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,cz c Rivr https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis L 1 A https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis ounnus o yam a masa OP SI ADVIMRY OOKNZOSION OP el 001111011. OF NATIONAL MOM SONOM inal2Mel A= 14.41,11014,2_,_ 1111011011, women in War Industries Series October 1918. No. 5 https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis The substitution of women for men in the big the nay industries brings with it certain benefits Conditions of establishment of better waft, oonditions. workinp alone employment which are tolerated by themes elm unprofitable Asa women Noose obviously smd women are brought into the isetery and both themes nr oonditions. reeelve the benefits et the improved worki AlrOrmft polauotion offers many new sal favorable a certain extent o,Iportunities for women, but suffers to ure for from its sadden anashroosrlike growth. The press , that attenr. airplanes and flying boats has been so great tion must first be concentrated upon output. But output is dotermined by maw faotors. The spirit and morale of the workers are fundamental in 'wearing large output. Adequato oomposSatiom, opportun- ities for advaneement and promotion, good working conditions, opportunities for rest and relaxation from the strain of liness the afinsmbnor working day, adoluate provisions for clean um and *contort, hoalth and good Aysioul condition, and a minim of difficulty and strain in getting to and from work are all important in detormini r; the vim which the worker puts into the thing she is doing, and the amas$ eg work she asoomplishoi• https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis The s tability of tie 111111thr Mel productio is 10 depalients is WOW ibiab dotoMmialed bY these factors. The Curtiss Aeroplane and Liotor aorperatiOn reeelmimee the importailoe of good working conditions, as Is Shows In the splendid new Elmwood plant built on the outskirts of Buffalo; but production still continues in thtl old Churchill plant which is inade4uateequipped to house the large number of 'MAMA workers and the great variety of prollesses carried on under its roof. And even in the new Elmwood plant more previsions for the comfort and relaxation of the women *Mere are needed. 3paos is at a premium in any factory engaged =war contracts, but Petting aside adequ te roam for the ne,ads of the workers has proven to be a paying investment. As a result of the inTestigatio4 of the Elmwood an Churchill plants of the Curtiss Corporation In Buffalo, the 000111itio• makes the following recommendations belieWie, that thely will promote the welfare of the worker and at the Mee Stma increase the output of the plant. https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis iii in aieerdsase with several well..establishod principles: (a) the sane par for the sass work for wawa mad for ass* (b) wage rates based on the(Wm, of skill require6 by the different occupations, (0) wage rates comparable to those paid ter stellar work in other places a. 4jaufaanalysis pf the difbarimitAMWmma$10As, should be ods, sad a dofinite sehase of promotion should be so the werhor has the ineentive of advancement to ' evolved latreasingly skilled occupations and to increasing compensation. 3. Worigrass 02agnians in the Qurohill plantigaild (a) removing thc doping of the wings to a sea rate workroom equipped to carry off the fumes of the dope, (D) providing better lighted, better ventilated, a and less erowded workrooms for the asshins shop workers. of adequate size and 4. qpnahea s pijr should be established in both plants where the girls can come from the workroom during the midday rest period for relaxation and rest. b. lariuglagalijipaimaiumCiaillmaisa-alth plent7 of hot water, soap and towels In bilk plants are nee.. https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis iv, OSSIMIT. s in. the A baltdsseavadill basins for 225 girl 80 girls to one ChurChill plant and the Seeigiment of not sufficient snail wash room in the lantwOod plant is go at all. and results in a Grath or in neglect to d 6. AjAmpot lunOhxocin Should be installe hing warn In *soh plant where the workers can get swat . There should to eat sad drink outside of the workreen be a proper plum Where lunch *ay be sates. in the 7. jroAkatimi,Of ltpahbut or remaining_ rnment regulation deoinaroom.during the lunch bOur is a Gove sable in this country. In Great Britain and would 3ean advi of the workers 8. Jerl4diO u $pai amivation ng should be made employed in doping, painting and varnishi Producing , any bad effects on the workers. ! to see if the dope is as only a This would be simple in the aritwo(4 plant On the ()ping and resident fevw girls have yet been introtuoed t. doctors and nurses are stationed in the plan 9. Careful_ cormAirati"- of the 99.01.111.1"7 oj rs to see other work .1,1ternatinz the wat of tha.women dope ieul examination during thg day or during the weak as the phys of the worker maY indicate the need for change. 10.. vigorous effort to sloure from the municipal ,g411kties authoritif?e better and more frequent Imudortaqozi to and from the factory. https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis colmws. Pages PREYACE .........•••••••••••••••......•••••••••••••41 RECCLUENDATI0N2 •••••• ORLI/TER 0000416 INTRODUCTORY000000000011000114008010000001110 Aircraft in the :iar Program 0000040001,0060 1 2 'he 3 .. klying Boat.i... Ie R7droplane and the ••••• Government Produetiel44,4•.••••••••••• CHAP= .0 THE CLIRTL3 ALIMAAFT itilaT014,1:;34.••••••.6 Produet 000001,4000000..410/000 00000.0•04100410 6 ,00004 7 •410400,4,, The Elmwood Pleat.... Me Churchill Plant00000000 410040000**1140410 8 Health and Welfare Arran* eete••••••.•.. 9 Ventilatilm.................41,40414••••.11.4".•13 Doping•0000114,1104110041.410rne ip.4,•••••••••..•14 Washing Facilities......... Witgeseoffeee•••••••••••••es•I.0011104100010411a018 HOUNI6olsoeo••••••••••••••00 1#410006000004064119 Ira"' C ;10.3)4. OF ILARCITA074121i•• ••••••••••.20 Weisesee Week 0000410001150410•041040004,10.111i0.20 _...••.........•••.......22 fteepabiem Groups Processes....ftirOdlos•O•0044,400411414,•41400.4,000.22a Description of frinolpal Preeesses.......30 Inspootion.4,110000,4141,00i0•04,0•61,000410m04,30 Weeding Mop....32 Occupations in thOccupations in the 14'a'Oo4werkine Departmosts...34 laraishing•esd.disisking Ting Covering............................44 .47 Depimsr and Painting Final LL pm neetric Trnek Driving .49 https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis Pages 21=4 TIV4UJI1 ZGHOO 60 Training for Industrial Prooesees.., 60 51 The 52 P1"oeoseee.•.....s...41.4...41......1.... 52 Metal ;ork.•,.....................e.54 Woodwork ••••••••••••••••••••••••••• ES Cloth Proeessesem .0•00011droos.41004111* 5d Training for lion-indnatrial ProMoses's••• 59 Dupe°tion.•••••••••••••.••••••••••• 59 Tieskeepers.......,...,.....•••.i.eso. 59 qapin4V Aibetitutioe of Women....414,..s...rn Oocupatione.....••.....••40...•...1... Training Gomlitione of Dapleiment.w. 60 60 60 61 61 https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis SI* 411PaliTuriolt -111 luau! W UM= =WM, PSIMAC. for the U. S. Army The **coni draft/in the middle of the sncond year of the war has brought the verde ' ,substitution" anti "dilu. tioe into evflry-day use. The replaeement oilmen by women, we are told, must assume proportions little dreamed of when we first entered the lair. Women must be trained to work on prooesses from Which they have been rigidly excluded be-Cause of sooial custom or prejudice, or because the supply Of am labor was a4eivate to meet t orriumi* The aircraft industry presentqd many favorable openings for women and was one of the first of the big war in industries to bring them in/large numbers. 'lie Curtiss Zero lane and otor Corporation, Buffalo, tel, York, the largest private firm holding novernment contracts from both the Army and the Aivy was one of the first to introquce women in large numbers on a groat variety of oocupations which had formerly been done by men. https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis The Curtiss fastories wore visitr,a in 1;a7 and again in August, 1918 by :.lay Allinson, Fxecutive 3earetary of the Committee nn yners in Industry, who prepared this re ,ort and submitted it to the )fficerin-Charge, )otob-r, 1916. Tho Committee has had the most oordial oo-ooe.ation and assistanoe from the 3ignal Corps of the United States Army and the officers in charge whe gave evory o portunity for obserVation and inspection in the plant. This report supplements Bulletin Number 4, -iomen ':orkers in the Philadelphia Naval Aircraft Factory. The two re orts read together are of interPet in liming the extant to Ahiah women have boon introducod into so-called MAWS acaupations. The phIladelphla NLval AirCraft factory has COUG further in putting woman on wootworking occupations. The Curtiss piant has gone muah further in put- ting women on natal-vorking proaesses, painting and doping, :wen have demonstrated their ability to work on nr)st of the processes in the makirw of aircraft. l'his ro ort aims espeoially Lc) bring to the public viho can not go into the factories, same *once tion of women's work in this great war industry. https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis 0. .loreace J. Harriman, Chairman, Qouraittes on icamn in Industry. October 1916. https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis 1. fuut uzaxoluzjavauxulagiamit., „Ltgai' 9HAM1 I. „uciviziorpice, Airar141.12-1112.:tiar-2136rano. he makinF: Of airplane and flying boats was only in its infanev in the United !Mates visa vs entered thn var. The importanoe of aircraft In the gar progrmm had not become api-Aaront to us even during the three yeara of war de found ourselves suddenly involved in the great to push a vigorous air program world struggle even lees prelArodithan a land campaign. abowdd. P -Airplanes and hyiropluses had been built in small numbers in several plants in the middle west and on tho Atlantic coest.', The interost previous to till, war, however, had been mostly in soiont!flo invent on or in exhibitions of th, remartsble feats of the "flying machines." The war brought aircratt into the ossential in. dustries group. Aircraft produotion vas a new industry, suddenly doveloped just as men were being called oilt of the industries into var serviee. Vhe great demand for lab°e must be mot by introducing women workers. idroraft pro,:uotion ffered particularly good https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis 2. opportunities for - men --r7cez.a since the airplanes and the flying boatl arn made of the lightest materials consistent with maximum strength. The rplane. "he airplane hLs a vioodet, skeleton of the lightest spruce wood, Allah looks not unlike the skeleton of a he btrd. The skeleton of the body or "fuselage" of tt.t airplane Is built of the lightst beams and spruce/slats supported with wire cables slzetcheu and forth between the four longitudinal teams. It is covered over with the ligheest wooden veneer of spruce or cedar and linen is used in the upper zarts wherever possible. The skeleton wings or panels ail they are called, are covered with a strong linen covering and are “dened" (or varnished) and painted to make the r:loth taut, smooth, and water-proof. These wooden parts are hqld together b7 maq7 small metal parts, which are out, filed and welded in the airplane factory and by steel ropes which are looped at the ends for greater strength and flexibilit y. On all these r)recesses women workers were soon introduced and found satisfactory. https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis 04kt• ) igatnin ' The hydroplane had been developed several years before the war, but was produced in even smaller numbrs than the alirplane. It was similar to, but larger, than the airplane, and had large pontoons or boats under-eath thP Tinge which restod on the water and kent it afloat it ca4lie down to rest. A newer seaplane or flying boat has since been de)velopeo and is now being built almost exclusively for tiv: The body of the flying boat is somewhat similar to th473 of a motor boat with eve 1,11, a flat roof or deck and windows In some of the larger boats. The front end of the boat is broad and romnded bit th.. rear end of the boat curvr-s 12,1-mard like thz,t of a gondoia, enaing in a tail fin which is painted red, white and blue and which is supported by a similar stabiliser on each side. n fact, the body of tlic flying boat reminds one of a big whale. The wings of the flying boat are built high above the boy or hull of th- boat. pontoons unuerneath the wings sul,dort thrr when the bbi,A is on the Ater. The motors in tho flying boat are built in beneath the 14,-)er wing to protect th,r1 from the w‘ter iastead of inside the body as in th- air lane. https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis 4, The prooeller of the flying boat thorefore is also ,bove the body of the boat, attached to the Inca beneath the upper wing. In the airplane, the Ailpeller is attached to the front of the bod7 or CuAllage and cam:04AB with the engines inside the body or the plane. The propeller looks like a large wooden tan of two, blades about five feet in length crossed at right angles at the center and made of the finest and hardest s. The flying boat is made of praetioally the sane materials 1111 the airplanes and vimonos work en both is very libeller. The Wale difference between the two, from th., standpoint of women's occupations is in th.1 body. The airzlane botiy is a skeleton framework built of the light at woodon beams of struts and oevered with a thin wooden veneer. ! - he body of the flying boat roanablos the hull of a bo, t and Is necessarily much heavier since the boat sots on the ;:ater wh n at rest. The hull of the boat is built of stronr boards which ATirls rivet and nail on the framework ,side with of the boat side by/the men in the Philadelphia naval Aircraft factory, but not in thr- Ourtiss factories. https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis 5. vate plants The Army has depended on pri . for the production of airplanes The Signal Corps of the progran of aircraft the U. S. Army had charge of 21, 1918, when production for the Army until May tion was created for this the Bureau of Aircraft Prodao purpose. of the production of The Navy which has charge making of to private plants for the seaplanes lets contracts a larE:e assembling plant in flying boats but also has d. the Philadelphia Navy Yar the Vurtiss Aeroplane In same plants such as are falo, New York, airplanes and Motor Corporation, Buf e flying boats are being mad being made for the army and e factory. for the Navy in the sam https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis MA 'TER :ammo& one of The Zurtiss Aeroplamo Sad Motor t.;orporation is(the largest private firm- holding government oestraots from the Usited Jtates Army and the ravy. it is housed in five large plants in and adjoining Buffalo and Replayed about 15,010 workers in May at the time of the first visit. 7 elstimmets for adoptlamo&Aver-e-mlao.aata_faistorlils in-C71,41and and othar-e446.46 liattle planes and training pianos are made for the Signal Corps of the war Department and flying boats for the Navy Department. The working force was muoh roduc.d at the time of the second visit in August h-oause of the deoision of tIe Government to abandon the production ftghting of the Bristel/plaMe which the Ourtiel plant had been making. An Email* airplane, 3 Y. 5 had beet adopted but was not yet being produoled om eapacitY 3ath the Signal Corps of the Army and the Navy have a number of Government inspectors in the plant, to inspect the parts which go into the planes before they are assembled; again inapeotimg parts of the plant in the different stages of predmotion, and testing thn oaqpleted plane on the adjoining flying field, before it is pack.11 up and sent to its destination. https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis 7. '40 i-1111w941, 21ant Description. The Elmwood plant is thr• newest and largest of the five factories. It covers about 27 acres of land and is housed in two adjoining buildings separated by a fire-proof brick wall. It is built entirely of glass and looks something like a huge green house. In one building is housed the production departments and in the other, the assembly d.,partments. about one ye.Ir ago Ase OMWOO* plant began production in August, 1917. Battle planes for the ,:ignal Corps and flying boats for the Navy are manufactured in this plant. .4vera1 lowr400den ouildings front on the street, one ocuupild by the Signal Corps Inspection force, one by he administrative offices of the plant and another containing a cafeteria lunch-r am, employment offices, etc. The big manufacturing plant lies just behind thee office buildings, separated by a large open yard covered with oini. ers in ahioh are palcoAl many automobiles. Visitors must go through the main office building to enter th factory. TVUUSDOZU The factory is built on the outskirts of the City https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis of Buffalo just beyond the park system sad it is surrounded by open country and green fields. It is reached by a single ear line which runs from the center of the city through one of the most beautiful resiaential seotions and is about one-half hour's ride from the ()enter of the city. The transportation of thousands of employees . to and from the city proved to every morning and -venin:, be a most serious and diffioult problem during the winter. This congestion -las still further intensified by the large numbers of employees working in the ieroe Arrow and other large plants just a few blocks away. T e workers of all th.se big plants must reach thes factories by the same ear line and at about the same time. The amwood plant, therefore, arranged three schedules of hours with a half hour's differenoe for opening and closing to lessen the eon.. gestion and those in sham report that traveling condition* are much improved. Even so, the transportation problem, as is thti mon with many of the big Government plants and factories engaged in the war industries, is serious. "bp Ohurnb411 Plant. The Churchill plant, in the City of Buffalo, was the original Curtiss Airplane factory in this city and is an old brick building much eaaler and less modern and wells.eAnipped than the iamwood plant. https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis 9. ; -olanaii are 'mode in this plant. nine The factory big :long roan with a balcony at one consists of On end and extc.irailg along one side and an adjoining wing ononirw off the in roan. Th balSony houses the web thd training school, the iavutories, aria the 4r.reemp1o7ed, welfare dli-et...tcesroci.About4 225 in ‘.iits rtanuii-toturi.tsg d-!;:artnent unu ;- :lmost an equal et vas tivte of t.ne ci; numbez raoLor-,:iiLifl aatiate organization . visit -i and pay roll eol.a,rtLient, distinet. and -..usinask.;t&t are kept Becu-ase of the ollngarativis.17 snail amber salployed, some of the proc.)..;Jos re iff eiit from those in the ;t:lmwood plant where mare and larger mechanical deNicos have boon ihtroducea tv haudle the larger output. aalth at .