View original document

The full text on this page is automatically extracted from the file linked above and may contain errors and inconsistencies.


before you today Tar aonaid«ration «ad deolaloa
a grave probl«a ftff»*tlf^r our forelga relation* and our
n*tlo»al eeeurlty.
The Brit lain vtoveraM*at h&e imfwtmmd tht ^ovtnuMftt
of tlit United 9tftt«« that i t 4 U i>« obliged la the very
future to difteofttlim* I t s ym%%»mm of financial smk
ftl«tAnoe to Oree<M«
Th# 8e«rfftar3r of state has re«*lved fro» the wreek


an urgeat appoal for fla»nei^l, e«ofioaUe9 and
export %«#lataaoe from the Halted fttatee*
A«#l§t«ii#o In laperfttlve, the Oreo* OoYerMeeat taye#
I f Qr«e«e i t to »«rrlTe a a a freo gorerfMieat*

ar^eoo l a

today without tw&.« to f ln^i oe the Importation «¥oa of
thooe gojoda vhloh are oneeatlAl for bare aatoeleteaoe*
Ottder thea« olrouaietaaoev, the Ore#k OoT«riMMiat laforaa
aa» the pttple of Oreeae oaaaot aake progr*as la


probl»«$ of reooaatruoUon.

Tho ortik QoTgrwint therefore

aak« for fla&nQlal nad eeonoalo A»«l»tanoft for %hm following

In order to *nabl* Or to* lmtedlately to r o u e pur«bae#t
of food# ftlothing, fu«l t ••#*«, aoA t t e llk« 0 that «ro lap*
dl»p#n»abl« for th« •t&elptenoo of h*r t>oopX« and th^t «tr«
obtalnablo only froai abroad!
In ordor to oMhlo tfct olvll »a<i oilit^ry «stsbll ha*ttt«
of tho dreok aov«n»#Rt to import tho g#oA» nooe«oarj for
restoration of tto»t trwi-uilllty ao4 lnt^rnaX «eourity
whioh aro «oo«atl«X for oooaottio aM politioal r*c»oY«ryf
A«d la ordor to oaabl» Oreooo to er*at« ooadltiono
vhloh will ««ko possible future ««lf-support.
n n a l l j tbo i*r«<iic ao¥«m—nt aokc for tho &«alst«aoo
of oxparloiiooA Mwrloaa aduinietrativ©, eooiio«io aad teohnloal
to luaurv th« utlllsAtloA in aa off•otive aaaaor
of this financi 1


oth*r Ai»li«(taao« plr*n to 0r««o«f and to

iiolp in tatlagUg about a h*altiqr oondltion lit tin* i l o m t H
9f*nomy MA publlo a&tlnlfttaffitlofw
tfeo §*•** Qovmrtmmt •xprmm** I t s dtli»lnaUoft to
0riM< * «*lf-supporting ana «*lf~r*»f)#otiaK AiMenuqr, but
l U t t i %im% l M ui i of dim olrau»atan*«* i t Must tav« •!« from
M Mt
th« outsite.
X AP not b»Xl«fV« thaX th# fiMirt—n ptopl* or
wiiii this Ctoir«miKmt to tarn A d#«f «mr to thin <i«ap«F*t«
X tiier«for« aak you to grant to <h« itaNmtivw »«ffiatont authority to «st#Mft to flum tho atMlvtaneo roqalrod toy

fto liritioh w i r w i t !»« *l»o mfonttd «

that i t mix

bo in position to grant flnanalal or ooono^lo a««lo»
to tuHtojr.

X also askf thorofore, «• for rsasons vhloli

ootUne — that Uongross grwit to th» E«HmtiYo « i f n olont autu rlty to tsxtond nssttt •»«ifitenoo to fiaiHUSf.
Xn Wklsg f l m i «Wps X an fuXly m r « of thsir larger

iapllaatlonft, ana I viah to praaant aotia of thaaa to ftmm
<mm of tfaa priaary oaJa*tlT«* of tha ibralg* poliay of tha
Unit** stataa l a tHa araatiao of ocutfltlona in vhiah m
aatiom w i l l ba afela to work o«t a way of U f a fraa

