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V September seventh, Ninotoon -Atunclred tirenty. The LAI/an-Aronson Realty & Development GompaPY. 19 south La Ealle street, Ohicago, Ill. Gentlemen: have noted your advertisement of farm communities and prices. This office is trying to gather all available information pertaining to the welfare of ;egro wasse-earnera. I th4l'efore would be pleaaed if you will send LA) full Information about your project. Yours very truly, Director of Negro isnonomics. July 10, 1920. Nr. I. L. Johnson, 310unt 4rings, Ala. Dear Kr. John9on: Your letter of July 2 was forwarded from New York to mw office here. I remember your interest in the question of land settlement and improvement when I talked to you In Atlanta. I am going into this more deeply than heretofore as I think it is of vital importance to Negro workers, and i shall keep in mind your invitation when making up my program for my next trip into your state and will write you later. In the meantime I would be pleased if you would send me the following information about your settlement: (1) How many miles is the community from Decatur? (2) What is :tour nearest railroad station and on what railroad is it? ;3) '.hat is the name of your )ost-offioe and do you have rural free delivery to the farmers in the community? (4) How many land-owners are there in the community, and, as nearly as possible, exactly how much land do they awn? (5) How much of this land is under cultivation - hew much in "deadening" or stump-land - how much in standing timber? (6) What aro the principal crops and about how much acreaee, all told, is there in each crop? Thanking you for this information, I remain Yours sincerely, Director of Negro I;conomics. 4. ALL CONTRACTS AND AGREEMENTS MUST BE C N HUGH MAcRAE & HUGH MAC RAE ,CHAIRAvAR C. VAN LEUVEN , PRESIDENT M. F. H. GOUVERNEUR NICE PRESIDENT P. M.SHEPPARD,SECRETARY I 1 !HI , IPAN'y 0 CO.,1NCORPORATED FARM LANDS SMALL FARMS FOR MARKET GARDENING,DAIRYING, MURCHISON NATIONAL BANK BUILDING J. C. Mc EACHIN,TREASURER FRUITS, POULTRY AND STAPLE CROPS IN THE WILMINGTON DISTRICT WI LM I NGTON , NORTH CAROLINA July 16th, 1920. John E. Yaylor, 413 MacRae Street, Wilmington, N.C. I notice from an article in the Dispatch that the Director of Negro Economics of the Department of Labor, has inquired of you in regard to lands which might be used for the establishment of negro families. The article does not go into details especially, but I would assume that the plan would require a tract of 500 or more acres for subdivision. Our Company has a very desirable tract of land about half mile West of Ashton, which might be used as a basis for such a project. This tract is crossed by Kelly Creek which lies in quite a ravine, providing the land with good natural drainage which could be readily extended to include the entire tract. The quality of the soil is high grade. Most of the land is cut-over land, but there are a few acres of land in cultivation. The area is slightly less than 500 acres. We also have option on approximately 1500 acres of land adjoining or near the above described property, of which 862 acres is a tract on which the title has been perfected under the Torrens System, and which lies between the Company's land and the railroad, and partly on the Southern side of the Company's land. In the locality where this property is situated, there are a number of negro families already established on their own land. While I am not in position to make a specific quotation at the moment, I believe that the entire area referred to above, or the Company's land separately, could be delivered at a price not exceeding 47.50 per acre. Yours very truly, President. CVL/HSEVEN 10 EIGHT MONTHS OF ACTUAL GROWING SEASON IN EACH YEAR, WITH OPEN WINTERS. THREE TO FIVE CROPS GROWING ANNUALLY ON THE SAME GROUND. September 19, 1920. 112531 MALTY )3721LE1T 1nR2c1ATleN, Salta 1)25, 19 So. La Salle Street, Chicago, Illinois. Gentlemen' 47:321T.Tr.N: "Ur . -an &reen3on. Thank yoa so ralch for the ;_afornation cont ained in the ciroalar an3. /ettar sent me About your sale of lanl to ooloreti settlers. Very truly yoars, Director of Negro toonoelos. 3/2.Lo SeAember 25, 1920. SZIGA5rL iJJ 0vall4rt, 1245 to 1250 Yirst Net. Mak 1114g.. Chicago, ill. Gentlest's": Thank you so mach ror the Information contained in yt,ur let tor and. Ztooklet about efforts to buill 111) farm communities. T. vory tra4, Director of Negro Aeonesdos. VA July 13, 1920. Mr: John E. Taylor, 413 MacRae '.;treet, Wilmington, N. 3. Ny dear Lr. Taylor: This office has been asked for info rmation about lane tracts of available land that mi3tht be util ized for the settlement of Nero tenants ani laborers. 3ould you send me any information alon this line a: to th.: oTine rb of tracts of from five to ten thousand acres; or coul d jou tell me probable persons from wham I could ,Tit such information/ Thanktng you for your attention, I am Tours very truly, • Direotor of ikagro Economics. INF D.F.FAA.ST. Par5tc.s...rr. 6.KEITT1 V1c..E PRESICYCNT. E.G.KUEH L.5EcstETARY. W.A.,LA(KUN TREA5URE a. Wisconsin Colonizafion Companti MADE TO ORDER- FARMS -SUNNY SOUTHERN SAWYER COUNTY Eau Claire. W. September 8, l.)a). Geor. E. Haynes, s3oli0u0330.1.44N1040.1baJia Director of .Negro Economics, 0 I d-iS Office of Sec., Dept. of Labor 808V1 AO 1N1lAl 111Vd30 Washington, D. C. CI3A13938 Dear Sir: It is a pleasure for us to send you. lt-teratu-e descriptive of our experience in efforts to build up farm comLunities. The literature covers this and goes forward to you under separate cover today. This literature covers many of the most important points but should there by L.ny particular information other than that included in this literature that you desire please feel free to call upon us and we snail gladly -ive you what wxperiences we have had in this kind of work. EGli/HS Yours very truly, Wiscons 1/e_Colonizati Co. Sec reta y. No contract or agreement valid unless signed by the proper officer of the Company. All payments must be made direct to the Company at Eau Claire Wis. All quotations subject to prior sale or change of price without notice. DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OFFICEOFTHEASSISTANTSECRETARY WASHINGTON August 8, 1919. emorandum From: The Director of Negro Economics To: The Secretary Through the Assistant Secretary. Subject: Investigation of Certain Labor Conditions in '4ashington. I hereby recommend that an informal inquiry be made , by the Director of Negro conomics,of 'Negroes in the District of Columbia with a view to ascertaining whether and to what extent wage working conditions and 4uestions entered into recent racial disturbances in the District. Respectfully, ,4 , 777/ Direct r of Negro Economics. Approved with instructions that, in the absence of the Director, the inquiry be made jointly by Yr. Hall and Er. Jennifer. Assistant Secretary. C. -7 PAUL P. ARENSON President & Gen. Mgr. V. A. HILMF_S Secretary & Treasurer S. H. ROBERTS Vice-President NSON REALTY DEVEL CORPORATIO N OPME\ - gE FORMERLY MICHIGAN OFFICE. BENZONIA, MICH. THE SWAN-ARENSON REALTY & DEVELOPMENT CO. SUBDIVIDERS AND PROMOTERS Suite 1025, 19 So. La Salle St. TELEPHONE RANDOLPH 1779 Chicago, Ill., September 9th, 1920. RECEIVED Mr. George E. Haynes, Seey.,DEPAFIIMENT OF LABOR Department of Labor, SEP 111920 Washington, D.C. Director of Neer° Dear Sir:- Economics In response to your letter of September 7th we are glad to give you the information you desire pertaining to our land offer. The pamphlet enclosed contains the details of the offer and will enable you to form a definite idea of this project. If any additional information is desired that is not included in the pamphlet, we shall be glad to have you let us know what it is and give it to you inmediately. This offer was prompted by numerous requests that we had received at various times during the past from colored people from all over the country for farm lands, and although the tract was acquired for the purpose of subdividing it for white people, we decided to change our plans and take care of the negro patronage, which we have since found to be very satisfactory. There is a tremendous demand among the colored people for farm lands and we believe that if they were afforded more opportunities to acquire such land, it would benefit the country and all the people in general. Our object in making this offer was not to create a demand for the land, but to supply a demand that has already existed. We are glad to report that all those who have already seen the land we sold them were well pleased with their investments and expressed a desire to secure more of them. We shall be glad to give you any further information that you may desire, and are Very truly yours, AREN SON REALTY DEVELOPMENT CORP. PPA*GB BY PRESIDENT BRADLEY COMPANY BRADLEY ESTATE COMPANY FOND DU LAC AVENUE LAND COMPANY LAND. LOG a LUMBER COMPANY MARINETTE. TOMAHAWK S WESTERN RAILROAD CO. MERRILL LUMBER COMPANY TOMAHAWK LAND COMPANY TOMAHAWK LUMBER COMPANY UNITED STATES LUMBER COMPANY TOMAHAWK, WIS. Sept. 11th 1920 Mr. George E. Haynes, Director of Negro Economics, Department of Labor, Washington, D. C. Dear Sir: Replying to your letter of the 40 , inst., we are enclosing a map upon which our lands are shows in yellow; also a circular outlining our Land Settlement Plan. Our lands vary from level to rolling; the soil being sandy loam, clayey loam and clay. These are cutover lands, hre.ving been logged at different times during the past thirty years. On most of them the timber remaining is sufficent to last for many years as fuel and on some descrip tions there is enough standing timber to build necessary farm buildin gs. On several eighties we have built a house and barn, thus making it possible to move in and take immediate possession. The climate, water, roads, schools and churches are good. This section is already well settled, there being rural telephones, mail deliveries and much blooded stock. The markets for all farm products are the best as we are only twelve hours from Chicago, and much nearer to Milwauk ee, St. Paul and Minneapolis. The average price of our land is $25 per acre; onefourth cash, balance in three equal annual payments, 6% interes t. Or, we will sell and assist the settler on the terms given in the enclosed circular. After looking over the map and circular, we would be pleased to have you write us, asking any questions that may occur to you, or better still, come to Tomahawk and we will only be able to show you our lands, but personally answer not any questions you may have in mind. Railroad fare will be refunded to purchasers. We employ no outside agents and pay no commissions; thus giving you the advantage of dealing directly with a responsible owner. Yours very truly, TOMAHAWILLAND COMPANY. ML 1,3,8. 0/itriee, BY 7 CAnm,LNA OFFICE OF A. M. MOORE, M. D., PricsiDENT July 15, 1920. Dr. Geo. E. Haynes, Departaent of Labor, Washington, D. C. Dear Sir: EePlying to your letter of the 13, making inquiry of vacant land, beg to state that there is quite a bit of vacant land which could be turned into service to advantage in this state. There is a tract of five thousand acres in eight miles of Durham on the Yational High way. I do not know the parties Who own it, but they expressed to one of our traveling men, Mr. W. Gomez, that the property was for sale. His address is Durham, N. C. You might also write Mr. Hugh McCrat_of wilmington, N. C. His company owns large tracts of land that might be available. Also Dr. C. S. Brown, Winton, Y. C., will give you information on this. I trust this information will be df service to you, and if we can be of further heir to you, please advise us. Yours very truly, RZCZVED DEPAR1MENI OF LABOR Nil_ 1 6 1920 Director of NeTrn Economics MY RESPONSIBILITY CEASES WHEN GOODS ARE DELIVERED TO TRANSPORTATION COMPANY AND RECEIPTED FOR IN GOOD ORDER United States Food Administration License Mo. G--54392 BERRY O'KEL_L_Y WHOLESALE GROCERIES AND GENERAL MERCHANDISE FLOUR, HAY, CORN, OATS, COTTON-SEED MEAL, HULLS, DAIRY FEED ETC Special Prices on Car-Load Lots METHOD, N. C. July Warehouse on Southern Railroad 19, 1920, Dr. Geo. F.. Haynes, Washington, D. C. Dear Dr. Haynes:relative I am in receipt of your letter of the 15thAto large tracts of land for settlement of Negroes in the tidewater of North Carolina. I don't know of any such places rirht at this time but the first time I am in this section of the state will tak pleasure in seeking this information and will write concerning same. Raleigh. Would you be interested in securing 1000 acres near I know of a place near hero that could be secured. With best wishes, I am Yours very truly, I am also writing several friends who live in the TidewlAtr of North Carolina and am requesting them to write you. P. S. FMVEN TED DEPAITIMEN1 OF I_NBOR 1UL 2 1 1920 Director of Nero Economics 1 ALL CONTRACTS AND AGREEMENTS MUST BE CONF!RMEE HY VViLMrNGTON OFT ICE HUGH MAcRAE & HUGH MAC RAE ,cmniRscAN C. VAN LEUVEN , PRESIDEN, M. F. H . GOUVERNEUR NICE PRESIDENT P.M .SHEPPA RD , SECRETARY nDr.pESS ' C.C.TIONT, TO CO.,1NCORPORATED FARM LANDS MURCHISON COMPANy NATIONAL BANK SMALL FARMS FOR MARKET GARDENING,DAIRYING, BUILDING FRUITS, POULTRY AND STAPLE CROPS IN THE WILMINGTON DISTRICT J C. Mc EACHIN,TREASURER WILMINGTON. NORTH CAROLINA July 27th, 1920. John E. Taylor, 413 McRae Street, Wilmington, N.C. I have your letter of July 17th, and r. Cowan also handed me the letter which was addressed to you by George W. Haynes, which letter I am sending you herewith. I would suggest that you forward to hir. Haynes the information suggested in our letter of July 16th, an also make the statement that larger areas of land of desirable quality could probably be secured in this territory. I am enclosing herewith an editorial from the Charlotte Observer, which states very clearly the agricultural advantages of this particular section, and which possibly might be desirable to enclose in your letter. Yours very truly, 05,70.4444%j President. CVL/H- SEVEN TO EIGHT MONTHS OF ACTUAL GROWING SEASON IN EACH YEAR. WITH OPEN WINTERS. THREE TO FIVE CROPS GROWING ANNUALLY ON THE SAME GROUND. September 18, 1920. SK/DM018-MILM LAND °MIXT, Marinette, Wis. Gentlememe =gum Mr. Ralph Skidmore, Secy. Tour oordial letter giving very olear liseueslon or instances where you handled your sale of land la Marinette 00aat7 vas reoeive4. t also received the booklet and paper you seat. Yor all of these thank you very- much as it dyes complete Jurormation on methods in /and settlement. Tours very Director of Negro Soonomdcs. Ow; July • Dr.George Director of Nogro Economics, RZCEIVED U.S.Depart-ront of Lnbor, DEPARIMENT OF LABOR AM 2 1920. Director of Negro Economics 1:oforr1n7 youl• letter of the thirteenth instant,I hv say that I had the inforIntion therein sroken of by the locni nf-rPrr and h3d the chwiber of coerce tplce it up. I am submitting S040 correspondence with newsr:-,rer clirrings and hope the same may prove of solqe vrlue to you. 2.74 Fo,- -:.onc117 convinco(T. this iAmediate section , nrr, opportunities in for the settlement of Negro tenants and laborers because they can soon become landowners. Respectfully yours, AMMON& lams& 413 MacRae Street Wilmington, N.C. July 29, 1920. Dr. George E. Haynes, Directcrof Negro Bconomdcs, U.S. Department of Labor, Wtshinirton, D.C. Dear Sir: Referring to your letter of the thirteenth instant, I have to say that I had the information therein spoken of by the local papers ant had the chamber Gf com;erce take it up. I am sabmittin; some correspondence with newspaper clippings and hope the sage may prove of MNMO value to you. I am personally (convinced that there are opportunities in this imaediate section tOr the settlement of Negro tenants and laborers bsuauie they can soon become landosmers. Respectfully youro, Signed: J.E. Taylor. C 0 PHRSONAid 508 Fayetteville St., Durham, N.C. August 24, 1920. Dear Dr. Haynes: Concerning the mattr of which you wrote some time ago, I am reliably informed by a good friend of mine that some propositions can be fouul in North Carolina that will be of great interest to you. It is thot that they will conform entirely to the desired end and will prove highly attractive. I shall be very glaa to keep in touch with the situation, at your suggestion; or if you will write Mr. W. Goalea, Mutual Branch, Fayetteville St., Durham, he can give you fall information. I trust the matter has net closed since my rocoipt of your fi st inquiry. gith sincerest lood wlehes, I al:. Yours very truly, Sibned; A. _g_SeeeLl HUGH MLGRAE & 00.,INCOR2ORATED _FARM LANDS Aurchison National Bank Bldg. Wilmington, North Carolina July 16, 1920. John E. Taylor, 413 MacRae Street, Wilmington, N.C. I notice from aa article in the Dispatch that the Director of Negro 300UOMIes of the Department of Labor, has inquired of you le reeard to lanls Ahich mieet be tumid foe the establishment of Negev families. The article does not -p into details eseeciaely, but I would assume that the plan would require a tract of 500 or more acres for subdivision. Opr Amoany has a very lecirable tract of land about half mile West of Ashton, which mleht be used as e basil for such a projeot. This tract is crossed by Kelly Creek which lies in quite) a ravine, providing the land with eood natural drainage which could be readily extenaed to Include the entire tract. The quality of the sail is high grade. Most of the land is olt-over land, but there are a few acres of land in cultivation. The area is alightly less than OUU acres. We also have option on aoeroximately 1500 acres of lani atjoinine or near the above described property, of leieh 062 acres le a tract on which the title has been perfected under the Torrens System, and which lies between the Compaay's land ani the railroad, and pertly on the Southern side of the Company's land. In the locality where this property is situated, tharq !kre A number of Negro families already established en their oeu eend. while I am not in position to make a specific quotation at the moment, I believe that the entire area referred to above, or the Company's land separately, could be delivered at a price not exceedine ..;;17.50 per acre. Yours very traly, Signed: C. Van Leuven, President. C o July 13, 1920. Mr. John E. Taylor, 413 MacRae Street, Wilmington, N.C. 117 dear Mr. Taylor: This office has boon asked for informaien about larTe tracts of available la:11 tha mitt be utilized for the settlement of Negro tenants and laborers. Could you send me any informattia alon; this line as to the owners of tracts of from five to tan thousand acres; or could you tell me -orobable persons from Woo,11 aouli gat such information? TSanking you for your attention, I am Yours very truly, Director of Neqrn Economics. Cony A.C. Mutual Ta-Pe InTa-,a-tce Company Durham, N.C. July 15, 1920. Dr. Geo. E. Haynes_ Department of Labor, Washington, D.C. Dear sir: Replying to your letter of the 13, making inquiry of vacant land, beg to state that there is quite a bit -f vacant land which could be tamed into service to advants<;e in this state. There is a tract of fl,re tilousand acres in sight miles of Durham on the Uational Hi41 wry. I do not %now the .iarties who own it, but they expressed to one of our travelinc; men, Mr. W. Gomez, that the property as for sale. His aiaress is Durham, N.C. You might also write Mr. Hull BCCrfie of Wilmirgton, N.C. his company owns large tracts of land that might be available. Also Dr. U.S. Brown, Winton, N.C., All cjve you information on this. I trust this irtormation vvill be of service to you, and If we can be of further help to you, please aiyise us. Yours very truly, Signed: A.M. Moore. Cooy HUGH MacliAB & CO., IFO0R20RATED PAM LANDS Murchison National Bank 311g. 5ilmington, N.G. July 27, 1920. Jchr E. Tvlor, 413 McRae 3treet, Wilmington, N.C. I have your letter of July 17th, and gr. Cowan also handel we the letter Which -Alas addressed to you by George E. Haynes, whi,312 letter I am senling you herewith. I would. suggest that you forward to Jr. Haynes the informatioa sagsosted in our letter of July 16th, and also melte the st'Ite-Ant, that lar,;er areas land of desirable quality ocull i:robably be secured in this territory. / am enclosing herewith an editorial from the Charlotte Observer, Allah states vc-ry clearly ti_s agricu.;.caral advantages of this ig,rtioular snoti:m, and Atlioh 2ossibiy misnt be desirabl.e to enclose in your letter. 