`,elfbre Thki_ co . ....iLkiviuou factory is housed in two kgosiod.orn factory bnfldinge :suilt entirely Balconies of glass, and with 0114 cei- the ground - floor. https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis are built in 9eTcral parts of thr faotory anti. SWUM oiler and the panel department, the runc14/8rill und press department, \ i.nd other departments who:6,f,, the work does net reolre grout height, to sz:oure adtational spaee for the training sdhool and for lavatories and rest.oreous. The training aebool for the woman indu4t,tAul wor%.rs and for tho sars who arc boing trained in airplane construction and re!„.air 0041upics a baleen:, 51 by CM feet. It is reeohed by a UM, woodn stairway frcm the wain floor. The bal. Moles for the 1 vatorleo and oloakoroons are built at regular intervalls in the i,r,ohine roln and each iu roughed by a single stairway. Eaci!, bAlcon7 sonteinA two email rooms*. one roes GOUtaina eight or tan toilets and u double row of six wash bowls running doy th, center, the adjoining ()leak roes has several enuohas ,11,3 3hsi2's tr rost on. Costs, hats, and street elethne nre ham on nails or hooks in the Attila. Rash lavatory is awesed to aoeunnediats 'bout, 00 pirls. About 150, girls were ouployed in the ;1_tenro,Id 91nnt in %ay. A ImmAn welfare vrInl..gfir has general oharge of tho wroofpre of t(11 he girls employed by the company. Earth plant also has its own woman welfare manager Whe reports diroot_y to the 1ant ilamagar* The nawood https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis 11. plat also has several floorwomen or forewomen distributed through the building. Dna has Charge of the new workers as tiny oome from the employment office and has general supervision over them during their training period in the balcony school. The others base general oversight of the workers on the factory floor, and ever the lasatories and rests-rooms of their section of the factory. There is a Red Cross Station in the center of the Elms/Sod plant consisting of a consultation room, two rooms eentainin - several beds, one for women and one for men employePs, and a supply room with medical supplies, apparatus, sterilisingeTuipment, etc. Three doctors and two nurses and several first aid ,Ien wore amployed at the time of the visit, but plans sere completed for the introduction of a large corps of nurses. Lunch counters are distributev through the different parts of the plant where the workers line up at noon and buy food or sweets. An excellent cafeteria in a separate bullding is patronised by the clerical and administrative force, but the industrial workers sit about in their workrooms and eat lunches brought from home, supplemented by what they buy at the small counters in the factory. https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis 114 Ceintri#411.2140u. A woman welfare manager, who is a trained nurse, looks after the hoalth and welfare of the work'n's in this plant. „ihe has a mail Wise is Atha she has a few first-aid remedies, a desk, a email and a chair or two, but has not adiegaste facilities to care for the girls who seed treatments nor has she an assistant to leave in the office when she is out is the factory. stationed in this plait. No doctor is Ana less provision is made for the health and comfort of the employees in this plant than In the new Elmwood plant. One stall room on the balcony contains a coat roam filled with long racks on which are hung ooats, hats, street cloth's, and along one Wall are six wash basins. An adjoininf: room contains several toilets. The rooms are saall and crowded and luite isadequ_to for the 226 girls who must use them. itbr a warm lunch. No arrangements are provided https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis L3 Tentilptlea. The yoking of airplanes is, on the whole, a very clean industry. In the machine shops, the brazing, welding and soldering departments and in the varnishing and the doping roam the women work on prooesses that involve grease and oil, heat or fumes. Only in the machine shop do women sit or work close togekher. In general the workers are employed on largo parts so there is a great deal of floor space all around as well as air space above for each workor. The Umwood plant is so large, the ceilins so high, and the workers so scattered in most parts of the factory that the air is fresh and ventilation does not seem to be a problem. Many of the big doors are o2en and the panes of glass in th,=1 sides of the building can be adjusted to let in air. The doping is done id a separate roam and the doors leading into the other work rooms are kept tightly closed so the fumes of banama oil do not spread through tho factory. In the Churchill plant, conditions are mu& LJ1 less favorable. The building https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis 14. is old and inadequately lighted and ventilated. In some )Arts of the machine roams, the girls work close together in rows with scarcely roam to pass down the botween them. all aisles in the main workroom the doping is done right in the middle of tho room, so all tha workers on the other processes must breathe the fumes. No exhaust system is :imovided to carry off the heavy aft, and the few window s do not solve the problem. DADA nit. Adequate ventilation in the doping room is a teal problem. While good ventilation is a most important factor in securing efficient production in any department, it is especiany important in those occupations carried on in th(- midst of heavy furwls and odors. Andel, and doors are not supposed to be open i currents of air carry dust an the dopinc: roam as ar,1 said to make ahite spots on the drrring wings. The "dope" looks like a thick varnish which is spread over the linen covered wings to tighten the cloth and make it water-proof. banana oil. It has the strong odor of It consists of a cellulose compound, either acetate or nitrate which are not poisonous but which must be dissolved in a volatile compound. These solvents have proven in the European Gauntries to be more or less poisonous and have shown bad physieva effects on the nervous system, on the liver, kidneys or heart muscle, or on the blood. jar See Dr. Alice Hamilton's desdription of the various dopes used in covering airplane wings in Dope Poisoning in the Making Of Airplanes, U. S. Bureau of Tabor Statistics, Bulletin FebT. 37. https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis 15. The teAradklorothane, similar to but more powerful than chloroform, which was first used as a solvent has been abandoned and aaetone,aloohols, and benzols are now used. Dr.Alice Ka!Ailton rei,orts that there is little reason to ezspct serious poisoning among the users of these dopes, but the slow chronic effects of loag continued exposure to effects of these solvents should be mitigated in every way possible. 3ritish ex2erience led to a series of recommendations for the control of doping in airplane factories, which were issued by the Eaatory Inspection Department of the British Home Office in February, 1916, Although these recommendations were framed for the users of tetraohlorenthane dopes, they have continued to be applied since ssfOr dopes have been substituted. Ale recommendations provide for 1/ 1. Exclusion of other work from 2. Alternation of employment- every two days or the doping roam; See extract from Govelment legulations in Monthly aeview of the ftreau of labor Statistic*, February 1948, p.29. https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis every week. One factoryOlovever, is reported te alter+ nate the women's work after two hours on doping. S. Fortnightly medical esandnations. 44 Prohibition of satin in the doping reel Or remaining in the work room during the time allowed for meal*. The Navy Department presaribei a dope for the wings of its hydroplanes of two costs acetate and two coats nitrate. The Army requir=ls four coats acetate for the battle planes, sines the nitrate is inflaemabl. For training planes which are made in the Ohurchill plant the Army also uses two coats of acetate and two of https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis nitrate. The asetate is Midi more expensive than nitrat e. All the doping in the Alamo* plant was done in the big separate doping room which was se large that one could scarcely recognize people at the opposite end. Two sides and the roof were made of glass, and the roam was Shut off from the rest of the factory by a brick wall and by berry sliding doors which were kept closed. Slotted openings about 18 inches square in the floor are supposed to carry off the fumes of the dope by suction from under the floor, but they are filled with Must and thread and seemed to have no suction. Large pipes also open into the room near the ceiling to provide circulation of air. 43 the time of both visits to the Elmwood lant, several large windows and 6ouble doors opening outdoors were wide open. The atmosphere of the ream was not opiTessive but the dopers inhaled the fumes more than a visitor as they worked on the Nings. In the Alurchill plant, the doping was done right in the midst of thq other operations in https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis 17. t e center' oi. the big main workroom. No special arrange- sent geas Amide for carrying off the heavy air or odor of ban na oil. Washijut fao4,1.14ca. :.ioine of the workers of the doping roan gathered in onal1 groups at the noon pried mai ate their lunch in thl doping room, ap arently without washing bands or face. Ao facilities for washing valre observed in the doping: room though these girls had access to -Aash-rocs in other parts of the building. on the