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V







September seventh,
Ninotoon -Atunclred tirenty.

The LAI/an-Aronson Realty & Development GompaPY.
19 south La Ealle street,
Ohicago, Ill.
Gentlemen:
have noted your advertisement of farm communities and prices.
This office is trying to gather all available information pertaining to the welfare of ;egro wasse-earnera.
I th4l'efore
would be pleaaed if you will send LA) full Information about
your project.
Yours very truly,

Director of Negro isnonomics.

July 10,

1920.

Nr. I. L. Johnson,
310unt 4rings, Ala.
Dear Kr. John9on:
Your letter of July 2 was forwarded from New York to mw office here.
I remember your interest in the question of land settlement and improvement when I talked to you In Atlanta.
I am going into this
more deeply than heretofore as I think it is of vital importance to
Negro workers, and i shall keep in mind your invitation when making
up my program for my next trip into your state and will write you
later.
In the meantime I would be pleased if you would send me the following information about your settlement: (1) How many miles is the
community from Decatur?
(2) What is :tour nearest railroad station and on what railroad is it? ;3) '.hat is the name of your
)ost-offioe and do you have rural free delivery to the farmers
in the community? (4) How many land-owners are there in the community, and, as nearly as possible, exactly how much land do they
awn? (5) How much of this land is under cultivation - hew much
in "deadening" or stump-land - how much in standing timber?
(6) What aro the principal crops and about how much acreaee, all
told, is there in each crop?
Thanking you for this information, I remain




Yours sincerely,

Director of Negro I;conomics.

4.

ALL CONTRACTS AND AGREEMENTS MUST BE C

N

HUGH MAcRAE &
HUGH MAC RAE ,CHAIRAvAR
C. VAN LEUVEN , PRESIDENT
M. F. H. GOUVERNEUR NICE PRESIDENT
P. M.SHEPPARD,SECRETARY

I 1

!HI

,
IPAN'y
0

CO.,1NCORPORATED

FARM LANDS

SMALL FARMS
FOR
MARKET GARDENING,DAIRYING,

MURCHISON NATIONAL BANK BUILDING

J. C. Mc EACHIN,TREASURER

FRUITS, POULTRY AND STAPLE CROPS
IN THE

WILMINGTON DISTRICT

WI LM I NGTON , NORTH CAROLINA

July 16th, 1920.

John E. Yaylor,
413 MacRae Street,
Wilmington, N.C.
I notice from an article in the Dispatch that the
Director of Negro Economics of the Department of Labor, has
inquired of you in regard to lands which might be used for the
establishment of negro families.
The article does not go into
details especially, but I would assume that the plan would require a tract of 500 or more acres for subdivision.
Our Company has a very desirable tract of land about
half mile West of Ashton, which might be used as a basis for
such a project.
This tract is crossed by Kelly Creek which
lies in quite a ravine, providing the land with good natural
drainage which could be readily extended to include the entire
tract.
The quality of the soil is high grade.
Most of the
land is cut-over land, but there are a few acres of land in
cultivation.
The area is slightly less than 500 acres.
We
also have option on approximately 1500 acres of land adjoining
or near the above described property, of which 862 acres is a
tract on which the title has been perfected under the Torrens
System, and which lies between the Company's land and the railroad, and partly on the Southern side of the Company's land.
In the locality where this property is situated, there are a number of negro families already established on their own land.
While I am not in position to make a specific quotation at the moment, I believe that the entire area referred to
above, or the Company's land separately, could be delivered at
a price not exceeding 47.50 per acre.
Yours very truly,

President.

CVL/HSEVEN 10 EIGHT MONTHS OF ACTUAL GROWING SEASON IN EACH YEAR, WITH OPEN WINTERS.




THREE TO FIVE CROPS GROWING ANNUALLY ON THE SAME GROUND.







September 19, 1920.

112531 MALTY )3721LE1T 1nR2c1ATleN,
Salta 1)25, 19 So. La Salle Street,
Chicago, Illinois.
Gentlemen'
47:321T.Tr.N: "Ur . -an

&reen3on.

Thank yoa so ralch for the ;_afornation cont
ained in the
ciroalar an3. /ettar sent me About your sale
of lanl to
ooloreti settlers.

Very truly yoars,

Director of Negro toonoelos.

3/2.Lo




SeAember 25, 1920.

SZIGA5rL iJJ 0vall4rt,
1245 to 1250 Yirst Net. Mak 1114g..
Chicago, ill.
Gentlest's":
Thank you so mach ror the Information
contained in yt,ur let tor and. Ztooklet about efforts
to buill 111) farm communities.

T.

vory tra4,

Director of Negro Aeonesdos.

VA




July 13, 1920.

Mr: John E. Taylor,
413 MacRae '.;treet,
Wilmington, N. 3.
Ny dear Lr. Taylor:
This office has been asked for info
rmation about lane tracts
of available land that mi3tht be util
ized for the settlement
of Nero tenants ani laborers.
3ould you send me any information alon this line a: to th.: oTine
rb of tracts of from
five to ten thousand acres; or coul
d jou tell me probable
persons from wham I could ,Tit such
information/
Thanktng you for your attention, I am
Tours very truly,

•

Direotor of ikagro Economics.

INF

D.F.FAA.ST. Par5tc.s...rr.

6.KEITT1 V1c..E PRESICYCNT.

E.G.KUEH L.5EcstETARY.

W.A.,LA(KUN TREA5URE a.

Wisconsin Colonizafion Companti
MADE TO ORDER- FARMS
-SUNNY SOUTHERN SAWYER
COUNTY

Eau Claire. W.
September 8, l.)a).

Geor. E. Haynes,

s3oli0u0330.1.44N1040.1baJia

Director of .Negro Economics,
0 I d-iS
Office of Sec., Dept. of Labor
808V1 AO 1N1lAl 111Vd30
Washington, D. C.
CI3A13938
Dear Sir:
It is a pleasure for us to send you. lt-teratu-e
descriptive of our experience in efforts to build
up farm comLunities.

The literature covers this

and goes forward to you under separate cover today.
This literature covers many of the most important points but should there by L.ny particular information other than that included in this literature that you desire please feel free to call upon
us and we snail gladly -ive you what wxperiences we
have had in this kind of work.
EGli/HS

Yours very truly,
Wiscons 1/e_Colonizati

Co.

Sec reta y.

No contract or agreement valid unless signed by the proper officer of the Company. All payments must be made direct to the Company at Eau Claire Wis.
All quotations subject to prior sale or change of price without notice.







DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
OFFICEOFTHEASSISTANTSECRETARY
WASHINGTON

August 8, 1919.

emorandum
From: The Director of Negro Economics
To: The Secretary
Through the Assistant Secretary.
Subject:

Investigation of Certain Labor Conditions in '4ashington.

I hereby recommend that an informal inquiry be made ,
by the Director of Negro conomics,of 'Negroes in the District of
Columbia with a view to ascertaining whether and to what extent
wage working conditions and 4uestions entered into recent racial
disturbances in the District.

Respectfully,

,4
,
777/
Direct r of Negro Economics.

Approved with instructions that, in the absence of the Director,
the inquiry be made jointly by Yr. Hall and Er. Jennifer.

Assistant Secretary.

C.

-7
PAUL P. ARENSON
President & Gen. Mgr.

V. A. HILMF_S
Secretary & Treasurer

S. H. ROBERTS
Vice-President

NSON REALTY
DEVEL
CORPORATIO
N OPME\
-

gE

FORMERLY

MICHIGAN OFFICE.
BENZONIA, MICH.




THE SWAN-ARENSON REALTY & DEVELOPMENT CO.
SUBDIVIDERS AND PROMOTERS
Suite 1025, 19 So. La Salle St.
TELEPHONE
RANDOLPH 1779

Chicago, Ill.,
September 9th, 1920.

RECEIVED
Mr. George E. Haynes, Seey.,DEPAFIIMENT OF LABOR
Department of Labor,
SEP 111920
Washington, D.C.
Director of Neer°

Dear Sir:-

Economics

In response to your letter of September 7th we are glad
to give you the information you desire pertaining to our
land offer.
The pamphlet enclosed contains the details of the offer
and will enable you to form a definite idea of this project. If any additional information is desired that is
not included in the pamphlet, we shall be glad to have you
let us know what it is and give it to you inmediately.
This offer was prompted by numerous requests that we had
received at various times during the past from colored
people from all over the country for farm lands, and although the tract was acquired for the purpose of subdividing
it for white people, we decided to change our plans and
take care of the negro patronage, which we have since found
to be very satisfactory. There is a tremendous demand among
the colored people for farm lands and we believe that if
they were afforded more opportunities to acquire such land,
it would benefit the country and all the people in general.
Our object in making this offer was not to create a demand
for the land, but to supply a demand that has already existed.
We are glad to report that all those who have already seen
the land we sold them were well pleased with their investments
and expressed a desire to secure more of them.
We shall be glad to give you any further information that you
may desire, and are
Very truly yours,
AREN SON REALTY DEVELOPMENT CORP.
PPA*GB

BY

PRESIDENT

BRADLEY COMPANY
BRADLEY ESTATE COMPANY
FOND DU LAC AVENUE LAND COMPANY
LAND. LOG

a

LUMBER COMPANY

MARINETTE. TOMAHAWK S WESTERN RAILROAD CO.
MERRILL LUMBER COMPANY
TOMAHAWK LAND COMPANY
TOMAHAWK LUMBER COMPANY
UNITED STATES LUMBER COMPANY

TOMAHAWK, WIS.

Sept.
11th
1920

Mr. George E. Haynes,
Director of Negro Economics,
Department of Labor,
Washington, D. C.
Dear Sir:
Replying to your letter of the 40
, inst., we are enclosing a map upon which our lands are shows in yellow;
also a
circular outlining our Land Settlement Plan.
Our lands vary from level to rolling; the soil being
sandy loam, clayey loam and clay.
These are cutover lands,
hre.ving been logged at different times during the
past thirty
years.
On most of them the timber remaining is sufficent to
last for many years as fuel and on some descrip
tions there is
enough standing timber to build necessary farm buildin
gs.
On several eighties we have built a house and barn,
thus making it possible to move in and take
immediate possession.
The climate, water, roads, schools and churches are
good.
This section is already well settled, there being rural
telephones, mail deliveries and much blooded stock.
The markets for all farm products are the best as we
are only twelve
hours from Chicago, and much nearer to Milwauk
ee, St. Paul and
Minneapolis.
The average price of our land is $25 per acre; onefourth cash, balance in three equal annual payments, 6% interes
t.
Or, we will sell and assist the settler on the terms given
in
the enclosed circular.
After looking over the map and circular, we would be
pleased to have you write us, asking any questions
that may occur to you, or better still, come to Tomahawk and we will
only be able to show you our lands, but personally answer not
any
questions you may have in mind.
Railroad fare will be refunded
to purchasers.
We employ no outside agents and pay no commissions;
thus giving you the advantage of dealing directly
with a responsible owner.
Yours very truly,
TOMAHAWILLAND COMPANY.
ML 1,3,8.



0/itriee, BY 7

CAnm,LNA
OFFICE OF
A. M. MOORE, M. D., PricsiDENT




July 15, 1920.
Dr. Geo. E. Haynes,
Departaent of Labor,
Washington, D. C.
Dear Sir:
EePlying to your letter of the 13, making
inquiry of vacant land, beg to state that there is
quite a bit of vacant land which could be turned
into service to advantage in this state.
There is a tract of five thousand acres
in eight miles of Durham on the Yational High way.
I do not know the parties Who own it, but they expressed to one of our traveling men, Mr. W. Gomez,
that the property was for sale. His address is Durham, N. C.
You might also write Mr. Hugh McCrat_of
wilmington, N. C.
His company owns large tracts
of land that might be available. Also Dr. C. S.
Brown, Winton, Y. C., will give you information on
this.
I trust this information will be df
service to you, and if we can be of further heir to
you, please advise us.
Yours very truly,

RZCZVED

DEPAR1MENI OF LABOR
Nil_ 1 6 1920
Director of NeTrn Economics

MY RESPONSIBILITY CEASES WHEN GOODS ARE DELIVERED TO TRANSPORTATION COMPANY AND RECEIPTED FOR IN GOOD ORDER

United States Food Administration License Mo. G--54392

BERRY O'KEL_L_Y
WHOLESALE

GROCERIES AND GENERAL MERCHANDISE
FLOUR, HAY, CORN, OATS, COTTON-SEED MEAL, HULLS, DAIRY FEED ETC
Special

Prices on

Car-Load

Lots
METHOD, N. C. July

Warehouse on Southern Railroad




19, 1920,

Dr. Geo. F.. Haynes,
Washington, D. C.
Dear Dr. Haynes:relative
I am in receipt of your letter of the 15thAto large
tracts of land for settlement of Negroes in the tidewater of
North Carolina.
I don't know of any such places rirht at this
time but the first time I am in this section of the state will tak
pleasure in seeking this information and will write concerning
same.

Raleigh.

Would you be interested in securing 1000 acres near
I know of a place near hero that could be secured.
With best wishes, I am
Yours very truly,

I am also writing several friends who live in the TidewlAtr
of North Carolina and am requesting them to write you.

P. S.

FMVEN TED
DEPAITIMEN1 OF I_NBOR
1UL 2 1 1920
Director of Nero

Economics

1

ALL CONTRACTS AND AGREEMENTS MUST BE CONF!RMEE HY VViLMrNGTON OFT ICE

HUGH MAcRAE &
HUGH MAC RAE ,cmniRscAN
C. VAN LEUVEN , PRESIDEN,
M. F. H . GOUVERNEUR NICE PRESIDENT
P.M .SHEPPA RD , SECRETARY

nDr.pESS

'

C.C.TIONT, TO

CO.,1NCORPORATED

FARM LANDS
MURCHISON

COMPANy

NATIONAL BANK

SMALL FARMS
FOR
MARKET GARDENING,DAIRYING,

BUILDING

FRUITS, POULTRY AND STAPLE CROPS
IN THE
WILMINGTON DISTRICT

J C. Mc EACHIN,TREASURER

WILMINGTON. NORTH CAROLINA

July 27th, 1920.

John E. Taylor,
413 McRae Street,
Wilmington, N.C.
I have your letter of July 17th, and

r. Cowan also

handed me the letter which was addressed to you by George W.
Haynes, which letter I am sending you herewith.
I would suggest that you forward to hir. Haynes the
information suggested in our letter of July 16th, an

also

make the statement that larger areas of land of desirable
quality could probably be secured in this territory.
I am enclosing herewith an editorial from the
Charlotte Observer, which states very clearly the agricultural
advantages of this particular section, and which possibly might
be desirable to enclose in your letter.
Yours very truly,

05,70.4444%j
President.

CVL/H-

SEVEN TO EIGHT MONTHS OF ACTUAL GROWING SEASON IN EACH YEAR. WITH OPEN WINTERS.




THREE TO FIVE CROPS GROWING ANNUALLY ON THE SAME GROUND.




September 18, 1920.

SK/DM018-MILM LAND °MIXT,
Marinette, Wis.
Gentlememe

=gum Mr. Ralph

Skidmore, Secy.

Tour oordial letter giving very olear liseueslon
or instances where you handled your sale of land
la Marinette 00aat7 vas reoeive4. t also received
the booklet and paper you seat. Yor all of these
thank you very- much as it dyes complete Jurormation on methods in /and settlement.

Tours very

Director of Negro Soonomdcs.

Ow;

July

•

Dr.George
Director of Nogro Economics,

RZCEIVED

U.S.Depart-ront of Lnbor,

DEPARIMENT OF LABOR
AM 2 1920.
Director of Negro Economics

1:oforr1n7

youl• letter of the thirteenth instant,I hv

say that I had the inforIntion therein sroken of by the locni nf-rPrr
and h3d the chwiber of coerce tplce it up.
I am submitting S040 correspondence with newsr:-,rer clirrings
and hope the same may prove of solqe vrlue to you.
2.74

Fo,- -:.onc117 convinco(T.

this iAmediate section

,

nrr, opportunities

in

for the settlement of Negro tenants and laborers

because they can soon become landowners.




Respectfully yours,

AMMON&

lams&




413 MacRae Street
Wilmington, N.C.
July 29, 1920.

Dr. George E. Haynes,
Directcrof Negro Bconomdcs,
U.S. Department of Labor,
Wtshinirton, D.C.
Dear Sir:
Referring to your letter of the thirteenth instant,
I have to say that I had the information therein spoken of by the
local papers ant had the chamber Gf com;erce take it up.
I am sabmittin; some correspondence with newspaper
clippings and hope the sage may prove of MNMO value to you.
I am personally (convinced that there are opportunities
in this imaediate section tOr the settlement of Negro tenants and
laborers bsuauie they can soon become landosmers.
Respectfully youro,

Signed:

J.E. Taylor.




