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https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  iFt(o&9k1  Lao  I 064)6  r  NOTICE: Enclosures Nos, 1, 4, 5, and 6 are not included in the material sent to state and .publicity chairmen as our supply was limited.   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  0-7-6,t4rerc  Sedjr"--wl  /  Form 1-5  Ara  .00°.  A  COUNCIL OF NATIONAL DEFENSE WASHINGTON  lioman's Committee 181e, N Street N.J.  July 31, 1918.  cIncuL:,R  NO. 198.  DEPARTMENT OF WOMEN IN INDUSTRY CIRCULAR NO. 8. TRANSMITTING PLANS AND MATERIAL FOR EEIBITS TO THE STATE CHAIRMEN OF 'THE D2PARTMENT OF WOMEN IN INDUSTRY: Under date of July 2nd, there was sent to the state chairmen of the Woman's Committee copies of a circular issued to the several State Councils of Defense by the State Councils Section of the Council of National Defense, urging them to prepare exhibits of their work for state and county fairs. These fairs offer the o?portunity of presenting graphically to millions of people, the labor standards acopted by the Government as essential to maximum production and social welfare. all you not, therefore, communicate with your state chairman, find out the plan for the exhibit as a whole, and preare an exhibit of the work of your department? The outline suggested to the state chairmen contains the followinz points concerning women in industry: a. b. c.  Official standards Actual standards in the states Normal employment and changes due to the war.  You will receive under separate cover some material which may prove helpful and suggestive in preparing your exhibit. This includes: 1.  Photographs of a successful exhibit prepared by the Illinois Department of Women in Industry.  2.  Copies of the "Voiceless Speeches" used in Illinois. and Maryland.  3.  A leaflet prepared by Mrs. James A. Field entitled, "Proper Conditions of Labor for Women ,a.r _orkers Imperative." (This can be supplied in quantity for distribution.)  4.  "The Wage Earning Woman in the Winning of the War" by Marie L. Obenauer.  5.  "National War Labor Board."   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Cir. #198 p.2. 6. General Order No. 27, United States Railroad .:Administration. 7.  Foreign News bulletin, "Women in Industry" (Additional copies can be furnished_on request.)  8.  Suggested subjects for posters and charts.  Upon application to the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace there can be obtained a very excellent summary of England's experience entitled, "Economic Effects of the -Jar upon 'Amen and Children in Great Britain" by Irene Osgood Andrews. A helpful article entitled, "Ay Have an Exhibit," appeared in the "Survey" of July 27, 1918. Photographs of women engaged in war industries can be obtained from: French Pictorial Service, 220 West 42nd Street, New York City. Stephane Lausanne, French High Commission, Vanderbilt Hotel, New York. British Pictorial Service, Postal Life Bldg., 511 Fifth Ave. New York. Committee on Public Information, Picture Division, 10 Jackson Place Washington, D. C. There are also a number of well known, private concerns Which have very good collections of photographs illustrating this subject. You will find enclosed also an additional copy of General Orders No. 13, issued by the Ordnance Department, which contains the standards for women's work officially adopted by the Woman's Committee. (A limited quantity for distribution will be supplied upon request.) Certain additions to these standards have recently been announced. by the 'c'ar Labor Policies Board in the "Official Bulletin" of July 17th1 As soon as reprints can be obtained they will be sent to the state chairmen of this department. In arranging your exhibit it would be well to bear in mind the possibility of its being later used as a traveling exhibit throughout the state. All you please report to us your plan and the results obtained, and call upon us for any service we can render? The publicity chairmen in the states are being requested to aid in preparing the exhibit and in giving it publicity. Sincerely yours,  , -t—&(t__  )el/ki.-e6:  Samuel B. Harding) (Hrs. . Executive Chairman Department of Women in Industry. Miss Agnes Nestor, Chairman Department of .iomen in Industry.  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  :OMEN  IN  INDUSTRY  What has happened to them in the war? Suggested subjects for posters or charts. 1.  ENGLAND'S EXPERIENCE: England has discovered that LONG HOURS DO NOT P.Y. "A worker employed for 8 hours per day may produce a greater output than another of equal capacity working 12 hours per day. "A group of workers showed an absolute increase of .over 5 per cent of output as a result of dimin ution of 1.6.4- per cent in the length of the worki ng day. "Another group increased their average rate of output from 262 to 276 as a result of shortening the day from 12 hours to 10 and to 316 on a furth er shortening of 2 hours." (From the report of Dr. A. F. Stanley K.ent on "An Investigation of Industrial Fatig ue by Physiological Methods," quoted in Andrew's "Economic Effec ts of the War Upon Women and Children in Great Britain" p. 119.)  2.  FRENCH EXPERIENCE: France has established the MINIM UM :1 1,1GE AND THE SATURDAY HALF HOLIDAY.  3.  VEAT 1.aiERICA HAS DONE: General Orders No. 13. Resolutions of War Labor Policies Board  4.  IMPORTANT POINTS emphasized: A. Hours of work 1. Eight hour day 2. One day's rest in seven 3. Weekly half holiday B. Equal pay for equal work C. No night work.  5.  MAINTENANCE OF STANDARDS, - quote ?resident Vinson Secretary Baker General Gorgas General Crozier Secretary Daniels Secretary Jilson Council of rational Defense  6.  LAVIS OF OVIN STATE AFFECTINU .:101.11, T IN INDUSTRY Compare with official standards of the Woman's Committee.  7.  WORK OF STATE DEPARTLIENT OF '..101= fl INDUSTR-1  8. RESULTS OF LOCAL SURVEYS. Encl. Cir. #198.  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  VOICELEbS SPEECH from Illinois Exhibit  THE UNITED STATES - NOW HAS - TWO ARi...iIES ONE ARMY IS IN FRANCE - ONE IS IN THE WORKSHOPS - OF OUR COUNTRY THE WORKSHOP ARUY - IS RECRUITING - MOTHERS - AND YOUNG GIRLS GIRLS ARE NOW GOING TO - MUNITIONS PLANTS - IN STRANGE CITIES THEY ARE THROM - ENTIRELY ON - THEIR OWN RESOURCES THE HOURS OF WORK - ARE - BEING LENGTHENED HOW LONG- WILL - THESE GIRLS LAST HAT - HAS BEEN ENGLAND'S - EXPERIENCE MEN THE WAR BEGAN - MILLIONS OF ENGLISH MEN - RUSHED INTO INDUSTRY ENGLISH FACTORIES - BEGAN WORKING - EIGHTEEN HOURS A DAY. SICKNESS INCREASED - WITH THE HOURS OUTPUT FELL OFF - WITH FATIGUE THE BRITISH -GOVEF;NMENT - INVESTIGATED They found - LONG HOURS - were to blame A Commission was - sent to AMERICA - to give us this warning To - INCREASE Output - DECREASE Hours. The BRITISH GOVERNMENT - Now Enforces the - Eight Hour Day for Women AMERICA MUST BENEFIT - BY THE EXPERIENCE - OF HER ALLIES.  Encl. ,Cir. #198.   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  VOICELESS OR SILENT SPEECH Committee on Women in Industry, Maryland Council of Defense, Women's Section, 200 l'est Saratoga Street. Women must do the work of men to win the war. Baltimore women work in elevators, messenger service, machine shops, • munitions factories and elsewhere. Women should receive men's wages for men's work. Protection of women workers means greater health for future generations. Over-fatigue and undue exertion lessen output and efficiency. Healthy homes and work places are conducive to healthy wage earners. Restricted hours of labor promote efficiency of work and worker. At the outbreak of the war England allowed long hours for women, overtime, night and Sunday work. Young persons worked at night and on Sundays. England found long hours of labor decreased efficiency and output. Health of women and children was impaired. Entrance of mothers into industry increased juvenile delinquency. England found that wages influenoed health and efficiency. America has profited by England's experience. The War Department of the United States has established industrial standards. The Committee on Women in Industry has adopted these standards as its platform. Ciur Platform. No employment of minors under 14 years of age. An eight-hour day for women wherever possible. Saturday half -holiday. 3ne day of rest in seven. Avoidance of nitht work and overtime. No tenement house work.  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Avoidance of extreme temperatures in workrooms. Adequate light, ventilation and sanitation. Protection against fire, industrial fatigue, disease and accident. dequate time for rest and meals. A place to eat outside the wor-room. Equal pay for equal work. Wages commensurate with increased cost of living. :Jothers with young children in the home rather than in industry. Cooperation of employer and employed. you help maintain these standards?  Encl. Cir. A.98.   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  COUNCIL OF NATIONAL DEFENSE WASH I NGTON  1oman's Committee 1814 N Street N.11.  August 22, 1918. CIRCULAR NO. 211.  DEPARTLENT OF 'AX:EN IN INDUSTRY CLICULAR NO. 10. Transmitting Plan of Cooperation with the ':!omen in Industry Service of the United States Department of Labor. TO THE ,OILEN IN INDUSTRY CHIIRLEN OF THE SLATE DIVISIONS: The hope expressel in Circular No. 186 of July 16th, that the Department of Amen in Industry of the 'oman's gommittce might work in close cooperation with the newly created women's division in the Department of Labor, seems about to be realized. :sliss Van Kleeck i Director of the ncw "Yomen in Industry Service" has organized a council to consider questions relating to women in industry. This council is composed of women representatives from each of the divisions of the Department of Labor and from the industrial service sections of other departments. It also includes a representative from the Committee on Women in Industry of the Advisory Commission and from the Department of Women in Industry of the :foman's Committee of the Council of National Defense. The purpose of this council is to maintain close contact among all governmental agencies dealing with any phase of the problem of women in industry and to formulate a comprehensive national program on this very important subject. Labor Policies Eiss Van Klceck is herself a member of the Board under the Chairmanship of Fjr. Felix Frankfurter. The 3Di1icial Bulletin" of June 8, 1918 contains the following explanation of the functions of this board. "The Labor Policies Board will devote itself to administrative work. It will determine and develop policies for a It will bring together and coordinate unified labor administration. into one consistent policy the various and frequently inconsistent methods of Laportant governmental departments in dealing with labor problems that affect production, always excepting disagreements be employers and employees." The Executive Chairman of the Department of Thmen in Industry of the Woman's Committee has been appointed a member of Miss Van Klecckis council and will attend its weekly meetings. She will thus be in touch with plans and policies in the making and consequently better able to interpret them to the state departments. It is the expectation that the creation of these new federal agencies will increase rather than diminis the :- /ork of the state Departments of Women in Industry of the .2oman's Committee. Information concerning plans and policies will be  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Cir. No. 211.  p. 2.  transmitted to the state chairmen at frequent intervals and as need arises they will be called upon for aid in specific cases. Certain fields of activity in which the Departments of Women in Industry have bccn engaged in some states have now boon taken over by thc federal Department of Labor. An Inspection and Investigat ion and Employment Service have boon established in the Department of Labor to have charge of the work which their titles indicate. Our state departments hereafter, should undertake investigations or surveys of industrial plants and the recruiting and placement of women wage-earners only upon official request, o believe that the state Departments of Yomen in Industry of the .1oman's Committee can perform an invaluable service at this time by securing the widest publicity for the labor standards of the federal government and by stimulating and strengthening their state department s of labor, i.:iembers of the Department of -:omen in Industry should make themselves thoroughly conversant with the labor tituation in their oyn states. They should measure up the standards of the state, as enacted into law, established by custom, or by trade union agreements with the federal standards setforth in General Orders No. 13 of the Chief of Ordnance and in the resolution of the 'far Labor ?olicics Board. (A copy of the latter is enclosed). They should in every case cooperate with all existing agencies or organizations in up-holding the standards of the state or in bringing the state into line with federal standards. These agencies would include state and local factory and health inspectors, women's clubs, women's trade unions, the Consumers' Leagues, Trade Union Leagues, etc. In this connection it is encouraging to note that the Department of Labor of the State of New York has followed the lead of the federal Department of Labor in creating a separate Bureau of Women in Industry. .riiss Nene Swartz, Secretary of the Department of Uomen in Industry of the Woman's Committee of New 'fork has been appointed chief oi the new bureau. You will note that the resolution of the War Labor Policies Board, a copy of which is enclosed, is supplementary to the standards of General Orders No. 13. A copy of the release of the Committee on Public Information concerning the award of the National Uar Labor Board in the Bethlehem Steel case is enclosed, as a very few newspapers gave it in full. have before us a year destined to be marked by a great increase in the employment of women in the industries of the country and the pressing questions which are certain to arise will demand for their wise solution the cooperation of the entire citizenship of the country. Upon the state Departments of Women in industry of the Woman's Committee rests a great responsibility in creating an enlightened public opinion on this problem. Sincerely yours, /-(  Niss Agnes Nestor, Chairman.  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  (4Vrs. Samuel B. Harding) Executive Chairman Department of Uo4nen in Industry.  _4SPECIAL HAZARDS Third: 1. The introduction of women into war industries or into employments involving special hazards such as the use of indus- • trial poisons should be guided by the standards as to health, comfort, and safety set up from time to time by the War Labor Policies Board, in addition to the standards already defined by the Federal Government and by State labor departments.  as street guided by Such, for Wisconsin State for  2. The introduction of women into new occupations such railway service, public messenger service, etc., should be regulations concerning hours of labor, night work, etc. instance, as those adopted by the Industrial Commission of for street railway service and by the legislature of New York messenger service.  3. The recruiting of mothers of young children for war industries should be discouraged. 4. The introduction of women into positions hitherto filled by men should not be made a pretext for unnecessarily displacing men. Services of the Division of Women in Industry should be sought by employers to advise on best methods of introducing women, and the working conditions which should be established. Fourth: Older men should be more generally employed. They constitute a largely unused labor reserve. In the past they have been considered superannuated at early ages. It is estimated that since the war began the maximum age of engaging men has advanced 10 to 12 years -- that is, from about 38 to 50. It has been found that tasks can be graded for these workers according to their strength, and that work unsuitable for women, especially at night, can be performed by them. In many trades their experience is an asset which offsets less physical strength. Thus the productive power of this large class, now wasted, can be utilized. The needs of the country require the united efforts of all classes of workers, in accordance with their capacities, and to maintain the standards and conditions of labor set up by the Government is., in the words of President Wilson, "indispensable to the Nation's full productive efficiency." From the "Official Bulletin", July 17, 1918.  Encl. Cir. No. 211.   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  4  GOVERN;.;ENT'S ATTITUDE Oil EMPLOYMENT OF WOMEN IN WAR INDUSTRIES OUTLINED BY THE WAR LABOR POLICIES BOARD The War Labor Policies Board authorizes the following: The War Labor Policies Board has adopted a resolution setting forth the Government's attitude toward the employment of women in v:ar industry. Its principles have been approved by all the production and distribution agencies of the Government. The policy adopted will govern the work of the Division of 'Amen in Industry of the Department of Labor, of which Miss Mary Van Kleeck is chief. The resolution is as follows: The existing shortage of labor, aggravated daily by the military and naval demands of the Government, which require a greatly increased production of war materials and at the same time the withdrawal from civilian occupations of about a cuarter of a million additional recruits each month, necessitates wide-spread recourse to the labor of women in the United States. In order that their services may be fully utilized and their working power conserved, a clearly defined policy is needed which shall determine what kinds of work women should perform, how they should best be introduced, under what conditions they should be employed, and what work should be prohibited. Standards have already been Chief of Ordnance tions made by the ployers.  as to hours, night work, wages, and conditions of labor provided by the Government in orders issued by the and the Quartermaster General, and in the recommendaWar Labor Board, which should be observed by all em-  First: The shortage of labor in essential war industries should be met in part by further introducing women into occupations easily filled by them, such as clerical and cashier service and accounting in manufacturing, mercantile, and financial establishments and in the offices of transportation companies and other public utilities, such as sales clerks and floor walkers in mercantile estab?ishments, including among others department stores, specialty stores, shi;e:storet;.men's'furnshing stores, florists' shops, jewelry stores, drug stores, soda-water fountains, etc. Second: Women should not be employed to replace men in occupations or places of employment clearly unfit for women owing to physical or moral conditions, as, for instance, in barrooms and saloons, in pool rooms, in or about mines, smelters, and quarries, on furnace work in glass works, etc. In additicn, girls under 21 years of age should not be employed in occupations or places of employment clearly unfit for them owing to their youth, as for instance in the public messenger service, in street car, elevated, and subway transportation service, as elevator operators, as bell boys in hotels and clubs, etc.   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  COUNCIL OF NATIONAL DEFENSE WASHINGTON  Woman's Committee 1814 N Street N.1.  July 16, 1918.  CIRCULAR NO. 186. DEPARTNENT OF WOMEN IN INDUSTRY CIRCULAR NO. 6. ESTABLISHMENT OF A WOVAN'S DIVISION IN THE DEPARTMENT OF LABOR. TO THE :,VOTEI,T IN INDUSTRY 01-1AIR1MT OF THE STATE DIVISIONS: In the Official Bulletin of July 11, the Secretary of Labor announced the establishment of a lbman's Division in the Department of Labor as recently authorized by Congress.  This act is in accord-.  ance with a plan recommended by the Advisory Council to the Secretary of Labor of which the Cnairman of the Department of Women in Industry of the Woman's Committee was the woman member.  The plan of the  Advisory Council was endorsed by the Woman's Committee in resolutions of :thy 23, transmitted to the Secretary of Labor. The Secretary of Labor defines the functions of the Woman's Division as follows: "Its immediate task will be to develop in the industries of the country policies and methods which will insure the most effective use of women's services in production for the war, while at the same time preventiag their employment under injurious conditions.  Its large and very necess2ry aim will be to focus atten-  tion on the national importance of conditions of women's work as involving national standards and as affecting the welfare of the nation."  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Circular No. 186  -p. 2.  Miss Ilary Van Kleeck, who has been the head of the Woman's Division of the Industrial Service Section of the Ordnance Department, is appointed Chief of the New Division. Her assistant will be Miss Mary Anderson who has been associated with Miss Van Kleeck in the Ordnance Department. :ass Anderson is widely known as a national leader of trade union women. The Department of Women in Industry of the Woman's Committee hopes to work in 61ose ogdperation with the newly created Woman's Division of the Department of Labor. Suggestions for a program of work for the state  divisions  is in preparation and will be sent to you in a short time. Enclosed is a brief chronology of Important events conserning women in indtstry since :larch 1917, culminating in the creation of the Woman's Division of the Department of Labor.   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Sincerely yours,  irman Department of :/omen in Industry  LIST OF IMPORTANT EVENTS IN CONNECTION WITH WON IN INDUSTRY SINCE MARCH 1917 National League for Women's Service already doing employment work in the Dept. of Labor, under Miss Marie Obenauer. MARCH:  Representatives of national and international unions gather at Washington. American Association for Labor Legislation takes stand in support of labor laws.  APRIL:  Secretary Daniels takes public stand in support of labor laws. Council of Defense issues letter in support of labor laws. Secretary Baker takes publ:;c stand in support of labor laws. National American Woman's Suffrage Association urges "equal pay for equal work".  MAY:  President Wilson takes stand in support of labor laws, in welcoming ac the White House the British Labor Delegates. Committee on Labnr of the Advisory Commission of the Council of National Defense appoints subcommittee on women in industry, Mrs, J, Borden Harriman, Chairman. Woman's Committee of the Council of National Defense creates Department of Women in Industry, Miss Agnes Nestor, Chairman.  JUNE:  Convention of National Women's Trade Union League, representing 300,000 organized working women, meets in Kansas City, Missouri. Standards of labor for war contracts presented to Secretary Baker by committee of leading working women.  JULY:  Eight hour day restored to girls in Bureau of Engraving and Printing, Appointment of a Board of Control of Labor Standards Mrs. Florence Kelley a member.  NOVEMBER:   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  General Orders No. 13 issued by Ordnance Department and later adopted by the Quartermaster's Department. President's Mediation Commission adjusts Pacific Coast Telephone Dispute, involving 9,000 women.  -2- Important Events  DECEMBER:  JANUARY:  Council of Defense issued second letter in support of standards. Woman's Diviston created in United States Employment Service, Mrs. H. M. Richards appointed head. /oman's Branch created in Industrial Service Section of Ordnance Department, Miss 7ary Van Rleeck appointed head. Agnes Nestor appointed on Advisory Council to Secretary of Labor, to represent women.  FEBRUARy:  Advisory Council recommends Woman's Division in Department of Labor.  MARCH:  National Jar Labor Board endorses "equal pay for equal work" Federal Judge Alschuler in Packer' case endorses "equal pay for equal wore‘ Melinda Scott and Agnes Nestor appointed on Labor Mission to England.  421i!  Railway Wage Commission endorses "equal pay for equal work".  JULY:  President Wilson vetoes bill increasing hours of federal employees.   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Secretary Wilson announces establishment of a Woman's Division in the Department of Labor, with Miss Mary Van Kleeck as Chief and Miss Mary Anderson as her assistant.  Oldest Local Labor Paper In North America. IV YOU AIM WITIE 1111, MOW IT IT TOVIL /MOM  WHOLE NO. 144' ,11111111110MW  The movie actors and actresses, after threatening to organize a union for some time, have finally made the start. For years these highly intellio gent men and women have been in Information Relating to Labor's a trance, during which they perPart in the Struggle suaded themselves to believe that, in Europe. identified with a profession, they had nothing in common with wage-earners. They were encouraged in this That the organized workers in Gerc belief by the cunning promoters, who many are becoming bolder in making n have grown fabulously rich from the demands upon the government, giv✓ profits of the motion picture indus- ing• expression to sentiments and try. Realizing at lac hat a very views that would have been sternly small per cent amor';;, m can be- rebuked and perhaps met with drasperformcome stars, about tic punishment a year ago, is seen in ers at Los Angeles ore c..) i and ap- an address made to Chancellor Hertplied to the A. F. of L1 charter ling and other officials, ) . a few days for the Motion Pict "layers' ago, by a deputation of laboring men membership 'e new from Frankfort on Union. The the Main. A wellmen known Socialist, by union consists of stars, It the name of utility men at %--e men,. Thomas, made the and women, principal speech. cowboys and cowgirls, besi ‘ose He declared, at the beginning, that used in ensemble scenes. tor the very presence of the delegation man stood up and made a speech that was proof that the workers were not 1 would compare favorably with the inclined to trust government officials best utterances of the most hardened to fulfill promises made in the past, agitators. "Whenever a number of and that the workers intended to perpeople are all exposed to similar sist in demanding relief despite the hardships and injustice they are political difficulties that confronted drawn together as we are by a com- the nation. The workers' representamon interest, which lead themto take tives, he declared, cannot longer remeans to get for each"; from united drain indifferent while the masses are action by all, benefits beyond the step by step being crushed into the reach or power of one acting alone," earth. The food problem has reached he said. "Men and women in every an end as far as theorizing is conland have stood together for their cerned. The quota of food that is alindividual rights. Probably the old- lotted to the workers is steadily deest union is that of the boatmen on teriorating in quality and quantity the Thames at London, England, who and increasing in price, so that the been having of tradition possess a physical condition of the masses is continually organized since 1350. steadily growing worse and is more Democracy would be a sham without difficult to endure than at the outunionism. Shall those photoplayers break of the war. On the other hand, Europe battlefields of re- the rich are not suffering now on the from hun- turn to their former employment to ger, which' fact is creating great bitnothing for terness, and the. workers are - find that we have done becoming their betterment? Remember, ladies more and more determined to hunger and gentlemen, to believe a thing no longer. They see that the rich are merely grabbing for profits and they d hopeless is to make it so." are the real enemies of the country At Vancouver, B. C., where the po- and are forcing the people into ecolicemen organized some time ago and nomic ruin. The time has arrived attempts were made by the superior when -it is almost impossible to prepolitical persons in control to break servo family life intact, and it is abtheir union, which was frustrated be- solutely necessary to reduce the hours cause- organized labor lined up solidly of labor because of undernourishment with the cops. an effort is now being,. to *which the workers are subjected government havforth—the State .put or disease and death will stalk broading announced its inability to interfere cast. The Hertling administration -s —to secure action at the hands of the has lost all caste with ti.