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A-RAA0 Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  G(2A \ tJ G ,  WAR  DEPARTMENT,  WAS H I N GTO N .  ::otrember 4., 1918.  From:  "ar )ey.rtment, ::ajor F. 7. Tully.  To:  Hiss ::ary Van Kleeck, Director, woman in Industry.  subject:  equest ofy,./Imour Jrain Company of Ciltmukee, 'isconsin, for permissitin to :)ploy women from 5:30 . 7:. to 11:30  In ::N:)ply to your request of October L-9, 1918, we have ascertained from the Eubsistence Division of the -uartermaster Office that such Com-pany has no contract with the War Department for the supplying of c.?reals for the army. Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  W. Tully, :ajor, Ord. "U. S. A. Detailed to Office of Jecretar of War.  PVIT 101i OP ARLIOUR GELID' COMPANT. "To Isisiaoy a Number of !,l'oreen,,frOat 100 to Operation of Its Relied 1)ate 21nnt at neeonsin, for a Period Lot to aceeed and •Astwoon the Lours of 6.30 :24 d." •lioninye Vet Include TrAnetrial  Commission of  126, in the Ullwaukee, 90 Dom 11.50  locoman.  110.011•110.111•11%11.  Athnert, •1.4puty,  Insoection: Ootober 29 and October IV, by trial Commission of 'hieormain.  Indue-  Offieials consulted: (Mx. Manterse Lianafore (Mr. Zotooa, Star stintolden% Miss Dtuui, thiperviser•ef :matt.  Fletatxot illegArt The firm began Its operntionsia Milwaukee in Pell:mem 1917, but was -ot under full operatinf capacity until July, 1917.  In  Aupust, 1917, the new ordemsof the TndustrIal Comiseion if  isoonsin,  prohibitinr tiE) work of 6 r.a. find 6  WOMAD  in manufactories between the hours of  t. were published.  In  YieW  of tàie fact that the first  was handleapped by this nev lecislation, as well ne by logielatioa coneernint the froitory equipment, the Indust:141 Covitasion of'Ic conath permitted the ccwany to.emplv womea from 5 fa,* to 12.30 A.11. until Dessaber le 1917.  Shortly after the new lerielstion vent late effect  the ecmpany vac Willed upon to tnke its ellotrlent of vuT:plying rolled oats for  be British Army.  At practically the  MAO  time the U.S. Voila  Administration ureed and required the use of substituted for gloat. The sempev has no contract with the United *testes Government for delivery of its produsts to to ewe, cantonments, et.. The product Is distributed from the faetery to the vrtrious bruneh houses; the moos officers purehsse the reclaim.* nmounts from those houses on the same batlike as a private citifies  o accurate data, tLGrefore,  Government use; the Is avralittle omcernine the tmount imrelian*i for eetimate(7 amount, as •given by Ur. 74tses„ Is 33-1/3 per cent of the total oatput. Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  &Wye J  i'rkiRktiolt• ?we of the three above mentioned faetors immediately  Incy'onmc  deland for the product of the eomPKAY baron& its dered stion ca!meity; tate third, factor ria.:7 be consi  the  rrcemit Iriodu  arte °Mari bUt Lir  elenent . The result of the abnorrial  thus c..eated wan twofoldt depleted.  (E) At  thc prevent  The et,oek on  a.  donna  i.nnit was entirely  time the output in  approximately 200  The stilline carloads behind the orders for horie olnsuription. ne Vivacity. capacity of the factory is 30 per cent beyond the packi 241mun for tthq Petitlft. delivered and 1. The fall harvest of oats is about to be )* elevator and ought to be col.:sumed in nannfacture so as to relent storage nu.. not *octet-. it. The abnontal deriand wa a created by eaDditions in  at the time of berinnii..g operations.  