C 0
PHRSONAid
508 Fayetteville St.,
Durham, N.C.
August 24, 1920.
Dear Dr. Haynes:
Concerning the mattr of which you wrote some
time
ago, I am reliably informed by a good friend of
mine
that some propositions can be fouul in North
Carolina
that will be of great interest to you.
It is thot that they will conform entirely to the
desired end and will prove highly attractive.
I shall be very glaa to keep in touch with the
situation, at your suggestion; or if you will write
Mr. W. Goalea,
Mutual Branch, Fayetteville St.,
Durham, he can give you fall information.
I trust the matter has net closed since my rocoipt
of your fi st inquiry.
gith sincerest lood wlehes, I al:.

Yours very truly,

Sibned;

A.




_g_SeeeLl
HUGH MLGRAE & 00.,INCOR2ORATED
_FARM LANDS
Aurchison National Bank Bldg.
Wilmington, North Carolina
July 16, 1920.
John E. Taylor,
413 MacRae Street,
Wilmington, N.C.
I notice from aa article in the Dispatch that the
Director of Negro 300UOMIes of the Department of Labor, has
inquired of you le reeard to lanls Ahich mieet be tumid foe the
establishment of Negev families. The article does not -p into
details eseeciaely, but I would assume that the plan would require a tract of 500 or more acres for subdivision.
Opr Amoany has a very lecirable tract of land about
half mile West of Ashton, which mleht be used as e basil for
such a projeot. This tract is crossed by Kelly Creek which
lies in quite) a ravine, providing the land with eood natural
drainage which could be readily extenaed to Include the entire
tract. The quality of the sail is high grade. Most of the
land is olt-over land, but there are a few acres of land in
cultivation. The area is alightly less than OUU acres. We
also have option on aoeroximately 1500 acres of lani atjoinine
or near the above described property, of leieh 062 acres le a
tract on which the title has been perfected under the Torrens
System, and which lies between the Compaay's land ani the railroad, and pertly on the Southern side of the Company's land.
In the locality where this property is situated, tharq !kre A number of Negro families already established en their oeu eend.
while I am not in position to make a specific quotation at the moment, I believe that the entire area referred to
above, or the Company's land separately, could be delivered at
a price not exceedine ..;;17.50 per acre.
Yours very traly,
Signed: C. Van Leuven, President.




C o

July 13, 1920.

Mr. John E. Taylor,
413 MacRae Street,
Wilmington, N.C.
117 dear Mr. Taylor:
This office has boon asked for informaien about
larTe tracts
of available la:11 tha mitt be utilized for the
settlement
of Negro tenants and laborers. Could you send
me any informattia alon; this line as to the owners of
tracts of from
five to tan thousand acres; or could you tell
me -orobable
persons from Woo,11
aouli gat such information?
TSanking you for your attention, I am

Yours very truly,

Director of Neqrn Economics.




Cony

A.C. Mutual Ta-Pe InTa-,a-tce Company
Durham, N.C.
July 15, 1920.
Dr. Geo. E. Haynes_
Department of Labor,
Washington, D.C.
Dear sir:
Replying to your letter of the 13, making inquiry of
vacant land, beg to state that there is quite a bit -f vacant
land which could be tamed into service to advants<;e in this
state.
There is a tract of fl,re tilousand acres in sight miles
of Durham on the Uational Hi41 wry. I do not %now the .iarties
who own it, but they expressed to one of our travelinc; men,
Mr. W. Gomez, that the property as for sale. His aiaress is
Durham, N.C.
You might also write Mr. Hull BCCrfie of Wilmirgton, N.C.
his company owns large tracts of land that might be available.
Also Dr. U.S. Brown, Winton, N.C., All cjve you information on
this.
I trust this irtormation vvill be of service to you, and
If we can be of further help to you, please aiyise us.

Yours very truly,
Signed:

A.M. Moore.




Cooy
HUGH MacliAB & CO., IFO0R20RATED
PAM LANDS
Murchison National Bank 311g.
5ilmington, N.G.
July 27, 1920.
Jchr E. Tvlor,
413 McRae 3treet,
Wilmington, N.C.
I have your letter of July 17th, and gr. Cowan also
handel we the letter Which -Alas addressed to you by George E.
Haynes, whi,312 letter I am senling you herewith.
I would. suggest that you forward to Jr. Haynes the
informatioa sagsosted in our letter of July 16th, and also
melte the st'Ite-Ant, that lar,;er areas
land of desirable
quality ocull i:robably be secured in this territory.
/ am enclosing herewith an editorial from the
Charlotte Observer, Allah states vc-ry clearly ti_s agricu.;.caral
advantages of this ig,rtioular snoti:m, and Atlioh 2ossibiy misnt
be desirabl.e to enclose in your letter.
'roam very truly,

Signed:

O. Van Lew7en, 2res.




Co.e

Calhoun Colored School
Calhoun, Lowndes Co., Ala.

Mr. George B. Haynes,
Department of Labor,
Wathingtont D.C.
IV dear Kr. Baynes:
Your letter of July 13 wan roceived a. few days ax, but r delayed answering until I could inquiro about the land you referred to around
Herkeville.
Judge Wood lived at Mt. Willing, about ten miles south of Calhean, but
as Ju...Loe iis intooe.lto oore largeloy a Leyneville, which as :jou know is
our coenty seat. I believe that Mrs. Wood is living at the home place
in Mt.Willing. I have not been abls to ascertain anything definite in
regard to the lani so; ilayneville. I dii oot write to headcoarters for
I knew if there was any thought of purchasing this Lsnd at Hayneville the
priee would be raised immediately uoon my askino for infuriation. Often
it is best 'or our euheol to secuueo prices through a third earaon SA the
people at large seam to feel an institution can pmy more than an individual. I an sorry I cannot write more definitely in reed to thio otter,
but this I feel is sure, that the Ahite oeople at Rayneville would not
welcome a settlement of Mai:;roes near tnem. It is the oho aommunity that
has always felt the stronsest opposition to (lallicuo. I elk; this after
speakieo to scmc of our men. This mi3ht not mane ony dif.J:erenoe tc the
plan your delartment may have in mind.
Hayneville is ten miles from the railroad.
his I also feel to be a
great disadvantage to a forming people as in (114.10 of aucoessful agricultural work there is no shipping. point for oroduee eearer than ten miles.
The Bells who own so much of Calhoun want to sell their Ahole property,
but you and I both krioW it 'Will. he an unwise thiilog to start a second enterprise right in the midst of one already started. It is so difficult to
ran these numerous plantations i7:;lat we are looking forward to the time when
the Bells will be glad to soil at a low figure and than I hope we mill be
able to continue the selling of farms to the Negroes and thus control this
part of the community. This statemsmt is for you only as it would be a
disadvantage to have Bell hear of our hope.
The land we were hoping to buy of Mr. Irene:haw has been purchased and is
bein sold out to the people. Mere were 2201 acres in the track. The
Phelps Stokes Fund gave Calhoun $5,000, to purchase farm land for the
school as we have been renting for some years. 254 acres wore convoyed
to the school leaving 1947 acres for sale.

The price of the land was $20 per acre malting the total amount to be paid
444,020. The 45,000 for school land reduced the amount to be secured to
$39,020, elus expenses of serve, land title and other lawyer fees,
boundary stones ael Mr. Cheanutt's saleey for oversight of part of the
work. This latter expense eill e _bele as long as his serviees are needed..
Six friends sebscribed t 5,000 each and four others subscribet the remainLee amount. There were several temporary loans also securaa throe* the
house of Lee, Hieeineon and Comeaey Where ehe loans are ueite; handled..
There are very few houses on che plantation and this has delayed the sale
of tho letnie bet we hope before another tall to obliterate this difficulty by putting up a few houses where they are really needed. The land
is leee- soil et eeieeo earyine frem 42U to ;:160 eer acre, of the Lend at
ttere ie a very little amount. As the land was bought
the lattoafter crops were in the ground Mr. Crenshaw rented the land for 1919 so
we only had poesession January 1920.
Of the 1947 aeres for eele money has already- Leen pai:i by eleven persons
for 33e acres. There are under reatel 466 acres. Maly of the mer An
are renting wanted to bey, but we were hot sure that we wanted them to
buy as we ao not waet tc se,L. to people withcut education ahd training unless they were particulerly fine material for we hope to make this plantation ens wnere car ereetuatee aed fritter ex-students of the sohool or persons veto eneo beee eluz .ted in other eehools, can settle.
You wili see that tnere is a epee deal of leel lyine idle. :each of this
ill erase leet are while not rented All this yeer ho eivee arid thus inerease the receipts. You eay wonder with the call for lani why we are
not able to secure the beyers ana renters that .re necessary to -ase up
the hand. As we did not take possession until the first of January mahy
of the men eere afraid o A64.11, to wake arraneeeents for the cumin- year,
other's did not have eeeh eith which to make tee first peemtnt or
build
homes or to buy stoek. Tease lersoee are reneene ernal elaces and mow
of the men are makine money elsewhere with the idea of purchasing this
year. The largest aerance pa,paent that vas made was ci650,in other easel;
we have allowed them to pay only $20 as an advance eeement. It depended
upon the reasons for shortage of money.
have one thus fully into this account, but I did not know What points
you wanted me to touch ueon.
To carry this work secosesfully m.d more quickly than it ear be
lone
under existing conditions we thoull have a fend of not less than 410,000.
that could be used derine the next five years to advaeee to the people in
the may of beyine stook: and puttin- up homes for them. If we AD this
I feel that we could quickly maks s suceees of the Whole plan. At the
same time I am convinced that the mate, opportunities for makihg laree money
away from Calhoun is not a bai plan for some of the men who uan eo off for
five or six eonths, especially as most of them can ;11t work liear enoufAL to
spend their Sundays at home. /f they are hawing land and their families
are living upon it there is little daneer of the men drifting away permanently.







After trenty-et4ht years in Calhoun my sreat hope is
that me can
the land loaned by Bell,bence control the little cente
r near the station and the central store ani cotton 4n. I only
hope / Ii111 live
lons enow:h tr see this done.

Vory sincerely yours,
uharlotte R. Thorn
vriacioal.




Dr. Geo. S. Baynes,
db.shin„ton, D.C.
Dear Dr. Hajues:I a i rooeipt of your leut.er Li one li)th
relative
to i ge tracts or' latrl for 3ettlement of Negro
es in the tidewater of
North Carolina. I 1on't no of any srh place
s riht at this time bat
the first time
am in this sectios of the state will take
r:leasttre in
seekin:=2; this information aril will art te concerninz
: sass.
Italei3h.

Would yoi be inton.43„el i
IkflOW of a place near her-) j

se(•;uri: ; 1% iores usar
oul i b secursd.

dith best wiftus, I am

Y Jura very timiy,

Siped:

Be

Melly

I am al.30 writin:; se-sera]. frienis ‘.tio live Ir.. the Ttinw
ator of bforth
Oarolina anti a., reqt.e Ling. them to write yc,u.

rief taternent
oftheir dvantages
pportunities
a-n.d



kr
•

.
15 let vit,
a

INDEX
Bees and Honey
36
Building Material .... 46
Clearing
8-11
Climate
5
20-31
Crops
Dairying
32
Education
45
Fish
36
Fruit Belt
5-6
Fruit Growing
36-43

Fruits (Small)
43-45
Foreword
1
Game
36
Health
47
Live Stock
32-35
Location
13-19
Markets
14
Michigan's Progress.. 3
Population
7
Poultry
34

Pruning
Rainfall
Roads .
Seed Growing
Soil
Spraying
Taxes
Timber
Transportation
Water Supply

39
8
11
31
6
39
46
9-11
2-7
8

FOREWORD
Mr. Swigart resided in Michigan for many years and nearly twenty years ago
founded this business. Following upon his purchases of extensive areas of cutover timber lands he became active in colonizing and developing this district.
He is identified with the founding of a number of towns and more recently
Wellston where local headquarters are maintained.
In making low terms to give people of limited means a chance to acquire
farm homes, Mr. Swigart is a pioneer. His purpose was to settle the lands with
deserving, industrious people, bringing them from the thickly settled rural
districts of other states. Neighborhoods settled by congenial, well-meaning, rightliving people accustomed to earning their living by honest toil are bound to
do well wherever conditions are right. Mr, Swigart recognized the necessity
of securing settlers who would be a credit to the citizenship of our counties.
In 1905 Mr. Swigart moved to Chicago and established offices in the First
National Bank Building, thus getting in closer touch with the increasing number
of home seekers from the adjoining states.
Later he incorporated the Swigart
Land Company and his offices, enlarged from time to time, are now a part of
our general offices.
Here a large clerical force is employed to look after the
Interests of customers, conduct correspondence with all who inquire about land
and direct the work of a dozen traveling general agents and over 200 boc.11
representatives in various states. Thus, the Swigart Land Company has grown
to be one of the largest and strongest land organizations in the United States.
At our Wellston headquarters a number of men are employed in the work of
examining and showing lands, operating a demonstration farm and the Swigart
orchards containing 6,090 trees, also a lumber yard for settlers and the Wellston
garage which houses the company's automobiles. We also own store and hotel
buildings there which we lease, and an office building which we occupy. Through
our Wellston office settlers are advised in the best methods of agriculture for
this district by farm experts in the employ of the company.
The Swigart Land Company has a paid up capital of $350,000 and a considerable surplus. References as to our tinanchil ability and business integrity :ire
the First National Bank of Chicago, Manistee County Savings Bank of Manistee.
Michigan, and the Chicago daily newspapers. The officers of the compat”. are
George W. Swigart. President. C. .1. Canfield. Treasurer, and R. B Swigart, Secre
tary. The heads of the several departments in the business are experienced men
most of whom have been with Mr Swigart for years.
2608




FOREWORD
Our efficient service has made
and
customers
satisfied
many
friends. The insurance we give is
a much appreciated security. We
guarantee titles and amounts of
acreage and give buyers the benefit
of our experience in selecting lands
to suit their purposes, whether for
general or specialized farming, stock
raising, dairying, poultry business
or for fruit or truck growing. Our
reputation as dependable land merchants is our greatest asset and we
feel that that reputation is at stake
in every transaction.
Our lands are first carefully
examined by experts whose examination notes are placed on file at
both the Chicago and Wellston offices. Prices are then deterlmined
in accordance with the lay of the
ground, kind of soil, how watered,
and location with reference to good
roads, schools, towns, telephone lines
and rural mail routes. Our best advertisement is in the qualities and
values given.
Following Mr. Swigart's idea, that
a large acreage must be developed
by the co-operation of many people,
we extensively advertise the opportunities offered. Thus, an investor
has the assurance that sooner op
GEORGE W. SWIGART
later settlers will be placed on land
adjoining his own, thereby bringing
PRESIDENT AND FOUNDER OF
an enhanced value to his land.
SWIGART LAND COMPANY
A cardinal principle which Mr.
1245-1250 First National Bank Bldg.,
Swigart has made a part of this institution is that it lives up to its
CHICAGO
promises. And he insists that fair
and honest representation without
exaggeration be observed by representatives and in all literature and
advertising. We call your attention, therefore, to the conservatism of the statements contained in this booklet which, with the help of its photographic productions, gives a comprehensive idea of the conditions for agriculture and horticulture
in the Swigart Tracts.
The distance is not far from Chicago, or Toledo, at.d the trip can be taken
at small expense and little time lost. We invite you to come and verify what
follows in these pages.
Additional literature, maps and plats and special information will be sent
upon application. Correspondence is invited and as nearly as possible will be
answered on the same day it is received.
Start a savings account in land. While you may work for a time to
pay for the land, the land will never cease working for you.




1

THE SWIGART TRACTS

Lumber was handled by the mills around Manistee Lake by the millions of feet

THE SWIGART TRACTS IN MASON, MANISTEE, LAKE AND WEXFORD
COUNTIES

What advantages have these counties that make them a desirable place
for one to invest for his future farm home, or for any of the
many uses of
farm land? The answer will be better understood when you learn that
the
message in these pages is addressed to people in the states where increase
in
population, with corresponding increase in the price of land, is making it
less
possible every year for persons of average means to obtain farm land. There
are many reasons why people prefer to locate in this part of the United
States.