balconies at the top But the mash-rocs are of a long flight of stairs and about 80 girls are assigned to one small vaths.reaa which may have erpJained their negligence. At the time of the first visit, the dopers did not war gloves an, probably had to use turpentine to got the uoi4 off th-Ar hands, but in August the majority wore large ootton gloves. Uoveral of the dopers and painters were young girls of V or so who worked on the smaller po.rts of the wi7igs. In both factories the girls wear cotton khaki uniforms, full blolmers and a waist with open neck and sailor collar. The pl n is to provide each lorker with a uniform, after which she must supply her own. In the https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis a• doping roam, the, maw,gecnt pluns to pravlue a new uniform every two weeks and also to provide sneakers for their foot, as the woricers are soon oovered with tLa vitrui-h wiloh cakes on their clothes and is most unpleasant. )ne of the dopers, however, said she has been wearing bar uniforr% a month. The Shoes are the most difficult part of the girls' dress to adapt to th,, new conditions. -ost of the girls insist on wearing light-weight kid shoes with high French heels arp, some of the maohine operators even war white shoes. These are not only very bad for the girls' feet if she stands all day, but positively dangerous Where she is operating machines and climbing over the airplanes* All plants introdociag lemon work- ers into the moshanical div.artnents are havinR this difibulty. Ahab. Three wage rates are established on an hourly busts for the industrial women workprs. beginners start on the initial rate of 26 cents an blur, are advanoed to 27:', oe ts an hour and the average rate for asiArienood workers is 50 Gents an hour, few receiving more than this. The factory was running on a nine-hour day and 50 hour week at the time of both visits in May and in https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis 19. August 1918, which would net a weeKly wage of .?.13.00 for beginners and :0.5.75 for ex,erienced workers. Access to the payrolls was not given the investigator but it is obvious that this hourly rate and weekly income is very low and is much lower than that paid in the Philadelphia Aircraft Factory under the Civil Service wage schedule. Hours. Three shifts of workers begin and end their nine-hour day half an hour apart- one set beginning at 6:30 A. M. and closing at 4:30 P. M., another beginning lt 7:30 A. M. and closing at 4:30 P. M., and the third set beginning at 7:30 A. M. and ending at 5:00 P. 2. Office and clerical workers begin work at 7:45 A. M. and close at 4:45 P. M. making an eight and one-half hours day. There is a half-hour noon recess from 12:00 to 12:30. Early in the spring of 1918, the Curtiss plant was 31-anted exemption from the six day week requirement of the New York State law and allowed to employ men seven days a reek. This exemption did not apply to ;omen. The wapen workers are however sometimes required to work longer than the nine-hour day and 50 hour week for which they are paid time and one-half. 70 detailed study of the amount of overtime could be made. https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis ZWILM ILl A00,211M 1 91 MAO/ACTUIVit 'Women's 'Work. Arleen hUndte4 wawa. about 10 per ()ant of the working force were employed in Uay in the North Elmwood nlant and 224 In the Churchill plant* The Curtiss faetory and the Philadelphia Naval Aircraft Factory have/introduoed women an some processes which the other has not. phia Ilaval in the Philadel- Aircraft factory, the policy ham been to increase the number of women on the woodworking: preceases where the2 -sem first found to ue sucoessfas and to which emphasis. the training school has 4iven special They are now employed in but the boat, they are being int oduoed on the bead saws, and do the larger part of the win4 ass mbly. In the Curti, as factoryithe tendency has be(fn to try them on pruotioally ev,3ry deportmontl so many more women are found on metal working maohines and metal processes than in the Lava1 Aircraft plant, More men argt working on the assembly of the wings and peg.. entirel are building the boat body in the Curtiss Plant. The final assembly of the airplane, installing the ,wagials and tanks, putting on the gun', bomb thrower, https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis 21. fan pump, oontrols, etc., attaching the propeller, 'sings, tail unit and elevators, - is still done entirely by men. Medhanioal knowledge, skill, experAinoe and strength, which the 'men have not yet acquired, are the findamental requisites for this final stage of assembling the airplane. Iduch of the metal work is oonoersed with making and preparing the small metal parts either by hand er on easperatively simple natal ~deg machines which wesen can operate as yell as men. dons by men. The heavier metal processes are Assembling the panel,s or wings, covering the wings, except for p ing and stretchkr,ag the Wien cover- ing Oyer take largest wis can b. easily done by men. Assembling the panels or wings, covering the wings, except for pulling and stretching the linen covering over the largest wings, can be easily done by Moen. The varnishing and even the doping of the smaller parts of the wing made no Wootal demands on the physical strength of the workers. Mho painting and Wravping of the wires and metal parts are also done VI mean. Inspeotion of the snail parts Seems also to be well done bywomen. The Fundamental characteristics of women's work in the production departments of the airplane factory are much what they have been in the older industrinsprocesses which can be explained, taught and followed with inereasing Skill and ease, but In a fairly meohanioal way and without any special physical or https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis intellectual requirement. The making of airplanes is so new and unstandardized and the organization has had to be developed undo!' such pressure for speed and output, that the casual visitor, as well as the management, en see many thins which might be changed Certain processes are done by hand, or improved. or by crude mechanical means, *Maio:, in an older and more established industry would be :one by machine. But the parts of the airplane are so little standardized and new styles and new methods are being developed so rapidly that mechanical tools for some of the snail metal parts could scarcely be made before something new would have been substituted. • 5sal1Dition ;Irmo". The processes on Which women work in the ,Austies plants may be grouped roughly in nine main divisions: (1) Inspoctio4 of small parts and con tinuous inspection through the progressive stages of assembly. (2) -etal,Works. inolusing the operation of a great variety of machines; bench work; wirework; filing; soldering; welding and brazing; copper- https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis 22a. cutting, tipping and riveting, and most of the processes dealing with small metal parts. (3) WcodworK. including the operation of woodworking machines; bench work, glueing togther the wooden parts, preparing the webs; finishing and tipping the propeller; assembling the panels; making the wing float and thc, fuseless of the plane. vizmaigag mit onishinc the wooden parts. Wing govsilpet hand and mats, sewing, (5) tacking, taping, fraying and alueing; (6) Dovinct andpaintinK the wings, ailerons, elevators, etc. (7) Ught linal asseollay- attaching metal fittings to the wings, wiring the wings with wireless and electric light installation, etc. L8) uipftiterscsinc luad wrapping all meglal partsi (9) Meotrio tragic drixijag. Processes. Th,1 Elmwood plant, employing 1500 women had nO resord of the number of -omen (Implored in thrt various osoupations, nor does the occupation appear o# the payroll. The folio ing list prepared by the educational director shove the various occupations on vdlioh men and women were omployed in the plant, but does not give the number on each oocupation. https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis 23. TARE I 13/11)11ING OCCUPATION'S 0•1,1 - it mor .tum v;(Lciai .1iPLOYED IN PRODUCTIV}..: TRE OURTI3S PLANT JULY 191e. UV Men 4 . omen kashine Chopper Hands X Drill Press Operators Lathe Heals 2 ilaohlas Ow. (Hand) Nil11x Maine °per. (ilo/tine) U Punch Press Oper. Profiling Jig Savers 30740, XIMISLUNI Opor. 1;orewliorshIse Ow. VA X (H&M U14 (Autonatio)M 2 Shears Operators Zeribing (cutting with sharp hard tool)W Grinder Rinds X auvor Hauls set up Ramis Tube 3/top Bench Filing U‘• Dip !Wising Itri11 Press °per. Lay out men Mad aorev itaehlas Oper: Acetylene ;siding Ilona Xachiniits Tabs leading Tool Makers Blaokaniths U X X W X Sheet ietal Bench Filing lit olass X Beneh Filing X Machine filing W https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis 24 Bench AsseMbling Drill Press Opel. Bench Lay out isen Heavy Bonding Acetyiene Soldering Acetylene Welding and Brazing Roustabout (mechanios) Tin Shop Bench Forming Riveting Soldering Shearing liaehine Operators Punch Press Operators Drill Press Operators Hand ‘latting Scribing Trip Hammer Operators IL X W U I If W W if IL I I K if W W Hest Treat Furnace Operators Central Station Operators Carbonizing :iacker Cyaniders and Tool Hardeners Sand Blast. Hose ilvan Operators Hand Cabinet Operators Tumbler Operators Laborers Polishing Grinding Polishing Plating Plating Helpers I I li I https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis 25 Washers Tumbler Operators tringing X X Enameling Spraying Stringing Dipping and bacquering General Utility X X X ire Splicing Wrapping Cutting