sf net'  installatiOn 54 The pre exit situation does not .rurrtInt the are not Imam. michinery and, moreover, the necessary nr.chlnes  lately available. t the final one 4. All presses., of Rifling the oats, excep for 24 our a; since the of rolling then, aro pee'ormOd contimously le„ the full utility product of these processes Is not readily salut processes Is lost. value of the fuel use4 In maintaining the t be stored 5. The *seem ;roductlon of rolled oats canno handled many times. until packed beeswee the flakes break easily if ary as in packages. Yolled eats in balk are not an salable or as sanit of 100 and 140 pounds, _he present Loess Yroduction it ?ut Intl Imrs nments throw* the branch, houses 117f, lilrrer bap* tell* sold to the canto rs, vtenever it Is and the smaller ones to wholeselc or retail deale possible. S. Nadi money has been spent in advertisint, ard the demand of the 7ub110  thun  created cannot be satlaflok.  the 7. The 90 day period of night work would snow company to reftsteek. EQU Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  .omen are omplved from 7.20 A.M. until 6.30 j-.11., ith 45 minutes for lunch, from Monday to Yrlday; and from 7.20 4.114. to 12.15 on 38turday, mrtking a weekty tottll of SE hours. .04, wilM44 crIP103 The payroll showed the folio-Inv figures for  ylimell  emDloied  during the different periods of the company's aetiwo operation: 2/4 1917 irealows 74 21• " •••••••• 71 DOM, X7,0 " 4,404,1pos,* 911 $ept. 1910 ........162 (incluAes $ givie with work. permits) The inoreatle in the number of  rOMOD In  due to am Immo* in  the packing equipment amd alo to the ineffioiency of the (Arlo.  About  120 MAO are employed In the mill. Oocupffittme_at '!Omer1,46 ones are ensured nVaoct entiroly in the packing: prOsesses. (app endix A)  The empty "tubes" are onuveyed through chutes to the  tables where the piris put on the bottoms.  They are them conveyed to  machines they the machines that fill thee pith rolled oats. Prom t!sse to the rirla are e9rveyed first to Orli who put on the tops, and then who paste on the labels.  After the labels are ,Astee meth() paekages  machine; Finis are conveyed to the pirls rho place them on the drying w in large cartons itlu remove them from these redhinen and peek are roved by man. Those operations, although ti ey are very monotonous, do not aLA easy neeessitate any great physioal strain. The paelcages are lipht the te han11e6 The filled ones weigh tX, ounces and 55 ounces. All omen with the exoeption of the rackore sit at tbeir vork constantly. he nwural The factory is kept very clean and is well ventilated. ng, with a few lighting Is very flood, an la the artificial liehti exceptions.  he chairs :)rivided have leeks and are comfortable, but  gewoll are not ad4ustable. The work tables of the girIS are arran with reference to the light.  AAA.* ,:laehine.  of the The speed of the girls to determined by the speee 'hen the machines are workinp properly, he girls raft  least once a day some part steadily and rtvlidlys (Appendix B.), Vat at Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  , end during this ti,le the cirle are idle. of the machlner, breaks Oorn large enough number Melly of the plrls are inefficient, but a wft3  nt. employed to take care 4f the d fly autp  Alma.  or  iinz rats tith no onus Allralen empilyea are paid a fiat 9 for berinners protium. At the present time the minimum is  and the  ..nus 1/aud.  is ?:12 for labelers and  15 for paekers.  Of the 162  1-5 per cent receive 42.0; 20 raimen employee, FO per cent recettre "'9; . (Appendix C) er cent regret,. .22. and 1 per Sent receive ":„.15‘ labor Pturnovqr. per cent hsrre been Of the 162, girls now employed, '36 or 22 6;114. or 5 per cent Vs? 6 to 9 with the firm for 1 year er 6 -Iont.hs; 7 months, aLd 156 !:er cent have mlnthe; 12 or 7 per cent frpm 3 to 4 start& lees than 1 month. 