AMERICA'S THRIET ZONE
Within a radius of 400 miles of Chicago, there are twenty-three billion of
the forty billion dollars' value of the nation's farm property.
The six states
within this radius comprise the Thrift Zone of America's farming.
They have
the largest percentage of farmers earning more than $1,000 per year. Their
lands have outstripped in percentage of increase in value any other part of
country in the past ten years; and their bank deposits of farmers aggregate
larger than those of any other half dozen states. This Thrift Zone is the
center of population of the United States with the greatest number of large
cities.
Its markets are unlimited; nearly the whole nation has to help to
feed its people.
The cost of delivery into its boundaries largely fixes the
standards of prices for agricultural products. A location within this center
means delivery of most produce at least cost for transportation
and in the
better, fresher condition which commands prices above the average
market.
Transportation, which is the life of any section, has here reached highest
development. .That this is the most thickly populated country shows it to
be




2

MICHIGAN GAINING

1
Wheat on one of the older farms in the avtigart Tract

that its sanitary and
the most prosperous; and Government statistics show
you see why people
health conditions are superior to those of other sections. Thus
America.
of
part
thriving
this
in
remain
to
prefer

MICHIGAN GAINING

Thrift Zone.
Michigan is now one of the important states within America's
lly because it was
It was one of the last states to be developed agricultura
Only 30 years ago lumbering was the principal
handicapped by lumbering.
Fame
of the greatest lumber-producing states.
one
was
Michigan
and
industry
her people
of
activity
the
of
because
Michigan
to
come
since
in agriculture has
stock raising. Figin general and specialized farming, orcharding, dairying and
among the states
ures issued by the Census Bureau show that Michigan ranks
as follows:
THIRD, in
FIRST, in rye and beans; SECOND, in potatoes, apples and sheep;
FOURTH,
factories;
cheese
and
dairying
beets,
sugar
buckwheat, grapes, pears,
; EIGHTH, in
in cherries and honey; FIFTH, in peaches; SIXTH, in cranberries
H, in barley;
plums; NINTH, in oats; TENTH, in eggs and poultry; ELEVENT
FOURTEENTH, in
TWELFTH, in wheat; THIRTEENTH, in hay and forage;
produce less than
corn. It is a tine showing and means that each of 34 states
FIFTEENTH, in
stands
Michigan
mentioned.
products
the
of
does
Michigan
ENTH,
value of her farm lands; SIXTEENTH, in the number of farms; SEVENTE
IRST,
in value per acre of farm lands; EIGHTH, in population, and TWENTY-F
in land area.
census
In 1850 Michigan ranked THIRTY-THIRD in population, and every
districts of
rural
the
in
rate
death
The
rank.
higher
a
to
progressed
has
since




3

THE SWIGART TRACTS

A salt block at Ludington. Hills of salt are piled up by dumping
of evaporated brine which is pumped from wells 2,500 feet deep. from overhead vats
With Manistee this
is the greatest salt producing district in the world. Other cities
make a specialty of
salt baths for rheumatism, skin and blood diseases, kidney and
liven complaints,
and obtain good results by this treatment.

Michigan for the past ten years has been about 10 per cent, less than in
any rural
district of the entire United States. In no state are there more healthful
conditions.
The water supply is famous for its purity and abundance.
It has the
northern climate that has produced the world's strongest race of men.
If one
is northern born he needs the tonic in the change of seasons of this latitude
and
Is never sure that he and his family can stand the test of southern
or hot
climates.
If you read much about Michigan you will learn that bankers hold
conventions to provide ways and means to aid farmers; development bureaus
have been
organized; farmers' granges multiply and grow; railroads are
being extended;
improvements are made on Government harbors ($1,000,000 and $350,000,
respectively, expended on Ludington and Manistee harbors); alfalfa
campaigns are
conducted; potato growers are organized; Government agricultural
experts are
employed by many of the counties. A state-wide good roads'
movement is backed
by strong, financial aid.
There is progressive legislation for the farmer, recent
laws being the Exemption from taxation for 5 years of settlers
while they improve new land, and a seed law which regulates the purity
of seed.
The state is making big strides in educational work. Agricultura
l instruction is being spread by agents of the state agricultural
college. In no state is
there a more aggressive, general movement to advance agriculture
and promote
the interests of the farmer in his producing, his shipping and marketing
facilities
and for bettering his living conditions.
Citizenship is of a high standard in this enlightened state where
there is
united effort for the common good. And to live in Michigan is
indeed a privilege.




4

THE FRUIT BELT

River Street, Manistee, on a holiday. A city of clean streets, good buildings and
enterprising people. Its prosperity, since nearly all of its twenty big lumber
mills have gone, is backed up by farmers who are reclaiming the lands and
whose buying power is the main support of most of its local
institutions.
mICRIGAN'S FAMOUS FRUIT BELT

The U. S. Government Climatological Report of Section 62, Western-Lower
"The climate of this section differs from that of Section 63
Michigan, says:
(Central and Eastern part of Lower Peninsula) in but one important particular.
The prevailing winds being westerly, the influence of Lake Michigan modifies,
to a considerable degree, the climate of a strip of territory 20 to 30 miles wide
This vast body of water, which absorbs heat more slowly
along its eastern shore.
than land during summer, and parts with it with equal slowness during winter,
serves to temper the extremes of heat and cold of the winds blowing over it,
which in turn ameliorate the temperature to a considerable distance inland.
This narrow strip of territory is known as the Fruit Belt, because this peculiarity
of its climate enables the cultivation of peaches, grapes, and other tender fruits,
with a success that is impossible in other regions of the same latitude not simiilarly protected."
Since the report was issued, the virgin forests in Western Michigan have
been removed, so that Lake Michigan's influence, and therefore the Fruit Belt
width, are now conceded to extend 10 miles further inland.
The Fruit Belt of Western Michigan is a great health resort. The medical
fraternity recommend it. It is estimated that 500,000 people from all parts of
the United States flock here every year to enjoy the clear, bracing atmosphere,
the delicious water, boating and bathing. They consume millions of dollars of
the farmers' products.




5

THE SWIGART TRACTS

•

4

Electric rower Dam near Wellston. 15-foot head. Supplies light for Manistee
and Cadillac and furnishes power for constructing a series of seven
dams
in Manistee County. Construction work is nearly completed on the
second dam, which has a 50-foot head, and the others in their
order will have 70-foot, 65-foot, 60-foot, 30-foot and 65-foot
heads. A great deal of benefit will be derived in a number of ways from this enterprise by the residents on
the Swigart Tracts.
Thousands, however, who visit Michigan's beach resorts, do not
wander
from the shore, and seeing no more of the state get an incorrect
idea of it.
Many seem to think that all of Michigan is like the shore at St. Joe. Now
the coast line of Michigan is sand with the soil washed out just the same
as
the coast line of Maine is rock with soil washed away, but the soil throughout
Michigan is no more all sand than the soil throughout Maine is all rock.
From
such a limited knowledge a prejudice has been formed which is a stumbling
olock for many who would otherwise be purchasers of Michigan land.
Others,
have been too prone to let themselves be prejudiced
against
the
whole
state from a limited knowledge of some small section of it. To get a clear
idea of
what is in store for homeseekers in our part of Michigan we ask
you to come
inside our counties and make investigation.
INSIDE OUR COUNTIES
The Soil
The soil in this four-county district is unlike the sand along
the lake
shore. It is a productve loam with sufficient sand to make it a
warm soil,
sufficient substance to give it body, a quick producer and a moisture
retainer.
It practically never fails to respond to clover cultivation. In wet spells
it
absorbs and takes more of water and remains in better physical
condition than
does clay soil. In dry spells its moisture is economically conserved in a manner
that clay soil is incapable of. It is easier to handle and to keep in good
physical condition, through all seasons, and consequently has a
wider range




6

4

OUR COUNTIES

harbor, one of the finest and safest
Pere Marquette Lake forms a large, deep water
greatest car-ferry port in the
on Lake Michigan and has made Ludington the
to Milwaukee (96 miles),
world. Steel car-ferries carry loaded freight trains on
the opposite shore.
ports
other
and
Kewaukee
Manitowoc, Two-Rivers,
bushels and marks
The grain elevator shown has a capacity of 75,000County.
Mason
in
re
the growth of agricultu
of crops than
cedar, spruce,
these lands.
forests, and is

hemlock, tamarack,
strictly clay land. White and Norway pine,
trees grew on
birch
and
beech
maple,
ash,
oak,
elm,
,
basswood
up such great
It is indeed a soil of great strength that pushed
per acre.
now producing from 100 to 300 bushels of potatoes

days longer in the Fruit
The growth of vegetation is from ten to twenty
is less danger from
there
is,
That
Michigan.
of
rest
the
in
than
Belt section
e frost and freezing
Seasonabl
fall.
the
in
frost
early
late frost in the spring, or
remedies. With them she destroys malarial
are Nature's most potent sanitary
general healthfulness.
and other disease germs, purifies the air and promotes
spring adds greatly to
early
and
fall
late
the
during
soil
the
of
frosting
The
Unseasonable frost is the terror of farmers, gardenits vitality and fertility.
California's frost in the
parts of the United States.
all
in
ers and fruit growers
its ruined orange and
in
dollars
of
millions
many
state
fall of 1912 cost that
of
A March or April frost frequently kills the plants
lemon crops and trees.
and potato crops; and the Virthe Georgia, Louisiana or Texas melon, tomato
Illinois and Indiana farmers
ginia, Kentucky, Tennessee, Missouri, Southern Ohio,
and other crops. The orange
frequently suffer damage to their tobacco, corn
Observant readers of
waves.
groves in Florida are periodically ruined by cold
between the Arctic
continent
the
of
all
parts
that
aware
are
e
current litureatur
changes, but
circle and the Gulf of Mexico, suffer more or less from climatic
n of Lake
the Fruit Belt of Western Michigan enjoys the excellent protectio
Michigan.
number
By the census of 1910 these four counties had a population of 74,228;
2,250;
of farms, 6,283; native white farmers, 4,011; foreign born farmers,
2,219 miles of
negroes and other non-whites, 22; average sized farm, 80 acres;
47 farmers' granges;
wagon roads; 273 school houses; 564 teachers; 141 churches;
railroads: Pere
68 postoffices; 35 rural free delivery routes; 27 newspapers;
Arbor,
Ann
Marquette, Manistee East and West, Grand Rapids & Indiana,
p lines: Northern
Manistee & Northeastern and Arcadia & Betsey River; steamshi
e steamers, Pere
Michigan Transportation Co. (Chicago boat line), Pere Marquett
ation lines.
lumber
transport
and
salt
of
number
a
besides
ferries,
car
e
Marquett
Principal industries: salt pumping, lumbering, and farming.




7

THE SWIGART TRACTS

The last forest to disappear on the Swigart
Tracts. This forest had a mixture of
beech, maple, hemlock, birch, tamarac
k and pine around Pine Lake.
Our rainfall is between 32 and 33 inches,
well distributed over the growing season which in Western Michigan average
s from 140 to 160 days. Excellent drinking water is usually obtained
on the farm by drive wells
at a
depth of from 15 to 25 feet. About one-ele
venth or 61
/
2 per cent. ot the area is in
bodies of water quite evenly distributed.
There are springs of clear, sparkling
water, and brooks and creeks as clear as
crystal. The region abounds with beautiful inland lakes blue and deep and stocked
with choice fish.
The surface of the country in general is
gently rolling and very similar
In the four counties.
There are tracts almost as level as
a floor. Here and
there will be found hills, but the larger portion
has a slightly undulating surface which requires no tile and drains
and does not wash. Practically all of the
land can be easily worked with machinery, and
one accustomed to flat country
will find plenty of level land. As a whole
it is a well-drained country.
The
district drains to Lake Michigan where
the altitude of the land is 600 to 700
feet, and on the east side of the counties,
1,200 to 1,400 feet.
Timber and Clearing
Originally these were timber counties, devoted
entirely to lumber interests.
Millions of logs were floated to the mills in Ludingt
on and Manistee, down the
Pere Marquette and Big Manistee Rivers, and their
branches, and millions
more were conveyed to the saws by railways. The
timber consisted of White
and Norway pine, hemlock, tamarack, cedar, spruce,
basswood, elm, oak, ash,
maple, beech and birch trees. Mighty forests of
them grew and flourished on
the lands for centuries, and presented the appeara
nce of immense cathedrals
with lofty vaulted roofs of foliage and perpetu
al green.
White and Norway




TIMBER AND CLEARING

4
Sheep are an aid to clearing our lands.
it furnished
pine grew to great heights, often 125 to 150 feet, and much of
the
six saw logs of 16 feet, or eight logs of 12 feet in length, before reaching
In heavy pine forests, the tree foliage was so dense as to
lower limbs.
to be
exclude the sun's rays, and thus little plant life aside from ferns was
earth,
found. However, as these forests were cut and the sunshine reached the
there sprang up a second growth of hardwood
be almost
The original growth varied over the district. One section would
on a
again
and
kinds,
of
different
hardwood
one
adjoining
the
and
all pine,
was cut
large portion of the land there was a mixture of both. As the timber
years ago, it is sometimes difficult to determine exactly what kind predominated.
may
Often, where the pine stump appears, more rapidly decaying hardwood
have vanished. On some "forties" a very little of "saw timber" has been left,
and on most all of them there is a good-sized second growth of oak and "black"
pine, and popple or aspen, and in many locations, wild cherry, plum and crab
oak"
apple trees. Our second growth oak should not be confused with "scrub
which in some counties grows to a height or only ten to twenty feet. Our second
to
growth oak (white oak) reaches a height of 40 to 50 feet and black pine, 60
75 feet. Black pine is an original growth which is not to be confused with the
smaller "jack pine" growth. The size of our second growth oak which prevails
is important to the settler, because 1st—some of it is sufficiently large to warrant cutting into lumber by portable saw mills; black pine is harder than Norway
pine and makes better lumber than hemlock; 2nd—there are on the majority of
the "forties" sufficient second growth trees that furnish two to foul standardsize posts to the tree, to provide for fencing the land; and 3rd--our second growth
timber is sufficient on most "forties" to supply a family with fuel for heating
and cooking for a number of seasons, and therein is much value when you consider that farmers elsewhere using coal, expend seldom less than three hundred
dollars in five years for fuel. Stove wood in some cases has paid for the lands
Additional wood industries ii, our district are the
from which it was taken.
cutting of railroad cross ties from second growth oak, lath bolts from "black"
pine, shingles from pine stumps, and shipping popple wood to pulp makers.
A value to the stumps, besides their use for shingles, fuel and fences has
been given by the process of extracting wood alcohol and turpentine from




9

THE SWIGART TRACTS

4

One of our new roads which, when first brushed out and cleared and before grading, are generally better than the average country roads in the
neighboring states. View in Lake County.
them, besides the growing demand for their reduction into pulp fibre for
paper. Where turpentine and pulp plants have been established within distance
for economical transportation the stumps are disposed of at a profit.
Clearing is nowhere near as hard work as it was twenty years ago because
of many economical devices and improved methods, and because refuse has
since largely rotted away, leaving scarcely any forty acres without some space
where clearing can be done with comparatively little labor.
Hardwood stumps
rot quickly, and the remaining pine stumps as their roots become weaker, are
not so stubborn. On some pieces of land there are comparatively few stumps.
The cost of clearing varies as no two forties are exactly alike, and much
difference is often found on adjoining forties in the amount of labor necessary.
On occasional open spots, the grass sod is practically ready to be turned by
the plow, with little or no expense; on places covered by clumps of brush, a
man and team will yank out the brush at trifling cost; but most of the district
is cut-over land.
Settlers do their own stumping as a rule, using their spare
time for doing it, and keep no special account of the time and labor required.
They know, however, that their stump pulling is done economically by the
utilization of "in between" and odd times of the year.
The new settler at the beginning cuts out the brush and Piles the logs
and loose wood, and does not stop then to pull the larger stumps on account
of the greater importance of raising feed for the coming winter, and starting
his garden. The first year, on a number of acres thus bared, plowing and cultivating is done around remaining stumps with less difficulty than one would
think, and the land so prepared is utilized for crops. He then pulls the stumps
in an adjoining field at convenient times until that field is entirely cleared and
then goes at another field and so on until in time he has a general-purpose farm
largely cleared on 40 to 80 acres, worth respectively, $3,000 to $6,000 and up,


http://fraser.stlouisfed.org/
Air
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

10

ROADS

•

A road in Manistee County. Our counties believe in good roads, and
are building more every year.
a good
in proportion to his improvements; and on acreage he properly developes
commercial orchard, the value may run into hundreds of dollars per acre.
Steel yard and screw (tripod) stump pullers, cable and capstan devices,
rapid
costing new from $50 to $150, tip out the stumps, clean and clear, at a
with
rate. There is a case in point near Wellston, where a crew of four men,
two teams and a steel yard machine, removed 240 stumps for each day of ten
to the
hours or 24 an hour. Taking an estimated average of about 60 stumps
the
acre, the amount of ground thus gone over was 4 acres per day and thus
cost per acre was small. Two or three settlers often club together and buy or
rent a machine. Dynamiting and powder blasting are used by many as a
saving of labor; and boring and burning is an economical method.
The Roads
•

The first roads in this district were built for hauling logs to river banks
where they were slid by "chutes" into the water, and for hauling supplies and
provisions from railway stations to lumber camps. Both narrow and standard
gauge railroads penetated sections not accessible to streams, and their grades,
after the tracks were pulled up, served as wagon roads for the first settlers.
Few of these roads are now used because as settlers have been increasing in
number, many section and half-section line roads have been opened, and more
are being built in all the townships. The section and half-section line roads
are required to be four rods wide. It gives more oppurtunity for grading,
drainage and the utilization of gravel and other material along the road sides.
The roads are good, and, even when first cleared and brushed out, are better
than the average dirt roads of Illinois and Indiana. In wet weather when their
dirt roads are almost impassable ours are in good condition. Many miles o,
model stone and gravel roads are being built by our counties with state aid.
They facilitate the delivery of farm products. Automobiles from Wellston have
no difficulty in going to any section of land in the Tract during the automobile
season. Nine and four-tenths miles is the distance of the average American farm




11

THE SWIGART TRACTS




Some farm homes built by settlers on the Swigart Tracts.
12

LOCATION COUNTS

Hoag Lake in Preesoil Township, Mason County.
from its nearest shipping point, according to statistics gathered by the United
States office of public roads. The average time spent on the road by farmers
is twenty days of each year, and a locality where good roads cut that time in half
has a great advantage.
Country people in some states, where there are localities of hub-deep and
bottomless roads, lead a dreary existence, and many such locatlities are becomThe farmer can count our roads as a
ing poorer and more sparsely settled.
profit in saving time, wear and tear on horses, harness and vehicles, and in
enhancing the value of his real estate; and he may also count them as a pleasure
and an aid to sociability, religion, and education.
A silo census of Western Michigan was recently taken. It shows that one
thousand silos have been erected in twenty counties in our part of Michigan
in two years. In the number are Mason, Manistee, Lake and Wexford Counties,
where the SWIGART TRACTS are located, and this four-county district built
its full share of them. This shows that these counties are progressing on the
Maintenance of fertility on farm land
most substantial agricultural basis.
everywhere calls for live stock. We are taking measures to avoid the mistake
by worn-out agricultural districts of other states of taking everything from
Clover, alfalfa and ensilage make
and putting nothing back into the soil.
In
possible the keeping of more live stock on the same amount of acreage.
Illinois 2 out of 3 farms ars operated by tenants; In Michigan less than one
out of six, and the record is better still of the 6,283 farms in Mason, Manistee,
Lake and Wexford counties, only one out of twelve of which is operated by a
tenant.
LOCATION COUNTS

The Swigart Tracts located in Alason. Manistee, Lake and Wexford counWellston, the headties, are in the geographical center of the Fruit Belt.
quarters and center of the Tracts in these counties, is only 176 miles on a
direct line from Chicago, and 300 miles from Bloomington, Indiana, the center
The Tracts are thus within the circle
of population of the United States.
of America's Thrift Zone. Within 175 miles of Wellston there are 55 cities with
The farmers' advantage will continue as long as three families expect
to live on one farmer's products; and the ratio of city to agricultural
population grows larger every year.