- masses, 1- Dominion government that will smash whose anger toward the Prussian al the policemen's union. The resolution Legislature because of the juggling 111 that was passed by the City Council, with ballot reform and needed social S. which announced that that body improvement has been transformed ."visews with great eelarrn the. contin- into bitter hatred, which is nurtured gent consequences that might arise in by the rigid press censorship that. is connection with lab,or strikes, symenforced by the militarists. It ts pathetic or otherwise, due to such af- being was demanded that the governme,nt n- filiation" of policemen with common repudiate the Pan Germans and anlaboring people, was introduced by a nexationists and proceed immediately fine old plute who won't permit a to grant the relief that had been 11 union man in his places of business. promised during the early days of the r- Naturally the bosses are nervous when war and is withheld by the powerful e. the thought seizes them that they may cliques that appear to dominate the not be able to use the police quite so nation. The offitials again promised 11 easily for head-cracking purposes in to grant the concessions that were 11 future strikes, and the Vancouver lasought. A few days later Hertling good-naturedl at y bor officials smile made another speech in which he statthe employers who don't like unions ed that the 'Prussian Legislature and who squeal when they think that would be compelled to pass the frantheir material interests are affected. chise bill or would be dissolved. But John M. Glenn, secretary of the the Junkers in that house of privilege hi 1- Illinois Manufacturers' Association, seem determined to defy the Chancelhas sent out a letter to all capitalists lor to the last, and a crisis is now apadvising them to vote for candidates proaching at full speed. for the Legislature who are standing Six thousand workingmen and for re-election who opposed the anti- workingwomen cheered the war aims injunction bill and the women's eight- of President Wilson at a mass meethour bill. The Illinois State Federa- ing held recently at Mannheim, Gertion of Labor has issued a statement many, according to the cortespondent attacking Glenn without gloves. "This of Humanite. A member of the Inis the same Glenn," says the Federa- dependent Socialist party, in a speech, tion, "who, a few months ago, ad- outlined the President's program as vised employers and business men formulated in January, 1918. "On the who are -connected with his organiza- basis of the Wilson war aims peace tion to refuse to recognize the Fed- could be established with a little good eral Fuel Administration's order for will," the speaker declared. The Huone heatless day a week in all busi- manite says: "The applause which ness praces, and got an attorney to greeted his words sufficed to show, render an opinion that they would that the greater part of the persons in disobeyed not be sent to jail if they the hall were of his opinion but the the order, and sent that opinion to all authorities were unwilling that the astheir members, advising them to dis- sembly should manifest its sentiments obey it, and denouncing the United in this respect by a formal vote." States Fuel Administrator for issuing Since the meeting the German newsthat ruling, although, in the judgment papers have assailed President Wilson of the administration, it was a neces- violently. sary war measure." Despite the rigid censorship that is General Crowder says that an in- being maintained the fact is leaking uncovered 20,000 through to labor officials has vestigation in Switzerslackers in shipyards who tried to land that serious strikes are once more evade the call to service by obtaining taking place in various industrial cenemployment with the United States ters in Germany. At Essen thousands Emergency Fleet Corporation. At of workers quit at the Krupp gun Cramp's shipyards in Philadelphia works and many of those who refused e where some employes suspended work to return were sent to the battle front. e in disgust because of the antics of In Westphalia 20,000 miners struck these slackers who had secured posi- and 3,000 of them were sent into the tions as sub-foremen, it is said that any. There is bitter feeling at many ✓ pugilists and ball players would order points in Saxony and Bavaria and S skilled ship builders to "go down in widespread strike movements, partly the cellar," when they meant the hold political and partly economic in their of the vessel, and "go up stairs," when nature, may begin almost any day. they referred to the deck. One worker Strikes have again been going on in declared that skilled men are "doing their damndest" to build ships, by, re Spain, miners having joined railway employes and others in making a interfered with by these incom stand for higher wages to meet the high cost of living. An interesting fact in connection with the trouble is that pro-Allies and pro-Germans are accusing each other of having incited the strikes to serve their political purposes. It is doubtful whwether either side had much to do with the outbreak. Empty stomaehthe new industrial •   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  LABOR IN THE WAR .......ea•Aaewam.a.er••ie  Miss Jones refers, are in part as folTHE CLEVELAND CITIZEN. lows: "The shortage of labor in essentia\ war industries should be met in part by further introducing women into occupations easily filled by them, such clerical and cashier service and ac•:LEYLAND CITIZEN PUBLISHING CO, as counting in manufacturing, mercantile and financial establishments and in the 1125 Oregon Aye. N. E. offices of transportation companies Entola at Cievetana, O., lost Office as and other public utilities, such as sales clerks and floor walkers in mercantile second class mallet. among including, establishments, - . Manager others, department stores, specialty DAVID JENKINS stores, shoe stores, men's furnishing MAX. S. HAYES - - - Editor stores, florists' shops, jewelry stores, drug stores, soda water fountains, etc. "Women should not be employed to 17t isr -i-rve, replace men in occupations or places of employment clearly unfit for womCOUNC:I..0 en owing to physical or moral conditions, as, for instance, in bar rooms vro",t and saloons, in pool rooms, .in or about mines, smelters and quarries, on STREET RAILWAY MEN.' furnace work, in glass works, etc. In addition, girls under 21 years of age Statement Of Fact Relating To Con- should not be employed in occupaductoret Issue. tions or places of employment clearly conspiracy that ap- unfit for them owing to their youth, brazen The parently has been entered into be- as, for instance, in public messenger tween the Cleveland Railway Co. and service,, in street car, elevated and three daily newspapers and other in- subway transportation service, as eleterests to force women upon the cars vator operators, as bell boys in hotels as conductors despite the ruling of and clubs, etc. "The introduction of women into Ate U. S. Department of Labor and despite the promise of the Cleveland new occupations, such as street railRailway Co. and Division No. 268, way service, public messenger servStreet and Electrical Railway Em- ice, etc., should be guided by regulaployes of America, to abide by the tions concerning hours of labor, night award of the Labor Department's rep- work, etc., such, for instance, as those resentatives, is one of the most vag- adopted by the Industrial CommissiA-m rant and outrageous violations of for Wisconsin for street railway servaonor and good faith that has ever ice and by the Legislature of New York State for messenger service. occurred in this community. "The recruiting of mothers of young It is somewhat worse than the earlier violation of the agreement children .for war industries should be made by representatives of the Cleve- discouraged. "The introduction of women into land Railway Co. that they would not seek to place women on the cars positions hitherto filled by men should without consulting with the union, a not be made a pretext for unnecessarpromise given when the wage ques- ily displacing men. "Older men should be more gener:ion was submitted to the National ally employed. They constitute a War Labor Board. But the company officials proceed- largely unused labor reserve. In the ed to break that agreement without past they have been considered su:he slightest qualm of conscience, and perannuated at early ages. It is estiwhen the union protested and finally mated that since the war began the forced the issue into the Labor De- maximum age of energetic men has partment the company spokesman advanced 10 to 12 years—that is, from professed that they would accept the about 38 to 50. It has been found that decision without further question. tasks can be graded for these workers Yet when the award was made Presi- according to their strength, and that dent Stanley, instead of keeping his work suitable for women, especially word, let out a howl of indignation, at night, can be performed by them. threatened to throw the railway sys- In many trades their experience is an which offsets less physical :em into the hands of the government asset tnd carried on in a manner that was strength. Thus the productive power disgusting and a plain violation of the of this large class, now wasted, can be utilized." ;pirit of his agreement. In reply to inquiries of Miss Jones, The three dailies took their cue from the big street railway boss and chairman of the Ohio Branch, Departin In;tarted to bark in unison and like all ment of Women andofChildren Labor Wilson dustry, Secretary possessed. The three sheets that have been wired as follows: "There is no question of general preaching morning, night and noon women about loyalty and obedience to orders policy respecting the work ofdecision; from Washington resorted to every in the Dielmann-Russanoski miserable trick and subterfuge known all questions of general policy affect,n journalism to discredit the United ing women in industry will be passed States Department of Labor and its upon by the Women in Industry Bureau of the Department of Labor. )fficials. Reporters were kept hustling over- "There was but one issue subime to dig up interviews, to gather mitted, viz.: Is the Cleveland Rail)botographs of indignant women, to way Co. justified in employing women rouse various organizations of as street car conductors in Cleveland ,voin:n to pass resolutions of protest, because of a shortage of man power? formulate petitions for names of The agents visited the company's em-1)-.thizers, to elect a "petticoat ployment office one in one day 50 men :iyor- as leader of the conductorets. and 25 women sought employment; 13 hoId mass meetings of the con- men and 23 women were permitted to n-cts and send a yard-long tele- file application papers. Since Janu, t•_, Washington, and to generally ary the Cleveland employment office ote and garble everybody and has had 13,500 more applications for • !.;.'thing to suit the purpose of the jobs than requests for employes; 500 :.1.-..;•land Railway Co., which, in doz- men applied daily the first three days ; of instances, has deliberately re- of each week to the Cleveland employtd to employ men as conductors ment office for jobs. The street car :thout offering any excuse or a company has not applied for men to the employment service. :hildish one at that. Thus the expressions of a few in- "Upon these and similar facts the lividuals and a few organizations decision was made; unless it can be (with the usual handful of members shown that there is error in the init a meeting) were magnified into formation secured or the issue is sub'the overwhelming public opinion of mitted in a different form it does not Northern Ohio" that women should seem .that anything would be accomplished by reopening the case." Dp era te cars and men should roam the The case is absolutely clear that the ;treets and look for other jobs. The craze to misrepresent and fal- Labor Department arbitrators issued ;ify became so pronounced during the a fair and just decision, and not in a past week that one of the monopoly's single edition printed by any of the organs actually had the audacity to daily newspapers has an attempt been distort a statement issued by Myrta made to controvert these facts: That there are more than enough S. Jones, chairman of the Department af Women and Children in Industry, men in Cleveland to fill all positions Ohio Branch, Council of National De- on street cars. (Secretary of Labor Fense, and which was made to appear Wilson says that "since January the is a slap at the Federal Labor De- Cleveland employment office has had i•artment, when, in fact, it merely re- 13,500 more applications for jobs than lerred to rules adopted by the War requests for employes.") That hundreds of men are applying ',...abor Policies Board and made sevi.ral reasonable inquiries of the La- daily at the employment office of the Cleveland Railway Co. for jobs and •or Department. Miss Jones sent a correction to the are turned away. That while thousands of men can)aper that misquoted her, but her leter was printed in an inconspicuous not secure employment on the car ,lace, while the corporation daily dope lines, many thousands of women can vas played up as usual to make it ap- obtain more congenial employment •ear that the U. S. Department of La- for the mere asking in other indus'or is persecuting the wives and chil- tries. (See the many columns of ads in the want columns of the dailies.) ,ren of soldiers at the front. Miss Jones sent the following selfThat the Cleveland Railway Co. has xplanatory letter to The Citizen: violated the rules of the War Labor "The statement in the Plain Deal- Policies Board that girls under 21 er of this morning, especially the years should not be employed on headlines, is so misleading, we wish street cars, that women should not be to write you more fully as to the po- employed on cars before 8 a. m. and sition of this committee. after 5 p. m., that women should not "We said at the meeting of be employed to replace men, and that women conductors, held in the City older men should be more generally Hall, on the evening of Sept. 25. employed. that we were in accord with women The hue and cry raised by Clevebeing used on the cars as conduc- land Railway Co. officials and their tors, provided they were used under newspaper supporters against one of the recommendations of the War the most important branches of our Labor Policies Board concerning Federal government, the Department the entrance of women into new et,- of Labor, for the purpose of discreditcupations, to wit, that women ing its decision after agreeing to abide should not be used to replace men by it; the attempt to set at defiance unnecessarily; that the labor re- the eminently fair and carefully preserve of older men should be gen- pared rules relating to employment of erally drawn upon (so that older women; the effort to distort the misconductors would not be thrown sion and work of the State Branch of out); that in the street railway ser- the Department of Women and Chilvice girls under 21 should not be dren in Industry. Council of National employed, and that hours of labor Defense, and its honored chairman; and night work should be guided by the malicious attempt that was made the Wisconsin ruling, which pro- to deceive President Wilson and other vides that women should be em- officials at Washington with the claim ployed as conductors only at day that the vaporings of a few reporters work between the hours of 8 a. m. and notoriety seekers constitute "the and 5 p. rn public opinion of Northern Ohio," and "We understand that the Ameri- other developments in this contest, not can Federation of Labor is in sym- only place the corporationists and nathy with the LT. S. Department of their followers In the light of aiming Labor of which the War Labor to array sex against sex and arrangPolicies Board is a member, and ing plans beforehand to break the are, therefore, certain that the union when the opportune time arAbove facts will be of interest to rives,.but in displaying a disloyal and you and that you will consider their rebellious attitude toward the governWe advisable. ntiblic dissemination ment and its safe and sane plans that helieve the public needs enlighten- w re formulated to preserve industrial ir,,:nt as to how the Federal governcc during the period of the war. ment wishes to make use of the feliade labor reserve. The local onestion of whether or not women should go on the street cars is only a part of the larger question relative to the labor market. "Any publicity you could give these enclosed resolutions would. v.'e feel sure, be of service to the community: we very much regret Op- omission of these resolutions in of this morning." ulated by the War rd, and to which ISSUED IVIARY SATU1D•T BY THE   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Su wi ha be th tai a wl  cl g.  I. ti  •  MIL  fr  December 30, 1918.  M.sa Myrta L. Jones, Chairman Department *alien and Children in Irviustry, 612 St. Clair Avenue, Cleveland, 0. Ay dear Miss Jones: In another letter wnich I am writing you, I :aave already explained that a vary um.sual pressure of work has forced me to neglect my correspondence. I n enolosing a coy of a letter which Mis:, Anderson 3,1ad I sent to the ;Cur Labfr Board coneerning the employment of woen on the street cars in Clevel.And. My oen position in this matter is that the Clevelani Street 11?.11. way case seems to me to present in an umsual 'ay a very clear cut issue of the reletion bet.ween women workers and men's trade unions. This strike of the :cis!) seams to :lie to be analogous to strikes against the introduction of machinery. None of the evidence seems to me to indicate that the men's unions objeot to the emnlopeent of women on street ears primarily because of a desire to safeguard women aglinst unfavorable conditiors of employLaent, but rather because the men fear that the con:petition of wo.Len will redusee their sages. I think they have chosen the unwise way of safeguarling their standards. The only possible 3Asy seems to me to give Pic) An equal participation with men in the organization of the workers. If we are to protect women against unfavorable oonlitions of employroent, it must -oe done, it seems to me, bso dealing with the coniitions rather than by prohibiting the employment of women in any occu7ation excet in such iniustrie• as the manufacture of lead products, .which are demonstrated to have a more harmful racial effect upon women than upon men. In this instance the employment itself is a conlition which cannot be changed by any certain method knom to us, but the case of the street car conductors I s very different. The right to detennine .what safeguards ani restrictions :nay be placed around certain occurAtions, see!lis to me to rest here, as always, with three groups: the working women; the employere,and the citizens through labor legislation. I agree with you that it is a very complicated and difficult problem. Of course you know that the War Labor Boarl insists that it made not a "decision" but a "reccromendation" ..I.n this case and that it is not of women on to be regarded as establishing are prinoiple. The whole question the War before Washingtion in hearing a at street cn.rs is to be considered Labor Board, early in January.   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  1W  -2-  I note what you say about Miss Allen's stateaent at a luncheon in ,Cleveland. She is right in quoting ua as saying that the Woman in IniustrY Service was not at any time called, in to the Cleveland street car case by any one connected with it or by the Secretary of Labor. It is not fair in hoviever, to iintimate that the Secretary of Labor's telegram to the Cleveland women was insincere or as your say Miss Allen interpreted it "mare bluff." The Secretary's statement 494 to the effect that the decision of the t.o nvestigators first sent by the Det,art.ent of.Labor, lid not establish a general policy,.that questions of goneral policy would be passed won by tre Waran In Inlustry Service. This lid not mean that the WoAlan in Iniatry Service Alas hoing called into this case by the Secreary. Of course it is clear, hover, that reither the De-:,art:nent of Tabor nor the War Labor Board can exT)ect to reach decisions on specific cases :rithout establishing a principle ani a rA:tcy. As yoll nrobably know, w have rot ma4e any first hanl investigations of coniitions in clevAqn4 ,n4 our judg ,ent in this C9$0 is therefore based uoon what seemed to us to be the general issues r%ther than srecific conditions. I shouli Me to }Imre an or-ortunity to talk the .hole matter over Aith you.  Enc. MVK/L   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Mary Tan Xleeck, Director 'Woman I n 1 niustry Service.  •  Strike Afterthoughts the cars are again running imterest to take stock maei be of and note the results of this brief but significant controversy. Personal inconvenience and hardships due to the street railway strike added to the financial loss that goes along with the interruption of business have been serious. The burden has fallen heavily upon the masses of citizens who had to walk in spite of the gracious services of the drivers of machines who have rose so admirably to the occasion. The annoyance and distress experienced by the victims of the dispute is likely to concentrate their attention upon their own personal grievances and lead them to forget the larger and permanent issues at stake in the controversy. Public opinion tends to crystalize too quickly in a form determined by local and temporary considerations and in an attempt to ease up the strain of immediate injury to persons and business. The railway company, it is alleged, desired to keep women on the cars because the supply of available help is thus made larger and the position of the company strengthened in dealing with the union respecting wages and hours. The union officials, ,it is asserted, wish the women debarred from service as conductors in order to keep the supply of labor lower, thus enabling them to present a firmer front in negotiation with the company, especially in view of the fact that women, even if they are permitted to join the union, are harder to keep in the union and more likely to ursue their individual interests than he organization's policy. The jobs are egarded as men's jobs and especially n the months ahead when readjustments in industry are in progress the males desire to maintain their pre-war monopoly. So much for the local issues at this time. The men have secured themselves in their positions free from the competition of women, while the public has had restored the convenience of ear service. The wider consequences of the present struggle are forecast in the ultimatum of a trade union official quoted in The Plain Dealer for )e•. 5. He asserted "There is no place...Lin a street car for a woman." This declaration of policy is not a matter of temporary and local interest 'merely, but eknificant of a broader range of concern. Who is to decide where women may earn their living? Can an official with the passing authority of an elected representative of a group of men fix the metes and bounds for the labor of the women in this country? There was a divinely ordained ruler of a foreign land who declared that women should keep to their kitchens, children \and church. His name is William Hohenzollern, now a temporary resident of Holland. The world has been moving in the last four years The position of the British labor party In respect to anticipated industrial conditions, is to be found in its report on reconstruction issued under the title "Labour and the New Social Order." The pertinent lines run thus: "We inuzt ensure that what is presentl-- to be built up is a new social order, based not on fighting but on fraternity, • • * * on a systematic approach toward a healthy equality of material circumstances for evnry person born into the world —not on no enforced dominion over subject nations, subject races, subject colonies, subject classes, or a subject sex, but, in industry, as well as in government, on that equal freedom, that general consciousness of consent, and that widest possible participation in power, both economic and political, which is characteristic of democracy." In this country, President Samuel Gompers of the American Federation of Labor in a speech in New York on Dec. 1 laid down the following general principles that might well be pondered by all parties to labor controversies. It might as well be understood that in fighting political autocracy we do not want and won L. consent to have an industrial autocracy take its place. Here we propose to make the conditions of life scuh that every woman   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  shall be a queen and every man sovereign. What the devil does; Mr. -- and his type think we have made all these sacrifices in the war for? We have helped to make this fight, we have helped to bring ,about this victory, and while we are fighting for freedom and justice over there, we are going to maintain the freedom and the justice arld the rights of the masses of the people over here. A principle bf this character is now too sacred to be bartered away to the reactionaries who may desire to stem the tide of democracy the World over. Already the reactionaries are at work. There are soree people who Will never learn anyt'apg..• The reactionaries are not all in the employing classes. Trade unions are no more likely to escape the need for readjustment of policies than are any other group in the community. The officers must expect to adapt themselves to the new situation or they will have to face the test of survival. Unless all this talk of the new democracy is sheer cant the women have i earned recognition and the wise policylies in organizing them into agencies for collective bargaining. The union is here to stay as a serviceable economic agency but the men who misguide it temporarily will be succeeded by abler heads or their organization will suffer an eclipse as fa notably illustrated by the decline of the once powerful but badly led Amalgamated Association of Iron and Steel Workers. The new task may try the mettle of the new labor leaders but the sooner they gather into their organizations all the employes in their industry and make conditions, physical, moral and, economic, the best the industry can afford, the more perthanent will be their serviCe and success. The community's inconvenience and loss as a by-product of this controversy should not lead public opinion to approve immediate settlement at any cost. If there is any phase of democracy more important than another it is that every citizen may be free to earn hig or her living in the field of his or her•own choice with no harriers except those prescribed by his or her ability and the regulations of a government or a labor organiza.ttion in whose control these citizens have an equal' share. This attempt to cut the women off from what they have earned in war time ought Lot to succeed. They should be allowed to seek their industrLal level, uncontroled by any except rational policies democratically determined upon. If this is not passible in Cleveland, where in the United States can it be done? If it cannot be done in the United States, what has this war been about? ,C. C. ARBUTHNOT. Western Reserve University.  ov. 289 additional sallings of ha4 be Arrttri,calivtroop and supply ships, the aytrage, being about one ship every fl•fg' ftirs. Writings with pride of the record of the marine brigade in France, 010 secretary shows that with only 8,000 men of the corps engaged, the casualties numbered sixty-nine officers and 1,531 men dead, seventy-eight officers and 2.435 men seriously wounded, while but fifty-seven marines are reported officially as captured by the enemy, illustrating the desperate character of the fighting in which the brigade participated and the fact chat it was always advancing. "To the United States marines," Mr. Daniels says, "fighting side by side with equally brave and equally courageous men in the American army, to that faithful sea and land force of the na,vy fell the honor of taking over thelines where the blow of the Prussian would strike the hardest, the line that was nearest Paris and where, should a breach occur. all would be lost. "The world knows today that the United States marines held that line; tttat they blocked the advance that was rolling on toward Paris at a rate of six or seven miles a day; that they met the attack in American fashion and with American heroism; that marines and soldiers of the American army threw back the crack guard divisions of Germany, broke their advance and then, 'attacking, drove them back in the beginning of a re, treat that was not to end until the. 