7o2far, :'cuimment,  alqn of tile votlen Miss Trent) Dann Yeas oharee of the antperri 2.u.noL room to be d roost, ern loyea. A very roll equipped First-Ai rith a shower, tied a looker equipped. with P. cafeteria later, a lavatory idoe for -,he use of the women eeuipped with metal Zockers are prov on the third floor 'kilo he lajority of the women are empL)yed only. ption of the lurch roma, lunch-holder, all tle convenienees with the exce t fl and a first-aid icit are qn the firs s may go dom to the 1;0 rest 21,7‘riod is Miran, but the girl wish. 11.1hey may also ro to the rest levet iry Or rest room r-1len .1...ey down far a comparatively lone tirae. room if the catehirery is to be shut Industrial /lasals 1, iisagignm. is not dangerous,  7'L'he  The equipment on Vlach girls are emplJyed of the new rirls often become "sea aide" because  e()nveyod from the filling olrstnnt procension of packages being ng i oviocomo is a short ti , ..lechines to 1.1c dryers, but this fli The rriset fire hazard du* to the occurrtirm  114 Mr1  of tile Taterial, is ov ere)lo old building anti the combuetibility flts, °loan ainles, fire ndepuate fire *impos t eaaily acoessible in convenient places, end by extinguishers of different kinds located safety proeopanda by the con;-cny. Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  g , 'Luti all. 'he liquid class use 3. alicki  rlue lay eat into  the hands, butthe lniority of the girls velar cloves *hen they handle it constantly.  Girls ale) 2roteet their Lands from becolling sore from  handlinr the -ackares Ignoring gloves. Logati9n of, tlfi Puttorir• 'Ike factory is sitiated in a very undesirable locality for women aoing nieht rtork• river is in bae1  A railroad switehyard la in front of it, the  f itot okher mills arc on either side of it •  :here is  no city lieht near to factory cntrance, and no large outside 21,Fht ab;Yre the entrant,* door, althou:g. there ore outside netts over the freight doors. .!he danger of accident frctn tbe switching of t,trains and crossinr the railroad treeks, and the ueutrl danger resulting from the. presents* of undeoirable ion around the yards, are /Teat. 7,P4M111144Ailiale  It  is fully realise4 that the company "ill do everything it  can to protect VI) won-being all the women employed at nirhti but In vier of the stand taken by the ,Major General, CM ef of Ordnance in motions for Arsenal Convaanders and la,.ufacturers. (C.0. fl3),*ten he saIlsit  empterient of171era on nirht shifts *mild be,, and pftraionii7, nvoided WO a nesessary protection, Inova17  rtne  "In viol of the silent neeezmity for a prompt Iowans* in the wiume of production of prastioaly evert article 2'equire6 for the conftct of the war, vigilance is dectanded of,(141 those in any %my associated pith industry, lest the mfesaardfit*tich the Ramie of labOr should be unrisely and. this country have sousbt to pretest vilneteasarily 'broken down."  and again: ".1'.cisting legal standards should be  7ittintained• "  it awls. best not to reoorrasind the rrttnting of he :petition at the present tine for the folloving ?MIMS: 1. The predustion and distribation of hailed Oats as ronufao-. turod by the Armour Grain Co. Is not a var neoessity, and the rteco30fU1 prosecution of the rfar doeS not depend tr,on the:,roduct to  nr4r ftrilr,eiesbl•  extent. E. The *itish t:civer,..rient order is about to expire; the firm, . Labor IS represented by gr. '.4rindere, does not expect it to be roneror. Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  nor aended an this *vier will be Astute for other orders. 3. Petitions from firms Nanufaeturing war neeessities here not .een fmanted, snd as yet no relaxation of the labor lams hns taken CAT  place in  isoonsin.  he Artloureompttny has no contract v:ith the United.  States Government;in ease of great nonentity, the r ,lled lais oan be  delivered in bulk without any groat hewn War done to the rolled oats and with a possible saving in freight spa*** 4. The operation of 4t, Arnow Grain Company nud U4) I:•:roduetion if its rolled eats wan boom after tLe United Ztntett lAld declared war against Germany. The eomp6n7 met iivoit been aware Of the unstable condi.. tion 0 the market,.and ought to hare taken precautions agninat the present  nit-stion. There was likewise no direst :coeasity for the appearance of new brenkfast food on the market at the time; quoting frOm the letter of the eaftviany to 21es Van Klimek (Appyndix D), ..4.the expenditure of a very large mount at mongy in dublieity ealvelpn (me noesesealq because the business wen of ro oh a nature that it had to immediately and upon its ineoptien ercrf.irk 4 q," upon a MAIL apg)qif4y poçare al17101 Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  ens 4./ra.  ?AID r.4  "4.  Ai?  Grain Co. etition.  ArmOUT  With the exeeptiqn of e fer tromen't,to  otLe °leonine', t. e  eagaged in ',,he variant?, preowsesof lackine. The tubob, (rack ages bears they are fil)..ed) nabelt. slitt h floor :Alit °ape (tops and bottoms), are cut by men on the sixt  (men ;  !Ind the  scit through el uteu to the fifth floor.  ._e fubes are If to sizes,  r the En ***nee size and the 55 ounce Wise. Ybe Virle on the firth floo the third floor throurt inspect the smaler tubes and sone the dfnen to four ohut es. em  lett r'ornen are employed  0 cap tlio  the tube in 55 oz. tabs.*. Te sap the tube, tho .yi'orker dips one end puts on 1,.1- e amp. The contfitithig ilirtlid rinse ard. then fl shallTitt pstaxisetawrizthwitrmitextetsam r vb. ore °TIC rirl is tuba is sent by the capper d.ovz to the fourth floo to the thi.-d floor engatirea in inspectinr eaped tubes and in senator th.egn through to skittes.  On the third floor, there fare folly tetbles and on 'rti •  second floor, one table, rilerc the packing to ;!.one. ....he large tubes are ".tqlndles  .40222,12„auLs.  lne pirl at sash table takes the tubes as they come from ing places them on the belt whiett 0-anveys them to the fill  these tables. thedkate and.  miatno• Capnir.r. From  c fillinfr !wahines, the tubes are eorrreyed  .ro are two pirls at ofte:i table to tte pixie wize put on the top caps. '110. rtl of tLe op to cep then, one to put the liquid class om the Inside me lace the tube, and tbe other to put the cap on the filled tube, ard red to the labelers. or :euxIcagit, on 4.1=e bolt so thnt it rill be eimme o. 1 1.1P4 1$ at Mere were 12 label ere ?It  grsepinr the  by :he latel ere remove a paclotre frls the :lovinp, belt top firmly in the palm of the ).And erd p1iin it up. :744h  labeler Lao War°  kthail r  xi  onttIntnr damp labels* and another  pen at the side containing flctIdAlma.  he  britlikes the ittutd plass  Orissa it on th• on the label* reilasee the brash, picks up the package, label se the lebel rill labe3e In the pan, rolls it quickly over the t:)p Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  adhere to It, wrens ti-e ra, po the belt„ which  f te label, und rorlaces  the Iry ekage on  clayey's it to ti.e drier mohine.  ;;TfastkztLij.:- .eiptaniti  ?Nr,t• rtele at *Apo& tan*  th inur...,ostiattor thy comlletel pecmtqcses  ra  ar  111P141701  In ;:l.gleinp them on the &elves  of the trier, 1.4ghatio,liedrIer ep.:rx.ies the rttokages  o  t?ie seemd floor*  ine a.z.d. placed in where they are re-loyee by tro ri AB at eaoh much rerioTe the okokures from the different steed cartons. Tkers girls vrho eon stant inOircvent f 2110 (thing for the dal ere mart etrud oantirun3ly; t dont in the cartors paekagros frani the moving drior erd ;;,,lacise the* Fir). "gets used to it." &mien bootee/la and arm strain until the  TA21:48 2, 3, 4, rtnd 6.  Ale 22 os. Lutes are  ticked at ti:ese  tables. atutjak..  t,:bon at  tnoappo  etteg come  ervilyod at atoll tiablo to rut ill, f:,.Gra Cho 4t2. floor, Your girls Et -e belt er)trrey-Inp 4i.hos to tbe bkittom caps and to replace, theta on ttpo the crypt at ceoh table. s,he otipa need fulinereachines. Two girls rat on are not ;cialry• not be rimed on bemuse the s:eckagee the elutritt, are estiotly he operations with til'e imeoptiln f need not be desertbe ttirfiln* the same as for the 3 error tubes nnd • 3418/ t2.:pokers, two imam are employed aittaa, eartons are note of WIMP siiribrard, to mat e p the oartons, o them on the presses, ails the two 'Ile rills fold them in ataps, 711ac them, And pull dot. tho precis by a Inner flaps, bene the top flnp ':)vor rraileure, %nor n few minntrts, 2Jvior .requiriwg about tuo pound arm on revived. Dzieh rill operates *try) the press s re noel and the oart of the •cream's nn A stands eoustentlie ,luncting the date ,n Deitt -unokwr. Ove etri le enr-1. ed ln 'et mouotonoao, Dot le tlt it ell atressOraS• t; for A rirl torte ti..e  the labels. This r-rok taliii4g,4.  