13

THE SW1GART TRACTS

it
ilk

St. Joseph's Church, Manistee
Methodist Church
Manistee
Catholic Church, Freesoil

Methodist Church, Preesoil

Catholic Church
Ludington

Congregational Church
Manistee

German Lutheran Church, Manistee

a population of four million people.
The most prosperous communities the
world over are located on an ocean, lake or river.
The Swigart Tracts thus
located near the central point of Lake Michigans east shore, with
harbors
at Ludington and Manistee are in the direct path of the Great
Lakes' traffic.
In competition with shipments from Western and Southern states
which requi,re
24 to 56 hours en route, our products placed on boats or trains in the
evening are
in Milwaukee and Chicago before 7 'clock the next morning.
Thus it will be
seen that the unique and strategic geographical location of the
Swigart Tracts is
such as to secure for them permanent and decided advantages over most
sections
in the matters of marketing, and cheap and quick transportat
ion.
Location
spells opportunity.
There is good land lacking markets, lacking transports-




14

-

LOCATION COUNTS

..1

•

Some or the country ecnools In the Swigart Tracts

•

tion, and thus isolated from the path of progress which you would not buy
because you can't get enough opportunity with it.
For over 20 years Mr. George W. Swigart has been identified with colonizing
work in Michigan. He has seen stately forests of hemlock, maple, beech and
birch displaced by orchards of apples, peaches, pears and cherries, thousands of
acres of wild land turned into fields of clover and vegetables, hauxits of fox
changed
and deer turned into pastures for horses and cattle and lumber camps
logging
to a countryside of farmers. He used to drive by team over winding
roads to see the lands. There were only a few log houses a few miles apart. Now
automobiles drive over good section line roads and cross bridges that span
in
the streams through all parts of the Tract, with farms and school houses
beginThe
days.
those
in
slowly
started
Settlement
time.
the
of
most
sight
ning was uphill work. A small voice was Michigan's in those days against the
deal of
thundering call of the West where 20 years ago there was a great
cheap land. Even in Illinois, land was quite reasonable. But immigration filled
Land prices everyup the West and in the year 1900 the tide turned back.
of
where then went up and have been going up ever since. Then settlement
the land
the lands in our district commenced in earnest. The rising prices of
For instance
drove half of the farmers of the North Central states to renting.
greatest,
in Illinois, in McLean and Livingston counties where land values are
56% and 60% respectively, of the farms are now operated by tenants.
Another factor that is attracting people to these virgin lands is that farmof the
ers of the North Central states have for years been mining the wealth
This applies
soil instead of conserving it, thus impoverishing many districts.




15

THE SWICART TRACTS

Ludington—
Mason County Court House
Public Library
Model Schools
Ludington Avenue
Life Saving Station




Manistee—
Manistee County Court House
Post Office Building
Public Library
Manistee County Savings Bank
High School
16

LOCATION COUNTS
particularly to sections of country where the land has long been "skinned" as
a result of the year to year renting system.
When our present office was established in Chicago in 1905, we found farmers
paying high rents and city workers struggling against the high cost of living
without making headway, who were anxious to learn about land in Michigan.
We started advertising the lands only 170 miles from Chicago. People commenced
coming and continued to come in ever-increasing numbers until we had to run
a Special Pullman Car and sometimes two cars to accommodate land seekers on
our excursions.
A natural question often asked is, "Why do so many people go to the Swigart
Tracts?" Read on and see if the question is answered. Our faith in Michigan
is shown by our ownership of land in eleven of the twenty counties known as
Lands in
Western Michigan, where we pay taxes to 53 township treasurers.
the four counties mentioned constitute approximately 50,000 acres by inventory, and this amount of land has been kept on sale with new additions. We have
owned all together some 175,000 acres and have settled many hundreds of people on the lands and have been identified with the founding of new towns and
more recently the town of Wellston, where only 9 years ago there was only a
railroad crossing, but which is becoming an important town in the County.
For 20 consecutive years Mr. Swigart has been identified with colonizing work
in this district. Now there are a thousand men backing the work with their brains,
money and muscle. They are the men who have bought Swigart Tracts. Collectively they stand as a guarantee of continued progress in this district. There is
room for a great many more men with their families here.
True citizenship is
rooted to the soil. Come and take your place in our colony. Our communities
are building up the towns, erecting more schoolhouses, churches, township and
grange halls, building homes, putting up fences, making good roads through
township after township, clearing land, putting up barns, silos, driving wells
to health-giving water and raising stock and crops that pay.
We take pride in Ludington and Manistee.
We have helped our Counties
sustain the prosperity of these former lumber towns, the interests of whose
25,000 people are now allied with agriculture. The influx of our settlers is being
followed by cattle, sheep and hogs. According to the 1910 census, our Counties
had $2,719,346 worth of farm animals, and settlers who have gone on their lands
since then have helped considerably to increase that figure.
Consider the growing demand and the rapidly diminishing supply of good
farm lands at reasonable prices. The Swigart Tracts meet this demand.
Two
hundred and fifty thousand farm renters in Indiana, Illinois and Iowa find renting conditions becoming intolerable; land owners in those states can't get more
acres there for their sons; consider the general movement forward to the land
because of improved methods, better living conditions, increased profitableness
of the farming business and increase of population in the United States at the
rate of 4,000 and 5,000 per day—every day. The entire population doubles once
in every thirty years. In the year 1912 alone, 3,600 familes from other states
moved into the twenty counties of Michigan's Fruit Belt.

A thrifty man's noble ambition is to own a home and call it "my house"
and "my farm." It enlists him forever under the banner of law and
order.




17

THE SWIGART TRACTS

•

An excursion of land-seekers which required 2 Pullman cars and 21 Automobiles.
There were 117 people on this excursion to the Swigart Tracts.

General view of business part of Wellston showing private garage of
the Swigart Land Co. on the left.

4

Our Wellston Headquarters at Welston, Manistee County, Michigan. From here we
show lands in Manistee, Mason, Lake and Wexford Counties.




LOCATION COUNTS

Land and Nonleseekers out on the lands. They comae from till parts. of the
United States.

4

4

Suppose you have a boy ten years old and that you are say, forty years old.
Suppose you buy a farm, or a Swigart Tract, in 1918 while the farmerS are
feeding 110 millions of people. When your boy becomes 40 years of age our
farmers will be feeding 220 million people. What will the farmer be worth30 years from now? There will not be any more land. Farming will hold first
Place among all industries.
Confidence in a-71-tultural progress is the important factor in the colonizing of this land. it is a proven, substantial project that has stood time's test
and out-lived hundreds of booms and schemes in other parts of the country.
Beyond the mere selling of the land is the permanency of the plan which
appeals to men who understand the value of co-operation with a financially
strong, enterprising land colonizing organization in developing and building-up
of the district. We are putting many thousands of dollars received from the
sale of land back into the development of orchards and various other projects
for the betterment of the district.
At first we had only the lands to show. Agriculture was a future matter.
Men who bought then had to possess the faculty of
Faith was necessary.
foresight. But they pinned their judgment on the certainty that land growing
so much verdure, natural grasses, wild grapes, berries, plums, cherries, etc.,
with mild even climate and ample rainfall, so near the great city of Chicago,.
must be utilized to the fullest possible extent.
F. M. Warner, when governor of Michigan, said: "For the man of
limited means and for the man seeking largest returns there is no investment that will yield so large a return as cheap, wild land, if advantageously situated. Especially is this true where some general plan of
development is being carried on in the vicinity where the land is purchased. As governor of the state I wish to bring a message that Michigan
with its rich abundance offers a home and contentment to every earnest
worker."




19

THE SWIGART TRACTS

Clover field, 4 miles from Wellston headquarters. 1917 crop.

Crops of Mason, Manistee, Lake and Wexford Counties
Our soil and climate give farmers widest choice of valuable crops, many
of them highly renumerative. Live stock enable these low-priced lands to be
grazed and farmed successfully in large bodies, but the yield of a 40-acre or
80-acre farm here, well diversified and tilled, or a 20-acre specialty farm, often
excels in financial returns a quarter section in the so-called corn and wheat
states. Herein Michigan surpasses her sister states and those who grasp and
act on this truth will profit by it.
Clover. "Land that will grow clover will grow almost anything." Hundreds of times we have heard this saying from farmers while inspecting our
lands. Our district is called the Clover Belt as clover is natural or indigenous
to the soil and there is no land in these counties that will not raise it. This
has been proven by agricultural experts.
The land-wise man looks for clover here, and finds it in abundance on all
well managed farms. He knows that for seed, forage and fertilization, it is a
most profitable and desirable crop. Nitrogen, the most expensive and necessary plant food, is abundantly supplied by clover; it also supplies much humus;
as a green manure it is excellent. Therefore intelligent farmers place a high
value on clover producing lands.
A double benefit comes from growing clover for seed—by enriching effects
of the plant on the land, and at the same time a cash crop of much value.
Profitable returns are secured from growing Mammoth and Medium Red Clover
for seed, and as price ranges, the income from clover seed farming is greater
than from land yielding 30 bushels of wheat or 60 bushels of corn to the acre,
besides its additional value in maintaining soil fertility.
Our clover seed holds a high record for yield per acre.
It has brought
from $12 to $16 per bulshel for several years past, and our seed tops the market




20

4

ROI'S

A field of alfalfa, showing what is being done on our lands and why
their value is becoming better known.
because of its purity, vitality and freedom from weed seed and because of the
Seeds from our counties are being called for more
plumpness of its kernels.
every season because they germinate and mature more quickly than seeds
grown in the states south of us. Can you not see what this industry would
mean to you on 40 or 80 acres here?
Alsyke Clover does well on the lower lands, and as is also the case with
Red Jane Clover when mixed with grasses, makes a fine quality of hay.
Alfalfa. Situated in the clover belt, and crowned with success at raising
clovers, our farmers have not realized the value of afalfa growing so much
as those in other states where it is needed as a great drought resister, or
where clover meets with but little success. But alfalfa is being raised here
on a constantly increasing scale as its high feeding vp,lue is becoming recognized. It is stimulating dairying and live stock interests of our townships.
Professor Holden says: "Alfalfa is the greatest farm crop; it enriches the
soil; is the greatest of all sub-soilers; is raised upon a wider diversity of soils
than any other crop; grows in Southern California below sea level, in Montana
8,000 feet above sea-level, in the humid sections of the corn belt, and in the
There is no county in Michigan
hills of Nebraska, Wyoming and Arizona.
that cannot produce alfalfa."
Nearly all the land in these counties will each year produce a crop worth
This crop
fifty dollars an acre, if the land is properly prepared and seeded
has been grown here for ten years and is made to yield from three to four or
five tons per acre. Many settlers are sowing a little alfalfa seed with clover, so
the soil may be inoculated in advance of later sowings of alfalfa as the sole
crop. It is a decided success wherever intelligently tried. Alfalfa will become
With plenty of silage and
one of the most important crops in Michigan.
alfalfa hay, our dairying and hog raising are becoming each year more profitable, inasmuch as alfalfa, on account of its high protein content, takes the
Agricultural leaders in Michigan have
place of grain feed to a large extent.
conducted state-wide alfalfa campaigns which have received hearty endorsement and encouraged increased planting.




21

THE SWIGART TRACTS

A crop of Rye and Vetch on a Swigart Tract stumped the year before.
Vetch.
One of the most wonderful plants ever introduced into Michigan
Is Hairy Vetch.
It grows luxuriantly, makes good hay, and if harvested for
seed, pays large returns. Because of its slender vine we plant it with
rye,
whose strong stalks support it, and render it easier to cut.
It twines to the
height of the rye stalks, and is a solid mass of vines and leaves.
Planted in
the fall, it blossoms out the following June, when it is cut for hay, or
is cut
for seed when the rye is ripe. This crop is quite new on this side of the Atlantic.
It is a legume that has a feed and soil-enriching value which some experts

“Comin' Thrn' the Rye" at Wellston. Rye is so hardy and so
counties that it can receive very inconsiderate treatment and persistent in our
still make an
excellent crop.




22

CROPS

Corn near Hoag's Lake, Mason County.

It has been determined
claim is even superior to that of clover or alfalfa.
by a three-year test of an experiment station, that vetch contains more protein
A crop
in its dry feed than either clover or alfalfa, and is equal to cow peas.
of vetch that goes three tons to the acre if plowed under, will add to the, soil
220 pounds of nitrogen and will return 20 pounds of phosphorus, and 132 pounds
To buy the same quantities of these elements in
of potassium to that acre.
commercial fertilizer, would cost about $120. Thus its value for green manuring
A field of vetch with its purple blossoms is a beautiful
will be readily seen.
sight that one never forgets.
Rye is one of
Rye. Michigan ranks first in the United States in Rye.
the most valuable cereals grown. It makes a good crop here, although sown
in any manner, almost any time of the fall, on almost any kind of a seed bed.
Its easy growth and saving of labor make it profitable. When sown early it
may be pastured in late fall and early spring and then makes a fair yield.
Rye plays a more important part in up-to-date soil management as a grain,
forage and cover crop than perhaps any other common grain. It is an ideal
winter cover crop, preventing deterioration in fertility of the soil through the
escape of the vital elements, and especially ammonia and phosphorus.
Corn. Michigan's average yield per acre of corn equals that of most adjoining states. It may surprise the reader to learn that the 1919 government crop
report for November showed Michigan produced four bushels more for each acre
planted, than Illinois, which is "the king of the corn belt." However, the usual
much larger average per acre in Illinois cannot make up for the greater cost of its
land. Corn culture in Michigan can be made as profitable as most anywhere,
if made a specialty, and particular care be given the selection of seed and
preparation of land.
Michigan is one of the fourteen best corn raising states; but our corn
crop is mostly consumed at home, and a large amount of it Is planted for fod-




23

THE SWIGART TRACTS

Twenty acres of beans in Mason County.

Note the gently rolling lay of the land.

der.
The varieties of corn adapted to this country are "White Cap Yellow
Dent," "King of the Earlies," "Burnham's Early Dent." and "Isabell's Sure
Thing," but mainly the flint varieties are grown. Flint corn makes
the best
fodder.
Our corn is mostly of 90 day varieties, grows more ear in proportion
to stalk, and therefore makes the best silage.
The growth of the live stock
industry is such that more corn is being grown and more silos are being
built
each year.
Already as many silos are in evidence as in most parts of central
Illinois.
It is more profitable to grow other crops for marketing, whose byproducts fed with the corn to "work" and "fattening" stock, bring the corn
crop up to the higher Michigan standard for crop returns.
However, when
you come to settle in Michigan, bring your corn farming experience with you,
as
it will be of value to you.
Beans. Michigan is the biggest bean
producing
state, growing
nearly
half the total crop of the United States. Its beans are the world's standard
for quality and for price.
We both plant and harvest them by machinery,
and thus handle them very economically. Our local markets take them all for
cash at very handsome prices; 12 to 30 bushels per acre is the yield.
No grain
approaches beans in price.
They are more profitable in our counties than corn
in the Corn Belt, or wheat in the Wheat -Belt.
All the leading seed firms of
the United States contract with the farmers of Michigan to grow seed beans
of various varieties. It is proven that Michigan-grown beans have the strongest germination, and are least affected by weevil. The leading "Boston baked
beans" firms select their stock of beans from those grown in Michigan.
Van
Camp's advertisements state that he uses Michigan beans. A farmer here
would be unwise indeed if he did not "know beans" and grow them. The 1916
crop of beans brought the Michigan farmer $5 to $10 per bushel.
Peas. Peas grow as successfully as beans. They excel all grain
(corn
not excepted) in fattening quality.
We like crops that pay well and make




24

1

CROPS

Threshing beans.