'cease firing' signal sounded for the end of the world's greatest war." A striking picture of the fighting at Belleau wood, now renamed in honor of the marine brigade, is given. The lace was a jungle filled with mahine gun nests, the secretary says, mpossible to reach with artillery or • renades. "There was only one wpy," he coninues, "to wipe out those nests—by ayonet. And by this method were hey wiped out, for United States maines, bare chested, 'shouting their attle cry of 'E-e-e-e-e y-a-a-h-h-h ip!' charged straight into the murerous fire from those guns and won! at of the number that charged in ore than one instance only one would reach the stronghold. There, with his bayonet as his only weapon, he would either kill or capture tne defenders of the nest and then, swinging the gun about in 1 s position, turn It against the remain ng German positions in the forest. "In all the history of the marine corps there is no such battle as that one in Belleau wood. The heroism and doggedness of that battle are unparalleled." The report describes th,e. the °ea, mine bariage, American enterprise. While there is no way of ascertaining definitely what that 250-mile barrier did to enemy submarines, Mr. Daniels says there is reason to believe that ten U-boats "had ended their career at the barrage before the middle of 0,,:-tober." The building and manning of the fourteen-inch rifle naval batteries working with the armies in France is also described. There have been no equals in the fighting of these hi hly   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  -  ••••-•.'  s`c4tte' v. . t • .Z  i" "•••,  A.Pg 'g  •t* _  Woun Landstick o bee Fo 15 ch ca If co  41k.  A  SEND A STICK  DEPARTMENT OF WOMEN AND CHILDREN IN INDUSTRY  DEC iidmo  )MAN'S COMMITTEE  i  OHIO BRA NCH  COUNCIL OF NATIONAL -DEFENSE 612 Sm. CLA  AV ENUE  CLEVELAND,OHIO AlA  Dec. 9th, 1918.  Miss Mary Van Kleeck, Women in Industry Service, U. S. Dept. of Labor, Washington, D. C. My dear Miss Van Kleeck;ous ibr some Miss Sherwin and I are both very anxi situation ent pres ify the statement from you which will clar uctors. cond car et n as stre concerning the employment of wome ersity Univ the thnot of I am enclosing a letter from Prof. Arbu best the s r which give which appeared in this morning's pape of those who do not see tude atti statement I have seen of the in this struggle of the con that any other issues are involved of one t the one paramoun ductorets to keep their job4 besides and whereever they please. the rights of women to work Whenever s between Secretary In the earlier exchange of telegram d that your department woul of Labor Wilson and myself, he said policy affecting women and pass upon all questions of general party given by the suffrage diildren. Now at a recent luncheon erating a lot of instances party, Miss Florence Allen in enum ted by men, quoted this stateshowing how badly women were trea r and added that recently in ment from the Secretary of Labo assistant who told her that you Washington she talked with your the Secretayy of Labor that had never had any intimation from to , thus giving the impression your department was to do this f and had said about this was mere bluf the audience that what he meant n6thing. Miss Moriarty are to I understand that Miss Allen and street car conductors to the Nattakei,AIDe_pluestion of woben as their help in a nation wide ion61;TYaae Unian League, hoping forenter industry on equal terms n to campaign for the rights of wome safeguards and restricti what say to t righ the has Who with men. certain occupations? If we give tions may be placed around they women on street cars only day runs, ad the men lose what , what work t nigh have won by seniority and have to take all the ectly unwill be the effect of that? Are the men's unions perf stand that reasonable , undemocratic and anti-feminist in their the street cars are not the place for women?   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  2.  itt4-  It is a muddle,I admit, but I cannot think that Prof. ughly as I agree Arbuthnot sees all the issues involved, thoro be appealed with most of his generalizations. No doubt you will war nec-tsity to from many angles on this subject. Now that the d Wherfi;Ae is no longer to be urged in favor of retaining them said have Board Labor Wax the we at? The Secretay of Labor and situathe fy clari you Can land. that they shall JE.9 here in Cleve us who want tion by eme good publicity which may guide those of to stand by y.2.11 ? g on the All the plutocrats have sudden4 come out stron se the becau not ct, suspe must side of the women, many of theml one le an artic also sing are pro-women but anti-union. I am enclo of the question from Max Hayes'labor paper on the earlier phases here.   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Very sincerely yours, 946774 Chairman.  Telegram sent to Secretary of Labor Wilson.  Tile State Committee on Women aid Children in Industry, Ohio Council of National Defense rer:rets to inform you that influential Public opinion in Cleveland is stronaly opposed to the aecision or your two representatives relative to the employing of women on street oars in this city. If you could issue a statement of the facts upon Which this decision is based we believe such information would enlighten the public and tend to allay criticism at this time. Myrta L. zones, Chairman, Corn, on Women & Children in Industry, Ohio Branch, Council of Defense.  '  6-e1144  ,t04 0_0444  444,, 64 611.(A.   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  .40/,106.44  ^  6,  etu,  4)4   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  December 26, 1918.  Miss lyrta Department Council of Cleveland,  L. Jones, of Women ani Children in Iniustry, National Defense, 612 St. Clair Ave., Ohio.  My dear Miss Jones: I very much regret that continuous attendance at the sessions of an important committee in Washington following absence from town, has delayed so long my repl* to your tA0 recent letters. I am enclosing a copy of a resolutation passed oy the War Labor Policies Board regardirg night work. I am also enclosing a cony of the standards which we recommend for the employment of women. These will be printed and we shall be glad to furnish you with copies. They have now been released for publication, so that you are at liberty to use them in Whatever way seems best to you. You will note from the standards that we are reoom ending the prohibition of night work for women. I am not familiar enought with the conditions of Ohio at this moment, to be able to advise you about a plan of campaign for a bill prohibiting night mark except to say that we should be glad to help you in any possible way when we know a little more iefinitely what you plan to do. I ex,c)ect to be in Indiana the latter part of January and might arrw-ige to see you in Columbus at that time. I was very muoh disappointed not to be able tJ meet you all there in November, but the committee on which I have been anpointed unexpectedly in Washington was so Important that I did not feel you .Lould wish me to shirk the obvious duty of returning here at once. Sincerely yours,  Enc. %VIC/L  Mary Van Eleeck, Director Woman in Inlustry Service.  December 5, 1918. Miss Myrta Doper l'ent of Women and Children in Industry, Council of National Defense, 612 St. Clair Averme, Clevekma, Ohio. My dear Miss Jones: I w1s-1_ to acknowledge your letter of December second, which hau  COTO  before Mts. Van Kleeck's return to Waihington again.  She expects to be in the office again next week, and I will bring it to her attention upon her return.   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Sincerely y urs, Secretary to Miss Van Klimek.  DEPA RTIM ENrl` OF WOMEN AND CHILDREN IN INDUSTRY WOMAN'S CONIN1ITTEE OHIO BRANCH  COUNCIL OF NATIONAL DEFENSE 612 ST. CLAIR AVENUE  CLEVELAND,OHIO TEL.. MAIN 7355  December 2, 1919.  Miss nary Van Kleek, Women in Industry Service, U. S. Department of Labor, aachington, D. C. My dear Miss Van Kleek:-  I am ritinE to ask you if it would be possible for us at send y:ur early convenience a copy of your recent into you structicns to the Community Lab:i Boards regarding the conditions under which women are to be brought into industry. These instructions were read at a meeting of our State Committee in Columbus last week, and make such a splendid statement of stRndaris regarding the employment of :omen, that we wish very much to hove them in our office, for general reference, and unofficial quotation, if that is agreeable to you. Our Committee, assembled in Columbus from various parts of Ohio on tfe 29th, were more than disappo'nted that you were called to 7;ashington on that date. Ve had counted on hearing you and hope that you will come west again soon.  1  'ague of Ohio is preparing to work during The Consumers' L, for a bill prohibiting night . ork Legislature the t e coming session of the endorsement of the receive will bill a Sich for :omen in Ohio. the State of and Federation of Labor Industrial Commission of Ohio, not know let as soon as possible us with certain exemptions. will you what the present Federal attitude toward night ork is, what your recommendations ould be, and. what general rlan of work for us you would sugrest. Night hork for omen has not gotten a tremendous hold in Ohi yet, but of course opposition will spring up as soon as the subject is agitated, and we want your advice as to the best ways to meet this.   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Very sincerely yours, Chai-r a  43130,  ADVISORY COMMISSION CF THE  COUNCIL OF NATIONAL DEFENSE  COMMITTEE ON WOMEN IN INDUSTRY MRS  BORDEN HARRIMAN. CHAIRMAN  Washington, August 20, 1918.  REPORT OF THE EXECUTIVE S7OREmAPY TO THE EXECT7FT COIVIIImm1 or THE COPTIITMEE ON WOMEN IF INDUSTRY.  now completed the The Committee on women in Industry has the present under April four months work undertaken the middle of executive secretary. STUDIES 1/7) PUnLTCATIONS. Committee, the Following the plan laid down for the executive secretary undertook: tries 1. To extend the studies of si-Jecial war indus in which women are employed and n the 2. To bring up to date and prepare for publicatio tary, secre tive execu while previous studies completed by Miss Hewes the of ng meeti al gener in accordance with action taken at the last Committee. red During this time the following reports have been prepa ttee Commi the of and are in preparation for publication as bulletins in the following order:   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  1.  The Manufacture of Army Shirts under the Home WorkgVatan in Jeffersonvilie, Indiana;  2.  Making the Uniforms for our ivy;  3.  of The Employment of Woman in the Clothing Factories the Charleston Navy Yard;  q.  g of Women Industrial-"Torkars in the Navy Yards; Makin Life Preservers; Flags; Mattresses and Primers;  5.  Air Substitution of Ijomen in 'Far Industries - Women in craft Production;  6.  Making the  7.  Women Workers on Armu and Navy Balloons.  as Masks;  a  lb. 01  2.  T"e Committee will doubtless be interested to know what has been accomplished so far in the earlier studies which have been presented to the departments concerned. The Report on the Home lork Situation in Jeffersonville was presented to Dr. E. M. Hopkins, Assistant to the Secretary of War in charge of Industrial Relations; Dr. William Z. Ripley, Administrator of Labor Standards for Army Clothing-and to Dr. N. I. Stone, in Charge of coat Studies Section of the Quartermaster's Department. The latter presented a four-page memorandum to Mr. L. B. Tim, in Charge of Light Goods Section, C. ?c E. Diviaion, Office of the Quartermaster General, emphasizing the recommendations and thepoints discussed in the report. In this memorandura Dr. Stone makes the statement that two-thirds of the army shirts are now made in factories under supervision and only one-third are now made under the antiquated home work system and he asks why this is done contrary to the recommendations of the Quartermaster General. We have reason to hope that the contracts will be gradually reduced for the Depots to be marie under home work and that the chief recommendation of the report will be accomplished. The Paymaster General of the Navy undertook to abolish the home work in Brooklyn by letting out .are contracts under the closed-bid system. The contractors, holever, ,liho received the awards have been so slow in fulfilling their contracts and have turned in such bad wt, rk that there is a possibility that special exemption from the original plan of the paymaster will have to be made, at least during the war. There is a possibility that the Navy Yard will establish self-contained Government plants for the manufacture of naval uniforms as soon as it is feasible. It is quite probable that this will not he undertaken until after the present war, however. T"e Navy Department has also acted favorably on the recommendations of the Charleston report. First by making all the minor changes; such as sanitary conditions; abolition of the rerating system and raising the lage scale. We are very glad to announce that in spite of almost insurmountable difficulties, that the Navy has authorized the Bureau of Supplies and Accounts to acquire ground within the city of Charleston and to build, a nevi factory within the City as recommended by the Committee, Txiis will solve the very difficult transportation situation described in the report. Thera is also prospect of an improvement   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  3.  in living conditions as the Department of Labor, through . its Housing Commission, expects to increase the housing arrangements. This report \Ail be published just as soon as the Navy has definitely settled these two or three points as they wish to have a statement of these large improvements incorporated in the report. Then the Woman's Division was created in the Ordnance Department, the Committee turned over the two reports on the Woman workers at the Picatinny Arsenal and Woman Torkers at the Frankford Arsenal with the understanding that the Woman's Division would follow up the reports and carry out the recommeridations insofar as possible. Miss VanKleeok reported at the Ezecutive Committee meeting on July 10th that the Picatinny Arsenal was no longer being used as a manufacturing establishment; that it is now a storehouse and that only about 30 women are now employed there. The reports listaa as Nos. 4, 51 ,6, and 7 will be presentea to the departments concerned within the next few weeks and as soon as they have been approved, they will be sent to press. PLAN FOR FUTURE 70RK. The Government has recently reaching importance in relation to the the creation of the Women in Irdtstry of Labor With Miss Mary Van Kieeck as  undertaken a step of faremployment of women with Service in the Department chief,  This new service has been appointed or the special purpose of co-ordinating the work of ail the Government departments dealing with women in industry and developing policiss for the control of the employment of women in the manufacture of all government supplies. Our Committee has been in frequent cora:Alnication with Miss Van Kit:lack, laying out plans which will best fit in with the Government scheme of organization, and has representation on the CoUticil of Women in Industry which consists of woman representatives from all the divisions of the Department of Labor and other Government departments concerned with women's wttk. The Executive Secretary represents our Committee on this Council. Plans are now under consideration with Miss Van Kleeck for an important e.c.tension of the wore_ of our Committee in promoting training for women workers. As soon as they have been approve by the Department of Labor, they will be submitted to the Executive Committee for approval. May Allinson Executive Secretary.   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  REPORT OF THE EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE TO THE Y MEMBERS AND SUBSCRIBERS OF THE COMdaTTEE ON WOMEN IN INDUSTR OCTOBER  1910.  HISTORY. of Purpose- The Committee on Women in Industry of the Council was n, Chitirma National Befense, with Mrs.Borden Harriman, appointed by Mr. Samuel Gompers of the Committee on Labor v(1) to advise on means for safeguarding the health and, welfare of women workers during the war; nating (2) to servb as a nationalcenter for co-ordi of the efforts of existing organizations for the improvement gation. the conditions of women's employment, and through investi ncy (3) to reecommend methods of increasing the efficie conful success the in of woments work as an important factor duct of the war. 1917. At Organization- The first meeting was held on May 4, of seven ee committ this moeting it was voted that an executive to at the added be members be appointed by the Chair, hereafter to er traasur and ry dissretion àf the Committee and that a secreta sevep, of ee should appear Nithin its nnmber. On this committ Commthree trades union women should be included. The Executive ittee was finally expanded to include 15 members. proFinances. In October 1917, the Council of National Defense in vided auarters and clerical help for the Committee on Women ve Industry. All other funds to meet the expenses of an executi private staff, of investigations and of publications were raised by the of purpose the in ted interes subscriptions from persons n and organization. The Chairman launched a financial campaig 1918. 30, er Septemb by a total stm of $81'.;8.75 was raised Chairman Abroad. For four months, during the winter of 19171918 the Chairman was abroad and visited a variety of munitions works employing women in new occupations both in England and France. Every opportunity for visiting the works were accorded her by the officials. Mrs. Harriman's observations on the care of women in the plants were sent to the members of the Executive Committee and are suggestive of the improvements in the physical care of women needed here in similar industries. Membership. The Committee has nowbben in existence one yet.u. and five months. It has a membership of 105 members of which about one-third are members of labor organizations. The Executive Committee consists of fifteen members-including five officers-chairman, vice-chairmen, treasurer, secretary, and executive secretaryand the chairmen of four standing committees on Industrial Standards, on Foreign Born Women, on Living Conditions and on Colored women.  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  9'V  Standards. The first work of the Committee was the establishment of a sat of standards for the employment of women at work on war supplies which was printed and issued in February, 1918. Inves2;?gai.d;zns. In November, 1917, Miss Any Hewes was appointed executive secretary to ma-Lee inveTtigations of the conditions of women 7s employment in Government plants. Four investigations were made by Miss Hewes. PLAN OUTDUED AT GFTJARAL MEETING HELD IN MARCH 1918. The sense of this general meeting was that publicity should be secrlreofor the reports made by the Committee and that some effective moans shoule be devised for getting th Committee's recommendations put into effect. A motion was made that a committee be appointed to formufate a plan whereby publicity might be secured for the reports. The three months' program adopted by the Committee in April was therefore three fold; 1. To secure authorization from the department for which the study was made, to publish the reports: 2.  To secure action on the recommendations of the  Committee: 3. To make further studies of the conditions of women's employment in some of the newest war industries. FIRST REPORTS. Four r?orts were made for the Committee by Miss Amy Hewes, Executive Secretary, Novembervi 1217- March 1916. 1. The Manufacture of Army Shirts under the Home Work System in Jeffersonville, Indiana. 2. The Employment of Women in the Clothing Factories of the Charleston Navy Yard, 3.  Emp3oyment of Woman at the Pic -A,tinny Arsenal,  4.  Employment of Women at the  Frankford Arsenal,  Two investigations were made by the New York State Committee for the Committee on Women in Industry during this period and submitted under the titles: 1.  Women Workers at the Brooklyn Navy Yard.  2.  The Manufacture of Naval Garments at the Broorlyn  Navy Yard. In acoordance with the action taken at the last general meeting, May Allinson, Executive Secretary, April to September 1918, made subsequent visits to the Jeffersonville Depot, to the Cnariecton Navy Yard and to the Brooklyn Navy- Yard to bring up-to-date the facts contained in the reports.   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  RFSULTS OF INVESTIGATIONS. The J3ffarsonville Reports. The Report on the Manufactute of Army Shirts under the Home Work System, Jeffersonville, Indiana was presented to Dr. E. M. Hopkins, Assistant to the Secretary of War in charge of Industrial Relations; Dr. William Z. Ripley, Administrator of Labor Standards for Lrmy Clothing and to Dr. N. I. Stone, in charge of the Cost Studies Section of the quartermaster's Department. Lt. Stone presented a four-page memorandum to Mr. L.E. Tim in charge of the Light Goods Section, Clothing and Equipage Division, Office of the Quartermaster General, vho awards the contracts for making the shirtg, summarizing the main points and emphasizing the recarmendations. The Commttee has recently received an official statement that two thirds Of the army shirts are now made on factories under the supervision of the Board of Administration of Labor Standards and hereafter the chief recommendation of the report- i.e. the abolitioh of home work on army shirts- is to be carried out as rapidly as practicabler The Charleston Report. The report on the Employment of Women in the Clothing Factories of the Charleston Navy Yard has been officially approved for publication by the Navy Department. The Department has acted fa'oorably on the chief recommendations of this report. It has made the changes suggested in the factories such as improved sanitary conditions, abOlition of the rerating system and raising the wage scale. The Committee also recommended that the Navy Yard factory now located seven miles north of the City, should be moved into Charleston. The Bureau of Supplies and Accounts has been authorized and to aaqujre ground and to build a new factory within the city of Charleston. This will solve the very difficult housing and tranpportation problems described in the report. There is also prospect of an improvement in living conditions as the Department of Labor, through its Housing Commission, plans to build some houses for the workers employed by the Navy. The Pcatinny and Frankford Reports- The reports on the Picatinny and Frankford Arsenais wore submitted to Miss Van Kleak when she was appointed Chief of the Women's Division of the Industrial Service Section in the Ordnance Department. On July 10th she reported that the Picatinny Arsenal was no longer being used as a manufacturing establishment; that it is now a storehouse and that only about 30 women are emA.oyed there. The Women's Division of the Industrial Service Section of the Ordnance Department repnrts that a number of the recommendations of the Committee's report have been carried out in the Frankford Arsenal. Two women are now in charge of the employment and placement of women workers; a nurse is in charge of the first aid and equipment, and a canteen has recently been installed. NEW INVESTIGATIONS AND REPORTS. Five investigations of women's work were made for the May Allinson, Executive Secretary, April to September, 1918, by Committee and are now in preparation or ready for the press;   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  -4-  1. Making the Uniforms for our Navy (Brooklyn); (In press) 2.  Women Workers in the Philadelphia Naval Aircraft Factory (In press)  3.  Substitution of Women in Aircraft Production (Curtiss Factory, Buffalo.) (Submitted to the Officer in Charge.)  4.  Women Balloon and Gas Mask Makers (Long Island City: and Akron, Ohio) (Submitted to the Officer in charge)  5.  Women Industrial Workers in the Navy Yards- Making Life Preservers, Flags, Mattresses and Primers; (Brooklyn, Philadelphia, Washington and New Port.) (Final report in preparation.)  The first and fifth reports incorporate the facts contained in the reports of the irmestigations made by the New York State Committee of Women in Industry and give due recognition to that Committee for its work. The Officers in Charge and the Departments concerned have shown great interest in the investigations and a surprising willingness ta) take suggestions and to carry out as many of the recommendations as possible. In the Philadelphia Naval Aircraft Factory, for instance, the Employment and Personnel Department twice asked for a dispensary and nurses in the factory and had been refused. When the report was presented to the Naval Department pointing out the need for this service, the request was granted immediately and the equipment installed within the same month. The reports of these investigations will be distributed to the members of the Committee as soon as printed. Members will be notified of that ever official action is taken by the Government departments on the recommendations contained in each of the now reports. FINANCES. This concludes the program of work planned in April by the Committee and leaves a small sum in the treasury which the Executive Committee has voted to set aside as a publication fund to print the reports made by the Committee. NEW GOVERNMENT ORGANIZATIONS. Many new divisions have recently been created within the Government to look after the interests of the workers. Some of these departments have created women's' divisions and some have appointed women in executive positions to represent and to look after the interests of women workers. The following list of new divisions or executives indicates to what extent woments work has recently been recognized as an important industrial factor.   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  -5-  WOMEWS DIVISIONS. Woments Division, Industrial Service Section- Ordnance Department. Women in Industry Service- U. S. Department of Labor. Woments Section- U. S. Emnloyment Service. Women;s Service Section- U. S. lidilroad Administration. WOMEN EXECUTIVES, War Labor Board. War Labor Policies Board- U. S. Department of Labor. Imestdgation and Inspection Service- U. S. Department of Labor. Working Condition Service- U. S. Department of Labor; • U. S. Housing Commission- U. S. Department of Labor. Training and Dilution Service- U. S. Department of Labor, Division of Information and Education- U. S. Depariment of Labor. It is clear that these new agencies will perform in large part the fuctions which have been performed by the Committee on Women in Industry. EXECUTIVE STAFF. Mrs. Harriman, Chairman, sails in September for France in charge of the Red Cross Woments Overseas Ambulance Service. Miss Agnes Bradford, who has been Office Secretary for the Committee almost from the beginning goes with Mrs. Harriman as her secretary. May .Allinson, Executive Secretary, goes on the staff of the Women in Industry Service of the U, S. Department of Labor. PRESENT STATUS OF THE COMMITTEE. The Commii,tee now stands in the present position: (1) It has rounded up the program formulated by the Executive in April and can see definite results of its,sork and concrete action being taken upon its recommendations. (2) It has expended the finances collected for its investigations and Publications with the exception of a fund voted to be set aside for publishing the reports. (3) New services in the Government are now taking over many of the functions of the Committee. FUTURE STATUS OF THE COPMITTEE. The Committee will remain intact as a part of Mr. Gomperst General Committee on Labor. Our Executive Committee at its last meeting, Tuesday, Septaabar 10th, 1918 voted that since the !i - rcumstances were as above described, the Committee, when it has finished th work it now has on hand and has published its reports, should hold itself ready to answer any call for service.   