'roam very truly, Signed: O. Van Lew7en, 2res. Co.e Calhoun Colored School Calhoun, Lowndes Co., Ala. Mr. George B. Haynes, Department of Labor, Wathingtont D.C. IV dear Kr. Baynes: Your letter of July 13 wan roceived a. few days ax, but r delayed answering until I could inquiro about the land you referred to around Herkeville. Judge Wood lived at Mt. Willing, about ten miles south of Calhean, but as Ju...Loe iis intooe.lto oore largeloy a Leyneville, which as :jou know is our coenty seat. I believe that Mrs. Wood is living at the home place in Mt.Willing. I have not been abls to ascertain anything definite in regard to the lani so; ilayneville. I dii oot write to headcoarters for I knew if there was any thought of purchasing this Lsnd at Hayneville the priee would be raised immediately uoon my askino for infuriation. Often it is best 'or our euheol to secuueo prices through a third earaon SA the people at large seam to feel an institution can pmy more than an individual. I an sorry I cannot write more definitely in reed to thio otter, but this I feel is sure, that the Ahite oeople at Rayneville would not welcome a settlement of Mai:;roes near tnem. It is the oho aommunity that has always felt the stronsest opposition to (lallicuo. I elk; this after speakieo to scmc of our men. This mi3ht not mane ony dif.J:erenoe tc the plan your delartment may have in mind. Hayneville is ten miles from the railroad. his I also feel to be a great disadvantage to a forming people as in (114.10 of aucoessful agricultural work there is no shipping. point for oroduee eearer than ten miles. The Bells who own so much of Calhoun want to sell their Ahole property, but you and I both krioW it 'Will. he an unwise thiilog to start a second enterprise right in the midst of one already started. It is so difficult to ran these numerous plantations i7:;lat we are looking forward to the time when the Bells will be glad to soil at a low figure and than I hope we mill be able to continue the selling of farms to the Negroes and thus control this part of the community. This statemsmt is for you only as it would be a disadvantage to have Bell hear of our hope. The land we were hoping to buy of Mr. Irene:haw has been purchased and is bein sold out to the people. Mere were 2201 acres in the track. The Phelps Stokes Fund gave Calhoun $5,000, to purchase farm land for the school as we have been renting for some years. 254 acres wore convoyed to the school leaving 1947 acres for sale. The price of the land was $20 per acre malting the total amount to be paid 444,020. The 45,000 for school land reduced the amount to be secured to $39,020, elus expenses of serve, land title and other lawyer fees, boundary stones ael Mr. Cheanutt's saleey for oversight of part of the work. This latter expense eill e _bele as long as his serviees are needed.. Six friends sebscribed t 5,000 each and four others subscribet the remainLee amount. There were several temporary loans also securaa throe* the house of Lee, Hieeineon and Comeaey Where ehe loans are ueite; handled.. There are very few houses on che plantation and this has delayed the sale of tho letnie bet we hope before another tall to obliterate this difficulty by putting up a few houses where they are really needed. The land is leee- soil et eeieeo earyine frem 42U to ;:160 eer acre, of the Lend at ttere ie a very little amount. As the land was bought the lattoafter crops were in the ground Mr. Crenshaw rented the land for 1919 so we only had poesession January 1920. Of the 1947 aeres for eele money has already- Leen pai:i by eleven persons for 33e acres. There are under reatel 466 acres. Maly of the mer An are renting wanted to bey, but we were hot sure that we wanted them to buy as we ao not waet tc se,L. to people withcut education ahd training unless they were particulerly fine material for we hope to make this plantation ens wnere car ereetuatee aed fritter ex-students of the sohool or persons veto eneo beee eluz .ted in other eehools, can settle. You wili see that tnere is a epee deal of leel lyine idle. :each of this ill erase leet are while not rented All this yeer ho eivee arid thus inerease the receipts. You eay wonder with the call for lani why we are not able to secure the beyers ana renters that .re necessary to -ase up the hand. As we did not take possession until the first of January mahy of the men eere afraid o A64.11, to wake arraneeeents for the cumin- year, other's did not have eeeh eith which to make tee first peemtnt or build homes or to buy stoek. Tease lersoee are reneene ernal elaces and mow of the men are makine money elsewhere with the idea of purchasing this year. The largest aerance pa,paent that vas made was ci650,in other easel; we have allowed them to pay only $20 as an advance eeement. It depended upon the reasons for shortage of money. have one thus fully into this account, but I did not know What points you wanted me to touch ueon. To carry this work secosesfully m.d more quickly than it ear be lone under existing conditions we thoull have a fend of not less than 410,000. that could be used derine the next five years to advaeee to the people in the may of beyine stook: and puttin- up homes for them. If we AD this I feel that we could quickly maks s suceees of the Whole plan. At the same time I am convinced that the mate, opportunities for makihg laree money away from Calhoun is not a bai plan for some of the men who uan eo off for five or six eonths, especially as most of them can ;11t work liear enoufAL to spend their Sundays at home. /f they are hawing land and their families are living upon it there is little daneer of the men drifting away permanently. After trenty-et4ht years in Calhoun my sreat hope is that me can the land loaned by Bell,bence control the little cente r near the station and the central store ani cotton 4n. I only hope / Ii111 live lons enow:h tr see this done. Vory sincerely yours, uharlotte R. Thorn vriacioal. Dr. Geo. S. Baynes, db.shin„ton, D.C. Dear Dr. Hajues:I a i rooeipt of your leut.er Li one li)th relative to i ge tracts or' latrl for 3ettlement of Negro es in the tidewater of North Carolina. I 1on't no of any srh place s riht at this time bat the first time am in this sectios of the state will take r:leasttre in seekin:=2; this information aril will art te concerninz : sass. Italei3h. Would yoi be inton.43„el i IkflOW of a place near her-) j se(•;uri: ; 1% iores usar oul i b secursd. dith best wiftus, I am Y Jura very timiy, Siped: Be Melly I am al.30 writin:; se-sera]. frienis ‘.tio live Ir.. the Ttinw ator of bforth Oarolina anti a., reqt.e Ling. them to write yc,u. rief taternent oftheir dvantages pportunities a-n.d kr • . 15 let vit, a INDEX Bees and Honey 36 Building Material .... 46 Clearing 8-11 Climate 5 20-31 Crops Dairying 32 Education 45 Fish 36 Fruit Belt 5-6 Fruit Growing 36-43 Fruits (Small) 43-45 Foreword 1 Game 36 Health 47 Live Stock 32-35 Location 13-19 Markets 14 Michigan's Progress.. 3 Population 7 Poultry 34 Pruning Rainfall Roads . Seed Growing Soil Spraying Taxes Timber Transportation Water Supply 39 8 11 31 6 39 46 9-11 2-7 8 FOREWORD Mr. Swigart resided in Michigan for many years and nearly twenty years ago founded this business. Following upon his purchases of extensive areas of cutover timber lands he became active in colonizing and developing this district. He is identified with the founding of a number of towns and more recently Wellston where local headquarters are maintained. In making low terms to give people of limited means a chance to acquire farm homes, Mr. Swigart is a pioneer. His purpose was to settle the lands with deserving, industrious people, bringing them from the thickly settled rural districts of other states. Neighborhoods settled by congenial, well-meaning, rightliving people accustomed to earning their living by honest toil are bound to do well wherever conditions are right. Mr, Swigart recognized the necessity of securing settlers who would be a credit to the citizenship of our counties. In 1905 Mr. Swigart moved to Chicago and established offices in the First National Bank Building, thus getting in closer touch with the increasing number of home seekers from the adjoining states. Later he incorporated the Swigart Land Company and his offices, enlarged from time to time, are now a part of our general offices. Here a large clerical force is employed to look after the Interests of customers, conduct correspondence with all who inquire about land and direct the work of a dozen traveling general agents and over 200 boc.11 representatives in various states. Thus, the Swigart Land Company has grown to be one of the largest and strongest land organizations in the United States. At our Wellston headquarters a number of men are employed in the work of examining and showing lands, operating a demonstration farm and the Swigart orchards containing 6,090 trees, also a lumber yard for settlers and the Wellston garage which houses the company's automobiles. We also own store and hotel buildings there which we lease, and an office building which we occupy. Through our Wellston office settlers are advised in the best methods of agriculture for this district by farm experts in the employ of the company. The Swigart Land Company has a paid up capital of $350,000 and a considerable surplus. References as to our tinanchil ability and business integrity :ire the First National Bank of Chicago, Manistee County Savings Bank of Manistee. Michigan, and the Chicago daily newspapers. The officers of the compat”. are George W. Swigart. President. C. .1. Canfield. Treasurer, and R. B Swigart, Secre tary. The heads of the several departments in the business are experienced men most of whom have been with Mr Swigart for years. 2608 FOREWORD Our efficient service has made and customers satisfied many friends. The insurance we give is a much appreciated security. We guarantee titles and amounts of acreage and give buyers the benefit of our experience in selecting lands to suit their purposes, whether for general or specialized farming, stock raising, dairying, poultry business or for fruit or truck growing. Our reputation as dependable land merchants is our greatest asset and we feel that that reputation is at stake in every transaction. Our lands are first carefully examined by experts whose examination notes are placed on file at both the Chicago and Wellston offices. Prices are then deterlmined in accordance with the lay of the ground, kind of soil, how watered, and location with reference to good roads, schools, towns, telephone lines and rural mail routes. Our best advertisement is in the qualities and values given. Following Mr. Swigart's idea, that a large acreage must be developed by the co-operation of many people, we extensively advertise the opportunities offered. Thus, an investor has the assurance that sooner op GEORGE W. SWIGART later settlers will be placed on land adjoining his own, thereby bringing PRESIDENT AND FOUNDER OF an enhanced value to his land. SWIGART LAND COMPANY A cardinal principle which Mr. 1245-1250 First National Bank Bldg., Swigart has made a part of this institution is that it lives up to its CHICAGO promises. And he insists that fair and honest representation without exaggeration be observed by representatives and in all literature and advertising. We call your attention, therefore, to the conservatism of the statements contained in this booklet which, with the help of its photographic productions, gives a comprehensive idea of the conditions for agriculture and horticulture in the Swigart Tracts. The distance is not far from Chicago, or Toledo, at.d the trip can be taken at small expense and little time lost. We invite you to come and verify what follows in these pages. Additional literature, maps and plats and special information will be sent upon application. Correspondence is invited and as nearly as possible will be answered on the same day it is received. Start a savings account in land. While you may work for a time to pay for the land, the land will never cease working for you. 1 THE SWIGART TRACTS Lumber was handled by the mills around Manistee Lake by the millions of feet THE SWIGART TRACTS IN MASON, MANISTEE, LAKE AND WEXFORD COUNTIES What advantages have these counties that make them a desirable place for one to invest for his future farm home, or for any of the many uses of farm land? The answer will be better understood when you learn that the message in these pages is addressed to people in the states where increase in population, with corresponding increase in the price of land, is making it less possible every year for persons of average means to obtain farm land. There are many reasons why people prefer to locate in this part of the United States. AMERICA'S THRIET ZONE Within a radius of 400 miles of Chicago, there are twenty-three billion of the forty billion dollars' value of the nation's farm property. The six states within this radius comprise the Thrift Zone of America's farming. They have the largest percentage of farmers earning more than $1,000 per year. Their lands have outstripped in percentage of increase in value any other part of country in the past ten years; and their bank deposits of farmers aggregate larger than those of any other half dozen states. This Thrift Zone is the center of population of the United States with the greatest number of large cities. Its markets are unlimited; nearly the whole nation has to help to feed its people. The cost of delivery into its boundaries largely fixes the standards of prices for agricultural products. A location within this center means delivery of most produce at least cost for transportation and in the better, fresher condition which commands prices above the average market. Transportation, which is the life of any section, has here reached highest development. .That this is the most thickly populated country shows it to be 2 MICHIGAN GAINING 1 Wheat on one of the older farms in the avtigart Tract that its sanitary and the most prosperous; and Government statistics show you see why people health conditions are superior to those of other sections. Thus America. of part thriving this in remain to prefer MICHIGAN GAINING Thrift Zone. Michigan is now one of the important states within America's lly because it was It was one of the last states to be developed agricultura Only 30 years ago lumbering was the principal handicapped by lumbering. Fame of the greatest lumber-producing states. one was Michigan and industry her people of activity the of because Michigan to come since in agriculture has stock raising. Figin general and specialized farming, orcharding, dairying and among the states ures issued by the Census Bureau show that Michigan ranks as follows: THIRD, in FIRST, in rye and beans; SECOND, in potatoes, apples and sheep; FOURTH, factories; cheese and dairying beets, sugar buckwheat, grapes, pears, ; EIGHTH, in in cherries and honey; FIFTH, in peaches; SIXTH, in cranberries H, in barley; plums; NINTH, in oats; TENTH, in eggs and poultry; ELEVENT FOURTEENTH, in TWELFTH, in wheat; THIRTEENTH, in hay and forage; produce less than corn. It is a tine showing and means that each of 34 states FIFTEENTH, in stands Michigan mentioned. products the of does Michigan ENTH, value of her farm lands; SIXTEENTH, in the number of farms; SEVENTE IRST, in value per acre of farm lands; EIGHTH, in population, and TWENTY-F in land area. census In 1850 Michigan ranked THIRTY-THIRD in population, and every districts of rural the in rate death The rank. higher a to progressed has since 3 THE SWIGART TRACTS A salt block at Ludington. Hills of salt are piled up by dumping of evaporated brine which is pumped from wells 2,500 feet deep. from overhead vats With Manistee this is the greatest salt producing district in the world. Other cities make a specialty of salt baths for rheumatism, skin and blood diseases, kidney and liven complaints, and obtain good results by this treatment. Michigan for the past ten years has been about 10 per cent, less than in any rural district of the entire United States. In no state are there more healthful conditions. The water supply is famous for its purity and abundance. It has the northern climate that has produced the world's strongest race of men. If one is northern born he needs the tonic in the change of seasons of this latitude and Is never sure that he and his family can stand the test of southern or hot climates. If you read much about Michigan you will learn that bankers hold conventions to provide ways and means to aid farmers; development bureaus have been organized; farmers' granges multiply and grow; railroads are being extended; improvements are made on Government harbors ($1,000,000 and $350,000, respectively, expended on Ludington and Manistee harbors); alfalfa campaigns are conducted; potato growers are organized; Government agricultural experts are employed by many of the counties. A state-wide good roads' movement is backed by strong, financial aid. There is progressive legislation for the farmer, recent laws being the Exemption from taxation for 5 years of settlers while they improve new land, and a seed law which regulates the purity of seed. The state is making big strides in educational work. Agricultura l instruction is being spread by agents of the state agricultural college. In no state is there a more aggressive, general movement to advance agriculture and promote the interests of the farmer in his producing, his shipping and marketing facilities and for bettering his living conditions. Citizenship is of a high standard in this enlightened state where there is united effort for the common good. And to live in Michigan is indeed a privilege. 