Norman Township, Manistee County.

the ground better. The price varies both ways around the two dollar mark,
It is claimed that double
Seed peas generally bring $2.50 and more per bushel.
the market price can be made by feeding peas to pigs and lambs. The fact
that sowed with oats and cut green they make excellent forage, should be borne
in mind by one making his start in the stock business. The split-pea mills
The Wyoming Experiment Station deterare an industry peculiar to Michigan.
It
mined that pea straw compared well as a balanced ration, with alfalfa.
Is a sure crop, can be depended upon to furnish a good supply of feed every
year, should be sown very early in the spring months, when it is not affected
by the cold, and thus gives good results. We drill peas in as we do wheat, and
a pea harvest attachment on the ordinary mower cuts and bunches them.
Their entire handling is economical.
The value of beans and peas is not all in the grain. Properly cured bean
and pea straw contains three times as much protein • as oat straw or corn
fodder, and 33% per cent more than timothy; and protein is the element in
stock food which largely supplies the material for milk, flesh, muscle and
Another value is that this member of the legume family maintains soil
bone.
fertility by gathering free nitrogen from the air and depositing it in the soil
through the roots, also when returning the manure from stock to which the
crop has been fed.
Potatoes. Michigan stands second among the states in acreage and annual
production of potatoes. The acme of quality is expressed by the words "Michigan
potatoes." They are sought by leading hotels and command special prices, when
they are properly grown and graded. They are unexcelled in keeping quality
and vitality for seed. They are in great demand for seed purposes for which
they are shipped to all points south and west.
No staple crop is more generally consumed. In other states, so many men
have simply raised potatoes in a garden with a hoe, that they do not realize the
"The comfort and satisfaction of seeing one's family in their own
independent home cannot be measured in gold and silver."




25

THE SWIGART TRACTS

,

,
• •,,ee

.

Potatoes on one of the Swiga,rt Tracts. Our potatoes grow
big,
They have paid back the cost of many a farm in our round and smooth.
district.
advantages in raising them commercially. Machinery
simplifies each process of
planting, cultivating, spraying, digging and sorting.
Farmers who make potatoes their specialty, giving legumes a large place in their
rotation, and stick to
it year after year grow rich at it.
No matter how large one year's potato crop may be,
it cannot be carried
over to affect the following year's crop. It is a cash
crop—a banking crop, and
one of the greatest money makers.
Bringing as they have, for the past ten
years, 40 to 60 cents a bushel—sometimes as high as
$3 a bushel—the investment in many a farm has been paid back from the proceeds
of one crop on only
part of its land.
At 40 cents a bushel they are a profitable crop.
They are
stored by most of our farmers in root cellars or caves,
or in a number of pits in




An Oats Field on one of the Swigart Tracts near
Wellston.
26

CROPS

A Wheat Field on a SwIgart Tract

Our lands produce
the field and then are sold and delivered when the price suits.
They are another of our crops
100 to 300 bushels per acre, and sometimes more.
of money as corn,
that require less acres to be handled to make the same amount
of the reasons why
oats and wheat in other states. Potatoes are therefore one
or more money in
people do not need to operate such big farms to earn the same
carefully.
over
this
Think
Michigan.
pay more than
Wheat and Oats. Wheat is milled at our local mills, which
the states in wheat, we
the shipper. Although Michigan stands twelfth among
pay the freight. We
are willing to let Canada and the Dakotas and Minnesota
but we devote our efforts
raise enough for home use, and it is of good quality,
growers in the Wheat
more to other crops that pay us better than wheat pays its
Because of the greater profits of other crops, oats
Belt where it yields. best.
raised to meet the reare given a minor place and generally only enough are
in quality.
quirements of stock kept on the farm. Our oats are excellent
valuable food
the
of
one
is
and
farms
the
of
most
on
grown
Buckwheat is
. The farmers
cereals. Michigan stands third among the states in its production
it in as late as July 4th.
resort to buckwheat as a crop for late planting, drilling
Buckwheat will do well with
Good fields make as high as 25 bushels per acre.
Michigan furnishes a large
less fitting of seed bed than any other grain crop.
flour and used throughout
proportion of the buckwheat which is ground into
the United States.
in hay. Blue (June)
Bine Grass and Timothy. Michigan stands thirteenth
luxuriance on the cut-over lands
grass is native to this district and grows wild in
pasture and fattens and finishes
and by the roadsides. It furnishes excellent
nutritive value. Blue Joint or
feeder-stock to fine condition owing to its high
Grass on lands where fires have
bunch grass, is also found in some localities.
rapidly regains its former growth.
recently run is not as thickly matted, but
Timothy and orchard
g year.
Wild grass becomes better with each succeedin




27

THE SWIGART TRACTS

o

Soy Beans on Crystal Lake Farm (The Swiirart Demonstration Farm
at Wellston).
grasses are successfully produced, and yield one and one-half to
three tons per
acre. Sowing of the different grass seeds varies here as in other localities.
Cow-Peaa are not to be confused with field or Canada peas.
They make a
good growth of vine which has high feeding value, and this legume
will add
some nitrogen to the soil, even if the crop is cut for hay. Peas have
35.8 pounds
of nitrogen in 1,000 pounds of dry matter, as compared with 53.4
in soy beans;
clover, 30% pounds; timothy, 5.4 pounds; alfalfa, cut at blossom time,
23 pounds;
buckwheat, 13 pounds. Recent experiments indicate that bacteria
that live on
pea roots, also thrive on soy beans. Soy beans is the legume
that contains the
most nitrogen to the 1,000 pounds of dry matter; although vetch,
which contains
36.7 pounds grows so much larger quantity that it produces more
nitrogen to
the acre than soy beans.




Cow-Peas and Oats thrive here.
28

•••••11.=

CROPS

with success.
Pumpkins, Squash, Watermelons, Muskmelons, are all grown
nitrogenSoy Beans are valuable for hay, as well as a fertilizer because of
as their merits
ous content, and are becoming more popular with stock raisers
food for
are becoming better known in this district. The seed is valauble as a
Until recent years soy
stock, and seed for planting brings an attractive price.
beans were not grown north of the Mason and Dixon line.
Rutabagas, Turnips, Carrots. All kinds of root crops do exceedingly well
for man and beast.
on our lands. Rutabagas, turnips, and carrots are crops good
them to their
These vegetables are full of nutriment, and sandy loam brings
15 tons
highest state of perfection. The yield of rutabagas is frequently over
Carrots have special health-giving qualto the acre, and carrots over 14 tons.
They
land.
ities for horses. Rutabagas, turnips, and carrots do well on new
form and keep well in
come up quickly, grow very large, solid and perfect in
lands,
cellars until late the following spring. After brushing out unimproved
in fact burnt
much soil preparation is not necessary for good yields of rutabagas,
There are a few
over ground requires but little more than a good harrowing.
doing no cultivating,
men who specialize along this line, broadcasting in the seed,
of a dollar per
and shipping full carloads to Eastern markets, obtaining a price
a better seed bed and
require
usually
however,
carrots,
and
Turnips
100 lbs.
on the farms.
more or less cultivation and are used both for table and stock
to an enormous size
Rangel Wanels are a species of beet that grow here
feed for cows and espeand yield over 12 tons to the acre. They make excellent
any other stock that are
cially for hogs and are good for chickens, horses, and
supplied with a considerable amount of other feed.
Our district is well
Michigan ranks third in sugar beets.
Sugar Beets.
industry to be estabadapted for raising them, and we look for the beet sugar
A beet sugar plant requires a third to a
lished before long in this district.
fifteen sugar beet factories in
half million dollars' investment. There are now
the state.
Age limit to
Changing conditions—which of them are you facing?
, the
employment, machinery displacing men, monopolies in commodities
increase
narrowing opportunities for men of small capital, or continual
has
s
commoditie
of
the
price
of the high cost of living? In general,
grow richer, city
reached its highest point in twenty years. As farmers is after all the
workers grow poorer. The forward-to-the-land gospel
solution of the problem of the wage earner.




29

THE SW1GART TRACTS

Scenes through the camera on the Swigart Tracts.
Onions
Cabbage
Buckwheat
Clover




Peas
Watermelons
Pickle factory
Beans
30

isill

CROPS
Michigan. The staPickles. Pickle salting stations are located all over
companies in the business.
tions in these counties are conducted by leading
man cannot take care of a
Pickle growing is considered a side issue, and one
gaining good cash returns from
large acreage, but it is a profitable method of
will net from $75 to $100
a limited portion of a farm, as with proper care they
Varieties" from our part of
per acre. Heinz gets a large percentage of his "57
, onions, peppers, dillMichigan. No soil will raise better pickles. Cauliflower
here are used in pickle stock.
weed and other vegetables and condiments grown
and have excellent
Onions are one of the paying crops. They grow large
our
They require special handling and the right kind of ground, but in
flavor.
that attack
new ground they very seldom suffer from wet rot or other ailments
they prove very
them in other states. When given the right care and treatment,
for many years past
profitable. There has been no over-production of onions
and the supply is usually unequal to the demand.
that are especially proRape does exceedingly well, being one of the crops
large quantity of succulent
ductive in this soil. It grows rapidly, produces a
young pigs or lambs it is
food, and is greatly relished by sheep and hogs. For
It is also valuable when used on dairy farms as a soiling crop.
excellent.
As a field crop
Cabbage grows to a large size, forming a solid, heavy head.
is realized from the stalks
it can be made to net large returns. An extra revenue
and trimmings fed to cattle and sheep.
best
Additional Crops. Michigan stands eleventh in Barley and it is of the
are indigenous to our soil
malting quality. Chiokory and Millet and other crops
A great part
and climate and will be grown more as the lands are deveolped.
in Michigan. Ginseng is grown
of the world's supply of peppermint is grown
tomatoes, cabbage,
with success but requires much skill. In the family garden,
beets and turnips
cauliflower, celery, asparagus, parsnips, carrots, young onions,
cucumbers,
for table use, radish, lettuce, rhubarb, string beans, peas, sweetcorn,
y grown here.
all
successfull
ns
are
watermelo
s,
muskmelon
pumpkins,
squash,
Seed Growing. Seed firms were never more active than now in Michigan.
the
Northern grown seed, and particularly that from Michigan, is recognized as
seeds insure
best for planting south of the Mason and Dixon line. Michigan's
from all parts of the
quicker, hardier growth. Seed firms, to meet the demand
g our farmers by offering high
United States for Michigan seed, are encouragin
prices and by establishing branches at various points.
been
The demand for field and garden seeds from our Peninsula has never
purity.
fully supplied. Our seeds have preference because of their vitality and
lands of MichThe strain of the seed grown on the comparatively new
of older agricultural
igan is purer and stronger than that from the worn lands
prairie states,
districts; and the many noxious and foul weeds that are found in
by water. Many practical
are largely absent here because of our separation
of seeds
farmers have turned their attention almost entirely to the production
and are obtaining good profits therefrom.




it in a savings bank
A thrifty citizen who had saved $10,000, placed
and he
In 1901. Ten years later he drew it out to make an investment
30
per
cent interest he had
then found that he had lost more than the
his
in
everything
advance
the
because
years
ten
the
received during
capital would have bought had been about 50 per cent. "He had practically buried his $10,000."
31

THE SWIGART TRACTS

One of the smooth gravel roads of
waxford County

DAIRYING
For dairying this district has many
advantages. The bracing atmosphere,
the nutritious grasses, cool nights in
summer, moderate winter temperature
and
abundant and pure water supply all make
for a high degree of healthfulness in
our dairy animals. The district is natural
ly adapted to the growing of vetch,
alfalfa, peas, soy beans, millet, rape
and all crops fed to dairy animal
s.
We
produce as good ensilage as anywhe
re. Michigan is among the thirteen
best
forage producing states. Diseases are
practically unknown to our dairy cattle.
We have practically no tubercular
cattle because of the state law prohibi
ting
their importation and requiring rigid
examination of every farm animal that
enters Michigan boundaries.
We have local markets for all dairy
products, and the Grand Rapids creameries are clamoring for our cream, as
they are unable to supply the demand.
Well posted dairymen who investigate this
location at once recognize its superior
advantages for their industry, with the
result that in our townships dairying is
steadily on the increase.
Michigan stands third in the United States
in dairying and cheese factories,
and combined with two other states—Wisco
nsin and New York—have over threefourths of the cheese factories of the countr
y, and together with Minnesota, Illinois and Iowa control the butter market.
Michigan has nearly a million dairy
cattle, and the total value of her cattle is
$40,500,000.
Prof. Anderson of the Michigan Agricul
tural College says: "As we come
to study economy of food production, we
will find, that the dairy cow is the most
economical producer of food. A dairy cow
fed the same amount as a steer will
produce six times as much nitrogenous
food."

LIVE STOCK
Cattle raised for beef is a profitable indust
ry in Michigan. No one who
sticks to the producing end of the business loses
money on the beef cow.
Compared with the western prairies, Michigan
lands are cheaper; it takes less acreage to keep a cow; with cheaper lumber
, shelter is cheaper and prevents death
losses.




32

LIVE STOCK

Cattle of our district.

They thrive on our nutritious grasses and pure water.

Our freight rates to market cattle will average only one-third as much as
from western states and shrinkage of weight in shipping is proportionately less.
The feature of bringing stockers from the Chicago market in the spring, placing
them upon the land during the summer and returning them in the late fall to
market as butcher stock, offers good opportunities. We are nearer to Chicago
than most cattle raising states and better situated to reach economically and
quickly the big markets of the East.
Sheep. Michigan has been exceeded by only one state in the number of
sheep maintained and produced within her borders. Ohio stands first, with Michigan a close second. In 1910 Michigan sheared 100,000 more sheep than Illinois
and Indiana put together. The Michigan farmer raises .sheep both for wool and
mutton and for the amount invested, sheep return good profits in connection
with general farming. The soil and climate are both adapted to them. Drainage
is good, so that they are not subject to wet feet or hoof rot. For years large
portions of these counties have afforded open range for sheep and cattle of sweet,
nutritious grasses, which, with the browse of the underbrush are most desired
by sheep. They are on pasture the greater part of the year, during which time
they require little shelter and little labor. They live a great deal on what otherwise would be wasted, and are of much value to any land in scattering the best
fertilizer.
The editor of the "American Sheep Breeder" after a tour through this district said, "If this is not a royal sheep country I never saw one; feeding foe
sheep is absolutely perfect, and the whole country abounds in ideal ranch situations; the climate could not be better for this industry." The open ranges of the
West are becoming restricted. The closer to Chicago stockmen can own their
grazing lands, the better. Our lands, covered with a wealth of food for sheep
and so near Chicago, offer better inducements to flock owners, than almost any
existing sheep lands in America.
Hogs and hog products can be as cheaply produced here as in Illinois or
Iowa. Every feed necessary is raised and pasture is as early and as late as in




33

THE SWIGART TRACTS

1

A thousand Sheep on a section of land near Wellston
Photographed March 13th, when they were subsisting entirely
from erasing.
those states. There is a good home market for our hogs
at good prices and you
need not ship any unless you want to. Hog cholera
is almost unknown with
our good water and other healthful conditions. The
bacon hog is coming into
favor in this part of Michigan. We have plenty of corn,
rape, peas, and other
succulent food. This of all localities is the place for "pigs in
clover."
Horses. The local demand for horses is always good as
is the case in any
new district. Cheap pasture and the ability of colts to
winter well at little cost
combine to make horse raising a promising department for
profit on our farms.
Prices range for quality, etc., much the same as in other
states and the animals'
strength and hardihood depend much as everywhere upon the
master's treatment.
A man becomes acclimated at once but a horse brought from
another state needs
a little time for acclimation. Horses brought from other states,
must be worked
lightly until they become acclimated. The healthful climate,
however, agrees
both with men and horses and affects both similarly in increased
capacity for
work. Tillage is not as hard on horses as on the harder packed
soils of the
prairies, and occasionally one horse is seen before the plow in
small fields.
Poultry. The income from poultry products is one of the five most
important sources of the agricultural wealth of the nation. In our four
counties the
number of poultry of all kinds was 195,838 and their value $98,004
for the year
of 1909, as ascertained by the Government. In spite of the rapid
increase in the
production of poultry products the country over, the supply has
not kept pace
with the demand, and prices everywhere have steadily gone up for
the past ten
or twelve years. In our district, besides a regular home market,
numerous resorts require a good supply and pay the highest prices to get it.
Poultry and fruit go especially well together; but chickens, ducks and
geese
are a source of profit on every farm and the farmer's wife always finds
good
cash returns here for her poultry and eggs. No farm is complete
without enough
fowls to supply the family table and keep the wife in pin money. Poultry
on a
large scale is a business that requires special knowledge and
experience and the
poultrymen thus equipped obtains good profits because of our
accessible markets, well-drained soil so necessary to the health of the chickens, mild climate,
corn-




34

;aim

LIVE STOCK
cheaper lands which
parative freedom from vermin and because he cannot find
will at the same time raise chicken feed in abundance.
honey. The
Bees and Honey. Michigan ranks fourth in the production of
and every little
Kansas Agricultural College states that every little honey bee
is found. Their
bumble bee is worth at least $1 to the farmer on whose farm he
pleasure and profit
value to the alfalfa and fruit grower is inestimable. It is a
The honey bee
to keep a few colonies of bees. They require no outlay for land.
honey and pollen
Is a benefactor to the race, roaming the fields at will, gathering
pollenate alfalfa.
and fertilizing flowers. These are the only insects that will
They not only
A fruit farm is hardly complete without a few stands of bees.
add to the fersupply the table with honey, which is a great delicacy, but they
habits. It is
tility of all berries and tree fruits, by their pollen-distributing
a day. Honey,
estimated that bees from a single hive will visit 2,500,000 flowers
desired, and unu.nlike most sweets, is beneficial and may be eaten as freely as
reported
like most luxuries, is economical. In our four counties the 1910 census
2,575 colonies of bees.