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  -6It was also voted that the membership of the Executive Committee should remain the same and that a local vice-chairman should be appointed to keep the Committee in touch with the changing situation, and toll upon it for further activities whenever the occasion requires. The Committee will retain 3ts present office in charge of an offif secretary who shaA.1 have charge of the distribution of the publications, correspondence and matters rftich should come before the Committee. It was pointed out at the Executive Meeting that occasions may arise needing the help of an mtside, semi-official and representative group of women, such as our committee, and we should be available and ready to respond to the call- Such a group, representative of different parts of the cou.etry, as well as of many different interests, and unhampered by official restricons and methods of proceclure, can perform certain kinds of service which are not covered by strictly Government agencies. The Executiv6 Ccmmittee beIlevas that such an agency should be agailable and on call whenever needed. The above arrangement, it is believed, is elastic enough' to meet the present situation as well as whatever future occasion may arise. CONNECTIDN WITH STATE COMMITTEES. The Chairmen of state committees have in the past conferred with and reported on their local problems at the general meetings of the Committee on Women in Industry. They have furthermore carried on inquiries within their own territory at the Inquest of our Committee. An example of this was the investigations made by the New Yerk State Committee into the conditions of women's work for the Booklyn Navy Yard. Sitilarly, Illinois and Ohio have co-operated with our Committee and turned in reports on local conditions, Last winter this Gommittee framed an outline of work to be carried on by the state committees calling for reports to be submitted jointly to our Committee and to the Indust7.4ial Department of the Woman's Committee. These plans covered the gathering of facts on local conditions, reports on the ennKcement of state labor laws and the upholding of present standards for women and ohi3d7en, The Womanss Committee had not accepted the plan when the Women in Industry Service of the U. S. Department of Labor was organized. Since many of the questions relative to women in industry involve national issues and new official agencies have been created within the United States Government to deal with them, the Committee on Women in Industry believes that the local and state committees should now report directly tD the particular federal women's service concerned and appeal to it whenever necessary to bring about a readjustment of industrial conditions in their community. The Executive Committee wishes to extend to all members and subscribers our sincere thanks and appreciation for their generous support and co-operation during he past 17 months in which we have werked together to promote the interests of woman workers.   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Florence J. Harriman, Chairman, Pauline Goldmark, Secretary, May Allinson, Executive Secretary  Form 1-5  COUNCIL OF NATIONAL DEFENSE WASHINGTON  July 23, 1918,  Woman's Committee 1814 N Street N.W.  CIRCULAR NO. 193. DEPARTMENT OF JOMEN IN INDUSTRY CIRCULAR NO. 7. ANNOUNCING THE APPOINTMENT OF MRS. SAMUEL BANNISTER HARDING. TO THE CHAIRMEN OF THE DEPARTMENT OF 'JOMEN IN INDUSTRY: It is with the greatest regret that I have to announce to you the resignation of Mrs. James 4i. Field as executive chairman of this department. Mrs. Field found it necessary to leave 1Jashington at the end of June. I have been particularly fortunate in securing Mrs. Samuel Bannister Harding as her successor. Mrs. Harding, before her marriage, was Miss Liargaret Sriod7rn.ss, who was a member of the Federation of 1;omen High School Teachers of Chicago and served as Secretary of the American Federation of Teachers affiliated with the American Federation of Labor. She was chairman of the Education Committee of the Women's Trade Union League of Chicago and through this organization came in very close contact with the problems of women workers, so that she brings to this po3itiDu special qualifications for the work of this department. Mrs. Harding has now taken over the duties of this office and will communicate with you from time to time on the work of the department.   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Sincerely yours, —7 •-•  Departmen  Chairman of Amen in Industry.  CONFERENCE OF STATE CRPIRMEN DEPARTMENT OF  ON IN INDUSTRY  WOMAN'S COMMITTEE- cowciL OF NATIONAL DEFENSE 1814 N Street NW - Washington, D.C. March 26, 1918. The Conference was presided over by Miss Agnes Nestor, Chairman of the Department of Women in Industry of the Woman's Committee and was cordially welcomed in the name of the Woman's Committee by Mrs. Joseph R. Lamar. Fourteen states and the District of Columbia were represented in the Conference and reported as follows: Mrs. E. P. Costigan, representing Mrs. Herbert Munroe, Chairman. A questionnaire regarding the conditions of women in Industry been has issued. Conditions in general were found to be good. Bill to weaken law limiting hours of women's labor defeated.  COLORADO:  Mrs. M. H. Pilling, Chairman DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA: Department just organized; nothing so far to report. Mrs. Raymond Robins, Chairman The Committee is representative of all groups of women including the leading working women of Illinois and is divided into eleven sub -committees. Standards for women in industry, in general similar to those issued by the Ordnance Department and adopted by the Woman's Committee, were adopted by the Illinois Department last July. Since then efforts have been made to put these standards into effect particularly through publicity to create public opinion in their favor. An exhibit was held in a down town store telling of England's and America's war industrial experience. Investigations of plants having government contracts have been made. These reports have been presented at Washington. The Department has cooperated with the Department of Labor, with the Woman's Employment Division of the U. S. Employment Service of the Department of Labor, with Mrs. Harriman's Committee and with the Women's Trade Union League. Among the literature which has been printed and widely distributed are the standards adopted by the Department, Secretary Baker's ruling on tenement house labor and a bulletin to explain and help enforce the new Child Labor Law.  ILLINOIS:  Mrs. Arthur M. Dodge, representing Connecticut Department of which Dr. Mary Welles is Chairman. One of the greatest problems confronting Connecticut has been that of housing. In many towns manufacturing munitions, women are arriving in companies of four and five hundred with no housing facilities prepared for them. In some cases the situation is being met by building of dormitorie4. These, however, do not provide for the married women. The Department is opposed to married women going into industry except as a last resort, but when this time comes day nurseries will be ready to take care of their children. Night work has been a great problem.  CONNECTICUT:  Miss Jeannette Eckman, Chairman The Department of Women in Industry is working in cooperation with the Consumer's League which is helping in its work. So far this has been concerned with law enforcement, seeing that standards are not lowered and that they are backed by public opinion. Canneries and Cartridge factories are among Delaware's problems.  DELAWARE:  Mrs. R.P.Halleck, Chairman, The Department is working in cooperation with the Department of Child Welfare of the Woman's Committee and with the Consumer's League. The cantonments at Louisville and Jefferson barracks have raised some problems as young girls and women are willing to work and for almost any wages in order to be near the men. There have been two strikes in Kentucky; one in which the girls gained better hours; one in which they secured better wages. One manufacturer who was planning to increase the working day by a half hour in order to secure increased production was pursuaded by the Committee to decrease it  KENTUCRY:   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  - 2by a half hour instead. Br this means however, he secured the same increase of production which he had hoped to secure by the added half hour. The labor laws are being enforced and attempts to weaken the child labor laws were defeated. Mrs. Jacob M. Moses, Chairman; Mrs. Bauernschmidt, Vice-Chairman, Mies Aimee Guggenheimer, Executive Secretary. This Department has from the beginning cooperated with all organizations concerned with Women in industry. Last stimmer recruited women for work in the canneries until heads of the canneries refused permission to investigate conditions into which workers were being sent. Bad conditions reported in glass factories and tin can factories. A survey on replacement of man by wonen is in progress.  MARYLAND:  Mrs. 114 A. Troy, Chairman - Miss Anna Bowen. The Department is given, office space, paid secretaries and use of state stationery by the Committee on Public Safety. Has a weekly column in one of the neWspapers. Has opposed employment of girls in bowling alleys. empluyment of girl e uhdet eighteen uiihg oletained from State Board prohibit ae ffiebsengers. Girls reported replacing man as elevator operators in large numbers. This occupation is not governed by the fifty-four hour law.  MASSACHUSETTS:  Miss Anne W. Hobbs, Chairman. Department not yet organized; will be faced with many problems small town factories. of case in the  NEW HAYPSHIRE:  Miss Mary Dreier, Chairman. The work of the Department has been confined entirely to investigation; one of these was in the Brooklyn Navy Yard, where, because of Federal ownership, state laws do not apply, and women are working there at night. Much home work is being done on officers' uniforms. This is piece work and is wasteful in as much as it involves great loss of time in carrying uniforms back and forth from the homes of the various workers who do the different jobs. Investigation was made of "latertown where aeroplanes are made. No preparation for housing has so far been made for the five thousand women workers expected in the spring. Conditions in these factories are fairly good. Other investigations were made at Long Island City and on the employment of woeen as elevator operators. The Consumer's League and Russell Sage Foundation have cordially cooperated with the Department.  NEW YORT:  Mrs. Thomas Robins, Chairman. Survey of Chester, Pa., has been made in cooperation with the Y. W. C. 4. The Department has done employment work in cooperation with the Department of Labor and the Committee on Public Safety. Workers have been furnished for government work. In many places housing of women workers has been a great problem, no preparation having been made for them. Transportation also reported poor. Survey is now in progress on all children in the eighth grade in Philadelphia for the purpose of voeational guidance and of pursuading children to continue in school wherever possible. This is of particular interest now because on account of the plactical stoppage of immigration during the last four years all the children in the eighth grade have had four years of American schooling. Women in great numbers are replacing men in clerical work.  PENNSYLVANIA:  Miss Alice Hunt, Chairman. Th9 Department is cooperating with the Consumer's League, Y. W. C. A., Mrs. Harriman's Committee and other women's organizations. Rhode Island has largest percentage of working women and children of any state. Law enforcement is a problem. Four bills are now in the Legislature:one to abolish the "Kiss of Death" shuttle, which results in the spread of tuberculosis and other infections; one to provide for health standards for children going to work; another to provide for abolition of night work; the fourth for the atolition of the common cup and towel. A questionnaire on replacement is to be issued after the next draft.  RHODE ISLAND:   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  is a problem Women are going into munitions plants in great numbers. Housing girls insuring for made be can n provisio what here too. Question asked as to wcrking in extra dangerous trades. SOUTH CAROLINA:  Miss Jane B. Evans, Chairman The Department has so far nothing to report.  Miss Lucy Mason, Chairman.-Mrs, D. M. Taylor. Attempts to break down ten hour law for woman in tobacco factorreies made. Women only get from 50% to 75% of what men were getting. Women long hours but wages placing men as baggage transfer clerks and receiving same and work hard. More factory inspectors needed.  VIRGINIA:  Mrs. WM. Kittle, Chairman - Miss Tracy Copp, Vice-chairman. tatives Department composed of men and women with three represen analyzin too of working women. Have worked to maintain standards. Work done es committe Small ing the draft figures with reference to industries affected. workers The are working with the Exemption Boards in aualyzing the figures. are readily are volunteer but must put in six hours a dayo From the figures and for discovered which industries have been directly depleted by the draft Board which women should be trained. A worker has been engaged by the State will have an of Vocational Education to take charge of vocational training. She InveatiAdvisory Committee of five from The Department of Woman in Industry. nt does Departme The y. machiner gations of replacement are to be handled by state not favor women working on street-cars at night.  T/SCONS/N:  This closed the reports from the states. Miss Nestor then spoke briefly of recent developments in the Department of Labor's war program. The Advisory Council to Secretary of Labor Wilson memof which the Honorable John Lind is Chairman and of which Miss Nestor is a Their ration. administ ber was charged with the duty of planning a war labor plan has been submitted to the Secretary and approved by him, It is now ready to be put into effeot as soon as the appropriation is secured. The plan calls for the organization of a War Labor Administration utilizing the Department of Laborts machinery and adding to it where it is not sufficient to meet war time demands, A Women in Industry Service is to be one such as of the additions. There will be woments sections in every department in woman a with nt Departme asterts the Ordnance Department and the quarterm in the work such of charge in already charge of each. Miss Mary Van Kleeck is the through clear will sections Ordnance Department. The heads of these various Labor's of y Secretar the head of the Women in Industry Service, who will sit on Policies Board. The meeting was then adjourned for luncheon at the headquarters of the National American Woman's Suffrage Association, 1626 Rhode Island Ave., where all delegates were the guests of the 'omen's Committee. The afternoon session was opened at two o'clock. Captain George Wentworth Carr, of the Ordnance Department presented the needs of that department for clerks, stenographers, and typists. Inquiries on this subject can be addressed to him at the Ordnance Department, Washington D.C. The question of housing for government workers was then brought up. Mrs. Pilling, Chairman of the Department of Women in Industry of the District told of the bill before Congress to appropriate ten million dollars to house government workers and urged that all possible pressure be brought to bear on Congress for the immediate passage of this bill. She also gave two addresses which meanwhile can be used by those coming to Washington who desire to secure lodgings: The Registration Bureau, 1321 New York Ave. and the Housing and Health Division, Room 209 National Savings and Trust Bldg. Washington, D.C. It was hoped that Miss Amy Hewes, Executive Secretary of the Committee on Women in Industry of the Advisory Commission would be able to address the delegates but she was compelled to leave early and so this opportunity was denied the conference,  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  -4Miss Mary Synon of the Liberty Loan Committee spoke on the problem before that committee which is to enlist interest in buying bonds but to make it understood that this is not compulsory. In many eases money is taken out ef pay envelopes a3 payment of installments on Liberty Loan bonds. Miss Synon requested the cooperation of the Department of Women in Industry to make it clear to the workers that any such procedure was against the wishes of the Liberty Loan Committee. Dr. Jessica B. Peixotto, Chairman of the Department of Child Welfare of the "Tomants Committee spoke on the connection between Child Welfare and Women in Industry. The charts in the Fifth Annual Report of the Children's Bureau show the close connection between working mothers and infant mortality as well as between the infant mortality and father's income. Dr. Peixotto deplored home work and urged further protection of mothers with young children, Mrs, Hilda Mulhauser Richards, Chief of the Woman's Division of the Employment Service, Department of Labor, spoke briefly on the work of her department in organizing woments employment agencies throughout the country. She stated that in districts where there was no Woman's Division, if sufficient demand for one were aroused, it would probably be supplied. In the general discussion which followed, the topics under consideration were: Employment of women on street-cars Night work for women (elevator operators specially mentioned) Employment of mothers Necessity of replacement of men by women was taken up by many of the delegates, the general feeling being that while men were still available, woman should not be put on nee; work, particularly on dangerous work and night work. It was felt that the present emergency did not justify wide replacement. The financing of the State Departments was discussed. Most of the Department receive a small sum from the State Councils of Defense but only two of the delegates had had their expenses paid to the Conference by the State Councils. It was suggested that the State Divisions of the Woman's Committee ask the State Councils to pay the expenses of delegates to the next conferences The holding of Sectional Conferences of Department Chairmen was discussed and favorably regarded. The question of having labor representatives on the Departments was brought up and the necessity for paying their transportation to Department committee meetings emphasized. The following recommendations were made by the Conference: "That the Department of Women in Industry do not declare against any occupation for women but sae to it that conditions are standardized and that women are not used to lower the standards. "That a bulletin be sent out from the National Office suggesting work for the states, and keeping them in touch with the national situation. "That the Department of Women in Industry be represented at the Woman's Committee Conference to be held in Washington in May and at future conferences of the Woman's Committee. "That no inmate of a state institution be allowed to enter the labor market in competition with free labor. "That a night letter be sent to the Governor of Virginia stating the policies of the Council of National Defense on the suspension of labor laws and urging him to oppose the suspension of such laws in Virginia.   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  •  5-  NThat, in the make up of the State Departments wherever possible, there be representatives of trade uni ons on the committee." The following delegates were present at the Conference: Mrs. Mrs. Miss Miss Mrs. Mrs. Mrs. Mrs. Mrs. Miss Mrs. Miss Miss Miss Mrs. Miss Miss Miss Mrs. Mrs. Miss  E. P. Costigan Arthur M. Dodge Jeanette Eckman Clara Southwick M. H. Pilling Raymond Robins R. P. Halleck Jacob M. Moses Bauernschmidt Aimee Guggenheimer W. A. Troy Anna Bowen Anne W. Hobbs Mary Dreier Thomas Robins Alice -I. Hunt Jana B. Evans Lucy R. Mason D. M. Taylor Wm. Kittle Tracy Copp  Miss Agnes Nestor Mrs. James A. Field Miss Mary Synon Captain George Wentworth Carr   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Colorado Connecticut Delaware Delaware District of Columbia Illinois Kentucky Maryland Maryland Maryland Massachusetts Massachusetts New Harrpshire New York Pennsylvania Rhoda Island South Carolina Virginia Virginia Wisconsin Wisconsin Washington, D.C. Chairman Washington, D.C. Executive Chairman. Washington, D.C. Representing Liberty Loan Committee. Washington, D.C. Representing Ordnance Dept.  Forrit 1-5  *Au  COUNCIL 0i NATIONAL DEFENSE WASHINGTON  Vioman's Committee 181P, N Street  July 31, 1918.  CIRCULAR NO. 198. DEPARTMENT OF WOMEN IN INDUSTRY CIRCULAR NO. 8. TRA,NSMITTING PLANS AND MATERIAL FOR EXHIBITS TO THE STATE CHAIRMEN OF THE D2PARTMENT OF WOMEN IN INDUSTRY: Under date of July 2nd, there was sent to the state chairmen of the Woman's Committee copies of a circular issued to the several State Councils of Defense by the State Councils Section of the Council of National Defense, urging them to prepare exhibits of their work for state and county fairs. These fairs offer the opportunity of presenting graphically to millions of people, the labor standards adopted by the Government as essential to maximum production and social welfare. Will you nut, therefore, communicate with your state chairman, find out the plan for the exhibit as a whole, and preare an exhibit of the work of your department? The outline suggested to the state chairmen contains the following points concerning women in industry: a. b. c.  Official standards Actual standards in the states Normal employment and changes due to the war.  You will receive under separate cover some material which may prove helpful and suggestive in preparing your exhibit. This includes: 1.  Photographs of a successful exhibit prepared by the Illinois Department of Women in Industry.  2.  Copies of the "Voiceless Speeches" used in Illinois. and Maryland.  3.  A leaflet prepared by Mrs. James A. Field entitled, "Proper Conditions of Labor for Women War V;orkers Imperative." (This can be supplied in quantity for distribution.)  4.  "The Wage Earning woman in the Winning of the War" by Marie L. Obenauer.  5.  "National Jar Labor Board."   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Cir. ;-%98 p.2. dministration.  6.  General Order No. 27, Unite. States Railroad  7.  Foreign News bulletin, "Women in Industry" (Additional copies can be furnished_on request.)  8.  Suggested subjects for posters and charts.  Upon application to tl-e Carnegie Endowment for International Peace there can be obtained a very excellent summary of England's experience entitled, "Economic Effects of the jar upon lomen and Children in Great Britain" by Irene Osgood Andrews. A helpful article entitled, "Why Have an Exhibit," appeared in the "Survey" of July 27, 1918. Photographs of women engaged in war industries can be obtained from: French Pictorial Service, 220 Viest oc2nd Street, New York City. Stephane Lausanne, French High Commission, Vanderbilt Hotel, New York. British Pictorial Service, Postal Life Bldg., 511 Fifth Ave. New York. Committee on Public Information, Picture Division, 10 Jackson Place 'Zashik2.gton, D. C. There are also a number of well known, private concerns which have very good collections of photographs illustrating this subject. You will find enclosed also an additional copy of General Orders No. 13, issued by the Ordnance Department, which contains the standards for women's work officially adopted by the 'Zoman's Committee. (A limited quantity for distribution will be supplied upon request.) Certain additions to these standards have recently been annourced. by the .viar Labor Policies Board in the "Official Bulletin" of July 17th, As soon as reprints can be obtained they will be sent to the state chairmen of this department. In arranging your exhibit it would be well to bear in mind the possibility of its being later used as a traveling exhibit throughout the state. All you please report to us your plan and the results obtained, and call upon us for any service we can render? The publicity chairmen in the states are being requested to aid in preparing the exhibit and in givinL, it publicity. Sincerely yours,  /et/belt„ (Mrs Samuel B. Harding) Executive Chairman Department of ',1omen in Industry. Miss Agnes Nestor, Chairman Department of ',;omen in Industry.  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  MEN  IN  INDUSTRY  Uhat has happened to them in the war? Suggested subjects for posters or charts. 1.  ENGLAND'S EXPERIENCE: England has discovered that LONG HOURS DO NOT PAY. "A worker employed for 8 hours per day may produce a greater output than another of equal capacity working 12 hours per day. "A group of workers showed an absolute increase of over 5 per cent of output as a result of diminution of 16 -per cent in the length of the working day. "Another group increased their average rate of output from 262 to 276 as a result of shortening the day from 12 hours to 10 and to 316 on a further shortening of 2 hours." (From the report of Dr. A. F. Stanley Kent on "An Investigation of Industrial Fatigue by Physiological Methods," quoted in Andrew's "Economic Effects of the 'Jar Upon women and Children in Great Britain" p. 119.)  2.  FETCH EXPERIENCE: France has established the =MUM ':!AGE AND THE SATURDAY HALF HOLIDAY.  3.  VILAT A./viERICA HAS DONE: General Orders No. 13. Resolutions of War Labor Policies Board  4.  IMPORTANT POINTS emphasized: A. Hours of work 1. Eight hour day 2. One day's rest in seven 3. ':!eehly half holiday B. Equal pay for equal work C. No night work.  5.  MAINTENANCE OF STANDARDS, - quote president Alsoil Secretary Baker General Gorgas General Crozier Secretary Daniels Secretary jilson Council of rational Defense  6.  LAY;S OF ()UN STATE ArFECTIDJ MiEN IN INDUSTRY Compare with official standards of the Thman's Committee.  7.  ARK. OF STATE DEPARTMENT OF .1 10MEN II INDUSTRY  8. RESULTS OF LOCAL SURVEYS. Encl. Cir. #198.  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  VOICELESS SPEECH from Illinois Exhibit  THE UNITED STATES - NOW HAS - TWO ARLLES ONE ARMY IS IN FRANCE - ONE IS IN THE WORKSHOPS - OF OUR COUNTRY THE WORKSHOP ARMY - IS RECRUITING - MOTHERS - AND YOUNG GIRLS GIRLS ARE NOW GOING TO - MUNITIONS PLANTS - IN STRANGE CITIES THEY ARE THROWN - ENTIRELY ON - THEIR MN RESOURCES THE HOURS OF WORK - ARE - BEING LENGTHENED HOW LONG- WILL - THESE GIRLS LAST WHAT - HAS BEEN ENGLAND'S - EXPERIENCE ^ WHEN THE WAR BEGAN - MILLIONS OF ENGLISH WOMEN - RUSHED INTO INDUSTRY ENGLISH FACTORIES - BEGAN WORKING - EIGHTEEN HOURS A DAY. SICKNESS INCREASED  WITH THE HOURS  OUTPUT FELL OFF - WITH FATIGUE THE BRITISH -GOVETNMENT - INVESTIGATED They found - LONG HOURS - were to blame A Commission was - sent to AMERICA - to give us this warning To - INCREASE Output - DECREASE Hours. 431t6'44427122rtesikiia44414X----iiisw--  for ces the  • - Hour ---Dery-4-errritir'  AMERICA MUST BENEFIT - BY THE EXPERIENCE - OF HER ALLIES.  Encl. air. //198.   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  VOICELESS OR SILENT SPEECH Defense, Women's Committee on Women in Industry, Maryland Council of Section, 200 I:est Saratoga Street. J'omen must do the work of men to win the war, machine shops, Baltimore women work in elevators, messenger service, munitions factories and elsewhere. • ;:omen should receive men's wages for men's work. generations. Protection of women workers means greater health for future Over-fatigue and undue exertion lessen output and efficiency. earners. Healthy homes and work places are conducive to healthy wage worker. Restricted hours of labor promote efficiency of work and for women, overAt the outbreak of the war England allowed long hours time, night and Sunday work. Young persons worked at night and on Sundays. . England found long hours of labor decreased efficiency and output. Health of women and children was impaired. Entrance of mothers into industry increased juvenile delinquency. England found that wages influenoed health and efficiency. America has profited by England's experience. The War Department of the United States has established industrial standards. its The Committee on Women in Industry has adopted these standards as platform. Ciur Platform. No employment of minors under 14 years of age. An eight-hour day for women wherever possible. Saturday hall-holiday. One day of rest in seven. Avoidance of night work and overtime. No tenement house work.  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  flu  s. hvoidance of extreme temperatures in workroom Adequate light, ventilation and sanitation. disease and accident. Protection against fire, industrial fatigue, .:,dequate time for rest and meals. A place to eat outside the worlz-room. :]qual pay for equal wort. Wages commensurate with increased cost of living. er than in industry. Nothers with young children in the home rath Cooperation of employer and employed. 'All you help maintain these standards?  .]ncl. Cir.   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  November 4, 1918.  Mrs. Samuel B. Harding, Executive Chairman Women in Industry Del)artment, Woman's Committee, 1814 N Street, Washington, D.C. My dear Mrs. Harding: The enclosed cary of a letter from Mrs. RiTypen and the cony of my reply will explain themselves. If you have further information regarding Camp Custer, I hops that you will file it with Mrs. Rion. Sincerely yours,  Enc. 2. MVK/ALL  Mary Van Kleeck, Director Woman in Industry Service.  110.