4 THE FRUIT BELT River Street, Manistee, on a holiday. A city of clean streets, good buildings and enterprising people. Its prosperity, since nearly all of its twenty big lumber mills have gone, is backed up by farmers who are reclaiming the lands and whose buying power is the main support of most of its local institutions. mICRIGAN'S FAMOUS FRUIT BELT The U. S. Government Climatological Report of Section 62, Western-Lower "The climate of this section differs from that of Section 63 Michigan, says: (Central and Eastern part of Lower Peninsula) in but one important particular. The prevailing winds being westerly, the influence of Lake Michigan modifies, to a considerable degree, the climate of a strip of territory 20 to 30 miles wide This vast body of water, which absorbs heat more slowly along its eastern shore. than land during summer, and parts with it with equal slowness during winter, serves to temper the extremes of heat and cold of the winds blowing over it, which in turn ameliorate the temperature to a considerable distance inland. This narrow strip of territory is known as the Fruit Belt, because this peculiarity of its climate enables the cultivation of peaches, grapes, and other tender fruits, with a success that is impossible in other regions of the same latitude not simiilarly protected." Since the report was issued, the virgin forests in Western Michigan have been removed, so that Lake Michigan's influence, and therefore the Fruit Belt width, are now conceded to extend 10 miles further inland. The Fruit Belt of Western Michigan is a great health resort. The medical fraternity recommend it. It is estimated that 500,000 people from all parts of the United States flock here every year to enjoy the clear, bracing atmosphere, the delicious water, boating and bathing. They consume millions of dollars of the farmers' products. 5 THE SWIGART TRACTS • 4 Electric rower Dam near Wellston. 15-foot head. Supplies light for Manistee and Cadillac and furnishes power for constructing a series of seven dams in Manistee County. Construction work is nearly completed on the second dam, which has a 50-foot head, and the others in their order will have 70-foot, 65-foot, 60-foot, 30-foot and 65-foot heads. A great deal of benefit will be derived in a number of ways from this enterprise by the residents on the Swigart Tracts. Thousands, however, who visit Michigan's beach resorts, do not wander from the shore, and seeing no more of the state get an incorrect idea of it. Many seem to think that all of Michigan is like the shore at St. Joe. Now the coast line of Michigan is sand with the soil washed out just the same as the coast line of Maine is rock with soil washed away, but the soil throughout Michigan is no more all sand than the soil throughout Maine is all rock. From such a limited knowledge a prejudice has been formed which is a stumbling olock for many who would otherwise be purchasers of Michigan land. Others, have been too prone to let themselves be prejudiced against the whole state from a limited knowledge of some small section of it. To get a clear idea of what is in store for homeseekers in our part of Michigan we ask you to come inside our counties and make investigation. INSIDE OUR COUNTIES The Soil The soil in this four-county district is unlike the sand along the lake shore. It is a productve loam with sufficient sand to make it a warm soil, sufficient substance to give it body, a quick producer and a moisture retainer. It practically never fails to respond to clover cultivation. In wet spells it absorbs and takes more of water and remains in better physical condition than does clay soil. In dry spells its moisture is economically conserved in a manner that clay soil is incapable of. It is easier to handle and to keep in good physical condition, through all seasons, and consequently has a wider range 6 4 OUR COUNTIES harbor, one of the finest and safest Pere Marquette Lake forms a large, deep water greatest car-ferry port in the on Lake Michigan and has made Ludington the to Milwaukee (96 miles), world. Steel car-ferries carry loaded freight trains on the opposite shore. ports other and Kewaukee Manitowoc, Two-Rivers, bushels and marks The grain elevator shown has a capacity of 75,000County. Mason in re the growth of agricultu of crops than cedar, spruce, these lands. forests, and is hemlock, tamarack, strictly clay land. White and Norway pine, trees grew on birch and beech maple, ash, oak, elm, , basswood up such great It is indeed a soil of great strength that pushed per acre. now producing from 100 to 300 bushels of potatoes days longer in the Fruit The growth of vegetation is from ten to twenty is less danger from there is, That Michigan. of rest the in than Belt section e frost and freezing Seasonabl fall. the in frost early late frost in the spring, or remedies. With them she destroys malarial are Nature's most potent sanitary general healthfulness. and other disease germs, purifies the air and promotes spring adds greatly to early and fall late the during soil the of frosting The Unseasonable frost is the terror of farmers, gardenits vitality and fertility. California's frost in the parts of the United States. all in ers and fruit growers its ruined orange and in dollars of millions many state fall of 1912 cost that of A March or April frost frequently kills the plants lemon crops and trees. and potato crops; and the Virthe Georgia, Louisiana or Texas melon, tomato Illinois and Indiana farmers ginia, Kentucky, Tennessee, Missouri, Southern Ohio, and other crops. The orange frequently suffer damage to their tobacco, corn Observant readers of waves. groves in Florida are periodically ruined by cold between the Arctic continent the of all parts that aware are e current litureatur changes, but circle and the Gulf of Mexico, suffer more or less from climatic n of Lake the Fruit Belt of Western Michigan enjoys the excellent protectio Michigan. number By the census of 1910 these four counties had a population of 74,228; 2,250; of farms, 6,283; native white farmers, 4,011; foreign born farmers, 2,219 miles of negroes and other non-whites, 22; average sized farm, 80 acres; 47 farmers' granges; wagon roads; 273 school houses; 564 teachers; 141 churches; railroads: Pere 68 postoffices; 35 rural free delivery routes; 27 newspapers; Arbor, Ann Marquette, Manistee East and West, Grand Rapids & Indiana, p lines: Northern Manistee & Northeastern and Arcadia & Betsey River; steamshi e steamers, Pere Michigan Transportation Co. (Chicago boat line), Pere Marquett ation lines. lumber transport and salt of number a besides ferries, car e Marquett Principal industries: salt pumping, lumbering, and farming. 7 THE SWIGART TRACTS The last forest to disappear on the Swigart Tracts. This forest had a mixture of beech, maple, hemlock, birch, tamarac k and pine around Pine Lake. Our rainfall is between 32 and 33 inches, well distributed over the growing season which in Western Michigan average s from 140 to 160 days. Excellent drinking water is usually obtained on the farm by drive wells at a depth of from 15 to 25 feet. About one-ele venth or 61 / 2 per cent. ot the area is in bodies of water quite evenly distributed. There are springs of clear, sparkling water, and brooks and creeks as clear as crystal. The region abounds with beautiful inland lakes blue and deep and stocked with choice fish. The surface of the country in general is gently rolling and very similar In the four counties. There are tracts almost as level as a floor. Here and there will be found hills, but the larger portion has a slightly undulating surface which requires no tile and drains and does not wash. Practically all of the land can be easily worked with machinery, and one accustomed to flat country will find plenty of level land. As a whole it is a well-drained country. The district drains to Lake Michigan where the altitude of the land is 600 to 700 feet, and on the east side of the counties, 1,200 to 1,400 feet. Timber and Clearing Originally these were timber counties, devoted entirely to lumber interests. Millions of logs were floated to the mills in Ludingt on and Manistee, down the Pere Marquette and Big Manistee Rivers, and their branches, and millions more were conveyed to the saws by railways. The timber consisted of White and Norway pine, hemlock, tamarack, cedar, spruce, basswood, elm, oak, ash, maple, beech and birch trees. Mighty forests of them grew and flourished on the lands for centuries, and presented the appeara nce of immense cathedrals with lofty vaulted roofs of foliage and perpetu al green. White and Norway TIMBER AND CLEARING 4 Sheep are an aid to clearing our lands. it furnished pine grew to great heights, often 125 to 150 feet, and much of the six saw logs of 16 feet, or eight logs of 12 feet in length, before reaching In heavy pine forests, the tree foliage was so dense as to lower limbs. to be exclude the sun's rays, and thus little plant life aside from ferns was earth, found. However, as these forests were cut and the sunshine reached the there sprang up a second growth of hardwood be almost The original growth varied over the district. One section would on a again and kinds, of different hardwood one adjoining the and all pine, was cut large portion of the land there was a mixture of both. As the timber years ago, it is sometimes difficult to determine exactly what kind predominated. may Often, where the pine stump appears, more rapidly decaying hardwood have vanished. On some "forties" a very little of "saw timber" has been left, and on most all of them there is a good-sized second growth of oak and "black" pine, and popple or aspen, and in many locations, wild cherry, plum and crab oak" apple trees. Our second growth oak should not be confused with "scrub which in some counties grows to a height or only ten to twenty feet. Our second to growth oak (white oak) reaches a height of 40 to 50 feet and black pine, 60 75 feet. Black pine is an original growth which is not to be confused with the smaller "jack pine" growth. The size of our second growth oak which prevails is important to the settler, because 1st—some of it is sufficiently large to warrant cutting into lumber by portable saw mills; black pine is harder than Norway pine and makes better lumber than hemlock; 2nd—there are on the majority of the "forties" sufficient second growth trees that furnish two to foul standardsize posts to the tree, to provide for fencing the land; and 3rd--our second growth timber is sufficient on most "forties" to supply a family with fuel for heating and cooking for a number of seasons, and therein is much value when you consider that farmers elsewhere using coal, expend seldom less than three hundred dollars in five years for fuel. Stove wood in some cases has paid for the lands Additional wood industries ii, our district are the from which it was taken. cutting of railroad cross ties from second growth oak, lath bolts from "black" pine, shingles from pine stumps, and shipping popple wood to pulp makers. A value to the stumps, besides their use for shingles, fuel and fences has been given by the process of extracting wood alcohol and turpentine from 9 THE SWIGART TRACTS 4 One of our new roads which, when first brushed out and cleared and before grading, are generally better than the average country roads in the neighboring states. View in Lake County. them, besides the growing demand for their reduction into pulp fibre for paper. Where turpentine and pulp plants have been established within distance for economical transportation the stumps are disposed of at a profit. Clearing is nowhere near as hard work as it was twenty years ago because of many economical devices and improved methods, and because refuse has since largely rotted away, leaving scarcely any forty acres without some space where clearing can be done with comparatively little labor. Hardwood stumps rot quickly, and the remaining pine stumps as their roots become weaker, are not so stubborn. On some pieces of land there are comparatively few stumps. The cost of clearing varies as no two forties are exactly alike, and much difference is often found on adjoining forties in the amount of labor necessary. On occasional open spots, the grass sod is practically ready to be turned by the plow, with little or no expense; on places covered by clumps of brush, a man and team will yank out the brush at trifling cost; but most of the district is cut-over land. Settlers do their own stumping as a rule, using their spare time for doing it, and keep no special account of the time and labor required. They know, however, that their stump pulling is done economically by the utilization of "in between" and odd times of the year. The new settler at the beginning cuts out the brush and Piles the logs and loose wood, and does not stop then to pull the larger stumps on account of the greater importance of raising feed for the coming winter, and starting his garden. The first year, on a number of acres thus bared, plowing and cultivating is done around remaining stumps with less difficulty than one would think, and the land so prepared is utilized for crops. He then pulls the stumps in an adjoining field at convenient times until that field is entirely cleared and then goes at another field and so on until in time he has a general-purpose farm largely cleared on 40 to 80 acres, worth respectively, $3,000 to $6,000 and up, http://fraser.stlouisfed.org/ Air Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis 10 ROADS • A road in Manistee County. Our counties believe in good roads, and are building more every year. a good in proportion to his improvements; and on acreage he properly developes commercial orchard, the value may run into hundreds of dollars per acre. Steel yard and screw (tripod) stump pullers, cable and capstan devices, rapid costing new from $50 to $150, tip out the stumps, clean and clear, at a with rate. There is a case in point near Wellston, where a crew of four men, two teams and a steel yard machine, removed 240 stumps for each day of ten to the hours or 24 an hour. Taking an estimated average of about 60 stumps the acre, the amount of ground thus gone over was 4 acres per day and thus cost per acre was small. Two or three settlers often club together and buy or rent a machine. Dynamiting and powder blasting are used by many as a saving of labor; and boring and burning is an economical method. The Roads • The first roads in this district were built for hauling logs to river banks where they were slid by "chutes" into the water, and for hauling supplies and provisions from railway stations to lumber camps. Both narrow and standard gauge railroads penetated sections not accessible to streams, and their grades, after the tracks were pulled up, served as wagon roads for the first settlers. Few of these roads are now used because as settlers have been increasing in number, many section and half-section line roads have been opened, and more are being built in all the townships. The section and half-section line roads are required to be four rods wide. It gives more oppurtunity for grading, drainage and the utilization of gravel and other material along the road sides. The roads are good, and, even when first cleared and brushed out, are better than the average dirt roads of Illinois and Indiana. In wet weather when their dirt roads are almost impassable ours are in good condition. Many miles o, model stone and gravel roads are being built by our counties with state aid. They facilitate the delivery of farm products. Automobiles from Wellston have no difficulty in going to any section of land in the Tract during the automobile season. Nine and four-tenths miles is the distance of the average American farm 11 THE SWIGART TRACTS Some farm homes built by settlers on the Swigart Tracts. 12 LOCATION COUNTS Hoag Lake in Preesoil Township, Mason County. from its nearest shipping point, according to statistics gathered by the United States office of public roads. The average time spent on the road by farmers is twenty days of each year, and a locality where good roads cut that time in half has a great advantage. Country people in some states, where there are localities of hub-deep and bottomless roads, lead a dreary existence, and many such locatlities are becomThe farmer can count our roads as a ing poorer and more sparsely settled. profit in saving time, wear and tear on horses, harness and vehicles, and in enhancing the value of his real estate; and he may also count them as a pleasure and an aid to sociability, religion, and education. A silo census of Western Michigan was recently taken. It shows that one thousand silos have been erected in twenty counties in our part of Michigan in two years. In the number are Mason, Manistee, Lake and Wexford Counties, where the SWIGART TRACTS are located, and this four-county district built its full share of them. This shows that these counties are progressing on the Maintenance of fertility on farm land most substantial agricultural basis. everywhere calls for live stock. We are taking measures to avoid the mistake by worn-out agricultural districts of other states of taking everything from Clover, alfalfa and ensilage make and putting nothing back into the soil. In possible the keeping of more live stock on the same amount of acreage. Illinois 2 out of 3 farms ars operated by tenants; In Michigan less than one out of six, and the record is better still of the 6,283 farms in Mason, Manistee, Lake and Wexford counties, only one out of twelve of which is operated by a tenant. LOCATION COUNTS The Swigart Tracts located in Alason. Manistee, Lake and Wexford counWellston, the headties, are in the geographical center of the Fruit Belt. quarters and center of the Tracts in these counties, is only 176 miles on a direct line from Chicago, and 300 miles from Bloomington, Indiana, the center The Tracts are thus within the circle of population of the United States. of America's Thrift Zone. Within 175 miles of Wellston there are 55 cities with The farmers' advantage will continue as long as three families expect to live on one farmer's products; and the ratio of city to agricultural population grows larger every year. 13 THE SW1GART TRACTS it ilk St. Joseph's Church, Manistee Methodist Church Manistee Catholic Church, Freesoil Methodist Church, Preesoil Catholic Church Ludington Congregational Church Manistee German Lutheran Church, Manistee a population of four million people. The most prosperous communities the world over are located on an ocean, lake or river. The Swigart Tracts thus located near the central point of Lake Michigans east shore, with harbors at Ludington and Manistee are in the direct path of the Great Lakes' traffic. In competition with shipments from Western and Southern states which requi,re 24 to 56 hours en route, our products placed on boats or trains in the evening are in Milwaukee and Chicago before 7 'clock the next morning. Thus it will be seen that the unique and strategic geographical location of the Swigart Tracts is such as to secure for them permanent and decided advantages over most sections in the matters of marketing, and cheap and quick transportat ion. Location spells opportunity. There is good land lacking markets, lacking transports- 14 - LOCATION COUNTS ..1 • Some or the country ecnools In the Swigart Tracts • tion, and thus isolated from the path of progress which you would not buy because you can't get enough opportunity with it. For over 20 years Mr. George W. Swigart has been identified with colonizing work in Michigan. He has seen stately forests of hemlock, maple, beech and birch displaced by orchards of apples, peaches, pears and cherries, thousands of acres of wild land turned into fields of clover and vegetables, hauxits of fox changed and deer turned into pastures for horses and cattle and lumber camps logging to a countryside of farmers. He used to drive by team over winding roads to see the lands. There were only a few log houses a few miles apart. Now automobiles drive over good section line roads and cross bridges that span in the streams through all parts of the Tract, with farms and school houses beginThe days. those in slowly started Settlement time. the of most sight ning was uphill work. A small voice was Michigan's in those days against the deal of thundering call of the West where 20 years ago there was a great cheap land. Even in Illinois, land was quite reasonable. But immigration filled Land prices everyup the West and in the year 1900 the tide turned back. of where then went up and have been going up ever since. Then settlement the land the lands in our district commenced in earnest. The rising prices of For instance drove half of the farmers of the North Central states to renting. greatest, in Illinois, in McLean and Livingston counties where land values are 56% and 60% respectively, of the farms are now operated by tenants. Another factor that is attracting people to these virgin lands is that farmof the ers of the North Central states have for years been mining the wealth This applies soil instead of conserving it, thus impoverishing many districts. 