Soldering Tinning Lay off men Dipping (lacquerirs) Straightening Tagging X X X Rou0h Mill Lumber Handlers Auto Planers Band jawyers .iingSawy, rs Rip Sawyers X 3LOOD. Beam Lull Boring :whine Operators Routing Band Jawyers Rip aawyers Finishing ",;awyers Auto Sticker Oper. Auto Shaper Tigisitnands X X U 1 W W W https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis 26 TennamingMo4hine Operator Cut off Sawyers Markers and Nailers Besdh Workers X Drilling X Nailing :iaahine Operator (analog (miscli Heipc;rs I X W V W Miscellaneous Wood 1,1111. Planer Operator Drill Press 0,erator Band oawyer Rip Sawyer Swing Sawyer Finishing Sawyer Auto Sanding Machine Operator Auto aticicer Hand Shapers Stompers Helpers Cut off aawyers X X X 'propeller. Hand horning and Balancing Copper ?Wig/ Glue Roan Basile Band Saw helpers Lay out men Copying Lathe operators pattern ilakers Auto Planers igiad Riveting Band Sawyers Soli ring and Scraping Fabric Tipping Rubbing Copper Cutting Assembling Varnishers,) PrgiUin Ilratg rubbers, fillers, etc.) X X W X X X X X I W M X X X W IV X X X https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis 27 Strut Assembling (Bench Bench Work Cabinet Making C:opperi ng Finishing Sawyers Copying Lathe Operator Turning Lathe Operator Bent asadrixs Boring chine Operators Over Lathe 0c/orators Locket Fitters Checkers X W X X * W M M 111 X if Paint. Dippers - Rubbers, fillers, Varnishers rr Ag.4.1a IL W a. Dope Doping (Star transferring, eto,IX Cover Linen Gutting Hand Sewing ;rnlachine Sewing Upholstering Stretching and Tacking Tape praying Panel X Wire Assembling Assembling (Panel, Aileron, Rudder, Stabiliser, tail W U unit Assembling 3ont ;Age X Joppering iiepairing Tape Wrapping, veneering, web Boys and cap as tireless installation W https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis 28 Final ing Floor Assembling Bench Assembling Lining up (roustabouts) Coppering Painting Small Parts. Bench Assembling Painting Coppering and solderimg Stream lining Fuselage Assenbly Jack assembling Parts assembling Assembling helpers Trueing Floor assembling Wire Assembling Final Assembly. Installing motors Installing cintrolls Installing gas and oil liaise I Installing instruments and appurtenances Cowling Veneering and laisoelliiimeas N floor assentliai Testing Testing, adjusting, eta. 1, • Shipping Sewing, greasing, MIsoil. ..:echanics AL It 11 I https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis 28_, Beat Nall Woodworking (machine) Boat Building Coppersmiths Wing neat makers Canvassing Painting .Assembly (Mama.) 'Sub X X W X I W Final Boat ,ssembleys Motor installation Tanks installation Engine Section Panel Assembly Engine Bed Assembly Instrument and Appurtenances assenbly and installation Tail unit erection Engine 3ection erection Stays installation Installation (Pipe-manufolds, bomb dropl:er, venturi meter, fan pl_cip, controlls, floor, batch covers, gun mounts) Ignition Axing Testing Olean up and misoel. X X X X X I W https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis In the Jhurshill plant tho wows wore employed in the following departments is lAsys LINZJ -211birlitas. OZUMWALSOULUM Aidar.:MILIBlabeniat. Insplotion Jaall larts Drills Oopper aire Acmes Panels :ebs Cover Final Wing Asasably • ohool 29 34 ln 18 38 12 3 19 23 7 224 https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis alliatiatalLialangalearallealat• Inspeotion. Inspeetieu is eft of the most respeursible ooeupations In the sksidas of the airplane, sines the weakness of AM, pert smrsoan the full as tho life and collapse of the machine as well of the pilot and tho observer. 2art, Iattal LutveCtiolu. Lvery small metal or the airplane semi, bolt,/turnbuckle *doh goes into eel is inspeotod by a force of girls she meassie rs test each part, with seals, mlorosetmr or waile If they oonform to blue print speelfleatiaue. inrectors on ;stools a% tables, take this moon mota3 'he/ sit to Rove parts from the boxes or eases, and measure them , -lording to all the spoeificatiene of length, width ,vlber and accuracy of threads, eta. :";0, too, the ge moodnn parts, the Jobs of the wing, the-, fusela struts, the panel struts, the Arts of the wile d. floats or pontoons lost be 'arena'y tested efter ini7,7 to definite s!.eoificstions. IWOOlqa_pf esoh,proSes,. After suah impcirtont stbge of assembly, the airplane is also https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis inspeoted. Per tuatara's, tht, cables, the splliting, soldering, and wrapping. of VII ends of the Cables used both In the wings and fuselage suet be eLrefully inspeeteds The meet ansber of threads in the cropping 40411 counted through the this veneer ofseolder. A single set or 'brawn Wood might mean the fall of the airplane under any speeial strain. The SE 5 . sables of the inglishmodel / 1;oon to be produeed at this plant are spliced in a very scientific way so the loose sad is woven into the lire repo as firmly as if it Imre an original pert of the wire zaps. In this ease the wrapping and eeliksriss are eliminated. The Joists oat metal fittings of the fuselage or skeleton framework of the body of the airplane are invested Is see that they are perfect In form and shapes that WI screws metal slains firm, sea that or struts the 'often beams/ have nut been areciced. &VI all in, th The penile, ailerons, elevators, tail piece, wing fleets, and other parts are each inspeeted before they are assembled In the body of the plane. https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis 09.9upationF. in the...M2. Ii,II:TLi:Tz ses. 4se 4.eirieembeiiine vtop roam in the Elmwood plant is tilled with machines of all kinds most of r'rair* oPsysted hr women. The mmehimes are set oiose t4gother in irews tor aisles with Aulook,,te apse* in the Ilmwood plant bnt Greeted in the enaller Wmarehill pleat* rooms of the the wate# sit oi: high steals low bask. wove znost of the sitsiiimee. these *omen waahino operators aro saki/W*0 many small metal parte ant fitting, lots the rarte nf the airplane. 7hey drill !Tenses, ' o qratiw7 p-nch presses sinKlc so! .oxable spindles, pima' milling ,,chi“os, hand milling' madames, tiling hand maehines, lathes an /saw mashimes. Aver/woo on operating the lathes, aitt, oormq nrovidee the wimp 4ith a valuable mechanical Nuipment tbioh oan https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis be used in almost any machine Shop, if she leans to set iv her maohine for different purposes, acquires a knowledge of the re— quisite mathematios, and learns how to read the mathematical tables Which the skilled machinist used in setting up the machine. At present, the walen who operate l these machines are not taught these fundamenta prinolples. llev simply follow instructions ng. for making a particular metal part or fitti When a new part is retired, the foreman must new help them set up their machine and give instructions Which the workers follow. SALLE21211016.Benah work and hand prosaism; on metal https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis work Coo (mow 'large amnber of gir)s. "...ight hen,* work suoh em:3Th filing, *Pivoting, fitting, assembling, ant; soldering metal, parts. bench forming, riveting and soldering tho lids or tho gasoline tank; earthing or cutting with bend the tooJAi0oer;.tips for the propellers; sable splioing; arapping and soldering; Wising and seetyleno welding, are all new pr000sses on whish women have been introduoea within the lastyoar. Aliag&-) 1 A aertain amount of•baadd•tiling ie always neoessary to smooth the odges of small .etal parts, natal fittings for the fuselage, bolts and sorow$, when they come from the tool cutting machines. gbe pliese of steel Is clamped in a vise. lbe worker tikes hold ,Daoh end of the long filo and files the motal Ilece until the edge seem) smooth. is the', rubhQ oolor. It on a piece Of stoO1 Offered with if cort in spots show the color, the https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis W.is net yet swim Ihen the uholo edge allows an even fuller 00 efts is straight. This an be of., sitting on a high stool 'Wore tho bo:,411 or tab1e but is often done standing and involves a gooA (1641 of musoulur exertion. 'Cow fonginms riveting anploitrimt. > Girls shape, rivet and solder the lid of ,thloh is &tont two feet in thoiraselime tank, , diamotor pith ores& taro 'high .4/u8t be riveted nne soltoef sad &Oa& ink& other small motel ,?arts s are respired. '14/ girls sit before tables on high stools, put in the rivets with agog sinali bead riveter, and liolcier Cho edges oir the arose bars to the top of the lid. gen stake the gasoline task *Loh Is about throe iceet hist and tweift, ist diasater on which the lid fits. up Largo copper plates or tips are fitted Igor the suds of the propellor of the flying beat. These are out out vith & putter& by Sharp hand tools and as they are being oontinually https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis *hanged in size and shape. Pta plates or supports lay. are out in much the same Cable splisiret grivx4nis_an4sio1QttilEz 'hq en s of the wire eables or repee which are stretched diagonally twit sad Moth Mai beam to bean in the wing and the fuselage of the plane are lotted e'er and fastened down by wrapping and soldering in the Bristol' fi7hting plane and by cvjicing the threads of the wire rope in the Aqtish five loops in an hopr. 5. An expert oan splice or a beginner it requires about 30 minutes to splice one loop. The latter method was just being introduced at the time of the last visit in Auguste The British experts say WSW* do this splicing much batter and more rapidly than men thouf4h tho sharp pointed wi-os priok