- • •  •  4 1 / 444114,41 / 41141  ir  1  is  7th,  1  lirs.j*uel B. Hardim Exeoutive Chairman, Department of Women in Industry, 1814 N. Street, NW., 7a3hington, D. C. Dear Mrs. HardLig:won:.er if you can give ;La right away some informa.tion or „f tne Woman's Committee of the Counoil of Defenoo. in roLara to th I have wante,i a number of times to do some wor1 with the packing of the Woman's Cowmittee, but wnenevJr I du6gedted it, (i;ur Chairmn, (who ie vary much interested and wou-4.d like to da things), alwaya tells we that the men say we are margea and 7/1 tJvai we Jai has to have; the backia.6 of the men. Now will you tell me, is the Cowwitteu on Women in Industry to What does it wean that we are ularged? Does it mean be a ,)Jrmanent affair? that not one think; can the women do unless the wen aliprove it? In that case wa might aa well aieuand becauee the ..ajority of wo:, on our Council of refenue are not going to approve the work of the Committee on Women in Industry. The man who has been at the head of our Couneil of of the Uggeat fighters of all Legislation for womeL % one been has Defense I fought with him through the hour law, I foug:I. with him through the minimum wage, through everything. We arc right no trying to make a factory ruling through our Industrial Commieaion. I enelose youco,4 of the proposed ruling. Some of the members of our Council of Defenae would ba affeeted by this ruling and therefore any work on it will not have their support. I have gathered statistics for them since the year 1, but evry time we have a meeting, they vant new atatistica, for nD reason except juat in order to make it hard for me. Now I want very much, in order to meet this last demand, to have a big industrial survey in the Stata. I have been ,,"..annini; on it for several months, thinking that I might haw.) the help of the Wo:lian's Committee of the Council of Defense. In that ii,ay wa could do as they did in Minnesota and minimize the expense. I would like to put thia survey over in about a month or six weeks, in order to have now statistics :111.oh can not be disputed, to present to these manufacturers at our next meeting. Our Council of Defense has a meeting January 4th. Can you i;ossibly give we some information that will reach me by that time? Do we have to have the consent of the Council of Defense in order to do anything with the sanetion of the Woman's Committee? Suppose we do not, and the men insist that we do, how can I prove it? Can you aend me any forms which the 7owan 1 s Committee has used in any State for an induatriul survey? At the same time you write me I monder if you could not write to our Chairman, Mrs. D V. Mulvane, 1035 Van Buren, Topeka, Kansas and tell her if the Woman's Committee acts only under the direction of the men. Perhaps it could help her through this meeting on   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  •  1 2•   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  4th. With beut wishes to y u and :71111.1r, y%  New Year, I T...na  3ITIJ...;re1y yours,  Sealy. Inauatrial Commission.  11/  •   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  . October 29, 1918.  7irs. Samuel B. Harding, Executive Chairman Women in Industry, Council of N4ional Defense, 1814 N Street, Washington, D.C. My dear Mrs. Harling: I have not told you on paper that I have Teal with much interest your suggested course of study for clubs and schools on problems of owen and children in intustry. Your outline 12 clear and interesting and it olould seem to me that such a ramphlet would have wide usefulness. I realize this esrecially becanse of the numbRr of inquiries 'hich we receive %17,ich tho the need for just such a publi.c%tion. My or suggestion probably can be taken for granted, namely that a brief selected bibliography would be hel ful. Sincerely yours,  MVK/ALL  Mary Van Kleech, Director Waii.sn in Industry Service.  COUNCIL OF NATIONAL DEFENSE WASHINGTON  WOMAN'S COMMITTEE 1814 N STREIT NW  SeptembJr 28, 1918.  Mis3 Mary Van Kleeck, irector V;oman In Industry Service, Dept. of Labor 20 Southern P1Hg. 15 th & H. Streets lashington, D.C. My dear Miss Van Kleeck: I have received this morning a cops' of the outline of the course on Industrial Conditions given at the New York Philanthropy. I find it very interesting and I School am sure it will be very valuable. Miss Patterson was very favorably inclined to the suggestion that Miss Walter might be secured from the Russell • Sage Foundation to assist in the work but said that I must await confirmation of the whole plan by the Council of National Defense before proceeding further; but I would like to have you suggest to whom I should write when it is possible for me to take definite action. I enclose a copy of the memorandum which I presented to Miss Patterson. This memorandum was prepared with a view to its presentation to the Council of National Defense and the outline does not state definitely certain matters which I would expect to include in the course. I should be very glad to have criticism and coflment from you on any point that may suggest itself to you. Very sincerely yo9r - ,  jdrs. —muel B. Harding) it.xecutive Chairman Dep_rtment of Women in Indui-cy Viss Agnes Nestor, Chairman Department of ':omen in Industry   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  September 25, 1918. Miss Patterson %1rs. Harding suggestsd course of study for clubs and schools.  With Miss Nestor's approval I wish to recomiaend the publication by the Woman's Committee of: Women and Children in Inc7,ustry: irxr time and Reconstruction Problems, a study course for clubs and schools. CONTaTS:   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  A.  Pre-Jar Conditions. I. In 3r;at iritatn II. On the Continent, especia1l7 :rance. Lile in the 'Aitel States, covering such topics as: 1. Numb:2rs of wage-earning women L. ricl children in 2. Occupations 3. .age standards 4. Legal Safeguards 5. Orgttnization 6. Social status  B.  War-time Problems in: I. reat Britain II. Continental Euro20 III. United States, including: 1. Replacement problens 2. Training 3. Standards a. wages b. hours safety c. healt?,. 4. Housing 5. TransportrAInn 6. Recreation  Memorandum to  J.Eis zaterson  from ;irs. Harding  Septelber Lb, 1918.  -2C.  Reconstruction Problems and irograms I. In ...ircat Lritain 1. Program of Ministry of Reconstruction 2. ?latform of British Labor Party 3. Proposals of Leeds Conferunce 4. Canadian IndLIstrial Reconstruction tssociation II. On the 'Juntinent III. In the -waited Litates. 1. Land rec1,1m,,tion 2.Industrial democracy 3.Public employment ducation  To stimulate intelli,ent int3rest in and an enlightened public o?inion upon the:,e probles in order that: 1. The fullest cooperation of women may be secured a. in maintaining maximun production for the war. b. in safeguarding national standards of well-being and the wA.fare of the coming g:,naration c. in bringing about industrial readjustments after the war with the least posAble friction and thl greate8t Eood will bomen, capital and labor. tween L11.t[:T and 6-x6”.  FORM:  A pamphlet of 48 pages including cover :gtis  21DITION:  50,000 for free distribution; later editions to be tributed at cost.  C.MCULATION:  Through local units of the vk:oman's Oo:Tlittee; the 1-..(tension Divisions of th6 State Universities; the State Library Associations, etc.  TiSTII2ATjL) COST:  PRIN"tRa BY:  :MORSE) BY:   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  4,20 per thousand plus q50 salary of research assistant for one month.  Mrs. Samuel B. Harding and with th.e assistance of a reserch assistant.  Miss Mary Van Kleeck, ,oman in Industry .ervice, U. S. De2artment of Labor; Miss Grace kbbott, 'ar Labor 'olicies  oard;  Memorandum to :Ass i-atterson  from Irs. Harding  September 25, 1913.  :34110  bl: Cont'd Miss Julia Lathrop, Children's :)urau Middlewest Conference of the ')epartments of r:ol.,en In Industry, 'Aman's Committee, Council of National Defense. NOT ,S:   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Circular No. 68-A, "Problems of the Outline for Study, circulated by ths) Propaganda of the 'oman's Committee, 20,000 copies in mimeograph form and the additional edition of 20,000 has cirulation of b,000. The cost of 20,000 copies, 24 cages,  Li.r" a Suggestive io.,artmant of L;clucational had a circulaLion of in the few weeks since been printed has had a  as .282.  The "Study of the Great ::.ar", a topical outline issued by the Committee on Public Information has had a circulation of 600,00o, a paglphlet of 96 pages. Cost :'20.39  /  October 25, 1918. 14ElnArDUM FOR:  ittee, Council of Defense. Mrs. Samuel B. Harding, Woman's Comm  SUBJECT;  cantonments. Employment of waxen in camps and  has been too long delayed. 1. Your inquiry of Se7.tember 21st ity to take this 'Latter up with I have been waiting for an opnortun ning Cap Activities, as the Mr. Fosdkck of the Commission on Trai in committee on the subject of women Coanission has hacl a special the cantonments. destrability of ivdiate 2. We have urged upnn Mr. Fbsdkct the termasters De;Dartment umer action to appoint a woman in the Quar e, who will pave a staff of whose jurisdiction the canSanmentrsA4Sm n in the cantonments, an Mr. women suervisors of the work of wome take the matter up imedi:Aely Fosdick is much interested and till with the Secretary of War.   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  on has in view is 3. The ultimate plan which the Covrissi Women' Army AuxiOiary Corps of an organiztion siTilar to the of t- t kind the suestion England, but pendin6 action on a plan rvisors at once seems practicable.' for the appointnt of women supe tck the etatements made 4. We have alo reported to Mr. Fosd itions at ca pa Custer and Grant. at your conference regarding cond  MVK:TNIP  Mj Van Kleec'rc, Director, Woa!an in Iniustry Service.  COUNCIL OF NATIONAL DEFENSE WASHINGTON  WOMAN'S COMMITTEE 1814 N STREET NW   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Miss Mary Van Kleeck, Directcr Woman in Industry Service, Dept of Labor 209 Southern Bldg. 15 th and H. St. ..ashington, D.C. dear Miss Van Kleeck: In response to your request, I am sendirig copy of a 1.eleernm from Miss Myrta L. Jones, Ohio Chairman Department of Uomen in Industry.  Sincerely ynurs,  (Mrs. Samuel B. Harding, F,xecutive Chairman Department of 'omen in Industry  . :ignes Nestor, Chairman Department of ';;omen in Industry H/A in ci.  „7,2_  /44, //e-7-444,  a7  4z,  /92   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  September 25, 1918.  Mrs. Sai.ie1 B. Firl.ing, Executive Chairman Dept. of WO.aen in Ininstry, Wowants CoLumittee, Council of National Defense, 1314 N Street, Washingcon, D.C. Tily leer Mrs. Hariing: Plans are now unJer 4ay for a central file of Government contracts in the office of Mr. Leon in the War Labor Polcies Bwird But] ling, 1S07 H Street. Mr. Lason is actirg with Pr. Meeker in the IniustrIal Relations Section of the Bnreau of L7..bor Statistics. T am not sure that the central file is established yet but I  oull suigest your asking  Mr. Lamson wh-Ither it woull be possible to obtain lists of firms for toe leribers of tPe Denartrient of Woqyen in Industry. It as you 'now, a very large task, to kee7: such lists up to late sine the Quarterma,Aers Departl:ent alona lets as Lcany as or  hunilrei contracts  3  clay.  Sircerely yours,  Mary Van Kle6ck, Director Woman in Industry Service.  COUNCIL OF NATIONAL DEFENSE WASHINGTON  WOMAN'S COMMITTEE 1814 N STREET NW  September 17, 1918.  Miss Mary Van Kleeck Wow in Industry Service Department of Labor 209 Southern Bldg. 15th and H. Sts. Washington D.C. My dear Miss Van Kleeck: At the Middle -West conference of the State Departments of Women in Industry, Woman's Comlittee, I was requested to obtain, if possible, lists of firms holding government contracts where women are employed in order that these lists might be furnished to the Women in Industry Departments in the states concerned. Are such lists obtainable and if so)p how and where? As I understand Mrs. Robins, by whom the motion was made, the idea was not that such plants would be investigated by members of the Department of Women in Industry but that if they knew where such contracts were let, they might be on the alert and might be able to keep us informed in Washington of any matters needing attention which might otherwise escape the notice of the Women in Industry Service. Very truly yours,  (Mrs. Samuel B. Harding) Executive Chairman Department of Women in Industry Miss Agnes Nestor, Chairman HiA   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  ilg=2=0  Sertertber 3, 1918.  Mrs. 'Apull Cr-fittte, Council of Natinnql. Defense, Nabhington, D.C. My lea: AII T ervlos9 the st,7:...tement which you asked ale to orepare.  f It is too long or otherNise inappropriate,  I shall be glai to trhke ch,:nges in it. tlincerely yc.urs,  Enc.   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  1T9..n F:;_fet-;,k, Director Women in Init.s try Serv 1 ce,  STATENT PREPARED FOR THE NEWS LETTER OF THE WOMAN'S COMMITTER COUNCIL OF NATIONAL DEFENSE The establishment of the Woman in Industry Service in the Departnent of Labor is a recognition of the national importance of woo,en's work. Plans for it antedated the war by eight years, ind it way be said that the importicice of wanen's vork antedated the establishnent of the Wotan in Iniustry Service some centuries. A mailenis bureau was asked for in 1909 by the National Women's Trade Union League to safeguard women in iniustry, and the request then made by age-e3rning *alien themselves was prophetic of the larger view of women's work -in3 of all labor which is no4 becomirg clearer. The tao great needs of the nation ape are efficient and vigorous production and efficient and vigorous citizenship. The man-po,er of the nation is being irafted in overwhelming proportions into military service. Wanen „mist soon constitute the reserve force as Aell as the front lire of the industrial man power. The Woman in Industry Service, called into action durirg the war, therefore conceives of its task not as representing the interests of women as a separate class but as expressing in all its policies the nation's twofold need for woenis vork, - the need for productive man-po,wer ani the need for the finest type of citizenship now and in the generation to follow. A new conception of woments service as npribal and essential, so long as it be wholesome and efficient, in amv occu-,ation necessary to the national life, is the best promise of the new freedo,n for women, - freedowto serve their country through their industry not as woven but as workers Judged by the same standards and rewarded by the same recom-ense as mon. Protective aieassures necessary to safeguard health should be maintained and enlarged for women inr.1 Am. They should been extended long ago to :Am as well as to waxen, as the protection of equal citizenship and the rights of voluntary association should have been asfAired momen as !all as to men, from the momant ben they took their plice in inAustry. Women like en should not be given tasks harmful to them because of undue demands upon wuscular and nervous enlurance. Women will differ frommen in physical capacity, hut so also do differ froAl one another in the ,Ilek which it is physically safe for them to undertake. The great task now is not to set apart womon from inlustry, but to apply the medical awl. engineering kno4edge of the courtry to fnaking all work safe and healthful for the men and eamen who are producirg for the nation's needs. The challenge of the nation to industry and labor at this tiara is to make industry safe and healthful, deuocratic and just, not in the interest of any one group, [Len or waaen, capital or labor, not because a wItionts crusade for freedo ,::imperatively requires it, The present stage of the crusade is _ar ini proiuction for the war. The next stage will be reconstruction and no* growth. Upon the foundation of economic justice to all citizens must the nem state be built.   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  DEPARTMENT OF LABOR I  in Industry Service in the Worn The establishmant of the national importance Department of Labor is a recognition of the the war by eight yeare,and of women's work. Plans for it antedated women's work antedated the it may be said that the importance of ce by xlmam some establishment of the Womail in Industry Servi in 1,RIR8 by the National centuries. A women/s bureau was asked for women in industry, and the 'lumen's Trade Union League to safeguard elves was prophetic of the requeatAmade by wagekearning women thems labor which is now becoming larger drilew of women's work and of all clearow. are efficient and The two great needs of the ation now enship. The citiz ous igour vigorous production and efficientt41 ng proportions helmi overw in man-power of the nation is being drafted reserve force the itute const into military service. Aomen must soon wer. man-po as well as the front line of the industrial n during the The Woman in Industry Service,called into actio the ng as representi war, therefore conceives of ite task not as expressing in all its but class ate separ a interests of women as women's work,- the need for policies the nationts two-fold need for finest type of citizenship productive man-power and the need for the A new conception of women's now and in the generation to follow. as it be wholesome and service as normal and essential, so long the national life,is the to efficient ,in any occupation necessary freedom to serve their best promise of the new freedom for women,but as workers judged by country through their industry not as women recompense as men. the same standards and rewarded by the same should uard Protective measures neceaaary to safeg h J d healt ve been dtplen- They shoul be maintained and enlarged for women an women, as the protection of ex en. d ion a o II) men as well as to tary association should have equal citizenship and the ,rights,of volun t when they took their timtx t been assured to wOffitn"f;froM th6 momen be given tasks harmful not d shoul place in industry. ';tAen like men nervous endurance. and lar muscu to them because of undue demands upon so Also do men out city physical capa Women wiii differ from men in cewpatiimi the work differ from one another in adapiakiiityxtaxxxxa take. The great task now which it is physically safe for them to under but to apply the medical is not to set apart women from industry, to making all work safe and and engineering knowledge of the country cing for the nation's needs. are produ who healthful for the men and women  No. 205 Ed. 3-22-18-300,000  at this The challenge of the nation to industry and labor , just and ratic time is to make industry sate and healthful, democ , labor or tal not in the interest of any one group, men or women,capi it. res atively requi but because a nation's crusade for freedom imper ction for the war. produ and war is de crusa the The present stage of and new growth. Upon the The next stage will be reconstruction citzens must the new state be built. foundation of economic justice to all   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  August 8,  py 4.1Ar Mrr. PardinzA 'Ors. aunt's letter roferre:1 by yoJ to Miss Vsbn Kistiok has bc?en rseived. trine Van Klaoc!': io cut of the city and MO tO  rqay•  are !lard  tis:ed  T. nop7- cce t.t tho erikes among the cotton mina 1.•iit:1 tex +A.?. F3  \"(' **err'  among the rubbar wills Are prob..Oly  rrjatcn, The ztrikes fAnd 10 0 'oy  tion of Labor orgamiSSOsaikwevor, it fi.,-berro  u  it'(:ricar Fooerem.  re that the Cerrnittse  on Ilonen ih industry could rerler valuable servioe by gc-t!, toilch wi.th the letr.derc what c•ilti14 he+  th.sori cr  ay:d thereby 1'3110171g out just  r  be rail to get  in tom+ w43h tho rop'erInta+Avor rr 41q. maft-Wft3sh Prard. htii ,t tc  but  y  at  ari sure  Tf  distAnco aunt whet' serviou they oan render, i  will get in tcuch t.iith these different  viii soon know %that can be dere. :tiar,1- you for referrinp: thic istittor to us, tint let us know if you hrar anyihirm, furthor. With bent r-l.shes, Since-ely your;,  Assistant Director, Woren in Industry Service. lirscliosuel B. Hariirek_ 3814 W. Street, Washin-orlon.  COUNCIL OF NATIONAL DEFENSE WASHINGTON  WOMAN'S COMMITTEE  July 25, 1.—  1814 N STREET NW.   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  —iss Jary Jan Kleeck 'omen's Division, Department of Labor. Room 604 Curay Bldg. 8th e, G. Sts. • ashington D.C. 4 dear Miss  an Kleeck:  Eiss Alice 1. Hunt, Chairman of the Depertment of omen in Industry for Rhode Island writes me as follows: "I am sorely trouble. because there are two bad strikes on in Rhode Island, one in the two large rubber 'ills and one among the loon fixers in the cotton mills in the different mill villages. I think the Taft--.;alsh Board has been called in for both es but 1 backi think things are going very stri I appeal to you for instructions. Is our committee on .omen in Industry sulmosed to help and just how?" If the Rhode Island Committee can be of any assistance will you please let me knowl so that I Way give the requested instructions to Liss Hunt? izerel  year.,  Samuel ... Executive C;hai. Departnent of omen in Industi.  ijSS Agnes :lestor, Chairman leT.,, rtinent of Women in Industry.  COUNCIL OF NATIONAL DEFENSE WASHINGTON  WOMAN'S COMMITTEE 1814 N STREET NW.   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  July 22, 1916.  Miss Mary Van Kleeak, 7omen's Division, Department of Labor, Washington, D. C. My dear Miss Vali Kleeck:I enclose a copy of the letter which I brought to your attention at our conference last week. I am sending a copy also to the Woman's Division of the Ordnance Department and am referring the writer to the State Chairman of our Departrent. Very truly yours,  (ars. amuel b. Harding) Executive Chairman, Dept. of Women in Industry. Miss Agnes Nestor, Chairman, Dept. of Women in Industry. SBII.EB. 1 Enc.  11.  COUNCIL OF NATIONAL DEFENSE WASHINGTON  WOMAN'S COMMITTEE 1814 N STREET NW.  227 Hillside Ave., 7aterbury, Conn.  7ommes Committee, of the Council of National Defense, Ladiesso• I am living in a city of factories of almost every kind, perhaps there aro more here than in any other city of its size in our United States- and at this time in our "great war"- the work in ,are or is done to a (mhich are mostly ammunition). these factories-, of this letter is-object great extent by girls mmilwommu. lTow the how can I best help thee* women and girls viio are working ten (10) hours a daromsone of them on machine irerkm...cens work)... with no rest rooms or docent toilet provided-. to say nothing of lunch roCins'of" any kind--hence they eat their lunch in the_facterg on their :ench, most of them., ' These on are working an war contracts for tho company-at to do with it-who is making so much money they do not know for them-- ()cause lot a doing and nuking their help think they are -which they take off cents-J. they give them a bonus every meek of a few per day. If these #2.30 mhen they see fit from their weeks wages, of foreman thinks they women are put on 1,iece-work as they are when their Oro not workinc quite hard enough--they only get a few cents more, never what they really earn and they are told after they have tried so hard to make a fay cents more that they will not get what they made, for it is too much. However, my object In writing this letter is nora to find out if Clere is any way that your Committee could suggest to me, that I could help these girls both socially and in their work and workilig conditions. As to nwself, I have personally gone into the largest amwanition factory In Waterbury, namely ITcovillou, there there are at least 5000 mynen at work, and sat at thar bench doing the work they do, for a month at different times during this Spring and Sunnier, to do "my bit" and am so impressed with the little that is being done for these girls by the mom of Waterbury that I Zee' as if I must try to do something for them if it is within my payer and ability. There is some sort of a "Girls Club" maint.ined by a few would-be social workers, but you can judge for yourself what they have done, on I toll you that the closet* are no t.even separate and only flushed once in _five minutes and not. clean., I feel that the ridit woman could get after those :nun %Co orm t. Ia plarit and rake them chance   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  a  111  conditions and also hours and pay for these poor girls, If one knew just how. I am a stranger her, removing from New York City here only a few months since, where thin s are so different for watking girls that I am shocked to find a city so far behind the times in lays and the tyren so asleep to these girls needs. I have quite a little executive ability and a lot of push and spunk when it cones ti girls, having had (2) daughters of rq awn but I have no money and must 7o something for my livinc so cannot volunteer to help in this crying need without some pay, much to ny rc,Grett and so I thought possibly you night suggest to re son-Ae channel through which I might be able to Get in toudh with some ways or means whereby I mifpt start some Government work here in this city of factories Which would be of benefit to these girls, and use me as the instrument for the work. I am sure there are women here in t!:e city wiowould do their bit if they only had a leader. Can you help me to taco up this work, In thews; that mould be best and earnest. Very sincerely, (Signed)  F.B.   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Helen Braun:11.db, (Tire.) 227 Hillside Ave., Waterbury, Conn.   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  f  DEPARTMENT OF  WOMEN AND CHILDREN IN INDUSTRY WOMEN'S AUXILIARY COMMITTEE OHIO BRANCH, COUNCIL OF NATIONAL DEFENSE 1050  NICHOLAS  HOME PHONE MAIN 3769  BUILDING BELL PHONE MAIN 7189   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  -  r-i 44 ,  r-;  ;2  r- •  ,-3 • ••  • V' • •••  _   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  4.16  -""'  j  outdoor  fumes;  (h) 7,u1st  . n in isolation, or unsuli: (i) Iibral hazards - a$ employne mnn workers. vise assoc -7ntion res9on31I1e for hir employmant of norsonnol derartment for ectblishirF proper workfirinE an transforrin7 wor:J1:s anC  9  Is recommended. sto '7any seats or Id-chin33 can bo cdju  io tl.  thn worker  be the a. The elbow shou with equal convenienco sit or stan Focauso of the from the floor in either osition. same in the followinc, occupations, physic 1 or moral 11-zarCs involvod,  m  the90 roco=endation- -rp 1. Phy3ic  7azards. 7amilton, ha7inF i=de a study of .1 .  romon  ro  +  Po  ter  -eculicrly succeptilao to lead  nmonp! women employed therein r.oisoninr.; the fercontFo of cses Freat as amonr men. Therefore was fotln(1,_ to Tyi almost twice as or process in tho mnufactare the employnmtn of women at any work of , litharr7o, sugar of load, arsenate of •dlite lead, rod 2L load, lead chromate, lend suipI   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  ,) •  nitrate or fluo-silicate; or trrofe=en,  -on1  ho  7  -ro-   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  U. S. DEPARTMENT OF LABOR W B. WILSON, SECRETARY  Issued through  INFORMATION AND EDUCATION SERVICE Roger W. Babson, Chief  Washington, D. C.  WOMAN IN INDUSTRY SERVICE This contains a copy of the statement of principles concerning the employment of women in war work as adopted by the War Labor Policies Board. It defines what kind of work women may perform, how they shall best be introduced, under what conditions they should be employed and what work should be prohibited. Employers should avail themselves of the assistance of the Woman in Industry Service for advice on the best methods of introducing women and the working conditions which should be established. STANDARDS FOR THE EMPLOYMENT OF WOMEN OUTLINED BY THE WAR LABOR POLICIES BOARD The War Labor Policies Board, for the Department of Labor, announces the Government's attitude toward the employment of women in war industry. The principles set forth will underlie the work of the Woman in Industry Service, of which Miss Mary Van Kleeck has been appointed Director and Miss Mary Anderson, Assistant Director. The existing shortage of labor, aggravated daily by the military and naval demands of the Government which requires a greatly increased production of war materials and at the same time the withdrawal from civil occupations of about a quarter of a million additional recruits each month, necessitates widespread recourse to the labor of women in the United States. In order that their services may be fully utilized and their working power conserved, defined policy is needed which shall determine what kinds of work women should clearly a perform, how they should best be introduced, under what conditions they should be employed, and what work should be prohibited. Standards as to hours, night work, wages, and conditions of labor have already been defined by the Government in orders issued by the Chief of Ordnance and the Quartermaster General, and in the recommendations made by the War Labor Board, which should be observed by all employers. First. The shortage of labor in essential war industries should be met in part by further introducing women into occupations easily filled by them, such as clerical and cashier service and accounting in manufacturing, mercantile and financial establishments and in the offices of transportation companies and other public utilities; such as sales   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  clerks and floor walkers in mercantile establishments, including among others department stores, specialty stores, shoe stores, men's furnishing stores, florists' shops, jewelry stores, drug stores, soda water fountains, etc. Second. Women should not be employed to replace men in occupations or places of employment clearly unfit for women owing to the physicial or moral conditions, as for instance, in barrooms and saloons; in pool rooms; in or about mines, smelters, and quarries; on furnace work; in glass works, etc. In addition, girls under years 21 of age should not be employed in occupations or places of employment clearly unfit for them owing to their youth, as for instance, in the public messenger service, in street car, elevated and subway transportation service, as elevator operators, as bell boys in hotels, and clubs, etc. Third. 