15 THE SWICART TRACTS Ludington— Mason County Court House Public Library Model Schools Ludington Avenue Life Saving Station Manistee— Manistee County Court House Post Office Building Public Library Manistee County Savings Bank High School 16 LOCATION COUNTS particularly to sections of country where the land has long been "skinned" as a result of the year to year renting system. When our present office was established in Chicago in 1905, we found farmers paying high rents and city workers struggling against the high cost of living without making headway, who were anxious to learn about land in Michigan. We started advertising the lands only 170 miles from Chicago. People commenced coming and continued to come in ever-increasing numbers until we had to run a Special Pullman Car and sometimes two cars to accommodate land seekers on our excursions. A natural question often asked is, "Why do so many people go to the Swigart Tracts?" Read on and see if the question is answered. Our faith in Michigan is shown by our ownership of land in eleven of the twenty counties known as Lands in Western Michigan, where we pay taxes to 53 township treasurers. the four counties mentioned constitute approximately 50,000 acres by inventory, and this amount of land has been kept on sale with new additions. We have owned all together some 175,000 acres and have settled many hundreds of people on the lands and have been identified with the founding of new towns and more recently the town of Wellston, where only 9 years ago there was only a railroad crossing, but which is becoming an important town in the County. For 20 consecutive years Mr. Swigart has been identified with colonizing work in this district. Now there are a thousand men backing the work with their brains, money and muscle. They are the men who have bought Swigart Tracts. Collectively they stand as a guarantee of continued progress in this district. There is room for a great many more men with their families here. True citizenship is rooted to the soil. Come and take your place in our colony. Our communities are building up the towns, erecting more schoolhouses, churches, township and grange halls, building homes, putting up fences, making good roads through township after township, clearing land, putting up barns, silos, driving wells to health-giving water and raising stock and crops that pay. We take pride in Ludington and Manistee. We have helped our Counties sustain the prosperity of these former lumber towns, the interests of whose 25,000 people are now allied with agriculture. The influx of our settlers is being followed by cattle, sheep and hogs. According to the 1910 census, our Counties had $2,719,346 worth of farm animals, and settlers who have gone on their lands since then have helped considerably to increase that figure. Consider the growing demand and the rapidly diminishing supply of good farm lands at reasonable prices. The Swigart Tracts meet this demand. Two hundred and fifty thousand farm renters in Indiana, Illinois and Iowa find renting conditions becoming intolerable; land owners in those states can't get more acres there for their sons; consider the general movement forward to the land because of improved methods, better living conditions, increased profitableness of the farming business and increase of population in the United States at the rate of 4,000 and 5,000 per day—every day. The entire population doubles once in every thirty years. In the year 1912 alone, 3,600 familes from other states moved into the twenty counties of Michigan's Fruit Belt. A thrifty man's noble ambition is to own a home and call it "my house" and "my farm." It enlists him forever under the banner of law and order. 17 THE SWIGART TRACTS • An excursion of land-seekers which required 2 Pullman cars and 21 Automobiles. There were 117 people on this excursion to the Swigart Tracts. General view of business part of Wellston showing private garage of the Swigart Land Co. on the left. 4 Our Wellston Headquarters at Welston, Manistee County, Michigan. From here we show lands in Manistee, Mason, Lake and Wexford Counties. LOCATION COUNTS Land and Nonleseekers out on the lands. They comae from till parts. of the United States. 4 4 Suppose you have a boy ten years old and that you are say, forty years old. Suppose you buy a farm, or a Swigart Tract, in 1918 while the farmerS are feeding 110 millions of people. When your boy becomes 40 years of age our farmers will be feeding 220 million people. What will the farmer be worth30 years from now? There will not be any more land. Farming will hold first Place among all industries. Confidence in a-71-tultural progress is the important factor in the colonizing of this land. it is a proven, substantial project that has stood time's test and out-lived hundreds of booms and schemes in other parts of the country. Beyond the mere selling of the land is the permanency of the plan which appeals to men who understand the value of co-operation with a financially strong, enterprising land colonizing organization in developing and building-up of the district. We are putting many thousands of dollars received from the sale of land back into the development of orchards and various other projects for the betterment of the district. At first we had only the lands to show. Agriculture was a future matter. Men who bought then had to possess the faculty of Faith was necessary. foresight. But they pinned their judgment on the certainty that land growing so much verdure, natural grasses, wild grapes, berries, plums, cherries, etc., with mild even climate and ample rainfall, so near the great city of Chicago,. must be utilized to the fullest possible extent. F. M. Warner, when governor of Michigan, said: "For the man of limited means and for the man seeking largest returns there is no investment that will yield so large a return as cheap, wild land, if advantageously situated. Especially is this true where some general plan of development is being carried on in the vicinity where the land is purchased. As governor of the state I wish to bring a message that Michigan with its rich abundance offers a home and contentment to every earnest worker." 19 THE SWIGART TRACTS Clover field, 4 miles from Wellston headquarters. 1917 crop. Crops of Mason, Manistee, Lake and Wexford Counties Our soil and climate give farmers widest choice of valuable crops, many of them highly renumerative. Live stock enable these low-priced lands to be grazed and farmed successfully in large bodies, but the yield of a 40-acre or 80-acre farm here, well diversified and tilled, or a 20-acre specialty farm, often excels in financial returns a quarter section in the so-called corn and wheat states. Herein Michigan surpasses her sister states and those who grasp and act on this truth will profit by it. Clover. "Land that will grow clover will grow almost anything." Hundreds of times we have heard this saying from farmers while inspecting our lands. Our district is called the Clover Belt as clover is natural or indigenous to the soil and there is no land in these counties that will not raise it. This has been proven by agricultural experts. The land-wise man looks for clover here, and finds it in abundance on all well managed farms. He knows that for seed, forage and fertilization, it is a most profitable and desirable crop. Nitrogen, the most expensive and necessary plant food, is abundantly supplied by clover; it also supplies much humus; as a green manure it is excellent. Therefore intelligent farmers place a high value on clover producing lands. A double benefit comes from growing clover for seed—by enriching effects of the plant on the land, and at the same time a cash crop of much value. Profitable returns are secured from growing Mammoth and Medium Red Clover for seed, and as price ranges, the income from clover seed farming is greater than from land yielding 30 bushels of wheat or 60 bushels of corn to the acre, besides its additional value in maintaining soil fertility. Our clover seed holds a high record for yield per acre. It has brought from $12 to $16 per bulshel for several years past, and our seed tops the market 20 4 ROI'S A field of alfalfa, showing what is being done on our lands and why their value is becoming better known. because of its purity, vitality and freedom from weed seed and because of the Seeds from our counties are being called for more plumpness of its kernels. every season because they germinate and mature more quickly than seeds grown in the states south of us. Can you not see what this industry would mean to you on 40 or 80 acres here? Alsyke Clover does well on the lower lands, and as is also the case with Red Jane Clover when mixed with grasses, makes a fine quality of hay. Alfalfa. Situated in the clover belt, and crowned with success at raising clovers, our farmers have not realized the value of afalfa growing so much as those in other states where it is needed as a great drought resister, or where clover meets with but little success. But alfalfa is being raised here on a constantly increasing scale as its high feeding vp,lue is becoming recognized. It is stimulating dairying and live stock interests of our townships. Professor Holden says: "Alfalfa is the greatest farm crop; it enriches the soil; is the greatest of all sub-soilers; is raised upon a wider diversity of soils than any other crop; grows in Southern California below sea level, in Montana 8,000 feet above sea-level, in the humid sections of the corn belt, and in the There is no county in Michigan hills of Nebraska, Wyoming and Arizona. that cannot produce alfalfa." Nearly all the land in these counties will each year produce a crop worth This crop fifty dollars an acre, if the land is properly prepared and seeded has been grown here for ten years and is made to yield from three to four or five tons per acre. Many settlers are sowing a little alfalfa seed with clover, so the soil may be inoculated in advance of later sowings of alfalfa as the sole crop. It is a decided success wherever intelligently tried. Alfalfa will become With plenty of silage and one of the most important crops in Michigan. alfalfa hay, our dairying and hog raising are becoming each year more profitable, inasmuch as alfalfa, on account of its high protein content, takes the Agricultural leaders in Michigan have place of grain feed to a large extent. conducted state-wide alfalfa campaigns which have received hearty endorsement and encouraged increased planting. 21 THE SWIGART TRACTS A crop of Rye and Vetch on a Swigart Tract stumped the year before. Vetch. One of the most wonderful plants ever introduced into Michigan Is Hairy Vetch. It grows luxuriantly, makes good hay, and if harvested for seed, pays large returns. Because of its slender vine we plant it with rye, whose strong stalks support it, and render it easier to cut. It twines to the height of the rye stalks, and is a solid mass of vines and leaves. Planted in the fall, it blossoms out the following June, when it is cut for hay, or is cut for seed when the rye is ripe. This crop is quite new on this side of the Atlantic. It is a legume that has a feed and soil-enriching value which some experts “Comin' Thrn' the Rye" at Wellston. Rye is so hardy and so counties that it can receive very inconsiderate treatment and persistent in our still make an excellent crop. 22 CROPS Corn near Hoag's Lake, Mason County. It has been determined claim is even superior to that of clover or alfalfa. by a three-year test of an experiment station, that vetch contains more protein A crop in its dry feed than either clover or alfalfa, and is equal to cow peas. of vetch that goes three tons to the acre if plowed under, will add to the, soil 220 pounds of nitrogen and will return 20 pounds of phosphorus, and 132 pounds To buy the same quantities of these elements in of potassium to that acre. commercial fertilizer, would cost about $120. Thus its value for green manuring A field of vetch with its purple blossoms is a beautiful will be readily seen. sight that one never forgets. Rye is one of Rye. Michigan ranks first in the United States in Rye. the most valuable cereals grown. It makes a good crop here, although sown in any manner, almost any time of the fall, on almost any kind of a seed bed. Its easy growth and saving of labor make it profitable. When sown early it may be pastured in late fall and early spring and then makes a fair yield. Rye plays a more important part in up-to-date soil management as a grain, forage and cover crop than perhaps any other common grain. It is an ideal winter cover crop, preventing deterioration in fertility of the soil through the escape of the vital elements, and especially ammonia and phosphorus. Corn. Michigan's average yield per acre of corn equals that of most adjoining states. It may surprise the reader to learn that the 1919 government crop report for November showed Michigan produced four bushels more for each acre planted, than Illinois, which is "the king of the corn belt." However, the usual much larger average per acre in Illinois cannot make up for the greater cost of its land. Corn culture in Michigan can be made as profitable as most anywhere, if made a specialty, and particular care be given the selection of seed and preparation of land. Michigan is one of the fourteen best corn raising states; but our corn crop is mostly consumed at home, and a large amount of it Is planted for fod- 23 THE SWIGART TRACTS Twenty acres of beans in Mason County. Note the gently rolling lay of the land. der. The varieties of corn adapted to this country are "White Cap Yellow Dent," "King of the Earlies," "Burnham's Early Dent." and "Isabell's Sure Thing," but mainly the flint varieties are grown. Flint corn makes the best fodder. Our corn is mostly of 90 day varieties, grows more ear in proportion to stalk, and therefore makes the best silage. The growth of the live stock industry is such that more corn is being grown and more silos are being built each year. Already as many silos are in evidence as in most parts of central Illinois. It is more profitable to grow other crops for marketing, whose byproducts fed with the corn to "work" and "fattening" stock, bring the corn crop up to the higher Michigan standard for crop returns. However, when you come to settle in Michigan, bring your corn farming experience with you, as it will be of value to you. Beans. Michigan is the biggest bean producing state, growing nearly half the total crop of the United States. Its beans are the world's standard for quality and for price. We both plant and harvest them by machinery, and thus handle them very economically. Our local markets take them all for cash at very handsome prices; 12 to 30 bushels per acre is the yield. No grain approaches beans in price. They are more profitable in our counties than corn in the Corn Belt, or wheat in the Wheat -Belt. All the leading seed firms of the United States contract with the farmers of Michigan to grow seed beans of various varieties. It is proven that Michigan-grown beans have the strongest germination, and are least affected by weevil. The leading "Boston baked beans" firms select their stock of beans from those grown in Michigan. Van Camp's advertisements state that he uses Michigan beans. A farmer here would be unwise indeed if he did not "know beans" and grow them. The 1916 crop of beans brought the Michigan farmer $5 to $10 per bushel. Peas. Peas grow as successfully as beans. They excel all grain (corn not excepted) in fattening quality. We like crops that pay well and make 24 1 CROPS Threshing beans. Norman Township, Manistee County. the ground better. The price varies both ways around the two dollar mark, It is claimed that double Seed peas generally bring $2.50 and more per bushel. the market price can be made by feeding peas to pigs and lambs. The fact that sowed with oats and cut green they make excellent forage, should be borne in mind by one making his start in the stock business. The split-pea mills The Wyoming Experiment Station deterare an industry peculiar to Michigan. It mined that pea straw compared well as a balanced ration, with alfalfa. Is a sure crop, can be depended upon to furnish a good supply of feed every year, should be sown very early in the spring months, when it is not affected by the cold, and thus gives good results. We drill peas in as we do wheat, and a pea harvest attachment on the ordinary mower cuts and bunches them. Their entire handling is economical. The value of beans and peas is not all in the grain. Properly cured bean and pea straw contains three times as much protein • as oat straw or corn fodder, and 33% per cent more than timothy; and protein is the element in stock food which largely supplies the material for milk, flesh, muscle and Another value is that this member of the legume family maintains soil bone. fertility by gathering free nitrogen from the air and depositing it in the soil through the roots, also when returning the manure from stock to which the crop has been fed. Potatoes. Michigan stands second among the states in acreage and annual production of potatoes. The acme of quality is expressed by the words "Michigan potatoes." They are sought by leading hotels and command special prices, when they are properly grown and graded. They are unexcelled in keeping quality and vitality for seed. They are in great demand for seed purposes for which they are shipped to all points south and west. No staple crop is more generally consumed. In other states, so many men have simply raised potatoes in a garden with a hoe, that they do not realize the "The comfort and satisfaction of seeing one's family in their own independent home cannot be measured in gold and silver." 