their hands viciously at first until tLey have beoome hardened. which Brazina and. are comparatively new prooes- Lpas in industry are decidedly new oponings for unman workers in Arierioa. Tho procoss is fairly familiar to all interested in inaustrial work. this ALotory bofore a The girl sits in all table on Which is laced the me t1 ..)arts to be welded. lie holds in one band a small blow pipe which leads from !flAftestv1ann taink 'th hra+ flomm #ftipm•A hw VVIA https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis 37. combustion of acetylene and oxygen which issues f-om the Ole is turned on th- brass, steel or soft metal wire *doh the holds near the junction of the two metal parts or edg The wire melts and forms a soft liquid metal Which yans or welds the two edes totether. In welding, the two pieces or edges of metal are joined together by heating thorn to an intense agree of heat and Rddincl steel wire which melts and welds the parts toether. In brazing the two metals are brought to a "cherry rod" Llow and joined by the melting of brass wire. These girls wear lchaki uniforf!a or Over' alls, caps, gloves and a special kind of dark goggles Which protect the eyes from th- glare of light and from the Starks whiert fly in all direations. The girls are instructed while In the training school to kee:) theur hair tucked tightly under their asps, whioh same do not do after the7 get out in thil work-roams There is a continual shower of sparks though they are s aid to be harmless and not inflanmable. :Aringinn and Diminkt% One of the least Skilled pAocesses is stringing small metal parts which are to be dipped into lasolor On long wires preparatory to dipping Which is dens by men. https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis $e. QOallstutong_ t14111111949"init DeD girtmexkt$• „omen are enpleyed On a great variety of ,s of woodworking processes, reoliring varying degre. skill, some of which have been more fully described in ftiletin 4, Women Workers in the Philadelphia iiaval Aircraft ftstory. wiroom.- weln•n are running a for woodworking machines tAlieh smooth awl finish the struts, bore the stringer hole in the center web, and nail the wooden supports on the webs, bu here the Philadelphia factory, wamen's work in as In/the mill room is largely hand finishing. They are sandpapering Lid cmoothing by hAnd the webs, strilicers, struts anct propellers tich have many rough edges when thky come from the woodworking machines. They &re riveting the copper tips on the lcading edges of the flying boat propeller, and covering same of the airplane properller, with ric strips. They, also rivet the metal strips or bends on th., struta, wrap the wails with adhesive tape and varnish the whoie with a brush. These geodes parts of the airplane have been fully described in Dalletin No. 4, and need only brief mention here. The webs constitute th ribs of the wings • Yhey are made of t rc 0,e,3-worlc strips of thin spruoe https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis WI• wood, a nose web, a center web, LW a tail web. These webs are strengthened by small wooden slabs glued and nailed by girls between the openings and heij o7cth-r b7r upper and lower cap strips extendinr%; the Jerit.h of the three webs. These cap strips are ON, glued and screwed on the webs by on work The web in st In a frame or jig. under a nailing machine, the cap strip is fitte6 to the edge of te veb, and the nailing machine nails or screws the cap strip to thn web. The ALII.Tlymr...is a long wooden rod which extends the lnagth of the 4ing or panel through a hole bored In the upper and lower e,ge of each center web by girl workers wbo ope .ate the "boring machine." ^11)- struts are strong weedon suivorts inserted at intervals between the boar's of the wings, or between the rrpor and lower wings or in the fuselage to give ade!tional strength. The propelam of the airplane is mad of finest mahogany wood by a most complicated process. About a dozen boards are glued togethor, allovied to stand in a certain tenr)erature a definite length of time, thAm put Into a woodworking machine which shapes out the two blades s000rdia, to SpsoifieatIons. Those blaclits are about five foot loos and are placed on tables https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis 40. before which girls stand and snooth off the surface with sorapiug tools and sandpapers are 6/m, When smooth, the propellers oil finish, varnished and hung up on hooks for d:ys txb *est for balance and accuracy. orCoo114,!,P014. The propeller of the flying boat is usually tipped with copper plates on gi-ve leading edge to strength and prevent cracking or br.,-; if the propeller should strike the water. Tho prapellers of acme airplanes are wrapnoa with fabric and varnishe0, but s me ern neither tipped nor irapped, aw3rding the use for rhicb they are designoti. Cg901 tipplum- The copper plates are riveted by girls on the leading We an4 old of the propellor, tun over the Ontaids odes and smooth Girls thou solder over the rivet boles it down. and scrufre the surto*, So0Oth. They stand at their work sita by side witch the WOU who are also working on the propeller. Pail*a !monolog. The propellers which are tipped with fabric _N.) wrapped with strips of linen or oluth by g1r14 and varnished or painted for additional security. https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis 41. Panel Assembly. Women do not occupy as large a place in assembling the panels or wings in the Curtiss plant as in the Philadelphia 3alval Aircraft 2aatory. However, the women work beside the men in assembliw the wing panels, the ailerons, (or stationery wings next to tho bodyl,the rudder, the stabilizers and the tail unit. All these are made of the lightest wooden webs, slats, or beams Which are set in place, glued and screwudd down. This woodwork constitutes the skeleton of the several nsits of the plane. The assembly of the wing panel has boon described in etail in Bulletin No. 4. A bwief mammary only is given here. Placqmetnt ol the two beams or back bones of the panel on a long table. FitWIR the 'gobs at proper intervals. GlueinR and. nailing the webs to the beams. 0.ttips tho strinRers through th,) center webs. AOMMOWID thq simaX with trarmel. WillmackAdAmmitit of the panel. FittinR in intermotaiga wpbs. iakiting—M-tkJUSNMI: Over the issiing We. Zitting the trailin, aige. -)uting in struts. Plates, wiresc suports, wireless and electric light installation. https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis 41• Wing Float Assembly. -1.ng floats or pontoons 1614h are attached to the under side of the wings of the flying boat are made entitely L1y 'men. At full capacity 100 girls were employed on this process alone. These are boat shaped, water tight boxes of the lightest wood with flat tpper and lower surface. Thy. are about three feet long, one and one-talf feet wide at the broath-st, tapering to a point at each end and about one foot in height. The provesses are as f011owss 7laking the keel- Fastening three light bow-shw;ed. strips about si:L inches apart into the two Atrden ends of the wing float. Laying the keel-on a wooden frame Shaped to fit the side of the float, Which is built on its side. Clamping in the oenter wooden supports vidish ars thin open-work wooden plates resembling the web of a panel in coistruotion and -which are screwed to the keel s 'ips. Attaching the wood n bor.-shaped strips width https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis 1 43. constitute Ithe skeleton for the upp r side to the ands and' center supdorts. ?utting in the nail holfs on the eqgps the won sicto wall which in a single piece of thin wood, about thr-e foot long and one foot wide curved to fit tho pi e of the float. Illatagnajak_„.oreys the wooden lulls on the upplr and lszeri,ijnee• , and cementing alagatlagALAttilaWag—Ifia—Una again tilt edges to make the float waterproof. putti4g the n4l holm in tho tiggs of the ten aild bottom wo(lOtn eantening on tile, top anit bottom 401 thi.ch are also one thin piece of wood shaped like an elipse but pointed at each end. C1eaningthQ Pdr,p s vit11 a brush diutt.In gasolihe. Bending 04 Copper binding qtrIER in the middle at right angles by inserting them half way in a jig and betding over with a wooden hammer. garkinT the_ mail Ql aQn the edge of iittin2 the copper stride over the edges of the float. https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis a1igIlAs4Agmul,the strips. Smoothing and soldering the. edgps. Att ohing small metal Darts Iuci as wat r outlet etc. ilsserably. The assembly of the fuselage or skeleton of the airplane body is light work but absolute accuracy is so important that women have only recently been put on this wor; even in England. Four long curving beams, two upper and two lower, coming almost together at the tail end, constitute te four edges of the airplane fuselage. It is built on wooden fraLes or supports, the two loYer strips serving as a keel. Light wooden struts or supports, join the per bio the lower beams, and also connect the two upper and te two lower beams over .4hiah is laio a light wooden veneer. The small wooden struts are placed by women in wooden jigs or patterns Where they are fastened togetiJer wit# metal fittings, so they will be joined at exactly the right angle. parts. i,:en build up the fuselag,e from these V./omen also 1a7 the flooring in the fuselage and put in the 66dotric tion. light and wireless installa- https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis 11,71 mr-boat 7.114) IF , ,eavier clumsier than that of the airplane slues it is made to float on the water, and women do not