1. The introduction of women into war industries or into employments involving special hazards, such as the use of industrial poisons, should be guided by the standards as to health, comfort and safety set up from time to time by the War Labor Policies Board, in addition to the standards already defined by the Federal Government and by State labor departments. 2. The introduction of women into new occupations such as street railway service, public messenger service, etc., should be guided by regulations concerning hours of labor, night work, etc., such, for instance, as those adopted by the Industrial Commission of Wisconsin for street railway service and by the legislature of New York State for messenger service. 3. The recruiting of mothers of young children for war industries should be discouraged. The advice of the Woman in Industry Service should be sought by employers regarding the best methods of introducing women and the working conditions which should be established. Fourth. Older men should be more generally employed. They constitute a largely unused labor reserve. In the past they have been considered superannuated at early ages. It is estimated that since the war began, the maximum age of engaging men has advanced ten to twelve years, that is, from about 38 to 50. It has been found that tasks can be graded for these workers according to their strength, and that work unsuitable for women, especially at night, can be performed by them. In many trades their experience is an asset which offsets less physical strength. Thus the productive power of this large class now wasted can be utilized. The needs of the country require the united efforts of all classes of workers, in accordance with their capacities; and to maintain the standards and conditions of labor set up by the Government is, in the words of President Wilson, "indispensable to the Nation's full productive efficiency."   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  November 4, 118.  Miss Elilabeth L. Meigs, U. S. Employment Service, WI East Gay Street, Columbus, Ohio. My dear Miss Meigs: I shall be glad to see that you receive information which to the Ohio Community Labor Boards. The Bulletin of send you cold October 10th is probably the tentative drZt of standards which akould not, however, be issued to the Community Labor Boards at this time, Ev, it is in process of revision. A copy will be sent you as soon as it is out. I expect to be in Columbus the latter part of November and if you are still dain this work and are in Columbus I shall ho,,e to have a conference with you. Sincerely yours,  Mn:IMP   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Mary Van Kleeck, Director, Woman in Industry Service.  WOMAN'S COMMITTEE OHIO BRANCH  COUNCIL OF NATIONAL DEFENSE BELL 3000, 3001, 3002  e,1,4 CHAIRMAN  STATE HOUSE. COLUMBUS  -  -  MISS BELLE SHERWIN VicECHAIRMEN -  MRS. GEORGE ZIMMERMAN -  .S.Emp1oyment Service 74 E. Gay Street, Columbus, Ohio.  PktionfoNT  October,Mst, 1918.  -  MRS. S. B.SNEATH  CITIZEN 7883, 7031  STATE HOUSE,COLUMBUS  MRS.LAWRENCE MAXWELL - CINCINNATI MRS.MALCOLM L. MoBRIDE - CLIEVELAAVD DAYTON, MRS. ELIZABETH WOLF, SECRETARY -  MRS.W.0. THOMPSON  Com:mums  TREASURER MRS.CLARENCF'. E. MACK  -  Cxxon4rNAT7  STATE HOUSE. COLUMBUS  EXECUTIVE SECRETARY  MISS LUCIA B. JOHNSON ASSISTANT SECRETARY  -  -  STATE HOUSE COLUMBUS  MRS. HENRY R. EWEN('1.: R  !ifiss Mary Van Kleeck, Director of Womense Industrial Service, U. S. Department of Labor, Wasl-ington, D. C. My dear Miss Van Kleeck;Being responsible until Miss Chadsey regains her health fcr informing Ohio Community Labor Boards of the c;uidance of women into industry, I want to ask you to keep us informed as rapidly as possible of your decisions. I have ,from Miss Sherwin the Bulletin of October 10th.   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Sincerely yours, 4  /1 A  •  -7  Ang  Secretary of /Tomerilltk Industry Committee.  0Sb-   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  NovaiLbcr 20, 1918.  L. L. S. Eu,p1oy7.9nt ServIce, 7i East Gay Streit, Colturibus, My dcar Mi:As ra.11-16 Lifl T:)10 Labor ,4ho 4111oll yiould I ji,1 It vnAisa to the Assibility of un.itlet suspicion. It is quito 4-.433ible t'lat thera may hav,3 been no ba4ia for the employer's statement, and un1e4a it %Nati made inore directly and mor,3 defLAtaly it would not seefa to aserit lavestigt4tion. YoL .11 probably adree with this point of view. 3  I Ka lookir twenty-ninth.  fo.vvil,rd t..s4,49i-a-, you  Columbus on liTotebber  Very truly y(1.r ,,  Mary Van Kleeck, Director, Woman ia Ill-aistry Service.  WOMAN'S COMMITTEE OHIO BRANCH  COUNCIL OF NATIONAL DEFENSE 2 BELL 3690, 3691, 369.  STATE HOUSE,COLUMBUS  CITIZEN 7883, 7031  140V 1S 11.M.  STATEHCCI_UMBUS  CHAIRMAN  MISS BELLE SHERWIN VICE CHAIRMEN MRS. GEORGE ZIMMERMAN MRS. S. B.SNEATH  -  -  -  PREmoNT  -  TSWIN  CINCINNATI MRS.LAWRENCE MAXWELL CLEVELAND MRS. MALCOLM L. McBRIDE DAYTON  -  MRS. ELIZABETH WOLF  U.3. illnployment 3ervice 74 &ast Jay 3treet :Iovember 12, 1-:,1P.  SECRETARY -  MRS.W.0.THOMPSON  COLUMBUS  TREASURER MRS.CLARENCE E. MACK  CINCINNATI HOUSE.  EXECUTIVE SECRETARY MISS LUCIA B. JOHNSON ASSISTANT SECRETARY  -  STATE HOUSE. COLUMBUS  MRS. HENRY R. SPENCER   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Liss Lary Van Kleeck, Director Women i n Industry 3ervice U.:. Department of Labor Washinton Li' dear Liss Van Kleeck: Your letter to Liss 3all, asking for the names of inspectorsa froir.rerILR, De4;rtrLent of Labor, who ToleCio plant,,\Iirritoxicdted, has ,just rez_.checi me for viAted I am sorry not to be abicy4o dive you their names. reply. The president of the firm did not4them. It mint be possible however, to obtain them thru another plant they visited on the same visit, the I doubt it. 7ould ;you be able to check from Itineraries of inspectors, if I um1 sent you he approximate date of their visit to l'oledo. I am sendin6 this letter by c-4 --t.,-..44.1 ittif fioviAt-A} /1— #7/, way o r2oledo, so that it may be added. The president Gf the plant-L'r 3.J. Uhubbuck, the ;Fencer 1..Inineerin.:; Cora5any, did not konsider that the order of the President had been rescinded. It is iole that he ha.. overlooked the terms of his contract. I asked him about that, and he said he was not at liberty to show the co tracts to anyone. But ,.he unfortunate thing is, that he • T`f-'4.• the executive order applies in his case, whether it hail been rescinded or 1:ot. sincerely yours,  Actino ievtary / Women in Industry  -4590.  !tirque of Olio Zile(Consumers'7 W,WV-113t74.7a:X=CffEX Home Phone Main 1942  MRS. PRENTICE ROOD MRS. FRANK STRANAHAN MR. JAMES DUNN MRS. BEN JOHNSON MRS. AARON CHESBROTJGH MR. GARDNER LATTIMER MRS. WM. GOSLINE   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  State Vice-President MISS OLIVE A. COLTON Corresponding Secretary MISS ANNE SPRAGUE Executive Secretary MISS ELIZABETH MEIGS  Zatetra!ranch  President MISS AMY G. MAHER Vice-President and Secretary MRS. HERBERT HIRSHBERG Treasurer MRS. FREDERICK H. SMITH  MRS. EDWIN ROSENTHAL MRS. G. C. BITTNER MR. FRANK FISHER MRS. H. 0. BARNES DR. PAUL HOLMES MRS. GEORGE MILLS  Io  1050 Nicholas Building  Octdbef 19, 1918.  Miss Mary Van Kleeck Director 7:oman in Industry Service U.S. Departiannt of Labor Washington •  My dear Miss Van 7leeck: The name of the first plant that I mentioned  as employing women at  night is the Toledo Screw Products.  I am told  at the employment office that the Spencer 7nginoering Company is no* employing woman at night.  It fs the factory in thich a woman had  lifted ax71E±mxamxIamunAxxicxti to and from her mach_. eleven handred timmx cloven l',ound shells, shall  be glad to  send you whatever information T have.  NJt  visiting the factories now, T. fear I shall have little of Interest. whatever lye can give.  Put call on us for  I shall follow with  interest your xmrk plan for 7- ivirp.. cdrtificates for night work. Sincerely yours  October 16, 1918.  miss 4.410041.,TAgaLtio• 1050 Nicholas Bu]iling, Tdelo, Ohio. My dear Miss Meigs: Many thanks for your interesting letter of October 12;th, Which reached this office yesterday. I am especially interested in what you xrite about the night shift as we are hoping to ievelor a plan whereby rdght shifts will be permitted only in Obants holding a certificate from the Secretary of War, oven in states like Ohio, Which have no night *ark law. If this is ,!ono  sh-111 count u.,on  yo-ir co-oT,eration. Mea.nwhile I am bringing the facts which yon give us about the two night shifts to the attention of Miss Peterson of our staff, who will have this matter in charge. Will you send me the loying women at name of the first plant to Which you refer as an, night? The enforce_119nt of the rrincinle of equal pay for equal work Is certainly a difficult took at present and arkv inYormation which you can giva us about this iubject in government n1,,ints, v1/1 be very useful. We 011411 be glal to have you .wite us as often as you can about conditions in Tolelo. Sincerely yours,  MVICOLL   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  %!ary Van Kleeck, Director Wolian in Iniustry Service.  President MISS AMY G. MAHER Vice-President and Secretary MRS. HERBERT HIRSHBERG Treasurer MRS. FREDERICK H. SMITH MRS. PRENTICE ROOD MRS. FRANK STRANAHAN MR. JAMES DUNN MRS. BEN JOHNSON MRS. AARON CHESBROTJGH MR. GARDNER LATTIMER MRS. WM. GOSLINE   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Zile(Consumers'Tieape of Olio zoittio!ranch  State Vice-President MISS OLIVE A. COLTON Corresponding Secretary MISS ANNE SPRAGUE Executive Secretary MISS ELIZABETH MEIGS  Home Phone Main 1942  1050 7icho1as Puilding  MRS. EDWIN ROSENTHAL MRS. G. C. BITTNER MR. FRANK FISHER MRS. H. 0. BARNES DR. PAUL HOLMES MRS. GEORGE MILLS  October 10, 1918.  :ass Mary Van Kleeck Industry "ervice 7omen U. S. Department of Labor Washinrton dear Miss Van 71oeck: Mlos Maher gave me your letter T you what T can of the three tell to glad am very and alylit. subjects you ask Hazardous occupations. -re have 7—ricit guaraed. 7om9n are thTT-7 in Toledo, machinery run34Cni7 automatic machines, used in making shells. To insert the shell, the operator must hold it in the machine until it is tight. If she delays after this there is danger to hand or fingers. Two accidents had occurred IA cutting or boring machines, when I visited the factory the fitst time. Ttalked with the nirht foreman about the danger, and a means of safeguarding but no change was decided on. It is posible that since that time, some device has been adopted-I have not been thru the factory since the government request that unor'ficial investirators not visit plants doin7 war work. Of the hazards of bad ventilati-r posture, constant standing or bad odors, and chemicals: -4 for continued o1 it'eo lifting, we have not fa of value. or the medical help foij I saw a woman in a shell factory who is lifting shells weighing-at that stage of development-eleven pounds. She lifted to and from her machine eleven hundred a day. Another woman who was doing about the same amount of work, had givellau . T?7 , president notnor process of the company thot of rutting he She a shott time. Maintained that she to rest her for nothing at home tut rest. did she could continue because An interesting factis, that in this same shell factory, the vindows were closed and he air was close-but n.A anal7zed—bocause of danger of rustto the shells. For the day had been heavy in the early morning.  .4. miss  Van Kloeck   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  10-10-18.  •  Of night work in plants working on contract for the federal government- . kf my vsit to a shell factory at 4AM in May, twenty-six woman were at work. IL-,urs 11PM to 7Am, five nights a week. A matron was charP.ed with the duty of waking anyone who slept , at the end of 7 minutes. Sleep for longer than seven minutes was thot not to refresh. The matron reported that she had more sleepy workers on Monday nights, than any other. The superintendent said the night . popular of th3ir three. Pe it most shift was the werker women received 2J2night the said here that and 5 cnets an h.ur more than the day women. The women themselves gave various reasons for preferring t-e night work,1. She could be home to start the children to school i 2. Th -3 change fro7 darkness to light makes the nir.ht 1 4 period go more quickly than the day honro. 3. The long rest from "aturday morning to Monday nighti* 4. Sleeps better in the day than at nip:ht. i 1x lph Co, making The Ransom & n has a night shift i dentists su9pl1es for the governme Rand1 beginning at elevm and workIng all 6;30M. Some thirty Cris were em-loyed on each shift. They tend automatic machnes, which make dentist's' dri1ls7 polish drills, a sist tamperers, inspect and pack. ......-----As for equal pay for e.aual work the evidence seems to show that it is more of a theory than a fact in Toledo. I believe there is some equal work in machine rooms, assemblingrooms, etc. As for the pay I cannot now say that it is equal,-I would al oat j2_ say that it is not. In the Spencer Engineerin7 Cornpany plant-making shells, women are said by the president to be receiving the same piece and bonus rates that he men. I have every reason to believe him. e not the inTheir Sims rates, whjlejr ar9 le 77,24‘,6 4/ men. iv)n p.. game e. are , In the 1 Gal 4a1do f 7ote , women Ltil4;-• 71 , whereas month, a g .'44 receivin are s elevator operator .. : the men who worked until four months ago received but  1  T realize how fragmentary and inconclusive this information is. Please call on me again if there is anything further I ctri give troll. I enjoyed hearing of you thru Dr Leirecently. Holmes Dr and sorson Sincerely yours,   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  731, 1918.  Mri. neffer:,nj Pcting Oh?tirman, Woman in Inlustril, COuncil of National Def'.:nse, J) 0 w. 4 1,;, Strlet, Chicut,o, Ill. My tie,,r Mr4. rilffaren: "WTIr to your communication of November 15tb, regret to Iny thnt I c-t cf town for a few tiay6 communicstion remained unanswered my return. The .oalrOu bureaus In the state labor iepartments ,,se  AS fOlan1.4:  Algaliaa, as u woman's laertalent sifIch 1907 but NR5 creatL-d by lai,:tslative action, 1313. Pstinly1, 00a , since 1'413 by legislative action. Wisconsin has a aomen's do:Artment but I am not quite clear hoN it ts organized. For further informaLecl regar:iin it ynt, rrilht write Misa Tracy tI,Ibbs, Industrial Welfare CommIssion, Ttslonsin. t:,;  York, since 1918, api,ointed by Industrtal  Commission. Mere Are, of course, .nany states that have women factory inspectorn but this way of dealing with the subject is not nearly as Affactive aa a woman's lepartaiont yithin thn labor derartment. Hoping that t:-.1s information bs of tottevictl in formulntln r1,,na for s woman's livision in tIvi to 1p:tor laertment of yo-,:r state, I el Vlry silLcercly yovrs,  MA:17H  Wry Anlerson, Assistant Directr, Woma0 in Iniustry Service.  ••,  OFFICERS AND EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE MRS. JOSEPH T. BOWEN...CHAIRMAN MRS. FREDERICK A. Dow VICE-CHAIRMAN MRS. WILLIS WOOD RECORDING SECRETARY MRS. GEORGE R. DEAN CORRESPONDING SECRETARY MRS. CYRUS HALL MCCORMICK TREASURER MISS EDNA P. STROHM EXECUTIVE SECRETARY MISS ISABEL SEVIER THRIFT AND CONSERVATION University of Illinois, Urbana, III. MRS TIFFANY BLAKE WOMAN'S LAND ARMY, ILLINOIS DIVISION 614-112 West Adams St. Central 2386 MISS VIRGINIA CHANDLER WAR INFORMATION 120 W. Adams St. MRS. JOSEPH G. COLEMAN PUBLICITY 120 W. Adams St. MRS. ROBERT S. DEGOLYER VOLUNTEER PLACEMENT AND FILING 120 W. Adams St. MRS. PHILIP S. DOANE RED CROSS 58 E. Washington St. Randolph 3480 MRS. HENRY M. DUNLAP FOOD PRODUCTION Savoy, III.  MRS. KELLOGG FAIRBANK SPEAKERS 120 W. Adams St. MRS. CHARLES E. FRANKENTHAL FINANCE 120 W. Adams St. MRS. WILLIAM S. HEFFERAN COURSES OF INSTRUCTION AND EMPLOYMENT 6631 Harvard Ave. Normal 8948 MRS. RAYMOND ROBINS CHILDREN IN INDUSTRY AND WOMEN 120 W. Adams St. MRS. DUNLAP SMITH SOCIAL SERVICE 120 W. Adams St. Mf.ss JEssig I. SPAFFORD ORGANIZATION 120 W. Adams St. MRS. RUSSELL TYSON RELIEF ALLIED 60 E. Washington St. Randolph 3131 MRS. HOWARD T. WILLSON LIBERTY LOAN  ,  AND WOMAN'S COMMITTEE COUNCIL OF NATIONAL DEFENSE ILLINOIS DIVISION Nov. 15, 1918.  CHICAGO RANDOLPH 4350  My dear Miss Anderson: We are hoping to have a Woman's Bureau in the Department of Labor in Illinois, and for that purpose, I want to know the name of every state which has a Woman's Bureau in it'p Labor Department, and which ones of these Bureaus were obtained by legislation. I shall be very grateful for this information. Very cordially yours, (Mrs. W. S.)  , .7•Gt. . kat‘ Acting Chairman Wowen in Industry  MEMBERS AT LARGE MRS. BENJAMIN AUERBACH NI RS. HARLAN WARD COOLEY MRS. FRANK FUNK, Bloomington, Ill. MRS. EDWIN T. JOHNSON MRS. JAMES W. MORRISSON MRS. ARTHUR RYERSON MRS. HENRY SOLOMON . ...CHAIRMAN Chicago Unit MRS. GRACE WILBUR TROUT   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  EXECUTIVE OFFICES 120 W. ADAMS STREET  Miss Mary Anderson, Woman's Bureau, Department of Labor, Washington, D. C.  Virden, Ill.  MRS. IRA COUCH WOOD CHILD WELFARE 315 Plymouth Court Harrison 7885 DR. RACHELLE VARROS HEALTH AND RECREATION 120 W. Adams St.  077ND21 ,  WOMAN'S COMMITTEE STATE COUNCIL OF DEFENSE  LDH/HF  THE SECRETARY THE SECRETARY THE SECRETARY THE SECRETARY THE SECRETARY THE SECRETARY  OF WAR, CHAIRMAN OF THE NAVY OF THE INTERIOR OF AGRICULTURE OF COMMERCE OF LABOR  COUNCIL OF NATIONAL DEFENSE  FIELD DIVISION   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  ea."'•••-••••-.••,.,, , "... •,  WASHI14.40N  I  22 Lovelliber, 1919.  la's. Taylor, Bureau of /omen in Industry. U. S. Department of Labor, dashington, D. C.  Dear La dam: Your inquiry concerning the fate of the /-)solution passed at the Wapon in Industry Conference at Hull House, Chicago, last September, has been referred to me for reply, but 1 fear I can give little help, as I z.s not associated with the Woman's Committee and no member of it is still with the Council. The signing of the armistice, and the consequent let-do:rn on factory work, no doubt caused the resolition to be tabled by the Council, which may have felt its work of that type at an end. I have gone through the files of .Lrs. Harding, who was in charge of women in industry activities for the former Joman's Committee and have been able to find nothing that would be of help to you. However, I will search again and if I discover anything enlihtenin4 will be glad to pass it on to you.  Very truly yours,  , doe  November 13, 1918. Mille May Lamberton Becker, 145 wegFillttr - t, Ntrx York City. My dear Mias BecKer: ge We are sending under separate cover a colt of Stora We ille. in Jeffersonv Bulletin ik9 to t'ae Quartermastars Dei.iot the sentence frof. the quote you have to hall also Le very glad bl,- fiftnth, and Saotem for ttee Commi news letter of the Woman!q which you will prepare. shall look forward to seeing the report Sincerely yours,  MVIC:IMP  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Mary Van 'amok, Director, Woman in Industry Service.  COUNCIL OF NATIONAL DEFENSE  WASHINGTON NOV. 4, 1913  WOMAN'S COMMITTEE 1814rgrarr  Nw.  Miss Mary Van Kleek, Womenls Division, United States Department of Labor. My dear Miss Van Kleek: At your suggestion I wrote to the offico of tne Depot Quarteril.aster nt lig for information on the replacement of women in positions hitherto held by aen , and received not only a most interesting and detailed report- specially prepared and containing information that quite surprised me Is to the extent to which this replacergent had taken place - but a reque?t that the Storage Bulletin No. 9 be sent to th6 Quartermaster 8 office in Jef'ersonville, as well a s the work I am preparing;g, AS I inherited this bulletin from nss Tarbell when I took over the work, and do not know to whom to write for another copy, will you be so good as to see that this office is supplied with one? I trust that you will permit me 46-) placeat the head of the section on Women in Industry the lines from x-our comiunication in the News Letter of thi.s, committee for Sept 15, 1918 , from "A new conception'.of women t s service etc" through the sentence " The great task etc"... and that you will perAit. me also to thank you personally for so direct and so nobly phrased a statement of the aims of the new age. I have received reports from the aeroplane construction employment ofwomen, women in railroad work for which Miss Pauline Goldmark promises me an extended report and other departments in which the replacemant is and has been going on, as well as the •sordial co-operition of various officia of the U.S.Employment Service, so that this chapter should be valuable as well as interes inE. Yours siacerely,   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  vc  OL-4-4.444-AAAvw4LIke,/ 145 Test 78th street New York City.  November 6, 1918. Miss May Lamberton Becker, 145 West 78th Street, New York City. /A* dear Miss Becker: I wish to acknowledge your letter of November fourth to Miss Van K13eck, which cams during her absence from the city for a few days. It will be brought to her attention upon her return. Very truly yours,  IMP   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Secretary to Miss Van Kleeck.   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Oc;ober 16, 1=)16.  Miss May 1.&:lberton Becker, West nth Street, Ne4 York, N.Y. My dear Miss BeoVer: Thank you for youi letter of October 10th. I do not know of any nublishei state..nent of cowlitions now prevailing in the warehousing 1(3.nots in the Arv.. From time to time inlic'Itions Mtve co3no 4,;) me tYat  .fairloynnt of ;amen has been greALly  IncreaseA in sofne of t .1-f3 dep)tn. I am afr11 that there Is no one ;arson from whom you co.;11d secure all tEe facts. It woul4 be necessary to wrIte to the officers in charge of these depots. If I remember rightly thow-1 inclulel in our investigation, aro listed in the bulletin to Which you refer. If the aUresses there are not sufficient, I should be glad to suprly them. There is certainly no objection to your quoting frim the public,ition of Noveber 24th if you find anything in it which is of remanent value. Sincerely yours,  Mary Van Kleeok, Director Vicv,an in Intustry Service.  11&-,=4111  •  COUNCIL OF NATIONAL DEFENSE WASHINGTON  WOMAN'S COMMITTEE 1814 N STREET NW.   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  A.  cv2c1,7w4iL1,  1110-7712.  FRANKLIN K.LANE,CHAIRHAN DR. ANNA HOWARD SHAW,VicE CHAIRMAN GOVET-';NING BOARD GEORGE L.BERRY R. M. BISSELL FULLER CALLA WAY GROSVENOR B. CLARKSON MRS.JOSEPH R.LAMAR MRS.STANLEY R.McCORMICK AGNES NESTOR HANNAH J. PATTERSON H. M. ROBINSON DR. ANNA HOWARD SHAW IDA M.TARBELL DANIEL WILLARD  FIELD DIVISION OF THE  COUNCIL OF NATIONAL DEFENSE WASHI NGTON  November 8th, 1918  Mrs. Rontzshu, ;lomen In Industry, Dept. of Labor, 15th 1- H Sts., New York City. My dear Mrs. Rontzshu, I am sending you a copy of the letter from the President to the Secretary of the Interior, in regard to the creation of the Field Division of the Council of Hationa1 Defense. Because of our relations to your department, it may be of interest to you, Very tr,lly yours,  T  • 2:2_73'Y:rd.,: 1TE•.;',3  C  -.1-CLO3U   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  fr  GROSVENOR B CLARKSON.DIRECTOR HANNAH J.PATTERSON,AssociATE DIRECTOR  ••••••117  THE 17,EITE HOUSE Washington 26 October, 1918. My dear Mr. Secretary: I am very glad to hear of the creation of the Field Division of the Council by amalgamating the executive functions of the State of National Defense, Councils Sedtion and theWoman's Committee of the Council, has become the sinL;le connecting link. between the Council and the other federal departments and administrations on the one hand and the State Councils of Defense and State Divisions of the Woman's Committee on the other. I have already had occasion more than once to express my warm appreciation of the accomplishments of the State Councils and the national organization of the Woman's Committee. It seems to me that the action which you have now taken, recognizing as it does a policy of joint action and common effort on the part of men and women, is sound in principle and serves ,the interest of efficiency. It is gratifying to know that this policy has already been followed in a large number of States, and I am sure that you will agree with me that it is worthy of adoption generally throughout the country. The existence of the Council of Defense system, available at all times to the various departments and administrations of the Federal Government for the execution of their wert work in the states, makes, of course, for economy of effort and renders unnecessaeY the creation of much local federal machinery which otherwise would have to be set up at great expense for the performance of specific tasks. Unquestionably this system should be utilized as far as possible. Will you not,Itherefore, communicate to the heads of such departments and administrations in Washington my wish that when they are considering extensions of their organizations into a state, or new work to be done in the states, they determine carefully whether they cannot make use of the Council of Defense system; and that they transmit all requests for action by this system through the Field Division of the Council of National Defense? It is likewise apparent that the county and community units of the Council of Defense system are similarly of great present value and still greater potential value to the state representatives of these federal departments and administrations. Would it not be advisable also to ask the department heads at T!ashington to recommend to their state representatives that each of them, in consultation with the State Council. of Defense, should take the fullest advantage of this unique machinery for getting into contact with the people of the state, both men and women? I should be glad to have you say that such a request has my sincere endorsement and support. The organization of the country for war can attain its maximum effectiveness only if we all of us utilize to the utmost the resources we have in colmnon. Cordially and sincerely yours, WOODROW WILSON Eon. Franklin W. Lane Secretary of the Interior.   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  els  COMMITTEE ON WOMEN IN INDUSTRY OF THE Advisory Commission of the Council of National Defense WASHINGTON, D. C. STANDARDS FOR THE EMPLOYMENT OF WOMEN IN WORK ON WAR SUPPLIES AS SUBMITTED TO THE Advisory Commission of the Council of National Defense Your Committee on Women in Industry urges the adoption of the following standards for work done for the Government in order to secure the fullest possible protection for women wag-e-earners. They bear the chief burden of industrial readjustment caused by the war, and will increasingly replace men. In the present emerg-ency it is essential to secure maximum continuous output compatible with the health and welfare of the workers. We cannot afford to ignore our own industrial experience or that of the other warrinp.; countries. in this supreme test of national strength and endurance short-sighted methods of manufacturing and unjust profiteering must not be allowed to prevail. The recommendations submitted herewith are not theoretical. They are based on the best industrial practice now being followed in the United States. In detail these recommendations are: Pu  z.—Tenement House Work. No work shall be done in a room which is used for living purposes nor in any room having direct connection therewith in any dwelling or tenement. 2.—Child Labor. No child under the age of 16 years shall be employed.  3.—Protection of Mothers. No woman shall be employed during a period of two months prior or two months subsequent to childbirth. 