25 THE SWIGART TRACTS , , • •,,ee . Potatoes on one of the Swiga,rt Tracts. Our potatoes grow big, They have paid back the cost of many a farm in our round and smooth. district. advantages in raising them commercially. Machinery simplifies each process of planting, cultivating, spraying, digging and sorting. Farmers who make potatoes their specialty, giving legumes a large place in their rotation, and stick to it year after year grow rich at it. No matter how large one year's potato crop may be, it cannot be carried over to affect the following year's crop. It is a cash crop—a banking crop, and one of the greatest money makers. Bringing as they have, for the past ten years, 40 to 60 cents a bushel—sometimes as high as $3 a bushel—the investment in many a farm has been paid back from the proceeds of one crop on only part of its land. At 40 cents a bushel they are a profitable crop. They are stored by most of our farmers in root cellars or caves, or in a number of pits in An Oats Field on one of the Swigart Tracts near Wellston. 26 CROPS A Wheat Field on a SwIgart Tract Our lands produce the field and then are sold and delivered when the price suits. They are another of our crops 100 to 300 bushels per acre, and sometimes more. of money as corn, that require less acres to be handled to make the same amount of the reasons why oats and wheat in other states. Potatoes are therefore one or more money in people do not need to operate such big farms to earn the same carefully. over this Think Michigan. pay more than Wheat and Oats. Wheat is milled at our local mills, which the states in wheat, we the shipper. Although Michigan stands twelfth among pay the freight. We are willing to let Canada and the Dakotas and Minnesota but we devote our efforts raise enough for home use, and it is of good quality, growers in the Wheat more to other crops that pay us better than wheat pays its Because of the greater profits of other crops, oats Belt where it yields. best. raised to meet the reare given a minor place and generally only enough are in quality. quirements of stock kept on the farm. Our oats are excellent valuable food the of one is and farms the of most on grown Buckwheat is . The farmers cereals. Michigan stands third among the states in its production it in as late as July 4th. resort to buckwheat as a crop for late planting, drilling Buckwheat will do well with Good fields make as high as 25 bushels per acre. Michigan furnishes a large less fitting of seed bed than any other grain crop. flour and used throughout proportion of the buckwheat which is ground into the United States. in hay. Blue (June) Bine Grass and Timothy. Michigan stands thirteenth luxuriance on the cut-over lands grass is native to this district and grows wild in pasture and fattens and finishes and by the roadsides. It furnishes excellent nutritive value. Blue Joint or feeder-stock to fine condition owing to its high Grass on lands where fires have bunch grass, is also found in some localities. rapidly regains its former growth. recently run is not as thickly matted, but Timothy and orchard g year. Wild grass becomes better with each succeedin 27 THE SWIGART TRACTS o Soy Beans on Crystal Lake Farm (The Swiirart Demonstration Farm at Wellston). grasses are successfully produced, and yield one and one-half to three tons per acre. Sowing of the different grass seeds varies here as in other localities. Cow-Peaa are not to be confused with field or Canada peas. They make a good growth of vine which has high feeding value, and this legume will add some nitrogen to the soil, even if the crop is cut for hay. Peas have 35.8 pounds of nitrogen in 1,000 pounds of dry matter, as compared with 53.4 in soy beans; clover, 30% pounds; timothy, 5.4 pounds; alfalfa, cut at blossom time, 23 pounds; buckwheat, 13 pounds. Recent experiments indicate that bacteria that live on pea roots, also thrive on soy beans. Soy beans is the legume that contains the most nitrogen to the 1,000 pounds of dry matter; although vetch, which contains 36.7 pounds grows so much larger quantity that it produces more nitrogen to the acre than soy beans. Cow-Peas and Oats thrive here. 28 •••••11.= CROPS with success. Pumpkins, Squash, Watermelons, Muskmelons, are all grown nitrogenSoy Beans are valuable for hay, as well as a fertilizer because of as their merits ous content, and are becoming more popular with stock raisers food for are becoming better known in this district. The seed is valauble as a Until recent years soy stock, and seed for planting brings an attractive price. beans were not grown north of the Mason and Dixon line. Rutabagas, Turnips, Carrots. All kinds of root crops do exceedingly well for man and beast. on our lands. Rutabagas, turnips, and carrots are crops good them to their These vegetables are full of nutriment, and sandy loam brings 15 tons highest state of perfection. The yield of rutabagas is frequently over Carrots have special health-giving qualto the acre, and carrots over 14 tons. They land. ities for horses. Rutabagas, turnips, and carrots do well on new form and keep well in come up quickly, grow very large, solid and perfect in lands, cellars until late the following spring. After brushing out unimproved in fact burnt much soil preparation is not necessary for good yields of rutabagas, There are a few over ground requires but little more than a good harrowing. doing no cultivating, men who specialize along this line, broadcasting in the seed, of a dollar per and shipping full carloads to Eastern markets, obtaining a price a better seed bed and require usually however, carrots, and Turnips 100 lbs. on the farms. more or less cultivation and are used both for table and stock to an enormous size Rangel Wanels are a species of beet that grow here feed for cows and espeand yield over 12 tons to the acre. They make excellent any other stock that are cially for hogs and are good for chickens, horses, and supplied with a considerable amount of other feed. Our district is well Michigan ranks third in sugar beets. Sugar Beets. industry to be estabadapted for raising them, and we look for the beet sugar A beet sugar plant requires a third to a lished before long in this district. fifteen sugar beet factories in half million dollars' investment. There are now the state. Age limit to Changing conditions—which of them are you facing? , the employment, machinery displacing men, monopolies in commodities increase narrowing opportunities for men of small capital, or continual has s commoditie of the price of the high cost of living? In general, grow richer, city reached its highest point in twenty years. As farmers is after all the workers grow poorer. The forward-to-the-land gospel solution of the problem of the wage earner. 29 THE SW1GART TRACTS Scenes through the camera on the Swigart Tracts. Onions Cabbage Buckwheat Clover Peas Watermelons Pickle factory Beans 30 isill CROPS Michigan. The staPickles. Pickle salting stations are located all over companies in the business. tions in these counties are conducted by leading man cannot take care of a Pickle growing is considered a side issue, and one gaining good cash returns from large acreage, but it is a profitable method of will net from $75 to $100 a limited portion of a farm, as with proper care they Varieties" from our part of per acre. Heinz gets a large percentage of his "57 , onions, peppers, dillMichigan. No soil will raise better pickles. Cauliflower here are used in pickle stock. weed and other vegetables and condiments grown and have excellent Onions are one of the paying crops. They grow large our They require special handling and the right kind of ground, but in flavor. that attack new ground they very seldom suffer from wet rot or other ailments they prove very them in other states. When given the right care and treatment, for many years past profitable. There has been no over-production of onions and the supply is usually unequal to the demand. that are especially proRape does exceedingly well, being one of the crops large quantity of succulent ductive in this soil. It grows rapidly, produces a young pigs or lambs it is food, and is greatly relished by sheep and hogs. For It is also valuable when used on dairy farms as a soiling crop. excellent. As a field crop Cabbage grows to a large size, forming a solid, heavy head. is realized from the stalks it can be made to net large returns. An extra revenue and trimmings fed to cattle and sheep. best Additional Crops. Michigan stands eleventh in Barley and it is of the are indigenous to our soil malting quality. Chiokory and Millet and other crops A great part and climate and will be grown more as the lands are deveolped. in Michigan. Ginseng is grown of the world's supply of peppermint is grown tomatoes, cabbage, with success but requires much skill. In the family garden, beets and turnips cauliflower, celery, asparagus, parsnips, carrots, young onions, cucumbers, for table use, radish, lettuce, rhubarb, string beans, peas, sweetcorn, y grown here. all successfull ns are watermelo s, muskmelon pumpkins, squash, Seed Growing. Seed firms were never more active than now in Michigan. the Northern grown seed, and particularly that from Michigan, is recognized as seeds insure best for planting south of the Mason and Dixon line. Michigan's from all parts of the quicker, hardier growth. Seed firms, to meet the demand g our farmers by offering high United States for Michigan seed, are encouragin prices and by establishing branches at various points. been The demand for field and garden seeds from our Peninsula has never purity. fully supplied. Our seeds have preference because of their vitality and lands of MichThe strain of the seed grown on the comparatively new of older agricultural igan is purer and stronger than that from the worn lands prairie states, districts; and the many noxious and foul weeds that are found in by water. Many practical are largely absent here because of our separation of seeds farmers have turned their attention almost entirely to the production and are obtaining good profits therefrom. it in a savings bank A thrifty citizen who had saved $10,000, placed and he In 1901. Ten years later he drew it out to make an investment 30 per cent interest he had then found that he had lost more than the his in everything advance the because years ten the received during capital would have bought had been about 50 per cent. "He had practically buried his $10,000." 31 THE SWIGART TRACTS One of the smooth gravel roads of waxford County DAIRYING For dairying this district has many advantages. The bracing atmosphere, the nutritious grasses, cool nights in summer, moderate winter temperature and abundant and pure water supply all make for a high degree of healthfulness in our dairy animals. The district is natural ly adapted to the growing of vetch, alfalfa, peas, soy beans, millet, rape and all crops fed to dairy animal s. We produce as good ensilage as anywhe re. Michigan is among the thirteen best forage producing states. Diseases are practically unknown to our dairy cattle. We have practically no tubercular cattle because of the state law prohibi ting their importation and requiring rigid examination of every farm animal that enters Michigan boundaries. We have local markets for all dairy products, and the Grand Rapids creameries are clamoring for our cream, as they are unable to supply the demand. Well posted dairymen who investigate this location at once recognize its superior advantages for their industry, with the result that in our townships dairying is steadily on the increase. Michigan stands third in the United States in dairying and cheese factories, and combined with two other states—Wisco nsin and New York—have over threefourths of the cheese factories of the countr y, and together with Minnesota, Illinois and Iowa control the butter market. Michigan has nearly a million dairy cattle, and the total value of her cattle is $40,500,000. Prof. Anderson of the Michigan Agricul tural College says: "As we come to study economy of food production, we will find, that the dairy cow is the most economical producer of food. A dairy cow fed the same amount as a steer will produce six times as much nitrogenous food." LIVE STOCK Cattle raised for beef is a profitable indust ry in Michigan. No one who sticks to the producing end of the business loses money on the beef cow. Compared with the western prairies, Michigan lands are cheaper; it takes less acreage to keep a cow; with cheaper lumber , shelter is cheaper and prevents death losses. 32 LIVE STOCK Cattle of our district. They thrive on our nutritious grasses and pure water. Our freight rates to market cattle will average only one-third as much as from western states and shrinkage of weight in shipping is proportionately less. The feature of bringing stockers from the Chicago market in the spring, placing them upon the land during the summer and returning them in the late fall to market as butcher stock, offers good opportunities. We are nearer to Chicago than most cattle raising states and better situated to reach economically and quickly the big markets of the East. Sheep. Michigan has been exceeded by only one state in the number of sheep maintained and produced within her borders. Ohio stands first, with Michigan a close second. In 1910 Michigan sheared 100,000 more sheep than Illinois and Indiana put together. The Michigan farmer raises .sheep both for wool and mutton and for the amount invested, sheep return good profits in connection with general farming. The soil and climate are both adapted to them. Drainage is good, so that they are not subject to wet feet or hoof rot. For years large portions of these counties have afforded open range for sheep and cattle of sweet, nutritious grasses, which, with the browse of the underbrush are most desired by sheep. They are on pasture the greater part of the year, during which time they require little shelter and little labor. They live a great deal on what otherwise would be wasted, and are of much value to any land in scattering the best fertilizer. The editor of the "American Sheep Breeder" after a tour through this district said, "If this is not a royal sheep country I never saw one; feeding foe sheep is absolutely perfect, and the whole country abounds in ideal ranch situations; the climate could not be better for this industry." The open ranges of the West are becoming restricted. The closer to Chicago stockmen can own their grazing lands, the better. Our lands, covered with a wealth of food for sheep and so near Chicago, offer better inducements to flock owners, than almost any existing sheep lands in America. Hogs and hog products can be as cheaply produced here as in Illinois or Iowa. Every feed necessary is raised and pasture is as early and as late as in 33 THE SWIGART TRACTS 1 A thousand Sheep on a section of land near Wellston Photographed March 13th, when they were subsisting entirely from erasing. those states. There is a good home market for our hogs at good prices and you need not ship any unless you want to. Hog cholera is almost unknown with our good water and other healthful conditions. The bacon hog is coming into favor in this part of Michigan. We have plenty of corn, rape, peas, and other succulent food. This of all localities is the place for "pigs in clover." Horses. The local demand for horses is always good as is the case in any new district. Cheap pasture and the ability of colts to winter well at little cost combine to make horse raising a promising department for profit on our farms. Prices range for quality, etc., much the same as in other states and the animals' strength and hardihood depend much as everywhere upon the master's treatment. A man becomes acclimated at once but a horse brought from another state needs a little time for acclimation. Horses brought from other states, must be worked lightly until they become acclimated. The healthful climate, however, agrees both with men and horses and affects both similarly in increased capacity for work. Tillage is not as hard on horses as on the harder packed soils of the prairies, and occasionally one horse is seen before the plow in small fields. Poultry. The income from poultry products is one of the five most important sources of the agricultural wealth of the nation. In our four counties the number of poultry of all kinds was 195,838 and their value $98,004 for the year of 1909, as ascertained by the Government. In spite of the rapid increase in the production of poultry products the country over, the supply has not kept pace with the demand, and prices everywhere have steadily gone up for the past ten or twelve years. In our district, besides a regular home market, numerous resorts require a good supply and pay the highest prices to get it. Poultry and fruit go especially well together; but chickens, ducks and geese are a source of profit on every farm and the farmer's wife always finds good cash returns here for her poultry and eggs. No farm is complete without enough fowls to supply the family table and keep the wife in pin money. Poultry on a large scale is a business that requires special knowledge and experience and the poultrymen thus equipped obtains good profits because of our accessible markets, well-drained soil so necessary to the health of the chickens, mild climate, corn- 34 ;aim LIVE STOCK cheaper lands which parative freedom from vermin and because he cannot find will at the same time raise chicken feed in abundance. honey. The Bees and Honey. Michigan ranks fourth in the production of and every little Kansas Agricultural College states that every little honey bee is found. Their bumble bee is worth at least $1 to the farmer on whose farm he pleasure and profit value to the alfalfa and fruit grower is inestimable. It is a The honey bee to keep a few colonies of bees. They require no outlay for land. honey and pollen Is a benefactor to the race, roaming the fields at will, gathering pollenate alfalfa. and fertilizing flowers. These are the only insects that will They not only A fruit farm is hardly complete without a few stands of bees. add to the fersupply the table with honey, which is a great delicacy, but they habits. It is tility of all berries and tree fruits, by their pollen-distributing a day. Honey, estimated that bees from a single hive will visit 2,500,000 flowers desired, and unu.nlike most sweets, is beneficial and may be eaten as freely as reported like most luxuries, is economical. In our four counties the 1910 census 2,575 colonies of bees. -, STAT 1ST I C 3 Ceri.us Thirteenth COUNTIES FARMS REPORTING ANIMALS Val, OfAnimal. Dollo,s CATTLE Total Number Dairy Cows Other COWS Yearling Heifers Calves r 6- Bull 9 Yearlg in' Steer's Other S-teers 6- Bulls Dollars Value OF DOMESTIC Of The MASON United MANISTEE 2,0412 1,0 I 3,517 12,132 6, I GI 833 1,809 2,222 886 221 293,897 5WIN E Total Nwriber Mature Hogs Pigs Value DollarS 1,521 677.505 ANIMALS 1910 .5t ate-5 LA K E WEXFORD 679 309,211 1,6 58 719,08 3 41,508 2,054 '451 (GI 701 8,815 1,175 588 1, 1 G 1, 987 819 8,975 '1,527 799 1,216 1,429 657 352 205,763 101,008 402 318 237 213 7.59 5,992 3,106 2,586 93,388 4,113 1,301 3,933 2,9 18 1,5.25 37,197 899 955 2,8 3 3 1, / 00 650 35,875 '1855 3,478 1,377 21,606 3,713 2,829 919 I? 799 .3,779 3,715 2,681 1,031 1.6, 751 i I SHEEP Total Number Rain s,Ewes Cr Wethers 5pring La rri bs Dollars Value HORSES Total Number. Mature Horses Yo..