teste the groats for hulls. ligajgag.  Ile )114,t.a,J-es Several won help by bringng the caps,  person. to be relabeled 1r resapped, etc., te the proper  ettInd practically all tl'e tkie• Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  , 7 "Inn ,Ipeed of 1A)mon Employe 4.  Daily 7Aatpu  of Packapes.  ges t According to Mr. Menders the present daily outpu avera tke ges; packa oz.) (65 large 0 30,00 75,000 small packages (22 oz.) and 'welt. the of days the other on than er output on Monday and Saturday is small 6 cap cutting Speed of Cuttirtg Unchi_nes. There are 5 tube cutting andrate averaging 75 a at cut are machines operated by nen. The slall tubes 90 caps e. About minut per per minute, and the large ones at a rate f 60 were es figur These are out per minute on eech cap cutting machine. made a study of this secured from he workers since the company has never kind, and were verified by observation. At the tiae of the inspection to achines were cutting small achines were cutting tubes and one machine VR 8 cutt1ng large tubes, three , 50 large tubes caps. At the given rate the output was 150 small tubes y because '3any of easar and 270 caps per minute. Yho excess of cups is ne ns. reaso them cannot be use for different Small q0e Operatpne. two girls on the foulth Tube inspecting. The small tubes are sent to the At this rate each girl e. floor at an approximate spec. of 150 aer minut 75 tubes per would have to inspect and. send down to the third flocr each girl handled ctor, minute. ;•cleording to he bservation of the inspe the large in nine beteeen 50 and 60 -Aar minute, the other tubes relai step. it may container and accumulating until the =Wyly machines operate c::e..tinuously; freeuently Happen that one of the machines does not ased. in this case the speed of the girl can be decre to each f the three tables Bottal caleline. The tubes are distributed of 50 per minute. 3ince there rate a where the small tubes are packed at each girl eauld be about are four cappers at each table, the average of varies ereatly =one Is er, howev , 12 tubes , er minute. Aie eaPPine speed e and the highest 23 minut per girls, the lowest speed observed being 6 to :nes Dunn, three ding acccr 12. per rainute, while the average was about the inefficiency but , table each at girls ordinarily cold }.- .cuadle the work he broad four. .)y sary to oral of some se,the e:Iployes made it neces s a girl to slacken up thenever she margin mad allowed an the speed ermit will handle her share. rants to, because the other girls cn and ng machines loe he tubes are carried automatically to the filli are filled at a rate Iveraging catee at each of the three tables, and at once. Yhey are then cone eyed 48 per minute, three tubes being filled automatically to the girls who put on the top caps. tubes 'he two top clappers at each table ../ust cap these 48 or; (21-iikg2 nve e dryer t, to on ed carri each minute sjace the uneapped ones will be n 7aargi much not is ..'here chine a al %are thrown into the waste container. 