-,
STAT 1ST I C 3
Ceri.us

Thirteenth

COUNTIES
FARMS REPORTING ANIMALS
Val,
OfAnimal. Dollo,s
CATTLE
Total Number
Dairy Cows
Other COWS
Yearling Heifers
Calves
r 6- Bull 9
Yearlg
in' Steer's
Other S-teers 6- Bulls
Dollars
Value

OF DOMESTIC
Of The
MASON

United
MANISTEE

2,0412
1,0 I 3,517
12,132
6, I GI
833
1,809
2,222
886

221
293,897

5WIN E
Total Nwriber
Mature Hogs

Pigs
Value

DollarS

1,521
677.505

ANIMALS
1910
.5t ate-5
LA K E

WEXFORD

679
309,211

1,6 58
719,08 3

41,508
2,054
'451
(GI
701

8,815
1,175
588
1, 1 G
1, 987
819

8,975
'1,527
799
1,216
1,429
657
352
205,763

101,008

402

318

237
213

7.59

5,992
3,106
2,586
93,388

4,113

1,301

3,933

2,9 18
1,5.25
37,197

899

955

2,8 3 3
1, / 00

650

35,875

'1855
3,478
1,377
21,606

3,713
2,829
919
I? 799

.3,779

3,715
2,681
1,031
1.6, 751

i I

SHEEP
Total Number
Rain s,Ewes Cr Wethers
5pring La rri bs
Dollars
Value
HORSES
Total Number.
Mature Horses
Yo..-ii,-,8- colts
Spring Colts
Dollars
Value
MULE 5, A55E5 & BURROS
Total Number.
Value
Dollars

2,719

1.065
18,606
1.575
1,190

129

I 92.

51

12

652.899

4111,829

6
/79,307

'45062.2

14
1,350

II

1,950

1
960

GOATS
Number
Value

POULTRY OF ALL
Nurnber
Value

Dollars
KINDS
Dollars

Colonies
Dollars

9

/6
Z. 061

62

5

57

382

17

2.10

3
II

20,728
10,221

54,701
29,410 41

Gb. 919
34,293

51,190

794

70 1
2,678

BEE S
Number Of
Value

.3 .775
3,371

3,597
3,362
173

5,992,
5,115
32.6

2,9111

21,083

3 32
1,5 5 1

7 `1 8
3, 2 78

number of animals per
Since 1910 a great many settlers have moved in, and the
county and per farm has bean much increased.




35

THE SWIGART TRACTS

Fishing in the Sauble River in Mason County.
Fish and Game. The rivers of this district are the
natural home of the rainbow trout and "steel heads" (another variety of trout),
the creeks abound with
gamey brook trout and the lakes are the habitat of
the black bass, pike and
pickerel. The smaller fry, such as perch, blue-gill
s and rock bass, abound everywhere and no settler need want for fish for food
on his table. The annual catch
of Michigan, with pond, gill and other nets and
seines, and hook and line is
about 50,000.000 pounds and the total value is about
one-twentieth of the national
fisheries. With so many lakes and waterways the
country is the breeding headquarters for wild ducks and in season they are
plentiful. Gamey partridges
bat their wings from out the wood coverts ahead
of the traveler on the roads.
Of pheasants and quail there are a plenty. Squirrels
and rabbits and the occasional harmless porcupine up a tree keep the hunter's
eye alert. Of foxes ther,1
are some, but not many; and the wary, fleet-foot
ed deer, a few of which still
remain, ever avoiding mankind, are a match for the
huntsman's skill.
FRUIT GROWING.
As shown on preceding pages, the products of our
counties are as diversified as those of any agricultural section in America.
The farmers, both the
old settlers and the new, are in the large majority
engaged in general farming.
The success of so wide a variety of crops is a security
to the farmer here and
insures more certainty of income in general farming
as compared with many
districts of other states where failure of single
crops, almost entirely depended
upon for returns, is more keenly felt. This district,
therefore, will continue to
develop largely in general agriculture. But most
of the farmers have set out
some fruit trees on their farms and find it pleasant
to be so situated that they
can grow their own fruit and have some to
sell. On the other hand, those
who make fruit growing their business, find it a very
profitable as well as pleasant occupation; and the more development our district
receives, the more prominent it will also become in fruit growing.




36

FRUIT GROWING
fruit alone,
While the general farmer may wish to devote a couple of acres to
object and
the man, on the other hand who makes hardy fruits his principal
between his trees. The
devotes to it 10, 20 or more acres can readily intercrop
but frequently
crops for this purpose are usually beans, corn and tomatoes,
the ground can thus
strawberries, radishes for seed, garden truck, etc. Most of
one keeps a reasonable
be utilized while the trees are developing, as long as
sustenance necessary to
distance from the roots, and does not detract from the
not injure the
the trees' growth. Inter-cropping, when done advisedly, does
and turned under in the
trees, and especially if cover crops are sown every fall
spring.
distance than
Fruit is shipped to large distributing markets from a greater
er thinks first about
fruit-grow
e
prospectiv
the
therefore
and
products
farm
most
advantages superior to
marketing. He finds that Michigan possesses marketing
miles nearer the Chi2,000
are
some
lands
fruit
Our
section.
fruit
every other
West via the railroad
cago market than are the irrigated valleys of the far
good profit for our growers.
routes, and the difference in freight alone makes a
fruit, because of nearIcing charges are not necessary for apples and most of our
when shipment is made over
ness of markets. Icing of any fruit is not required
deterioration in
the cool waters of the lakes. Michigan's fruit suffers the least
apricots, pears, apples and
handling etc., because of short hauls. Her peaches,
South and most Western
other fruits are better keepers than those grown in the
grown fruits—a superior
points and possess the distinctive quality of Northern
in the right direcflavor. Men who are going into fruit growing here are headed
tion.
Michigans' fruit have
It is not to be denied that the methods in marketing
have been shipped
Apples
or
three
years.
two
past
the
within
until
been deficient
nt Bureau
from Michigan mostly in barrels. The Western Michigan Developme
"deaconing" the apple
deserves credit for its efforts to correct the old practice of
growers in the
pack. Much has been learned from the better methods of apple
far West.
on one the more
There is a fascination about fruit-growing that gets a grip
though they were
he studies it. A thorough-going orchardist loves his trees as
the right slope,
his children. Why shouldn't he? He selects the spot of ground,
plants the saplings
carefully
He
drainage.
water
and
air
for
position
best
the
improves and adapts the
and season after season prunes and shapes them, and
his trees and watches
with
lives
He
growth.
healthy
promote
to
them
soil about
up he can tell you
their development from day to day. When they have grown
and wherein it
progress
and
struggles
its
tree,
every
most
of
es
the peculiariti
a tree rests in
of
life
the
over
control
Wonderful
care.
his
of
reflects the benefit
done, is glorified at
the hands of the horticulturist whose handiwork, faithfully
than an orchard in
blossoming and harvest times. No sight is more beautiful
full bloom or crowned with golden fruit.
e; but there is
Horticulture has become as much of a science as agricultur
can not readily undernone of its principles that a man of average intelligence
cover the subject of
stand and apply to his own advantage and profit. To fully
several times the size
planting and caring for an orchard would require a book

Live, don't exist. Work out of doors. Enjoy life. Don't be walled
and his
up all your life. Health is the best friend on earth to a man
you
family. Don't stick in a factory until you lose it. Don't wait untilit inare broken down. Health is capital in trade. Country life keeps
tact, builds it up, puts energy in the veins and prolongs life.




87

THE SWIGART TRACTS

This Mason County Orchard belongs to the President of the Mason
County Horticultural Society, who values his farm at $1,000 an acre.
Last fall 90 per
cent of his apples graded No. 1 or better, and his trees bring
him
yearly
returns that more than justify the valuation of his
land.
of this one, but for the benefit of those who are contempl
ating a purchase of a
Swigart Tract with a view to raising fruit, a few remarks
here in regard to
the first principles of the industry, as applied to our district,
will not be amiss.
Non-residents, hearing of the good results from fruit growing
in our district
sometimes plan to set out a few fruit trees and then go
and see them once a
year. That is a mistake and only poor or no results may
be expected.
Fruit
trees need care and cultivation which should be given
at the times needed.
Fruit trees will not do well with wet feet. They require
as a rule, high and
well-drained land. Hilly land, not too steep to be cultivate
d, is also suitable.
An orchard requires free circulation of air which prevails
on the higher slopes.
Level land is not unsuitable where it gets a good sweep
of air. The ground
selected for an orchard should be cleared thoroughly
before any trees are set
out. Unless this is done the trees can not be planted in
even rows and cultivation is difficult. Land that has been under cultivation
for a season or two is in
better shape for an orchard than newly broken ground.
Labor and pains in
starting an orchard may be largely wasted if one does
not use care in buying
nursery stock from a reputable source. There are Michigan
nursery firms who
for many years have made a study of the conditions in
our part of Michigan, and
their advice should be gotten. The time to plant is
in the Spring. Some growers have nursery, trees shipped in the Fall before
freezing weather and "heel
them in" for winter, that is, place them slantingly
in trenches with the earth
packed about the roots half way up the height of
the whips, and then plant
them the following spring. But only the best trees.
Prices range from 10c to




"As mouths multiply, food resources dwindle."
Farmers fatten most when famine reigns.

88

FRUIT GROWING
will pay com25c per "whip." Get varieties adapted to the locality and soil that
dozen as buyers
mercially. Three or four standard varieties are better than a
prefer to purchase quantities rather than many varieties.
which
The leaves are the starch factories which elaborate the material from
their duty
every part of the plant and the fruit is built. The cannot perform
knowledge
unless each leaf is accessible to air and sunlight and it is a thorough
as well as what
and appreciation of this fact which guides the pruning shears,
reasons for prundistance apart the various plants and trees are set. Two main
fruitfuling are to help Nature give the tree most desirable form and to promote
that all
ness. Pruning should be done in the first years of the young trees so
for
their energy may be first concentrated into building up a strong framework
form for
the future, leaving only well arranged branches. The most desirable
form,
all kinds of fruit trees in the commercial orchard is the open head or vase
the
so that every part may be easily reached with spraying materials, making
branches to
tree easier to inspect for insects and disease, enabling fruit-laden
part of
be better and more easily propped, allowing sun and air to reach every
easy
the tree and the fruit thereby attaining a better color, and facilitating
maintenance of the tree and convenience in fruit picking.
wood
Fruit trees should not be cultivated after midsummer as it encourages
plowgrowth that does not mature in time for going into winter. As a rule deep
Hairy
ing should be avoided. Cover crops are used for nearly all orchards.
mat on
vetch is gaining in favor for this purpose because of forming a close
a hardy
the ground and vegetating early in spring and late in autumn, being
reannual. Clover is the most commonly used cover crop and gives excellent
the
sults. Wheat and oats should not be grown in an orchard as they remove
soil elements most required to produce good yields of fruit.
matter
Without spraying it is impossible to raise profitable crops of fruit no
duties of orhow well the orchard may otherwise be cared for. Care in other
charding will be of no avail, if the bugs get there first.
for all the
There need be no fear of a surplus of good fruit. The demand
them is infruits of North America is world wide. The world's appetite for
by better co-operative
satiable and as distribution becomes more simplified
problem
arrangements between growers, transporters and sellers, it will be a
ago, Amerto get enough of any good fruit to supply the market. Nine years
a year. In
ica's shipment of apples to London amounted to only 25,000 barrels
Apples
more.
1910 the Englishmen took about a million barrels and wanted
have reare shipped from New York on the fastest ships afloat. Good apples
(apples are
tailed at 25c apiece in London and have sold in Mexico at 15c apiece
10c and 15c
grown only in the temperate zone) and in New York and Boston
prices of
apiece has been readily obtainable for choice apples. The present
rule, are
fruit in cities and towns are now almost prohibitory. People, as a
the demand at
aware that they do not eat enough fruit, for their health and
fair prices will always exceed the supply.
times as
Government statistics show that fruit growers' land is worth three
own the land
much as other farm land, that 90 per cent of the fruit growers
buildings and that
they operate; that they have more money invested in farm
farmer.
their income is more than three times as great as that of the average
and
Michigan ranks for volume of production: second in apples, raspberries
currr.nts; third in pears, grapes and gooseberries; fourth in cherries and blackConsider the law of supply and demand. James J. Hill said that the
United States in 1950 will have a population of 200,000,000.




39

THE SWIGART TRACTS

The Swigart orchards—three months after the
planting of the first 4,000 trees.
berries; fifth in peaches, strawberries and cranberr
ies; eighth in plums.
When
orchards and plantations in her western counties
, which have been set out during the last two or three years, come into bearing,
then Michigan will take her
place at the top.
Apples. The apple is considered the most importa
nt fruit grown in temperate climates. There are a thousand or more varieties
described in Amercian
pomological works. The most perfect of modern fruits
is the perfect apple.
Of many good varieties grown in our counties, some
that are recommended
for commercial purposes, are Wealthy and Duchess
which begin bearing in three
or four years and are fall apples; Wagner and Jonathan
, winter apples, bearing
in four to five years; Grimes' Golden, Baldwin
and McIntosh Red, bearing in
five to seven years, the Canada Red and King in six to
eight years, and Northern
Spy in ten to twelve years.
The fivalgart Orchard. In the development of our
own orchard, two miles
south of Wellston, we had 100 acres cleared, plowed
and dragged in 1912.
We
bought the best selected grade of trees from a Michiga
n nursery and had them
"heeled in" before frost that fall and set them out
in May, 1913. They consist
of 1,400 McIntosh, 800 Jonathan, 600 Wealthy, 400 Duchess
, 600 Grimes' Golden
and 100 Canada Red apple trees, 100 pear trees
and 200 Norway Maples to adorn
the roadways. During 1913, 68 acres more were cleared
and prepared for planting, which followed in the spring of 1914 with the same
varieties and Northern
Spys. We have thus far 6,000 apple trees planted
36 feet apart each way. This
is the beginning of one of the largest commercial
orchards in the country. The
varieties were selected after thorough investigation
by horticulturists as those
that will grow best in the location chosen and whose
fruit will be best for marketing from our locality. To any settler, resident
or customer, we or our horticulturists will be glad to give the benefit of our
experience and co-operation
In starting commercial orchards.
We selected apples because they are hardy in
tree growth; the yield is sure;
and they are good "keepers." Between the rows
we grow fine stands of mixed
clover, rye and vetch and plow most of it under.