-ii,-,8- colts Spring Colts Dollars Value MULE 5, A55E5 & BURROS Total Number. Value Dollars 2,719 1.065 18,606 1.575 1,190 129 I 92. 51 12 652.899 4111,829 6 /79,307 '45062.2 14 1,350 II 1,950 1 960 GOATS Number Value POULTRY OF ALL Nurnber Value Dollars KINDS Dollars Colonies Dollars 9 /6 Z. 061 62 5 57 382 17 2.10 3 II 20,728 10,221 54,701 29,410 41 Gb. 919 34,293 51,190 794 70 1 2,678 BEE S Number Of Value .3 .775 3,371 3,597 3,362 173 5,992, 5,115 32.6 2,9111 21,083 3 32 1,5 5 1 7 `1 8 3, 2 78 number of animals per Since 1910 a great many settlers have moved in, and the county and per farm has bean much increased. 35 THE SWIGART TRACTS Fishing in the Sauble River in Mason County. Fish and Game. The rivers of this district are the natural home of the rainbow trout and "steel heads" (another variety of trout), the creeks abound with gamey brook trout and the lakes are the habitat of the black bass, pike and pickerel. The smaller fry, such as perch, blue-gill s and rock bass, abound everywhere and no settler need want for fish for food on his table. The annual catch of Michigan, with pond, gill and other nets and seines, and hook and line is about 50,000.000 pounds and the total value is about one-twentieth of the national fisheries. With so many lakes and waterways the country is the breeding headquarters for wild ducks and in season they are plentiful. Gamey partridges bat their wings from out the wood coverts ahead of the traveler on the roads. Of pheasants and quail there are a plenty. Squirrels and rabbits and the occasional harmless porcupine up a tree keep the hunter's eye alert. Of foxes ther,1 are some, but not many; and the wary, fleet-foot ed deer, a few of which still remain, ever avoiding mankind, are a match for the huntsman's skill. FRUIT GROWING. As shown on preceding pages, the products of our counties are as diversified as those of any agricultural section in America. The farmers, both the old settlers and the new, are in the large majority engaged in general farming. The success of so wide a variety of crops is a security to the farmer here and insures more certainty of income in general farming as compared with many districts of other states where failure of single crops, almost entirely depended upon for returns, is more keenly felt. This district, therefore, will continue to develop largely in general agriculture. But most of the farmers have set out some fruit trees on their farms and find it pleasant to be so situated that they can grow their own fruit and have some to sell. On the other hand, those who make fruit growing their business, find it a very profitable as well as pleasant occupation; and the more development our district receives, the more prominent it will also become in fruit growing. 36 FRUIT GROWING fruit alone, While the general farmer may wish to devote a couple of acres to object and the man, on the other hand who makes hardy fruits his principal between his trees. The devotes to it 10, 20 or more acres can readily intercrop but frequently crops for this purpose are usually beans, corn and tomatoes, the ground can thus strawberries, radishes for seed, garden truck, etc. Most of one keeps a reasonable be utilized while the trees are developing, as long as sustenance necessary to distance from the roots, and does not detract from the not injure the the trees' growth. Inter-cropping, when done advisedly, does and turned under in the trees, and especially if cover crops are sown every fall spring. distance than Fruit is shipped to large distributing markets from a greater er thinks first about fruit-grow e prospectiv the therefore and products farm most advantages superior to marketing. He finds that Michigan possesses marketing miles nearer the Chi2,000 are some lands fruit Our section. fruit every other West via the railroad cago market than are the irrigated valleys of the far good profit for our growers. routes, and the difference in freight alone makes a fruit, because of nearIcing charges are not necessary for apples and most of our when shipment is made over ness of markets. Icing of any fruit is not required deterioration in the cool waters of the lakes. Michigan's fruit suffers the least apricots, pears, apples and handling etc., because of short hauls. Her peaches, South and most Western other fruits are better keepers than those grown in the grown fruits—a superior points and possess the distinctive quality of Northern in the right direcflavor. Men who are going into fruit growing here are headed tion. Michigans' fruit have It is not to be denied that the methods in marketing have been shipped Apples or three years. two past the within until been deficient nt Bureau from Michigan mostly in barrels. The Western Michigan Developme "deaconing" the apple deserves credit for its efforts to correct the old practice of growers in the pack. Much has been learned from the better methods of apple far West. on one the more There is a fascination about fruit-growing that gets a grip though they were he studies it. A thorough-going orchardist loves his trees as the right slope, his children. Why shouldn't he? He selects the spot of ground, plants the saplings carefully He drainage. water and air for position best the improves and adapts the and season after season prunes and shapes them, and his trees and watches with lives He growth. healthy promote to them soil about up he can tell you their development from day to day. When they have grown and wherein it progress and struggles its tree, every most of es the peculiariti a tree rests in of life the over control Wonderful care. his of reflects the benefit done, is glorified at the hands of the horticulturist whose handiwork, faithfully than an orchard in blossoming and harvest times. No sight is more beautiful full bloom or crowned with golden fruit. e; but there is Horticulture has become as much of a science as agricultur can not readily undernone of its principles that a man of average intelligence cover the subject of stand and apply to his own advantage and profit. To fully several times the size planting and caring for an orchard would require a book Live, don't exist. Work out of doors. Enjoy life. Don't be walled and his up all your life. Health is the best friend on earth to a man you family. Don't stick in a factory until you lose it. Don't wait untilit inare broken down. Health is capital in trade. Country life keeps tact, builds it up, puts energy in the veins and prolongs life. 87 THE SWIGART TRACTS This Mason County Orchard belongs to the President of the Mason County Horticultural Society, who values his farm at $1,000 an acre. Last fall 90 per cent of his apples graded No. 1 or better, and his trees bring him yearly returns that more than justify the valuation of his land. of this one, but for the benefit of those who are contempl ating a purchase of a Swigart Tract with a view to raising fruit, a few remarks here in regard to the first principles of the industry, as applied to our district, will not be amiss. Non-residents, hearing of the good results from fruit growing in our district sometimes plan to set out a few fruit trees and then go and see them once a year. That is a mistake and only poor or no results may be expected. Fruit trees need care and cultivation which should be given at the times needed. Fruit trees will not do well with wet feet. They require as a rule, high and well-drained land. Hilly land, not too steep to be cultivate d, is also suitable. An orchard requires free circulation of air which prevails on the higher slopes. Level land is not unsuitable where it gets a good sweep of air. The ground selected for an orchard should be cleared thoroughly before any trees are set out. Unless this is done the trees can not be planted in even rows and cultivation is difficult. Land that has been under cultivation for a season or two is in better shape for an orchard than newly broken ground. Labor and pains in starting an orchard may be largely wasted if one does not use care in buying nursery stock from a reputable source. There are Michigan nursery firms who for many years have made a study of the conditions in our part of Michigan, and their advice should be gotten. The time to plant is in the Spring. Some growers have nursery, trees shipped in the Fall before freezing weather and "heel them in" for winter, that is, place them slantingly in trenches with the earth packed about the roots half way up the height of the whips, and then plant them the following spring. But only the best trees. Prices range from 10c to "As mouths multiply, food resources dwindle." Farmers fatten most when famine reigns. 88 FRUIT GROWING will pay com25c per "whip." Get varieties adapted to the locality and soil that dozen as buyers mercially. Three or four standard varieties are better than a prefer to purchase quantities rather than many varieties. which The leaves are the starch factories which elaborate the material from their duty every part of the plant and the fruit is built. The cannot perform knowledge unless each leaf is accessible to air and sunlight and it is a thorough as well as what and appreciation of this fact which guides the pruning shears, reasons for prundistance apart the various plants and trees are set. Two main fruitfuling are to help Nature give the tree most desirable form and to promote that all ness. Pruning should be done in the first years of the young trees so for their energy may be first concentrated into building up a strong framework form for the future, leaving only well arranged branches. The most desirable form, all kinds of fruit trees in the commercial orchard is the open head or vase the so that every part may be easily reached with spraying materials, making branches to tree easier to inspect for insects and disease, enabling fruit-laden part of be better and more easily propped, allowing sun and air to reach every easy the tree and the fruit thereby attaining a better color, and facilitating maintenance of the tree and convenience in fruit picking. wood Fruit trees should not be cultivated after midsummer as it encourages plowgrowth that does not mature in time for going into winter. As a rule deep Hairy ing should be avoided. Cover crops are used for nearly all orchards. mat on vetch is gaining in favor for this purpose because of forming a close a hardy the ground and vegetating early in spring and late in autumn, being reannual. Clover is the most commonly used cover crop and gives excellent the sults. Wheat and oats should not be grown in an orchard as they remove soil elements most required to produce good yields of fruit. matter Without spraying it is impossible to raise profitable crops of fruit no duties of orhow well the orchard may otherwise be cared for. Care in other charding will be of no avail, if the bugs get there first. for all the There need be no fear of a surplus of good fruit. The demand them is infruits of North America is world wide. The world's appetite for by better co-operative satiable and as distribution becomes more simplified problem arrangements between growers, transporters and sellers, it will be a ago, Amerto get enough of any good fruit to supply the market. Nine years a year. In ica's shipment of apples to London amounted to only 25,000 barrels Apples more. 1910 the Englishmen took about a million barrels and wanted have reare shipped from New York on the fastest ships afloat. Good apples (apples are tailed at 25c apiece in London and have sold in Mexico at 15c apiece 10c and 15c grown only in the temperate zone) and in New York and Boston prices of apiece has been readily obtainable for choice apples. The present rule, are fruit in cities and towns are now almost prohibitory. People, as a the demand at aware that they do not eat enough fruit, for their health and fair prices will always exceed the supply. times as Government statistics show that fruit growers' land is worth three own the land much as other farm land, that 90 per cent of the fruit growers buildings and that they operate; that they have more money invested in farm farmer. their income is more than three times as great as that of the average and Michigan ranks for volume of production: second in apples, raspberries currr.nts; third in pears, grapes and gooseberries; fourth in cherries and blackConsider the law of supply and demand. James J. Hill said that the United States in 1950 will have a population of 200,000,000. 39 THE SWIGART TRACTS The Swigart orchards—three months after the planting of the first 4,000 trees. berries; fifth in peaches, strawberries and cranberr ies; eighth in plums. When orchards and plantations in her western counties , which have been set out during the last two or three years, come into bearing, then Michigan will take her place at the top. Apples. The apple is considered the most importa nt fruit grown in temperate climates. There are a thousand or more varieties described in Amercian pomological works. The most perfect of modern fruits is the perfect apple. Of many good varieties grown in our counties, some that are recommended for commercial purposes, are Wealthy and Duchess which begin bearing in three or four years and are fall apples; Wagner and Jonathan , winter apples, bearing in four to five years; Grimes' Golden, Baldwin and McIntosh Red, bearing in five to seven years, the Canada Red and King in six to eight years, and Northern Spy in ten to twelve years. The fivalgart Orchard. In the development of our own orchard, two miles south of Wellston, we had 100 acres cleared, plowed and dragged in 1912. We bought the best selected grade of trees from a Michiga n nursery and had them "heeled in" before frost that fall and set them out in May, 1913. They consist of 1,400 McIntosh, 800 Jonathan, 600 Wealthy, 400 Duchess , 600 Grimes' Golden and 100 Canada Red apple trees, 100 pear trees and 200 Norway Maples to adorn the roadways. During 1913, 68 acres more were cleared and prepared for planting, which followed in the spring of 1914 with the same varieties and Northern Spys. We have thus far 6,000 apple trees planted 36 feet apart each way. This is the beginning of one of the largest commercial orchards in the country. The varieties were selected after thorough investigation by horticulturists as those that will grow best in the location chosen and whose fruit will be best for marketing from our locality. To any settler, resident or customer, we or our horticulturists will be glad to give the benefit of our experience and co-operation In starting commercial orchards. We selected apples because they are hardy in tree growth; the yield is sure; and they are good "keepers." Between the rows we grow fine stands of mixed clover, rye and vetch and plow most of it under. 40 FRUIT GROWING Peach's. Michigan ranks fifth in peaches. The old notion that the peach is a tropical tree and must have a hot climate is wrong. It is a tree of middle latitudes and does not like extremes of cold or heat. It endures better in our latitude than in the extreme southern parts of the United States, owing to the fact that there the blossoms are apt to be forced out late in the mild winters or early in the spring and afterwards injured by frosts. In our district the air from off the lake retards the opening of the blossom ten days or more, the trees in the center of the State being in full bloom before ours are open. The advantage of this in case of late frosts is obvious. There are thousands of acres of land in the United States suitable for peach growing where it would be folly to plant them owing to lack of shipping facilities. A splendid location may thus be rendered worthless. The proximity to large markets and ease of shipment We which we have are necessary to the success of commercial peach orchards. also have the advantage of competing railway and steamboat lines in securing low freights. One of the drawbacks in the South is the time and the amount of freight they must pay to reach the consuming centers. The Elberta is most desirable for our lands and comes into bearing in the third year. Peaches require our ample rainfall. It is better not to plant them closer than 20 feet or 110 to the acre as a general rule, and an orchard after planting should be cultivated as carefully as a field of corn, the peach tree being very sensitive to clean cultivation. As soon as the trees come into bearing no crop of any kind should be grown between them, but each year the orchard should receive a good, shallow plowing and frequent cultivation until July. The trees should never be left to stand in sod. Apricots. Apricots ripen a month or more before the early peaches which explains the demand for them at high prices. Aside from its value as a fresh fruit, the apricot is used in vast quantities every year for drying and canning. Wherever peaches grow, apricots will grow. In our Fruit Belt the apricot is one of the well-known fruits. Cherries. Michigan ranks fourth in cherries. Wild cherries, red and black, are found growing in most of our sections. The black kind are not unpalatable, but our wild cherries are smaller than the cultivated varieties used for commercial purposes. The cherry is a tree which is easily grown; it is bothered less with insects than other fruits. If a young tree is properly shaped during the first two or three years after planting, then less subsequent pruning is needed than on most other kinds of fruit trees. The fourth year after it is planted it will begin to bear and by the time the orchard is ten or twelve years old, it is safe to say For the next that one can pick from 3 to 4 crates of cherries from, each tree. ten or twelve years they pay handsome dividends. The cherries that are best producers in our counties and bring high grade prices are: Smiths Bigareau and Windsor of the sweet variety and late Montmorency of the sour variety. The sour cherry will produce good crops under more unfavorable conditions than most any other fruit. The government is spending millie..s of dollars annually to make more farmers. Newspapers devote :nore space than ever to farming topics. Agriculture will soon be taught in nearly all educational institutions. Farm magazines now enter all farmers' homes and are making better farmers. Farming is the uppermost thought and study of the nation. 