with Uaraany an* «fat>aii#

our vlatory van % n ovar ocmntrla*

whioh nought to ittpoaa tbair v i U upon ottear nation*.
l a orAar to araata aooditlona for paaaaful daralopAaat of
nation* fraa froa aoaralon9 tha unitaa atat*« ha* takaa a laadlag part in aatabUaaing tha

nita* KaUona# which i« oaalgoa*

la naka poa«itaia fraaioa ami ln4ayaaAan<a for a l l i t a a*aaar*#
«*a K i l l not go *m*f far in raallting oar objaativaa, howarar,
aala** «a ara willing to halp fraa paoplaa to Maintain thalr
fraa Instltutlona and thair national lntagrity againat aggro**!
aoraaaatt that aaak to lapoaa apon Hias totalitarian ragimia*
fhia l a no aora than a frank raaognition that tha larpoaition
of totalitarian rai^laaa n fraa paoplaa, ay t i r a a t or inAiraat

ion, aaps tha vary fbundaUona of lntamatlonal paaaa

and ties security of the United states.
an appraisal of the present world situation shows that
Majorities in a nunber ef eoiintrles of the world have hart
tariaa regines inposed upon then against their w i l l .

In i ttent

nsnths the Qovnyimsnt of the muted states has
protests against eoerelon and Ifttinldatlon, in violation of the
efreeneat, in > oland, Runsnla, and Bulgaria.

X aust alas

it in a marts* of other sunntUss there have been

At th# prenant ^osxont in world iiltlarj
i t aonf^ontad with alternative ways of llf«»
too oft#n not a fraa ona.




And tha aholaa la

(>it* way of l i f t i t batad upon tbt m i l

of tha majority, fraa lnttltutlont, rtprttantativt governttant,
frta ala«tlont # goartatata of indivldital liberty, frtadom of
aad religion, and frttdwa froa p o l i t i c * ! eppreaalon#


way of l i f e i t baaed upon the lapoeitlon of the will of
a Minority upon a aajorlty, upon eontrol of the i>reee and other

asans of sew—unl cation by n sinority, and upon terror an*
I believe that i t srnet b» the poliey of the U n i t * states
to give support to free peoples who arc attempting to resist
subjugation l g a m i winorltios or outside foroes.

It aust ba

our pcliqy to a a t i t t fraa r>oopl«« to work out thalr own dastiny
in thalr own way.
Xt i« laiparative to our aaaorlty tliat va halp tha (hpaak
nation to praaarre i t s frae ln«titutlon« 9


ur halp aiuit ¥a

priaarily in the fora of the eeonooio and flnanalal aid whloh
i s n#e#«sarar for the oraation of a ttabl* #©or^aie struotura
la i^raaaa.
fha Ghartar of tha United Nation* pr«euppoees a world of
frae nation*,

in helping eu«a nations to Maintain their tr*9-

doa mat independence, the United states would be giTiag effeet
to the purposes and prinelples of the Qiarter.
I t would be an unspeakable tragedy If eountrles, sueh as

-7, wnleh have struggled 00 Ion*; for their independence
overwhelming odds, shoulti lose that victory for will oh
they saerlfload so nuoiu

Collapse of free institutions aat

l o s s of iiwlspsiwlaass vould b« disasters not only for thai bat
for th« world.

liooar^g«»#nt «n« po««lbly failurt

oklf b« th« l o t of neighboring ptoplos eng«««d in
to Miintaifi ttolr froadoa «»4 ind^>«nd«nooA

A chit in

of this sort would v«ry quioXly unA«r«lti« our n«tlon«l aeoarlty.
l» not «t«tlo»

th« ^t>tag quo in not aaoroA «Ad

but at aaarttary Bgrrnos said a yaar aip, *wt cannot
a unilateral gnaving away at the eta^if <mo. the united
Nations Charter,* said Hr# Bgrrnes, ••forbids aggression and we
cannot allow aggression to be neeowplished by eoerolon or pressure or by subterfuges euoh as ;>olitioal infiltration*.
Qresos has never been a rioh country.