40

FRUIT GROWING
Peach's. Michigan ranks fifth in peaches. The old notion that the peach
is a tropical tree and must have a hot climate is wrong. It is a tree of middle
latitudes and does not like extremes of cold or heat. It endures better in our
latitude than in the extreme southern parts of the United States, owing to the
fact that there the blossoms are apt to be forced out late in the mild winters or
early in the spring and afterwards injured by frosts. In our district the air
from off the lake retards the opening of the blossom ten days or more, the trees
in the center of the State being in full bloom before ours are open. The advantage of this in case of late frosts is obvious. There are thousands of acres of
land in the United States suitable for peach growing where it would be folly
to plant them owing to lack of shipping facilities. A splendid location may thus
be rendered worthless. The proximity to large markets and ease of shipment
We
which we have are necessary to the success of commercial peach orchards.
also have the advantage of competing railway and steamboat lines in securing
low freights. One of the drawbacks in the South is the time and the amount of
freight they must pay to reach the consuming centers. The Elberta is most desirable for our lands and comes into bearing in the third year. Peaches require
our ample rainfall. It is better not to plant them closer than 20 feet or 110 to
the acre as a general rule, and an orchard after planting should be cultivated as
carefully as a field of corn, the peach tree being very sensitive to clean cultivation. As soon as the trees come into bearing no crop of any kind should be
grown between them, but each year the orchard should receive a good, shallow
plowing and frequent cultivation until July. The trees should never be left to
stand in sod.
Apricots. Apricots ripen a month or more before the early peaches which
explains the demand for them at high prices. Aside from its value as a fresh
fruit, the apricot is used in vast quantities every year for drying and canning.
Wherever peaches grow, apricots will grow. In our Fruit Belt the apricot is one
of the well-known fruits.
Cherries. Michigan ranks fourth in cherries. Wild cherries, red and black,
are found growing in most of our sections. The black kind are not unpalatable,
but our wild cherries are smaller than the cultivated varieties used for commercial purposes.
The cherry is a tree which is easily grown; it is bothered less with insects
than other fruits. If a young tree is properly shaped during the first two or
three years after planting, then less subsequent pruning is needed than on most
other kinds of fruit trees. The fourth year after it is planted it will begin to
bear and by the time the orchard is ten or twelve years old, it is safe to say
For the next
that one can pick from 3 to 4 crates of cherries from, each tree.
ten or twelve years they pay handsome dividends. The cherries that are best
producers in our counties and bring high grade prices are: Smiths Bigareau and
Windsor of the sweet variety and late Montmorency of the sour variety. The
sour cherry will produce good crops under more unfavorable conditions than
most any other fruit.

The government is spending millie..s of dollars annually to make
more farmers. Newspapers devote :nore space than ever to farming
topics. Agriculture will soon be taught in nearly all educational institutions. Farm magazines now enter all farmers' homes and are making
better farmers. Farming is the uppermost thought and study of the
nation.




41

THE SWICART TRACTS

Growing crops between the fruit trees gives double use
of the ground in this Lake County orchard.
A country-wide inquiry conducted by Cornell University brought out
the
fact that in sections where the cherry does well, it is one of the most profitable
of fruit crops and especially in connection with well managed canning factories.
In the Grand Traverse district, which adjoins us on the north, it takes an army
of pickers to gather the cherry harvests which leave Traverse City by the trainload and boatload every day during cherry time.
Pears. Michigan ranks third in Pears. The pear has long been regarded as
one of the most luscious fruits. The choice varieties excel most apples in rich,
juicy texture and delicacy of flavor and for both dessert and culinary purposes,
either canned or in the fresh state, the pear is much valued. Certain varieties
with careful handling and storing keep well from midsummer to late winter
without artificial preservation. Pear trees are more difficult to keep in a healthy
and productive condition than apple trees, although the fruit produced brings
additional returns for their extra care. The Bartlett, which comes into bearing
in about five years, leads all other varieties in commercial plantings. Trees
propagated by budding the pear upon quince stock are known as Dwarfs which
come into bearing earlier than Standards.
In locating a pear orchard elevated grounds sloping to the East or Northeast are preferable. With such an exposure the sap is more backward in starting
in the Spring, the trees bloom later and consequently are less liable to injury
from late spring frosts. The pear succeeds on a variety of soils and on most
any soil on which the apple thrives. For planting, strong, well-rooted, one-year
old trees are preferable, whether Standard or Dwarf. Cover crops turned under
from year to year enrich the soil and maintain the land in proper physical condition
to get best results in pear growing.
Plums and Prunes. Michigan stenos eighth in plums according to the census
of 1910. Plums of two varieties, purple and 'yellow, grow wild on the lands and
while not as large as the cultivated varieties, have exceptionally fine
flavor.
The Quackenboss and Blue Damson are recommended by a successful grower
of




42

SMALL FRUITS
these varieties in our vicinity. The prune is a plum which carries much sugar
and will dry without souring at the pit, and any plum with these qualifications
is a prune. The prune will grow and give good results wherever the plum will.
The principal part of the work in the prune industry, however, begins with picking the fruit and in the process of drying and preparing it for market.
NUMBER OF TREES
1910 Census
Quinces Apples
COUNTY
14,587
10
Lake
90,497
60
Manistee
126,548
146
Mason
32,946
7
Wexford ----

Peaches
2,946
35.297
203,502
3,693

Plums
Pears Prunes Cherries
1,119
525
1,240
8,366
4,581
6,072
20,490
9,112 14,636
2,978
3,904
1;299

Grapes Total
1,896
20,433
3,427 144,931
17.792 374,495
665
44,842

SMALL FRUITS
In northern and eastern states there is an increasing demand for small fruits
and especially in large cities. Shipping of fresh, small fruits to large consuming
centers within 10 or 12 hours expressing distance has been more profitable in
recent years than every before. The pure food law has given impetus to the small
fruit canning industry, expanding the market many fold, because of bringing
better food to millions of tables. People know that currant jelly, raspberry, blueberry and strawberry jams and gooseberry preserve are now made from the
juice and pulp of those berries and not from the refuses of tree fruits. The
juices, syrups, vinegars, jellies, jams, marmalades, purees and preserves of small
fruits are now to be found on the shelves of every well-stocked grocery store.
It would seem that no food industry has increased in percentage of volume in
the past few years more than the canning and preserving of fruit in general and
of small fruits in particular. Small fruits thrive on all of our sandy loams and
will do well on lower ground that is well drained. Every home garden should
contain a strawberry bed, gooseberry and currant bushes. Commercial plantings
should not be smaller than an acre for any one kind of small fruit in order to
bring buyers to your plantation and thus obtain half again as much per quart
as when you hunt the market yourself. Michigan ranks third in the production
of all small fruits.
Blackberries, Red and Black Raspberrie• grow wild, and we find men, women
and children filling pails and baskets along the roadsides every season. Our
wild blackberries are shipped in considerable quantities to a number of markets.
They grow large and are as good in quality and flavor, and demand as good prices
on the market, as cultivated varieties. There are many people in our townships
who devote their entire time picking blackberries and raspberris in their season.
Grapes. Michigan ranks third in grapes. 'They are in their natural home
in this country and we find the vines growing wild on hillsides, often climbing the
trees, and bearing fruit of a rich flavor. Worden grapes are grown with marked
success in this region and Concord, Chautauqua, Delaware and Niagara also do
well. One should not go amiss in starting a commercial vineyard here by planting
a few varieties to have some succession in ripening and to avoid a total crop
failure in any one season because of growing only one variety. It Is desirable
to have enough of each variety to make it worth while to the grape buyers. Fruit
growers of any district must work in unison in the matter of marketing in order
to get best returns, and it is well to adhere to varieties that are most successfully
marketed in the locality.
What are you living and working for? This question should set you
thinking. Do you want to work and live your days fot a little more
than a bare existence and leave your family a legacy of hard work?




43

THE SWIGART TRACTS

Cultivating a pear orchard in Manistee County

The Currant is a favorite with shippers, because of its keeping
qualities. It
can be left on the bush until perfectly ripe with all its
fine flavor and splendid
health-giving acid content developed, and can then be packed,
shipped and remain
in market for a week or longer without serious deteriorati
on. Currants need
less care than any other cane fruit. The plants are frost
proof, pretty sure of a
crop every year and continue in the best of condition for 15
to 20 years. To grow
commercially, one should plant prolific red varieties on ground
well prepared;
prune to get the largest growth of three-year old wood; plant well
apart for horse
cultivation; put in cover crops; spray early with bordeaux and
arsenate of lead;
pick carefully, and keep the fruit cool while getting it to market.
There is plenty
of profit. from the work in a well-planned and cared-for currant
patch. The Fay
and Chautauqua varieties are recommended. Michigan ranks
second in this fruit.
Gooseberries are easily grown on our well-drained sandy
barns; are very
healthful, and if properly tended yield large returns from
small areas. The
Downing variety is the best for our district and canners
can handle it with good
profits. A plant will bear about two quarts when one year
old and the yield
increases two quarts yearly for four or five years.
Blueberries and Huckleberries grow wild in abundance
on the unimproved
lands in our counties. Many people find it profitable every
year to pick these
berries for market. Attempts to cultivate them have met with
failure until very
recently. Researches of the Department of Agriculture have
found a way; but
why cultivate them here, considering that every year a hundred-fo
ld more berries go to waste than are picked? More of these berries, however,
are being shipped
each year, as they retail in Chicago and other large cities for 20
cents a quart
box.




44

EDUCATION

Forx.

-1

An Up-to-Date Poultry Plant at Meadville, Mason County.
Strawberries thrive in our warm, quick soils, which grow them larger and
sweeter than the average. We set Warneld and Senator Dunlap plants in rows
3% feet apart and about 20 inches apart in the row. Strawberries require special
care in planting in accordance with certain rules. The pistillate or female variety
will not alone produce perfect fruit, and cross-pollination is usually done by
planting two pistillate plants to one staminate. Farmers' Bulletin No. 198, Agricultural Department, Washington, gives directions for cultivation. Wild strawberries are plentiful here and when transplanted and cultivated the berry produced
is much increased in size.
Cranberries are raised in larger quantities than in Michigan by only five states.
We find them growing wild in occasional marshes.
EDUCATION IN MICHIGAN
Referring to the map of the Tract, you will find the locations of schools carefully marked, except in cases where new schools have been established since the
map was made. They are being built rapidly, and a settler's child who does not
attend school regularly is the rare exception. Michigan's excellent system of
country schools, in conjunction with the city high schools, is rated among the
best in the United States. No state has better provided for her children in the
matter of school funds. The primary school fund provided for in Michigan's early
history has been kept intact and yields annually over five million dollars or about
seven dollars per child. The expenditures provided from this and other sources for
the school year 1913-1914 amounted to about $29 per child. Seven children of
school age located in a neighborhood or even if they be all of one family are
enough to require organizing a school district if there is no school within a
reasonable distance for them to attend. Nearly 50 per cent of the rural teachers
of the state have had some normal training. The Agricultural College and State
University are here for farmers' children. The state maintains four normal schools
for the training of teachers. For men with families, these educational advantages
are as important as any other consideration. Public instruction has first call on
Michigan's Treasury, and the whole school system is brought within the reach of
all from Kindergarten to University. There are private and parochial schools

Under certain conditions land is valuable and is sure to grow more
so. The course for the wise investor, whether he has much or little to
Invest, is to learn what these conditions are, learn where they exist to
the greatest extent, then buy land there and inevitable development will
reward him.




45

THE SWIGART TRACTS

One of the best peach orchards in Mason County

and business colleges in the larger cities. There is a Catholic school in Manistee.
Agriculture is now being taught in the high schools. Educators the country over
are aware that Michigan is the leader and pattern state in educational matters.
TAXES
Taxes are extremely low—so reasonable that even where new schools, bridges
or roads are built, the amount seems small when compelled with those
usually
levied in older agricultural communities. Our townships are all in good financial
condition and usually free from debt. The administration of the Counties has
been
progressive and yet very economical. If you come to this district, you will not be
in a community loaded down with debt; you will not have to begin the construction of County buildings, etc., nor be called upon to pay for what is already
built.
Michigan has a tax exemption law for settlers on new or cut-over lands
which have not been cultivated. It provides that the new settler who has bought
such land either upon contract or otherwise, shall actually reside upon it and
shall improve, or clear, at least two acres of it each year for five years, and
the
exemption applies for that period of time on not more than 80 acres purchased
by any one person. To obtain this exemption the new settler, after he has
located
on his land, must apply to the township supervisor.
BUILDING MATERIAL
Lumber is manufactured more or less in the large towns where new
settlers
find well stocked yards furnishing lumber at very reasonable prices
indeed compared to the cost in some other states, as well as good stocks of builders'
hardware, rubberoid roofing, shingles, tar paper, lime, cement, brick, plaster
and wall
boards, paints and in fact everything needed to build a home and make
it comfort-




46

Alb

HEALTH

Seeing the Swigart Tracts on a rainy day.

Rain coats for everybody.

be remembered
able and attractive. When it comes to furnishing a home it must
and stoves.
that Michigan is the headquarters state for furniture, refrigerators
purposes, conThere are abundant and valuable deposits of gravel for all building
farm animals
crete work and road building. Here the farmer's family and his
need not be otherwise than comfortably housed.
HEALTH
the
Statistics for the 10-year period from 1900 to 1910 show Michigan to be
the death
second healthiest state in the Union. The birth rate in our region exceeds
healthfulness
rate by 4.591 per thousand per year, which proves conclusively the
life of every
of this section. Health is the most important consideration in the
worth
man, woman and child. It is the one thing above all that makes life more
of our
living. Without health it is impossible to enjoy life. The invigoration
pure, clear atmosphere is at once recognized by all visitors.
This locality in Michigan is most favored with regard to health. Lung trouble,
unasthma, hay fever and catarrh are rare, some of these afflictions being almost
known; and sufferers from asthma, catarrh and hay fever not only find relief, but
frequently a permanent cure. Also if you are looking for a location free from
malaria, chills and ague and their attendant evils, come to this locality. The
being of
water from our wells is wonderfully pure, delicious and health giving,
great aid in correcting indigestion.
Farming which now produces one-fifth the wealth of the natio!. and
five times more than mining, the next largest wealth-producing industry,
is becoming cramped in the older districts. Small wonder that the prices
of land are soaring. The labor of the farmer was never so well paid as
now. Never was there a better time to own and operate a farm.




47

THE SW1GART TRACTS

Unimproved land in Meade Township,
mason County.
THE ADVANTAGES
There are a number of advantages of the
Swigart Tracts which make them
different from any other proposition. Their
co-operative features make for the
success of their settlers. Learn about our farm
advising work, also about our
demonstration farm. You will be interested in the
summer resort attractions of
this location. Also learn about the series of
great electric power dams being
constructed in the center of the Tracts. There
are many features in connection
with this land colonizing movement that can only
be briefly mentioned here,
therefore write for fuller information.
The human side of this proposition that appeals
to earnest people, is that
every man who wants his chance to buy
land on a practical basis, suited to his
means, can get it here. You have about seven years
time on very low monthly
payments. Yearly terms, if preferred. There is
a liberal protective feature—if
the purchaser dies after the contract is partly paid
for. Ask for testimonials from
those who have been thus benefited. The prices of
land range from $10 to $35 per
acre, with a selection from over 50,000
acres, including recent additions. Much of
the land in 40-acre and larger tracts is now
$18 to $25 per acre; in 20-acre tracts,
$20 to $30, and 10-acre tracts, $25 to $35. Consider
ing quality of soil, location and
advanced conditions, there is no land in Michigan
or any other state so low in
price for value given.
. The good will of our settlers is our slogan.
We keep it by uniformly fair
treatment. We count it an asset because of the
very nature of our project. We
are working with and will be neighbors with
our settlers for many years to come.
The most certain thing in the regular course of events
population. This will take place where there are undevelois growth in
ped, natural
resources with the most favorable conditions for
developing them.
There, naturally, the greatest increase in values
will take place




48




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The Swan-Arenson Realty
& Development Co.
CHICAGO

•

ILLINOIS

BE INDEPENDENT!
offers the working man greater opportunities
today than FARMING and FRUIT GROWING.
The city population of the United States is so
far greater than the country population, and
the difference between the two is becoming so
alarmingly out of proportion that the law of
SUPPLY and DEMAND, as pertaining to farm
produce, must necessarily assert itself to an extent so pronounced as to make the farmer the
REAL INDEPENDENT MAN OF THE NATION.

in the history of the world were there
NEVER
better opportunities for making big money
in the farming and fruit growing industry than
at the PRESENT TIME.
According to statistics made public in a report of the United States Department of Agriculture,the price of farm produce has TRIPLED
since 1908, and judging from all present indications, prices are bound to go up STILL
HIGHER.
There is no industry, in our opinion, that

THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN THE FARMER
AND THE CITY MAN
apple butter, and what not. Out in the smokehouse he has some hams and slabs of bacon, and
elsewhere he has potatoes, cabbages, carrots, etc.
Furthermore, he lives an outdoor life, is hale and
hearty, and enjoys life in every sense.
During the winter his life is an easy one, and
if he wishes to make some money on the side he
can go to the city and hire himself out for a few
months. With his farm properly managed and cultivated, and with close attention to detail, it does
not take him long to set aside a nice little sum for

moment and compare the city man with
the farmer. The city man has an income as
long as he has employment. His wages may be
good, but the cost of living is so outrageously high
that at the end of the year, when he counts up
what he has left, he finds it so small compared to
the entire amount he received during the year that
he begins to ponder about the future and wonder
how it will all end.
When business slacks up he may be thrown out
of work and he then has to look around and wait
for another job, losing money in the meantime.
Then there are strikes and other things that cause
him considerable worry and hardships, and as he
looks back over the past and tries to figure out
what the future holds for him, he begins to realize
that it is not a rosey path by any means.
Now take the farmer: Does HE have to worry
about the city-man's troubles? No. Outside of
reading about them in the paper that is delivered
to him every morning, he is not concerned in the
least bit. People have got to eat whether they
work or not, and he knows that there is a market
for HIS produce. The modern, up-to-date farmer
rides around in his automobile, he has machinery
to do work that was formerly done by slow, tedious
methods, the telephone puts him in direct contact
with the rest of the world, and he lives a life of
real comfort. He keeps his cellar stocked up with
preserves and canned fruits of all kinds, jelly,

AUSE a

P




"rainy days."