41 THE SWICART TRACTS Growing crops between the fruit trees gives double use of the ground in this Lake County orchard. A country-wide inquiry conducted by Cornell University brought out the fact that in sections where the cherry does well, it is one of the most profitable of fruit crops and especially in connection with well managed canning factories. In the Grand Traverse district, which adjoins us on the north, it takes an army of pickers to gather the cherry harvests which leave Traverse City by the trainload and boatload every day during cherry time. Pears. Michigan ranks third in Pears. The pear has long been regarded as one of the most luscious fruits. The choice varieties excel most apples in rich, juicy texture and delicacy of flavor and for both dessert and culinary purposes, either canned or in the fresh state, the pear is much valued. Certain varieties with careful handling and storing keep well from midsummer to late winter without artificial preservation. Pear trees are more difficult to keep in a healthy and productive condition than apple trees, although the fruit produced brings additional returns for their extra care. The Bartlett, which comes into bearing in about five years, leads all other varieties in commercial plantings. Trees propagated by budding the pear upon quince stock are known as Dwarfs which come into bearing earlier than Standards. In locating a pear orchard elevated grounds sloping to the East or Northeast are preferable. With such an exposure the sap is more backward in starting in the Spring, the trees bloom later and consequently are less liable to injury from late spring frosts. The pear succeeds on a variety of soils and on most any soil on which the apple thrives. For planting, strong, well-rooted, one-year old trees are preferable, whether Standard or Dwarf. Cover crops turned under from year to year enrich the soil and maintain the land in proper physical condition to get best results in pear growing. Plums and Prunes. Michigan stenos eighth in plums according to the census of 1910. Plums of two varieties, purple and 'yellow, grow wild on the lands and while not as large as the cultivated varieties, have exceptionally fine flavor. The Quackenboss and Blue Damson are recommended by a successful grower of 42 SMALL FRUITS these varieties in our vicinity. The prune is a plum which carries much sugar and will dry without souring at the pit, and any plum with these qualifications is a prune. The prune will grow and give good results wherever the plum will. The principal part of the work in the prune industry, however, begins with picking the fruit and in the process of drying and preparing it for market. NUMBER OF TREES 1910 Census Quinces Apples COUNTY 14,587 10 Lake 90,497 60 Manistee 126,548 146 Mason 32,946 7 Wexford ---- Peaches 2,946 35.297 203,502 3,693 Plums Pears Prunes Cherries 1,119 525 1,240 8,366 4,581 6,072 20,490 9,112 14,636 2,978 3,904 1;299 Grapes Total 1,896 20,433 3,427 144,931 17.792 374,495 665 44,842 SMALL FRUITS In northern and eastern states there is an increasing demand for small fruits and especially in large cities. Shipping of fresh, small fruits to large consuming centers within 10 or 12 hours expressing distance has been more profitable in recent years than every before. The pure food law has given impetus to the small fruit canning industry, expanding the market many fold, because of bringing better food to millions of tables. People know that currant jelly, raspberry, blueberry and strawberry jams and gooseberry preserve are now made from the juice and pulp of those berries and not from the refuses of tree fruits. The juices, syrups, vinegars, jellies, jams, marmalades, purees and preserves of small fruits are now to be found on the shelves of every well-stocked grocery store. It would seem that no food industry has increased in percentage of volume in the past few years more than the canning and preserving of fruit in general and of small fruits in particular. Small fruits thrive on all of our sandy loams and will do well on lower ground that is well drained. Every home garden should contain a strawberry bed, gooseberry and currant bushes. Commercial plantings should not be smaller than an acre for any one kind of small fruit in order to bring buyers to your plantation and thus obtain half again as much per quart as when you hunt the market yourself. Michigan ranks third in the production of all small fruits. Blackberries, Red and Black Raspberrie• grow wild, and we find men, women and children filling pails and baskets along the roadsides every season. Our wild blackberries are shipped in considerable quantities to a number of markets. They grow large and are as good in quality and flavor, and demand as good prices on the market, as cultivated varieties. There are many people in our townships who devote their entire time picking blackberries and raspberris in their season. Grapes. Michigan ranks third in grapes. 'They are in their natural home in this country and we find the vines growing wild on hillsides, often climbing the trees, and bearing fruit of a rich flavor. Worden grapes are grown with marked success in this region and Concord, Chautauqua, Delaware and Niagara also do well. One should not go amiss in starting a commercial vineyard here by planting a few varieties to have some succession in ripening and to avoid a total crop failure in any one season because of growing only one variety. It Is desirable to have enough of each variety to make it worth while to the grape buyers. Fruit growers of any district must work in unison in the matter of marketing in order to get best returns, and it is well to adhere to varieties that are most successfully marketed in the locality. What are you living and working for? This question should set you thinking. Do you want to work and live your days fot a little more than a bare existence and leave your family a legacy of hard work? 43 THE SWIGART TRACTS Cultivating a pear orchard in Manistee County The Currant is a favorite with shippers, because of its keeping qualities. It can be left on the bush until perfectly ripe with all its fine flavor and splendid health-giving acid content developed, and can then be packed, shipped and remain in market for a week or longer without serious deteriorati on. Currants need less care than any other cane fruit. The plants are frost proof, pretty sure of a crop every year and continue in the best of condition for 15 to 20 years. To grow commercially, one should plant prolific red varieties on ground well prepared; prune to get the largest growth of three-year old wood; plant well apart for horse cultivation; put in cover crops; spray early with bordeaux and arsenate of lead; pick carefully, and keep the fruit cool while getting it to market. There is plenty of profit. from the work in a well-planned and cared-for currant patch. The Fay and Chautauqua varieties are recommended. Michigan ranks second in this fruit. Gooseberries are easily grown on our well-drained sandy barns; are very healthful, and if properly tended yield large returns from small areas. The Downing variety is the best for our district and canners can handle it with good profits. A plant will bear about two quarts when one year old and the yield increases two quarts yearly for four or five years. Blueberries and Huckleberries grow wild in abundance on the unimproved lands in our counties. Many people find it profitable every year to pick these berries for market. Attempts to cultivate them have met with failure until very recently. Researches of the Department of Agriculture have found a way; but why cultivate them here, considering that every year a hundred-fo ld more berries go to waste than are picked? More of these berries, however, are being shipped each year, as they retail in Chicago and other large cities for 20 cents a quart box. 44 EDUCATION Forx. -1 An Up-to-Date Poultry Plant at Meadville, Mason County. Strawberries thrive in our warm, quick soils, which grow them larger and sweeter than the average. We set Warneld and Senator Dunlap plants in rows 3% feet apart and about 20 inches apart in the row. Strawberries require special care in planting in accordance with certain rules. The pistillate or female variety will not alone produce perfect fruit, and cross-pollination is usually done by planting two pistillate plants to one staminate. Farmers' Bulletin No. 198, Agricultural Department, Washington, gives directions for cultivation. Wild strawberries are plentiful here and when transplanted and cultivated the berry produced is much increased in size. Cranberries are raised in larger quantities than in Michigan by only five states. We find them growing wild in occasional marshes. EDUCATION IN MICHIGAN Referring to the map of the Tract, you will find the locations of schools carefully marked, except in cases where new schools have been established since the map was made. They are being built rapidly, and a settler's child who does not attend school regularly is the rare exception. Michigan's excellent system of country schools, in conjunction with the city high schools, is rated among the best in the United States. No state has better provided for her children in the matter of school funds. The primary school fund provided for in Michigan's early history has been kept intact and yields annually over five million dollars or about seven dollars per child. The expenditures provided from this and other sources for the school year 1913-1914 amounted to about $29 per child. Seven children of school age located in a neighborhood or even if they be all of one family are enough to require organizing a school district if there is no school within a reasonable distance for them to attend. Nearly 50 per cent of the rural teachers of the state have had some normal training. The Agricultural College and State University are here for farmers' children. The state maintains four normal schools for the training of teachers. For men with families, these educational advantages are as important as any other consideration. Public instruction has first call on Michigan's Treasury, and the whole school system is brought within the reach of all from Kindergarten to University. There are private and parochial schools Under certain conditions land is valuable and is sure to grow more so. The course for the wise investor, whether he has much or little to Invest, is to learn what these conditions are, learn where they exist to the greatest extent, then buy land there and inevitable development will reward him. 45 THE SWIGART TRACTS One of the best peach orchards in Mason County and business colleges in the larger cities. There is a Catholic school in Manistee. Agriculture is now being taught in the high schools. Educators the country over are aware that Michigan is the leader and pattern state in educational matters. TAXES Taxes are extremely low—so reasonable that even where new schools, bridges or roads are built, the amount seems small when compelled with those usually levied in older agricultural communities. Our townships are all in good financial condition and usually free from debt. The administration of the Counties has been progressive and yet very economical. If you come to this district, you will not be in a community loaded down with debt; you will not have to begin the construction of County buildings, etc., nor be called upon to pay for what is already built. Michigan has a tax exemption law for settlers on new or cut-over lands which have not been cultivated. It provides that the new settler who has bought such land either upon contract or otherwise, shall actually reside upon it and shall improve, or clear, at least two acres of it each year for five years, and the exemption applies for that period of time on not more than 80 acres purchased by any one person. To obtain this exemption the new settler, after he has located on his land, must apply to the township supervisor. BUILDING MATERIAL Lumber is manufactured more or less in the large towns where new settlers find well stocked yards furnishing lumber at very reasonable prices indeed compared to the cost in some other states, as well as good stocks of builders' hardware, rubberoid roofing, shingles, tar paper, lime, cement, brick, plaster and wall boards, paints and in fact everything needed to build a home and make it comfort- 46 Alb HEALTH Seeing the Swigart Tracts on a rainy day. Rain coats for everybody. be remembered able and attractive. When it comes to furnishing a home it must and stoves. that Michigan is the headquarters state for furniture, refrigerators purposes, conThere are abundant and valuable deposits of gravel for all building farm animals crete work and road building. Here the farmer's family and his need not be otherwise than comfortably housed. HEALTH the Statistics for the 10-year period from 1900 to 1910 show Michigan to be the death second healthiest state in the Union. The birth rate in our region exceeds healthfulness rate by 4.591 per thousand per year, which proves conclusively the life of every of this section. Health is the most important consideration in the worth man, woman and child. It is the one thing above all that makes life more of our living. Without health it is impossible to enjoy life. The invigoration pure, clear atmosphere is at once recognized by all visitors. This locality in Michigan is most favored with regard to health. Lung trouble, unasthma, hay fever and catarrh are rare, some of these afflictions being almost known; and sufferers from asthma, catarrh and hay fever not only find relief, but frequently a permanent cure. Also if you are looking for a location free from malaria, chills and ague and their attendant evils, come to this locality. The being of water from our wells is wonderfully pure, delicious and health giving, great aid in correcting indigestion. Farming which now produces one-fifth the wealth of the natio!. and five times more than mining, the next largest wealth-producing industry, is becoming cramped in the older districts. Small wonder that the prices of land are soaring. The labor of the farmer was never so well paid as now. Never was there a better time to own and operate a farm. 47 THE SW1GART TRACTS Unimproved land in Meade Township, mason County. THE ADVANTAGES There are a number of advantages of the Swigart Tracts which make them different from any other proposition. Their co-operative features make for the success of their settlers. Learn about our farm advising work, also about our demonstration farm. You will be interested in the summer resort attractions of this location. Also learn about the series of great electric power dams being constructed in the center of the Tracts. There are many features in connection with this land colonizing movement that can only be briefly mentioned here, therefore write for fuller information. The human side of this proposition that appeals to earnest people, is that every man who wants his chance to buy land on a practical basis, suited to his means, can get it here. You have about seven years time on very low monthly payments. Yearly terms, if preferred. There is a liberal protective feature—if the purchaser dies after the contract is partly paid for. Ask for testimonials from those who have been thus benefited. The prices of land range from $10 to $35 per acre, with a selection from over 50,000 acres, including recent additions. Much of the land in 40-acre and larger tracts is now $18 to $25 per acre; in 20-acre tracts, $20 to $30, and 10-acre tracts, $25 to $35. Consider ing quality of soil, location and advanced conditions, there is no land in Michigan or any other state so low in price for value given. . The good will of our settlers is our slogan. We keep it by uniformly fair treatment. We count it an asset because of the very nature of our project. We are working with and will be neighbors with our settlers for many years to come. The most certain thing in the regular course of events population. This will take place where there are undevelois growth in ped, natural resources with the most favorable conditions for developing them. There, naturally, the greatest increase in values will take place 48 0 ILUC E i 7j) W/7(PIS ,4,7Y CH IPPE ICKINS N ' • PE re IMISSALIKEE ' !SAN I L •C I 4" At / /00' s Itia - -,45711)24b,_ "VNID A N 0e4OW Or PORAV kfT ) • 't himmonntitlinnuttuunnimuninlitun The Swan-Arenson Realty & Development Co. CHICAGO • ILLINOIS BE INDEPENDENT! offers the working man greater opportunities today than FARMING and FRUIT GROWING. The city population of the United States is so far greater than the country population, and the difference between the two is becoming so alarmingly out of proportion that the law of SUPPLY and DEMAND, as pertaining to farm produce, must necessarily assert itself to an extent so pronounced as to make the farmer the REAL INDEPENDENT MAN OF THE NATION. in the history of the world were there NEVER better opportunities for making big money in the farming and fruit growing industry than at the PRESENT TIME. According to statistics made public in a report of the United States Department of Agriculture,the price of farm produce has TRIPLED since 1908, and judging from all present indications, prices are bound to go up STILL HIGHER. There is no industry, in our opinion, that THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN THE FARMER AND THE CITY MAN apple butter, and what not. Out in the smokehouse he has some hams and slabs of bacon, and elsewhere he has potatoes, cabbages, carrots, etc. Furthermore, he lives an outdoor life, is hale and hearty, and enjoys life in every sense. During the winter his life is an easy one, and if he wishes to make some money on the side he can go to the city and hire himself out for a few months. With his farm properly managed and cultivated, and with close attention to detail, it does not take him long to set aside a nice little sum for moment and compare the city man with the farmer. The city man has an income as long as he has employment. His wages may be good, but the cost of living is so outrageously high that at the end of the year, when he counts up what he has left, he finds it so small compared to the entire amount he received during the year that he begins to ponder about the future and wonder how it will all end. When business slacks up he may be thrown out of work and he then has to look around and wait for another job, losing money in the meantime. Then there are strikes and other things that cause him considerable worry and hardships, and as he looks back over the past and tries to figure out what the future holds for him, he begins to realize that it is not a rosey path by any means. Now take the farmer: Does HE have to worry about the city-man's troubles? No. Outside of reading about them in the paper that is delivered to him every morning, he is not concerned in the least bit. People have got to eat whether they work or not, and he knows that there is a market for HIS produce. The modern, up-to-date farmer rides around in his automobile, he has machinery to do work that was formerly done by slow, tedious methods, the telephone puts him in direct contact with the rest of the world, and he lives a life of real comfort. He keeps his cellar stocked up with preserves and canned fruits of all kinds, jelly, AUSE a P "rainy days." BECOME A LAND OWNER CONDITIONS for the farmer are getting better right along, and when more people from all over the country become fully awake to the wonderful possibilities on the farm, and when the land boom is on in full swing, prices of farm lands are going to jump to startling figures. The time to buy your land is RIGHT NOW. TAKE ADVANTAGE OF THE OPPORTUNITY NOW OPEN TO YOU AND SECURE THAT TRACT YOU HAVE BEEN WANTING FOR SO LONG A TIME. This announcement introduces you to an exceptional opportunity and enables you to secure a fine tract in an ideal location at a VERY ATTRACTIVE PRICE and on VERY EASY TERMS. 