work on the flving-boat's body In the Curtiss plant. Varnishin&and Finishing the Wooden Parts. All the wooden parts whioh go into the airplane are first given an oil finish. In large scale production a brush 13 not used at all. Over a great trough, filled with oil finish, projoots large woodon drying Awl which lcaks like a mill tho slats er which are savored with hooks. women dip the light wooden parts, webs, tuella,, struts, otc., into the varnish with hare Awns and wits Oat bang then on th drying Awl. lb, *hoot moYea slang around with the weight of the awe piqoes. In the Churchill plant, only one MOB dipped the wooden pieses into a small trough fit varnish or oil flniah after which she hung them on the gall just above the trough. https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis Wing uovering, Stitching the linen coverings,. The linen cover of the "'tag is ao large thmt several grips of 1111= nest be stitehed tow gethor. The oovering Is Ohnped seeerdIng te the panel it is to fit. the pool is sat up on A 101, y wooden tsrassiosias- the sower strotokod tightly ever it, sad the edges Sleeked dewm with smell tasks. Sewing up Vie ttn40, A64 'ioomen sit Ix specially oometrneted low wooden &liars with tem* sad nail pens in the side of the mate sod with upholstered baeks, amid sew up the loose ends of the panel severing with large ourv4d darning asedles threader with heavy linen thread. Olny of the women on this work war. par. halrod woiAn and !lost of thAn had been seamstresses. Idid-rib sewing. After the savor bee loom pet en, the panel Is sot up iletieslly sith the 10ng edge on tho floor. A girl slownis on each sidis nod ma048 a long thise-inoh darniug seen* bank and forth, throu.$11 thq Vine. fastening the severing to the https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis firm in ribs by long stitehs to make the °over im-7 of the the *enter of the wing and prevent flapp two sides in the air. Than ItrairUn and. Noontime. Strips of lima take with frayed edges are sewing for samodei Immo the wings over the sidprib are also additional strems*h. 3mall paimbes of linen :Owed and amentsi is the Wing where metal &WW1 meats are to be put on to give additional strong*. y The frayed edge is said to hold the tape more firml . and the edges are lees likely to some loose koVialLAINUMAthig• The wings are 411 doped with a brush althoulk there is tak of spraying the dope as s, gas the paint is sprayed on automobile bodie the mak ministers, eta. The chief obstacle is in high oast of the dope and the walsts of dope spraying. The wings are spread on low wooden fruz,te supports. With a tall tin pitcher or dope ean in r one ham and a large brush in the other, the worke stands over the linen enWerel wing and israisbes it uost of the doping and ilth Way layers of dope. painting Is done by men but several wawa and girls were doping am painting the narrow stabilizing wings. https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis 3everal women were painting the large doped wings with paint which necessitated a very long roach of the arm. The wings and body of the airplanes for the kr7 are painted a khaki color, and the wings and body of the flying boats are -painted a blue gray color. ;omen also transfer the insignia of three concentric rings of red, white and blue from transf ,r iAer to the lower side of the wings. Light king A sembli. -:hen the wing is dry small metal fittings are put on it to which a, e attached tha cables, steel rods, and other dovices for fastening the wings to the body and to eaoh other. The fittings are serewed on through the wooden beam. After the airplane has been finally sot up by the men Who put in the motors, the propeller, the wings and tail pieces, the cables, the pilot's seat, the steering wheel, etc., every metal part must be wrapped for shipping. Women smear the cables, steering gear, and all metal parts with vaseline or petroleum, then wrap them with many ayors or tissue pa or. Girls climb https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis up into the bony of the machine to wrap the inside metal parts. Nothing that will rust is left exposed to the salt air. The wow do this after the plane has been set on the bottom of the box casing in which It Is to 3,hippo RIO while the sidoo of the box are Wee billt areiad it. when completed the lio is smiled on, and it is lifted b7 19 huge derricx on the freight ear shish has beer lowitehed 1,ete t'sf, nr.c:<-1nEleOria_TrIlOs Prj-vPg.f. 10MOM are sew driving meat of the ana11 elootrio troika Alta raa all over the plant, Garry bozos of suppilee salt parte of the airplanes fres eme part of the factory to thA other. https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis 50. cyjApTyaiv. T,T1AILUIZ ZICHOOlt. /raining for Industrial Processes, The training sahool in the Curtiss Factory vas organized in Aril 1918. The school is in charge of an advisory educational director, a superintendent of the Training Department, a floor matron, and several teachers, mostly woken, on ispecial In the Elmwood Plant. In the Elmwood plant, the school first occupied a long balcony about 50' x 600' in the center of Lhe factory but the 'space has been increased since then. The school has a eadacity for about 200 new women wor ,Irs who syend a week or a few days according to the degree of kill requircqi 1:)an:inp; to run a chine or do a particular process. ?art of the balcony is also used as a training school for sailors in the meohanics and repair of flying boats. IL tb.e_ Oluraill Plant, f'he tre2niug school of the talurchill plant is much smaller. t also occupies a part of a baleen and about 30 new workers a wok were trained here in .ay. https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis 51. T4, 4640cl, The school gives in mIllature and in one pJace, some oonceptiou of the various processes on whioh women are apployed throughout the factory. or here is a maehine of each tye in which women work, Windham), or tables at which the var;ous bench-work processes are being taught; ti panel is being set up and another covered with a linen covering made by the maehine stitcher.. Most of the ?roeosses requiring preliminary training or explanation are found twee. The MAMFIRMOMft workers corne from the employment departmerit into the charge Of Vle school matron flo has general charge and supervimion over them hile they are il the schoel receiving training on 3Cir' p3. intlal.agb-2L-.1=21191LAIliasi Thm training is done on a i?roduction basis and must pass thc, apse inspeotion us the work done on the productiov floor. The product consints of machine parts on order from the waive S.hop in the C,ant; wire cables, with ends looped, wrapped, kiliced, and soldered; metal parts welded together; lids of gasoline tanks; wings, ailerons, elevetors, stabilizers which are mad with linen. of wood and covered https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis 52. Dramaimu Pour math Ocoupittions wetter, tawtt, in ;:ay; motal ,5or1cing occupations both hand and machine woodworkinr occupations, cloth working occupations, both hand and machine, and ()oping and painting. Three materials, -Natal, '.'o :d and clqth are used in the 3ohool. Prqaquites. Twenty-four industrial processes were taught in 1Jay and the eapoi4 of thc school for training worx:ere on each lyt-o61 /3 331(Pr in the following tables https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis 53. HOT scHoqp OCr S A GHT AID CAP C TY OF T OF THE 1J1c700D PLANT, in MAY t. 1918. Processes Metal-work - Hand processes Brazing and melding Cable Splicing Wrapping Soldering Copper Riveting Soldering Propeller-tip Filing. Metal-Work-Machine Processes Capacity Number Operatives. 72 8 6 a 6 8 4 8 24 12 Drill Press Single Spindle Double Spindle Milling Machine Hand Milling Punch Press Screw Machine Lathe Shaper Power Filing 2 1 1 1 1 Wood-Work - Hand Processes 74 Panel Strut Fuselage Cloth Power Machine Sewing Panel Oovering- Handwork Doping Total 11 1 1 2 56 12 6 20 8 _ 12 12 190 INING https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis 4final Weft allialLalialIMAIMI are 11141106 Pl"*.rn ropisioggesikalaar, training Weeks a wrest sieldi• About a demon girls were dela, this work ia She faster/ at ths time alf the visit is NM MA ay. Or siz were belag Waled la the teeter/ sasol, gee igUm amass sore koalas this 0000004, OaS had heel a envied" with in 2ngjaad. they aura la Amato* shen tits gar broke eat, so Wired their services and eso. perlease is this typo eit 11004 MM preSesses for shish 112 girls ean be Wined in two WW1. ilk A rmiliaglisb woman Ado had lesoksd OM 111111.14SAMS proosssos• taelwiles if Canada Wishes these lie girls are taught to 1$00 110, dada of tho hum wire %hiss wit* Omer* sat as thiln final 1ff esperating salauplielag the threads or the reps aid wrapping it roust and round with wire thready arta, ishiw It is solde,red over Working with motels either by lisailetamiabin• ale SW sat slosays es uses, and the tells so 1 https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis different from anything thorium basdled before, that as *portant part of their wheel experience is potting asoustome0 to strange tools; flaming blow'-pipes, red bat so. ering instruments. The asell shags Is learning to handle the instruments e ally and deftly, and the third to recognize the requirements for a politest predmet. 