources of the federal government for dealine with these problems ard this should be done at once. Otherwise the diffioult questiOna coneerning lawn in industry will be a constant obstacle in the develop...ant of any reocalstructiun prograw for industry. 6. During the war several of the production departments of the government home maintained agencies dealing with the problems affecting vanen. These have new bona wnwpanded and larLor burdens are therefore devolvine upon the .,oizian in Industry florvioe of the Department, said it is no longer possibla for the Woman in Industry Oervio to count upon the co-operation of these other agencies. The disoontinuanae be unannuMnical and unwise, undoubtedly neoeseitate the earliest .pessilae do,to aith in a now organiution. of the 4mmen in Industry 3orvioo would siuce the prosciure of: the problems would reestablishment of such an agency at the the noccssary loss oi effort involved L'Ary Van Aleeek, Director, :man in Industry Service. 1211Ki.k Deoouber 20, 1918. Statement ihosime distribution of ay?ro2riation bi objects. Aftunt expel-Idea Qbject to 41yaakar Nti ,3,262.34 Salaries Ammuut oblimatod -mount oblipted Iii_11:4AMP-t7 1st. 290.. isosiAbsr_ ,11,434.16 I 9,764.66 2,500.00 Y 1,50000 1,800.00 614.70 737.6a auprlias :1441 ova:pant ,556.44 4,700.1) 4,p000e Telephoto() anti. teloGraph _200.00 JP.§0.00 1W431D x Travel aAd par diem Office rental 0.7,2b2.Z2 Total 860.72 f, 19,92E.38 7xtimate Lpirwiation 40,000.00 Ilitpenditurau to January 1 19.9441X https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis Balance Januar.; 1 C 20,07442 -mount whidh oan be returned January 1 2°,000 https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis November 21, 1918. TO: The Secretary of Labor SUBJECT: Woman in Industry Service in relation to organization of Departoent of Labor in the pe ,-iod of readjustment. uz In the memorandum submitted to we outlined in detail Lha program which seemed to us necessary for irraediate action by the Woman in Industry Service. Perhaps this memorandum, of which an addonal copy is attached, may serve to indicate our of the Womuri in Industry Service and the • conception of the functions necessity for its continuance as a permanent part of the Department of Labor. It was asked for Oy the women of the country during eight years before the war. The problems which it was desired to meet by such an agency Ton the federal government during the period before the war will be accentuated now that the wur is over.Tiftmqh state and federal agencies, through working women themselves, and through the cooperation of management, new standards for the employment of women must be established. National leadership in the development of these standards is needed, an,:i it Is especially important that the federal government should develop a consulting service which shall be able to win the cooperation of these different groups and advise with them on the intricate problems which, while fundamentally similar tnroughout the country, vary in detail froLl community to community and from industry to industry. In the accomplishment of its gurpose it iu essential that ss the Woman in Industry Service should be ‘aole to control field work and its own plans of publia education. On the basis of our experience since the establishment of the Woman in Industry Service, we believe that the chief problem of reorganization of the Dei)artRent at this moment is to maise it possible for bureaus like the Woman in Industry Service, charged wit:1 responsibility for standards and policies, to carry on its own field work and its own educational c,mpaign. Ttii! suggest, t-erofore, our view of the ixoblea; of the Departi:.,int as a whole. In connection with the Training and Dilution Service there are dangers of duplication of effort, but these will lessen if the functions tmpadod in the word "dilution" are no longer continued by that service. It is assumed that with the signing of the armistice the need for trle work implied in the wore, "dilution* would no longer be necessary. So far as the problem of training is concerned, there is serious question as to whether any aspect 0f it https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis not included in the duties of the Federal Board for trUcational Education should not be more effectively handled by the labor administration section of the Working Conditions Service, since this section would be expected to advise the plants on all problems commonly kry)wn as employment management. This of course includes g training plans worked out in the plant itself. If plans for trainin are they 4ant the of are divorced from the whole personnel problem lest effectively handled. Moreover, it is a question whether a training division of the Department of Labor might not tend to is accentuate the undesirable for of vocatio:-ial training, which tion instruc mere practice in processes instead of a correlation with his on ;. ;bicl gives the worker a broader outlook on his work and relations with his other workera. In other words, the essential point in industrtal training seems to be to emlaasise the respon. sibility of the public schools for such training, and It is a question whether a policy which committed the De-:artment of Labor plans to a continuance of a training division working primarily on the with line of he out not would for instruction In the plants most progressive thought on industrial education. There will be a problem of relations between the WomAn in Industry Service wad the Working CrAiditions Service, but this is an administrative problem Which does not present the same sort of inherent difficulties as are involved, for instance, in the the separation of the functions of investigation and publicity from policy making divisions of the Department. MVK:P Mary Van Kleeck, Director, Woman in Industry Ser/ice.