4.—Wages. Wages shall be determined as follows: (a) The wages shall be the rate established under the latest collective ag-reements for the locality, for every industry and occupation in which such agreements exist.   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  (b) Whenever there are no collective agreements, the minimum wages paid shall be based on the cost of living for the locality and shall be subject to increase as the cost of living increases. (c) Whenever women are employed for work customarily done by men they shall be paid the same rates as are paid the men. If the processes are not identical, an adjustment of wages should be made according to the skill and output of the workers. But in no case shall the wage scale for any department or process be reduced for no other reason than that women are replacing men.  1  (d) A Wage Adjustment Committee shall, when necessary, determine rates of pay as above specified and shall adjust wages from time to time as rendered necessary by any increase in the cost of living and shall act in all disputes concerning wages. When a dispute occurs in any industry in which women are employed in appreciable numbers they shall have representation on the Adjustment Committee. 5.—Hours of Work. Adequate steps shall he taken to safeguard all employees from fatigue and overstrain, and to this end (a) Each employee shall have one day's rest in seven. (b) Eight hours shall constitute the working day unless Executive Order suspends the operation of the act limiting the hours of labor. In no case shall the hours exceed m per day and all overtime beyond 8 hours shall be paid at the rate of time and a half. (c) Women shall not be employed on night shifts. They shall in all cases be allowed a period of rest at night of at least eight hours. 6.—Seats. Wherever the nature of the work allows, seats with backs shall be provided and their use permitted. Wherever women must stand at their work, seats shall be provided and be readily accessible and time off allowed for their use at stated intervals. 7.—Extra Heavy and Extra Hazardous Occupations. The employment of women at extra heavy and extra hazardous occupations shall be restricted and safeguarded. Preference shall be given to older men, not subject to military service.   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  8.—Dangerous Trades. No woman shall be employed in any dangerous trades except under the regulations of the Divisional Committee on Industrial Diseases and Poisons of the National Committee on Labor, and she shall not be so employed until medical examination shall have established her fitness for the intended occupation and similar medical examinations shall be made at stated intervals to determine her fitness to continue such employment. 9.—Heavy Lifting. No woman shall be required to lift repeatedly any heavier weight than 25 pounds, and no woman shall be employed for lifting heavy weights or pushing heavy trucks without medical examination to ascertain her fitness for such work. Io.—Exposure to Heat and Cold. No woman shall be employed where there is excessive heat or cold without medical examination to certify her physical fitness to endure such exposures and such examination shall be made at stated intervals to determine her fitness to continue such employment. The Committee will further include in its standards such recommendations affecting women as may be submitted by other committees of the Committee on Labor, including Welfare Work, Structural Safety, Fire Prevention, Dust and Fumes, Sanitation, Lighting and Industrial Diseases and Poisons. Officers and Executive Committee MRS. BORDEN HARRIMAN, Chairman EDITH CAMPBELL, - Vice Chairman MRS. V. EVERIT MACY, - Treasurer PAULINE GOLDMARK, - - Secretary GRACE ABBOTT MARY ANDERSON SOPHONISBA P. BRECKENRIDGE MRS. SARA A. CONBOY MARY VAN KLEECK  MARY E. MCDOWELL MELINDA SCOTT MRS. FRANCES C. AXTELL FLORENCE C. THORNE MRS. GIFFORD PINCHOT  AMY HEWES, Executive Secretary, Office: Room 515, Council of National Defense Building,   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Washington, D. C.  U. S. DEPARTMENT OF LABOR U. S. EMPLOYMENT SERVICE WASHINGTON IN ANSWERING REFER TO  No.  November 5, 1913.  tifFMORANDUI4 FOR MR. FRAINTKFURTER: It seems to me that something ought to be done about the proposition described in the attached from the =oil of Natio - Defense. It seams to me that for Ca an deal wthe problem of substituting them to go wmen and of protecting skilled men in industry without the slightest reference to the Labor Department is a relic of the ignorance of What Densmore would call pre-historic ages.  _ Assistant Director General.  as/EP :c.30551   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  D. 13.  Highwgi,s'Transport Committee Council of Nati TIcal Defense 942 Munsey Building Washington, D. C.  ler  fIL 11:0 z 5is 07 1.,1117,or :Jr IjoiR  fifkiefF,Nfr ir.rpvtir The following is .luthorized by the Council of  Nationa;  Defense  The task of assisting in recruiting men for the Motor Transport Corps of the Army, which is now being organized along such compre-  \  hensive lines as to call for a force approximating 200,000 men and for Motor Transportation of the value of $130,000,000 in addition to the value of such tr-nsport alrcdy in the service, has been assigned to the Highways Transport CommcitteE,, Council of National Defense, by General C. B. Drake, Chief of the Motor Transport Corps. The carrying out of this assignment for one of the great br-nches of the war machinery means th-t the whole organization of the Highways Transport Committee, including the regioml directors, the committees organized on its behalf by the State Councils of Defense throughout the county, and their 1oc-1 committees, will be given an increased share in the vital task of winning the war. In order to prevent the disruption which would follow if. tens of thousands of skilled iLen were taken away from the great organization engaged in operating and maint..ining the industrial transport service of the country, and at the same time to provide 011 adequate force, it is necessary to work out for the Motor Transport Corps some plan to secure substitutes for those thus taken away.   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  E. D. 13  -2-  One way of Lneeting this situation is by substituting women therefore for men, which involves recruiting these women and placing them in training for service while the men in the industry are being withdrawn for army purposes. The problems which would inevitably devalop in carrying out this plan of substituting women for an in the handling of industrial vehicles over the highways, would include a determination of how many men in a given locality are employed on types of vehicle which might bc adapted to handling by women, and, again, the adaptation of the service of such vehicles so as to provide a satisfactory environment for female operatives. The possible selection and training of women to take the place of men in the handling of various kinds of highways transportation, and simultaneously the selection and training of men whose age makes them unavailable for army service, will be conducted on the basis that these people are volunteers in much the same sense as are those who are enterinE the Army.  In satisfac-  torily handling domestic transportation problems, which are necessary to the health and comfort of the civili,n army in this country as well as an essential link in the transportation system which supplies our war industries and the army overseas these volunteers will be doing their bit in a big way.   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  DEPARZIENT OF LABOR Office of the Chief Clark Washington  NOV  et  A.M.  November 4, 1918.  Director, Waman in Industry Service: 1. The attached copy of a cammunic-tion and inclosurecfram e'--,,qranor B. Clarksan, Secretary of the Council of Natlonal Defanse, is submitted for your informtion and guidance so that you. mqy be prepared to diacuss the subject matter at the departmental cabinet meeting on TuesdAy, the 12th inst. 2.  By direction of the Secretary.  4e7/ ting Chief Clerk.  W W  Ilusl.  te>  ft,,itf.  ve.  71110 DIVISION of the COUNCIL 07 NATIONAL MERU WASMINGTON November 1, 1918.  lbe Nonorable, The Secretary of Labor.  tir  dear Mr. Secretary:  As yom doubtless know, the Council of National Defense ham created & Yield Division, to form which the State Councils Sections and the executive machinery of the Woman's Committee at the Council riave bean merged. The Yield Division, through this smalgonstion, has home the single conneeting link between the Council of National Defense and the /Federal Departments sat Admilnistrations ma the one hand, and the State Councils of Defense and State Divisionelof the Woman's Committee on tho other. The Counoll of Defense system extends through states and counties into the smallest communities, and offers & means try which the men and women of this aountry ean be effectively roadbed. This smehinery is available at all times to the various departments told administrations at the Federal Government for the execution of their war work in the states. The existenoe of this groat national system makes, as the President says, for seesaw of effort and renders unneoessary the creation of mesh local federal machinery which otherwise would have to be set up at groat expense for the perforsanee of apecifio tasks. /t is the desire of the President that tn the interest of scone., and efficiency this Issehimer7 be utilized as far am possible. I bespeak your careful attention for the recommendations in the President's letter to Secretary Lane, the Chairman of the Yield Division. a oopy of Which is enolosed. Will you not call them to the notiee of such bare= Chiefs or heads of divisions in your department as nay be coneernea, with the roluest that they oonform am closely as possible to the policy laid down by the President; and will you not &lso Worn your local representatives of the specika recommendation concerning the utilisation of the county and ommunity units of the Council of Defense system hy local federal agents and administrators/ The llold Division of the Council of National Defense stands at your service. We shall be glad at all tines to expl4in to you the Council of Defense orpaisAtion and to sake it *viral/able to you in your work. REIFECTFULLY, GROIVIIMR CLARKSON, Dirmotor of the Field Division and Secretary of the Council. INCLOIUNZ.   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  ..411.314  ) „11  AUCIILEDII Ihishingten  Ny dear  **Veber 241,  Seerstaryt  I am very glad to hear of the creation of the Field Division of tAe Council of litationill Deffinse, whieh, by amalgevating the exeoetive ties* of the State Counellspeetioa and the Wemees Committee of tbe Comp oil, hma bedews the single sonaseting link between the Council amd the other federal departments and administrations on the one hand and the Stete Counp oils of Defense amd State Divisions of the Woman's Committee on the other. I have already had *amnion mare than once te express eir mom appreciation and the national organisation on WI 46001111021411110Ate of A. State of the Wemmes Committso. It seems to we that the tellies *tisk yen have new taken, reoeignising as it doss a gy of joint settee and women effort on the part of men and memen, it sound in prineiple and serves the interest of effloiemey. It is gratifying to know that thie pang, has already Won fellomiii in it LUSO amber of states, and I am sure Chat yea will Agree with ne that it is worthy ef adoption generally throughout the *sentry. existenee of the Oemmell of Defense system', available at all times to the varioue departments and administrations of the 7ader4I Government for the execution of their war work in the states, makes, of course, for seencely of effort and renders unnaosssary the erestion of mesh looal federal so*bins*. whiah otherwise would have to be set up at great expense for the perk. system should be utilised aegis forwenA)* of specc talks. Misestionatly as possible. all you net, therefore, communicate te the heads of each departments and administrations in Washington qy wish that when they are con*Wiring extensions of their organisations into a stet*, er now work to be done in the states, they detemaine oarefully Whether they eeanet make us* of the Council of Defense system; and that Choy transmit all requssts for action ky this systea through the Yield Division of the Council of National Defense? It is likewise apparent Chat the county and oommunityunits of the Couneil of Defense system aro similarly of great present value and still greater potential value to the state representatives of these federal departments and administrtione. Weald it not be advieable also to ask the department heads et Washington to reeemmend to their state repreeentatives that each of Choi, in semi. saltation with the *tete Counoll of Defense, iheuld take the fullest advantage ef this unique madhinery for =king contact with the people of the state, both Mee ;mest bad, ir Very 4101,0 and women? I ahould be glad to have you say that suab rs, org&nisation of the The country for war ema ato. more endoreement and support. tain its maximum effectiveness only if we 411 ef us utilise to the *Nest the row. seams we have in esesson. Cordially and sincerely yours, (Signed) Abu. Irranklin &Lane, Seeretary of the Interior.   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  11100DROW COON.  COUNCIL OF NATIONAL DEFENSE , vumminimumusellINNIMMrsk  WASHINGTON, D. C.  Field Division  October 1, 1918. : To the several State Councils of Defense e.„,rjaailo_f_atinon,fil Defense, in taking over the executive . The Field Division of th CoUncils Section and theVoinci 'es Committee of the Council of activities s, which National Defense, will begin a new series of bulletins and circulars. The activitie the has asked Section, Councils State the Council of National Defense, through the and change this by ed unaffect course, State Councils of Defense to undertake, are, of s, and should be prosecuted vigorously by the State Councils. The important activitie these out carrying for made the suggestions which the Council of National Defense has programs, are ;timmarized in the following outlines. conAre you using every activity here recommended which is adapted to your local needs? ditions? Are you undertaking the additional activities demanded by your local service If, not, the Federal Departments and War Administrations will be limited in the ry machine dent e indepen to institut forced be will and you, from which they may receive in your State. work. We ask your careful consideration of this outline of important State Council and ion informat with special service general our ent We are always ready to supplem s. suggestions relating to particular problem Very truly, yours, G_211,SZA.RKSON, Director of Field Division.  --6r1R—State  84712-18----1   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  (I. C. A. 14)  /1   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  •  IMPORTANT STATE COUNCIL WORK. 4  FUNCTIONS.  The President of the United States has written to the Secretary of War, suggesting that he communicate with the heads of all Federal Departments and Administrations the wish of the President, that when they are considering extension of their organization in the States, or new work to be done in the States, they determine cal dully whether they can not utilize the State Council system, thus rendering unnecessary the creation of new machinery, and that they transmit all requests for action by the State Councils through the Council of National Defense. (See I. C. A. No. 12.) The primary functions of the State Council of Defense are, therefore1. To perform on behalf of the Federal Government such of its war work in the State as does not require the creation of a separate administrative organization extending into the small communities. 2. To perform on behalf of the representatives of those Federal Departments and Administrations having organizations extending throughout the States such of their war work as they feel can be performed by the State Council organization. 3. To perform such independent activities as will enable the State to contribute most fully to the welfare of the Nation and of its own citizens in the prosecution of the war. 4. To centralize and coordinate the war work of the State. In order to fulfill these functions it is essential that the State Council of Defense create an adequate organization for reaching the people and directing their efforts, and build up and maintain the public morale. To create and direct Local Councils of Defense is, therefore, essential to the execution of all the functions of the State Council of Defense. By creating this organization and performing these functions the State Council saves the Nation the tremendous expense of creating elaborate new administrations for the performance of new war activities and also, in the conduct of the work of its established administrations, the expense of creating or maintaining many parallel organizations where a common machine can more efficiently serve them all. The efficiency of the United States war work within this country, therefore, to a large extent depends upon the State Council of Defense. As the official representative of the Council of National Defense the State Council of Defense bears vital relationship to the Council of National Defense and should maintain close contact with it. ORGANIZATION. LEGISLATIVE ESTABLISHMENT AND APPROPRIATION.  The Council of National Defense recommends the enactment of a statute providing for a State Council of Defense and endowing it with broad powers and adequate funds. Twentyfour State Councils are at present statutory. States whose legislatures will meet during 1919 should make plans toward legislative establishment and have ready a statute before the legislature convenes. "Suggestions for a Statute Creating a State Council of Defense" may be had on application. INTERNAL ORGANIZATION.  Form of Organization.—A Council of small membership, or a large Council managed bfsa small executive committee, has proved most effective. It is important that meetings be called frequently—weekly, if possible—in order that opportunities and requests for State Council   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  (3)  4 work and emergency matters may be acted on promptly, that committees may report frequently on work undertaken, and that the work of the Council may be kept constantly under way. Departments and Committees.—The far-reaching scope of the State Council organization , requires that the work be apportioned among committees. Committees should be appointed however, only when there is definite work for them to do. Each committee should stand for some specific activity or group of activities in charge of one member acting- in an executive capacity. This member should be a person with adequate time to give to the work. Women should be included in the membership of all committees. Executive Secretary.—It is of first importance to coordinate the work of the various committees under a single guiding hand and to make one man responsible for the executive work of the Council by the appointment of a paid director or executive secretary. Negroes.—The Council of National Defense has recommended that the State Councils in the States with large Negro population take the lead in organizing Negroes for Council of Defense and other war work and that they confer with the representatives of the other Federal agencies concerned, so that all work relating to Negroes may be doile through a single Negro organization affiliated with the State Council of Defense. It is important that such Council of Defense programs as apply to Negro activity should be called to the attention of its Negro organization by the State Council. (See General Letters No. 117, Partial Letters Nos. 32 and 34.) LOCAL ORGANIZATION.  Importance.—Complete local organization extending through the county to the small community where the individual may be reached directly is essential to successful State Council of Ju1y work. President Wilson in commenting upon the State Councils system in his letter into ion defense our organizat of extending value 30th, said: "I am particularly struck by the the smallest communities and by the truly democratic character of a national system so organized." (See I. C. A. No. 12.) METHOD.  County Councils of Defense.—These have been completely organized for some months in nearly every State in the Union. County Councils, in addition to their direct work, are important as distributing agencies of State Councils in reaching Community Councils. In order to maintain County Councils at their fullest efficiency, their development and work must for be closely followed up by the State Councils. The State Councils are responsible not only with them supplying for also but Councils, of work County the directing developing and information, advice, and assistance in their various activities. The County Councils should on and aid be made to feel that the State Councils are their most accessible sources of informati of the circulars and bulletins All local. or concerning all programs, Federal as well as State for ized rebulletin be should Councils Council of National Defense of importance to County Councils County the with Councils them by the State Council. Joint meetings of the State the prefor the State at large or for certain areas, frequent reports to the State Council and all Councils, County paration of comprehensive reviews of the organization and duties of the are valuable for this purpose. (See County Council Circular.) Community Councils of Defense.—To reach and mobilize the individual citizens effectively, Defense Councils subsidiary to County Councils are indispensable. The Council of National About State. each ut througho Defense of ty of Councils Communi has urged the formation ion. organizat Council ty cent per Communi 100 20 State Councils report The Community Council of Defense is not merely a committee as is the State or County national Council; it is the community itself with all its citizens and agencies organized for of ation communic of channels the Defense of service. Without the Community Councils   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  5 State and County Councils would in a measure empty into the air; with them the Federal Government may reach every individual in every community, and through them every individual may find his place in the work of the war. In,his letter to the Chairman of State Councils President Wilson refers to the creation of Community Councils thus: "It will, I believe, result when thoroughly carried out in welding the Nation together as no nation of great size has ever been welded before. It will build up from the bottom an understanding and sympathy and unity of purpose and effort which will, no doubt, have an immediate and decisive effect upon our great undertaking." The Council of National Defense is always ready to give information on the organization of Community Councils, and to send copies of its programs to all County Councils or to provide copies in large numbers to the State Councils for distribution. (See I. C. A. Nos. 7 and 9; also Bulletins Nos. 83, 88, 105, 106, and General Letters Nos. 73, 80, and 89.) CENTRALIZATION OF STATE WAR WORK.  State War Board.—The Council of National Defense has recommended that each State Council of Defense call at regular intervals conferences of the State representatives of the different Federal Departments and Administrations carrying on work connected with the prosecution of the war. These meetings are for the purpose of free round-table discussions to make clear to all the general scope of work conducted by each agency represented. The discussions should give information which should prevent new lines of work being started and organizations created that would duplicate unnecessarily those under way. It should also bring out instances of duplication or conflict. These conferences should be informal for purposes of consultation. It is suggested that the active head of the State Council should act as Chairman. This recommendation has been approved by the following Federal Departments and War Administrations and their representatives should be included in such war board meetings: Treasury Department, Department of Agriculture, Department of Labor, the Woman's Committee of the Council of National Defense, Food Administration, Fuel Administration, American Red Cross, and the Four Minute Men. (See General Letter No. 71.) County War Boards.—Such conferences should also be held by the County Councils of Defense in connection with the county representatives of the various departments above listed. In several States such County War Board meetings have already been instituted with great success. Centralization of Ofiices.—As many as possible of the official war agencies in the State or county should be housed together, so that one building may be known as the official war office for the locality. It is often practicable to have a central office force do the work of the several different war agencies. The fact that the drives of the different agencies are scheduled so as to prevent conflict makes a common office force feasible, especially in the county organization. (See General Letter No. 71.) COORDINATION OF VOLUNTARY AGENCIES.  Many voluntary organizations and societies have been created or have been enlarged to undertake various types of war work. The Council of National Defense has adopted a resolution requesting the State Council to act as the central coordinating agency for all such voluntary patriotic war work within the State. It is also requested that the State Council endeavor to concentrate the patriotic activity of the citizens of the State in as few organizations as possible so as to prevent the growth of new and duplicating voluntary societies which will hinder rather than help the efficient mobilization of the Nation for war service. (See General Letters Nos. 81 and 91; Bulletin No. 73, supplemented by Bulletin No. 76.) To accomplish this, the following plans, proved successful in some States, are suggested:   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  ves of such agencies, acting as a Organization of committees composed of representati plan has been adopted y several State coordinating committee of the State Council. This 's Committee in every State. Councils and by tho State Divisions of the Woman by the State Council, appointment of Enrollment of all patriotic societies in the State such representatives as to their work. representatives of such societies, and conferences with to specific voluntary agencies in Assignment by the State Councils of definite war tasks the State particularly fitted to assume them. main divisions: Campaigns for funds.—Campaigns for funds fall into two the American Red Cross, (c) (b) , y Loans Libert the (a) igns 1. The three major campa the Y. M. C. A., the Y. W. C. A., the National the United War Work Campaign, comprising , the War Camp Community Service, the Catholic War Council, the Jewish Welfare Board Army. ion Salvat American Library Association, and the ary war relief and welfare 2. The numerous unrelated solicitations of minor volunt organizations. the task of the Councils is to give In connection with the three major campaigns for funds, at the disposal of the committee nery every assistance, placing their entire State and local machi t behind each specific camsuppor in charge of the respective campaigns; to enlist public zation in charge, to take the organi made with paign; and, where appropriate arrangements are in No. 115.) active part in the solicitation as well. (See Bullet of voluntary relief organizations, the Council ations solicit ted unrela the In connection with ls to undertake some adequate method of superof National Defense urges the State Counci l Letter No. 43.) State Council supervision vision. (See Bulletins Nos. 78 and 80 and Genera should provide forigns to collect funds for war 1. Concentration and reduction, as far as possible, of campa relief. (See General Letter No. 133.) s or those duplicating tho work 2. Elimination, so far as possible, of fraudulent organization l Letters Nos. 81, 82, and 91.) Genera (See s. zation of already well-recognized and efficient organi relief. No citizen should, war to bute to contri 3. Opportunity for each individual citizen however, be forced to give. the collection of funds and has The following method is recommended for the control of ls: been put into successful operation by several State Counci of National Defense. l Counci the of tion resolu the to ity Giving wide public to the State Council as Calling upon all war-relief organizations within the State to report to their organization, expenditures, and work. of societies recommended Preparing and advertising widely on the basis of these reports a list by the State Council as worthy of financial support. STATE COUNCIL WORK. MORALE.  