022.:Li,2zazinuagemisliallimJuanjszsualit) tiDDiam involves mush the same new experionoe for the girl. 3he learns to beadle the baud rivet, how to rivet the strips on the gasoline Utak lid or how to the sapper stris on the propeller blade, solder ever than and how to smooth off the melbas with a sharp blade, until it is quits smooth. Allan both by hand asd ivy saohiae 110.11100 profitably taught is the sOhool. The girl Isaias haellie the file, to rosognis• a smooth sigo, siad (Otani', Ike Amportanao of porfoition in MlombLacagisaaftu The asolitae work Is blibly 00 girl Wag taught to worsts only Ns naohiao0 except in the ease se trasstsrs when the work is https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis the first machine proves too difficult. In that production ease, the girl is sent back frau the machine. flier and laight to operate another set Tea different types of machines t,re and up in the school, a drill press, a single milling double spindle, drilling mashinet a plower press, a machine,• hand-milling machine, a pan* er filing screw machine, a lathe, a shaper, and avow ma chine. cular The p:irl is taught to epewalie the parti hnef remachine on which She is sot to work, vhio as competent, quire from two days to a week and as soon .,ant out on the production floor. s and :he is not taught to road blue print ting the taaahine -lecifioations for setting up or adjus y to run the machine for a new type of product, but simpl aocording to instroetiene The girl sits before the the drill. The aahine, puts the piece of metal under or the part to &mot place for the holes to be bored be milled or cut is nenally marked. machine is still dons by men. Jetting up the The girl worker learns https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis It. prinsipally where and haw to plaos the part to be eced up and to taru on and off the power. The 'lathe is lore complicated and involvos more mecbanioal adjuztments. Those mochaaleal adjustments are ]earned and followN1 by memorlr. Wookarc. Thr pann3 de , artient provides a °leeringhouse for wo')dworkers of all sorts. IleAssembling, Ihe enterin7 workrs are Limediately put on the web preemies* assembling the panel. they sorely wstith, and th second Ja7 ber7in t'!7iw.77 to set In the webs of the wing. out. The first day They are Tradua117 niftod Those showing no s9sotal adw)tation are :vent to the strut e the beam, or the shippin- roOks to perform -rooesses requiring less deftness and dexterity. The training for tho wert Oa struts is done on the factory' floor, one instructor having charge of six pupils. Thev rclo taught to sand- pApar ad s7iooth thP strut, rivet on the copper strips, cover tho en s with plaster taps, and varnish the strut with a brush. https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis Itnatiman. Tralainfr for putting together the pi,rts of thcl airplanes f1:001ae4 or body is done on Ulf, factory floor, an' tp.e beor prwiounly described in the Chapter on Prooesses. The simplest proCoss Is putting two parts or joints toTethor by laying them on a jig or pattern Ndhloh holds Than in exaet17 Ch right position, and fastening thrn together by means of sorews driven throupeh small metal clamps mhich hold the joints firm. Liu& Skill Is required In pattiag these combined parts togethor ard putting lir; the light framswerk or skeleton of the airplane, which LI also dnne by girls. quA4 ?rooessqs. tithing tomther long stri s of linen for the covering of the wings arta the leather upholstery of the cushions for the seat requires the tvpe of skill which ilamen have long had, but a small number are esoecially trained for that process in the faetorv school. peao uptrtgr occupies an important place in the training school. A large number are tatOlt to sew the ends of Ch , cover together with a large curvod needle. Lien usually put on and stretch thl cover for the women, holding it tight by means of tacks, but women sometimes do this https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis 59. on the smaller parts of the wing. dporinT ald Painti1R. Traininr in doping and painting is acquired in tho doping room, largely through doing it. 3evoral young girls of about 20 weri doping the smaller parts and two were painting one of the large wings. TriktrOor for No474 ustrial rcoesseø. Inoecition. A course in mechanical drawing is now 7iven for inspectors, covering one-bulf day a week for three weeks. Ibis maM instructor has worked out a course in drawing, mmestirements, use of rule, micrometer, calipers, etc., and such mathemtics, geometry and blue print reading as are essential to the inspector. ?he inspectors of wooden parts give hal‘rtheir time to tiv, study of masuroments of wood, kinds of wood, usos of the different types of wooden parts, and such facts as they should be familiar with. Tinuticiter)ors. A two months' course in mathematics is now being given the timekeepers both men and women.- in the factory to enable them to figure correctly the time, overtime, and wages to be paid. https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis 6). 11=11Lia. The substitution of women for men has been found practicable in most of the occupations involved in making airplanes and flying boats. In the Curtiss plants, they have been tried in almost every department and found satisfactory. About seventeen hundred women were employed during the summer of 1918 in two Curtiss plants in Buffalo. Occupations, Nine principal occupation groups employed women workers - (1) Inspection (2) metal work, (3) Woodwork, (4) varnishing and finishing the wooden parts,(5) wing covering, (6) doping and painting, (7) light final asse Ily, (8) Shipping, and (9) electric truck driving. Four materials, light weight metals, wood,linen, and varnish, dope, or paint, are used in theso processes. Jinoe the primary requisite for an airplane is light weight, most of the materials used are of a light weight. Most of these processes require some skill and experience, and a training school is maintained in both plants to prepare the new worker. https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis 61. 'ralgingt The training school in the 'linwood plant employing 150') women had a ca,acity for 23) learners had a capaoity and the Churchill plant employing 221, women for 30 now workers. ssTraining for industrial and non-industrial pr000 preliminary short/training es is given. For tY0 industrial processes for the hand ranging from a few days to a week is given and en the and maiihine processes on metal work, wood work, linen wing covers. /or the non-industrial workers, longer tO two months ale given part time oourses of three W0eks the inspectors and timekeepers. Copations of polOment. Thn airplane industry, on tho whole, involves for the women workers. no special strain or hazards Mott easily handled. of the matrials are light in weight and women work is comThr: operation of the machines on which paratively staple and easily ao,tuilred. The physical effects of doping the wings preslnts MAI problems with whioh mo are less familiar. 1:ngland ane industry after several years experience with the airpl 's has established speoific regulations concerning women of work in the 'aping room, providing for (1) exo3usion (2) alternating employment, other work from the doping room, https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis 3) 2eriodic medioal examination of the topers# and (4) requiring the workers to leave the oping room during lunch time. Ail the conditions which *r;ngland attepts to regulate exist in the airplane factories of this oountry. of In the Churchill plant the Curtiss factory the .oping is done in tho midst of the main workroom. liortn work of the Elmwood plant nine hours a day in tho 'aping room,/and same oven eat their lunch there. _lost of the industrial workers spend their half hour lunch period in the workroom. No lunch room is provided for them in either plant, though a good cafeteria lunoh roam in a separate building is patronised by the clerioal and administrative force. counters are scattered through the Elmwood Juan lunch lant, where t e workers can buy such things to eat as they san carry &may with them. 2ersonal oleanline3s is also in importantofactor in manintaining good health. Me girls who work on metal preeesews !';et very dirty and need plenty of hot water, soap and towels. In neither of the factories was thlre cloqu:.te dressing wpa0e. and vaehincT facilities. https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis 63. Transportation is a serious problem for the workers in most of the war industries. The workers in the Elmwood plant must dend on a single car line to got the of town. to and from the factory on tho outskirts Other large faotorios in the smme neighborhood add to the congestion. The vases workers were employed on a ninehour day and 51 hour week at the time of both visits in May and in August. Under pressure, holiever, theY factory has vorked overtime. The wago scale for women workers is low and ,c)t adjusted to the type of work done or to the degree of 0111 required. 1, uniform beginning Vote of 2b oents an hour, an intermediate rate of 27:, cents and a maximum rate of 30 cents an hour is establieheu for women workers. This rate nets a weeka- /noon. ranging frAm :1.3.D0 to :,;16.75 whioh is mubb lower than th;4 wage seal° for stmilar work prevail_ng in Government plants. the airplane industry offers splendid new opportunities for - :ornen workers in many new linos. The handicaps described are local and to some extent the result of the mushroam-like growth of Ulf) industry which can be adjusted in time. Training, opportunity to aoquire https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis 414• the requisite experience, and time to make the requisite adjustmenta in these new lines of work are the fundamental problems confronting the women workers and thnir employers who aro struggling under the pressure of changing war deman(is.