Poverty of natural

resource* has always required that the Oreek people work hard
in order to aaalte both ends vest,

this hard-working and peaeeful

people has slnee 1940 suffered Invasion, four years of •nail
enemy occupation, And i internal strifo amounting at tl»es So
civil vir.
tfhc* • r i t i s h forces of liberation entered Greece they found
that the r<*trcfttin«


had cinatroytd a l l ttaans of ao»munl-

Fort f a o i l i t i * * had bean wr«akad9 roada had d«gan«ratad

into a Miaaaaaion of pot hoXaa9 t«loooawiunication* war* ateott
«m««xl«t«iit f and nin*ty jxiroant of th« Or««k aarahant «arina,
whioh had totaled two million %on» bafora tha war, had

In a l l Qtwm

thara tvaainad only six lo<K>»atlvaa

laaa than 100 freight aar«»

Hailmqr triiaica had baan «ytt«a~


rlppad \*p. Mora than a thousand Tillage* had bean


&tghty~fiv* percent of the onlidren were tub«roular.

LiTO«tookt poultry, *nti draft animal* had al»oat diaapreared.
And inflation had wiped out praotleally a l l eavlnga.
It i* not aurj>ri«ii5g that a ailltant minority ehould have
been able to •xploit the frightful eonditlon* under whleh the

tfreek people have been obliged to l i v e ,

t h i s internal strife

tuts generated a political instability wiiieh lifts wads i t lapot~
alfele to get the •ouBtrylB •oonoay on i t s feet.
the United gtatcs Has already extended to Oreeee eertain
types cf relief and eeonomio ussistanee. these are
i s now in areeee, «t the request of the oree
*n Aaerieftii Eeononie uission ens»ininfe the needs of ths Ureek

Although the investigations of this

ission are not

i t s preliaiaary re^^rts, and the reports of the

Astrlew /aibassador, eorrobomte the statement of the ureek
^overrusent as to the argent noed for further aid.
the Greek ^ovenuRent in %-,0**r today repreeents eighty-fiTe
pereent of the ambers of the OreeK Parliament,

fhe eXeetione

for the lireex Parliament, i t will be r««alled # were held last
Harsh under the eyes of fifteen hundred Aaerlean, British,
sad bouth Afriean observers invited by Hie Oree* Government,

these observers spent the tuo sonths preeeding the elee~

tions observing ?>re-eleotion oondltlons throughout

It 1» their opinion that ttw nlootlona were fair and that to*
Parliament Is the true oh'lee of the aaj^rity of voters,
p o l i t i e s ! groups representing at nost about fiftee*
pereent of ttm electorate &taat*in«4 froa th« pollt, bat a gvaat
•ajority of thoaa •lltitole to mU oa«t thair ballots.

la parfaet. (>na of the ahlaf vlrtuaa of

•laibla and uaftar AanaaraUa proaaaaas oan 1M pointaA omt

4*raaa«'« govan«ant in not parfaat.

I t hat

operating in an at*oaj»tiare of ahaos and extreala^ # and It naa
• a i t oistall#••

f t e •xtenaion of aid toy this eountry doea not

that this (toverotteftt anaionaa every toting that the Oraak
hue dona or v i l l do #

He have oondaaned in tka past

and we da aondssin now any ©xtraaist tiaasuras of the right or
of the l e f t .

*»e have In the T>ast advised toleranee and we

i t now.
The vary existanaa of the) Ores* State i s today

-11toy the amsd doprsdatlons of asvaral thousand
dissidents, lad toy Oowmiiists, «hf> dafy tte GfwrNM»nt'»
authority at a mater of points, partl«olarly iil^ng the
northern tonundaries. A Comilsalon appointed toy t t e United

visanrlty Ooimaii i s at pr«s#ttt investigatlnc dlstartos4

•osdltlons in northern Oysd• and raportad toordar violations
along list frontier toatva*n Ora«o© on ths ona tend and Albaalft,
ft«lgarla, and YugoalnTia on the other.
Haamdills tte Or#«k OoTaraaant Is unanls to oopa with
t t e situation.

2fha areak Arny i s snall t and poorly •quipped.

If t t e t Army I s to toa affaoUvs in rt»«torlnK tte aathority of
t t e frraak stats thro^hout i t s t«rrltory # i t trill raqulra
sqpplift* and aquipsMMit to paratit i t s r#orgAiilsatlon; and i t
v i l l roqulra a tettar funotlonlnf aaanony to support i t *
If arstao i s to haYa halp in this orltloal situation^ t t e
United Btatos mtst supply i t .