23 of speed ge avera rls and they work steadily at an of speeii for ti.ese per minute. ges 12, but of these Am number of labelers at each table avera Labeline. ng reachire s work steadily every minute, 12 only 9, those nearest the filli packages the 9 girls cannot handle, ale the other girle take care of the The over supply of also do re-labeling arid re-capping when necessary. he speed at the fYris each caul to slow dam alien ahe wants to. ijsis es while e minut per 4 ',Abel 1eirr avernre labelers varied greatly, ITe minute. the range of speed was from 2 to 6 far loose labels and Packare insaectiag. The pacitages must be ;nspeoted women etto place the in sated defective caps. This work is done by two oh ins, at a steady ra•t• of 24 packs pee on the shelves. of the drying or 25 -per 'minute. Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  1010LI G L CO. Appendix B. 2. j s u tUnie. t9111. ' .2wo girls at each of the dryer maohines remove the packages fro m the machi e and place t'Lem in the large cartons at a rate girl must averaging PA per minutc.. This is vcr;y strenuous work since reach out for the riackatres each of which weighs LE ounces, rd froc!uently lifts three 9,ackages at a time from the nachine, and at all times must lift two. Large r....ube Operati 5itettom capPing. The large tubes are out and sent to the fifth floot at a rate of 60 per minute. Zight vo.ien inspect and cap, end sett the tubes to the forurt: floor at a rate averaping 8 per minute. The id of thee, workers also varies greatly and no one works at ti e wine speed each minute. Irksp9etine.. One pinl inspects the tubes and sends them dorm two chutes at a rate a proximating 60 a minute. aclnp o ?he tubes are distributed to/the to tables at which elt. the rge tubea are packed at a rate of 30 per mine. One girl at each table removes them from the &rate and :laces them on the belt convering thee to the fillinp• machines. 11.11113z. The large tubes are filled three at a the at a rate of 30 per mints. The top capping is dine by two girls, one of whom glues the Ttp c:appOP,,. 'neat) of the cap and tiIe other places art-the cap on the filled tube. These girls !must work steadily and rapidly, thesapper placing the caps so rapidly that the package is not entirely removed from the belt, as t 1te .rtuts the cap on. packages are larger and icayier and are therefore harder the other packages. The twelve girls at each of the tro than to hn e tables label an anaverage of 3 per minute, but the speed limits range from 1 to 4 per minute. Ins ,ecting. The two inspectors place the packages on the dryer at a rate Liveraging 15 per minute, taking two eackages at one this. Eutiris An Cartorq. The two package* at each dryer had to lift three of the packages from the dryer in order to rack all the ackages as they Cam* to them. RAill3. The speed of the girls depends almost entirely up n tl'e speed 777la chin es. If the cap cutting machlne 113 stopped, then no tubes can be capped; likewise, if the filling machine is stopped at any ane table, the riris at that table cannot work until it is operating wain • Carton The to girls v,)-m !lake the cartons set their ,Yrn :ace, since their work is not directly dependent upon tie machines, but thecy must supply the cartons for the women rho pack the packages aid thus thay must indirectly :eep up with the speed set by the maithimes. Eewever, they have a chance to get a supply on hand when the Tr()kers are not working because breakdein of n ..3aehines Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  • •  C. .ir  The folloring data concerning sages paid to WOMM1, were taken from the payroll of t.})11 company l'or themonthsfametk.  It ineiaates the  . increase in the wages paid and the increase in t1-..e number of nita-eh-ife-e, No classification as to occupation, etc., is 'Irlde by the cominy. .1 0.  .:41Res  Pereentaf:e of total no. cf womerl employed.  May,24, 1917. 16  1  7.50  50  8.00  50%  8.50  no  34 July 2619.1.7. 26  !,:1 8.00  1  6.50  44  7.00  36%  645 100,1  71 Dec. 27, 1917.  j;8.00  32%  12  8.50  4 ( 13  42  9.50  42%  98  106  Sept. 1918. 59 7 25 10 4 1 33 8  9.00 9.50 10.10 10.00 11.00 11.50 11).00 12.50 1E300  30'i; 5% 15% 9% 15  10  15-00 14.00  10% 14  1 162  3.8.00 Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  1% 20% 4  1% 98% Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  October 29,  MEMORANDUM VOR:  Major P. W. Tully, War Department.  