2 Copyright, 1920, by Paul P. Aronson VIEWS OF THE TRACT Practically every part of the tract is represented in these views. Note how well the land lies and how beautifully rolling it is. This affords excellent air drainage as well as soil drainage, both very important factors. You will note that there is very little underbrush, making the land easy to clear. The stumps can be easily removed by a stump puller or dynamite. HE tract we are offering is one that we are T proud to recommend. We have subdivided it into 10 and 20-acre parcels, which are being offered FACTS ABOUT OUR TRACT selecting this tract and deciding to offer BEFORE it to our clients, we took into consideration all at the INTRODUCTORY PRICE of only the necessary factors that must be borne in mind when buying land, such as location, quality of the soil, climatic conditions, shipping and transportation facilities, living conditions, title to the property, etc. After carefully considering and looking over a number of tracts, we finally came across this one and we knew AT ONCE that it was the very tract we wanted for our clients. We were informed of it by a friend who recommended it very highly, and we immediately made a special trip to look the land over. On arriving there we were so favorably impressed with the general layout of everything that we went over the entire tract and examined everything as carefully as we could. We found that the tract comes RIGHT UP TO THE RAILROAD STATION, thus making the TRANSPORTATION and SHIPPING FACILITIES just what we wanted them to be. We then took note of the general lay of the land and found that parts of it are level, while most of it is BEAUTIFULLY ROLLING—just the kind a good farmer $32° PER VERY EASY TERMS When you consider the excellent location of this tract and compare it with similar land that sells for from $100 to $300 per acre, you will realize how LOW this price is. A Town Lot Free With Each Ten-Acre Tract As an added attraction, we are giving, FREE OF ANY FURTHER COST WHATEVER, a lot in a town-site that we have laid out near the depot, with each 10-acre unit sold. The lots are sized 35x144 feet, making ideal sized lots. THIS OFFER MAY BE WITHDRAWN AT ANY TIME AND SHOULD BE QUICKLY TAKEN ADVANTAGE OF. 3 r A FEW VIEWS OF WOODVILLE No. 1, Pere Marquette depot. No. 2, distant view of the town. The road in the foreground is part of the Trunk Line Highway, a state road running from Big Rapids to White Cloud, and for which the State of Michigan appropriated the sum of $2,000,000. No. 3, looking south on State Road dividing Monroe and Norwich Townships. No. 4, another view of Woodvillet No. 5, salting station to the left, and a potato warehouse to the right. No. 6, a corner of our tract, which comes right up to the town. of the Greening Nursery Company of Monroe, Michigan, one of the largest growers of trees in the country, made a special trip to look this land over, and after examining everything very carefully, he pronounced it to be ONE OF THE FINEST TRACTS OF LAND FOR ORCHARD PURPOSES THAT HE HAD SEEN IN THAT PART OF THE COUNTRY. Coming from an expert like Mr. Greening, no testimonial could be better than that one, and none could be considered more reliable. Now you can see why it did not take us long to realize that this was the tract we wanted, and why we lost no time in securing it for our clients. who knows his business would select. The next thing we examined was the soil, and what we saw PLEASED US IMMENSELY. Instead of merely telling you in our own words what kind of soil it is, we quote the following statement, which was made by the late Mr. Wm. M. Jacques, who was county surveyor at the time and who made a survey of the tract: "The soil is a gravelly loam, with a clay sub-soil, excellent for all kinds of general farming such as wheat, corn, oats, rye, potatoes, hay, and is especially adapted for all kinds of fruit." A few years ago Mr. Chas. Greening, president 4 1 SCENES OF BIG RAPIDS, A FINE CITY ONLY 9 MILES FROM WOODVILLE No. 1, street scene in the business district. No. 2, G. R. & I. depot. No. 3, Muskegon River, Darrah Milling Co., City Water Works, Falcon Mfg. Co., and Big Rapids Furniture Mfg. Co. No. 4, Flooring Plant of Jones & Green. No. 5, Plant of The Lewellyn Bean Co. No. 6, Four Drive Tractor Plant. To have a city of this kind so close to Woodville is a decided advantage, and one of the features we took into consideration when selecting the tract. THE LOCATION N. 40 e,9, The map here shows you how well the tract is situated. (The shaded portion represents the tract.) It is located right at Woodville, on the Pere Marquette R. R., and lies between the towns of White Cloud and Big Rapids, the distance to either being about 8 or 9 miles, both being on the same railroad. Among other things, Woodville already has a large salting station and three potato warehouses, and although a small place, it has an excellent foundation for a growing community and its possibilities for future growth are unlimited. Following is a letter written by one of Woodville's residents: M ONROE TOWNS NIP "'-f. NOR ICH N., T0VV N5 HIP fc w ta f.• f .C.----. p z; BIC, RAN)) AO° 'Ave ,e) V.I...,tr,....i. e e ,w coovka "To Whom It May Concern: "Having been a resident of Woodville for many and knowing well the general conditions in and around years, here, I can safely say that never before has there been a better feeling among resident farmers than at the present time. "At Woodville we have a good market for every farm produce, and the development of the uncultivated portions of land is sure to make the markets still better. As a dealer of farm produce and general merchandise, I believe I am in Position to say that the future of Woodville and surrounding country is looking very bright and that land values are sure to advance. "JESSE L. CARPENTER." & :1; ,' 6.wAy _ , In a later letter Mr. Carpenter informs us that he cleared over $225.00 on one-half acre of berries this last season (1919), which is at the rate of $450.00 an acre. We are informed also that another resident of Woodville made over $500.00 on an acre of berries. Strawberries, raspberries, blackberries, etc., grow wild in abundance around Woodville, showing what the possibilities are when cultivating them for commercial purposes. 5 SCENES OF WESTERN MICHIGAN No. 1, A large commercial cherry orchard. No. 2, a fine apple orchard. There are many such orchards throughout the state, offering convincing evidence of the desirability of Michigan for fruit growing. No. 3, an excellent bean "patch." Michigan ranks among the first states in the Union in the production of beans. No. 4, a recreation spot. There are numerous such places all over the state. No. 5, cattle raising in Michigan affords excellent opportunities for making big profits. No. 6, field of potatoes. Everyone knows the quality of the Michigan potato. No. 7, hay running three ton to the acre is nothing uncommon in Michigan. Scenes like all of these can be seen throughout the entire State of Michigan. INTERESTING FACTS ABOUT WESTERN MICHIGAN HE wonderful opportunities and advantages afT forded. the Western Michigan farmer and fruit grower are fast being brought to light, and people territory, making it easily accessable from all points. In addition to these main roads there are numerous connecting lines which bring the remotest corners of the territory WITHIN EASY REACH. Furthermore, Michigan has the LARGEST WATER BORDER LINE OF ANY STATE IN THE UNION, thus affording WATER TRANSPORTATION, as well as rail. This is a very important item, as you can see for yourself. from all over the country are now becoming awake to the possibilities before them. It is a well known fact that the flavor of Michigan fruit is FAR SUPERIOR to that of the fruit grown in the west, and that when it is properly handled and packed it BRINGS JUST AS HIGH A PRICE ON THE MARKET. It is also well known, as authentic figures will show, that the cost of growing fruit in Western Michigan is about FIFTY OR SIXTY PER CENT LOWER than in the west. "The greatest item of cost, TRANSPORTATION TO MARKET, shows an advantage in Michigan's favor that is alone sufficient to overbalance equal costs in other directions. THE DIFFERENCE RUNS FROM 400 to 500 PER CENT IN FAVOR OF MICHIGAN." This last statement is one made by the Western Michigan Bureau, and to show you how logical it is we simply call your attention to the map of the United States, shown on opposite page, which shows the ideal location of the State of Michigan. Western Michigan's transportation facilities are UNSURPASSED. Six trunk lines run through the Discussing the crops grown in Michigan, the Western Michigan Bureau has the following to say: "Grain crops average well in Michigan. While Michigan makes no loud pretentions to being a grain-growing state, yet the value of the grain crops compares very favorably with the other states which place their chief reliance in cereals as the farm crop. Corn yields a HIGHER AVERAGE in MICHIGAN than in MISSOURI, wheat yields are HIGHER than in some of the great wheat-growing states, and the QUALITY IS A-1. . . . . Truck farming is one of the most profitable of the farming operations of Western Michigan. . . . The growth of the canning industry has opened up a new field of profit. Nowhere is there grown a better quality of peas, string beans, kidney beans, sweet corn, lima beans, tomatoes, squash and pumpkins, in fact, any of the products of the soil which are grown for preserving in cans. And nowhere are better yields." Concerning the fruit, the Western Michigan Bureau goes on to say: "The fruit grown in Michigan has NO PEER IN ALL THE LAND IF FLAVOR BE THE TEST. And where modern methods of care and cultivation and feeding are in vogue, MICHIGAN FRUIT HAS NO SUPERIOR IN POINT OF SIZE AND COLOR AND ATTRACTIVENESS." 6 MONEY-MAKING POSSIBILITIES ON 10 OR 20 ACRES HE amount of money that can be made out of T farming depends entirely on what is planted and how the farm is managed. There are certain crops that bring the Michigan Farmer BIG RETURNS, one of them being THE FAMOUS MICHIGAN POTATO. Where proper methods are used an acre in Michigan will produce an average of from 200 to 400 bushels a season, but for the sake of argument, we'll figure it at 250 bushels. Let us figure also, in order to be conservative, that the price the farmer gets is no more than 75c per bushel. On 250 bushels that would amount to $187.50, or $1,875.00 on 10 acres. In order to base our complete estimate on something definite, we'll figure on a 20-acre tract, and suppose that 10 acres of it is planted to potatoes, bringing the above returns. Then let us suppose that about two acres are planted to BERRY BUSHES, say, raspberries, blackberries, etc. It is commonly known that an acre of berries in Michigan yields a profit of from $200.00 to $500.00 and more a year, but we'll figure that $300.00 is a fair average to expect. On two acres at that rate we would have $600.00 more to add to the amount received from potatoes, as outlined above, or a total so far of $2,475.00. Now let us say that you will plant about 5 acres to FRUIT TREES, choosing apples and cherries. You can add a few plum, pear and peach trees if you wish, but apples and cherries are the best for commercial purposes. Yearly profits on an acre of apple or cherry trees in Michigan run all the way from $250.00 to $1,000.00, but we'll say that $300.00 a year is the best you can expect on an acre, or $1,500.00 on 5 acres. We consider this a very low estimate, but it is big money anyway, so we'll let it stand. This, together with the returns mentioned above on the potatoes and berries, brings our grand total to $3,975.00. During the first few years of the life of the orchard the ground between the rows of trees can be used to excellent advantage by planting crops of various kinds, thus making that land earn money before the trees come into commercial bearing. We now have two acres left out of the twenty that can be used in any manner you may see fit. You can have plenty of garden space around your house and a good sized chicken yard. Raising poultry can be made VERY PROFITABLE, and a few good bee hives will also be found an advantage. And you must remember that the returns mentioned above are made during the summer months only, which leaves you the winter months to do work in the city, if you should want to make use of them in that way. It is also quite likely that a neighboring farmer might want you to help him out now and then and pay you well for your time. MAP OF WESTERN MICHIGAN The heavy circle indicates location of Woodville. Note the excellent transportation facilities. The Pere Marquette R. R. runs through our tract and goes right on to Muskegon, a flourishing city and excellent harbor on Lake Michigan, thus affording both rail and water transportation. THE TERMS MAP OF UNITED STATES SHOWING ADVANTAGEOUS POSITION OF THE STATE OF MICHIGAN FrHE terms have been made so easy that almost anybody can afford to secure at least 10 or 20 acres. They are as follows: 10 acres $25.00 down and $10.00 a month 20 acres $35.00 down and $15.00 a month 30 acres $45.00 down and $20.00 a month 40 acres $50.00 down and $25.00 a month Note its close proximity to the eastern markets as compared with the Western states. This advantage means a great saving in shipping expense, as well as enabling the Michigan farmer and fruit grower to get his produce to market much quicker. Within a radius of a few hundred miles are millions of mouths that are forever waiting to be fed, and the produce of Michigan, being of such good quality, always finds a ready market and steady demand. Six per cent (6c') discount for cash. A Warranty Deed will be given WITHOUT ANY EXTRA COST when the land is paid for, also an abstract of title. 7 DON'T HESITATE demand for these Woodville estates is THE bound to be VERY GREAT, and judging from our past experience with similar offers we know that THE ENTIRE TRACT SHOULD BE SOLD OUT IN A VERY SHORT TIME. There are THOUSANDS and THOUSANDS of people ALL OVER THE COUNTRY who are looking for just such tracts as what we are offering, but we have enough for only a VERY LIM- ITED NUMBER of them, which makes it a case of FIRST COME—FIRST SERVED. Whether you intend to move up there in the near future or not makes no difference. The time to buy is RIGHT NOW while you can get your tract at the INTRODUCTORY PRICE. If you don't intend to cultivate it right away, buy the land for INVESTMENT. You know yourself that land is always going up in price, and you also know that offers of this kind are QUICKLY TAKEN ADVANTAGE OF. PREPARE FOR YOUR FUTURE VERYBODY should own a piece of land some E place because none of us know what lies ahead of us. Misfortune may lay its miserable hands on us, debt may overwhelm us, or sickness, accident or disease may render us incapable of earning a living for ourselves or those dependent on us. Rather an unpleasant subject, this, but it is something that happens EVERY DAY, some place, with some people. No one knows who may be next. According to statistics, about 84 out of every 100 men alive at the age of 65 are dependent on either their friends, relatives or charity for their support. A large percentage, don't you think? Nobody knows what the future has in store for him, but EVERY person can do everything within his or her means to PREPARE for the future. The thing to do is to make the right kind of investments while you are able to, and while you can take advantage of such opportunities as may be offered to you. Provide yourself with a tract of land in a nice locality where you can some day make your home, should you decide to do so, and where you can spend the remainder of your days in peace and contentment, enjoying life in its fullest sense. EASY TO SECURE A Woodville estate is just what you want and you should lose no time in securing one. Simply decide on the number of acres you want, fill out the application and send it to us RIGHT AWAY. We shall be glad to receive it and give it our very best attention. REMEMBER THAT WE GIVE A TOWN LOT FREE WITH EACH 10-ACRE TRACT. WOODVILLE estate is easy to secure. Only a A few dollars a month are all that you will need, and you can certainly spare that for something that is so important as this. Remember that your money is protected by the BEST SECURITY THERE IS— the EARTH. Land that you own is something that nobody can take away from you, and something that CANNOT BE DESTROYED. It is YOURS AS LONG AS YOU WANT TO KEEP IT. ADDRESS THE SWAN-ARENSON REALTY & DEVELOPMENT CO. Suite 1025, 19 S. La Salle St. CHICAGO, ILL APPLICATION FOR WOODVILLE ESTATE THE SWAN-ARENSON REALTY & DEVELOPMENT CO. 19 SOUTH LA SALLE STREET, CHICAGO, ILL. 192 Date Gentlemen:— acres, for which I Please enter my application for a Woodville Estate consisting of agree to pay the regular price specified below, if my application is accepted. You are to mail me a plat showing the location to be selected for me, also a contract covering it, on receipt of which I will mail you my first payment, if I find everything satisfactory. It is fully understood and agreed that I am to receive a lot in your town-site for each 10 acre unit that I will purchase from you, free of any further cost to me. Price per it " di " It " 10 acre tract.$ 325.00 it . 625.00 20 . 900.00 30 It 40 It . 1,175.00 Signature Address State Town 8 4