Xter* i s no otter anitntry to

vi.lah (tssiosyatla Qmm** smn turn.

the Jrttlah Government, vhlah hae been aaalstlns Oreeee,
hat informed u« that It dan give no further financial or
toonoalo aid in this e r l e i e .

Ovamt Britain finds i t e e l f under

th« neoeaalty of reAualng or liquidating l t a eoanltKenta in
awaral parts of Vtm vorld, i eluding Clraaaa and Turk ay.


woitXd b« difficult to over awphaalsa the laportanoa cf thaaa
davtlopwantft to tha United

tatea and to Aaarlaan fcralgn poli

I t la neaeaaary only to glance at a Map to realise that
the | rvival m& Integrity of the ftreak nation u of grave
loiportanee in a »ueh wider »ltuatir>n.

If Oreeee ahould fall

under the eontrol of an amed minority, the effeet upon her
nei^ibor, Turkey, would be In^odlate end nerioan.


eonfaalon ana oiaorder ^Ight well apread throughout the ontlre
Kiddle Kaet.
Her l i this a l l .

There are eountrlee In Korope vhoee

people are «truf-glin|: agalnat great difficulties *n&
to Mlntaln their freedo«e and their indeponclenee while they

repair the damages of war.

Should ttrsee* f a l l in her struggle,

the effect nay be far-reaching to the West as m i l as to the
the future of ¥urkey as an independent and economically
sound stats Is dearly no i s s s Important,

turkey has happily

been sparsd the disasters that have bssat Orsset.

And during

ths vmr tb* United >tat#s and Orsmt Britain furnish** Turkey
with rsry Material aid.

sinoe the ismr# however, Turkey has

sought additional financial assistance froa both Great Britain
and the United states for the purpose ot effecting that modernisation of Its defensive establishment* that the aaintenanee of
I t s Independence requires.
the British Oovernaent has informed us that due to i t s
own d i f f i c u l t i e s , It will not be In a position In the future
to extend further financial or economic aid to Turkey.
I t i s therefore my opinion
be given to Turkey,

that assistance should also

lie are the only country able to giv* that

-14help, »ind i t i s in our v i t a l interest to do so.
The situ

., In mf opinion# requires laswdlate and

6 no lute aetion.
1 k l f l M f l ask the Congress to act with the greatest
speed in providing authority for ? sslstanae to Greeoe
Vurkey 1A the amount of $400#0O0#0O0 for tho period
June 30# 1940.

In re vesting theiie foods, I hare taken

into oonslderatloii the m s l e m amount of relief asslataAM
hich i t i s oont^aplftted voulA b* furnWied to (Mreeae out of
th« I360#0009000 vhioh I r^oently reque ted that the
Congr^ee authorise for tht prevention of starvation and
«ufferl i* in countries devaetateA by the war.
In addition to funds, X & f the Goagr«ss to aathorize
the detail of Aaerloan civili*n and military pereonnel to
eee and Turkey,

t tha requost of those t t m t r i e s , to

assist in tasks of •«lnt* nance and reeonntruction, and for
the purpose of supervising th# ua« of sueh fln&nolrl and

aoatstaji** at aay bo famls***.


that authority also •« proYldtd for th* lastraatloa
tralalag or s«loot*d #r#«* and furkirti p«raa«a*l*
ria«lly t 1 «rit that th# Oonippf «P ororld* authority
wMch will p«mit %h* »p99&l9tt and «»tt affiHitlT* uiw9
la ftmm d


of euch fuadt at may • •
If further fund«f or further a«tterlty f should be
iu»od«4 far p«rpa<i« « Ii0lcftti»4 la thin aa««fige9 2 shall aat
hanl%ata to bring the situation bffor* Coagn>s«.

t h i s la

a tlaa wh*o the Kxoautlva aad LaglaXativo fcranahas of tho
ovTiMiont miet work ta^othar ox «dltlou»ly A ami la olaao
ooorrtln-.tlon, to ward off daagoro whloh aro no loss oortala
to affoot tbt po^.ao# security, asd prosporlty of the nation
booaase thoy ar« a atop r«M*»4 in tlmo aad ipaoo.