FROM:  Miss WanKleeck, Director, Woman in Industry service.  1UBJrCT:  Request fror Armour. Grain,Comrany, Mi1wauype,_Wiscong01, for permission to employ women from 5.30 P.A. to 11.30 P• _•  We are in recolot of an application from this com9apy to employ womenduring the hours specit'ied. Ne have wired the Wisconsin Industrial Ce,mmission GO make an investigation an to roommend especially possible methods of avoiding ntEht work. As we unrierstand it, this company is supplying roust oats for the Britian army and is al, supplying the civilian oecause population in trlis country in larger quantities tnan usual es for substitut requiring of the orders of the Food Administration a has comranv the wheat. The arnlication does not state whether is e haviggtth contract from the War Department. We should appreciat original the information from your office. If ther is a contvict, worlicc,tion will of caurne be filed with you promfAly.  MTK:IMP  Mary VanKleeck, Director, Woman in Industry Service. Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  October 29, 1918.  The Armour Grain Comoany, '1,111 Gentlemen: This office has received pour letter outlining a request for permission to employ homsu at night under a special perwit to be gr.;.atad by the Industrial Commission of yJur State. You 'Ail be 0.1vIged promptly regarding this matter. Sincaraly  MVK/ALL  lary Van neck, Director Wuman in Industry SarvIce.  110IWIAM 1-1 STREET  OTa  NORTIIVVEST AT FIFTEENTH  041  /0/0 1)///it) 0  October 23, 1918. Vio::,s,n in industry- Service, Del.,artment of Labor, Washington, D. C. Dear Madam:  Attention: Miss ilary Van Kleeck.  The Armour Grain Qorilpany, of lAawaukee, desires tI- t your departrdent consider this as its aplication for perif4ission to eploy a nuillber of wolien from 100 to 125 in the operation of its rolled oats•lant at Milwaukee, Wisconsin, for a perioa now to exceed•0 de.ys between the hours or 5:30 P.L:. and 11:30 P. L. , Sundays not inoluded. Our plant was coinpleted and began operations In February, 191?, at which time sufficient rfachinery nt and working space had been provided to take care of what might be antioipated to be the necessary requireents for norr,a1 consuition as far as that could then be '2he plant called for and made reasonatly be foreseen. in physical proerl-,y investent very large necessary the plannint; for the for equipinent and above that called money in a publicIty of axiount large expenditure of a very a nature that it such of w,;,6 car,Taign because the business upon a ebark Inoeption had to imediatly and upon its highly competittre corrineroL:.,1 field. Shortly after the plant was put in operation the State of Wiscons14, by legislation, LAnimized the hours of labor for woen so that under nor-vial conditions we are permitted to and do el:.:pl:Jy them for not to exceed 52 hours per week, the lon{;est day service being 4 hours, Saturday After the enactii,ent of this legislarbeing a hc:,lf holiaay. tion, we were called upon to take on cur allotti:ient of sui-_dying rolled oats for the British Army,m akini-±; our ort deliveries through the British %...r .4.inistry, Wheat occupied these of orders necessary fulfillment The Board. This a perio.:1 of several months and is just now ext)iring. any us froli ao,.:tuaiula.ting prevented art, work, in large : stook on hana which we toula do in normal ties and in the absenee of war oonditions in order to meet the ordinary fluctuations of the trade requireen-Ls of noral hoic.e conDurin the tie that we have been enaged in fillin the war orders referred to, we have not felt justified in caaoity or !uaellinz3ry iaking any effort to enlarge our the requirenents of la:oor in theediate equipiLent, because of war work .Lluch more urgent th,.;.11. our busineos