s of State Council work, and Upon the morale of the individual citizen depends the succes r credit upon which the Nation must of all Federal war programs in the State. This popula al task of the State Councils to create. draw to perform the work of the war, it is the especi propaganda. It involves stirring; Establishing a satisfactory morale needs more than mere of the people of the Nation. Wellinto galvanic energy the latent enthusiasm and enterprise te series of Community Councils, comple a organized Council of Defense systems, terminating in into vital contact with the war him bring can reach personally every citizen in the country and citizen a part in the war work of the aims and needs of the Government. They can give every ation on the war, thus defeating apathy, Nation and can keep him supplied with practical inform   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  ignorance, and discouragement. In all phases of State Council activity the question of civilian morale must be of first consideration. It is more definite and apparent in Organization, Publicity and War Information, Americanization, Loyalty, and Sedition. PUBLICITY AND WAR INFORMATION.  Means of State Council Publicity are summarized in detail in various circulars. (Information Circular No. 21, I. C. A. No. 13.) In general, they include: Press Information.—The employment of a salaried press man with newspaper experience is essential. It has been found effective to have a man on every large newspaper in the State designated to act as a special representative of the Publicity Department of the State Council. Conferences of newspaper editors are often useful. (See General Letter No. 31.) The foreign-language press is a valuable newspaper publicity agency. Work with foreignlanguage publications should be done in cooperation with the State Council Americanization Cothmittee. In addition to systematic releases to foreign-language papers, the Councils of Defense may profitably issue handbills and posters in foreign languages on various topics of war interest. (See I. C. A. No. 11, and General Letter No. 131.) SPEAKING.  Speakers Bureau.—The task of a State Council Speakers Bureau is to organize patriotic meetings, place speakers at such meetings, keep the speakers of the State fully and explicitly informed on all matters which the State Council wishes to lay before the people, and conduct speaking campaigns to reach even the remotest communities. Four Minute Men.—The Four Minute Men should be associated as closely as possible with the Speakers Bureau and given full support in the States. (See I. C. A. No. 13, and General Letter'No. 143.) PUBLIC PATRIOTIC MEETINGS.  War Covferences.—War conferences have been held in nearly all States, under the Speakers Bureau of the State Council acting with the Council of National Defense and the Committee on Public Information. Liberty Choruses.—The organization of choruses to sing at Community Council meetings, mass meetings, and rallies to get the whole community singing, and to bring the whole community into the Community Council, is urged. The Council of National Defense recommends the appointment of a State musical director by the State Council of Defense. (See Bulletin No. 103 and General Letter No. 129.) State Fairs.—Exhibits of the State Council and the Woman's Divisions at State and other fairs afford a very effective means of enlisting public interest in their woik. (See General Letter No. 103.) State Council Periodicals.—Pcriodicals issued at regular intervals and containing news from State and County Councils and news from the various departments at Washington are excellent means of stimulating Council of Defense wolk. They should be circulated among all Local Councils of Defense and prominent citizens interested in war work. Miscellaneous.—There are numerous other means of publicity, including posters, pamphlets, official State Council bulletin boards; farm journals and trade papers; the libraries, through the State Library Director of the Food Administration; the schools; and the assistance of special professions, such as the clergy, physicians, and judges, and of special groups such as fraternal, commercial, and trade associations. (See I. C. A. No. 13.)   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  8 TION. WORK WITH THE FOREIGN BORN-AMERICANIZA  y 13,000,000 foreign born. Importance.—There are in the United States approximatel of the war activities; upon it depends Americanization is, therefore, one of the most important lt problems of civilian and military morale, the solution of many of the most vital and difficu of labor, of war manufacture, and of sedition. lization, acting with the Council of The United States Bureaus of Education and Natura official agencies for coordinating all war Defense, have designated the State Councils their State Councils are responsible for correlating, emergency Americanization work in the States. done in the State to mould our native being is work er directing, and supplementing whatev be done so far as possible through should work The . nation and foreign born into a truly unified existing agencies. (See Bulletins Nos. 86 and 91.) ion work is the appointment State Committee.—The first step in State Council Americanizat anization, and local comon Americ ttee State Commi jointly with the Woman's Division, of a Bulletin No. 112 and (See ts. n-born residen foreig mittees in every town containing over 500 of the foreign born. ves e entati includ repres G. L. No. 160.) These committees should always to be should ttee The chief functions of a State Americanization Commi as to the problem in its State 1. Thoroughly inform itself through a preliminary survey the foreign born. the work with and the various agencies already engaged in ion work through State and local 2. Correlate the many agencies engaged in Americanizat s, and through a central coordinating conference of periodic conferences of their representative the foreign-born groups. these representatives and representatives of Bulletin No. 108.) and 111, and 52 No. (See General Letters the English language through— in ction instru for 3. Conduct a campaign h every group of 20 foreign-speaking people who for Englis in (a) Public school classes 108.) No. in desire it. (See Bullet hour and in night schools (b) Supplementary classes in English in factories at the noon and settlements. . (c) Extension work in the homes to reach foreign-born women . for women r classes g and simila (d) Extension work through cookin out their first taken have who all for 4. Provide for adequate citizenship training classes e American becom to them s encourage papers, and personal contact with such future citizen to citizens. (See Bulletin No. 91.) where there are many foreign5. Establish war-information bureaus in all communities h to the foreign born accurate born residents. These bureaus should be equipped to furnis (Bulletin No. 92.) information about the war and the problems arising from it. als in foreign languages, transeditori ing includ ty, rs' publici 6. Give full press and speake foreign born, addresses to the foreign lations of important speeches and laws relating to the rs in the various foreign languages born by speakers in their own languages, address by speake es. librari in and in factories during the noon hours, in schools, MEASURES OF ECONOMY.  run, therefore, our continued Modern warfare is largely a contest in endurance. In the long my now. In all directions econo nt successful prosecution of the war depends upon our efficie l. rigid economy should be promoted by the State Counci he necessity for nation-wide personal my.—T Econo and al Thrift Person General Campaign for Council announcements. Each dollar thrift and economy must be stressed repeatedly in State and one dollar's worth of labor taken wasted means one dollar less to loan to the Government ue throughout the war and is one of from vital war work. This is work which is to contin   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  9 the most valuable civilian contributions to American success. (See Bulletin No.94 and General Letter No. 97.) Christmas Buying.—The Council of National Defense has emphasized the necessity of restricting Chritsmas buying in order to save labor and material in the manufacture and sale of Christmas gifts and to save transportation and delivery facilities involved in a large volume of Christmas purchases. An agreement has been effected with representatives of the retail trade to the end that the merchants will not increase their working force or working hours by reason of holiday business, and that they will encourage the early buying of useful gifts only. State Councils are urged to give this agreement wide publicity during the fall of 1918. Curtailment of Retail Deliveries.—In order to release labor and to save equipment, State Councils are asked to push the deliveries campaign of the Conservation Division of the War Industries Board (formerly the Commercial Economy Board of the Council of National Defense), which calls for the restriction of deliveries to one per day over each route, the elimination of special deliveries, and the restriction of return privileges, and also the encouragement of the establishment of cooperative delivery systems wherever possible, especially in the small towns. Each State Council should designate some person to act under its authority and to have this campaign especially in charge. (See General Letter No. 86 and Bulletins Nos. 42, 47, and 58.) State Council Commercial Economy Programs.—There are a number of fields in which commercial adjustments may promote economy, but in which national programs are not practicable. State Councils through their commercial economy representatives should develop State or local programs to meet specific local needs. Discouragement of New Construction.—State and Local Councils of Defense are asked to pass upon cases of proposed construction as part of the plan of the War Industries Board which requires that a permit issued by the War Industries Board shall be obtained before any construction is undertaken. The manufacturers of building materials are pledged not to furnish materials unless such a permit is shown. An application for a construction permit should be made under oath to the local representatives of the State Council of Defense, presumably the County Council of Defense, who should investigate and refer the matter with a recommendation to the State Council of Defense. The State Council of Defense should appoint a committee on proposed construction, to keep in touch with the Local Councils and also with the War Industries Board, and to act as the communicating agency between the Local Councils and the War Industries Board. Wherever the State Council decides in favor of the proposed construction,the matter should be referred to the War Industries Board, Section on Non-War Construction, which alone has power to issue construction permits. All cases in which the State Council rules against the proposed construction should be reported monthly to the War Industries Board on forms provided by the Board. This function will constitute one of the most important and responsible duties of the State Councils of Defense. (See Bulletin No. 113.) FIRE PROTECTION.  Prevention of Wast(ful Fires—General Publicity.—Citizens should be warned concerning fire hazards and requested to exercise care in the prevention of fire. All industrial plants and food repositories should be inspected by inspectors indorsed by the State Council. The fire apparatus of every town should be surveyed to arrange for interchange of apparatus and to effect standardization of hose and hydrant couplings. (See Bulletin No. 11 and General Letter No. 45.) The State Council should keep in close touch with the district foresters and field men of the United States Forestry Service in order to work with them in fire prevention. (See General Letter No. 152.)   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  10 FOOD.  upon local conditions. Production.—Tho methods of stimulating food production depend ingenuity in developing such resources. Each State Council shopld, therefore, freely exercise its up with the national food-production At the same time all food-production work should be tied ture. In order to accomplish' program announced by the United States Department of Agricul ture Extension Service throughout this and to insure close working relations with the Agricul State Extension Director. (See the State, constant contact should be maintained with the Bulletin No. 87.) l fall planting program. A campaign should be conducted in connection with the nationa 1919 is announced the for m progra tion (See Bulletin No. 110.) As soon as the general produc ction is also posconstru silo e increas to planting campaign should be broadened. A campaign some person to te designa sible. (See General Letter No. 137.) Each State Council should General Letter (See have charge of the United States School Garden Army work in the State. Letter No. 53 l Genera in ted No. 139.) Methods in the several fields of agriculture were sugges and still serve as points of departure for new State measures. the United Conservation.—Active assistance should be rendered by State Councils to should be nship relatio g States Food Administration in all its campaigns and close workin ment of Depart States established between the Home Demonstration Agents of the United No. 114.) Agriculture and the Community Councils of Defense. (See Bulletin n of rats should be inatio exterm for es the 142, measur No. Letter l Genera As suggested in for community campaigns adopted by the State Councils. A particularly good opportunity s of Defense. will be found in crusades conducted by the Community Council FUEL.  to the State Fuel Administration in State Councils are asked to give active assistance the early purchase of winter fuel, various conservation and distribution plans. These include y in lighting and heating, and strict the conservation of gasoline, the saving of fuel by econom and General Letter No. 152.) observance of the"lightless night" order. (See Bulletin No. 107 States Forest Service in The State Councils should cooperate with the agents of the United encouraging the use of wood as fuel. (See General Letter No. 152.) TRANSPORTATION.  food prices the Highways Transport.—In order to relieve freight congestion and to reduce ended by the Council more extensive use of motor trucks especially for short hauls is recomm ys Transport Committee to of National Defense. The State Council should create a Highwa of the Council of National work in cooperation with the Highways Transport Committee e Return Loads Bureaus, and Defense and study local conditions and develop as far as possibl Nos. 62,102,108, and 1551.) Letters l and Genera 90, Rural Motor Express. (See Bulletin No. Council Highways TransState the zed authori The United States Employment Service has ntial labor in connonesse or al essenti port Committees to make preliminary decisions as to ant function of import an utes nection with all power or horse drawn vehicles. This constit (See General work. their of the Highways Transport Committees and adds greatly to the scope Letter No. 155A.) the hands of the Freight Cangrstion.—Tho solution of freight congestion problems is in agement of encour by the Railroad Administration. However, the State Councils can aid General (See lots. economical measures of buying, such as the purchase of fertilizer in carload Letter No. 30 and Bulletin No. 34.) during the war, Highways.—Though nonessential road improvement is to be discouraged s in seeing that essential State Councils should cooperate with State Highways Commissioner   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  highways are maintained in good condition and cleared for use at all times. In order that the increased use of motor cars may be facilitated, it is particularly necessary that interstate roads, such as the Lincoln Highway, be kept in usable condition at all times. (See Bulletin No. 100.) LABOR.  Opportunities for State Council Work.—The State Council should take advantage of local conditions to inaugurate independent activities for meeting the labor problems of the State. Instances of independent State Council activities are the requisitioning of county road crews for haying and thrashing (see Bulletin No. 46), the appointment of Local Housing Committees, the mobilization of townspeople to work on adjacent farms, etc. Some States have found labor surveys, employment bureaus, and vagrancy measures useful and necessary. (See General Letters Nos. 130 and 147.) United States Employment Service.—To the United States Employment Service has been entrusted the task of recruiting and allocating unskilled labor. The State Council should cooperate with the Department of Labor in this most important work. (See Bulletin No. 101 and General Letter No. 147.) Boys' Working Reserve.—The actual supervision and placement of members of the Boys' Working Reserve is in the hands of the State Division of the Boys' Working Reserve. State Councils should arrange with this branch of the Department of Labor, however, to assist them in all their work and particularly to provide preliminary training for the boys and to insure their physical and moral welfare. (See Bulletins Nos. 43 and 03.) Housing.—States with a largo industrial population should, in cooperation with the United States Bureau of Industrial Housing and Transportation of the Department of Labor, supervise the provision of adequate housing facilities, establish room registration.bureaus, and undertake the prevention of rent profiteering. (See Bulletin No. 95, and Partial Lotter No. 23.) PUBLIC WELFARE.  Vocational Education.—The Federal Board for Vocational Education has requested State Councils to join with State Boards for Vocational Education to provide emergency vocational training to meet the demand for technically skilled workers. The appointment of a Joint Advisory Committee for the promotion of vocational education under the provisions of the Smith-Hughes Act is strongly urged. (See Bulletin No. 104.) It has been suggested that State Councils consider the advisability of encouraging shop training of employees,following the plans of the Section on Industrial Training of the Council of National Defense. (See General Letter No. 128.) Maintenance of Educational Standards.—Tho United States Bureau of Education urges the maintenance of a high educational standard in the primary and secondary schools of the country in order that the young people of to-day may be prepared to meet efficiently the complex conditions brought about by the war. State Councils should lend State and Local Boards of Education every assistance and should unite with Child Welfare Committee of the Woman's Dilisions in their special drive. (See Bulletin No. 85.) Patriotic education in schools.—Arrangements should be made with Boards of Education to have patriotic exercises and brief studies of war news made a part of regular school work in every school. Public health.—The maintenance of public health is a measure of national defense, especially at a time when national efficiency demands that people be in better health and when at the same time curative facilities are depleted by the needs of the Military Establishment. The maintenance of public health is a matter for which Community Councils are particularly fitted. A public-health committee should be appointed in each Community Council. It should consist   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  12 with of representatives of all health and welfare organizations in the community, together and all for citizen representatiyes. This committee should constitute itself a clearing house should work out arrangements to insure the maximum use of existing facilities and the establishment of such new facilities (as clinics) as are urgently necessary in war time. At the same time the Community Council health committee should map out a local health program and should call a series of mass meetings to develop this program. Whenever the State Council develops a State public-health program, such local programs should be fitted into the State plan. Child Welfare.—Each successive drive of the Children's Year program should be heartily supported by the State Councils. (See General Letter No. 109, and Bulletin No. 85.) MEN IN SERVICE.  Legal Advice to Men Entering and in the Military Service.—State Councils of Defense should create State Legal Committees. The duties of the State Legal Committee are to organize local Legal Committees, to prepare a booklet of State and Federal laws and legal rules for the guidance of local Legal Committees, and to draft proposed war emergency legislation on behalf of the State Council for the State Legislature. Local Legal Committees should be composed preferably of lawyers chosen from the membership of permanent Legal Advisory Boards. They should see all men in Class 1 of the draft to impress upon them the necessity of preparing their affairs for their absence and to assist them in making the necessary preparations. The Local Legal Committees should also volunteer their assistance to the American Red Cross Home Service Sections. (See Bulletin No. 84, General Letters Nos. 49, 55, 65, 67, and 123.) War-Risk Insurance.—Through the Boards and through Legal Committees, the State Councils should thoroughly inform men about to enter military service in regard to the provisions and opportunities of the Federal War-Risk Insurance Law. (See Bulletin No. 116.) Claims for allotments and payments, however, should be referred to the appropriate Home Service Section of the American Red Cross. (See General Letters Nos. 67, 121, and 127.) Predraft Training.—State Councils have been asked to cooperate with the Draft Boards in organizing Boards of Instruction to work under the Draft Board, to see personally each Selective in order to make sure that he proceeds to camp willing, loyal, intelligent, clean, and sober, and to provide such meetings, classes, drills, and farewells as will assist in this general task. Where Boards of Instruction have not been appointed by Local Draft Boards, State Councils, working through their County Councils, should explain to Draft Boards the necessity for such action and should make every effort to bring Selectives together in meetings, at which they will be given instruction as to military opportunities, life in camp, personal hygiene, and the need of legal preparation. Where Boards of Instruction are appointed, State and County Councils should assist Local Draft Boards in furnishing Boards of Instruction necessary information and assistance in their work. State Councils should put their entire machinery at the service of the Boards of Instruction and should make sure that appropriate action is taken through the Board of Instruction or otherwise, to create in the Selectives a sound morale. (See Bulletin No. 89, and General Letters Nos. 76, 100, and Bulletin No. 102, which contains Gen. Crowder's recommendations concerning Boards of Instruction.) Commission on Training Camp Activities.—State Councils of Defense should cooperate with the Commission on Training Camp Activities in providing for the health, recreation, and welfaTe of the men in training camps. Suggestions for such State Council cooperation include the supplying of patriotic speakers for recreation meetings, the tying up of local councils of defense with the War Camp Community Service in their camp localities, and their assistance in raising   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  13 funds for the work, assistance in maintaining health and moral conditions about the camps, correlation of voluntary societies working for the men in the camps, the supervision of the solicitation of funds by such voluntary agencies, and the provision of. comforts and recreation facilities. (See Bulletin No. 81, and General Letters Nos. 73, 74, 96, 114, and 148.) Community Recognition of Distinguished Service.—State Councils should recommend to County Councils that they and their Community Councils recognize distinguished service in establishing Honor Rolls, and by sending official letters of appreciation to men in the service who have been cited for heroism or distinguished service. The next of kin of the men whose names appear on the list of those who have given their lives for their country should also receive appropriate letters from the Local Council of Defense. (See Bulletins Nos. 81 and 106.) Relief—The relief which is necessary as a result of war conditions is concerned largely with the dependents of soldiers and sailors. While this work is under the jurisdiction of the American Red Cross, the State Councils should cooperate wherever possible. Loyalty and Sedition.—Secretary Baker in writing to the President said: "The State Councils are now in a special sense the guardians of civilian morale in each State." The State Councils are urged constantly and strenuously to combat sedition and apathy by the one means of arousing loyalty. Among the most effective methods are1. Drawing into some form of appropriate war work those members of the Community who through misunderstanding or kinship with our enemies are especially prone to disloyal tendencies or unpatriotic discontent. 2. Personal contact and explanation (this is a delicate task, unskillful personal contact tends to foment sedition). 3. Utilizing the existing publicity machinery of the State Councils to reach persons with disloyal tendencies. It is of first importance that State Councils should take a positive stand against the lawless treatment of persons suspected of disloyalty by local councils or by other agencies. To the Department of Justice is delegated the actual suppression of sedition by the arrest and prosecution of the offenders. (See General Letters Nos. 113 and 138.) The State Councils can be of assistance by reporting to that Department all seditious acts and utterances that come to its attention. (See Bulletin No. 99.) Deserters and Delinquents.—The State Councils have been asked by the Adjutant General the work of the Department of Justice in the detection of deserters and draft supplement to General Letter No. 109.) (See delinquents. Location of alien property.—The Alien Property Custodian has asked Councils of Defense to locate for them enemy owned property within the several States, reporting evidence, even though unverified, to the Council of National Defense for transmittal. (See Bulletin No. 96, and General Letter No. 120.) WAR FINANCE.  _Liberty Loans.—As the preparations for each Liberty Loan are developed, State Councils are expected to proffer their services to those in charge for their State, working out special methods of cooperation and active assistance as decided upon by representatives of the Liberty Loan organizations and the State Councils in conference. Particularly valuable work may be done by County and by Community Councils of Defense in reaching the people directly. (See Bulletins Nos. 50 and 62.) Sale or Exchange of Liberty Bonds.—State Councils should warn the public against exchanging Liberty Bonds for merchandise, calling attention to the fact that it is disapproved by the Treasury Department. Local Councils should investigate and report all offers to accept Liberty Bonds for merchandise and also for other bonds and corporate stocks. The sale of Liberty Bonds, except in case of special necessity, should _be discouraged. (See General Letter No. 107.)   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  14 will be important as War Savings Stamps.—Tho continuous sale of War Savings Stamps Savings Societies in War shing establi is tee Commit Savings long as the war lasts. The War in War Savings ment invest the and y econom and small communities for the purposes of thrift of Defense and s Council County by ed promot Stamps. The growth of these societies should be Councils of ity Commun the of ies auxiliar the societies as far as possible should be constituted ous sales continu such assist also can s Defense working through and with them. State Council the before always matter the keeping of stamps by devising ingenious publicity methods for to not is purpose main the that people of the State. In all this work it must be remembered 92 Nos. Letters General (See make immediate sales, but to inculcate the habit of personal thrift. and 149—A.) l referred to Copies of the bulletins,information circulars, general letters, and other materia tion to applica upon had be may d, outline in this outline, and full details as to any of the work C. D. gton, Washin , the Field Division of the Council of National Defense   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  wAssI NGTON : GOVERNIIENT PRINTING OFFICE: 191).