BECOME A LAND OWNER
CONDITIONS for the farmer are getting better
right along, and when more people from all
over the country become fully awake to the wonderful possibilities on the farm, and when the land
boom is on in full swing, prices of farm lands are
going to jump to startling figures. The time to buy
your land is RIGHT NOW.
TAKE ADVANTAGE OF THE OPPORTUNITY
NOW OPEN TO YOU AND SECURE THAT
TRACT YOU HAVE BEEN WANTING FOR SO
LONG A TIME. This announcement introduces
you to an exceptional opportunity and enables you
to secure a fine tract in an ideal location at a VERY
ATTRACTIVE PRICE and on VERY EASY TERMS.
2

Copyright, 1920, by Paul P. Aronson

VIEWS OF THE TRACT
Practically every part of the tract is represented in these views. Note how well the land lies and how beautifully rolling
it is. This affords excellent air drainage as well as soil drainage, both very important factors. You will note that there is
very little underbrush, making the land easy to clear. The stumps can be easily removed by a stump puller or dynamite.

HE tract we are offering is one that we are
T
proud to recommend. We have subdivided it
into 10 and 20-acre parcels, which are being offered

FACTS ABOUT OUR TRACT
selecting this tract and deciding to offer
BEFORE
it to our clients, we took into consideration all

at the INTRODUCTORY PRICE of only

the necessary factors that must be borne in mind
when buying land, such as location, quality of the
soil, climatic conditions, shipping and transportation facilities, living conditions, title to the property, etc.
After carefully considering and looking over a
number of tracts, we finally came across this one
and we knew AT ONCE that it was the very tract
we wanted for our clients. We were informed of
it by a friend who recommended it very highly,
and we immediately made a special trip to look the
land over. On arriving there we were so favorably
impressed with the general layout of everything
that we went over the entire tract and examined
everything as carefully as we could.
We found that the tract comes RIGHT UP TO
THE RAILROAD STATION, thus making the
TRANSPORTATION and SHIPPING FACILITIES
just what we wanted them to be. We then took
note of the general lay of the land and found that
parts of it are level, while most of it is BEAUTIFULLY ROLLING—just the kind a good farmer

$32°
PER

VERY EASY TERMS
When you consider the excellent location of this
tract and compare it with similar land that sells
for from $100 to $300 per acre, you will realize
how LOW this price is.

A Town Lot Free With Each
Ten-Acre Tract
As an added attraction, we are giving, FREE OF
ANY FURTHER COST WHATEVER, a lot in a
town-site that we have laid out near the depot,
with each 10-acre unit sold. The lots are sized
35x144 feet, making ideal sized lots. THIS OFFER
MAY BE WITHDRAWN AT ANY TIME AND
SHOULD BE QUICKLY TAKEN ADVANTAGE
OF.




3

r

A FEW VIEWS OF WOODVILLE
No. 1, Pere Marquette depot. No. 2, distant view of the town. The road in the foreground is part of the Trunk Line
Highway, a state road running from Big Rapids to White Cloud, and for which the State of Michigan appropriated the sum
of $2,000,000. No. 3, looking south on State Road dividing Monroe and Norwich Townships. No. 4, another view of Woodvillet
No. 5, salting station to the left, and a potato warehouse to the right. No. 6, a corner of our tract, which comes right up to
the town.

of the Greening Nursery Company of Monroe,
Michigan, one of the largest growers of trees in the
country, made a special trip to look this land over,
and after examining everything very carefully, he
pronounced it to be ONE OF THE FINEST
TRACTS OF LAND FOR ORCHARD PURPOSES
THAT HE HAD SEEN IN THAT PART OF THE
COUNTRY. Coming from an expert like Mr.
Greening, no testimonial could be better than that
one, and none could be considered more reliable.
Now you can see why it did not take us long to
realize that this was the tract we wanted, and why
we lost no time in securing it for our clients.

who knows his business would select. The next
thing we examined was the soil, and what we saw
PLEASED US IMMENSELY. Instead of merely
telling you in our own words what kind of soil it
is, we quote the following statement, which was
made by the late Mr. Wm. M. Jacques, who was
county surveyor at the time and who made a survey of the tract: "The soil is a gravelly loam, with
a clay sub-soil, excellent for all kinds of general
farming such as wheat, corn, oats, rye, potatoes,
hay, and is especially adapted for all kinds of
fruit."
A few years ago Mr. Chas. Greening, president




4

1

SCENES OF BIG RAPIDS, A FINE CITY ONLY 9 MILES FROM WOODVILLE
No. 1, street scene in the business district. No. 2, G. R. & I. depot. No. 3, Muskegon River, Darrah Milling Co., City
Water Works, Falcon Mfg. Co., and Big Rapids Furniture Mfg. Co. No. 4, Flooring Plant of Jones & Green. No. 5, Plant
of The Lewellyn Bean Co. No. 6, Four Drive Tractor Plant. To have a city of this kind so close to Woodville is a decided
advantage, and one of the features we took into consideration when selecting the tract.

THE LOCATION

N.
40 e,9,

The map here shows you how well the tract is
situated. (The shaded portion represents the
tract.) It is located right at Woodville, on the
Pere Marquette R. R., and lies between the towns
of White Cloud and Big Rapids, the distance to
either being about 8 or 9 miles, both being on the
same railroad.
Among other things, Woodville already has a
large salting station and three potato warehouses,
and although a small place, it has an excellent
foundation for a growing community and its possibilities for future growth are unlimited. Following is a letter written by one of Woodville's residents:

M ONROE
TOWNS NIP

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NOR ICH
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V.I...,tr,....i.

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"To Whom It May Concern:
"Having been a resident of Woodville for many
and knowing well the general conditions in and around years,
here,
I can safely say that never before has there been
a better
feeling among resident farmers than at the present time.
"At Woodville we have a good market for every farm
produce, and the development of the uncultivated portions of
land is sure to make the markets still better. As
a dealer
of farm produce and general merchandise,
I believe I am in
Position to say that the future of Woodville and surrounding
country is looking very bright and that land values are sure
to advance.
"JESSE L. CARPENTER."




&
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,' 6.wAy

_

,
In a later letter Mr. Carpenter informs us that he cleared
over $225.00 on one-half acre of berries this last season
(1919), which is at the rate of $450.00 an acre. We are
informed also that another resident of Woodville made over
$500.00 on an acre of berries. Strawberries, raspberries,
blackberries, etc., grow wild in abundance around Woodville,
showing what the possibilities are when cultivating them for
commercial purposes.

5

SCENES OF WESTERN MICHIGAN
No. 1, A large commercial cherry orchard. No. 2, a fine apple orchard. There are many such orchards throughout the
state, offering convincing evidence of the desirability of Michigan for fruit growing. No. 3, an excellent bean "patch." Michigan ranks among the first states in the Union in the production of beans. No. 4, a recreation spot. There are numerous
such places all over the state. No. 5, cattle raising in Michigan affords excellent opportunities for making big profits. No. 6,
field of potatoes. Everyone knows the quality of the Michigan potato. No. 7, hay running three ton to the acre is nothing
uncommon in Michigan. Scenes like all of these can be seen throughout the entire State of Michigan.

INTERESTING FACTS ABOUT WESTERN MICHIGAN
HE wonderful opportunities and advantages afT
forded. the Western Michigan farmer and fruit
grower are fast being brought to light, and people

territory, making it easily accessable from all
points. In addition to these main roads there are
numerous connecting lines which bring the remotest
corners of the territory WITHIN EASY REACH.
Furthermore, Michigan has the LARGEST WATER
BORDER LINE OF ANY STATE IN THE UNION,
thus affording WATER TRANSPORTATION, as
well as rail. This is a very important item, as you
can see for yourself.

from all over the country are now becoming awake
to the possibilities before them.
It is a well known fact that the flavor of Michigan fruit is FAR SUPERIOR to that of the fruit
grown in the west, and that when it is properly
handled and packed it BRINGS JUST AS HIGH A
PRICE ON THE MARKET. It is also well known,
as authentic figures will show, that the cost of
growing fruit in Western Michigan is about FIFTY
OR SIXTY PER CENT LOWER than in the west.
"The greatest item of cost, TRANSPORTATION
TO MARKET, shows an advantage in Michigan's
favor that is alone sufficient to overbalance equal
costs in other directions. THE DIFFERENCE RUNS
FROM 400 to 500 PER CENT IN FAVOR OF
MICHIGAN." This last statement is one made by
the Western Michigan Bureau, and to show you
how logical it is we simply call your attention to
the map of the United States, shown on opposite
page, which shows the ideal location of the State
of Michigan.
Western Michigan's transportation facilities are
UNSURPASSED. Six trunk lines run through the




Discussing the crops grown in Michigan, the Western
Michigan Bureau has the following to say: "Grain crops
average well in Michigan. While Michigan makes no loud pretentions to being a grain-growing state, yet the value of the
grain crops compares very favorably with the other states which
place their chief reliance in cereals as the farm crop. Corn
yields a HIGHER AVERAGE in MICHIGAN than in MISSOURI, wheat yields are HIGHER than in some of the great
wheat-growing states, and the QUALITY IS A-1. . . . .
Truck farming is one of the most profitable of the farming
operations of Western Michigan. . . . The growth of the
canning industry has opened up a new field of profit. Nowhere
is there grown a better quality of peas, string beans, kidney
beans, sweet corn, lima beans, tomatoes, squash and pumpkins,
in fact, any of the products of the soil which are grown for
preserving in cans. And nowhere are better yields."
Concerning the fruit, the Western Michigan Bureau goes
on to say: "The fruit grown in Michigan has NO PEER IN
ALL THE LAND IF FLAVOR BE THE TEST. And where
modern methods of care and cultivation and feeding are in
vogue, MICHIGAN FRUIT HAS NO SUPERIOR IN POINT
OF SIZE AND COLOR AND ATTRACTIVENESS."
6

MONEY-MAKING POSSIBILITIES ON 10 OR 20 ACRES
HE amount of money that can be made out of
T
farming depends entirely on what is planted
and how the farm is managed. There

are certain
crops that bring the Michigan Farmer BIG RETURNS, one of them being THE FAMOUS MICHIGAN POTATO. Where proper methods are used
an acre in Michigan will produce an average of
from 200 to 400 bushels a season, but for the sake
of argument, we'll figure it at 250 bushels. Let
us figure also, in order to be conservative, that the
price the farmer gets is no more than 75c per
bushel. On 250 bushels that would amount to
$187.50, or $1,875.00 on 10 acres.
In order to base our complete estimate on
something definite, we'll figure on a 20-acre tract,
and suppose that 10 acres of it is planted to potatoes, bringing the above returns. Then let us suppose that about two acres are planted to BERRY
BUSHES, say, raspberries, blackberries, etc. It is
commonly known that an acre of berries in Michigan yields a profit of from $200.00 to $500.00 and
more a year, but we'll figure that $300.00 is a fair
average to expect. On two acres at that rate we
would have $600.00 more to add to the amount received from potatoes, as outlined above, or a total
so far of $2,475.00.
Now let us say that you will plant about 5 acres
to FRUIT TREES, choosing apples and cherries.
You can add a few plum, pear and peach trees if
you wish, but apples and cherries are the best for
commercial purposes. Yearly profits on an acre of
apple or cherry trees in Michigan run all the way
from $250.00 to $1,000.00, but we'll say that
$300.00 a year is the best you can expect on an
acre, or $1,500.00 on 5 acres. We consider this a
very low estimate, but it is big money anyway, so
we'll let it stand. This, together with the returns
mentioned above on the potatoes and berries, brings
our grand total to $3,975.00. During the first few
years of the life of the orchard the ground between
the rows of trees can be used to excellent advantage by planting crops of various kinds, thus making that land earn money before the trees come
into commercial bearing.
We now have two acres left out of the twenty
that can be used in any manner you may see fit.
You can have plenty of garden space around your
house and a good sized chicken yard. Raising poultry can be made VERY PROFITABLE, and a few
good bee hives will also be found an advantage.
And you must remember that the returns mentioned above are made during the summer months
only, which leaves you the winter months to do
work in the city, if you should want to make use
of them in that way. It is also quite likely that a
neighboring farmer might want you to help him
out now and then and pay you well for your time.

MAP OF WESTERN MICHIGAN
The heavy circle indicates location of Woodville. Note the
excellent transportation facilities. The Pere Marquette R. R.
runs through our tract and goes right on to Muskegon, a flourishing city and excellent harbor on Lake Michigan, thus
affording both rail and water transportation.

THE TERMS

MAP OF UNITED STATES SHOWING ADVANTAGEOUS
POSITION OF THE STATE OF MICHIGAN

FrHE terms have been made so easy that almost
anybody can afford to secure at least 10 or 20
acres. They are as follows:
10 acres
$25.00 down and $10.00 a month
20 acres
$35.00 down and $15.00 a month
30 acres
$45.00 down and $20.00 a month
40 acres
$50.00 down and $25.00 a month

Note its close proximity to the eastern markets as compared with the Western states. This advantage means a
great saving in shipping expense, as well as enabling the
Michigan farmer and fruit grower to get his produce to
market much quicker. Within a radius of a few hundred
miles are millions of mouths that are forever waiting to be
fed, and the produce of Michigan, being of such good quality,
always finds a ready market and steady demand.




Six per cent (6c') discount for cash.
A Warranty Deed will be given WITHOUT ANY EXTRA
COST when the land is paid for, also an abstract of title.
7

DON'T HESITATE
demand for these Woodville estates is
THE
bound to be VERY GREAT, and judging from
our past experience with similar offers we know
that THE ENTIRE TRACT SHOULD BE SOLD
OUT IN A VERY SHORT TIME.
There are THOUSANDS and THOUSANDS of
people ALL OVER THE COUNTRY who are
looking for just such tracts as what we are offering, but we have enough for only a VERY LIM-

ITED NUMBER of them, which makes it a case of
FIRST COME—FIRST SERVED.
Whether you intend to move up there in the
near future or not makes no difference. The time
to buy is RIGHT NOW while you can get your tract
at the INTRODUCTORY PRICE. If you don't intend to cultivate it right away, buy the land for INVESTMENT. You know yourself that land is
always going up in price, and you also know that
offers of this kind are QUICKLY TAKEN ADVANTAGE OF.

PREPARE FOR YOUR FUTURE
VERYBODY should own a piece of land some
E
place because none of us know what lies ahead
of us. Misfortune may lay its miserable hands on
us, debt may overwhelm us, or sickness, accident
or disease may render us incapable of earning a
living for ourselves or those dependent on us.
Rather an unpleasant subject, this, but it is something that happens EVERY DAY, some place, with
some people. No one knows who may be next.
According to statistics, about 84 out of every
100 men alive at the age of 65 are dependent on
either their friends, relatives or charity for their

support. A large percentage, don't you think?
Nobody knows what the future has in store for
him, but EVERY person can do everything within
his or her means to PREPARE for the future. The
thing to do is to make the right kind of investments
while you are able to, and while you can take advantage of such opportunities as may be offered to
you. Provide yourself with a tract of land in a
nice locality where you can some day make your
home, should you decide to do so, and where you
can spend the remainder of your days in peace and
contentment, enjoying life in its fullest sense.

EASY TO SECURE
A Woodville estate is just what you want and
you should lose no time in securing one. Simply
decide on the number of acres you want, fill out
the application and send it to us RIGHT AWAY.
We shall be glad to receive it and give it our very
best attention. REMEMBER THAT WE GIVE A
TOWN LOT FREE WITH EACH 10-ACRE TRACT.

WOODVILLE estate is easy to secure. Only a
A
few dollars a month are all that you will need,
and you can certainly spare that for something that
is so important as this. Remember that your money
is protected by the BEST SECURITY THERE IS—
the EARTH. Land that you own is something that
nobody can take away from you, and something
that CANNOT BE DESTROYED. It is YOURS AS
LONG AS YOU WANT TO KEEP IT.

ADDRESS

THE SWAN-ARENSON REALTY & DEVELOPMENT CO.
Suite 1025, 19 S. La Salle St.

CHICAGO, ILL

APPLICATION FOR WOODVILLE ESTATE
THE SWAN-ARENSON REALTY & DEVELOPMENT CO.
19 SOUTH LA SALLE STREET, CHICAGO, ILL.

192

Date

Gentlemen:—

acres, for which I
Please enter my application for a Woodville Estate consisting of
agree to pay the regular price specified below, if my application is accepted. You are to mail me a
plat showing the location to be selected for me, also a contract covering it, on receipt of which I will
mail you my first payment, if I find everything satisfactory.
It is fully understood and agreed that I am to receive a lot in your town-site for each 10
acre unit that I will purchase from you, free of any further cost to me.
Price per
it
"
di
"
It
"




10 acre tract.$ 325.00
it
. 625.00
20
. 900.00
30 It
40 It
. 1,175.00

Signature
Address
State

Town
8

4