could rishtly Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  -2—  be eensidered to be. An entirely unantioipated situation arese in eonneetion with our industry tue te the orders of the Food einistrator, in rec,uiring the use of substitutes for wheat. .2his il,eensely increased the sales of rolled oats and of oat i reducts for hillean consumvtion te a very large extent, and : further operated to make it impossible for us to get ahead of the :1,a.rket requireents by aecurfiule,tin&: a stock on hand. The result of the several conditIons affectins our industry is that at this particular season of the year when the largest volume of the 1916 oat crop is moving to market, as it ust necessarily be moved, we are unable to consunie the portion of it that we might in manufacture and to do our share in accuLulating stooks on hema whieh will stabilize the market when the volue of grain marketed is greatly lees than it is now and from what it will be for the next three months. . in the ; A large part of the oats presently arrivirL o'k;h, days :40 next „iarket and that which wili arrive for the In the interest of the l'.ational welfare, to be oonsued in :eanufaeture as rapidly as poseible, bcoause this 4111 make root for the needed elevator storaere for the wheat suply which is iporant as a war asure under present oonditions. We have on our books eillergency orders for 50 oarloade and our regular shipping list to supply the or nary deand Night operation for the period adds 150 oarloada to this. requested will enable us to fill these ore.ers and leave us ilth room and eaieaeity to devote a part of our fanufaoture to suplying orders for either our own oe our allies' armies. The eonditions under which woen are employed in our plant are, and have heretofore been, under the su)ervision and inspeotion of the Industrial Coislon of 77i30on5in arid our plant is equied with proper rest roor,s, first aid roolA3, welfare wo-an attendant ana oafeteria. None of the woen who will be employed at night, if sueh ee;ploye,ent is perniitted A.11 be in Our eplgy other than between the hours stated ani these are so arransed a,8 to avoid the eonested street car service in Jomine to work and so that the woen Lay avail theselves of the regular street—car serviee and be heee before there is any ohane in the early night schedule in street oar operation as it exists in Milwaukee. None of the work which any of the . ioelen eelployed do or aill be oalled upon to do is heavy •erk. It consists in The . ;asting labels on eo-ereial paekages of the product. 1 eaiployeee (woen) will be between 18 ye..1,ra of 0e6.:e and up. Tie work cannot be done by men .in a practical way, under present eonditions, beease of the shortae 01 a.le labor and the work Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  -3-  is not of a naure that  :arl ,:an be hired to ene in.ordinarily.  The day eloyees (wo,len) work by the day and if ewployent of woen is per.A.6ted as rquestea their e;.iploymnt A.11 be of like oh-raoter, so that the work in itself offJrs no inJentive to prod-Ice unusu-1 effort or str-in. We are confident that irLuiry fror, the Industrial ComIssion of Thisconsin will bring you dvices that the conditions with respect to the ell.?loyL:ent of both iCfland aoen in our p1,4nt are kept ul; to high stando,rds and all regultiona and orders ahich they have he,:etofore .,Ide have been i)rou2tly coL:plied with and their recoHiende....tions have in every respect been observed. In conclusion we subL-it that we can truthfully represent to you t'Llat the conditions which make this a2plication necessary due to the emersencies presented by the war. If any furtr inforiaa'6ion is required, r. J. J. Deady, who is 2.2.'.our Coany's Reresentative in wii;11 offiJes at 1-5 Center Market, may be called upon. Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Yours very 6ruly, ARMOUR  N  COMPANY,  Eilwaukee Manager.